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Title: Cyprus, as I Saw It in 1879
Author: Baker, Samuel White, Sir
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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CYPRUS

AS I SAW IT IN 1879


by SIR SAMUEL WHITE BAKER, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.S.A.,
                     F.R.G.S., &c.

Author of "Ismailia," "The Albert N'Yanza," "The Nile Tributaries of
Abyssinia," "Eight Years in Ceylon," "The Rifle and Hound in Ceylon."



            CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION

    CHAPTER I.      ARRIVAL AT LARNACA
    CHAPTER II.     THE GIPSY-VANS ENCOUNTER DIFFICULTIES
    CHAPTER III.    ROUTE TO NICOSIA
    CHAPTER IV.     THE MESSARIA
    CHAPTER V.      START FOR THE CARPAS
    CHAPTER VI.     CAPE ST. ANDREA
    CHAPTER VII.    KYRENIA AND THE NORTH COAST
    CHAPTER VIII.   ROUTE TO BAFFO
    CHAPTER IX.     FROM BAFFO TO LIMASOL
    CHAPTER X.      THE WINE DISTRICT OF LIMASOL
    CHAPTER XI.     FROM LIMASOL TO THE MOUNTAINS
    CHAPTER XII.    THE MONASTERY OF TROODITISSA
    CHAPTER XIII.   WOODS AND FORESTS
    CHAPTER XIV.    REMARKS ON IRRIGATION
    CHAPTER XV.     LIFE AT THE MONASTERY OF TROODITISSA
    CHAPTER XVI.    SOMETHING ABOUT TAXATION
    CHAPTER XVII.   THE DISTRICT OF LIMASOL AND LANDOWNERS
    CHAPTER XVIII.  ON POLICE, WAGES, FOOD, CLIMATE, ETC.
    CHAPTER XIX.    POLITICAL REFLECTIONS
    CHAPTER XX.     CONCLUSION

    APPENDIX


INTRODUCTION.

I do not intend to write a history of Cyprus, as authorities already
exist that are well known, but were generally neglected until the
British occupation rescued them from secluded bookshelves. Even had I
presumed to write as a historian, the task would have been impossible,
as I am at this moment excluded from the world in the precincts of the
monastery of Trooditissa among the heights of ancient Olympus or modern
Troodos, where books of reference are unknown, and the necessary data
would be wanting. I shall recount my personal experience of this island
as an independent traveller, unprejudiced by political considerations,
and unfettered by the responsible position of an official. Having
examined Cyprus in every district, and passed not only a few days, but
winter, spring, and summer in testing the climatic and geographical
peculiarities of the country, I shall describe "Cyprus as I saw it in
1879," expressing the opinions which I formed upon the spot with the
results of my experience.

Although I have read many works upon this island, I have no books with
me except that interesting record of the discovery of antiquities by
General di Cesnola, and the invaluable compilation for the Intelligence
Branch, Quartermaster-General's Department, Horse Guards, by Captain
Savile, 18th Royal Irish Regiment. It is impossible to praise the latter
work too highly, as every authority, whether ancient or modern, has been
studied, and the information thus carefully collected has been classed
under special headings and offered to the reader in a concise and
graphic form which renders it perfect as a book of reference. I must
express my deep appreciation of the assistance that I have derived from
Captain Savile's work, as it has directed my attention to many subjects
that might have escaped my observation, and it has furnished me with
dates, consular reports, and other statistical information that would
otherwise have been difficult to obtain. The study of M. Gaudrey's able
report to the French government upon the agricultural resources and the
geological features of Cyprus, before I commenced my journey, guided me
materially in the interesting observations of the various formations and
terrestrial phenomena. The experiences of the late British Consul, Mr.
Hamilton Lang, described in his attractive volume, together with those
of Von Loher, Doctors Unger and Kotschy, have afforded me an advantage
in following upon footsteps through a well-examined field of discovery.

Before I enter upon a description of my personal examination of the
island, it will be advisable to trace a brief outline of the
geographical position of Cyprus, which caused its early importance in
the history of the human race, and which has been accepted by the
British government as sufficiently unchanged to warrant a military
occupation in 1878, as a strategical point that dominates the eastern
portion of the Mediterranean, and supplies the missing link in the chain
of fortified ports from England to the shores of Egypt.

In the world's infancy oceans were unknown seas upon which the vessels
of the ancients rarely ventured beyond the sight of land; without the
compass the interminable blue water was a terrible wilderness full of
awe and wonder. The Phoenicians, who first circumnavigated Africa by
passing through the then existing canal between Suez and the Nile,
coasted the whole voyage, as did in later years the famous Portuguese,
Vasco di Gama, and stations were formed along the shores at convenient
intervals. Hanno the Carthaginian coasted to an uncertain and contested
point upon the western shores of Africa, but no ocean commercial port
was known to have existed in the early days of maritime adventure. The
Mediterranean offered peculiar advantages of physical geography; its
great length and comparatively narrow width embraced a vast area, at the
same time that it afforded special facilities for commerce in the
numerous ports and islands that would form a refuge in stress of
weather.

The countries which surrounded this great inland sea were rich; the
climate throughout its course combined the temperate with almost
tropical, according to the changes of seasons; accordingly, the
productions of the earth varying upon the northern and southern coasts,
were all that could be required for the necessities of the human race.
In this happily situated position commerce was first cradled, and by the
interchange of ideas and natural productions, artificial wants were
mutually created among the various countries around the great sea
margin; the supply of these new requirements and exchange of commodities
established trade. With the development of commerce, wealth and
prosperity increased; nations became important through the possession of
superior harbours and geographical positions, and the entire maritime
strength and commercial activity of the ancient world was represented by
the Mediterranean. The Phoenicians of Tyre and Sidon were the English of
to-day; the Egyptians and the Greeks were followed as the world grew
older by the Venetians and Genoese, and throughout the world's history
no point possessed a more constant and unchangeable attraction from its
geographical position and natural advantages than the island of Cyprus,
which in turn was occupied by Phoenicians, Greeks, Egyptians, Persians,
Romans, Byzantine rulers, Saracens, Byzantine rulers again, English,
Lusignans, Venetians, Turks, and once more English in 1878.

The advantages which had thus possessed a magnetic influence in
attracting towards this island the leading nations of the world were in
ancient days undeniable. When vessels directed their course only by
well-known landmarks, or by the position of certain stars, it was highly
necessary for a maritime power to occupy a continuous chain of stations,
where, in case of danger from a superior force, a place of refuge would
be near. Cyprus from its peculiar geographical position commanded the
eastern portion of the Mediterranean. The harbour of Famagousta was only
a few hours' sail, with a favourable wind, to the coast of Asia Minor.
The bays of Larnaca and Limasol were roadsteads with a safe anchorage,
and Paphos (Baffo) was a convenient harbour upon the south-western
portion of the island, capable of protecting a considerable number of
the small vessels of the period. Thus Cyprus possessed two harbours upon
the south coast in addition to good roadsteads; while upon the north,
Cerinea (Kyrenia) and Soli, although never large, were serviceable ports
of refuge, exactly facing the coast of Caramania, plainly visible. The
lofty mountains of the Carpas range which overhang these harbours
command the sea view at an elevation of between three and four thousand
feet, from which the approach of an enemy could be quickly signalled,
while the unmistakable peaks of the rugged sky-line formed landmarks by
which vessels could steer direct to the desired ports. The same
advantage of descrying an enemy at a distance from the shore exists in
many parts of Cyprus, owing to the position of the heights; and the
rocky nature of the coast (with the exception of a few points such as
Limasol, Morphu Bay, &c.), rendered the landing of a large force
extremely difficult. As a strategical point, there was no more
formidable position than Cyprus; it formed a common centre within
immediate reach of Alexandria and all the coasts of Syria and Asia
Minor. It was not only a military place d'armes, such as Malta and
Gibraltar now are, dependent upon maritime superiority for the necessary
provisions, but it was a country of large area, comprising about 3500
square miles, with a soil of unbounded fertility in a high state of
cultivation, a population sufficiently numerous for all requirements of
the island, and forests of timber that was in great request for the
architect and ship-builder. In addition to these natural sources of
wealth, the mineral productions were celebrated from the earliest
history, and the copper of Cyprus was used by the Phoenicians in the
manufacture of their celebrated bronze.

The Chittim wood of Scripture, imported to Syria from Cyprus (the
ancient Chittim), was probably a species of cypress at that time
composing the forests which ornamented a considerable portion of the
surface. There are two varieties of cypress in the island: that which
would have been celebrated grows upon the high mountains, and attains a
girth of from seven to nine feet, the wood being highly aromatic,
emitting a perfume resembling a mixture of sandal-wood and cedar; the
other cypress is a dwarf variety that seldom exceeds twenty feet in
height, with a maximum circumference of two feet; this is a totally
different wood, and is intensely hard, while the former is easily
worked, but durable. The derivation of the name Cyprus has been sought
for from many sources; and the opinions of the authorities differ.
English people may reflect that they alone spell and pronounce the word
as "Cyprus." The name of the cypress-tree, which at one time clothed the
mountains of this formerly verdant island, is pronounced by the
inhabitants "Kypresses," which approximates closely to the various
appellations of Cyprus in different languages. The Greek name is Kypros,
and it is probable that as in ancient days the "chittim-wood" was so
called from the fact of its export from Chittim, the same link may
remain unbroken between Kypros and the tree Kypresses.

The geographical advantages which I have enumerated are sufficient to
explain the series of struggles for possession to which the island has
been exposed throughout its history; the tombs that have been examined,
have revealed the secrets of the dead, and in the relics of Phoenicians,
Persians, Assyrians, Egyptians, and the long list of foreign victors, we
discover proofs of the important past, until we at length tread upon
pre-historical vestiges, and become lost in a labyrinth of legends. From
the researches of undoubted authorities, we know that Cyprus possessed a
written character peculiarly original, and that it was occupied by a
people highly civilised according to the standard of the early world at
so primitive an era, that all records have disappeared, and we are left
in the darkness of conjecture.

The changes in the importance of certain geographical positions, owing
to the decline and fall of empires, which at one time governed the
destinies of the Eastern world, have been strikingly exhibited on the
shores of the Mediterranean; Tyre, Sidon, Carthage, Cyprus, had lost
their significance upon modern charts, even before the New Worlds
appeared, when America, Australia, and the Eastern Archipelago were
introduced upon the globe. The progress of Western Europe eclipsed the
Oriental Powers which hitherto represented the civilisation of mankind,
and two points alone remained, which, shorn of their ancient glory,
still maintained their original importance as geographical centres, that
will renew those struggles for their possession which fill the bloody
pages of their history--Egypt and Constantinople.

No country had been more completely excluded from the beaten paths of
British travellers than the island of Cyprus, and England was startled
by the sudden revelation of a mystery connected with the Treaty of
Berlin, that it was to become a strategical point for a British military
occupation!

On the 4th June, 1878, a "Convention of Defensive Alliance between Great
Britain and Turkey" was signed, which agreed upon the following
articles:-

    ARTICLE I.

    "If Batoum, Ardahan, Kars, or any of them, shall be
    retained by Russia, or if any attempt shall be made at
    any future time by Russia to take possession of any
    further territories of His Imperial Majesty the Sultan
    in Asia, as fixed by the definitive treaty of peace,
    England engages to join His Imperial Majesty the Sultan
    in defending them by force of Arms.

    "In return, His Imperial Majesty the Sultan promises to
    England to introduce necessary reforms, to be agreed
    upon later between the two Powers, into the government,
    and for the protection of the Christian and other
    subjects of the Porte in those territories; and in
    order to enable England to make necessary provision for
    executing her engagement, His Imperial Majesty the
    Sultan further consents to assign the island of Cyprus
    to be occupied and administered by England.

    ARTICLE II.

    "The present Convention shall be ratified, and the
    ratifications thereof shall be exchanged, within the
    space of one month, or sooner if possible.

    "In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries
    have signed the same, and have affixed thereto the seal
    of their arms.

    "Done at Constantinople, the fourth day of June, in the
    year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-eight.

    "A.H. LAYARD.

    "SAFVET."

It was eventually agreed between the contracting Powers:-

    "That England will pay to the Porte whatever is the
    present excess of revenue over expenditure in the
    island; this excess to be calculated and determined by
    the average of the last five years."

and:--

    "That if Russia restores to Turkey Kars and the other
    conquests made by her in Armenia during the last war,
    the island of Cyprus will be evacuated by England, and
    the Convention of the fourth June, 1878, will be at an
    end."

I knew nothing of Cyprus, but I felt sure that the Turks had the best of
the bargain, as they would receive the usual surplus revenue from our
hands, and be saved the trouble and onus of the collection; they would
also be certain of a fixed annual sum, without any of those risks of
droughts, famine, and locusts, to which the island is exposed, and which
seriously affect the income.

Although there would only be a wildly remote chance of Russia ever
relinquishing her Asiatic prey, the bare mention of the words "will be
evacuated by England" was a possible contingency and risk, that would
effectually exclude all British capital from investment in the island. I
could not discover any possible good that could accrue to England by the
terms of the Convention. If Cyprus had been presented as a "bonus" by
the Porte to counterbalance the risk we should incur in a defensive
alliance for the protection of Asia Minor, I could have seen an addition
to our Colonial Empire of a valuable island, that would not only have
been of strategical value, but such that in a few years, money and
British settlers would have entirely changed its present aspect, and
have created for it a new era of prosperity.

If England had purchased Cyprus, I could have understood the plain,
straightforward, business-like transaction, which would have at once
established confidence, both among the inhabitants, who would have
become British subjects; and through the outer world, that would have
acknowledged the commencement of a great future.

But, if we were actually bound in defensive alliance with Turkey in case
of a war with Russia, why should we occupy Cyprus upon such one-sided
and anomalous conditions, that would frustrate all hopes of commercial
development, for the sake of obtaining a strategical position that would
have been opened to our occupation AS AN ALLY at any moment? On the
other hand, if we distrusted Turkey, and feared that she might coquet
with Russia at some future period, I could see a paramount necessity for
the occupation of Cyprus, and even Egypt; but we were supposed to be,
and I believe were, acting in absolute and mutual good faith as the
protector of Asiatic Turkey, in defensive alliance with the Sultan. In
that position, should we have entered into a war with Russia, there was
no necessity for the occupation and responsibility of any new position,
as every port of the Ottoman dominions, even to the Golden Horn of
Constantinople, would have welcomed our troops and boats with
enthusiasm.

Turkey is a suspicious Power, and the British government may have had to
contend with difficulties that are unknown to the criticising public; it
may have been impossible to have obtained her sanction for the
occupation under other conditions. The possibility of future
complications that might terminate in a close alliance between the
conquered and the victor, may have suggested the necessity for securing
this most important strategical position without delay, upon first
conditions that might subsequently receive modifications. At first sight
the political situation appeared vague, but I determined to examine the
physical geography of Cyprus, and to form my own opinion of its
capabilities.



CYPRUS AS I SAW IT IN 1879.

CHAPTER 1.

ARRIVAL AT LARNACA.

On the morning of the 4th January we sighted Cyprus at about fifty miles
distance, after a smooth voyage of twenty-six hours from Alexandria. The
day was favourable for an arrival, as the atmospherical condition
afforded both intense lights and shadows. The sky was a cobalt blue, but
upon all points of the compass local rain-clouds hovered in dark patches
near the surface, and emptied themselves in heavy showers. The air was
extremely clear, and as we steamed at ten knots each hour brought out in
prominent relief the mountain peaks of Cyprus; Olympus was capped with
clouds. Passing through a rain-cloud which for a time obscured the view,
we at length emerged into bright sunshine; the mists had cleared from
the mountain range, and Troodos, 6,400 feet above the sea-level, towered
above all competitors.

We were now about ten miles from the shore, and the general appearance
of the island suggested a recent snowfall. As the sun shone upon a bare
white surface, the sterile slopes and mountain sides were utterly devoid
of vegetation, and presented a sad aspect of desolation, which reminded
me of the barren range on the shores of the Red Sea.

First impressions are seldom correct, but the view of Cyprus on arrival
from the south was depressing, and extinguished all hopes that had been
formed concerning our newly-acquired possession. This was the treasure
acquired by astute diplomacy!

For about twenty miles we skirted this miserable coast, upon which not a
green speck relieved the eye; at length we sighted the minaret which
marked the position of Larnaca, the port or roadstead to which the mail
was bound; and in the town we distinguished three or four green trees.
We cast anchor about half a mile from the shore. Nine or ten vessels,
including several steamers, were in the roadstead, and a number of
lighters were employed in landing cargoes.

Disappointment and disgust were quickly banished by the reflection that
at this season (January) there was nothing green in England: the
thermometer in that dreary land would be below freezing-point, while on
the deck where we stood it was 64 degrees Fahr. We were quickly in a
boat steering for the landing-place.

All towns look tolerably well from the sea, especially if situated
actually upon the margin of the water. The town represented a front of
about a mile, less than five feet above the level of the sea, bordered
by a masonry quay perpendicular to the surface, from which several
wooden jetties of inferior and very recent construction served as
landing-places.

The left flank of Larnaca was bounded by a small Turkish fort,
absolutely useless against modern artillery upon the walls the British
flag was floating. We landed upon the quay. This formed a street, the
sea upon one side, faced by a row of houses. As with all Turkish
possessions, decay had stamped the town: the masonry of the quay was in
many places broken down, the waves had undermined certain houses, and in
the holes thus washed out by the action of water were accumulations of
recent filth. Nevertheless, enormous improvements had taken place since
the English occupation. An engineer was already employed in repairing
the quay, and large blocks of carefully faced stone (a sedimentary
limestone rock of very recent formation) were being laid upon a bed of
concrete to form a permanent sea-wall. The houses which lined the quay
were for the most part stores, warehouses, and liquor-shops. Among these
the Custom House, the Club, Post Office, and Chief Commissioner's were
prominent as superior buildings. There was a peculiar character in the
interior economy of nearly all houses in Larnaca; it appeared that heavy
timber must have been scarce before the town was built, as the upper
floor was invariably supported by stone arches of considerable
magnitude, which sprang from the ground-floor level. These arches were
uniform throughout the town, and the base of the arch was the actual
ground, without any pillar or columnar support; so that in the absence
of a powerful beam of timber, the top of the one-span arch formed a
support for the joists of the floor above. In large houses numerous
arches gave an imposing appearance to the architecture of the ground
floors, which were generally used as warehouses. Even the wooden joists
were imported poles of fir, thus proving the scarcity of natural
forests. The roofs of the houses were for the most part flat, and
covered with tempered clay and chopped straw for the thickness of about
ten inches. Some buildings of greater pretensions were gaudy in bright
red tiles, but all were alike in the general waste of rain-water, which
was simply allowed to pour into the narrow streets through innumerable
wooden shoots projecting about six feet beyond the eaves. These gutters
would be a serious obstacle to wheeled conveyances, such as lofty
waggons, which would be unable in many cases to pass beneath. The
streets are paved, but being devoid of subterranean drains, a heavy
shower would convert them into pools. Foot passengers are protected from
such accidents by a stone footway about sixteen inches high upon either
side of the narrow street. Before the English occupation these hollow
lanes were merely heaps of filth, which caused great unhealthiness; they
were now tolerably clean; but in most cases the pavement was full of
holes that would have tested the springs and wheels of modern vehicles.

I had heard, prior to leaving England, that hotels, inns, &c., were
unknown in Larnaca; I was, therefore, agreeably surprised on landing, to
find a new hotel (Craddock's) which was scrupulously clean, the rooms
neatly whitewashed, and everything simple and in accordance with the
requirements of the country.

The miserable reports in England respecting the want of accommodation,
and the unhealthiness of Cyprus, had determined me to render myself
independent; I had therefore arranged a gipsy travelling-van while in
London, which would, as a hut upon wheels, enable us to select a
desirable resting-place in any portion of the island, where the route
should be practicable for wheeled conveyances. This van was furnished
with a permanent bed; shelves or wardrobe beneath; a chest of drawers;
table to fall against the wall when not in use, lockers for glass and
crockery, stove and chimney, and in fact it resembled a ship's cabin,
nine feet six inches long, by five feet eight inches wide.

I had another excellent light four-wheeled van constructed by Messrs.
Glover Brothers, of Dean Street, Soho: both these vehicles had broad and
thick iron tires to the wheels, which projected 5/8 inch upon either
side beyond the felloes, in order to afford a wide surface to deep soil
or sandy ground without necessitating a too massive wheel.

The vans with all my effects had left London by steamer direct for
Cyprus, I therefore found them, upon my arrival from Egypt, in the
charge of Mr. Z. Z. Williamson, a most active agent and perfect
polyglot; the latter gift being an extreme advantage in this country of
Babel-like confusion of tongues.

I was now prepared to investigate Cyprus thoroughly, and to form my own
opinion of its present and future value.

The day after my arrival I strolled outside the town and exercised my
three spaniels which had come out direct from England. The dogs searched
for game which they did not find, while I examined the general features
of the country. About three-quarters of a mile from the present town or
port are the remains of old Larnaca. This is a mere village, but
possesses a large Greek church. The tomb of Lazarus, who is believed to
have settled in Cyprus to avoid persecution after his miraculous
resurrection from the grave, is to be seen in the church of St. George
within the principal town.

From this point an excellent view is obtained of the adjacent country. A
plain of most fertile soil extends along the sea-coast towards the east
for six miles, and in breadth about four miles. The present town of
Larnaca stands on the sea-board of this plain, which to the west of the
port continues for about four miles, thus giving an area of some ten
miles in length, forming almost a half circle of four miles in its
semi-diameter; the whole is circumscribed by hills of low but increasing
altitudes, all utterly barren. Through the plain are two unmistakable
evidences of river-action which at some remote period had washed down
from the higher ground the fertile deposit which has formed the alluvium
of the valley. Within this apparently level plain is a vestige of a once
higher level, the borders of which have been denuded by the continual
action of running water during the rushes from the mountains in the
rainy season. This water action has long ceased to exist. There can be
little doubt that in the ancient days of forest-covered mountains, the
rainfall of Cyprus was far greater than at present, and that important
torrents swept down from the hill-sides. We see evidences of this in the
rounded blocks, all water-worn, of syenite and gneiss, which are
intermingled with the bits of broken pottery in the vale, alike relics
of the past and proving the changes both in nature and in man since
Cyprus was in the zenith of prosperity.

A level plateau about eighteen feet above the lowest level of the plain
shows the original surface. The soil of the entire valley is calcareous,
and is eminently adapted for the cultivation of the vine and cereals. As
the rain has percolated through the ground, it has become so thoroughly
impregnated with sulphate of lime that it has deposited a series of
strata some six or seven feet below the surface, which form a flaky
subterranean pavement. The ancients selected this shallow soil of a
higher level for a burial-ground, and they burrowed beneath the stratum
of stony deposit to form their tombs. One of the chief occupations of
modern Cypriotes appears to be the despoiling of the dead; thus the
entire sides of the plateau-face for a distance of about two miles are
burrowed into thousands of holes to a depth of ten and twelve feet in
search of hidden treasures. If the same amount of labour had been
expended in the tillage of the surface, the result would have been far
more profitable. A small proportion of the land upon the outskirts of
the town was cultivated, some had been recently ploughed, while in other
plots the wheat had appeared above the surface. Water is generally found
at eight or nine feet below the level, but this is of an inferior
description, and the town and environs are well supplied by an aqueduct
which conveys the water from powerful springs about seven miles to the
west of Larnaca, near Arpera. This useful work was constructed according
to the will of a former pacha, who bequeathed the sum required, for a
public benefit.

Large flocks of sheep were grazing in various portions of the
uncultivated plain. At first sight they appeared to be only searching
for food among the stones and dust, but upon close examination I found a
peculiar fleshy herb something like the stone-crop which grows upon the
old walls and rocks of England. This plant was exceedingly salt, and the
sheep devoured it with avidity, and were in fair condition. The wool was
long, but of a coarse wiry texture, and much impaired by the adherence
of thistles and other prickly plants. The musical sound of distant bells
denoted the arrival of a long string of camels, laden with immense bales
of unpressed cotton on their way to the port of Larnaca. Each animal
carried two bales, and I observed that the saddles and pads were in
excellent order, the camels well fed, and strongly contrasting with the
cruel carelessness of the camel owners of Egypt, whose beasts are galled
into terrible sores from the want of padding in their packs. The cotton
had been cleaned upon the plantation, but it would be subjected to
hydraulic pressure and packed in the usual iron-bound bales for
shipment, upon arrival in the stores of Larnaca.

It was impossible to resist a feeling of depression upon strolling
around the environs of the town and regarding the barren aspect of the
distant country. Every inch of this fertile plain should be cultivated,
and numerous villages should be dotted upon the extensive surface.
"Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth" was a curse that
appeared to have adhered to Cyprus.

It was unnecessary to seek for the chief cause of unhealthiness; this
was at once apparent in the low swamps on the immediate outskirts of the
town. In ancient days the shallow harbour of Cittium existed on the east
side of modern Larnaca; whether from a silting of the port, or from the
gradual alteration in the level of the Mediterranean, the old harbour no
longer exists, but is converted into a miserable swamp, bordered by a
raised beach of shingles upon the seaboard. The earth has been swept
down by the rains, and the sand driven in by the sea, while man stood
idly by, allowing Nature to destroy a former industry. All the original
harbours of the country have suffered from the same neglect.

There was little to be seen in the neighbourhood. The site was pointed
out where the troops were encamped in the tremendous heat of July in the
close vicinity of the swampy ground, upon pestiferous soil, and the
usual tales of commissariat blunders were recounted. Close to the
borders of this unhealthy spot, but about twenty feet above the level of
the lowest morass, stands the convent belonging to the Sisters of
Charity, which includes a school, in addition to a hospital. Great
kindness was shown by these excellent ladies to many English sufferers,
and their establishment deserves a liberal support from public
contributions.

I walked through the bazaar of Larnaca; this is situated at the west end
of the town near the fort, close to which there is a public fountain
supplied by the aqueduct to which I have already alluded. Brass taps
were arranged around the covered stone reservoir, but I remarked a
distressing waste of water, as a continual flow escaped from an
uncontrolled shoot which poured in a large volume uselessly into the
street. Within a few yards of the reservoir was a solitary old banian
tree (ficus religiosa), around which a crowd of donkeys waited, laden
with panniers containing large earthen jars, which in their turn were to
be filled with the pure water of the Arpera springs.

Although the crowd was large, and all were busied in filling their jars
and loading their respective animals, there was no jostling or
quarrelling for precedence, but every individual was a pattern of
patience and good humour. Mohammedans and Cypriotes thronged together in
the same employment, and the orderly behaviour in the absence of police
supervision formed a strong contrast to the crowds in England.

The Mosque being within a few feet of them, the Mussulmans could perform
their ablutions at the threshold. Around the font, women were
intermingled with a crowd of men and boys. The girls and lads were
regular in features and good-looking, though dirt and torn clothing of
various gaudy colours gave a picturesque, but hardly an attractive,
appearance to the group. The bazaar was entered at right angles with the
quay; the streets were paved with stones of irregular size, sloping from
both sides towards the centre, which formed the gutter. Camels, mules,
bullock-carts, and the omnipresent donkeys thronged the narrow streets,
either laden with produce for the quay, or returning after having
delivered their heavy loads. The donkeys were very large and were mostly
dark brown, with considerable length of hair. In like manner with the
camels, they were carefully protected by thick and well stuffed packs,
or saddles, and were accordingly free from sores. They appeared to be
exceedingly docile and intelligent, and did not require the incessant
belabouring to which the ass of other countries is the victim. Large
droves of these animals, each laden with three heavy squared stones for
building, picked their way through the narrow streets, and seemed to
know exactly the space required for their panniers, as they never
collided with either carts or passengers.

The shops of the bazaar were all open, and contained the supplies
usually seen in Turkish markets--vegetables, meat, and a predominance of
native sweets and confectionery, in addition to stores of groceries, and
of copper and brass utensils. An absence of fish proved the general
indolence of the people; there is abundance in the sea, but there are
few fishermen.

An hour's stroll was quite sufficient for one to form an opinion of
Larnaca. A good roadstead and safe anchorage offer great advantages, but
until some protection shall be afforded that will enable boats to land
in all weathers Larnaca can never be accepted as a port. There is shoal
water for a distance of about two hundred yards from the shore, which
causes a violent surf even in a moderate breeze, and frequently prevents
all communication with the shipping. The quay was in many places
undermined by the action of the waves, and it would be necessary to
create an entirely new front by sinking a foundation for a sea-wall some
yards in advance of the present face. There would be no engineering
difficulty in the formation of a boat-harbour, to combine by extensive
pile-jetties the facility of landing in all weathers. A very cursory
view of Larnaca exhibited a true picture of its miserable financial
position. The numerous stores kept by Europeans were the result of a
spasmodic impulse. There was no wholesome trade; those who represented
the commercial element were for the most part unfortunates who had
rushed to Cyprus at the first intelligence of the British occupation,
strong in expectations of a golden harvest. The sudden withdrawal of the
large military force left Larnaca in the condition of streets full of
sellers, but denuded of buyers. The stores were supplied with the usual
amount of liquors, and tins of preserved provisions; none of the
imported articles were adapted for native requirements; an utter
stagnation of trade was the consequence, and prices fell below the cost
of home production. The preceding year had been exceptionally sickly;
many of the storekeepers were suffering from the effects of fever,
which, combined with the depression of spirits caused by ruined
prospects, produced a condition of total collapse, from which there was
only one relief--that of writing to the newspapers and abusing the
Government and the island generally.

There must always be martyrs--somebody must be sacrificed--whether burnt
at the stake for religious principles, or put in a bell-tent in the sun
with the thermometer at 110 degrees Fahr. simply because they are
British soldiers--it does not much matter--but the moment your merchants
are slain upon the altar, the boiling-point is reached.

The store-keepers sat despondingly behind their counters while the
hinges of their doors rusted from the absence of in-comers. It was
impossible to rouse them from their state of mercantile coma, except by
one word, which had a magnetic effect upon their nervous
system---"Custom House."

"I suppose you have no difficulty at the Custom House, Mr.--in this
simple island?" This was invariably the red rag to the bull.

"No difficulty, Sir!--no difficulty?--it is THE difficulty--we are
absolutely paralysed by the Custom House. Every box is broken open and
the contents strewed upon the ground. The duty is ad valorem upon all
articles, and an ignorant Turk is the valuer. This man does not know the
difference between a bootjack and a lemon-squeezer: only the other day
he valued wire dish-covers as `articles of head-dress,' (probably he had
seen wire fencing-masks). If he is perplexed, he is obliged to refer the
questionable article to the Chief Office,--this is two hundred yards
from the landing place:--thus he passes half the day in running
backwards and forwards with trifles of contested value to his superior,
while crowds are kept waiting, and the store is piled with goods most
urgently required." . . .

I immediately went to see this eccentric representative of Anglo-Turkish
political-and-mercantile-combination, and found very little
exaggeration in the description, except that the distance was 187 paces
instead of 200 which he had to perform, whenever the character of the
article was beyond the sphere of his experience. As this happened about
every quarter of an hour, he could not complain of a sedentary
employment. A few days after this, migratory birds arrived in Cyprus
upon the inhospitable shore opposite the Custom House in the shape of
two Liberal M.P's. from England,--who visited the island specially to
form an honest opinion free from all political bias. Whether these
gentlemen were undervalued by the eccentric official to whom I have
alluded, or whether he suspected Liberals as opponents to be regarded
and treated as spies, we never could determine; but utterly disregarding
their innocent exterior, he subjected them to the extreme torture of the
Custom House, and dived and plunged into the very bowels and bottoms of
their numerous small packages, rumpling clean linen, and producing a
toilettic chaos. To the honour of these members of the Opposition they
never brought the question before the House upon their return to
England, neither did they make it the foundation of an attack upon the
Government.

An excess of zeal is not uncommon among ignorant officials newly raised
to a position of authority: thus Larnaca was outdone by the Custom House
representative at Limasol in vigilance and strict attention to the
administrative tortures of his office. I have heard of cases of crockery
being unpacked upon the beach and spread out to be counted and valued
upon the loose stones of shingle!

The unfortunate European traders of Larnaca were shortly relieved of
their Custom House troubles by the total absence of imports. The native
Cypriote does not purchase at European shops; his wants are few; the
smallest piece of soap will last an indefinite period; he is frugal to
an extreme degree; and if he has desires, he curbs such temptations and
hoards his coin. Thus, as the natives did not purchase, and all
Europeans were sellers without buyers, there was no alternative but to
shut the shutters. This was a species of commercial suicide which made
Larnaca a place of departed spirits; in which unhappy state it remains
to the present hour. Even the club was closed.



CHAPTER II.

THE GIPSY-VANS ENCOUNTER DIFFICULTIES.

My gipsy-van was not of doubtful character. I had purchased it direct
from the gipsies in England, and it had been specially arranged for the
Cyprus journey by Messrs. Glover Bros. of Dean Street, Soho, London. It
had been painted and varnished with many coats both inside and out, and
nobody, unless an experienced gipsy, would have known that it was not
newly born from the maker's yard. Originally it had been constructed for
shafts, as one horse was considered sufficient upon the roads of
England, but when it arrived in Cyprus it appeared to have grown during
the voyage about two sizes larger than when it was last seen. As the
small animals of Larnaca passed by, where my lovely van blocked up the
entire street, and forced the little creatures upon the footpath, they
looked in comparison as though they had just been disembarked upon Mount
Ararat from the original Noah's ark, represented by the gipsy-van! The
Cypriotes are polite, therefore I heard no rude remarks. The Cypriote
boys are like all other boys, therefore they climbed to the top of the
van, and endeavoured by escalade to enter the windows. On one occasion I
captured HALF A BOY (the posterior half) who was hanging with legs
dangling out of the window, his "forlorn-hope" or advance half vainly
endeavouring to obtain a resting-place upon vacuity within (as the fall
slab-table was down). I had no stick; but the toes of his boots had
imprinted first impressions upon the faultless varnish. What became of
that young Cypriote was never known.

Even in Cyprus there are municipal laws, and now that the English are
there they are enforced; therefore my huge van could not remain like a
wad in a gun-barrel, and entirely block the street. A London policeman
would have desired it to "move on" but--this was the real grievance
that I had against Larnaca--the van COULD NOT "MOVE ON," owing to its
extreme height, which interfered with the wooden water-spouts from the
low roofs of the flat-topped houses. This was a case of "real distress."
My van represented civilisation: the water-spouts represented barbarism.
If a London omnibus crowded with outside passengers had attempted to
drive through Larnaca, both driver and passengers would have been swept
into I have not the slightest notion where; and my van was two feet
higher than an omnibus!

I determined that I would avoid all inferior thoroughfares, and that the
van should pass down Wolseley Street, drawn by a number of men who would
be superior in intelligence to the Cypriote mules and be careful in
turning the corners.

I did not see the start, as a person with an "excess of zeal" had
started it with a crowd of madmen without orders, and I was only a late
spectator some hours after its arrival opposite Craddock's Hotel. It
rather resembled a ship that had been in bad weather and in collision
with a few steamers. How many water-spouts it had carried away I never
heard. The fore-axle was broken, as it appeared that in rounding a
corner it had been dragged by main force upon the curbstone about
sixteen inches high, from which it had bumped violently down. It had
then been backed against a water-spout, which had gone completely
through what sailors would term the "stern." One shutter was split in
two pieces, and one window smashed. Altogether, what with bruises,
scratches, broken axle, and other damages, my van looked ten years older
since the morning.

Fortunately among the Europeans who had flocked to Cyprus since the
British occupation was a French blacksmith, whose forge was only a few
yards from Craddock's Hotel, where my wrecked vessel blocked the way. I
had a new fore axle-tree made, and strengthened the hinder axle. I also
fitted a bullock-pole, instead of shafts, for a pair of oxen; the
springs I bound up with iron wire shrunk on while red-hot. I took out
the stove, as it was not necessary, and its absence increased the space;
and I inserted a ventilator in the roof in place of the chimney. When
repaired, the van looked as good as new, and was much stronger, and well
adapted for rough travel. The only thing it now wanted was a ROAD!

The highways of Cyprus were mere mule-tracks. The only legitimate road
in existence was of most recent construction, which represented the new
birth of British enterprise, from Larnaca to the capital, Nicosia (or
Lefkosia), about twenty-eight miles. The regrettable paucity of
stone-hammers rendered it impossible to prepare the metal, therefore
huge rounded blocks, bigger than a man's head, had been thrown down for
a foundation, upon which some roughly broken and a quantity of unbroken
smaller stones had been spread.

Of course there was only one method of travelling upon this route with
the gipsy-van: this was to avoid it altogether, but to keep upon the
natural soil on the side of the newly-made level.

My second van was most satisfactory, and was light in proportion to its
strength and capacity. This was arranged specially for luggage, and was
entirely closed by doors at either end, which were secured by bolts and
locks. Above the luggage, and about two feet six inches below the roof,
a sliding deck formed of movable planks afforded a comfortable
sleeping-berth for a servant. In the front a projecting roof sheltered
the driving seat, which was wide enough to accommodate four persons. I
had fitted a pole instead of shafts, as public opinion decided against
mules, and it was agreed that oxen were steadier and more powerful for
draught purposes. After a careful selection, I obtained two pairs of
very beautiful animals, quite equal in size to ordinary English oxen,
for which I paid twelve shillings per diem, including the drivers and
all expenses of fodder. I also engaged the necessary riding mules, as
the vans were not intended for personal travelling, but merely for
luggage and for a home at night. Our servants consisted of Amarn (my
Abyssinian, who had been with me eight years, since he was a a boy of
nine years old in Africa), a Greek cook named Christo, who had served in
a similar capacity upon numerous steamers, and a young man named Georgi,
of about twenty-one, who was to be made into a servant. This young
fellow had appeared one day suddenly, and solicited employment, while we
were staying at Craddock's Hotel; he was short, thickset, and possessed
a head of hair that would have raised the envy of Absalom: in dense
tangle it would have defied a mane-comb. Georgi had a pleasant
expression of countenance which did not harmonise with his exterior, as
his clothes were in a ragged and filthy condition, his shoes were in
tatters, and trodden down at the heel to a degree that resembled boats
in the act of capsizing; these exposed the remnants of socks, through
the gaps of which the skin of his feet was exhibited in anything but
flesh-colour. It is dangerous to pick up a "waif and stray," as such
objects of philanthropy frequently disappear at the same time as the
forks and spoons. In reply to my questions, I discovered that Georgi was
in fact the "prodigal son;" he had not been leading the fast life of
that historical character, but he had left his home in Mersine (on the
coast of Asia Minor) owing to an unfortunate disagreement with his
father. In such domestic estrangements, rightly or wrongly, the fathers
generally have the best of the situation, and Georgi, having left a
comfortable home (his father being what is called "well to do"), had
taken ship, and, like many others, had steered for Cyprus, where he
arrived unknown, and quickly experienced the desolation of an utter
stranger in a foreign town. Georgi became hungry; whether he had sold
his good clothes to provide for the coats of his stomach I cannot say,
but the rags in which he first appeared to me were utterly unsaleable,
and few people would have ventured upon an engagement with so
disreputable a person. However, I liked his face; he could speak Turkish
and Arabic fluently: Greek was his mother-tongue, and he had a
smattering of French. I sent for the tailor, and had him measured for a
suit of clothes to match those of Amarn--a tunic, waistcoat,
knickerbockers, and gaiters of navy-blue serge. In a few days Georgi was
transformed into a respectable-looking servant, with his hair cut.

We left Larnaca on the 29th of January. A native two-wheeled cart
conveyed the tents and superabundant baggage. The oxen made no
difficulty, and the gipsy-van rolled easily along. An enterprising
photographer, having posted himself in a certain position near the
highway, suddenly stopped our party, and subsequently produced a
facsimile, although my dogs, who were in movement, came out with
phantom-like shadows. These useful companions were three spaniels
--"Merry," "Wise," and "Shot;" the latter had a broken foreleg through
an accident in the previous year, but he was an excellent retriever, and
could work slowly. The others were younger dogs, whose characters were
well represented by their names; the first was an untiring, determined
animal, and Wise was a steady hunter that would face the worst thorns,
and was a good retriever.

This party was now in movement, and I intended to make a preliminary
detour from the Nicosia route to visit the springs of Arpera, about
eight miles distant, which supply the town of Larnaca.

In every country where I have travelled I have observed a human weakness
among the population on the question of "game;" there is a universal
tendency to exaggeration; but the locality of superabundance is always
distant from the narrator. As you proceed the game recedes; and you are
informed that "at about two days' march you will find even more than you
require." Upon arrival at the wished-for spot you are told that
"formerly there was a large quantity, but that times and seasons have
changed; that about three marches in your front will bring you to a
hunter's paradise," &c. As Cyprus was an island of only 140 miles in
length, there would be a limit to these boundless descriptions; but I
had already heard enough to assure me that the usual want of veracity
upon this subject was present in the accounts I had received. The
newspaper correspondents had just contributed ridiculous reports to
their several employers. Because the market of Larnaca was well supplied
with woodcocks, red-legged partridges, and hares, at low prices, these
overworked gentlemen of the pen rushed to a conclusion that the island
teemed with game: forgetful of the fact that every Cypriote has a gun,
and that numbers were shooting for the consumption of the few. Larnaca
was the common centre towards which all gravitated. As the rate of wages
was only one shilling a day, it may be imagined that sport afforded an
equally remunerative employment, and game was forwarded from all
distances to be hawked about the public thoroughfares. The fact is, that
game is very scarce throughout Cyprus, and the books that have been
written upon this country are certainly not the productions of
sportsmen.

I had read in no mean authority that "the surface of the ground was
covered with heather"--positively there is no such plant in Cyprus as
heath or heather. As we passed the outskirts of Larnaca, we were
introduced to the misery of the plain of Messaria; the so-called heather
is a low thorny bush about twelve inches high, which at a distance has
some resemblance to the plant in question. Brown is the prevailing
colour in this portion of the island, and the aspect was not cheerful as
we slowly marched along the native track or highway towards Arpera,
carefully avoiding the new government macadamised road.

It is a melancholy neighbourhood. A few graves that had been robbed were
open, forming pitfalls for the unwary; other yawning holes had
discovered ancient tombs by the soakage of a recent heavy shower, which
had washed in the roof and exposed the cavity. We passed a small mosque
where there is the tomb of a saint many feet below the level of the
surface, and we shortly came in view of the salt lake about a mile and
three-quarters from the town of Larnaca. We halted about two miles from
the town upon the high ground to admire the aqueduct which crosses the
valley from the village of Cheflik Pacha. This is a very important work.
The masonry is about thirty-six feet above the lowest portion of the
valley, which it spans in thirty-two arches, covering a distance of
about four hundred and twenty yards from height to height. The water
flows in an open canal of cement along the surface, but upon the ground
level it is protected by a covering of stone and lime, until it reaches
the town of Larnaca. A stream of fresh water flows through the valley
beneath the arches of the aqueduct, at a right angle, and is
artificially separated from the salt lake below by means of a dyke of
earth which conducts it direct to the sea. This was rendered necessary
by the floods of the rainy seasons, which carried so large a volume of
fresh water into the lake as to resist the power of evaporation during
the summer months. The salt lakes of Larnaca are several miles in
extent, and are computed by the late British consul, Mr. Watkins, to
possess a productive power of 20,000,000 okes (2 3/4 lbs.) per annum. M.
Gaudry, in his clever work upon Cyprus, attributes the formation of salt
to the fact of the sea-water percolating through the sand, and thus
filling the lake;--this theory is disputed, and I incline to the native
belief, "that the salt lies within the soil, and is taken into solution
by the water, which deposits the same amount upon the dry surface when
exhausted by evaporation." In support of this opinion, I adduce a proof
in the fact of the small freshwater stream which flows from the higher
ground through the arches of the aqueduct, depositing salt as its
surface contracts during the dry season.

A strong efflorescence of true chloride of sodium is left upon the sides
of its bed and upon the bottom as the water becomes exhausted; this must
be the salt which the fresh water has robbed from the soil of the valley
through which it flows. In many portions of Cyprus I have observed, a
few days after a heavy shower, a considerable amount of salt upon the
surface. I know many instances of fresh-water lakes being divided from
the sea by only a few yards of sandy beach, and I do not accept as fact
that salt water percolates through the sand and forms the salt of
Larnaca lake. The salt lakes of Ceylon, in the south district of
Hambantotte, are immensely productive, and they have no communication
with the sea, but are in a similar position to those of Cyprus at
Larnaca and Limasol--near the sea, but depending for their water-supply
upon natural springs and rain. There can be no doubt that the springs
are salt, and the rain-water dissolves the salt that is naturally
contained within the soil. M. Gaudry observed a portion of the plain
near Trichomo covered with an efflorescence of soda, which by analysis
yielded about two-thirds of sulphate of soda, with a large proportion of
sulphate of magnesia and other salts. Many wells in Cyprus are salt, or
brackish. The lowest ground of the marshy plain near Famagousta contains
salt to a degree sufficient to destroy the young cereals, should rain
not be abundant; and during the drought of this year (1879), they were
the first to perish, although in a damp locality.

Salt is a government monopoly in Cyprus, and is one of the most
important sources of revenue. In the reign of the Lusignan dynasty, and
from a much earlier date, the produce of the salt lakes formed one of
the chief articles of export, and arrangements were made for regulating
the amount of water to ensure the requisite evaporation. At the present
time considerable uncertainty attends the collection of salt, as a
violent rainfall floods the lakes and weakens the solution. There can be
no doubt that a few years' experience and attention will enable the
authorities to improve upon the present arrangement, and that not only
will the annual supply be assured, but the foreign demand will be
extended.

We passed the valley beyond the aqueduct and, ascending the steep
incline upon the opposite side, followed the rutty native track parallel
with the water-course; we halted for the first night opposite the
village of Cheflik Pacha. This is an unhealthy place, as it lies in a
valley where a mill is turned by a stream from the aqueduct and the
surplus water forms a marsh after irrigating in a careless manner some
fields and gardens. Lemon and orange-trees of the largest size were
crowded with fruit, and exhibited in the midst of a treeless and
desolate country the great necessity, WATER, and the productive powers
of the soil when regularly supplied.

I was careful not to descend into the irrigated bottom, therefore we had
halted on the highest point, a quarter of a mile distant. It is
impossible to be too careful in the selection of a camping-ground; the
effect of fever-germs may be the result of one night's bivouac in an
unhealthy locality; and a new country is frequently stamped as
pestilential from the utter carelessness of the traveller or officer in
command of troops.

As a general rule the immediate neighbourhood of water should be
avoided. A clear stream is a tempting object, and the difficulty of
carrying water for the supply of troops is important; but it is less
than the necessity of carrying the sick. If once the fever of malaria
attacks an individual he becomes unfitted for his work; the blood is
poisoned, and he is the victim of renewed attacks which baffle medical
skill and lead to other serious complications. Avoid the first attack.
This may generally be effected by the careful selection of the
camping-ground. Never halt in a bottom, but always on a height.
Throughout my journey in Cyprus neither ourselves nor servants suffered
from any ailment, although we visited every portion of the country, and
I attribute this immunity from fever mainly to the care in our selection
of halting-places.

The first necessity in the evening halt was fire. This is one of the
troubles of central Cyprus--there is no fuel. The two vans and the
native cart were in a line--the bell-tent was quickly pitched for the
servants, who now for the first time experienced the comfort of an
arrangement I had made when in England. I had seven deal battens, each
seven feet long, four inches deep, by two and a half inches broad. These
were laid upon the ground twelve inches apart; seven planks, each one
foot wide, were placed across the battens to form an impromptu floor.
Upon this platform was laid a non-conductor of simply doubled hair-felt,
sewed into a thin mattress of light canvas. There was very little
trouble in this arrangement; the men were kept well off the ground, and
the hair-felt not only preserved their bodily heat from escaping, but it
prevented the damp of the earth from ascending. This mattress was ten
feet long, therefore it could be rolled up to form a bolster at one end;
and, during a hot sun, it was intended for a cover to the roof of the
gipsy van.

The first day's start is always in the afternoon, and the march is
short. We had only made three miles, and it was nearly dark when we
halted. The absence of fuel necessitates the great trouble of carrying a
supply of charcoal, and it destroys the pleasure of the cheerful
night-fires that usually enliven the bivouac in wild countries. The
plants and herbs that grow in Cyprus are all prickly; thus groping in
the dark for the first inflammable material to produce the
fire-foundation is unpleasant. There is a highly aromatic but very
prickly species of wild thyme: this is always sought for, and at all
times responds to the match.

The first night is always novel, in spite of old experiences. We pricked
our hands in raking up thorny plants, but a useful implement, which
combined the broad hoe on one side with a light pick on the other,
lessened our labour, and we produced a blaze; this was bright but
transient, as the fuel was unsubstantial. The dinner was quickly warmed,
as it consisted of tins of preserved meats; and, climbing up the ladder,
the gipsy van presented such a picture of luxury that if the world were
girded by a good road instead of a useless equator I should like to be
perpetually circum-vanning it.

On the following morning the thermometer marked 40 degrees. The natives
were early at work, ploughing land that was to remain fallow until the
following season. The oxen were sleek and in good condition, and not
inferior in weight to the well-known red animals of North Devon.
Although the native plough is of the unchanged and primitive pattern
that is illustrated on the walls of Egyptian temples, it is well adapted
for the work required in the rough and stony ground of Cyprus. I was
surprised to see the depth which these exceedingly light implements
attained, with apparent ease to the pair of oxen; this was not less than
eight inches, and the furrows were regular, but not turned completely
over. The ploughshare is not adapted for cutting the roots of weeds by
means of a flat surface and a sharp edge, but the rounded top of the
native iron passes beneath the soil and breaks it up like the wave
produced by the ram-bow of a vessel. The plough, when complete, does not
exceed forty pounds in weight, and it is conveniently carried, together
with the labourer, upon the same donkey, when travelling from a distance
to the morning's work. European settlers in Cyprus should be cautious
before superseding the native plough by the massive European pattern;
there are certain soils where the powerful iron plough, or even the
double implement, might be worked with advantage, but as a general rule
I should advise an agriculturist to wait patiently at the commencement
of his operations, and to gain practical experience of the country
before he expends capital in the purchase of European inventions. There
can be no doubt that by degrees important improvements may be introduced
that will benefit the Cypriote farmer, although it will be long before
his primitive method will be abandoned. The great difficulty in Cyprus
consists in reducing the soil to a fine surface; huge lumps of tenacious
earth are turned up by the plough, which, under the baking influence of
the sun, become as hard as sun-dried bricks. The native method of
crushing is exceedingly rude and ineffective. A heavy plank about
sixteen feet long and three inches thick, furnished with two rings, is
dragged by oxen over the surface; which generally remains in so rough a
state that walking over the field is most laborious. There are many
stone columns lying useless among the heaps of ruins so common in
Cyprus, that would form excellent rollers, but the idea of such an
implement has never entered the Cypriote head. The plough,
smoothing-plank, and the ancient threshing-harrow, composed of two broad
planks inlaid with sharp flint stones, are the only farm machinery of
the cultivator. As in the days of Abraham the oxen drew this same
pattern of harrow over the corn, and reduced the straw to a coarse chaff
mingled with the grain, so also the treatment in Cyprus remains to the
present day. The result is a mixture of dirt and sand which is only
partially rejected by the equally primitive method of winnowing.

Mr. Hamilton Lang gives an amusing description of the strictly
conservative principles of the Cyprian oxen, which have always been fed
upon the straw broken by the process described in threshing by the
harrow of sharp flints. This coarse chaff, mixed with cotton-seed,
lentils, or barley, is eaten by all animals with avidity, and the
bullocks positively refused Mr. Lang's new food, which was the same
straw passed through an English threshing-machine and cut fine by a
modern chaff-cutter. This fact is a warning to those who would introduce
too sudden reforms among men and animals in a newly-acquired country;
but if Mr. Hamilton Lang had sprinkled salt over his chaff I think the
refractory appetites of the oxen might have been overcome. A pair of
oxen are supposed to plough one "donum" daily of fifty paces square, or
about half an acre.

Having watched the various teams, and conversed with the ploughmen by
the medium of the cook Christo, who spoke English and was an intelligent
interpreter, I ordered the vans to move on while I walked over the
country with the dogs. There was no game except a wild-duck which I shot
in the thick weeds of a neighbouring swamp. Larks were in great
quantities, and for want of larger birds I shot enough for a pilaff, and
secured a breakfast. The route, which could be hardly called a road, had
been worn by the wheels of native carts. These were narrower than our
vans, and one of our wheels was generally upon a higher level,
threatening on some occasions to overturn. The country around us was
desolate in its aridity. We passed through the ruins of an ancient city
over which the plough had triumphed, and literally not one stone was
left upon another. A few stone columns of a rough description, some of
which were broken, were lying in various directions, and I noticed a
lower millstone formed of an exceedingly hard conglomerate rock; these
pieces were too heavy to move without great exertions, therefore they
had remained in situ.

After a short march of three miles we arrived at the steep banks of the
river a mile above the village of Arpera. The bed of this river was
about forty feet below the level of the country, and here our first real
difficulty commenced in descending a rugged and precipitous track, which
at first sight appeared destructive to any springs. The gipsy-van was
conducted by the owner of the fine pair of bullocks; but this fellow
(Theodoris) was an obstinate and utterly reckless character, and instead
of obeying orders to go steadily with the drag on the wheels, he put his
animals into a gallop down the steep descent, with the intention of
gaining sufficient momentum to cross the sandy bottom and to ascend the
other side. If the original gipsy proprietor could have seen his van
leaping and tossing like a ship in a heavy sea, with the frantic driver
shouting and yelling at his bullocks while he accelerated their gallop
by a sharp application of the needle-pointed driving prick, he would
have considered it the last moment of his movable home. I did the same;
but, to my astonishment, the vehicle, after bounding madly about, simply
turned the insane driver head over heels into the river's bed, and the
bullocks found themselves anchored in the sand on the opposite side.
Glover Brothers' blue van was driven by a fine fellow, Georgi, who was
of a steady disposition; and this very handy and well constructed
carriage made nothing of the difficulty. Georgi was a handsome and
exceedingly powerful man, upwards of six feet high, of a most amiable
disposition, who always tried to do his best; but the truth must be
told, he was stupid: he became a slave to the superior intellect of the
bare-brained rascal of the gipsy-van. Why amiable people should so
frequently be stupid I cannot conceive: perhaps a few are sharp; but
Georgi, poor fellow, had all in bone and muscle, and not in brain.

There is great advantage in travelling with more than one vehicle, as in
any difficulty the numerous animals can be harnessed together and their
combined power will drag a single cart or carriage through any obstacle.
Thus one by one the vans were tugged up the steep bank on the opposite
side, and after a drag across ploughed fields for nearly a mile we
halted on the edge of a cliff and camped exactly above the river.
Although the bed was dry below this point, we found a faint stream of
clear water above our position, which was subsequently absorbed by the
sand. The cliffs were not perpendicular, but were broken into steep
declivities from successive landslips: the sides were covered with the
usual prickly plants, but the edges of the stream were thickly bushed
with oleanders which afforded excellent covert for game.

In travelling through Cyprus there is a depressing aspect in the general
decay and ruin of former works. I strolled with my dogs for some miles
along the river banks, and examined the strong masonry remains of many
old water-mills. I found a well-constructed aqueduct of wonderfully hard
cement at the bottom of a cliff close to the present bed of the river:
this must at a former period have passed below the bed, and the
deepening of the stream has exposed and washed away the ancient work.
There was no game beyond a few wild red-legged partridges, although the
appearance of the country had raised my expectations.

On the following morning I rambled with the dogs for many hours over the
range of hills which bounds the plain upon the north, and from which the
river issues. These are completely denuded of soil, and present a
glaring surface of hardened chalk, in the crevices of which the usual
prickly plants can alone exist. Some of the hill-tops exposed a smooth
natural pavement where the rain had washed away all soluble portions and
left the bare foundation cracked in small divisions as though
artificially inlaid. Now and then a wretched specimen of the Pinus
Maritima, about six feet high, was to be seen vainly endeavouring to
find nourishment in the clefts of the barren rocks. I do not believe the
tales of forests having formerly existed upon the greater portion of
Cyprus: it would certainly be impossible for any species of tree to
thrive upon the extensive range of hills near Arpera, which are
absolutely valueless.

In many places the surface glistened with ice-like sheets of gypsum,
which cropped out of the cold white marls and produced a wintry
appearance that increased the desolation. I walked for some hours over
successive ranges of the same hopeless character. Great numbers of hawks
and several varieties of eagles were hunting above the hill-tops, and
sufficiently explained the scarcity of game. The red-legged partridges
found little protection in the scant cover afforded by the withered
plants, and I saw one captured and carried off by an eagle, who was
immediately chased by two others of the same species, in the vain hope
that he would give up his prize; he soared high in air with the
partridge hanging from his claws. On the same day I saw another capture,
and there can be little doubt that the partridge forms the usual food of
these large birds of prey. The British government has already protected
the game by establishing a close season and by a tax upon all guns; but
there will be little benefit from the new law unless a reward shall be
offered for the destruction of the birds of prey which swarm in every
portion of the island--eagles, falcons, kites, hawks, ravens, crows, and
last, but in cunning and destructive propensity not the least, the
"magpies." These birds exist in such numbers that unless steps are taken
to destroy them it will be hopeless to expect any increase of game. When
a magpie wakes in the early morning his first thought is mischief, and
during the breeding season there is no bird who makes egg-hunting so
especially his occupation. Upon the treeless plains of Cyprus every nest
is at his mercy.

From the base of the barren hill-range a fertile plain slopes towards
the sea for a width of about four miles, having received the soil that
has been washed from the denuded heights. This rich surface is
cultivated with cereals, but there are considerable portions which are
covered with a dense mass of thistles, as the land is allowed to rest
for a couple of years after having been exhausted by several crops
without manuring. On the lowlands of Cyprus nearly every plant or bush
is armed with thorns. I have generally observed that a thorny vegetation
is a proof of a burning climate with a slight rainfall. In the scorching
districts of the Soudan there is hardly a tree without thorns to the
tenth degree of north latitude, at which limit the rainfall is great and
the vegetation changes its character. The Cypriotes of both sexes wear
high boots to the knees as a protection from the countless thistles, and
not as an armour against snakes, as some writers have assumed. These
boots are peculiar in their construction; the soles are about an inch in
thickness, formed of several layers of leather, which are fastened
together by large-headed nails from beneath; these are directed in an
oblique line, so as to pass through the edge of the upper leather and
secure it to the sole exactly as the shoe of a horse is fitted to the
hoof. The nails are long and thin, and are riveted by turning the points
round and hammering them like a coil upon the leather; the heads of
these nails are nearly as large as a shilling, and the boots are
exceedingly clumsy; but they increase the height of the wearer by a full
inch.

My amiable driver of the blue van, Georgi, accompanied me in my walk,
and fired several useless shots at wild partridges. We now arrived at
the spot where the water is led by a subterranean aqueduct to Larnaca.
This principle is so original, and has from such remote times been
adopted in this arid island, that it merits a detailed description. The
ancient vestiges of similar works in every portion of Cyprus prove that
in all ages the rainfall must have been uncertain, and that no important
change has taken place in the meteorological condition of the country.

In a search for water-springs the Cypriote is most intelligent, and the
talent appears to be hereditary. If a well is successful at an elevation
that will enable the water to command lower levels at a distance, it may
be easily understood that the supply of one well representing a unit
must be limited. The Cypriote well-sinker works upon a principle of
simple multiplication. If one well produces a certain flow, ten wells
will multiply the volume, if connected by a subterranean tunnel, and
provided the supply of water in the spring is unlimited.

It appears that Cyprus exhibits an anomaly in the peculiarity of a small
rainfall but great subterranean water-power; some stratum that is
impervious retains the water at depths varying according to local
conditions. The well-sinker commences by boring, or rather digging, a
circular hole two feet six inches in diameter. The soil of Cyprus is so
tenacious that the walls of the shaft require no artificial support;
this much facilitates the work, and the labourer, armed with a very
short-handled pick, patiently hacks his vertical way, and sends up the
earth by means of a basket and rope, drawn by a primitive but effective
windlass above, formed of a cradle of horizontal wooden bars. The man in
charge simply turns the windlass without a handle, by clutching each
successive bar, which, acting as a revolving lever, winds up the rope
with the weight attached.

The rapidity of the well-sinking naturally depends upon the quality of
the soil; if rock is to be cut through, it is worked with a mason's axe
and the cold chisel. Fortunately the geological formation is principally
sedimentary limestone, which offers no great resistance. At length the
water is reached. The well is now left open for a few days that an
opinion may be formed of the power; if favourable, another precisely
similar well is sunk at a distance of fifteen or sixteen yards in the
direction towards the point required by the future aqueduct. The spring
being satisfactory, the work proceeds with vigour. We will accept the
first well as forty feet in depth; if the surface of the earth were an
exact level, the next well would be an equal depth; but as the water
retains its natural level, the vertical measurement of each shaft will
depend upon the formation of the upper ground. The object of the
well-sinker is to create a chain of wells united by a subterranean
tunnel, in order to multiply the power of a unit and to obtain the
entire supply of water; he therefore sinks perhaps ten or twenty wells
to the same level, and he cuts a narrow tunnel from one to the other,
thus connecting his shafts at the water-line, so as to form a canal or
aqueduct. Precisely as the mole upheaves at certain intervals the earth
that it has scraped from its gallery, the well-sinker clears his tunnel
by sending up the contents through the vertical shafts fifteen yards
apart, around the mouth of which a funnel-shaped mound is formed by the
debris.

These preliminary walls being completed and the water-volume tested, the
neighbourhood is examined with the hope of discovering other springs
that may upon the same principle be conducted towards the main line of
the proposed aqueduct. It is not uncommon to find several chains of
wells converging from different localities to the desired water-head,
and as these are at higher levels, a considerable hydraulic power is
obtained, sufficient in many instances not only to fill the tunnels, but
to force the water to a greater elevation if required.

The water-head being thoroughly established, the sinking of a chain of
wells proceeds, and the tunnels are arranged at a given inclination to
conduct the water to the destined spot. This may be many miles distant,
necessitating many hundred wells, which may comprise great superficial
changes; hills that are bored through necessitate deep shafts, and
valleys must be spanned by aqueducts of masonry. In this manner the
water is conducted from the springs of Arpera near the spot where the
river issues from the narrow valley among the hills, and supplies
Larnaca, about eight miles distant from the first head. The British
authorities propose to substitute iron pipes for the present aqueduct;
but it is to be hoped that the new scheme will be an independent and
additional work, that will in no way interfere with the important gift
of Cheflik Pacha, which has existed for nearly two centuries, and which,
if kept in repair, will supply the necessary volume.



CHAPTER III.

ROUTE TO NICOSIA.

Having proved that any further progress west was quite impracticable by
vans, I returned to the new main road from Larnaca, and carefully
avoiding it, we kept upon the natural surface by the side drain, and
travelled towards Dali, the ancient Idalium.

The thermometer at 8 A.M. showed 37 degrees, and the wind was keen. The
road lay through a most desolate country of chalk hills completely
barren, diversified occasionally by the ice-like crystals of gypsum
cropping out in huge masses. In one of the most dreary spots that can be
imagined the eye was relieved by a little flat-topped hut on the right
hand, which exhibited a sign, "The Dewdrop Inn." The name was hardly
appropriate, as the earth appeared as though neither dew nor rain had
blessed the surface; but I believe that whisky was represented by the
"Dewdrop," and that the word was intended to imply an invitation,
"Do-drop-in." Of course we dropped in, being about an hour in advance of
our vans, and I found the landlord most obliging, and a bottle of Bass's
pale ale most refreshing in this horrible-looking desert of chalk and
thistles that had become a quasi-British colony. This unfortunate man
and one or two partners were among those deluded victims who had
sacrificed themselves to the impulse of our first occupation, upon the
principle that "the early bird gets the worm." Instead of getting on,
the partners went off, and left the representative of the "Dewdrop" in a
physical state of weakness from attacks of fever, and the good
industrious man with little hope of a golden future.

Passing on after a conversation with our landlord, which did not cheer
me so much as the pale ale, we continued through the same desolate
country for about two miles, and then turned off on the left hand
towards Dali. We passed through a narrow valley of several hundred acres
planted in vineyards, and we counted four olive-trees, the first green
objects or signs of trees that we had seen since Larnaca! We then
continued through white barren hills for another two miles, and
descended a steep hill, halting for the night upon hard flat gypsum rock
opposite a village named "Lauranchina," above the dry bed of a torrent,
twelve miles from Larnaca.

On the following morning, after a slight shower, we started for Dali.
The narrow valleys were more or less cultivated with vines, and about
three miles from the halting-place we entered the fertile plain of Dali.
This is about six miles long, by one in width, highly cultivated, with
the river flowing through the midst. As far as we could see in a direct
line groves of olives, vineyards, and ploughed land, diversified by
villages, exhibited the power of water in converting sterility into
wealth.

I always make a rule that the halting-place shall be at a considerable
distance from a village or town for sanitary reasons, as the environs
are generally unclean. All travellers are well aware that their servants
and general entourage delight in towns or villages, as they discover
friends, or make acquaintances, and relieve the tedium of the journey;
therefore an antagonistic influence invariably exists upon the question
of a camping-ground. It is accordingly most difficult to believe the
statements of your interpreter: he may have old friends in a town to
which you believe him to be a stranger; he may have the remains of an
old love, and a wish to meet again; or he may have a still more powerful
attraction in the remembrance of an agreeable cafe where he can refresh
himself with liquor, revel in cigarettes, and play at dominoes. It is
therefore necessary to be upon your guard when approaching a town, which
should be looked upon as the enemy's camp.

My amiable bullock-driver, the big Georgi, had always assured me that
"game abounded in the immediate neighbourhood of Dali;" of course I knew
that the happy hunting-ground contained some special interest for
himself. Upon arrival on the outskirts I ordered the vans to pass on the
outside of the town, and I would seek a camping-place up-stream. Instead
of this I was assured that we should pass through the town, and find a
lovely grove of olive-trees by the river-side, the perfection of a
halting-place. For the first time I now discovered that Georgi's wife
and family lived in Dali, and that he was not such a fool as he looked.

In a few minutes we were descending a lane so narrow that the gipsy van
only cleared the walls of the houses on either side by three or four
inches. This lane had been paved centuries ago with stones of all sizes,
from a moderate grindstone to that of a football. When people had wished
to build a new house, they had taken up a few stones to make a
foundation; the street was a series of pitfalls filled with mud and
filth, including miniature ponds of manure-coloured water. The surface
appeared impassable; the projecting water-spouts from the low roofs
stuck out like the gnarled boughs of trees. Here was a pretty mess!--all
because Georgi's wife was in town. It was impossible for anything larger
than a perambulator to turn, and as the springs yielded to the uneven
ground, the van bumped against the walls of the houses and threatened
destruction. "Halt!" was the only word, and as the drag-shoe was on the
wheel, we stopped. At this moment of difficulty a priest and some old
women appeared with earthen vessels smoking with burning olive leaves;
they immediately passed the smoke beneath the nostrils of the oxen, then
around the van, and lastly ourselves. At the same time some good young
women threw orange-flower water over my wife and myself from pretty
glass vases with narrow necks as a sign of welcome. The incense of the
priests was supposed to avert the "evil-eye" from the gipsy van and our
party. I felt much obliged for the good intention, but I did not mind
the "evil eye" so much as the water-spouts. In my experience of
travelling I never met with such kind and courteous people as the
inhabitants of Cyprus. The Dali population had already blocked the
narrow streets from curiosity at our arrival, and soon understanding the
cause of our dilemma, they mounted the housetops and tore off the
obstructing water-spouts; where these projections were too strong, they
sawed them off close to the eaves. A crowd of men pushed the van from
behind, and guided the oxen, while others assisted by digging up the
large paving-stones that would have tilted it against the house-walls.
In this manner we arrived without serious accident upon the bank of the
river which ran through the town. There was an open space here which was
crowded with women and girls, who, with feminine curiosity, had
assembled to see the English lady. Among these was the prettiest young
woman I have seen in Cyprus, with a child in her arms. Her large blue
eyes and perfect Grecian features were enhanced by a sweet gentle
expression of countenance. She seemed more than others delighted at our
arrival. This was Georgi's wife!--and I at once forgave him for
deceiving us and yielding to the natural attraction of his home.

We were not quite out of our difficulty. Several hundred people had
assembled, and all spoke at once, raising their voices in the hope that
we should understand their Greek better than if spoken in a moderate
tone: (why people will speak loud if you do not know their language I
cannot understand:) but as we were utterly ignorant of their meaning we
were not confused by their differences of opinion respecting our
direction. It ended in our crossing the stony bed of the river, through
which a reduced stream only a few inches deep flowed in the centre, and
having with difficulty gained the opposite bank a hundred yards distant,
we soon arrived in a sort of natural eel-trap formed by a narrow avenue
of gigantic olive-trees, the branches of which effectually barred our
progress and prevented the vans from turning.

A temporary loss of temper was a natural consequence, and having ridden
in advance for about half a mile, I returned and ordered a retreat. We
took the bullocks out, and by hand backed the wheels, until by shovels
and picks we could clear a space for turning. We then re-crossed the
river, and disregarding all native advice, struck into the country, and
halted near a small grove of olives close to the new English road to the
military station "Mattiati."

It was the 4th of February, and the temperature in the morning and
evening was too cold (43 degrees) for pleasant camping. In spite of a
chilly wind, crowds of women and children surrounded our vans and sat
for hours indulging their curiosity, and shivering in light clothes of
home-made cotton-stuffs. The children were generally pretty, and some of
the younger women were good-looking; but there was a total neglect of
personal appearance which is a striking characteristic of the Cypriote
females. In most countries, whether savage or civilised, the women yield
to a natural instinct, and to a certain extent adorn their persons and
endeavour to render themselves attractive; but in Cyprus there is a
distressing absence of the wholesome vanity that should induce attention
to dress and cleanliness. The inelegance of costume gives an unpleasant
peculiarity to their figures--the whole crowd of girls and women looked
as though they were about to become mothers. The coarse and
roughly-tanned, uncared-for high boots with huge hobnails were
overlapped by great baggy trousers. Above these were a considerable
number of petticoats loosely hanging and tied carelessly at the waist,
which was totally unsupported by any such assistance as stays. A sort of
short jacket that was of no particular cut, and possessed the advantage
of fitting any variety of size or figure, completed the attire. The
buttons that should have confined the dress in front were generally
absent, and the ladies were not bashful at their loss, but exposed their
bosoms without any consciousness of indelicacy. There was no peculiarity
in the arrangement of the hair, but each head was tied up in a cloth,
either white or some gaudy colour, which, once gay, had been sobered in
its hues by dirt. In spite of this neglected exterior, the women had
remarkably good manners; they seldom approached my wife without
presenting, with a graceful gesture, some wild flowers, or a little
bunch of sweet herbs, which they had purposely gathered, and we were
quickly made rich in quantities of double narcissus, marigolds, and
rosemary. Upon our arrival at a town or village the girls and boys would
frequently run to their gardens and provide themselves with either a
single flower, or rosemary, with which they would await us in the street
and offer them as we passed by. Throughout Cyprus we have received
similar well-meant attention, and the simplicity and delicacy of the
offering contrasts in an anomalous manner with the dirty habits and
appearance of the people. Even Georgi's pretty wife was untidy about the
hair, although she was in her best attire; and a close inspection of all
women and girls showed that their throats and breasts were literally
covered with ancient and modern fleabites. Their dwellings are extremely
filthy, and swarm with vermin, as the fowls, goats, or even a cow or
two, generally increase the domestic party. It is well known that Paphos
in Cyprus was the supposed birthplace of Venus, and that the island was
at one time celebrated for the beauty of women and immorality: the
change has been radical, as I believe no women are more chaste, and at
the same time less attractive, than the Cypriotes of the present time.
They are generally short and thickset; they are hardly treated by the
men, as they perform most of the rough work in cultivation of the
ground, and, from the extreme coarseness of their hands, they can seldom
be idle; the men, on the contrary, are usually good-looking, and are far
more attentive to their personal appearance.

Dali was an interesting spot to any agriculturist. The soil was
exceedingly rich, as it had been formed, like all valleys in Cyprus, by
the alluvium washed down from the surrounding hills; these were from
three to six hundred feet above the level of the plain, and were
composed of the usual hard species of chalk and gypsum; thus the deposit
from their denudation by rains supplied the chief constituents for the
growth of vines and cereals.

There is a depressing absence of all recent improvements in journeying
through Cyprus; even at Dali, where the water from the river was used
for irrigation, and large farms in the occupation of the wealthy
landowner, M. Richard Mattei, were successfully cultivated, I could not
help remarking the total neglect of tree-planting. The ancient
olive-groves still exist by the river's side, and, could they speak,
those grand old trees would be historians of the glorious days of
Cyprus; but there are no recent plantations, and the natives explained
the cause in the usual manner by attributing all wretchedness and
popular apathy to the oppression of the Turkish rule. This wholesale
accusation must be received with caution; there can be no doubt of the
pre-existing misrule, but at the same time it is impossible to travel
through Cyprus without the painful conviction that the modern Cypriote
is a reckless tree-destroyer, and that destruction is more natural to
his character than the propagation of timber. There is no reason for the
neglect of olive-planting, but I observed an absence of such cultivation
which must have prevailed during several centuries, even during the
Venetian rule. It is difficult to determine the age of an olive-tree,
which is almost imperishable; it is one of those remarkable examples of
vegetation that illustrates the eternal, and explains the first
instincts of adoration which tree-worship exhibited in the distant past.
I spent some hours with the olive trees of Dali; they were grand old
specimens of the everlasting. One healthy trunk in full vigour measured
twenty-nine feet in circumference; another, twenty-eight feet two
inches. Very many were upwards of twenty feet by my measuring-tape; and
had I accepted the hollow or split trees, there were some that would
have exceeded forty feet. There can be little doubt, that these olives
throve at the period when Idalium was the great city in Cyprus; they may
have exceeded two thousand years in age, but any surmise would be the
wildest conjecture. It may not be generally known that the olive, which
is of slow growth and a wood of exceeding hardness, remains always a
dwarf tree; a tall olive is unknown, and it somewhat resembles a pollard
ilex. When by extreme age the tree has become hollow it possesses the
peculiar power of reproduction, not by throwing up root-shoots, but by
splitting the old hollowed trunk into separate divisions, which by
degrees attain an individuality, and eventually thrive as new and
independent trees, forming a group or "family-tree," nourished by the
same root which anchored the original ancestor.

The gnarled, weird appearance of these ancient groves of such gigantic
dimensions contrasted sadly with the treeless expanse beyond, and proved
that Cyprus had for very many centuries been the victim of neglect. The
olive is indigenous to the island, and the low scrub jungles of Baffo,
the Carpas district, and other portions abound with the wild species,
which can be rendered fruitful by grafting. In selecting trees for the
extension of forests, there is a common-sense rule to guide us by
observing those varieties which are indigenous to the country; these can
be obtained at the lowest cost, and their success is almost assured, as
no time need be lost from the day of their removal to the new
plantation. Such trees as are rendered fruitful by grafting offer
peculiar advantages, as the stocks already exist upon which superior
varieties may be connected. The principal food of the Cypriotes consists
of olives, beans, bread, and onions; they seldom eat what we should call
"cooked food;" whether this is owing to the scarcity of fuel, or whether
it is natural in this climate to avoid flesh, I cannot determine: some
say the people are too poor, and cannot afford mutton at twopence a
pound, while at the same time they will not kill the oxen that are
required for purposes of draught; they refuse the milk of cows, and only
use that of sheep or goats. The fact remains that the country people
seldom eat butcher's meat, but subsist upon olives, oil, bread, cheese,
and vegetables.

Under these circumstances it would be natural to suppose that the
accepted articles of consumption would be highly cultivated and superior
in quality; but the reverse is the fact. The olive-oil is so inferior
that foreign oil is imported from France for the use of the upper
classes; the olives are of a poor description, and, as a rule, few
vegetables are cultivated except in the immediate vicinity of town
markets, the agricultural population or country people being too
careless to excel in horticulture, and depending mainly upon the wild
vegetables which the soil produces in abundance. If the people are too
inert to improve the qualities and to extend the cultivation of
vegetables, it is easy to comprehend their neglect of the tree-planting
so necessary to the climatic requirements of this island.

The oil-press is similar to the old-fashioned cider-mill of England. The
fruit, having been dried in the sun, is placed in a circular trough in
which the stone wheel revolves, driven by a mule and pole. When
sufficiently crushed, and reduced to a paste, it is divided into
basketfuls; these are subjected to pressure by the common vertical
screw, and the oil is expressed, but is not clarified. It is generally
rancid and unfit for European consumption. In travelling through Cyprus
the medicine-chest may dispense with castor-oil, as the olive-oil of the
country is a good substitute. By the government report, the yield of oil
in 1877 was estimated at 250,000 okes (of 2 3/4 lbs.) valued at about
nine piastres per oke, but during the same year foreign olive-oil to the
value of 1,706 pounds sterling was imported. There can be little doubt
that special attention should be bestowed upon the improvement of the
olive cultivation in Cyprus, and grafts of the best varieties should be
introduced from France and Spain; in a few years an important
improvement would result, and the superabundant oil of a propitious
season would form an article of export, instead of (as at present) being
converted into soap, as otherwise unsaleable.

Our crowd of female admirers was happily dispersed by a slight shower of
rain, and by clouds which threatened a downpour; the men remained, and a
swarthy-looking thoroughbred Turk promised to accompany me on the morrow
and show me the neighbourhood. I was informed in a mysterious whisper by
a Cypriote "that this man was a notorious robber, whose occupation was
gone since the arrival of the British;" he had formed one of a gang that
had infested the mountains, and his brother had murdered a friend of
Georgi (the van-driver), and was now in gaol at Rhodes for the capital
offence. The Turk was very intelligent, and thoroughly conversant with
the various methods of breech-loading firearms; he examined several
rifles and guns belonging to me, and at once comprehended the mechanism,
and explained it to the admiring crowd. When this individual left our
camp in the evening, the story that I had heard in outline was
corroborated by the driver Georgi, who asked me to exert my influence to
procure the hanging of the murderer now at Rhodes, as the Turkish
authorities would never execute a Turk for the murder of a Greek unless
influenced by foreign pressure. It appeared that the Cypriote had
informed against one of the gang for cattle-stealing, accordingly
several members of the fraternity picked a quarrel with him at a
drinking-shop one evening at Dali, and stabbed him fatally. My new
acquaintance, the Turk, was not present during the fray, and I could not
promise Georgi the intervention he desired.

On the following morning seven natives of Dali appeared--all
Greeks--accompanied by the ex-robber, whom I regarded as "a wicked man
who had turned away from his wickedness," with whose antecedents I had
no concern. They had brought their guns, which were at once submitted to
me for an opinion of their merits, with a vain expectation that I should
pronounce them to be "English." I was to be guided to a spot about an
hour's march distant, where partridges and hares were said to abound,
and it appeared that an impromptu shooting-party had been arranged
especially for my amusement.

I am not very fond of such sporting meetings, as the common guns of the
people, which are constantly missing fire when required to shoot, have
an awkward knack of going off when least expected; my mind was somewhat
relieved when the tactics were explained, that we (nine guns) were to
form a line of skirmishers about two hundred yards apart, commanding a
mile of country.

There is a great advantage in sport, as the search for game leads a
traveller into all kinds of places which he would otherwise leave
unseen. It is a great enjoyment to stroll over a new country accompanied
by good dogs, and combine at the same time sport and exploration.

Upon arrival at the summit of the hill range which we had passed on our
left when we had arrived at Dali, I was well repaid, and the necessity
of judging a country from a hill-top instead of from a highroad was well
exemplified. I looked down upon the highly-cultivated and fertile valley
of Lymbia, surpassing in extent the plain of Dali, and although the
successive ranges of hills and mountains were bleak and barren in their
whiteness, the intervening valleys were all occupied either by vineyards
or by fields in tillage. Even the ravines upon the steep hill-sides
which had been scored out by the rainfall of ages were artificially
arranged to catch the melted earth in its descent during heavy storms,
and to form terraces of rich alluvium.

A succession of rough walls composed of the large rocks which strewed
the surface, were built at convenient intervals across the ravines,
forming a series of dams or weirs. The soil of Cyprus is peculiar in
dissolving very quickly during a shower, and the water rolls down the
steep inclines carrying so much earth in solution, that, should its
course be checked, it deposits an important quantity, sufficient in a
few seasons to form a surface for a considerable area. The walls of the
dams are continually raised as the earth attains a higher level, and the
ground thus saved is a complete gain to the proprietor.

The few partridges were very wild, and saved my dogs the trouble of
hunting by showing themselves at a couple of hundred yards; the only
chance of shooting them depended upon stray birds passing within shot
when disturbed by the long line of guns. I only bagged one partridge and
a hare, and the rest of the party had the miserable total of two birds.
This was a fair example of the sport on the bare hill-sides of Messaria.

The new road to Mattiati was unfit for vans; I therefore rode over to
visit the camp of the 20th Regiment, eight miles distant, and after
luncheon with the officers of that regiment I accompanied their party to
Lithrodondo, the Colonel having kindly lent me a fresh horse. My aneroid
showed an increased elevation of 330 feet in the eight miles from Dali
to Mattiati. After leaving the Dali plain the road passes through the
usual hills of hard chalk, but about two miles from the entrance an
important change was exhibited in the geological structure. Eruptive
rocks had burst through the chalk, producing interesting metamorphic
phenomena. The hills no longer fatigued the eye by the desolate glare,
but the earth was a rich brown diversified with patches of bright
chocolate colour.

The greenstone cropped out through the surface in large masses,
accompanied by a peculiar dun-stone precisely similar to that of Knowles
Hill in South Devon. In a cutting through a hill-side by the government
new road veins of bright yellow ochre were exposed, also red ochre in
considerable quantities. I took samples of the yellow, which appeared to
be of a good quality; but I believe the commercial value is too
insignificant to support the charges of land-transport and the
subsequent freight from Larnaca.

Mattiati is about 1300 feet above the sea-level. The troops were camped
in wooden huts on low hills about forty feet above a flat valley, where
olive-trees throve in considerable numbers. I should not have selected
Mattiati as a sanitary station; the plain showed evident signs of bad
drainage, and the rich deep soil would become a swamp after heavy rains.
Upon the low hills within a mile of the station were vast quantities of
scoriae or slag from ancient smelting-furnaces, and the remains of
broken pottery, mingled with stones that had been used in building,
proved that important mining operations had been carried on in former
ages.

From Mattiati to Lithrodondo the country is broken and little
cultivated; there was no longer a sign of cretaceous rock, but the bold
range of mountains rose before us crowned by Makheras, 4730 feet,
apparently close above us, dark in plutonic rocks and sparsely covered
with myrtles and other evergreens. As we neared the base of the
mountains, the vegetation increased, and passing the dirty village of
Lithrodondo, we entered upon a succession of hills divided by numerous
small torrent-beds, the steep banks of which were thickly fringed with
oleanders, mastic, myrtles, and other shrubs, which formed an
inspiriting change from the weary treeless country we had left behind.
Beyond Lithrodondo are extensive vineyards; but it was late, and I was
obliged to turn back towards Dali, fifteen miles distant.

