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´╗┐Title: The American Goliah
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The American Goliah" ***

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A Wonderful Geological Discovery

Ten And One-Half Feet High Discovered
In Onondaga County, N.Y.

[[Wood Cut Here]]

History of the discovery on October 16, 1869, of an image of stone,
the same being a perfectly formed and well developed man, descriptions
of the petrification, with the opinions of scientific men thereon.

(Entered according to Act of Congress, A.D., 1869, by Redington
& Howe, in the Clerk's Office of the Northern District of N.Y.


This pamphlet is the only authorized account of the discovery of
the great wonder and the latest facts regarding management;  and
is the only publication furnished by the owners of the Giant with
immediate and authentic information of any examinations, experiments
or new developments regarding it.  Such new facts will be immediately
added to this pamphlet, together with such scientific opinions as
may be of interest or value to the public.

The statements herein contained have been taken from the lips of
living witnesses on the ground where the events transpired,
(excepting where reports are credited to other sources,) and
can be depended upon as reliable.

This publication will be found valuable for preservation, as it
records perhaps the most important scientific discovery of this
century.  Certainly the wonder is something that in the whole
history of this country has never been exceeded, even if ever equaled.

This pamphlet combines all the important facts as narrated by the
newspaper press, in addition to whatever others may occur, placing
them in a convenient form for permanent preservation.  Cuts are
being prepared, illustrating, the various points of interest.

The Trade supplied by Redington & Howe, on liberal terms, to whom
all orders (either wholesale or retail) should be addressed.


On Saturday forenoon, Oct. 16th, 1869, William C. Newell, a farmer
residing near the village of Cardiff, in the town of Lafayette,
County of Onondaga, commenced to dig a well near his barn.  Two
workmen were employed, Gideon Emmons and Henry Nichols;  Mr. Newell
being engaged meanwhile in drawing stone with which to line the well.
At the depth of about three feet one of the workmen struck a stone,
as he at first supposed.  A moment later he thought it a water lime
pipe, and asked for an ax with which to break it.  Before the ax
arrived the foot was partially uncovered, with the exclamation,
"I declare, some old Indian has been buried here!"  Farther
excavation disclosed the entire foot, and a part of the leg.  One
of the workmen, seeing the direction in which the body lay, dug
down just above where he thought the head might be, and his shovel
struck the nose.  The face and head were soon uncovered, and in a
short time the entire figure exposed to view.  There then appeared
to the few assembled spectators the colossal, well-proportioned
form of a human being of the following remarkable


From top of head to instep of sole, ten feet three inches.  If
standing in a perfectly upright position, the height would be ten
feet, seven or eight inches.

Length of head from chin to top of head, twenty-one inches.

Nose, from brow to tip, six inches--across base of nostrils, three
and one-half inches.

Mouth four inches.

Shoulders from point to point, three feet.

Circumference of neck thirty-seven inches.

Length of right arm from point of shoulder to end of middle finger,
four feet, nine and one-half inches.

Across palm of hand, seven inches.

Length of second finger from knuckle joint, eight inches.

Across wrist, five inches.
Distance around thighs, (about half way between knee and thigh
joints,) five feet, seven and one-half inches.

Leg, from hip joint to knee joint, three feet;  through thigh, one
foot;  through calf, nine and one-half inches.

Foot, nineteen and one-half inches.

The discovery, as may be supposed, created an immense sensation.
Mr. Newell was much perplexed and annoyed and determined at one
time to fill up the excavation and keep the discovery from the
knowledge of the public.  Some years ago a razor was found in a
hollow stump near by and suspicions were then thrown out that a
murder had been committed.  The family feared that the corpse of
the murdered man would in some manner confront them through this

A rush occurred of neighbors and others to see the exhumed wonder,
for intelligence of the Giant spread on the wings of the wind.  The
excitement and ceaseless questions still farther confused the mind
of the quiet proprietor and he almost unconsciously consented to
various suggestions.  One was that the body be raised that day
(Saturday,)--consent for which Mr. Newell acknowledges to have
given.  Ropes were procured and preparations made therefor, but
the lateness of the afternoon hour caused its postponement.  This
is a matter of rejoicing to scientific men, as well as the public
generally;  for every one naturally wishes to see the Giant as he
had slept in his bed for centuries, and for themselves examine
the winding sheets he wrapped about him.


The form is lying on its back, the head towards the east and the
feet toward the west.  The reclining posture is a perfectly natural
one, the limbs and feet being slightly drawn up.  The figure
appears as if a person had fallen there and died. There  seem to
be evidences of considerable physical anguish in the position
of the limbs, of the body, and in the tension of the nerves as well
as the contraction of the muscles (which are fully developed.)  The
right hand rests upon the lower abdomen, and the left is pressed
against the back directly opposite.  The left foot is thrown
partially over the right one, the leg resting partly upon its fellow,
but not crossing it.  The head is inclined to the right.

The face is the only part seemingly free from traces of the agony
of dissolution.  The expression is calm, thoughtful, almost sweet.
The high, massive forehead sets off with grand, yet benevolent
dignity, the well rounded and proportioned features.  The
countenance is a study.  Beautiful despite its immensity, it
displays a largeness of kindly feeling not commonly surmised from
Fairy tales of Giants and Giant deeds.  The spectator gazes upon
the grand old sleeper with feelings of admiration and awe.  "Nothing
like it has ever been seen," say all who have gazed upon it.  "It
is a great event in our lives to behold it," (is the universal
verdict,)--" worth coming hundreds of miles for this alone."  "I
would not for anything have missed seeing it, for I consider it
the greatest natural curiosity of the age," say Geologists,
Naturalists, Students and all who can intelligently examine the
Onondaga County Wonder.

The increasing interest of the public and the constantly enlarging
attendance corroborate the previously expressed opinions of the
inestimable value of the discovery, and sanction the verdict that
the Cardiff Giant is the great wonder of the Nineteenth Century.


This question has been diligently asked and variously answered.  Dr.
John F. Boynton, of Syracuse, a celebrated Geologist, went among
the first to the scene and examined the figure with much care.  His
opinion, (which was the first one expressed by any distinguished
scientific authority) has been given decidedly that the body is a
massive and beautiful statue.  His own language will best state
his reasons for declining to think it a petrifaction.  A letter
of his is subjoined, which was kindly furnished by him for
publication.  The letter was written to one of the most scientific
men of America.

SYRACUSE, Oct. 18th, 1869.
Henry Morton, Prof. in Pennsylvania University and Franklin Institute:

DEAR SIR:--On Saturday last, some laborers engaged in digging a
well on the farm of W.C. Newell, near the village of Cardiff,
about 13 miles south of this city, discovered, lying at about three feet
below the surface of the earth, what they supposed to be the
"petrified body" of a human being, of colossal size.  Its length
is ten feet and three inches, and the rest of the body is
proportionately large.  The excitement in this locality over the
discovery is immense and unprecedented.  Thousands have visited
the locality within the last three days, and the general opinion
seems to be that the discovery was the "petrified body" of a human

I spent most of yesterday and to-day, at the location of the
so-called "FOSSIL MAN," and made a survey of the surroundings of
the place where this wonderful curiosity was found.  On a careful
examination, I am convinced that it is not a fossil, but was cut
from a piece of stratified sulphate of lime, (known as the Onondaga
Gypsum.)  If it were pulverized or ground, a farmer would call it
plaster.  It was quarried, probably, somewhere in this county,
from our Gypsum beds.  The layers are of different colors--dark
and light.  The statue was evidently designed to lie on its back,
or partially so, and represents a dead person in a position he
would naturally assume when dying.  The body lies nearly upon the
back, the right side a little lower;  the head leaning a little
to the right.  The legs lie nearly one above the other;  the feet
partially crossed.  The toe of the right foot, a little lower,
showing plainly, that the statue was never designed to stand erect
upon its feet.  The left arm lies down by the left side of the body,
the forearm and hand being partially covered by the body.  The
right hand rests a short distance below the umbilicus, the little
finger spreading from the others, reaching to the pubes.  The whole
statue evidently represents the position that a body would
naturally take at the departure of life.

There is perfect harmony in the different proportions of the
different parts of the statue.  The features are strictly Caucasian,
having not the high bones of the Indian type, neither the outlines
of the Negro race, and being entirely unlike any statuary yet
discovered of Aztec or Indian origin.  The chin is magnificent
and generous;  the eyebrow, or supercilliary ridge, is well arched;
the mouth is pleasant;  the brow and forehead are noble, and the
"Adam's apple" has a full development.  The external genital
organs are large;  but that which represents the integuments,
would lead us the conclusion that the artist did not wish to
represent the erectal tissues injected.

The statue, being colossal and massive, strikes the beholder with
a feeling of awe.  Some portions of the features would remind one
of the bust of De Witt Clinton, and others of the Napoleonic type.
My opinion is that this piece of statuary was made to represent
some person of Caucasian origin, and designed by the artist to
perpetuate the memory of a great mind and noble deeds.  It would
serve to impress inferior minds or races with the great and noble,
and for this purpose only was sculptured of colossal dimensions.
The block of gypsum is stratified, and a dark stratum passes just
below the outer portion of the left eyebrow, appears again on the
left breast, having been chiseled out between the eyebrow and chest,
and makes its appearance again in a portion of the hip.  Some portions
of the strata are dissolved more than others by the action of the water,
leaving a bolder outcroping along the descent of the breast toward
the neck.  The same may, less distinctly, be seen on the side of the
face and head.  I think that this piece of reclining statuary is not 300
years old, but is the work of the early Jesuit Fathers of this country,
who are known to have frequented the Onondaga Valley from 220
to 250 years ago;  that it would probably bear a date in history
corresponding with the monumental stone which was found at
Pompey Hill, in this county, and now deposited in the Academy at
Albany.  There are no marks of violence upon the work;  had it been
an image or idol of worship by the Indians, it could have been easily
destroyed or mutilated with a slight blow by a small stone, and the
toes and fingers could have been easily broken off.  It lay in
quicksand, which, in turn, rested upon compact clay.

