By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night — Volume 07
Author: Richard F. Burton, - To be updated
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night — Volume 07" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

This etext was scanned by JC Byers
Nancy Bloomquist, J.C. Byers, Muhammad Hozien, Carrie Lorenz,
Laura Shaffer, Sara Vazirian, and Charles Wilson.

                        THE BOOK OF THE
                A Plain and Literal Translation
              of the Arabian Nights Entertainments

                  Translated and Annotated by
                       Richard F. Burton

                          VOLUME SEVEN
              Privately Printed By The Burton Club

                     I Inscribe these pages
                   An Old And Valued Friend,

                        John W. Larking
                    (Whilome of Alexandria).

   In Whose Hospitable Home ("The Sycamores") I Made My Final
            Preparations For A Pilgrimage To Meccah
                        and El-Medinah.

                                                   R. F. Burton

                 Contents of the Seventh Volume

     The History of Gharib and His Brother Ajib (continued)
138. Otbah and Rayya
139. Hind, Daughter of Al-Nu'man, and Al-Hajjaj
140. Khuzaymah Bin Bishr and Ikrimah Al-Fayyaz
141. Yunus the Scribe and the Caliph Walid Bin Sahl
142. Harun Al-Rashid and the Arab Girl
143. Al-Asma'i and the Three Girls of Bassorah
144. Ibrahim of Mosul and the Devil
145. The Lovers of the Banu Uzrah
146. The Badawi and His Wife
147. The Lovers of Bassorah
148. Ishak of Mosul and His Mistress and the Devil
149. The Lovers of Al-Medinah
150. Al-Malik Al-Nasir and His Wizir
151. The Rogueries of Dalilah the Crafty and Her Daughter Zaynab
the Coney-Catcher
     a.   The Adventures of Mercury Ali of Cairo
152. Ardashir and Hayat Al-nufus
153. Julnar the Sea-Born and Her Son King Badr Basim of Persia
154. King Mohammed Bin Sabaik and the Merchant Hasan
     a.   Story of Prince Sayf Al-Muluk and the Princess Badi'a

                        The Book Of The

     When it was the Six Hundred and Thirty-seventh Night,

Shahrazad continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
Sa'adan having broken into the palace of King Jamak and pounded
to pieces those therein, the survivors cried out, "Quarter!
Quarter!"; and Sa'adan said to them, "Pinion your King!" So they
bound Jamak and took him up, and Sa'adan drove them before him
like sheep and brought them to Gharib's presence, after the most
part of the citizens had perished by the enemy's swords. When the
King of Babel came to himself, he found himself bound and heard
Sa'adan say, "I will sup to-night off this King Jamak:" whereupon
he turned to Gharib and cried to him, "I throw myself on thy
mercy." Replied Gharib, "Become a Moslem, and thou shalt be safe
from the Ghul and from the vengeance of the Living One who
ceaseth not." So Jamak professed Al-Islam with heart and tongue
and Gharib bade loose his bonds. Then he expounded The Faith to
his people and they all became True Believers; after which Jamak
returned to the city and despatched thence provaunt land henchmen
to Gharib; and wine to the camp before Babel where they passed
the night. On the morrow, Gharib gave the signal for the march
and they fared on till they came to Mayyáfárikín,[FN#1] which
they found empty, for its people had heard what had befallen
Babel and had fled to Cufa-city and told Ajib. When he heard the
news, his Doom-day appeared to him and he assembled his braves
and informing them of the enemy's approach ordered them make
ready to do battle with his brother's host; after which he
numbered them and found them thirty-thousand horse and ten
thousand foot.[FN#2] So, needing more, he levied other fifty-
thousand men, cavalry and infantry, and taking horse amid a
mighty host, rode forwards, till he came upon his brother's army
encamped before Mosul and pitched his tents in face of their
lines. Then Gharib wrote a writ and said to his officers, "Which
of you will carry this letter to Ajib?" Whereupon Sahim sprang to
his feet and cried, "O King of the Age, I will bear thy missive
and bring thee back an answer." So Gharib gave him the epistle
and he repaired to the pavilion of Ajib who, when informed of his
coming, said, "Admit him!" and when he stood in the presence
asked him, "Whence comest thou?" Answered Sahim, "From the King
of the Arabs and the Persians, son-in-law of Chosroë, King of the
world, who sendeth thee a writ; so do thou return him a reply."
Quoth Ajib, "Give me the letter;" accordingly Sahim gave it to
him and he tore it open and found therein, "In the name of Allah
the Compassionating, the Compassionate! Peace on Abraham the
Friend await! But afterwards. As soon as this letter shall come
to thy hand, do thou confess the Unity of the Bountiful King,
Causer of causes and Mover of the clouds;[FN#3] and leave
worshipping idols. An thou do this thing, thou art my brother and
ruler over us and I will pardon thee the deaths of my father and
mother, nor will I reproach thee with what thou hast done. But an
thou obey not my bidding, behold, I will hasten to thee and cut
off thy head and lay waste thy dominions. Verily, I give thee
good counsel, and the Peace be on those who pace the path of
salvation and obey the Most High King!" When Ajib read these
words and knew the threat they contained, his eyes sank into the
crown of his head and he gnashed his teeth and flew into a
furious rage. Then he tore the letter in pieces and threw it
away, which vexed Sahim and he cried out upon Ajib, saying,
"Allah wither thy hand for the deed thou hast done!" With this
Ajib cried out to his men, saying, "Seize yonder hound and hew
him in pieces with your hangers.''[FN#4] So they ran at Sahim;
but he bared blade and fell upon them and slew of them more than
fifty braves; after which he cut his way out, though bathed in
blood, and won back to Gharib, who said, "What is this case, O
Sahim?" And he told him what had passed, whereat he grew livid
for rage and crying "Allaho Akbar God is most great!" bade the
battle-drums beat. So the fighting-men donned their hauberks and
coats of straitwoven mail and baldrick'd themselves with their
swords; the footmen drew out in battle-array, whilst the horsemen
mounted their prancing horses and dancing camels and levelled
their long lances, and the champions rushed into the field. Ajib
and his men also took horse and host charged down upon host. --
And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Thirty-eighth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Gharib and his merry men took horse, Ajib and his troops also
mounted and host charged down upon host. Then ruled the Kazi of
Battle, in whose ordinance is no wrong, for a seal is on his lips
and he speaketh not; and the blood railed in rills and purfled
earth with curious embroidery; heads grew gray and hotter waxed
battle and fiercer. Feet slipped and stood firm the valiant and
pushed forwards, whilst turned the faint-heart and fled, nor did
they leave fighting till the day darkened and the night starkened
Then clashed the cymbals of retreat and the two hosts drew apart
each from other, and returned to their tents, where they righted.
Next morning, as soon as it was day, the cymbals beat to battle
and derring-do, and the warriors donned their harness of fight
and baldrick'd[FN#5] their blades the brightest bright and with
the brown lance bedight mounted doughty steed every knight and
cried out, saying, "This day no flight!" And the two hosts drew
out in battle array, like the surging sea. The first to open the
chapter[FN#6] of war was Sahim, who crave his destrier between
the two lines and played with swords and spears and turned over
all the Capitula of combat till men of choicest wits were
confounded. Then he cried out, saying, "Who is for fighting? Who
is for jousting? Let no sluggard come out nor weakling!"
Whereupon there rushed at him a horseman of the Kafirs, as he
were a flame of fire; but Sahim let him not stand long before him
ere he overthrew him with a thrust. Then a second came forth and
he slew him also, and a third and he tare him in twain, and a
fourth and he did him to death; nor did they cease sallying out
to him and he left not slaying them, till it was noon, by which
time he had laid low two hundred braves. Then Ajib cried to his
men, "Charge once more," and sturdy host on sturdy host down bore
and great was the clash of arms and battle-roar. The shining
swords out rang; the blood in streams ran and footman rushed upon
footman; Death showed in van and horse-hoof was shodden with
skull of man; nor did they cease from sore smiting till waned the
day and the night came on in black array, when they drew apart
and, returning to their tents, passed the night there. As soon as
morning morrowed the two hosts mounted and sought the field of
fight; and the Moslems looked for Gharib to back steed and ride
under the standards as was his wont, but he came not. So Sahim
sent to his brother's pavilion a slave who, finding him not,
asked the tent-pitchers,[FN#7] but they answered, "We know naught
of him." Whereat he was greatly concerned and went forth and told
the troops, who refrained from battle, saying, "An Gharib be
absent, his foe will destroy us." Now there was for Gharib's
absence a cause strange but true which we will set out in order
due. And it was thus. When Ajib returned to his camp on the
preceding Night, he called one of his guardsmen by name Sayyar
and said to him, "O Sayyar, I have not treasured thee save for a
day like this; and now I bid thee enter among Gharib s host and,
pushing into the marquee of their lord, bring him hither to me
and prove how wily thy cunning be." And Sayyar said, "I hear and
I obey." So he repaired to the enemy's camp and stealing into
Gharib's pavilion, under the darkness of the Night, when all the
men had gone to their places of rest, stood up as though he were
a slave to serve Gharib, who present! being athirst, called to
him for water. So he brought him a pitcher of water, drugged with
Bhang, and Gharib could not fulfill his need ere he fell down
with head distancing heels, whereupon Sayyar wrapped him in his
cloak and carrying him to Ajib's tent, threw him down at his
feet. Quoth Ajib, "O Sayyar, what is this?" Quoth he, "This be
thy brother Gharib;" whereat Ajib rejoiced and said, "The
blessings of the Idols light upon thee! Loose him and wake him."
So they made him sniff up vinegar and he came to himself and
opened his eyes; then, finding himself bound and in a tent other
than his own, exclaimed, "There is no Majesty and there is no
Might save in Allah, the Glorious the Great!" Thereupon Ajib
cried out at him, saying, "Dost thou draw on me, O dog, and seek
to slay me and take on me thy blood-wreak of thy father and thy
mother? I will send thee this very day to them and rid the world
of thee." Replied Gharib, Kafir hound! soon shalt thou see
against whom the wheels of fate shall revolve and who shall be
overthrown by the wrath of the Almighty King, Who wotteth what is
in hearts and Who shall leave thee in Gehenna tormented and
confounded! Have ruth on thyself and say with me, ‘There is no
god but the God and Abraham is the Friend of God!' " When Ajib
heard Gharib's words, he sparked and snorted and railed at his
god, the stone, and called for the sworder and the leather rug of
blood but his Wazir, who was at heart a Moslem though outwardly a
Miscreant, rose and kissing ground before him, said, "Patience, O
King, deal not hastily, but wait till we know the conquered from
the conqueror. If we prove the victors, we shall have power to
him and, if we be beaten, his being alive in our hands will be a
strength to us." And the Emirs said, "The Minister speaketh
sooth"! --And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
saying her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Thirty-ninth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Ajib purposed to slay Gharib, the Wazir rose and said, "Deal not
hastily, for we have always power to kill him!" So Ajib bade lay
his brother Gharib in irons and chain him up in his own tent and
set a thousand stout warriors to guard him. Meanwhile Gharib's
host, when they awoke that morning and found not their King, were
as sheep sans a shepherd; but Sa'adan the Ghul cried out at them,
saying, "O folk, don your war-gear and trust to your Lord to
defend you!" So Arabs and Ajams mounted horse, after clothing
themselves in hauberks of iron and skirting themselves in
straight knit mail, and sallied forth to the field, the Chiefs
and the colours moving in van. Then dashed out the Ghul of the
Mountain, with a club on his shoulder, two hundred pounds in
weight, and wheeled and careered, saying, "Ho, worshippers of
idols, come ye out and renown it this day, for 'tis a day of
onslaught! Whoso knoweth me hath enough of my mischief and whoso
knoweth me not, I will make myself known to him. I am Sa'adan,
servant of King Gharib. Who is for jousting? Who is for fighting?
Let no faintheart come forth to me to-day nor weakling." And
there rushed upon him a Champion of the Infidels, as he were a
flame of fire, and drove at him, but Sa'adan charged home at him
and dealt him with his club a blow which broke his ribs and cast
him lifeless to the earth. Then he called out to his sons and
slaves, saying, "Light the bonfire, and whoso falleth of the
Kafirs do ye dress him and roast him well in the flame, then
bring him to me that I may break my fast on him!" So they kindled
a fire midmost the plain and laid thereon the slain, till he was
cooked, when they brought him to Sa'adan, who gnawed his flesh
and crunched his bones. When the Miscreants saw the Mountain-Ghul
do this deed they were Frighted with sore Wright, but Ajib cried
out to his men, saying, "Out on you! Fall upon the Ogre and hew
him in hunks with your scymitars!" So twenty-thousand men ran at
Sa'adan, whilst the footmen circled round him and rained upon him
darts and shafts so that he was wounded in four-and-twenty
places, and his blood ran down upon the earth, and he was alone.
Then the host of the Moslems crave at the heathenry, calling for
help upon the Lord of the three Worlds, and they ceased not from
fight and fray till the day came to an end, when they drew apart.
But the Infidels had captured Sa'adan, as he vere a drunken man
for loss of blood; and they bound him fast and set him by Gharib
who, seeing the Ghul a prisoner, said, "There is no Majesty and
there is no Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great! O
Sa'adan, what case is this?" "O my lord," replied Sa'adan, "it is
Allah (extolled and exalted be He!) who ordaineth joy and annoy
and there is no help but this and that betide." And Gharib
rejoined, "Thou speakest sooth, O Sa'adan!" But Ajib passed the
night in joy and he said to his men, "Mount ye on the morrow and
fall upon the Moslems so shall not one of them be left alive."
And they replied, "Hearkening and obedience!" This is how it
fared with them but as regards the Moslems, they passed the
Night, dejected and weeping for their King and Sa'adan; but Sahim
said to them, "O folk, be not concerned, for the aidance of
Almighty Allah is nigh." Then he waited till midnight, when he
assumed the garb of a tent-pitcher; and, repairing to Ajib's
camp, made his way between the tents and pavilions till he came
to the King's marquee, where he saw him seated on his throne
surrounded by his Princes. So he entered and going up to the
candles which burnt in the tent snuffed them and sprinkled
levigated henbane on the wicks; after which he withdrew and
waited without the marquee, till the smoke of the burning henbane
reached Ajib and his Princes and they fell to the ground like
dead men. Then he left them and went to the prison tent, where he
found Gharib and Sa'adan, guarded by a thousand braves, who were
overcome with sleep. So he cried out at the guards, saying, "Woe
to you! Sleep not; but watch your prisoners and light the
cressets." Presently he filled a cresses with firewood, on which
he strewed henbane, and lighting it, went round about the tent
with it, till the smoke entered the nostrils of the guards, and
they all fell asleep drowned by the drug; when he entered the
tent and finding Gharib and Sa'adan also insensible he aroused
them by making them smell and sniff at a sponge full of vinegar
he had with him. Thereupon he loosed their bonds and collars, and
when they saw him, they blessed him and rejoiced In him. After
this they went forth and took all the arms of the guards and
Sahim said to them, "Go to your own camp;" while he re entered
Ajib's pavilion and, wrapping him in his cloak, lifted him up and
made for the Moslem encampment. And the Lord, Compassionate
protected him, so that he reached Gharib's tent in safety and
unrolled the cloak before him. Gharib looked at its contents and
seeing his brother Ajib bound, cried out, "Allaho Akbar --God is
Most Great! Aidance! Victory!" And he blessed Sahim and bade him
arouse Ajib. So he made him smell the vinegar mixed with incense,
and he opened his eyes and, finding himself bound and shackled,
hung down his head earth wards. --And Shahrazad perceived the
dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

        When it was the Six Hundred and Fortieth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that after Sahim
had aroused Ajib, whom he had made insensible with henbane and
had brought to his brother Gharib, the captive opened his eyes
and, feeling himself bound and shackled, hung down his head
earthwards. Thereupon cried Sahim, O Accursed, lift thy head!" So
he raised his eyes and found himself amongst Arabs and Ajamis and
saw his brother seated on the throne of his estate and the place
of his power, wherefore he was silent and spake not. Then Gharib
cried out and said, "Strip me this hound!" So they stripped him
and came down upon him with whips, till they weakened his body
and subdued his pride, after which Gharib set over him a guard of
an hundred knights. And when this fraternal correction had been
administered they heard shouts of, "There is no God but the God!"
and "God is Most Great!" from the camp of the Kafirs. Now the
cause of this was that, ten days after his nephew King Al-Damigh,
Gharib's uncle, had set out from Al-Jazirah, with twenty-thousand
horse, and on nearing the field of battle, had despatched one of
his scouts to get news. The man was absent a whole day, at the
end of which time he returned and told Al-Damigh all that had
happened to Gharib with his brother. So he waited till the Night,
when he fell upon the Infidels, crying out, "Allaho Akbar!" and
put them to the edge of the biting scymitar. When Gharib heard
the Takbir,[FN#8] he said to Sahim, "Go find out the cause of
these shouts and war cries." So Sahim repaired to the field of
battle and questioned the slaves and camp followers, who told him
that King Al-Damigh had come up with twenty-thousand men and had
fallen upon the idolaters by Night, saying, "By the virtue of
Abraham the Friend, I will not forsake my brother's son, but will
play a brave man's part and beat back the host of Miscreants and
please the Omnipotent King!" So Sahim returned and told his
uncle's derring-do to Gharib, who cried out to his men, saying,
"Don your arms and mount your steeds and let us succour my
father's brother!" So they took horse and fell upon the Infidels
and put them to the edge of the sharp sword. By the morning they
had killed nigh fifty-thousand of the Kafirs and made other
thirty-thousand prisoners, and the rest of Ajib's army dispersed
over the length and breadth of earth. Then the Moslems returned
in victory and triumph, and Gharib rode out to meet his uncle,
whom he saluted and thanked for his help Quoth Al-Damigh, "I
wonder if that dog Ajib fell in this day's affair." Quoth Gharib,
"O uncle, be of good cheer and keep thine eyes cool and clear:
know that he is with me in chains." When Al-Damigh heard this he
rejoiced with exceeding joy and the two kings dismounted and
entered the pavilion, but found no Ajib there; whereupon Gharib
exclaimed, "O glory of Abraham, the Friend (with whom be
peace!)," adding, "Alas, what an ill end is this to a glorious
day!" and he cried out to the tent-pitchers, saying, "Woe to you!
Where is my enemy who oweth me so much?" Quoth they, "When thou
mountedst and we went with thee, thou didst not bid us guard
him;" and Gharib exclaimed, "There is no Majesty and there is no
Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great!" But Al-Damigh said
to him, "Hasten not nor be concerned, for where can he go, and we
in pursuit of him?" Now the manner of Ajib's escape was in this
wise. His page Sayyar had been ambushed in the camp and when he
saw Gharib mount and ride forth, leaving none to guard his enemy
Ajib, he could hardly credit his eyes. So he waited awhile and
presently crept to the tent and taking Ajib, who was senseless
for the pain of the bastinado, on his back, made off with him
into the open country and fared on at the top of his speed from
early night to the next day, till he came to a spring of water,
under an apple tree. There he set down Ajib from his back and
washed his face, whereupon he opened his eyes and seeing Sayyar,
said to him, "O Sayyar, carry me to Cufa that I may recover there
and levy horsemen and soldiers wherewith to overthrow my foe: and
know, O Sayyar, that I am anhungered." So Sayyar sprang up and
going out to the desert caught an ostrich-poult and brought it to
his lord. Then he gathered fuel and deftly using the fire sticks
kindled a fire,, by which he roasted the bird which he had
hallal'd[FN#9] and fed Ajib with its flesh and gave him to drink
of the water of the spring, till his strength returned to hits,
after which he went to one of the Badawi tribal encampments, and
stealing thence a steed mounted Ajib upon it and journeyed on
with him for many days till they drew near the city of Cufa. The
Viceroy of the capital came out to meet and salute the King, whom
he found weak with the beating his brother had inflicted upon
him; and Ajib entered the city and called his physicians. When
they answered his summons, he bade them heal him in less than ten
days' time: they said, "We hear and we obey," and they tended him
till he became whole of the sickness that was upon him and of the
punishment. Then he commanded his Wazirs to write letters to all
his Nabobs and vassals, and he indited one-and-twenty writs and
despatched them to the governors, who assembled their troops and
set out for Cufa by forced marches. --And Shahrazad perceived the
dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