Wherever I had been since my departure from Larnaca the natives had
complained of the effects of fever to which they are subjected during
the summer months; but they were unanimous in declaring that "the
general sickness of the last year was exceptional, and that the fevers
were not of a dangerous nature." It is well known that upon our first
occupation of the island in July, 1878, all troops, both English and
Indian, suffered to a degree that would have rendered them unfit for
active service. It is true that the actual mortality was not excessive;
but the strength of an army must be reckoned by the EFFECTIVE force, and
not by numbers. There can be no doubt that, owing to a season declared
by the inhabitants to be exceptionally unhealthy, and the unfortunate
necessity for a military occupation during the extreme heat of July and
August, the troops being overworked, badly fed, and unprotected from the
sun, the newly-acquired island was stamped with a pestilential
character, and Cyprus became a byeword as a fever-smitten failure. I
shall give my personal experiences, untinged by any prejudice. The
natural features of the country produced a sad impression upon my first
arrival in a scene where the depressing influence of a barren aspect
must to a certain extent affect the nervous system; but a careful
examination of the entire surface of the island subsequently modified my
first impressions, with results which these pages will describe.

There was no object in prolonging my visit to Dali; the tombs of ancient
Idalium had already been ransacked by the consuls of various nations;
and had I felt disposed to disturb the repose of the dead, nominally in
the interests of science, but at the same time to turn an honest penny
by the sale of their remains, I should have been unable to follow the
example of the burrowing antiquarians who had preceded me; a prohibition
having been placed upon all such enterprises by the English government.

It is supposed that Idalium is one of the largest and richest treasuries
of the dead in Cyprus. For several centuries the tombs had been
excavated and pillaged in the hopes of discovering objects of value. The
first robbers were those who were simply influenced by the gold and
other precious ornaments which were accompaniments of the corpse; the
modern despoilers were resurrectionists who worked with the object of
supplying any museums that would purchase the funeral spoil.

It is a curious contradiction in our ideas of propriety, which are
measured apparently by uncertain intervals of time, that we regard as
felonious a man who disinters a body and steals a ring from the fingers
of the corpse a few days after burial in an English churchyard, but we
honour and admire an individual who upon a wholesale scale digs up old
cemeteries and scatters the bones of ancient kings and queens, princes,
priests, and warriors, and having collected the jewellery, arms, and
objects of vanity that were buried with them, neglects the once honoured
bones, but sells the gold and pottery to the highest bidder. Sentiment
is measured and weighed by periods, and as grief is mitigated by time,
so also is our respect for the dead, even until we barter their ashes
for gold as an honourable transaction.

The most important object of antiquity that has been recently discovered
by excavations at Dali is the statue of Sargon, king of Assyria, 707
B.C., to whom the Cypriote kings paid tribute. This was sent to the
Berlin Museum by Mr. Hamilton Lang, and is described in his interesting
work upon Cyprus during the term of several years' consulship.

The ruins of ancient cities offer no attraction to the traveller in this
island, as nothing is to be seen upon the surface except disjointed
stones and a few fallen columns of the commonest description. The
destruction has been complete, and if we wish to make discoveries, it is
necessary to excavate to a considerable depth; but as all such
explorations are prohibited, the subject remains fruitless. General di
Cesnola, whose work upon the antiquities of Cyprus must remain
unrivalled, describes the tombs as from forty to fifty-five feet beneath
the present surface, and even those great depths had not secured them
from disturbance, as many that he opened had already been ransacked by
former explorers.

On the 7th of February the thermometer at eight A.M. was only 40
degrees. The oxen were put into their yokes, and after a discussion
concerning the best route to Lefkosia, it was agreed that Georgi should
be the responsible guide, as he was a native of the country.

When travelling on horseback through the district of Messaria there is
no difficulty of roads, provided you know the country thoroughly, as you
may canter, in the absence of enclosures, in any direction you may
please; but the Cypriotes have an awkward habit of leading their
watercourses straight through any route that may exist for wheeled
conveyances, and you suddenly arrive at a deep ditch and high bank,
which block the thoroughfare. Georgi had assured us that no difficulty
would delay us between Dali and the high road from Larnaca to Lefkosia,
which we should intersect about half-way between the two termini.
Instead of this, after travelling for a couple of miles along a good
hardened track, we arrived at a series of trenches which effectually
stopped all progress. Each van had a pickaxe and shovel, therefore we
all set to work in rapid relief of each other to level the obstructions,
and by this hard exercise the thermometer appeared to rise quickly from
the low temperature of the morning. The oxen were good, and by dint of
our united exertions in heaving the wheels and pushing behind, we
dragged the vans through the soft ground that had filled the ditches,
and then slowly travelled across ploughed fields and alternate plains of
a hard surface covered with abominable thistles.

We passed on our left a large farm that exhibited a wonderful contrast
to the general barrenness of the country. The fields were green with
young wheat and barley, and numerous sakyeeahs or cattle-wheels for
raising water supplied the means of unfailing irrigation. I believe this
property belonged to Mr. Mattei, and there could be no stronger example
of the power that should be developed throughout this island to render
it independent of precarious seasons. It is a simple question of a first
outlay that is absolutely necessary to ensure the crops. Throughout the
barren plain of Messaria water exists in unfailing quantity within a few
yards of the parched surface--thus at the same time that the crops are
perishing from the want of rain, the roots are actually within a few
feet of the desired supply. The cattle-wheels of Cyprus are very
inferior to the sakyeeah of Egypt, but are arranged upon a similar
principle, by a chain of earthenware pots or jars upon a rope and wheel,
which, revolving above a deep cistern, ascend from the depth below, and
deliver the water into a trough or reservoir upon the surface. From the
general reservoir small watercourses conduct the stream to any spot
desired. This is the most ancient system of artificial irrigation by
machinery, and it is better adapted for the requirements of this country
than any expensive European inventions. As I shall devote a chapter
specially to the all-important question of irrigation, I shall postpone
further remarks upon the cattle-wheel; but the farm in question which
formed a solitary green oasis in the vast expanse of withered surface
was a sufficient example of the necessity, and of the fruitful result of
this simple and inexpensive method. It is a mere question of outlay, and
the government must assist the cultivators by loans for the special
erection of water-wheels. But of this more hereafter.

At about six miles from Dali we struck the road between Larnaca and
Lefkosia (or Nicosia). The newly-established mail-coach with four horses
passed us, with only one passenger. We met it again on the following
day, with a solitary unit; and it appeared that the four horses on many
occasions had no other weight behind them than the driver and the
letters. With this instance of inertia before their eyes, certain
lunatics (or WISE CONTRACTORS) suggested the necessity of a railway for
twenty-eight miles to connect the two capitals! The mail had an
ephemeral existence, and after running fruitlessly to and fro for a few
months, it withdrew altogether, leaving an abundant space in Cyprus for
my two vans, without the slightest chance of a collision upon the new
highway, as there were no other carriages on the roads, excepting the
few native two-wheeled carts.

We halted five miles from Lefkosia, where a new stone bridge was in
process of construction and was nearly completed. We had already passed
a long and extremely narrow Turkish bridge across the river about four
miles in our rear. By pacing I made the new bridge twenty-nine feet, the
same width as the road, and I could not help thinking that a much less
expensive commencement would have been sufficient to meet the
requirements of the country. In Cyprus the rainfall is generally slight
and the earth is tenacious, and in dry weather exceedingly hard; if half
the width of the road had been carefully metalled in the first instance,
a great expense would have been saved at a time when the island was
sadly in want of money; the natural surface of the firm soil would have
been preferred by all vehicles except during rain, when they would have
adopted the metalled parallel way. It is easy to criticise after the
event, and there can be no doubt that upon our first occupation of the
island a much greater traffic was expected, and the road between the two
capitals was arranged accordingly. We halted for the night at the new
stone bridge, which, as usual in Cyprus, spanned a channel perfectly
devoid of water. On the following morning we marched to Lefkosia, and
passing to the left of the walled town, we reached the newly-erected
Government House, about a mile and a half distant, where we received a
kind and hospitable welcome from the High Commissioner, Sir Garnet, and
Lady Wolseley.

The position of the new Government House was well chosen. The character
of the dreary plain of Messaria is the same throughout; flat
table-topped hills of sedimentary calcareous limestone, abounding with
fossil shells, represent the ancient sea-bottom, which has been
upheaved. The surface of these table-heights is hard for a depth of
about six feet, forming an upper stratum of rock which can be used for
building; beneath this are marls and friable cretaceous stone, which
during rains are washed away. The continual process of undermining by
the decay of the lower strata has caused periodical disruption of the
hard upper stratum, which has fallen off in huge blocks and rolled down
the rough inclines that form the sides. As the water during heavy rains
percolates through the crevices of the upper stratum, it dissolves the
softer material beneath, and oozing through the steep inclination,
carries large quantities in solution to the lower level and deposits
this fertilising marl upon the plain below. In this manner the low
ground of the rich but dreary Messaria has been formed through the decay
and denudation of the higher levels, and the process will continue until
the present table-topped hills shall be entirely washed away. The stone
of the upper surface, which forms a hard crust to the friable strata
beneath, is in many places merely the roof of caverns which have been
hollowed out by the action of water as described.

The Government House was erected upon one of these flat-topped hills in
a direct line about 1900 yards from the nearest portion of Lefkosia. It
was a wooden construction forming three sides of a quadrangle. The
quarters for the military staff were wooden huts, and the line of
heights thus occupied could not fail to attract the eye of a soldier as
a splendid strategical position, completely commanding Lefkosia and the
surrounding country. From this point an admirable view was presented
upon all sides. The river Pedias (the largest in Cyprus), when it
possessed water, would flow for about 270 degrees of a circle around the
base of the position, the sides of the hill rising abruptly from the
stream. The dry shingly bed was about 120 yards in width, and although
destitute of water at this point, sufficient was obtained some miles
higher up the river to irrigate a portion of the magnificent plain which
bordered either side. Sir Garnet Wolseley was endeavouring to put a new
face on the treeless surface, and had already planted several acres of
the Eucalyptus globulus and other varieties on the lower ground, while
date-palms of full growth had been conveyed bodily to the natural
terrace around the Government House and carefully transplanted into
pits. This change was a considerable relief to the eye, and the trees,
if well supplied with water, will in a few years create a grove where
all was barrenness.

The view from each portion of the terrace is exceedingly interesting, as
it commands a panorama for a distance of nearly thirty miles. On the
north is the range of mountains, about twelve miles distant, which form
the backbone of Cyprus, and run from east to west, attaining the height
of 3400 feet. This is a peculiar geological feature in the island, as it
is the only instance of compact (or jurassic) limestone. Through my
powerful astronomical telescope I could plainly distinguish every rock,
and the Castle of Buffavento upon the summit of the perpendicular crags
afforded an interesting object, although invisible to the naked eye. The
south and east presented a miserable aspect in the brown desert-like
plain of Messaria, broken by the numerous flat-topped hills to which I
have already alluded. On the west the important mountain-range which
includes Troodos bounded the view by the snow-capped heights of the
ancient Mount Olympus, between which several chains of lower hills
formed a dark base of plutonic rocks, which contrasted with the painful
glare of the immediate foreground. The highest points of this range are
Troodos, 6590 feet, Adelphe, 5380 feet, Makhera, 4730 feet. These are
the measurements as they appear upon the maps; but the recent survey by
the Royal Engineers has reduced the height of Troodos by 250 feet. A
green patch at the foot of the Carpas range denoted the position of
Kythrea, about twelve miles distant east, watered by the extraordinary
spring which has rendered it famous both in ancient and modern times;
and almost at our feet, or a mile in a direct line, the fortified
capital, Lefkosia, presented the usual picturesque appearance of a
Turkish town. A combination of date-palms, green orange-gardens,
minarets, mosques, houses quaint in their irregularity and colouring,
and the grand old Venetian Cathedral, St. Sophia, towering above all
other buildings, were enclosed within the high masonry walls and
bastions, comprising a circuit of three statute miles.

The position of Lefkosia has been badly chosen, as it lies in the flat,
and must always have been exposed to a plunging fire from an enemy
posted upon the heights. It was fortified in the time of Constantine the
Great, but in 1570 the Venetians demolished the old works and
constructed the present elaborate fortifications. Although the walls are
in several places crumbling into ruins, they are still imposing in
appearance, and present a clean front of masonry flanked by eleven
bastions, and entered by three gates, those of Baffo, Famagousta, and
Kyrenia. The original ditch can be traced in various places, but the
counterscarp and glacis have been destroyed; therefore the soil has
washed in during the rainy seasons, and to an unpractised eye has
obliterated all traces of the former important work. On the other hand,
the disappearance of the glacis renders the height of the walls still
more imposing, as they rise for thirty or forty feet abruptly from the
level base, and at a distance maintain the appearance of good condition.

It is difficult to imagine the reason which induced the Venetians to
reproduce Lefkosia after they had demolished the original
fortifications; but it is probable that they had already erected the
cathedral before the expected Turkish invasion rendered the improved
defences necessary. Although in the early days of artillery shell-fire
was unknown, both the Turks and Venetians possessed guns of heavy
calibre far exceeding any that were used in Great Britain until recent
years. The marble shot which are still to be seen in Famagousta are the
same which served in the defence of that fortress in 1571. These are
nearly eleven inches in diameter, while in the fort of Kyrenia the stone
shot are still existing, nineteen inches in diameter, composed of an
exceedingly hard and heavy metamorphic rock. The long bronze guns which
threw the smaller stone shot of from six to eleven inches, would command
a far more extensive range than the interval of the heights which
dominate Lefkosia; and even should battering have been ineffective at
that distance against walls of masonry, the plunging fire would have
destroyed the town and rendered it untenable.

Traces are still visible of the Turkish approaches when the town was
successfully carried by storm on the 9th of September, 1570, after a
siege of only forty-five days. The short duration of the attack compared
to the length of time required in the siege of Famagousta, which at
length succumbed to famine, and not to direct assaults, is a proof of
the faulty strategical position of the fortress of Lefkosia.

Most Turkish towns are supplied with water by aqueducts from a
considerable distance, which would naturally be cut by an enemy as the
first operation. The water is brought to Lefkosia from the hills at some
miles' distance, and is of excellent quality; but the wells of the town
must be contaminated by sewage, as there is no means of effective
drainage upon the dead level of the town, unless the original ditch is
turned into a pestilential cesspool. The filth of centuries must have
been imbibed by the soil, and during the process of infiltration must in
successive rainy seasons have found its way to the wells. In case of
invasion, Lefkosia could never have resisted a prolonged siege, as in
the absence of the aqueduct a garrison would quickly have succumbed to
disease when dependent for a water-supply upon the wells alone. When the
Turks captured the city by assault, the population far exceeded that of
the present time (16,000), and the greater portion were massacred during
several days of sack and pillage. Some thousands of girls and boys were
transported to Constantinople. Richard I. of England occupied Lefkosia
without resistance, after his victory over Isaac Comnenus.

Although experienced in the illusion of Turkish towns, I was more than
disappointed when I visited the interior of Lefkosia. The new Chief
Commissioner, Colonel Biddulph, R.A., C.B., had already improved certain
streets, and the eye was immediately attracted to points which bore the
unmistakable stamp of a British occupation; but nothing can be effected
in the arrangement of such a town without an unlimited purse and a
despotic power. It is almost as hopeless as London in the incongruity of
architecture, and the individual indulgence of independent taste, which
absolutely dismays a stranger. The beautiful Gothic cathedral of the
Venetians has been converted into a mosque by the conquerors, and two
exceedingly lofty and thin minarets have added an absurd embellishment,
resembling two gigantic candles capped by extinguishers, as though the
altar-tapers had been taken for the models. The neighbouring church of
St. Nicholas has been converted into a granary. In all Turkish towns the
bazaars are the most interesting portion, as they illustrate the
commercial and agricultural industries of the country. Those of Lefkosia
formed a labyrinth of the usual narrow streets, and resembled each other
so closely that it was difficult to find the way. The preparation of
leather from the first process of tanning is exhibited on an extensive
scale, which does not add to the natural sweetness of the air. Native
manufactures for which the town is celebrated, that are more agreeable,
may be purchased at a moderate price in the shape of silk stuffs; and a
variety of mule-harness, pack-saddles, and the capacious double bags of
hair and wool that, slung across the animal, are almost indispensable to
the traveller. There were a few shops devoted to European articles which
were hardly adapted to the country, and were expensive in a ridiculous
degree. The narrow streets were muddy from the recent rain, and the
temperature was at 55 degrees, but the inhabitants were sitting at the
various cafes in the open air smoking and drinking their steaming coffee
as though in summer. From natural politeness they invariably rose as we
passed by, and at one place I was immediately furnished with a string
that I might measure a large vine-stem which during summer must afford a
dense shade. I found the main stem of this unusual specimen was
twenty-two inches in circumference.

The only agreeable walk in Lefkosia is the circuit of the ramparts, as
the high elevation admits of fresh air and an extensive view. From this
we looked down upon numerous gardens well irrigated by the surplus water
of the aqueduct, and the remarkably healthy orange and lemon trees were
crowded with their loads of ripe fruit. There are many good and roomy
houses in the town, each furnished with a considerable garden, but as
they are surrounded with high walls, it is difficult to form an opinion
of their actual dimensions. The house occupied by the Chief Commissioner
is large and well constructed, the staircase and landing airy and
capacious, with an entrance-hall open at the extreme end and well
arranged for the burning climate during summer. All houses are paved
with slabs of gypsum, which abound in many parts of the island, and are
sold at a remarkably low price, as the blocks laminate, and are divided
into sheets of the required thickness with a minimum of labour.

The Turkish Pacha (Rifat) still remained at Lefkosia, as he was
responsible for the transfer of various movable property to
Constantinople. The interesting Venetian cannon of bronze that were
utterly valueless as modern weapons had been conveyed away both from
Lefkosia and Famagousta. One of these was a double octagon, or
sixteen-sided, and would have been a valuable specimen in the collection
at the Tower of London. Many of the curious old Venetian cannon had
recently been burst into fragments with dynamite, to save the trouble of
moving the heavy guns entire.

There can be little doubt that the prime object in selecting a central
position for the capital of Cyprus was a regard for safety from any
sudden attack; but upon any other grounds I cannot conceive a greater
absurdity. The capital should be Limasol, which will become the
Liverpool of Cyprus. Lefkosia is completely out of the commercial route;
it is valueless as a military position, and it offers no climatic
advantage, but, on the contrary, it is frightfully hot in the summer
months, and is secluded from the more active portions of the island. It
IS, simply because it WAS; but it should remain as a vestige of the
past, and no longer represent the capital. *

(The census of Nicosia, taken on 31st January, 1879, represents the
population as follows:--

    No. of houses:--  2,463

    Population by sex:--

    Males above 15 . . . . . . . .  3,773
    Males under 15 . . . . . . . .  1,900
    Females above 14 . . . . . . .  3,718
    Females under 14 . . . . . . .  1,806
    Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . 11,197

    Population by religion:--

    English . . . . . . . . . . . .    28
    Greek Church. . . . . . . . . . 5,251
    Catholics . . . . . . . . . . .   121
    Mohammedans . . . . . . . . . . 5,628
    Armenians . . . . . . . . . . .   166
    Jews. . . . . . . . . . . . . .     3
    Total . . . . . . . . . . . .  11,197  )


There is no position throughout the plain of Messaria adapted for a
permanent government establishment as head-quarters. The depressing
effect of that horrible landscape, embracing the extensive area from
Trichomo and Famagousta to Larnaca, Lefkosia, and Morphu, is most
demoralising, and few Europeans would be able to resist the deleterious
climate of summer, and the general heart-sinking that results in a
nervous despondency when the dreary and treeless plain is ever present
to the view. There is no reason why officials should be condemned to the
purgatory of such a station when Cyprus possesses superior positions
where the great business of the future will be conducted. The new road
already completed from Larnaca to Lefkosia must be carried on to Morphu,
and thus connect the north and south extremities of the plain; Kyrenia,
sixteen miles distant, must be connected with Lefkosia; branches must
then be extended to Kythrea and to Famagousta; and subsequently, from
the latter town a direct road must be continued parallel with the south
coast to Larnaca. Such roads may be constructed for about 350 pounds per
mile at the low rate of labour in Cyprus, considering the presence of
stone throughout the district, and their completion will open the entire
plain of Messaria to wheeled communication with four ports, to north and
south.



CHAPTER IV.

THE MESSARIA.

Having passed a week with our kind hosts, Sir Garnet and Lady Wolseley,
at Government House, which formed a most agreeable contrast to the
friendless life that we had been leading, the vans once more started en
route for Kythrea, Famagousta, and the Carpas district. I had hired a
good, sure-footed pony for my wife and a powerful mule for myself, and,
having given the vans a start of several hours, we followed in the
afternoon.

The treeless expanse of the Messaria produces nothing but cereals and
cotton; teams of oxen were at work in all directions ploughing, and
otherwise preparing the thistle-covered surface, and the atmosphere was
so delusively clear that Kythrea, twelve miles distant, appeared close
to us. Upon these boundless flats an object may be seen as distinctly as
though upon the water, and we soon descried in the far distance a dark
spot, which the binocular glass, if at sea, would have pronounced to be
the stern of a vessel that had lost her masts, keeping the same course
as ourselves; this was the gipsy-van, which should have already arrived
at Kythrea, where I had expected to have found the camp arranged, dinner
cooked, and everything ready for our reception. Something had happened,
as the other van was not in sight.

It was impossible to dignify the route by the name of a "road," as it
presented an uneven surface and occasionally branched into several
independent tracks, which re-united after an eccentric course of a few
hundred yards; these were caused by droves of mules which in wet weather
had endeavoured to select a better line than the deeply-trodden mud in
the central road. Fortunately the surface was now hard, and we cantered
on, fully expecting some disaster to at least one of our vehicles. Upon
our arrival we found a crowd of people yelling and shouting their
utmost, while they were engaged in company with four oxen harnessed in
dragging and pushing the blue van up a new road which they had scarped
out of the precipitous bank of a river about forty feet deep; this
accounted for only one van being in sight, as the other was in the dry
bed of the river. These good people had been working for several hours
in making a road where none existed; and assured me that the large
bridge over the Pedias was unsafe for so great a weight, and therefore
it was advisable to cross at the present spot. The banks consisted of
the alluvium of ages free from stones, therefore it was easy to cut an
incline; but as many tons of earth had been removed, the operation had
required much labour, and many hands had collected from the adjacent
villages upon seeing the dilemma.

The blue van was in the middle of the crowd; the oxen answered to the
inspiriting shouts, and more especially to the ceaseless pricks of the
driving sticks, and presently it was dragged safely to the level of the
opposite bank. A few alterations in the new road were necessary for the
larger gipsy-van, and taking the drag-shoe off the blue van, we were
thus enabled to secure both the hind-wheels for the steep descent. By
careful management, after one or two narrow escapes from capsising, we
succeeded in landing the Noah's Ark safely by its fellow, amidst the
cheers of the good-natured crowd.

The delay had been great, and the evening was drawing near: we were
about seven miles from the upper portion of Kythrea, where we had
proposed to camp, and the route was partly across country, to avoid
layers of natural rock which in successive ridges made it impossible for
the vans to keep the track. Several deep watercourses intervened, which
required the spade and pickaxe, and it was quite dark when we were
obliged to halt about a mile from Kythrea.

On the following morning Mr. Kitchener, Lieutenant of the Royal
Engineers, called at our camp, and was kind enough to pilot us to the
celebrated springs about three miles above the village. This able and
energetic officer was engaged, together with Mr. Hippersly of the same
corps, in making the trigonometrical survey of the island, and they were
quartered in a comfortable house on the outskirts of the town. With this
excellent guide, who could explain every inch of the surrounding
country, we started upon a most interesting ride. The entire
neighbourhood was green with abundant crops of cereals, some of which at
this early season were eighteen inches high. The effect of irrigation
could be traced for several miles into the plain and along the base of
the mountain range, until by degrees the green became more faint, and
gradually but surely merged into the dead brown which denoted
barrenness, where the water-power was expended by absorption.

It was impossible to form any idea of the extent of Kythrea from the
outside view. A succession of large villages with fields highly
cultivated covered the surface at the base of the mountains, but the
true Kythrea was partially concealed by the curious ravine through which
the water of the springs is conducted by aqueducts until it reaches the
lower ground. For a distance of three miles this ravine is occupied by
houses and gardens, all of which are supplied by the stream, which turns
thirty-two water-mills in its course. The water-wheels in Cyprus are
horizontal turbines, and I have only met with one over-shot wheel in the
island; this is on the estate of M. Mattei at Kuklia.

The range of mountains exactly above the village exhibits a peculiar
example of the effect of water-wash for about two hundred feet from the
base. From the heights at Government House, twelve miles distant, I had
observed through the telescope a curious succession of conical heaps
resembling volcanic mounds of hardened mud; these rose one above the
other along the base of the hills like miniature mountain-ranges. Even
when near Kythrea I could not understand the formation, until we found
ourselves riding through the steep ravine which holds the watercourse
and ascending by a narrow path among the countless hills that I have
described. Both sides of the gorge, and also the deep bottom, are
occupied by houses with fruitful gardens, rich in mulberry, orange,
lemon, apricots, olives, forming groves of trees that in summer must be
delightful. Sometimes after clambering up steep and stony paths which
had originally been paved we entered into villages, the roofs of the
houses BELOW us upon our left, and the doors of others upon our right,
so close to the narrow path as scarcely to admit the passage of a loaded
mule. The water rushed along the bottom in a rapid stream, plunging from
the adit below one turbine to a temporary freedom in a natural channel,
from which it was quickly captured and led into an aqueduct of masonry
to another mill at a lower level. All the inhabitants had turned out to
see an English lady, and the usual welcome was exhibited by sprinkling
us with rose and orange-flower water as we passed; the omnipresent dogs
yelled and barked with their usual threatening demonstrations at the
heels of our animals, and some from the low roofs of the houses were
unpleasantly close to our heads. We were now among the conical mounds,
along the steep sides of which a path of about twelve inches width
appeared to invite destruction, as the loose crumbling material rolled
down the deep incline beneath the hoofs of the sure-footed horses and
mules. These creatures had a disagreeable habit of choosing the extreme
edge of the narrow ledge, instead of hugging the safer side; and
although no great precipice existed, the fall of thirty feet into the
rocky stream below would have been quite as effectual as a greater depth
in breaking necks and limbs. We again entered a village, where a large
plane-tree formed the centre of a small open space, faced on either side
by a cafe; the situation being attractive during summer from the dense
shade afforded by the spreading branches. There were many people sitting
in the open shed, who as usual rose and made their salutations as we
passed. The path became worse as we proceeded, and we at length emerged
from the long string of contracted villages and skirted the precipitous
sides of the ravine, which formed one of the innumerable gorges between
the conical mounds of marls and alluvium that had been washed from a
higher level and worn into heaps by the action of rain upon the unstable
surface.

About a mile beyond all villages we skirted the stream along a steep
bank, from which point we looked down upon the roofs of houses more than
a hundred feet below, and we at length halted and dismounted at a rocky
termination of the gorge, from whence issued suddenly the celebrated
spring of Kythrea.

The mountains rose abruptly upon either side, and a dry ravine above the
rocks upon which we stood exhibited the natural channel by which in
heavy rains the surface-water would be conducted to the lower
stream-bed. A rough arch of masonry and a tunnel in the rock for about
forty feet formed the embouchure, from which the water issued into a
carefully constructed stone aqueduct, which led directly to the first
mill of the Kythrea series, about a hundred and twenty yards distant.
The temperature was considerably warmer than the air, but I had no
thermometer to mark the difference.

The aqueduct would have carried at least one-third more than the present
volume, which was about twenty-six inches deep, and three feet in width.
The water was beautifully clear and the current rapid, but I had no
means of measuring the velocity.

The stone-work of the aqueduct, always moist from the percolation, must
form a charming exhibition of maidenhair ferns during summer-time, as
the crevices were all occupied by plants, whose leaves, even at this
season (February), were several inches in length.

We strolled up the dry ravine above the spring, and ascended the hill to
an extensive plateau, upon which grew two or three caroub-trees; here
was a sudden change; the soil was red, and we entered the compact grey
limestone (jurassic) which forms the Carpas range. On the extreme verge
of the plateau of red soil we had an admirable example of the formation
of the conical mounds of earth, two or three of which already existed,
while others were in process of development from the melting-away of the
soil during heavy rains. As the surface dissolved under the action of
rainfall, it flouted down the steep inclinations, until a base was
formed, at the expense of the upper area; by degrees gullies were
created in the rear, and these would rapidly become deeper under the
action of running water, until they reached the lower level of the base.
A circle thus formed, an apex would be the natural result of the
denudation and decay of the upper surface which would produce a cone. A
sudden shower compelled us to take refuge beneath a caroub-tree whose
dense foliage saved us from a thorough soaking. The ground having become
slippery, we returned upon our narrow and soapy route with some caution,
but the careful animals who were well accustomed to these dangerous
paths carried us safely to our camp.

It is extraordinary that the water-power of Cyprus has of late years
been so neglected by the authorities, as the island must from ancient
times have mainly depended upon its springs in the absence of dependable
seasons. Kythrea is an example of the importance that was attached to a
stream of running water, as the town was established by the Athenians,
and in former ages an aqueduct of masonry extended for twenty-five miles
to Salamis; in the neighbourhood of which ruins of the old work are
still existing. If the seasons of Cyprus have undergone a change since
the forests have been destroyed, I can see no reason for the innumerable
vestiges of ancient water-works throughout the country. Wherever an
important spring existed, there was a settlement of corresponding extent
and value, which suggests that the rainfall was even then as uncertain
as at the present day. Every spring became a centre of attraction. The
ruins of the ancient Kythrea have been partially excavated by the
indefatigable General di Cesnola, but with unimportant results, as the
ground is under artificial irrigation, and is in the highest
cultivation, therefore it cannot be disturbed.

The chief industry of modern times which adds to the importance of
Kythrea, is the production of silk, from the great abundance of
mulberry-trees which supply the necessary food for the silkworms; but it
has suffered to a considerable degree, in common with most silk-growing
districts in Cyprus, by the want of foresight of the producers; these
people have within the last few years sold the seed in such extravagant
quantities to the traders of Beyrout as to leave the island with a short
supply. The result of this sacrifice for the sake of ready money is a
serious reduction in the general produce, and in many portions of the
island the mulberry-trees are flourishing without a silkworm to feed
upon them. The thirty-two flour-mills of Kythrea are worked by a fall of
400 feet between the head-water of the spring to the base of the lowest
mill at the foot of the mountains. It appeared to me that much water is
wasted by an absence of scientific control. A series of reservoirs would
store the excess during the hours when the mills are idle (similar to
the mill-ponds in England), but as there is no municipal law upon this
important subject, the all-important stream is much neglected. There is
a general demand for grinding-power throughout Cyprus; the corn is
brought from great distances to the mills of Kythrea at a considerable
expense of transport; I have met droves of mules laden with wheat and
barley on their way from Larnaca, to which distant spot they would again
return when their loads should have been reduced to flour. In the face
of this difficulty a general want of energy and of the necessary capital
is exhibited by the total neglect of wind-power, in a country where a
steady breeze is the rule, with few exceptions. Throughout the great
plain of Messaria windmills would be invaluable, both for grinding
purposes and for raising water; nothing would be more simple than the
combination of the wind-vane with the cattle-pump; but this great and
almost omnipresent power is absolutely ignored.

On our return to camp in the evening, I resolved to have a quiet day
with my dogs on the following morning, when I could stroll at my leisure
over the mountains, and enjoy myself thoroughly according to my own
tastes, sometimes obtaining a shot at game, and observing every object
in nature.

It was 15th February, and with a native guide and interpreter who spoke
Arabic, which was my medium of dialogue, I started to cross the
mountain-range upon the east of the well-known five-knuckled-top named
"Pentadactylon." At the expense of repetition I cannot help extracting
from my diary the exact words of description rough from the first
impulse: "The base of this range is an extraordinary example of the
action of rainfall in melting and washing down into conical mounds
several hundred feet high, what was originally a high level of
continuous but alternating strata of marls and alluvium that had
descended from the higher mountains. These vast masses are in a chaotic
confusion of separate heaps, which at a distance resemble volcanic
cones. We rode up precipitous paths edging upon deep chasms between
these conical hills, and emerged upon metamorphous rocks and shale
mingled in curious irregularity. The strata of shale were in some
instances nearly vertical, proving the disturbance that had been
occasioned by a subsequent upheaval. About 200 feet above this formation
we entered upon the dark grey jurassic limestone, and the soil became a
rich red like that of South Devon. The rock scenery was very imposing as
we increased our altitude and arrived upon plateaux of considerable
extent. There can be no doubt that these natural terrace-like surfaces
and various hollows accumulate the rainfall of a great area, and that
some vast subterranean caverns in the limestone form natural reservoirs,
which supply the celebrated springs of Kythrea throughout the year."

I believe these few words contain the real secret of the springs, which
have been, and still are, considered to have a mysterious origin. Some
people indulge in the theory that the water is forced by hydraulic
pressure at the superior altitude of Caramania in Asia Minor, and
passing by a subterranean conduit far beneath the bottom of the
intervening channel, it ascends at the peculiar rock-mouth of Kythrea.
This is simple nonsense, and can only be accepted by those who adore the
unreal, instead of the guide, "common-sense." The actual volume of the
outflow at Kythrea has never been calculated, although the problem is
most simple; but a cursory examination is sufficient to explain the
origin of the supply which a certain superficial mountain area collects
and stores during the rainy seasons: to yield gradually through some
small aperture or leak in a grand subterranean reservoir.

In all countries where water is scarce, unfailing springs are objects of
veneration, and are clothed not only with undying verdure, but with a
continuous growth of legends: from the day when Moses smote the rock in
the wilderness, and the stream gushed forth to the thirsty Israelites,
to the present hour, water, which is man's first necessity, will in
drought-smitten countries be hailed with more than usual reverence. The
devout Mussulman sinks a well and erects a fountain for the public good,
and his friends bury his body in the neighbourhood of his last act.

    "Rest, weary pilgrim, rest and pray
     For the kind soul of Sybil Grey,
     Who built this Cross and Well."

Christian and Mahommedan, and all creeds and races, men and animals,
yield unanimously to the great want, which in a thirsty land alone will
bring the lion and the lamb to drink in the same stream. I have myself
seen in moonlight, animals of various and conflicting natures revelling
in the rest of nature's armistice, drinking in crowds at the solitary
pool; the only source of water in the desert.

The Cypriotes in their natural love of the marvellous insist upon the
mystery attached to the Kythrea springs, but they attach no importance
to the extensive subterranean water-stores of the Messaria plain, simply
because they do not see it issue from the ground: still the fact is
there, the water in vast quantities always exists, and were it tapped at
a higher level, it would flow (as it actually does in certain places),
and exhibit the same principle upon a much larger scale than the
romantic and picturesque mountain springs of Kythrea.

As we increased our altitude the scenery improved in interest: we were
no longer in barren mounds of water-washed debris, but the rich soil
among the dark grey rocks gave birth to numerous shrubs, including the
evergreen mastic, arbutus, and the dwarf cypress. Although the route was
only marked by the continual tracks of the lime-burner's mules, our
sturdy animals mounted the steep rocky ascents with comparative ease,
and skirted the deep water-worn ravines without missing a footstep.
Heaps of rough crumbling rocks resembling cairns attracted my attention
on all sides; these were the rude lime-kilns, and at an elevation of
about a thousand feet above Kythrea we came upon the families of
lime-burners who for several generations have resided in these heights,
either in caves, or rude huts, according to the conditions of the
locality. Women and girls were hard at work with strong grubbing-axes,
digging out the roots of brushwood from among the rocks and making them
into faggots, as fuel for burning the grey limestone. The work was most
laborious, and I was struck by the great thickness of the roots of
comparatively small shrubs. Upon regarding the surface, no bushes
appeared sufficiently substantial for the use of fuel, but in fact a
they had for centuries been cut and hacked to a degree that reduced them
superficially to mere saplings, while the ancient roots had increased in
size. The great piles of limestone were only partially reduced to lime
by the rough method and the scant fuel employed, but I admired the
industry of these poor people, who were working like the Israelites for
Pharaoh, "making bricks without straw." Some of the girls were pretty,
but in figure they were mere rag-dolls in locomotion.

The lime was conveyed by donkeys to the lower country, and we presently
arrived at a snow-white heap lying in the centre of the path;--it was
explained, that, during the heavy shower of yesterday, a donkey was
carrying his usual burthen of quick-lime, when he was overtaken by the
rain, which slaked the load, and it was necessary to immediately abandon
it, to save the animal from burning.

After an hour and a half's scramble we turned to the right beneath a
perpendicular cliff of exquisite colouring on our left, combining the
bright red which denoted the presence of iron, with the dark purple and
the silvery grey of the Jura limestone. On our right was a deep and
precipitous ravine, sparsely covered with evergreen shrubs. In this
spot, metamorphic rocks lay in rough and huge blocks of various shapes
and colours, and while examining these I was struck by the presence of
the rare and peculiar green marble known as verde antica. In the
immediate neighbourhood I discovered great masses of the same stone, but
minus the green base, exhibiting at the same time the characteristics of
irregular mosaic in the angular fragments of white, black, and various
coloured pieces which appeared to be artificially inlaid. These marbles,
especially the true verde antica, would be exceedingly valuable if cut
into slabs and exported, and there would be little difficulty in
constructing a feasible route for camels, which would convey with ease
large slabs secured in frames slung upon either side.

A few yards above this spot we arrived at a solitary cypress-tree, which
in density of foliage resembled a yew-tree in an English churchyard.
Close to this rare object was an aperture in the rocks upon the right
hand; a few roughly-hewn steps enabled us to descend into a narrow cave,
where water dripped from the roof, and formed a feeble stream, which was
led through crevices to a cistern some yards below. This cistern was
within a few feet of the cypress-tree, and accounted for its superior
growth, as the roots had been duly nourished. About a hundred feet above
this spot were the ruins of an ancient Greek church, that had no doubt
been associated with the holy dripping fountain, and the solitary tree
had been spared from the ruthless axes of the lime-burners through some
superstition connected with the spot. On arrival at the crumbling ruins
of the church, we dismounted from our animals, and put them in the rude
stable of the lime-burners who had located themselves among the walls of
the once religious buildings, which they had converted into huts.
Animals could go no farther; we therefore continued the ascent on foot,
to the delight of my dogs, who seemed to think it looked more like
business.

There was a large growth of the usual shrubs arbutus, mastic, and
dwarf-cypress, and the surface of the ground was so completely covered
with masses of rock that walking was most difficult. Notwithstanding the
apparent barrenness of the locality, we arrived at a tolerably even
surface of rich brown soil in a hollow near the shoulder of the
mountain; this had recently been cleared for cultivation by the
lime-burners to the extent of about two acres, and I remarked that both
pine-trees and cypresses as thick as a man's thigh had recently been
felled and burnt in spite of the government stringent regulations. In
these out-of-the-way localities the natives can laugh at laws and
special enactments.

Upon arrival at the crest of the mountain, which formed a shoulder for a
peak of silvery rocks, about 100 feet above me, my aneroid showed 1830
feet above Kythrea. From this point the view was superb, and extended
north and south from sea to sea. There was an extraordinary contrast
upon these two divisions formed by the wall-like Carpas range upon which
we stood: to the south all was brown and desolate excepting the few
miles of green belonging to Kythrea beneath our feet. The town of
Lefkosia stood out in bold relief, the cathedral and even the fortress
walls affording distinct outlines in the clear atmosphere; the
salt-lakes of Larnaca showed plainly in the distance, backed by the blue
sea, and the mountain of Santa Croce with the monastery upon its summit
was a well-known landmark. This side of the mountain range was not
inviting, and if it had been exhibited before the occupation there can
be little doubt of an unfavourable impression. We turned
"right-about-face" to the north. This was indeed a wonderful change of
aspect! We looked down from the picturesque and precipitous wall of
mountains which stretched far away to the east and west; the sides were
covered with evergreens, through which the bold crags protruded in
rugged points; the dark indentures upon the steep slopes marked deep
ravines in which streams of water now rippled, while all on the south
were stony and exhausted. The strip of land between the sea and the
northern base of the Carpas range was hardly three miles wide; this was
covered with well-rounded caroub-trees, whose dark green foliage gave a
rich appearance to the shore, broken by countless rocky bays and coves,
filled with the cobalt waters of the Mediterranean. This was a lovely
scene; I could not believe that I was in Cyprus--that
whitey-brown-paper-coloured, desert, smitten, God-forsaken isle! Upon
the left, about eight miles distant, lay the town and important port of
Kyrenia, with an apparently very little harbour, the houses surrounded
by gardens, and ornamented by date-palms backed by a perfect forest of
caroub-trees which extended for some miles. On the extreme summit of the
crags upon our left, overlooking Kyrenia and forming an unmistakable
landmark for all sailors, was the castle of Buffavento, cutting the blue
sky-line 3240 feet above the sea. Exactly opposite, at about sixty miles
distance, were the snow-capped mountains of Caramania, which in the
transparent atmosphere seemed to be within a day's long march. Far, far
away along the north-eastern shore, and also towards the west, all was
lovely: I could only regret that all vessels and strangers must arrive
in the unfortunate ports of the Messaria, instead of gaining such
favourable first impressions as would be induced by the lovely picture
of Cyprus from the north.

While I had been admiring the view, my dogs had been hunting the dense
bushes to very little purpose, and although we scrambled for more than
two hours over the mountain, we only moved ten or twelve red-legged
partridges, which rose upwards of a hundred yards in front of the gun;
it was quite impossible to obtain a shot. With an empty bag, but with a
new impression of the country since my view of the landscape in the
north, I turned homewards, and reached camp late in the afternoon, my
spaniels having no doubt a low opinion of Cyprus sport, and of the
unfair advantages taken by the ever-running red-legged partridges.

On 16th February a painful conviction was established that Cyprus was
unfitted for wheeled carriages and springs. Although the plain appeared
flat and without natural obstacles, the ground had been completely
traversed by deep trenches for the purpose of checking and conducting
surface water to the fields in the event of a heavy shower. Our course
should have been directly across the plain to intersect the road from
Lefkosia to Famagousta, but a glance at the intervening country showed
the impossibility of moving the vans through the miles of green crops
which were nourished by innumerable watercourses, each of which must be
levelled before we could advance. It was therefore necessary to retrace
our steps to within a mile and a half of Lefkosia, to the point where
the main route branched to Famagousta. This was a great waste of time,
but there was no other way of avoiding the difficulty. Accordingly we
started, and after a few miles we cut across country to the high road,
while the vans slowly crawled along the uneven way until they reached
the turning-point. We halted at a very desolate spot, where sheep were
housed in large numbers. Several spacious pens were surrounded with
thorns, reminding me of the cattle zareebas of Africa, and a small
flat-topped building, built of stone and mud, formed the usual
accommodation for man and beast. A well of clear but brackish water
supplied this rude establishment, which was surrounded by a boundless
extent of undulating ground, more or less cultivated with cereals,
which, although only a few inches above the surface, looked weak and
perishing.

The vans did not arrive until late; in the meanwhile we had sat outside
the building in the cold air, fearing to venture beneath the roof, owing
to the swarms of fleas which are sure to be "at home" in all the
miserable dwellings of this island. At length the gipsy-van, which had
been in sight for a full hour, drew up on the flat surface in front of
the shepherd's hut, and real comfort was at once at hand. Although the
space within was limited, the furniture was so carefully arranged that
we had plenty of room to move about. The fall-slab table was usually
down, and was only required for writing; the chest of drawers was
American walnut: a good solid and well-seasoned wood, which did not
provoke the temper like English furniture by the drawers sticking when
in the act of opening, and leaving you in a hopeless position with a
detached handle in either hand. This good American chest was only three
feet two inches high, therefore it formed a convenient toilette-table
beneath a window, which, curtained with muslin and crimson cloth, had an
exceedingly snug appearance; and a cushioned seat upon either side upon
the lid of a locker combined comfort with convenience. We had a tiny
little movable camp-table that could be adjusted in two minutes, and
would dine two persons, provided that no carving was performed, and that
the dishes were handed round. The bed was athwart-ship at the far end
beneath the stern-window, but at such a height from the floor that
several broad shelves beneath contained gun-cases, ammunition, clothes,
boots, tins of preserved provisions, and in fact everything that,
although necessary, was to be kept out of sight. The only mistake in the
arrangements was a very large and gorgeous open-brass-work Egyptian
lantern, with glass of various colours and outlandish patterns in
Arabesque. In the evening we formed an irregular light-house, as two
ordinary carriage-lamps were fixed above and on either side the entrance
door, while the gorgeous many-coloured lantern swung from the roof
inside, and flashed red, green, and yellow signals in wild confusion. I
knew this piece of finery would not last long, as it would insist upon
running against everybody's head, its large size bringing it into
constant collision; but it looked well, and ornamented the van. As it
burnt several candles the lantern became hot, which somewhat warmed the
cabin, and was a welcome increase of temperature, for although the floor
was protected by oil-cloth, upon which were double layers of Scinde
rugs, the extreme thinness of the walls made it unpleasantly cold with
the thermometer outside at 40 degrees. The servants were saved an
immense amount of trouble by the presence of the gipsy-van, which at the
time they hardly appreciated; they had no tent-pitching upon the halt,
neither unpacking of boxes, nor arranging of beds, nor any of the usual
work connected with a daily camp. It is impossible for the inexperienced
to appreciate the comfort of such a vehicle where the roads are
practicable, especially in bad weather, when you are perfectly certain
that your home is weather-proof and your bed dry. Those who have
experienced the misery of a halt in pouring rain, when everybody and
everything has been sodden to the bone, when the ground is slush that
will not hold a tent-peg; the night dark; the fuel will not burn; the
matches expend themselves in vain phosphoric flashes, but will not
ignite; the water that has run down your neck has formed reservoirs
within your boots; the servants are reduced to the inactivity of
sponges; and--the tents MUST be pitched. The heavy soaked canvas that
can hardly flap in the strong wind is at length spread over the cold
soft ground; the camp-beds, though wet as tripe, MUST be arranged; and
down go the iron legs, sinking to an unknown depth into the sodden soil!

Oh, misery, misery! happily unknown to those who stay at home. All this
may be avoided in a country where practicable routes exist by travelling
with a gipsy-van. Of course you do not personally travel within your
van: it simply forms a movable home that accompanies you upon the march,
and is always there when required, while you ride independently upon
your animal. We live and learn: and I have from experience modified my
ideas of a gipsy-van; for a roadless country such as Cyprus practically
is--I should have NO SPRINGS. If you are obliged to travel bodily within
your vehicle, there can be no doubt that springs relieve the spine, and
various indescribable portions of your anatomy; but if your simple "but
upon wheels" is to be dragged along, over, and through all kinds of
obstacles, there can be no use whatever in springs, which by their
elasticity allow your vehicle to sway from side to side, and to
seriously threaten the centre of gravity, when in a dangerous place, by
oscillation. The cap-waggon of South Africa will go anywhere. The
two-wheeled cart of Cyprus is a wonderfully simple affair that may be
dragged up or down the side of a mountain by a couple of oxen; the high
wheels and light but strong body surmounting all obstacles; these carts
do not carry more than twelve or fourteen hundredweight, but in an
expedition I should much prefer them to the heavy waggons of South
Africa, which, with three thousand pounds, require ten or twelve oxen.
The heavier weight in a difficulty of soft ground, or in crossing a
river, would be serious, but if the vehicles are numerous, and the
weight distributed accordingly, it stands to sense that an enormous
advantage is secured by the presence of ten oxen in five light carts,
all of which can be applied to drag a single cart out of a serious
dilemma, instead of remaining hopelessly fixed in soft mud, anchored by
a weight of a ton and a half, as in the case of an African
baggage-waggon. High and broad wheels are the first necessity, with a
compound axle of wood and iron, the unequal elasticity of which relieves
the shock.

I invariably found that during the day I hated my van, and in the
evening I blessed it. It certainly delayed us on the march, and as we
rode some miles in advance we noted the obstacles that would cause a
stoppage, and generally halted to assist when the "tortoise" should
arrive. All this was of course annoying in a country where a horse would
have cantered cheerily along and have accomplished forty miles a day;
but, on the other hand, the van was never intended for grande vitesse;
neither is express travelling the proper method of obtaining an accurate
knowledge of a new country. Thus we crawled along, making twelve or
thirteen miles per diem through a most uninteresting country, the usual
scene of treeless waste, but dotted over with extensive villages of
mud-built houses, and the inevitable white arched-roof Greek churches.

The only incidents that occurred in this land of apathy were occasioned
by our guide, who generally lost his way, and spent some hours in
finding the vans at the halting-place in the evening; this was not
improving to the temper, and of course I laid the blame upon Cyprus
generally, and abused the island almost to the superlative degree
adopted by the "newspaper correspondents."

The 17th February was a day of considerable bodily exercise, as we
arrived at a series of watercourses as deep and broad as military
trenches for sapping up to a fortress. We had no sooner levelled an
embankment, and with great difficulty dragged the vans across, than we
encountered a new and similar obstruction. At length we arrived within
half a mile of the large village Arshia, which, being well irrigated,
opposed a perfect network of barriers in the shape of artificial
water-channels. The oxen became disheartened, and the pair which drew
the blue van driven by our favourite Georgi determined to strike work
just as he was applying the sharp driving prick to their posteriors in
ascending a steep bank, through which we had cut a passage from the deep
water-course beneath. Instead of keeping a straight course, these
pig-headed bullocks made a sharp turn to the right up the incline. Down
went one upon its knees in rage and despair! while round went the other
in an opposite direction: crash went the pole in two pieces! and the
blue van, having vainly endeavoured to right itself like a lady about to
faint when no one is at hand to save her, tottered for a moment, and
turned over with a crash that betokened general destruction. My
Abyssinian lad, Amarn, was only just in time to escape, as he had been
endeavouring to support the van on the impending side when it suddenly
capsised, and he would have been flattened like a black-edged mourning
envelope had he not actively sprung out of the way.

All hands set about righting the ship--which was upon her beam-ends, and
the wheels uppermost. The first thing necessary was to discharge cargo;
this we quickly effected, as there were doors in front and behind, and
the numerous packages were soon piled upon the wayside. No sooner was
the van empty, than my dogs, who had been watching the operation in
bewilderment, jumped in, and no inducement would persuade them to quit
the comfortable vehicle, which they supposed had been specially cleared
for their convenience; the doors were accordingly shut, and they were
locked up. We now passed ropes beneath the van, and secured the ends to
the bottom of the wheels, which rested upon the ground; the other ends
were thrown over the cap-roof and manned, while the rest of the party
endeavoured to raise the van bodily. All working together, we righted it
immediately, the astonished dogs were liberated, and we soon replaced
the contents. I sent a messenger to Arshia to purchase if possible a
piece of wood sufficiently long to form a pole, and in the meantime I
employed my tools and myself in splicing the broken pole sufficiently to
enable us to creep a little nearer to the village, as we were far from
water.

It was nearly dark by the time I had completed my work, and the bullocks
were once more fastened to the van. In this way we approached within a
quarter of a mile of the village and halted for the night. I made a
capital pole from the stem of a young fir-tree which I procured from the
natives, and lashed it securely to the rough but strong splinter-bar of
dwarf-cypress.

On the following morning at daybreak I made a few alterations in the
work of the preceding night, and having thoroughly secured the new pole,
we started for Kuklia, about thirteen miles distant. After passing a few
more watercourses, we arrived at the best ground we had seen in Cyprus,
and the vans travelled with ease at upwards of three miles an hour.
Throughout this march I observed that the water in the various wells and
open pits was hardly five feet from the surface, although the country
was suffering from an absence of rain. Notwithstanding this natural
advantage, there were only two farms upon which the cattle-wheels were
used for purposes of irrigation, which proves the lack of enterprise and
capital throughout this miserable district.

There were many important villages upon the higher ground, which
overlooked the lower plain through which the river Pedias was supposed
to flow. These heights were about a hundred and fifty feet above the
lower level, and continued to increase their elevation for many miles,
until they formed the horizon on the south-west and west. The soil was
extremely fertile, but as usual covered with stones, the debris of
decayed limestone of the post-tertiary period, such as is found
throughout the Messaria. The flat valley below was about thirteen miles
across due north, and was bounded by the Carpas range, which extended to
the east beyond telescopic view. In our front was a cheering scene,
towards which we hastened with all speed; as sailors rush on deck at the
first cry of "Land ahead!" we hurried forward at the unusual sight,
"Green trees!" Groves of tall cypress, poplars, and other varieties,
springing from a base of exquisite verdure, formed a rare and
unmistakable landmark. This was Kuklia, our halting-place, the property
of Monsieur Richard Mattei.

Upon arrival at the village we selected a pretty spot upon elevated
ground which overlooked the entire country, and from which we could
faintly distinguish Famagousta, twelve miles distant. Upon our right,
within a hundred and twenty yards, was an aqueduct of masonry supported
upon arches, which conveyed a powerful stream to turn a large overshot
water-wheel in the valley immediately below. The surplus water, after
having worked the mill, was used for the irrigation of extensive
cotton-grounds, beyond which it flowed into the marshes and formed a
swamp. On the opposite side of this narrow valley were heights and
undulating ground, corresponding to those upon which we stood--all
treeless and cold; while upon our right, close to the aqueduct, was the
bright green of high cultivation, and groves of tall trees which towered
above gardens of oranges and lemons now bending beneath the burden of
yellow fruit. The village was disappointing, as the houses were of a low
order and much neglected; the lanes were occupied by the usual filth and
noisy dogs; but the agreeable view of bright green fields and real
thriving trees was a delightful change, and exhibited a picture of what
Cyprus might become when developed by capital and enterprise. While the
camp was being arranged I took my gun and strolled with the dogs into
the narrow valley below the mill. The waterwheel was at work, and the
people were engaged in cleaning cotton, as the machinery was adapted for
both purposes of grinding corn or of ginning cotton when required. There
were plenty of snipe in the marshes below the cotton-fields, for which
rushes, low bushes of tamarisk and other shrubs, afforded excellent
cover. I quickly bagged two couple and my first Francolin partridge, and
was just in time, before dark, to assist the dinner.

At sunrise on the following morning the view was interesting, as the sea
glittered brightly to the south, while the bold rocks and wall-like
sides of the Carpas mountains stood out in sharply-defined edges and
varying colours on the north. To the east we looked over the broadest
portion of a dead flat created by the deposit from inundations of the
eccentric river Pedias, which, although dry at the present time,
periodically floods the country and converts the valley into an
extensive lake. It was about twenty miles across this broad flat to the
important town of Trichomo, and the ruins of Salamis were discernible
with the telescope about midway, close to the seashore.

There was an extent of several miles of marsh around the heights of
Kuklia, in some portions of which cotton was cultivated in considerable
quantities, but I was surprised at the inferiority of the quality, and
at the apparent weakness of the plants where the water-supply was
plentiful. On closer examination I observed great carelessness in the
absence of drainage; the plants were allowed to perish in stagnant
water, which soured the land. Upon a longer acquaintance with M.
Mattei's farm, I found the same fault generally. Many portions of
valuable land were chilled and rendered fruitless by too much water,
which remained in the ground for want of the most simple drains. I shot
plenty of snipe in the fields of barley, although they were not supposed
to be under irrigation. M. Mattei is well known as the largest landed
proprietor in Cyprus, and the representative of agricultural progress;
but his bailiff at Kuklia could hardly have expected a prize at an
exhibition, although every facility exists for creating a perfect
model-farm. The springs which supply the water-power were discovered in
three different positions about three miles distant. The usual chains of
wells (already described) were sunk, and at a convenient spot they
converged into a single line, until a lower level introduced the channel
to the surface. The water was then received into a stone aqueduct, and
led with great judgment in a half circle beneath the higher ground which
was occupied by the village, at a level which not only enabled it to
command the extensive flats beneath, but eventually passed beyond the
village, and turned an overshot wheel of more than twenty feet diameter.
This great work was at the sole expense of the proprietor. After a
considerable outlay and perfect success in the engineering, it is to be
regretted that greater care is not bestowed upon the land; although the
gardens contain a mass of fruit-trees, large groves of figs, and relieve
the eye by their cheerful aspect, only enough has been attained to
exhibit the great power that exists for producing a still greater
abundance under proper administration.

Having examined the neighbourhood thoroughly, I changed the position of
our camp and halted a mile and a half up the aqueduct on the higher side
of the village, at a point where the water first issued from its
subterranean channel into the conduit of masonry and cement. We thus
secured a supply in its original purity, before it should be
contaminated by any washing of clothes in passing through the village in
an open channel, which from its convenience offered an irresistible
invitation. Such a tempting stream, running through a canal upon a broad
wall of masonry open to all comers would, in any European country, have
been the natural resort of boys, who would have revelled in the freedom
of nakedness and the delight of bathing in forbidden waters; but in
Cyprus I have never once seen a person washing himself in public. This
is not from any sense of indecent exposure, but from their absolute
dislike to the operation. I had subsequently in my service a remarkably
fine man who was always carefully dressed, and in fact was quite a dandy
in exterior, but during the hot weather when he on one occasion saw my
Abyssinian Amarn swimming in the sea, he declared that, "rather than
bathe, he would prefer to cut his throat."

I had arranged the camp close to a hawthorn-tree, which was already
green in its first spring leaves, and had formed blossom-buds that would
open in a few days. There were a considerable number of the same species
scattered in the vicinity, but they had been defaced by the mutilations
usual throughout Cyprus. If a man requires a stick or a piece of wood
for any purpose, he hacks unsparingly at the first tree; whether it
belongs to him or to another proprietor. The ground sloped gradually to
the lowest level of the hollow about four hundred yards distant, all of
which was in cultivation; the broad-beans were in blossom, and a species
of trefoil was already eight or nine inches high (22nd February); this
was in anticipation of a lack of natural pasturage.

It was pitiable to see the wretched condition of the cattle throughout
this district; the absence of rain had prevented the growth of the usual
herbaceous plants, and the animals were forced to seek unnatural food
produced in the stagnant swamps; these were full of skeletons and
carcasses of oxen, that afforded bones of contention for the numerous
village dogs who acted as scavengers. When the droves of oxen returned
from pasture every evening, many were in a state of weakness that
scarcely allowed them step by step to ascend the rising ground; all were
reduced to mere skin and bones, and it would have been a mercy to have
put them out of their misery. I was assured that, "the few whose
constitution could hold out for another six weeks would recover when the
trefoil should be fit to cut."

I daily walked over the adjoining country, and there was little
difficulty in discovering the origin of M. Mattei's water sources. Upon
the heights behind our camp, a plateau of many miles in extent, with an
almost imperceptible inclination towards the south-east, received the
rainfall, in addition to the subterranean drainage of the hills in the
far distance. A great portion of this area was uncultivated, as the
sedimentary limestone was generally close to the surface; this was
covered with the usual prickly shrubs that some writers have misnamed
"heath," together with the highly aromatic herbs that seem to delight in
a thirsty soil; among these is a thorny species of wild thyme, that is a
favourite food for hares. In some places the soil was red, forming a
strong contrast to the white surface around, and in such spots the earth
had been already ploughed in preparation for the forthcoming season. The
large area at a higher altitude formed an example of a principle that
may be accepted as the rule throughout the island. In walking over this
extensive surface, there was occasionally a hollow, drum-like sound
beneath the feet, denoting subterranean cavities in the porous and
soluble strata beneath the harder upper stratum. It was a natural
consequence that a substratum impervious to water should form a bed at a
certain level to retain the drainage: by tapping this bed at any point,
the water would be discovered; but by piercing the surface below this
level, the hydraulic pressure would force the water into a running
stream.

This M. Mattei has accomplished, not as a new invention, but as the
application of a rule well known to the Cypriotes from ancient times;
and I repeat my argument, that, "the hereditary ability of these people
in discovering and utilising springs is a proof that a scarcity of water
has been a chronic difficulty in this island from remote periods, and
that no important change has been occasioned by the sensational
destruction of forests influencing the rainfall," &c., &c., &c. In my
opinion, the whole of the now desolate Messaria district may be rendered
fruitful and permanently abundant by the scientific employment of a
water-power which already exists, although unseen and undeveloped.

It was quite impossible to proceed to Famagousta with the vans, and
there was no object in courting their destruction by a desperate advance
at all hazards, as we should have in any case been obliged eventually to
renew the difficulty when retracing our route. I therefore cantered in
upon my mule, with the guide who always lost his way, Hadji Christo.
This man was a great ruffian, and had laws existed for the prevention of
cruelty to animals, I would have prosecuted him; nominally he had the
charge of the mule and two ponies, but he illtreated these poor animals,
and the donkeys also, in a disgraceful manner. However, I had no other
guide, and although I knew him to be in partnership with some
Will-o'-the-wisp, I was obliged to follow him. It was an easy course for
saddle-animals, as the cathedral of Famagousta formed the prominent
point; therefore a steeple-chase might have been the direct
cross-country way. There was no change in the usual features of the
barren landscape. We kept upon the high ground on the right, looking
down upon the dreary flat for twenty miles to our left. Occasionally we
passed villages, all of which were mere copies of each other in filth
and squalor. The dogs barked and snapped ineffectually at our heels as
we cantered through; the civil and ever-courteous people turned out and
salaamed; and we quickly accomplished the twelve miles and approached
the walls of Famagousta. Nothing that I saw in Cyprus has impressed me
so much as the site of this powerful fortress and once important city. I
lunched with Captain Inglis, who as chief commissioner of the district,
most kindly received me, and I rode home afterwards; my guide, Hadji
Christo, in spite of my assurances that he had mistaken the route,
persisted that there were many, and not one; and after plunging into
muddy marshes instead of keeping to the high ground, we were completely
lost near sundown, when I happily extricated myself from the difficulty
by insisting upon his riding behind and leaving me alone to find the
track. We arrived at nightfall, after making eighteen miles out of
twelve--a profitable enterprise hardly appreciated by our tired animals.
Famagousta is too important for a cursory description; I shall therefore
reserve it for a future chapter, when on our return from the Carpas
district we pass some days in its immediate neighbourhood.



CHAPTER V.

START FOR THE CARPAS.

I determined to leave my two vans in charge of the head-man of Kuklia,
as the drivers declared it would be impossible to proceed into the
roadless Carpas with any wheeled conveyance heavier than the native
two-wheeled cart. They had accordingly entered into a contract to supply
me with vehicles which the man of ability Theodori assured me could
travel to the extreme eastern limit of the island, Cape St. Andrea, "as
he had been there himself, and knew the way." Georgi, who knew nothing
of this portion of the country, believed all that Theodori said, and did
his bidding. Having lightened the loads by leaving all that was not
absolutely necessary safely locked within the vans, we started on 1st
March with camels, in addition to two native carts, taking the route
direct east, across the extensive flat which at this time was dry and
hard. There was nothing of interest in the day's march; the travelling
was easy along the hardened level surface; we had a clear view of the
cathedral and higher forts of Famagousta, and we passed near the ruins
of Salamis, easily distinguishing the solitary pillars that had
supported the ancient aqueduct which led the water from distant Kythrea.

Although everything was thoroughly dried up, it was easy to imagine the
effect of an inundation of the Pedias river, which had formed this delta
of alluvium, precisely as the Nile on a more extensive scale has
produced the Delta of Egypt. There were a few wretched villages upon the
flat, which were necessarily on the poorest scale, as they existed at
the mercy of a sudden inundation. The unhealthiness of this locality
must be extreme during wet weather, as it is only suitable to the
constitutions of frogs and ducks. Upon arrival at higher ground on the
opposite side of the plain I looked back upon the agueish area over
which we had passed, and I had little doubt of the great engineering
necessity that must be the first step to a sanitary reform in this
pestilential neighbourhood.

As the river Pedias is a mere wayward torrent that NEVER flows as a
permanent stream, but only comes down in impulsive rushes from the
mountains during heavy rains, it has no power to cleanse its original
bed, such as would result from a constant and clear current; but, on the
contrary, the heavy floods from the upper country, being the result of a
sudden rainfall, are surcharged with earth washed down from the higher
ground and thickly held in solution. This vast mass of soil, which adds
a corresponding weight to each gallon of water, is carried forward
according to the velocity of the stream, and is ready to deposit upon
the instant that the propelling power shall be withdrawn. So long as the
river is confined between narrow banks, the high rate of the current is
sufficient to force forward the thickened and heavy fluid; but the
instant that the banks are over-topped and the river expands over an
increased area, the rapidity is reduced, and the water, no longer able
to contain the earth in solution, deposits alluvium, and produces a
delta, which must necessarily increase upon every future inundation. The
result must end either in forming a bar at the mouth of the river, or
(as in the Pedias) in THE TOTAL SILTING OF THE EMBOUCHURE, which
extinguishes all traces of a broad channel, but leaves a series of deep
marshes scored by innumerable ditches, to be in their turn filled with
mud when the next flood shall extend over the wide surface and increase
the deposit.

This is the position of the Pedias, and until improved I cannot foresee
a good sanitary prospect for Famagousta, which is situated on the
borders of the swamp. There can be only one engineering method of
preventing the silt, by confining the river between artificial banks,
within a channel sufficiently narrow to ensure a current whose velocity
would carry the heavy fluid directly into the sea. Even should this be
accomplished, and the river be securely banked, the deposit of mud will
then take place within the sea, and will assuredly form a bar; which
will probably affect by silt the neighbouring harbour of Famagousta in
the same manner that the ancient port of Salamis has been completely
obliterated. In any case the engineering difficulty will be costly and
uncertain; but if Famagousta is to be restored to its former importance
as a first-rate harbour, arsenal, and military station, the management
of the Pedias river must be seriously considered.

We arrived at Trichomo at about 3 P.M. The town is built upon the sides
and summit of high ground within a mile of the sea. The sight of a
narrow iron chimney emitting puffs of steam showed that some progress
was exhibited by the presence of an engine--this was employed in working
cotton-gins.

The houses were the usual sun-baked bricks of clay and chopped straw,
and although the town was large, there was no building of sufficient
importance to attract attention. We rode through the streets determined
as usual to avoid the smells of a close proximity and to seek a
camping-place some distance upon the opposite side. After passing
through the town and descending a hill, we then ascended a steep slope
which opened upon a wild country of rocky ground covered with the usual
prickly plants and scrub cypress, which had evidently been cut for fuel
until it had become mere brushwood. There was a square mud hut on the
left hand standing in an extensive orchard of fruit-trees watered by a
cattle-wheel, and as this was the last habitation within view, we
halted, and awaited the arrival of the carts and camels. From the summit
of the hill, about two hundred yards beyond this spot, the view was
exceedingly good; the sea lay about half a mile distant, with several
houses and gardens near the shore. The town was in our rear, and to the
east was a fine extent of wild country covered with bush and
dwarf-cypress, which formed a marked contrast to the naked surface we
had left behind. The rugged wall of the Carpas range was now only ten
miles distant on our left, and continued parallel to our route. . . . .
It was late when the carts arrived, and we now missed the usual luxury
of the gipsy-van. I determined to save the servants the trouble of
erecting our tent, therefore for the first time in Cyprus we occupied
the native dwelling. This was a square hut built of stone and mud, with
the usual hard mud roof. From its large size it was evident that animals
shared the room with the proprietors. An old man and a corresponding old
woman gave us a welcome, and immediately commenced sweeping out the
floor for our accommodation; this might have been thirty feet by
eighteen in width. After a cloud of dust had risen, and by degrees
subsided, we took possession; the carts and camels arrived; beds had to
be unpacked and set up, and the servants began to reflect upon the
advantages of the van which saved them the present trouble. It was
already dusk, but the beds were made, and Christo the cook (who was a
capital fellow for speed in preparing a dinner) was enveloped in savoury
steam, when the usual inmates of the hut quietly invaded us. Cocks and
hens marched in, and went to roost upon some sticks within a corner; two
or three dogs arrived, evidently with the intention of staying through
the night; a donkey at length walked composedly through the entrance
door and steered for his accustomed corner. We had caused serious
inconvenience to an unknown quantity of animals, all of whom had to be
turned out, except the poultry. What a good thing is dinner! The neat
tiny table was spread and the candles lighted; the dishes were simple
but excellent; we were thoroughly comfortable in this rude dwelling;
but--it might have been fancy--I thought something tickled my legs.
There was no mistake, something did actually not only tickle, but bite.
Something? It was everything and everybody in the shape of fleas! The
hut was hopping with countless swarms of these detestable vermin, from
which in our impregnable van we had hitherto been free, owing to its
great height from the ground. Whether the unusual sweeping of the floor
had created a temporary aberration of intellect or stupefaction among
these crowds, I cannot determine, but whatever the nervous shock might
have been that had caused a short suspension of activity, they had now
completely recovered, and I shall never forget the night passed in
Trichomo. It was the first and the last venture upon native hospitality
throughout our sojourn in Cyprus, and we in future adhered either to the
tent or the gipsy-van.

On the following morning we started at 8.30. The sky was overcast, and
in any country but this we should have expected rain. We had now fairly
emerged upon a district entirely different from the hateful Messaria,
which has given Cyprus an unfortunate reputation. We were quickly among
thickets of scrub and low brushwood which should have teemed with game.
My spaniels delighted in the change, and worked the bush thoroughly as
we proceeded along the route, occasionally flushing two or three
red-legged partridges. Passing over the higher ground with the sea in
view upon our right, we descended after a march of about three miles to
the shore, where the path skirted the sea along broken rocks, against
which in bad weather the waves would dash with sufficient violence to
bar the road. The white cliffs and hill-tops to our left were covered
with dwarf-cypress, and formed a lovely foreground above the sea,
perfectly calm beneath. The ride was apparently short, although we had
been in the saddle three hours, as the eye had been gratified by a
constant change of scenery;--from rocks washed by the blue water to
hills covered with a dense foliage of evergreens, and deep sequestered
valleys, with occasional gaps in the range of heights through which
glimpses of the sea in rocky coves burst suddenly into view. Some of
these inlets were exceedingly picturesque, as reefs extended from the
shore, overhanging cliffs having from time to time fallen in huge crags
and formed natural breakwaters to the beach. These narrow gaps between
the hills were generally occupied by a streamlet in the centre, which
had cut its way far below the level of the ground, the steep banks of
which were fringed with oleanders, myrtles, mastic, and other
evergreens, down to within a few yards of the breaking waves. Nothing
could be prettier, and upon arrival within sight of Volokalida, about a
mile and a half distant in the extreme end of a narrow valley, I
directed my wife to a camping-place near the village, beneath some large
and prominent caroub-trees, while I dismounted, and with my delighted
dogs commenced a ramble over the low woods which covered the sides and
hill-tops to our right and left. The walk was enjoyable; we had made
fourteen miles from Trichomo, and upon reaching the perfectly flat
tableland which formed the summit of the hills I had a splendid sea-view
extending for many miles along the coast. The first object that
attracted my attention was a large steamer stranded in a cove about a
mile distant. She looked perfectly snug, but as only her lower masts
were standing, and funnel gone, there could be no doubt of her
misadventure. My binocular glass quickly showed that a portion of her
bulwarks was carried away, and as no chain was visible to an anchor, she
was in fact a wreck. As I made my way through the thick bushes Merry
presently opened upon a scent, and Wise running in among the rocks,
flushed a fine francolin partridge, which I shot. I then got a quail and
a hare, and had no other chances, although the appearance of the country
would have suggested an abundance of game. Upon nearing the seashore I
saw that extensive sand-dunes had invaded the heights for many hundred
yards, completely choking the vegetation and forming clumps or mounds of
sand, topped by tufts of the shrubs that lay buried deep beneath. I
walked along the fatiguing ground until I reached the shore exactly
opposite the abandoned wreck, which lay within a cove, into which she
had evidently been run for security.

My dogs found several hares among the clumps upon the sand-dunes, which
gave them some exercise and amusement, but I did not obtain a shot.

Upon my arrival at the camping-place I found my wife surrounded by a
large crowd of women and children beneath a shady tree, all of whom had
brought presents of eggs and bouquets of wild flowers. It was difficult
to persuade these good simple people that we did not require presents as
an etiquette of introduction; they would insist upon placing their
little offerings upon the ground, and leaving them if we declined to
accept them. The principal wild flowers were cyclamen, narcissus, and
anemone. The cyclamen completely covered the ground throughout all the
low woods and thickets. I could only find two varieties, the snow-white,
with claret-coloured centre, and the rose-colour; but the blossoms were
quite equal in size to those usually grown in our glass-houses in
England. We had passed through several hundred acres of open ground that
were as white from the abundance of narcissus as an English meadow might
be yellow from the presence of buttercups.

Our camp was pitched upon a small level plateau of rock, in the centre
of which was a well, cut completely through the stone from top to
bottom. It appeared to be about twenty-five feet deep, but was devoid of
water and contained a considerable amount of rubbish. The people assured
me that a dead Greek lay beneath, as a few years ago some Turks had
killed one of their people and thrown him into the well; they had
concealed the body by stones and rubbish, and no further steps had been
taken in the matter. As a large crowd of children of both sexes were
sitting round us doing nothing but stare, I set them to work to clear
the surface ground from loose stones and to sweep the plateau clean with
boughs from the wild cypress. When this was finished I gave them a
scramble for several handfuls of copper coins upon the cleared area, to
impress them pleasantly upon their work of cleanliness; this new game
became very popular, and might be introduced by the British government
with a certainty of gaining the admiration of the Cypriotes, especially
during the collection of taxes; the latter being an Anglo-Turkish game
which is not yet sufficiently appreciated.

The women were of the same type that we had seen in other districts, but
they appeared sickly, and many of the children were extremely delicate.
There was the usual protuberance of the abdomen to which I have before
alluded; and I found upon examination of the children that an
enlargement of the spleen was a chronic complaint. This is due to
repeated attacks of ague. I drew the attention of the people to the so
general mistake in this island of selecting a site for their villages in
the most unhealthy localities. We were now camped upon a height about
eighty feet above the valley, which resembled a basin beneath our feet;
the village was on the lower level of this basin, and as near the level
of the sea as possible. In heavy rains the valley became a temporary
swamp, and it seemed unaccountable that human beings endowed with common
sense should have selected the low ground instead of the immediate
heights. The explanation was "that as the village was built of
mud-bricks, the houses had been erected as near as possible to the
source of the material, MUD!" to avoid the difficulty of carriage in the
absence of carts.

The people were as usual dressed in cotton stuffs of home manufacture,
and were ignorant of such a material as flannel; the children were only
half-clad, and shivering; their food was generally raw, comprising
olives, oil, onions, and wild vegetables, such as artichokes, wild
mustard, and a variety of trash that in England would only be regarded
as "weeds." There were some pretty intelligent little girls and boys;
some of these were chewing mastic gum, a white leathery substance which
they gathered from incisions in the bark of this common shrub. My wife
found fault with the neglect of cleanliness, as their teeth, although
even, were totally uncared for. On the following morning they all
assembled and exhibited a show of nice white teeth, as they had followed
her advice and cleaned them with wood-ashes and their forefingers, in
lieu of a toothbrush. We saw these children again a month afterwards
upon our return, and they ran across the fields to meet us, at once
opening their mouths to show that they had not forgotten the lesson, and
that their teeth were properly attended to. I pitied all these poor
people: they are downtrodden and miserable in mind and body. Instead of
squeezing them for taxes they should be supported and encouraged by
government assistance in every manner possible. Centuries of oppression
and neglect in addition to a deceptive climate have rendered them the
mere slaves of circumstances, but they exhibit a patience and stolid
endurance which is beyond all praise; and when Cyprus shall belong
absolutely to Great Britain, so that the Cypriotes shall feel that they
are British subjects, they will become the most amenable and contented
people in the Empire.

The usual difficulty exists in passing through this island which is felt
by most English travellers in wild countries. The sick invariably
assemble, believing that your medical knowledge will produce miraculous
cures; and the lame, halt, and blind besiege you even cripples from
their birth are brought by their hopeful mothers to receive something
from your medicine-chest that will restore them to strength. It was in
vain that I explained to these afflicted people that spleen-disease
required a long course of medicine, and could not be cured in a day. It
was equally in vain that I assured them that raw vegetables were
unwholesome for children, and that sea-bathing was invigorating to the
system: they hated bathing; so did the children; and they liked raw
vegetables. I was obliged to give them some trifle which could neither
do harm nor good; and they went away contented.

I now discovered from the head-men of the village the cause of the wreck
which was lying in the bay. An Austrian steamer was conveying 1200
Circassians from Constantinople to some port on the coast of Asia Minor,
when the wild horde of emigrants mutinied and threatened to murder the
chief officers. The captain accordingly ran the vessel ashore upon this
coast, having ordered the engineer to blow up the boilers.

A great number of the mutineers perished in the attempt to land, but the
captain and officers were hospitably received by the people of
Volokalida and forwarded to Famagousta. The vessel was pierced amidships
by a rock that had completely impaled her, otherwise she might have been
saved and repaired.

We left this village on March 4th, a heavy but welcome shower on the
preceding day having laid the dust and freshened the vegetation. The
route lay through a hilly and rocky country covered with the usual
evergreens. We quickly lost our way and arrived at a complete cul-de-sac
in the corner of a narrow swampy valley. Retracing our steps we met two
men mounted on donkeys, who with extreme civility turned from their own
direction and became our guides. We passed over a hill of solid
crystallised gypsum, which sparkled in the sun like glass, and after a
march of about ten miles through a lovely country we ascended to the
plateau of Lithrankomi and halted at the monastery. The priest was an
agreeable, well-mannered man, and as rain had begun to fall he insisted
upon our accepting his invitation to await the arrival of our luggage
under his roof. We visited his curious old church, which is sadly out of
repair, and the mosaic, of a coarse description, which covered an arched
ceiling, has mostly disappeared.

This was the most agreeable position that I had seen in Cyprus. A very
extensive plateau about 400 feet above the sea formed a natural terrace
for seven or eight miles, backed by the equally flat hill-tops which
rose only half a mile behind the monastery. These were covered with the
Pinus Maritima, none of which exceeded twenty feet in height, and
resembled a thriving young plantation in England. From the flat
pine-covered tableland I had a very beautiful view of the sea on either
side this narrow portion of the island, and of the richly-wooded slopes
both north and south, cut by deep and dark water-riven gorges, with
white cliffs which descended to the shore. Villages and snow-white
churches lay beneath in all directions, and the crops had a far more
favourable appearance than those of the Messaria, as this portion of the
country had experienced a superior rainfall.

It is much to be regretted that the total absence of roads excludes this
district from general communication. We were struck by the fantastic
scenery of deep ravines, rocks covered with evergreens of varying
colours, and handsome caroub-trees which would have ornamented an
English park; mulberry-trees were very numerous, but at this season they
were barren of leaves; the only want lay in the absence of oranges and
lemons, which the priest assured me would not thrive in this locality.
For the last two months I had cordially detested Cyprus, but I was now
converted to a belief that some portions of the country were thoroughly
enjoyable, provided that a traveller could be contented with rough fare
and be accustomed to the happy independence of a camp-life with a good
tent and hardy servants. The temperature was a little too low for
out-door existence, as it averaged 48 degrees at 7 A.M. and 54 degrees
at 3 P.M., which is the hottest hour of the day; but we were all well,
and free from colds; the servants had plenty of warm blankets, and the
false floor that I had arranged added greatly to their comfort when
camping upon the sodden ground.

I had become convinced that "the man of ability" Theodori had deceived
me, and that it would be impossible for the two-wheeled carts, or any
other conveyance, to travel through this country. Our last two marches
had proved that not only would the delay be serious, but the luggage
would be destroyed by the extreme jolting over rocks and ruts, which had
already injured several of our boxes and broken some useful articles.
Every package seemed to assume an individual vitality and to attack its
neighbour; the sharp-cornered metal boxes endeavoured to tunnel through
the cases of wine and liquors, which in retaliation bumped against and
bruised their antagonists, and a few marches had already caused more
mischief than a twelvemonth's journey by camels. The priest assured me
that it would be madness to attempt a march beyond Gallibornu, about
eleven miles in advance, and that he doubted the possibility of the
carts reaching that point, which certainly had never been visited by any
wheeled conveyances. The honest, strong, but unintelligent driver Georgi
was innocent, and he was at the time as ignorant as myself that the true
object of the "man of ability" Theodori was to deal in cattle, which was
his reason for persisting in accompanying me into the Carpas country and
declaring that the route was practicable for carts. We left Lithrankomi
on 5th March after a shower which made the earth slippery and the
dangerous portions of the route rather exciting for the carts. The first
two or three miles lay along the level terrace commanding a splendid
view of the sea about four miles distant. We passed through several
villages, and the crops looked well. At length we emerged upon a wild
portion of the plateau which resembled a park, the surface being green
and diversified by ornamental clumps of evergreens; upon our left was
the cliff-like higher terrace which formed the table-top from which the
usual huge blocks had been detached and fallen like inverted cottages to
the lower level. The view on our right was exceedingly interesting, as
we had now arrived upon the extreme verge of the terrace, which broke
down suddenly into a horseshoe-shaped amphitheatre, the steep sides
covered with bushes and trees, to the bottom of a valley some 300 feet
below, which drained through a narrow and richly-wooded gorge into the
neighbouring sea.

This scooping-out of the country was due to the action of water, and the
same process was gradually wearing away the upper plateaux, which by
absorbing rain became undermined as it percolated through and dissolved
the marly substratum. The foundation of the rock surface being softened
by the water, oozed in the form of mud, and was washed down the steep
declivities, followed by the breaking-down of the unsupported upper
stratum. This district was an admirable illustration of the decay and
denudation of surface which has produced the plain of Messaria, to which
I have already alluded, but as no sufficient area exists at a lower
level the deposit of soil is carried to the sea. We now arrived at a
dangerous pass that defied all attempts to descend by carts. A
succession of zigzags at an inclination of about one foot in two and a
half led down the soil of a cliff into a succession of exceedingly
narrow valleys about three hundred feet below. In many places this
narrow path had been washed away by the same natural process that was
gradually reducing the upper level, and in the sharp angles of the
zigzags there were awkward gaps with only a few inches of slippery soil
rendered soapy by the morning's rain, a slip of the original path having
crumbled down the precipice below. The animals were wonderfully careful,
and although a nervous person might have shuddered at some awkward
points, both mule and ponies were thoroughly self-confident and safely
carried us to the bottom. But the carts? These were making a circuit of
some miles across country in the endeavour to discover a practicable
route.

Although the way was difficult, it was the more agreeable as the scenery
was extremely picturesque. The narrow valleys were without exception
cultivated, which formed a striking contrast to the exceedingly wild
heights by which they were surrounded, and I remarked that not a yard of
available land was neglected, but that small and precipitous hollows
were banked by rough stone walls, to retain the soil that would
otherwise be washed away, and to form terraces of insignificant extent
for the sake of cultivation. Our animals could amble at five or six
miles an hour along these narrow bottoms, which made up for the delay in
descending the bad places. My dogs were in the best spirits, as they had
moved a considerable number of partridges during this morning's march,
and they heard the peculiar loud "chuck-a-chuck, chuck-a-chuck," of the
red-legs in all directions. As we advanced the hills increased in
height, and we passed through a valley, bordered on the right by abrupt
cliffs, forming a wall-like summit to the exceedingly steep slope
beneath, which had been created by the debris from the wasting face of
rock. This flat-topped height may have been about 500 feet above the
valley, and the white cliff, which was quite perpendicular from the
summit for about one hundred feet to the commencement of the steep green
slope beneath, was in one place artificially scarped, and had been cut
perfectly smooth like the wall of a stone building. In the centre of
this smooth face we could plainly distinguish a square-cut entrance, to
which an exceedingly narrow ledge cut in the rock formed a most
dangerous approach, more adapted for wild cats than for human occupants.
I halted to examine this with a good glass, and I could perceive that
the greatest care had been taken in the formation of a smooth
perpendicular front, and that the narrow ledge which formed the approach
was a natural feature that had been artificially improved. There were
several similar lines observable at unequal distances nearly parallel
with each other: these were the natural limits of overlying strata in
the sedimentary rock, which, as the general surface had fallen through
decay, still preserved their character, and formed ledges. My guide
assured us that the entire cliff was honey-combed by internal
galleries, which had been constructed by the ancients as a place of
refuge that would contain several thousand persons, and that a well
existed in the interior, which from a great depth supplied the water. I
have never seen a notice of this work in any book upon Cyprus, and I
regret that I had no opportunity of making a close examination of the
artificial cave, which, from the accounts I received, remains in a
perfect state to the present moment.