My conclusion regarding the object of the deposit of the statue
in this place, is as follows:--It was for the purpose of hiding
and protecting it from an enemy who would have destroyed it, had
it been discovered.  It must have been carefully laid down, and
as carefully covered with boughs and twigs of trees which prevented
it from being discovered.  Traces of this new decomposed vegetable
covering can be seen on every side of the trench, and it is quite
evident this vegetable matter originally extended across and above
the statue.

Above this stratum of decayed matter, there is a deposit of very
recent date, from eighteen inches to two feet in thickness, which
may have been washed in, and likewise turned on by plowing.  A
farmer who had worked the land, told me that he had "back furrowed"
around it, for the purpose of filling up the slough where the statue
now lies.

It is positively absurd to consider this a "fossil man."  It has
none of the indications that would designate it as such, when
examined by a practical chemist, geologist or naturalist.  The
underside is somewhat dissolved, and presents a very rough surface,
and it is probable that all the back or lower portion, was never
chiseled into form, and may have been designed to rest as a tablet.
However, as the statue has not been raised, the correct appearance
of the under surface has not been determined, save by feeling as
I pressed my hand as far as I could reach under different portions
of the body, while its lower half lay beneath the water.

This is one of the greatest curiosities of the early history of
Onondaga county, and my great desire is that it should be preserved
for the Onondaga Historical Society.  Efforts are being made by
some of our citizens to secure this in the county where it belongs,
and not suffer it to bear the fate of other archeological specimens
found in this region.

Hoping to be able to write you more in a few days, I remain
yours truly,  JOHN F. BOYNTON."


"The majority of visitors disagree with the opinion of Dr. Boynton,
that the figure is a statue, and pronounce it a petrified man.  It is
claimed that no sculptor would have invented such an unheard of
position and design for a statue.  No sculptor could have so perfectly
imitated nature, especially in the minutiae which render the image
such a wonder.  It is claimed by the stone cutters and quarrymen
who are constantly engaged in cutting the Onondaga County stone,
that no single block could have been found of sufficient size,
without a seam, from which to have chiseled out such a monster,
(they claiming that the seam would have caused any such statue to
split and fall apart under the necessary concussions required for
cutting it to anything like its perfection in form.)

Other persons argue that no model of such a human being would have
been likely to have been presented to any of the Indian or other
inhabitants of America, within the past few centuries.

Many also ask for what reason should such an immense and expensive
statue be hewn out and placed in so unfrequented a part of the country?
How could it have been transported from the region of rocks to its
present location, in a swamp entirely free from stones) especially
since it is completely without any base or support of stone on which
it can rest." "No statue is known to have been constructed," say
the petrified advocates, "in reclining posture, unless the artist
left some portion of the block of stone upon which the figure should
rest, and be supported and strengthened for a durability of ages."

Other incidental suggestions are set forth as follows, by a writer
in the Syracuse Daily Standard. "

The probabilities of its being a petrifaction have a better
foundation, independent of outward appearances.  First, is the
fact that within a very short time, in the work of grading on
section six of the Cazenovia & Canastota R.R., the skeletons of
five mammoth human beings were exhumed, one of them eleven feet
tall.  The point of exhumation is not twenty miles distant from
Cardiff.  There are proofs of a giant race on this continent, and
in this part of it;  how far back, no one can tell.  Second--There
is now in the possession of the Onondaga Historical Association, a
fish near one foot long, petrified to a perfect stone solidity,
which was found near Cardiff, and the color of this petrified fish
is very similar to the Cardiff giant stone.  Mr. W.B. Kirk, of this
city, when living at Cardiff many years ago, found near there a
good sized Perch, that was perfectly petrified.  Third--Five miles
further down the valley, at what is known as the Onondaga Valley
Cemetery, in taking up a human body for removal some years ago,
it was found to be solid stone;  still further north, but in the same
 range, the corpse of a child, on being taken up was found to be
petrified--solid stone.--Still another case--the body of a man who
had been buried a few years was taken up for removal, and being
found a perfect petrifaction, the widow had it taken home, and it
is yet retained in the house, and has never been reburied.  We
might give names, but do not feel at liberty to do so without first
consulting family friends or relatives.  These, and other samples
that might be given, prove that petrification is not uncommon in
the vicinity of Cardiff, where our ten feet two and a half inches,
and well proportioned, giant was found."

A different statement still is made by Mr. Wright, father-in-law
of Mr. Newell, who formerly owned Mr. Newell's present farm.  Mr.
Wright says that within a short distance of the present discovery,
there is a spring of water which will within a few months turn
into solid stone any small deposits of sand and gravel.  Neighbors
corroborate the statement.  A wag has suggested that a factory be
at once established there and petrified dogs, cats and small fry
generally be furnished to order.

The unsettled point of what it is, undoubtedly furnishes an additional
attraction regarding the mysterious stranger, as every person wishes
to see for himself and become judge in the trial of Statue versus

In this connection an interesting letter is subjoined from the Hon.
George Geddes.

To the Editor of the Syracuse Standard:--I find a notice in your
paper of this morning of the "Stone Giant" at Cardiff, in which
the fact that I visited it yesterday is stated, with the remark
that you are told that I believe it to be a petrifaction.  Allow
me room in your paper to say that this is stating my views a little
stronger than I desire.  I have formed no opinion as to the origin
of this wonderful thing.  I was not allowed to make an examination
of it beyond the privilege of looking from over a railing into the
pit where the giant lay, and this pit was shaded by a tent, and
the railing surrounded by double and triple rows of people, all
anxious to see.  I do not complain that I was not allowed a more
perfect examination;  there were too many to see to allow the
descent into the pit of any one.  All questions by me of the
gentlemen in charge were politely answered.  My impressions were
decided that I saw before and below me the figure of a giant in
stone of some kind, but what kind I could not tell for in that
light and position it did not resemble any rock that our system
has in it.  I thought it was quite unlike our limestone or our
gypsum formations;  and that if it was sulphate of lime, and the
work of human hands, that it was more likely to have been built up,
than hewn from a solid rock.  But as I have said, I had no means
or liberty to make a close examination.  I wish to say in addition,
that I have traveled far and spent much money to see things of
not one-tenth the interest that this stone giant was to me,
and thought I had made good use of time and money.

        Respectfully yours,
                GEORGE GEDDES.
Oct. 20th, 1869.


The spot is perhaps twenty-five feet below the house. The soil on
the surface is a loose one, half sand and half muck (dark.)  The
spot has undoubtedly been filled in to a considerable extent from
washings from the hills around.  Mr. Wright, the former owner, says
that the spot used to be covered with water, and that he had at one
time a bridge constructed over this very point, in order to reach
the higher land beyond.  Even after the water failed to stand there
constantly, he was obliged to use the bridge, as the soft muck was
four or five feet deep, and was impassable for cattle and teams.
The Onondaga Creek was within twenty rods of the spot, and at some
seasons of the year overflows it.  Some suppose the channel of the
Creek was once there.  The place had been a regular swamp for years.
Mr. Newell has owned the farm for three years, and has occasionally
ploughed around and thrown in dirt, to the depth of at least a foot.

Under the three or more feet of muck is found a strata of gravel
from two to six and eight inches in depth.  The body rests in and
upon this gravel bed.  The gravel under the neck of the image was
very solidly pressed down.  Underneath the gravel is found red clay,
into which the gravel is pressed.

The right limb is perfect all around with slight exceptions. The
left arm is perfect nearly to the hand, excepting that the shoulder
is worn off some by the water underneath.  The bottom of the right
foot seems to be perfect.  Some slight portions of the left foot
have been cleaved off.

The family and the neighbors give, it might be remarked, an original
hypothesis of their own, regarding the death of the man;  viz:  that
in passing along over this spot he was either drowned or swallowed
up in the mire and suffocated to death.


Passengers by the Central or Oswego Railroads leave the cars at
Syracuse, and will find an excellent road through the beautiful
Onondaga Valley, to Mr. Newell's residence, twelve miles from
Syracuse.  Strangers will find the principal hack stand of the
city near the Wieting Block, on Salina street.  The entire force
of drivers became within three days perfectly acquainted, not
only with the road, but with the leading facts regarding the
wonderful discovery.  The demand for carriages has been
immense, and is constantly increasing.  If parties desire to spend
the day at Cardiff, they can take the Syracuse & Binghamton
Railroad to Lafayette Station, and (with considerable difficulty,)
secure a team across to Mr. Newell's house, a distance of
about three miles.  There is no village at Lafayette Station.


Everybody.  Old and young, male and female, people of all classes
of community, rush in a constant stream to view the immense curiosity.
People from all parts of the United States are hastening to see the
Giant before he shall be removed from his long resting place.  The
average daily attendance for the first week was from three to five
hundred persons.


Probably for some time, as that seems to be the public wish.
Arrangements have been made for some of the chief scientific men
of the country to examine critically the colossus.  Their opinion
or opinions, (which will be published promptly in this work,) will
have much weight in the minds of the managers in deciding when and
what to do.


Three capitalists have bought of Mr. Newell, (who has declined
probably over one hundred offers,) a three-fourths interest in
the enterprise.  The tour partners will determine what course to

We subjoin several reports of the Press for a few days succeeding
the discovery of his Giantship.

From the Syracuse Daily Standard Oct. 18th, 1869.

The valley of Onondaga has a romance of beauty in its wild scenery,
and as the home of the famous tribe of the red men of the forest--
the Onondagas--around whose council fires the chiefs and young
warriors of the Six Nations assembled to consult on matters of
great moment.  It commences at the head of Onondaga Lake, having
a broad surface where the main part of our city stands, and moderate
hill-side boundaries, until we pass two miles south of the city
bounds, where the bed of the basin begins to narrow away and the
hills on either side to be more abrupt and higher.  It continues
to decrease in width, until it terminates against Tully Hill, a
distance of fourteen miles from the lake.  Its beauty of wild
scenery is perhaps in greatest perfection in that part known as  the
Indian Reservation--still held by the Onondaga tribe--somewhat
south of the centre of the valley.  Two main roads lead up the
valley, one at the base of the hills on either side;  and riding
along either of them in a pleasant day, an admirer of nature's
wild grandeur has ample occasion of admiration.  The gentle slope,
rising way back and up as if touching the clouds, and the more
abrupt and ragged, shrub-covered, not less high hills, miniature
mountains, with every now and then a ravine down which the water
leaps playfully along till it reaches the plateau below and into
the little creek on its way to the ocean--is a landscape of beauty
not easily described.