       When it was the Six Hundred and Forty-first Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Ajib
sent orders to assemble the troops, who marched forthright to
Cufa. Meanwhile, Gharib, being troubled for Ajib's escape,
despatched in quest of him a thousand braves, who dispersed on
all sides and sought him a day and a Night, but found no trace of
him; so they returned and told Gharib, who called for his brother
Sahim, but found him not; whereat he was sore concerned, fearing
for him from the shifts of Fortune. And lo! Sahim entered and
kissed ground before Gharib, who rose, when he saw him, and
asked, "Where hast thou been, O Sahim?" He answered, "O King, I
have been to Cufa and there I find that the dog Ajib hath made
his way to his capital and is healed of his hurts: eke, he hath
written letters to his vassals and sent them to his Nabobs who
have brought him troops." When Gharib heard this, he gave the
command to march; so they struck tents and fared for Cufa. When
they came in sight of the city, they found it compassed about
with a host like the surging main, having neither beginning nor
end. So Gharib with his troops encamped in face of the Kafirs and
set up his standards, and darkness fell down upon the two hosts,
whereupon they lighted camp-fires and kept watch till daybreak.
Then King Gharib rose and making the Wuzu-ablution, prayed a two-
bow prayer according to the rite of our father Abraham the Friend
(on whom be the Peace!); after which he commanded the battle
drums to sound the point of war. Accordingly, the kettle-drums
beat to combat and the standards fluttered whilst the fighting-
men armour donned and their horses mounted and themselves
displayed and to plain fared. Now the first to open the gate of
war was King Al-Damigh, who urged his charger between the two
opposing armies and displayed himself and played with the swords
and the spears, till both hosts were confounded and at him
marvelled, after which he cried out, saying, "Who is for
jousting? Let no sluggard come out to me nor weakling; for I am
Al-Damigh, the King, brother of Kundamir the King." Then there
rushed forth a horseman of the Kafirs, as he were a flame of
fire, and crave at Al-Damigh, without word said; but the King
received him with a lance thrust in the breast so dour that the
point issued from between his shoulders and Allah hurried his
soul to the fire, the abiding-place dire. Then came forth a
second he slew, and a third he slew likewise, and they ceased not
to come out to him and he to slay them, till he had made an end
of six-and-seventy fighting-men. Hereupon the Miscreants and men
of might hung back and would not encounter him; but Ajib cried
out to his men and said, "Fie on you, O folk! if ye all go forth
to him, one by one, he will not leave any of you, sitting or
standing. Charge on him all at once and cleanse of them our
earthly wone and strew their heads for your horses' hoofs like a
plain of stone!" So they waved the ewe striking flag and host was
heaped upon host; blood rained in streams upon earth and railed
and the Judge of battle ruled, in whose ordinance is no upright.
The fearless stood firm on feet in the stead of fight, whilst the
faint-heart gave back and took to flight thinking the day would
never come to an end nor the curtains of gloom would be drawn by
the hand of Night; and they ceased not to battle with swords and
to smite till light darkened and murk starkened. Then the kettle-
drums of the Infidels beat the retreat, but Gharib, refusing to
stay his arms, crave at the Paynimry, and the Believers in Unity,
the Moslems, followed him. How many heads and hands they shore,
how many necks and sinews they tore, how many knees and spines
they mashed and how many grown men and youths they to death
bashed! With the first gleam of morning grey the Infidels broke
and fled away, in disorder and disarray; and the Moslems followed
them till middle-day and took over twenty-thousand of them, whom
they brought to their tents in bonds to stay. Then Gharib sat
down before the gate of Cufa and commanded a herald to proclaim
pardon and protection for every wight who should leave the
worship to idols dight and profess the unity of His All-might the
Creator of mankind and of light and night. So was made
proclamation as he bade in the streets of Cufa and all that were
therein embraced the True Faith, great and small; then they
issued forth in a body and renewed their Islam before King
Gharib, who rejoiced in them with exceeding joy and his breast
broadened and he threw off all annoy. Presently he enquired of
Mardas and his daughter Mahdiyah, and, being told that he had
taken up his abode behind the Red Mountain, he called Sahim and
said to him, "Find out for me what is become of thy father."
Sahim mounted steed without stay or delay and set his berry-brown
spear in rest and fared on in quest till he reached the Red
Mountain, where he sought for his father, yet found no trace of
him nor of his tribe; however, he saw in their stead an elder of
the Arabs, a very old man, broken with excess of years, and asked
him of the folk and whither they were gone. Replied he, "O my
son, when Mardas heard of Gharib's descent upon Cufa he feared
with great fear and, taking his daughter and his folk, set out
with his handmaids and negroes into the wild and word, and I wot
not whither he went." So Sahim, hearing the Shaykh's words,
returned to Gharib and told him thereof, whereat he was greatly
concerned. Then he sat down on his father's throne and, opening
his treasuries, distributed largesse to each and every of his
braves. And he took up his abode in Cufa and sent out spies to
get news of Ajib. He also summoned the Grandees of the realm, who
came and did him homage; as also did the citizens and he bestowed
on them sumptuous robes of honour and commended the Ryots to
their care. --And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
to say her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Forty-second Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Gharib,
after giving robes of honour to the citizens of Cufa and com
mending the Ryots to their care, went out on a day of the days to
hunt, with an hundred horse, and fared on till he came to a Wady,
abounding in trees and fruits and rich in rills and birds It was
a pasturing-place for roes and gazelles, to the spirit a delight
whose scents reposed from the langour of fight. They encamped in
the valley, for the day was dear and bright, and there passed the
night. On the morrow, Gharib made the Wuzu-ablution and prayed
the two-bow dawn-prayer, offering up praise and thanks to
Almighty Allah; when, lo and behold! there arose a clamour and
confusion in the meadows, and he bade Sahim go see what was to
do. So Sahim mounted forthright and rode till he espied goods
being plundered and horses haltered and women carried off and
children crying out. Whereupon he questioned one of the
shepherds, saying, "What be all this?"; and they replied, "This
is the Harim of Mardas, Chief of the Banu Kahtan, and his good
and that of his clan; for yesterday Jamrkan slew Mardas and made
prize of his women and children and household stuff and all the
belonging of his tribe. It is his wont to go a raiding and to cut
off highways and waylay wayfarers and he is a furious tyrant;
neither Arabs nor Kings can prevail against him and he is the
scourge and curse of the country." Now when Sahim heard these
news of his sire's slaughter and the looting of his Harim and
property, he returned to Gharib and told him the case, wherefore
fire was added to his fire and his spirit chafed to wipe out his
shame and his blood wit to claim: so he rode with his men after
the robbers till he overtook them and fell upon them, crying out
and saying, "Almighty Allah upon the rebel, the traitor, the
infidel!" and he slew in a single charge one-and-twenty fighting-
men. Then he halted in mid-field, with no coward's heart, and
cried out, "Where is Jamrkan? Let him come out to me, that I may
make him quaff the cup of disgrace and rid of him earth's face!"
Hardly had he made an end of speaking, when forth rushed Jamrkan,
as he were a calamity of calamities or a piece of a mountain,
cased in steel. He was a mighty huge[FN#10] Amalekite; and he
crave at Gharib without speech or salute, like the fierce tyrant
he was. And he was armed with a mace of China steel, so heavy, so
potent, that had he smitten a hill he had smashed it. Now when he
charged, Gharib met him like a hungry lion, and the brigand aimed
a blow at his head with his mace; but he evaded it and it smote
the earth and sank therein half a cubit deep. Then Gharib took
his battle flail and smiting Jamrkan on the wrist, crushed his
fingers and the mace dropped from his grasp; whereupon Gharib
bent down from his seat in selle and snatching it up, swiftlier
than the blinding leven, smote him therewith full on the flat of
the ribs, and he fell to the earth like a long-stemmed palm-tree.
So Sahim took him and pinioning him, haled him off with a rope,
and Gharib's horsemen fell on those of Jamrkan and slew fifty of
them: the rest fled; nor did they cease flying till they reached
their tribal camp and raised their voices in clamour; whereupon
all who were in the Castle came out to meet them and asked the
news. They told the tribe what had passed; and, when they heard
that their chief was a prisoner, they set out for the valley
vying one with other in their haste to deliver him. Now when King
Gharib had captured Jamrkan and had seen his braves take flight,
he dismounted and called for Jamrkan, who humbled himself before
him, saying, "I am under thy protection, O champion of the Age!"
Replied Gharib, "O dog of the Arabs, dost thou cut the road for
the servants of Almighty Allah, and fearest thou not the Lord of
the Worlds?" "O my master," asked Jamrkan, "and who is the Lord
of the Worlds?" "O dog," answered Gharib, "and what calamity dost
thou worship?" He said, "O my lord, I worship a god made of
dates[FN#11] kneaded with butter and honey, and at times I eat
him and make me another." When Gharib heard this, he laughed till
he fell backwards and said, "O miserable, there is none worship-
worth save Almighty Allah, who created thee and created all
things and provideth all creatures with daily bread, from whom
nothing is hid and He over all things is Omnipotent." Quoth
Jamrkan, "And where is this great god, that I may worship him?"
Quoth Gharib, "O fellow, know that this god's name is Allah--the
God--and it is He who fashioned the heavens and the earth and
garred the trees to grow and the waters to flow. He created wild
beasts and birds and Paradise and Hell-fire and veileth Himself
from all eyes seeing and of none being seen. He, and He only, is
the Dweller on high. Extolled be His perfection! There is no god
but He!" When Jamrkan heard these words, the ears of his heart
were opened; his skin shuddered with horripilation and he said,
"O my lord, what shall I say that I may become of you and that
this mighty Lord may accept of me?" Replied Gharib, "Say, ‘There
is no god but the God and Abraham the Friend is the Apostle of
God!'" " So he pronounced the profession of the Faith and was
written of the people of felicity. Then quoth Gharib, " Say me,
hast thou tasted the sweetness of Al-Islam?"; and quoth the
other, "Yes;" whereupon Gharib cried, "Loose his bonds!" So they
unbound him and he kissed ground before Gharib and his feet. Now
whilst this was going on, behold, they espied a great cloud of
dust that towered till it walled the word. --And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

       When it was the Six Hundred and Forty-third Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Jamrkan
islamised and kissed the ground between the hands of Gharib, and,
as they were thus, behold, a great cloud of dust towered till it
walled the wold and Gharib said to Sahim, "Go and see for us what
it be." So he went forth, like a bird in full flight, and
presently returned, saying, "O King of the Age, this dust is of
the Banu Amir, the comrades of Jamrkan." Whereupon quoth Gharib
to the new Moslem, "Ride out to thy people and offer to them Al-
Islam: an they profess, they shall be saved; but, an they refuse,
we will put them to the sword." So Jamrkan mounted and driving
steed towards his tribesmen, cried out to them; and they knew him
and dismounting, came up to him on foot and said, "We rejoice in
thy safety, O our lord!" Said he, "O folk, whoso obeyeth me shall
be saved; but whoso gainsayeth me, I will cut him in twain with
this scymitar." And they made answer, saying, "Command us what
thou wilt, for we will not oppose thy commandment." Quoth he,
"Then say with me, ‘There is no god but the God and Abraham is
the Friend of God!' " They asked, "O our lord, whence haddest
thou these words?" And he told them what had befallen him with
Gharib, adding, "O folk, know ye not that I am your chief in
battle-plain and where men of cut and thrust are fain; and yet a
man single-handed me to prisoner hath ta'en and made me the cup
of shame and disgrace to drain?" When they heard his speech, they
spoke the word of Unity and Jamrkan led them to Gharib, at whose
hands they renewed their profession of Al-Islam and wished him
glory and victory, after they had kissed the earth before him.
Gharib rejoiced in them and said to them, "O folk, return to your
people and expound Al-Islam to them;" but all replied, "O our
lord, we will never leave thee, whilst; we live; but we will go
and fetch our families and return to thee." And Gharib said, "Go,
and join me at the city of Cufa." So Jamrkan and his comrades
returned to their tribal camp and offered Al-Islam to their women
and children, who all to a soul embraced the True Faith, after
which they dismantled their abodes and struck their tents and set
out for Cufa, driving before them their steeds, camels and sheep.
During this time Gharib returned to Cufa, where the horsemen met
him in state. He entered his palace and sat down on his sire's
throne with his champions ranged on either hand. Then the spies
came forwards, and informed him that his brother Ajib had made
his escape and had taken refuge with Jaland[FN#12] bin Karkar,
lord of the city of Oman and land of Al-Yaman; whereupon Gharib
cried aloud to his host, "O men, make you ready to march in three
days." Then he expounded Al-Islam to the thirty-thousand men he
had captured in the first affair and exhorted them to profess and
take service with him. Twenty-thousand embraced the Faith, but
the rest refused and he slew them. Then came forward Jamrkan and
his tribe and kissed the ground before Gharib, who bestowed on
him a splendid robe of honour and made him captain of his
vanguard, saying, "O Jamrkan, mount with the Chiefs of thy kith
and kin and twenty-thousand horse and fare on before us to the
land of Jaland bin Karkar." "Hearkening and obedience," answered
Jamrkan and, leaving the women and children of the tribe in Cufa,
he set forward. Then Gharib passed in review the Harim of Mardas
and his eye lit upon Mahdiyah, who was among the women, wherewith
he fell down fainting. They sprinkled rose-water on his face,
till he came to himself, when he embraced Mahdiyah and carried
her into a sitting-chamber, where he sat with her; and they twain
lay together that night without fornication. Next morning he went
out and sitting down on the throne of his kingship, robed his
uncle Al-Damigh with a robe of honour; and appointed him his
viceroy over all Al-Irak, commending Mahdiyah to his care, till
he should return from his expedition against Ajib; and, when the
order was accepted, he set out for the land of Al-Yaman and the
City of Oman with twenty-thousand horse and ten thousand foot.
Now, when Ajib and his defeated army drew in sight of Oman, King
Jaland saw the dust of their approach and sent to find out its
meaning, scouts who returned and said, "Verily this is the dust
of one highs Ajib, lord of Al-Irak." And Jaland wondered at his
coming to his country and, when assured of the tidings, he said
to his officers, "Fare ye forth and meet him." So they went out
and met him and pitched tents for him at the city-gate; and Ajib
entered in to Jaland, weeping eyed and heavy-hearted. Now
Jaland's wife was the daughter of Ajib's paternal uncle and he
had children by her; so, when he saw his kinsman in this plight,
he asked for the truth of what ailed him and Ajib told him all
that had befallen him, first and last, from his brother and said,
"O King, Gharib biddeth the folk worship the Lord of the Heavens
and forbiddeth them from the service of simulacres and other of
the gods." When Jaland heard these words he raged and revolted
and said, "By the virtue of the Sun, Lord of Life and Light, I
will not leave one of thy brother's folk in existence! But where
didst thou quit them and how many men are they?" Answered Ajib,
"I left them in Cufa and they be fifty-thousand horse." Whereupon
Jaland called his Wazir Jawámard,[FN#13] saying, "Take thee
seventy-thousand horse and fare to Cufa and bring me the Moslems
alive, that I may torture them with all manner of tortures." So
Jawamard departed with his host and fared through the first day
and the second till the seventh day, when he came to a Wady
abounding in trees and rills and fruits. Here he called a halt --
And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Forty-fourth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Jaland sent Jawamard with his army to Cufa, they came upon a Wady
abounding in trees and rills where a halt was called and they
rested till the middle of the Night, when the Wazir gave the
signal for departure and mounting, rode on before them till hard
upon dawn, at which time he descended into a well-wooded valley,
whose flowers were fragrant and whose birds warbled on boughs, as
they swayed gracefully to and fro, and Satan blew into his sides
and puffed him up with pride and he improvised these couplets and

"I plunge with my braves in the seething sea; * Seize the foe in
     my strength and my valiancy;
And the doughtiest knights wot me well to be * Friend to friend
     and fierce foe to mine enemy.
I will load Ghanb with the captive's chains * Right soon, and
     return in all Joy and glee;
For I've donned my mail and my weapons wield * And on all sides
     charge at the chivalry."[FN#14]

Hardly had Jawamard made an end of his verses when there came out
upon him from among the trees a horseman of terrible mien covered
and clad in steely sheen, who cried out to him, saying, "Stand, O
riff-raff of the Arabs! Doff thy dress and ground thine arms gear
and dismount thy destrier and be off with thy life!" When
Jawamard heard this, the light in his eyes became darkest night
and he drew his sabre and drove at Jamrkan, for he it was,
saying, "O thief of the Arabs, wilt thou cut the road for me, who
am captain of the host of Jaland bin Karkar and am come to bring
Gharib and his men in bond?" When Jamrkan heard these words, he
said, "How cooling is this to my heart and liver!" And he made at
Jawamard versifying in these couplets,

"I'm the noted knight in the field of fight, * Whose sabre and
     spear every foe affright!
Jamrkan am I, to my foes a fear, * With a lance lunge known unto
     every knight:
Gharib is my lord, nay my pontiff, my prince, * Where the two
     hosts dash very lion of might:
An Imam of the Faith, pious, striking awe * On the plain where
     his foes like the fawn take flight;
Whose voice bids folk to the faith of the Friend, * False,
     doubling idols and gods despite!"