It was a wild route to Gallibornu, through a succession of small valleys
separated by wooded heights, and bounded by hills, either bare in white
cliffs, or with steep slopes thickly covered with evergreens. We passed
a few miserable villages, one of which was solely inhabited by gipsies,
who came out to meet us clad in rags and extremely filthy, but the faces
of the women were good-looking. We crossed numerous watercourses in the
narrow bottoms between the hills; their steep banks were fringed with
bushes which formed likely spots for woodcocks, but my dogs found
nothing upon the route except a few partridges and francolin, although,
as usual, they hunted throughout the march. After crossing a series of
steep hills, and observing a marked contrast in the habits of the
people, who constructed their dwellings upon the heights instead of in
the unhealthy glens, we arrived in the closely pent-in valley that forms
the approach to Gallibornu. This village is of considerable extent, and
is inhabited exclusively by Turks. We entered the valley through a
narrow gap between the hills, which on our left formed perpendicular
cliffs, with the usual steep slopes of debris near the base. The upper
cliffs, about 400 feet above the lower level, were marked with numerous
parallel ledges and were full of blue-rock pigeons, which built their
nests in the clefts and crevices; the summits of these heights were the
table-tops which characterise this formation.

It was difficult to select a camping-place, as the valley would become
mud in the event of heavy rains. We had experienced daily showers since
we left Volokalida, and the lower grounds were damp; I disliked the
immediate neighbourhood of a village, and the only available spot was
rather dangerous, as it was situated upon a flattish knoll, so near the
base of the cliff that enormous blocks of stone many tons in weight lay
in all directions, which had fallen from the impending heights. I
examined these, and found some that were comparatively recent; I had
also observed upon our entrance to the valley that a great portion of
the cliff face had lately fallen, forming an avalanche of rocks that
would have destroyed a village: this my guide informed me was the result
of last year's excessive rain. I examined the heights above us with my
glass, and observed some crags that Polyphemus would have delighted to
hurl upon Acis when courting his Galatea; but as no Cyclops existed in
this classical island I determined to risk the chances of a
rock-displacement and to pitch the tent upon a flat surface among the
fallen blocks. As a rule such localities should be avoided. It is
impossible to calculate the probable downfall of a crag, which, having
formed a portion of the cliff, has been undermined by the breaking away
of lower rocks, and, overhanging the perpendicular, may be secure during
dry weather, but may become dislodged in heavy rain, when the
cement-like surroundings are dissolved: the serious vibration caused by
thunder might in such conditions produce an avalanche. We dug a deep
trench round the tents, as the weather looked overcast and stormy.

The village of Gallibornu was about half a mile beyond our camp at the
extreme end of the valley, but situated on the heights. The people were
extremely civil, and it would be difficult to determine the maximum
degree of courtesy between the Turks and Greeks of Cyprus. I strolled
with my dogs up the steep hill-sides, and the Turks, seeing that I was
fond of shooting, promised to accompany me on the following morning to
some happy hunting-ground, which, from my Cyprian experience, I believed
was mythical.

On waking the next day I found the Turks, true to their promise, already
assembled by the servants' tent, and eight men were awaiting me with
their guns. They had a sporting dog to assist them, which they described
as "very useful for following a wounded hare; only it was necessary to
be quick in securing it, otherwise the dog would eat it before your
arrival."

I advised them to leave this "useful dog" behind, as hostilities might
be declared by my three English spaniels in the event of his swallowing
a wounded hare. This being agreed to, we all started, and, crossing the
valley, entered a gorge upon the other side. We now ascended naked hills
of pure crystallised gypsum; the strata were vertical, and the perfectly
transparent laminae were packed together like small sheets of glass only
a few inches in width. It was easy to walk up the steep slopes of this
material without slipping, as the exterior edges, having been exposed to
the weather, had become rough, and were exactly like coarse glass placed
edgeways. We spread out into a line of skirmishers extending up the
hills upon both sides of the gorge, and quickly arrived in very likely
ground covered with dwarf-cypress. Here the dogs immediately flushed
partridges, and a Turk having wounded one, a considerable delay took
place in searching for it at the bottom of a deep wooded hollow, but to
no purpose. We now arrived at lovely ground within a mile of the sea,
forming a long succession of undulations, covered, more or less, with
the usual evergreen brushwood as far as the eye could reach. This uneven
surface, broken by many watercourses, was about eighty feet above the
water-level, and descended in steep rocky ledges to within a few hundred
yards of the sea, where the lower ground was flat and alternated in open
glades and thick masses of mastic scrub; the beach being edged by drift
sand-dunes covered by the dense jungle of various matted bushes.

There was a fair amount of game in this locality, and had the Turks shot
well we should have made a tolerable bag; but they did not keep a good
line, and many birds went back without being shot at, while others were
missed, and altogether the shooting was extremely wild. The sun was hot
by the time we had concluded our beat; I had shot five brace and one
hare, including some francolins; and the rest of the party had
collectively bagged three brace. It was late in the season for shooting,
but the birds were not all paired, and I have no doubt that in the month
of September this portion of the island would afford fair sport,
although no great bags could be expected. I was surprised at the absence
of woodcocks; throughout my rambles in Cyprus I had only seen one,
although they were cheap in the market of Larnaca. The fact is that
every bird shot by the natives is sent straight for sale; therefore an
immense area is hunted for the small supply required by the Europeans in
the principal towns. Upon our return homewards we passed through a
considerable space occupied by ancient ruins. Among the masses of stones
and broken pottery were two stone sarcophagi, which appeared to have
been converted into drinking-troughs for cattle. As with all the ruins
of Cyprus, nothing of interest exists upon the surface, and the tombs
having been for many centuries excavated and despoiled, it is probable
that the sarcophagi had been brought to light by treasure-seekers many
years ago.

As we approached Gallibornu by a mountain path the Turks assured me that
we should find good drinking-water; we were all thirsty, including the
dogs, who had drunk nothing for some hours. At length, at a considerable
elevation between two hills, we reached a spring, and I was shown a well
where the water was only a few feet from the surface. The Turks now
pointed to the perpendicular face of a cliff and desired me to follow
them; at the same time I could not understand their attempted
explanations either by word or pantomime. We kept on an extremely narrow
path which skirted the steep side of the slope, and presently arrived at
a ledge about sixteen inches wide upon the perpendicular face of the
cliff, which descended sheer for a considerable depth beneath. I was
requested to leave my gun against a rock and to follow. It was all very
well for these people, who knew exactly where they were going, but I had
not the slightest idea of my destination, unless it should be the bottom
of the cliff, which appeared to me most probable, if I, who was many
inches broader in the shoulders than my guides, should be expected to
join in the game of "follow the leader" upon a narrow ledge against the
face of the rock which afforded no hold whatever. I was not so fond of
climbing as I had been thirty years ago, and to my infinite disgust the
ledge, which was already horribly small, became narrower as we
proceeded. There was a nasty projecting corner to turn, and at this
point I saw my guides look down below, and I fancied they were
speculating upon the depth. Instead of this, the leader began to descend
the perpendicular face by small ladder-like steps hewn in the rock, and
in this manner gained another ledge not quite six feet below. We all
reached this precarious shelf, and the guide, having turned, continued
for some twenty or thirty yards in an exactly contrary direction to the
ledge above us, by which we had just arrived; we were thus retracing our
steps upon a similar ledge at a lower level. Suddenly the leader
stopped, and stooping low, crept into a square aperture that had been
carefully cut out of the rock face to form an entrance. This passage
inclined slightly inwards, and after a few paces forward, with the body
curved in the uncomfortable form of a capital C, we arrived in a
spacious gallery cut into a succession of arches, the centre of which
was six feet high. A small window, about three feet by two, was cut
through the rock to admit light and air, from which I could with a rifle
have completely commanded the glen below and the approach to the left.
There was no ledge beneath the window, but simply the sheer precipice of
the smooth cliff, and there was no other approach to this extraordinary
place of refuge except that by which we had arrived. The gallery was
neatly cut, and extended for an unknown distance: several other
galleries, arched in the same manner and of the same size, branched off
at right angles with that we had entered. I was led to a well, which was
represented as being deep, and I was informed that the hill was
perforated with similar galleries, all of which communicated with each
other. I much regretted that we were unprovided with candles; one of the
Turks lighted a match, but it only served to increase the uncertainty of
the surrounding darkness.

This must be a similar cave-refuge to that we had passed about four
miles distant when on our way from Lithrankomi to Gallibornu, and it
deserves a minute investigation. As I could see nothing beyond about
thirty feet from the window, owing to the darkness, I cannot give any
account of the actual dimensions, which may be much inferior to the
unlimited descriptions of my informants. Upon my return to camp I had
the benefit of my interpreter, and the story was repeated that no one
knew the extent of the excavations, either of these galleries or those
we had passed during our journey. I have never seen a very large natural
cave in Cyprus, although the caverns beneath the superficial stratum of
sedimentary rock are so general. The presence of these hollows, and the
soft nature of the calcareous stone, has suggested artificial caves to
the ancients, both for tombs and for places of refuge. Before the
invention of gunpowder it would have been impossible to reduce a fort
such as I have described, except by starvation. A mine sunk vertically
from above would in the present day destroy the subterranean stronghold
at the first explosion.

It rained more or less every day during our stay at Gallibornu, and
thunder rolled heavily in the neighbourhood; but in the narrow valley
between lofty hills the sky view was so limited that it was impossible
to judge of the impending weather. The earth was too slippery for
camels, which I had engaged with an excellent Turk, who for some years
had been a zaphtieh, therefore it was necessary to wait patiently until
the surface should become dry. I amused myself with wandering over the
hills with my dogs, examining the rocks, and shooting sufficient game
for our own use. I could generally bag enough for my lad to carry home
conveniently over this rugged country, and a hare or two in addition to
partridges were more appreciated when stewed than when carried up the
precipitous hills. I never tasted any game so delicious as the Cyprian
hares; they are not quite so red or curly as the European species, but
the flesh is exceedingly rich, and possesses a peculiarly gamey flavour,
owing to the aromatic food upon which they live. It is difficult to
obtain a shot in the thick coverts of mastic bush, and without dogs I do
not think I should have shot one, as they were generally in dense
thickets upon the mountain sides, through which beaters could have
hardly moved.

The high cliffs above us formed an excellent example of an old
sea-bottom, showing--the various strata of sedimentary deposits at
different periods. I made a collection of fossil shells, which were in
great numbers but in limited variety, and chiefly bivalves.

Although the village of Gallibornu was more important in size than many
we had passed, there was a total lack of supplies. It was impossible to
purchase bread, and we were obliged to send messengers to considerable
distances to procure flour, which we subsequently employed a woman to
bake. The people generally were very poor throughout the country, and
the cultivated area appeared insufficient for the support of the
population. Every yard of land was ploughed, but the entire valley of
Gallibornu was fallowed, and did not possess one blade of corn, as the
soil required rest after the yield of the previous season. None of these
people have an idea respecting a succession of crops in scientific
rotation, therefore a loss is sustained by the impoverishment of the
ground, which must occasionally lie inactive to recover its fertility.
There is absolutely no provision whatever for the cattle in the shape of
root-crops or hay, but they trust entirely to the bruised barley-straw
and such seeds as the cotton and lentil. At this season the Carpas
district possessed an important advantage in the variety of wild
vegetables which afforded nourishment for man and beast; the valleys
teemed with wild artichokes and with a variety of thistles, whose
succulent stems were a favourite food for both oxen and camels.

The leaf-stems of the artichokes were peeled and eaten raw by the
inhabitants, but as these people are accustomed to consume all kinds of
uncooked vegetables and unripe fruits few civilised persons would
indulge in the Cypriote tastes. We found the artichoke stems uneatable
in a raw state, but remarkably good when peeled and stewed, with a sauce
of yolk of egg beaten up with oil, salt, pepper, and lemon-juice; they
were then quite equal to sea-kale. There is a general neglect in the
cultivation of vegetables which I cannot understand, as agriculture is
the Cypriote's vocation; it can hardly be called laziness, as they are
most industrious in their fields, and expend an immense amount of labour
in erecting stone walls to retain a small amount of soil wherever the
water-wash from a higher elevation brings with it a deposit. The
insignificant terraces thus formed by earth caught in its descent while
in solution appear disproportioned to the labour of their construction,
and the laborious system would suggest an extreme scarcity of land
suitable for agricultural operations. I believe this to be the case, and
that a serious mistake has been made in assuming that the Crown
possesses large areas of land that may eventually become of great value.
There are government lands, doubtless, of considerable extent, but I
question their agricultural importance, and whenever the ordnance-map of
the island shall be completed a wild confusion will be discovered in the
discrepancy of title-deeds with the amount of land in possession of the
owners. I have, whilst shooting in the wild tracts of scrub-covered
hills and mountains, frequently emerged upon clearings of considerable
extent, where the natives have captured a fertile plot and cleared it
for cultivation, far away from the eyes of all authorities.

I believe that squatting has been carried on for many years, as during
the Turkish administration a trifling annual present would have closed
the eyes of the never-too-zealous official who by such an oversight
could annually improve his pay. Land suitable for cultivation cannot
possibly be in excess of the demand, when plots of only a few yards
square are carefully formed by the erection of stone walls to retain the
torrent-collected soil.

We were pestered with beggars throughout this district, and even the
blind saw their opportunity; their number was distressing, and they
could not account in any way for the prevalence of ophthalmia. Some
endeavoured to explain the cause by referring it to the bright
reflection from the sea, to which they were so frequently exposed; I
assured them that sailors were seldom blind, and they proved the rule.
Dirty habits, dwellings unwashed, heaps of filth lying around their
houses and rotting in their streets, all of which during the hot dry
summer is converted into poisonous dust, and, driven by the wind, fills
the eyes, which are seldom cleansed--these are the natural causes which
result in ophthalmia.

The new camels were ready, and with six of these animals we left
Gallibornu and felt relieved to have parted with the carts, as for
several marches they had caused great delay and inconvenience. Although
Theodori had deceived me by agreeing to conduct us direct to Cape St.
Andrea I did not like to discharge the thick-headed but innocent Georgi,
therefore I offered to pay them a certain sum which they themselves
named, per day, for the keep of their oxen, provided they should return
with their empty carts to Lithrankomi (one march) and await my return
there; after which, we would resume the original contract, and their
oxen would once more draw the vans from their station at Kuklia.

This was an extra expense, as the camels were now engaged in lieu of
carts, notwithstanding that I should have to pay for the oxen; on the
other hand, these animals were beautiful specimens of their kind, and
were thoroughly accustomed to the gipsy-van, therefore it was advisable
to retain them. The two owners were delighted with the arrangement, and
we started for Cape St. Andrea, while they were to return to
Lithrankomi.

The country was now thoroughly enjoyable; the recent daily showers had
freshened all vegetation, and the earth was a carpet of wild flowers,
including scarlet ranunculus, poppies, a very pretty dwarf yellow cistus
resembling bunches of primroses, cyclamen, narcissus, anemones--purple,
white, and a peculiarly bright yellow variety.

The route from Gallibornu was extremely wild and picturesque, combining
hills, glens, and occasional short glimpses of the sea between the
gorges which cleft the precipitous range upon our right. The rounded and
sparkling tops of gypsum hills were common for the first few miles;
emerging from these, we threaded a ravine, and arrived upon the sea
beach, and continued for a considerable distance upon the margin of the
shore; the animals scrambling over fallen rocks and alternately
struggling through the deep sand and banks of sea-weed piled by a
recent gale. We now entered upon the first pure sandstone that I had
seen; this was a coffee-brown, and formed the substratum of the usual
sedimentary limestone which capped the surface of the hill-tops. The
appearance was peculiar, as the cliffs of brown sandstone were crusted
for a depth of about eight or ten feet by the white rock abounding with
fossil shells, while the substratum of hard sand was perfectly devoid of
all traces of organic matter. The upheaval of a sea-bottom was clearly
demonstrated. As the sandstone had decayed, vast fragments of the
surface rock had broken down when undermined and had fallen to the base
of the steep inclines, from the interstices of which a dense growth of
evergreens produced an agreeable harmony of colouring, combining various
shades of green with brown cliffs and white masses of disjointed
limestone. The deep blue of the sea was a beautiful addition to this
wild scenery, and after threading our way sometimes between narrow
gorges, at other places along sequestered glens which exhibited young
crops of cereals and cultivated olive-trees, we at length arrived at a
halting-place upon the seashore, where a well of excellent water about
ten feet from the surface had been sunk upon the sea-beach within fifty
yards of the waves.

This was the best camping-ground we had had in Cyprus; for the first
time we stood upon real turf, green with recent showers, and firmly
rooted upon a rich sandy loam. A cultivated valley lay a few hundred
yards beyond us, completely walled in by high hills covered with wild
olives, arbutus, and dwarf-cypress, and fronted by the sea. Some fine
specimens of the broad-headed and shady caroub-trees gave a park-like
appearance to the valley, through which a running stream entered from a
ravine among the hills, and, winding through deep banks covered with
myrtles and oleanders, expended itself upon the shingly beach in the
centre of the bay. This sheltered cove, about 300 yards across the chord
of the arc, formed rather more than a semicircle by the natural
formation of the coast, and was further improved by a long reef of hard
sandstone, which extended from either point like an artificial
breakwater.

At first sight the little bay was a tempting refuge, but upon closer
examination I observed ominous dark patches in the clear water, which
betokened dangerous reefs, and other light green portions that denoted
sandy shallows. The cove is useful for the native small craft, but would
be unsuitable to vessels of more than seven feet draught of water. I had
observed that francolins were more numerous since we had arrived upon
the sandstone formation, and the cock birds were calling in all
directions; the locality was so inviting that we felt inclined to remain
for a few days in such a delightful spot; but the season was too far
advanced for shooting, and I therefore confined myself to killing only
what was absolutely necessary for our food, and I invariably selected
the cock-birds of francolins. I do not think these birds pair like the
partridge, but I believe the cock is polygamous, like the pheasant, as I
generally found that several hens were in his neighbourhood. It is a
beautiful game bird, the male possessing a striking plumage of deep
black and rich brown, with a dark ring round the neck. It is quite a
different variety to the mottle-breasted species that I have met with in
Mauritius, Ceylon, and the double-spur francolin that I have shot in
Africa. It is considerably larger than the common partridge, but not
quite so heavy as the red-legged birds of Cyprus, although when flying
it appears superior. The flesh is white and exceedingly delicate, and it
is to be regretted that so valuable a game bird is not introduced into
England. I generally found the francolin in the low scrub, although I
have often shot it either in the cultivated fields or in the wild
prickly low plants upon the open ground which have been misnamed
heather. The habits of this bird have nothing in common with those of
the red-legged partridge, as it is never found upon the bare rocky
hill-sides, which are the general resort of the latter annoying species,
and although the scrub bush may contain both, there is a marked
difference in their character. The red-leg is a determined runner, and
therefore a bad game bird for the shooter, as it will run ahead when
first disturbed and rise far beyond shot range, instead of squatting
like the grey partridge and permitting a sporting shot. The francolin is
never found upon the bare hill-sides, neither is it a runner in the
open, although it will occasionally trouble the dogs in the bush by
refusing to rise until they have followed it for some distance,
precisely as pheasants will run in covert until halted by the "stops" or
by a net. I am not sure of the power of resistance to cold possessed by
the francolins, as they are seldom met with upon the higher mountains in
Cyprus, but are generally found upon the inferior altitudes and low
grounds: still the hazel-huhn of Austria is a species of francolin which
resists the intense cold of a central-European winter.

Only one march remained to the extreme eastern limit of Cyprus, Cape St.
Andrea, distant fourteen miles. The country was exactly similar to that
which we had recently passed through, and although alike, it could
hardly be called monotonous, as the eye was never fatigued. The few
inhabitants were poor to the last degree; the dwellings were mere
hovels. We passed deep holes in the ground, the sides of which were
baked by fire, so as to resemble earthen jars about ten feet deep and
seven in diameter, with a small aperture; these were subterranean
granaries, the sure sign of insecurity before the British occupation.
The flat-topped hovels had the usual roofs of clay and chopped straw,
and projected two or three feet as eaves beyond the walls, which were of
stone and mud, exhibiting the crudest examples of masonry. The
projecting eaves were curiously arranged by hooks of cypress, like
single-fluked anchors laid horizontally, which retained beams, upon
which the mud and straw were laid; the heavy weight of the earthen roof
upon the long shanks of these anchors prevented the eaves from
overbalancing. Enormous heaps of manure and filth were deposited
opposite the entrance of each dwelling, and in the Christian villages
the most absurd pigs ran in and out of the hovels, or slept by the front
door, as though they were the actual proprietors. These creatures were
all heads and legs, and closely resembled the black and white
representative of the race well known to every child in the Noah's Ark.

It was rather disheartening to approach the extremity of the island, and
upon entering a long narrow valley our guide assured us that although no
apparent exit existed, we should ascend a precipitous path and
immediately see the point of Cape St. Andrea. The valley narrowed to a
point without any visible path. A few low hills covered with bush were
backed by cliff-like heights of about 300 feet also clothed by
evergreens. Upon our right, just below the steep ascent, were sand-dunes
and the sea. We now observed the narrow streak of white upon the
hillside, amidst the green which marked the path. We had left the brown
sandstone, and once again were upon the white calcareous rock. Our
animals could barely ascend the steep incline, and several times we
halted them to rest; at length we reached the summit, the flat rocky
table above the valley. The view was indeed lovely; we looked down upon
the white monastery of Cape St. Andrea, two miles distant, and upon the
thin eastern point of Cyprus about the same distance beyond, stretching
like a finger from a hand into the blue sea: the elevation from the high
point upon which we stood gradually inclining downwards to the end of
all things. A short distance from the cape were two or three small rocky
islands and reefs protruding from the sea, as though the force of the
original upheaval had originated from the west, and had expended itself
at the extreme east, where the heights above the sea-level had gradually
diminished until the continuation became disjointed, and the island
terminated in a sharp point, broken into dislocated vertebrae which
formed islets and reefs, the last hardly appearing above the waves. This
ended Cyprus on the east. The lofty coast of Asia Minor was distinctly
visible.



CHAPTER VI.

CAPE ST. ANDREA.

The promontory of Cape St. Andrea at the broadest portion is about five
miles, and from this base to the extreme end is nearly the same
distance. The whole surface is rocky, but the interstices contain a rich
soil, and at one time it was covered with valuable timber. There is no
portion of the island that presents a more deplorable picture of
wholesale destruction of forests, as every tree has been ruthlessly cut
down, and the present surface is a dense mass of shrubs and young
cypress, which if spared for fifteen years will again restore this
extremity of Cyprus to prosperity. I examined the entire promontory, and
ascended the rocky heights, about 500 feet above the sea upon the north
side. It was with extreme difficulty that I could break my way through
the dense underwood, which was about seven or eight feet high, as it was
in many places more than knee-deep in refuse boughs, which had been
lopped and abandoned when the larger trees had been felled. The largest
stumps of these departed stems were not more than from nine to twelve
inches in diameter: these were the dwarf-cypress, which would seldom
attain a greater height than twenty feet at maturity.

Fine caroubs had shared the fate of all others, and many of the old
stumps proved the large size of this valuable tree, which, as both
fruit-producing and shade-giving, should be sacred in the usually
parched island of Cyprus. At an elevation of about 350 feet above the
sea a spring of water issues from the ground and nourishes a small
valley of red soil, which slopes downwards towards the monastery, two
miles distant. The shrubs were vividly green, and formed so dense a
crest that several partridges which I shot remained sticking in the
bushes as they fell. I never saw such myrtles as those which occupied
the ravines, through which it was quite impossible to force a way. The
principal young trees were Pinus maritima, dwarf-cypress, mastic,
caroub, arbutus, myrtle, and wild olive. The name Cupressus horizontalis
has been given to the dwarf-cypress, but in my opinion it is not
descriptive of the tree: a cypress of this species, if uninjured, will
grow perfectly straight in the central stem for a height of twenty feet
without spreading horizontally. It is probable that the misnomer has
been bestowed in ignorance of the fact that an uninjured tree is seldom
met with, and that nearly every cypress has been mutilated for the sake
of the strong tough leader, which, with one branch attached, will form
the one-fluked anchor required for the roofs of native dwellings already
described. In the absence of its leader the tree extends laterally, and
becomes a Cupressus horizontalis. The wood of this species is extremely
dense and hard, and when cut it emits a resinous and aromatic scent; it
is of an oily nature, and extremely inflammable. The grain is so close
that, when dry, it somewhat resembles lignum vitae (though of lighter
colour), and would form a valuable material for the turner. There are
two varieties of cypress in this island; the second has been erroneously
called a "cedar" by some travellers, and by others "juniper." This tree
is generally met with, at altitudes varying from three to six thousand
feet, upon the Troodos range; it seldom exceeds a height of thirty feet,
but attains a girth of six or even seven. The wood is by no means hard,
and possesses a powerful fragrance, closely resembling that of cedar (or
of cedar and sandal-wood combined), which may have given rise to the
error named. It splits with facility, and the peculiar grain and
brownish-red colour, combined with the aroma, would render it valuable
for the cabinet-maker in constructing the insides of drawers, as insects
are believed to dislike the smell. The foliage of this species exactly
resembles that of the Cupressus horizontalis. The cedar may possibly
have existed at a former period and have been destroyed, but I should be
inclined to doubt the theory, as it would surely have been succeeded by
a younger growth from the cones, that must have rooted in the ground
like all those conifers which still would flourish were they spared by
the Cypriote's axe. The native name for the cypress is Kypreses, which
closely resembles the name of the island according to their
pronunciation Kypris. The chittim-wood of Scripture, which was so much
esteemed, may have been the highly aromatic cypress to which I have
alluded.

After a ramble of many hours down to the monastery upon the rocky shore,
along the point, and then returning through the woods over the highest
portions of the promontory, I reached our camp, which commanded a view
of the entire southern coast with its innumerable rocky coves far beyond
telescopic distance. From this elevation I could distinguish with my
glass the wreck of the stranded steamer in the bay at Volokalida. We
were camped on the verge of the height that we had ascended by the
precipitous path from the lower valley. As the country was a mass of dry
fire-wood we collected a large quantity, and piled two heaps, one for
the camel-owners and the servants, and another before the door of our
own tent to make a cheerful blaze at night, which is a luxury of the
bivouac seldom to be enjoyed in other portions of this island. While we
were thus engaged an arrival took place, and several people suddenly
appeared upon the summit of the pass within a few yards of our tent. An
old woman formed one of the party, and a handsome but rather
dirty-looking priest led the way on a remarkably powerful mule. Upon
seeing us he very courteously dismounted, and I at once invited him to
the tent. It appeared that this was the actual head of the monastery and
the lord of all the promontory who was thus unexpectedly introduced.
Cigarettes, coffee, and a little good cognac quickly cheered the good
and dusty priest (who had travelled that day from some place beyond
Rizo-Carpas), and we established a mutual confidence that induced him to
give me all the information of his neighbourhood.

I had observed hundreds of cattle, goats, sheep, and many horses,
donkeys, &c., wandering about the shrub-covered surface during my walk,
and I was now informed that all these animals were the property of the
monastery. These tame creatures are the objects described in some books
upon Cyprus as "the wild oxen and horses of the Carpas district, the
descendants of original domestic animals"! The monastery of Cape St.
Andrea forms an exception to all others in being perfectly independent,
and beyond all control of bishops. This wild country, far from all
roads, and forming the storm-washed extreme limit of the island, was
considerately out of the way of news, and the monk was absolutely
ignorant of everything that was taking place in the great outer world.
He had heard that such mischievous things as newspapers existed, but he
had never seen one, neither had that ubiquitous animal the
newspaper-correspondent ever been met with in the evergreen jungles of
Cape St. Andrea. His monastery was his world, and the poor inhabitants
who occupied the few miserable huts within sight of his church were his
vassals. Although the bell of the monastery tolled and tinkled at the
required hours, he informed me that "nobody ever attended the service,
as the people were always engaged in looking after their animals."
During the conversation a sudden idea appeared to have flashed upon him,
and starting from his seat, he went quickly to his mule, and making a
dive into the large and well-filled saddle-bags, he extracted an
enormous wine-bottle that contained about a gallon; this he triumphantly
brought to us and insisted upon our acceptance. It was in vain that we
declined the offering; the priest was obdurate, and he placed the bottle
against the entrance of the tent, which, if any one should have
unexpectedly arrived, would have presented a most convivial appearance.

Upon questioning the good monk respecting the destruction of forests
upon his domain, he informed me that "during the Turkish administration
he had been annually pillaged by hundreds of vessels which arrived from
the neighbouring coasts of Asia Minor and of Egypt for the express
purpose of cutting timber to be sold by weight as fire-wood at their
various ports. He had protested in vain, there were no police, nor any
means of resistance at Cape St. Andrea, therefore the numerous crews had
defied him; and small presents from the owners of the vessels to the
Pacha at headquarters were sufficient to ensure immunity." I asked him
"why they wasted so much excellent fire-wood, and left the boughs to
hamper the surface?" He replied, "that as the wood was sold by weight,
the dealers preferred to cut the thick stems, as they packed closely on
board the vessels, and, being green, they weighed heavy; therefore they
rejected the smaller wood and left it to rot upon the ground." He
declared "that on several occasions the crews had quarrelled, and that
from pure spite they had set fire to the thick mass of dried boughs and
lighter wood which had spread over the surface, and destroyed immense
numbers of young trees." I had observed that large tracts had been burnt
during the preceding year. He was delighted at the English occupation,
as his property would now be protected, and in a few years the trees
would attain a considerable size.

Having passed an interesting afternoon with the new ecclesiastical
acquaintance, and tasted, immediately after his departure, the contents
of his enormous bottle (which was as instantly presented, as a "great
treat," to the servants), we lighted our big bonfires, and enjoyed the
blaze like children, although the showers of red sparks threatened the
destruction of the tent in the absence of Captain Shaw and the London
Fire Brigade. After this temporary excitement in this
utter-lack-of-incident-and-everyday-monotonous-island, the fires
gradually subsided, and we all went to sleep. There is no necessity in
Cyprus for sentries or night-watchers, the people are painfully good,
and you are a great deal too secure when travelling. As to "revolvers!"
I felt inclined to bury my pistols upon my first arrival, and to
inscribe "Rest in peace" upon the tombstone. It would be just as absurd
to attend church in London with revolvers in your belt as to appear with
such a weapon in any part of Cyprus. Mine were carefully concealed in
some mysterious corner of the gipsy-van; where they now lie hidden.

We had been two days at Cape St. Andrea, and it was necessary to
right-about-face, as we could go no farther. The monk proposed to guide
us to Rizo-Carpas, the capital of the Carpas district; therefore on 14th
March we started.

This ride of fourteen miles was the most interesting we had made since
our arrival in the island. After returning upon our old route for about
nine miles, we struck off to the right (north) and ascended a steep
gorge between precipitous wooded heights, where the light green foliage
and the exceedingly bright red stems of numerous arbutus contrasted with
the dense masses of dark greens which entirely clothed the surface. Upon
arrival, about 600 feet above the sea we obtained a splendid view, as a
table-topped hill of nearly equal height, with the usual steep
cliff-like sides all covered with verdure, stood prominently in the
foreground, and the deep valleys upon either side, abounding in rich
caroub-trees and olives, led directly to the sea, about six miles
distant and far below. We now crossed the watershed, and the view
increased in beauty as it embraced a complete panorama, with the sea
upon three sides, to the north, south, and east, with the mountains of
Asia Minor in the far distance.

We arrived at Rizo-Carpas, which is situated in a gently-sloping vale
about 450 feet above the sea-level, but surrounded upon all sides by
superior heights, from which the coast of Caramania is distinctly
visible during clear weather. The valley and slopes are highly
cultivated with cereals, and plantations of mulberry-trees for the
support of silkworms; numerous caroub-trees throughout the district give
an agreeable and prosperous appearance. Although there is no actual
town, native dwellings are dotted over the face of the country for some
miles, ornamented by three churches, which present an air of
civilisation and prosperity. The inhabitants were, as usual, very
polite, and as Lady Baker and myself were sitting upon a rug beneath a
tree which we had selected for the evening's halt, and waiting for the
arrival of our camels, a crowd of women and children arrived with the
ugliest and most witch-like old hag that I have ever seen. This old
creature had brought fire and dried olive-leaves in a broken pot, with
which she immediately fumigated us by marching round several times, and
so manipulating her pot as to produce the largest volume of smoke. This
custom, which is so general throughout Cyprus, is supposed to avert the
evil-eye; but I imagine that it originated during a period when the
plague or some other fatal epidemic was prevalent in the island, and
fumigation was supposed to act as a preventative.

There is no medicinal property in the olive-leaf, but as the tree is
practically undying, I attribute the use of the leaves as incense to be
symbolically connected with the blessing of a long life expressed to a
welcomed guest. It is one of those vestiges of tree-worship which may be
traced in almost every country, both savage and civilised, and may be
seen exhibited in Egypt, where the almost everlasting species of aloe is
suspended above the doorway of a house as a talisman or safeguard to the
family within: the idea thus expressed, "As the plant never dies, may
your family last for ever." We got rid of the old hag and her smoky
offering, and she became lost in the crowd which thronged around us;
this was composed of the ugliest, dirtiest, shortest, and most repulsive
lot of females that I ever saw: it was painful to look at them.

There was a general complaint that the silkworms had deteriorated, and
that the mulberry-trees had suffered from a disease which had killed
great numbers. It appeared to me that the decay of the trees was a
sufficient reason for the inferiority of the silkworms. This was a
serious loss to the inhabitants, as Rizo-Carpas was celebrated both for
the quality and quantity of its silk-production.

From the watershed a few hundred yards behind our camp we had a good
view of the northern coast below, which extended in a series of rocky
bays and prominent points to the west, while the entire country from the
shore to the rising ground formed a rich picture of caroub-trees and
plots of cultivation. The hills upon which we stood, about 450 feet
above the sea, were the continuations of the long Carpas range, where
the force of the upheaval had become expended towards the east. As we
looked westward the line of hills gradually heightened, until the
well-known points of the compact limestone were clearly distinguished
among the rugged outlines of the greater altitudes.

There was nothing of interest to induce a longer stay in Rizo-Carpas,
therefore we started on the following morning upon our return journey,
and after a lovely march of twenty miles, partly along an elevated
plateau which commanded a view of both seas north and south, and then
descending some 700 or 800 feet by a steep and interesting pass, we
arrived at Lithrankomi, after passing through Gallibornu.

To my astonishment the oxen and their drivers, instead of awaiting me at
Lithrankomi, were still at the latter village, and hearing that we had
passed through, they came on to join us, but only arrived some hours
later, at nightfall. I discharged my camels that evening, as the carts
would begin their new contract on the following morning.

I rose early on the next day, as we had a long march of twenty-two miles
before us to Trichomo; but as the oxen had been resting for many days,
and I had been paying highly for their food while they had been doing
nothing, I knew they must be in first-rate condition, and in spite of
bad roads they would accomplish the distance. There was always a
difficulty in inducing the carters to start early, but this morning
there was a greater delay than usual, and I myself went to superintend
the loading of the carts. I could hardly believe my eyes! In Georgi's
cart the oxen had been yoked. There was a black creature about half a
foot shorter than its fellow, and composed of skin and bones. The horns
of this animal were antiquities: a drawn appearance about the head and
face, and deeply sunken eyes, denoted extreme age. The fellow ox I
recognised after some time as our old friend in reduced circumstances;
it had been going through a course of wild artichokes and prickly
thistles since I had seen it last, which had brought it into racing
condition by the loss of at least a hundredweight of flesh; the poor
beast looked starved. Georgi had accordingly saved the whole of the
allowance I had paid for food of the best quality, which he had pocketed
while his animal was turned out to graze. "Where are my oxen?" I
inquired of the conscious Georgi; who wisely remained silent. I now
turned to Theodori's team, and I at once perceived that he also had
exchanged one of the superb oxen which I had hired, and upon which I had
depended for drawing the gipsy-van; but the new purchase was a very
beautiful animal, although inferior in height to its companion, which
had much fallen off in condition, having been fed upon the same
unnutritious food. I had been regularly done, as the animals for which I
had paid highly had not only been neglected, but had been exchanged.

I very quickly explained to the proprietors that they had no right
whatever to exchange the oxen which I had engaged, and for which I was
paying in my absence, therefore I should refuse to accept them, as the
contract was broken; and I immediately ordered the camels to be loaded
with the contents of the carts. Fortunately the discharged animals were
grazing within a few yards of our camp.

My servants now explained that Georgi the thick-headed had been done by
his dear friend and companion Theodori, "the man of ability," who had
accompanied me into the Carpas with the sole intention of
cattle-dealing. It appeared that after my departure from Gallibornu,
Theodori had suggested to his friend that a saving might be effected in
the keep of four animals by reducing them to two, and he advised that
they should at once sell each one ox, and arrange to purchase new
animals by the time that I should return; they would by this method
pocket half the sum which I had agreed to pay daily for four oxen during
my absence at Cape St. Andrea. They subsequently came to the conclusion
that their remaining oxen should live upon their wits and thistles,
instead of causing an expense in the purchase of cotton-seed, lentils,
and tibbin (broken barley-straw). Theodori informed Georgi that he knew
of two beautiful animals that might be obtained by the exchange of two
of their oxen with a small sum of money in addition, and he would
arrange the matter if Georgi would part with the dark cream-coloured ox
with black points (his best). Of course the innocent-minded,
broad-shouldered, herculean Georgi knew that his friend would protect
his interests, and he left the matter in his hands. The unmitigated
rascal Theodori knew that the beautiful fat red ox that he wished to
purchase was some years younger than the old well-trained oxen which
formed his pair, and therefore it would be more valuable; he accordingly
agreed to give one of his oxen and one of Georgi's FOR A PAIR from the
proprietor of the fat red animal, who consented to the exchange,
receiving the two fine animals which I had hired and, giving the
valuable young red ox together with the miserable old creature that I
had seen that morning in the yoke. This worn-out old skeleton was to be
Georgi's share of the bargain! I told Georgi that my dogs would not eat
the animal if it should die, as it was too thin. My servants burst out
laughing when Christo the cook translated the account of the
transaction. The shameless scoundrel Theodori, who was present, SMILED
at the relation of his shrewdness; and the big Georgi burst out crying
like a child at the loss of his fine ox, the duplicity of his friend,
and the want of sympathy of the bystanders, who made a joke of his
misfortune. I was very sorry for poor Georgi, as he was really an
excellent fellow; he had been only foolish in trusting to the honour of
his friend, like some good people who apply for assistance to Lord
Penzance; however, there was no help for it, and he departed crying
bitterly.

My servants were fond of the man, and their hearts began to soften after
they had enjoyed the first hearty laugh at Georgi's expense, and
Christo, who was always the factotum, shortly came with a suggestion,
that, "If I would write an order for the immediate return of Georgi's
bullock, on the plea that as I had hired the animal no one had a right
to exchange it until the expiration of my contract," there would be no
difficulty, as "the purchaser would be afraid to retain the animal upon
seeing Georgi armed with a written paper." "But," I said, "what is the
use of my writing in English, which no one can understand?" Christo
assured me that it would have a better effect if nobody could read the
contents, as Georgi could then say anything he pleased. I wrote an order
for the return of the ox as belonging temporarily to me by contract, and
Georgi having wiped his eyes, immediately set off on foot towards
Gallibornu, full of confidence and hope.

Theodori declared that it would be impossible for his oxen to reach
Trichomo in one day; I therefore loaded the camels, and advised him to
await Georgi's return; should they re-appear at Kuklia, where the vans
were lying, I would re-engage them as far as Lefkosia, and in the
meantime I would pay them for the daily keep of their animals, who were
to be well fed, and to discontinue the course of wild artichokes and
thistles.

We took a different route upon leaving Lithrankomi, by keeping upon the
high plateau instead of the lower valleys through which we had arrived
on our way from Volokalida. We accordingly left this village some miles
to the south, but as we were passing through a broad cultivated plain, a
portion of which had recently been ploughed, we observed a crowd of
women and girls who were engaged with baskets in collecting wild
artichokes, which the plough had dislodged. As we approached a sudden
rush was made in our direction, the baskets were placed upon the ground,
and a race took place over the heavy soil to see who would be the first
to greet us. We discovered that these were our friends of Volokalida,
who had walked across the hills in a large party to collect wild
vegetables; they seemed delighted to see us, and insisted upon shaking
hands, which, as they had been grubbing in the freshly-turned ground,
was rather a mouldy operation. We shook hands with about thirty members
of this primitive agricultural society, and were glad to waive an adieu
before the arrival of the older women in the rear, who with their heavy
nailed boots were running towards us, plunging about in the deep ground
in clumsy attempts at juvenile activity. A few of the young women were
very pretty, but, as usual in Cyprus, their figures were ungainly, and
their movements, hampered by baggy trousers and enormous high boots,
were most ungraceful.

On arrival at Trichomo we pitched our tent at some distance from the
dwelling in which we had fed some thousand fleas upon our former visit;
and on the following morning I determined to go straight Famagousta,
about twelve miles distant.

The route from Trichomo is for the most part along the seashore, but
occasionally cutting off the bends by a direct line. The plain is a dead
level, as it has been entirely deposited by the floods of the Pedias
river. We rode tolerably fast, the sun being hot and the country most
uninteresting; we had left the shrub-covered surface of the Carpas with
its romantic cliffs and deep valleys rich in verdure, and once more we
were upon the hateful treeless plain of Messaria. During our sojourn in
the Carpas district the rainfall by our gauge had been 1.28 inches, but
in this unattractive region there had only been one or two faint
showers, hardly sufficient to lay the dust. The crops about five inches
above the ground were almost dead, and the young wheat and barley were
completely withered.

About four or five miles from Famagousta we arrived at the ruins of
ancient Salamis. The stringent prohibition of the British authorities
against a search for antiquities in Cyprus had destroyed the interest
which would otherwise have been taken by travellers in such
explorations. As I have before remarked, there are no remains to attract
attention upon the surface, but all ancient works are buried far
beneath, therefore in the absence of permission to excavate, the
practical study of the past is impossible, and it is a sealed book.
Fortunately General di Cesnola has published his most interesting
volume, combining historical sketches of ancient times with a minute
description of the enormous collection of antiquities which rewarded his
labours during ten years' research; so that if our government will
neither explore nor permit others to investigate, we have at least an
invaluable fund of information collected by those whose consular
position during the Turkish rule enabled them to make additions to our
historical knowledge. Mr. Hamilton Lang has also published his
experiences of a long residence in the island, during which his
successful excavations brought to light valuable relics of the past
which explain more forcibly than the leaves of a book the manners,
customs, and incidents among the various races which have made up
Cyprian history. General di Cesnola, after quoting the legend which
connects the origin of Salamis with the arrival of a colony of Greeks
under Teucer (the son of Telamon, king of the island of Salamis) from
the Trojan expedition, continues, "Of the history of Salamis almost
nothing is known till we come to the time of the Persian wars; but from
that time down to the reign of the Ptolemies it was by far the most
conspicuous and flourishing of the towns of Cyprus." "Onesius seized the
government of Salamis from his brother, Gorgus, and set up an obstinate
resistance to the Persian oppression under which the island was
labouring, about 500 B.C. In the end he was defeated by a Persian army
and fell in battle, and it was about this time, if not in consequence of
this defeat, that the dynasty of Teucer was, for a period, removed from
the government of Salamis. As to the length of this period there is
great obscurity. It seems, however, to be certain that with the help of
the Persians a Tyrian named Abdemon had seized the throne, and not only
paid tribute to Persia, but endeavoured to extend the Persian power over
the rest of the island. To Salamis itself he invited Phoenician
immigrants, and introduced Asiatic tastes and habits." Following upon
this usurpation came the revolt and the restoration of the Teucer
dynasty, under Evagoras, B.C. 374, and eventually upon the partition of
the empire of Alexander the Great it fell to the lot of Antigonus, after
the severe contests between Demetrius and Menelaus.

Like all ancient sea-ports of importance, Salamis was the object of
continual attacks, and by degrees its prosperity declined. In addition
to the damage and loss by sieges, it was seriously affected by an
earthquake, and a portion disappeared beneath the sea. The sand has
submerged a large area of the ruins which face the sea, but General di
Cesnola was able to trace the ancient wall for a distance of 6850 feet.
It is quite possible that the earthquake may have altered the conditions
of the harbour, which in former days was of considerable importance. It
has now entirely changed, and the bay near the shore is extremely
shallow, although good anchorage exists in the roadstead in ten to
sixteen fathoms.

The high masonry piers which had supported the arches of the ancient
aqueduct from Kythrea looked like spectres of past greatness among the
silent ruins, made doubly desolate by the miserable aspect of the
withered plain around them. A short distance from these is the church of
St. Barnabas, raised upon the site where it is believed that the body of
the Saint was discovered, together with the Gospel of St. Matthew. How
the Saint and the Gospel had been preserved in the damp soil of that
neighbourhood must be left to the imagination.

Passing through the ruins of the old town with the line of the wall
distinctly visible upon the sea front, we shortly arrived at the spot
where the river Pedias should have an exit to the sea. No sign of a
river-bed existed, but a long series of swamps, composed chiefly of
bare mud, would during wet weather have made a considerable detour
necessary; they were now dry, with the exception of two or three holes
full of muddy water, which were unconnected with any perceptible
channel. A long stone causeway proved that occasionally the hardened mud
upon which we rode would become a lake, but from the numerous tracks of
animals the earth was preferred to the uneven and slippery pavement of
the artificial road. The enormous quantity of mud brought down by the
Pedias during its fitful inundations had completely obliterated all
signs of an ordinary river-bed, and the deposit had produced a surface
that was scored in numerous places by the rush of water, without in any
way suggesting that we were in the neighbourhood of the largest river in
Cyprus. The width of this muddy swamp was about two miles, and
terminated by a shallow lake upon our left. We were now within a mile
and a quarter of Famagousta, and the ground began to rise. It struck me
that an eminence upon our right was superior to the height of the city
walls, and I rode up to examine the position. There was no doubt that it
commanded the lower portion of the fortress, and that a direct shell-
fire could be plunged into the rear of the guns which protect the
entrance of the harbour. In the event of modifications being introduced
when restoring the defensive works of Famagousta, it would be necessary
to erect a powerful detached fort upon this position, which would be an
immense addition to the defences of the city, as it would enfilade the
approaches upon two sides.

The walls of Famagousta are most imposing; they are constructed of
carefully-squared stone joined with cement of such extreme hardness that
the weather has had no destructive effect. The perimeter of the fortress
is about 4000 yards; the shape is nearly a parallelogram. The fosse
varies in depth and width, but the minimum of the former is twenty-five
feet, and of the width eighty feet, but in some places it exceeds one
hundred and forty. This formidable ditch is cut out of the solid rock,
which is the usual calcareous sedimentary limestone, and the stone thus
obtained has been used in the construction of the walls. The rock
foundation would render all mining operations extremely difficult. The
fire from the ramparts is increased by cavaliers of great size and
strength, capable of mounting numerous heavy guns at a superior
altitude. The only entrance from the land side is at the south-west
corner; this is exceedingly striking, as the fosse is about 140 feet
wide, the scarp and counter-scarp almost perpendicular, being cut from
the original rock.

A narrow stone bridge upon arches spans this peculiar ditch, the
communication depending upon a double drawbridge and portcullis.
Immediately facing the entrance outside the fortress is an old Turkish
churchyard, through and above which the closed masonry aqueduct is
conducted into the town. Following the course of the aqueduct along a
straight line of sandy heights which somewhat resemble a massive railway
embankment, we arrived at a mosque in which is the venerated tomb of the
Turkish soldier who first planted the flag upon the walls of Famagousta
when captured, in 1571, from the Venetians. This tomb is in a small
chamber within the building and is covered with green silk, embroidered;
but as the city was never taken by assault, and capitulated upon
honourable terms after a protracted defence, the fact of establishing
the Turkish flag upon the walls after their evacuation by the garrison
would hardly have entitled the standard-bearer to a Victoria Cross;
however he may have otherwise distinguished himself, which entailed
post-mortem honours, perhaps by skinning alive the gallant Venetian
commandant Bragadino, whose skin, stuffed with straw, was taken in
triumph to Constantinople hanging at the yard-arm of the victorious
general's ship.

Quitting the mosque, we continued along the aqueduct, always upon the
same sandy heights, which gradually increased, until we arrived at a
position about 200 yards from a windmill. This formed a prominent object
at the back of the large village of Varoschia, situated upon the slope
beneath facing the sea, about a quarter of a mile distant. I selected
the highest position for a camp; this was close to the aqueduct and
about 600 yards from the entrance of the fortress. I counted the
embrasures of six guns that could have been brought to bear exactly upon
our tent, but at the same time I remarked that we commanded the lower
portion of the fortress, and could fire into the rear of the batteries
upon the sea-wall within the water-gate at a most destructive range.
This position would require a detached fort with a line of works along
the heights flanked by a small fort at the extremity. Three detached
forts upon as many points which now exist would render Famagousta
impregnable, should the present works be repaired, and improved by some
slight modifications.

I had been through the fortifications upon a former occasion, when I had
the advantage of Captain Inglis the chief commissioner's guidance, but
they are so extensive and of such exceeding interest that many days
might be expended in a study of the details.

Upon entering the fortress by the drawbridge we passed through the
arched and dark way beneath the ramparts, and emerged into a narrow
street, which was swept and free from the usual impurities of a Turkish
town, thus exhibiting proofs of a British occupation. A perfect
labyrinth of narrow lanes, bordered by most inferior dwellings, confused
a stranger, but with the assistance of a guide I reached the residence
of the chief commissioner and the various officers attached to the
establishment. Beyond this all modern buildings ceased, and Famagousta
was presented as it must have appeared after the sack and utter
destruction by the Turks in 1571. It looked as though a town had been
shattered and utterly destroyed by an earth-quake, whose terrible
tremblings had shaken every house to its foundation, and left nothing
but shapeless heaps of squared stones. O Turk! insatiable in
destruction, who breaks down, but never restores, what a picture of
desolation was here! Three centuries had passed away since by treachery
the place was won, and from that hour the neglected harbour had silted
up and ceased to be; the stones of palaces rested where they fell; the
filth of ages sweltered among these blood-sodden ruins; and the proverb
seemed fulfilled, "The grass never grows on the foot-print of the Turk."
I never saw so fearful an example of ruin.

Although the town was in this hideous state, the fortifications were in
very tolerable repair, and had guns been mounted an enemy would quickly
have acknowledged their formidable importance. Time appeared to be
almost harmless in attacks against these vast piles of solid masonry.
The parapets in the angles of the embrasures were twenty-five and
twenty-seven feet in thickness. From these we looked down forty-five and
fifty feet into the ditch beneath. As we walked round the ramparts and
various bastions we remarked the enormous strength of the commanding
cavaliers to which I alluded from the outside appearance of the forts.
There were also vast subterranean works, store-houses, magazines,
cannon-foundries, and all the appliances of a first-class fortified town
and arsenal; but these were of course empty, and with the exception of a
small chamber near the water-gate, which contained a number of rusty
helmets and breastplates, there was no object of interest beyond the
actual plan of the defences.

The water-gate was approached by a winding entrance beneath a powerful
circular bastion from an extremely narrow quay, from which the remains
of a once powerful mote projected about 120 yards into the sea and
commanded the inner harbour. This was now a mere line of loose and
disjointed stones. A citadel that is separated from the main fortress by
a wet ditch which communicates with the sea by an adit beneath the wall
commands the harbour on the east side. This ditch is as usual scarped
from the rock, and otherwise of solid masonry; should the fortress have
been successfully carried by assault on the land side, a vigorous
defence might have been maintained in this independent citadel until
either reinforcements should arrive by sea, or an escape might be
effected to friendly vessels.

It is commonly asserted that Famagousta under the Lusignans and
Venetians "counted its churches by hundreds and its palatial mansions by
thousands." It would certainly have been impossible that they could have
existed within the present area, as a large extent must have been
required for barrack accommodation for the garrison, parade-grounds, &c.
There are ruins of several fine churches with the frescoes still visible
upon the walls. The Cathedral of St. Nicholas is a beautiful object in
the Gothic style. Although dismantled and converted into a mosque by the
Turks, the roof is in good repair, and its magnificent proportions
remain, but they are marred by the stopping of the windows with rough
stones and mortar. The total length of the cathedral is 172 feet 6.5
inches. Length of apse (included in above) 30 feet 9 inches; breadth of
apse 32 feet 3 inches; breadth of cathedral 74 feet 1 inch;
circumference of pillars 15 feet 3 inches, there being 12 pillars in
all.

On the outside walls are the marks of various cannon-shot which appear
to have been successfully resisted by the soft but tough sedimentary
limestone, which is of similar quality to that used in the construction
of the fortress. I observed that the impact of the shot has been
confined to the immediate neighbourhood of the blow, and that the
concussion has not been communicated to the adjoining stone, but has
expended itself in crumbling the opposing surface to the depth in which
it was eventually imbedded. It would be interesting to try some
experiments upon those walls of Famagousta (which may already require
repair or alteration) with modern heavy artillery, as should this stone
exhibit unusual powers of resistance it may become valuable. Nothing
would be easier than to fire a few rounds from a ship's battery to prove
the question.

The courtyard of an ancient Venetian palace now forms the British
parade-ground. This faces the cathedral entrance, and is ornamented by
piles of marble cannon-shot, which are upwards of ten inches in
diameter; these were the Venetian relics of the siege of 1571.

From Cape Greco to Cape Elaea, south to north, is about twenty-five
miles; these points form the bay, nine miles in extreme width. Although
open to the east and south-east, Famagousta is the only real harbour in
Cyprus that can be available for large vessels, and there can be no
doubt that a very moderate outlay would not only restore its ancient
importance, but would make those additions of modern times that are
required for a first-rate and impregnable coaling-station and arsenal.

It was blowing a fresh gale from the south-east when I was standing on
the ramparts facing the sea above the water-gate, and an admirable
example was displayed in the wave-breaking power of the long line of
sunken reefs which form a continuation of those natural breakwaters
above the surface that have formed the harbour. A tremendous surf
exhibited a creamy streak along the margin of comparatively still water
within the reefs for about a mile parallel with the shore, comprising an
area of about 700 yards' width at the extremity of the sunken rocks, and
500 from the existing breakwater exactly opposite the water-gate.
Within this secure haven several native vessels were snugly at anchor,
but ships of war would hardly venture among the varying shallows caused
by centuries of silt; such large vessels generally anchor in seventeen
fathoms about a mile from the shore, but they are completely exposed to
wind from east and south-east. The inner harbour is formed by the
artificial connection of raised heads of projecting reefs by stone
jetties. At right angles with this complete defence of limestone rock is
a wall or jetty from the shore, which for a distance of 170 yards
incloses the basin of perfectly still water within. The entrance to this
snug little port is about forty yards in width, and the depth is most
irregular, varying from dry silt close to the south end of the reefs up
to twelve feet beneath the walls of the fortress. There were many small
coasting-vessels and caiques which trade between the various ports of
Syria and Asia Minor, all having sought shelter from the bad weather
within the port; and the picture presented during the strong gale was
thoroughly illustrative of the natural advantages and the future
requirements of the harbour. The long line of reefs which form the outer
protection would, were they exposed in their whole length, represent an
irregular incline from about twelve feet above the sea level at the
southern end to three fathoms below water at the northern extremity. A
wedge laid with its broad base to the south would represent the
inclination of this long line of useful reef, which can be converted
into a sea-wall by simply filling-in with blocks of concrete to a
sufficient height above the extreme water-mark. The ancient jetty which
connects the small islands that form the northern head of the reef is in
itself an example of the necessity of such an extension throughout the
line. A natural headland terminating in disconnected rocks upon the
north boundary of the reef about half a mile above the fortress is a
secure protection from the sea, but it admits the silt. This has
completely filled in a considerable portion of the original harbour, and
were this sea-communication destroyed by connecting the various reefs
with the main headland, the evil would be at once prevented, and the
inclosed area might be cleansed by dredging. This would not only add to
the accommodation of the inner harbour by a considerable extension, but
it would afford an admirable position for a series of docks, and yards
for the repairing of vessels. I walked through the whole of this
confined mass of rocks, silt, and water only a few inches deep, and was
much impressed with the capabilities of the locality. Such powerful
dredgers as are used in the Suez Canal would clear away the deposit,
with an outlay that could be calculated by the cubic contents, and the
large margin that must generally be allowed in all estimates for harbour
works would, in the case of Famagousta, be superfluous.

There are two enemies to be resisted--the sea, and the silt. The latter
has been and still is brought down by the Pedias river; this has
entirely blocked the ancient harbour of Salamis, and partially destroyed
that of Famagousta. The engineer has to repel these enemies, and he
possesses a great advantage in the fact that Famagousta has already
existed as a most important harbour, therefore he is not experimenting
upon an unknown bottom. The line of reefs affords the engineer's chief
desideratum, "a sound foundation," and the materials for his concrete
blocks are close at hand in the chaotic mass of stone now choking with
ruins the area of the city, in the neighbouring ruins of Salamis, and,
nearer still, in the native rock from which Famagousta has been
quarried. The island of Santorin from whence the pozzolano is supplied
for hydraulic cement, is only three days distant. Few places possess in
so high a degree the natural advantages for becoming a first-class
harbour, and it has been computed that about 300 acres of water can be
converted into a wall-locked basin, with an entrance from the south
that would be secure during all weathers. The Bay of Famagousta is
extremely deep, exceeding 150 fathoms which affords an additional
facility for getting rid of the contents of the lighters, as the mud
from the dredgers could be discharged at sea without danger of its
return.

All competent persons who have examined the present harbour are
unanimous in the opinion that "a very moderate outlay would secure a
first-class port, which would, as an impregnable coaling-depot and
arsenal, complete the links of the chain of fortresses which are the
guardians of the Mediterranean. In a war with any maritime Power the
first necessity is an uninterrupted line of fortified coaling-stations,
at intervals not exceeding five days' steaming at ten knots. A naval war
will depend entirely upon the supply of coal, which will in all
probability be declared "contraband of war." In the absence of a
dependable chain of stations THROUGHOUT THE WORLD, the action of the
most powerful cruisers will be extremely limited, as they will be
rendered helpless when their supply is reduced to the minimum sufficient
to carry them to a friendly port.

Where oceans must be traversed, the difficulty will be increased, as the
coal-capacity of the vessel will only command a given mileage; she will
therefore be in her weakest condition after a long voyage, and as her
fighting power must depend upon her steam, precisely as the strength of
man depends upon his food, she must be absolutely certain of obtaining a
supply of coal in every sea where her presence is required.

Should the most powerful vessel afloat, after a long cruise during which
she has encountered head-winds and weather that had caused delay and a
great consumption of fuel, be reduced to only a few hours' steaming, she
would be at the mercy of an inferior antagonist whose bunkers might be
well filled. The commerce and the colonies of Great Britain demand the
presence of our vessels in every sea; the greater part of that enormous
carrying-power is now represented by steamers which have replaced the
sailing-vessels of old: therefore in the event of war we must possess
coaling-depots which in case of necessity could meet the demands of any
of our ships, whether naval or commercial.

The attention of the usually far-seeing public is seldom directed to
this important question of coaling-stations, but an examination of a
recently constructed globe will discover the apparently insignificant
red dots which represent the dominant power of England in every portion
of the world. The smallest island may become the most impregnable and
important coaling-depot. It is the fashion for some modern reformers
(happily few) to suggest a curtailment of the British Empire, on the
principle that "by pruning we should improve the strength of the
national tree." If there are rotten boughs, or exhausting and useless
shoots, the analogy might be practical; but if we examine carefully a
map of the world it would puzzle the Royal Geographical Society to
determine the point that we should abandon. An example of temporary
insanity was displayed in the evacuation of Corfu; which would under our
present foreign policy have become invaluable as a powerfully fortified
coaling-station, commanding the entrance of the Adriatic and the
neighbouring seas. It is this unfortunate precedent which is paralysing
all the natural elasticity of commercial enterprise in Cyprus, as the
inhabitants and English alike feel their insecurity, and hesitate before
the uncertain future, which may depend upon a party vote in the distant
House of Commons.

There can be no doubt that Cyprus or Crete was requisite to England as
the missing link in the chain of our communications with Egypt. As a
strategical point, Cyprus must be represented by Famagousta, without
which it would be useless for the ostensible purpose of its occupation.
Many persons of great practical experience would have preferred Crete,
as already possessing a safe harbour in Suda Bay, with a climate
superior to that of Cyprus, while according to our assumed defensive
alliance with Turkey in the event of a renewed attack by Russia, we
should have acquired the advantage of Cyprus whenever required, without
the expense or responsibility, and we should in addition have
established a station on the coast of Asia Minor at the secure harbour
afforded by the Gulf of Ayas at Alexandretta.

These geographical questions are a matter of opinion, but now that we
actually have occupied Cyprus it is absolutely necessary to do
something. Without Famagousta, the island would be worthless as a naval
station; with it, as a first-class harbour and arsenal, we should
dominate the eastern portion of the Mediterranean, entirely command the
approach to Egypt, and keep open our communications with the Suez Canal
and the consequent route to India. In the event of the Euphrates valley
line of railway becoming an accomplished fact, Cyprus will occupy the
most commanding position. But, all these advantages will be neutralised
unless Famagousta shall represent the power of England like Malta and
Gibraltar. The more minutely that we scrutinise the question of a
Cyprian occupation, the more prominent becomes the importance of
Famagousta; with it, Cyprus is the key of a great position; without it,
the affair is a dead-lock.

There is unfortunately a serious drawback in the extreme unhealthiness
of this otherwise invaluable situation, Famagousta, which would at
present render it unfit for a military station. There are several
causes, all of which must be removed, before the necessary sanitary
change can be accomplished. The vast heaps of stones, all of which are
of an extremely porous nature, have absorbed the accumulated filth of
ages, and the large area now occupied by these ruins must be a fertile
source of noxious exhalations. During the rainy season the surface
water, carrying with it every impurity, furnishes a fresh supply of
poison to be stored beneath these health-destroying masses, which cannot
possibly be cleansed otherwise than by their complete obliteration. It
may be readily understood that the high ramparts of the walls to a
certain extent prevent a due circulation of air, which increases the
danger of miasma from the ruin-covered and reeking area of the old
Venetian city. Should the harbour works be commenced, all this now
useless and dangerous material will be available for constructing the
blocks of concrete required for the sea-wall, and the surface of the
town will be entirely freed from the present nuisance without additional
expense. The few modern buildings should be compulsorily purchased by
the Government, and entirely swept away, so that the area inclosed by
the fortification walls should represent a perfectly clean succession of
levels in the form of broad terraces, which would drain uniformly
towards the sea. Upon these purified and well-drained plateaux the new
town could be erected, upon a special plan suitable to the locality, and
in harmony with the military requirements of a fortified position. The
value of the land thus recovered from the existing ruin would be
considerable, and, if let on building leases, would repay the expense of
levelling, draining, and arranging for occupation. In this manner one of
the prime causes of the present unhealthiness would be removed; by the
same operation, the ditch of the citadel would be pumped dry, and all
communication shut off from the sea, which now produces a stagnant and
offensive pool, breeding only reeds, mosquitoes, and malaria.

We now arrive at the most formidable origin of the Famagousta fever--the
marshes caused by the overflow of the Pedias river. The description that
I have already given of the delta formed by the deposit of mud during
inundations, and the total absence of any exit for the waters by a
natural channel, will convey to the minds of the most inexperienced an
extreme cause of danger. I can see only one practicable method of
surmounting this great difficulty. The Pedias river must be conducted to
the sea through an artificial channel, and it must (like the Rhone) be
confined between raised banks of sufficient height to prevent any chance
of overflow, and of a width arranged to produce a rapid current, that
will scour the bed and carry the mud to deposit far beyond the shore.
This work would be expensive, but, on the other hand, the collateral
advantages would be great. The land, which is now almost valueless,
owing to the uncertainty of inundations, would be rendered fruitful, and
by an arrangement of cattle-wheels the irrigation could always be
ensured, as the water exists within five feet of the present surface. At
this moment, neither drains are made, nor any control of nature is
exercised by the fever-stricken population, who trust entirely to the
uncertain chances of the seasons. We have an example in the original
fens of Lincolnshire, which, by a system of drainage, have been brought
into agricultural value; a series of large and deep open ditches, such
as are seen in every marsh or river-meadow throughout England, would
not only drain the surface of the Famagousta delta, but would supply the
water, to be raised by cattle-lifts and wind-pumps, for the purposes of
irrigation. There is much work for the agricultural engineer, but if
this important enterprise is seriously commenced the future results will
well repay the outlay.

Some persons have attributed the cause of unhealthiness to the existence
of the trenches made by the Turks during the siege in 1571, which are
considered to emit malarious exhalations. I do not think so; all these
low levels, surrounded by high banks which protect the crops from wind,
are most carefully cultivated with beans, cereals, cotton, and garden
produce, and I do not believe that successful gardens are malarious, but
only those localities where water is allowed to become stagnant, in
which case cultivation must be a failure. Many of these rich bottoms
were at one time valuable as "madder" grounds, and Consul White states
that in 1863 good madder-root land at Famagousta was worth 90 pounds per
acre. It may not be generally known that the indelible dye called
"Turkey red" was formerly produced from the madder-root, but that it has
been entirely superseded by the chemical invention known as "alizarine,"
which, by reducing the price in a ruinous degree, has driven the
vegetable substance out of the market, and the madder is no longer
cultivated. This chemical discovery has lowered the rich, deep, sandy
loams of Famagousta and of Morphu to a mere average agricultural value,
and has completely destroyed an important local industry.

The madder-root required three years before it arrived at maturity. From
Consul Riddell's report in 1872, the amount of madder exported reached
330 tons, of which 250 tons were shipped for Great Britain. The same
authority reports in 1873, "The falling-off, however, in the quantity
sent to Great Britain is remarkable, being only 230 cwts. (11.5 tons)."
This disappearance of a special agricultural industry has been an
enormous loss to the proprietors of the madder-lands.

The fruit-orchards and gardens of Famagousta are the finest in the
island. The land is extremely rich, and of a bright chocolate colour,
but the trees are, as usual in Cyprus, planted too close to each other,
which interferes with the necessary light and circulation of air. These
gardens commence just outside the walls, and, running parallel with the
sea below the large village of Varoschia, extend for about two miles
along the shore. Oranges, lemons, pomegranates, apricots, figs, prickly
pears and mulberry-trees, are the chief products, and it was here that
we obtained the largest and best oranges that I had tasted in the
island; generally this fruit is much inferior to the varieties imported
into England. The pomegranates of Cyprus are very celebrated, and are
exported to Egypt, but it is a fruit that is not generally appreciated
by Europeans. There are extensive gardens inland, but they do not convey
the idea of "gardens" as understood by Englishmen, but are merely dense
groves of various fruit-trees, irrigated by a cattle-wheel, and planted
with an utter disregard of all taste or arrangement.

The large village, or town of Varoschia is an important adjunct to
Famagousta, from which it is hardly separated. It was originally founded
by the Venetian Christians, who were expelled from Famagousta after the
Turkish conquest. There is a large Greek Church, extensive bazaars, and
several manufactures of pottery, for which the locality is celebrated.
We saw a vessel loading in the harbour entirely with these--jars,
water-bottles, dishes, &c.--but the earthen-ware is of a coarse
description, and the quality of the clay does not admit of sufficient
porosity for the purpose of cooling water or of filtering, like the
Egyptian ware; at the same time it is not sufficiently impervious for
the retention of wine or oil without a considerable loss by absorption.
Varoschia has been always celebrated for a large production of a high
quality of silk, but the quantity has fallen off, as in all other parts
of the island. There are some good houses in this thriving and busy
little town, and it is said that decent accommodation may be had; but I
preferred the cleanliness and independence of our own tent.

Varoschia is not much healthier than Famagousta, as it suffers from the
same cause, in addition to an enormous accumulation of filth on the
heights at the rear of the town. If this were carefully stored to manure
the numerous gardens, it would be profitably utilised; but it belongs to
nobody in particular, and is a public nuisance. A fine should be
inflicted upon the municipal authorities in the sanitary interests of
the population, and the refuse of the neighbourhood should be
periodically collected into heaps and burned. Captain Inglis and the
various British officials moved their quarters from Famagousta to the
healthy village of Derinia, about three miles distant, during our stay
near Varoschia. The new station is to the south-west of the port, and
completely beyond the influence of the marshes, the elevation being
about 250 feet above the sea. Should this locality become a permanently
healthy settlement, the sanitary difficulty of our position will be
considerably modified, as the troops might be quartered at Derinia in
time of peace, and even during war they would be immediately within
call.

A lake exists about three miles inland from Famagousta, which is between
four and five miles in circumference; the water is fresh, but
exceedingly shallow and impure, the edges covered with high reeds, which
extend for several hundred yards from the shore. This lake swarms with
varieties of water-fowl, which can only be shot by wading and waiting
concealed in the high cover of rushes and tamarisk, as they are
exceedingly wary. Commander Hammond, of H.M.S. Torch, bagged thirty-five
ducks to his own gun upon one occasion, by thus challenging the fever
and remaining hip-deep in the muddy water for some hours. I did not feel
disposed to risk the chances of malaria, as the effluvium from the mud
was sufficiently offensive even when walking round the margin, and I
already felt some warning symptoms of the heavy atmosphere of
Famagousta, which might, if neglected, have terminated in ague. I shot a
fine specimen of the glossy ibis, and I otherwise contented myself with
watching the variety of ducks, coots, teal, and other water-fowl through
my glass, as they enjoyed themselves in flocks upon the surface of the
lake at a great distance.

Having exhausted the sights of Famagousta, we started on the 22nd of
March for Kuklia, twelve miles distant, where we had left our vans in
charge of the headman during our absence in the Carpas country. Upon our
arrival we found them untouched or unharmed, and we were met not only by
the headman himself, but by our two bullock-drivers Georgi and Theodori,
who had come from Lithrankomi. Georgi had recovered from the despair
which had overpowered him when we last parted, and he was almost
triumphant when he related the success of his mission to Gallibornu with
the mysterious paper written in English, that I had given him in order
to terrify the purchaser of his bullock. He had exhibited this
awe-inspiring epistle, which nobody could either read or understand, and
Georgi had taken advantage of his opportunity to threaten the sharp
cattle-dealer with a long list of imaginary punishments that would be
inflicted by English law should he refuse to return the bullock, which
had been hired for a special service by an Englishman. The paper was
closely scrutinised, and being in an unknown character, Georgi felt his
advantage, and expounded the contents so forcibly that he worked upon
the fears of the inhabitants of Gallibornu, who insisted that the Turk
should compromise the affair and return the handsome bullock, receiving
in exchange his own half-starved old animal, in addition to a present
of half a sovereign. Georgi was only too delighted to immediately clench
the bargain. I advised him in future to manage his own cattle-dealing
instead of confiding in his able friend Theodori, and I ordered the oxen
to be put in the yokes at once, and to draw the vans to our old
camping-place beneath the hawthorn-tree. Upon arrival at the spot a
great change had taken place; the hawthorns were a mass of blossom, and
scented the air for a considerable distance; the groves of fig-trees
had broken into leaf; the trefoil had grown to a height of two feet, and
numerous cattle were tethered in the rich field, to feed upon the few
square yards that each owner had purchased at a high price to save his
animals from starvation. A field of broad-beans that we had left in
early blossom twenty-four days before now produced our well-known
vegetable for dinner, and I observed that the native children, with
their usual liking for uncooked food, were eating these indigestible
beans raw!

There had been no rain since our departure, and every crop that was not
irrigated was absolutely destroyed. The aspect of the country was
pitiable; it should have been at this season a waving sea of green
barley and young wheat, but it was a withered desert --with a few
patches of verdure like oases in a thirsty wilderness. This terrible
calamity extended throughout the entire district or plain of Messaria,
and exhibited a sad example of the great necessity of Cyprus--"an
organised system of artificial irrigation."

We remained some days at Kuklia, during which I strengthened the
gipsy-van by lashing the frame-work with raw bull's-hide and securing
the blocks of the springs to the axles with the same material. It is
worthy of note "that a fresh hide should never be used for lashing, but
a skin that has been already dried should be soaked for twenty-four
hours, and then cut into a strip as carefully and as long as the size
will permit. When thus prepared, it should be re-soaked for four or five
hours, and used while wet as a lashing, drawn as tight as possible. The
power of contraction is enormous, and when dry the skin becomes as hard
as wood; but a fresh hide has not the same contractive power, and will
stretch and become loose when subject to a severe strain." It was a
great comfort to return to the luxury of the gipsy-van, which looked the
picture of neatness; the gorgeous Egyptian lantern had ceased to exist
as an object of value, as it had several times been upset and thrown
completely off its hook by the jumpings and bumpings of the vehicle when
forcibly dragged over the steep banks and watercourses. It was now
reduced to an "antique," and looked as though it had been recovered from
the ruins of an ancient temple.

The post was kindly forwarded from Famagousta by the chief commissioner,
and we revelled in newspapers, which during our stay in the Carpas had
been a complete blank. Our cook Christo had also received letters which
disconcerted him. After dinner at about 8.30 P.M. he suddenly appeared
at the tent door with a very large breakfast-cup in his hand. "I beg
your pardon, sir, but I'm sorry to say my mother has just fallen down
and broken her leg!" was his first announcement; and he continued, "she
is an old woman, past fifty, sir, and a broken leg is a very bad thing;
I have come to ask for some brandy, and I've brought a cup."

"Your mother broken her leg, Christo? Why, where is she?" I replied.

"She is at Athens, sir, and I want a drop of brandy, as I have just
received the letter, and I am very anxious about her."

I now discovered that the brandy was not intended for his mother's leg,
but for his own stomach, to comfort his nerves and to allay his filial
anxiety. He had a good dose that quickly restored his usual spirits, as
I heard him relating stories in the servants' tent which created roars
of laughter.

Christo was an excellent, hard-working fellow, who having passed his
life at sea, was exceedingly handy, and combined the usual good
qualities of a sailor with the art of cookery and a certain knowledge
which enabled him to act as interpreter. He was as clever in lashing up
a van with raw hide as in preparing a dinner at the shortest notice, and
his mayonnaise would have raised the envy of many a professor in
England. His English varied like his dishes, and upon certain days there
was a considerable vagueness in his language, while at other times he
expressed himself clearly. Upon one of these foggy intervals I asked him
"Why the people had made so much noise during the night?" and he
replied, that "A little hen-horse had made one child in the stable!" He
intended to explain that a pony had foaled in the stable. When he first
joined us he frequently rambled and confused his genders, and termed all
females "hens," which at times had almost as ludicrous an effect as the
mistakes of my African cook, who invariably called "cocks and hens"--
"bulls and women." I never had so useful a man in travelling, as he
excelled at tent pitching and arranging the luggage on pack-animals, and
took the lead in everything; in addition to which he showed a great
interest in interpreting, which is a rare quality in a dragoman.

We selected a road upon higher ground for our return to Lefkosia, and
thus avoided the watercourses which had caused so much vexation and
delay upon our former journey. The first night's halt was at the long
stone bridge across the Pedias river, about twenty miles from Kuklia,
opposite the village of Kythrea at four miles distance--this was only
constructed eight years ago, and it was already rendered impassable by
the overflow of the torrent, which had carried away a considerable
portion. On the following morning we arrived at the capital, and were
once more hospitably received by Sir Garnet and Lady Wolseley.



CHAPTER VII.

KYRENIA AND THE NORTH COAST.

The change from camp-life to the luxury of Government House, with the
charm of the society of Sir Garnet and Lady Wolseley and officers of the
staff, was a most agreeable interlude in the usually monotonous journey
through Cyprus. The view from the verandah had changed, and was
certainly not charming, as the few green tints that had looked hopeful
on our former visit had turned to brown; but the house within more than
compensated for the cheerlessness of the exterior landscape. A picnic
excursion to the castle of St. Hilarion had been arranged for the 29th
instant by Colonel Greaves, C. B., chief of the staff, who kindly
included us in the invitation. This point was seldom visited, as it was
situated 3240 feet above the sea upon the sky-line of the crags above
Kyrenia, and the ride there and back covered a distance of about thirty
miles from Lefkosia. The energy of English ladies rather astonishes the
people of this country, where inertia is considered to be happiness, and
although our animals were ordered to be saddled punctually at 6 A.M. the
owner in Lefkosia was sceptical as to our actual start at so early an
hour; therefore much time was lost on the morning in question in sending
messengers vainly to and fro for the missing mule and pony; and 8 A.M.
arrived before their appearance. The party had started two hours
earlier. Colonel White, 1st Royal Scots, who was the chief commissioner
at Lefkosia, had kindly waited to accompany us. As St. Hilarion was only
a short distance to the left of the Kyrenia road, I had determined not
to return, but to send the camels and luggage on direct. We left all
unnecessary luggage locked up within the vans, which Sir Garnet Wolseley
kindly permitted us to leave at head-quarters. We took leave of our good
and big friend Georgi and his sharp companion Theodori, who returned to
Dali, where Georgi would meet the only Venus that I have seen in Cyprus,
his wife; but even that pretty Venus was ruined by high boots and baggy
trousers.

Crossing the dry bed of the Pedias below the Government House, we struck
a line over the open and withered plain to a direct route to Kyrenia. At
a distance of about five miles from Lefkosia, the broad and well-trodden
road became lost in a variety of independent paths, which at length
converged into one narrow route that ascended a curious formation of
water-washed and utterly denuded hills, composed of sandstone,
claystone, and peculiar deposits of sedimentary rock, which in places
resembled an artificial pavement. In many places the strata were
vertical, exhibiting the confusion that had been created by the
upheaval. Having passed through a succession of ups and downs for about
three miles, sometimes winding through narrow gorges where the soil was
covered with an efflorescence of salt, at other places clambering over
loose rocks and entering narrow glens, we arrived in a plain at the foot
of the bold and bluff range of the Carpas mountains. The path led to a
village almost concealed amongst dwarf-cypress and pines, at a spot
where the ascent commenced to a deep gorge forming a gap between the
heights upon either side, through which the road was being rendered
accessible for wheeled conveyances to Kyrenia.

We had quitted the Messaria and its misery; thank Heaven, we once more
looked upon green trees, and magnificent cliffs of compact grey
limestone tinted with various colours according to the presence of
metallic substances, instead of wearying the eyes with the depressing
brown of a withered surface. The road was improving under the hands of
several working parties, and the animals stepped along at a cheerful
pace. On the left hand were exceedingly steep slopes, ascending for
several hundred yards to the base of cliffs, which rose in many places
almost perpendicular to the height of more than 2000 feet above the sea.
Upon our right we skirted a deep ravine, the bottom and sides of which
were completely covered with mastic shrubs, and myrtles. Above this
gorge the cliffs rose in imposing grandeur to about 3000 feet, the
clefts being filled with evergreens; and in some unapproachable heights
which man had not invaded the Pinus maritima ornamented the grey crags
with its foliage of pale green.

We should have turned off to the left towards St. Hilarion, but, without
a guide, we overshot the path, and having ridden about three miles
through the gorge, always ascending, we suddenly burst upon the
magnificent view of the northern side. At this moment a few heavy drops
of rain fell from inky clouds which had been gathering among the
mountains, and I thought it advisable to forego the excursion to St.
Hilarion, and to push on towards Kyrenia, three miles distant, though
apparently almost at our feet.

The dark clouds above us added to the beauty of the scenery. We looked
down upon the blue sea, and the snow-covered mountains of Caramania in
the northern distance, with the beautiful foreground of perpendicular
green cliffs upon our right, up to nearly 3000 feet, and the abrupt
mountain sides upon the left, which formed the entrance to the gorge.
The narrow strip of three miles between the sea margin and the point
upon which we stood was a green forest of caroub-trees, almost to the
water's edge. The town, and its striking feature the Venetian fort,
stood out in clear relief against the background of the sea. To the
right and left, farther than the eye could reach, were trees of caroubs,
varied by almonds, mulberries, and occasional date-palms, interspersed
with highly irrigated fields of emerald green. The beautiful old
monastery of Bellapais, erected by the Templars, although in reality
half ruined, appeared from this distance like some noble ancestral
mansion, surrounded by all that could make a landscape perfect: trees,
water, mountains, precipices; above which towered the castle of
Buffavento upon the craggy sky-line; while to the left, cutting with
keen edges the dark cloud that hovered over it, were the walls and
towers of St. Hilarion; where by this time we should have been eating
luncheon with a charming party. Pit-pat came the heavy drops; and still
drinking in the magnificent view, we descended the stony and steep path
towards Kyrenia. When we arrived near the base, after a descent of about
a mile and three-quarters, a perfectly straight road of a good width led
direct to Kyrenia, through a forest of the shady and ever green
caroub-trees. By this time the shower had cleared away, and only a few
light clouds hovered over the high point of St. Hilarion, and having had
nothing to eat, we began to wish for balloons to make a direct ascent to
the well-provided party on the heights above us, who were enjoying the
hospitality of Colonel Greaves. We comforted ourselves with the idea
that we had at all events been wise in foregoing pleasure when upon the
march, as the camels had been ordered to start from Lefkosia, and it
would be advisable that the camp should be arranged without delay. We
accordingly dismounted about half a mile from Kyrenia, and having tied
the animals beneath a wide-spreading caroub, we selected another tree,
beneath which we sat to await the arrival of the camels and servants; in
the meantime I sent the muleteer into the town to buy us something to
eat. After about an hour he returned, with a bottle of Commandoria wine,
a bunch of raw onions, a small goat's-milk cheese, a loaf of brown
native bread, and a few cigarettes, which the good, thoughtful fellow
had made himself for my own private enjoyment. Many years of my life
have been passed in picnicking, and when really hungry, it is
astonishing how vulgar diet is appreciated; we regretted the loss of our
friends, but we nevertheless enjoyed the simple fare, and having looked
at our watches, we speculated upon the probable arrival of the camels
and luggage, and waited patiently beneath the tree.

There is a limit to all endurance, and when 5 P.M. arrived without a
sign of camels, we came to the conclusion that something had gone wrong.
It was in vain that I had searched the pass with my binocular; only the
white thread between the green shrubs appeared, that denoted the path;
and this was desolate.

At length I observed something moving on the crest of the pass: mules or
horses! then a parasol! somebody was coming; most likely returning to
Kyrenia from the picnic? Presently a mule, saddled but without a rider,
came galloping down the road. This we stopped, and secured; it looked
like a practical result of a good luncheon and champagne cup. Shortly
after this first appearance a dismounted English servant came walking
down the road after his mule, which he was happy to recover from our
hands. He had neither seen nor heard anything of our camels or people,
but his master, the chief commissioner of Kyrenia (Dr. Holbeach, 60th
Rifles), was approaching, together with Mr. and Mrs. Stevenson, all of
whom were returning from St. Hilarion. At length the distant parasol
drew nearer, and by degrees we could distinguish the party as they
emerged from the pass upon the broad straight road.