Just now this valley is the scene of an excitement, in the finding
of a supposed petrifaction of a human being--a giant.  The point
of interest is on the south side of the valley, opposite and just
beyond the little village of Cardiff, in the town of Lafayette--
twelve miles from this city, on a farm belonging to Mr. William
C. Newell.

On Saturday last Mr. Newell thought to dig a well some six or seven
rods east of his house, and a trifle south-east of his barn.  The
spot is probably thirty feet below the house, and the surface soil
is a loose, half sand, half dark muck, the natural washing from
the hills above.  It is not more than twenty rods from the creek,
the channel of which is thought to have been at or very near this
spot many years ago.  Mr. Newell and a hired man, in digging, had
gone down but two and a half feet when something hard was struck,
which was believed to be a stone.  They thought but little of it
at first, expecting to have to break it loose and pry it out.  But
throwing out a few more shovels of earth from its side, the feet
of a man appeared.  A few minutes more of labor exposed the legs
to the calf;  and now their interest being excited, they began to
dig carefully around it, until the whole form of a man--petrified
giant--was brought to view.  The neighbors began to hear of what
was found, and of course went at once to see.

Mr. Silas Forbes, who resides a mile and a-half distant, came to
the city Saturday evening and apprised us of the new found wonder,
and Sunday we went to see it.  The story was a big one, and not
liking "Silver Lake Snaiks," we wanted to see before telling our
readers.  And here is what we saw:--

The form of a man lying on his back, head and shoulders naturally
flat at hip a trifle over on right side;  the right hand spread
on the lower part of the abdomen, with fingers apart;  the left
arm half behind, and its hand against the back opposite the other;
the left leg and foot thrown over the right, the feet and toes
projecting at a natural angle.  The figure was of apparent lime
stone, a mixture of the gray and blue, common in most parts of the
county, and seemed perfect in every particular.  The muscles are
well developed;  the ribs might be counted;  the nostrils are
perforated so as to admit a large sized finger up near two inches;
the lines of toe and finger nails are plainly marked;  the left
ear is partially gone, but the right one is perfect and in proportion
to the other parts;  the nose finely shaped;  the forehead high;
and the "Adams' apple"' at the throat just projecting out, is as most
common with men.  The appearance of the "countenance" marks the
Giant of the Caucasian race, and not the Indian.  If a work of art,
the artist has failed in any effort at hair on the head.

We have said that the whole was perfect.  And so it appeared, except
a few flakes dropped off while the work of exhumation was going on;
and perhaps others yesterday.  If any well proportioned man will
make measurement of himself as above, he will see a striking agreement
of ratio.

Though the figure has all the appearance of stone, nevertheless the
outer surface shaves off with a knife without materially dulling
the blade.  This was tried, but of course was not allowed to proceed
to disfigure Mr. Giant.  A scale that fell from the bottom of one
of the feet, looks much like gold quartz, but still is softish and
crumbles readily, with a sort of soft sand stone result.  It rests
on half sand, half clay bottom, the earth above being, as we have
already said, of a lighter character.

News of this remarkable discovery rapidly spread, and yesterday
when we were there, people were coming and going, from a circuit
of four or five miles around, in farm wagons, carriages and buggies,
and on foot, to see it.

John A. Clarke, Esq., being at Cardiff, Saturday evening to speak
on temperance, took occasion for a lamp-light view.  Returning to
the city near midnight, he told the story;  and was telling it all
day yesterday.  Not one in fifty of his hearers would believe the
counselor, generally esteemed reliable though he is.  Still,
before the day was over a dozen or more went out to satisfy their
curiosity, and returned with full confirmation--and more too, and
the "petrified Giant" is now the absorbing topic.

Mr. Newell has stumbled upon an "elephant" in this Giant.  His
neighbors say it is a fortune to him.  It is averred that he was
offered $5,000, $10,000 and even $20,000 for it;  that a clergyman
offered his farm in exchange for the monster--but these offers
were all declined.  We talked freely with Mr. N.  He was quiet and
modest, and we doubt if he has received any such proposals, except
perhaps jokingly.  He indicated no such thing.  Yet he seemed
anxious to have the "thing" brought out all right if possible, be
it what it may, and therefore guards it by day and by night.

During Saturday night the surface water had settled in the pit so
as to cover the image.  The wise men of Cardiff were consulted.  One
said, bail out the water--exposure to the air will do no harm.  The
other said, leave it thus until some scientific man comes to decide
as to the prospects of destructability.  And the latter's advice
was adopted.  Yet, when the water was undisturbed and clear, the
whole could be seen perfectly plain.  Later in the day Dr. J.F.
Boynton, the geologist, drove out with Mr. John Geenway, the water
was bailed out, and Dr. B. made a thorough inspection of his Giantship,
put his arms under the neck, and fairly hugged the monster.  The
general impression is, that it is a petrifaction of one of those large
human beings of which all of us have heard so much in our youthful days,
and have read accounts of in maturer years--not here, but somewhere
else.  A book lies before us, having account of several, varying from
eight to eleven feet;  but we stop not to extract therefrom.  Prof.
Boynton, from a hasty examination, is of opinion that it is a work
of art--a sculpture from stone.  If this theory be correct, it would be
scarcely less interesting than if a petrifaction.  In the one case
arises the speculation as to a gigantic race of beings that may
have inhabited portions of this "new world" hundreds of years before
Columbus discovered it;  the other as to how long ago the artist
did the work, and where came he, or his ancestors, from?  Men nigh
on to a hundred years, and who have resided in the county seventy
of them, have never heard allusion to such a thing;  the Indian
traditions speak not of it.  The record of the first white man in
this region--Catholic Jesuits--is of something over two hundred years.
That record preserves matters of less interest than this would be,
but not this.  Then again we say it would have scarcely less
interest as a work of the chisel, than a petrifaction.

Our city is talking about the Giant.  The story has passed from
one to another till very many, probably ten thousand, of our
citizens have already heard it.  The interest is great in it,
insomuch that it has been almost impossible for us to thus
disjointedly write about the great wonder, because of the constant
interruption by visitors who are anxious to hear from one who has
actually seen.

From the Syracuse Courier, Oct 18th, 1869.

On Saturday morning last the quiet little village of Cardiff, which
lies in the valley about twelve miles south of Syracuse, was thrown
into an excitement without precedent, by the report that a human
body had been exhumed in a petrified state, the colossal dimensions
of which had never been the fortune of the inhabitants of the little
village to behold, and the magnitude of which was positively beyond
the comprehension or the understanding of the wise men of the valley.
We are told that there were giants on the earth once;  and, if the
reports of those who have investigated this discovery are true, and
that they are we have no doubt, this stony man--who for hundreds
of years may have slept untouched and undisturbed, had it not been
for the rude hand of a Cardiff farmer--must have been one of them.
The excitement in and around Cardiff extended until it reached the
City of Salt, and all day yesterday the discovery was the chief
topic of conversation at the hotels and public places in the city.
Of course, the most extravagant stories were told, and greedily
devoured up by gaping listeners.  Some would have it that the body
exhumed was twenty-five feet high, and proportionately large.  All
day yesterday crowds visited the scene of the discovery, and returned
to tell the tale of the wonderful discovery to their eager friends.

From the Standard, October 23d.

DEAR SIR--As everyone is deeply interested in the Onondaga Giant,
perhaps it may be as well for each of us to add his mite towards
guessing at the solution of the problem he has silently set us all.

It is no wonder that so many are of opinion that he is a gigantic
petrifaction.  His proportions are so perfect, and his appearance
is so life like.  I will add, that every one wants to think so.
If he proved to be a petrifaction, what a realm of awe and mysterious
conjecture would he open to us.  But I, for one, feel convinced
that he will prove to be statue, and for these reasons:--

First, I think there are evident marks of stratification in the
stone.  The left eyebrow and the top of the nose are the parts
most elevated.  These correspond exactly, both being composed of
a white layer.  On the chest is a squarish layer of a dark tinge;
around, and slightly below this, is another layer corresponding
exactly with the ins and outs of the first.  Beyond, and below this,
another and another all alike, seeming to be simply lines of
stratification.  The level seems exactly kept.  Follow with your eye
any two adjacent lines, and you will see that where they are close
to each other the surface has an abrupt change of level;  where
they are further apart the surface is nearly horizontal.  Where
the surface approaches the perpendicular, as on the sides, the dark
line showing the separation of the strata is thin, because it has
been cut through nearly at right angles.  Where the surface is more
horizontal the dark line is broader, because it has been cut
through obliquely, the breadth varying steadily with the angle of
inclination.  The same can be plainly seen along the right leg.

Another strong reason for its being a statue lies in the fact that
not a single limb is detached.  The right arm is not merely glued
to the body throughout, as well as the hand, but it has the
appearance of only being cut into the stone to a depth sufficient
to give due relief.  This is equally true of the left arm, and of
the two legs, which are joined to each other throughout.  The
sculptor has not wasted a stroke of the chisel.  I would add here,
that between the third and fourth fingers of the right hand, the
slit is carried too far toward the wrist, seemingly by a slip of
the chisel.

Who did it?  A trained sculptor;  one who had seen, studied and
probably reproduced many a work of art;  one who was thoroughly
acquainted with human anatomy.  One, too, who had noble original
powers;  for none but such could have formed and wrought out the
conception of that stately head, with its calm, grand smile, so
full of mingled sweetness and strength.

He appears, however, to have worked under certain disadvantages.
He had not such command of materials as a civilized country could
have afforded him.  He had to put up with the best stone he could
find.  I think that the peculiar posture of the statue can be
fairly explained by supposing that the original block tapered away
toward the feet, and was only just about the breadth of the statue
as we now see it.  This seems fairly to explain the curious position
of the left arm.  The artist had to put it there because there was
not breadth enough to put it in any other position.  So of the
position of the feet--one over the other.  The stone may not have
been wide enough to have admitted of any other position.  Who was he?
Let us analyze a little.