Now Jamrkan had fared on with his tribesmen ten days' journey
from Cufa city and called a halt on the eleventh day till
midnight, when he ordered a march and rode on devancing them till
he descended into the valley aforesaid and heard Jawamard
reciting his verses. So he crave at him as the driving of a
ravening lion, and smiting him with his sword, clove him in twain
and waited till his captains came up, when he told them what had
passed and said to them. "Take each of you five thousand men and
disperse round about the Wady, whilst I and the Banu Amir fall
upon the enemy's van, shouting, Allaho Akbar God is Most Great!
When ye hear my slogan, do ye charge them, crying like me upon
the Lord, and smite them with the sword." "We hear and we obey,"
answered they and turning back to their braves did his bidding
and spread themselves about the sides of the valley in the
twilight forerunning the dawn. Presently, lo and behold! up came
the army of Al-Yaman, like a flock of sheep, filling plain and
steep, and Jamrkan and the Banu Amir fell upon them, shouting,
"Allaho Akbar!" till all heard it, Moslems and Miscreants.
Whereupon the True Believers ambushed in the valley answered from
every side and the hills and mountains responsive cried and all
things replied, green and dried, saying, "God is Most Great!
,Aidance and Victory to us from on High! Shame to the Miscreants
who His name deny!" And the Kafirs were confounded and smote one
another with sabres keen whilst the True Believers and pious fell
upon them like flames of fiery sheen and naught was seen but
heads flying and blood jetting and faint-hearts hieing. By the
time they could see one another's faces, two-thirds of the
Infidels had perished and Allah hastened their souls to the fire
and abiding-place dire. The rest fled and to the deserts sped
whilst the Moslems pursued them to slay and take captives till
middle-day, when they returned in triumph with seven thousand
prisoners; and but six and twenty-thousand of the Infidels
escaped and the most of them wounded. Then the Moslems collected
the horses and arms, the loads and tents of the enemy and
despatched them to Cufa with an escort of a thousand horse;--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her
permitted say.

       When it was the Six Hundred and Forty-fifth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Jamrkan in
his battle with Jawamard slew him and slew his men; and, after
taking many prisoners and much money and many horses and loads,
sent them with an escort of a thousand riders, to Cufa city. Then
he and the army of Al-Islam dismounted and expounded The saving
Faith to the prisoners, who made profession with heart and
tongue; whereupon they released them from bonds and embraced them
and rejoiced in them. Then Jamrkan made his troops, who had
swelled to a mighty many, rest a day and a night and marched with
the dawn, intending to attack Jaland bin Karkar in the city Of
Oman; whilst the thousand horse fared back to Cufa with the loot.
When they reached the city, they went in to King Gharib and told
him what had passed, whereat he rejoiced and gave them joy and,
turning to the Ghul of the Mountain, said, "Take horse with
twenty-thousand and follow Jamrkan." So Sa'adan and his sons
mounted and set out, amid twenty-thousand horse for Oman.
Meanwhile, the fugitives of the defeated Kafirs reached Oman and
went in to Jaland, weeping and crying, "Woe!" and "Ruin!" whereat
he was confounded and said to them, "What calamity hath befallen
you?" So they told him what had happened and he said, "Woe to
you! How many men were they?" They replied, "O King, there were
twenty standards, under each a thousand men." When Jaland heard
these words he said, "May the sun pour no blessing on you! Fie
upon you! What, shall twenty-thousand overcome you, and you
seventy-thousand horse and Jawamard able to withstand three
thousand in field of fight?" Then, in the excess of his rage and
mortification, he bared his blade and cried out to those who were
present, saying, "Fall on them!" So the courtiers drew their
swords upon the fugitives and annihilated them to the last man
and cast them to the dogs. Then Jaland cried aloud to his son,
saying, "Take an hundred thousand horse and go to Al-Irak and lay
it waste altogether." Now this son's name was Kúraján and there
was no doughtier knight in all the force; for he could charge
single handed three thousand riders. So he and his host made
haste to equip themselves and marched in battle-array, rank
following rank, with the Prince at their head, glorying in
himself and improvising these couplets,

"I'm Al-Kurajan, and my name is known * To beat all who in wold
     or in city wone!
How many a soldier my sword at will * Struck down like a cow on
     the ground bestrown?
How many a soldier I've forced to fly * And have rolled their
     heads as a ball is thrown?
Now I'll drive and harry the land Irak[FN#15] * And like rain
     I'll shower the blood of fone;
And lay hands on Ghanb and his men, whose doom * To the wise a
     warning shall soon be shown!"

The host fared on twelve days' journey and, while they were still
marching, behold, a great dust cloud arose before them and walled
the horizon and the whole region. So Kurajan sent out scouts,
saying, "Go forth and bring me tidings of what meaneth this
dust." They went till they passed under the enemy's standards and
presently returning said, "O King, verily this is the dust of the
Moslems." Whereat he was glad and said, "Did ye count them?" And
they answered, "We counted the colours and they numbered twenty."
Quoth he, "By my faith, I will not send one man-at-arms against
them, but will go forth to them alone by myself and strew their
heads under the horses' hooves!" Now this was the army of Jamrkan
who, espying the host of the Kafirs and seeing them as a surging
sea, called a halt; so his troops pitched the tents and set up
the standards, calling upon the name of the All-wise One, the
Creator of light and gloom, Lord of all creatures, Who seeth
while Him none see, the High to infinity, extolled and exalted be
He! There is no God but He! The Miscreants also halted and
pitched their tents, and Kurajan said to them "Keep on your arms,
and in armour sleep, for during the last watch of the night we
will mount and trample yonder handful under feet!" Now one of
Jamrkan's spies was standing nigh and heard what Kurajan had
contrived; so he returned to the host and told his chief who said
to them, "Arm yourselves and as soon as it is Night, bring me all
the mules and camels and hang all the bells and clinkets and
rattles ye have about their necks." Now they had with them more
than twenty-thousand camels and mules. So they waited till the
Infidels fell asleep, when Jamrkan com-mended them to mount, and
they rose to ride and on the Lord of the Worlds they relied. Then
said Jamrkan, "Drive the camels and mules to the Miscreants' camp
and push them with your spears for goads!" They did as he bade
and the beasts rushed upon the enemy's tents, whilst the bells
and clinkets and rattles jangled[FN#16] and the Moslems followed
at their heels, shouting, "God is Most Great!'' till all the
hills and mountains resounded with the name of the Highmost
Deity, to whom belong glory and majesty! The cattle hearing this
terrible din, took fright and rushed upon the tents and trampled
the folk, as they lay asleep.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn
of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

       When it was the Six Hundred and Forty-sixth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Jamrkan fell upon them with his men and steeds and camels, and
the camp lay sleeping, the idolaters started up in confusion and,
snatching up their arms, fell upon one another with smiting, till
the most part was slaughtered. And when the day broke, they
looked and found no Moslem slain, but saw them all on horseback,
armed and armoured; wherefore they knew that this was a sleight
which had been played upon them, and Kurajan cried out to the
remnant of his folk, "O sons of whores, what we had a mind to do
with them, that have they done with us and their craft hath
gotten the better of our cunning." And they were about to charge
when, lo and behold! a cloud of dust rose high and walled the
horizon-sky, when the wind smote it, so that it spired aloft and
spread pavilion-wise in the lift and there it hung; and presently
appeared beneath it the glint of helmet and gleam of hauberk and
splendid warriors, baldrick'd with their tempered swords and
holding in rest their supple spears. When the Kafirs saw this,
they held back from the battle and each army sent out, to know
the meaning of this dust, scouts, who returned with the news that
it was an army of Moslems. Now this was the host of the Mountain-
Ghul whom Gharib had despatched to Jamrkan's aid, and Sa'adan
himself rode in their van. So the two hosts of the True Believers
joined company and rushing upon the Paynimry like a flame of
fire, plied them with keen sword and Rudaynian spear and
quivering lance, what while day was darkened and eyes for the
much dust starkened. The valiant stood fast and the faint-hearted
coward fled and to the wilds and the words swift sped, whilst the
blood over earth was like torrents shed; nor did they cease from
fight till the day took flight and in gloom came the night. Then
the Moslems drew apart from the Miscreants and returned to their
tents, where they ate and slept, till the darkness fled away and
gave place to smiling day; when they prayed the dawn prayer and
mounted to battle. Now Kurajan had said to his men as they drew
off from fight (for indeed two thirds of their number had
perished by sword and spear), "O folk, to-morrow, I will champion
it in the stead of war where cut and thrust jar, and where braves
push and wheel I will take the field." So, as soon as light was
seen and morn appeared with its shine and sheen, took horse the
hosts twain and shouted their slogans amain and bared the brand
and hent lance in hand and in ranks took stand. The first to open
the door of war was Kurajan, who cried out, saying, "Let no
coward come out to me this day nor craven!" Whereupon Jamrkan and
Sa'adan stood by the colours, but there ran at him a captain of
the Banu Amir and the two crave each at other awhile, like two
rams butting. Presently Kurajan seized the Moslem by the jerkin
under his hauberk and, dragging him from his saddle, dashed him
to the ground where he left him; upon which the Kafirs laid hands
on him and bound him and bore him off to their tents; whilst
Kurajan wheeled about and careered and offered battle, till
another captain came out, whom also he took prisoner; nor did he
leave to do thus till he had made prize of seven captains before
mid day. Then Jamrkan cried out with so mighty a cry, that the
whole field made reply and heard it the armies twain, and ran at
Kurajan with a heart in rageful pain, improvising these couplets,

"Jamrkan am I! and a man of might, * Whom the warriors fear with
     a sore affright:
I waste the forts and I leave the walls * To wail and weep for
     the wights I smite:
Then, O Kurajan, tread the rightful road * And quit the paths of
     thy foul upright:
Own the One True God, who dispread the skies * And made founts to
     flow and the hills pegged tight:
An the slave embrace the True Faith, he'll ‘scape * Hell pains
     and in Heaven be decks and dight!"

When Kurajan heard these words, he sparked and snorted and foully
abused the sun and the moon and crave at Jamrkan, versifying with
these couplets,

"I'm Kurajan, of this age the knight;  * And my shade to the
     lions of Shara'[FN#17] is blight:
I storm the forts and snare kings of beasts * And warriors fear
     me in field of fight;
Then, Harkye Jamrkan, if thou doubt my word, * Come forth to the
     combat and try my might!"