As there are no highwaymen in Cyprus, I had no hesitation in walking
suddenly out of the green wood upon the road-side and intercepting them
as they arrived in front of our position; I explained that we were
"waifs and strays" upon the wide world of Cyprus without baggage or
servants, or, in fact, what Shakespeare calls "sans everything." Mr.
Holbeach with much kindness and hospitality captured us as vagrants, and
insisted upon escorting us to his house. Mrs. Stevenson was good enough
to supply Lady Baker with a few little necessaries for the night, and
Mr. Holbeach, having thoughtfully made up an impromptu little
dinner-party of all named, we passed a most pleasant evening, although I
fear that our sudden invasion of his bachelor's quarters must have
caused him some inconvenience.

On the following morning, we enjoyed the splendid view from the covered
balcony at the back of Mr. Holbeach's house, which showed the richest
foreground in Cyprus in the dark green of caroub-forest and gardens of
fruit-trees intermingled with plots of barley already in the ear. This
rich front was backed by the wall of dark limestone cliffs two miles
distant, 3000 feet elevation, with the castles of Buffavento and St.
Hilarion perched left and right on the giddy summits of the highest
crags, which in the clear atmosphere apparently overhung our position.
We then breakfasted, took leave of our hospitable host, and rode back to
Lefkosia to inquire into the cause of the delay.

On arrival we found a string of mules just starting, as the camels that
had been engaged yesterday had never appeared. I sent off the servants
and animals, with orders to pitch the tent upon the site of the old camp
of the 42nd Highlanders, within a mile of Kyrenia; we then once more
encroached upon the kindness of Sir Garnet and Lady Wolseley for the
night. On the following morning we rode to Kyrenia, sixteen miles, and
found tents pitched in a delightful situation, and the camp swept and
arranged in perfect order. There could not have been a better site for a
military camp, as the ground was firm and sloped gradually towards the
sea, above which the elevation may have been about 120 feet. The
beautiful caroub-trees afforded a dense shade for individual tents and
for unlimited numbers of men. The ground had been well drained, and
every care had been taken to ensure the health of the troops; but in
spite of all sanitary arrangements they had suffered severely from
fever, by which, although only four had actually succumbed, and now lay
in the lonely little cemetery close to our tents, the regiment had been
demoralised, and was withdrawn from this lonely position completely
fever-smitten. I made close inquiries among the natives, and all agreed
that the past year, having been unusually wet, had been exceptionally
unhealthy, and the inhabitants had suffered almost to the same degree as
the Europeans. It was painfully clear that when the rainfall was
sufficiently plentiful to produce abundant harvests it at the same time
ensured a crop of fevers.

We remained ten days in our Kyrenia camp, and we were both sorry to
leave, as the neighbourhood is exceedingly beautiful and full of
interest; there is certainly no portion of Cyprus that can equal it in
the picturesque, or in the extreme richness of genuine forest-trees and
foliage.

The town is small and most irregular: an old Turkish graveyard forms a
boundary upon the outskirts opposite the fort, precisely similar in
position to that of Famagousta. Within 300 paces of this point are the
principal houses, mostly well built of stone and surrounded by
high-walled gardens fruitful in oranges, lemons, almonds, apricots,
figs, and the fruits commonly known throughout the island. The houses
are generally one story above the ground-floor, with a wide balcony that
forms an open face to the first-floor of five or six arches, which
support the roof upon that side. This is a convenient plan for the
climate, as it admits fresh air to all the rooms which open into the
balcony; in fact it is an open landing to the staircase. A few
date-palms ornament the gardens, the presence of these graceful trees
being a sure sign of the preponderance of Turks in the population.

The fort of Kyrenia is a great curiosity, as it forms a portion of the
harbour, being situated like the nose in a pair of spectacles, the
basins being the eyes right and left. The actual defences are intact,
although the inner accommodation for barracks, magazines, &c., &c.,
require great repairs and alteration. The walls are of solid squared
masonry, the stones jointed with the usual imperishable cement, and rise
to the great perpendicular height of upwards of seventy feet sheer from
the bottom of the fosse. There is only one entrance, by a narrow bridge
upon arches, across the extremely wide and deep ditch, terminating near
the gateway by a drawbridge, which admits an entry in the face of the
immense wall, with portcullis and iron-bound hinged gate. The ramparts
overlooking the town and harbour on the west face are 147 yards in
length, exclusive of the tower, and the embrasures of solid masonry
measured at the angle are generally twenty-four feet in thickness. The
fort is nearly square, and is flanked at each corner by a circular tower
which would completely enfilade the ditch by several tiers of guns. This
powerful fortress is washed by the sea upon two sides (the north and
east), and the foundations upon the native rock are protected from the
action of the waves by reefs and huge fragments of natural detached
masses which characterise this portion of the coast. As I stood upon the
parapet facing north I obtained an admirable view of the original
harbours to my left and right, and although they could never have
admitted large vessels, I was struck by the great importance of this
sole place of refuge upon the northern coast of Cyprus, which in former
times had suggested such a formidable arrangement for defence. The fort
was constructed by the Venetians, but there are fallen masses of much
older works that now lie at the foot of the sea-face, and add to the
natural reefs in defending the foundations from the breaking water.

The style of this fortress suggests a date anterior to Famagousta, as it
is devoid of cavaliers and depends for its defence upon the simple
flanking fire of the four towers and the great height and thickness of
the walls. It is supplied with fresh water by an aqueduct, and is
provided with immense reservoirs of masonry to contain a sufficient
quantity during a prolonged siege, when the outer aqueduct might be
destroyed by the enemy. There are extensive subterranean caves and
dungeons, but these have not yet been explored. Above this fine old
specimen of Venetian fortifications, upon the high platform of the tower
facing the harbour, was a flag-staff, upon which a small bundle of rags
fluttered in the strong wind, as though they, had been arranged to
frighten the jackdaws from building within the crevices of masonry. It
appeared that this miserable remnant of tattered bunting had once
represented a British Union Jack! and the colourless, poverty-stricken
thing flapped and cracked as it tore itself into the finest threads of
misery in the gale, too truly representing the result of our ambiguous
position according to the terms of the Cyprian occupation. I felt
ashamed that such an exhibition should meet the eye of any foreign ship
upon entering the harbour of Kyrenia, and I was informed "that it was
the only flag that was possessed by the authorities." As all the revenue
of the island was handed over to the Porte excepting a bagatelle
insufficient for the requirements of the country, the really overworked
and energetic servants of the Crown were absolutely obliged to practise
a most rigid economy, commencing with their own salaries, equally
vexatious to themselves and unworthy of our high position.

The curious collection of old cannon had all been removed by the Turks,
but one iron piece remained, which, being almost worthless as metal, had
been left behind when the bronze guns had been shipped to
Constantinople. This was a great curiosity, as it somewhat resembled a
hand-bell about five feet in length; the bell which formed the mouth to
receive the ball was only two feet in length, although the muzzle was
sufficiently wide to admit the stone projectile of nineteen inches
diameter. The portion which resembled the handle of a bell was the
continuation which formed the narrow chamber for the powder; this was
about three feet long and eight inches thick*. (*These measurements are
from memory, excepting the diameter of muzzle, which I took on the
spot.) There were no trunnions to this singular old gun, but it may have
been lashed to some lever which could be raised or depressed, and it was
evidently intended for firing into shipping from the fort walls, to
command the harbour at a short range. It had been cast with concentric
rings, which I examined carefully, as at first I imagined they had been
wrought-iron shrunk on to the casting: this was not the case, but the
extra thickness of metal at the rings added sufficient strength. The
large stone shot, formed of a peculiarly hard metamorphous rock (a
conglomerate of matter that had been fused by heat), were to be seen in
various positions within the fortress. A few were on the parapet above
the drawbridge, as though prepared for rolling over upon an assaulting
party. I found this quality of rock upon the mountains within two miles
of Kyrenia.

There were evidently two harbours, which included the small bay upon
either side of the present fort; that upon the west was the most
important, as the depth of water is greater, and it shows evident signs
of having received peculiar attention. The remains of the ancient moles
still exist, and afford considerable protection; but the sea has broken
through in several places and washed away the upper tiers of stones.
These moles were carefully constructed by laying the masonry upon a
foundation of hydraulic cement, which connected the various natural
rocks; the layer of cement still exists, while the squared blocks of the
original surface may be seen at the bottom, where they have been
deposited by the waves. Like all defensive works in historical
countries, those of Kyrenia have undergone continual changes and
modifications, as from time to time alterations may have been suggested
by successful attacks. In a ruined tower which, completely isolated
within the sea, commanded the entrance of the harbour on the west, I
observed that an ancient column of white marble from some old building
has been used as a key to prevent the large squared stones from yielding
to the constant vibration caused by the breaking waves. Each tier of
stones has been cut at the central edge to form a half-circle where the
edges of the adjoining blocks were connected; those have been similarly
shaped to produce a complete circle when faced together. The squared
stones in the lower and upper tiers have been perforated in a circle, so
that when several courses of masonry were completed, the hole
represented a shaft of about twelve inches diameter, sunk from top to
bottom; the marble column has been inserted from the top, and has tied
each course effectively together; the havoc occasioned in this tower of
solid squared blocks is the work of man; the stones have until recently
been removed for the purposes of building.

Kyrenia could never have been a perfectly safe harbour in all weathers,
as the entrance is open to the north. There is a slight turn to the
east, which might have protected a few small vessels during a northerly
gale, but this portion is now silted up, and it should be cleared by
dredging. The houses rise above the harbour from the water's edge to the
cliffs, forming a horseshoe shape. Mr. Holbeach had just completed a
small quay of masonry, and a very moderate outlay would restore the
ancient mole and render Kyrenia an important port for the trading
vessels of Syria and Asia Minor. When a good carriage-road shall be
completed to the capital, Lefkosia, only sixteen miles distant, the
value of Kyrenia as a commercial harbour will be much enhanced. There
are also important towns with a considerable population within eight or
nine miles of Kyrenia on the west: Carava and Lapithas would offer
markets for a great extension of trade, and Morphu would be brought
within the same commercial circle. There is a peculiar advantage
throughout the ports of Cyprus in the presence of stone quarries upon
the spot where the material is required; this is specially marked at
Kyrenia, where the solid rock, with its tombs, cave-dwellings, and
ancient quarries, is on the actual borders of the sea, within a few
yards of the existing harbour. There would be no great difficulty in
converting these quarries into a dock, should a demand for stone be
sufficient to repay the outlay for cutting the supply, according to the
example already exhibited and left to us by the ancients.

The quarries of Kyrenia form the chief curiosity of the locality. The
rock is the sedimentary limestone mixed with a proportion of sand that
is the characteristic geological feature around the coast of Cyprus; but
in these quarries the stone is perfectly solid and free from fissures,
which enables the mason to obtain blocks of any size. From prehistoric
times the rock of Kyrenia, which rises about forty feet above the
sea-level, has been worked out upon the most careful method; every block
has been cut from the parent mass by measurement, and no broken edges
have been permitted to destroy the symmetry of the adjoining stone. The
work was commenced from the top, or surface of the rock, and a smooth
cliff face has been produced as the first operation; upon completion the
surface has been lined out parallel with the perpendicular face, and the
blocks have been carefully chiselled and removed by wedges driven
horizontally from beneath. In this manner the rock has been worked until
it resembled a flight of steps, which remain in many places perfect to
the present hour. The entire fortress and town have been constructed
from these quarries, and there can be no doubt that when Kyrenia was
originally founded by the Dorian colonists under Cepheus and Praxander
the stones were obtained from the existing site. There is a considerable
difference in the quality of the rock, which has been remarked by the
original builders, as a passage has been cut through the first cliff
face nearest to the town, and the desired level for wheeled conveyances
having been obtained, the workmen have discovered a superior stone as
they proceeded into the bowels of the quarry. They have accordingly
neglected much of the nearer portion, and have excavated a large square,
always pushing forward towards the west, which is now terminated by a
worked perpendicular face and a series of steps incomplete, precisely as
it remained when the last chisel relinquished the labour.

This quality of rock in all parts of Cyprus is cavernous, and the
natural caves have suggested to the ancients an artificial extension
both for dwellings and for cemeteries. The rock is easily worked by the
mason's pick, and near the town I observed an old fort-ditch which had
been originally excavated for the double object of quarrying building
stone at the same time that it served the purpose of defence. There
would be no great difficulty in connecting the ancient quarry with the
harbour by cutting a canal through the soft rock and extending the depth
of the ancient excavations. It is well known to all quarrymen that the
stone should be placed in a building according to the position in which
it lay when forming the original rock. Within the fortress of Kyrenia
there are many examples of neglect, where the masons have either
inverted or placed the stones sideways, in which case the action of the
weather has completely honey-combed and reduced the material to an
appearance of decayed coral. I observed instances of similar neglect
with the same results in portions of the fortress of Famagousta.

The tombs are easily distinguished from the cave-dwellings with which
the rocks are perforated, as they are merely chambers of a few feet
square sufficient for the reception of a limited number of bodies; the
dwellings have been carefully chiselled, and arranged with a bench cut
from the solid rock around the apartment.

The remains of ancient fortifications, including ruined towers and
ditches, prove that in former times Kyrenia was of far greater extent
than would be implied by its present small proportions. In like manner
with Famagousta this powerful fort has been considered as a position to
be occupied exclusively by Turks. The population of the town is now
about 600, but the Greek element is increasing since the British
Convention ensured their protection.

Our camp was daily visited by the women of both Turks and Cypriotes, who
came to indulge their curiosity, and my wife had some difficulty in
receiving the increasing circle of acquaintance. The want of a female
interpreter was at first acutely felt, as the conversation was much
restricted when Georgi was the only medium. After a few days this
shyness on the part of the Turkish ladies wore off, and Georgi, who was
a good, painstaking young fellow, became a favourite; some of these
ladies were exceedingly gracious, and took off their veils when in the
tent with Lady Baker and myself, and conversed upon various subjects
with much intelligence. A few were decidedly pretty; all were studiously
clean and well dressed, and they formed a marked contrast in appearance
and general style to the Cypriote women; the breed was superior, their
hands were delicate and well cared for, but disfigured by the prevalent
habit of staining the nails and palms with henna. This plant is called
shenna by all Turks and Cypriotes, and it is imported from Syria for the
purpose of dyeing the hair, and also the feet and hands of Turkish
women. It is not a production of Cyprus, as has been erroneously stated
by some authors; I made particular inquiries in all portions of the
island, and of all classes, upon this subject. The henna, or shenna, is
only to be met with in some few gardens, where it is cultivated as an
ornamental shrub, in the same manner that the arbutus may be seen in the
shrubberies of England. The Turkish women are very particular in dyeing
their hair, and use various preparations. The shenna produces a glossy
red, which some years ago was the fashionable tinge in England. There is
also a small seed of a plant which is prepared by roasting until burnt,
like coffee, and then reducing to powder, which is formed into a paste
with oil; this is a well-known dye, which turns the hair into a deep
black. There was a sudden rush for information when the British
occupation of Cyprus was announced to the startled public, and books
were rather hurriedly put together, compiled from various authorities,
which, although yielding valuable information upon many points,
unfortunately perpetuated errors by reproducing erroneous statements.
The asserted existence of henna as "an indigenous shrub which originated
the name of Cyprus," is an instance of such mistakes, similar to the
descriptions of "HEATH-covered surface," when no such plant exists upon
the island.

The longer I remained in the neighbourhood of Kyrenia the deeper was my
regret that the arrivals of strangers should take place in the southern
ports, instead of receiving their first impressions of Cyprus by an
introduction to this lovely coast. I was never afloat on the northern
side, but the view must be strikingly impressive, as the trees, ever
green almost to the water's edge, shadow the rocky coves, and clothe the
surface to the base of the mountains, whilst, at a short distance from
the land these must appear as though rising abruptly from the sea. The
castles upon the extreme summits form unmistakable landmarks, resembling
sentries on either side the fort and harbour of Kyrenia.

On 6th April the general rendezvous was the monastery of Bellapais,
three and a half miles distant from Kyrenia, in response to the
invitation of Major McCalmont, 7th Hussars, on the staff of Sir Garnet
Wolseley, who had taken immense trouble for the gratification of his
guests by sending tents, baggage, and sleeping accommodation for two
nights, in addition to every kind of necessary refreshments.

The route from Kyrenia lay through a country of the brightest shades of
green, parallel with the sea, about a mile and a half distant, towards
which a succession of deep ravines, which formed river-beds in the rainy
season, drained from the mountains at right angles with the path. This
side of the Carpas range formed a strong contrast with the parched
southern slopes, as every garden and farm was irrigated by water
conducted from the mountains in artificial channels, which would
otherwise have been absorbed and lost in the wide and stony stream-beds
if left to its natural course. We passed through sombre groves of very
ancient olives of immense girth; then through villages concealed among a
luxuriant growth of fruit-trees, the almonds being already large, and
eaten eagerly by the inhabitants, although still unripe. The oranges in
heavy crops weighed down the dark green branches, the deep yellow fruit
contrasting brightly with the foliage, and the fields of barley that had
benefited by artificial irrigation looked like green carpets spread
between the neighbouring villages and gardens. Having crossed several
deep and wide stream-beds, in one of which the water still trickled in a
clear but narrow channel, we commenced a steep ascent among scattered
but numerous caroub-trees, which gave a park-like appearance to the
country, and upon gaining an eminence we came suddenly upon the view of
Bellapais. The monastery was not more than 600 yards distant, but a deep
hollow intervened between the opposing heights, which necessitated a
circuit of more than a mile before we could reach the village. It would
be impossible to select a more beautiful position for a house than the
flat summit of the height upon which we stood. The valley at our feet
nursed a rippling stream deep in the bottom of a precipitous gorge, the
rough sides clothed with myrtles, which now occupied basket-makers who
were completing their work upon the spot where they cut their wands of
this tough wood in lieu of willow. The fine old Gothic building stood
before us on the opposite height upon the extreme edge, surrounded by
trees of various kinds, including tall poplars which unfortunately were
not yet in leaf. This grand old pile was an impressive contrast to the
scene around; there were neat villages with flat-topped roofs of clay,
down in the vale far beneath, with the intense blue sea washing the
rocky shore: there was also the adjoining village at the rear, occupying
the same plateau as the monastery, with its rich gardens and groves of
orange-trees; the ruined walls and towers of Buffavento upon the highest
crags dominated our position by more than 2,500 feet, and the castle of
St. Hilarion stood upon a still higher elevation on the western sky-line
behind Kyrenia. There was nothing modern that appeared compatible with
the style and grandeur of Bellapais. When this monastery was erected,
Cyprus must have been a flourishing and populous country worthy of such
architecture, but the present surroundings, although harmonising in
colouring, and in a quiet passiveness of scene, in no way suggested a
connection with a past that gave birth either to the Gothic building or
to the important castles of Buffavento and St. Hilarion.

Having skirted the amphitheatre upon the monastery level, we passed
through an orange-garden and entered the courtyard. The church occupies
the right side, and the wall is fronted by cloisters which, supported
upon arches, form a quadrangle. A stone staircase ascends from the
cloisters to the refectory upon the left; this is in considerable ruin,
but must originally have formed an imposing hall. Upon the flat roof of
the cloisters, which is perfect for three sides of the quadrangle, a
magnificent view is obtained through the fine old Gothic open window,
which looks down sheer to the great depth below, and commands the entire
country seaward. Descending into the courtyard to the northern cloister
we pass two large sarcophagi of white marble. One of these has been
elaborately worked in rich garlands of flowers and very grand bulls'
heads, together with nude figures, all of which have been much damaged.
These sarcophagi have been used as cisterns for containing water, as the
tap is still visible. Immediately opposite is the entrance to the great
hall, which is in good repair, as a new cement floor was added by the
British authorities, with the intention of converting it into a
temporary hospital when the troops were suffering from fever at Kyrenia.

This hall is 102 feet long and 33 feet wide, with a height of upwards of
30 feet. Nothing can exceed the beauty of the view from the windows of
this grand entrance, and in the deep recesses we found Sir Garnet and
Lady Wolseley enjoying the scene, while our host, Major McCalmont,
welcomed his guests in this splendid vestige of the Knights Templars.
The abbey, which belonged to the Latin Church, was built during the
Lusignan dynasty by Hugh III. in about 1280 A.D. and was destroyed by
the Turks. The castle of Buffavento, upon the summit of the mountain,
3240 feet above the sea, is of far more ancient date, and is interesting
from the fact of its having during the conquest by Richard Coeur de Lion
succumbed to the assault conducted in person by that king. The castle of
Kyrenia had already fallen, and the wife, daughter, and treasures of
Isaac Comnenus fell into the hands of the victorious English, led by the
gallant Guy de Lusignan in the absence of Richard I., who was at that
time incapacitated through illness, which detained him at Lefkosia. This
fortification was probably the original defence of the town, and could
have had no relation to the present work, which is of a far later date,
and was constructed specially for an armament of heavy guns.

Captain Savile (101st Royal Irish), in his admirable compilation from
all the principal works that have been written upon Cyprus, states:--


    "Richard was now able to turn his thoughts to his
    neglected crusade; he returned to Limasol, and sent
    Isaac's daughter, with his own wife and sister, on before
    him to St. Jean d'Acre. On 5th June, 1191, Richard
    himself sailed from Cyprus, leaving the island
    in charge of Richard de Canville and Robert de
    Turnham, with injunctions to keep the army in Syria
    well provided with provisions.

    "Isaac was placed in silver fetters and taken with
    King Richard to Syria, where he was handed over to
    the Hospitallers, since Knights of Rhodes, for safe
    custody, and was by them confined in the Castle of
    Margat, near Tripoli, where he died shortly afterwards.

    "Several insurrections subsequently occurred in
    Cyprus, but were all suppressed by the decisive and
    prompt action of Robert de Turnham.

    "The Templars now entered into negotiations with
    King Richard for the purchase of Cyprus, and they
    eventually obtained it from him for the sum of 100,000
    Saracenic golden besants; it was further arranged that
    40,000 golden besants should be paid at once, and the
    remainder as soon as it could be derived from the
    revenues of the island."

According to a high authority, De Mas Latrie (see L'Histoire de l'Ile de
Chypre, vol. ii. p. 7), the above sum would now represent about 304,000
pounds sterling.

Richard had at once appreciated the importance of Cyprus as a base of
operations that would secure a supply of provisions within two days'
sail of his salient point of attack, and to which he could retreat in
the event of failure. The geographical position remains the same, but
unfortunately Cyprus is no longer capable of furnishing supplies for a
large army, and the hay necessary for the cavalry was obliged to be
imported at great cost immediately upon the British occupation in 1878.

The Templars quickly became disgusted with their bargain, and after only
ten months' rule, during which the island was in a state of chronic
revolt, they endeavoured to persuade King Richard to cancel the
agreement of purchase.

Captain Savile continues:--

    "Richard expressed his willingness to take over
    the island, but refused to return the 40,000 besants.
    King Guy de Lusignan now came forward, and having
    arranged with the Templars that in the event of
    his being made king of Cyprus he would refund
    to them what they had paid, went to Richard and
    asked him for the island as compensation for the loss
    of the crown of Jerusalem, engaging also to pay the
    same sum that the Templars had agreed to. This
    offer was accepted, and Guy intrusted to his Chancellor,
    Pierre d'Engoulesme, Bishop of Tripoli, the task
    of raising the money. The sum of 60,000 besants was
    collected by means of loans from the citizens of Tripoli
    and from the Genoese, and was paid by Guy to
    Richard, who asked for the remaining 40,000 besants;
    but Guy then pleaded poverty, and it is stated that the
    English king did not urge this claim further."


Guy de Lusignan at once took possession of the island (May 1192), but it
appears, according to De Mas Latrie, that he never actually assumed the
title of King of Cyprus. His reign was but short, lasting only one year
and eleven months; but from all accounts he governed wisely, and
restored order and tranquillity in the island. One of his first measures
was the establishment of a feudal system, and he endowed with portions
of land, according to rank, about 300 knights and 200 esquires, who
formed the nucleus of the nobility and privileged bodies in Cyprus.

The Lusignan dynasty thus commenced in 1192, continued until 1489, and
terminated with Queen Catherine Cornaro, when Cyprus was annexed by the
Venetian Republic.

I did not ascend to the castle of Buffavento, which towered above the
monastery about two miles distant, but I observed with the telescope
that every inch of ground that could be cultivated was green with
barley, even to extreme heights which appeared inaccessible. Small
terraces had been arranged by heaping up stones among the numerous
declivities to save the soil from falling below, and to catch the wash
that might be added by some passing shower. This was the result of
enormous labour, far disproportioned to the value of the crops; yet in
the face of this perilous industry there are persons who declare that
the Cypriotes are an idle race, and that "land exists in superabundant
acreage sufficient for double the amount of population." If this theory
is correct the Cypriotes, who climb to these dizzy heights to build some
walls among the precipices that will act as an agricultural trap to
catch some few square yards of soil, must be simply madmen; but I have
not found them wanting either in brains or industry when working
independently for their own profit; where they are positively wanting,
is in ready money. All strangers who take an interest in agriculture
must be struck with the extraordinary pains taken by the natives to save
the soil from water-wash, to which I have already alluded; but this
peculiarity is the more striking when we observe the dangerous positions
to which they have been driven by a desire to increase their lands.

In a ride from our camp to St. Hilarion I carefully remarked throughout
the extremely rugged nature of the route that no plot, however minute,
had been neglected. In one rocky nook buried among the cliffs was a
little cottage, with hanging gardens all terraced by exceedingly high
walls, yet affording the smallest superficial area for cultivation. This
is discernible with a powerful telescope from the base of the mountains,
although to the naked eye it appears like a cluster of barren rocks,
tinged with the green of fruit-trees growing from the clefts. If such
labour had been expended to produce a picturesque effect the object
might be appreciated, but that it should be profitable is beyond belief.

The summit of St. Hilarion is 3340 feet above the sea, from which, in a
direct line, it is not three miles distant. The cliffs are quite
perpendicular in some places for several hundred feet, and the greatest
care has been taken to perch the towers and walls upon the extreme
verge. Although from the base of the mountains at Kyrenia the castle
appears to occupy an impregnable position, it can be easily approached
by one of those rough paths in the rear which can be scrambled over by
the Cyprian mules. I am afraid that my willing animal grumbled somewhat
at my weight, as it was obliged to halt for breath seven or eight times
before we reached a secluded little dell among the mountain tops, from
which the path ascended by steep zigzags, directly through the entrance
of the old fortification. This narrow dell, hidden among the surrounding
crags about 2800 feet above the sea, was entirely cropped with barley,
and the people who owned the plot resided in a cave that had been
arranged for a habitation for themselves and animals.

On the ridge before we descended into this vale the view was
magnificent, as two lofty crags formed a natural frame for the picture
within. Between these rugged peaks of silvery grey limestone, tinted by
ferruginous rocks with various shades of red and brown, we looked down a
precipice beneath our feet upon the blue sea, the snow-capped mountains
of Caramania in the distance, and the rich border of our own shores
covered with green trees, gardens, fields, and clustering villages: in
the centre of which was the fort and harbour of Kyrenia. I could just
distinguish our white tents among the caroub-trees far beneath. To
complete this superb landscape there should have been a few sails upon
the sea; but all was blue and barren, without signs of life. The castle
of St. Hilarion stood before us on the left as we faced the sea, and the
towers occupied the peaks within less than a quarter of a mile of our
position. Continuing along the narrow vale, a mountain-top upon our
left-hand, which sloped to the path upon which we rode, appeared
slightly higher than the extreme summit of the castle peak; the sides of
this steep slope were covered with dwarf cypress and occasional young
pines, and it was clear that St. Hilarion would be commanded by a
battery upon these heights, or even by the fire of modern rifles.
Ascending the zigzag path among blocks of fallen stone, which had rolled
from the partially dismantled walls, we entered the gateway, and at once
perceived the great extent of the old fortress. The entire mountain-top
is encircled by a high wall, flanked at intervals by towers, and
crenellated for archers or cross-bowmen. Although the opposite mountain
would by artillery fire completely command the inner and lower portion
of the works, which we had now entered, the distance would have been far
beyond the range of catapults or arrows at the time when the defences
were erected. The error appeared to have been in the great area of the
fortifications, which would have necessitated a garrison of at least
4000 men, entailing a large supply of provisions and of water. There was
no trace of a well throughout the works, but I observed the remains of
water-pipes in numerous directions, which appeared to have conducted the
rainfall into reservoirs. The nearest water was by the caves, occupied
by the peasants in the glen, about a quarter of a mile distant. Nothing
would have been easier than an investment, which would sooner or later
have reduced the garrison to starvation, as the precipices upon the
north, west, and east, which rendered the position impregnable from
those directions, at the same time prevented an exit, and effectually
barred all egress either for sorties or escape. The first court upon
entering the gateway comprised several acres, but there was no level
ground, and the natural slope of the mountain was inclosed by walls and
parapets upon all sides, until at convenient places the earth had been
scarped out for the erection of buildings, which had either been
barracks or magazines. These were all of stone and hard cement, and were
now used as stables for various animals by the few peasants of this wild
neighbourhood. Passing through galleries, from which an occasional
window showed a deep chasm of many hundred feet beneath, and continuing
until we entered a tower which terminated the passage upon a
perpendicular peak that enfiladed the outer line of defence, and at the
same time from its great height commanded the main approach, we
descended a rude flight of steps, and presently entered a grand hall
supported upon numerous arches which appeared to connect two peaks of
the mountain. Descending from this solid work, we entered upon a plot of
grass which sloped towards a precipice of rock that completely closed
this side of the fortress. Several cypress-trees grew among the stones,
which assisted us in ascending from this steep and dangerous slope,
until by a passage which led into a quadrangular courtyard of grass we
emerged into an imposing portion of the ruin which commanded the west
face. This was a wall built upon the extreme edge of a precipice, which
looked down a giddy depth, and afforded a lovely view lengthways of the
narrow strip of caroub-forest and verdure along the mountain range to
the margin of the sea. The guide knew every inch of these labyrinth-like
works, and upon my expressing a desire to ascend to the earth on the
summit, he commenced a scramble over loose stones, large rocks, and
occasional slippery grass, holding on to the now numerous dwarf-cypress,
until we reached a narrow saddle of the peak, over which a man could sit
astride and look down to the right and left into the depth below. It was
necessary to cross this saddle for about ten or twelve feet to gain the
wider pathway formed by the natural rock, which was terminated after a
few yards by the castle tower. This, as may be imagined, was built upon
the verge, and formed an artificial peak to the precipices upon all
sides. The view was superb, as it commanded a panorama of mountains,
valleys, the sea, precipices, and all that could make a perfect
landscape.

Sitting down to rest upon the solid rock upon the left of this castle
entrance, I observed that it was composed of white marble. The exterior
had a greyish coating from the action of the weather, but this could be
scraped off with a knife, which exposed the white marble beneath. I
remarked that the cement of the masonry was mixed with small fragments
of the same material, and subsequently I discovered blocks of this
substance in the immediate neighbourhood of Kyrenia.

There was a peculiarity in the walls and towers of the fortress of St.
Hilarion: the stones were of such small dimensions that few exceeded
forty or fifty pounds in weight, except those which formed the principal
halls or other buildings upon the secure plateaux within the outer
works. The masons had apparently depended upon the extreme tenacity and
hardness of their cement, which bound the mass into a solid block. Upon
a close examination I discovered the reason. As the towers and many of
the walls were built upon the extreme edge of various precipices, it
would have been impossible to have erected a scaffolding on the outside,
in the absence of which it would have been difficult to have raised
heavy weights; the builders were therefore obliged to limit the size of
stones to the power of individuals, who would be obliged to supply the
material by the simple handing of single stones as the work proceeded.
By this crude system the mason would stand upon his own wall and receive
the stones as his work grew in height.

The origin and date of this interesting fortress are uncertain, but it
is known that, like other eagle-nests upon this craggy range, it formed
a place of refuge to some of the Latin kings of Cyprus. As in ancient
times the port of Kyrenia had been an object of frequent attacks, the
lofty fortresses of St. Hilarion and Buffavento offered immediate
asylums in the event of a retreat from the invaded harbour. In close
proximity to the sea these elevated posts commanded an extended view,
and the approach of an enemy could be discerned at a distance that would
afford ample warning for preparing a defence. Both St. Hilarion and
other mountain strongholds upon this range were dismantled by the
Venetian Admiral Prioli about A.D. 1490, shortly after the annexation of
the island by Venice.

The return ride down the mountain side was, if possible, more beautiful
than the ascent, as the lights and shadows were rendered acute by dark
but quickly passing clouds; occasional light mists curled round the
highest peaks like veils of gauze and then dissolved in the clear air.
These atmospherical changes intensified the colouring and brought out
the varying tints of grey and purple rocks into a strange prominence,
while every wild flower appeared to thrust itself suddenly into
observation: the purple cistus seemed magnified to the size of roses,
and a bright gleam of gold from the masses of prickly bloom now in
fullest blaze mingled with the general green surface of mastic and
arbutus. As we neared the base of the mountains the dark green rounded
tops of a forest of caroub-trees were occasionally broken by the white
bloom of sweet-scented hawthorns; and to the delight of my ear, the
first notes of the cuckoo that I had heard in Cyprus recalled the spring
of England! It is a curious arrangement of our nervous system, that a
sound so simple in itself should invest the scene with a tenfold
pleasure, and should conjure up uncalled-for recollections of places,
friends, and a life of years long past: but so it was; and for the
moment I longed to be at home. . . .

The mules and camels were ready to start on the 10th April. I had
engaged a well-known fine-looking muleteer named Katarjii Iiani, who had
contracted, for twenty-nine shillings a day, to supply the riding mules
and baggage animals sufficient for our party from Kyrenia to any portion
of the island I might wish to visit. My plan was arranged, to include a
circuit of the north and west to Baffo; thence to Limasol; by which time
the hot weather would be drawing near, and we should seek a settlement
as near the clouds as possible upon Troodos; the snow was still deep
upon the northern summit of this mountain, which formed the prominent
object in the range.

Our new muleteer Iiani was about six feet two inches high, and not being
sufficiently tall, he added nearly three inches more by enormous heels
to a pair of well-fitting high boots; these, fastened below the knee,
just showed sufficient clean grey stocking to prove that he possessed
such hose; which are luxuries seldom indulged in by the peasantry. The
boots were carefully blackened and polished, and were armed with long
spurs. His trousers were the usual roomy pattern, containing sufficient
stuff to clothe a small family of English children; above these
dark-blue bags he wore a kind of Jersey frock of thick silk fitting
tight to his figure; the junction between this purple-striped garment
and his waistband was concealed in the many windings of a long shawl
which passed several times round his centre; in this he wore a
German-silver-handled knife or dagger of pure Birmingham or Sheffield
origin. His figure was very perfect, and he was as thoroughly "set-up"
as though he had been in the hands of a drill-sergeant from his cradle.
He carried a long stick like the shaft of a lance, with which he could
poke a refractory mule, but which he always used when mounting by
resting one end upon the ground, and with the left hand upon the saddle
he ascended with the ease of a spiritualist "floating in the air." Iiani
was very polite to ladies, and he knew their ways. He seldom advanced
without an offering of some lovely flower or a small sprig of
sweetly-scented herb, which he invariably presented with a graceful bow
and a smile intended to represent a combination of humility, amiability,
gentility, and as many other "ilitys" as could be squeezed into his
expressive features. It is hardly necessary after this description to
say that Iiani was a very tall humbug, pleasant in manner when he had
his own way. He was lazy to such a degree that he invariably fell asleep
upon his mule after smoking innumerable cigarettes. In these cases his
long body swayed to the right and left, and occasionally nodded forward
to an extent that sometimes awoke him with the jerk; after which
spasmodic return of consciousness an immediate relapse took place, and
he fell asleep again. As he rode directly before me, as guide, this
chronic somnolency was most annoying, and I had to drive his mule into a
faster walk by poking its hind-quarters with my stick. The animal would
then break into a sudden trot, which would awaken the rider to the fact
that he had been dreaming; upon which he burst into some peculiar song
that was intended to prove that he was wide awake; but after a few bars
the ditty ceased; the head once more nodded and swung from side to side;
the mule relaxed its pace . . . Iiani was asleep again!

In another sense he was very wide-awake. He had represented to me that
he was the proprietor of the seven camels and five mules, but I quickly
discovered that he was only the owner of a completely worn-out old camel
and four mules: he had hired the other animals at a considerably lower
rate than I had agreed to pay him, therefore I should have the
difficulty of several discontented owners instead of one. However, we
had started before this fact was explained by my factotum Christo.

The route lay along the sea-shore through a forest of caroub-trees and
olives, occasionally varied by patches of cereals. Upon our right to the
sea-margin were tolerable crops of barley, most of which had been
irrigated by water conducted from the hills. At about four miles
distance from Kyrenia the caroubs and olives of all growths exhibited
the effects of north-easterly gales, as they inclined to south-west; and
those nearest to the sea, which acted as screens, and received the full
unbroken force of the wind, were seriously damaged. As we proceeded
towards Lapithus the trees became widely scattered, the slopes were
steeper, and the strip of level ground to the sea-margin narrowed to
only half a mile. The mountains rose rapidly from this base, and an
extra deep tinge of green showed the effect of streams, which in this
happy spot of Cyprus are perennial. Many little villages were dotted
about the mountain sides with groves of olives and other fruit-trees,
which appeared to be in danger from the impending cliffs, huge masses
having fallen and rolled to various distances at the bottom. The country
reminded me of the prettiest portions of South Italy.

At eight miles from Kyrenia we arrived at the thriving town of Karava,
built upon the mountain slope and watered by powerful streams diverted
into artificial channels from the parent bed. The large population of
this neighbourhood is principally engaged in the production of silk, for
which the locality has long been famous. Every garden that surrounded
the houses was rich in mulberry-trees, together with oranges and lemons
and the luxuriant foliage of the almond. We rode along steep paved lanes
within the town, through which the water was rushing in refreshing
streams, until we at length reached the precipitous edge of the ravine,
which in the rainy season becomes an important torrent. Although some
flour-mills are worked, I observed a terrible waste of water-power,
which might be turned to account for machinery. I heard the usual excuse
for this neglect, "The people have no money!"

We had ridden fast, and were far ahead of the baggage animals; we
accordingly halted to lunch beneath a shady caroub-tree near the edge of
the ravine, about fifty feet below. A French game-bag, with net and
numerous pockets, always contained our meals, which consisted of a cold
fowl, some eggs boiled hard, and a loaf of native brown bread or
biscuits. This was luncheon and breakfast, as we never indulged in more
than two meals a day, merely taking a cup of cafe au lait, or cocoa, in
the early morning, and our lunch or breakfast at any hour that
travelling made convenient. This depended upon the attraction of some
pretty spot or wide-spreading tree that suggested a halt.

We now remounted and rode to Lapithus, a mile and a half distant, and,
avoiding the town, selected a camping-place on the flat ground within
300 yards of the sea.

There was little difference between Lapithus and Karava. A succession of
mountain streams nourished the higher grounds, and having fertilised the
gardens and plots of cereals, were subsequently led into the fields
below.

Lapithus has been celebrated from an ancient date in like manner with
Kythrea, owing to the unfailing supply of water from its
mountain-springs, and, under the Ptolemies, B.C. 295, it became one of
the four provinces into which Cyprus was divided. Lapithus, north;
Amathus, south; Salamis, east; Paphos (now Baffo), west.

On the following morning our muleteer Iiani, having indulged in
cigarettes and sleep, was not ready to start at the proper hour, neither
were the animals forth-coming. We accordingly started on foot and
threaded our way through paved lanes, which twisted and turned in
various directions according to the positions of the houses and
innumerable gardens. The people were very civil, and directed us in the
right direction, although evidently surprised at our journeying on foot,
which is most unusual even among the poorer classes. We walked for more
than a mile through the town: the air was fresh and enjoyable, the
thermometer was 53 degrees at 7 A.M. Streams of clear water gushed
through the lanes in many places, which had created the flourishing
aspect around. With such a picture of prosperity before us, due entirely
to the presence of never-failing streams, it seemed incredible that the
great central district of Messaria should be left to the chance of
seasons when the means of artificial irrigation lie close beneath the
surface.

Upon quitting Lapithus the country on the west was almost devoid of
trees, and we walked for four miles and a half before we could procure a
shade. At this distance we halted to await the mules beneath a clump of
three caroub-trees close to the road side. Beneath this group were
several masses of rock which appeared to have rolled at some remote
period from the mountain side, as blocks of all sizes strewed the ground
in every direction. I was at once struck with a beautiful block of dark
green marble, and upon examining the neighbourhood I discovered many
pieces of the same material, all of which had evidently fallen from the
mountain's side, thus proving that the parent mass would be found in
situ were the high cliffs investigated. The mules arrived, and I
directed attention of Iiani to the fact, in order that I might procure a
specimen by sending him to the spot upon a future occasion. We now
entered upon groves of caroub-trees, and the ground was covered with
blocks of limestone and of marbles. As we proceeded the shore became
exceedingly narrow, as the base of the steep mountain sprang from within
a short distance of the sea. The quantity and varieties of marbles
increased, the dark green was present in large blocks, and several
masses of bright rose-colour suggested that rare and valuable qualities
might be profitably worked and exported, as great facilities existed in
the presence of snug little coves within only a few yards, where in the
summer months native vessels of twenty or thirty tons might anchor in
security.

The country now became exceedingly wild and rugged. The sea was in many
places exactly below us as we skirted the cliffs and occasionally
crossed the beaches of narrow coves. The high mountain upon our
immediate left was the western terminus of the Carpas range, and
exhibited peculiar geological features, eruptive rocks having burst in
some places through the limestone and created great disturbance. The
route was exceedingly interesting and beautiful, rocks of every shade of
colour were mingled with bright green foliage, the sea was an emerald
green in the shallow coves, and dark blue within a few hundred paces of
the shore, while a brisk breeze curled the waves and tipped their crests
with a glistening white. The path at length turned to the left and led
through a gap that rounded the mountain base, and formed the extreme end
of the Jurassic limestone, which only exists in Cyprus in the peculiar
wall-like Carpasian range running from west to east upon the northern
coast.

We crossed a stream of water at the bottom of the gorge which winds
through the narrow glen that terminates the range; and ascending upon
the opposite side, we at once entered upon steep slopes composed of
marls interspersed with an exceedingly bright rose-coloured marble in
veins of about two feet thickness. This would probably develop
considerable blocks if quarried to a greater depth.

Continuing for about two miles along the glen, which was cultivated with
barley in all available localities, we several times crossed the stream
in its winding course, and my dogs hunted the steep myrtle-covered banks
in expectation of game; but nothing moved, and the croaking of numerous
frogs was the only sign of life. The glen now widened to a valley about
a mile and three-quarters in diameter, surrounded upon all sides by
heights, and we commenced one of the steepest ascents in Cyprus, up the
face of the slope about 1000 feet above the bottom. The zigzags were
upon a surface of white marl, which during wet weather would become as
slippery as soap, and be impassable for loaded animals. Many times our
mules were forced to halt and rest, but they were good and sure-footed
beasts, that could always be depended upon.

At length we gained the summit, which was a total change of scene.
Instead of descending upon the other side, as I had expected, we had
arrived at a plateau eight or nine miles in length from north to south,
and an invisible distance from east to west. The soil was a rich reddish
chocolate, forming a grateful contrast to the glaring white marls that
we had just quitted, and which composed the steep hills that surrounded
the lower basin. A growth of young pines and other evergreen shrubs
ornamented the surface, and at about a quarter of a mile from the summit
of the pass by which we had arrived we halted at a well of pure water
among a small grove of olive-trees. Although we were at least 1000 feet
above the valley, the water was only ten feet from the coping-stone by
measurement. There could be little doubt that the perennial stream in
the deep glen was the result of the drainage of this extensive
table-land, corresponding with similar heights upon the other side.

Having breakfasted by the well of deliciously cold water, we remounted,
and continued our route along the extensive table-land. This was
cultivated in many places, but as we advanced for two or three miles the
country became exceedingly wild, and we entered a wood of Pinus
maritima, composed of young trees of several years' growth, and older
stems that had been mutilated in the disgraceful manner that
characterises all Cyprian forests. There was not one perfect tree above
eight years' growth; but every stem had been cut off about six feet from
the top for the sake of the straight pole. Trees of fifteen years or
more had been mercilessly hacked for the small amount of turpentine that
such trunks would produce, and the bark had been ripped off for tanning.
Great quantities of mastic bushes covered the surface between the pines,
and even these exhibited the continual attacks of the woodcutter's
grubbing-axe, which had torn up the roots, in addition to the stems, for
the requirements of the lime-burner. The red soil is so propitious to
the growth of pines that, in spite of the unremitting destruction, the
ground was covered with young plants, self-sown from the fallen cones.
If these young forests were protected for twelve or fourteen years, the
surface would again be restored to the original woodland that once
ornamented this portion of the island. Under the present conditions of
Cyprus all wholesome laws and enactments are practically ridiculed by
the inhabitants, as there are no foresters or keepers to enforce the
orders of the government. A governor may sit upon the top of Olympus and
issue wise decrees like Jupiter, but unfortunately he does not possess
the thunderbolts, as the country is so poor that it cannot afford to pay
the salaries necessary for the support of foresters and the officers
required for this special department. I myself met droves of donkeys and
mules loaded with wood and accompanied by their owners with their
destructive axes, all wending their way through the forest to the town
of Morphu, which is thus supplied with fuel for baking, cooking, lime-
burning, and all other purposes.

It is impossible to feel amiable when passing through these desolating
scenes, where nature, originally so beautiful, has been defaced, and the
people, instead of deriving pleasure from natural beauties, are obtuse
to all the surroundings, which, according to educated taste, would
ensure appreciation. I felt inclined to upset the donkeys, capture their
proprietors, and . . . I could not have hung them upon the trees that
they had defaced, for no bough had been left that would have supported
their weight . . . and there was no rope.

While these vindictive and statesman-likethoughts boiled within me, the
naturally courteous people made their graceful salaams as we passed, and
studiously conducted their heavily-laden donkeys out of the path to make
way for our advance, that otherwise would have been effectually choked
by the throng of bush-and-faggot-laden animals, which looked like
"Birnam-wood marching to Dunsinane." In my heart I immediately forgave
the poor people; I knew that the man with the axe who marched behind was
as ignorant, and not so strong, as his donkey who carried the load. They
had been both subjects of a bad government, and it was not their fault
that they were despoilers. You might as well blame the wind for the
destruction of venerable trees; or the locusts for devouring the crops;
they were ungoverned, and unfortunately the instinct of uncivilised man
is to destroy. I shall say more upon this important subject when we
arrive among the last remaining forests of the Troodos mountains.

We rode onwards, always through the same wilderness of old tree-stems
hacked, and young trees that would be hacked; at length we saw on a
cleared space in the distance what I imagined to be a long brown rock
lying upon the surface; but upon riding out of the path to examine this
object I found it was a splendid trunk of a pine-tree more that two feet
in diameter. Why this had been spared for so many years I cannot say,
but its size suggested reflections upon the original forests that must
have covered the surface and have ornamented the once beautiful island
of Cyprus; now denuded, and shorn of every natural attraction.

I again became angry; visions of the past primaeval forests appeared
before me, all of which had been destroyed: and as formerly we hung a
man in England for cutting an oak sapling, I thought that the same cure
for timber-destroying propensities might save the few remaining forests
in this island. While indulging in this strain of unphilanthropic
thought we overtook another throng of wood-laden donkeys and their
proprietors: again they smiled, courteously salaamed, and vacated the
path for us, little knowing what my inward thoughts had been. Of course
I smiled, salaamed as courteously in return, and forgave them at once;
and we proceeded on our way condemning Turkish rule, the impecuniosity
of our own government, the miserable conditions of our present
occupation, which rendered Cyprus neither fish, flesh, nor fowl, and
thus by degrees I lashed myself into the worst possible frame of mind,
until . . . we overtook another throng of polite donkeys and their
proprietors, who salaamed and got out of our way. Upon suddenly emerging
from the forest upon the edge of a steep slope, we looked down upon the
barren sand-coloured plain of Messaria. Our guide Iiani, who had been
asleep and awake for at least eight miles, suddenly burst out into a
ditty, and explained that a village in the plain below was Morphu, the
home of his wife and family.

Even from this elevated point of view Morphu looked a long way off. The
sleepy Iiani was sufficiently wide awake to steer for his wife, and we
had made a long march already. I doubted the possibility of the loaded
camels ascending the steep slope, which had severely tried our mules,
and I felt sure that liani's old camel would either knock up or tumble
down with his load, should he attempt the ascent. It was of no use to
reflect, and as Morphu lay before us in the now barren and sun-smitten
plain, we touched our animals with the spur and pressed on. Descending
for some miles, we passed a garden of olives, that must have been
upwards of a thousand years old, upon our right; and still inclining
downwards, through ground cultivated with cereals completely withered by
the drought, we at length arrived at the broad but perfectly dry bed of
the river. Crossing this, we steered for a grove of ancient olive-trees,
which I at once selected for a camping-place, on the outskirts of the
town. We were now twenty-three miles from Lapithus, and I felt sure that
our baggage animals would not arrive till nightfall.

As we sat beneath one of these grand old olive-trees alone, Iiani having
taken his mules to his home, and probably at the same time having
advertised our arrival, throngs of women and children approached to
salaam and to stare. I always travelled with binocular glasses slung
across my back, and these were admirable stare-repellers; it was only
necessary to direct them upon the curious crowd, and the most prominent
individuals acknowledged their power by first looking shy and conscious,
and then confusedly laughing and retreating to the rear.

We had arrived at 2.20 P.M., and we waited beneath the olive-trees until
8 P.M., when the advance camels at length came in after dark. It was
9.30 before the tents were pitched and the camp arranged. The great
delay had been occasioned by Iiani's old camel, which had, as I had
expected, rolled down the steep bill with its load, and having nearly
killed itself, had mortally wounded the sacred copper kettle, which
every traveller knows is one of his Penates, or household gods, to
which he clings with reverence and affection. This beautiful object had
lost its plump and well-rounded figure, and had been crushed into a
museum-shaped antiquity that would have puzzled the most experienced
archaeologist. Metal water-jugs upon which the camel had rolled had
been reduced to the shape of soup-plates, and a general destruction of
indispensable utensils had inflicted a loss more than equal to the value
of Iiani's animal.

The following morning (12th April) exhibited the extraordinary change of
climate between the northern and southern sides of the Carpas
mountain-range. The average temperature of the week had been at 7 A.M.
57.5 degrees F, 3 P.M. 66.5 degrees. At Morphu the thermometer at 7 A.M.
showed 62 degrees, and at 3 P.M. 83 degrees! It was precisely the same
on the following day.

It was a distressing contrast to the beautiful Kyrenia and the
interesting north coast to have exchanged the green trees and rippling
streams for the arid and desolate aspect of the Messaria. The town of
Morphu has no special interest; like all others, it consists of houses
constructed of sun-baked bricks of clay and broken straw, with
flat-topped roofs of the same materials. There are fruitful gardens
irrigated by water-wheels, and formerly the extremely rich sandy loam of
the valley produced madder-roots of excellent quality, which added
materially to the value of the land. This industry having been
completely eclipsed by the alizarine dye, Morphu has to depend upon silk
and cereals for its agricultural wealth. The population is composed
almost entirely of Greeks. There is a monastery and a large school.

I rode to the bay, about four miles and a half distant, passing many
villages, which, as we neared the sea, were in the midst of magnificent
crops of barley and wheat, resulting from artificial irrigation by the
water that percolates beneath the sandy bed of the dry river at a
certain level, which has been led into numerous channels before it can
reach the natural exit at its mouth. It must be exceedingly unhealthy,
as, for several square miles upon the sea margin, the country is an
expanse of marsh and bulrushes, abounding with snipe during the winter
months. On 13th April I walked over the greater portion of this locality
with my three spaniels, but the snipe had departed, and we did not move
a bird.

On the right side of Morphu Bay to the east, by Kormachiti, there are
extensive sand-dunes, forming deep drifts, which extend for several
miles inland at the foot of the hill-range that we had descended. These
exhibit the prevailing wind (north). Many people upon observing
sand-dunes attribute the most distant limit of the sand to the extreme
violence of the wind; but this is not the case. It is the steady
prevalence of moderately strong winds that causes the extension of
sand-drifts. The wind of to-day deposits the sand at a certain distance
from the shore. The wind to-morrow starts the accumulated sand from that
depot to form a new deposit about equidistant; and thus by slow degrees
the dunes are formed by a succession of mounds, conveyed onwards by an
unchanging force; but the maximum power of a gale would be unable to
carry thousands of tons of heavy sand to form a hill-range at the
extreme distance from the original base of the material. At Hambantotte,
in the southern district of Ceylon, there is an extraordinary example of
this action, where during one monsoon a range of mounds is formed which
might be termed hills; when the monsoon changes, these by degrees
disappear, and, according to the alteration in the wind, a range of
hills is formed in an exactly opposite direction.

I was glad to escape from Morphu; the wind from the dry plain was hot,
and brought clouds of dust. We were surrounded by throngs of people
during the day, many of whom were blind, including young children. The
13th April was the Greek Easter Sunday, and we could not start, as Iiani
declared that the mules had run away during the night, and could not be
found; we knew this was only an excuse for remaining at Morphu, and he
at length confessed that the mules were caught, and we could start in
the afternoon if I would allow him to wait until he should have received
the sacrament together with his wife. Having thus brought the
theological and the domestic guns to concentrate their fire upon me, I
was obliged to yield, and liani appeared in such a jovial frame of mind
in the afternoon, and smelt so strongly of spirits, that I suspected his
devotions had been made at the raki-shop instead of the altar.

On 14th April we started, and were thankful to leave Morphu. The route
lay across the plain westward, and in some parts we rode along the sea
margin, eagerly hurrying our animals to turn the corner of the hills and
escape from the hot and dreary plain. The breeze was northerly, and a
heavy surf broke upon the coast, exhibiting the exposed position of
Morphu Bay from north to west. On the eastern side the beach is sandy
and the water deepens rapidly, affording good and safe anchorage near
the shore; but should the wind change suddenly to west or north, the
position would be dangerous. The bay is the most striking of all the
numerous indentations on the shores of Cyprus. The bold points of Cape
Kormachiti and Cape Kokkino form the chord of an arc twenty-one miles in
length, from the centre of which the bay enters the land about eleven
miles. It would be impossible to land from boats even during a moderate
breeze from the west to north without considerable danger; but I can see
no difficulty in arranging a floating breakwater that would afford
shelter for small vessels and add materially to the importance of the
roadstead. These are the necessary improvements which require an outlay,
and unfortunately under the existing conditions of our occupation the
revenue that would be available for public works is transferred to the
treasury of Constantinople; thus the Turk still hampers progress, as he
governs Cyprus in the uniform of the British official. We rounded the
base of the hills, which rose rapidly from the shore, and crossed
several small streams thickly fringed with tamarisk, that would be
impassable during sudden storms of the rainy season. Several villages
were distinguished by their bright green appearance among the hills,
which denoted the existence of springs or rivulets, and as we proceeded
we observed that all crops in the low ground had benefited by artificial
irrigation.

After a ride of two hours and a half we arrived at Caravastasi, and
halted in a very stony field at the back of the village, beneath an old
caroub-tree that had grown thick and shady by the merciless hacking of
its taller boughs, which had reduced it to a pollard. The village of
Caravastasi consists only of eight or ten houses, but is rendered
important by a Custom-house. It is situated on the most inland point of
Morphu Bay, and is slightly sheltered on the west by a promontory, which
forms a neat little cove for the protection of small vessels; but it is
completely open due north. Nothing would be easier than to construct a
small harbour, by extending a pier or breakwater from the end of the
promontory in the required direction; and the present unimportant
village would become only second in importance to Kyrenia.

The positions of ancient sea-port ruins attest the value that attached
to certain geographical points in former days, and although the vessels
of those periods may have been much inferior to ships of modern times,
they were sufficiently large for the commerce of the country and for the
capabilities of the harbours. The trade of Cyprus will always be carried
by vessels from twenty to one hundred and fifty tons, and there should
be no difficulty in providing shelter for ships of this small draught of
water. The ruins of Soli, on the west of the present village of
Caravastasi, prove that the Athenians, who founded the original city,
were thoroughly cognizant of the value of a position which is the only
spot upon the whole northern coast of Cyprus that will afford shelter or
a landing-place, excepting the harbour of Kyrenia. In the early period
of Cyprian history Soli represented one of the independent kingdoms when
the island was divided into ten, Amathus, Cerinea (Kyrenia), Citium,
Chytri, Curium, Lapithas, Marium, Nea-Paphos, Salamis, and Soli. The
Phoenicians, from their own southern position, naturally selected the
ports most convenient for their trade, and accordingly settled on the
south coast of Cyprus, their chief towns being Amathus, Citium, and
Paphos; these were important commercial ports at a time when Cyprus was
in its zenith of prosperity, and were sufficient for the requirements of
the period. If the British occupation is intended to be permanent it
will be highly necessary to determine the classes of harbours that
should be provided, as it would be a useless extravagance to expend
large sums upon the construction of ports beyond the necessities of the
trade. As I have already expressed an opinion that the commerce of
Cyprus will be represented by vessels of moderate tonnage, the necessary
protection for such vessels may be obtained at an equally moderate
outlay, and both Soli and Kyrenia may be made available as safe harbours
for all traders upon the northern coast. Famagousta would become the
arsenal and dockyard for ships of war; Larnaca and Limasol would be safe
roadsteads for all classes, and could easily be arranged to protect
small trading-vessels; while Baffo would, like Kyrenia and Soli, be
restored to its original position. All rudimentary harbour-works would
be planned with a view to future extension, as might be rendered
necessary by the development of trade.

Colonel White, 1st Royal Scots, who had been appointed chief
commissioner of the Lefkosia district from his former similar position
at Larnaca, arrived at Caravastasi upon the same day as ourselves. This
very painstaking and energetic officer was exploring his district and
investigating all the nooks and corners of the mountainous frontier
which bounded his authority; he was accordingly assailed with complaints
and lamentations concerning the endless water disputes among the
villages; those of the lower ground declaring that the streams to which
they were entitled by the rights of centuries had been diverted to other
channels, that the Turkish authorities had been bribed by the opposing
litigants; with the usual long list of grievances, the discussion of
which I shall defer to a special chapter upon "Irrigation."



CHAPTER VIII.

ROUTE TO BAFFO.

Our tent was pitched upon rising ground, which formed the direct slope
from the sea, a quarter of a mile distant, to the mountain-top about
1500 or 2000 feet above us; the insignificant village of Caravastasi was
upon the sea-beach in our immediate front.

From our commanding position I had observed a peculiar mound with a
cliff-face half a mile to the west, which exhibited the unusual colour
of a bright lemon yellow in close conjunction with red of various
shades. Upon crossing numerous fields of barley, which the reapers had
just attacked (14th April), I descended a ravine at the foot of this
peculiar formation, which I carefully examined.

Since we had crossed the plain of Morphu and quitted the compact
limestone of the Carpas range we had entered upon an interesting
geological change. Eruptive rocks had burst through the marls and
calcareous sedimentary limestone of the coast and had produced very
curious examples of metamorphous rocks, where the marls and limestone
had been in immediate contact with the plutonic. The cliff above me was
about fifty feet high, as I stood at its base within a shallow gorge
that formed a brook during the rainy season.

The bottom upon which I stood was a mass of debris of bright colours,
varying from pure white to different shades of yellow and red. This
material appeared to have fallen recently, as the blocks did not exhibit
the dull exterior that would have resulted from atmospherical exposure.
I climbed up the steep face of crumbled matter with some difficulty, as
the sharply inclined surface descended with me, emitting a peculiar
metallic clink like masses of broken porcelain. On arrival at the top I
remarked that only a few inches of vegetable mould covered a stratum of
white marl about a foot thick, and this had been pierced in many places
by the heat that had fused the marl and converted it into a clinker or
sharply-edged white slag, mixed with an ochreous yellow and bright red.
I had never met with anything like this singular example of igneous
action upon marls. In the neighbourhood there were considerable masses
of the same clinker-like material exhibiting a honeycombed appearance,
that would have been well adapted for millstones. The natives informed
me that all the millstones of the northern coast were imported from
Athens. I had heard while at Kythrea that the stones for the very
numerous mills of that neighbourhood were supplied from Alexandretta,
and that none of native origin were employed. There can be no doubt that
some of the specimens I examined of this material combined the
requirements of extreme hardness, porosity, and sharpness of interior
edges around the honeycombed cavities. I walked over the mountain, and
quickly lost the marl in masses of plutonic rocks that had been upheaved
and entirely occupied the surface. Although vast blocks lay heaped in
the wildest confusion, they exhibited the peculiar characteristics of
all Cyprian rocks (excepting the calcareous limestone) in their utter
want of compactness. I have never seen in Cyprus any hard rock (except
jurassic limestone), whether gneiss, syenite, or others, that would
yield an unblemished stone to the mason's chisel of ten feet in length
by a square of two feet. This peculiarity is not the result of decay,
but the entire mass has been fractured by volcanic disturbance and by
the rapid cooling of molten matter upheaved from beneath the sea.

Red jasper is abundant in this locality, and is generally found in small
pieces embedded in the marls. I discovered a very compact specimen
weighing about 200 lbs., which I left at a house in Caravastasi until I
might have an opportunity of conveying it to Larnaca. Upon crossing the
mountain I arrived at a charming valley among the hills at an elevation
of about 1200 feet above the sea, at the narrow entrance of which,
between the sides of the gorge, was a Turkish village. I was quickly
observed, and being quite alone, with the exception of my dogs, a
Turkish woman, to whom I made a salaam, ran into a neighbouring house
and sent her husband with a chair, that I might sit beneath an
almond-tree. A few Turks gathered round me and insisted with much
politeness that I should enter the house of the owner of the chair. It
was a rough dwelling, but I was kindly welcomed, and cheese, bread, and
curds were quickly arranged before me, together with a gourd-shell of
clear cold water, from the spring which issued from the rocks in the
gorge about fifty feet below the house. To the disappointment of my host
I was obliged to decline all his offerings, except a draught of cold
water, as I had breakfasted before leaving the camp. The Turk now showed
me his gun, which he explained was of little use, as he could not afford
a game licence, but he offered to show me a spot where hares were
abundant. The shooting-season was long since closed, therefore
partridges and francolins were sacred, but I should have had no scruples
in bagging a hare for a stew. My guide conducted me over very likely
ground down into ravines with bush-covered sides, then upon the
hill-tops, and among patches of cultivation where the hares had played
sad havoc in nibbling the wheat and barley; but we found none. My dogs
hunted every bush in vain, and the burning sun had dried out every
vestige of scent. I believe the hares escape the sun by taking refuge
beneath the rocks, otherwise we must have moved at least one or two. My
guide was much disappointed, but as game was absent he hunted for wild
asparagus, which grew in considerable quantities beneath the thick
clumps of bushes upon the hill-sides. By the time that we arrived in
camp he had collected sufficient for a good dish. This variety is not
quite so thick as good cultivated asparagus, but it is superior in
flavour, although slightly bitter.

We rode to Lefka, about three miles distant. This is one of those happy
lands of Cyprus which is watered with unfailing streams from the Troodos
range, that have enforced prosperity. The town is important, and is
situated upon the sides of the hills, which form a valley, through
which, in rainy weather, a river flows; at other seasons, like all
Cyprian torrents, the bed is dry. The houses of Lefka are almost
concealed by the luxuriant foliage of the gardens and orangeries. We
rode through narrow lanes streaming with water, and shaded with the elm,
ash, maple, and innumerable fruit-trees. Mills, turned by water, the
masonry of the aqueducts being ornamented with the graceful maiden-hair
ferns, enlivened the otherwise dull lanes by an exhibition of industry.
The orange-trees and lemons were literally overweighted with fruit,
which in some instances overpowered the foliage by a preponderance of
yellow. Lefka supplies the whole western district with lemons, in
addition to the market of the capital, Lefkosia. As usual, I observed
that the fruit-trees were ridiculously crowded, thus preventing the
admission of the necessary air and light. I forbear at present to
describe the fruit, as none existed at this season, excepting oranges
and lemons, and I wish to introduce my readers to every scene and object
precisely as they met my eye in travelling through the country. The
lemons are some of the best I have ever tasted, but the oranges are full
of seeds, with thick skins, and although juicy and refreshing in this
hot climate, they would be rejected in the English market.

A very cursory view of Lefka was sufficient to explain its agricultural
importance, and to (for the hundredth time) awaken the reflection that
most portions of the island might equal such exceptional prosperity, if
special attention were bestowed upon the development of artificial
irrigation.

On 16th April we left Caravastasi, and rode over almost the worst road,
but one of the most picturesque in Cyprus. It was a succession of the
steepest ups and downs through and over mountain spurs, to cut off the
promontories which projected into the sea at right angles with our
route. It seemed impossible that loaded animals should be able to
traverse such steep and dangerous defiles, and I made up my mind that
Iiani's ancient camel would terminate its career, together with that of
our possessions upon its back, by rolling several hundred feet into the
dark angle of some precipitous ravine. Even Iiani kept awake, and
presently I heard a faint exclamation from behind, and upon turning
round I discovered Lady Baker upon the ground, the saddle having twisted
beneath her mule in descending a steep and rocky gulley; fortunately she
fell upon the wall-side of the path, instead of upon the edge of the
precipice; and she was unhurt.

Although the route was abominable it was most interesting. As the
drainage of the mountains was at right angles, we crossed a succession
of heights which afforded short glimpses of the sea some 600 feet
beneath, with the perpendicular rock-bound coast below us, and then
alternately descended into the depths of the intervening gullies. This
peculiarity exhibited to perfection the geological formation. We had
entered upon trap rocks and the greenstone, all of which showed traces
of copper. Notwithstanding the wild and dangerous route, every available
plot of ground was cultivated, although no villages were perceptible.
The peasants carried their light ploughs upon donkeys from considerable
distances, and with these exceedingly useful implements they ploughed
inclines that would have been impossible to cultivate with any European
implement except the hoe. At length we descended to the sea-beach, and
marching through heavy sand for about a mile, we arrived at Pyrgos, our
halting-place, twelve miles from Caravastasi.

This is one of the wildest portions of Cyprus. There is no village, but
the position is simply marked by the presence of one building above the
sea-beach, which has been a depot for the spars and poles of pine that
have periodically been delivered from the mountains by the torrents,
when heavy rains have swollen them sufficiently to enable them to force
the timber towards the sea. As the mountains upon this portion of the
coast descend in many places actually to the shore, while in no places
are they more than half a mile distant, the rivulets are numerous, as
there is no time, or area, sufficient for their absorption by the soil.
Within a hundred and fifty paces of the timber store beautiful streams
of clear water issued from the ground in three different places, which
converged into a brook abounding with water-cresses, and this, after
passing through a small and thick jungle of tamarisk-bushes, formed a
pool above the sea-beach which overflowed upon the shingle, and met the
waves. We ascended the stream for a short distance, until, tempted by
two or three large plane-trees, we halted for luncheon beneath their
shade. The river, which occasionally flooded sufficiently to bring down
heavy timber when felled among the mountains, flowed through an
extremely rich but narrow valley, which extended into a glen between
their precipitous slopes until it became a mere ravine. The mass of
mountains in this district, which form a succession of wild and
impassable steeps, is marked upon Kiepert's map as "unexplored." They
were originally pine-forests, but the destruction of timber has been
carried to such an excess that comparatively few trees remain. With my
glass I could distinguish large trunks that lay rotting upon the ground,
where they had pitched among the stems, and roots of trees that had been
already felled; these had been rolled from the steep heights above, but
having been caught in their descent to the torrent below by the opposing
stumps, they had been abandoned, and other trees had been felled in
their stead, where the inclination was more favourable for their
transport.

This portion of the coast should be thoroughly explored by practical
miners, as it is rich in minerals. I procured some fine specimens of
pyrites of copper, which the natives mistook for silver; and should a
mineralogical investigation be made by the authorities, I feel sure that
the metallic wealth of Cyprus will be discovered between Caravastasi and
Poli-ton-Krysokhus.

It was late before our baggage animals appeared, and when they at length
arrived, Iiani's venerable camel was missing. It appeared that this
worn-out old creature had been performing acrobatic feats in tumbling
throughout the difficult journey, and had rolled, together with its
load, down several places that had threatened its destruction. It had
delayed the march several hours, as it had been many times released from
difficulties by unloading, reloading, and dividing the heavier portions
of baggage among the other camels which received a smaller pay. At
length, upon arriving upon the deep sand of the beach, about a mile
distant, it had fallen down, and given up everything except the ghost.

It was a natural annoyance to the owners of the other camels that Iiani
should be paid highly for a useless animal, while they had to carry its
load divided among them assisted by a division of the smaller weights
among the servants' riding mules. The evening was passed in grumbling:
everybody was in a bad humour. It was declared impossible to pitch the
tent upon the sandy beach by the pool of fresh water, as there was no
holding-ground for the tent-pegs. I quickly instructed them in making
faggots of tamarisk-boughs which, tied to the ropes and buried in the
sand, were much more secure than pegs in the hardest soil; and the tent
was at length arranged. A small species of curlew tempted its fate by
visiting the fresh-water margin just before our dinner-hour; I bagged
it; and as the cook was in a bad humour, I made a fire of driftwood,
with which the beach was strewed, and when the glowing embers had
succeeded to the flame and formed a red-hot heap, I cut two forked
sticks, which, placed on either side upright in the sand, supported my
bird upon a long skewer of green tamarisk-wood. A little salt, pepper,
and a smear of butter occasionally, produced a result that would have
beaten Christo's best attempts.

On the following morning we were all once more in good humour; the old
camel had not died, but had been brought into camp late at night. It now
formed the object for everybody's joke, and its owner liani was
recommended to "try and sell it," or "to make it a present to a friend,"
or "to ride it himself;" the latter course would have been a deserved
punishment. Iiani escaped further remarks by jumping upon his mule and
riding ahead, and we followed our guide without delay along the deep
sandy beach.

We rode for fourteen miles along cliffs bordering the sea, with the deep
hollows occasioned by the natural drainage causing a continual series of
ups and downs, which reminded me forcibly of the coast of South Devon
between Torquay and Dawlish. The difference lay in the rocks, which were
all plutonic, and in the scenery upon our left, which was a wild and
confused mass of mountains, scarred by deep and dark ravines, while the
more distant summits exhibited the still-existing pine-forests; these
had disappeared from the slopes which faced the coast, and had afforded
facilities for exportation. We halted in a deep glen between exceedingly
steep hills, through which a torrent-bed had cut its course directly to
the sea. In this secluded spot, far from all villages or inhabitants, we
arranged to encamp upon a flat and inviting plot of turf, which in
Cyprus is rarely met with. Some tolerable elms and other trees formed a
dense shade in a deep and narrow portion of the glen beneath the
over-hanging cliffs, and a beautiful spring of water issued from the
rock, received in a stone cistern beneath. An arch of masonry inclosed
the spring, which some kind person had thus carefully arranged for the
public good; this was richly clothed with maiden-hair ferns. The surplus
water, after overflowing the stone basin, formed a faint stream, which
trickled over the rocks between cliffs only a few feet apart, until it
emerged from this narrow cleft and joined the sea. I walked down this
natural alley to the beach and bathed, to the astonishment of my guide
Iiani and another Cypriote, who rushed to the top of the cliff as though
they thought I contemplated suicide; these people having a natural
horror of cold water. The name of this secluded glen was Symboli.

On the following morning we started for Polis, fourteen miles by an easy
route along the coast. The mountains upon our left were very
precipitous, and exhibited the same character of complete wilderness
which had marked them for the last two marches; the only difference
apparent was an increase in the remaining pines, which fairly clothed
their summits and ravines. The sea was perfectly calm, and for the first
time during our stay in Cyprus we observed many shoals of fish playing
upon the surface close to the beach. Two cormorants were in the bay, and
I made some fortunate shots, killing one with the rifle at upwards of
200 yards, and disabling the other at about 250. There appeared to be
more signs of game in this part of the country, as the cock francolins
were crowing in many directions throughout our route, until we arrived
at Polis, or, in full, "Poli-ton-Krysokhus."

This place was formerly important as one of the principal mineral
centres of the island, and the large accumulations of scoriae in several
mounds near the coast prove that mining operations were conducted upon
an extensive scale. A concession had recently been granted to a small
private company for the working of copper in this neighbourhood, and
should the existence of metallic wealth be proved there can be no doubt
that capital will be embarked in mining enterprises, and the locality
will recover its former importance. On the other hand, all mining
adventures should be conducted with the greatest caution. A common error
is committed by sanguine speculators in following the footsteps of the
ancients, upon the supposition that because in former ages a locality
was productive, it should remain in the same profitable condition.
Nothing can be more erroneous; it is generally poor gleaning after the
Phoenicians. The bronze of those extraordinary miners and metallurgists
was renowned above all other qualities; they worked the copper-mines of
Cyprus and the tin-mines of Cornwall, but the expenses of working a mine
in those days bore no comparison with the outlay of modern times. Slaves
were employed as a general rule: forced labour was obtainable; and the
general conditions of the labour-market were utterly at variance with
those of the present day. The ancient miners would seldom have abandoned
their veins of ore until they were completely exhausted, and the vast
heaps of scoriae which now mark the sites of their operations may be the
remains of works that were deserted as worn out and unproductive. It is
true that traces of copper are visible in many places throughout the
metamorphous rocks, and the greenstone from Soli to Poli-ton-Krysokhus,
but it remains to be proved whether the metal exists in sufficient
quantities to be profitably worked. It is generally believed that zinc
was formerly produced at Soli, where vestiges of ancient mining
operations are to be seen upon the surface, but for many centuries the
works have been abandoned.

A very careful scientific examination of the island has been made by
various explorers--M. Gaudry, Unger, and Kotschy: their reports are not
encouraging, but at the same time it must be allowed that they were not
practical miners. The work of M. Gaudry must always be accepted as a
most valuable authority upon the geology, mineralogy, and general
agricultural resources of Cyprus, but it will be remarked by all
practical men that the explorations of the country have been
superficial; no money has been expended; and is it to be supposed that
the surface of the earth will spontaneously reveal the secrets of the
interior?

Under the present administration it is quite impossible to say too much
in praise of the energy and painstaking devotion to the interests of
Great Britain and to those of this island by the High Commissioner and
every officer, from the commissioners of districts to the subordinate
officials; but according to the terms of the Convention with the Porte
the island is as completely denuded of money as the summits of the
cretaceous hills have been denuded of soil by the destructive agency of
weather. It is painful to an English traveller, whose life may have been
passed in practical development, to survey the country as it now is, to
reflect upon what it has been, and to see that even under the auspicious
reputation of an English occupation nothing can be done to awaken
resources that have so long lain dormant. Money is wanted--money must
be had. Without an expenditure of capital, riches may exist, but they
will remain buried in obscurity.

A responsible official would reply--"We will give you a concession, we
will give you every possible encouragement." The capitalist will ask one
simple question, "Is Cyprus a portion of the British Empire upon which I
can depend, or is it a swallow's nest of a political season, to be
abandoned when the party-schemes have flown?"

Any number of questions may be asked at the present moment, but in the
absence of all definite information no capitalist will embark in any
enterprise in Cyprus, which may be ultimately abandoned like Corfu; and
the value of all property would be reduced to a ruinous degree.

The mining interests of Cyprus must remain for the most part undeveloped
until some satisfactory change shall be effected in the tenure of the
island that will establish confidence.

Polis was a straggling place situated upon either side of a river,
through the bed of which a very reduced stream was flowing about three
inches in depth. A flat valley lay between the heights, both of which
were occupied by numerous houses and narrow lanes, while the rich soil
of the low ground, irrigated by the water of the river withdrawn by
artificial channels, exhibited splendid crops of wheat and barley.
Groves of very ancient olive-trees existed in the valley, and we halted
beneath the first oak-trees that I had seen in Cyprus. These were wide-
spreading, although not high, and I measured the girth of one solid
stem--eighteen feet.

We had hardly off-saddled, when crowds of women and children collected
from all quarters, with a few men, to stare at the new-comers; not at ME
personally, but at my wife. They were, if possible, more filthy than the
average of Cyprian women, and a great proportion of the children were
marked with recent attacks of small-pox. I regretted that I had not a
supply of crackers to throw amongst and disperse the crowd that daily
pestered us; any lady that in future may travel through Cyprus should
have a portmanteau full of such simple fireworks. It was in vain to
explain that the people were a nuisance if too near: when driven to a
moderate distance, they would advance shyly, by degrees; two or three
children would come forward and sit down a few paces in front of the
main body; after a few minutes several others would overstep this
frontier and sit down five or six yards in advance of the last comers,
and by this silent system of skirmishing we were always surrounded in
twenty minutes after the original crowd had been dispersed. I did not
mind them so long as they were not in personal contact, and were free
from recent small-pox; but some of the red-pitted faces were full of
warning.

There was nothing of interest to detain us at Polis, and we started
early upon the 19th April towards Baffo. The valley through which the
river Aspropotamo had deposited a layer of fertile alluvium divided the
mountain range, leaving the plutonic rocks to the east; and on the
western side we ascended a steep path over cretaceous limestone, broken
and disturbed at intervals by the protrusion of eruptive rocks. As we
increased our altitude we looked down upon a picturesque view of the bay
of Krysokhus, with two sails upon its blue waters beneath the dark
cliffs of the western shore. The ancient Marium or Arsinoe showed no
vestiges except in the modern village of Polis, which, from the
distance, looked better than the reality, as the foliage of numerous
trees shadowing the terrace-built houses upon either side the rich green
valley, backed by the lofty range of pine-covered mountains, completed a
lovely landscape.

An hour had passed, but still we ascended; the path was as usual rugged,
and we already looked down upon the sea and valley at least 2000 feet
beneath. I had serious misgivings concerning the camels and their loads.
General di Cesnola had examined the whole of this country in his search
for antiquities, but the neighbourhood of the ancient Arsinoe, where
much had been expected, was almost unproductive.

The path still rose; until at length we arrived upon an extensive
plateau about 2400 feet above the sea. The soil was chocolate-colour,
and the surface was covered with large stones of the sedimentary
limestone that surrounds the coast, and which forms the flat-topped
hills of the Messaria. In many places the natives had built these into
walls around their fields, in order to clear the ground required for
cultivation. We passed several villages, all squalid and miserable,
although the rich soil exhibited green crops far superior to anything we
had met with in the lower country. Extensive gardens of mulberry
explained the silk-producing power of this neighbourhood, and almonds,
figs, apricots, &c., throve in great numbers and luxuriance. This
peculiarly fruitful plateau occupies an area of about eight miles from
north to south, and four from east to west. We halted at the large
Turkish village of Arodes, from which we looked down upon the sea and
the small rocky island opposite Cape Drepano, on the western coast,
almost beneath our feet. This portion of Cyprus is eminently adapted for
the cultivation of fruit-trees, as the climate and soil combine many
advantages. The elevation and peculiar geographical position attract
moisture, while the lower ground upon the east is parched with drought.
The evaporation from the sea below condenses upon the cooler heights
immediately above and creates refreshing mists and light rain, which
accounted for the superiority of the crops compared with any that I had
seen elsewhere. Shortly after halting at Arodes we experienced these
atmospherical changes. The thermometer at Polis had been 57 degrees at 7
A. M., and it was only 56 degrees at 3 P.M. at this altitude of 2400
feet. Although the sky had been clear, mists began to ascend from the
chasms and gullies along the abrupt face of the mountain which overhung
the sea; these curled upwards and thickened, until a dense fog rolled
along the surface from the west and condensed into a light shower of
rain. The Turkish inhabitants of the village were extremely civil, and
made no complaints of scarcity from drought, as they fully appreciated
the advantages of their locality. The hawthorn-trees were only just
budding into bloom, while those in the low country had shed their
flowers, and had already formed the berries. In future an extensive
growth of fruit may supply the market of Alexandria, but at present the
total absence of roads would render the transport of so perishable a
material upon the backs of mules impossible. I had sent back our three
riding mules to meet and to relieve the camels, and by this precaution
the baggage animals arrived at a convenient hour.

The route to Baffo or Ktima, which is now the principal town, lay across
the plateau for about five miles to the verge which formed the
table-land, from which margin we looked down upon the deep vale below,
bounded by the sea at a few miles distance.

We dismounted and walked down the long and steep pass, the mules being
led behind. The entire face of the perpendicular cliffs was cretaceous
limestone, but the scaly slopes of a hill upon our left, about a mile
and a half distant, formed a loose heap of shale, which had slipped,
either during earthquakes or heavy rains, in great masses to the bottom.

After a long and tedious descent we reached the base of the pass, and
halted in a broad river-bed full of rocks and stones of all sizes, which
had been rounded by the torrent of the rainy season. There was no water
except in small pools that had been scraped in the sand for the benefit
of the travelling animals. Having watered our mules and remounted, we
ascended the steep banks of the stream and continued towards the sea,
feeling a sensible difference in the temperature since we had descended
from the heights.

The country was exceedingly pretty, as it sloped gently downwards for
three or four miles, the surface ornamented with caroub-trees, until we
at length reached the sea-beach and crossed the sandy mouth of the
river's bed. The crops of cereals were perished by drought in the
absence of irrigation; but upon continuing our route parallel with the
beach we observed an immediate improvement, as the water was conducted
by artificial channels to the various fields. This arrangement had been
effected by erecting a temporary dam in the river's bed far among the
mountains, and thus leading the stream into the conduit for many miles.
Small brooks intersected our path along the coast, and in several places
I remarked the ruins of ancient aqueducts. . . . There was nothing of
peculiar interest upon this route; the land inclined upwards from the
sea for six or seven miles to the foot of the mountain range, all of
which was either cultivated with cereals or was covered with caroub-
trees and olives. Many villages were dotted over the surface; these were
green with mulberry and various fruit-trees. With the sea upon our
right, and the waves dashing briskly upon the rocky shore, the scene was
agreeable; but the sun was hot, and we were not sorry to see the distant
minarets of Ktima after a ride of seventeen miles from Arodes.

We passed the ruins of ancient Paphos upon our right, and shortly
afterwards ascended the rocky slope upon which the capital of the
district, Ktima, is situated. It is a large town, and as we rode through
the bazaar the narrow street was almost blocked with huge piles of
oranges that had been imported from Jaffa, the season for the Cyprus
fruit being nearly over.

Iiani was exceedingly stupid in selecting camping-ground, therefore
upon arrival at a new place we invariably had to explore the
neighbourhood, like migratory birds landed upon strange shores. We
accordingly rode through the considerable town of Ktima amidst the
barking and snapping of innumerable dogs, who attacked our British
spaniels, keeping up a running fight throughout the way, until we
emerged upon open country beyond the outskirts.

We were now once more upon a flat table-top, about a hundred feet above
the plain between us and the sea, a mile and a half distant. The edge of
the table-land formed a cliff, choked from its base with huge fallen
blocks of sedimentary limestone, from the crevices of which trees grew
in great profusion, reminding one of hanging coverts upon hill-sides in
England. Descending a steep but well-trodden path between these
cottage-like masses of disjointed rock, we arrived at the prettiest
camping-ground that I had seen in Cyprus. This had formed the camp of
the Indian troops when the occupation had taken place in July, 1878, and
unfortunately in this charming spot they had suffered severely from
fever.