In the ancient world, only the Greek School of Art was capable of
such a perfect reproduction of the human form.  I have seen no
Egyptian or Assyrian sculpture which approached this in anatomical

Throughout the middle ages till the great Art Revival, no one in
Europe had skill enough for the purpose.  It appears, therefore,
that unless we adopt the somewhat strained hypothesis that a highly
civilized society, now utterly extinct, once existed on this
continent, we are forced to search for our sculptor among the
European adventurers who have sought homes in North America during
the last three centuries, as no one, I presume, is prepared to
maintain a that the statue has a Greek or Roman origin, unless, indeed, it
was brought over as an antique by some forgotten amateur of art.

Was it not then as Dr. Boynton suggests, some one from that French
colony, which occupied Salina and Pompey Hill, and Lafayette?  Some
one with an artist's soul, sighing over the lost civilization of
Europe, weary of swamp and forests, and fort, finding this block
by the side of the stream solaced the weary days of exile with
pouring out his thought upon the stone.  The only other hypothesis
remaining is that of a gross fraud.  One need only say with regard
to this that such a fraud would require the genius of a sculptor
joined to the skill and audacity of a Jack Sheppard.

But lastly, what did he intend it to represent?  Had he known of
the discovery of America by the northmen, he might have had in his
thoughts some gigantic Brown, or Erio, or Harold.  The old northman
is shot through with an Indian's poisoned arrow;  his body is dying,
as the tight pressed limbs express;  but the strong soul still
rules the face, which smiles grandly in death.  If you had objected
that there was too much mind shining through the features, the
sculptor might have answered that the closed eyes saw in prophetic
vision that men of his race would one day rule where he had lain
down to die.  But this is rather too high flown, so I had better
                S.R. CALTHROP.


MR. EDITOR:--It needs no apology to address you upon a subject
that is now engaging the constant attention of all your readers
and thousands besides, and if any person can throw any light upon
the subject it would seem to be their duty to communicate it to
the public.  While there has been much speculation and wonder as
to the nature and origin of the marvelous curiosity found last
Saturday in the town of Lafayette, in this county, there has been
made public no argument from scientific men up to this time to
settle the doubts and convictions of the unlearned.  In the
suggestions which I shall make upon the subject, I regret that I
have not the benefit of a more extended knowledge of the sciences
which pertain to the subject, but having earnest convictions,
supported apparently by plausible reasons, I submit them to the
consideration of the public for whatever weight they may be
entitled to.

The advocates of the theory that the subject in question is a
statue, have too many difficulties to overcome to establish their

If the subject is a statue it must have been formed by some person,
who once lived, and had an object or motive for making it.  Who
can say what that object was?  It must have been formed by a
person of wonderful genius and skill.  Where and when did such a
person exist?  History gives no account of him.  Its formation and
object must have been known to many persons who assisted in its
manufacturing and transportation.  Where are those persons?

The objections to the theory that the figure in question is a
statue, may be briefly described as follows:

1st.  This figure, if made by human hand, was intended to be
exhibited;  otherwise there can be no motive for making it. If it
was intended to be exhibited, it was also designed to assume some
position, either an erect or recumbent one.  The reasons for
keeping it in that position would have been provided by the sculptor,
by either making a pedestal for it to stand upon, a tablet for it
to lie on, or forming the body on the stone out of which it was cut,
so that it would lie upon a flat surface.  Nothing of this kind is
visible.  There is nothing about the figure remaining except what
belongs to a man who has lain down alone in solitude and agony to
die and has died, and the story of whose death has been preserved
by the miraculous agencies of nature.

Second, if designed by man as the representation of man, the head
would have been covered with hair, the most beautiful ornament of
the human body, yet no trace of hair is found on this subject.

Third, it has been claimed that the material of this figure is
gypsum taken from the hills of Onondaga county.  The evidence of
our most experienced quarrymen is that a block of gypsum of
sufficient size to make this figure was never found in this region.

Fourth, if this figure was sculptured from marble or stone, its
body, head and limbs would be solid.  Yet the orifices in its
wasted rectum and other parts of its body, and the resounding
noise occasioned by striking upon it proves that it is hollow

Fifth, No statue was ever sculptured in this or a similar position.
The position is precisely that which a person would assume who was
suffering an agony which was to result in death.  The hands
pressing opposite sides of the lower part of the body and one leg
drawn up and pressed against the other is the effort of expiring
humanity to relieve itself from pain.  The sculptor's chisel and
the painter's brush have often been called upon to represent
scenes of death in all its various forms and manifestations.  Yet
have they never attained the simplicity, the impressiveness, the
vivid naturalness of the story told by the figure which lies in
yonder clay.

Sixth, It should also be observed that a sculptor who had the
genius to form such a figure would naturally keep a proper and
harmonious proportion in the different parts of the body, but it
will be noticed in this subject that the feet are unusually broad,
projecting far beyond the natural lines of the leg, and giving
evidence of usage which has caused what is almost a deformity.

Seventh, If a statue, why should one of the eyes differ so much
from the other, one of them being open, and one nearly or quite

Eighth, If this figure is a statue, explain how it has been
transported and handled to place it in its present position.  It
is estimated by the best judges that the figure weighs from a ton
and a half to two tons.  This immense weight could not have been
transported by any known means of transportation in the neighborhood
of the figure, and it could not have been handled without the aid
of machinery.

Ninth, Perhaps the greatest objection to the statue theory is the
last on which I shall mention, and that is the majestic simplicity
and grandeur of the figure itself.  It is not unsafe to affirm
that ninety-nine out of every hundred persons who have seen this
would have become immediately and instantly impressed with the
idea that they were in the presence of an object not made by
mortal hand, and that the figure before them once lived and had
its being like those who stood around it.  This feeling arises
from the awful naturalness of the figure and its position.  No
piece of sculpture of which we have any account ever produced the
awe inspired by this blackened form lying among the common and
every-day surroundings of a country farm yard.

We see objects of larger size every day, formed from materials
which excite our wonder or admiration, and upon which have been
bestowed the highest skill of the artist, the sculptor and the
painter, but there is in that blackened mass, that worn and
impaired as it is by the action of the elements, and repulsive
from the nature and color of the material forming it, which
inspires an awe and reverence such as the handiwork of a mortal,
no matter how gifted, has ever accomplished.  I venture to affirm
that no living sculptor can be produced who will say this figure
was conceived and executed by any human hand.  But Mr. Editor I
am afraid I have trespassed too far on your attention and space.
There is much more to be said on the subject, which at a future
time I will say.  R.

The present owners of the Giant have engaged Col. J.W. Wood, known
all over the country as a popular showman, as their manager.
To-night Mr. W. will have a much larger tent (forty feet) over
his giantship, so that hereafter many more can be accommodated
at a time--whether they can see better we are not sure.

From the Syracuse Journal, October 23d, 1869.

Reports of Committees.
Three of us--Tom, Dick and Harry--interviewed the stone wonder
on Thursday of this week, and here are our reports.  Tom sees
everything from a ludicrous point of view, and is nothing if not
funny.  Dick is a common-sense fellow, who makes up in positiveness
what he lacks in education;  and I am--Yours, very respectfully, A.C.

His Majestic Highness was in bed when we reached the royal residence
although it was high noon by the dial.

But the obliging janitor was convinced, by a single glance at
the cards we presented, that it would not do to refuse us admission.
We found the Noble Duke divested of wearing apparel and enjoying
his morning ablution, which was administered by a valet de chambre,
who stood on a platform above His Excellency, and held him down
with a ten foot pole.  The countenance of the great man expressed
composure and serenity.  His eyes were closed and his general
appearance and attitude were limp and cadaverous, causing us to
fear, for a moment, that His Mightiness might be dead instead of

Our apprehensions were allayed, however, when the irreverent
attendant punched his Sublime Majesty in the head and chest, and
elicited an impatient, cavernous, responsive "ugh!"

Having feasted our eyes on the unveiled grandeur of the stupendous
Knight, we begged permission of his keeper to get into the Imperial
bed and embrace the gigantic feet.  We begged in vain.  Let us
then grasp that autocratic right hand, which reminds us so
touchingly of the dear, fat, fried-cake hands Bridget used to
mould for us in our infancy.  Our request was declined with
emphasis.  May we not breathe an affectionate word into that
dexter ear, which seems placed far down towards his shoulder as
if on purpose to receive our tender message?  "He's deaf," said
the heartless man with the pole.  Let us at least give him one--
just one--kiss for his mother.  "He never had no mother," responded
the inexorable valet, and we turned sadly away from the Kingly
presence of the sweet, sleeping orphan.

As we wended our homeward way we gave ourself up to meditation,
while our companions gave themselves up to sandwiches and boiled

We called to mind the striking resemblance in form and features,
which the vast monarch bears to the Stoneman family, and we
rejoiced that a gallant General of our army could trace his
ancestry to one who stood so high in the community.

From appearances we should judge the seraphic Emperor to be a man
of property--worth at least fifty thousand dollars.

Whether he were so or not, we certainly were petrified--
with astonishment.

Yours for the right, THOMAS.


There's no use talking;  that fellow was once a living and breathing
human being.  In my opinion he walked these hills and valleys, just
the same as we do, thousands and thousands of years ago.  We read
of the sons of Anak, but this chap was the father of Anak.  It is
beyond the art of man to carve so perfect a human being out of
stone.  Anybody who could sculp like that could have made his
fortune, without hiding his work away and letting it be discovered
by accident in after ages.  And who ever saw a piece of statuary
in such a position, and without hair on?

The man that says that this petrified man is nothing but a graven
image, proves that he is a little soft in the upper story.  There
is no shadow of doubt that this is a genuine petrifaction.  I would
take my oath of it.  Dr. Boynton writes a long rigmarole to show
that he is a statue made by the Jesuits;  but in my opinion the
Dr. is just laying low so that he can buy the curiosity and make
his pile on him.  Why, you can see the very cords in his legs,
where the flesh has decayed off;  and the matter running out of
his right eye has turned to stone.  Would the Jesuits have been
likely to carve cords and tears?  The idea is too absurd to be
thought of.  This is my report, and I don't care what anybody
else says.  RICHARD.