When Jamrkan heard these verses, he charged him with a stout
heart d they smote each at other with swords till the two hosts.
lamented for them, and they lunged with lance and great was the
clamour between them: nor did they leave fighting till the time
of mid-afternoon prayer was passed and the day began to wane.
Then Jamrkan crave at Kurajan and smiting him on the breast with
his mace,[FN#18] cast him to the ground, as he were the trunk of
a palm-tree; and the Moslems pinioned him and dragged him off
with ropes like a camel. Now when the Miscreants saw their Prince
captive, a hot fever-fit of ignorance seized on them and they
bore down upon the True Believers thinking to rescue him; but the
Moslem champions met them and left most of them prostrate on the
earth, whilst the rest turned and sought safety in flight,
seeking surer site, while the clanking sabres their back-sides
smite. The Moslems ceased not pursuing them till they had
scattered them over mount and word, when they returned from them
to the spoil; whereof was great store of horses and tents and so
forth: good look to it for a spoil! Then Jamrkan went in to
Kurajan and expounded to him Al-Islam, threatening him with death
unless he embraced the Faith. But he refused; so they cut off his
head and stuck it on a spear, after which they fared on towards
Oman[FN#19] city. But as regards the Kafirs, the survivors
returned to Jaland and made known to him the slaying of his son
and the slaughter of his host, hearing which he cast his crown to
the ground and buffeting his face, till the blood ran from his
nostrils, fell fainting to the floor. They sprinkled rose-water
on his head, till he came to himself and cried to his Wazir,
"Write letters to all my Governors and Nabobs, and bid them leave
not a smiter with the sword nor a lunger with the lance nor a
bender of the bow, but bring them all to me in one body." So he
wrote letters and despatched them by runners to the Governors,
who levied their power and joined the King with a prevailing
host, whose number was one hundred and eighty-thousand men. Then
they made ready tents and camels and noble steeds and were about
to march when, behold, up came Jamrkan and Sa'adan the Ghul, with
seventy-thousand horse, as they were lions fierce-faced, all
steel-encased. When Jaland saw the Moslems trooping on he
rejoiced and said, "By the virtue of the Sun, and her resplendent
light, I will not leave alive one of my foes; no, not one to
carry the news, and I will lay waste the land of Al-Irak, that I
may take my wreak for my son, the havoc making champion bold; nor
shall my fire be quenched or cooled!" Then he turned to Ajib and
said to him, "O dog of Al-Irak, ‘twas thou broughtest this
calamity on us! But by the virtue of that which I worship, except
I avenge me of mine enemy I will do thee die after foulest
fashion!" When Ajib heard these words he was troubled with sore
trouble and blamed himself; but he waited till nightfall, when
the Moslems had pitched their tents for rest. Now he had been
degraded and expelled the royal camp together with those who were
left to him of his suite: so he said to them, "O my kinsmen, know
that Jaland and I are dismayed with exceeding dismay at the
coming of the Moslems, and I know that he will not avail to
protect me from my brother nor from any other; so it is my
counsel that we make our escape, whilst all eyes sleep, and flee
to King Ya'arub bin Kahtán,[FN#20] for that he hath more of men
and is stronger of reign." They, hearing his advice exclaimed
"Right is thy rede," whereupon he bade them kindle fires at their
tent-doors and march under cover of the night. They did his
bidding and set out, so by daybreak they had already fared far
away. As soon as it was morning Jaland mounted with two hundred
and sixty-thousand fighting-men, clad cap-à-pie in hauberks and
cuirasses and strait-knit mail-coats, the kettle-drums beat a
point of war and all drew out for cut and thrust and fight and
fray. Then Jamrkan and Sa'adan rode out with forty-thousand
stalwart fighting-men, under each standard a thousand cavaliers,
doughty champions, foremost in champaign. The two hosts drew out
in battles and bared their blades and levelled their limber
lances, for the drinking of the cup of death. The first to open
the gate of strife was Sa'adan, as he were a mountain of syenite
or a Marid of the Jinn. Then dashed out to him a champion of the
Infidels, and the Ghul slew him and casting him to the earth,
cried out to his sons and slaves, saying, "Light the fire and
roast me this dead one." They did as he bade and brought him the
roast and he ate it and crunched whilst the Kafirs stood looking
on from afar; and they cried out, "Oh for aid from the light-
giving Sun!" and were affrighted at the thought of being slain by
Sa'adan. Then Jaland shouted to his men, saying, "Slay me yonder
loathsome beast!" Whereupon another captain of his host drove at
the Ghul; but he slew him and he ceased not to slay horseman
after horseman, till he had made an end of thirty men. With this
the blamed Kafirs held back and feared to face him, crying, "Who
shall cope with Jinns and Ghuls?" But Jaland raised his voice
saying, "Let an hundred horse charge him and bring him to me,
bound or slain." So an hundred horse set upon Sa'adan with swords
and spears, and he met them with a heart firmer than flint,
proclaiming the unity of the Requiting King, whom no one thing
diverteth from other thing. Then he cried aloud, "Allaho Akbar!"
and, smiting them with his sword, made their heads fly and in one
onset he slew of them four-and-seventy whereupon the rest took to
flight. So Jaland shouted aloud to ten of his captains, each
commanding a thousand men, and said to them, "Shoot his horse
with arrows till it fall under him, and then lay hands on him."
Therewith ten thousand horse drove at Sa'adan who met them with a
stout heart; and Jamrkan, seeing this, bore down upon the
Miscreants with his Moslems, crying out, "God is Most Great!"
Before they could reach the Ghul, the enemy had slain his steed
and taken him prisoner; but they ceased not to charge the
Infidels, till the day grew dark for dust and eyes were blinded,
and the sharp sword clanged while firm stood the valiant cavalier
and destruction overtook the faint-heart in his fear; till the
Moslems were amongst the Paynims like a white patch on a black
bull.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying
her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Forty-seventh Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that battle
raged between the Moslems and the Paynims till the True Believers
were like a white patch on a black bull. Nor did they stint from
the mellay till the darkness fell down, when they drew apart,
after there had been slain of the Infidels men without compt.
Then Jamrkan and his men returned to their tents; but they were
in great grief for Sa'adan, so that neither meat nor sleep was
sweet to them, and they counted their host and found that less
than a thousand had been slain. But Jamrkan said, "O folk, to-
morrow I will go forth into the battle-plain and place where cut
and thrust obtain, and slay their champions and make prize of
their families after taking them captives and I will ransom
Sa'adan therewith' by the leave of the Requiting King, whom no
one thing diverteth from other thing!" Wherefore their hearts
were heartened and they joyed as they separated to their tents.
Meanwhile Jaland entered his pavilion and sitting down on his
sofa of estate, with his folk about him, called for Sa'adan and
forthright on his coming, said to him, "O dog run wood and least
of the Arab brood and carrier of firewood, who was it slew my son
Kurajan, the brave of the age, slayer of heroes and caster down
of warriors?" Quoth the Ghul, "Jamrkan slew him, captain of the
armies of King Gharib, Prince of cavaliers, and I roasted and ate
him, for I was anhungered." When Jaland heard these words, his
eyes sank into his head for rage and he bade his swordbearer
smite Sa'adan's neck. So he came forward in that intent,
whereupon Sa'adan stretched himself mightily and bursting his
bonds, snatched the sword from the headsman and hewed off his
head. Then he made at Jaland who threw himself down from the
throne and fled; whilst Sa'adan fell on the bystanders and killed
twenty of the King's chief officers, and all the rest took to
flight. Therewith loud rose the crying in the camp of the
Infidels and the Ghul sallied forth of the pavilion and falling
upon the troops smote them with the sword, right and left, till
they opened and left a lane for him to pass; nor did he cease to
press forward, cutting at them on either side, till he won free
of the Miscreants' tents and made for the Moslem camp. Now these
had heard the uproar among their enemies and said, "Haply some
calamity hath befallen them." But whilst they were in perplexity,
behold, Sa adan stood amongst them and they rejoiced at his
coming with exceeding joy; more especially Jamrkan, who saluted
him with the salam as did other True Believers and gave him joy
of his escape. Such was the case with the Moslems; but as regards
the Miscreants, when, after the Ghul's departure, they and their
King returned to their tents, Jaland said to them, "Ofolk, by the
virtue of the Sun's light-giving ray and by the darkness of the
Night and the light of the Day and the Stars that stray, I
thought not this day to have escaped death in mellay; for, had I
fallen into yonder fellow's hands, he had eaten me, as I were a
kernel of wheat or a barley corn or any other grain." They re
plied, "O King, never saw we any do the like of this Ghul." And
he said, "O folk, to-morrow do ye all don arms and mount steed
and trample them under your horses' hooves." Meanwhile the
Moslems had ended their rejoicings at Sa'adan's return and
Jamrkan said to them, "To-morrow, I will show you my derring-do
and what behoveth the like of me, for by the virtue of Abraham
the Friend, I will slay them with the foulest of slaughters and
smite them with the bite of the sword, till all who have under
standing confounded at them shall stand. But I mean to attack
both right and left wings; so, when ye see me drive at the King
under the standards, do ye charge behind me with a resolute
charge, and Allah's it is to decree what thing shall be!" Accord
ingly the two sides lay upon their arms till the day broke
through night and the sun appeared to sight. Then they mounted
swiftlier than the twinkling of the eyelid; the raven of the wold
croaked and the two hosts, looking each at other with the eye of
fascina tion, formed in line-array and prepared for fight and
fray. The first to open the chapter of war was Jamrkan who
wheeled and careered and offered fight in field; and Jaland and
his men were about to charge when, behold, a cloud of dust
uprolled till it walled the wold and overlaid the day. Then the
four winds smote it and away it floated, torn to rags, and there
appeared beneath it cavaliers, with helms black and garb white
and many a princely knight and lances that bite and swords that
smite and footmen who lion-like knew no affright Seeing this,
both armies left fighting and sent out scouts to reconnoitre and
report who thus had come in main and might. So they went and
within the dust cloud disappeared from sight, and returned after
awhile with the news aright that the approaching host was one of
Moslems, under the command of King Gharib. When the True
Believers heard from the scouts of the coming of their King, they
rejoiced and driving out to meet him, dismounted and kissed the
earth between his hands--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day
and ceased to say her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Forty-eighth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
Moslems saw the presence of their King Gharib, they joyed with
exceeding joy; and, kissing the earth between his hands, saluted
him and get around him whilst he welcomed them and rejoiced in
their safety. Then they escorted him to their camp and pitched
pavilions for him and set up standards; and Gharib sat down on
his couch of estate, with his Grandees about him; and they
related to him all that had befallen, especially to Sa'adan
Meanwhile the Kafirs sought for Ajib and finding him not among
them nor in their tents, told Jaland of his flight, whereat his
Doomsday rose and he bit his fingers, saying, "by the Sun's
light-giving round, he is a perfidious hound and hath fled with
his rascal rout to desert ground. But naught save force of hard
fighting will serve us to repel these foes; so fortify your
resolves and hearten your hearts and beware of the Moslems." And
Gharib also said to the True Believers, "Strengthen your courage
and fortify your hearts and seek aid of your Lord, beseeching him
to vouchsafe you the victory over your enemies." They replied, "O
King, soon thou shalt see what we will do in battle-plain where
men cut and thrust amain." So the two hosts slept till the day
arose with its sheen and shone and the rising sun rained light
upon hill and down, when Gharib prayed the two-bow prayer, after
the rite of Abraham the Friend (on whom be the Peace!) and wrote
a letter, which he despatched by his brother Sahim to the King of
the Kafirs. When Sahim reached the enemies' camp, the guards
asked him what he wanted, and he answered them, "I want your
ruler.''[FN#21] Quoth they, "Wait till we consult him anent
thee;" and he waited, whilst they went in to their Sovran and
told him of the coming of a messenger, and he cried, "Hither with
him to me!" So they brought Sahim before Jaland, who said to him,
"Who hath sent thee?" Quoth he, King Gharib sends me, whom Allah
hath made ruler over Arab and Ajam; receive his letter and return
its reply." Jaland took the writ and opening it, read as follows,
"In the name of Allah, the Compassionating, the Compassionate *
the One, the All-knowing, the supremely Great * the Immemorial,
the Lord of Noah and Sálih and Húd and Abraham and of all things
He made! * The Peace be on him who followeth in the way of
righteousness and who feareth the issues of frowardness * who
obeyeth the Almighty King and followeth the Faith saving and
preferreth the next world to any present thing! * But afterwards:
O Jaland, none is worthy of worship save Allah alone, the
Victorious, the One, Creator of night and day and the sphere
revolving alway * Who sendeth the holy Prophets and garreth the
streams to flow and the trees to grow, who vaulted the heavens
and spread out the earth like a carpet below * Who feedeth the
birds in their nests and the wild beasts in the deserts * for He
is Allah the All-powerful, the Forgiving, the Long-suffering, the
Protector, whom eye comprehendeth on no wise and who maketh night
on day arise * He who sent down the Apostles and their Holy Writ.
Know, O Jaland, that there is no faith but the Faith of Abraham
the Friend; so cleave to the Creed of Salvation and be saved from
the biting glaive and the Fire which followeth the grave * But,
an thou refuse Al-Islam, look for ruin to haste and thy reign to
be waste and thy traces untraced * And, lastly, send me the dog
Ajib hight that I may take from him my father's and mother's
blood-wit." When Jaland had read this letter, he said to Sahim,
"Tell thy lord that Ajib hath fled, he and his folk, and I know
not whither he is gone; but, as for Jaland, he will not forswear
his faith, and to-morrow, there shall be battle between us and
the Sun shall give us the victory." So Sahim returned to his
brother with this reply, and when the morning morrowed, the
Moslems donned their arms and armour and bestrode their stout
steeds, calling aloud on the name of the All-conquering King,
Creator of bodies and souls, and magnifying Him with "Allaho
Akbar." Then the kettle-drums of battle beat until earth
trembled, and sought the field all the lordly warriors and
doughty champions: The first to open the gate of battle was
Jamrkan, who crave his charger into mid-plain and played with
sword and javelin, till the understanding was amazed; after which
he cried out, saying, "Ho! who is for tilting? Ho! who is for
fighting? Let no sluggard come out to me to-day nor weakling! I
am the slayer of Kurajan bin Jaland; who will come forth to
avenge him?" When Jaland heard the name of his son, he cried out
to his men, "O whore-sons, bring me yonder horseman who slew my
son, that I may eat his flesh and drink his blood." So an hundred
fighting-men charged at Jamrkan, but he slew the most part of
them and put their chief to flight; which feat when Jaland saw,
he cried out to his folk, "At him all at once and assault him
with one assault." Accordingly they waved the awe-striking
banners and host was heaped on host; Gharib rushed on with his
men and Jamrkan did the same and the two sides met like two seas
together clashing. The Yamáni sword and spear wrought havoc and
breasts and bellies were rent, whilst both armies saw the Angel
of Death face to face and the dust of the battle rose to the
skirts of the sky. Ears went deaf and tongues went dumb and doom
from every side came on whilst valiant stood fast and faint-heart
fled: and they ceased not from fight and fray till ended the day,
when the drums beat the retreat and the two hosts drew apart and
returned, each to its tents.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of
day and ceased saying her permitted say.

       When it was the Six Hundred and Forty-ninth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when King
Gharib ended the battle and the two hosts drew apart and each had
returned to his own tents, he sat down on the throne of his realm
and the place of his reign, whilst his chief officers ranged
themselves about him, and he said, "I am sore concerned for the
flight of the cur Ajib and I know not whither he has gone. Except
I overtake him and take my wreak of him, I shall die of despite."
Whereupon Sahim came forward and kissing the earth before him,
said, "O King, I will go to the army of the Kafirs and find out
what is come of the perfidious dog Ajib." Quoth Gharib, "Go, and
learn the truth anent the hog." So Sahim disguised himself in the
habit of the Infidels and became as he were of them; then, making
for the enemy's camp, he found them all asleep, drunken with war
and battle, and none were on wake save only the guards. He passed
on and presently came to the King's pavilion where he found King
Jaland asleep unattended; so he crept up and made him smell and
sniff up levigated Bhang and he became as one dead. Then Sahim
went out and took a male mule, and wrapping the King in the
coverlet of his bed, laid him on its back; after which he threw a
mat over him and led the beast to the Moslem camp. Now when he
came to Gharib's pavilion and would have entered, the guards knew
him not and prevented him, saying, "Who art thou?'' He laughed
and uncovered his face, and they knew him and admitted him. When
Gharib saw him he said, "What bearest there, O Sahim?"; and he
replied, "O King, this is Jaland bin Karkar." Then he uncovered
him, and Gharib knew him and said,"Arouse him, O Sahim," So he
made him smell vinegar[FN#22] and frankincense; and he cast the
Bhang from his nostrils and, opening his eyes, found himself
among the Moslems; whereupon quoth he, "What is this foul dream?"
and closing his eyelids again, would have slept; but Sahim dealt
him a kick, saying, "Open thine eyes, O accursed!" So he opened
them and asked, "Where am I?"; and Sahim answered, "Thou art in
the presence of King Gharib bin Kundamir, King of Irak." When
Jaland heard this, he said, "O King, I am under thy protection!
Know that I am not at fault, but that who led us forth to fight
thee was thy brother, and the same cast enmity between us and
then fled." Quoth Gharib, "Knowest thou whither he is gone?"; and
quoth Jaland, "No, by the light-giving sun, I know not whither."
Then Gharib bade lay him in bonds and set guards over him, whilst
each captain returned to his own tent, and Jamrkan while wending
said to his men, "O sons of my uncle, I purpose this night to do
a deed wherewith I may whiten my face with King Gharib." Quoth
they, "Do as thou wilt, we hearken to thy commandment and obey
it." Quoth he, "Arm yourselves and, muffling your steps while I
go with you, let us fare softly and disperse about the Infidels'
camp, so that the very ants shall not be ware of you; and, when
you hear me cry ‘Allaho Akbar,' do ye the like and cry out,
saying, ‘God is Most Great!' and hold back and make for the city-
gate; and we seek aid from the Most High." So the folk armed
themselves cap-à-pie and waited till the noon of Night, when they
dispersed about the enemy's camp and tarried awhile when, lo and
behold! Jamrkan smote shield with sword and shouted, "Allaho
Akbar'" Thereupon they all cried out the like, till rang again
valley and mountain, hills, sands and ruins. The Miscreants awoke
in dismay and fell one upon other, and the sword went round
amongst them; the Moslems drew back and made for the city-gates,
where they slew the warders and entering, made themselves masters
of the town with all that was therein of treasure and women. Thus
it befel with Jamrkan; but as regards King Gharib, hearing the
noise and clamour of "God is Most Great," he mounted with his
troops to the last man and sent on in advance Sahim who, when he
came near the field of fight, saw that Jamrkan had fallen upon
the Kafirs with the Banu Amir by night and made them drink the
cup of death. So he returned and told all to his brother, who
called down blessings on Jamrkan. And the Infidels ceased not to
smite one another with the biting sword and expending their
strength till the day rose and lighted up the land, when Gharib
cried out to his men, "Charge, O ye noble, and do a deed to
please the All-knowing King!" So the True Believers fell upon the
idolaters and plied upon every false hypocritical breast the keen
sword and the quivering spear. They sought to take refuge in the
city; but Jamrkan came forth upon them with his kinsmen, who
hemmed them in between two mountain-ranges, and slew an
innumerable host of them, and the rest fled into the wastes and
words.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say
her permitted say.

        When it was the Six Hundred and Fiftieth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
the Moslem host charged upon the Miscreants they hewed them in
pieces with the biting scymitar and the rest fled to the wastes
and words; nor did the Moslems cease pursuing them with the
sword, till they had scattered them abroad in the plains and
stony places. Then they returned to Oman city, and King Gharib
entered the palace of the King and, sitting down on the throne of
his kingship, with his Grandees and Of ficers ranged right and
left, sent for Jaland. They brought him in haste and Gharib ex
pounded to him Al-Islam; but he rejected it; wherefore Gharib
bade crucify him on the gate of the city, and they shot at him
with shafts till he was like unto a porcupine. Then Gharib
honourably robed Jamrkan and said to him, "Thou shalt be lord of
this city arid ruler thereof with power to loose and to bind
therein, for it was thou didst open it with thy sword and thy
folk." And Jamrkan kissed the King's feet, thanked him and wished
him abiding victory and glory and every blessing Morever Gharib
opened Jaland's treasuries and saw what was therein of coin,
whereof he gave largesse to his captains and standard bearers and
fighting-men, yea, even to the girls and children; and thus he
lavished his gifts ten days long. After this, one night he dreamt
a terrible dream and awoke, troubled and trembling. So he aroused
his brother Sahim and said to him, "I saw in my vision that we
were in a wide valley, when there pounced down on us two ravening
birds of prey, never in my life saw I greater than they; their
legs were like lances, and as they swooped we were in sore fear
of them." Replied Sahim, "O King, this be some great enemy; so
stand on thy guard against him." Gharib slept not the rest of the
night and, when the day broke, he called for his courser and
mounted. Quoth Sahim, "Whither goest thou, my brother?" and quoth
Gharib, "I awoke heavy at heart; so I mean to ride abroad ten
days and broaden my breast." Said Sahim, "Take with thee a
thousand braves;" but Gharib replied, "I will not go forth but
with thee and only thee." So the two brothers mounted and,
seeking the dales and leasows, fared on from Wady to Wady and
from meadow to meadow, till they came to a valley abounding in
streams and sweet-smelling flowers and trees laden with all
manner eatable fruits, two of each kind. Birds warbled on the
branches their various strains; the mocking bird trilled out her
sweet notes fain and the turtle filled with her voice the plain.
There sang the nightingale, whose chant arouses the sleeper, and
the merle with his note like the voice of man and the cushat and
the ring-dove, whilst the parrot with its eloquent tongue
answered the twain. The valley pleased them and they ate of its
fruits and drank of its waters, after which they sat under the
shadow of its trees till drowsiness overcame them and they slept,
glory be to Him who sleepeth not! As they lay asleep, lo! two
fierce Marids swooped down on them and, taking each one on his
shoulders, towered with them high in air, till they were above
the clouds. So Gharib and Sahim awoke and found themselves
betwixt heaven and earth; whereupon they looked at those who bore
them and saw that they were two Marids, the head of the one being
as that of a dog and the head of the other as that of an
ape[FN#23] with hair like horses' tails and claws like lions'
claws, and both were big as great palm-trees. When they espied
this case, they exclaimed,, "There is no Majesty and there is no
Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great!" Now the cause of
this was that a certain King of the Kings of the Jinn, highs
Mura'ash, had a son called Sá'ik, who loved a damsel of the Jinn,
named Najmah;[FN#24] and the twain used to foregather in that
Wady under the sem blance of two birds. Gharib and Sahim saw them
thus and deeming them birds, shot at them with shafts but
wounding only Sa'ik whose blood flowed. Najmah mourned over him;
then, fearing lest the like calamity befal herself, snatched up
her lover and flew with him to his father's palace, where she
cast him down at the gate. The warders bore him in and laid him
before his sire who, seeing the pile sticking in his rib
exclaimed, "Alas, my son! Who hath done with thee this thing,
that I may lay waste his abiding-place and hurry on his
destruction, though he were the greatest of the Kings of the
Jann?" Thereupon Sa'ik opened his eyes and said, "O my father,
none slew me save a mortal in the Valley of Springs." Hardly had
he made an end of these words, when his soul departed; whereupon
his father buffeted his face, till the blood streamed from his
mouth, and cried out to two Marids, saying, "Hie ye to the Valley
of Springs and bring me all who are therein." So they betook
themselves to the Wady in question, where they found Gharib and
Sahim asleep, and, snatching them up, carried them to King
Mura'ash.[FN#25]--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased saying her permitted say.