The sea and the town and port of Baffo lay before us, but immediately in
front of the rocky and tree-covered heights that we had descended were
great numbers of park-like trees which I had never before met with.
These were of large size, many exceeding fourteen feet in girth, with a
beautiful foliage that threw a dense shade beneath. The name of this
tree is Tremithia, and it bears a small fruit in clusters of berries
which produce oil: this is used by the inhabitants for the same purposes
as that obtained from olives. I had met with the bush in a wild state
for the first time at Lapithus, and had been attracted by the aromatic
scent of the young leaves, but I was not aware that it grew to the size
of a forest-tree. Springs of pure water issued from the rocks in the
cliff-side within a few yards of our position; these were caught in
large reservoirs of masonry from twenty to thirty feet square and six
feet deep, from the bottom of which the water could be liberated for the
purposes of irrigation. We selected a position upon a terrace beneath a
number of these splendid tremithias, which afforded a shade during all
hours of the day. The little stream rippled just below, passing by the
roots of the trees that sheltered us, and watered a rich and dark green
plot of about two acres of--neither roses, nor violets, but something
far better, which at once delighted our cook Christo--onions! According
to his practical ideas the Garden of Eden would have been a mere
wilderness in the absence of a bed of onions; but at length we had
entered upon Paradise; this WAS a charming place! For some distance
beyond this captivating plot the tremithias (which at a distance
resembled fine-headed oaks) ornamented the surface and gave a park-like
appearance to the country; but beyond them the plain was a gentle slope,
highly cultivated towards the sea. Long before the arrival of our
baggage animals we had visitors; Captain Wauchope, the chief
commissioner of the district, and several officers in official
positions, were kind enough to call. An old man and his wife, the
proprietors of the onions, who lived close by, brought us some
rush-bottomed chairs with much civility; and as the day wore on a long
string of visitors appeared, including the Bishop and some of the native
officials; and we were of course surrounded with the usual throng of
women and children: these were cleaner and better looking than those we
had hitherto encountered.

The camels did not appear until late in the evening, as they had
descended the steep pass from the table-land of Arodes with much
difficulty, and liani's "antique" had again fallen, repeatedly, and
necessitated a division of his load, which already had been reduced to
that of a donkey.

When the sun rose on the following morning I walked into Ktima by a good
path, that led through the rocks along the base of the cliff until it
ascended gradually to the town. Although the cyclamens were past their
bloom, their variegated leaves ornamented the white stones as they
emerged like bouquets from the crevices of fallen rock. There was little
of interest in the town, which hardly repaid a walk: it left the same
depressing feeling that I had so often experienced in our journey
through Cyprus: "The past had been great, and the present was nothing."

The little insignificant harbour exhibited a few small craft of about
twenty tons. There was a small fort and a British flag; there were also
the ruins of ancient Paphos; but there was nothing to denote progress or
commercial activity. In the afternoon Captain Wauchope was kind enough
to accompany us over the ruins. As I have before explained, there is
nothing of interest upon the surface of ancient cities throughout
Cyprus. Anything worth having has been appropriated many ages since by
those who understood its value, and beyond a few fallen columns and
blocks of squared stone there is literally nothing to attract attention.
Even General di Cesnola excavated in vain upon the site of ancient
Paphos, which from its great antiquity promised an abundant harvest.
There were two fine monoliths, the bases of which, resting upon a
foundation of squared stones, appeared as though they had formed the
entrance to a temple; these were pillars of grey granite (foreign to
Cyprus) about twenty-seven feet high and three feet two inches in
diameter.

There were stony mounds in many directions, and fallen pillars and
columns of granite and of coarse grey and whitish marble; but beyond
these ordinary vestiges there was nothing of peculiar interest. As there
is no authority equal to General di Cesnola upon the antiquities of
Cyprus, I trust he will excuse me for inserting the following
interesting extract from his work, upon The Great Centre of the Worship
of Venus:--

    "Although this spot [Paphos] was the scene of great
    religious events, and was otherwise important in the
    island, yet neither are there more than a very few
    ruins existing above ground, nor have the explorations
    I have directed there at different times succeeded in
    bringing to light anything of interest. I believe that
    this absence of ruins can be accounted for in the
    following manner. Paphos was several times overthrown
    by earthquakes. The last time the temple was rebuilt
    was by Vespasian, on whose coins it is represented; but
    as nothing is said of the rebuilding of the city it is
    supposed that it was left in ruins; probably therefore
    during the long period that Cyprus was under the Roman
    and the Byzantine rule a great deal of the decorative
    and architectural material of Paphos was transported to
    the other city called Nea-Paphos, and used for its
    embellishment. In the Acts of the Apostles it is spoken
    of as the official residence of the Roman proconsul
    Paulus Sergius, and was therefore the capital of the
    island. By the time of the Lusignan kings Palaeo-Paphos
    had disappeared, and its ruins under their reign were
    extensively explored in search of statuary and other
    objects of art, with which to decorate the royal castle
    built in its vicinity. There is scarcely any ancient
    tomb to be found of a date previous to the Roman period
    which had not been opened centuries ago."

In page 207 General di Cesnola gives an illustration of "stone feet with
a Cypriote inscription, from the temple of Paphos," which would suggest
from their appearance that gout was not uncommon even within the temple
of Venus. In continuation he writes, page 210:--

    "The great temple of Venus was situated on an
    eminence, which at present is at a distance of about
    twenty-five minutes' walk from the sea. Some parts
    of its colossal walls are still standing, defying time and
    the stone-cutter, though badly chipped by the latter.
    One of the wall-stones measured fifteen feet ten
    inches in length, by seven feet eleven inches in width
    and two feet five inches in thickness. The stone is
    not from Cyprus, but being a kind of blue granite,
    must have been imported either from Cilicia or from
    Egypt.

    "The temple as rebuilt by Vespasian seems to have
    occupied the same area as the former temple, and was
    surrounded by a peribolos, or outer wall. Of this
    a few huge blocks only are now extant. On the west
    side of this outer wall there was a doorway still
    plainly visible. Its width was seventeen feet nine
    inches. The two sockets for the bolts upon which
    the door swung are of the following dimensions:
    length six inches, width four and a half inches, depth
    three and a half inches. The south-east wall, I ascertained,
    by excavating its whole length, was690 feet
    long. The length of the west side I could only trace
    as far as 272 feet, its continuance being hiddenbeneath
    the houses of Kouklia. The length of the other two
    sides I was unable to ascertain for similarreasons.
    The walls of the temple itself, made of the kind of
    stone previously mentioned, but not in such huge
    blocks, I was able to trace correctly, bydint of
    patience; and though very little is seen above ground,
    yet, strange to say, the four corner-stonesare still
    standing. The north-east corner-stone iscased in
    a house in Kouklia, forming part of its wall; that
    of the north-west stands in a cross-street of the village
    by itself. Some European travellers have mistaken it
    from its present shape for the emblematic cone of
    Venus. The south-east corner stands also by itself
    in an open field, where the Christian population of
    Kouklia burn lamps and little wax-candles, but in
    honour of whom, or for what purpose, I did not
    inquire. The fourth corner-stone likewise forms part
    of a modern dwelling-house.

    "The temple was oblong and of the following
    dimensions: the eastern and western walls measure
    221 feet, and the two other sides 167 feet. I cannot
    vouch for the exact measurement on account of the
    difficulties I had to encounter, nevertheless the difference
    can be of some inches only. The corner-stone of
    the north-west side has a hole in it thirteen inches in
    diameter; a similar hole also exists in the south-west
    corner of the outer wall. As the temple at Paphos
    possessed an oracle, these strange holes, which go
    through the entire stone, may have been connected
    with it. This at least was the opinion of Dr.
    Friederichs when he came to pay me a visit at
    Paphos.

    "From this spot, if a person stand upon this huge
    perforated stone, he can produce a clear and fine echo
    of a phrase of three or four words, pronounced in a
    hollow tone of voice."

It is quite possible that the tricks of acoustics may have been
practised by the priests who officiated at oracular shrines, which would
have awed the ignorant multitude; as in sacred groves a tree might have
been made to speak by the simple contrivance of a man concealed within
the hollow stem, which to outward appearance would have been considered
solid. The devices of priestcraft to bring grist to their mill are not
yet obsolete, as will be seen in many of the monasteries of Cyprus.

All the grandeur of ancient days was now represented by the heaps of
stones and the rock caverns which mark the site of Paphos. What became
of Venus after her appearance upon this shore may be left to the
imagination; why she is represented by the exceedingly plain women of
modern Cyprus surpasses the imagination. Perhaps the immorality
connected with the ancient worship of the goddess of beauty and of love
invoked a curse upon the descendants in the shape of "baggy trousers,
high boots, and ugliness:" to which dirt has been a painful addition.



CHAPTER IX.

FROM BAFFO TO LIMASOL.

We left Ktima on 23rd April for Limasol. The weather was now perfect for
out-door life, the thermometer 52 degrees at 7 A.M., and 70 degrees at 3
P.M. The route was agreeable, the crops were well irrigated by numerous
streams led from the mountains, and the country generally was green and
well wooded. After a march of fourteen miles, during which we had passed
the ruins of several ancient aqueducts, we arrived at a running stream
which issued from a narrow valley between cliffs and hills and emptied
itself upon the sea-beach. A number of tamarisks formed a jungle near
the mouth, and the banks were a bright rose-colour, owing to the full
bloom of thickets of oleanders. This was a charming halting-place, and
as the beach was strewn with dry timber that had been brought down from
the mountains during the season when the stream was powerful, we should
have a good supply of fuel in addition to fresh water. The route had
been along the flat parallel with the sea from Ktima, and I noticed a
wonderful change in the pace of the camels, as I had summoned Iiani when
at the capital of the district before the Cadi at the Konak, and the
chief commissioner had added his voice to the threat and monitions he
had received concerning his future conduct regarding early starting and
attention to my orders. Captain Wauchope had kindly furnished me with an
excellent Turkish zaphtieh, or mounted policeman, whose red jacket and
fez commanded a certain respect. This man was mounted upon a strong,
well-built, and exceedingly active pony, or small horse, which led the
way, as our new guide thoroughly knew the country.

While all hands were pitching the tent upon a sandy turf within a few
yards of the sea-beach I took the dogs for a ramble up the
thickly-wooded valley along the banks of the stream, as I had observed a
number of blue-rock pigeons among the white cliffs, and I thought I
might perhaps find a hare for the evening stew. I killed some pigeons,
but did not move a hare, although the dogs worked through most promising
ground, where green crops upon the flat bottom surrounded by thick
coverts afford both food and shelter. We were returning to camp when I
suddenly heard Merry and Shot barking savagely in some thick bushes upon
the steep bank of the stream. At first I thought they had found a
hedgehog, which was always Shot's amusement, as he constantly brought
them into camp after he had managed to obtain a hold of their prickly
bodies. The barking continued, and as I could not penetrate the bush, I
called the dogs off. They joined me almost immediately, looking rather
scared. It now occurred to me that they might have found a snake, as a
few days ago I had heard Merry barking in a similar manner, and upon
joining him I had discovered a snake coiled up with head erect in an
attitude of defence. I had killed the snake and scolded the dog, as I
feared he would come to an untimely end, should he commence snake-
hunting in so prolific a field as Cyprus. Since that time all the dogs
hunted the countless lizards which ran across the path during the march,
and Shot was most determined in his endeavours to scratch them out of
their holes.

I had called my three dogs together, and we were walking across a field
of green wheat, when I suddenly missed Shot, and he was discovered lying
down about fifty paces in our rear. Merry, who usually was pluck and
energy itself, was following at my heels and looking stupid and subdued.
This dog was indomitable, and his fault was wildness at the commencement
of the day; I could not now induce him to hunt, and his eyes had a
peculiar expression, as though his system had suffered some severe
shock. Shot came slowly when I called him, but he walked with
difficulty, and his jaws were swollen. I now felt sure that the dogs
were bitten by a snake, which they had been baying when I heard them in
the bush about five minutes before. We were very near the camp, and the
dog crept home slowly at my heels. Upon examination there was no doubt
of the cause; Shot had wounds of a snake's fangs upon his lip, under the
eye, and upon one ear; he must have been the first bitten, as he had
evidently received the greatest discharge of poison. Merry was bitten in
the mouth and in one ear, both of which were already swollen, but not to
the same degree as Shot, who, within an hour, had a head as large as a
small calf's, and his eyes were completely closed. I had not the
slightest hope of his recovery, as his throat had swollen to an enormous
size, which threatened suffocation. I could do nothing for the poor dogs
but oil their mouths, although knew that the poison would assuredly
spread throughout the system. The dogs had been bitten at about 3.40
P.M. At 8 P.M. (our dinner-hour) Shot was a shapeless mass, and his
limbs were stiff; the skin of his throat and fore-part of his body
beneath his curly white and liver-coloured hair was perfectly black; his
jowl, which now hung three inches below his jaws, was also inky black,
as were his swollen tongue and palate. Merry's head and throat were
swollen badly, and he lay by the blazing fire of logs half stupefied and
devoid of observation.

On the following morning Shot was evidently dying; he did not appear to
suffer pain, but was in a state of coma and swelled to such a degree
that he resembled the skin of an animal that had been badly stuffed with
hay. Merry was worse than on the preceding night, and lay in a state of
stupor. I carried him to the sea and dipped him several times beneath
the water; this appeared slightly to revive him, and he was placed in a
large saddle-bag to be carried on a mule for the day's march. Shot had
been quite unconscious, and when the men prepared an animal to carry
him, it was found that he was already dead. This was a little after 8
A.M., and he had been bitten at about 3.40 P. M.: about 16 and a half
hours had elapsed. My men dug a grave and buried the poor animal, who
had been a faithful dog and an excellent retriever. From Merry's
appearance I expected that we should have to attend to his remains in
the same manner before the evening.

Snakes are very numerous in Cyprus, but I cannot believe in any great
danger if these generally hated creatures should be avoided. If dogs
will insist upon hunting and attacking them, they must be bitten as a
natural consequence; in this fatal case there can be no doubt that the
dog Shot was the first to discover and attack the snake, and Merry, upon
hearing him bark, joined in the fight. It is quite unnatural for any of
the serpent tribe to attack, except for the purpose of devouring their
natural prey. As a general rule, the food of snakes consists of rats,
mice, frogs, or toads, beetles, and other insects; the pythons and
larger serpents feed upon such animals as hares, birds, and the young of
either antelopes, deer, pigs, &c. Although a snake if trodden upon might
by a spasmodic impulse inflict a bite, it would nine times out of ten
endeavour to escape. The idea of any snake wilfully and maliciously
premeditating an attack upon a man is quite out of the question, unless
it has been either teased or excited by a dog when hunting. The same
principle will hold good in the case of animals. No snake that feeds
only upon rats, mice, and such small animals would seek to attack a dog,
or any creature that was not its natural prey, and the actual danger
from such reptiles is quite insignificant. The stories that are
circulated of accidents are mostly exaggerated, or are perpetuated by
constant repetition. I have been in snake countries such as Ceylon and
Africa during many years, the greater portion of which has been passed
in practical explorations, and I can safely say that I never thought of
snakes until they met my eye, and no person that I ever knew was killed
by a poisonous bite. In Cyprus there are several varieties. I have only
seen three, a black species which is harmless, a mottled variety also
non-poisonous, and a grey snake that is supposed to be deadly; there may
be more, but I have never met with them. The stony nature of the
country, and the bush-covered surface of the hills, together with the
dryness of the climate, are all favourable to the development of snakes
and lizards. The latter are exceedingly numerous, and are most valuable
destroyers of insects; there are several varieties, but the most common
is the bright copper-coloured species with a smooth skin. The chameleon
also exists.

Although we had never taken the presence of snakes into serious
consideration, the horrible effect of the bite upon the dogs made every
one on the alert during the march over the rocky and bushy country from
our camp to Evdimu. Our guide scorned a beaten track, and after having
kept the regular path along the sea-coast for a mile, he struck
directly up the mountain, which descended in a steep cliff to the shore,
against which the waves dashed with violence. The country was
exceedingly wild for some miles as we ascended through bush of young
pines, dwarf-cypress, and mastic, occasionally passing pines of larger
growth, which had, as usual, been mutilated. We moved partridges in
several places, but these were old birds packed in considerable numbers:
a bad sign at this season, when they should have been sitting upon eggs.
At an elevation of about 1000 feet above the sea we came upon a park of
caroub-trees, in which was a spring of water; large flocks of goats and
cattle, together with many mules and horses, were roaming through this
verdant district, which afforded abundant pasturage in the shape of wild
artichokes, a variety of succulent thistles, and many plants suitable to
the native animals in the absence of actual grasses. This is a
distressing want throughout Cyprus; when the country is green, the
verdure is produced by cultivated crops of cereals, which quickly change
to yellow as they ripen; all the natural productions of the earth are
what in England we should term "weeds "--there is no real grass, except
in some rare localities where a species of "couch-grass" (the British
farmer's enemy) crawls along the surface, being nourished by its knotty
roots, which, penetrating into the deep soil, are enabled to escape the
burning sun.

Upon reaching the summit, about 1200 feet above the sea, we looked over
the richest landscape that I had seen in Cyprus. A succession of broad
valleys and undulating hills gradually ascended, until in the far
distance they terminated in elevated plateaux upwards of 2000 feet above
the sea. The whole of this district, as far and no doubt much farther
than the eye could reach, was richly wooded with caroub-trees and
occasional olive-groves, while the distant villages were marked by the
peculiar light-green of mulberry-clumps and other fruit-trees. The
bottoms of the numerous valleys were dark with well-irrigated crops of
cereals, and contrasted strongly with those of the higher ground, which
had depended solely upon the uncertain rainfall.

There were beautiful sites for country residences throughout this scene,
and it appeared strange that no house was visible except the ordinary
mud-built dwellings in the native villages. The route over this country
was abominable, as it was a succession of the steepest ups-and-downs
into valleys many hundred feet in depth, which necessitated a scramble
up a rocky zigzag for a similar height above, to be repeated after we
had crossed each shoulder that formed a spur from the distant mountains,
the drainage being at right angles to our path. Every plateau exhibited
the same lovely view of the sea, cliffs of snow-white cretaceous rock,
green hills, and deep vales, through which a stream of water had given
birth to a thick growth of foliage. After a march of fourteen miles we
halted in a deep dell beneath shady caroubs, a few yards from a brook of
clear water which irrigated some of the richest crops I had seen in
Cyprus. When the camels arrived Merry was very bad, and his skin beneath
the hair had turned black; he lapped water with difficulty, as his
tongue and mouth were swollen to a great size and were also black. As
the dog could not eat I poured a quantity of olive-oil down his throat.

The large village of Evdimu was about a mile above us, and was
distinguishable from the heights. A new and important church was in
process of construction, upon which some Italian workmen were employed,
and an air of prosperity in this neighbourhood contrasted favourably
with most portions of the island. The cock-birds of francolins were
crowing in all directions, and when rambling with Wise, my now solitary
dog, vainly searching for a hare, I found several pairs of red-legged
partridges, which of course at this season I respected.

The march on the following day was a continuation of the same beautiful
country, until we at length reached the table-top of a stupendous cliff
perpendicular to the sea, which washed its base. The path was in many
places only a few feet from the edge, and afforded a magnificent view.
The table-land upon which we rode was covered with evergreen shrubs and
young pines, and the same rich landscape that we had admired on the
previous day extended towards the mountains of the interior. The road
had been as rough as could be imagined, and we now descended the last
steep incline from the heights, which led into the plain below. The salt
lake, which adds an important amount to the revenue of Cyprus, lay
beneath us upon the right, in the heart of the peninsula of Akrotiri;
immediately below were the ruins of ancient Curium, but to us
invisible. . . .

We arrived at the town of Episkopi. Captain Savile thus describes it:--

    "A pleasantly situated village, standing on the
    Episkopi or Lycos river, and very abundantly supplied
    with water. The houses are surrounded with
    fruitful gardens, and there are fields of grain and
    cotton in the vicinity. The inhabitants have however
    very small holdings, and are, as a rule, miserably
    poor. In former days Episkopi was a rich city, and
    contained in the Venetian times large manufactories;
    of its ancient greatness now remain the ruins of an
    aqueduct, immense storehouses or vaults, and several
    ruined Greek churches. The spurs from Mount
    Troodos extend nearly down to the shore, and the
    road follows the coast-line, traversing a very beautiful
    country; the ground in spring is covered with flowers
    and aromatic herbs, and the ravines are filled with a
    luxuriant growth of cypresses, wild-olives, and flowering
    shrubs."

There was nothing to induce a delay in Episkopi, but an addition may be
made to the above description in stating that the river which has
fertilised the spot and made it famous originates in the Troodos range.
Later on, during the summer months, I often rested at the faintly
dripping source of its first mountain affluent near the top of Troodos,
which by degrees acquires strength from the Olympus drainage to form an
important stream.

We passed quickly through Episkopi with its fruitful gardens, narrow
streets, and yelling curs. Poor Wise was now alone, and we could no
longer exhibit a combined front of three British lions to the snapping
curs of Cyprus, therefore the dog Wise-ly kept close to the heels of our
guide's pony and just before me, which, without the ignominy of retreat,
secured his position from all assailants. We passed below the ancient
aqueduct, which conveyed a powerful volume of water to the turbine-wheel
upon our right; and at length emerging from the town, we entered once
more upon the plain, and steering for a large square tower which we had
remarked when at the summit of the heights, we shortly arrived at the
thriving village of Kolossi, about a mile and three-quarters distant.

This large village was a waving sea of barley, some of the finest that I
had seen, and due to artificial irrigation. An ancient aqueduct of
masonry turned a mill close to the large square tower that we had
previously observed. We halted for luncheon beneath an olive-tree a few
yards distant from the aqueduct, in a garden of fruit-trees which were
in the brightness of a spring foliage.

The square tower of masonry must have formed a portion of defensive
works that have disappeared, as there is no flanking protection, but the
tower rises above the plain to a height of about sixty feet like a huge
block of stone. It is said to have been erected by the Knights Templars,
and is of great solidity; but such experienced soldiers would hardly
have constructed so important a work without due regard to the first
rules of fortification.

After luncheon, the camels having arrived, I would not allow them to
unload, but directed them straight to Limasol. Of course their owners
declared the distance to be a long day's march, but as the map showed it
to be six miles, I insisted.

From Kolossi the country was perfectly open and cultivated; the
peasantry were engaged in reaping barley, which was carried away upon
donkeys' backs instead of being conveyed by carts. The usual
caroub-trees, although plentiful upon the rising ground in the distance,
were few and far between, and from this to Limasol, which was now in
view, the beauty of the landscape had departed . . . . . I dislike the
approach to a large town in a semi-wild country; the charming simplicity
and independence of travelling is destroyed, and the servants become
more or less demoralised by a love of new associations which produces a
neglect of duty. Iiani was with us in addition to our guide the
zaphtieh, therefore, as an utter stranger to the locality, I ordered
them to lead us to a convenient camping-ground. As we approached the
town there were the usual minarets and date-palms, and several vessels,
including steamers, were lying in the roadstead. We halted near the
entrance in a forsaken garden, where the walls were broken down and the
unwatered orange-trees, although in faint blossom, were parched and
faded. Two very large apricot-trees promised a shade for the tent, but
the sakyeeah, or water-wheel, together with two powerful English
lifting-pumps that were connected with a large reservoir and aqueduct of
masonry, were in the last stage of rust and rottenness. I was not
prepossessed with the aspect of the spot, as it reminded me strongly of
an English property in charge of the Court of Chancery. The baggage
animals with the tents arrived while our people were employed in
clearing a space beneath the trees from the innumerable stones, which,
as usual throughout Cyprus, covered the surface. The servants were
busily engaged in erecting the tent, when a long, lanky individual, with
a repulsive countenance, marched through the little crowd and haughtily
inquired "who we were, and what business we had there?"

This was the first instance of incivility that I had met with in our
journey through the island. The man was a Turk, and was not the
proprietor, but only the agent for this wretchedly-neglected property.
The unfortunate owner was sleeping with his fathers, or he would, I feel
sure, have welcomed us with true Turkish politeness and hospitality but
having departed this life, some legal difficulties had occasioned
trouble, and the estate was in the hands of the uncivil agent, who, of
course, being nobody, assumed the airs of somebody, and endeavoured by
rudeness to exhibit his importance. We were travel-stained and dusty as
millers, therefore our personal appearance had not impressed him
favourably; he was in a thread-bare long black cloth habit that
combined the cloak, dressing-gown, and frock-coat in a manner
inexplicable, and known only to Turks. This garment was trimmed in the
front edges with rather mangy-looking fox-skin: loose pegtop trousers of
greasy-looking cloth, dirty and threadbare, completed the costume of the
great curiosity of Cyprus, "a rude person."

I was not at the time aware that he understood Arabic, and happily I
addressed Amarn in that language, expressing my surprise that in this
country, where we had travelled so widely and found civility upon all
sides, we should be subjected to such rudeness. My servants, who were
more annoyed than myself, spoke rather loudly, and assured him that if
he was a Turk, their master was a pasha of his Sultan, and we would at
once quit his miserable neglected ground and mention his inhospitality
to the chief commissioner. By this time the rear baggage animals had
appeared, and the imposing array of luggage and people seemed to impress
him with the fact that we were neither gipsies nor vagabonds. I
explained to him that we should not have presumed to intrude within a
walled garden, but as the old walls had disappeared and the place was in
an open and ruinous condition, we had trespassed innocently. He
disappeared with an apology, but upon the first opportunity after we had
examined the neighbourhood of Limasol we changed our camp to a good
position on the eastern outskirts of the town. This side was rich in
caroub-trees, and had grass existed it would have formed a park: the
ground sloped from the mountains, about six miles distant, gradually to
the sea, the surface was richly wooded by caroubs throughout, and the
soil was cultivated with barley, which was already in the hands of
reapers. There were six caroub-trees in a line which connected their
shade, and we soon cleared the cultivated, but withered, surface of the
large clods of earth, which, having been turned up by the plough, had
baked beneath the sun into the hardness of bricks; these were arranged
in a square to mark the limits of the camp, while the interior area was
pounded to produce an even floor; from this position we looked upon the
sea, about a quarter of a mile distant, and upon the town of Limasol
upon our right.

No town in Cyprus exhibited the results of a British occupation to the
same extent as Limasol. The chief commissioner, Colonel Warren, R.A.,
was an officer of great energy and ability, and he had grappled
vigorously with every difficulty and cleansed the Augean stables
thoroughly. The town is about a mile and a half in length, and faces the
sea in a position somewhat similar to that of Larnaca. The quay is
washed by the waves, which in stormy weather dash against the houses, at
which times it is impossible to land from boats, and crews must remain
on board their vessels safely anchored in the roadstead. Although not so
extensive as Larnaca, Limasol is more compact, and the houses and
gardens are superior. Owing to the active authority of the chief
commissioner, the streets were scrupulously clean, and all the refuse of
the town was conveyed to a safe distance. A public market had been
recently arranged, covered with corrugated galvanised iron, in which the
departments for meat, vegetables, &c., were kept separate, and the
appearance and organisation resembled a market-place in England. The
various open places within the town, instead of being receptacles for
filth, as is usual throughout the East, had been carefully planted with
young trees, most of which were exhibiting their first spring shoots and
leaves. The quay which faced the sea, although exposed to the
undermining action of the waves, had been repaired and was in fair
condition; from this a tolerable pier projected, upon which piles of
goods were being disembarked from the steamer that had just arrived from
Larnaca. Two small tugs ran upon alternate days, thus affording
facilities for passengers and goods between Limasol and Larnaca, which
was a great convenience recently established to avoid the difficulty of
the roadless land journey. H.M.S. Torch was in the roadstead, together
with about twenty vessels of various flags and tonnage. Some of these
were loading wine for Trieste, and it was interesting to watch the
system adopted to save the difficulty of embarking the heavy casks in
lighters, in the absence of cranes or winches. The barrels when full
were slightly inferior in weight to their displacement of sea-water;
they accordingly floated almost level with the surface, and were formed
into a chain of two casks abreast and about fifty yards in length. Thus
arranged, they were towed by boats until alongside the vessel, when they
were easily hoisted up on board. As boats could not lie against the
perpendicular wall of the quay except during a perfect calm, there was
considerable trouble in carrying on the commerce of the port according
to modern requirements; but the inventions of necessity had simplified
many difficulties at the expense of increased manual labour. Boats lay a
few yards off the shore, and were loaded by men who walked shoulder-
deep with the packages upon their heads. I saw lighters discharging
planks and baulks of timber, by shooting them into the sea with
sufficient force to follow the direction given towards the shore, while
the receivers stood in the water to capture them upon arrival.

The shops and stores along the quay-face closely resemble those of
Larnaca, but there was more activity among the people. The streets of
the bazaar were thronged with mules and donkeys bringing the produce of
the interior to the shipping centre, and the crush of animals had been
carefully modified by the arrangements instituted by Colonel Warren, who
had established a large walled court, or stable-yard, into which all
empty mules and asses were driven, instead of being allowed to block the
thoroughfare; each beast paid some trifle for this accommodation, which
added to the fund for municipal improvements.

The public offices were very inferior, that of the chief commissioner
himself being a small white-washed room, which exhibited an utter
disregard of personal comfort in the interests of government economy.
There is a curious old fort within the town which has been altered and
added to until it has become an absurdity; this would be utterly useless
as a defence, and the Turkish guns having been removed, it is now
converted into a prison; beneath the ground there are dungeons which are
no longer used.

The roadstead of Limasol is formed by the projection of the Akrotiri
peninsula, which affords protection from the west and south-west, but it
is directly exposed from the east to the south. The anchorage is safe,
with good holding-ground in ten fathoms. The peculiar shaped peninsula
of Akrotiri is about seven miles wide, and the lake in its centre, when
full, has a width of about four miles; but during the exhaustive heat of
summer it evaporates to the dimensions of a mere pool, and leaves its
deserted bed encrusted with a deposit of salt. This lake has no
connection with the sea, and its maximum depth is under three feet; the
salt is formed upon the same principle as that of the Lake of Larnaca,
and certainly not by the percolation of sea-water through the sand, as
the Limasol lake is considerably above the sea-level. There is a
lighthouse at Cape Gatta, which can be seen at a distance of fifteen
miles, as from its elevated position the lamp is 190 feet above the sea.
From this point to Limasol the beach is low and sandy, and has always
been accepted as the most favourable point for a disembarkation of
troops. With historical facts before us there is small excuse for the
blunder committed in landing our army of occupation, during the extreme
heat of July, at Larnaca instead of Limasol. At the former port there is
not a tree to throw a shade, and the miserable aspect of the surrounding
country must have had a most depressing effect upon the nervous system
of officers and men, while at Limasol the country is agreeable and the
shady caroubs exist almost to the sea-shore, in numbers that would have
sheltered an army of three times the force represented. I cannot
conceive of more deliberate cruelty inflicted upon all grades than an
unnecessary exposure to the burning summer sun of Cyprus in bell-tents,
when shady trees existed in so convenient a locality as Limasol. If the
root of the offence could be traced it would probably be discovered that
the advice had been given by some persons interested in the possession
of property at Larnaca, where rents of houses rose from nil to a
fabulous amount upon the disembarkation of the troops. Altogether this
military enterprise of occupation was effected with the usual British
confusion and lack of arrangement.

The commissariat of course broke down, although special pains had been
taken to supply the troops with luxuries that to a simple mind are
inconceivable; thus COPPER WARMING-PANS in great numbers were sent out!
As the thermometer was above 100 degrees Fahr., these fiery furnaces
were hardly appreciated. It is a reflection upon the want of resource
exhibited by the authorities that these peculiar utensils were not sent
out as regimental stew-pans, as there was a dearth of cooking-pots, and
the warming-pans might have added materially to the comforts of the
insides, instead of the outsides of the men, by reducing the
gutta-percha-like texture of Cyprian bullocks into a savoury stew.
Another comfort thoughtfully supplied by some more than usually insane
authority, who no doubt had passed a severe competitive examination, was
exhibited in countless coal-boxes of cast-iron! These curious devices
were about three feet six inches long by two feet and a half deep, and
the same in width. To my ideas they were only suitable for gigantic
foot-pans or hip-baths, or as an aquarium for a young seal; but their
real object was to contain coal for the supply of the various tents!
What is to become of our country, exclaims the British taxpayer, if this
frightful waste is to continue? What traveller or explorer ever carried
with him a copper warming-pan and a gigantic coal-box, weighing nearly
two hundred pounds? And these useless abominations are to hamper the
operations of our troops, and to wear out our sailors in the labour of
the disembarkment of such disgraceful lumber! Should we unhappily in
some future political annexation send a military force to Spitzbergen,
we shall probably omit the warming-pans and fuel, but supply a shipload
of refrigerators and "Family Ice Machines."

A number of these cast-iron coal-boxes had been converted into cisterns
by Sir Garnet Wolseley, which surrounded the wooden Government House at
Lefkosia, and were kept full of water in case of fire. So practical a
general would have been the first to condemn the palpable absurdity of
coal-boxes, even had coals been required; surely they could have been
laid upon the bare ground by the tent side, instead of causing the
inconvenience, labour, and ridicule of importing such outrageous
nonsense.

When the famous military invasions of Cyprus took place in historical
times there were certainly neither warming-pans nor coal-boxes, either
with Richard Coeur de Lion of England in 1191, or with the Turks under
Lala Mustafa in 1570.

Both these experienced warriors selected Limasol for the point of
disembarkation, and landed their troops and horses upon the sandy beach
in Akrotiri Bay. Richard I. was on his way to the third crusade; but his
fleet having been dispersed by a storm, several vessels had been driven
on the south coast of Cyprus, where, instead of receiving the
hospitality usually exhibited to shipwrecked mariners, his people were
robbed and thrown into prison at Limasol by the king, Isaac Comnenus.
One of the principal vessels of the fleet which conveyed Berengaria,
daughter of the King of Navarre, who was the betrothed of Richard and
was accompanied by his sister the Queen Dowager of Sicily, took shelter
in Akrotiri Bay and anchored. It appears that the wily Isaac Comnenus
endeavoured to persuade the ladies to land, in the hope of effecting
their capture, and probably extorting a heavy ransom; but suspicion
being aroused, the ship set sail and was shortly met by Richard's own
vessel.

Upon hearing that his shipwrecked crews had been detained and imprisoned
Richard immediately steered for Limasol, and, with his well-known
impetuosity of character, lost no time in disembarking his troops, and
shortly brought the Greek army to action under Isaac Comnenus and
utterly defeated them. The Latin inhabitants of Limasol had already
thrown open their gates, and Richard, after his victory, returned laden
with spoils, including the imperial standard, which was eventually hung
in St. Edmund's Chapel, Suffolk.

This first battle took place at Kolossi, near to Limasol. After the
flush of victory an additional warlike impulse was given to his forces
by the arrival of the chivalrous Guy de Lusignan, ex-king of Jerusalem,
accompanied by the Princes of Antioch and Tripoli. The marriage of
Richard with Berengaria took place at Limasol; she was there crowned
Queen of England by the Bishops of York and Evreux. Richard, who did not
prolong his honeymoon when an opportunity of fighting was at hand,
immediately collected his forces, and, together with Guy de Lusignan,
marched for the interior, where Isaac Comnenus had re-organised his
army. Guy de Lusignan with a division of the troops marched upon
Famagousta, which surrendered without resistance, while Richard attacked
the Greek army under Isaac Comnenus in the plain of Messaria. Owing to
the disparity of force the battle was for some time doubtful, and at
length the two leaders engaged in personal encounter, resulting in the
capture of Isaac Comnenus and the total discomfiture of his army. The
city of Lefkosia at once threw open its gates to the victorious Richard.

The next disembarkation of troops at Limasol, on 1st July, 1570, under
the Turkish general Lala Mustafa, was upon a much larger scale, as the
expedition comprised 70,000 infantry, 30,000 cavalry, and 200 cannon.
With this force Lefkosia was assaulted, and taken after a few weeks'
siege; and the inhabitants were subjected to inconceivable atrocities,
20,000 of both sexes being mercilessly butchered during the sack which
followed the capture of the town. The Turkish forces then marched upon
the great stronghold of Cyprus, Famagousta. This powerful fortress was
invested by land and sea, and although defended by only 7000 Venetian
troops, under their gallant commandant, General Bragadino, it sustained
a vigorous siege for more than ten months, until the heroic garrison was
reduced by sickness and starvation. During this time an extraordinary
apathy was exhibited by Venice, which should at all hazards have
determined upon the relief of this important position. On 23rd January,
1571, the only effective expedition entered Famagousta with 1600 men,
provisions and ammunition, with a squadron commanded by the Venetian
Marc Antonius Quirini; but on the 1st August following, the provisions
and ammunition having been completely expended, it became absolutely
necessary to negotiate the terms of capitulation. A detailed description
of this interesting siege is given in the work of Richard Knolles, The
General History of the Turks, published in London in 1638.

The conditions of surrender stipulated that "The garrison should march
out with five guns and the horses of the commanders, and should be
conveyed to Candia in the ships and at the expense of the Turks; that
the inhabitants should be free to quit the town and take their property,
and that those who preferred to remain should be unmolested both as
regards their persons and their goods."*
(*Captain Savile's Cyprus, p. 22.)

General di Cesnola writes, page 39:--

    "These conditions were eagerly accepted by the
    treacherous Mustafa; hostages were exchanged;
    Turkish vessels, as stipulated, entered the port of
    Famagousta, and took on board all those who wished
    to leave the island; nothing remained but the formality
    of delivering the keys of the city to the victor.

    "On 5th August General Bragadino, accompanied
    by his lieutenants Baglioni, Martinengo, and Quirini,
    went to the Turkish camp, and was politely received
    by Mustafa. After the delivery of the keys, and
    when General Bragadino had risen to take leave, the
    vile Turk asked him for special hostages for the safe
    return from Candia of the Turkish vessels which were
    to convey him and his men thither; Bragadino refused
    this, as not having been stipulated in the accepted
    conditions of his surrender. Then Mustafa accused
    him of bad faith, and of having put to death fifty
    Turkish pilgrims after he had surrendered, which was
    indignantly denied by Bragadino. The pasha, becoming
    enraged, ordered the four Venetians to be put to death,
    and in a few minutes Generals Baglioni, Martinengo,
    and Quirini were executed in the presence of Bragadino,
    for whom a more terrible death was reserved.
    The executioner cut off his nose and ears; three times
    he was made to lay his head upon the block, as if
    to be beheaded, then, heavily chained, was thrown
    into a dark dungeon, and left for nine days in that
    miserable condition.

    "On the tenth day, by order of Mustafa, Bragadino
    was brought out of prison and made to carry earth
    for the repair of the fortifications during several hours,
    after which, more dead than alive, the heroic soldier
    was tied to a stake, and, in the presence of the ferocious
    Mustafa, was flayed alive. His skin, stuffed with hay,
    was sent with the heads of the other three Venetians
    as presents to the Sultan."

The two most important conquests of Cyprus have thus commenced from the
port of Limasol, which is destined to become of primary importance as
the great commercial representative town of this now poor island.

We remained sixteen days at Limasol, during which time we had the
pleasure of the society of Colonel and Mrs. Warren and their young
family, which we thoroughly appreciated after the exile from civilised
life and ladies since we had quitted Kyrenia and Lefkosia. The leading
officials and some Greek merchants of the town were good enough to call
frequently, and kindly afforded much information; at the same time they
did not conceal their disappointment at the terms of the occupation,
which, by draining the island of its revenue, completely paralysed the
good intentions of the English government; the best resolutions being
valueless unless supported by the necessary capital.

Although I received every politeness from the inhabitants, who appeared
to think I had some official mission, it was not difficult to trace a
general tone of complaint and dissatisfaction, which was perfectly
natural under the existing regime. Although nothing could exceed the
pains taken by Sir Garnet Wolseley and all his officials to introduce
reforms for the general welfare of the people, the task was simply
impossible where various interests were conflicting, and no HYBRID
government could at once destroy existing abuses and at the same time
establish laws suitable to all classes. This general reform required an
independent administration, untrammelled by mongrel relations with the
Turk, and equally free from the vexatious labyrinths of English
jurisprudence. I do not wish to catalogue the long list of grievances
which have been entrusted to my unwilling ears, but there are some which
are so utterly destructive to the interests of the country and the
government, that I have no hesitation in describing them.

The great trade of Limasol is wine, as the district exhibits the
industry first encouraged by the Venetians; this, as the great
money-producing cultivation, opposed to Mussulman prejudices, has been
burdened with extortionate taxation and restrictions, which have not yet
been relieved by the British administration.



CHAPTER X.

THE WINE DISTRICT OF LIMASOL.

In the fifteenth century the Cyprian vines were selected for the now
celebrated vineyards of Madeira; nothing can better exemplify the
standard of industry and consequent prosperity than the vine, when we
regard the identical plant in the hands of the Portuguese and in its
original home in Cyprus under the Turkish administration. The first
historical notice of the vine occurs when Noah, stranded upon Mount
Ararat, took advantage, upon the first subsidence of the waters, to
plant a vineyard; and, according to the curt biblical description, it
grew, produced, and the wine intoxicated the proprietor, all within a
few days. It may not have occurred to the wine trade that this biblical
fact proves that the consumption of wine had been among the first
assumed necessities of the human race; if Noah's first impulse upon
landing suggested the cultivation of the vine, he was restoring to the
world a plant that had been considered so absolutely important that he
must have provided himself with either buds or cuttings in great
quantities when he selected his animals for the Ark BEFORE the Deluge.
If this is true, the use of wine must have been pre-historical, and its
abuse historical; the two purposes having continued to the present day.
It may therefore be acknowledged that no custom has been so universal
and continuous as the drinking of wine from the earliest period of human
existence. The vine is a mysterious plant; it is so peculiarly sensitive
that, like a musical instrument which produces harmony or discord at the
hands of different performers, the produce of the same variety is
affected by the soil upon which the plants are grown. Thus ten thousand
young vines may be planted upon one mountain, all of the same stock; but
various qualities of wine will be produced, each with a special
peculiarity of flavour, according to the peculiarities of soil. The same
estate, planted with the same vines, may produce high class wines and
others that would hardly command a market, if the soil varies according
to the degrees of certain localities. It would now be impossible to
produce Madeira wine in Cyprus, although the plants might be imported
and cultivated with the greatest attention. When the vines were shipped
from Cyprus and planted in Madeira during the rule of the Venetians, it
must not be supposed that those vines had ever produced wine of the
well-known Madeira flavour and quality; that flavour was the result of
some peculiarity in the soil of the new country to which the vines had
been transplanted, and there can be little doubt that the rich and
extremely luscious variety known in Cyprus as "Commanderia" was the
parent vine of the Madeira vineyards.

It is well known that the costly experiments of a century at the Cape of
Good Hope have verified the fact that the vine is the slave of certain
conditions of soil, which impart to this extremely delicate and
sensitive plant a special flavour that is incorporated with the wine,
and can never be eradicated. The vines of the Cape, although of infinite
variety, produce wines with a family taint which is a flavour absorbed
from the soil. Any person who knows Constantia, the luscious wine of the
Cape of Good Hope, will at once detect the soupcon of that flavour in
every quality of wine produced in the colony. It may therefore be
accepted that the flavour of wines depends upon the soil; thus it would
be impossible for a vine-grower to succeed simply by planting well-
known superior varieties of vines, unless he has had practical
experience of the locality to be converted into vineyards.

This fact is thoroughly exhibited in Cyprus, where the peculiarities of
soils are exceedingly remarkable, and cannot fail to attract attention,
each of these qualities of earth producing a special wine.

If a planter establishes a vineyard he will naturally select a certain
variety of vine, and a corresponding situation that will ensure a
marketable quantity of wine; thus in Cyprus a comparatively small area
of the island is devoted to the cultivation of the grape, which is
comprised chiefly within the district of Limasol. No wine is made in the
Carpas district, nor to the north of the Carpasian range of jurassic
limestone; there are no vineyards of importance in the western district;
or yet in the plain of Messaria, except upon the western border, in the
neighbourhood of Dali, towards the Makhaeras mountain.

Although there are many varieties of Cyprus wines, there is one
prevailing rule: the white commanderia, a luscious high-flavoured wine,
is grown upon the reddish chocolate-coloured soil of metamorphous rocks.
The dark red, or black astringent wines, are produced upon the white
marls and cretaceous limestone. The quantity produced is large, and the
dark wines can be purchased retail in the villages for one penny the
quart bottle!--and in my opinion are very dear at the money.

According to the official returns kindly supplied to me by Mr. Robson,
the chief of customs, the following list represents the declared
duty-paid production from 1877 to 1879.

                      Spirits--      Commanderia--     Black Wines--
                  Okes 2.75 lbs.    Okes 2.75 lbs.    Okes 2.75 lbs.
1877-1878. .         155,451             117,000          2,500,000
1878-1879. .         430,000             300,000          6,000,000

Spirit is valued at about 2.5 Piastres the Oke
Commanderia  "       "      2     "     "    "
Black Wines  "       "   1.25     "     "    "
The rate of exchange:  9 Piastres to 1 shilling = 180 per
                                         pound sterling.


It will be observed that an immense difference is represented in the
yield of the two years. This is to be accounted for by the
superabundance of rains in 1878-1879, which caused a great quantity, but
bad quality, of juice, and the wine of this vintage is so inferior that
a large proportion is turning to vinegar, and can be used for no other
purpose.

The habit of calculating by low quantities, as "okes," as the French
reckon in "francs," is at first sight perplexing to the English mind,
and conveys an erroneous impression of the actual results. If the
population of Cyprus is about 200,000, the maximum wine-crop of
6,000,000 okes would only yield 30 okes, or 60 ordinary wine-bottles, to
each person during the year. The local consumption is exceedingly small,
which can only be accounted for by the general poverty of the
population.

The exports are directed principally to the various ports of the Levant,
Constantinople, Smyrna, Alexandria, in addition to Trieste, and parts of
Southern Italy. Some of the dark wines are shipped to Marseilles, for
the well-known establishment at Cette, where they are used for mixing
with other wines. It should at once be understood that no quality of
Cyprus wines is suitable to the English market, as they are generally
shunned even by the English residing in the island, where their extreme
cheapness might tempt people into the bad taste of consuming them. At
the same time, these wines are well appreciated by the native
population, especially the dark astringent qualities.

The difficulty of introducing a new wine is well known to English
wine-merchants, and the mysteries of the trade would somewhat astonish
the innocent would-be connoisseur. There can be no doubt that the palate
must be educated to enjoy fine dry wines, precisely as the ear must be
instructed before it can appreciate classical music. There is a harmony
in the senses of hearing, smell, and taste which is the result of
civilised life; this may be right or wrong physically, as the nerves
become more delicate and sensitive, which may affect the brain more or
less directly. There can be no doubt that it affects the stomach.
Certain civilised persons prefer game in a state approaching to
decomposition; I have seen savages who enjoy flesh when actually putrid,
and above all horrors, fish when stinking! Such food would disgust the
civilised man who prefers his game "high," and would perhaps kill other
civilised people whose palates and stomachs have been educated to avoid
impurities. In the same manner the palate must be educated for wines or
other drinks. I gave an old priest a bottle of Bass's pale India ale; he
could not drink half a glassful but rejected it as picro (bitter); the
same old man enjoyed his penny-a-bottle black Cyprus wine, reeking of
tar and half-rotten goat-skins, in which it had been brought to
market--a stuff that I could not have swallowed! It must therefore be
borne in mind when judging of Cyprian wines, that "English taste does
not govern the world." Although the British market would be closed to
the coarse and ill-made wines of Cyprus, there are other markets which
accept them gladly, and would absorb them to a high degree, were they
improved by superior cultivation and manufacture.

At the same time that the produce of Cyprus is now a unsuitable to the
English market, there is no reason why it should be excluded at a future
time, when scientific culture shall have enhanced the quality. It should
be remembered that the poorer classes of Great Britain would be
immensely benefited by a beverage that should be within their reach in
price, and at the same time be sufficiently invigorating without the
direct intoxicating properties of spirits or the sleepy, heavy, and
thirst-increasing qualities of beer. If Cyprus is at some future time to
become a British colony, the wine trade will be the principal source of
industry, and should be developed by the government with every possible
encouragement to the proprietors of vineyards. An improved quality of
wine will not necessitate an additional price, but, on the contrary, the
wine-growing resources of the island are so irrepressible that they have
withstood the oppression of the past and present, and when relieved of
this incubus, not only should the quality improve, but the price should
be reduced. In this case, should the Cyprian produce be favoured by a
nominal import duty in England, the wine will be within the reach of the
poorer classes, and may ameliorate that crying evil of our country,
"intoxication," by weaning the spirit-drinker to a more wholesome
drink.

It must never be supposed by the most sanguine that Cyprian wines will
be fashionable among the upper classes in England. I do not think they
will ever surpass Marsala or many of the Cape wines. English people, as
a rule, object to cheap wines, or at least they are reserved concerning
the price, should cheap wine be upon their table. It is a dangerous
thing to mention the cost of any wine, even to your nearest friend;
although he might have enjoyed it when he thought it must have cost you
72 shillings the dozen, he will detect some unpleasant peculiarity when
you may foolishly have confided to him that it only cost you 36
shillings, or, worse still, 24 shillings. He will possibly suggest to
you on the following morning that "something disagreed with him during
the night, but he does NOT think it was the 24 shilling wine." Here is
the fault of HALF-EDUCATED palates; they expect too much, and are guided
by fancies. The same person might be beguiled into the belief that the
24 shilling wine was very superior if he had been deceived by an
assurance that it cost 72 shillings. There are really very few amateurs
who could value unknown wines by the test of their own palates; but the
chilly climate of England is adverse to light wines, and necessitates a
full body, with considerable strength.

The sherries are always fortified by an addition of between 30 to 40 per
cent. of alcohol before they are shipped to England, without which they
would be unsaleable; as to our taste, they would be empty and vapid. We
must therefore make a considerable allowance when judging of Cyprus
wines in their present extremely rude and uncultivated position.

Nothing is added, and the following concise description will account for
their disagreeable peculiarities.

There are no roads in Cyprus in the mountainous wine-producing
districts, therefore all agricultural products must be conveyed upon the
backs of mules up and down the steepest and most dangerous rocky tracks,
apparently more fitted for goats than other animals. A mule will travel
in this rough country with a load of 250 lbs. This serious difficulty of
transport will account for the rude and ancient method of conveying wine
in goat-skins. "No man will put new wine into old bottles," referred to
this system of employing skins instead of casks, or other receptacles
that could be cleaned and rendered tasteless. The goat-skin would
quickly rot, unless it was prepared by a species of tar; thus not only
is the naturally unpleasant flavour of the skin imparted to the wine,
but the mixture of tar renders it completely abominable to any palate
that has not been educated to receive it. Let any person conceive the
result of pouring ten or twelve gallons of Chateau Lafitte into an old
and dirty goat-skin thoroughly impregnated with tar, and carrying this
burden upon one side of a mule, balanced by a similar skin on the other
side filled with the choicest Johannisberger. This load, worth at least
70 or 80 pounds at starting, would travel for two days exposed to a
broiling sun, and would lie for several days before it would be turned
into the vat of the merchant at Limasol. By that time, according to
civilised taste, it would be perfectly valueless and undrinkable; if the
best wines in the world can be thus destroyed by a savage means of
transport, what must the effect be upon such inferior qualities as the
crude produce of Cyprus? Common sense will suggest that the first step
towards improvement will be the completion of roads throughout the wine
districts, that will enable the two-wheeled native carts to convey the
wine in barrels direct from the growers to the merchants' stores at
Limasol.

We will now commence at the beginning, "the cultivation of the vine,"
and trace its progress until the wine is ready for the consumer.

As I have already described, the commanderia and the black wines are
produced by the two different qualities of soils, but there is no
difference in the altitudes. The new British road from Limasol to
Platraes, thirty miles, cuts directly through the principal vine
districts of the country. From the deep valley and roaring torrent, up
to the mountain-tops exceeding 4000 feet above the sea-level, the
country is green with vineyards in the middle or latter end of May; not
a yard of available land is lost. When the shoots are about three feet
long and have shown the embryo bunches, a number of men enter the
vineyard with switches and knock off the tender ends of the runners,
which in a gentler method of cultivation would be picked off with the
finger and thumb-nail. Sometimes goats are turned in to nibble off the
shoots in order to save labour, and at the same time to feed the
animals; they of course damage the vines, but the Cypriote thinks the
system pays. The young vines are never staked and tied as in Europe, but
are allowed to take their chance, and the heavy bunches in many
instances rest upon the dusty ground.

There is seldom rain after May, but a few showers are favourable at this
particular season when the young bunches are in blossom. In the best
vineyards attention is given to clearing away the weeds after rain, but
usually the vines are left to nature after the grapes have formed, as
the hot sun and drying wind are sufficient to keep down adverse
vegetation.

The grapes ripen towards the middle or end of August. The commanderia
grapes are collected and spread upon the flat mud-plastered roofs of the
native houses, and are exposed for several days, until they show
symptoms of shrivelling in the skin, and the stalks have partially
dried: they are then pressed. By this time many of the grapes that have
been bruised by this rough treatment have fermented, and the dust and
dirt of the house-top, together with flies and other insects, have
adhered to the impure heap. It has been imagined by some travellers that
the grapes are purposely dried before pressing; on the other hand, I
have been assured by the inhabitants that their only reason for heaping
and exposing their crop upon the house-tops is the danger of leaving it
to ripen in the vineyard. None of the plots are fenced, and before the
grapes are sufficiently ripe for pressing they are stolen in large
quantities, or destroyed by cattle, goats, mules, and every stray animal
that is attracted to the fields. The owner of the vineyard accordingly
gathers his crop by degrees, a little before the proper time, and the
grapes are exposed upon the house-tops to ripen artificially in the sun.
In this manner the quality is seriously damaged; but the natives will
not acknowledge it any more than the Devonshire farmers, who leave their
apples in heaps upon the ground for many weeks, rotting and wasp-eaten,
before they are carried to the pound for the grinding of cider. The
grapes, having been trodden by men with large boots, are pressed, and
the juice of the commanderia is placed in jars capable of holding from
seventy to one hundred gallons. The refuse of skins and stalks is laid
upon one side to ferment for the manufacture of raki, or spirit, by
distillation. The fermentation of the juice proceeds in the earthen
jars, and is guided according to the ideas of the proprietor; when he
considers that it has continued to a degree sufficient for the strength
and quality of the wine, it is checked by the addition of powdered
gypsum. Here is one of the patent errors of the manufacture of
commanderia as a wine suitable to English tastes. The grape-juice is
naturally so rich in saccharine, that it is luscious and vapid to an
excess; this superabundant amount of sugar would be converted into
alcohol in the natural process of fermentation if unchecked, and by the
chemical change the wine would gain in strength and lose in sweetness.
Should this process be adopted, the result would no longer represent the
wine now accepted as commanderia, which finds a ready market in the
Levant, owing to its peculiar sweetness and rich flavour, although
disagreeable to Europeans; there would accordingly be a risk attending
such experiments, which the grower would consider unnecessary, as he
already commands the sale.

The large jars in which the wine ferments are porous and unglazed; the
usual waterproofing is adopted, in the shape of tar, with which the
inside is thickly coated. There are many jars of a century old, which
have lost the flavour by extreme age, and have become liquid-proof by
the choking of the pores with the crust deposited by the wine; these are
highly prized, and the wine after fermentation is left upon its own lees
to ripen; or, according to our ideas, it is entirely neglected. It is
never racked into other vessels.

There is an unusual peculiarity in commanderia; instead of the colour
becoming paler by great age, it deepens to an extraordinary degree. The
new wine is the ordinary tint of sherry, but it gradually becomes
darker, until after forty or fifty years it is almost black, with the
syrup-like consistence of new honey. Wine of this age and quality is
much esteemed, and is worth a fancy price. I was presented with several
bottles of the famous old Cyprus growths of commanderia, morocanella,
and muscadine, by the kindness of Mr. Lanites, who is largely interested
in the trade at Limasol. The old commanderia was sufficiently sweet to
occasion a roughness in the throat, and each quality was far too
luscious for English taste, but might have been agreeable to sip like
Tokay, by soaking a sponge biscuit. The utterly rude method of producing
native wines, which can scarcely be dignified by the term "manufacture,"
is a sufficient explanation of their inferior quality, but at the same
time it is a proof of the great wine-producing power of Cyprus, where,
in spite of ignorance and neglect, an extensive commerce has been
established, which adds materially to the revenue of the island. If
these badly-made wines have founded an important trade, there is every
reason to expect a corresponding extension when scientific principles
shall have resulted in a superior quality.

The black wines receive even less care than the commanderia; the grapes
are trodden, and are thrown into receptacles to ferment, together with
the skins and stalks. This bruised mass, after lying a certain time
exposed to fermentation, is pressed, and the muddy juice is stowed in
the large tarred jars to ripen for a few months, which, according to
Cyprian taste, are sufficient to prepare it for consumption. The stalks
and black skins, being extremely rich in tannin, have imparted to the
wine a powerful astringency and the exceedingly dark colour which so
disagreeably distinguish this common quality. The growers imagine that
the extra amount of tannin is preservative, without which, their wine
might deteriorate during the rough treatment to which it is subjected by
transport and exposure; and to their specially-educated palates this
astringency is agreeable, combined with the strong flavour of tar, which
completely excludes it from the consumption of Englishmen. Neither the
commanderia nor any other quality of wine is subjected to the process of
"fining;" when issued from the stores of the merchant, therefore, a
really bright clear wine is never met with. The black wines could be
considerably improved by allowing them to settle in large vats, and by a
series of rackings into other vessels, as they become clearer by
depositing their impurities. I have tried this experiment upon a small
scale with success, and there can be no doubt that the simple manual
labour of drawing off the clear wine to enable it to fine itself by
precipitating the albuminous matter that has been fixed by the
superabundant tannin, would render the "mavro," or black wine,
drinkable; always excepting the presence of tar, which can at once be
avoided by the substitution of casks for the earthen jars and
goat-skins.

At the expiration of the vintage the vines remain uncared-for throughout
the autumn and winter, cattle and goats invade them ad libitum so long
as their leaves are attractive, and no operation is performed until the
month of March. At this time they are pruned close to the stocks, which
are generally about one foot above the ground, and two eyes are supposed
to be left upon each spur. But I have watched the cultivators during the
process, and observed the usual neglect; sometimes the spurs were shaved
off completely, without a bud for next year's shoot, and at others too
many buds were left, that would weaken and disfigure the parent stem.
The instrument for pruning was similar to a very small reaping-hook,
with a handle about a foot in length, and the delicate operation was
conducted with a rapidity that rendered the necessary care impossible.
After the clearing of the refuse the land is carefully ploughed and
cleaned.

I visited some large wine-stores in Larnaca, where casks of about 300
gallons each were arranged in long parallel rows, all filled with
commanderia of various ages and corresponding prices.

Having now traced the liquor from the original vineyard into the
merchant's store, it will be interesting to examine the network of
obstructions and extortions to which the unfortunate wine-grower is
exposed before he can deliver his produce into the hands of the
merchant, either at Limasol or elsewhere.

Consul Riddell reported officially in 1875 as follows:--

    "The wine trade of Cyprus was last year
    exceptionally large, owing to the abundant produce of
    the vineyards in 1874. The outcome of grapes and
    wines in 1875 did not exceed an ordinary average,
    and growers still complain loudly that the imposts
    upon wines, reckoning from the grape to the vat, are
    so heavy--amounting to about 35 or 40 per cent.--and
    their imposition and collection so very arbitrary and
    unequal, that many vineyards are being abandoned.

    "The government, it is said, have under consideration
    the anomalous state of the wine trade in Cyprus,
    with a view to relieve and redress the many grievances
    of which consumers complain, and in the meanwhile
    the collection of the imposts is suspended. Should
    the result prove to be the elaboration of a fair,
    reasonable, and consistent scale of duties, the revival
    of the wine trade may be reasonably looked forward
    to, and under sound regulations and intelligent
    fostering the trade would undoubtedly become a large
    and profitable one to this island."

    In 1876, the year following the promised reform,
    Consul Pierides reports:--

    "The quantity of all sorts of wine produced was
    much below that of 1875. The principal shipments
    were made to Trieste and Venice. The collection of
    the imposts, which was for a short time suspended, has
    recommenced, and the manner in which it is conducted
    is still arbitrary and vexatious, while remonstrances
    have hitherto been of no avail. It is time for the
    government to put an end to these grievances, which
    indeed threaten to destroy one of the best resources
    of the island."

In 1877 Consul Watkins reports:--

    "The manufacture of wine here is greatly on the
    decrease; for, owing to all sorts of unreasonable
    regulations, and to the vexatious mode of their
    application, cultivators now prefer making their grapes
    into raisins."

Here we have consecutive official reports from three different British
consuls during 1875-1877. The British occupation took place in 1878--I
am writing in 1879--and although the grievances of the Cyprian
wine-growers were sufficiently aggravated to call for the vigorous
reports and protests of three different British consuls during the
Turkish administration, no amelioration of their condition has been
effected during twelve months of British rule.

Captain Savile, in his excellent digest of all that concerns this
island, writes:--

    "The grievances connected with the culture of the
    vines and the manufacture of wine which are alluded
    to in the consular reports, existed as long ago as 1863,
    and were then mentioned by Consul White, who says
    that the peasants were even then beginning to find it
    more profitable to sell their grapes, or to make them
    into raisins, rather than, by turning them into wine, to
    subject themselves to the duty lately imposed over and
    above the tithe and export duties, which were collected
    in a very harassing manner. The growers have had
    to pay, under the tax called `dimes,' an eighth part of
    the produce of grapes to the treasury; but this could
    not be taken in kind, so a money value was fixed yearly
    by the local medjlis, or fixed tribunal; but as the assessment
    was based on the market-price at the chief town
    of the district, instead of the value at the place of
    growth, this tax, instead of being about 12.5 per cent.,
    in reality amounted to over 20 per cent. Then again
    when the wine was made, an excise duty of 10 per
    cent. was levied, and on export, a tax of 8 per cent.
    had to be paid. The natural consequence of these
    excessive impositions has been the diminution of a
    culture for which the island is particularly adapted.
    Consul Lang suggests that it might be wise to free this
    production from all tax, except a proper export duty."

How easy it is to be generous at the expense of others!--here are
(including Consuls White and Lang) no less than five British consuls who
have been protesting against this instance of oppression and injustice
since the year 1862, and it would naturally have been expected that one
of our first acts upon assuming the government of Cyprus would have been
to abolish an abuse that had excited the remonstrances of our own
representatives. The fact is that we were reduced to a financial ebb of
the gravest character by the absorption at Constantinople of an unfair
proportion of the revenue, and our government was not in a position to
risk a reduction of income by such an important change in the system of
taxation. The Cypriotes have nevertheless derived a collateral advantage
from the change of rulers, as the extreme grievances to which the
consular reports allude were aggravated by the farmers of taxes, who no
longer exist. These people were extortioners of the worst description,
and the bribes and extra payments extracted from the vine-growers are
represented in the gross sum mentioned as amounting to 40 per cent. upon
the general produce of the vineyard. The reforms already established by
the abolition of the nefarious system of tax-farming have relieved the
vine-growers from the most serious oppression, but sufficient abuses
remain to demand a radical change, if the industry for which Cyprus is
specially adapted by nature is to be encouraged.

As I have described in outline the rude method of cultivation and the
manufacture of wine from the first bursting of the young vines, I will
now examine the system of arbitrary interference to which the vine-
grower is exposed through the successive stages of his employment.

The first tax is perfectly fair, as it is calculated according to the
rateable value of the land, which is divided into three classes. These
qualities of soil vary in the valuation from

 No. 1 = 500 piastres the donum (about half an acre) to
 No. 3 = 100 piastres the donum

The malliea, or annual tax upon these valuations per donum, is 2 per
cent.

When the grapes are nearly ripe, they must be valued before the
proprietor has a right to gather his crop. He is obliged to present
himself at the government office at Limasol, many miles from his estate,
to petition for the attendance of the official valuer, called the
"mahmoor," upon a certain day. This may or may not be granted, but at
all events one or two days have been expended in the journey.

Should the mahmoor arrive, which he frequently does not, at the
appointed time, the medjlis, or council of the villages, appoints a
special arbitrator to represent their (the vine-growers) interests, and
he accompanies the government official during his examination of the
vineyards. After a certain amount of haggling and discussion, an
approximate weight of grapes is agreed upon, the mahmoor declaring the
ultimate amount far above the actual crop per donum: and the tax is
determined according to their quality, resolved into two classes:--

 No. 1, the commanderia, and other superior varieties, pay 25 paras the oke.
 No. 2, all other grapes pay 16 paras the oke.

But these taxes. are modified according to the abundance and quality of
the grapes in each successive season, being sometimes more or less than
the figures given. The crop is generally ripe towards the end of August,
and the tax, having been determined, may be paid during the following
January, March, or May.

The grapes having been officially valued, and the rate of taxation
established, the proprietor may gather his crop, and press it for wine.
The rows of enormous jars are at length filled: eventually the wine is
ready for sale.

Now comes the necessity for a second journey to Limasol, perhaps thirty
or forty miles distant, to petition for the government official to
measure the contents of the jars; without such an examination, no wine
can be removed from the stores.

This is another loss of time to the grower, and occasions an expense for
himself and mule for the journey.

The jars are at length measured; but before any wine can be removed a
general examination of the quality of the district produce must be
completed, and, an average value having been determined, the tax of 10
per cent. must be paid ad valorem.

After these necessary forms have been gone through, with the attendant
vexatious delays and expensive journeys, entailing loss of time for men
and mules, the vine-grower wishes to carry his wine to market.

Before a drop can be removed he must present himself at the official
quarters, either at Kilani or one other village, to obtain a teskeri, or
permit, for the quantity that he wishes to convey. After this trouble
and delay he returns to his home with the official permit to remove to a
specified place (generally Limasol) a fixed quantity of wine, which is
calculated by the load; one load equals 128 okes of 2.75 lbs.
avoirdupois, and, packed in goat-skins, is carried by two mules.

The vine-grower himself weighs his wine when the skins are filled, and
he starts upon his long journey over steep mountain rocky paths to
Limasol, where he will sell his load to the wine-merchant, who
subsequently will ship it to the various ports of the Mediteranean.

The sun is burning; and the wine, contained in tarry goat-skins, is,
after a few hours' exposure to the heat, about the temperature of the
hottest bath; thus absorbing the vile smells of the primitive but secure
package. The owner is well aware that the value of his wine will depend
upon the flavour, therefore he hurries his mules forward, in order to
deliver it as quickly as possible to the merchant, before it shall be
contaminated by the skins.

Upon arrival at Limasol it may be late, and nothing can be done. His
wine must be weighed by the government official at the public
weighing-place, specially assigned for the wine trade; and he drives his
laden and tired mules to the yard. Here he finds some hundreds of mules
and their proprietors in a similar position to himself; however, there
is no help for it, and they must be patient through the night while
their wine is imbibing the hateful flavour of the goat-skins. In the
meantime they must purchase food for their mules and seek quarters for
themselves.

When the morning appears the government official has enough to do, and
as a certain time must be occupied in weighing a given quantity, the day
wears away. Every man has to present his teskeri, or permit, for removal
from his village to Limasol of a specified quantity of wine, and his
load must weigh that prescribed weight upon delivery. His scales may not
have been exactly in harmony with those of the government official; but
should the quantity exceed the teskeri, the owner must pay DOUBLE THE
AMOUNT OF TAXATION.

In the meantime, during the wrangles concerning discrepancies in weight,
mules are arriving with their loads, their owners all desirous of
despatch, and the hours fast wearing away. The next day is probably a
Greek holiday, and all the merchants' stores are shut (there is a Greek
holiday at least once a week,--generally twice). The unfortunate
vine-grower, after waiting patiently in despair, discovers that he must
wait still longer. At length, after vexations and delays, he draws a
sample of wine into a gourd-shell from his skins, and hands it to the
merchant; who, having made a wry face and spat it out, advises him to
"throw his wine into the sea, as it is undrinkable," having remained too
long in the goat-skins exposed to the sun. A most respectable informant
related to me the total loss of a large quantity of first-class wine
from the delay thus occasioned at Limasol. . . .

The refuse, after pressing the grapes, is calculated to yield upon
distillation a proportion of 100 okes of spirit for every ten loads
(1280 okes) of wine. This pays a tax of eight paras the oke, which,
added to the 10 per cent. upon the wine, makes a total of 15 per cent.
upon wine and spirit included.

The vine-grower, irrespective of the size of his vineyard, is allowed
200 okes duty free for his own consumption; and when his jars are
measured to determine the contents for taxation an allowance is deducted
for the muddy deposit at the bottom.

It will at once be seen by this enumeration of the delays and vexations
occasioned by this arbitrary system, that it is barely possible for the
vine-grower to calculate the actual cost of his wine, as the loss of
time, expense of journeys, and uncertainty of the amount of delays are
entirely beyond his control. It is therefore extremely difficult to
discover the exact financial position of the cultivator, but from the
data in my possession it is nearly as follows:--

One donum of land, which is supposed to measure a square of fifty yards,
would be about half an English acre; and this area is calculated to
yield an average of one load and a half of wine = 192 okes = 528 lbs.

The value of the ordinary wine of the country will average about 90
piastres the load, wholesale price; therefore one donum will represent a
gross value of I.5 load at 90 .. = 135 piastres (Cr.)

Against this annual produce the natives
calculate as follows:--

                                                  Piastres.
Per donum--Expenses of cultivating the
        land, i.e. ploughing, weeding, &c. . . . . . . 25
Pruning vines  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Gathering crop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Feeding labourers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Carriage of wine to market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
TOTAL government dues, including malliea . . . . . . . 25
                                                      ___  ___
                                                (Dr.) 105  135 (Cr.)


This leaves a balance in favour of the producer of only 30 piastres,
about 5 shillings per donum.

But it must be remembered that in the above calculation his own personal
labour has not been considered; neither the wear and tear of implements,
jars, loss by accidents of seasons, when the wine turns sour, neither is
any margin allowed for extraneous casualties.

At first sight the position appears impossible, as a stranger would ask
the pertinent question, "Why, if vineyards do not pay, does the owner
continue the occupation? Why does he not substitute some other form of
cultivation?" The answer is simple. Wherever the conditions of the
locality permitted, they have already done so; but vineyards are
cultivated where no other crops could grow; upon the sides of inclines
so steep that it is even difficult to stand; and these positions,
although peculiarly adapted for the cultivation of the vine by reason of
the soil, would be absolutely worthless for other uses. The vine
requires little water after the young grapes have formed, and the
burning sun-light which is favourable for their development would
destroy all cereals upon those steep inclinations, where a casual
shower, instead of soaking into the earth and nourishing the crops,
rushes quickly over the surface and drains superficially into the deep
vale below. The land of the vineyards is WINE land, and adapted
specially by the quality of the soil and the peculiarity of climate for
the production of grapes. In addition to the impossibility of converting
this land to other purposes of cultivation would be the loss to the
proprietor of all his plant, buildings, jars, &c., &c., which would
become valueless.

This is, as well as I can describe the grievances, the real position of
the vine-grower. Although since the British occupation he has escaped
the extra extortion of the tax-farmer, he is still the slave of petty
vexations and delays, which strangle him in red-tape and render his
avocation a misery; without profit, leaving only a bare subsistence.
What is to be done?

The first necessary change is a system of roads, only sufficiently wide
to admit of the native two-wheeled carts, with sidings every half mile
to enable them to pass when meeting. Our usual English mistake has been
made, in the only two metalled highways that the engineers have
constructed in Cyprus, "that everything must be English;" thus we have
two costly roads of great width from Larnaca to Lefkosia, and from
Limasol to Platraes, which are entirely unsuitable to the requirements
of the country; and as there are no branch roads in communication, the
people are hardly benefited, as they cannot reach the main artery with
wheeled conveyances. The military road from Limasol might as well be a
railway without any branch traffic, as it is entirely independent of
other roads: thus, should carts be established to convey the wine of the
district to Limasol, they must be loaded by mules that will bring the
produce from the roadless vineyards in the usual manner by goat-skins,
and the wine will be tainted as before. A network of cheap useful
cart-tracks can be easily made throughout the wine districts, and they
MUST be made before any improvement in the quality of the wines can take
place. The goat-skins and the tarred jars must be thrown aside before
any change can be expected: these cannot become obsolete until the
necessary roads for the conveyance of casks shall be completed.

If we regard the present position of the vine-grower, we must advise
him thus:--"The first necessity is to improve your QUALITY, and thus
ensure a higher price. It costs no more either in labour or in plant to
produce a good wine than to continue your present rude method of
production. You may double the value of your wine by an improved system,
without adding materially to your expenses; you will then have a large
margin for profit, which will increase in the same ratio as the quality
of your wine."

The grower will reply, "We must have roads for carts if we are to
substitute barrels for goat-skins. So long as the mule-paths are our
only routes we must adhere to the skins, which we acknowledge are
destructive to the quality of the wine and reduce our profits. Give us
roads."

This is a first necessity, and it is simply ridiculous to preach reforms
of quality to the cultivators so long as the present savage country
remains roadless. It is the first duty of the government to open the
entire wine district by a carefully devised system of communication: for
which a highway rate could be established for repairs.

If this simple work shall be accomplished the goat-skins will disappear;
or should some cultivators cling to the ancient nuisance, a tax could be
levied specially upon wine skins, which would ensure their immediate
abolition. A new trade would at once be introduced to Cyprus in the
importation of staves for casks, and the necessary coopers. The huge
jars that are only suggestive of the "Forty Thieves" would be used as
water-tanks, and the wine would ripen in casks of several hundred
gallons, and be racked off by taps at successive intervals when clear.
The first deposit of tannin and fixed albumen would remain at the bottom
of No. 1 vat, the second deposit after racking in No. 2; and the wine
which is now an astringent, cloudy, and muddy mixture of impurities,
would leave the vine-grower's store bright, and fit for the merchant's
vats in Limasol, and command a more than double price. This is a matter
of certainty and not conjecture. Should the black wines be carefully
manufactured, they will be extensively used for mixing with thin French
wines, as they generally possess strength and body in large proportion
to their price.

It will be universally agreed that the making of the roads is the first
necessity; but if the island is in such financial misery that so
important a step must be deferred, the grievances of the vine-growers
should be immediately considered. The first question to the cultivator
would be, "What reforms do you yourself suggest?" He replies, "Fix an
annual rate per donum, and leave us free to send our wine wherever we
choose, without the abominable vexations and delays caused by the
present arbitrary system; let the tax per donum include every charge for
which we shall be liable: we shall then know at once the limit of our
liability." I cannot see any practical difficulty in such an
arrangement; a highway rate might be an extra when the roads should be
completed. A small export duty at the various ports would become a
material source of increase to the revenue when the wine trade became
invigorated and extended by government encouragement, and although such
a duty would indirectly affect the grower in the price which the
merchant would pay for the new wine, it would be a collateral tax that
would not be felt individually.

Unless the present oppressive system shall be abolished the wine trade
of Cyprus will languish, and an industry that may be profitably extended
to an important degree will share the fate of a commercial and
agricultural depression which has resulted from the vague conditions of
the British occupation, and from which no recovery can be expected until
confidence in the future prospects of the island shall be established.



CHAPTER XI.

FROM LIMASOL TO THE MOUNTAINS.

The barley harvest was in active operation, and the fields around our
camp were crowded with men, women, and children, all hard at work, but
producing small results compared with an equal expenditure of European
labour. Their sickles were large and good, but a great proportion of the
crops were either broken off by hand or were dragged out by the roots,
and the earth that adhered was carelessly dusted off by a blow against
the reaper's boots. In this dry climate there was no necessity for
piling the sheaves, but the small bundles were at once laden upon
donkeys and also conveyed in the two-wheeled carts to the threshing-
ground, upon which it would remain until valued for taxation by the
government official. In the dry atmosphere of Cyprus, Syria, Egypt, &c.,
the straw breaks easily, and beneath the sharp flints of the ancient
threshing-harrow in present use is quickly reduced to the coarse chaff
known as "tibbin," which forms the staple article of food for horses and
all cattle. Taking advantage of the numbers of people congregated in the
fields, some itinerant gipsies with a monkey and performing bears were
camped beneath the caroub-trees, about half a mile from our position.
The bears were the Syrian variety. Throughout Cyprus the gipsies are
known as tinners of pots and makers of wooden spoons, which seems to be
the normal occupation of their tribe throughout the world; they have
also a character for a peculiar attachment to fowls and any other small
matters that belong to private individuals which may be met with during
their wanderings.

The beans of the caroub-trees were already large, and promised a good
crop in spite of the dry weather. The roots of these evergreens
penetrate to a great depth, and obtain nourishment from beneath when the
surface soil is perished by drought. I have never seen a caroub
overthrown by the wind, although the extremely large head that is at all
seasons covered with leaves must offer a great resistance. The fruit of
this tree (Ceratonia siliqua) is already an important export from
Cyprus, and if the cultivation is encouraged there can be no doubt of an
enormous extension of the trade. The tree is indigenous to the island,
but in its wild state is unproductive; it simply requires grafting to
ensure a crop. The wild young trees are generally transplanted into the
desired positions, and then grafted from the cultivated species, but
there is no reason why they should not be grafted in situ. The olives,
which are also indigenous, might be treated in a similar manner to
render the crown-lands productive, which are now mere jungles of shrubs
and trees in their natural state. I shall reserve further remarks upon
this subject for a chapter specially devoted to "Woods and Forests."

The caroub at present commands an extensive market. The fruit is usually
known commercially as the "locust-bean;" the taste is a compound of
treacle and Spanish liquorice, and would generally be appreciated by
children, monkeys, pigs, and cattle. The Cassia fistula of Ceylon
resembles it somewhat in flavour, but the Ceratonia siliqua is free from
the medicinal properties of the former tree. Since the government
monopoly was abolished in 1827 the trade has received an impetus, and
this extension due to freedom is an example to our present government in
their relations to the oppressive system connected with the wine trade.

According to the consular reports the crop of 1872 was about 10,000
tons, which sold free on board at 4 pounds 10 shillings per ton. At that
time the chief purchaser was Russia, and the locust-beans were exported
to various positions upon the Black Sea. In 1875 England became a large
consumer, and I believe the well-known "Thorley's Patent Food for
Cattle" contains a considerable amount of this nutritive substance. The
influence upon the market of a demand from England raised the exports in
1875 to 18,000 tons. A fluctuation took place in 1876, and although the
crop was deficient, the prices fell to 2 pounds 13 shillings 6 pence per
ton free on board. This reaction was probably due to the large stocks on
hand in England, purchased at a high rate, from 4 pounds 10 shillings to
5 pounds per ton, which had driven Russian competition out of the
market; therefore the 1876 gathering found but few purchasers. In 1877
the yield was 13,500 tons, and the price rose from 2 pounds 13 shillings
6 pence to 3 pounds 5 shillings and at length to 4 pounds per ton, free
on board.

The average produce of a tree, taking the mean of all sizes, would be
about 84 lbs. or three-quarters of a hundredweight; allowing the mean
crop of five years to be 13,000 tons, this would give the number of
productive trees in Cyprus as 346,666, or in round numbers 350,000,
which, at eight trees to the acre = 43,750 acres of caroub-trees. I do
not think as a rule that a larger number than eight trees are to be
found upon an acre, as it is the custom to cultivate cereals upon the
same ground, therefore the caroubs are thinly planted. This calculation
cannot be accepted as exhibiting the actual position of the trees, as a
very large proportion are not planted in order, but grow independently
and promiscuously, and are productive simply as originally wild trees
that have been grafted. Should Cyprus belong bona-fide to England,
machinery for crushing and pressing the locust-beans will be established
on the spot, which, by compressing the bulk, will reduce the freight and
materially lessen the price when delivered in England. In travelling
through Cyprus nothing strikes the observation of the traveller more
forcibly than the neglect of tree-planting. The caroub is an indigenous
production volunteering its services to man, and producing an important
revenue; there are immense tracts of land which by their rocky nature
are unfit for the general purposes of husbandry, at the same time the
rich soil in the interstices is eminently adapted for the cultivation of
the caroub. Such lands are at the present moment abandoned to a growth
of jungle, among which this irrepressible tree dominates all other
vegetation, but in its wild state remains unproductive. The
neighbourhood of Limasol is for many miles richly ornamented by these
welcome shade-producers, and presents an example of what other portions
of the island might become.

During my stay at Limasol I was several times invaded by a crowd of
people from a neighbouring village, with complaints upon an assumed
injustice connected with their water-supply. It was in vain that I
assured them of my unofficial capacity; they were determined to have
their say, and, according to their threat, to "TELEGRAPH TO VICTORIA,"
unless they could obtain redress. I referred them to Colonel Warren,
R.A., the chief commissioner of their district, who had already been
sufficiently perplexed with their case. It appeared that a stream
flowing from the mountains had nearly two centuries ago been diverted
into an artificial channel by the inhabitants of Kolossi and others for
the purpose of irrigating the various lands in succession, according to
the gradations of their levels. This water had become a right, and the
value of all lands thus irrigated had been appraised in proportion.
According to their story, some years ago a Greek who commanded capital
purchased an estate at Kolossi; and having made a journey to
Constantinople, where he remained for some years, he took the
opportunity of bribing some high officials to obtain for him an irade
from the Sultan, giving him the entire right to the water-supply, which
had for so great a length of time been the acknowledged property of the
neighbouring landholders. This irade was issued upon the plea that all
natural waters (i.e. streams) belong to the Sultan. A wide field for
litigation was thus opened, and the Greek, having more than the usual
allowance of "the wisdom of the serpent," lost no time in investing
large sums in the corruption of all those who would be summoned as local
witnesses whenever the case should be brought before the ordinary
tribunals. The result was that after great expense in the costs of
litigation, an appeal to the superior court during the British
administration had been favourable to the plaintiffs, and the Greek
proprietor was held to be legally in possession of all water-rights, to
the exclusion of the original owners. He, however offered to supply them
with water for their farms at a fixed rate; whereas they had hitherto
enjoyed that free right for upwards of a century. This loss, or
abstraction, of so important a supply, upon which the actual existence
of the farms depended in seasons of drought, not only impoverished the
cultivators during the present year of famine, but reduced the value of
their land to an enormous extent, as farms with a water-supply are worth
more than quadruple the price of those which are dependent upon the
seasons. Of course I could not help the poor people; it appeared to my
uneducated sense of equity to be the maximum of injustice. The question
hung upon the Sultan's right to the natural water-supply, which I
believe has been officially declared invalid; by what other right the
monopoly of the water had been conveyed away from the original
proprietors I could not understand. The Greek was not enjoying his
victory in absolute peace of mind, as the neighbouring farmers avenged
their legal defeat by cutting holes in the embankments of his
watercourses, and thereby nightly flooding their own fields, which, as
the channels extended for many miles, would have required the presence
of more than all the police of the district to discover the offenders.
Upon one occasion upwards of forty of these people appeared mounted upon
mules around my camp, to urge my intercession on their behalf, declaring
their perfect faith in the honour and good intentions of the English
authorities, but at the same time lamenting their ignorance of the
native language, which threw the entire power into the hands of the
dragomans (interpreters), of whose character they spoke in terms which
it is to be hoped were highly exaggerated. The people begged me to ride
over to the locality, to see with my own eyes the position of affairs;
which I arranged to do sine die, and after advising them to exercise a
temporary patience, I got rid of the deputation without suggesting "that
under the existing agrarian dispute they should let their farms to some
enterprising Irish tenants from Tipperary."

I mention this incident, which is one of many others upon the same
subject, to exhibit the complications that have always arisen from the
contention upon water-rights, that will require some special
legislation. . . .

The weather was becoming warm at Limasol, the thermometer ranging from
70 degrees at 7 A.M. to 83 degrees at 3 P.M. There was a trouble in the
water-supply, as that for drinking purposes had to be conveyed by
donkeys from a distance of three or four miles. The market in the town,
although well arranged externally, was governed by peculiarly
restrictive municipal regulations; the price of meat and several other
articles being fixed at a common standard! According to this absurd rule
inferior mutton would fetch an equal price with the best quality: the
natural consequence ensued, that only inferior meat was introduced, to
the exclusion of all other. The supply of fish was extremely irregular,
and they were generally small and dear. Upon some occasions we purchased
good red mullet, also a larger fish of the bass species; but there were
only a few fishermen, who required an opposition to induce activity and
moderate prices. Their nets were made of exceedingly fine twine, and the
smallness of the mesh denoted a scarcity of the larger species of fish.