Whether the colossal figure be a petrifaction or a piece of
statuary, it is a mystery and a success.  Who carved it?.  When
was it made?  Whom does it represent?  What is its lesson?
Why was it hidden?  How happens it that tradition is silent
about it?  These are puzzling questions, which at present are
solved only by conjecture.

Let no one imagine that he has an adequate conception of this wonder
till he has seen it, with his own eyes.  Description seems to be
no aid whatever;  ocular inspection is positively necessary.

He who fails to see the curiosity in its present locality and
position, will have reason to regret this neglect or misfortune
all his life time.

I was not permitted to make a careful and thorough examination.

"Hands off," was the imperative order of the proprietor, and I
bowed to the decreer.  I craved permission to apply a drop of
acid in order to determine certainly whether the material was
gypsum or ordinary limestone, but my request was denied.  If on
the application of acid there had been no effervescence, the
inference would be that the specimen was not limestone, the
material of which petrifactions are usually composed.  But although
chemical tests and manipulations were prohibited, there seemed to
be no disposition to forbid the use of our eyes--at a respectful
distance.  And the proprietor very kindly refrained from exacting
a promise that we would not express an opinion, if we should have
temerity enough to form one.

I take it that this specimen was carefully placed in its present
locality.  Had it been washed from a distance, it would have been
fractured and mutilated, and it would not in all likelihood, have
lodged in its present easy and natural position.

If this were once a living man, he must have died ages and ages ago.
If buried, the accumulated deposits upon his grave, in this low
piece of ground, during thousands of years would have been deeper
than three feet.  If he were drowned, or if he lay down on the
surface of the earth to die, the flesh would have decayed and
dropped from his bones without petrification.  If he were petrified
in his present locality, we ought to find other petrifications in
its immediate neighborhood, whereas all the twigs and branches
which covered and surrounded him are free from the slightest

Human bodies do not petrify in layers;  but the strata in the
Cardiff giant, especially on the left side, are as manifest as
they are in a ledge of rocks.  The eye brows, the tip of the nose,
the breast and the thigh are of the same stratum, and the layers
in the right arm are clearly of different degrees of density.

The conclusion seems irresistible that the giant is a work of art
rather than of nature.  The sculpture must have been done some
years ago, or the lower parts of the figure would not have crumbled
and been washed away by the sluggish oozing of the water through
the soil.

Its age cannot antedate the present race of men, for the shape of
the head and the features are entirely modern.  The old-time people,
as portrayed in the sculpture of Assyria and Egypt, had no such
heads as this.  The artist evidently took a corpse for a model
and proportioned his colossal figure by careful measurement.  He
was thus enabled to secure the general anatomical accuracy for
which his giant is remarkable.  He followed the model very closely,
not attempting to represent a living being, not venturing even to
supply the missing hair.  And these omissions, the result of
inexperience, furnish, singularly enough, the principal arguments
to the petrifactionists.  For the popular opinion that the body
and head are hollow, that the nostrils and other orifices are open,
and that the tendons in the decayed leg are visible, has not the
slightest foundation.  Why was this image made?  Why hidden? and
by whom? are questions which I must be excused from answering
at present.  HENRY


To the Editor of the Syracuse Journal:--
In your columns devoted to "Letters from the People," I thought
you would at this time publish the following, it being interesting
as one of the current opinions of the Indians of "the Castle"
regarding the wonderful "human petrified statue," which, in its
colossal proportions and the sphynx-like silence of its history
is so electrifying and exciting the people.

By one of the old squaws I am told that a large number of Onondagas
believe that the statue is the petrified body of a gigantic Indian
prophet, who flourished many centuries ago, and who foretold the
coming of the pale-faces, though long before the foot of our
forefathers had touched the western continent.  He warned his
people with prophetic fervor of the coming encroachments of the
white man, and the necessity of their abstinence from a poison
drink he would bring to craze and destroy them.  He told them
that he should die and be buried out of their sight, but that THEIR
Teacher for the Onondaga Indians.


On Saturday the sale of the remaining one-half interest in the
Great Giant Wonder was closed up.  Another partner, Mr. Wm. Spencer
--an old-time schoolmate of Mr. Newell--was taken in, so that the
present owners are Wm. C. Newell, of Cardiff, Alfred Higgins, Dr.
Amos Westcott and Amos Gillett, of this city, David H. Hannurn,
of Homer, and Wm. Spencer, of Utica.

Saturday was a bad day, as to weather;  nevertheless several hundred
visited the Giant.

Sunday was a crusher.  The people began to go early, and kept going
all day long.  From eleven to three o'clock it was a dense mass of
people on the Newell farm.  Around the house and barns acres were
covered with teams and wagons, and the road, for a long distance
in either direction, was lined with them.  It seemed as if such
another jam never went to a show before, and it was with great
difficulty that the line could be kept so that all could have a
fair sight.  All the proprietors were on hand, and did all they
could to accommodate the crowd.  At three P.M. twenty-three hundred
tickets had been sold, Mr. Higgins bringing in the $1,150 received
therefor, for safety.  Not less than three hundred tickets were
sold after three o'clock, so the total number of visitors for the
day would be 2,600.

The Tully story of fraud is exploded.  The mysterious man said to
have visited that village, etc., turns out to be no other than a
cousin of Mr. Newell's, a resident of Binghamton, and a tobacconist.
He was on the grounds all day yesterday, and frankly told all
there was of his visit at the time alleged, to the satisfaction
of every one.


EDITOR STANDARD:--Permit me to notice a few of the arguments upon
the Cardiff discovery, appearing in your paper of Saturday last,
and the Journal of the same day.

It seems a committee of the editors and owners of the Journal,
named respectively Tom, Dick and Harry, of widely various
characteristics, visited the Giant last week, and treat the
subject on their return by articles published in that highly
original sheet, according to their respective peculiarities.  Tom,
who is evidently admired in his family circle as a man of great
humor, has so cultivated that faculty that it presents an abnormal
development, and if petrification ever does overtake him, posterity
may hope it will not operate upon his intellectual faculties.  Dick,
on the other hand, is gloomily satirical, and by the aid of that
useful faculty utterly annihilates his opponents without saying
anything.  But last, Harry takes up the theme and treats it in a
spirit becoming the gravity of the subject.

He thinks that the artist formed the figure according to a pattern,
having a cold "corpse" conveniently by as a model, from which he
could take "careful measurement," and proceeded to make this
figure, not attempting, he says, to make this corpse look like a
"living figure," which certainly was modest in the artist.  He also
says that he did not attempt to "supply the missing hair." The
question very naturally arises here, "Why was the hair missing,
and how long had the corpse been a corpse to lose its hair? and
was it a pleasant occupation to do business with such a corpse?"
This omission (i.e. to put on hair), Harry says, arose from

Now, experience is certainly an excellent thing, and when properly
acquired and wisely used is undoubtedly of considerable benefit
to mankind.  But that it was necessary, in order to enable an
artist to know that hair grows on the human head, we had not
before supposed.  Into such absurdities, oh Harry, does he run
who abandons his familiar scissors for the unaccustomed pen.

I will briefly refer to the letter of Rev. S.R. Calthrop in favor
of the statue theory.  While it shows the scholarship of its author,
his thorough appreciation of artistic influences, and the wonderful
imitation of nature produced by the one who formed this figure, it
does not seem to me to go very far towards proving his position.
Starting off with the idea that many reasons may be given against
the theory of petrification, he commences with number one, and
then he stops;  it is true he gives one other reason, but neglects
to number it;  and the two reasons are--

First, that evidences of stratification appear on the body, thereby
assuming that they would not appear in a petrified body;  and,
secondly, that the separate members of the body are not detached
from each other as they were in life, assuming also that this does
occur in cases of petrifaction.

Are these assumptions correct as matters of fact?

The evidence as to the existence of strata in this body is very
conflicting.  A number of professional persons who visited this
figure on Saturday, and subjected it to close scrutiny with a
powerful magnifying glass, and who all, by the way, hold the
"statue theory," say there were no evidences of stratification in
the body;  that what appears to be such is simply the difference
in shading, produced by the greater or less density of the material
composing the figure.  The appearances indicating stratification
are also explainable by the action of the water, charged with
carbonate of lime, upon the body.  The line of contact between
the body and the water would necessarily receive a deposit of lime,
causing a straight line of lighter color to appeal oi the body.  It
is also a fact, which I have learned from quite a number who first
visited the body when it was submerged in water, that the present
water level leaves exposed the nose, eyebrow and breast at the
points where some persons now think they see stratification.  In fact,
deposits of carbonate of lime of a whitish color, even now, adhere
to the left ear and side of the face which show the presence of
that substance in the water, and that it will adhere to and become
a part of the subject with which it is brought in contact.

Now, how is stratification produced in the formation of stone and
rocks.  It is said by geologists to be formed only when the
original material forming the rock or stone has been transported
and deposited by the operation of a body of water holding the
material in solution, and depositing it in alternate layers at
its place of destination.

How is a petrified body formed?  Science answers, that it is formed
by the gradual infiltration of silicious earth, pyrites of iron,
carbonate or sulphate of lime, into the pores of the body, taking
the place of the decaying parts, and substituting a new and original
substance to take the place and form of the body petrified.  These
substances are always conveyed to their place of destination, and
then applied to accomplish their purpose by the operation of water.
The petrified substance may have none of the material composing
the original figure, and the nature of the body formed either
assimilates to the material around it, or is determined by that
of which it is composed.  So also all of the substances forming
petrifaction may be found together in the same subject, or they
may accomplish their work separately.

Silicious earth goes largely to form flint quartz and the various
kinds of sandstone carbonate of lime, of limestone, and so of the
other materials mentioned forming their peculiar kinds of stone.  I
have heard one statue-theorist trying to prove that the decayed
portion of one of the legs showed the presence of flint, and
therefore he argued it could not be a petrifaction.  Not so.  It
probably would prove, if true, that the figure was not a statue,
for pieces of flint are not found in such material, unless it be
a petrifaction, in which case silicious earth would account for it.
Now it is safe to say that there is no substance that enters into
the composition of stone that does not enter into the formation
of a petrifaction.