       When it was the Six Hundred and Fifty-first Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
two Marids, after snatching up Gharib and Sahim in their sleep,
carried them to Mura'ash, king of the Jann, whom they saw seated
on the throne of his kinship, as he were a huge mountain, with
four heads on his body,[FN#26] the first that of a lion, the
second that of an elephant, the third that of a panther, and the
fourth that of a lynx. The Marids set them down before Mura'ash
and said to him, "O King, these twain be they we found in the
Valley of Springs." Thereupon he looked at them with wrathful
eyes and sparked and snorted and shot sparks from his nostrils,
so that all who stood by feared him. Then said he, "O dogs of
mankind, ye have slain my son and lighted fire in my liver."
Quoth Gharib, "Who is thy son, and who hath seen him?" Quoth
Mura'ash "Were ye not in the Valley of Springs and did ye not see
my son there, in the guise of a bird, and did ye not shoot at him
with wooden bolts that he died?" Replied Gharib, "I know not who
slew him; and, by the virtue of the Great God, the One, the
Immemorial who knoweth things all, and of Abraham the Friend, we
saw no bird, neither slew we bird or beast!" Now when Mura'ash
heard Gharib swear by Allah and His greatness and by Abraham the
Friend, he knew him for a Moslem (he himself being a worshipper
of Fire, not of the All-powerful Sire), so he cried out to his
folk, "Bring me my Goddess.[FN#27]" Accordingly they brought a
brazier of gold and, setting it before him, kindled therein fire
and cast on drugs, whereupon there arose therefrom green and blue
and yellow flames and the King and all who were present
prostrated themselves before the brazier, whilst Gharib and Sahim
ceased not to attest the Unity of Allah Almighty, to cry out "God
is Most Great" and to bear witness to His Omnipotence. Presently,
Mura'ash raised his head and, seeing the two Princes standing in
lieu of falling down to worship, said to them, "O dogs, why do ye
not prostrate yourselves?" Replied Gharib, "Out on you, O ye
accursed! Prostration befitteth not man save to the Worshipful
King, who bringeth forth all creatures into beingness from
nothingness and maketh water to well from the barren rockwell,
Him who inclineth heart of sire unto new-born scion and who may
not be described as sitting or standing; the God of Noah and
Salih and Hud and Abraham the Friend, Who created Heaven and Hell
and trees and fruit as well,[FN#28] for He is Allah, the One, the
All-powerful." When Mura'ash heard this, his eyes sank into his
head[FN#29] and he cried out to his guards, saying, "Pinion me
these two dogs and sacrifice them to my Goddess." So they bound
them and were about to cast them into the fire when, behold, one
of the crenelles of the palace parapet fell down upon the brazier
and brake it and put out the fire, which became ashes flying in
air. Then quoth Gharib, "God is Most Great! He giveth aid and
victory and He forsaketh those who deny Him, worshipping Fire and
not the Almighty King!" Presently quoth Mura'ash, "Thou art a
sorcerer and hast bewitched my Goddess, so that this thing hath
befallen her." Gharib replied, "O madman, an the fire had soul or
sense it would have warded off from self all that hurteth it."
When Mura'ash heard these words, he roared and bellowed and
reviled the Fire, saying, "By my faith, I will not kill you save
by the fire!" Then he bade cast them into gaol; and, calling an
hundred Marids, made them bring much fuel and set fire thereto.
So they brought great plenty of wood and made a huge blaze, which
flamed up mightily till the morning, when Mura'ash mounted an
elephant, bearing on its back a throne of gold dubbed with
jewels, and the tribes of the Jinn gathered about him in their
various kinds. Presently they brought in Gharib and Sahim who,
seeing the flaming of the fire, sought help of the One, the All-
conquering Creator of night and day, Him of All-might, whom no
sight comprehendeth, but who comprehendeth all sights, for He is
the Subtle, the All-knowing. And they ceased not humbly
beseeching Him till, behold, a cloud arose from West to East and,
pouring down showers of rain, like the swollen sea, quenched the
fire. When the King saw this, he was affrighted, he and his
troops, and entered the palace, where he turned to the Wazirs and
Grandees and said to them, "How say ye of these two men?" They
replied, "O King, had they not been in the right, this thing had
not befallen the fire; wherefore we say that they be true men
which speak sooth." Rejoined Mura'ash, "Verily the Truth hath
been displayed to me, ay, and the manifest way, and I am
certified that the worship of the fire is false; for, were it
goddess, it had warded off from itself the rain which quenched it
and the stone which broke its brazier and beat it into ashes.
Wherefore I believe in Him Who created the fire and the light and
the shade and the heat. And ye, what say ye?" They answered, "O
King, we also hear and follow and obey." So the King called for
Gharib and embraced him and kissed him between the eyes and then
summoned Sahim; whereupon the bystanders all crowded to kiss
their hands and heads.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day
and ceased to say her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Fifth-second Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Mura'ash and his men found salvation in the Saving Faith, Al-
Islam, he called for Gharib and Sahim and kissed them between the
eyes and so did all the Grandees who crowded to buss their hands
and heads. Then Mura'ash sat down on the throne of his kingship
and, seating Gharib on his right and Sahim on his left hand, said
to them, "O mortals, what shall we say, that we may become
Moslems?" Replied Gharib, "Say, ‘There is no god but the God, and
Abraham is the Friend of God!'" So the King and his folk
professed Al-Islam with heart and tongue, and Gharib abode with
them awhile, teaching them the ritual of prayer. But presently he
called to mind his people and sighed, whereupon quoth Mura'ash,
"Verily, trouble is gone and joy and gladness are come." Quoth
Gharib, "O King, I have many foes and I fear for my folk from
them." Then he related to him his history with his brother Ajib
from first to last, and the King of the Jinns said, "O King of
men, I will send one who shall bring thee news of thy people, for
I will not let thee go till I have had my fill of thy face." Then
he called two doughty Marids, by name Kaylaján and Kúraján, and
after they had done him homage, he bade them repair to Al-Yaman
and bring him news of Gharib's army. They replied, "To hear is to
obey," and departed. Thus far concerning the brothers; but as
regards the Moslems, they arose in the morning and led by their
captains rode to King Gharib's palace, to do their service to
him; but the eunuchs told them that the King had mounted with his
brother and had ridden forth at peep o' day. So they made for the
valleys and mountains and followed the track of the Princes, till
they came to the Valley of Springs, where they found their arms
cast down and their two gallant steeds grazing and said, "The
King is missing from this place, by the glory of Abraham the
Friend!" Then they mounted and sought in the valley and the
mountains three days, but found no trace of them; whereupon they
began the mourning ceremonies and, send ing for couriers, said to
them, "Do ye disperse yourselves about the cities and sconces and
castles, and seek ye news of our King." "Harkening and
obedience!" cried the couriers, who dispersed hither and thither
each over one of the Seven Climes and sought everywhere for
Gharib, but found no trace of him. Now when the tidings came to
Ajib by his spies that his brother was lost and there was no news
of the missing, he rejoiced and going in to King Ya'arub bin
Kahtan, sought of him aid which he granted and gave him two
hundred thousand Amalekites, wherewith he set out for Al-Yaman
and sat down before the city of Oman. Jamrkan and Sa'adan sallied
forth and offered him battle, and there were slain of the Moslems
much folk, so the True Believers retired into the city and shut
the gates and manned the walls. At this moment came up the two
Marids Kaylajan and Kurajan and, seeing the Moslem beleaguered
waited till nightfall, when they fell upon the miscreants and
plied them with sharp swords of the swords of the Jinn, each
twelve cubits long, if a man smote therewith a rock, verily he
would cleave it in sunder. They charged the Idolaters, shouting,
"Allaho Akbar! God is Most Great! He giveth aid and victory and
forsaketh those who deny the Faith of Abraham the Friend!" and
whilst they raged amongst the foes, fire issued from their mouths
and nostrils, and they made great slaughter amongst them.
Thereupon the Infidels ran out of their tents offering battle
but, seeing these strange things, were confounded and their hair
stood on end and their reason fled. So they snatched up their
arms and fell one upon other, whilst the Marids shore off their
heads, as a reaper eareth grain, crying, "God is Most Great! We
are the lads of King Gharib, the friend of Mura'ash, King of the
Jinn!" The sword ceased not to go round amongst them till the
night was half spent, when the Misbelievers, imagining that the
mountains were all Ifrits, loaded their tents and treasure and
baggage upon camels and made off; and the first to fly was Ajib.-
-And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her
permitted say.

       When it was the Six Hundred and Fifty-third Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the Misbelievers made off and the first
to fly was Ajib. Thereupon the Moslems gathered together, marvelling at this that had betided
the Infidels and fearing the tribesmen of the Jinn. But the Marids ceased not from pursuit, till
they had driven them far away into the hills and words; and but fifty-thousand Rebels[FN#30] of
two hundred thousand escaped with their lives and made for their own land, wounded and sore
discomforted. Then the two Jinns returned and said to them, "O host of the Moslems, your lord
King Gharib and his brother Sahim salute you; they are the guests of Mura'ash, King of the Jann,
and will be with you anon " When Gharib's men heard that he was safe and well, they joyed with
exceeding joy and said to the Marids, "Allah gladden you twain with good news, O noble
spirits!" So Kurajan and Kaylajan returned to Mura'ash and Gharib; and acquainted them with
that which had happened, whereat Gharib finding the two sitting together felt heart at ease and
said, "Allah abundantly requite you!" Then quoth King Mura'ash, "O my brother, I am minded
to show thee our country and the city of Japhet[FN#31] son of Noah (on whom be peace!)"
Quoth Gharib, "O King, do what seemeth good to thee." So he called for three noble steeds and
mounting, he and Gharib and Sahim, set out with a thousand Marids, as they were a piece of a
mountain cloven lengthwise. They fared on, solacing themselves with the sight of valleys and
mountains, till they came to Jabarsá,[FN#32] the city of Japhet son of Noah (on whom be
peace!) where the townsfolk all, great and small, came forth to meet King Mura'ash and brought
them into the city in great state. Then Mura'ash went up to the palace of Japhet son of Noah and
sat down on the throne of his kingship, which was of alabaster, ten stages high and latticed with
wands of gold wherefrom hung all manner coloured silks. The people of the city stood before
him and he said to them, "O seed of Yafis bin Nuh, what did your fathers and grandfathers
worship?" They replied, "We found them worshipping Fire and followed their example, as thou
well knowest." "O folk," rejoined Mura'ash, "we have been shown that the fire is but one of the
creatures of Almighty Allah, Creator of all things; and when we knew this, we submitted
ourselves to God, the One, the All-powerful, Maker of night and day and the sphere revolving
alway, Whom compre hendeth no sight, but Who comprehendeth all sights, for He is the Subtle,
the All-wise. So seek ye Salvation and ye shall be saved from the wrath of the Almighty One and
from the fiery doom in the world to come." And they embraced Al-Islam with heart and tongue.
Then Mura'ash took Gharib by the hand and showed him the palace and its ordinance and all the
marvels it contained, till they came to the armoury, wherein were the arms .of Japhet son of
Noah. Here Gharib saw a sword hanging to a pin of gold and asked, "O King, whose is that?"
Mura'ash answered, " 'Tis the sword of Yafis bin Nuh, wherewith he was wont to do battle
against men and Jinn. The sage Jardúm forged it and graved on its back names of might.[FN#33]
It is named Al-Máhík the Annihilator for that it never descendeth upon a man, but it annihilateth
him, nor upon a Jinni, but it crusheth him; and if one smote therewith a mountain ‘twould
overthrow it." When Gharib heard tell of the virtues of the sword, he said, "I desire to look on
this blade;" and Mura'ash said, "Do as thou wilt." So Gharib put out his hand, and, hending the
sword, drew it from its sheath; whereupon it flashed and Death crept on its edge and glittered;
and it was twelve spans long and three broad. Now Gharib wished to become owner of it, and
King Mura'ash said, "An thou canst smite with it,take it." " 'Tis well," Gharib replied, and took
it up, and it was in his hand as a staff; wherefore all who were present, men and Jinn, marvelled
and said, "Well done, O Prince of Knights!" Then said Mura'ash "Lay thy hand on this hoard for
which the Kings of the earth sigh in vain, and mount, that I may show thee the city." Then they
took horse and rode forth the palace, with men and Jinns attending them on foot,--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Fifty-fourth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Gharib and King Mura'ash rode
forth the palace of Japhet, with men and Jinns attending them on foot, they passed through the
streets and thoroughfares of the town, by palaces and deserted mansions and gilded doorways,
till they issued from the gates and entered gardens full of trees fruit-bearing and waters welling
and birds speaking and celebrating the praises of Him to whom belong Majesty and Eternity; nor
did they cease to solace themselves in the land till nightfall, when they returned to the palace of
Japhet son of Noah and they brought them the table of food So they ate and Gharib turned to the
King of the Jann and said to him, "O King, I would fain return to my folk and my force; for I
know not their plight after me." Replied Mura'ash, "By Allah, O my brother, I will not part with
thee for a full month, till I have had my fill of thy sight." Now Gharib could not say nay, so he
abode with him in the city of Japhet, eating and drinking and making merry, till the month
ended, when Mura'ash gave him great store of gems and precious ores, emeralds and balass-
rubies, diamonds and other jewels, ingots of gold and silver and likewise ambergis and musk and
brocaded silks and else of rarities and things of price. Moreover he clad him and Sahim in silken
robes of honour gold inwoven and set on Gharib's head a crown jewelled with pearls and
diamonds of inestimable value. All these treasures he made up into even loads for him and,
calling five hundred Marids, said to them, "Get ye ready to travel on the morrow, that we may
bring King Gharib and Sahim back to their own country." And they answered, "We hear and we
obey." So they passed the night in the city, purposing to depart on the morrow, but, next
morning, as they were about to set forth behold, they espied a great host advancing upon the city,
with horses neighing and kettle-drums beating and trumpets braying and riders filling the earth
for they numbered threescore and ten thousand Marids, flying and diving, under a King called
Barkan. Now this Barkan was lord of the City of Carnelian and the Castle of Gold and under his
rule were five hill-strongholds, in each five hundred thousand Marids; and he and his tribe
worshipped the Fire, not the Omnipotent Sire. He was a cousin of Mura'ash, the son of his
father's brother, and the cause of his coming was that there had been among the subjects of King
Mura'ash a misbelieving Marid, who professed Al-Islam hypocritically, and he stole away from
his people and made for the Valley of Carnelian, where he went in to King Barkan and, kissing
the earth before him, wished him abiding glory and prosperity. Then he told him of Mura'ash
being converted to Al-Islam, and Barkan said, "How came he to tear himself away from his
faith[FN#34]?'' So the rebel told him what had passed and, when Barkan heard it, he snorted and
sparked and railed at Sun and Moon and sparkling Fire, saying, "By the virtue of my faith, I will
surely slay mine uncle's son and his people and this mortal, nor will I leave one of them alive!"
Then he cried out to the legions of the Jinn and choosing of them seventy-thousand Marids, set
out and fared on till he came to Jabarsá[FN#35] the city of Japhet and encamped before its gates.
When Mura'ash saw this, he despatched a Marid, saying, "Go to this host and learn all that it
wanteth and return hither in haste." So the messenger rushed away to Barkan's camp, where the
Marids flocked to meet him and said to him, "Who art thou?" Replied he, "An envoy from King
Mura'ash;" whereupon they carried him in to Barkan, before whom he prostrated himself,
saying, "O my lord, my master hath sent me to thee, to learn tidings of thee." Quoth Barkan,
"Return to thy lord and say to him, ‘This is thy cousin Barkan, who is come to salute thee.'"--
And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

       When it was the Six Hundred and Fifty-fifth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the Marid-envoy of Mura'ash was
borne before Barkan and said to him, "O my lord, my master hath sent me to thee to learn tidings
of thee," Barkan replied, "Return to thy lord and say to him, ‘This is thy cousin Barkan who is
come to salute thee!'" So the messenger went back and told Mura'ash, who said to Gharib, "Sit
thou on thy throne whilst I go and salute my cousin and return to thee." Then he mounted and
rode to the camp of his uncle's son. Now this was a trick[FN#36] of Barkan, to bring Mura'ash
out and seize upon him, and he said to his Marids, whom he had stationed about him, "When ye
see me embrace him,[FN#37] lay hold of him and pinion him." And they replied, "To hear is to
obey." So, when King Mura'ash came up and entered Barkan's pavilion, the owner rose to him
and threw his arms round his neck; whereat the Jann fell upon Mura'ash and pinioned him and
chained him. Mura'ash looked at Barkan and said, "What manner of thing is this?" Quoth
Barkan, "O dog of the Jann, wilt thou leave the faith of thy fathers and grandfathers and enter a
faith thou knowest not?" Rejoined Mura'ash, "O son of my uncle, indeed I have found the faith
of Abraham the Friend to be the True Faith and all other than it vain." Asked Barkan, "And who
told thee of this?"; and Mura'ash answered, "Gharib, King of Irak, whom I hold in the highest
honour." "By the right of the Fire and the Light and the Shade and the Heat," cried Barkan, "I
will assuredly slay both thee and him!" And he cast him into gaol. Now when Mura'ash's
henchman saw what had befallen his lord, he fled back to the city and told the King's legionaries
who cried out and mounted. Quoth Gharib, "What is the matter?" And they told him all that had
passed, whereupon he cried out to Sahim, "Saddle me one of the chargers that King Mura'ash
gave me." Said Sahim, "O my brother, wilt thou do battle with the Jinn?" Gharib replied, "Yes, I
will fight them with the sword of Japhet son of Noah, seeking help of the Lord of Abraham the
Friend (on whom be the Peace!); for He is the Lord of all things and sole Creator!" So Sahim
saddled him a sorrel horse of the horses of the Jinn, as he were a castle strong among castles, and
he armed and mounting, rode out with the legions of the Jinn, hauberk'd cap-à-pie. Then Barkan
and his host mounted also and the two hosts drew out in lines facing each other. The first to open
the gate of war was Gharib, who crave his steed into the mid-field and bared the enchanted
blade, whence issued a glittering light that dazzled the eyes of all the Jinn and struck terror to
their hearts. Then he played[FN#38] with the sword till their wits were wildered, and cried out,
saying, "Allaho Akbar! I am Gharib, King of Irak. There is no Faith save the Faith of Abraham
the Friend!" Now when Barkan heard Gharib's words, he said, "This is he who seduced my
cousin from his religion; so, by the virtue of my faith, I will not sit down on my throne till I have
decapitated this Gharib and suppressed his breath of life and forced my cousin and his people
back to their belief: and whoso baulketh me, him will I destroy." Then he mounted an elephant
paper-white as he were a tower plastered with gypsum, and goaded him with a spike of steel
which ran deep into his flesh, whereupon the elephant trumpeted and made for the battle-plain
where cut and thrust obtain; and, when he drew near Gharib, he cried out to him, saying, "O dog
of mankind, what made thee come into our land, to debauch my cousin and his folk and pervert
them from one faith to other faith. Know that this day is the last of thy worldly days." Gharib
replied, ‘‘Avaunt,[FN#39] O vilest of the Jann!" Therewith Barkan drew a javelin and making it
quiver[FN#40] in his hand, cast it at Gharib; but it missed him. So he hurled a second javelin at
him; but Gharib caught it in mid air and after poising it launched it at the elephant. It smote him
on the flank and came out on the other side, whereupon the beast fell to the earth dead and
Barkan was thrown to the ground, like a great palm-tree. Before he could stir, Gharib smote him
with the flat of Japhet's blade on the nape of the neck, and he fell upon the earth in a fainting fit;
whereupon the Marids swooped down on him and surrounding him pinioned his elbows. When
Barkan's people saw their king a prisoner, they drove at the others, seeking to rescue him, but
Gharib and the Islamised Jinn fell upon them and gloriously done for Gharib! indeed that day he
pleased the Lord who answereth prayer and slaked his vengeance with the talisman-sword!
Whomsoever he smote, he clove him in sunder and before his soul could depart he became a
heap of ashes in the fire; whilst the two hosts of the Jinn shot each other with flamy meteors till
the battle-field was wrapped in smoke. And Gharib tourneyed right and left among the Kafirs
who gave way before him, till he came to King Barkan's pavilion, with Kaylajan and Kurajan on
his either hand, and cried out to them, "Loose your lord!" So they unbound Mura'ash and broke
his fetters and----And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