A number of Maltese settlers were arriving, to whom lands had been
granted by the government in the neighbourhood of Limasol; this
excellent arrangement will have the effect of infusing a new spirit
among the people by the introduction of fresh blood, and the well-known
fishermen of Malta will of themselves be a boon to the large towns,
where a regular demand may be depended upon at a reasonable price.

There was nothing to induce a longer stay at Limasol, and I resolved
upon Trooditissa monastery as the position for a mountain residence
during the summer months. Upon Kiepert's map, which is the best I have
seen of Cyprus, this point was placed among the angles in the various
crests and ridges of the Troodos mountain, and was marked by measurement
as 4340 feet above the sea-level. The new government road extended from
Limasol to Platraes, from which a good mule-path led to the camp
prepared for the 20th Regiment and the Royal Engineers at an altitude of
5740 feet. It appeared to me that in north latitude 35 degrees this was
an unnecessary elevation. My old residence at Newera Ellia in Ceylon was
6210 feet above the sea in north latitude 6 degrees 30', and in that low
latitude we had sharp frosts at night. Any heights approaching 6000 feet
in north latitude 35 degrees would, I imagined, become disagreeably
chilly in the morning and evening, at seasons when in the low country
the heat would still be too oppressive for a return from the mountain
sanatorium.

The mean temperature at Limasol from 1st May to 18th had been at 7 A.M.
65 degrees, at 3 P.M. 78.6 degrees, during which interval there had been
sudden variations of temperature, ranging from a minimum of 56 degrees
to 84 degrees. On the 11th May, having engaged twenty-three mules for
our tents, baggage, and party, we started from Limasol for Trooditissa.
The dog Merry, that had been bitten by the snake, had lain for days in a
state of stupor, black and swollen; I had poured quantities of olive-oil
down his throat, as he could not eat, and at length I gave him a dose of
two grains of calomel, with three grains of emetic tartar. After this he
slowly recovered; the ear that was bitten mortified, and was cut off,
but the dog was sufficiently restored to accompany us upon the march,
together with his companion Wise. We were now about to enter the great
vine-growing district of Cyprus, which produces the large exportations
that form the chief industry of Limasol.

At a distance of a mile from our camp we entered the new government road
which connected Limasol with Platraes, thirty miles distant. The country
quickly assumed an agreeable character; undulations and watercourses
were more or less covered with trees, and the road scarped out of the
steep sides exhibited the cretaceous formation similar to that between
Larnaca and Lefkosia. Wild lavender was just blooming upon many portions
of the way, while along the rocky courses of ravines the oleanders were
in the richest blossom. The road was furnished with mile-posts, and the
mules ambled along at a little more than five miles an hour. I found
considerable fault in the low gradients (one in thirty), which had
produced a road unnecessary for the vehicles of the country, at a
proportionate outlay; it was altogether too good, and would have been
excellent trotting-ground for a light phaeton and pair. As there was no
such vehicle in the island, the beautifully traced highway exhibited a
model of engineering that was scarcely appreciated by the natives, who
invariably took the short and direct cuts to avoid the circuitous
zigzags in descending the numerous valleys and in rounding the deep
ravines. After a ride of twelve miles through a beautiful country, well
wooded, and comprising a succession of wild hills and deep gorges, which
formed torrents in the wet season, we arrived at a river flowing in a
clear but extremely shallow and narrow stream beneath cliffs of
cretaceous limestone. The banks were richly clad with rosy oleanders,
myrtles, mastic shrubs; and the shade of several fine old plane-trees in
full foliage invited us at once to halt immediately upon the edge of the
rippling stream. This spot was known as Zigu, where an ancient stone
bridge, with pointed arches, crossed the ravine about a hundred paces
above the new wooden bridge erected by the Royal Engineers. This was a
most charming spot for luncheon, and the dense shade of the planes was
far more agreeable than the shelter of a wooden military hut that stood
upon the height above and by no means improved the beauty of the view.
Our dogs seemed to enjoy the change, and raced up and down the river's
bed, delighted with the cold water from the mountains, fresh from the
highest springs of Troodos Some cold roast pigeons, young and fat, and
some hard-boiled eggs, formed our luncheon, together with bread and
cheese. These were quickly despatched and the carpets being spread
beneath the trees, an hour's nap was good for man while the mules rolled
and then dozed in luxury upon the turf-like surface of the glen. I was
awakened by the clatter of horse's hoofs, and Mr. Allen, the chief
officer of the police of Limasol, appeared, having most kindly ridden
after us with the post just arrived from England. Unfortunately not a
crumb of luncheon remained, the dogs having swallowed our leavings. We
now saddled, and continued the journey upon the firm surface of the new
road.

When about fourteen miles from Limasol we entered upon a grand scene,
which exhibited the commencement of the wine-producing district. The
road was scarped from the mountain side several hundred feet above the
river, which murmured over its rocky bed in the bottom of the gorge. We
were skirting a deep valley, and upon either side the mountains rose to
a height of about 1400 feet, completely covered with vineyards from the
base to the summit; this long vale or chasm extended to the Troodos
range, which towered to upwards of 6000 feet, at a distance of about
fourteen miles immediately in our front. The vines were all green with
their early foliage, and the surface of the hill-sides was most
cheering, contrasting with the yellow plain we had left at Limasol.

The good road rendered travelling delightful after the stony paths that
we had traversed for some months in Cyprus, and the time passed so
rapidly that we could hardly believe the distance marked upon the
nineteenth milestone, where it was necessary to halt for the arrival of
our baggage animals. After waiting till nearly dark we found they had
quitted the new road and preferred a short cut across country, which had
led them to the village of Menagria down in the glen nearly a mile below
us. We walked down the steep hill and joined the party, pitched the
tent, and made ready for the night.

On the following morning, instead of adhering to the new road, we
descended to the bottom of the gorge and crossed the river near some
water-mills, as the bridge was not yet completed in the distant angle of
the glen. We now ascended an exceedingly steep hill from the river's
bed, which severely tried our animals, until, after passing a succession
of cereal crops and vineyards, we arrived at the summit, about 1200 feet
above the valley. From this point the view was magnificent. The
pine-covered sides of Troodos appeared close before us, and a valley
stretched away to our right richly clothed with trees below the steep
vine-covered sides of the surrounding mountains. Keeping to our left and
passing through several insignificant villages, we commenced a most
dangerous descent, with an occasional deep precipice on the right of the
extremely narrow path, until we reached a contracted but verdant glen.
This was a remarkable change: we had suddenly entered one of those
picturesque vales for which Devonshire is famous. The vegetation had
changed to that of Europe, as we were now nearly 3000 feet above the
sea. Apple and pear trees of large size were present, not in orchards,
but growing independently as though wild. Dog-roses of exquisite colour
were in full bloom, and reminded us of English hedges. Beautiful
oak-trees scattered upon the green surface gave a park-like appearance
to the scene, and numerous streams of clear water rippled though the
myrtle-covered banks, over the deep brown rocks of the plutonic
formation, which had now succeeded to the cretaceous limestone.

It was a curious geological division, limited by the glen: on the left,
the hills and mountains were the usual white marls and cretaceous
limestone; while on the right everything was plutonic or granitic,
including gneiss, syenite, and metamorphous rocks of various characters.
The soil of the glen was red, and the villages, built of sun-baked
bricks of this colour, harmonised with the dark green of rich crops of
wheat that had been irrigated by the never-failing water-power. We had
now rejoined the English road, which passed along the bottom of the
glen, and which was yet incomplete; several gangs of men were working at
intervals, and in the scarps, where deep cuttings had been necessary, I
remarked a considerable amount of ironstone.

A few miles through this interesting scenery brought us to the village
of Mandria, where a strong working party was engaged in erecting a
wooden bridge upon masonry piers. We now turned off to the left, over
rough but richly-wooded hills, leaving the English road, which extended
direct to Platraes, as our course was altered towards the large village
of Phyni, situated at the foot of the Troodos mountain. There could
hardly be a worse or more dangerous path over the high and precipitous
hills; these were once more cretaceous, and in wet weather must be as
slippery as soap. In many places the path was hardly nine inches wide,
with a deep gorge beneath for at least 150 feet. At length we passed
over the crest, and looked down upon Phyni, in the vine-covered dell
below. As far as the eye could reach upon all directions for many miles,
hill-sides, valleys, and mountains exceeding 4000 feet were entirely
covered with vines; not a yard of soil was unoccupied by this important
branch of cultivation. Immediately before us, on the other side of
Phyni, in the dark hollow, was the base of Troodos, from which the
mountain rose so steeply that it appeared impossible to ascend with
mules. A narrow line was pointed out upon the thickly bush-covered sides
of the mountain, and we were informed that we should reach Trooditissa
monastery by that path. I thought there must be some mistake in the
interpretation; however we dismounted, and preferred walking down the
steep zigzags that led to Phyni, half hidden in masses of bright green
foliage of various fruit-trees, now exactly at our feet.

This was a very peculiar village, as the broad flat roofs of the houses
formed terraces; upon these you could at once walk from the steep
hill-slope, into which the houses were inserted by scarping out a level
space for a foundation. The effect was remarkable, as the house-roofs,
in lines, seemed like flights of steps upon the mountain side. We halted
at the first decent-looking dwelling and rested beneath the shade of an
apricot-tree within a small courtyard. The people at once assembled, and
the owner of the house brought us black wine and raki of his own make;
the latter he was now engaged in distilling, and some pigs were
revelling in the refuse that had been thrown in a heap below the window
of the store. This man was proud of his wine, as it was tolerably free
from the taste of tar; the jars, having been more than fifty years in
constant use, had lost the objectionable flavour. We were thirsty and
hot, therefore the wine was not disagreeable, and we lunched beneath the
apricot.

After an hour's rest the real up-hill work commenced. We crossed a broad
channel of running water beneath groves of green trees, and entered a
path on the opposite side of the village; this skirted a deep and
precipitous gorge, through which the river flowed from the high and dark
ravine that cleft the mountain from the ssummit to the bottom. A
water-mill was at work below us on the right; and always ascending along
the side of the ravine, with the rushing sound of the stream below, we
arrived after half a mile at the base of the apparently impossible
route. Right and left, right and left, went the short and sharp zigzags,
the path covered with rolling stones and loose rocks, which clattered
under the feet of the tired mules and rolled down the steep inclines.
The sound of the stream below became fainter, and the narrow angle of
the deep cleft grew darker, as we ascended. We looked down upon the
rounded tops of various trees, including the rich verdure of planes,
which skirted the banks of the hidden stream, and we entered upon pines
rising from an under-growth of beautiful evergreens, including the
fragrant tremithia, the light green foliage of the arbutus, with its
bright red bark contrasting strongly with the dark shade of the dense
and bushy ilex. The mastic was there, and as we increased our altitude
the Pinus laricio and Pinus maritima varied the woods by their tall
spars, beneath which a perfect garden of flowers almost covered the
surface of the earth; these included the white and purple cistus, dog-
roses, honeysuckle, and several varieties unknown to me. Among the
ornamental dwarfs were a quantity of the Sumach, which is an article of
export from Cyprus for the use of the tanner and dyer.

The view became very beautiful as we ascended, until at length, after a
couple of miles of the steepest zigzags, we turned a corner of the rocks
and looked down the great depth at our right, below the path, upon the
long white thread of a waterfall, which for some hundred feet of a
severe incline, broken by occasional plunges, issues from the rocky
cleft, and forms the river in the ravine below. "There is the monastery
of Trooditissa!" exclaimed our guide. About 200 feet above our level,
snugly nested among splendid walnut-trees in the dark angle of the
mountains, were the grey and brown gables, half concealed by the rich
foliage of plane-trees, walnuts, mulberry, and other varieties.

About half a mile from this point of view the mules scrambled up one of
the worst portions of the route, and we arrived at a clear and cold
spring issuing suddenly from the rocks through a stone spout, protected
by an arch of masonry: this was received in a rude wooden trough formed
from the trunk of a hollowed pine, and overflowed across the path to
water some terraced gardens immediately below. A walnut and a fig-tree
intermingled their branches above the arch, and formed an agreeable
shade to shelter weary travellers, who might sit by the welcome spring
after toiling up the rough mountain side. About eighty yards beyond, by
a level path, we reached the widest-spreading walnut-tree that I have
ever seen; the new foliage was soft and uninjured by the wind, producing
a dense shade over an area sufficient for numerous tents. This
magnificent specimen of vegetation grew upon the edge of an abrupt
descent, perpendicular to a series of gardens, all terraced out to a
depth of about 150 feet, to the bottom of a narrow gorge; thus one-half
of the branches overhung the steep, while the other half shaded a
portion of the monastery courtyard.

We halted and dismounted beneath this grand old tree, where the
picturesque but not clean old monk, with some of his ecclesiastics, were
ready to meet us with a courteous welcome.



CHAPTER XII.

THE MONASTERY OF TROODITISSA.

The monastery of Trooditissa had no architectural pretensions; it looked
like a family of English barns that had been crossed with a Swiss
chalet. The roofs of six separate buildings of considerable dimensions
were arranged to form a quadrangle, which included the chapel, a long
building at right angles with the quadrangle, which had an upper balcony
beneath the roof, so as to form a covered protection to a similar
arrangement below, and an indescribable building which was used by the
monks as their store for winter provisions. The staircases were outside,
as in Switzerland, and entered upon the open-air landings or balconies;
these were obscure galleries, from which doors led to each separate
apartment, occupied by the monks and fleas. The obscurity may appear
strange, as the balconies were on the outside, but the eaves of the roof
at an angle of about 48 degrees projected some feet as a protection from
the winter's snow, and occasioned a darkness added to the gloom of
blueish grey gneiss which formed the walls and the deep brownish red of
the tiled roof.

The great walnut-tree overshadowed a portion of the mule stables that
formed a continuation of the building, and faced the exterior courtyard,
which was inclosed upon two sides of the square, in the centre of which
was an arched entrance to the inner court. This doorway was beneath a
covered gallery, and the ground floor formed a well-protected verandah,
from which a magnificent view was commanded down the great gorge towards
Phyni, overlooking the lower mountain tops to a sea horizon beyond the
peninsula of Akrotiri and the salt lake of Limasol.

The covered gallery above this verandah was supported by stone pillars
with exceedingly rude capitals, upon which long beams of the native
pines, laid horizontally, supported the joists and floors. It was a dull
and dirty abode, and at first sight I was disappointed. The angle of the
mountain in which the monastery stood was formed by a ravine which
intercepted the principal gorge at almost a right angle, thus a path
which continued at the same level from the courtyard to the other side
of the ravine, represented the letter V laid horizontally. From the
walnut-tree across the broad base of the letter would be about a hundred
yards, to a series of cultivated terraces upon an equal level.

This might have been made a lovely station, as no less than three
springs of water issued from the mountain side in various positions: the
first already mentioned; the second on the further side of the letter V,
beneath another splendid walnut-tree; and the third upon the same level
beyond, which fell into a trough beneath a large trellis, upon which
some vines were trained to produce a shade.

The terraces formed an angular amphitheatre, the outer courtyard of the
monastery being the highest level, looking down upon tree-tops of planes
and pines throughout the dark gorge to Phyni. The gardens appeared much
neglected; they were overcrowded with fruit-trees, including filberts,
mulberry, pears, apples, figs, walnuts, plums; the only grape-vine was
represented upon the trellis; the position was too high for apricots.

An Englishman's first idea is improvement, and I believe that upon
entering heaven itself he would suggest some alteration. This was not
heaven, but, as a monastery, it was the first step, and a very high one
for this world, being 4340 feet above the sea. We began by cleaning, and
I should have liked to have engaged Hercules, at the maximum of
agricultural wages, to have cleaned the long line of mule stables, a
dignified employment for which the hero-god was famous; the Augean were
a joke to them. Piles of manure and filth of every description concealed
the pavement of the capacious outer yard of the monastery. The narrow
path by which we had arrived from the spring was a mere dung-heap, from
which the noxious weeds called docks, of Brobdignagian proportions,
issued in such dense masses that an agricultural meeting of British
farmers would have been completely hidden by their great enemy. The
priests or monks had filthy habits; it would have been impossible for
civilised people to have existed in this accumulation of impurities,
therefore we at once set to work. I had a spade and pickaxe, and we
borrowed some other tools from the monks, among which were strong
grubbers (which combined the hoe and the pick). There were a number of
people belonging to the monastery, including some young embryo priests,
that we might accept as deacons; these I set to work with the pickaxe at
one shilling a day wages. The boys who were being educated for the
Church I employed in removing all the loose stones which choked the
surface of the ground, and subsequently in sweeping and scraping the
courtyard. I gave them sixpence a day if they worked from early morning,
or threepence if they came at noon after their lessons. There was a
shepherd's family, upon the hill about 250 feet above the monastery, of
seven handsome children, two boys of nineteen and seventeen, and five
girls. These were hard at work, even to a pretty little child of four
years old, who carried her stones, and swept with a little broom with
all her heart (this was little Athena). Of course they were all paid in
the evening with bright new threepenny pieces which they had never seen
before. Even the priests worked after a few days, when the spirit of
industry and new shillings moved them, and in the history of the
monastery there could never have been such a stirring picture and such a
dust as we made in cleansing and alterations. Nearly a month was
occupied in this necessary work, by which time the place was entirely
changed. I had made a good road as an approach from the spring, with a
covered drain, dignified by the name of an "aqueduct," which led the
water when required to a little garden that I had constructed close to
the tent, where a nondescript slope had become a receptacle for filth. I
had cut this down from the road, and mixed the earth with the
accumulated dirt and manure, which I levelled off in successive layers,
so that the stream led from the spring would irrigate my beds in
succession. This garden was carefully fenced against the intrusion of
goats and donkeys, to say nothing of pigs, and it was already sown with
tomatoes, cucumbers, melons, barmia, and beet-root. The priests had a
grand bed of onions upon a terrace, which was usually occupied by the
pigs, goats, and donkeys, as they had been too lazy to arrange a fence.

The docks in the monastery gardens were at least six feet high; I had
these cut and collected to thatch the sides of a peculiar shed (in which
I am writing at this moment), which was a great comfort and formed a
very original retreat, combining a seat in an amphitheatre with a modern
summer-house. This was an oblong, of fifteen feet by twelve, erected
within three feet of the tent beneath the walnut-tree upon the extreme
verge of the abrupt incline. I laid a foundation of stones, which I
covered with pounded earth and water, to produce a level with the tent.
I then placed horizontally a beam of wood, secured from slipping with
stakes driven to the heads into the bank upon the edge of the incline.
Upon this a row of large stones was cemented together with mud to form a
margin level with the floor, from which the abrupt inclination at once
leapt to the lower terraces and the deep gorge, continuing for upwards
of 4000 feet to the sea; this was visible beyond the inferior mountain
tops.

There was nothing pretty in the arrangement of this "rachkooba," as it
would be called in Africa; it was a simple square of upright poles,
connected with canes secured across, thatched inside with ferns, and
upon the outside with docks, fastened down with the peeled willow-like
shoots of mulberry-trees. The mulberry-trees for silkworms are always
pollarded annually, and they throw out shoots about seven or nine feet
in length every season; the wood is exceedingly tough, and the bark of
these wands when stripped is serviceable for tying plants or securing
fences in lieu of cord. For lack of silkworms the monastery
mulberry-trees had several seasons of growth, and the shoots were
serviceable for our work. The ceiling of our opera-box was cloth, with a
curtain of about three feet suspended along the front, which broke the
morning sun as it topped the high ridge of the mountain on the other
side of the gorge, about a thousand feet above us. The shed was carpeted
with mats and furnished roughly with a table and chairs; hat-pegs were
suspended around, made from the red-barked wood of the arbutus, simply
cut so that by inverting the branch with the stem attached to a cord,
the twigs, cut at proper lengths, would form convenient hooks.

From this cool hermitage we looked down upon the dense foliage of
rounded mulberry-tops and the fruit-trees of the gardens within the
gorge, while exactly in our front, a hundred yards across the deep
ravine, was the rocky steep of the mountain side, densely clothed with
ilex and arbutus, until the still higher altitudes banished all
underwood, and the upper ranges of Troodos exhibited a surface of barren
rocks clothed with tall pines and cypress, 2000 feet above us.

By the time we had completed our permanent camp a certain degree of
improvement had taken place in the people, as well as in the actual
cleanliness of the locality. Everybody washed his, or her, face and
hands. The customs of the monks had so far reformed that the immediate
neighbourhood was no longer offensive. When strangers with mules arrived
the road was immediately swept, and upon Saturday evenings a general
embellishment took place in honour of the approaching Sunday. The young
clergy were remarkably good and active; they worked in my little garden
at a shilling a day, went on errands to Platraes and the camp at
Troodos, and made themselves generally useful for a most moderate
consideration. I can strongly recommend all young curates who are
waiting in vain for livings to come and work upon the holy soil of
Trooditissa at one shilling per diem; and should they (as curates
frequently are) be poor in this world's goods, but nevertheless strong
in amorous propensities, and accordingly desirous of matrimony, they
will find a refuge within the walls of this monastery from all the
temptations of the outer world, far from garden-parties, balls, picnics,
church-decorations assisted by young ladies, and all those snares of the
Evil One; and the wholesome diet of the monks, including a course of
soaked broad-beans and barley bread, with repeated fastings upon
innumerable saints' days, will affect them sensibly, both morally and
physically; under this discipline they will come to the conclusion that
a wife and large family upon an income of 500 pounds a year in England
would not confer the same happiness as one shilling a day with the
pickaxe, broad-beans and independence, at Trooditissa, which is true
"muscular Christianity."

It was extraordinary to see the result of a life-long diet of beans and
barley-bread in the persons of the monks, who very seldom indulged in
flesh. The actual head of the monastery was a handsome man of seventy,
perfectly erect in figure, as though fresh from military drill, and as
strong and active as most men of fifty. The younger priests were all
good-looking, active, healthy men, who thought nothing of a morning's
walk over the fatiguing rocky paths to Troodos and back (twelve miles),
to be refreshed on their return by an afternoon's work in their gardens.
The head of the Church was an especial friend of ours, and was a dear
old fellow of about seventy, with a handsome face, a pair of greasy
brass spectacles bound with some substance to retain them that was long
since past recognition, and swelled feet that prevented him from walking
beyond the precincts of the monastery, which he had never quitted for
twelve years. The feet looked uncommonly like the gout, but I can hardly
believe in the co-existence of that complaint with dry beans and
barley-bread, although the truth must be confessed, that the monks are
fond of commanderia, or any other production of the vineyard. There was
one exceedingly disagreeable monk with whom we held a most remote
acquaintance, and whose name I willingly conceal; he has been seen upon
several occasions to sit down upon an imaginary chair, the real article
of furniture being eighteen inches distant, and the stunning effect of
arriving suddenly in a sitting posture upon the hard stone of the
courtyard disabled him from rising; and even when assisted his legs were
evidently affected by the shock. His enemies declared (as they always
do) that he was the victim to an over-indulgence in the raki and wine of
Phyni. We generally knew him by the alias of "Roger," in memory of the
Ingoldsby Legends, where

    "Roger the Monk
    Got excessively drunk,
    So they put him to bed,
    And tucked him in."

There was no friend to bestow such care upon our Roger, he therefore lay
helplessly upon the bare stone until refreshing sleep restored his
eyesight and his perpendicular.

Our particular friend the head of the Church was a very different
character, and was a most simple-minded and really good religious man. I
employed a photographer of the Royal Engineers (kindly permitted by
Major Maitland, R.E.) specially to take his picture, as he sat every
morning knitting stockings, with a little boy by his side reading the
Greek Testament aloud, in the archway of the monastery. This was his
daily occupation, varied only when he exchanged the work of knitting
either for spinning cotton, or carving wooden spoons from the arbutus:
these he manufactured in great numbers as return presents to those poor
people who brought little offerings from the low country. Never having
mixed with the world, the old man was very original and primitive in his
ideas, which were limited to the monastery duties and to the extreme
trouble occasioned by the numerous goats which trespassed upon the
unfenced gardens, and inflicted serious damage. The chapel, which was
under his control, was of the usual kind, and at the same time rough and
exceedingly gaudy, the pulpit being gilded throughout its surface, and
the reredos glittering with gold and tawdry pictures of the lowest style
of art, representing the various saints, including a very fat St. George
and the meekest possible dragon. Our old friend had never seen a British
sovereign with the St. George, and was vastly pleased when he discovered
that his saint and ours were the same person, only differing in symmetry
of figures and in ferocity of dragons.

There was one very extraordinary effigy in bas-relief upon silver-gilt
about two feet six inches high, of the Virgin Mary, to which peculiar
miraculous properties were attributed. The possession of this relic
formed the principal attraction of the monastery. About a quarter of a
mile above the present establishment there is a small cave concealed
among the ragged masses of rock that crust the mountain side; this has
been formed by one rock which, leans across another, and each end has
been walled up artificially, so as to form a stone chamber of about
twelve feet in length by seven in width, with a small entrance.
According to the account given by the old monk, this cave was the origin
of the present monastery through the following accident. Among these
wild mountains, where no dwelling of any kind exists, it has always been
the custom after the melting of the snows in early spring to pasture the
numerous flocks of goats, which are at that season driven up from the
parched herbage of the low country to the fresh herbs of the cooler
altitudes. Three or four hundred years ago a shepherd, having lost his
goat at night, was surprised at the appearance of a light among the
rocks high up on the mountain, and with superstitious awe he related his
discovery to his fellows. For some time the mysterious light was
observed nightly, and various conjectures were on foot as to its origin,
but no one dared to venture upon an examination.

At length, the authorities of the Church having been consulted, it was
resolved that a priest should accompany the party of investigation and
the matter should be thoroughly cleared up.

It was a difficult climb to the pathless crags at night, but the light
was glimmering like "the star that the wise men saw in the east," and
though occasionally lost at intervals, it guided the party on their way.
Upon arrival at the cave, there was no inhabitant. A lamp burnt before a
small effigy of the Virgin Mary suspended against the wall of rock, but
no trace of human foot or hand could be discovered.

Such is the legend; and the inexplicable mystery caused much excitement
and agitation in the minds of the Church authorities. At length it was
determined that, as the apparition of the light was miraculous, it was
incumbent upon the people to erect a monastery upon the site of the
appearance, contiguous to the now sacred cave.

This was an extreme difficulty, as the inclination formed an angle of
about 60 degrees; and the mountain was hard gneiss that could only have
been scarped by expensive blasting. However, it was hoped that a
blessing would attend the good work; therefore, in spite of all
obstacles, it was commenced, and masons were engaged from the village of
Phyni to arrange a foundation.

There was no water nearer than the torrent in the deep hollow half a
mile below, therefore extreme labour was required in mixing the mortar
for the walls; the jars in which the necessary water was conveyed upon
men's shoulders up the precipitous rocks appeared to be influenced by
some adverse, but unseen, agency, as they constantly slipped from their
hold and broke. During the night the work which the masons had
accomplished in the day fell down, and was discovered every morning as a
heap of ruin; the building could not proceed. In this perplexity the
Church was relieved by a supernatural interposition. Early one morning a
jar of pure water was discovered in the sharp angle of the hollow
between the hills, exactly below the rachkooba, where I am now writing.
It was evident to the priestly mind that an angel had placed this jar of
water to denote the spot where some hidden spring might be developed,
which would be a favourable site for the new monastery. They dug, and
shortly discovered the expected source.

It was therefore resolved that instead of erecting the monastery close
to the effigy in the cave, where bad luck had hitherto attended their
efforts, it would be more advisable to commence the building upon a
favourable spot, where a level already existed, in the angle between two
mountain slopes within a few yards of the spring; it would be easier to
convey the small effigy to the new building than to erect the monastery
close to the effigy. Accordingly the work was commenced: the walls no
longer fell during the night, and the unseen agency was evidently
propitious.

Upon completion of the monastery the original effigy was enshrined, and
Trooditissa became famous as a holy site. Years passed away, and the
reputation of the establishment was enhanced by the arrival of a lady of
high position from Beyrout, together with her husband, as pilgrims to
the now celebrated mountain cave. The lady was childless, and having
presented a handsome offering, and kissed the rock entrance of the cave,
in addition to the effigy within the monastery, she waited in the
neighbourhood for a certain number of months, at the expiration of which
she gave birth to a son. The monks claimed this boy as their lawful
prize, and he was brought up as a priest; but there is some discrepancy
in the accounts which I could not well understand, as it appears that
his parents insisted upon his restoration, and that an angelic
interposition at length prevented litigation. It may be well imagined
that the result of the lady's pilgrimage spread far and wide; the
reputation of the monastery reached its zenith, and all the unfruitful
women flocked to the shrine to kiss the cave and the picture of the
Virgin within the church; at the same time offering a certain sum for
the benefit of the establishment. The friction of constant and
oft-repeated kissing at length began to tell upon the sacred effigy, and
it became almost worn out; it was therefore determined that a beautiful
silver-gilt Virgin and Child should be supplied by a first-rate artist
which should cover the original relic within. This was remarkably well
executed by Cornaro, and a small aperture like a keyhole of a door has
been left, which is covered by a slide; this is moved upon one side when
required, and enables the pilgrim to kiss through the hole a piece of
rather brown-looking wood, which is the present exhausted surface of the
effigy.

Although decayed by time and use, the miraculous property remains
unchanged. This was exhibited a few years ago in a remarkable manner,
where a childless lady had become old in barren expectation; but a visit
to Trooditissa produced the desired result, and conferred much happiness
upon the once despairing wife, who now became a mother. In addition to a
monetary offering, this lady had presented the Virgin with a handsome
belt with massive silver-gilt buckles, which she had worn during
pregnancy. This offering is now suspended around the present effigy, and
for a small consideration any lady applicant is allowed to fasten it
round her waist. The effect is infallible, and quite equals that of the
rock and silver Virgin. This remarkable inductive power may perhaps be
some day explained by philosophers, but it is now exceedingly dangerous,
and unfortunate results have occurred, when in a sudden impulse of
devotion young maidens have kissed the rock entrance to the cave, or
imprudently pressed their lips upon the sacred effigy.

During my sojourn at Trooditissa no arrivals of despairing wives
occurred, but in the exhausted conditions of the finance throughout the
island, it would have been the height of folly to have desired an
increase of family, and thereby multiply expenses; possibly the
uncertainty respecting the permanence of the English occupation may
deter the ladies, who may postpone their pilgrimage to the monastery
until their offspring should be born with the rights of British
subjects.

I have described the origin of the ecclesiastical retreat at Trooditissa
as nearly as possible according to the viva-voce history related by the
monks. It is impossible to gauge the opinions of the world, as
individuals differ as much in nervous structure and in theological
creeds as they do in personal appearance; some may accept the monks'
belief implicitly, while others may suggest that the original occupant
of the cave was some unknown hermit secluded from the world, whose
solitary lamp burning before the Virgin had attracted the attention of
the shepherds from the mountain opposite. The old man may have fallen
down a precipice and died, leaving his lamp still alight; but it would
be unfair to interfere with the original legend, which must remain with
the usual clouds and uncertainties that obscure the tales of centuries.

About 250 feet above the monastery the ridge of a spur afforded a level
space beneath some tall pines which threw a welcome shade, and would
have been a convenient camping-ground. This spot was occupied by the
roughest of log-huts, which had been erected by a shepherd as his summer
residence when the goats should be driven from the low ground to the
mountain pasture. This man was originally a Turk, and formed one of a
peculiar sect known in Cyprus as Linobambaki (linen and cotton). These
people are said to be converts to Christianity, but in reality they have
never been troubled with any religious scruples, and accordingly never
accommodate their principles to the society of their neighbourhood. In a
Turkish village the Linobambaki would call himself by a Turkish name, as
Mahomet, or Hassan, &c., while in a Christian community he would pass as
Michael or Georgy, or by other Greek appellations. The name "linen and
cotton" applied to them is expressive of their lukewarmness and
time-serving, their religious professions fluctuating according to the
dictates not of conscience, but personal interest. It is supposed that
about 1500 of these people exist in various parts of Cyprus; they are
baptised in the Greek Church, and can thus escape conscription for
military service according to Turkish law. The goatherd upon our
mountain had been a Turkish servant (shepherd) in a Greek family, and
had succeeded in gaining the heart of his master's daughter, whom he was
permitted to marry after many difficulties. This woman must have been
very beautiful when young, as, in spite of hard work and exposure, she
was handsome at forty, with a pair of eyes that in youth might have been
more attractive than the mysterious light in the hermit's cave. It is
one of the blessings of fine eyes that they are almost certain to
descend to the children. Property may vanish, litigation may destroy the
substance of an inheritance; but the eyes, large, soft, and gentle,
which can occasionally startle you by their power and subdue you by a
tear, are the children's entail that nothing can disestablish. Even when
time has trampled upon complexion, the eyes of beauty last till death.

The children of this Linobambaki and his handsome wife were seven--two
boys of about nineteen and seventeen, and five girls from fourteen to
one and a half--all of whom had the eyes of the mother developed most
favourably. I cannot well describe every individual of a family: there
were the two handsome shepherd youths who would have made level ground
of mountain steeps, through their power and activity.

    "Right up Ben Lomond could he press,
     And not a sob his toil confess."

These young fellows matched the goats in clambering up the rocks and
following their wayward flocks throughout the summits of the Troodos
range; and their sisters the little shepherdesses were in their way
equally surprising, in hunting runaway goats from the deepest chasm to
the sharpest mountain-peak.

I hardly know who was our greatest favourite. There was "Katterina"
(about fourteen) too old to make a pet of, but a gentle-charactered
girl, always willing to please and never out of temper, and even in the
big, hateful, beauty-destroying, high hob-nailed boots she could run up
the mountain soil and clamber like a monkey. Then came, I believe, our
best favourite, the bright, large-eyed, sparkling child "Vathoo," who
was the real beauty of the family, about ten years old; she was full of
life and vigour, a perfect goat upon the mountains, with a most lovely
face that would have charmed Murillo as a subject, with an extreme
perfection of features, a bronzed complexion, but hardly the soft
expression required for a sacred picture; in fact Vathoo was a perfect
little gipsy beauty, with perhaps more devil than angel in her impulsive
character.

Then came the real gentle little face with gazelle-like eyes, "Baraksu,"
about eight years old: followed by a minimum shepherdess, "Athena," of
nearly five years old, who climbed the rocks, shouted, and threw stones
at her refractory flock, as though an experienced goatherd of forty. The
youngest was just able to stand; with a pair of the biggest black eyes,
and a natural instinct for gorging itself with unripe fruits and hard
nuts, which, added to its maternal sustenance that it was still
enjoying, proved the mill-like character of its infantine digestion. For
two months we thought this young Hercules was a promising boy, until by
an accident we discovered it was a "young lady" Linobambaki! When we
arrived at Trooditissa these children were in rags and filth, but under
the tutelage of my wife they quickly changed, and the never-failing
fountain, assisted by a cake of soap supplied occasionally, effected a
marked improvement in all complexions.

They were remarkably well-mannered after the first natural shyness had
worn away, and formed a contrast to children of a low class in England
in never misbehaving when intimate. All these little creatures were
employed in cleaning and improving the place; even the minute Athena
might be seen carrying a great stone upon her small shoulder, adding her
mite to the work, and rubbing the galled spot as she threw down her
load. The bright threepenny pieces were in great favour, and the
children invariably hastened to their mother with their earnings at the
close of the afternoon. When the camp and monastery surroundings were in
perfect order there was no longer any remunerative employment for the
family, except the uncertain and occasional work of collecting wild
flowers for the tent and table. The myrtles bloomed in early July, and
in the deep ravine by the waterfall the oleanders were then still in
blossom. Several plants which were strange to me were added to the
collection; the days were generally passed by the children in minding
the numerous goats until the evening, when each child brought some
simple offering of flowers. We bought sheep from the low country at
about six or seven shillings each, and Vathoo was the special
shepherdess of our small flock, for which she was responsible; they were
invariably driven out at 4 A.M. and brought home at 8 to avoid the sun,
and again taken out from 4 P.M. till 7.

In this simple manner we passed our time at Trooditissa; my amusements
were my small garden, writing an account of Cyprus, and strolling over
the mountains: the latter occupation being most unprofitable, as I
destroyed all my boots upon the horrible surface of loose stones, in
which there was little geological interest, as they were all gneiss and
syenite, cracked and starred during a process of subaquean cooling. The
deplorable aspect of the otherwise beautiful mountains was occasioned by
the wholesale and wilful destruction of pine-trees, which is the
Cypriote's baneful characteristic, and as this is one of the most
important subjects in the modern history of the island, I shall devote
the following special chapter entirely to the question of "Woods and
Forests."



CHAPTER XIII.

WOODS AND FORESTS.

The climate of Cyprus is extreme in temperature during the months of
June, July, August, and until the close of September; throughout the
greater portion of the island the treeless surface absorbs the sun's
rays, and during the night radiates the heat thus obtained, which raises
the thermometer to 90 degrees before sunrise: while at noon it
occasionally marks 100 degrees beneath the shade. A treeless country
must either be extremely hot or cold, according to the latitude; and
without a certain proportion of forest there will be an absence of
equilibrium in temperature. Most persons will have observed the effect
of heat radiation from rocks, or even from the walls of a building that
have been exposed to a summer's sun during the long day. At about six
P.M., when the air is cool, the sun-heat stored by absorption escapes
from its imprisonment, and thermometers would exhibit a difference of
many degrees if placed at two feet from the ground, and at fifty; the
rocks and earth have been heated like an oven. Trees will affect the
surface of the soil in the same manner that an umbrella protects an
individual from the surf, and upon lofty mountains they exercise a
marked influence upon the rainfall. Should the summits be naked, the
rocks become heated to a high degree, and should clouds pass overhead,
the vapour would not condense, but, on the contrary, it might disperse
upon contact with the heated surface. If the summits were clothed with
forests, the rocks and soil, being shaded from the sun, would remain
cool, and the low temperature of earth and foliage would condense the
vapour and produce rain. It is well known that trees exert a direct
influence upon meteorological phenomena, therefore should forests be
totally destroyed, a change may be expected in the temperature, attended
by a corresponding decrease in the rainfall. It is obvious that should a
country be entirely covered with trees and jungle, it will be too damp
and unhealthy for the occupation of man; and should it be absolutely
barren of forest, it will possess a minimum rainfall; therefore in all
countries that are expected to develop agricultural resources, the due
proportions of woods and forests require special attention.

In ancient days there can be no question that Cyprus was rich in timber,
and that the mountainous districts were thickly clothed to their summits
with valuable wood varying in species according to altitude. At the risk
of repetition I must describe the qualities which now exist, and which
were no doubt exported from the island, and became widely known and
appreciated in the early days of Cyprian prosperity.

Oaks.--There are several varieties of oak, but large park-like timber of
this species is exceedingly scarce, and although met with occasionally
in grand spreading trees with trunks of large girth, they are only
sufficient to prove the destruction that has befallen their race. It is
most probable that the oak was largely exported for ship-building; but
as an available forest-tree it may be said to have disappeared. The ilex
is the most common of all woods upon the Troodos range and upon other
mountains, but the natives have made such constant attacks upon this
quality for the manufacture of charcoal that it is seldom met with as a
forest-tree. It is extremely hardy, and through continual hacking, it
has grown into dense bushes which are generally about eight feet high;
but in very remote localities among the mountains I have found it in the
shape of timber growing to the height of forty feet. There is a third
variety with a prickly leaf resembling holly, of an intensely dark
green.

Pines.--I have only met with three varieties--the Pinus maritima, Pinus
laricio, and the stone pine. The latter is very rare, but may be seen at
Platraes. The natives invariably pick the cones of this species when
green for the sake of the small edible nuts afforded by the seeds.

The Pinus laricio is a handsome tree with a dark foliage and branches
that droop regularly from the summit, widening towards the base. It is
difficult to determine the maximum size that would be attained by this
species, as the Cypriotes seldom allow any tree to remain uninjured. The
usual size of the Laracio on the Troodos range is about fifty feet in
height, with a girth of six feet, but I have frequently seen specimens
of nine feet in girth, and about seventy to eighty feet in height.

The Pinus maritima has a lighter foliage and the branches are more
spreading, but the size is about the same as the Laricio. Both these
species are rich in tar and turpentine.

Cypress.--There are two varieties--the dwarf, which covers the
flat-topped limestone hills of the Carpas district, and the fragrant
species which grows upon the heights of Troodos and all that range which
extends to Poli-ton-Krysokhus.

The dwarf-cypress attains a height of about twenty feet, and is
exceedingly hard and durable. The fragrant species varies from thirty to
thirty-five feet, with a stem of six, to sometimes eight feet in
circumference. The wood is highly aromatic; and I have already described
it as resembling a mixture of sandal-wood and cedar. This tree is known
by the Cypriotes as kypresses, while the dwarf variety is known as the
"wild cypress," and is called by them "aoratu."

Plane (Platanus).--This tree is generally found in the ravines among the
mountains, on the borders of streams, and would grow to a large size,
but its straight young stems are much sought after by the natives for
various purposes, and it is seldom allowed a chance of arriving
unscathed at maturity. Its light green foliage is highly ornamental,
mixed with the dark shades of the ilex in the deep bottoms of the
gorges; and wherever a never-failing stream is met with the plane may be
expected.

The elm, ash, maple, walnut, mulberry, peach, apricot, apple, pear,
filbert, fig, plum, cherry, orange, lemon, pomegranate, are common, but
as they do not come within the category of trees indigenous to the
natural forests of the island, I shall not include them.

Olive.--The wild olive forms a considerable portion of the low
scrub-woods of the Carpas district, and the young trees, when
transplanted and grafted, become the accepted olives of cultivation.
There is no reason why the wild olive should not be grafted in its
natural position the same as the caroub.

Caroub.--This tree has already been described, but although not valuable
as timber, owing to the short length of its trunk, it should receive the
special attention of the government, as its produce should be extended
to the utmost limit of the capabilities of the island. If the wild trees
were grafted wherever they are met with, whole forests would quickly be
produced with a minimum of labour, and vast tracts of rocky soil,
worthless for other cultivation, would be brought into value, at the
same time that the surface would be covered with the much desired
vegetation.

Tremithia.--The wood of this tree is of no value, but the berries are
used as a substitute for olive-oil; as it grows in large quantities as a
shrub, simply because it is not allowed the chance of arriving at
maturity, it is to be hoped that a few years of forest supervision will
add this shady and highly-ornamental tree to the list of those common to
the island. The arbutus, myrtle, and the mastic are trees of so small a
growth that they cannot be classed with "Woods and Forests."

One of the first acts of the British administration was a stringent
prohibition against the felling of any tree throughout Cyprus, or the
cutting of any wood for the burning of charcoal. This law for the
preservation of woods and forests extended to trees upon PRIVATE
PROPERTY OF INDIVIDUALS!--thus the owner of a garden could not cut down
one of his own caroub-trees if they were too thickly planted; or if he
required a piece of timber for making or repairing his water-wheel. An
act for the protection of crown forests was highly necessary, but no
laws are of value unless the machinery exists for enforcing them, and at
the present moment the stringent enactment against the destruction of
trees may be evaded like any of the Ten Commandments, because there is
absolutely no staff, nor special officers for the supervision of woods
and forests. This important subject requires a separate department, and
nothing can be more simple if administered by persons qualified by
education for the development of trees suitable to the island. The
poverty of the local government, owing to the miserable conditions of
our tenure, which send the cream to Turkey, and suckle the necessary
staff upon the thin skimmed-milk, does not permit the real improvement
of the forests. It is simply ridiculous to make laws without the active
weapons to enforce authority; we may as well rest satisfied with the
game laws in England and dismiss our keepers, as prohibit the cutting of
wood in Cyprus without supervising the forests by a staff of foresters.
If the words "Thou shalt not steal," even from a divine command, were
sufficient to prevent felony and petty larceny, it would be folly to
incur the expense of police; but we know that practically all laws must
be upheld by force, represented by the authorised guardians of the
state. At this moment in Cyprus the law proclaims, "Thou shalt not cut a
tree," while practically you may cut as many as you like in the mountain
forests, as there is no person authorised to interfere with your acts.
Some miserable offender may be pounced upon in his own garden, near one
of the principal towns, where the law SHOULD NEVER HAVE BEEN ENFORCED,
as interfering with the individual rights of private property; but in
the situations where the prohibition is of the first importance, there
is literally not an officer or man to prevent the usual depredations.
Why? The answer must be accepted. There is no money, and we cannot
afford an independent department of "Woods and Forests." If the country
is to continue in this slip-shod form it is a disgrace to England.
There is time to save the forests from absolute destruction, and in my
own opinion, before anything is done beyond the necessary roads and
irrigation loans, every possible attention should be concentrated upon
the protection and development of forest-trees.

The position at this moment is as follows. Throughout the entire
mountain range there are not 5 per cent. of pines free from mutilation.

The whole of Troodos, and the mountain districts from near Lithrodondo
to as far west as Poli-ton-Khrysokus, are naturally adapted for the
growth of pines and cypress, which love the soil of the plutonic rocks,
and drive their roots deep into the interstices, deriving nourishment
where nothing else would thrive. Upon the highest altitudes there is not
a dwarf shrub to cover the surface of the loose coffee-coloured rocks,
where in the winter the snow accumulates to a depth of twenty feet, yet
there we find the pines and cypress in their greatest vigour; but even
to these solitary heights the Cypriote has penetrated with his unsparing
axe, and has created a desolation that must be seen to be understood.
There is no sight so exasperating as this uncalled-for destruction; it
is beyond all belief, and when the amount of labour is considered that
must have been expended in this indiscriminate attack upon forest-trees
THAT ARE LEFT TO ROT UPON THE GROUND where they have fallen, the object
of the attack is at first sight inconceivable. The sight of a mountain
pine-forest in Cyprus would convey the impression that an enemy who had
conquered the country had determined to utterly destroy it, even to the
primaeval forests; he had therefore felled, and left to rot, the greater
portion of the trees; but finding the labour beyond his means, he had
contented himself with barking, ringing, and hacking at the base of the
remainder, to ensure their ultimate destruction.

The extreme heights of Troodos, shoulders and head, are about 6300 feet
above the sea, from which altitude the pines and cypress descend to
within 1500 feet of the level. There are rough native mule-paths
throughout the mountains, and the sure-footed animals will carry a man
with ease where walking would be most fatiguing, owing to the loose
rocks and smaller stones, which cover every inch of the surface. I have
walked and ridden over the greater portion, but in all cases I have been
overcome with anger and dismay at the terrible exhibition of wanton and
unwarrantable desolation. If a hurricane had passed over the country and
torn up by the roots nine trees out of every ten that composed the
forest, the destruction would be nothing compared to that of the native
Cypriote, who mutilates those which he has not felled; the wind would
only upturn, but would spare those whose strength had resisted the
attack. Magnificent trees lie rotting upon the ground in thousands upon
thousands, untouched since the hour when they fell before the most
scientifically applied axe. I never saw a higher example of woodcraft.
The trunks of pines two feet in diameter are cut so carefully, that the
work of the axe is almost as neat as that of a cross-cut saw. These
large trees are divided about four feet from the ground, as that is a
convenient height for the woodman, and spare his back from stooping to
his blow. Each cut with the axe is nearly at a right angle with the
stem and so regularly is the cutting conducted completely round the
tree, that at length only two, or at the most three inches of wood
remain to support the trunk, which in the absence of wind remains
balanced to the last moment, until overthrown by the wedge.

Upon first arrival in the country it is difficult to comprehend the
reason for this general destruction; but as a gipsy in Turkey will burn
down a handsome tree in order to make his wooden spoons, so the Cypriote
will fell a large pine for the sake of the base of five or six feet in
length that will afford him a wooden trough either for water or to feed
his pigs. A great number of the larger trees are cut and partially
scooped for four or five feet before their destruction is determined
upon, as the carpenter wishes to prove the quality of the heart. Many
are rejected, and the operation proceeds no further; but the tree
remains mutilated for ever.

Other trees are felled for the purpose of obtaining tar. Before they are
absolutely cut down they are tapped by cutting a deep incision nearly
into the centre of the heart, like a huge notch, and they are left for a
time to prove whether the tar will run, as exhibited by the production
of the resin. If unfavourable, the tree is left thus cut to the heart
and blemished. Nearly every tree is thus marked. If the signs of tar are
propitious, the tree is felled, the branches are lopped, and the trunk
cut into sections and split. All pieces are then arranged longitudinally
in a rude kiln formed of loose stones and earth, in which they are
burned, and the tar as it exudes is led by a narrow gutter formed of
clay into the receptacle prepared.

Should a straight pole be required for any special purpose, a large pine
is felled, and the tapered, pointed top is cut off to a convenient
length, the great spar being rejected and left to decay upon the ground.
I have never seen pit-saws used, but as a rule, should a beam or stout
plank be required, a whole tree is adzed away to produce it, and great
piles of chips are continually met with in the forests, where some large
trunk has thus perished under the exhausting process. I was rather
surprised, when the military huts were conveyed at an immense expense of
transport to the mountain station, that a few pairs of English sawyers
had not been employed to cut the inexhaustible supply of seasoned wood
now lying uselessly upon the ground, that would have supplied all
necessary planks and rafters, &c.

Fires, either accidental or malicious, are not uncommon, and I have seen
hill-sides completely destroyed. At a certain season the pines change
their foliage and the ground becomes thickly covered to the depth of a
couple of inches or more with the dry and highly inflammable spines.
Should these take fire, the conflagration in a high wind becomes
serious, and spreads to the trees, which perish.

Nothing would be easier than to defend the interests of the woods and
forests by an efficient staff of foresters, who should be Highlanders
from Scotland accustomed to mountain climbing, or English game-keepers,
who would combine the protection of forests with that of game. These
men, under the command of a certain number of officers, should be
quartered in particular districts, and would quickly acquire a knowledge
of the localities. The higher mountains would be their home during the
summer months, from which points the sound of an axe could be heard from
a great distance, and from the commanding elevation a depredator could
be distinctly identified with a good telescope. The Cypriotes are easily
governed, and should a few severe examples be made public when the
destroyers had been taken in the act, an exceedingly small staff of
foresters would be sufficient to insure order and protection.

The pine and cypress are the trees most generally attacked, and, as I
have already shown, there is no difficulty whatever in their
preservation should the requisite staff of officials be appointed. It
should, however, be borne in mind that the preservation of woods and
forests is a simple matter compared with the absolute necessity of their
extension; it is therefore desirable to examine the capabilities of the
island for tree-culture.

When Cyprus was first occupied by British troops the English newspapers
were full of superficial advice suggested by numerous well-meaning
correspondents who were utterly devoid of practical experience in
tree-planting, and a unanimous verdict was given in favour of the
Eucalyptus globulus, and other varieties of the same tree, irrespective
of all knowledge of localities and soils.

The absence of money would be the only excuse for any delay in
experimental tree-culture. The seeds of the eucalyptus were sent out in
considerable quantities to the various chief commissioners of districts
for cultivation, as though these overworked and ill-paid officers were
omniscient, and added the practical knowledge of horticulture to their
military qualifications. Every commissioner that I saw had a few old
wine or beer cases filled with earth, in which he was endeavouring to
produce embryo forests of the varieties of eucalyptus, to be planted out
when germinated--how, when, or where, he could not tell. Of course all
these attempts ended in failure. There should have been an experienced
gardener specially appointed for the purpose of raising and planting out
the young trees adapted for the various soils and altitudes of the
country, and such trees should have been ready for their positions at
the commencement of the winter months in November. The commissioners
worked in this new occupation with the same praiseworthy energy that
distinguished them throughout all the trying difficulties of their
appointment as rulers in a strange country, where, without a knowledge
of the language or customs, they were suddenly called upon to confer
happiness and contentment upon an oppressed population by administering
TURKISH laws in the essence of their integrity.

The Cypriotes had expected to see England and the English as their
rulers; but like the well-known saying, "Scratch a Russian and you
discover the Tartar," they might have "scratched an Englishman and have
found the Turk," in the actual regime that we were bound to maintain
according to the conditions of the British occupation.

The native mind could not understand the reason for the stringent rule
prohibiting the cutting of trees and they came to the conclusion that
our government contemplated some selfish advantage, and that the forests
were eventually to be leased to a company. When they shall see
tree-planting commenced by the government upon an extensive scale they
will believe in the undertaking as intended for the welfare of the
island.

Whenever this important and necessary work shall be organised, it is to
be hoped that "common sense" will be employed in the selection of trees
adapted for the various localities, and that no absurd experiments will
be made upon a large scale by introducing varieties foreign to the
island until they shall have been tested satisfactorily in botanical
nurseries established at various altitudes.

There are various local difficulties that must be considered in addition
to soil and climate; the most important is the presence of vast numbers
of goats throughout the mountains, that would utterly destroy certain
varieties of young plants. There can be no doubt that the climate and
soil are specially adapted for the introduction of the common larch,
which would grow quickly into value for the much-needed poles for
rafters and beams for the flat-topped roofs; but this tree is eagerly
devoured by sheep, goats, and cattle, and would be destroyed in its
first stage unless protected by fencing. It will be a safe rule to adopt
the native trees as a guide to future extension, as the varieties of
such classes as are indigenous will assuredly succeed. The two existing
pines are shunned by goats even when in their earliest growth, and they
are so ineradicable that were the forests spared and allowed to remain
without artificial planting, in ten years there would be masses of young
trees too thick for the success of timber. The rain, when heavy, washes
the fallen cones from the highest points, and as they are carried by the
surface water down the steep inclines they hitch among the rocks and
take root in every favourable locality. Here we have two native trees
that will plant themselves and flourish without expense, invulnerable to
the attacks of goats, and only demanding rest and time. On the other
hand, they might be planted at regular intervals with so small an outlay
that their artificial arrangement would be advisable.

The cypress may be extended in a similar manner.

The presence of several varieties of oak would naturally suggest the
introduction of the cork-tree and the species which produces the
valonia, which forms an important article of trade, and is largely used
in England by the tanner. This cup of the acorn of the Quercus aegilops
is extremely rich in tannin, and ranges in price from 20 to 30 pounds
sterling per ton delivered in an English port. It is exported largely
from the Levant, and there can be little doubt that its introduction to
Cyprus would eventually supply a new source of revenue.

The climate and soil of the Troodos mountains would be highly favourable
to the cork-tree,* which would after thirty or forty years become
extremely valuable. The box might be introduced from the mountains of
Spain, also the Spanish chestnut, which for building purposes is
invaluable, as not only practically imperishable, but fire-proof. It is
not generally known that the wood of the Spanish chestnut is so
uninflammable that it requires the aid of other fuel to consume it by
fire; it might be used with great advantage in massive logs for upright
pillars, to support beams of similar wood in warehouses.

(*The cork oak is mentioned in some works on Cyprus as indigenous to the
island; this is a mistake. The ilex is plentiful, but not the cork-tree.)

Although the walnut cannot be classed with forest-trees indigenous to
Cyprus, it flourishes abundantly at a high elevation, ranging from about
2500 to 5000 feet above the sea. At Trooditissa monastery there are
trees that were planted by the hands of the old monk, my informant, only
twenty years ago, which are equal in size to a growth of fifty years in
England. The planting of walnuts should certainly be encouraged, as the
wood is extremely valuable; at the same time that the crop yields an
annual revenue.

The preservation and extension of the woods and forests throughout the
mountainous districts of Cyprus are a simple affair, which only requires
capital and common sense combined with the usual necessary experience.
There are other portions of the island which require a different
treatment.

It is the fashion to accredit every portion of Cyprus as tree-bearing in
its early history, but if the student will compare the large population
reported to have existed at that time with the superficial area of the
island, it will be plainly seen that a very large proportion must have
been under cultivation, otherwise supplies must have been imported. I
have before mentioned my opinion that the hard bare surface of the
denuded cretaceous hills could never have borne timber, neither do I
believe in the traditions concerning forests in the plain of Messaria,
for the simple reason that it must have been the cereal-producing area
of the island.

The ancient forests must have existed where the vestiges remain to the
present day, in which localities the natural inclination of the soil is
to produce trees, which are still represented, in spite of the hideous
destruction perpetrated by the inhabitants during many centuries. These
positions include the entire Carpas district, together with the long
range of compact limestone mountains forming the northern wall of the
island, the northern coast and western, comprising the country between
Poli-ton-Khrysokhus, and Baffo, and the central and coast-line from
Baffo to Limasol, with exceptions of lands here and there cultivated
with cereals. The greater portion of the mountains that are now occupied
with vineyards were originally forests, which have been cleared
specially for the cultivation of the vine. I have seen ground at an
elevation of 4800 feet where the vineyards originally existed upon
cleared forest soil, which, having been abandoned, is relapsing into its
former state, becoming more or less covered with pines as birds may have
dropped the seeds, or the cones may have been driven from higher
altitudes by wind and rain.

The question that must now be determined is this: "What portions of the
island are to be restored to forest?" Any person who has carefully
examined the country can reply without hesitation, "Plant all useless
lands with trees; those useless lands are already more or less covered
with bush or woods, and denote their own position, in the Carpas, the
Troodos, and all mountain and hill ranges."

Where ancient forests have disappeared in favour of cultivation, it
would be folly to convert an improvement into the original wilderness.
That question is easily simplified, and when the department of Woods and
Forests shall be established, a few years of energy will produce a new
picture in a country where the growth of timber proceeds quickly.

But the last necessary reform still remains unnoticed; this should
determine the amount of caroubs, mulberry, and fruit-trees that should
be CUMPULSORILY planted by all proprietors of land in proportion to
their acreage; and this is absolutely necessary.

As I have described in many portions of our journey through Cyprus, the
simple action of an insignificant stream, or of a solitary cattle-wheel,
forms an oasis in the rainless desert of the Messaria, and the eye that
has been wearied with the barren aspect of a treeless surface is
gladdened by the relief of a sudden appearance of groves of oranges,
lemons, and other shady trees, the result of a supply of water. Whenever
such welcome spots are met with upon the miserable plain, the question
invariably arises, "Why should such fruitful and delightful positions be
so rare? The soil is fertile, the climate is favourable, all that is
required is water, and energy."

If a Cypriote is asked the question, he invariably replies "that during
the Turkish administration the fruit-trees increased their troubles,
owing to the vexatious and extortionate taxation of the crops, therefore
they were glad to be quit of them altogether." Your question No. 2
follows, "Why do you not plant trees now that the English have occupied
the country?" The reply is stereotyped, "We are not sure that you will
remain here permanently, and if you abandon the island the Turks will
resume the old system with even greater oppression than before." This is
an unanswerable dilemma, which no doubt retards improvements; but there
is a third difficulty which is invariably brought prominently forward
when any suggestions are made for an extension of agricultural
enterprise: "We have no money." This is absolutely true, although I have
heard the assertion contested by certain authorities. The people as a
rule are miserably poor, and cannot afford to run the risks of
experiments, especially during the present uncertainty connected with
the British occupation.

The opinions that I personally offer are based upon the assumption that
England can never recede from the position she has assumed in Cyprus,
which she must continue, for better or for worse, as a point of honour.
Any abandonment of the protection we have afforded to the inhabitants
would tend to aggravate their position, should they return to the
authority of the Porte, and their only hope would lie in the occupation
of our empty bed by France, who certainly requires a coaling depot
towards the east of the Mediterranean. Should we wash our hands of
Cyprus, and evacuate it in a similar manner to Corfu, we should become
the laughing-stock of Europe, and no future step taken by England in the
form of a "protectorate" would ever be relied upon. Had we retained
Corfu to the present moment, no doubt would have existed as to any
change in our intentions respecting Cyprus, but the precedent
established by our retirement from that grand strategical position has
borne its fruit in the want of confidence now felt by all classes in the
permanence of our new acquisition.

It will be admitted that a general want of elasticity has succeeded to
the first bound of expectation that was raised by the sudden
announcement of a British occupation; the government cannot be held
responsible for the disappointment of rash adventurers, but their true
responsibility commenced when they assumed the charge of the inhabitants
of Cyprus. The first year of the new administration has been marked by a
minimum rainfall that has caused the destruction of all crops dependent
upon the natural water-supply of seasons, and this partial famine of the
first year of our occupation is generally regarded as a disaster.
Although disastrous, I believe the serious warning will operate with
wholesome effect, by opening the eyes of the authorities to the absolute
necessity of directing special attention to the requirements of the
people, who after centuries of oppression have become apathetic and
inert, which unfits them for the spontaneous action that should be
exerted against the dangerous exigencies of their climate. The
government of Cyprus must be to a certain extent paternal, and the
planting of trees that will eventually benefit not only individuals, but
the island generally, and ultimately the revenue, should be made
compulsory, in proportion to the area of the various holdings, due
assistance being accorded to the proprietors by way of loans.

The eucalyptus is suitable for many localities in the lowlands of
Larnaca and Famagousta, and it might be profitably introduced throughout
such swampy soils as the neighbourhood of Morphu and other similar
positions with good sanitary results; but such trees will represent the
woods and forests of the low country without a productive income to the
population; whereas by an enforced cultivation of fruit-trees upon every
holding the island would in a few years become a garden, and the
exportation of fruit to Egypt, only thirty hours' distant, would be the
commencement of an important trade, alike beneficial to the individual
proprietors and to the island generally.

At the present time, and for many years past, Alexandria has been
supplied with all fruits from Jaffa, Beyrout, and various ports on the
coast of Syria, but there is no reason why Cyprus should not eventually
monopolise the trade, if special attention shall be bestowed (by the
suggested department of Woods and Forests) upon the qualities and
cultivation whenever an arrangement for an extension of planting shall
be carried out. I have never seen any fruits of high quality in Cyprus,
but they are generally most inferior, owing to the neglect of grafting,
and the overcrowding of the trees. The cherries which grow in the
villages from 2500 to 4500 feet above the sea are taken down to Limasol
and the principal towns for sale, but they are small and tasteless,
although red and bright in colour. They grow in large quantities, and
are never attacked by birds which render the crop precarious in England,
and necessitate the expense of netting; should the best varieties be
introduced, every natural advantage exists for their cultivation.

The apricots are not much larger than chestnuts, and would be classed as
"wild fruit," from the extreme inferiority of size and flavour; but
there is no reason except neglect for the low quality of a delicious
species of fruit that seems from the luxuriant growth of the tree to be
specially adapted to the soil and climate. It is useless to enumerate
the varieties of fruits that are brought to market; all are inferior,
excepting grapes and lemons. The productions of the gardens exhibit the
miserable position of the island, which emanates from a want of
elasticity in a debased and oppressed population too apathetic and
hopeless to attempt improvements.

England can change this wretched stagnation by the application of
capital, and by encouraging the development of the first necessity,
WATER; without which, all attempts at agricultural improvements, and the
extension of tree-planting in the low country, would be futile. I shall
therefore devote the following chapter to the subject of artificial
irrigation, and its results.



CHAPTER XIV.

REMARKS ON IRRIGATION.

The ancient prosperity of Cyprus must have been due to artificial
irrigation, which ensured a maximum of production, similar to the
inundated lands of Egypt. In the latter country the Nile is a "Salvator
Mundi," without which Egypt would be a simple prolongation of the Nubian
and Libyan deserts, in the absence of a seasonable rainfall. The
difference between the great cereal-producing portion of Cyprus and the
Delta of Egypt is, that, although the plain of Messaria has been formed
chiefly through the action of the Pedias river and other periodical
mountain streams, which have deposited a rich stratum of soil during
inundations, the rivers are merely torrents, or simple conduits, which
carry off the waters of heavy storms, or intervals of rain, and act as
drains in conveying the surplus waters during floods; while at other
times they are absolutely dry.

If the Nile were controlled by a series of weirs or dams, with sluices
to divert the high waters of the period into natural depressions within
the desert, to form reservoirs at high levels for the supply of Egypt in
seasons of scarcity, the command of the water-supply would be far
preferable to the chances of rain in the most favoured country. Water,
like fire, should be the slave of man, to whom it is the first
necessity; therefore his first effort in his struggle with the elements
should reduce this power to vassalage. There must be no question of
supremacy; water must serve mankind.

Many years ago I published, in the Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia, my
ideas for the control of the Nile and the submersion of the cataracts by
a series of weirs, with water-gates for the facility of navigation;
which with certain modifications will some day assuredly be carried out,
and will render Egypt the most favoured country of the world, as
absolute mistress of the river which is now at the same time a tyrant
and a slave. The Pedias of Cyprus may during some terrific rainfall
assume proportions that would convey a most erroneous impression to the
mind of a stranger, who, upon regarding the boiling torrent
overspreading a valley of some miles in width in its impetuous course
towards ancient Salamis, might conclude that it was a river of the first
importance. The fact is that no RIVER exists in Cyprus: what should be
rivers are mere channels, watercourses, brooks, torrents, or any of the
multifarious names for stream-beds that may be discovered in an English
dictionary. At the same time that the natural channels are dry during
the summer months, through the want of power in the water-head to
overcome the absorption of the porous soil throughout its course, it
must not be forgotten that a certain supply exists at the fountain head,
within practicable distance, which might be stored and led from the
mountains to the lower lands for the purposes of irrigation. When we
reflect that in the proverbially wet climate of England there is a
considerable difficulty in assuring a supply of wholesome water, and
that the various water companies have made enormous profits, it is not
surprising that in a neglected island like Cyprus there should be
distress in the absence of abundant rain. The uninitiated in England
seldom appreciate the labour and expenditure that has supplied the
response to the simple turning of a tap within an ordinary house. If
they would follow the artificial stream from the small leaden pipe to
the distant reservoir, they would discover that a glen or valley has
been walled in by a stupendous dam, which imprisons a hill-rivulet
before it can have descended to the impurities of habitations, and that
the pressure of waters thus stored at an elevated level forces a supply
to a town at a distance of many miles. This same principle might be
adopted in numerous localities among the mountains of Cyprus, where the
streams are perennial, but are now exhausted by the absorption of the
sandy beds before they have time to reach the villages in the lower
lands. Iron pipes might be laid to convey a water-supply to certain
districts, upon which a rate would be levied per acre and the crops
would be ensured.

The government at the present moment obtains a revenue in kind, or in a
money valuation of the corn taken at the threshing-floor; thus in the
absence of a crop through drought, or other accident, the revenue
suffers directly together with the owner: no crop, no revenue. The main
strength of a country lies in an annual income free from serious
fluctuations, and the extreme instability of Cyprus is the result of the
peculiar uncertainty of seasons which is a special feature in its
meteorological condition. It is therefore incumbent upon the government,
as an act of self-preservation, to take such measures of precaution as
will render certain the supply of water, which is all that is required
to ensure the average produce of the soil, and thereby to sustain the
revenue.

I do not indulge in engineering details, but, from the experience I have
gained by a personal examination of the localities, I am convinced that
no difficulty whatever exists that would not be overcome with a very
moderate outlay. The mountains are admirably situated, with a watershed
upon all sides, thus offering the greatest facilities for reservoirs and
pipes that would radiate in every direction. This subject will demand a
careful inquiry by hydraulic engineers, as it is a special branch of the
profession that requires wide experience, and large sums may be
fruitlessly expended through ignorance, where a trifling amount well
administered might achieve great results.

One of the first necessary steps in an examination of the subterranean
water-supply of Cyprus will be "borings" that will test the existence
of artesian springs. There are in many portions of the island extensive
plateaux at high altitudes that would absorb a considerable rainfall, in
addition to a large superficial area of mountains and hills that would
exert the requisite pressure to force the water above the surface of a
lower level upon boring, should it now lie beneath some impervious
stratum. Boring will alone solve this question. Should artesian wells be
practicable in certain localities, an immense blessing will be conferred
upon the island.

In the meantime the native method already described, of connecting
chains of wells from different springs converging to a main channel or
subterranean tunnel, is an original form of Cyprian engineering
thoroughly understood by the population, which should be strenuously
encouraged. It is a common fault among English people to ignore the
value of native methods, and to substitute some costly machinery which
requires skilled labour and expense in working; this must in time get
out of order and necessitate delay and extra outlay in repairs;
generally at a period when the machine is most required.

It is a curious fact that the shadoof or lever and bucket worked by
hand, which is so generally used throughout Egypt, is unknown in Cyprus,
where in many localities it would be easily worked when water is within
five to eight feet of the surface. This arrangement only requires a pole
of about twenty feet in length supported upon an upright post, so as to
play like a pump-handle by the balance of a weight attached to one end
to counterbalance the pail of water suspended to a long stick and short
rope at the other extremity. In Egypt the weight at the short end is
merely a mass of clay tempered with chopped straw beaten together to
represent about 150 lbs. or whatever may be required; this adheres, and
forms a knob to the end of the lever.

A man holds the long thin stick suspended at the other extremity to
which the bucket is attached, and pulls it down hand over hand until the
utensil is immersed in the water; when full, it is so nearly
counterbalanced by the weight at the end of the lever that a very slight
exertion raises it to the desired level, where it is emptied into a
receiver. Many years ago, when at Gondokoro, I arranged a double shadoof
of parallel levers and two galvanised iron buckets of four gallons each,
worked by two men. I timed the labour of this simple machine, and proved
that the two men delivered 3600 gallons within an hour. The men exerted
themselves to a degree that could not have been continued throughout the
day, and the buckets, of English make, were far more capacious than the
simple leather stretched upon a hoop of sticks that is used in Egypt;
but there is no reason for such inferior adjuncts. It may be safely
assumed that with proper appliances the double shadoof, worked by two
men, will deliver 2000 gallons an hour for a working day of six active
hours, or a total of 12,000 gallons. In Cyprus the wages of a labourer
are one shilling a day, therefore the cost of raising 12,000 gallons
would be only two shillings, provided the water is only five feet from
the surface. There are many portions of the Messaria plain where the
water is even nearer, but the shadoof could work profitably at six, and
even at eight feet, and it possesses the advantage of such extreme
cheapness of original cost that the outlay is insignificant.

Where fuel is expensive, and cattle and human labour cheap, the ancient
Egyptian water-wheel will deliver a supply at a cheaper rate than steam.
It has the merit of being always ready; there is no delay in lighting
fires and getting up the steam; there is no expensive engineer who may
be sick or absent when required; but the wheel is turned either by night
or day by mules or oxen, driven by a child. Wind vanes might be attached
to this principle, and could be connected on favourable occasions.

The peculiarity throughout the lower levels in Cyprus (specially
exhibited in the plain of Messaria) of a water-supply within a few feet
of the surface, at the same time that the crops may be perishing from
drought, is in favour of the general adoption of the Egyptian wheel.
Although this simple construction is one of the oldest inventions for
raising water, and is generally understood, I may be excused for
describing it when upon the important topic of irrigation.

A large pit is sunk to about three feet below the level of the water,
and should the earth not be sufficiently tenacious for self-support, the
sides are walled with masonry; this pit would usually be about twenty
feet long, four feet wide, and twenty feet deep for a first-class wheel.
When the wooden wheel of about seventeen feet diameter has been fixed
upon its horizontal shaft, it is arranged with a chain of large earthen
jars; those of Egypt contain about three gallons each, but the Cyprian
pots are very inferior, scarcely exceeding the same number of quarts.

These jars are secured upon a double line of stiff ropes formed in
Cyprus of the long twisted wands of myrtle, which are exceedingly tough,
and are substitutes for willows in basket-work. When completed, the
chain resembles a rope ladder, with the numerous jars sufficiently close
together to represent spokes separated by about sixteen inches. This is
suspended over the edge of the wheel, and hangs vertically; the lower
portion of this necklace-like arrangement being about three feet below
the water, or as near the bottom as is possible with safety to the jars.

When the wheel turns the necklace of pots must of necessity obey the
movement, and as they dip successively and fill in the deep water, they
in turn rise to the surface with the revolutions of the wheel; upon
passing the centre they invert, and empty their contents into a large
trough connected with a reservoir capable of containing many hundred
hogsheads. A circular chain or ladder of twenty feet diameter will
contain about twenty jars of three gallons each--equalling a delivery
of about two and a half gallons per jar, as there is generally a loss of
water during the movement; therefore one complete revolution of the
wheel would deliver fifty gallons into the reservoir.

The wheel is turned by a simple contrivance of wooden cogs and drivers,
worked by a long revolving lever, to which, for a powerful machine such
as I have described, a pair of mules or oxen would be necessary. A child
sits upon the pole or lever and keeps the animals to their work.

There is no specified limit to the depth at which this instrument can
work, as it must depend upon the length of chain and the number of jars,
which of course increase the weight and strain upon the machinery and
animals. In Cyprus, where the water is generally near the surface, the
advantages are obvious, and I feel convinced that no modern invention is
so well adapted for the Cypriote cultivator.

The cost of erection of such a machine complete, together with the
sinking of the pit, is calculated, at an average of localities, as 12
pounds; a pair of oxen will cost 10 pounds: thus the water-wheel in
working order will amount to 22 pounds. One wheel will irrigate eighty
donums, or about forty acres of cereals, but the same instrument would
only suffice for about six acres of garden ground, which requires a more
constant supply of water. It may therefore be understood that in
calculating the power of a water-wheel, various conditions must be
considered, and I shall confine myself to the farm, upon which it will
be necessary to establish one water-wheel or sakyeeah for every forty
acres; this entails a first outlay of eleven shillings per acre; and at
once ensures the crop and renders the farmer independent of the seasons.
But including the cost of constructing the numerous water-channels of
clay to conduct the stream to the desired fields, together with the
expense of erecting the reservoirs of masonry upon a sufficient scale, I
should raise the original outlay for irrigation by cattle-wheels to 20
shillings per acre (1 pound). This would include the services of a pair
of oxen for other work when the sakyeeah should not be required.* (*The
wheel I have described is double the power of those in general use in
Cyprus, where a single animal works the sakyeeah, and it would irrigate
a larger acreage.) According to this calculation, which exceeds by a
large margin the figures given to me by several native farmers, the
owner of a hundred acres must only expend 100 pounds to ensure his
annual crops! To us this appears nothing, but to the Cypriote it is
everything. Where is he to obtain one hundred pounds? To him the sum is
enormous and overpowering.

In times of scarcity, which unfortunately are the general conditions of
the country, owing to the deficiency of rain, the farmer must borrow
money not only for the current expenses of his employment, but for the
bare sustenance of his family; he has recourse to the usurer, and
henceforth becomes his slave. The rate of interest may be anything that
can be imagined when extortion acts upon one side while poverty and
absolute famine are the petitioners. The farm, together with the stock,
are mortgaged, and the expected crops for a stipulated number of seasons
are made over to the usurer at a fixed sum per measure of corn, far
below the market price. Another bad season adds to the crushing burden,
and after a few years, when the unfortunate landowner is completely
overwhelmed with debt, perchance one of the happy years arrives when
propitious rains in the proper season bring forth the grand
cereal-producing power of Cyprus, and the wheat and barley, six feet
high, wave over the green surface throughout the island. The yield of
one such abundant crop almost releases the debtor from his misery;
another year would free him from the usurer; but rarely or never are two
favourable seasons consecutive; the abundant harvest is generally
followed by several years of drought. This pitiable position may be
quickly changed by government assistance without the slightest risk.

The first necessity is capital, and the usurer must disappear from the
scene. I do not think that an agricultural bank will be practically
worked, as the value of money in the east is above 6 per cent., which is
the maximum that the Cyprian cultivator should pay. The government must
advance loans for the special erection of water-wheels, or other methods
of irrigation, at 6 per cent., taking a mortgage of the land as their
security; this loan upon water-works to take precedence of all others.
The government can borrow at 4 per cent., and will lend at 6, which is
not a bad beginning for a national bank. The water-wheels can be
constructed in a few weeks, and their effect would be IMMEDIATE; there
would be no doubtful interval of years, but the very first season would
leave the cultivator in a position to repay the loan; at the same time,
the government would reap the direct benefit of a certain revenue from
the irrigated and assured production of the land.

This is no visionary theory; the fact is already patent in the few farms
belonging to wealthy land-owners that I have already described, as
exhibiting the simple power of a few water-wheels to produce abundance,
while upon the margin of such verdant examples the country is absolutely
desert, parched and withered by a burning sun, yielding nothing either
to the owner or to the revenue, while at the same time the water-supply
is only four or five yards beneath the feet of the miserable proprietor,
who has neither capital nor power to raise it to the surface.

There is no necessity for the government to embark in any uncertain
enterprise, neither should they interfere with the native methods of
irrigation; and above all things, no money should leave the island to
fill the pockets of English contractors in the purchase of pumps, or
other inventions. All that is required by the Cypriote is capital; lend
him the money at 6 per cent.: the government will be saved all trouble,
and the profit to all parties will be assured. The money expended in the
erection of water-wheels or other works will circulate throughout the
island in the payment of native labour, and will relieve the wants of
many who, in the absence of land, must earn their livelihood by manual
labour. "Water!" is the cry throughout this neglected island; it has
been the cry in Eastern lands from time immemorial, when in the thirsty
desert Moses smote the rock, and the stream gushed forth for multitudes;
when Elijah mocked the priests of Baal with, "Call him louder!" in their
vain appeal for rain, and the "little cloud, no bigger than a man's
hand," rose upon the horizon in answer to his prayer. In the savage
tribes of Africa, the "rain-maker" occupies the position of priest and
chief. In England, the clergy offer prayers for either rain or for fine
weather. In Cyprus the farmer places the small picture of the Virgin
upon his field, before which he lights his tapers, which the wind
extinguishes; at the same time THE WATER-SUPPLY IS CLOSE BENEATH HIS
FEET, and the expenditure of a few pounds sterling would produce a
permanent blessing and uninterrupted prosperity by practical common
sense and labour, without any miraculous interposition in his behalf.

There are few countries where such facilities exist for irrigation, and
the work should be commenced without delay. Should next year be one of
drought like the spring of 1879, the greatest misery will befall the
population; there is already sufficient disappointment in the want of
progress since the British occupation, and the feeling will be
intensified should the assistance of government be withheld in this
crying necessity of artificial irrigation.

The Cypriote well-sinker is wonderfully clever in discovering springs,
and I have already described the method of multiplying the water-power
of one source by securing and concentrating the neighbouring sources.
This work only requires money, and the inhabitants, without further
assistance than loans secured by a water-rate upon the district, will
rapidly develop the natural supply. There should be a special commission
appointed, in each of the six districts of Cyprus, to investigate and
report officially upon this subject. In forming the commission, care
should be taken that the native element should predominate, and that no
enthusiastic English engineer, blooming with new schemes, should thrust
into shadow the Cyprian intelligence upon the working of their own
systems. If I were an English engineer employed in any work, I should
probably have the natural failing of enforcing my own opinions; but from
many years' experience I have come to the conclusion that the
inhabitants of a country are generally better qualified than strangers
for giving practical opinions upon their own locations. There is plenty
of intelligence in Cyprus; the people are not savages, but their fault
is poverty, the natural inheritance of Turkish rule; and we, the
English, have the power to make them rich, and to restore the ancient
importance of the island. In England, at the time that I am writing,
money is not worth 2 per cent. owing to the general depression of trade;
the money-market has been in this plethoric or dropsical state for the
last three years, and there appears to be no hope upon the commercial
horizon of a favourable change. In Cyprus the resources are great, but
the capital is wanting, and the strange anomaly is presented that the
exchange of the British for the Turkish flag has not increased public
confidence. Something must be done to change the present stupor; if
Cypriotes were Candians (Cretans) their voices would be forcibly heard,
and the Turkish rule beneath the British uniform would be quickly
overthrown. The Cypriote, down-trodden for centuries, is like sodden
tinder that will not awaken to the spark: he is what is called "easily
governed;" which means an abject race, in which all noble aspirations
have been stamped out by years of unremitting oppression and injustice;
still, like the Cyprian ox, he ploughs the ground. It is the earth alone
that yields the world's wealth: if we have no other thoughts but
avarice, let us treat the Cypriote as we should his animal, and make him
a wealth-producer. England has acquired the reputation of the civiliser
of the world; it is in this character that we were expected to effect a
magic change in the position of Cyprus; instead of which we have
hitherto presented a miserable result of half-measures, where
irresolution has reduced the brilliant picture of our widely-trumpeted
political surprise to a dull "arrangement in whitey-brown" . . . which
is the pervading tint of the Cyprian surface in the absence of
artificial irrigation.



CHAPTER XV.

LIFE AT THE MONASTERY OF TROODITISSA.

The life at our quiet camp at Trooditissa was a complete calm: there
could not be a more secluded spot, as no human habitation was near,
except the invisible village of Phyni two miles deep beneath, at the
mountain's base. The good old monk Neophitos knitted, and taught his
boys always in the same daily spot: the swallows built their nests under
the eaves of the monastery roof and beneath the arch which covered in
the spring, and sat in domestic flocks upon the over-hanging boughs
within a few feet of our breakfast-table, when their young could fly.
Nightingales sang before sunset, and birds of many varieties occupied
the great walnut-tree above our camp, and made the early morning
cheerful with a chorus of different songs. There was no change from day
to day, except in the progress of the gardens; the plums grew large: the
mulberries ripened in the last week of July, and the shepherd's pretty
children and the monastery boys were covered with red stains, as though
from a battlefield, as they descended from the attractive boughs. It was
a very peaceful existence, and I shall often look back with pleasure to
our hermitage by the walls of the old monastery, which afforded a moral
haven from all the storms and troubles that embitter life. On Sundays we
sent a messenger for the post to the military camp at Troodos, about
five and a half miles distant, and the arrival of letters and newspapers
restored us for a couple of days to the outer world: after which we
relapsed once more into the local quiescent state of complete rest. It
must not be supposed that we were idle; there were always occupations
which by degrees I hope improved the place, and to a certain degree the
people. Occasionally I asked the old monks to sit and smoke their
cigarettes in our "rachkooba," when they sipped their hot coffee, and
explained difficult theological questions to my intense edification; of
course I always listened, but never argued. My particular friend old
Neophitos treated me to long stories which he imagined must be new and
interesting, especially the history of Joseph and his brethren, which he
several times recounted from beginning to end with tears of sympathy in
his eyes at Joseph's love for the youngest brother Benjamin. The Garden
of Eden, the Deluge, including the account of Noah's Ark, and several
equally modern and entertaining stories, I always listened to with
commendable attention. Yet even in this solitude, where the chapel-bell
on Saturday night, and at daybreak upon Sunday mornings, was in harmony
with the external peaceful surroundings, and it appeared as though
discord could never enter the walls of Trooditissa, the old monks had
their cares and difficulties.

The principal cause of trouble was "servants!" I was quite surprised, as
I thought we were nearer heaven in this spot than in any earthly
locality I had ever visited; but even here the question of "servants"
was an irritation to the nerves of the patient monks. My own servants
were excellent, and never quarrelled or complained; they appeared to
have been mesmerised by the placid character of their position, and to
have become angelic; especially in not fatiguing themselves through
over-exertion. With the monks the case was different. In this quiet
retreat, where man reigned alone, as Adam in the Garden of Eden; where
the cares and anxieties of married life were unknown within the sacred
walls of celibacy, a single representative of the other sex existed in
the ubiquitous shape of a "maid of all work;" and as Eve caused the
first trouble in the world, so the monastery "maid" disturbed the
otherwise peaceful existence of Neophitos.