Now, these materials are, in cases of petrifaction, brought to
the spot and deposited by action of the water--precisely such an
operation as forms strata of rock;  should it not produce the same
effect in the appearance of successive layers or strata in the
subject of petrifaction?  With reference to the other objection
to the theory of petrifaction, viz:--that the members of the body
are conjoined and not detached--it is sufficient to say, from the
very nature of the operation of petrifaction, portions of the body
lying in contact would necessarily be conjoined and filled up.  The
wasting portions of the body are silently but surely supplied by
nature, and as the transformation progresses, nature causes her
deposit to adhere to its proximate kindred matter, and forms thus
a solid and adhering body.

It is also somewhat worthy of observation that fossiliferous remains
occur more frequently, than elsewhere, in marshy and swampy places
in this country.  Thus the low marshes known as the "Blue Licks"
in Kentucky, and other similar places abound in specimens of fossil
remains.  These are often, indeed, quite commonly found near the
surface of the ground, and it is a fact that the material and
formation of marshy grounds change less through the operation of
time than other places.  The Pantine Marshes and the Marshfield
Fens have preserved forms and characteristics for centuries upon
centuries.  Why is it then, that we are to be driven for a solution
of the question as to the character of this curiosity to a hundred
improbable and unnatural suppositions, when the thing may be explained
by perfectly natural causes without violating any probabilities?

It is somewhat amusing to talk with the various advocates of the
"statue theory," as each successive one is sure to knock over his
predecessor's structure before he begins to build his own.

The endless suppositions which are produced to account for this
marvelous work as a production of the sculptor are certainly a
great credit to the imaginative faculties or inventive genius of
our people, but people of ordinary intelligence find it hard to
believe that men of wonderful genius and skill inhabited our
original forests for the purpose of producing gems of art and
then burying them in the marshes, or that men of culture and
education go traveling in a wild and barbarous country
encumbered by a piece of statuary weighing about two tons
and being necessarily somewhat inconvenient to carry in
our pockets.
Yours,  Com.


Professor Hall, gives the following definite opinion, in the Albany
Argus of Monday, the 20th of October:

GENTLEMEN:--Your paragraph in this morning's issue, relative to
the Onondagas Stone Giant, does injustice to the proprietor of
that most remarkable object.

Dr. Woolworth and Prof. Hall left here on Thursday afternoon, with
the intent of visiting, as they had been solicited to do, the
supposed fossil giant or statue--for there were conflicting opinions
in regard to its nature.  On Friday morning they left Syracuse for
Cardiff with Dr. Wieting and Judge Woolworth of the former place.
As soon as practicable after their arrival, the tent was cleared of
visitors, the party named were admitted and left to their undisturbed
investigations for a full quarter of an hour;  and when it is
understood that the crowd outside were enough to twice fill the tent,
and all desirous of seeing, and that the receipts of the owner for
tickets were $26 per hour, it seemed scarcely civil to occupy a
longer time.

The Giant, as has already been stated, is a statue of crystalline
gypsum (not a cast) lying upon its back, or slightly inclining to
the right side, and in an attitude of rest or sleep.  The head
is directed to the east, southeast, and the body, without support
or pedestal, lies upon a thin stratum of gravel, which has been
covered by about three feet or more of fine silt, in the bottom
of which are some partially decayed roots or branches of trees--
doubtless floated there at the beginning of the silt deposit.
The water, oozing from the southwest, along this gravel bed, has
dissolved that side of the statue and gives it a pitted appearance,
such as masses of gypsum or limestone acquire when long exposed
to the action of the water.  The earth at the sides of the pit
bear no evidence of having been disturbed since its original
deposition, and, to all appearances, this statue lay upon the
gravel when the deposition of the fine silt or soil began, and
upon the surface of which the forests have grown for succeeding

Altogether, it is the most remarkable object yet brought to light
in this country, id altogether, perhaps, not dating back to the
stone age, is, nevertheless, deserving of the attention of
archaeologists.  H.  Albany, NY, October 23, 1869.

From the Syracuse Journal Oct. 25, 1869.


The Onondaga Giant proves to be much more than a nine days' wonder.
--Sunday completed the nine days of excitement and marvelings over
this remarkable discovery, and instead of an abatement of the
popular interest, it would seem that it has but just begun to be
awakened.  The attendance of visitors on Sunday was largely in
excess of that of any previous day, and the number reached nearly
three thousand.  A new and large tent had been (erected, with
increased accommodations, but it was found wholly inadequate to
accomodate the crowds that occupied it from early morning till
late in the evening.  The agent for the proprietors raised a
British flag over the tent, explaining that he thought some flag
ought to be displayed, and that this was the only one he had there
--a circumstance that was quite distasteful to very many of the
visitors.  An American flag has now properly been substituted.
The number of visitors to-day is quite large, and as the people
of the surrounding country are just waking up to the interest of
the exhibition, many thousands will yet go to see it in the spot
where it was unearthed.

The interest in the subject abroad is also now fairly developing.
The discovery was at first looked upon as a humbug, but this view
is giving way before the facts presented in the local papers.  The
leading journals of the country have sent special correspondents
to write up the subject.  The New York Tribune and Herald,
Harper's Weekly, the Springfield Republican and other papers,
have already had their representatives at the scene of the discovery.
The new proprietors, --who are now stated to be Messrs. William
C. Newell, of Cardiff, Alfred Higgins, Dr. Amos Westcott and
Amos Gillett, of this city, David H. Hannum, of Homer, and
William Spencer, of Utica, propose to continue the exhibition
where it has thus far been held, till difficulty in reaching the
locality occurs from bad weather, then to remove the giant to
this city, where it will remain till the local curiosity is satisfied,
and then convey it to New York and other leading cities for
public exhibition.


We learn from a reliable source that $20,000 was offered on Saturday
by a perfectly responsible party and in good faith, to two different
persons holding interests in the stone giant, for one-quarter share
of the stock in the wonderful statue, and the offer was promptly declined.


On Saturday last, Mathew, a son of Dr. Alexander Henderson,
veterinary surgeon, of this city, while visiting the Cardiff giant,
picked up from the surrounding debris thrown out of the excavated
resting place of this huge work of stone something that seemed
like a blackened scale of brass or a rusty old button.  Thinking
that it might have some affinity to the wonderful statue, the lad
rubbed the dirt and rust from its surface between his finger and
thumb, and burnishing it a little by rubbing it in the folds of
his coat skirts, it showed evidence of being an old copper coin,
and he accordingly placed it carefully in is pocket, and brought
it home.  Dr. Henderson, the lad's father, applied some acids to it,
when an ancient coin, of nearly the eleventh century, revealed

On the obverse side of the coin is the head of the Emperor Jestyn,
with a full flowing beard from the chin, and the sacred heart
strung from a rosary in the shape of a shield, or breast-plate,
strung around the neck.  Beneath the Emperor is the date, "1091,"
and around the edge of the coin is the following inscription--
interpretation of this, as rendered by a competent Welshman, means,
"Jestyn, son of Gurgan, Prince of Glanmorgan."  On the reverse side
is the figure of the Goddess of Commerce, seated on the wheel at
her side, the pillar and ancient crown, wreathed with the national
emblem, the oak, the shield and spear supported by the left hand,
and the right hand pointing to a ship on the distant sea, with full sails
set, which she seems intently gazing at.  The inscription around the circle
is in the Welch language, and reads as follows:--"Y. BRENAIN-AR-
GYFRAITH," the interpretation of which is "The King and the Laws."
The coin is 778 years old--over seven and a half centuries--and
on the edge of the rim can be distinctly seen "Glenmorgan Half
Penny," with representations of leaves intertwining.  The
denomination of the coin is imprinted in raised letters, and
everything connected with it shows it to be a coin of the reign
of the emperor whose name it bears.  Further, in connection with
the unearthing of the stone giant, its discovery in the loose dirt
thrown up from the bed of the excavation where the statue was found,
and yet lies, is certainly quite interesting, and seems to add to
the general interest that attaches to this great and unexplained
mystery of the Nineteenth Century.


Although there are still intelligent advocates of the petrifaction
theory, the preponderating weight of opinion supports the view
that the giant wonder is a work of art.  We understand all the
scientific gentlemen, who have been permitted to make thorough
examination, to be agreed in this decision.

The next question is, How did it come to be where it was discovered?
There is very little probability that it was carved on the spot
where it was recently exhumed;  the stone for that purpose was not
likely to have been found there or to have been taken there; and
the situation where it was discovered, a morass or water-bed,
favors the theory that it was deposited there.  Setting aside the
belief, honestly entertained by many people in the immediate vicinity,
that the statue was surreptitiously placed in the slough where it
was dug up a few days since, there is tenable ground for the theory
that it was taken there by some of the early white visitors to
this section of country.  This might have been done by transportation
over the water-courses communicating with the locality, either
through the River St. Lawrence, Lake Ontario, the Oswego River,
Onondaga Lake and Onondaga Creek, or through the Hudson and Mohawk
Rivers, Oneida Lake and River, Onondaga Lake and Onondaga Creek.
These waters were early navigated, and within the memory of persons
still living the principal means of transportation was by batteaux,
which with considerable loads were propelled along these water-courses.
The Onondaga Creek was in those days navigable for light-draft craft
capable of conveying a much greater weight than this statue, at
least as far up its waters as the place of this discovery.

The place of the discovery is not in the original channel of the
creek, but in a detour from that channel.  It is not unreasonable
to suppose that for some reason--from alarm, or from a desire to
secret the object,--the craft was run out of the main channel into
this then open water-way, where the statue was deposited.