       When it was the Six Hundred and Fifty-sixth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when King Gharib cried out to
Kaylajan and Kurajan, saying, "Loose your lord!", they unbound Mura'ash and broke his fetters,
and he said to them, "Bring me my arms and my winged horse." Now he had two flying steeds,
one of which he had given to Gharib and the other he had kept for himself; and this he mounted
after he had donned his battle harness. Then he and Gharib fell upon the enemy, flying through
the air on their winged horses, and the true believing Jinn followed them, shouting "Allaho
Akbar--God is Most Great!"--till plains and hills, valleys and mountains re-worded the cry. The
Infidels fled before them and they returned, after having slain more than thirty thousand Marids
and Satans, to the city of Japhet, where the two Kings sat down on their couches of estate and
sought Barkan, but found him not; for after capturing him they were diverted from him by stress
of battle, where an Ifrit of his servants made his way to him and loosing him, carried him to his
folk, of whom he found part slain and the rest in full flight. So he flew up with the King high in
air and sat him down in the City of Carnelian and Castle of Gold, where Barkan seated himself
on the throne of his kingship. Presently, those of his people who had survived the affair came in
to him and gave him joy of his safety; and he said, "O folk, where is safety? My army is slain
and they took me prisoner and have rent in pieces mine honour among the tribes of the Jann."
Quoth they, "O King, 'tis ever thus that kings still afflict and are afflicted." Quoth he, "There is
no help but I take my wreak and wipe out my shame, else shall I be for ever disgraced among the
tribes of the Jann." Then he wrote letters to the Governors of his fortresses, who came to him
right loyally and, when he reviewed them, he found three hundred and twenty-thousand fierce
Marids and Satans, who said to him, "What is thy need?" And he replied, "Get ye ready to set
out in three days' time;" whereto they rejoined "Harkening and obedience!" On this wise it befel
King Barkan; but as regards Mura'ash, when he discovered his prisoner's escape, it was grievous
to him and he said, "Had we set an hundred Marids to guard him, he had not fled; but whither
shall he go from us?" Then said he to Gharib, "Know, O my brother, that Barkan is perfidious
and will never rest from wreaking blood-revenge on us, but will assuredly assemble his legions
and return to attack us; wherefore I am minded to forestall him and follow the trail of his defeat,
whilst he is yet weakened thereby." Replied Gharib, "This is the right rede and will best serve
our need;" and Mura'ash, said, "Oh my brother, let the Marids bear thee back to thine own
country and leave me to fight the battles of the Faith against the Infidels, that I may be lightened
of my sin-load." But Gharib rejoined "By the virtue of the Clement, the Bountiful, the Veiler, I
will not go hence till I do to death all the misbelieving Jinn; and Allah hasten their souls to the
fire and dwelling-place dire; and none shall be saved but those who worship Allah the One the
Victorious! But do thou send Sahim back to the city of Oman, so haply he may be healed of his
ailment." For Sahim was sick. So Mura'ash cried to the Marids, saying, "Take ye up Sahim and
these treasures and bear them to Oman city." And after replying, "We hear and we obey," they
took them and made for the land of men. Then Mura'ash wrote letters to all his Governors and
Captains of fortresses and they came to him with an hundred and sixty-thousand warriors. So
they made them ready and departed for the City of Carnelian and the Castle of Gold, covering in
one day a year's journey and halted in a valley, where they encamped and passed the night. Next
morning as they were about to set forth, behold, the vanguard of Barkan's army appeared,
whereupon the Jinn cried out and the two hosts met and fell each upon other in that valley. Then
the engagement was dight and there befel a sore fight as though an earthquake shook the site and
fair plight waxed foul plight. Earnest came and jest took flight, and parley ceased ‘twixt wight
and wight,[FN#41] whilst long lives were cut short in a trice and the Unbelievers fell into
disgrace and despite; for Gharib charged them, proclaiming the Unity of the Worshipful, the All-
might and shore through necks and left heads rolling in the dust; nor did night betide before nigh
seventy thousand of the Miscreants were slain, and of the Moslemised over ten thousand Marids
had fallen Then the kettle-drums beat the retreat, and the two hosts drew apart,--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased Baying her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Fifty-seventh Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the two hosts drew apart, Gharib
and Mura'ash returned to their tents, after wiping their weapons, and supper being set before
them, they ate and gave each other joy of their safety, and the loss of their Marids being so
small. As for Barkan, he returned to his tent, grieving for the slaughter of his champions, and
said to his officers, "O folk, an we tarry here and do battle with them on this wise in three days'
time we shall be cut off to the last wight." Quoth they, "And how shall we do, O King?" Quoth
Barkan, "We will fall upon them under cover of night whilst they are deep in sleep, and not one
of them shall be left to tell the tale. So take your arms and when I give the word of command,
attack and fall on your enemies as one." Now there was amongst them a Marid named Jandal
whose heart inclined to Al-Islam; so, when he heard the Kafirs' plot, he stole away from them
and going in to King Mura'ash and King Gharib, told the twain what Barkan had devised;
whereupon Mura'ash turned to Gharib and said to him, "O my brother, what shall we do?"
Gharib replied, "To-night we will fall upon the Miscreants and chase them into the wilds and the
words if it be the will of the Omnipotent King." Then he summoned the Captains of the Jann and
said to them, "Arm yourselves, you and yours; and, as soon as 'tis dark, steal out of your tents on
foot, hundreds after hundreds, and lie in ambush among the mountains; and when ye see the
enemy engaged among the tents, do ye fall upon them from all quarters. Hearten your hearts and
rely on your Lord, and ye shall certainly conquer; and behold, I am with you!" So, as soon as it
was dark Night, the Infidels attacked the camp, invoking aid of the fire and light; but when they
came among the tents, the Moslems fell upon them, calling for help on the Lord of the Worlds
and saying, "O Most Merciful of Mercifuls, O Creator of all createds!" till they left them like
mown grass, cut down and dead. Nor did morning dawn before the most part of the unbelievers
were species without souls and the rest made for the wastes and marshes, whilst Gharib and
Mura'ash returned triumphant and victorious; and, making prize of the enemy's baggage, they
rested till the morrow, when they set out for the City of Carnelian and Castle of Gold. As for
Barkan, when the battle had turned against him and most of his lieges were slain, he fled through
the dark with the remnant of his power to his capital where he entered his palace and assembling
his legionaries said to them, "O folk, whoso hath aught of price, let him take it and follow me to
the Mountain Káf, to the Blue King, lord of the Pied Palace; for he it is who shall avenge us." So
they took their women and children and goods and made for the Caucasus mountain. Presently
Mura'ash and Gharib arrived at the City of Carnelian and Castle of Gold to find the gates open
and none left to give them news; whereupon they entered and Mura'ash led Gharib that he might
show him the city, whose walls were builded of emeralds and its gates of red carnelian, with
studs of silver, and the terrace-roofs of its houses and mansions reposed upon beams of lign
aloes and sandle-wood. So they took their pleasure in its streets and alleys, till they came to the
Palace of Gold and entering passed through seven vestibules, when they drew near to a building,
whose walls were of royal balass rubies and its pavement of emerald and jacinth. The two Kings
were astounded at the goodliness of the place and fared on from vestibule to vestibule, till they
had passed through the seventh and happened upon the inner court of the palace wherein they
saw four daises, each different from the others, and in the midst a jetting fount of red gold,
compassed about with golden lions,[FN#42] from whose mouths issued water. These were things
to daze man's wit. The estrade at the upper end was hung and carpeted with brocaded silks of
various colours and thereon stood two thrones of red gold, inlaid with pearls and jewels. So
Mura'ash and Gharib sat down on Barkan's thrones and held high state in the Palace of Gold.--
And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Fifty-eighth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Mura'ash and Gharib took seat on
Barkan's thrones and held high state. Then said Gharib to Mura'ash, "What thinkest thou to do?"
And Mura'ash replied, "O King of mankind, have despatched an hundred horse to learn where
Barkan is, that we may pursue him." Then they abode three days in the palace, the scouting
Marids returned with the news that Barkan had fled to the Mountain Kaf and craved protection
of the Blue King who granted it; whereupon quoth Mura'ash to Gharib, "What sayest thou, O my
brother?" and quoth Gharib, "Except we attack them they will attack us." So they bade the host
make ready for departure and after three days, they were about to set out with their troops, when
the Marids, who had carried Sahim and the presents back to Oman, returned and kissed ground
before Gharib. He questioned them of his people and they replied, "After the last affair, thy
brother Ajib, leaving Ya'arub bin Kahtan, fled to the King of Hind and, submitting his case,
sought his protection. The King granted his prayer and writing letters to all his governors, levied
an army as it were the surging sea, having neither beginning nor end, wherewith he purposeth to
invade Al-Irak and lay it waste." When Gharib heard this, he said, "Perish the Misbelievers!
Verily, Allah Almighty shall give the victory to Al-Islam and I will soon show them hew and
foin." Said Mura'ash, "O King of humans, by the virtue of the Mighty Name, I must needs go
with thee to thy kingdom and destroy thy foes and bring thee to thy wish." Gharib thanked him
and they rested on this resolve till the morrow, when they set out, intending for Mount Caucasus
and marched many days till they reached the City of Alabaster and the Pied Palace. Now this city
was fashioned of alabaster and precious stones by Bárik bin Fáki', father of the Jinn, and he also
founded the Pied Palace, which was so named because edified with one brick of gold alternating
with one of silver, nor was there builded aught like it in all the world. When they came within
half a day's journey of the city, they halted to take their rest, and Mura'ash sent out to
reconnoitre a scout who returned and said, "O King, within the City of Alabaster are legions of
the Jinn, for number as the leaves of the trees or as the drops of rain." So Mura'ash said to
Gharib, "How shall we do, O King of Mankind?" He replied, "O King, divide your men into four
bodies and encompass with them the camp of the Infidels; then, in the middle of the Night, let
them cry out, saying, ‘God is Most Great!' and withdraw and watch what happeneth among the
tribes of the Jinn." So Mura'ash did as Gharib counselled and the troops waited till midNight,
when they encircled the foe and shouted "Allaho Akbar! Ho for the Faith of Abraham the Friend,
on whom be the Peace!" The Misbelievers at this cry awoke in affright and snatching up their
arms, fell one upon other till the morning, when most part of them were dead bodies and but few
remained. Then Gharib cried out to the True Believers, saying, "Up and at the remnant of the
Kafirs! Behold I am with you, and Allah is your helper!" So the Moslems crave at the enemy and
Gharib bared his magical blade Al-Mahik and fell upon the foe, lopping off noses and making
heads wax hoary and whole ranks turn tail. At last be came up with Barkan and smote him and
bereft him of life and he fell down, drenched in his blood. On like wise he did with the Blue
King, and by undurn-hour not one of the Kafirs was left alive to tell the tale. Then Gharib and
Mura'ash entered the Pied Palace and found its walls builded of alternate courses of gold and
silver, with door-sills of crystal and keystones of greenest emerald. In its midst was a fountain
adorned with bells and pendants and figures of birds and beasts spouting forth water, and thereby
a daïs[FN#43] furnished with gold-brocaded silk, bordered or embroidered with jewels: and they
found the treasures of the palace past count or description. Then they entered the women's court,
where they came upon a magnificent serraglio and Gharib saw, among the Blue King's woman-
folk a girl clad in a dress worth a thousand dinars, never had he beheld a goodlier. About her
were an hundred slave-girls, upholding her train with golden hooks, and she was in their midst as
the moon among stars. When he saw her, his reason was confounded and he said to one of the
waiting-women, "Who may be yonder maid?" Quoth they, "This is the Blue King's daughter,
Star o' Morn."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

       When it was the Six Hundred and Fifty-ninth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Gharib asked the slave women
saying, "Who may be yonder maid," they replied, "This is Star o' Morn, daughter to the Blue
King." Then Gharib turned to Mura'ash and said to him, "O King of the Jinn, I have a mind to
take yonder damsel to wife." Replied Mura'ash, "The palace and all that therein is, live stock
and dead, are the prize of thy right hand; for, hadst thou not devised a stratagem to destroy the
Blue King and Barkan, they had cut us off to the last one: wherefore the treasure is thy treasure
and the folk thy thralls." Gharib thanked him for his fair speech and going up to the girl, gazed
steadfastly upon her and loved her with exceeding love, forgetting Fakhr Taj the Princess and
even Mahdiyah. Now her mother was the Chinese King's daughter whom the Blue King had
carried off from her palace and perforce deflowered, and she conceived by him and bare this girl,
whom he named Star o' Morn, by reason of her beauty and loveliness; for she was the very
Princess of the Fair. Her mother died when she was a babe of forty days, and the nurses and
eunuchs reared her, till she reached the age of seventeen; but she hated her sire and rejoiced in
his slaughter. So Gharib put his palm to hers[FN#44] and went in unto her that night and found
her a virgin. Then he bade pull down the Pied Palace and divided the spoil with the true-
believing Jinn, and there fell to his share one-and-twenty thousand bricks of gold and silver and
money and treasure beyond speech and count. Then Mura'ash took Gharib and showed him the
Mountain Kaf and all its marvels; after which they returned to Barkan's fortress and dismantled
it and shared the spoil thereof. Then they repaired to Mura'ash's capital, where they tarried five
days, when Gharib sought to revisit his native country and Mura'ash said, "O King of mankind, I
will ride at thy stirrup and bring thee to thine own land." Replied Gharib, "No, by the virtue of
Abraham the Friend, I will not suffer thee to weary thyself thus, nor will I take any of the Jinn
save Kaylajan and Kurajan." Quoth the King, "Take with thee ten thousand horsemen of the
Jinn, to serve thee;" but quoth Gharib, "I will take only as I said to thee." So Mura'ash bade a
thousand Marids carry him to his native land, with his share of the spoil; and he commanded
Kaylajan and Kurajan to follow him and obey him; and they answered, "Hearkening and
obedience." Then said Gharib to the Marids, "Do ye carry the treasure and Star o' Morn;" for he
himself thought to ride his flying steed. But Mura'ash said to him, "This horse, O my brother,
will live only in our region, and, if it come upon man's earth, ‘twill die: but I have in my stables
a sea-horse, whose fellow is not found in Al-Irak, no, nor in all the world is its like." So he
caused bring forth the horse, and when Gharib saw it, it interposed between him and his
wits.[FN#45] Then they bound it and Kaylajan bore it on his shoulders and Kurajan took what he
could carry. And Mura'ash embraced Gharib and wept for parting from him, saying, "O my
brother, if aught befal thee wherein thou art powerless, send for me and I will come to thine aid
with an army able to lay waste the whole earth and what is thereon." Gharib thanked him for his
kindness and zeal for the True Faith and took leave of him; whereupon the Marids set out with
Gharib and his goods; and, after traversing fifty years' journey in two days and a Night, alighted
near the city of Oman and halted to take rest. Then Gharib sent out Kaylajan, to learn news of his
people, and he returned and said, "O King, the city is beleaguered by a host of Infidels, as they
were the surging sea, and thy people are fighting them. The drums beat to battle and Jamrkan
goeth forth as champion in the field." When Gharib heard this, he cried aloud, "God is Most
Great!" and said to Kaylajan, "Saddle me the steed and bring me my arms and spear; for to-day
the valiant shall be known from the coward in the place of war and battle-stead." So Kaylajan
brought him all he sought and Gharib armed and belting in baldrick Al-Mahik, mounted the sea
horse and made toward the hosts. Quoth Kaylajan and Kurajan to him, Set thy heart at rest and
let us go to the Kafirs and scatter them abroad in the wastes and wilds till, by the help of Allah,
the All-powerful, we leave not a soul alive, no, not a blower of the fire." But Gharib said "By the
virtue of Abraham the [Friend, I will not let you fight them without me and behold, I mount!"
Now the cause of the coming of that great host was right mar vellous.[FN#46]--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

        When it was the Six Hundred and Sixtieth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Gharib had bidden Kaylajan go
and learn news of his people, the Jinn fared forth and presently returning said, "Verily around
thy city is a mighty host!" Now the cause of its coming was that Ajib, having fled the field after
Ya'arub's army had been put to the rout, said to his people, "O folk, if we return to Ya'arub bin
Kahtan, he will say to us, ‘But for you, my son and my people had not been slain; and he will put
us to death, even to the last man.' Wherefore, methinks we were better go to Tarkanán, King of
Hind, and beseech him to avenge us." Replied they, "Come, let us go thither; and the blessing of
the Fire be upon thee!" So they fared days and nights till they reached King Tarkanan's capital
city and, after asking and obtaining permission to present himself, Ajib went in to him and
kissed ground before him. Then he wished him what men use to wish to monarchy and said to
him, "O King, protect me, so may protect thee the sparkling Fire and the Night with its thick
darkness!" Tarkanan looked at Ajib and asked, "Who art thou and what dost thou want?"; to
which the other answered, "I am Ajib King of Al-Irak; my brother hath wronged me and gotten
the mastery of the land and the subjects have submitted themselves to him. Moreover, he hath
embraced the faith of Al-Islam and he ceaseth not to chase me from country to country; and
behold, I am come to seek protection of thee and thy power." When Tarkanan heard Ajib's
words, he rose and sat down and cried, "By the virtue of the Fire, I will assuredly avenge thee
and will let none serve other than my goddess the Fire!" And he called aloud to his son, saying,
"O my son, make ready to go to Al-Irak and lay it waste and bind all who serve aught but the
Fire and torment them and make example of them; yet slay them not, but bring them to me, that I
may ply them with various tortures and make them taste the bitterness of humiliation and leave
them a warning to whoso will be warned in this our while." Then he chose out to accompany
him eighty-thousand fighting-men on horseback and the like number on giraffes,[FN#47]
besides ten thousand elephants, bearing on their backs seats[FN#48] of sandal-wood, latticed
with golden rods, plated and studded with gold and silver and shielded with pavoises of gold and
emerald; moreover he sent good store of war-chariots, in each eight men fighting with all kinds
of weapons. Now the Prince's name was Ra'ad Sháh,[FN#49] and he was the cham pion of his
time, for prowess having no peer. So he and his army equipped them in ten days' time, then set
out, as they were a bank of clouds, and fared on two months' journey, till they came upon Oman
city and encompassed it, to the joy of Ajib, who thought himself assured of victory. Jamrkan and
Sa'adan and all their fighting-men sallied forth into the field of fight whilst the kettle-drums beat
to battle and the horses neighed. At this moment up came King Gharib, who, as we have said,
had been warned by Kaylajan; and he urged on his destrier and entered among the Infidels
waiting to see who should come forth and open the chapter of war. Then out rushed Sa'adan the
Ghul and offered combat, whereupon there issued forth to him one of the champions of Hind;
but Sa'adan scarce let him take stand in front ere he smote him with his mace and crushed his
bones and stretched him on the ground; and so did he with a second and a third, till he had slain
thirty fighting-men. Then there dashed out at him an Indian cavalier, by name Battásh al-
Akrán,[FN#50] uncle to King Tarkanan and of his day the doughtiest man, reckoned worth five
thousand horse in battle-plain and cried out to Sa'adan, saying, "O thief of the Arabs, hath thy
daring reached that degree that thou shouldst slay the Kings of Hind and their champions and
capture their horsemen? But this day is the last of thy worldly days." When Sa'adan heard these
words, his eyes waxed blood-red and he crave at Battash and aimed a stroke at him with his club;
but he evaded it and the force of the blow bore Sa'adan to the ground; and before he could
recover himself, the Indians pinioned him and haled him off to their tents. Now when Jamrkan
saw his comrade a prisoner, he cried out, saying, "Ho for the Faith of Abraham the Friend!" and
clapping heel to his horse, ran at Battash. They wheeled about awhile, till Battash charged
Jamrkan and catching him by his jerkin[FN#51] tare him from his saddle and cast him to the
ground; whereupon the Indians bound him and dragged him away to their tents. And Battash
ceased not to overcome all who came out to him, Captain after Captain till he had made
prisoners of four-and-twenty Chiefs of the Moslems, whereat the True Believers were sore
dismayed. When Gharib saw what had befallen his braves, he drew from beneath his
knee[FN#52] a mace of gold weighing six-score pounds which had belonged to Barkan King of
the Jann--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