This maid's name was "Christina," and she received the munificent sum of
one hundred piastres per annum as wages, which in English money would be
fifteen shillings and sixpence every year. The world is full of
ingratitude, and strange to say, Christina was dissatisfied, which
naturally wounded the feelings of the good monks, as in addition to this
large sum of money she received her food and clothes; the latter
consisting of full trousers, and a confusion of light material, which,
having no shape whatever, I could not describe. Christina, though young,
was not pretty, and she was always either crying or scolding, which
would of course spoil any beauty; while at the same time she was either
washing all the clothes belonging to the whole establishment of monks (a
very disagreeable business), or hanging them out to dry near the spring;
or she was sweeping the monastery; or arranging the very dirty rooms of
the establishment; or baking all the bread that was required; or cooking
the dinner; or repairing all the old clothes which the monks wore when
they were only fit for a paper-mill. As there was no special
accommodation in the shape of a laundry, Christina had to collect
sticks, and make a huge fire beneath a copper cauldron in the open air,
into which she plunged all the different vestments of the monks and
priests, and stewed them before washing. This was a Cyprian "maid of all
work," whose gross ingratitude troubled the minds of her "pastors and
masters;" and one day a peculiar mental disturbance pervaded the whole
priestly establishment and caused a monasterial commotion, as, after a
violent fit of temper attended by crying, Christina had declared
solemnly that she "would stand it no longer," and "she wished TO BETTER
HERSELF!"

Whenever there was a difficulty the monks came to me; why, I cannot
imagine. If the shepherd's goats invaded their gardens and destroyed the
onions and the beet-root crops, they applied to me. Of course I advised
them to "fence their gardens," and they went away satisfied, but did not
carry out the suggestion so in due time their crops were devoured. They
now told me that THEY ALWAYS HAD DIFFICULTY WITH WOMEN! This new theory
startled me almost as much as the novelty of the old monks' stories.
They explained that YOUNG WOMEN WOULDN'T WORK, AND OLD WOMEN COULDN'T
WORK. It had not occurred to them that a middle-aged woman might have
combined all that they desired. Knowing their strict moral principles, I
had suggested an "old woman" as the successor of Christina; as I
explained to them that, to be in harmony with the establishment, a woman
of a "certain age" as general servant would not detract from the
religious character of the place. However I might argue, the old monk
hesitated; but while the monk wavered, Christina's "monkey was up," and,
taking her child in her arms, she started off without giving a "month's
notice," and fairly left the monastery, with monks, priests, deacons,
servants and the dogs all aghast and barking. There was nobody to wash
the linen, to bake the bread, to sweep the rooms, to cook the dinner, to
mend the clothes! Christina was gone, and the gentle sex was no longer
represented in the monastery of Trooditissa.

I was sorry for Christina, but I was glad the child was gone; although I
pitied the poor abandoned and neglected little creature with all my
heart. As a rule, "maids of all work" should not be mothers, but if they
are, they should endeavour to care for the unfortunate child. This
wretched little thing was about two years old--a girl; its eyes were
nearly closed with inflammation caused by dirt and neglect; it was
naked, with the exception of a filthy rag that hung in tatters scarcely
below its hips; and as its ill-tempered and over-worked mother
alternately raved, or cried, the child, which even at this age depended
mainly upon her nursing for its food, joined in a perpetual yell, which
at length terminated in a faint and wearied moan, until it laid itself
down upon the bare, hard stones, and fell asleep. It was a sad picture
of neglect and misery; the shepherd's pretty children shunned it, and in
its abandoned solitude the little creature had to amuse itself. The face
looked like that of an old careworn person who had lost all pleasure in
the world, and the child wandered about alone and uncared for; its only
plaything was my good-tempered dog Wise, who allowed himself to be
pulled about and teased in the most patient manner. I cured the child's
eyes after some days' attention, and my wife had it washed, and made it
decent clothes. This little unusual care, with a few kind words in a
strange language only interpreted by a smile, attracted the poor thing
to the tent, where it would sit for hours, until it at length found
solace in the child's great refuge, sleep. It would always follow Lady
Baker to and fro along the only level walk we had, from the tent to the
running spring, and would sit down by her side directly she arrived at
our favourite seat--a large flat rock looking down upon a precipitous
descent to the ravine some 500 feet below, and commanding a view of the
low country and the distant sea. It was an obstinate and perverse little
creature, and it insisted upon climbing upon rocks and standing upon the
extreme edge overhanging a precipice. If it had been the loved and only
offspring of fond parents, heiress to a large estate, it would of course
have tumbled over, in the absence of nurses and a throng of careful
attendants, but never having been cared for since its birth, it
possessed an instinctive knowledge of self-preservation, and declined to
relieve its mother of an extra anxiety. It was an agreeable change to
lose the sound of a child's constant wailing, and I suggested to the
monks that its presence was hardly in accordance with the severe aspect
of the establishment. There was some mystery connected with it of which
I am still ignorant, as I never ask questions; but it is at the least
ill-judged and thoughtless on the part of "maids of all work" to engage
themselves to any situation where the kissing of a rock, or a holy
effigy, may lead to complications. It was of no use to moralise;
Christina was gone, together with the child; there was absolute quiet in
the monastery; neither the scolding of the mother, nor the crying of an
infant, was heard. The monks looked more austere than ever, and remained
in unwashed linen, until they at length succeeded in engaging a charming
substitute in a middle-aged maid of all work of seventy-five!

About the 20th July the swallows disappeared, and I have no idea to what
portion of the world they would migrate at this season. In the low
country the heat is excessive, and even at the altitude of Trooditissa
the average, since the 1st of the month, had been at 7 A.M. 70.7
degrees--3 P.M. 77.3 degrees.

The birds that had sung so cheerfully upon our arrival had become
silent. There was a general absence of the feathered tribe, but
occasionally a considerable number of hoopoes and jays had appeared for
a few days, and had again departed, as though changing their migrations,
and resting for a time upon the cool mountains.

I frequently rambled among the highest summits with my dogs, but there
was a distressing and unaccountable absence of game; in addition to
which there was no scent, as the barren rocks were heated in the sun
like bricks taken from the kiln. The under-growth up to 4500 feet
afforded both food and covert for hares, but they were very scarce. A
peculiar species of dwarf prickly broom covers the ground in some
places, and the young shoots are eagerly devoured by goats; this spreads
horizontally, and grows in such dense masses about one foot from the
surface that it will support the weight of a man.

When grubbed up by the root it forms an impervious mat about three or
four feet in diameter, and supplies an excellent door to the entrance of
a garden, to prevent the incursions of goats or fowls. The Berberris
grew in large quantities, which, together with the foliage of the dwarf
ilex, is the goat's favourite food. Not far from the village of
Prodomos, upon the neighbouring heights, I found, for the first time in
Cyprus, the juniper, which appeared to be kept low by the constant
grazing of the numerous herds.

The walking over the mountains is most fatiguing, and utterly
destructive to boots, owing to the interminable masses of sharp rocks
and stones of all sizes, which quite destroy the pleasure of a
lengthened stroll. The views from the various elevated ridges are
exceedingly beautiful, and exhibit the numerous villages surrounded by
vineyards snugly clustered in obscure dells among the mountains at great
elevations above the sea. Prodomos is about 4300 feet above the level,
and can be easily distinguished by the foliage of numerous spreading
walnut-trees and the large amount of cultivation by which it is
surrounded.

There was no difficulty in gaining the highest point of the island from
our camp, as a zigzag rocky path led to the top of a ridge about 600
feet directly above the monastery, which ascended with varying
inclinations to the summit of Troodos, about 2100 feet above
Trooditissa; by the maps 6590 feet above the sea, but hardly so much by
recent measurement.

The moufflon, or wild sheep, exists in Cyprus, but in the absence of
protection they have been harassed at all seasons by the natives, who
have no idea of sparing animals during the breeding season. The present
government have protected them by a total prohibition, under a penalty
of ten pounds to be inflicted upon any person discovered in killing
them. In the absence of all keepers or guardians of the forests, it
would be difficult to prove a case, and I have no doubt that the natives
still attempt the sport, although from the extreme wariness of the
animals they are most difficult to approach. The authorities should
employ some dependable sportsman to shoot a certain number of rams which
are now in undue proportion, as the ewes with young lambs have been an
easier prey to the unsparing Cypriotes.

Absurd opinions have been expressed concerning the numbers of moufflon
now remaining upon the island, and it would be quite impossible to
venture upon a conjecture, as there is a very large area of the
mountains perfectly wild and unoccupied to the west of Kyka monastery,
extending to Poli-ton-Khrysokus, upon which the animals are said to be
tolerably numerous. There are some upon the Troodos range, but from all
accounts they do not exceed fifteen.

On 2nd July I started at 4 A.M. with a shepherd lad for the highest
point of Troodos, hoping by walking carefully to see moufflon among some
of the numerous ravines near the summit, which are seldom invaded by the
flocks of goats and their attendants. I took a small rifle with me as a
companion which is seldom absent in my walks, and although I should have
rigidly respected the government prohibition in the case of ewes, or
even of rams at a long shot that might have been uncertain and
hazardous, I should at the same time have regarded a moufflon with good
horns at a range under 150 yards, in the Abrahamic light of "a ram
caught in a thicket" that had been placed in my way for the purpose of
affording me a specimen.

On arrival at the top of the ridge above the monastery the view was
superb. We looked down a couple of thousand feet into deep and narrow
valleys rich in vineyards; the mountains rose in dark masses upon the
western side, covered with pine forests, which at this distance did not
exhibit the mutilations of the axe. At this early hour the sea was blue
and clear, as the sun had not yet heated the air and produced the usual
haze which destroys the distant views: and the tops of the lower
mountains above Omodos and Chilani appeared almost close beneath upon
the south, their vine-covered surface producing a rich contrast to the
glaring white marls that were cleared for next year's planting. The top
of Troodos was not visible, as we continued the ascent along the ridge,
with the great depths of ravines and pine-covered steeps upon either
side, but several imposing heights in front, and upon the right, seemed
to closely rival the true highest point.

As we ascended, the surface vegetation became scanty; the rocks in many
places had been thickly clothed with the common fern growing in dense
masses from the soil among the interstices; the white cistus and the
purple variety had formed a gummy bed of plants which, together with
several aromatic herbs, emitted a peculiar perfume in the cool morning
air. These now gave place to the hardy berberris which grew in thick
prickly bushes at long intervals, leaving a bare surface of rocks
between them devoid of vegetation. There was little of geological
interest; gneiss and syenite predominated, with extremely large crystals
of hornblende in the latter rock, that would have afforded handsome
slabs had not the prevailing defect throughout Cyprus rendered all
blocks imperfect through innumerable cracks and fissures. A peculiar
greenish and greasy-looking rock resembling soapstone was occasionally
met with in veins, and upon close examination I discovered it to be the
base of asbestos. The surface of this green substance was like polished
horn, which gradually became fibrous, and in some specimens developed
towards the extremity into the true white hairy condition of the
well-known mineral cotton.

We were near the summit of the mountain, and arrived at an ancient camp
that had been arranged with considerable judgment by a series of stone
walls with flanking defences for the protection of each front. This was
many centuries ago the summer retreat of the Venetian government, and it
had formed a sanatorium. This extends to the summit of the mountain,
where fragments of tiles denote the former existence of houses. In the
absence of water it would have been impossible to adopt the usual custom
of mud-covered roofs, therefore tiles had been carried from the low
country. It is supposed that the stations fell into decay at about the
period of the Turkish conquest.

A rattle of loose stones upon the opposite side of a ravine suddenly
attracted my attention; and two moving objects at about 230 yards
halted, and faced us in the usual manner of inquiry when wild animals
are disturbed to windward of their enemy. The rocks were bare, and their
cafe-au-lait colour exactly harmonised with that of the two moufflon,
which I now made out to be fine rams with large and peculiar heads.
Motioning to my shepherd lad to sit quietly upon the ground, upon which
I was already stretched, I examined them carefully with my glass. Had
they not been moving when first observed I should not have discovered
them, so precisely did their skins match the rocky surface of the steep
inclination upon which they stood. They remained still for about two
minutes, affording me an excellent opportunity of examination. The horns
were thick, and rose from the base like those of the ibex, turning
backwards, but they twisted forward from the first bend, and the points
came round towards the front in the ordinary manner of the sheep. Like
all the wild sheep of India and other countries, the coat was devoid of
wool, but appeared to be a perfectly smooth surface of dense texture. It
was too far for a certain shot, especially as the animals were facing
me, which is always an unsatisfactory position even when at a close
range.

I put up the 200 yards sight, and raised the rifle to my shoulder,
merely to try the view; but when sighted I could not clearly distinguish
the animal from the rocks, and I would not fire to wound. My shepherd
lad at this moment drew his whistle, and, without orders, began to pipe
in a wild fashion, which he subsequently informed me should have induced
the moufflon to come forward towards the sound; instead of which, they
cantered off, then stopped again, as we had the wind, and at length they
disappeared among the rocks and pines. It would be almost impossible to
obtain a shot at these wary creatures by approaching from below, as they
are generally upon high positions from which they look down for expected
enemies, and the noise of the loose rocks beneath the feet of a man
walking up the mountains would be sure to attract attention. The only
chance of success would be to pass the night on the summit of Troodos,
and at daybreak to work downwards.

I made a long circuit in the hope of again meeting the two rams, during
which I found many fresh tracks of the past night, but nothing more.

The summit of the mountain was disappointing, as the haze occasioned by
the heat in the low country obscured the distant view. It was 8.10.
A.M., and the air was still deliciously cool and fresh upon the highest
point of Cyprus, which affords a complete panorama that in the month of
October or during early spring must be very beautiful. Even now I could
distinguish Larnaca, Limasol, Morphu, all in opposite directions, in
addition to the sea surrounding the island upon every point except the
east. The lofty coast of Caramania, which had formed a prominent object
in the landscape when at Kyrenia, was now unfortunately hidden within
the haze.

From this elevated position I could faintly hear the military band
practising at the camp of the 20th Regiment, invisible, about a mile
distant among the pine-forests, at a lower level of 700 feet. There were
no trees upon the rounded knoll which forms the highest point of Cyprus:
these must have been cleared away and rooted out when the ancient camp
was formed, and the pines have not re-grown, for the simple reason that
no higher ground exists from which the rains could have washed the cones
to root upon a lower level.

I now examined every ravine with the greatest caution in the hopes of
meeting either the two rams, or other moufflon, but I only came across a
solitary ewe with a lamb about four months old; which I saw twice during
my walk round the mountain tops. Upon arriving during my descent at the
highest spring of Troodos, where the cold water dripped into a narrow
stream bed, I lay down beneath a fine shady cypress, and having eaten
two hard-boiled eggs and drunk a cupful of the pure icy water mixed with
a tinge of Geneva from my flask, I watched till after noon in the hope
that my two rams might arrive to drink. Nothing came except a few tame
goats without a goatherd; therefore I descended the abominable stones
which rattled down the mountain side, and by the time that I arrived at
our camp at Trooditissa, my best shooting boots of quagga hide, that
were as dear to me as my rifle, were almost cut to pieces.

There was a terrible picture of destruction throughout the forests of
Troodos. Near the summit, the pines and cypress were of large growth,
but excepting the cypress, there were scarcely any trees unscathed, and
the ground was covered by magnificent spars that were felled only to rot
upon the surface.

I was not sorry to arrive at the shepherd's hut upon the ridge
overhanging the monastery upon my return. The good wife was as usual
busy in making cheeses from the goat's milk, which is a very important
occupation throughout Cyprus. The curd was pressed into tiny baskets
made of myrtle wands, which produced a cheese not quite so large as a
man's fist. I think these dry and tasteless productions of the original
Cyprian dairy uneatable, unless grated when old and hard; but among the
natives they are highly esteemed, and form a considerable article of
trade and export. Cesnola mentions that 2,000,000 (two million) cheeses
per annum are made in Cyprus of this small kind, which weigh from half a
pound to three-quarters. I have frequently met droves of donkeys heavily
laden with panniers filled with these small cheeses, which, although
representing important numbers, become insignificant when computed by
weight.

During our stay at Trooditissa we occasionally obtained eels from a man
who caught them in the stream at the base of the mountains; this is the
only fresh-water fish in Cyprus that is indigenous. Some persons have
averred that the gold-fish dates its origin from this island; this is a
mistake, as it is not found elsewhere than in ornamental ponds and
cisterns in the principal towns. It is most probable that it was
introduced by the Venetians who traded with the far East, and it may
have arrived from China.

The streams below the mountains contain numerous crabs of a small
species seldom larger than two inches and a half across the shell, to a
maximum of three inches; these are in season until the middle of June,
after which they become light and empty. When alive they are a brownish
green, but when boiled they are the colour of the ordinary crab, and are
exceedingly full in flesh, and delicate. The shell is extremely hard
compared to the small size, and the claws must be broken by a sharp blow
with the back of a knife upon a block.

We frequently had them first boiled and then pounded in a mortar to a
paste, then mixed with boiling water and strained through a sieve; after
which cream should be added, together with the required seasonings for a
soup. I imagine that the common green crabs of the English coasts, which
are caught in such numbers and thrown away by the fishermen, would be
almost as good if treated in the same manner for potage.

The calm monotony of a life at Trooditissa was disturbed every now and
then at distant intervals by trifling events which only served to prove
that peculiar characters existed in the otherwise heavenly atmosphere
which showed our connection with the world below.

One night a burglar attempted an entrance; but the man (who was a
carpenter) having been previously suspected, was watched, and having
been seen in the middle of the night to place a ladder against the outer
gallery, by which he ascended, and with false keys opened a door that
led to the store-room of the monastery, he was suddenly pounced upon by
two strong young priests and fairly captured. On the following morning
the monks applied to me, and as usual I vainly pleaded my unofficial
position. I was either to do or to say something. If the man was sent to
Limasol, thirty-five miles distant, the monks would have the trouble and
expense of appearing as prosecutors; the robber would be imprisoned for
perhaps a couple of years, during which his family would starve. I could
offer no advice. I simply told them that if any robber should attempt to
enter my tent I should not send him to Limasol, but I should endeavour
to make the tent so disagreeable to him that he would never be tempted
to revisit the premises from the attraction of pleasing associations. I
explained to the monks that although a severe thrashing with stout
mulberry sticks would, if laid on by two stout fellows, have a most
beneficial effect upon the burglar, and save all the trouble of a
reference to Limasol, at the same time that the innocent wife and family
would not be thrown upon their relatives, they must not accept my views
of punishment as any suggestion under the present circumstances.

About half an hour after this conversation I heard a sound of
well-inflicted blows, accompanied by cries which certainly denoted a
disagreeable physical sensation, within the courtyard of the monastery,
and to my astonishment I found that my interpreter and willing cook
Christo had volunteered as one of the executioners, and the burglar,
having been severely thrashed, was turned out of the monastery and
thrust down the path towards the depths of Phyni. Christo was a very
good fellow, and he sometimes reminded me of a terrier ready to obey or
take a hint from his master upon any active subject, while at others, in
his calmer moments, he resembled King Henry's knights, who interpreted
their monarch's wishes respecting Thomas a-Becket.

On 6th June we had been somewhat startled by the sudden appearance in
the afternoon of a man perfectly naked, who marched down the approach
from the spring and entered the monastery-yard in a dignified and
stage-like attitude as though he had the sole right of entree. At first
sight I thought he was mad, but on reference to the monks I discovered
he was perfectly sane. It appeared that he was a Greek about forty-five
years of age, who was a native of Kyrenia, and for some offence twenty
years ago he had been ordered by the priests to do penance in this
extraordinary manner. His body, originally white, had become quite as
brown as that of an Arab of the desert; he possessed no clothing nor
property of any kind, not even a blanket during winter; but he wandered
about the mountains and visited monasteries and certain villages, where
he obtained food as charity. He would never accept money (probably from
the absence of pockets), neither would he venture near Turkish villages,
as he had several times received a thrashing from the men for thus
presenting himself before their women, and it is to be regretted that
the Cypriotes had not followed the Turkish example, which would have
quickly cured his eccentricity. He was a strong, well-built man, with
good muscular development; his head was bald with the exception of a
little hair upon either side, and he was interesting to a certain extent
as an example of what a European can endure when totally exposed to the
sun and weather. Sometimes he slept like a wild animal beneath a rock
among the mountains, or in a cave, when such a luxurious retreat might
offer a refuge; at other times he was received and sheltered by the
priests or people. This individual's name was Christodilos, and
according to my notes taken at the time, he is described as "originally
a labourer of Kyrenia; parents dead: one brother and two sisters
living."



CHAPTER XVI.

SOMETHING ABOUT TAXATION.

The monastery gardens of Trooditissa at the close of July exhibited the
great fruit-producing power of the soil and climate at this high
altitude, but at the same time they were examples of the arbitrary and
vexatious system of Turkish taxation, which remains unchanged and is
still enforced by the British authorities. I shall describe this in
detail, and leave the question of possibility of development under such
wholesale tyranny to the judgment of the public. It is difficult to
conceive how any persons can expect that Europeans, especially
Englishmen, will become landowners and settle in Cyprus when subjected
to such unfair and irritating restrictions.

    NO PRODUCE CAN BE REMOVED FROM ANY GARDEN UNTIL IT SHALL HAVE BEEN
    VALUED FOR TAXATION BY THE GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL APPOINTED FOR THAT
    PURPOSE, at the rate of 10 per cent. ad valorem.

At first sight this system appears incredible, but upon an examination
of the details our wonder ceases at the general absence of cultivated
vegetables and the propagation of superior qualities of fruits. If the
object of the government were purposely to repress all horticultural
enterprise, and to drive the inhabitants to the Nebuchadnezzar-like
grazing upon wild herbs, the present system would assuredly accomplish
the baneful end. The Cypriotes are called indolent, and are blamed by
travellers for their apathy in contenting themselves with wild
vegetables, when their soil is eminently adapted in the varying
altitudes and climates for the production of the finest qualities of
fruits and green-stuffs. I will imagine that an Englishman of any class
may be placed in the following position of a cultivator, which he
assuredly would be, if foolish enough to become a proprietor in Cyprus.

I am at this moment looking down from the shade of the great walnut-tree
upon the terraced gardens and orchards beneath, which are rich in
potatoes of excellent quality, onions, beet-root, &c.; together with
walnuts, pears, apples, plums, filberts, figs, and mulberries. The pears
and plums are of several varieties, some will ripen late, others are now
fit to gather, but nothing can be touched until the valuer shall arrive;
he is expected in ten days; by which time many of the plums will have
fallen to the ground, and the swarming rats will have eaten half the
pears. The shepherds' children and the various monastery boys live in
the boughs like monkeys, and devour the fruit ripe or unripe, from
morning till evening, with extraordinary impunity; women who arrive from
the low country with children to be christened place them upon the
ground, and climb the pear-trees; neither colic nor cholera is known in
this sanctified locality. The natives of the low country who arrive at
the monastery daily with their laden mules from villages upon the other
side of the mountains, en route to Limasol, immediately ascend the
attractive trees and feast upon the plums; at the same time they fill
their handkerchiefs and pockets with pears, &c., as food during their
return journey. "There will not be much trouble for the valuer when he
arrives," I remarked to the monks, "if you allow such wholesale robbery
of your orchards."

"On the contrary," they replied, "the difficulty will be increased; we
never sell the produce of the gardens, which is kept for the support of
all those who visit us, but we have much trouble with the valuation of
the fruits for taxation. It is hard that we shall have to pay for what
the public consume at our expense, but it will be thus arranged. . . .
The valuer will arrive, and he will find some trees laden with unripe
fruit, others that have been stripped by plunder; the potatoes, &c.,
will be still in the ground. We shall have a person to represent our
interests in the valuation as a check upon the official; but in the end
he will have his own way. We shall explain that certain trees are naked,
as the fruit became ripe and was stolen by the boys. 'Then you ought to
have taken more care of it,' he will reply; `how many okes of plums were
there upon those trees?' We shall have to guess the amount. `Nonsense!'
he will exclaim to whatever figure we may mention, 'there must have been
double that quantity: I shall write down 1500 (if we declared 1000),
which will split the difference.' ("Splitting the difference" is the
usual method of arranging an Oriental dispute, as instanced by Solomon's
well-known suggestion of dividing the baby.).

"We shall protest," continued the monks, "and this kind of inquisitorial
haggling will take place concerning every tree, until the valuer shall
have concluded his labour, and about one-third more than the actual
produce of the orchards will have been booked against us; upon which we
must pay a tax of 10 per cent., at the same time that the risks of
insects, rats, and the expenses of gathering remain to the debit of the
garden. In fact," said the poor old monks, "our produce is a trouble to
us, as personally we derive no benefit; the public eat the fruit, and
the government eats the taxes."

There were curious distinctions and exceptions in this arbitrary form of
taxation: if a fruit-tree grew within the monastery courtyard it was
exempt; thus the great walnut-tree beneath which we camped was free. It
was really cheering to find that we were living under some object that
was not taxed in Cyprus; but the monk continued, and somewhat dispelled
the illusion . . . "This tree produced in one year 20,000 walnuts, and
it averages from 12,000 to 15,000; but when the crops of our other trees
are estimated, the official valuer always insists upon a false maximum,
so as to include the crop of the courtyard walnut in the total amount
for taxation."

The potatoes, like all other horticultural productions, are valued while
growing, and the same system of extravagant estimate is pursued.

This system is a blight of the gravest character upon the local industry
of the inhabitants, and it is a suicidal and unstatesmanlike policy that
crushes and extinguishes all enterprise. What Englishman would submit to
such a prying and humiliating position? And still it is expected that
the resources of the island will be developed by British capital! The
great want for the supply of the principal towns is market-gardens.
Imagine an English practical market-gardener, fresh from the ten-mile
radius of Covent Garden, where despatch and promptitude mean fortune and
success: he could not cut his cauliflowers in Cyprus until his crop of
unblown plants had been valued by an official and while he might be
waiting for this well-hated spirit of evil, his cauliflower-heads would
have expanded into coral-like projections and have become utterly
valueless except for pig-feeding. I cannot conceive a more extravagant
instance of oppression than this system of taxation, which throws
enormous powers of extortion into the hands of the official valuer. This
person can oppose by delays and superlative estimates the vital
interests of the proprietors; if the property is large, the owner will
be only too glad to silence his opposition by a considerable bribe; the
poor must alike contribute, or submit to be the victim of delays which,
with perishable articles such as vegetables, represent his ruin. Is it
surprising that the villages of the desolate plain of Messaria are for
the most part devoid of fruit-trees? We are preaching to the Cypriotes
the advantage of planting around their dwellings, as though they were
such idiots as to be ignorant that "he who sows the wind will reap the
whirlwind." If they plant fruit-trees under the present laws they are
planting curses which will entail the misery of inquisitorial visits and
the most objectionable and oppressive form of an unjust taxation. As the
law at present stands, the amount of fruit is ridiculously small, and
the quality inferior, while cultivated vegetables are difficult to
obtain. Can any other result be expected under the paralysing effect of
Turkish laws? which unfortunately British officials have the
questionable honour of administering.

I have heard officials condemn in the strongest terms the laws they are
obliged to enforce. There are few persons who are obtuse to the sense of
injustice, but at the same time the suggestion has been expressed that
an extreme difficulty would be experienced should the taxes be collected
in any other form than dimes. I cannot see the slightest truth in this
disclaimer of responsibility for Turkish evils, and I believe the
present difficulty might be overcome with little trouble by a system of
rating the land ad valorem.

The soil and general value of properties in Cyprus vary as in England
and other countries according to quality and position. There is land
contiguous to market towns of much higher value than the same quality of
soil in remote districts; there are farms supplied with water either
naturally or artificially, which are far more valuable than others which
are dependent upon favourable seasons. Land which formerly produced
madder was of extreme value, and should have been adjudged accordingly;
but why should not all properties of every description throughout Cyprus
be rated and taxed in due proportion? The valuation should be arranged
by local councils. The vineyards which produced the expensive wines
should be rated higher than those of inferior quality. Gardens should be
rated according to their distance from a market; fields in proportion to
their water-supply and the quality of the soil. The Cypriotes do not
complain of the amount of 10 per cent. taxation under the name of dimes,
but they naturally object to the arbitrary and vexatious system of
inquisitorial visits, together with the delays and loss of time
occasioned by the old Turkish system. "Rate us, and let us know the
limit of our responsibility"--that is the natural desire of the
inhabitants. If the industries of the country are to be developed they
must be unfettered; but if weighed down by restrictions and vexatious
interference, they will hardly discover the benefit of a change to
British masters.

Some people in Cyprus make use of an argument in favour of the present
system of dimes or collecting in kind by tenths, which does not commend
itself by logical reasoning. They say, "if you rate the land ad valorem,
and establish a monetary payment of 10 per cent., you will simply burden
the poor land-holder with debt during a season of drought, when his
property will produce nothing. According to the present system he and
the government alike share the risk of seasons; if the land produces
nothing, there can be no dimes." It does not appear to have occurred to
these reasoners that in such seasons of scarcity the taxation could be
easily reduced as a temporary measure of relief according to the
valuation of the local medjlis or council; but I claim the necessity of
artificial irrigation that will secure the land from such meteorological
disasters, and will enable both the cultivator and the government to
calculate upon a dependable average of crops, instead of existing upon
the fluctuations of variable seasons.

The district of Larnaca will offer a fair example of the usual methods
of taxation, and as the figures have been most kindly supplied by the
authorities of the division, they can be thoroughly relied upon.

The revenues of the district (Larnaca) are derived from the following
sources:--


1. Dimes (i.e. tenths of the produce)--in some instances may
            be paid in kind.
2. Property Tax--4 piastres per 1000 upon the value of
            immovable property, such as buildings, land, trees;
            this is classed as 1st class Verghi.
3. Charge upon Income derived from Rents--40 piastres
            per 1000; classed as 2nd class Verghi.
4. Charge on Trade Profits--30 piastres per 1000; 3rd class
            Verghi.
5. Exemption from Military Service--this tax levied upon
            Christians only, at the rate of 5000 piastres for 180 males.
6. Duty upon Sale of Horses, Mules, Donkeys, Camels, and
   Cattle--1 piastre in every 40 upon price; also tax on goods
            weighed by public measurer.
7. Tax on Flocks of Sheep and Goats--2.5 piastres per head.
            This is not levied until the animal shall be one year old.


In 1877 the amount received was--


                                              Piastres.    Paras.
1. Dimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 822,000
2. Property Tax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221,897       24
3. Rent Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20,089       32
4. Tax on Trade-Profits  . . . . . . . . . . .  65,340       20
5. Military Exemption. . . . . . . . . . . . . 153,333       25
6. Sales of Animals, Measures, &c. . . . . . . 450,000
7. Sheep and Goats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200,000
                                               _______      ___

                                              1,932,659     101


The return of sheep and goats in the district of Larnaca during
the year 1878, and comprising 36 villages, was rendered as 47,841.


The following taxes are payable by inhabitants of
Scala and the neighbourhood:--


                                        JANUARY, 1879.


1. The tithe of agricultural produce, including silk, payable in
           some cases in kind, in others in money.
2. Tax in lieu of military service, 5000 copper piastres for 180
           Christian males.
3. Verghi (a), 4 per 1000 on the purchasing value of houses,
           land, or immovable property.
4. Verghi (b), 4 per cent. on the rent of immovable property, or
           houses not occupied by their owners.
5. Verghi (c), 3 per cent. on profits and professions.
6. Tax on sheep, 2.5 silver piastres each.
7. Tax on goats, 2 silver piastres each.
8. Tax on pigs, 3 silver piastres each.
9. Tax on wood and charcoal. Wood for carpenters' uses pays
         20 per cent. on the value at the place of production, and a
         further 5 per cent. on the amount of the tax on coming into
         the town.

        Firewood pays 12 per cent. on the value at the place of
         production, and a further 5 per cent. as above.

        Charcoal pays 2 piastres per 100 okes.

10. Tax on goods weighed, one half para per oke. (In the case of
           wood and charcoal, hay, chopped straw, lime, and onions,
           the tax begins at a weight of 50 okes, and at a rate of 5
           paras for 50 okes.)
11. Tax on grain measured, 2 paras per kilo paid by the buyer,
           and 2 paras per kilo paid by the seller. If measured for the
           sole convenience of the owner, 2 paras per kilo.
12. Octroi. Every load brought from the villages to the town pays
           a tax of one oke per load, or in money, according to the
           market rate of the goods.
13. Tax on the sale of mules, horses, donkeys, oxen, and
           camels in the town, 1 para per piastre of the price.
14. Property tax (municipal) paid by owners:--
          On houses let to tenants, 5 per cent. per annum.
          On houses inhabited by the owners, 3 per cent. per annum.
15. Tax on camels (M.) 2 shillings each per annum.
16. Tax on carts (M.) belonging to and working in Larnaca and
           Marina townships, 1*. each per annum.
17. Corvee. Forced labour on roads four days a year.
18. Shop licences (M.) in classes, 10*, 5*., 2*., 1*., 10 shillings.
19. Wine licences (C.H.) in classes, 25 per cent., 12.5 per cent.,
           6.25 per cent. on rental.
20. Licences to merchants, bankers, &c., (M.) in classes, 10*.,
           5*., 2*., 1*.
21. Monopolies. Salt, gunpowder.
22. Custom House duties 8 per cent. on imports, 1 per cent.
           exports.

           Custom House duty on wine, 10 per cent.
           Custom House duty on imported tobacco, 75 per cent;
                on home grown, or imported unmanufactured,
                10 pence a pound.
23. Stamps, transfer and succession duties. Mubashine. Voted
             to remain in force until March 1st, 1879.



[Transcriber's Note: Omitted table of villages on page 388
which was hard to read.]



There are other taxes according to the laws of
succession upon the death of an individual which I
give in the same words as furnished to me by the
authority:--

Memorandum of the Defter Hakkani about the Transfer in Succesion of
Property.

When a man dies his properties must be duly transferred to his heirs,
who must apply to the authorities within six months, in order to have
the transfer made.

The transfer is made by giving a new Kotshan (Title), to the heirs in
exchange for the Kotshan of the deceased.

The right to the inheritance is stated by the laws as follows:--

 1st, To the son or daughter; in want of which,
 2nd, to the grandson and granddaughter; in want of which,
 3rd, to the father and mother; in want of which,
 4th, to the brother from the same father and mother; in want of which,
 5th, to the sister from the same father and mother; in want of which,
 6th, to the brother from the same mother; and in want of which,
 7th, to the sister from the same mother.

The grandson and the granddaughter from right to the inheritance of the
share belonging to their father, who may have died before the death of
their grandfather; they inherit together with their uncles and aunts as
another direct son or daughter of the grandfather.

In all above stated degrees of inheritance, except in the 1st and 2nd,
the husband or wife has right to the fourth share of the land left by
the husband or wife.

This is for property in land (Arazi).

As to the freehold property (Emlak), the male inhabitants two-thirds and
the female one-third; but it is very difficult to enumerate the various
shades of division which are always made by the cadis according to the
Cheni law; there is no Nizam law in this respect.

All system of endorsment on Kotshan is abolished.

The duty on transfer in succession of a freehold property is half the
fees on transfer by sale.

In transferring by sale the fees are 1 per cent. on the value, if this
freehold property is a real one (Emlaki Serfi); and 3 per cent. if it is
vacouf freehold property (Emlak Meocoofi). Besides this 3 piastres as
price of paper, and 1 piastre as clerks' fees (Riataki) are paid for
every new Kotshan.

The lands (Arazi) pay 5 per cent. indifferently on transfer by sale and
on transfer by succession.

The custom is to value lands at one year's rental, or value of products.

If a house is occupied by the owner no tax on rental is demanded; the
only tax demanded in that case being that on the proportionate value.

The proportionate values of real properties are not assessed for a fixed
period. Therefore the value, once assessed, can remain the same for many
years, or it can be altered in the annual inspections of the Vakouat
Riatibs according to an increase or decrease of value that may take
place on account of repairs, a general rise of value, or partial or
entire destruction by fire, rain, &c.

The poverty of the agricultural classes was so generally acknowledged
even by the Turkish administration that it was absolutely necessary to
relieve them by some external assistance; it was therefore resolved in
1869 to create an "Agricultural Bank and a Locust Fund;" the principles
of this establishment are sufficiently original to attract attention.

In 1871 the Turkish government issued a decree that all cultivators of
the ground should pay to the authorities a sum of money equal to the
price of one kilo of wheat and one of barley for every pair of oxen in
their possession, in order to create a capital for the new bank. The
number of oxen would represent the scale of every holding, as they would
exhibit the proportion of ploughs required upon the farm, and thus yield
an approximate estimate of the area.

This arbitrary call upon the resources of the impoverished farmers was
an eccentric financial operation in the ostensible cause of assistance,
but it produced a capital of 169,028 piastres. The rate of interest upon
loans to individuals, or for particular districts, for the purpose of
destroying locusts was 8 per cent. previous to the year 1875, and was
increased to 12 per cent. since that period. Receipts for all sums
borrowed for the public benefit of locust destruction were signed by the
head-men and members of councils of villages.

At first sight the establishment of an agricultural bank sounded
propitious as a step in the right direction, but, according to the
conditions of all loans, it became usurious, and saddled the unfortunate
farmers after a few bad seasons with debts that could never be paid off.
If X borrowed 1000 pounds, he received only 880 pounds, as the year's
interest was deducted in advance, but he was afterwards charged compound
interest at 12 per cent. upon the whole 1000 pounds. Compound interest
at 12 per cent. means speedy ruin.

Upon an examination of the accounts, the whole affair represents
apparently large figures in piastres, which when reduced to pounds
sterling presents a miserable total that proves the failure of the
enterprise. As I have already stated, a "bank" could not succeed in
Cyprus if it were established specially to benefit the agriculturist;
money can always command 10 per cent., while the farmer should obtain
the loans necessary for irrigation at a maximum of 6 per cent. if he is
really to be encouraged. This can only be accomplished through a
Government or National Bank, expressly organised for the purpose of
developing the agricultural interests. As the government can obtain any
amount at 4 per cent., the National Bank could well afford to lend at 6,
especially as the loan would be secured by a first mortgage, to take
precedence of all other claims upon the property.

The "Locust Fund" was an admirable institution which has achieved great
results. There can be little doubt that throughout the world's history
man has exhibited a lamentable apathy in his passive submission to the
depredations of the insect tribe, whereas by a system of organisation he
would at the least have mitigated the scourge which has in many
instances resulted in absolute famine. At one time the plague of locusts
was annually expected in Cyprus as a natural advent like the arrival of
swallows in the usual season, and when the swarms were extreme the crops
were devoured throughout the island, and swept completely from the
surface, entailing general ruin. The cultivation of cotton, which should
be one of the most important industries, has been much restricted from
the fear of locusts, as they appear in May, when the tender young plants
are a few inches above the ground and are the first objects of attack.

It is related that when under the Venetians, Cyprus annually exported
30,000 bales or 6,600,000 lbs. of cotton. In 1877 the consular reports
estimated the entire produce of the island at 2000 bales of 200 okes per
bale, or 1,100,000 lbs., equal to only one-sixth of the original
Venetian export.

The steps taken to destroy the locusts have so far diminished their
numbers that in certain districts the production of cotton might be
largely extended. M. Mattei, and Said Pacha when governor of Cyprus,
combined to make war upon the locust swarms by means of a simple but
effective method, which will render their names historical as the
greatest benefactors in an island that has seldom known aught but
oppressors.

The idea originated with Signor Richard Mattei, who is the largest
landed proprietor in Cyprus. It is much to be regretted that
professional entomologists can seldom assist us in the eradication of
insect plagues; they can explain their habits, but they are useless as
allies against their attacks. M. Mattei had observed that the young
locusts invariably marched straight ahead, and turned neither to the
right or left; he had also remarked that upon arrival at an obstacle
they would endeavour to climb over, instead of going round it. Under
these peculiarities of natural instinct a very simple arrangement
sufficed to lead them to destruction. Pits were dug about three or four
feet deep at right angles with the line of march, and screens of cotton
cloth edged at the bottom with oil-skin were arranged something after
the fashion of stop-nets for ground game in covert-shooting in England.
This wall, with a slippery groundwork, prevented the insects from
proceeding. As they never turn back, they were obliged to search
sideways for a passage, and were thus led into the pits in millions,
where they were destroyed by burying the masses beneath heaps of earth.
If a few gallons of petroleum were sprinkled over them, and fire
applied, much trouble would be saved. This is a crude method of insect
destruction which could be improved upon, but great praise is due to the
efforts of M. Richard Mattei and Said Pacha for having devoted their
energies so successfully to the eradication of a scourge which proved
its ancient importance from the Biblical registration of a curse upon
the Egyptians.

There is a reward given by government for the destruction of locust
eggs. Each female deposits two small cases or sheaths beneath the
ground, containing thirty or forty eggs in each. The position is easily
distinguished by a shining slimy substance. A certain sum per oke is
given, and the people gladly avail themselves of the opportunity of
earning money at the same time that they destroy the common enemy.

The British administration is keenly alive to the importance of this
warfare, and I have frequently met commissioners of districts galloping
in hot haste, as though in pursuit of a retreating enemy, towards some
quarter where the appearance of locust swarms may have been reported, in
order to take immediate measures for their destruction.

Unfortunately the locust is not the only enemy of cotton cultivation,
but the (to my mind) abominable system of dimes, or tenths of produce to
be valued while growing, restricts the cultivator to an inferior variety
that will remain within the pod, instead of expanding when liberated by
ripening.

The cultivation of cotton differs according to the many varieties of the
plant. Pliny described the "wool-bearing trees of Ethiopia," and I have
myself seen the indigenous cotton thriving in a wild state in those
parts from whence they were first introduced to Egypt, during the reign
of Mehemet Ali, grandfather of the Khedive. It is well known that
although comparatively a recent article of cultivation in Egypt, it has
become one of the most important exports from that country. Cotton of
the first quality requires a peculiar combination of local conditions.
Water must be at command whenever required during the various stages of
cultivation; and perfectly dry weather must be assured when the crop is
ripe and fit to gather. The collection extends over many days, as the
pods do not burst at the same period. Some of the most valuable kinds
detach easily from the expanded husk and fall quickly to the ground,
which entails constant attention, and the quality would deteriorate
unless labour is always at hand to gather the cotton before it shall
fall naturally from the plant.

It will be therefore understood that, although many soils may be highly
favourable to the growth of fine qualities of cotton, there is an
absolute necessity for a combination of a peculiar climate, where
neither rain nor dew shall moisten, and accordingly deteriorate the
crop. Egypt is specially favoured for the production of first-class
cotton, as in the upper portions of the Delta rain is seldom known; but
the extreme carelessness of the people has reduced the average quality
by mixing the seeds, instead of keeping the various classes rigidly
separate.

The dry climate, combined with the fertile soil of Cyprus, would suggest
a great extension of cotton cultivation, when artificial irrigation
shall be generally developed, but so long as the present system of
collecting the dimes is continued, the farmer cannot produce the higher
qualities which require immediate attention in collecting. During the
delay in waiting for the official valuer, the pods are bursting rapidly,
and the valuable quality is falling to the ground; the cultivator is
therefore confined to the growth of those inferior cottons that will
adhere to the pods, and wait patiently for the arrival of the government
authority.

Consul Hamilton Lang, in his interesting work upon Cyprus, suggests that
the duty should be collected upon export, to relieve the farmer from the
present difficulty, which would enable him to cultivate the American
high qualities. It is almost amusing to contrast the criticisms and
advice of the various British consuls who have for many years
represented us in Cyprus with the ideas of modern officials. There can
be no doubt concerning consular reports in black and white, and equally
there can be no question of existing ordinances under the British
administration; but what appeared highly unjust to our consuls when
Cyprus was under Turkish rule, is accepted as perfectly equitable now
that the island has passed into the hands of Great Britain.

For many years I have taken a peculiar interest in cotton cultivation,
and in 1870 I introduced the excellent Egyptian variety, known as
"galleen," into Central Africa, and planted it at Gondokoro, north
latitude 4 degrees 54', with excellent results. In the first year this
grew to the height of about seven feet, with a proportionate thickness
of stem, and the spreading branches produced an abundant crop of a fine
quality, which detached itself from the seeds, immediately reducing the
operation of the cleaning-machine or "cotton-gin" to a minimum of
labour. I have been much struck with the inferiority of Cyprian cotton;
scarcely any of the crop finds its way to England, but is exported to
Marseilles and Trieste. Should Consul Lang's suggestion be carried out,
and the duty be taken upon export to relieve the grower from the
vexatious delays of the inquisitor or government valuer, there can be no
question of immediate improvement. There is no more trouble or expense
in producing a first-class cotton than in the commonest variety, when
climate and soil are so peculiarly favourable as in Cyprus. If the
government continues the system of ad valorem taxation, common sense
will suggest that the highest quality would alike be favourable to the
revenue and to the cultivator; therefore, in the interests of the
country and of individuals, every encouragement should be afforded to
the farmers to ensure the best of all species of produce throughout the
island. The excellent compilation of Captain Savile, officially and
expressly printed for the service of the government, contains the
following passages:--

"According to all accounts the taxation of the inhabitants of Cyprus has
under Turkish administration been carried out in a most severe and
oppressive manner, and the imposts upon certain articles of agriculture
and commerce have been so heavy that their culture and export has in
some cases been almost abandoned. . . .

"The cultivation of vines for the manufacture of wine has been so
heavily and unjustly taxed, that a great part of the vineyards have of
late years been turned to other and more profitable purposes, or else
have been abandoned, and consequently a branch of agriculture for which
the island is especially suited and a remunerative article of commerce
is neglected and allowed to decline. An extensive development of
vineyards and manufacture of wine should be encouraged, and with this
object it has been suggested that it might be wise to free this
production from all except export duty.

"Allusion has already been made to the injurious effect of the
collection of the tithe (dimes) upon cotton at the time when the crop is
gathered, instead of at the time of shipment, and it has been explained
how the former method prevents the farmers from growing the best and
most remunerative varieties of the plant; this is a matter that requires
the attention of the authorities when the re-adjustment of the taxes is
considered."

Captain Savile's useful book is an echo of consular statements and
reports written in England for government information without any
personal experience of the island; but from my own investigations I can
thoroughly endorse the views expressed, and I only regret that the
miserable conditions of our occupation have rendered such necessary
reforms most difficult, as the poverty of the present government of
Cyprus cannot afford to run the risk of experimental lessons in
taxation.

When criticising and condemning existing evils, it must be distinctly
understood that I do not presume to attach blame to individual
authorities of the local government: I denounce the arbitrary and
oppressive system of TURKISH rules, which, although in some instances
mitigated by our administration, still remain in force, and are the
results of the conditions that were accepted when England resolved upon
this anomalous occupation. I have to describe Cyprus as I saw it in
1879, and in this work I endeavour to introduce the public to the true
aspect of the situation "as I saw it;" other people have an equal right
with myself to their own opinions upon various subjects, but, should we
differ upon certain questions, we shall at least be unanimous in praise
of the extreme devotion to a most difficult task in a contradictory
position, exhibited not only by the governor, and commissioners of
districts, but by all British officers entrusted with authority. If
Cyprus were free from the fetters of the Turkish Convention, and the
revenue should be available for the necessary improvements, with
commercial and agricultural reforms, the same energy now bestowed by the
governor and other officials would rapidly expand the resources of the
island. We are prone to expect too much, and must remember that at the
time I write, only twelve months have elapsed since the day of the
British military occupation. No officers understood either the language,
or laws, of the people they had to govern; they were for the most part
specially educated for the military profession, and they were suddenly
plunged into official positions where agricultural, legal, commercial,
and engineering difficulties absorbed their entire attention, all of
which had to be comprehended through the medium of an interpreter. It is
rare that the most favoured individual combines such general knowledge;
Turks and Greeks, antagonistic races, were to lie down contented like
the lion and the lamb under the blessing of a British rule: all
animosities were to be forgotten. The religion of Mussulmans would
remain inviolate, and the Greek Church would hold its former
independence: freedom and equality were to be assured when the English
flag replaced the Crescent and Star upon the red ensign beneath which
Cyprus had withered as before a flame; the resources of the country were
to awaken as from a long sleep, and the world should witness the
marvellous change between Cyprus when under Turks, and when transferred
to Englishmen. "Look upon that picture, and on this!" The officers of
our army were the magicians to effect this transformation, not only
strangers to the climate, language, laws, customs, people, but without
MONEY: as the island had been robbed of revenue by the conditions of the
Turkish Convention.

In spite of the many abuses which still exist, and which demand reform,
there could not be a more tangible proof of the general efficiency of
the officers of our army than the picture of Cyprus after the first
year's occupation. Although the government has been severely pinched for
means, and a season of cruel drought has smitten the agriculturists;
with commerce languishing through the uncertainty of our tenure, the
Cyprian population of all creeds and classes have already learned to
trust in the honour and unflinching integrity of British rulers, which
ensures them justice and has relieved them from their former oppressors.



CHAPTER XVII.

THE DISTRICT OF LIMASOL AND LANDOWNERS.

The port of Limasol will eventually become the chief commercial centre
of Cyprus, and in the depression of 1879 caused by drought and general
uncertainty it formed a favourable exception to the general rule. It may
be interesting to examine the position of the revenue during the years
inclusive from 1875 to 1878.


                                            CUSTOMS.

Year.              Revenue.         Expenditure.        Balance.
                  Piastres.            Piastres.       Piastres.
1875                964,839             164,663          800,176
1876                819,139             172,472          646,667
1877              1,340,643             169,506        1,171,137
1878              1,553,363             161,594        1,391,769


The exports from Limasol have been largely in excess of imports:--


Year         Exports                   Year           Imports

1875         77,022                    1875            47,325
1876         59,895                    1876            50,920
1877         93,805                    1877            41,920
1878        101,457                    1878            99,714


The principal articles of export from Limasol are wine and caroubs, and
the general production of these items has been as follows:--

Year.                  Okes.              Year.                 Tons.

1875      Wine      4,811,732              1875    Caroubs      8,690
1876        "       3,710,884              1876      "          6,080
1877        "       2,208,617              1877      "          6,520
1878        "       5,795,109              1878      "          4,345


The different descriptions of wine and spirits produced in the
Limasol district during the last four years are as follows,
values in okes:--


Year.       Raki or          -------------------Wine.------------------
          native brandy      Commanderiea.     Red Wine.     Black Wine.
1875      467,711             173,946            85,008       4,056,067
1876      251,298              87,585            56,434       2,815,567
1877      181,269              45,522            38,563       1,943,290
1878      378,694             180,103           133,555       5,102,757


In the year 1878 the goods exported from Limasol may be approximately
represented by--


Cotton for Austria . . . . 10,000 okes valued at    500 pounds sterling.
Wool for France c. . . . .  9,500 okes valued at    560 pounds.
Rags for Italy . . . . . . 77,600 okes valued at    700 pounds.
Sumach in leaf for
          Greece. . . . . 110,000 okes valued at    500 pounds.
Black wine for
          Turkey. . . . 1,850,000 okes valued at 25,000 pounds.
Commanderia for
          Austria . . . . 155,000 okes valued at  2,075 pounds.
Caroubs for
England, France,
Russia, and Italy . . . .  10,000 tons valued at 33,000 pounds.
Raisins for Austria,
France, and Turkey . . . . 90,000 okes valued at    850 pounds.
Skins for Greece . . . . . .9,800 okes valued at  1,025 pounds.
Sundries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . valued at 11,000 pounds.

Total value of exports. . . . . . . . . . . . .  75,210 pounds sterling.


The tobacco produced in the districts of Limasol and Baffo and at Lefka,
inclusive, is a mere trifle compared to the capabilities of the
island:--


   In 1875 the crop amounted to 1,395 okes.
      1876           "          1,280   "
      1877           "            857   "
      1878           "          1,731   "


This is only worth enumeration as an example of the utter insignificance
of the production, which should be an important item in the agricultural
wealth of the island. The greater portion of the tobacco consumed in
Cyprus is imported in bales from Salonica, and is consigned to
manufacturers who divide and classify the leaves, which are cut, and
formed into packets bearing the Custom House stamps, supplied upon
purchase. Limasol alone imports about 20,000 okes, which are forwarded
from Larnaca, where the duty is paid. No export duties of any
description are levied upon goods from this island.

The direct benefit to the Cypriotes conferred by the British occupation
was exhibited in the sudden rise of value both in real property and in
labour. The rental of houses within the principal towns was trebled, and
it would be difficult to establish an average price of land either in
towns, or upon the outskirts, as the prices demanded have been in most
instances fictitious, representing the desires of the seller, but in no
way verifying the actual selling value. I have only heard of a few small
plots that have changed hands at quadruple their former estimate, and as
a rule there are few buyers during this period of uncertainty respecting
the permanence of our occupation; but owners hold out in the hope of an
ultimate decision in favour of British absolute possession. In the town
of Limasol there has been a decided rise in the general value of
property, which is due to the steady improvement of the trade, and does
not represent a mere speculative impulse as in Larnaca, which has
suffered by a subsequent reaction. The municipal receipts of Limasol
have increased from 207 pounds sterling in the twelve months ending 30th
September, 1878, to 1718 pounds in the ten months of 1879. This has
certainly been due to the energy of Colonel Warren, R. A., the chief
commissioner of the district, to whom I am indebted for all statistics
connected with the locality.

The position of a district chief commissioner was by no means enviable
in Cyprus. The pay was absurdly small, and he was obliged to institute
reforms both for sanitary and municipal interests which necessitated an
outlay, and increased the local taxation. The population had been led to
expect a general diminution of imposts upon the suddenly-conceived
British occupation, and the Cypriotes somewhat resembled the frogs in
the fable when the new King Log arrived with a tremendous splash which
created waves of hope upon the surface of the pool, but subsided into
disappointment; they found that improvements cost money, and that
British reforms, although they bestowed indirect benefits, were
accompanied by a direct expenditure. The calm apathy of a Cypriote is
not easily disturbed; he is generally tolerably sober, or if drunk, he
is seldom the "WORSE for liquor," but rather the better, as his usual
affectionate disposition may be slightly exaggerated, instead of
becoming pugnacious and abusive like the inebriated Briton. There are no
people more affectionate in their immediate domestic circle, or more
generally courteous and gentle, than the Cypriotes, but like a good many
English people, they have an aversion to increased taxation. Thus,
although the British commissioners of districts vied with each other in
a healthy ambition to exhibit a picture of paradise in their special
localities, the people grumbled at the cost of cleanliness and health
within their towns, and would have preferred the old time of
manure-heaps and bad smells gratis to the new regime of civilisation for
which they had to pay.

The Greek element is generally combustible, and before the first year of
our occupation had expired various causes of discontent awakened
Philhellenic aspirations; a society was organised under the name of the
"Cypriote Fraternity," as a political centre from which emissaries would
be employed for the formation of clubs in various districts with the
object of inspiring the population with the noble desire of adding
Cyprus to the future Greek kingdom. Corfu had been restored to Greece;
why should not Cyprus be added to her crown? There would be sympathisers
in the British Parliament, some of whom had already taken up the cause
of the Greek clergy in their disputes with the local authorities, and
the Greeks of the island had discovered that no matter what the merits
of their case might be, they could always depend upon some members of
the House of Commons as their advocates, against the existing government
and their own countrymen. Under these favourable conditions for
political agitation the "Cypriote Fraternity" has commenced its
existence. I do not attach much importance to this early conceived
movement, as Greeks, although patriotic, have too much shrewdness to
sacrifice an immediate profit for a prospective shadow. The island
belongs at this moment to the Sultan, and the English are simply tenants
under stipulated conditions. Before Cyprus could belong to Greece it
must be severed from the Ottoman Empire, and should England be
sufficiently wayward to again present herself to the world as the
spoiled child of fortune, and deliver over her new acquisition according
to the well-remembered precedent of Corfu, the monetary value of all
property in Cyprus would descend to zero, and the "Cypriote Fraternity,"
if householders or landowners, would raise the Greek standard over
shattered fortunes.

The total of population within the entire district of Limasol in 1879
represented 23,530, comprising 12,159 males and 11,371 females, of all
ages.

The following list is the official enumeration of animals and trees
within the same province:--


                        ANIMALS.

Cattle.   Mules.    Horses.    Donkeys.    Pigs.    Goats.    Sheep.
6,006     1,812      1,129       4,026    2,138    19,896    11,790



                         TREES.

         Caroubs.    Olives.     Walnuts.
         267,779     114,413         957

  Natural pine and Cyprus forests, with oak, &c., not counted.


                            VINEYARDS.

                        Cultivated land.      Uncultivated land.
       40,642 donums.    114,650 donums.         21,180 donums.


According to this official statistical representation the cultivated
land would be in proportion to the population about five donums, or two
and a half acres, per individual.

The question of ownership of lands will eventually perplex the
government to a greater extent than many persons would imagine, and the
difficulty attending the verification of titles will increase with every
year's delay.

Before the British occupation, land was of little value, and an extreme
looseness existed in the description of boundaries and landmarks. In the
absence of fences the Cypriote can generally encroach upon any land
adjoining his limit, should it belong to the state. Every season he can
drive his plough a few paces further into his neighbour's holding,
unless prevented, until by degrees he succeeds in acquiring a
considerable accession. The state is the sufferer to an enormous extent
by many years of systematic invasion. Forest land has been felled and
cleared by burning, and the original site is now occupied by vineyards.
The bribery and corruption that pervaded all classes of officials prior
to the British occupation enabled an individual to silence the local
authority, while he in many instances more than doubled his legal
holding. The absence of defined boundaries has facilitated these
encroachments. According to an official report this difficulty is dwelt
upon most forcibly as requiring immediate investigation. The vague
definition in title-deeds, which simply mentions the number of donums,
affords no means of proving an unjust extension; such terms are used as
"the woods bounded by a hill," or "the woods bounded by uncultivated
land," and this indefinite form of expression leaves a margin of
frontier that is practically without limit, unless the invader may be
stopped by arriving within a yard of his nearest neighbour. My
informant, Colonel Warren, R. A., chief commissioner of Limasol, assured
me that some holders of land in his district, whose titles show an
amount of ninety donums, lay claim to ten times the area. There is
hardly a proprietor who does not occupy a ridiculous surplus when
compared with his title-deeds, and the encroachments are even now
proceeding.

This system of land-robbery was connived at by the officials for a
"CONSIDERATION;" old title-deeds were exchanged for new on the
application of the holder, and the seals of the venal authorities
rendered them valid, at the same time that hundreds of acres were
fraudulently transferred from the state. When the intention of a British
occupation was made public, a general rush was made for obtaining an
excess over the amount defined in the title-deeds, by the swindling
method; and the extent to which this plunder was extended may be
imagined from the fact that 40,000 such documents were awaiting the
necessary signatures when, by the arrival of the British officials, the
Turkish authority, who could not sign the deeds with sufficient
expedition, was dismissed, and the false titles were invalidated.

The monasteries and the vacouf (Turkish religious lands) lay claim to
lands of vast and undefined extent, which are mystified by titles and
gifts for charitable purposes, surrounded with clouds of obscure usages
and ancient rules that will afford a boundless field for litigation. In
fact, the existing government has arrived at the unpleasant position of
being excluded from the land, nearly all of which is claimed either by
individuals or religious institutions.

The arrangement of this most serious question will stir up a nest of
hornets. The equitable adjustment would demand a minute survey of the
various districts, and a comparison of the holdings with the title
deeds; but what then? It is already known that the holdings are in
excess, and where is the legal remedy that can be practically applied?
If the actual letter of the law shall be enforced, and each proprietor
shall be compelled to disgorge his prey, there will be endless
complications. In England, twenty-one years' uninterrupted possession,
with occupation, constitutes a valid title. In Cyprus the extended
holdings have in many instances been inherited, and have remained
unquestioned as the acknowledged property of individuals, while in other
cases they have been more recently acquired. The question will comprise
every possible difficulty, and can only be determined by a special
commission officially appointed for a local investigation throughout
each separate district.

This will be a labour of years, and the innumerable intricacies and
entanglements will test the patience and HONESTY of interpreters in a
country where bribery has always opened a golden road for an escape from
difficulty, while our own authorities are entirely ignorant of the
native language. It is this lack of natural means of communication viva
voce which increases the already awkward position of high officials: the
power of speech belongs to the dragoman alone, and a great gulf exists
between the English and the Cypriote, who represent the deaf and dumb in
the absence of an interpreter. The old song "We have no money," is the
now stereotyped response to all suggestions for district schools, but if
we are to retain Cyprus, one of the most urgent necessities is the
instruction of the people in English. It is not to be expected that any
close affinity can exist between the governing class and the governed,
in the darkness of two foreign tongues that require a third person for
their enlightenment. In many cases secrecy may be of considerable
importance, and the conversation should be confined to the principals,
but the third person must invariably be present as interpreter, and
unless he is a man of the highest integrity he will not lose an
opportunity of turning his knowledge of state secrets to account for his
own advantage. Throughout the Levant it is difficult to find men who
combine the rare qualities necessary for a confidential dragoman; such a
person would be invaluable, as he would represent all the cardinal
virtues, at the same time that he must possess a natural aptitude for
his profession, and a store of patience, with the most unruffled temper.
The natives dread the interpreter, they know full well that one word
misunderstood may alter the bearing of their case, and they believe that
a little gold judiciously applied may exert a peculiar grammatical
influence upon the parts of speech of the dragoman, which directly
affects their interests. There are, no doubt, men of honour and great
capability who occupy this important position, at the same time it is
well known that many interpreters have been found guilty; the exceptions
proving the rule, and exhibiting the extreme danger and general
disadvantage in the ignorance of the native language. It cannot be
expected that the English officials are to receive a miraculous gift of
fiery tongues, and to address their temporary subjects in Turkish and in
Greek; but it is highly important that without delay schools should be
established throughout the island for the instruction of the young, who
in two or three years will obtain a knowledge of English. Whenever the
people shall understand our language, they will assimilate with our
customs and ideas, and they will feel themselves a portion of our
empire: but until then a void will exclude them from social intercourse
with their English rulers, and they will naturally gravitate towards
Greece, through the simple medium of a mother-tongue. Limasol must
perforce of its geographical advantages become the capital of Cyprus. As
I have already described, the port may be much improved. The
neighbouring country is healthy, and well covered with trees; the
landscape is pleasing, and the new road opens a direct communication
with the mountain sanatorium. The most important exports of the island
are produced within the district, and, as might be expected, the result
of commercial enterprise is exhibited in the increased intelligence and
activity of the Limasol inhabitants. It is highly to be desired that
this favourable position should become the seat of government. Although
the troops in 1879 are camped among the barren rocks beneath the
pine-forests upon Mount Troodos, at an elevation of about 5800 feet
above the sea, there is no necessity for a station at so extreme and
inconvenient an altitude in north latitude 35 degrees. The general
unhealthiness of the troops upon the first occupation of the island
during the summer and autumn of 1878, determined the military
authorities to arrange the new camp at the greatest altitude practicable
with a regard to the supply of water, but the experience gained in 1879
proves that a permanent camp, or barracks, may be equally healthy at a
lower and more convenient level. This fact would establish an additional
advantage in the selection of Limasol for headquarters, as the troops
would be in the immediate neighbourhood at all seasons. Colonel Warren,
R.A., who had been the prime mover in all the improvements that had been
made in Limasol since the British occupation, was promoted on 1st August
to the position of chief of the staff under Sir Garnet Wolseley's able
successor, Major-General Biddulph, C.B., R.A., and the district thus
lost its leading spirit. In reforming abuses and promoting progress,
Colonel Warren had not entirely escaped the usual fate of men who are in
advance of their age. The unflinching determination to administer the
laws without fear or favour to all classes had infringed upon the
assumed immunities of the Greek Church, which had always received
deferential consideration from the Turkish government, and although
actually liable to taxation, the right had never been enforced. This is
a curious contradiction to the vulgar belief in Mussulman intolerance
and bigotry; the Greek Church not only enjoyed a perfect freedom under
the Turks, but the bishops were assisted in obtaining a forced tribute
from their flock by the presence of Turkish zaphtiehs (police), who
accompanied them during their journeys through the diocese.

An interference with Church property or established rights is certain to
create a buzzing of the ecclesiastical bees, who will swarm against the
invader with every sting prepared for action. As the case was
investigated by a special court of inquiry, and terminated, as might
have been expected, completely in favour of Colonel Warren, it is not
necessary to enter upon minute details; but, as the plaintiff was the
Bishop of Citium, and this first public attack created a peculiar
agitation that will probably be repeated, it may be interesting to
examine the actual position of the Greek Church as it existed during the
Turkish administration.

The Church in Cyprus is represented by an Archbishop and three Bishops
as the acknowledged heads. The diocese of the former comprises Lefkosia,
Famagousta, and the Carpas districts, while the three Bishoprics are
those of Larnaca or Citium, Kyrenia, and Baffo.

The revenues of the Archbishop amount to about £2000 a year, and the
necessary expenditure for staff, schools, &c., to £1500. The Bishopric
of Baffo is the richest, with a revenue of about £1000; at the same time
the outgoings are small, amounting to £300 a year for the payment of his
staff, and one-fifth of the expenses of a public school.

The Bishopric of Larnaca or Citium is valued at about £900 a year, but
the expenditure is confined to £200. That of Kyrenia is about the same
as Citium. There is no possibility of determining an exact figure, as
these revenues are dependent upon voluntary payments, which cannot be
enforced by any statute; but there is a "Berat" (decree) which invites
the local authorities to render the bishops assistance in the collection
of their revenues, without the absolute enforcement of any payments. No
amounts due to the bishops for either canonical, ecclesiastical, or alms
(Zitia), can be recovered through a court of law. On the other hand, the
all-powerful countenance afforded by the Turkish government represented
by public functionaries (zaphtiehs), who accompanied the bishops during
their diocesan visits upon a tour of collection, was a moral influence
that succeeded in extorting the unwilling fees. In case of a defaulting
village, it is said that a bishop has been known to suspend the
functions of the priest until the necessary payments should be completed
by his parishioners, who, thus temporarily cut off from all ghostly
comfort, hastened to arrive at a pecuniary compromise.

The monasteries are an important institution throughout Cyprus, and
there is a decided difference between the monks of these establishments
and the general priesthood. The monks are supposed to devote their lives
to charitable objects; they are not allowed to marry, and they have a
superior education, as all can read and write. On the other hand, the
priests are grossly ignorant, and it is computed that only a quarter of
their number could even write their own names. These are allowed to
marry one wife, but they cannot re-marry in the event of her decease;
they are generally poor to a superlative degree, and are frequently
obliged to work for hire like common labourers. Should a man desire to
become a priest, it is only necessary that he should be recommended by
the inhabitants of his village as a person of good reputation that would
be suitable for the office: he is then ordained by the bishop upon
payment of a fee of about one hundred piastres (or 150), and he is at
once at liberty to enter upon his duties. These ordination fees are a
temptation to the bishops to increase the number of priests to an
unlimited extent, and the result is seen throughout Cyprus in a large
and superfluous body of the most ignorant people, totally unfitted for
their position.

The monasteries vary in their revenues, as they have derived their
possessions at different periods from grants of land, or private gifts,
or legacies. In like manner with the bishops, although they cannot
legally compel the villagers to pay according to their demands, they
assumed a power which by long sufferance had become recognised by the
ignorant peasantry, who reluctantly acceded to their claims. I have
myself witnessed an altercation between the monks and shepherds on the
mountains upon a question of cheeses and goats, which the former claimed
as annually due to the monastery; it appeared that prior to the British
occupation they had been able by threats to extort this demand, but the
shepherds had now determined to free themselves from all payments beyond
those which the law compelled, and they resisted the priestly authority,
before which they had hitherto remained as slaves. This spirit of
independence that has been so quickly developed by the equity of British
rule will probably extend, and may seriously interfere with the revenues
of the Church, should the population determine to abide by their legal
status and refuse the ordinary fees. It cannot be expected that either
bishops, monks, or priests regard this change with satisfaction, and in
their hearts they may sigh for the good old times of a Turkish
administration, when the Greek Church of Cyprus was an imperium in
imperio that could sway both the minds and purses of the multitude,
untouched by laws or equity, and morally supported by the government.

The most important monastery in the island is that of Kykou; this is
situated upon the mountains at an elevation of 3800 feet above the sea,
and it comprises an establishment of sixty monks, with a gross revenue
from various properties in different portions of the country estimated
together with donations at about £5000 per annum. The monastery of
Mahera estimates its revenue at £2000; that of Fameromeni at Nicosia, at
£2000 without any expenditure, as the three monks, together with one
servant, are paid by the extra incomes of the Church. There are many
monasteries throughout the island, and all with the exception of Kykou
and St. Andrea, at the eastern point of Cyprus, pay a certain portion of
their revenue to the bishop of the diocese. The two monasteries I have
excepted are perfectly independent of all ecclesiastical control in
revenue and finance. Considerable caution will be necessary in arranging
the land question with these numerous establishments, which have
hitherto enjoyed a peculiar independence. Up to the present time the
income of the bishops has been derived from the annual payments from
monasteries, by the canonical tax paid by every church; from the alms
(Zitia), which is a tax levied upon all crops; from the dish exposed for
offerings in church while they officiate, and from various ordination
fees and marriage licences. From the inquiries I made in various
dependable quarters, the bishops are not generally beloved either by the
monks, priests, or public; but this absence of appreciation may be due
to the continual demands upon the funds of monasteries and the pockets
of the peasantry, more than to any personal peculiarities of character.
There are stories of neglect of duty and misappropriation of funds
intended for charitable purposes, which I should decline to believe
possible among ecclesiastics of such devout principles and high
position. The Archbishop is much beloved, and is loudly praised by all
classes of the inhabitants, to whom he owes his election as supreme head
of the Church after the following manner:-

In the event of death, the vacant see of Cyprus is represented by the
Bishop of Baffo, and the new archbishop must be elected by the people.
The bishop occupies the position of president of an ecclesiastical
council, to which representatives are sent from every district, charged
with the votes of the inhabitants in favour of the archbishop. Upon his
election, the approval and confirmation of his appointment must be
obtained by an imperial decree before the archbishop can officiate. In
the same manner every bishop is elected by the people of the district,
and their representatives are sent to Nicosia, where the archbishop
presides over his council, or court; but the new bishop must also be
confirmed in his position by an imperial decree.

Should an archbishop be guilty of any crime, either civil or
ecclesiastical, he may be deposed by the head of the Church at
Constantinople, acting in conjunction with the Turkish government, at
the request of the inhabitants of Cyprus.

Bishops may be deposed by the archbishop, who would in such a case
assemble the Synod, composed of the heads of clergy in his presidency.
Before this tribunal a bishop would be summoned to appear in case of an
accusation, and the trial would take place in open court; the power of
punishment or absolution remaining in the hands of the archbishop.

The Turkish government appears to have held a peculiar position in
relation to the Greek Church in Cyprus, as, although acting in
conjunction and in harmony with the customs of the inhabitants, it
reserved the right of supreme authority in special cases; thus at
various epochs the Turkish government deposed the Archbishops
Chrissanthon and Panareton, hanged the Archbishop Kipriano, and banished
the Archbishops Joachim and Damaskino.

From the universal complaints, there can be little doubt that the
schools that should be established from funds specially invested for
that purpose in the hands of certain monasteries, bishops, &c., are
grossly neglected, and it has already been suggested that a commission
should be instituted by the British authorities, under the presidency of
the archbishop, for a rigid investigation of the resources of all
monasteries and the ACTUAL revenue of bishoprics, together with the
disbursement of all sums that should have been expended either for
education or for charitable purposes.

The tithes exacted by the bishops from the peasantry add seriously to
the imposts of ordinary taxation, and there is every probability of a
reform being demanded by the inhabitants at the hands of the British
administration. When under Turkish rule, the Greek Church enjoyed not
only perfect freedom, but an immunity from taxation, as, although they
were legally liable, the law was never enforced upon the clergy. The
English government has determined upon the observance of all laws by all
classes, and the Church has awakened to the fact that there is no
exception.

"From the earliest times the Greek Church of Cyprus has enjoyed an
especial degree of independence; in the reign of the Emperor Zeno, A.D.
473, exceptional privileges were conceded to the Archbishop of Cyprus,
who, although he owns the supremacy of the Patriarch of Constantinople
over the orthodox Greek Church, claims to be entirely independent of him
as regards Church discipline; he wears purple, carries a gold-headed
sceptre, has the title of Beatitude, signs in red as the Greek Emperors
were wont to do, and uses a seal bearing a two-headed imperial eagle. It
is said that these dignities were conferred in consequence of the
fortunate discovery at Salamis of the body of St. Barnabas, with a copy
of the Gospel of St. Matthew, which precious relic was sent to
Constantinople, and in return the Emperor confirmed the Church of Cyprus
in its absolute independence, and gave the archbishop the above
privileges."* (*Savile's Cyprus, p. 142.)

St. Paul and St. Barnabas visited the island A.D. 45, and the conversion
of Sergius Paulus, the proconsul at Paphos, by their preaching, was the
first seed of Christianity implanted in Cyprus at the period when the
inhabitants were steeped in heathenism; but some of the superstitions at
present existing are hardly less degrading than pagan rites, and in the
kissing of the Virgin's cave at Trooditissa for the purpose already
described, we can trace an affinity with the ancient worship of Venus.



CHAPTER XVIII.

ON POLICE, FOOD, CLIMATE, &C.

The population of Cyprus is about 200,000, of which number more than
three-fourths belong to the Greek Church; nevertheless the minority of
Turks completely dominated prior to the British occupation. Although the
Cypriote is, as I have described, courteous, gentle, and affectionate in
his domestic circle, he is at the same time cunning and addicted to
petty larceny, and in all your dealings with these apparently easy-going
people you must exercise the same acuteness that is so absolutely
necessary in England. There are few great crimes in proportion to the
population, nor do we ever hear of such atrocities as those classes of
murders which so frequently blacken the page of our modern history.
Homicide is more common than actual murder, and is often the result of a
sudden quarrel where knives are drawn, and a fatal stab in passion
constitutes the offence. Sheep-stealing is the prevalent crime, and is
carried on with an amount of hardihood that can only be accounted for
from the difficulty of proof. The flocks of goats, &c., roam over the
wild and uninhabited area of the high mountains and frequently stray
from the shepherd and are lost for two or three nights; by the time they
are recovered a certain number may be missing, and it is hardly possible
to discover the thief, as the animals have been driven to a great
distance. Tracking would be out of the question over the rocky surface,
where every small plot of naked soil is trodden into countless footmarks
by the innumerable goats which browse upon the mountain slopes. At night
the flocks are generally herded within a circle protected by a fence of
thorny bushes; sometimes these folds are invaded by thieves during the
darkness, and a considerable number are driven off. As the locality
would be generally distant from the principal town, and the shepherd
cannot forsake his flock for several days to prosecute, the thieves
frequently escape, and this immunity encourages them to further
depredations. During my residence within the precincts of the monastery,
the fold upon the hill within a quarter of a mile of the establishment
was thus robbed, and the thieves were never discovered.

The police or zaphtiehs are generally too far from these wild localities
to be of any service, and they are at present too few for the proper
supervision of the island. A plan is I believe in contemplation to
extend this body upon a scale that will render the force efficient as a
gendarmerie, which would to a considerable degree relieve the necessity
for a permanent European military force. There can be no better soldier
than the Turk under British officers. The Christians in Cyprus have an
objection to this service, and there is no reason why a military force
to combine the duties of police should not be organised, that would be
thoroughly acclimatised, and would at the same time be maintained for
less than half the expense of English troops. There is nothing to fear
from the Turkish population in Cyprus, and they would willingly enlist
in our service, and could always be depended upon in case of necessity.
The force already organised is an admirable nucleus, and could be
rapidly increased; each man finds his own horse and receives two
shillings a day inclusive; his clothes and arms being provided by the
government. For service in the trying climate of Cyprus the Turk is
pre-eminent. I do not see any need for the presence of British troops in
this island. The fortresses are all dismantled, the natives are
peaceful, and the extremely low price of wine and spirits is terribly
adverse to the sanitary condition of the English soldier. The staunch
sobriety of the Turk, his extreme hardihood, which enables him to endure
great fatigue upon the most simple fare, and his amenity to discipline,
together with an instinctive knowledge of arms and a natural capacity
for a military profession, render him a valuable material for our
requirements in organising a defensive force in Cyprus. Should it be
determined that a certain number of British troops shall be retained,
they can be spared unnecessary exposure, and retire to the mountain
sanatorium during the summer months.

The wages of both artisans and ordinary labourers have risen
considerably since the British occupation, as might have been expected.
Skilled masons and carpenters can now command from 3 shillings 6 pence
to 5 shillings per diem, who formerly could earn a maximum of 3
shillings. Ordinary masons for building walls can even now be obtained
for 2 shillings 6 pence and 3 shillings, and agricultural labourers
receive 1 shilling. It is probable that should extensive government
improvements be undertaken, or large contracts be made by private
individuals for public works, the rate will rise from one shilling to
eighteen pence, as the demand for labour shall increase. Should schools
be established and education become general throughout the island, the
result will probably be exhibited by a corresponding advance in wages,
as individuals will estimate their value at a higher rate. At present
there is no organised system of education for the peasantry, and the few
schools are confined to Nicosia, Larnaca, Limasol, Baffo, and Morphu,
all of which are supported by original grants, voluntary contributions,
the payments of pupils, and by certain sums annually provided by the
bishops and monasteries.

The rate of wages should in all countries bear a just proportion to the
price of food, and should the habits of the Cypriotes remain unchanged,
and their diet retain its simple character, there is no reason to
anticipate a rate that would eventually exceed 10 shillings or 11
shillings a week. If we determine upon low wages, we must keep down the
price of food. The Turkish administration had peculiar municipal laws
upon this subject which are still in force in some localities, but have
been abrogated in Limasol. I have already mentioned that the price of
meat was fixed at a certain sum per oke, so that good and bad sold at
the same figure, and resulted in the inferior qualities being sent to
market, while the best never appeared. Fish, fruits, and vegetables were
rated in the same manner, and the municipal authorities ruled, and fixed
a standard price for everything; good and bad all shared alike. By this
extraordinary legislation, which to the English mind is inconceivable,
the finest cauliflowers and the most common varieties would sell exactly
at the same price; no matter what the quality of vegetables might be,
all were reduced to the same level. Fish was simply fish. The best
varieties and the most inferior were included in the same despotic law.
Salmon and stickleback, turbot and sprat, herrings and soles, would (had
they existed) have been sold at so much a pound independent of their
qualities. The result was that if your servant went to market to buy a
fine species of fish, the seller insisted upon his taking a due
proportion of inferior trash that was hardly eatable. "All was fish that
came to the net;" little and big, good and bad, fetched the same price.

Such a system would ensure the worst of everything; what gardener would
devote his energies to producing fine varieties, if a common field
cabbage would rival his choicest specimens at the same price, but at a
minimum of labour?

It was evident that the lowest class of vegetables would represent the
garden produce, as this absurd rule was a premium for indolence, whereas
free competition, that would have assured high prices to the best
qualities, would have stimulated the cultivators in their productions.
This argument was so indisputable that the chief commissioner (Colonel
Warren, R.A.) determined at all hazards to introduce free markets into
Limasol; and although opposed to the conservative ideas of his municipal
council, he carried out his views of a healthy competition and free and
unrestricted trade, which would awaken the Cypriotes to the fact that
labour properly directed would ensure the best qualities, that would
benefit the producer by securing the best prices.

Self-evident facts in an English community may be utterly misconstrued
in Cyprus. The Cypriote has never been accustomed to unrestricted
freedom, but like his own ox in the plough, he requires a certain amount
of control, and his energies must be directed by a driver or ruler. When
the vegetables were assured of a certain fixed price per oke regulated
by the authorities, he knew that he would obtain that amount for his
produce whether good or bad; accordingly he brought his goods to market.
But, when he found that his inferior vegetables would remain unsold, or
would realise a mere trifle should a competitor's stall present a
superior show, he withdrew altogether from the market, which at length
became deserted; and the few who maintained their positions advanced
their prices to such an exorbitant degree that vegetables became a
luxury in which none could indulge but the rich. The fishermen profited
by the reform and only caught sufficient for the minimum demand, but at
the same time that they reduced their own labour and consequently the
supply of fish, they also took advantage of the new law of free trade,
and advanced their prices in extortionate proportion. Instead of the
self-evident prosperity that would benefit all classes, the sudden
liberty to which the Cypriote was unaccustomed acted diametrically
against all English expectations, and for the time ruined the market.
This was told me by Colonel Warren himself, and the failure of the
apparently wholesome reform is suggestive of the danger that may result
in the too sudden enfranchisement of those races which from a long
series of oppression are unfit for perfect liberty.

At the same time there can be no doubt that the vexatious and arbitrary
systems of taxation pursued in collecting the "dimes" has prevented the
extension of market gardens, and were this tax remitted, I cannot
imagine any more lucrative occupation than the growth of vegetables of
the best quality for the FREE markets of the principal towns.

Some encouragement is necessary in promoting exhibitions, or
horticultural shows, accompanied by substantial prizes, in various
localities; and I should not be dismayed by the failure of the first
well-meant attempt at reform in Limasol.

When I was at Limasol in May the price of cauliflowers was 2 pence the
oke (2.75 lbs). Fish was dear at 2 shillings the oke; mutton 8 pence the
oke. Beef is seldom eaten by the Cypriotes; potatoes are good, and are
usually 1 penny the lb. Flour, best, 8 pence the oke. If a sheep should
be purchased alive, and be killed for home consumption, the mutton
should not exceed 3 pence per lb. for the best quality, leaving the
skin, head, &c., as profit.

There are two varieties of sheep; the fat-tailed species supplies the
best mutton, but the wool of both is coarse, and is exported to Trieste
and Marseilles to the amount of about 400,000 lbs. annually. A large
trade in lamb skins is a necessary result of the slaughter of a
considerable proportion of lambs every winter and spring, owing to the
usual scarcity of pasturage, which limits the increase of the flocks.
The entire yield of skins is absorbed by Trieste and Marseilles.

A sheep in good condition of the fat-tailed species weighs when dressed,
without the head, 16 okes, or 44 lbs. Fowls in the country can generally
be purchased for 1 shilling each, but they are double that price in the
market-towns. Turkeys fetch about 4 or 5 shillings each; pigeons 6
pence; fish is about 2 shillings the oke, or 8 pence the lb.; milk about
4 pence a quart; eggs from 24 to 30 for one shilling.

The grapes are the best fruit in Cyprus; these are really good, and in
some instances would compare favourably with the hot-house produce of
England. The best varieties can be purchased at the vineyards for less
than 1 penny the lb. The above prices prove that the expense of
necessaries is moderate, and the actual cost of existence low, but the
want of good servants is a serious disadvantage.

At some future time Cyprus will become the resort of delicate persons to
escape the winter and spring of England, as the climate of the southern
portion of the island is most enjoyable during the cool season. In the
neighbourhood of Limasol there are many excellent sites for building, in
picturesque spots within two or three miles of the town. At present
there is no adequate comfort for invalids, and the hotels are hardly
adapted for persons who are accustomed to luxury. The commencement is
attended with risk, and it would be dangerous under the existing
conditions of the island to build and furnish an hotel with grounds and
gardens sufficiently attractive for English visitors. There is no direct
communication from England, which effectually debars Cyprus from an
influx of travellers. It is necessary to land at Alexandria either from
Marseilles or Brindisi, and thence to re-ship in small and uncomfortable
steamers, which are by no means suitable for ladies or invalids. The
extra expense, and above all the trouble and delay of landing in Egypt
and again embarking, together with the cost of hotel charges at
Alexandria, are quite sufficient to deter strangers from visiting
Cyprus. The first necessary step will be the establishment of direct
communication from Marseilles and Brindisi, or from Trieste. In that
case, a commencement might be made by a small company of friends who
determine to visit Cyprus annually, and to arrange an hotel upon some
favourable site near Limasol, which they will themselves occupy, and
which can be extended according to future requirements. English people
are somewhat like sheep in following each other, and a quiet beginning
in this simple but convenient form would quickly develop, and Cyprus
would be linked with the beaten paths of tourists. The neighbourhood of
Kyrenia is the most beautiful, but during winter it is exposed to severe
north winds from the snowy mountains.