The early Jesuit visitors to this vicinity may have had this
statue in their keeping.  It may have been fashioned by some of
their number.  It is not impossible, that it may have been brought
here, or even have been carved out at some place not far distant,
by other of the early visitors to this region.  We expect that
light will be thrown upon these speculations, by the scientific
investigations, which will determine the exact nature of the
material of which the statue is composed, by which alone some hint
of its place of origin may be derived.  The intimations given us
by Professor Hall, in our brief interview with him, impressed us
that he looked upon the statue as of great antiquity, antedating
the present geologic period, and equaling in interest and importance
the discoveries made in Mexico of archaeological remains, indicating
a high degree of civilization in the tenth, eleventh and twelfth


To the Editor of the Syracuse Journal:--
If it would not be asking too much, I would beg leave to say a
few words through the columns of your paper.  In Saturday's issue
of the Standard I notice a letter written by "Skeptic," which
that paper calls "silly," and charges the writer with being
"lacking in the upper story."  This is a misfortune, truly;  but
I have taken some trouble to investigate these reports and find
them vouched for by highly respectable parties.  There are, to my
mind, several reasons for the belief that this wonder has not
occupied its present position longer than is intimated in the
above mentioned letter.

The soil where it was found is soft, and an excavation large enough
to admit the object could easily be made in an hour or two.  The
location is favorable for such purpose, being behind the buildings,
and hidden by the abrupt bank;  a little straw or other litter
would cover all traces.  Then, if the stone man be moulded from cement,
it would not weigh near what it would if cut from stone, and could
be handled with ease by three or four men.  This idea that the
curiosity was cast or moulded, is strengthened by the fact that it has
no other support than the ground upon which it rests.  Had it been
the work of a sculptor it would have had a tablet for support.  Now,
you ask, perhaps, where was the pattern made, if moulded, and how
could the parties making the cast escape detection?  I would ask,
who carved it, if a stone, and where did the sculptor bring out
such a work without the knowledge of the fact being discovered?

It is said by those who ought to know something about our gypsum
quarries, that there are no such slabs of stone found there out
of which this object could be carved.  Further, it is allowed by
all who have examined this wonder, that the head appears to have
been hollow.  Now, if the head is hollow, it is either a moulding
or else it must be what those interested claim for it:  a veritable
petrifaction.  No sculptor would carve the head in that condition.

But I have used too much of your valuable time, so I will close.
TULLY, Oct. 23d, 1869.     CONE WILLIAMS


To the Editor of the Syracuse Journal:--
In the discussions relating to the "Giant," I find there are many
who favor the Grecian and Roman school of sculpture.  The Greeks
and Romans excelled the early Egyptians in one thing only, that
is representing the human hair.  Their male statues have flowing
and bushy locks and a beard. On the Egyptian statue, the hair
looks more like a skull cap on the back of the head, than hair,
with no indication of beard.  They had been so afflicted with
plagues through the Israelites, that they would have nothing that
was like them, or that reminded them of them.  The Cardiff giant
has no beard and nothing on the forehead to indicate hair;  behind
the ears running up to the crown, there seems to be something,
that when he is raised, may show the Egyptian school of sculpture.
As art goes from one country to another, the style changes somewhat
to suit the taste of the people.  In America, at first, our sculptors
and painters copied from the French and Italian schools, but put
on a little more drapery, as our people were modest and would not
bear a true copy.  Time, the destroyer of all things, has turned
the drapery into dust, and we now have the original in all its
glory and shame.  W.

P.S.--A hard-shell brother at my elbow says he will go his bottom
dollar that the Cardiff chap is the original "Poor Uncle Ned, who
had no hair on the top of his head;"  he has lain down there and
got Klu-Kluxed. (Klu-Kluxed is a Greek word, and means petrified
or dried up.)  The only objection to his theory is, Uncle Ned's
shin bone curved backward, this man's curves forward.


We herewith present a wood cut of the Giant.  We have waited for
an engraving from a photograph, in order to insure in every part
of the pamphlet the utmost accuracy.  The taking the photographs
having been delayed, we present a sketch until their completion.
The owners of the Giant furnish this publication alone with
photographic copies--which will appear promptly on completion.

[[Wood cut here of giant and spectators]]


To the Editor of the Syracuse Journal:--
Clark's "History of Onondaga," Vol. 1, page 43, near the bottom,
says:--"The Quis-quis, or great hog, was another monster which
gave the Onondagas great trouble, as did also the great bear, the
horned water-serpent, the stone giants, and many other equally
fabulous inventions, bordering so closely upon the truly marvelous,
that the truth would suffer wrongfully if related in full;  but
nevertheless are found among the wild and unseemly traditions of
the race."  H.


The following letter from Prof. Henry A. Ward appears in the
Rochester Democrat, and will be found to be well worthy of perusal.
Prof. Ward takes high rank among the scientific men of the country,
and an opinion from him is certainly entitled to respectful

EDITOR DEMOCRAT--I have just returned from a hasty visit to the
colossal statue, or "Fossil Giant," as many have called it, which
is now causing so great an excitement in our sister city, Syracuse,
and in all the country for many score of miles around.

This great archeological wonder is located in the Onondaga Valley,
on the west side, about three-quarters of a mile from the village
of Cardiff.  The valley itself is one of erosion, dating its birth
to the time when the gradual rise of our continent from beneath
the ocean's waves had subjected all this portion of our State to
the fierce furrowing and deep denuding action of violent currents
of water, aided in their work by floating masses of ice and by
rock debris carried by and often frozen into these masses.  For
about twelve miles south from Syracuse the valley is quite narrow,
but here the hills recede on either side and sweep widely around
in two high crescent-like ranges to meet again (or nearly so) at
a point three or four miles higher up the stream.  Within the sort
of amphitheater thus formed, and at the foot of the western hill,
is the farm of Mr. Newell.  His house and outbuildings lie at the
edge of the slope, and touching a low meadow which extends for a
hundred yards or more to the bushy margin of a creek beyond.  A
smaller stream or a branch of this same appears at one time to
have run close to the hill, leaving faint traces of its contour
on the meadow, and one small elliptical swale or soft, boggy spot,
a few yards across, near the lower corner of Mr. Newell's barn.
It was while digging a shallow pit in this swale that the relic
was found.  It is a gigantic human figure lying on its back, with
its head to the east and feet to the west.  The head is in the
position commonly given to a corpse;  the right arm extends downwards,
with the hand and fingers spread stiffly across the abdomen;  the
left arm bends down along the left side, with the hand quite under
the middle line of the body; the left hip is raised a trifle, the thigh
and leg more so, so as to bring the lower part of the left leg and
 foot obliquely across and over the same parts on the right.  The
posture is in all one that a dying body left to itself might naturally
assume.  The entire length of the figure is ten feet two and a half
inches, and the other parts of the body are proportionately colossal.

Its head is of a very elongated type, but well shaped, and with
a countenance full of solemn, dignified composure.  The features
are purely Caucasian, having neither the high cheek bones of the
Indian, nor any other facial outlines which mark the type of other
Aztec aborigines.

To describe the appearance of this great figure as being strange
and impressive is saying too little.

Lying as it still does, in its original earthy bed, its grey massive
form hardly yet still from the struggles by which it seems to have
freed itself, and the face, body and limbs still damp with the
ooze of its low sepulchre, it possesses the beholder with a feeling
of extremest awe and profoundest wonder.  To interrupt these
emotions by speculations as to its personality, to approach this
majestic figure with the calm processes of scrutinizing investigation,
seems a sacrilege.  All one's feelings persuade to accept it as a
real human being, once instinct with life and activity, now a noble
corpse.  The proprietors of the giant figure, or statue, as we
shall now call it, use all due effort to strengthen this feeling,
and enlarge the belief that their wonderful discovery is really a
petrified human being--a genuine" Fossil Man" preserved entire,
with flesh and bones changed to stone in the very place where he
fell at death, or possibly was buried by his coevals of an olden
time.  All opportunities of close examination are refused; indeed,
the present throng of visitors would make such general permission
impracticable.  The little, darkened tent, and the pit shaded by
a triple row of spectators, whose heads almost touch across it in
their earnest efforts to see the body below, made it quite impossible
for me to obtain that thorough acquaintance with the huge object
which I would have liked.  But I saw enough in the fifteen minutes
(only) which are allowed to each set of visitors within the tent
to fully satisfy myself of the true nature of the figure.

The "Onondaga Giant" is the work of the sculptor, and out of a
single large block of the gypseous limestone (an upper member of
the "Onondaga Salt Group") which forms large beds in the immediate
vicinity.  This stone is very strongly marked by lines of deposition,
causing bands of different shades extending in horizontal layers,
perfectly even and parallel through large quarry masses.  In the
present in stance these layers are so disposed--in the way the
sculptor chose his block--as to cut lengthwise through the whole
body, and to mark off different leads over the entire figure.  Thus
the left hip and left breast present (cameo-like) a layer different
and higher than the one which forms the corresponding parts on
the right side of the body.  The head, too, with its different
elevation of chin, nose and forehead, is very strongly marked in
the same way.  These linings are well-known peculiarities in the
original deposition of a stratified rock, and are not features
assumed in the petrifaction of any organic body.  Further
peculiarities of the Onondaga gypsum are very noticeable in the
block, and among them is the peculiar style of decomposition
by which the whole lower part of the figure is affected, as also
one side of its head.  Here the soluble earths, with any portions
of carbonate of lime, have been dissolved away, and the pure
granular sulphate (snowy gypsum) remains, standing up with ragged,
uneven, cavernous surfaces, which is a feature very noticeable
everywhere in weather-worn fragments of this rock.  This
decomposition or rotting of the lower side of the left leg gives
a very vivid semblance to the corruption of actual flesh, and has
doubtless had much to do with the ready reception which the
"petrifaction" theory has found among the mass of visitors--even
including many men of intelligence and general education.  If such
persons will refer to works which treat of petrifaction in all
their various kinds of transformation and in all the thousand
genera and species of fossil organisms, they will find that
although bones, shells, and the hard parts of animals, changed to
stone, yet preserving their original outlines, are of constant
occurrence, yet there is not a single instance on record of fossil
flesh;  of the fat, muscle or sinew of man or beast changed into
stone or into any substance resembling stone.  To a person
acquainted with the nature of petrifaction, the slow substitution
of mineral for animal matter, particle by particle, the reason
why humor of other flesh does not undergo the same change will be
apparent.  This is truly not entirely in accordance with popular
belief, nor with the ever-recurring stories in our public journals.
"A fish nearly a foot long, petrified to solid stone" has lately
been cited in your columns as another instance of the petrifactions
of the Onondaga Valley.  I visited this yesterday at the Museum
of the Onondaga Historical Society, at Syracuse, and found (what
I had before surely surmised,) a simple, short, club-like fragment
of limestone, worn by running water to a form like a little fish.
"This it was and nothing more."