       When it was the Six Hundred and Sixty-first Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Gharib beheld what had befallen his
braves he drew forth a golden mace which had belonged to Barkan King of the Jann and clapped
heel to his sea horse, which bore him like the wind gust into mid-field. Then he let drive at
Battash, crying out, "God is Most Great! He giveth aid and victory and He abaseth whoso reject
the Faith of Abraham the Friend!" and smote him with the mace, whereupon he fell to the
ground and Gharib, turning to the Moslems, saw his brother Sahim and said to him, "Pinion me
this hound." When Sahim heard his brother's words, he ran to Battash and bound him hard and
fast and bore him off, whilst the Moslem braves wondered who this knight could be and the
Indians said one to other, "Who is this horseman which came out from among them and hath
taken our Chief prisoner?" Meanwhile Gharib continued to offer battle and there issued forth to
him a captain of the Hindis whom he felled to earth with his mace, and Kaylajan and Kurajan
pinioned him and delivered him over to Sahim; nor did Gharib leave to do thus, till he had taken
prisoner two-and-fifty of the doughtiest Captains of the army of Hind. Then the day came to an
end and the kettle-drums beat the retreat; whereupon Gharib left the field and rode towards the
Moslem camp. The first to meet him was Sahim, who kissed his feet in the stirrups and said,
"May thy hand never wither, O champion of the age! Tell us who thou art among the braves." So
Gharib raised his vizor of mail and Sahim knew him and cried out, saying, "This is your King
and your lord Gharib, who is come back from the land of the Jann!" When the Moslems heard
Gharib ‘s name, they threw themselves off their horses' backs, and, crowding about him, kissed
his feet in the stirrups and saluted him, rejoicing in his safe return. Then they carried him into the
city of Oman, where he entered his palace and sat down on the throne of his kingship, whilst his
officers stood around him in the utmost joy. Food was set on and they ate, after which Gharib
related to them all that had betided him with the Jinn in Mount Kaf, and they marvelled thereat
with exceeding marvel and praised Allah for his safety. Then he dismissed them to their sleeping
places; so they withdrew to their several lodgings, and when none abode with him but Kaylajan
and Kurajan, who never left him, he said to them, "Can ye carry me to Cufa that I may take my
pleasure in my Harim, and bring me back before the end of the night?" They replied, "O our
lord, this thou askest is easy." Now the distance between Cufa and Oman is sixty days' journey
for a diligent horseman, and Kaylajan said to Kurajan, "I will carry him going and thou coming
back." So he took up Gharib and flew off with him, in company with Kurajan; nor was an hour
past before they set him down at the gate of his palace, in Cufa. He went in to his uncle Al-
Damigh, who rose to him and saluted him; after which quoth Gharib, "How is it with my wives
Fakhr Taj[FN#53] and Mahdiyah?" Al-Damigh answered, "They are both well and in good
case." Then the eunuch went in and acquainted the women of the Harim with Gharib's coming,
whereat they rejoiced and raised the trill of joy and gave him the reward for good news.
Presently in came King Gharib, and they rose and saluting him, conversed with him, till Al-
Damigh entered, when Gharib related to them all that had befallen him in the land of the Jinn,
whereat they all marvelled. Then he lay with Fakhr Taj till near daybreak, when he took leave of
his wives and his uncle and mounted Kurajan's back, nor was the darkness dispelled before the
two Marids set him down in the city of Oman. Then he and his men armed and he bade open the
gates when, behold, up came a horseman from the host of the Indians, with Jamrkan and Sa'adan
and the rest of the captive captains whom he had delivered, and committed them to Gharib. The
Moslems, rejoicing in their safety, donned their mails and took horse, while the kettle-drums
beat a point of war; and the Miscreants also drew up in line.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn
of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Sixty-second Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the Moslem host mounted and
rode to the plain of cut and thrust, the first to open the door of war was King Gharib who,
drawing his sword Al-Mahik, drove his charger between the two ranks and cried out, saying,
"Whoso knoweth me hath enough of my mis chief and whoso unknoweth me, to him I will make
myself known. I am Gharib, King of Al-Irak and Al-Yaman, brother of Ajib." When Ra'ad Shah,
son of the King of Hind, heard this, he shouted to his captains, "Bring me Ajib." So they brought
him and Ra'ad Shah said to him, "Thou wottest that this quarrel is thy quarrel and thou art the
cause of all this slaughter. Now yonder standeth thy brother Gharib amiddle-most the fightfield
and stead where sword and spear we shall wield; go thou to him and bring him to me a prisoner,
that I may set him on a camel arsy-versy, and make a show of him and carry him to the land of
Hind." Answered Ajib, "O King, send out to him other than I, for I am in ill-health this
morning." But Ra'ad Shah sparked and snorted and cried, "By the virtue of the sparkling Fire
and the light and the shade and the heat, unless thou fare forth to thy brother and bring him to me
in haste, I will cut off thy head and make an end of thee." So Ajib took heart and urging his
horse up to his brother in mid-field, said to him, "O dog of the Arabs and vilest of all who
hammer down tent pegs, wilt thou contend with Kings? Take what to thee cometh and receive
the glad tidings of thy death." When Gharib heard this, he said to him, "Who art thou among the
Kings? And Ajib answered, saying, "I am thy brother, and this day is the last of thy worldly
days." Now when Gharib was assured that he was indeed his brother Ajib, he cried out and said,
"Ho, to avenge my father and mother!" Then giving his sword to Kaylajan,[FN#54] he crave at
Ajib and smote him with his mace a smashing blow and a swashing, that went nigh to beat in his
ribs, and seizing him by the mail gorges tore him from the saddle and cast him to the ground;
whereupon the two Marids pounced upon him and binding him fast, dragged him off dejected
and abject; whilst Gharib rejoiced in the capture of his enemy and repeated these couplets of the

"I have won my wish and my need have scored * Unto Thee be the praise and the thanks, O our
I grew up dejected and abject; poor, * But Allah vouchsafed me all boons implored:
I have conquered countries and mastered men * But for Thee were I naught, O thou Lord

When Ra'ad Shah saw how evilly Ajib fared with his brother, he called for his charger and
donning his harness and habergeon, mounted and dashed out a field. As soon as he drew near
King Gharib, he cried out at him, saying, "O basest of Arabs and bearer of scrubs,[FN#55] who
art thou, that thou shouldest capture Kings and braves? Down from thy horse and put elbows
behind back and kiss my feet and set my warriors free and go with me in bond of chains to my
reign that I may pardon thee and make thee a Shayth in our own land, so mayst thou eat there a
bittock of bread." When Gharib heard these words he laughed till he fell backwards and
answered, saying, "O mad hound and mangy wolf, soon shalt thou see against whom the shifts of
Fortune will turn!" Then he cried out to Sahim, saying, "Bring me the prisoners; so he brought
them, and Gharib smote off their heads whereupon Ra'ad Shah crave at him, with the driving of
a lordly champion and the onslaught of a fierce slaughterer and they falsed and feinted and
fought till nightfall, when the kettle-drums beat the retreat.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn
of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

       When it was the Six Hundred and Sixty-third Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the kettledrums beat the retreat,
the two Kings parted and returned, each to his own place where his people gave him joy of his
safety. And the Moslems said to Gharib, " 'Tis not thy wont O King, to prolong a fight;" and he
replied, "O folk, I have done battle with many royalties[FN#56] and champions; but never saw I
a harder hitter than this one. Had I chosen to draw Al-Mahik upon him, I had mashed his bones
and made an end of his days: but I delayed with him, thinking to take him prisoner and give him
part enjoyment in Al-Islam." Thus far concerning Gharib; but as regards Ra'ad Shah, he returned
to his marquee and sat upon his throne, when his Chiefs came in to him and asked him of his
adversary, and he answered, "By the truth of the sparkling Fire, never in my life saw I the like of
yonder brave! But to-morrow I will take him prisoner and lead him away dejected and abject."
Then they slept till daybreak, when the battle-drums beat to fight and the swords in baldric were
dight; and war-cries were cried amain and all mounted their horses of generous strain and drew
out into the field, filling every wide place and hill and plain. The first to open the door of war
was the rider outrageous and the lion rageous, King Gharib, who crave his steed between the two
hosts and wheeled and careered over the field, crying, "Who is for fray, who is for fight? Let no
sluggard come out to me this day nor dullard!" Before he had made an end of speaking, out
rushed Ra'ad Shah, riding on an elephant, as he were a vast tower, in a eat girthed with silken
bands; and between the elephant's ears at the driver, bearing in hand a hook, wherewith he
goaded the beast and directed him right and left. When the elephant drew near Gharib's horse,
and the steed saw a creature it had never before set eyes on, it took fright;[FN#57] wherefore
Gharib dismounted and gave the horse to Kaylajan. Then he drew Al-Mahik and advanced to
meet Ra'ad Shah a-foot, walking on till he faced the elephant. Now it was Ra'ad Shah's wont,
when he found himself overmatched by any brave, to mount an elephant, taking with him an
implement called the lasso,[FN#58] which was in the shape of a net, wide at base and narrow at
top with a running cord of silk passed through rings along its edges. With this he would attack
horsemen and casting the meshes over them, draw the running noose and drag the rider off his
horse and make him prisoner; and thus had he conquered many cavaliers. So, as Gharib came up
to him, he raised his hand and, despreading the net over him, pulled him on to the back of the
elephant and cried out to the beast to return to the Indian camp. But Kaylajan and Kurajan had
not left Gharib and, when they beheld what had befallen their lord, they laid hold of the elephant,
whilst Gharib strove with the net, till he rent it in sunder. Upon this the two Marids seized Ra'ad
Shah and bound him with a cord of palm fibre. Then the two armies drove each at other and met
with a shock like two seas crashing or two mountains together dashing, whilst the dust rose to
the confines of the sky and blinded was every eye. The battle waxed fierce and fell, the blood ran
in rills, nor did they cease to wage war with lunge of lance and sway of sword in lustiest way, till
the day darkened and the night starkened, when the drums beat the retreat and the two hosts drew
asunder.[FN#59] Now the Moslems were evilly entreated that day by reason of the riders on
elephants and giraffes,[FN#60] and many of them were killed and most of the rest were
wounded. This was grievous to Gharib who commanded the hurt to be medicined and turning to
his Chief Officers, asked them what they counselled. Answered they, "O King, 'tis only the
elephants and giraffes that irk us; were we but quit of them, we should overcome the enemy."
Quoth Kaylajan and Kurajan, "We twain will unsheath our swords and fall on them and slay the
most part of them." But there came forward a man of Oman, who had been privy counsellor to
Jaland and said, "O King, I will be surety for the host, an thou wilt but hearken to me and follow
my counsel." Gharib turned to his Captains and said to them, "Whatsoever this wise man shall
say to you that do."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted

      When it was the Six Hundred and Sixty-fourth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Gharib said to his Captains, "Whatsoever this wise man shall say
to you, that do"; they replied, "Hearing and obeying!" So the
Omani chose out ten captains and asked them, "How many braves
have ye under your hands?"; and they answered, "Ten thousand
fighting-men." Then he carried them into the armoury and armed
five thousand of them with harquebuses and other five thousand
with cross bows and taught them to shoot with these new
weapons.[FN#61] Now as soon as it was day, the Indians came out
to the field, armed cap-à-pie, with the elephants, giraffes and
champions in their van; whereupon Gharib and his men mounted and
both hosts drew out and the big drums beat to battle. Then the
man of Oman cried out to the archers and harquebusiers to shoot,
and they plied the elephants and giraffes with shafts and leaden
bullets, which entered the beasts' flanks, whereat they roared
out and turning upon their own ranks, trod them down with their
hoofs. Presently the Moslems charged the Misbelievers and
outflanked them right and left, whilst the elephants and giraffes
trampled them and drove them into the hills and words, whither
the Moslems followed hard upon them with the keen-edged sword and
but few of the giraffes and elephants escaped. Then King Gharib
and his folk returned, rejoicing in their victory; and on the
morrow they divided the loot and rested five days; after which
King Gharib sat down on the throne of his kingship and sending
for his brother Ajib, said to him, "O dog, why hast thou
assembled the Kings against us? But He who hath power over all
things hath given us the victory over thee. So embrace the Saving
Faith and thou shalt be saved, and I will forbear to avenge my
father and mother on thee therefor, and I will make thee King
again as thou west, placing myself under thy hand." But Ajib
said, "I will not leave my faith." So Gharib bade lay him in
irons and appointed an hundred stalwart slaves to guard him;
after which he turned to Ra'ad Shah and said to him, "How sayst
thou of the faith of Al-Islam?" Replied he, "O my lord, I will
enter thy faith; for, were it not a true Faith and a goodly, thou
hadst not conquered us. Put forth thy hand and I will testify
that there is no god but the God and that Abraham the Friend is
the Apostle of God." At this Gharib rejoiced and said to him, "Is
thy heart indeed stablished in the sweetness of this Belief?" And
he answered, saying, "Yes, O my lord!" Then quoth Gharib, "O.
Ra'ad Shah, wilt thou go to thy country and thy kingdom?" and
quoth he, "O. my lord, my father will put me to death, for that I
have left his faith." Gharib rejoined, "I will go with thee and
make thee king of the country and constrain the folk to obey
thee, by the help of Allah the Bountiful, the Beneficent." And
Ra'ad Shah kissed his hands and feet. Then Gharib rewarded the
counsellor who had caused the rout of the foe and gave him great
wealth; after which he turned to Kaylajan and Kurajan, and said
to them, "Harkye, Chiefs of the Jinn, 'tis my will that ye carry
me, together with Ra'ad Shah and Jamrkan and Sa'adan to the land
of Hind." "We hear and we obey," answered they. So Kurajan took
up Jamrkan and Sa'adan, whilst Kaylajan took Gharib and Ra'ad
Shah and made for the land of Hind.--And Shahrazad perceived the
dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

     When it was the Six Hundred and and Sixty-fifth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the two Marids had taken up Gharib
and Jamrkan, Sa'adan the Ghul and Ra'ad Shah, they flew on with them from sundown till the
last of the Night, when they set them down on the terrace of King Tarkanan's palace at
Cashmere. Now news was brought to Tarkanan by the remnants of his host of what had befallen
his son, whereat he slept not neither took delight in aught, and he was troubled with sore trouble.
As he sat in his Harim, pondering his case, behold, Gharib and his company descended the
stairways of the palace and came in to him; and when he saw his son and those who were with
him, he was confused and fear took him of the Marids. Then Ra'ad Shah turned to him and said,
"How long wilt thou persist in thy frowardness, O traitor and worshipper of the Fire? Woe to
thee! Leave worshipping the Fire and serve the Magnanimous Sire, Creator of day and Night,
whom attaineth no sight." When Tarkanan heard his son's speech, he cast at him an iron club he
had by him; but it missed him and fell upon a buttress of the palace and smote out three stones.
Then cried the King, "O dog, thou hast destroyed mine army and hast forsaken thy faith and
comest now to make me do likewise!" With this Gharib went up to him and dealt him a cuff on
the neck which knocked him down; whereupon the Marids bound him fast and all the Harim-
women fled. Then Gharib sat down on the throne of kingship and said to Ra'ad Shah, "Do thou
justice upon thy father." So Ra'ad Shah turned to him and said, ‘O perverse old man, become
one of the saved and thou shalt be saved from the fire and the wrath of the All-powerful" But
Tarkanan cried, "I will not die save in my own faith" Whereupon Gharib drew Al-Mahik and
smote him therewith and he fell to the earth in two pieces, and Allah hurried his soul to the fire
and abiding-place dire.[FN#62] Then Gharib bade hang his body over the palace gate and they
hung one half on the right hand and the other on the left and waited till day, when Gharib caused
Ra'ad Shah don the royal habit and sit down on his father's throne, with himself on his dexter
hand and Jamrkan and Sa'adan and the Marids standing right and left; and he said to Kaylajan
and Kurajan, "Whoso entereth of the Princes and Officers, seize him and bind him, and let not a
single Captain escape you." And they answered, "Hearkening and obedience!" Presently the
Officers made for the palace, to do their service to e King, and the first to appear was the Chief
Captain who, seeing King Tarkanan's dead body cut in half and hanging on either side of the
gate, was seized with terror and amazement. Then Kaylajan laid hold of him by the collar and
threw him and intoned him; after which he dragged him into the palace and before sunrise they
had bound three hundred and fifty Captains and set them before Gharib, who said to them, "O
folk, have you seen your King hanging at the palace gate?" Asked they, "Who hath done this
deed?"; and he answered, "I did it, by the help of Allah Almighty; and whoso opposeth me, I
will do with him likewise." Then quoth they, "What is thy will with us?"; and quoth he, "I am
Gharib, King of Al-Irak, he who slew your warriors; and now Ra'ad Shah hath embraced the
Faith of Salvation and is become a mighty King and ruler over you. So do ye become True
Believers and all shall be well with you; but, if ye refuse, you shall repent it." So they
pronounced the profession of the Faith and were enrolled among the people of felicity. Then said
Gharib, "Are your hearts indeed stablished in the sweetness of the Belief?"; and they replied,
"Yes"; whereupon he bade release them and clad them in robes of honour, saying, "Go to your
people and expound Al-Islam to them. Whoso accepteth the Faith spare him; but if he refuse slay
him."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