So much has been written and spoken against the climate of Cyprus that
an unprejudiced account may be acceptable. There are serious
disadvantages to those who by their official position are obliged to
remain in the low country during the summer months, where the extreme
heat must always be prejudicial to the health of Europeans. From the
middle of October to May the climate is most agreeable, but the five
intervening months should be passed at higher altitudes, which, as I
have already described, afford a variety of climates.

Neither Lady Baker nor myself or servants had any climatic ailment
throughout our journeys in every portion of the island. A horsekeeper
had fever while at Famagousta, but he was a native who had suffered
previously, and the fit was a return of chronic ague; my own people
never required a dose of medicine although we were living in tents
through winter and summer.

The water is generally wholesome, therefore dysentery and bowel
complaints are rare; CONSUMPTION IS UNKNOWN; and pulmonary affections
are uncommon. Fevers, including those of a typhoid character, and ague
from malaria, are the usual types; outbreaks of small-pox have been
reduced by general vaccination. The improvement in sanitary regulations
will no doubt diminish the occurrence of typhoid fevers, which even now
are rare considering the filth of the villages and the generally dirty
habits of the population.

Hydrophobia among dogs is very rare, and distemper among puppies is
unknown. Pigs are the general scavengers in the Cypriote villages, and
the flesh of these filthy feeders is much esteemed by the Christian
inhabitants during the winter months. In the monasteries, which, from
their great altitude among the mountains, are occasionally snowed up and
excluded from communication, a winter supply of stores is laid up during
the autumn. The pigs and the fattest goats are killed, and salted in a
most peculiar manner. Without removing a bone, the animal is split from
the neck along the abdomen throughout, and it is laid completely open
like a smoked haddock. Every joint is most carefully dislocated, even to
the shoulder-blade bones, and remains in its place. The flesh is neatly
detached from every bone, and in this form the carcase is salted, and
stretched out in the sun to dry. When prepared it resembles a shield, as
it remains perfectly flat, the back presenting a smooth surface, while
the inside represents a beautiful specimen of comparative anatomy, every
joint dislocated, but secured by the original integument to the socket,
and every bone cleanly detached, but undisturbed from its original
position. The dried body looks like a surgical preparation carefully
arranged for an explanatory lecture.

The common and low quality of food of the lower classes, and especially
of the agricultural population, must induce a want of stamina which is
unable to resist the fever in malarious districts, and this results in
chronic disease of the spleen. I have already described the general
protuberance of the abdomen among the children throughout the Messaria
and the Carpas districts, all of whom are more or less affected by
splenetic diseases. On the mountains a marked difference is observed, as
throughout the numerous villages at high altitudes the children are as
healthy as those of England, although poorly clad in the home-made
cotton-stuffs of the country.

I have already remarked the absence of flannel or other woollen material
worn next the skin; the natives prefer their own manufactures to those
of Europe, and as they grow the cotton, which is spun and woven into
cloth by their own women, there is no actual outlay of coin. Some of the
native material is very superior in strength to the machine-made stuffs
of Manchester, especially a blue stout cotton with a thin red line that
is in general request both for men and women. The only woollen stuff
that is manufactured in Cyprus is confined to Nicosia, where the dark
brown and immensely thick capotes are made for the winter wear of the
common people. A cart-driver during the halt in a winter night simply
draws the hood over his head and face, and, wrapped in his long and
impervious capote, he lays himself beneath his cart and goes to sleep.
Coarse woollen saddle-cloths and bags are also made at Nicosia. The same
locality is celebrated for manufactures of silk and gold embroidery, all
of which is performed by the hands of women, while the printing of
calicoes and the production of morocco leather are local industries
confined to the labour of men.

No country is better adapted for silk culture than Cyprus, where the
mulberry-tree grows in great luxuriance to the altitude of 5000 feet,
and the warmth and dryness of the climate is highly favourable to the
silkworm. There is no tax upon the mulberry, and should artificial
irrigation be encouraged by the government, this tree should be
generally planted throughout the Messaria and all other districts, and a
special impulse should be directed to silk development. Formerly the
production of silk was an important export to France, but of late years
it has decreased to a mere bagatelle. In the spot where I am now writing
there are numerous mulberries in a profusion of rich foliage sufficient
for the production of two pounds of silk by each tree; but they are
entirely neglected, and the same depression in the silk cultivation may
be remarked throughout the island.

The numerous wild-flowers, together with the blossoms of oranges and
lemons, are highly favourable to bees, of which there are several
varieties; but there is no export of wax, which is used within the
island for the manufacture of candles and tapers for the various
churches. The Cyprian bee-hive is a contrivance which is extremely
simple, at the same time that it possesses the great advantage of
sparing the bees when the comb is to be saved. I see no reason why this
primitive arrangement should not succeed in England, and thereby save
countless swarms from destruction.

The hive is an earthenware cylinder about three feet six inches or four
feet in length, by ten or twelve inches in diameter; this might be
represented by a common chimney-pot. One end is securely stopped by a
wad of straw, neatly made in a similar manner to the back of an archery
target. This is smeared on the outside with clay so as to exclude the
air. A similar wad is inserted at the other extremity, but this is
provided with a small aperture or entrance for the bees. In a large
apiary twenty or thirty of these rude pipes or cylinders are piled one
upon the other in the same manner that draining tiles are heaped in
England, and they are protected from the sun and rain by a shed, open
only to the front. The bees learn to recognise their several hives
without confusion, although the cylinders are exactly alike and closely
packed together.

When the comb is fully developed and the honey should be secured, it is
only necessary to open a hole in the back, by removing the wad, and to
blow smoke through the aperture; the bees escape uninjured from their
ordinary entrance. The operator, whose head and face are protected with
the necessary veil, and his hands with gloves, now cuts out the honey
required, leaving a certain quantity as food for the bees, who will
return to their hive when re-adjusted.

When a swarm is captured, the bees are placed in an earthenware cylinder
which has been rubbed in the inside with a mixture of honey and wine.
The shed is a very important portion of the apiary, as it adds
materially to the comfort of the bees by protecting them from the
extremes of weather.

Although the cold of the winter seldom attains freezing-point, it is
sufficiently uncomfortable when accompanied by rain, and all creatures
that are expected to thrive require protection. The climate varies in
different localities, but the following meteorological data, that were
carefully registered by myself, accompanied by those kindly furnished me
by Colonel White, 1st Royal Scots, when chief commissioner of Lefkosia,
will afford a dependable basis for any medical opinion.

                                                     Thermometer
                                                    in degrees F.
Months.                                Inches   Mean  Mean  Max.  Min.
                                       Rainfall 8 AM  3 PM

February, in the plain of Messaria . .  0.80     46    57    68    37

March, in the Carpas district and ditto 1.71     49    60    68    45

April, in the Kyrenia district, the
maximum at Morphu  . . . . . . . . . .  nil.     57    68    83    47

                                                    At 7 AM
May, in Limasol to 11th inst do. . . . ditto.    64    78    84    76

do. Trooditissa, 4,340 ft. to 31st
from 12th  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  0.30    56.5   62    73    42

June, Trooditissa  . . . . . . . . . .  1.13     66   71.6   78    54

July, do.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  0.13    77.6   78    84    65

The fall of 1.13 inch of rain in June took place in one hour and a half,
and none of the rain which fell at the mountain range extended to the
low country. It will be seen that from 1st February to the end of May
only 2.51 inches fell throughout the central and eastern divisions, and
very little that was measured in the Carpas district reached the
Messaria. There was a fall of about 1.70 inch in January at Larnaca
which I had no opportunity of measuring, but inclusive of this quantity
the total rainfall from 1st January to the end of summer would not have
exceeded 4.21 inches in the lower country.

The month of July is shown to be the highest temperature at Trooditissa,
but although the maximum of 84 and the mean at 3 P.M. of 78 degrees may
appear high at the elevation of 4340 feet above the sea level, the
extreme lightness and purity of the air so far modified the heat that it
was never oppressive. The thermometer was suspended five feet from the
ground against the trunk of the shady walnut-tree four feet from the
tent wall, into which spot the sun never entered.

The water that issued from the rock by a stone spout beneath the arch
showed a temperature of 55 degrees and never varied throughout the
months of June, July, and August. When the thermometer was above 80
degrees this water fresh from the spout appeared icy cold in comparison.

Colonel White's observations at Lefkosia (Nicosia) for the month of July
exhibit an extremely high range, the mean at 9 A.M. = 84.5 Fahr.
degrees, and the mean at 9 P.M. = 83 degrees Fahr.; while the daily
maximum attains the serious degree of a mean = 108.7 degrees Fahr., the
highest point registered being 115 degrees Fahr. in the shade.

Such a temperature will destroy the health of Europeans, and the
locality is not suitable for headquarters. The governor of the island
might possibly escape to the mountain sanatorium, but the other
officials will sicken in their various overheated offices.

The following is Colonel White's original register:-


METEOROLOGICAL REGISTER AT NICOSIA.

442 FEET ABOVE SEA LEVEL.

Instruments:--Casella's maximum, minimum, and ordinary thermometers;
Negretti and Zambra's large-size aneroid barometer ; 29 feet above
ground, all under deep verandah, shaded from the sun, exposed to coolest
wind, and 5 feet above the roof of the house. The readings taken
carefully.


H. G. WHITE, Lieut.-Colonel Royal Scots,
Commissioner, Nicosia.
4th August, 1879



CHAPTER XIX

POLITICAL REFLECTIONS.

In the foregoing chapters I have endeavoured to describe the present
condition of Cyprus, exhibiting the actual resources of the island,
together with the numerous disadvantages resulting from a peculiarity of
climate, and the total neglect of all public works during the Ottoman
rule of three centuries. It will be remarked that nothing of value
exists beyond the agricultural productions, which are now precarious
through the uncertainty of seasons; the metallic wealth has either been
exhausted by the ancient miners, or it remains to be developed; the
forests have been destroyed; the harbours have been clogged by silt; the
communications are confined to pack animals in the general absence of
roads and bridges. Yet, notwithstanding this neglected condition of
the island, the revenue has yielded an average of about 200,000 pounds
annually, or as nearly as possible one pound sterling per head of the
entire population.

An increase of revenue can only result from a corresponding advance in
material prosperity, which must depend upon an influx of capital that
will develop the agricultural resources upon which Cyprus will mainly
depend. There are some few collateral profits that may perhaps increase,
such as the sponge fisheries, and a probable discovery of red coral by
the employment of the helmet-diving apparatus. At present the condition
of the sea-bottom is little known; the sponges, of an inferior-quality,
are collected by dredging, and the boats pay a fixed sum for a licence
according to the size and construction of the dredging apparatus,
varying from 5 to 20 pounds per annum; this yields a small annual
revenue of about 1600 pounds, which embraces the entire coast of Cyprus.
By careful management the salt might exhibit an increase, but on the
other hand, the wine, if relieved from the present extreme taxation,
would for the first two or three years ensure a considerable reduction.

No increase of imports can be expected until the general advance of
internal prosperity shall enable the population to extend their demand
for foreign manufactures. We have seen that the peasantry are contented
with the home-made cotton stuffs which they produce without an
expenditure of money; and the habits of the agricultural classes are
simple, and independent of external aid. It will require many years
before the customs of the Cypriotes shall be changed by the intercourse
with strangers, and the increase of their wealth, commencing from the
zero of poverty, must be the base of future expectations. We generally
remark in the advancing desires of communities that women exert a
powerful influence in the development of manufactures. The wholesome,
and to a certain extent civilising, attention to personal appearance,
creates a demand for articles of dress and other little vanities which
encourage trade, and by degrees the improvement in every household
expands into a new birth of external relations with foreign countries,
which induces an increase of imports. The women of Cyprus are completely
subjugated to their husbands, and although exempt from the cruelty
unfortunately so prevalent among a similar class in England, they are
seldom indulged in the love of finery which in our own country is
carried to an excess. The baggy trousers and the high hob-nailed boots
of the Cyprian Venus will hardly excite the ambition of British
manufacturers, and for many years the females will remain in their
present position. There are already soap manufactories in the island,
and the first groundwork for improvements in personal habits will be
ensured by their extension, before the exterior fineries of more
civilised communities shall be introduced. We may therefore omit the
Cyprian female from the class that would benefit the island
commercially, but she will perform her duty in a sensible and simple
manner as a good housewife, and thereby assist in the prosperity of her
husband the agriculturist. The more pains that we may bestow upon an
examination of the resources of Cyprus, the more certain becomes the
conclusion that the present and the future depend entirely upon
agricultural development.

This fact is patent to all who can pretend to a knowledge of the island,
and the question will naturally intrude, "Was Cyprus occupied for
agricultural purposes?" Of course we know it was not: but on the other
hand, if we acknowledge the truth, "that it was accepted as a
strategical military point," it is highly desirable that the country
should be self-supporting, instead of, like Malta and Gibraltar, mainly
dependent upon external supplies.

If Cyprus belonged to England or any other Power, it would be a valuable
acquisition. We have seen that under the Turkish administration it was a
small mine of wealth, and remains in the same position to its recent
masters.

We pay 96,000 pounds sterling per annum to the Turks, out of an assumed
revenue of 170,000 pounds. Therefore, without any trouble or risk, the
Turk is receiving 3.25 per cent. interest upon three millions. This
establishes an unfortunate precedent in the valuation of the island
should England eventually become a purchaser.

If Cyprus can, without undue taxation, afford a revenue of 170,000
pounds, it is palpable that a large margin would be available for those
absolutely necessary public works--irrigation, the control of the Pedias
river, road-making, harbour-works, bridges, extension of forests and
guardians, and a host of minor improvements, such as district schools
for the teaching of English, &c. &c. In fact, if we held Cyprus without
purchase as a conquered country, such as Ceylon, Mauritius, or other of
our colonies, it would occupy the extraordinary position of a colony
that could advance and pay its way entirely by its own surplus revenue,
without a public loan! This is a fact of great importance--that, in
spite of the usual Turkish mal-administration, the island has no debt,
but that England has acknowledged the success of the Turkish rule by
paying 96,000 pounds per annum as the accepted surplus revenue of this
misgoverned island!--which holds upon these data a better financial
condition than any of our own colonies.

If the total gross revenue is 170,000 pounds a year, and we can afford
to pay 96,000 pounds to the Porte, and at the same time allow the home
government to boast in the House of Commons of "a surplus," Cyprus is
one of the most lucrative positions, and the Turks can fairly claim a
success instead of admitting the blame of mal-administration.

If the Turks by mismanagement can obtain a nett revenue of 96,000 pounds
a year, how much should England obtain by good management?

The fact is that, as usual, the English government has been hoodwinked
in their hasty bargain. The island can pay its way, and, if free from
Turkey, would become most prosperous; but we have inherited an estate so
heavily mortgaged by our foolish Convention, that the revenue is all
absorbed in interest, which leaves nothing for the necessities of
development. The commissioners of districts are over-worked and
ill-paid, their allowance of interpreters is quite insufficient to
secure the necessary check; and their position is incompatible with the
importance of their official status. There is no money for any
improvements, and the boasted surplus will just suffice for the payment
of salaries and the absolutely necessary items of carrying on a
government more in accordance with the position of Greece or Denmark
than with the historical reputation of Great Britain.

This financial embarrassment has disappointed the expectations of the
inhabitants, who naturally had anticipated brilliant advantages from the
reform between Turkish and English administrations. My own opinion may
be valueless, but it is shared by many; Cyprus should belong absolutely
to England, or we should have nothing to do with it. I repeat the dictum
expressed in the introduction; if England is the ally of Turkey and she
can depend upon the integrity of that defensive alliance against Russia,
there is no need for any station that incurs the obligations of Cyprus;
all the Turkish ports would be open to our ships. The occupation of
Cyprus would therefore suggest that a far-seeing government had doubted
the integrity of Turkey, and had therefore determined to secure a
pied-a-terre in a strategical position that would command the east of
the Mediterranean. Upon this point opinions will again differ, and I
quote the words of one of the most experienced statesmen and an
ex-minister of the Upper House, who writes:--

"The objections to Cyprus as a military and naval station are shortly
these. It will oblige us to establish a garrison, and therefore to
increase and divide our forces in the Mediterranean. There must be
barracks, hospitals, store-houses, &c. After all this expenditure Cyprus
will weaken rather than strengthen our power.

"Famagousta may be made a good harbour; but how can it be defended? The
ships will not be, as in Malta, defended by batteries projecting far
beyond the anchorage; Famagousta will require ships of war to defend it,
or batteries constructed on the breakwater--a most costly undertaking.
As a coaling-station it is not wanted, because colliers accompanying the
fleet are much more convenient. If, in short, we are supreme at sea,
Cyprus is not wanted; if we are not supreme, Cyprus will be an
incumbrance."

I acknowledge the force of a portion of the argument, and no one can
more highly respect the distinguished authority I have quoted, who, as
an ex-First Lord of the Admiralty of practical experience, must carry
the great weight of his ability and position; but I would suggest that
Famagousta is underrated. I have already described that powerful
fortress, and in its present condition, if mounted with forty-ton guns
upon the sea-face, I doubt the possibility of an attack from seaward.
The natural reefs which form the sea-wall afford the greatest facilities
for batteries a-fleur-d'eau, as their solid foundations require the
simple levelling of cement, and a facing of steel plates would complete
an impregnable line of casemates that would render the approach by sea
impossible.

The advantages of attendant colliers is great as a continuous
coal-supply to a fleet, especially during the blockade of an enemy's
port; but for a cruising fleet, or for independent vessels, the speed of
the colliers would be insufficient, and a line of coaling-stations, at
intervals of five days' steaming is in my opinion highly important, in
addition to the necessity of docks where ironclad vessels could obtain
the necessary repairs after a naval engagement. It is a serious result
of modern improvements that the cumbrous and complicated ironclads
cannot be repaired in a few days after an action with the enemy by their
own carpenters and crews, like the wooden vessels of old, but that docks
must be within reach, and all the appliances of the engineers' yards and
an arsenal. Without this advantage, Famagousta would be a useless
acquisition, and Cyprus would be worthless as a strategical position.

In my opinion the entire question hangs upon the integrity of Turkey as
an ally. England has done but little for her, and we may expect too
much. The Turks are thoroughly aware that an Anglo-Turkish defensive
alliance, and the "Protectorate of Asia Minor by Great Britain," are
political arrangements based upon self-interest, for which they owe us
no personal gratitude; in the hour of their distress we declined
material assistance, but seized the opportunity for occupying one of
their important positions--Cyprus; their only satisfaction remained in
the knowledge that they had "done us" in the bargain. We have quickly
discovered the painful fact, and one party to the alliance already feels
aggrieved, and seeks for an alteration in the terms of the Convention.

I cannot conceive any more dangerous risk to friendships than an
interference in the private affairs of individuals, or in the public
administration of governments. We have assumed the enormous
responsibility of the Protectorate of Asia Minor under conditions which
we must know will never be fulfilled; Turkey promises to reform the
abuses of her internal administration, &c. &c.! Anybody who knows Turkey
must be aware that such a reform is impossible: the honest
administrative material does not exist in the Ottoman Empire, and the
promises of the Porte have been tolerably exemplified since the Crimean
war. Under these circumstances the Anglo-Turkish alliance is in a
questionable position. We have assumed the Protectorate of Asia Minor
conditionally; we occupy Cyprus conditionally; and should Turkey fail to
perform her promises in the government of her Asiatic provinces, we have
a back-door for an escape from our onerous engagement. Unfortunately
English diplomacy is celebrated for back-doors. In the Berlin Treaty we
entered Cyprus through a back-door, and we may possibly retire by the
same exit; but there is little doubt that the Turk does not believe in
our professed determination to defend him by force of arms in the event
of a future conflict between Russia and the Sultan in Asia Minor.
Notwithstanding our professed sincerity, the Turk has become an
unbeliever in the faith of treaties and political engagements; he
believes most thoroughly that should "British interests" require the
sacrifice of honour, England will somehow or other manage to slip
through the Ottoman fingers, and escape from her alliance when called
upon to meet Russia in the field. Of course the ignorant Turk is wrong,
and his suspicions are unfounded.

With a mutual want of confidence in the integrity of an alliance, it
would hardly be surprising should the Sultan attach more importance to
the practical force of Russia than to the moral rectitude and high
political principles of England. The power of Russia has been felt, and
the position of European Turkey is that of a dislocated and dismembered
Empire, which upon the next explosion will reduce the Sultan to the
small extremity on the Bosphorus between Constantinople and the lines of
Tchataldja. Turkey will cease to be a European Power, and upon the
outbreak of the next Russian war she will be discovered as represented
by Asia Minor, in which the claws of the Eagle are already fixed in the
vital points--Batoum, Kars, and Ardahan. A Russian advance from those
positions will, according to the terms of the alliance, compel Great
Britain to exhibit herself as the champion of Turkish rights in armed
defence of Asia Minor.

When we reflect upon the prodigious responsibility of such an alliance
with a crippled Power that has been completely subdued, the victorious
army of the Czar retired from the gates of the capital, the nation
bankrupt beyond all hopes of liquidation, the various states in chronic
discontent both in Europe and in Asia, and the claims of Greece
threatening to explode the combustible materials, we may well appreciate
the back-door that has so frequently afforded a retreat from an
untenable position.

If it is necessary for England to form a defensive alliance with Turkey
as a crippled Power, with Russia actually established in Asia Minor, why
should we have waited until Turkey was mortally stricken, when by an
earlier alliance we could have at least saved Asia Minor in its
integrity? We have let the lion into the house with a boast that we will
turn him out in the event of further roaring, instead of having
prevented his entry in the first instance.

Under all the circumstances of the risk and responsibility assumed by
England in a defensive alliance with Turkey under the title of a
Protectorate of Asia Minor, the Cyprus Convention is highly unfavourable
in its conditions. The island should have been simply conveyed from
Turkey and transferred as a free gift to England, as a position
necessary for her occupation under the probable contingencies of the
Anglo-Turkish alliance, and it should have at once become a portion of
the British Empire. Had this course been pursued a mutual confidence
would have been established; on the other hand, all back-doors would
have been sealed, as we should have been bound by all the laws of honour
to defend Turkey to the last extremity in Asia Minor.

Russia, in Kars, occupies a position which affords an unbounded horizon
for political intrigue. The various Turkish Pachas and other district
authorities throughout Asia Minor have witnessed the irresistible
advance of Russia, while England stood afar off, and only assisted
Turkey with her good counsel. The same authorities now see Russia in
possession, while England, who has not assisted during the bloody
struggle, appears upon the scene as a political Paul Pry, and intrudes
upon the mysteries that surround Pachas, Governors, and various
functionaries, who, from the highest to the lowest official, mainly
exist upon extortion.

It is hardly necessary to explain that British assistance in such a form
will be most unwelcome, and will increase our reputation for
intermeddling while in the hour of extremity we withhold the required
aid. Any interference on our part with the administration of Asia Minor
will cause an extreme jealousy and suspicion throughout all classes of
Turkish officials, who will be rendered the more amenable to the guiles
of Russian intrigues from Kars and Ardahan. A very slight knowledge of
Turkish character would induce the natural conclusion. The English would
be suspected of coveting Asia Minor, as they had already obtained
Cyprus, and Russia would have gained her end in destroying all
confidence that might possibly have existed, and thus endanger the
defensive alliance.

There are serious risks that might enforce the advance of Russian troops
beyond the defined frontier. Already there are reports of general
discontent and threatened disturbances. In the event of a mutiny of
Turkish troops on the Russian border, the Russians might be invited to
assist by the Pacha in command. Sometimes such revolts are factitious,
for political purposes. In all cases the position of Russia in Asia
Minor is one of extreme danger to Turkey, and it is far from improbable
that activity on her side, and passiveness upon ours, may terminate in a
friendship between the Russians and the Turks to the detriment of
British interests, and to the confusion of the assumed Protectorate.
This document distinctly states:--If "Batoum, Ardahan, Kars, or any of
them shall be retained by Russia, and if any further attempt shall be
made at any future time by Russia to take possession of any further
territories of his Imperial Majesty the Sultan in Asia as fixed by the
definitive treaty of peace, England engages to join his Imperial Majesty
the Sultan in defending them by force of arms."

In a despatch from Lord Salisbury to Sir A. H. Layard, dated 30th May,
1878, these ominous words are contained:--

   "Even if it be certain that Batoum and Ardahan
   and Kars will not become the base from which
   emissaries of intrigue will issue forth, to be in due
   time followed by invading armies, the mere retention
   of them by Russia will exercise a powerful influence
   in disintegrating the Asiatic dominion of the Porte."

In the same lengthy despatch the conditions are described which Turkey
must fulfil in reforming the abuses of the present administration, &c.
&c., and there can be no doubt that the British government contemplated
the necessity of supplanting a considerable number of the peculant
Turkish officials by experienced English officers, whose supervision
would ensure the necessary reforms. If such a course should have been
accepted by the Porte there could be no question of the salutary effect,
as the presence of British officials in actual authority throughout the
provinces of Asia Minor would have proved to the various races our
positive determination to uphold their rights, and to defend them from
the oppression and extortion to which they had been subjected. Such a
position would have given England the control that is absolutely
necessary to effect the reforms in the administration of Asia Minor,
without which the result will be anarchy and revolution within a few
years, fostered by Russia precisely in accordance with the policy that
has terminated in the disruption of Turkey in Europe.

In the same despatch of 30th May, 1878, Lord Salisbury continues:--

    "Her Majesty's Government intimated to the Porte on the
    occasion of the Conference at Constantinople that they
    were not prepared to sanction misgovernment and
    oppression, and it will be requisite before they can
    enter into any agreement for the defence of the Asiatic
    territories of the Porte in certain eventualities, that
    they should be formally assured of the intention of the
    Porte to introduce the necessary reforms into the
    government of the Christian and other subjects of the
    Porte in those regions. IT IS NOT DESIRABLE TO REQUIRE
    MORE THAN AN ENGAGEMENT IN GENERAL TERMS, FOR THE
    SPECIFIC MEASURES TO BE TAKEN COULD ONLY BE DEFINED
    AFTER A MORE CAREFUL INQUIRY AND DELIBERATION THAN
    COULD BE SECURED AT THE PRESENT JUNCTURE."

The italics are my own, for the weak point of the Convention is
exhibited by this sentence.

No "general terms" should ever be mentioned in a communication with
Orientals, and no convention should have been concluded with the Porte,
unless every detail had been previously considered and specially agreed
upon between the contracting parties. When this Convention was made
public, I concluded that the British government contemplated the
official employment of a certain number of their own officers to carry
out the spirit of the agreement, without which the Convention would be a
farce; at the same time I was convinced that the suspicions of the
Turkish government and the stubborn pride of the race would resist any
such direct interference upon the part of England. Under these
conditions Asia Minor would remain exactly where it was. A grand scheme
which would have had immense political results, had the Turks accepted
our interference in the honourable spirit of our intentions, has been
frustrated by their want of confidence, and the Convention remains,
containing an agreement of stupendous importance, by which England is
committed to a military undertaking of the first magnitude, while Turkey
risks nothing except her "PROMISES OF REFORM in the administration of
her Asiatic provinces."

"British interests" in this transaction are represented by Cyprus, which
we occupy as tenants--paying 96,000 pounds a year for the ruined house,
and leaving ourselves no balance from the revenue for the necessary
repairs.

There is no more difficult political associate than the Turk; his
defensive weapon is delay, and in moments of the greatest emergency his
peculiar apathy or patience never forsakes him. Proud and haughty to a
superlative degree, in his heart he detests all extraneous counsel and
interference, and would rather glide onward to destruction than grasp
the hand stretched out to save him. Turkey has expected much from
England, and has made a poor return for our sacrifice of blood and
treasure during the Crimean war. She obtained an ephemeral financial
reputation through the aid of France and England in becoming guarantees
for a public loan; upon this false position she traded until the
inevitable bankruptcy plunged her into ruin, and opened the gate for the
entrance of her enemies, at the same time that dishonesty entailed the
severance of friends. England has from mutual interests endeavoured to
preserve her from absolute dissolution, and the Protectorate of Asia
Minor was a step of political audacity in her favour that surprised the
world. This extraordinary offer of material aid has been met by the same
want of confidence that has marked the decline of the Turkish Empire;
the only extra interference in Asia Minor has been the appointment of a
few additional British consuls. These gentlemen will report long lists
of abuses, and the general mal-administration of the Turkish officials;
they will be hated accordingly, and being absolutely powerless for good,
they will simply keep the Foreign Office informed of what was thoroughly
well known before. Remonstrances upon our part will be made to the
Porte, who will deny the accuracy of the consular reports, and
ultimately a special commission will be sent out, which will prove their
correctness; the Porte will again promise amendment, but will not
sanction the appointment of British officials. In this old-fashioned
course, so thoroughly understood by all who have any knowledge of
Turkey, the affairs of Asia Minor will be conducted, until revolution
shall bring Russia upon the scene at the most favourable opportunity;
and England, who has been thwarted by the Power she has endeavoured to
save, will, by the terms of the Convention, be compelled to appear in
arms as the defender of the remnant of the Turkish Empire.

Common sense would suggest the absolute necessity of special and clearly
defined conditions in concluding an alliance with Turkey which may at
any moment demand our military interference. If we are bound to assist
by force of arms in the defence of Asia Minor, it is equally necessary
that Turkey should be bound to qualify herself for resistance to an
attack from Russia. It should have been distinctly agreed that Turkey
should raise a territorial army of an estimated strength for the
protection of Asia Minor, and that a certain number of British officers
should hold important commands, to ensure the regular payment of the
troops and to maintain the necessary discipline. Had such conditions
been defined, and the civil courts been placed under the supervision of
British officials, the Protectorate of Asia Minor would have become a
practical combination that would have been an effectual check to Russian
encroachments; but as the affair now stands, the alliance is fraught
with extreme danger to ourselves. I cannot conceive the possibility of a
credulity that would induce experienced statesmen to believe in the
assurances given either by Turkey or by Russia. The history of the past
is sufficient to prove the utter fallacy of assertions, promises, and
treaties; Turkey will persist in mal-administration; Russia, who is now
marching upon Merv in spite of former assurances, as she advanced on
Khiva under similar pretexts, will at the moment of her own selection
assuredly break through her boundaries in Asia Minor. The position of
England will be contemptible. We have thrown down the gauntlet to Russia
by an ostentatious alliance with Turkey, but we hesitate to insist upon
the overwhelming necessity of British official and military officers
to organise the civil administration and an army of defence; thus, when
the sudden emergency shall arise, Turkey will be totally unprepared; the
various races that comprise her Asiatic dominions will already have been
poisoned by intrigue, and the only defence that can be offered to a
Russian advance will be afforded by Turkish neglect, which has left the
country devoid of roads.

Under these inevitable circumstances, England will probably accuse
Turkey of neglecting to fulfil the conditions of the defensive alliance,
and the "back-door" will offer a convenient exit from the difficulty;
in which case, Turkey will be compelled to make terms with Russia that
will probably terminate in a Russo-Turkish alliance AGAINST England, who
will be accused of having treacherously deserted her after breaking a
solemn engagement--and obtaining Cyprus.

This may be a gloomy prospect, but it is not one shade darker than the
reality of the position, unless the Porte will sanction the assistance
of a British administration that would entirely change the political
aspect. A reform of administration in Asia Minor to be effective, should
be based upon the judicial system pursued by the English in the courts
of Cyprus--where the Turkish laws remain undisturbed, but they are
administered under the supervision of specially appointed officers. For
the most part Turkish laws are based upon pure equity, and leave little
to be desired beyond their faithful execution. The oppression and
extortion prevalent throughout the Turkish dominions are directly
contrary to the laws, and are the result of personal tyranny on the part
of the authorities.

In the event of a rupture with our ally that would result in a
Russo-Turkish combination, Cyprus would exhibit its importance as a
strategical position that would entirely command the coasts of Syria and
the approach to Egypt. As I have already stated, the value of the island
is conditional upon the permanence of the Turkish alliance; should
Turkey and England remain friends and allies, Cyprus is quite
unnecessary as a British military station; but our possession will
probably ENTAIL THE ABSOLUTE NECESSITY OF TURKISH GOOD FAITH, as the
restored arsenal and harbour of Famagousta would complete a position
that would dominate the whole of the Turkish shores upon the
Mediterranean, and in conjunction with Greece, which would assure the
refuge of Corfu to our fleets, the naval power of Great Britain would be
absolute to the east of Gibraltar.



CHAPTER XX.

CONCLUSION.

TROODITISSA MONASTERY, CYPRUS.

It is the 22nd August, and the manuscript of "Cyprus as I saw it in
1879" has already been forwarded to England. In another month we shall
be en route for the Euphrates via Alexandretta, and through Bagdad to
India by the Persian Gulf. I shall therefore be placed at the serious
disadvantage of an exclusion from the proofs, which may require
alterations and corrections; this will I trust excuse me should any
repetitions be apparent that would otherwise have been detected before
publication. There is little to add to the description I have given that
would be of public interest, therefore the few additional details are
consigned to a short Appendix.

The seclusion of the monastery has been an agreeable interval that has
formed a moral harbour from the uncertain seas of busy life, and we
shall leave the quiet spot and the good old monks with some regret. A
great change has been effected since our arrival in early May. The heaps
of filth have given place to extreme cleanliness; the monks wash their
hands and faces; even the monastery yard is swept. No atom of impurity
is allowed to deface the walk from the cold spring to the great
walnut-tree. My little garden has flourished and produced largely; the
melons were of excellent flavour; the tomatoes and other vegetables were
good, including a species of esculent amaranthus which is a substitute
for spinach. I employed a man and his son to open the path for 2.75
miles, from the monastery to the military route to Troodos, which much
improved the communication, and somewhat relieved our solitude by
increasing the visits of our friends. If any stranger should now arrive
from England at Trooditissa he would appreciate the calm and cool asylum
contrasting with the heat of the lower country; but should he arrive
even one short month after our departure, I fear the picture will have
changed. Throngs of mules will have defiled our clean courtyard, and
will be stabled within our shady retreat beneath the walnut-tree, which
will remain unswept. The filthy habits of the people, now restrained
only by strong remonstrance, will be too apparent. The old monks,
Neophitos and Woomonos, (who are dear old people when clean) will cease
to wash, and the place and people will certainly relapse into the
primeval state of dirt and holiness in which we first discovered it.

We leave in friendship with all, and during our sojourn at Trooditissa
of more than three months, no quarrels, or even trifling disagreements,
have occurred between the servants or the people. The temporary storm
occasioned by the abrupt departure of Christina was quickly lulled by
the arrival of the middle-aged-maid of all work of seventy-five, who
has performed all her arduous duties with admirable patience. Our own
servants have been most satisfactory since their first engagement upon
our arrival in Cyprus in January last; Georgi the "prodigal son," has
been of much service as interpreter, and is an honest and willing young
man, but there is a peculiarity in his physical constitution exhibited
in the mutual want of attachment between his person and his buttons.
These small but necessary friends continually desert him; and his shoes
appear to walk a few inches faster than his feet, leaving him in a
chronic state of down-at-heel. Collars will not assimilate with his
neck; whether they are tied with strings, or fastened with buttons, the
result is the same, and Georgi's exterior when all or three parts of his
buttons have deserted him, exhibits a looseness which I am glad to say
by no means applies to his character. The cook Christo is an excellent
fellow, always willing to please, and good in his profession; added to
which, he assumes a demeanour of importance which is irresistible, and
makes all paths smooth. My Abyssinian, Amarn, is always the same quiet,
steady character, who performs his daily work with the calm regularity
of the stream that turns a mill-wheel, and can always be depended on. It
is a pleasure to me that our party does not dissolve upon leaving
Cyprus, but the servants accompany us on the Asiatic shore.

   In conclusion, I must acknowledge with due thanks the valuable
   assistance that I have received in statistical information afforded by
   the kindness of the High Commissioner, His Excellency General Biddulph,
   R. A, C. B., and the various chief commissioners of districts, including
   Lieutenant-Colonel White, First Royal Scots, of Lefkosia;
   Lieutenant-Colonel Warren, R. A., of Limasol (now promoted to Chief of
   the Staff); Claude Delaval Cobham, Esq., M. A., of Larnaca; Captain
   Inglis, of Famagousta; and Captain A. Wauchope, 42nd Highlanders, of
   Baffo.

In taking leave of Cyprus I must express my share in the general regret
at the departure of Sir Garnet and Lady Wolseley, from whom we received
much kindness. His successor, General Biddulph, R. A., is well known as
a most able and painstaking officer, who is admirably suited for the
responsible position he now occupies, but all will remember with due
appreciation the vigorous administration of Sir Garnet Wolseley, who was
selected for the command of Cyprus in the difficult period of the first
British occupation.



THE END.

APPENDIX.

METEOROLOGICAL REGISTER THROUGHOUT JOURNEYS IN CYPRUS.

FROM 1ST FEBRUARY TO 21ST AUGUST, 1879.

It will be remarked that August at Trooditissa is considerably lower in
temperature than July.

The following data, from 1st to 17th August, kindly supplied me by
Lieut.-Colonel White, Chief Commissioner of Lefkosia, will exhibit the
difference between that station, 442 feet above the sea level, and
Trooditissa Monastery, 4,340 feet.



The following official estimate of revenue and expenditure must be
accepted as only approximate. As the taxes are at present collected by
dimes, or tenths, the amount must depend upon the agricultural
prosperity of the island, which is liable to considerable fluctuations,
and during the present year of semi-famine will result in a serious
diminution. There will probably be a sensible decrease in the Customs
receipts, as the import of European goods has been checked by the
collapse of many European traders who had arrived in Cyprus at the first
announcement of the British occupation, and discovered that their goods
were unsuited to the requirements of the extremely poor and frugal
population. The greater portion of the English traders have already
retired from the island; the Greek merchants who have been long
established are satisfied with small profits, and their expenses are
upon a proportionate scale, which renders British competition quite
impossible. The Cypriotes decline to purchase from the English stores,
as they are ignorant of the language, and the goods are ill-adapted to
their wants. The first rush of commercial activity due to the political
movement in 1878 has subsided, and the trade will be represented chiefly
by the agricultural exports from the island until some more favourable
conditions of our occupation may induce a new impulse, and capitalists
may venture upon investments in Cyprus.

The mines of umber near Larnaca have been let, and it is by no means
improbable that an extension may in a few years be apparent in
enterprises of this description. Copper mines near Khrysokhus are being
opened, but the preliminary operations can afford no clue to the value
of the result. The umber is shipped exclusively to Holland for the
manufacture of paint, and the produce of Cyprus is considered to be the
finest quality. Although asbestos is reported to exist of a remarkably
long fibre and soft texture, I have never met with it except in the
coarse form which is common in many portions of the island, especially
on the Troodos range, where the base of this stone is a shining greenish
substance of a horny texture, which gradually terminates in bristles of
asbestos. I have also seen it in thin veins of metamorphic rocks,
glittering like silver, and when scratched with a knife, it resolves
into a downy condition like scraped cotton. All these mineral resources
require a special and minute investigation.



ESTIMATES OF REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE IN CYPRUS FOR 1878-79.

Memorandum on the Revenue and Charges of the Island of Cyprus for the
Five Years from 1873-4 to 1877-8, under Turkish Administration, with an
Estimate for the Year 1878-9, including the Charges of British
Administration of the Island.

In submitting the enclosed statement of the accounts of Cyprus for the
past five years, with the estimate of revenue and expenditure for the
current official year, 1878-79, I propose to describe briefly the
character and operation of the several taxes of the island in the past,
and the considerations that have guided me in framing the estimate for
the present year.


Dimes, or Tithes on Produce of the Land.

This is the Government share of the produce of the land, and constitutes
by far the largest item in the revenue of the island. In the, year 1874
the tithe was raised to an eighth part, or 12 1/2 per cent on the
produce, but that was abandoned in 1876, and the tithe is all that has
been since levied with the sanction of the Turkish Government.

The unit of the Turkish revenue system is the village; then the nahie,
or group of villages; then the caza (canton); then the sandjak
(arrondissement); and, lastly, the vilayet, or province, under a
Governor-General, Director of Finance, and Council of Administration.
Throughout these several stages-from the village to the nahie, caza,
sandjak, and chief place of the vilayet-there are excellent rules for
the check and disposition of the revenues, but they are not observed.
Indeed, in the judicial, as in the revenue and financial administration
of the island, the organisation of establishments and rules of procedure
are commendable in every way, but the rules are unknown to, or ignored
by, the officials employed to administer them.

The tithes are farmed by the Turkish Government to merchants and
speculators in the spring of each year, when the ripening crops enable
all concerned to estimate the extent and quality of the year's produce.
The sale of the tithes (by villages, nahies, or cazas, as may be
preferred) commences in March and ends on the 15th June, and whatever
tithes then remain unsold the Government undertakes to recover through
its own agents.

When the sales are effected the tithe-farmer signs a bond for the
amount, payable in six monthly instalments, commencing from the 1st
August, with interest on instalments not paid at due date. Each
tithe-farmer is required to have a sufficient surety, who also signs the
bond and is jointly and equally responsible with the principal. After
conclusion of the agreement, the tithe-farmer proceeds at once to watch
the fields in which he is interested and to estimate the yield. He sees
the grain cut, threshed, heaped, and insists upon its remaining upon the
threshing-floor until his claim is satisfied-the claim always exceeding
the stipulated tenth. For wheat, barley, and other grains, arrangements
have to be made by the cultivators for transit to the nearest port of
embarkation, on terms more or less unfavourable to themselves. Their
cattle are taken away for transport when most required in their own
fields, and they have to bear all the expenses of transit, except the
expense of the first mile, which is paid by the tithe-farmers. For
fruit, vegetables, and other perishable articles, the tithe is commuted
in a money payment, respecting which there are usually disputes,
determinable by the local Kaimakam or head Government official of each
caza. The awards of these officials are always in favour of the
tithe-farmers, who are members of the Administrative Councils, or
otherwise persons of influence in the cazas comprised in their
respective engagements. Later in the year, or about the 15th August, the
vineyards are similarly visited by the tithe-farmers or their
representatives, and estimates of the produce are made by them and by
the cultivators. These estimates always differ, and are the subject of
constant disputes, which are referred to the Kaimakam, whose award is
generally in favour of the tithe-farmer. As the grape cannot be removed
until the claim is settled, the cultivator submits to the exactions of
the tithe-farmers rather than risk the deterioration or loss of his
stock, and is thus practically mulcted in proportions far exceeding a
tenth of the entire produce. The effect of these illegal exactions has
been to reduce the cultivation of the grape throughout the island.

But, though keen in their dealings with the peasantry, the tithe-
farmers are slow in their own payments to the Government Treasury.

These payments are required, under their bonds, in six monthly
instalments from the 1st August; grace is allowed for forty days, and
the instalments are required to commence on the 10th September. They are
delayed, however, on various pretexts, and reclamations and remissions
of revenue are often unjustly obtained through collusion with the local
Kaimakams and Malmudirs. Thus, the tithe-farmer makes his bargain with
the Government when the crops are ripening, recovers his claim directly
they are gathered, indefinitely postpones his own obligations to the
Government and often evades them altogether. Although, under his bond,
interest is payable on overdue instalments, it is never enforced. An
examination of the accounts revealed the existence of considerable
arrear claims extending over several years, and for the most part
irrecoverable now. Practically, the tithe-farmer's obligations have
never been discharged in the year to which they belonged. Of the
collections credited in the year 1876-77, nearly one-half was on
account of the claims of prior years.

These facts clearly show that the operation of the tithe system has
resulted in a loss of revenue to the State. It has impoverished the
peasant, involving him in the toils of the money-lender as well as of
the tithe-farmer. It has checked the productiveness of the island, the
area now under cultivation being less than a third of all the culturable
lands of Cyprus. Some modification of the tax, or of the machinery for
its collection, would therefore seem to be imperatively required.

There are not wanting points of analogy, as of difference, between
Cyprus and some of the British provinces of India, and a suggestion has
been made to substitute the Indian system of a fixed money payment for
the tenth of the produce in kind. Curiously enough, the converse
proposition has lately found favour in India in connection with the
agrarian riots in the Dekkan, and what is there regarded as the bane of
the Indian system is now proposed here as the antidote of the Turkish
system. Like the Cypriote, but in a greater degree, the Dekkan peasant
is poor, indebted, and indifferent to the improvement of his land, and
both are constantly liable to the effects of drought and famine. But
whilst the State requires from the former only a tenth part of his
actual crops, the Indian peasant is liable for the full money rate fixed
without regard to the rainfall and the crops. As between the State and
the peasant, the elastic tithe tax would seem to be preferable-its evil
working in Cyprus being due mainly to the irresponsible and unscrupulous
agencies entrusted with the collection of the tithes. In attempting any
reform, therefore, care should be taken at the outset to avoid
principles or methods that have contributed in India to evils similar to
those that have to be rectified here. The direction and scope of the
reform must necessarily depend upon more complete information than is at
present available respecting the land tenures and local agricultural
customs of this island, the varieties of soil, the means of irrigation
actual and possible, and the conditions and habits of the agricultural
classes generally.

Information on these essential points may, however, be obtained
before the termination of the present engagements with the tithe-
farmers in March 1879. A rough field survey would prepare the
ground for a systematic inquiry into rights and interests in each
estate and village throughout the several districts of the island.
The inquiry, conducted by the respective commissioners of districts
in the next few months of favourable weather, may be made to
embrace the following points
  1. The extent of the several holdings, and whether held under
proprietary, sub-proprietary, or occupancy rights.
  2. The average produce of each estate or holding, and its value,
say for the last three or four years.
  3. The areas respectively (1) under cultivation, (2) not under
cultivation but culturable, (3) unculturable and barren waste.
  4. In the case of culturable lands not under cultivation, inquiry
should be made whether this is the result of the oppressive way of
collecting tithes, or the want of money or cultivators, or whether
the land is required for grazing or other purposes.
  5. The character of the soil in various parts of the island, and
the respective producing capabilities.
  6. The arrangements, existing and possible, for irrigation by wells,
aqueducts, and tanks.
  7. The proportion of the people occupied in agriculture, and
the proportion in other pursuits than husbandry.
  8. The personal condition of the agricultural classes, whether well
housed, well clad, with good cattle, ploughs, and gear, or the reverse.
  9. The standard for measuring land. The area of each estate
or holding, after measurement, should be reduced to English
standard acres.

The result of these inquiries, accurately and clearly recorded, would
afford valuable data for determining the extent to which the present
tithe arrangement may be modified for the ensuing financial year.
Whatever modification may be adopted in substance, the tax will at least
be collected without injustice or oppression, and the cost of collection
will be covered by the increased revenue which must result from an
improved administration. The proportion of the produce heretofore taken
in Cyprus, as the share of the Sovereign power, is considerably below
that taken in other Eastern countries. In India, this share under the
ancient Hindoo Rajahs was one-sixth. Under the Mohammedan rule, a third
of the average produce of average land was held to be the Government
share. Under British rule, from one-third to one-half of the rental is
the standard of assessment at the present day, representing a much
larger proportion than a tenth of the produce of the land. And in Cyprus
(as has been shown in the preceding remarks), although the declared
share of the State was only one-tenth, the peasantry have contributed a
very much larger proportion, the difference forming the perquisites of
the collectors of the revenue. Hence it may fairly be assumed that the
British administration may take a larger share than one-tenth of the
produce, without imposing any additional burden whatever on the people.
It may rather be hoped that any increased State demand upon the
cultivator will still leave him a larger proportion of the fruit of his
labours than he has heretofore enjoyed, with absolute freedom in
disposing of it to the best advantage.

A further increase of the revenue from land may be anticipated from the
extension of cultivation. With light assessments, improved
communications, and occasional State aid, a large proportion of the
culturable lands, now lying neglected, may be gradually brought under
cultivation, stimulating the industry of the people, and increasing the
productiveness and wealth of the island.

For the current year, however, the existing arrangement with the
tithe-farmers must be accepted, and the revenue estimated accordingly.
The year's tithes were sold for 82,088 Turkish liras, or nearly 74,000
pounds sterling, and the whole amount has yet to be collected. Already,
the tithe-farmers plead inability to recover their dues from the
cultivators. The truth probably is that, whilst the British
administration has somewhat checked their habitual exactions, it has
emboldened the peasantry to resistance which would never have been
attempted under the Turkish rule. Due justice will be done between the
parties, but, in any case, the Government claim of 82,088 liras is
covered by sufficient security, and will be realised for the most part.
During the earlier months of the current year, before the British
occupation, the sum of 1,306,321 piastres was recovered on account of
silk tithes and tithes of prior years. Adding this sum to the unrealised
claims, and leaving a margin for default, the receipts for the year may
be taken at 8,352,000 piastres, or 72,000 pounds sterling. The average
of the previous five years was 8,584,786 piastres, and they included
three years of scarcity. The account rendered by the Ottoman Government
for the past year, 1877-78, exhibits the dimes or tithes at 12,500,595
piastres, but that was the amount of the year's demand, and the actual
realisations amounted only to 5,072,872 piastres. Looking to the
favourable conditions of the present year as compared with the past
year, the estimate of 72,000 pounds sterling may be accepted.


Tithes on Vakouf Lands.

The tenth part of the produce of vakouf lands, fields, and gardens is
appropriated for the maintenance of mosques, monasteries, tombs, and
other religious foundations. The tithes on vakouf lands are paid to the
Mutavelli, or local administrators of the vakoufs, who remit 20 per cent
to the Minister of the Evkaf at Constantinople, and retain the balance.
The Mutavelli are not required to account to any Government functionary
for the revenue of vakouf lands beyond the annual subsidy of 20 per cent
to the Evkaf. It is understood, however, that in many cases the objects
and purposes for which these vakouf lands were assigned have long since
ceased to exist, and thus not only are the pious intentions of the
founders frustrated, but a considerable public revenue is diverted into
private channels. The legal conditions attached to these vakouf lands,
and to the lands and other property in Cyprus claimed for the Ottoman
Crown and State (under Article IV of the Convention between Great
Britain and Turkey) are at present the subject of a special inquiry, and
the result will have an important bearing on the revenue to be hereafter
administered by the British Government. For the present year, the tithes
on vakouf lands have been farmed for 1,676 Turkish liras in the
districts of Famagousta, Kyrenia, Papho, and Limasol. No tithes have
been sold in the other divisions. As the tithes on vakouf lands do not
belong to the general revenues of the island, they are not included in
the estimate now submitted.


Verghis.

This tax is divided into three classes:--
1. Emlak verghisi, or impost on houses or immovable property,
at 4 per thousand on the purchasing value.
2. Impost of 4 per cent on the rent of immovable property, or
houses not occupied by their owners. The rent is assumed at io
per cent of the value.
3. Verghi temetu, or impost on professions and trades, at 3 per
cent on profits and salaries.

Before the beginning of each financial year, the district authorities
prepare statements designating the contributions required from each
village and town, according to the number of houses, the number and
means of the population. The assessment is made roughly, and the tax is
recovered by Moukhtars of villages, selected by the inhabitants and
confirmed by the district authorities. All collections are forwarded, as
recovered, to the Treasury of the sandjak.

All sales and transfers of immovable property, with the title-deeds
thereto appertaining, have to be registered in the Registration Office,
and the means are thus partially afforded for assessing the owners of
property for the 4 per thousand on the value, and the 4 per cent. on the
rental.

But the 3 per cent. on professional profits and salaries is arbitrarily
fixed for each village, or group of villages, and the Moukhtars levy the
personal contributions of each tax-payer as they think fit.

In this process there is considerable oppression of the poorer
taxpayers, and also loss of revenue to the State. Both would be
obviated, or at all events mitigated, by entrusting the assessment to
Government officers, and by a more careful and exact registration of
property, and of profits from trades and professions. The revenue from
the licence tax in towns must largely increase in the future.

As a rule, the district officers endeavour to recover the verghis before
tax-payers are subjected to the exactions of the tithe-farmers for
payment of the dimes and other imposts. In some of the Turkish vilayets,
the Government have gone so far as to forbid the local tribunals from
condemning the tax-payers to pay the claims of third parties until they
have assurance that the verghis have been paid.

The average yield of the verghis tax in the last five years was
3,521,083 piastres, or 30,354 pounds per annum. The account of the last
year of the series (1877-78) showed a revenue of 3,193,850 piastres, or
27,535 pounds. The demand for the current year is 3,380,246 piastres, of
which only 518,545 piastres have been recovered up to the present time.
The slackness of the Turkish revenue officials in collecting this tax is
due partly to the change of administration and uncertainty as to future
taxation of the island, and partly to the war tax and other burdens
imposed upon the people during the past year. The needful measures have
now been adopted for effecting recovery, and as the tax affects property
and the well-to-do classes, it is hoped that about 2,000,000 piastres
will be recovered in the next six months. Adding this sum to the
recoveries already effected, the revenue of the entire year is estimated
at 2,552,000 piastres, or 22,000 pounds.


Tax on Exemption from Military Service.

This superseded the capitation tax formerly levied upon Christian
subjects, and other subjects of the Porte who were not Mohammedans, for
exemption from military service. It is a tax of 27 3/4 piastres for each
male inhabitant from twenty to forty years of age, but practically it is
levied upon males below and above the limits of age. Returns of the
numbers coming under this impost are settled between the heads of
villages and the Moukhtars. The latter are required to recover the money
and pay it in twelve monthly instalments into the chest of the sandjak.

The rate of 27 3/4 piastres is equivalent to 5s. per man per annum.
There is no apparent reason why it should not be paid at once and
credited in the Government Treasury immediately on payment.

This tax is unpopular and offensive to those whom it affects throughout
the Turkish dominions. The Greek, Armenian, Bulgarian subjects of the
Porte have protested against it from time to time, but without effect.
Were these declared eligible for military service on the same terms as
Mohammedan subjects, but with the option of providing substitutes, the
impost would be relieved of its invidious character, and perhaps yield a
larger revenue to the State than heretofore. This, however, equally with
the exoneration tax, would be inappropriate in Cyprus under a British
administration, which does not require any considerable proportion of
the population for military service. It is matter for consideration,
therefore, whether this light tax may be continued in some other form.

The average yield of this tax during the past five years was eqivalent
to 12,270 pounds a year. It increased last year, on account of the war,
to 15,110 pounds. But in the current year the recoveries have been
slack, for the reasons stated above in regard to the verghis, and the
estimate is therefore for 1,044,000 piastres, or 9,000 pounds.


Tax on Sheep.

There is a regular enumeration of the sheep and goats throughout every
village in the island during the month of March, and the tax is evied at
the rate of 2 1/2 piastres, or about 6d. per head. The tax is collected
by the Local Government officials, and with proper arrangements should
all be recovered in the month of April, but there are considerable
arrear claims, extending back to several years.

The average revenue derived from this tax in the last five years was
9,854 pounds per annum. The recoveries already made in the current year
amount to 1,187,364 Piastres, or 10,235 pounds. The estimate for the
entire year is taken at 1,276,000 piastres, or 11,000 pounds, and the
realisation of this sum may be expected.


Miscellaneous Revenue.

Under this head are comprised various small taxes, such as the tax on
sales and transfers of landed property, on contracts, on measurements,
on sale of cattle, on swine, stamps, judicial fees and fines, &c. The
average yield of these taxes in the last five years was 767,005
piastres, with an increasing tendency in the later years. The amount
recovered in the first six months of the current year was 743,775
piastres. The estimate for the entire year may therefore be safely taken
at 1,102,000 piastres, or 9,500 pounds.


Customs.

We now come to the indirect taxes. I hope on a future occasion to
describe, more fully than time will allow at present, the effect of the
existing customs tariff in the past, and the modifications that may be
made under British administration in this important branch of the public
revenue, and in the excise on tobacco and spirits. It is sufficient to
say at present that the customs revenue is derived from a duty of 8 per
cent. upon imports and 1 per cent. upon exports, and that the receipts
of the last five years give an average of 981,405 piastres, or 8,460
pounds. The increased population and trade consequent upon the British
occupation of the island have already had a sensible effect upon the
revenue. The collections in the first four months of the current
official year under Turkish rule amounted to 268, 718 piastres, or 2,316
pounds. In the next two months of British administration they amounted
to 305,386 piastres, or 2,632 pounds, being an increase of over 127 per
cent., and that without any change in the tariff or the customs
regulations. A continuance of this rate may safely be reckoned upon for
the next six months, and the revenue of the entire year is therefore
estimated at 1,554,400 piastres, or 13,400 pounds. This estimate takes
account of the probable early abolition of all export duties.


Excise on Tobacco and Spirits.

The receipts of the last five years give an average annual revenue of
6,475 pounds for tobacco and 4,546 pounds for spirits. The receipts for
the first six months of the current year amount to 4,400 pounds for
tobacco and 3,930 pounds for spirits. The estimate for the entire year
is 8,650 pounds for tobacco and 8,200 pounds for spirits, and it is
expected that the actual realisations will fully cover the estimate.


Revenue from Salt.

A considerable revenue was derived from the Government monopoly of the
salt lakes in the neighbourhood of Larnaca and Limasol. The salt was
sold for local consumption and for exportation to the coast of Syria,
but an injudicious increase to the selling price, with short weights and
increased cost of shipment, diverted the supply of the Syrian demand
from Cyprus to the salt lakes of Tunis, and gradually reduced the
revenue from this source. Owing to the excessive rains of last year, and
the influx of more fresh water into the lakes than could be evaporated
by the sun's rays during the summer, the lakes are at present
unproductive. But in the earlier months of the current year, under
Turkish administration, the sum of 1,756,840 piastres was recovered and
credited in the Treasury on account of previous salt dues, and that
amount is accordingly entered on the estimate with its English
equivalent of 15,145 pounds. No other receipts are expected in the
current year, and the revenue from salt has practically ceased. A
considerable outlay will be required to repair and secure the salt lakes
against the irruption of the drainage of the surrounding country.

The past revenue from salt should be excluded from the computation of
the payment to be made to the Porte from the surplus revenues of Cyprus,
under Article III of the Convention of 4th June, 1878.

To sum up. Having regard to the revenue arrangements concluded before
arrival of the British in Cyprus, to the realisations in the first four
months of the current year under Turkish administration, and to the
altered conditions under which the finance of the remainder of the year
has to be administered, I am of opinion that the revenue may be safely
estimated at 170,000 pounds, as below:--

                                                           Pounds
Tithes on land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   72,000
Tax on property, professions, and trades . . . . . . . .   22,000
Tax on sheep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   11,000
Tax for exemption from military service. . . . . . . . .    9,000
Customs duties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   13,400
Excise on tobacco and spirits  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   16,850
Salt monopoly  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   15,145
Miscellaneous  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   10,605
Total  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  170,000

In future years even though the revenue from the salt monopoly be
entirely lost, we may confidently hope for such an expansion of the
revenue from land*, (*footnote: The island of Cyprus is 140 miles bang
from east to West, with an average breadth of 30 miles. This gives an
area of 4,200 square miles, or 2,688,000 acres. Assuming even 1,500,000
acres to be culturable, with an average rental of 2 shillings an acre,
the should have a revenue from this source alone of 150,000 pounds a
year.) from houses, from customs and excise duties, as will ensure a
total income of more than 200,000 pounds a year.


Expenditure of Cyprus.

The estimate of expenditure is based upon the actual cost of the Turkish
and native establishments now maintained, and the cost of the new
agencies created by the change of administration. The account of
expenditure rendered by the Ottoman Government for the past five years
gives an annual average of about 24,000 pounds a year. Deducting from
this rate the pay of officials and subordinate establishments no longer
retained, also pensions and charitable allowances, and the cost for six
months of the old Zaphtieh or police force (the corresponding charge for
the reformed police force being added to the estimated cost of British
establishments), the balance of 1,972,000 piastres, or 17,000 pounds,
may be accepted as a fair estimate of the charges for native
establishments in the island during the current official year. The
charges for British establishments are estimated at 35,000 pounds, and
they include expenses, incidental to the occupation of a new country,
that are not likely to recur. It will be possible, in the future, to
reduce the scale of charges for British and native establishments, as
further experience is gained, and the entire machinery of the executive
administration is brought under effective control.

The estimated expenditure for Native and British establishments may be
broadly divided under the following heads:--

Central Administration-
        Including pay of the Turkish Governor for part
           of the year, and of the British High
           Commissioner, Financial and Judicial
           Commissioners, and High Court for remainder
           of the year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,400

     District Administration--
        Including British Commissioners of District,
           Native and British Establishments . . . . . . . 13,500
           Military Police . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16,500
           Customs and Excise Establishment  . . . . . . .  5,000
           Prisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3,000
           Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1,600
                                                          --------
                                                           52,000

The expenditure of the current year being estimated at 52,000 Pounds,
and the revenue at 170,000 Pounds, the resulting surplus will be 118,000
pounds. An examination of the accounts of Cyprus, for the five years
preceding the British occupation, enables me to affirm that the average
surplus of revenue over expenditure in that period was less than 100,000
Pounds per annum. The future yearly contribution to the Ottoman
Government from the surplus revenues of Cyprus, under the Convention of
the 4th June, 1878, will not, therefore, exceed, and may fall short of,
the sum of 100,000 Pounds. Nearly one half of this claim for the current
year was taken by the Turks from surplus revenue before our arrival. We
shall easily make up the balance from the revenue now in course of
collection. And, under ordinary conditions, the current revenue will not
only cover the annual payment to the Porte and the expenses of
administration, but also provide a fair outlay for roads and sanitary
improvements.

(Signed)

GEO. W. KELLNER,
Financial Commissioner of Cyprus.

NICOSIA, CYPRUS, September 25, 1878.



            ESTIMATE OF REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE FOR THE YEAR
                            1878-79

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|No|      Revenue           | Amount|No|    Expenditure       |Amount |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  |                        |  _L_  |  |                      |  _L_  |
| 1| Dimes or tithes on pro-|       |1 |Pay of the Turkish Go-|       |
|  | duce of land . . . .   | 72,000|  |vernor of Cyprus for  |       |
|  |                        |       |  |part of the year, and |       |
|  |                        |       |  |of the British High   |       |
|  |                        |       |  |Commisioner for       |       |
|  |                        |       |  |remainder of the year;|       |
|  |                        |       |  |also Secretarial      |       |
|  |                        |       |  |Establishments for the|       |
|  |                        |       |  |entire year.          |  9,000|
|  |                        |       |  |                      |       |
| 2| Verghis, or tax upon   |       |2 |Finance and Accounts  |       |
|  | property, professions  |       |  |Establishments . . .  |  1,400|
|  | and trades . . . . . . | 22,000|  |                      |       |
|  |                        |       |  |                      |       |
| 3|Tax for exemption from  |       |  |                      |       |
|  |Military Service. . . . | 9,000 |3 |Law and Justice,      |       |
|  |                        |       |  |including Insular High|       |
|  |                        |       |  |Court . . . . . . . . |  2,000|
|  |                        |       |  |                      |       |
| 4|Sheep tax . . . . . . . | 11,000|4 |Administrative Estab- |       |
|  |                        |       |  |lishments of the six  |       |
|  |                        |       |  |districts of Cyprus,  |       |
|  |                        |       |  |including cost of col-|       |
|  |                        |       |  |lection of district   |       |
|  |                        |       |  |revenues, establish-  |       |
|  |                        |       |  |ments of district     |       |
|  |                        |       |  |Judicial Courts, &c. .| 13,500|
|  |                        |       |  |                      |       |
| 5|customs Duties . . . . .| 13,400|5 |Cost of Prisons . . . |  3,000|
|  |                        |       |  |                      |       |
| 6|Excise on Tobacco and   |       |6 |Cost of Military      |       |
|  |Spirits . . . . . . . . | 16,850|  |Police Force . . . . .| 16,500|
|  |                        |       |  |                      |       |
| 7|Salt Monopoly . . . . . | 15,145|7 |Customs and Excise    |       |
|  |                        |       |  |Establishments . . . .|  5,000|
|  |                        |       |  |                      |       |
| 8|Miscellaneous, including|       |8 |Miscellaneous,        |       |
|  |tax on sale and transfer|       |  |including Educational |       |
|  |of landed property, on  |       |  |Establishments . . . .|  1,600|
|  |measurements, on con-   |       |  |                      |_______|
|  |tracts, judicial fees   |       |  |                      |       |
|  |and fines, &c . . . . . | 10,605|  |                      |       |
|  |                        |       |  |                      |       |
|  |                        |       |  |    Total of Estimated|       |
|  |                        |       |  |    Expenditure . . . | 52,000|
|  |                        |       |  |                      |       |
|  |                        |       |  |    Surplus . . . . . |118,000|
|  |   Grand total Estimated|_______|  |                      |       |
|  |   Revenue . . . . . . .|170,000|  |    Grand total . . . |170,000|
|__|________________________|_______|__|______________________|_______|


DETAIL ESTIMATE OF EXPENDITURE FOR BRITISH AND
NATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS IN CYPRUS FOR 1878-79,

                        British Establishments.
                                                          L.   s.  d.
Cost of the Nicosia Division . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1,844 12  0
Cost of other five divisions of Cyprus, viz.,
Larnaca, Famagousta, Limasol, Papho, and Kyrenia . . .   7,000  0  0
Financial Commissioner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     666  0  0
Judicial ditto   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     600  0  0
Judicial Clerk, and contingencies  . . . . . . . . . .     200  0  0
Interpreter of High Court  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     240  0  0
Director of Customs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     510  0  0
Customs and Excise Establishments  . . . . . . . . . .   5,000  0  0
High Commissioner and office establishments,
travelling expenses, including furniture, 400L.  . . .   5,700  0  0
Travelling allowances for High Commissioner  . . . . .     300  0  0
Re-organised Police Force for the Island of Cyprus,
including pay, rations, and clothing . . . . . . . . .  11,000  0  0

Temporary translators to be hereafter absorbed in
Civil Establishments and contingencies in
connection therewith  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1,340  0  0
Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    600  0  0
                                                         ------------
                                                       35,000   0  0


                    Native Establishments.

            Add.                      Piastres.
Expenses of Turkish Establishment    2,609,549

                    Deduct.
Pay of Mutessarif for six months,
60,000 piastres; Zaphtiehs for six
months, 500,000 piastres; Pensioners
and correspondence &c. . . . . . . . . 637,549
                                      -------------
                                     1,972,000          17,000  0  0

Total cost of British and Native Civil Establishments
in Cyprus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52,000  0  0



ESTIMATES OF REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE IN
CYPRUS FOR 1879-80.

ESTIMATE OF REVENUE, 1879-80

Nature of Revenue.                 Estimate, 1879-80.
                                   Piastres       L
Tithes                             8,640,000
Verghis                            3,400,000
Military exemption                 1,080,000
Sheep tax                          1,220,000
Miscellaneous                      2,000,000
Customs                            2,800,000
Excise                             2,128,000
                                ---------------------------
Total                             21,268,000 == 177,233

ESTIMATE OF EXPENDITURE, 1879-80.

Designation.                                   Annual Cost
                                           L    s.  d.     L    s.  d.
ESTABLISHMENTS OF THE CENTRAL
ADMINISTRATION.

The High Commissioner, Executive and
 Legislative Councils                   11,106 17   0
The Department of Finance and Accounts   2,127  0   0
The Department of Law and Justice        4,985 12   0

DISTRICT ESTABLISHMENTS.

The District of Nicosia                  4,453  8   0
       "        Larnaca                  4,585  3   0
       "        Famagousta               3,035  8   0
       "        Limasol                  3,306  4   0
       "        Papho                    2,959  0   0
       "        Kyrenia                  2,131  0   0

Customs and Excise                       4,636 18   0
Police                                  23,241 14   0
Prisons                                  2,583 17   0
Miscellaneous                            1,000  0   0
Expenses of collection of taxes hitherto
  sold to tax-farmers                    5,000  0   0
                                        --------------
Total of Establishments.                                75,152  1   0

Payment under agreement with the Porte (about)          96,000  0   0
Interest on money borrowed for Public Works,
  shown in the annexed Schedule, say                     1,200  0   0
Expenses of the Survey                                   1,990  0   0
                                                      ----------------
Total Expenditure                                      174,342  1   0



APPENDIX.

SCHEDULES.

ROUGH DETAIL OF THE ROADS TO BE CONSTRUCTED IN THE
FINANCIAL YEAR 1879-80.
                                                                     £
From Nicosia to cut through the fortifications at the Papho Gate,
making a raised causeway over ditch and a road connecting it
with the Government Office at the High Commissioner's residence,
and with the main road from Nicosia to Larnaca, about
2 1/2 miles                                                       800
From Nicosia to Kyrenia, about 16 miles                         1,100*
From Vassilia to Hai Grosch (Kyrenia district), about 22 miles  1,600*
From Larnaca to Limasol, about 40 miles                         6,000*
From Limasol to Papho, about 39 miles                           5,000&
Chrysokou to Levka, about 32 miles                              5,000&
Nicosia to Famagousta, about 35 miles                           4,000^
Famagousta to Trichomo, about 15 miles                          1,000^
To improve the tracks between Trichomo and Carpas, 35 miles     2,700^
Rebuild culverts on Larnaca-Famagousta road                       200^
Improving country roads in Larnaca district                       900^
Gap in Mountain road from Larnaca to Messaria, to make it
   practicable for carts                                          100^
                                                               -------
       Total                                                    28,400
   *Not finished for carts.    &Not commenced.
   ^Most of these have not been commenced, August 1879.


ROUGH DETAIL OF NEW BUILDINGS TO BE CONSTRUCTED IN
THE FINANCIAL YEAR 1879-80.

                                                       Estimated cost.
                                                               £
Rebuild the Konak of Nicosia                                3,000
   "        Konak and prison at Papho.                        600
   "        Mudirate at Chrysokou                              70
   "        Custom-house, Police barracks,
            and Konak at Limasol                            1,500
The Mudirate of Kilani to be rebuilt at Platraes              500
Repairs to various buildings                                  330
                                                          -----------
     Total                                                  6,000

APPENDIX.

ESTIMATE OF REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE FOR THE FINANCIAL YEAR ENDING 31st
MARCH, 1880, FOR THE DISTRICT OF BAFFO.

Kindly supplied by the Chief Commissioner, Captain A. G. Wauchope,
42nd Highlanders.

                   Revenue
No. 1--Tithes of Kuklia                                         £1,100
        "       Ballo                                            2,800
        "       Khrysokus                                        3,400
 "  2-- "       Silk Production                                    760
        "       Caroub Production                                  333
 "  3  Sheep tax                                      £1,760
       Swine tax                                         250     2,010
 "  4--Weighing and Measuring tax                                  100
 "  5--Court Fees                                                  226
       Registration of Property                                    120
       Inland Revenue Stamps                                        80
 "  6--Customs and Excise                                        1,000
 "  7--Verghi                                                    3,747
       Askeria (freedom from military service)                     708
 "  8--Miscellaneous                                               100
                                                               -------
                                                               £16,484
                                                               -------

                   EXPENDITURE.

No. 1--British Establishment, including Interpreters            £1,330
 "     Native         do.                 do.                      540
 "  2--Houses for Commissioner and Assistant do.          £90
       Stationery                                          47
       Travelling Expenses of all officers                140      277
 "  3--Petty repairs £100, Public works £120                       220
 "  4--Military Police                                           3,200
       Prison £114, Daavi Court £171                               285
 "  5--Customs and Excise                                          280
 "  6--Tithing Expenses                                            880
 "  7--Expenses of Sheep tax £57, Pig tax £15, Weighing
         and Measuring £48                                         120
 "  8--Collecting Locust Eggs                                      120
                                                              --------
                                                                 7,252
           Balance of surplus Revenue                            9,232
                                                              --------
                                                               £16,484
                                                              --------
SILK CULTIVATION OF BAFFO.

"This year the peasants brought to the market 34,000 okes of Silk
(93,500 lbs.) cocoons, which realised to them about 6,800L. These
cocoons were bought by three merchants excepting about 2,500 okes of
silk wound by the people here." . . . "You are aware that the cocoon
before being in a fit state to export must be dried, and during the
process a great shrinkage takes place, which varies considerably
according to the original quality of the cocoon. This year the cocoon
was excellent and the shrinkage small; 3 1/2 wet cocoons equalling 1
dry, while last year 5 wet equalled 1 dry.

"It is upon the dried cocoon that the tithe is fixed. When the cocoon is
good and the price likewise, there is very little winding done here."

"It is computed that the Caroub trees in the Baffo district number about
40,000. Of Olive trees I cannot give you anything like a guess; I should
only be misleading you."

(Signed),"A. G. WAUCHOPE."


It will be remarked that no outlay is contemplated for road-making or
repairs of bridges, nor for any of the necessary public works, as the
general revenue of the island cannot afford the local expenditure. This
otherwise prosperous little province would be self-sustaining, as
sufficient income would be realised for the annual outlay required for
road-making and other improvements. There cannot be a truer example of
the error in our Convention with the Porte by which we have agreed to
the surplus revenue exhibited by the Turkish system of accounts in an
average of five years. The Baffo estimates show a surplus of 9232L. upon
the financial year, but there is the forced neglect of all necessary
improvements owing to the terms of our occupation, which rob the country
of about 100,000L. annually. According to the figures of the Baffo
forecast of revenue and expenditure, Cyprus can afford to pay the amount
of rental to the Porte, but this is to the detriment of all public
works, which will render material progress impossible, at the same time
that the incubus of Turkish taxation will be permanent.


JUDICIAL ADMINISTRATION.

By an Order in Council on 14 September, 1878, powers were given for the
administration of Cyprus by a High Commissioner appointed by Her
Majesty, together with a Legislative Council constituted according to
Clause VI. :-

"The Legislative Council for the said island shall consist of the High
Commissioner for the time being, and of such other public officers and
persons within the same, not being less than four or more than eight in
number, as shall be named or designated for that purpose by her
Majesty."

In Clause XXI. :-

"The High Commissioner may constitute and appoint all such Judges,
Justices of the Peace, and other necessary officers in the said island
as may lawfully be appointed by her Majesty, all of whom shall hold
their offices during her Majesty's pleasure."

It was agreed with the Porte :-

"I. That a Mussulman religious tribunal (Mehkemei Sheri) shall continue
to exist in the island, which will take exclusive cognizance of
religious matters, and of no others, concerning the Mussulman population
of the island.

"II. That a Mussulman resident in the island shall be named by the Board
of Pious Foundations in Turkey (Evkaf) to superintend, in conjunction
with a delegate to be appointed by the British authorities, the
administration of the property, funds, and lands belonging to mosques,
cemeteries, Mussulman schools, and other religious establishments
existing in Cyprus."

The Turkish law courts were preserved in their original construction
under the supervision of the Commissioners of the six districts:--
Lefkosia, Larnaca, Famagousta, Baffo, Limasol, Kyrenia. These courts are
the Idari and Daavi, the Temiz or supreme court sitting in Lefkosia. The
Idari and Daavi courts exist independently in each district. The Cadi is
judge in the Idari, which is composed of three Mussulmans and two
Christians elected by the population, and this court is specially
presided over by the British Commissioner, and all cases in detail are
translated and entered in the register. The Daavi Medjlis or court
consists of five members--the Cadi, two Mussulmans, and two Christians.

An appeal from the decisions of these courts can be made to the High
Court of Temiz at Lefkosia, the decision of which is final, only subject
to the influence of Clauses XXII. and XXIII. in powers granted to the
High Commissioner by Order in Council of 14 September, 1878 :-

"XXII. The High.Commissioner may, as he shall see occasion, in her
Majesty's name and on her behalf, grant to any offender convicted of any
crime, in any court, or before any Judge, Justice, or Magistrate within
the said island, a free and unconditional pardon, or a pardon subject to
such conditions as may at any time be awfully thereunto annexed, or any
respite of the execution of the sentence of any such offender for such
period as to him may seem fit."

"XXIII. The High Commissioner may, as he shall see occasion, in her
Majesty's name and on her behalf, remit any fines, penalties, or
forfeitures which may accrue or become payable to her, provided the same
do not exceed the sum of fifty pounds sterling in any one case, and may
suspend the payment of any such fine, penalty, or forfeiture exceeding
the sum of fifty pounds until her Majesty's pleasure thereon shall be
made known and signified to him."


MIGRATORY BIRDS.

The birds of passage that visit Cyprus (excepting swallows), exhibit a
peculiarity in their insignificant numbers compared with their
migrations upon the mainlands of Asia, Southern Europe, and Africa. The
bustards that are so common in Turkey and Asia Minor are seldom seen.
The grey crane frequently passes over Cyprus without resting upon its
long flight, and in the month of March its loud cry may be heard so far
in the blue sky that it is difficult to distinguish the flocks of these
large birds at the stupendous height of their airy road towards the
north. Even should the cranes condescend to rest for a short interval
during an unfavourable wind, they leave on the first opportunity. I have
frequently heard them high in air travelling throughout the night--thus
during night and day they have been sailing northwards to make the most
of fair wind and weather.

The sand-grouse is to be seen occasionally on the plains of Messaria,
but never in the quantities that are met with in other neighbouring
countries. Woodcocks are scarce, and those which are shot must have
halted in the island during their passage en route for other shores.
Snipe are very numerous in the marshes of Limasol salt lakes, Morphu,
Famagousta, Kuklia, and Larnaca. Quails are never plentiful, and are
inferior in condition to those of Egypt and Southern Europe. Wild ducks
are to be seen on the lake near Famagousta and at Limasol. The
wood-pigeons, and doves, together with fly-catchers, arrive in April,
but never in large numbers.

Return of Villages, Population, etc., of Famagousta District.

                      Villages Churches Mosques Turks Christians Total
Naleieh of Famasousta       9*      20       6    685   3,978    4,663
   "       Carpas          36       46      13  3,470   7,168   10,638
   "       Messaria        68       66      29  4,861  12,434   17,295
                          113      132      48  9,016  23,580   32,596

* Includes Famagousta town.
                                           Piastres     L   s. d.
The taxes for the year 1878 amounted to   1,370,221 = 11,418 10 4
(This being paid in Coime at a very
variable rate, it is scarcely correct
to reduce the amounts to sterling.)
The tithes of this district were farmed
out in 1878 for ... ... ...                           25,000  0 0

Revenue therefore was                                 36,418 10 4


The taxes for the year 1879 amount to...              10,379  90
This does not include indirect taxes such as
  Customs, say...                                      1,000  00

                                                      11,379  90

It is impossible to calculate the tithes yet for this year (1879). From
Famagousta the chief exports are corn, from Messaria, donkeys, fruit,
and pottery, the two latter chiefly from Varoshia.



Cyprus: Trooditissa Monastery,
4400 feet above the sea
21 September, 1879.

Messrs. Macmillan & Co.

MY DEAR SIRS,

If I am in time to secure the last efforts of the printer perhaps this
letter in its integrity may convey the information which the autumnal
season has afforded. The difficulty of all writers upon strange
countries lies in their short experience. Each month exhibits the
changes of nature in seasons, meteorological phenomena, and vegetation;
thus the full twelve months should form the data for a detailed
description. I closed my account of Cyprus in August; since which fruits
have ripened and various changes have developed--all have afforded
information.

Taxation in kind, and Government valuation of produce while growing, has
been a crying evil that I have endeavoured to bring before the public as
one of those instances of injustice which stamps the oppressive system
of the Turkish administration; this unfortunately has not yet been
abolished by the British Government. I have already described the
arbitrary and unjust laws that fetter the all-important wine trade,
which is the principal industry of Limasol; but since I forwarded the
manuscript to England I have myself witnessed the miserable effects of
the present laws during the advance of the season in ripening the
produce of the vineyards.

Three weeks ago I walked for some hours through the boundless extent of
grape cultivation at the foot of the mountains below the village of
Phyni; at that time the crop was ripe, and should have been gathered.

The bunches of dark red were equal to the finest hot-house grapes of
England, both in weight and in size of berries; the black were about the
average of the Black Hamburg; the white were smaller and about the size
of the common "sweet-water." A day or two ago I again visited the same
vineyards; the grapes had not been gathered, and I computed that at
least one-third of the crop was destroyed by the delay. The magnificent
bunches of dark red were for the most part shrivelled, one-half the
berries upon each cluster being reduced to the appearance of raisins,
and utterly devoid of juice, while many of the other varieties were
completely withered. The explanation given by the people was simple
enough--"The official valuer had not appeared, and without his
certificate no grapes could be gathered." There are only three valuers
to an extensive district, and it is physically impossible that they can
perform their duties, even were they inclined to attend when summoned to
each village, in the absence of some special inducement. The actual
labour of walking up the abrupt inclines upon the mountain sides which
constitute the vineyards is most formidable, and at least four times the
staff is necessary, of young and capable men, if the valuation of the
crop is to be taken with due consideration to the interests of the
grower. The distressing result that I have myself witnessed in the
partial destruction of the crops can admit of no excuse, but it exhibits
a painful example of mal-administration in the ruin attendant upon a
Turkish system of taxation.

Some persons may suggest that the dried and withered grapes would be
saleable as raisins: this is not the case. Raisins are not merely dried
grapes, as is generally supposed, but the bunch of well-ripened berries
is dipped in a strong solution of potash, and is then either suspended
or is more generally laid upon a mat to dry. In Cyprus the growers
seldom purchase potash, but they dip their grapes in a ley produced from
the ashes of certain woods.

The vineyards at this season are swarming with a species of beccaficos,
and the population are busy in catching these delicious birds with
sticks smeared with bird-lime. It is a species of finch, a little larger
than the chaffinch, the plumage a brownish grey; when plucked the body
is much larger than the common beccaficos, but resembles it in
extraordinary fatness and delicacy of flavour. The natives preserve them
by boiling in commanderia wine, and they are highly appreciated. These
must be added to the migratory birds of Cyprus.

The acorns are nearly ripe, and I am assured by the monks that even
these insignificant productions pay a tax of 6d. per kilo (about 32
lbs.), and the crop is valued accordingly by the special authority.
There are three varieties of large timber oaks in addition to the ilex
and the prickly holly-leaved oak. The acorns of the ilex and holly-
leaved species are small, but those of the three superior species vary
in size, all being much larger than those of England, while one variety
measures nearly three inches in length. This is used as food, with no
other preparation than simple roasting, and is considered to be superior
to chestnuts. The Ancient Britons used the acorn as an article of food,
and probably it was ground into flour after the bitter principle had
been extracted by soaking in running water, in the same manner that many
varieties of wild yams are treated by the natives in Africa. In addition
to the use of the acorn as a substitute for chestnuts by the Cypriotes,
the large species when roasted black makes excellent coffee without any
admixture of the real berry. All the varieties can be used for this
purpose, but that already named is preferred as superior in flavour. The
English poor are not clever in adaptation, and are known to be strong in
prejudices respecting articles of diet, but it appears strange that the
use of the acorn has been entirely neglected as an aid to the bulk of
pure coffee, which would effect a considerable saving in the household,
if the adulteration took place at home.

A few days ago I was conversing with the old monk upon the question of
"Chittim wood," and I suggested my own theory, "that Solomon required
the highly-scented cypress of this island" (for the Temple.) My
venerable informant declared "that a wood exists to this day in Cyprus
which is supposed to be the original species referred to in Scripture;
this is a pine which is only found upon the mountains between Kyku and
Khrysokhus. The grain and surface when planed are exceedingly close and
smooth, and the timber is strong and durable, far exceeding in quality
all other varieties." The native name for this tree is Kandro. I have
sent a monk to gather the cones of this tree, which I shall send to
England for seed, together with a sample of the foliage.

Sincerely yours,
Samuel W. Baker.

Sept. 24, 1879.

P.S. My messenger has just returned with a branch and cones of the tree,
which is only found upon the mountains between Kyku and Khrysokhus.
There is no longer a doubt. It is a beautiful species of Cedar.

S. W. B.





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