It is proposed--and very properly--that this Onondaga relic should
be submitted to the examination of Professor Hall, Agassiz, Leidz,
or some other of our geologists known to fame and infallible experts
in these matters.  This were well.  But there is another court which
I think, would pass quite as prompt a decision.  I believe that a
sculptor, in examining this most singular specimen, would at once
recognize its artificial character.  The devices for saving time
or for adding strength, partially cutting out the figure, are
sufficiently apparent in the object before us.  The legs--with
their heavy thigh, the swollen knee portion, the swollen calf and
slender ankle, all touch on the outline length as they lie over
each other, with no open space between, or no point where one
folds down upon the other with a sharp line of contact of the two
surfaces.  The same thing, too, is noticeable in the arms and in
the fingers of the hand, where the flesh, instead of sloping away--
one rounded surface finely leaving another--is cut down square,
as if some unnatural out growth of flesh had formed a uniting
portion beneath the member.  This is a too common device in
the coarser grades of sculpture to escape notice here.  Our
sculptor would certainly find fault with the very constrained
position of the body, its feet awkwardly crossed and its left
arm twisted rather than laid backward under its body, certainly
this is not the attitude in which a sculptor--a man of taste--would
place his handiwork.  Still, may it not be an admissable theory,
that the oldtime artist was constrained in the form which he should
give his statue, by the form and dimensions of his gypsum block.
If there was not material sufficient to carve out both arms lying
across the breast, he might find enough to make one of the arms
below.  If the lower left hand corner of the block were broken off,
he might still bring out both feet by lapping one over the other, and
letting vertical space atone for lateral want of it.  If our sculptor,
finally, will look sharply upon the legs and body in such parts as
have escaped the considerable water-wearing which has smoothed
most of the figure, I think that he will see plainly the marks of the
graving tool of his ancient colleague.  But, as he now has the figure
in charge--I positively rejecting it as being no fossil--I will leave to
him and the Archeologist to study and puzzle upon it.  Dr. J.F.
Boynton, of Syracuse, (to whom, by the way, belongs the credit
of having first discerned and recorded in print that this is a statue),
says, "I think that this piece of reclining statuary is not 300 years old,
but is the work of the early Jesuit Fathers in this country, who
are known to have frequented the Onondaga valley from 220 to 250
years ago;  that it would probably bear a date in history
corresponding with the monumental stone which was found at Pompey
Hill in this county, and now deposited in the Academy at Albany.
All these are points which Archaeologists and Ethnologists may yet
determine.  Will not Hon. Lewis H. Morgan leave Rochester by an
early Monday train and see this most wonderful statue while it is
still undisturbed in its bed.   H. A. WARD.  ROCHESTER,
October 23, 1869.


To the editor of the Syracuse Journal:--
This subject does not seem, even yet, to be exhausted, much as
has been written in regard to it.  Having spent an hour yesterday
in the inspection of the great mystery, permit me hastily to give
you the results of my observations.


For the benefit of the large number who will not be able to visit
the locality, it may be well to define more fully and precisely
the exact spot in which it was found.  It is near the west line
of the town of Lafayette, in the upper section of the valley of
the Onondaga Creek, called Christian Hollow--a short two miles
above the south line of the Reservation of the Onondaga Indians.
The valley at this point is about half a mile in width, and there
are two north and south roads running through it, directly at the
foot of the hills on each side.  The small village of Cardiff nestles
under the eastern hills, about half a mile directly east of the
locality in question, which is precisely at that point where the
slope of the western hills meets the alluvial valley of the Onondaga
Creek.  This point is about one hundred feet east of the west road,
and about two hundred feet west from the bank of the creek.  On
the west the ground rises moderately to the road, then more rapidly
to the top of the western hills, some eight hundred feet above the
valley below.  On the east it is nearly or quite a dead level to the
creek, the ground being evidently all alluvial.  The valley is beautiful--
thickly settled and under high cultivation.


The statue--for such I am sure it is--lies in a hole about twelve
feet long, five feet wide at the top, and four at the bottom.  The
soil of the first three feet, or a trifle more or less, is the
common alluvial soil of the Onondaga valley.  The next foot is
gravel, which rests on the solid clay.  The ends of many pieces
of wood project through the gravel and some are found in the soil


Those familiar with the frauds practised in other countries in
the manufacture and sale of antiques, and perhaps others, would
have a vague suspicion that this might furnish another instance,
nearer home.  My own mind was not free from such dreams.  And
notwithstanding the apparent impossibility of finding a place
where such a stone might be obtained--of quarrying, working,
transporting, and burying the same, and keeping it a profound
secret, I still had my suspicions.  But the first look at the
statue dispels from the mind every thought of that nature. It has
the marks of the ages stamped upon every limb and feature, in a
manner and with a distinctness which no art can imitate. I have
not seen the first person who entertained any doubt of its great
antiquity, after looking at that most wonderful and inexplicable
figure.  The time spent in manufacturing and retailing the simple
and absurd rumors which circulate through the community and find
their way into the papers, is weakly and foolishly thrown away.  It
is a serious and most remarkable reality, and one which as yet
have received no satisfactory explanation, and probably never will.


Serious doubts are really entertained on this subject, and it is
elaborately discussed.  I must confess that I have none whatever,
and for the following reasons:

First--There is no satisfactory evidence that any one person ever
lived in any age or country of this world, of the statue of ten feet,
unless it be Goliah of Gath.  I know very well what is claimed and
said on this subject, but the evidence would not satisfy a jury
of intelligent men.

Second--There is nothing in the general aspect, which leads any
one to think it anything but stone.  I venture to say, that were
it in any other form, such a supposition would never have arisen.

Third--The stratification of the stone is perfectly visible, even
to the imperfect observation now allowed.  Mr. Calthrop's letter
is full and satisfactory on this subject, but in addition to the
places pointed out by him, the stratification may be seen on the
left shoulder, and I think on the top of the head.  That upon the
left breast is, however, most clear, distinct and satisfactory.

Fourth--The whole statue, in all its parts, furnishes the most
conclusive evidence, that it was all cut from one stone.  It is
quite clear that the stone has been cut away just far enough and
only just far enough to show the legs, the arms and the fingers.

Fifth--The fracture of the stone along the left leg,, and especially
on the heel of the left foot, which seems to be recent and fresh,
is the fracture of our common gypsum, and leaves no doubt, so far
as the eye can determine, that the material is stone.

It is said that on striking the head or the chest, it gives forth
a sound indicating that the statue is hollow.  Such evidence must
in any event be very uncertain, and now no such experiments are

No one is permitted to touch the statue, but I was allowed to look
at it with a powerful glass at my leisure.

I have carefully read the nine points made in the Standard of the
23d, to its being a statue.  None of them are conclusive, nor, as
it seems to be very strong, do they affect my belief on the subject.
The marvelous has a great attraction for all of us, but we cannot
afford to surrender our better judgment for the luxury of enjoying
a belief in it.

In the meantime, why will not Mr. Newell run a dozen or twenty
trenches from the locality of the giant, in every direction, down
through the alluvial soil to the clay, and see if other discoveries
may not be made, which will throw light on this one?

Very respectfully, E.W. LEAVENWORTH, SYRACUSE
Oct. 20th, 1869.

From the Syracuse Journal, Oct. 27th.

ALBANY, Oct. 26th, 1869.

Messrs. Truair & Smith, Publishers of the Syracuse Journal:
GENTLEMEN:--I have just received your favor of the 25th instant,
in relation to the "Stone Wonder," visited by us.  There can be
but one opinion about it, I think.

It is a statue, cut in gypsum, and intended to represent a human
form of colossal size in a recumbent posture.  As to its source
or origin, I cannot conjecture.  It is worn and dissolved by water
to a degree that indicates long inhumation, and it is covered by
an alluvial deposit of three feet or more in depth.  The sculpture
is of a high order and very different from those of Central America.
I enclose you a few paragraphs* which I wrote in reference to a
statement that I had not been permitted to examine the object in
question.  I do not see that we can say more at present.
I am respectfully, your ob't servant, JAMES HALL.

*The same letter communicated to the Albany Argus of October 25th,
under the signature "H." and printed on page--.


Speak out, O Giant! stiff, and stark, and grim,
Open thy lips of stone, thy story tell;
And by the wondering crowd who pay thee court
In thy cold bed, and gaze with curious eyes
On thy prone form so huge, and still so human,
Let now again be heard, that voice which once
Through all old Onondaga's hills and vales
Proclaimed thy lineage from a Giant race,
And claimed as subjects, all who trembling hear
Art thou a son of old Polyphemus,
Or brother to the Sphinx, now turned to stone--
The mystery and riddle of the world?
Did human passions stir within thy breast
And move thy heart with human sympathies?
Was life to thee, made up of joy and hope,
Of love and hate, of suffering and pain,
In fair proportions to thy Giant form?
Did ever wife, by whatsoever name
Or tie of union, with her ministries
Of love, caress and cheer thy way through life?
Were children in thy home, to climb thy knee
And pluck thy beard, secure, and dare thy power
Or, was thy nature as its substance now,
Like stone--as cold and unimpressible?
Over these hills, with spear like weaver's beam,
Dids't thou pursue the chase and track thy foe,
Holding all fear and danger in contempt?
And, did at last, some fair Delliah
Of thy race, hold thee in gentle dalliance,
And with thy head upon her lap at rest,
Wer't shorn of strength, and told too late, alas,
"Thine enemies be upon thee?"
Tell us the story of thy life, and whether
Of woman born--substance and spirit
In mysterious unon wed--or fashioned
By hand of man from stone, we bow in awe,
And hail thee, GIANT OF ONONDAGA!

SYRACUSE, Oct. 20, 1869.  D.P.P

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