       When it was the Six Hundred and Sixty-sixth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that King Gharib said to the troops of
Ra'ad Shah, "Go to your people and offer Al-Islam to them. Whoso accepteth the Faith spare
him; but if he refuse, slay him." So they went out and, assembling the men under their command,
explained what had taken place and expounded Al-Islam to them and they all professed. except a
few, whom they put to death; after which they returned and told Gharib, who blessed Allah and
glorified Him, saying, "Praised be the Almighty who hath made this thing easy to us without
strife!" Then he abode in Cashmere of India forty days, till he had ordered the affairs of the
country and cast down the shrines and temples of the Fire and built in their stead mosques and
cathedrals, whilst Ra'ad Shah made ready for him rarities and treasures beyond count and
despatched them to Al-Irak in ships Then Gharib mounted on Kaylajan's back and Jamrkan and
Sa'adan on that of Kurajan, after they had taken leave of Ra'ad Shah; and journeyed through the
night till break of day, when they reached Oman city where their troops met them and saluted
them and rejoiced in them. Then they set out for Cufa where Gharib called for his brother Ajib
and commanded to hang him. So Sahim brought hooks of iron and driving them into the tendons
of Ajib's heels, hung him over the gate; and Gharib bade them shoot him; so they riddled him
with arrows, till he was like unto a porcupine. Then Gharib entered his palace and sitting down
on the throne of his kingship, passed the day in ordering the affairs of the state. At nightfall he
went in to his Harim, where Star o' Morn came to meet him and embraced him and gave him
joy, she and her women, of his safety. He spent that day and lay that night with her and on the
morrow, after he had made the Ghusl-ablution and prayed the dawn-prayer, he sat down on his
throne and commanded preparation to be made for his marriage with Mahdiyah. Accordingly
they slaughtered three thousand head of sheep and two thousand oxen and a thousand he goats
and five hundred camels and the like number of horses, beside four thousand fowls and great
store of geese; never was such wedding in Al-Islam to that day. Then he went in to Mahdiyah
and took her maidenhead and abode with her ten days; after which he committed the kingdom to
his uncle Al-Damigh, charging him to rule the lieges justly, and journeyed with his women and
warriors, till he came to the ships laden with the treasures and rarities which Ra'ad Shah had sent
him, and divided the monies among his men who from poor became rich. Then they fared on till
they reached the city of Babel, where he bestowed on Sahim Al-Layl a robe of honour and
appointed him Sultan of the city.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying
her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Sixty-seventh Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Gharib, after robing his brother Sahim
and appointing him Sultan, abode with him ten days, after which he set out again and journeyed
nor stinted travel till he reached the castle of Sa'adan the Ghul, where they rested five days.
Then quoth Gharib to Kaylajan and Kurajan' "Pass over to Isbánír al-Madáin, to the palace of
the Chosroe, and find what is come of Fakhr Taj and bring me one of the King's kinsmen, who
shall acquaint me with what hath passed." Quoth they, "We hear and we obey," and set out
forthright for Isbanir. As they flew between heaven and earth, behold, they caught sight of a
mighty army, as it were the surging sea, and Kaylajan said to Kurajan, "Let us descend and
determine what be this host." So they alighted and walking among the troops, found them
Persians and questioned the soldiers whose men they were and whither they were bound;
whereto they made answer, "We are en route for Al-Irak, to slay Gharib and all who company
him." When the Marids heard these words, they repaired to the pavilion of the Persian general,
whose name was Rustam, and waited till the soldiers slept, when they took up Rustam, bed and
all, and made for the castle where Gharib lay. They arrived there by midnight and going to the
door of the King's pavilion, cried, "Permission!" which when he heard, he sat up and said,
"Come in." So they entered and set down the couch with Rustam asleep thereon. Gharib asked,
"Who be this?" and they answered, "This be a Persian Prince, whom we met coming with a great
host, thinking to slay thee and thine, and we have brought him to thee, that he may tell thee what
thou hast a mind to know." "Fetch me an hundred braves!" cried Gharib, and they fetched them;
whereupon he bade them, "Draw your swords and stand at the head of this Persian carle!" Then
they awoke him and he opened his eyes; and, finding an arch of steel over his head, shut them
again, crying, "What be this foul dream?" But Kaylajan pricked him with his sword point and he
sat up and said, "Where am I?" Quoth Sahim, "Thou art in the presence of King Gharib, son-in-
law of the King of the Persians. What is thy name and whither goest thou?" When Rustam heard
Gharib's name' he bethought himself and said in his mind, "Am I asleep or awake? Whereupon
Sahim dealt him a buffet, saying, "Why dost thou not answer?" And he raised his head and
asked, "Who brought me from my tent out of the midst of my men?" Gharib answered, "These
two Marids brought thee." So he looked at Kaylajan and Kurajan and skited in his bag-trousers.
Then the Marids fell upon him, baring their tusks and brandishing their blades, and said to him,
"Wilt thou not rise and kiss ground before King Gharib?" And he trembled at them and was
assured that he was not asleep; so he stood up and kissed the ground between the hands of
Gharib, saying, "The blessing of the Fire be on thee, and long life be thy life, O King!" Gharib
cried, "O dog of the Persians, fire is not worshipful, for that it is harmful and profiteth not save
in cooking food." Asked Rustam, "Who then is worshipful?"; and Gharib answered, "Alone
worshipworth is God, who formed thee and fashioned thee and created the heavens and the
earth." Quoth the Ajami, "What shall I say that I may become of the party of this Lord and enter
thy Faith?"; and quoth Gharib, "Say, ‘There is no god but the God, and Abraham is the Friend of
God'." So Rustam pronounced the profession of the Faith and was enrolled among the people of
felicity. Then said he to Gharib, "Know, O my lord, that thy father-in-law, King Sabur, seeketh
to slay thee; and indeed he hath sent me with an hundred thousand men, charging me to spare
none of you." Gharib rejoined, "Is this my reward for having delivered his daughter from death
and dishonour? Allah will requite him his ill intent. But what is thy name?" The Persian
answered, "My name is Rustam, general of Sabur;" and Gharib, "Thou shalt have the like rank in
my army," adding, "But tell me, O Rustam, how is it with the Princess Fakhr Taj?" "May thy
head live, O King of the age!" "What was the cause of her death?" Rustam replied, "O my lord,
no sooner hadst thou left us than one of the Princess's women went in to King Sabur and said to
him, ‘O my master, didst thou give Gharib leave to lie with the Princess my mistress?' whereto
he answered, ‘No, by the virtue of the fire!' and drawing his sword, went in to his daughter and
said to her, ‘O foul baggage, why didst thou suffer yonder Badawi to sleep with thee, without
dower or even wedding?' She replied, ‘O my papa, 'twas thou gayest him leave to sleep with
me.' Then he asked, ‘Did the fellow have thee?' but she was silent and hung down her head.
Hereupon he cried out to the midwives and slave-girls, saying, ‘Pinion me this harlot's elbows
behind her and look at her privy parts.' So they did as he bade them and after inspecting her slit
said to him, ‘O King, she hath lost her maidenhead Whereupon he ran at her and would have
slain her, but her mother rose up and threw herself between them crying, ‘O King, slay her not,
lest thou be for ever dishonoured; but shut her in a cell till she die.' So he cast her into prison till
nightfall, when he called two of his courtiers and said to them, ‘Carry her afar off and throw her
into the river Jayhun and tell none.' They did his commandment, and indeed her memory is
forgotten and her time is past."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Sixty-eighth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Gharib asked news of Fakhr Taj,
Rustam informed him that she had been drowned in the river by her sire's command. And when
Gharib heard this, the world waxed wan before his eyes and he cried, "By the virtue of Abraham
the Friend, I will assuredly go to yonder dog and overwhelm him and lay waste his realm!" Then
he sent letters to Jamrkan and to the governors of Mosul and Mayyáfáríkín; and, turning to
Rustam, said to him, "How many men hadst thou in thine army?" He replied, "An hundred
thousand Persian horse;" and Gharib rejoined, "Take ten thousand horse and go to thy people
and occupy them with war; I will follow on thy trail." So Rustam mounted and taking ten
thousand Arab horse made for his tribe, saying in himself, "I will do a deed shall whiten my face
with King Gharib." So he fared on seven days, till there remained but half a day's journey
between him and the Persian camp; when, dividing his host into four divisions he said to his
men, "Surround the Persians on all sides and fall upon them with the sword." They rode on from
eventide till midnight, when they had compassed the camp of the Ajamis, who were asleep in
security, and fell upon them, shouting, "God is Most Great!" Whereupon the Persians started up
from sleep and their feet slipped and the sabre went round amongst them; for the All-knowing
King was wroth with them, and Rustam wrought amongst them as fire in dry fuel; till, by the end
of the night, the whole of the Persian host was slain or wounded or fled, and the Moslems made
prize of their tents and baggage, horses, camels and treasure-chests. Then they alighted and
rested in the tents of the Ajamis till King Gharib came up and, seeing what Rustam had done and
how he had gained by stratagem a great and complete victory, he invested him with a robe of
honour and said to him, "O Rustam, it was thou didst put the Persians to the rout; wherefore all
the spoil is thine." So he kissed Gharib's hand and thanked him, and they rested till the end of
the day, when they set out for King Sabur's capital. Meanwhile, the fugitives of the defeated
force reached Isbanir and went in to Sabur, crying out and saying, "Alas!" and "Well-away!" and
"Woe worth the day!" Quoth he, "What hath befallen you and who with his mischief hath
smitten you?" So they told him all that had passed and said, "Naught befel us except that thy
general Rustam, fell upon us in the darkness of the night because he had turned Moslem; nor did
Gharib come near us." When the King heard this, he cast his crown to the ground and said,
"There is no worth left us!" Then he turned to his son Ward Shah[FN#63] and said to him, "O
my son, there is none for this affair save thou." Answered Ward Shah, "By thy life, O my father,
I will assuredly bring Gharib and his chiefs of the people in chains and slay all who are with
him" Then he numbered his army and found it two hundred and twenty-thousand men. So they
slept, intending to set forth on the morrow; but, next morning, as they were about to march,
behold, a cloud of dust arose and spread till it walled the world and baffled the sight of the
farthest seeing wight. Now Sabur had mounted to farewell his son, and when he saw this mighty
great dust, he let call a runner and said to him, "Go find me out the cause of this dust-cloud."
The scout went and returned, saying, "O my lord, Gharib and his braves are upon you;"
whereupon they unloaded their bât-beasts and drew out in line of battle. When Gharib came up
and saw the Persians ranged in row, he cried out to his men, saying, "Charge with the blessing of
Allah!" So they waved the flags, and the Arabs and the Ajamis crave one at other and folk were
heaped upon folk. Blood ran like water and all souls saw death face to face; the brave advanced
and pressed forward to assail and the coward hung back and turned tail and they ceased not from
fight and fray till ended day, when the kettle-drums beat the retreat and the two hosts drew apart.
Then Sabur commanded to pitch his camp hard over the city-gate, and Gharib set up his
pavilions in front of theirs; and every one went to his tent.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn
of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

       When it was the Six Hundred and Sixty-ninth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the two hosts drew apart, every one
went to his tent until the morning. As soon as it was day, the two hosts mounted their strong
steeds and levelled their lances and wore their harness of war; then they raised their slogan cries
and drew out in battle-array, whilst came forth all the lordly knights and the lions of fights. Now
the first to open the gate of battle was Rustam, who urged his charger into mid-field and cried
out, "God is most Great! I am Rustam, champion-in-chief of the Arabs and Ajamis. Who is for
tilting, who is for fighting? Let no sluggard come out to me this day nor weakling!" Then there
rushed forth to him a champion of the Persians; the two charged each other and there befel
between them a sore fight, till Rustam sprang upon his adversary and smote him with a mace he
had with him, seventy pounds in weight, and beat his head down upon his breast, and he fell to
the earth, dead and in his blood drowned. This was no light matter to Sabur and he commanded
his men to charge; so they crave at the Moslems, invoking the aid of the light-giving Sun, whilst
the True Believers called for help upon the Magnanimous King. But the Ajamis, the Miscreants,
outnumbered the Arabs, the Moslems, and made them drain the cup of death; which when
Gharib saw he drew his sword Al-Mahik and crying out his war-cry, fell upon the Persians, with
Kaylajan and Kurajan at either stirrup; nor did he leave playing upon them with blade till he
hewed his way to the standard-bearer and smote him on the head with the flat of his sword,
whereupon he fell down in a fainting-fit and the two Marids bore him off to their camp. When
the Persians saw the standard fall, they turned and fled and for the city-gates made; but the
Moslems followed them with the blade and they crowded together to enter the city, so that they
could not shut the gates and there died of them much people. Then Rustam and Sa'adan,
Jamrkan and Sahim, Al-Damigh, Kaylajan and Kurajan and all the braves Mohammedan and the
champions of Faith Unitarian fell upon the misbelieving Persians in the gates, and the blood of
the Kafirs ran in the streets like a torrent till they threw down their arms and harness and called
out for quarter; whereupon the Moslems stayed their swords from the slaughter and drove them
to their tents, as one driveth a flock of sheep. Meanwhile Gharib returned to his pavilion, where
he doffed his gear and washed himself of the blood of the Infidels; after which he donned his
royal robes and sat down on his chair of estate. Then he called for the King of the Persians and
said to him, "O dog of the Ajams, what moved thee to deal thus with thy daughter? How seest
thou me unworthy to be her baron?" And Sabur answered, saying, "O King, punish me not
because of that deed which I did; for I repent me and confronted thee not in fight but in my fear
of thee.''[FN#64] When Gharib heard these words he bade throw him flat and beat him. So they
bastinadoed him, till he could no longer groan, and cast him among the prisoners. Then Gharib
expounded Al-Islam to the Persians and one hundred and twenty-thousand of them embraced
The Faith, and the rest he put to the sword. Moreover all the citizens professed Al-Islam and
Gharib mounted and entered in great state the city Isbanir Al-Madain. Then he went into the
King's palace and sitting down on Sabur's throne, gave robes and largesse and distributed the
booty and treasure among the Arabs and Persians, wherefore they loved him and wished him
victory and honour and endurance of days. But Fakhr Taj's mother remembered her daughter
and raised the voice of mourning for her, and the palace was filled with wails and cries. Gharib
heard this and entering the Harim, asked the women what ailed them, whereupon the Princess's
mother came forward and said, "O my lord, thy presence put me in mind of my daughter and
how she would have joyed in thy coming, had she been alive and well." Gharib wept for her and
sitting down on his throne, called for Sabur, and they brought him stumbling in his shackles.
Quoth Gharib to him, "O dog of the Persians, what didst thou do with thy daughter?" "I gave her
to such an one and such an one," quoth the King, "saying, ‘Drown her in the river Jayhún.'" So
Gharib sent for the two men and asked them, "Is what he saith true?" Answered they, "Yes; but,
O King, we did not drown her, nay we took pity on her and left her on the bank of the Jayhun,
saying, ‘Save thyself and return not to the city, lest the King slay thee and slay us with thee.'
This is all we know of her."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

       When it was the Six Hundred and Seventieth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
two men ended the tale of Fakhr Taj with these words, "And we
left her upon the bank of the river Jayhun!" Now, when Gharib
heard this he bade bring the astrologers and said to them,
"Strike me a board of geomancy and find out what is come of Fakhr
Taj, and whether she is still in the bonds of life or dead." They
did so and said, "O King of the age, it is manifest to us that
the Princess is alive and hath borne a male child; but she is
with a tribe of the Jinn, and will be parted from thee twenty
years; count, therefore, how many years thou hast been absent in
travel." So he reckoned up the years of his absence and found
them eight years and said, "There is no Majesty and there is no
Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great!''[FN#65] Then he
sent for all Sabur's Governors of towns and strongholds and they
came and did him homage. Now one day after this, as he sat in his
palace, behold, a cloud of dust appeared in the distance and
spread till it walled the whole land and darkened the horizon. So
he summoned the two Marids and bade them reconnoitre, and they
went forth under the dust-cloud and snatching up a horseman of
the advancing host, returned and set him down before Gharib,
saying, "Ask this fellow, for he is of the army." Quoth Gharib,
"Whose power is this?" and the man answered, "O King, 'tis the
army of Khirad Shah,[FN#66] King of Shiras, who is come forth to
fight thee." Now the cause of Khirad Shah's coming was this. When
Gharib defeated Sabur's army, as hath been related, and took him
prisoner, the King's son fled, with a handful of his father's
force and ceased not flying till he reached the city of Shiras,
where he went into King Khirad Shah and kissed ground before him,
whilst the tears ran down his cheeks. When the King saw him in
this case, he said to him, "Lift thy head, O youth, and tell me
what maketh thee weep." He replied, "O King, a King of the Arabs,
by name Gharib, hath fallen on us and captured the King my sire
and slain the Persians making them drain the cup of death." And
he told him all that had passed from first to last Quoth Khirad
Shah, "Is my wife[FN#67] well?" and quoth the Prince "Gharib hath
taken her." Cried the King "As my head liveth I will not leave a
Badawi or a Moslem on the face of the earth'" So he wrote letters
to his Viceroys, who levied their troops and joined him with an
army which when reviewed numbered eighty-five thousand men. Then
he opened his armouries and distributed arms and armour to the
troops, after which he set out with them and journeyed till he
came to Isbanir, and all encamped before the city-gate. Hereupon
Kaylajan and Kurajan came in to Gharib and kissing his knee, said
to him, "O our Lord, heal our hearts and give us this host to our
share." And he said, "Up and at them!" So the two Marids flew
aloft high in the lift and lighting down in the pavilion of the
King of Shiras, found him seated on his chair of estate, with the
Prince of Persia Ward Shah son of Sabur, sitting on his right
hand, and about him his Captains, with whom he was taking counsel
for the slaughter of the Moslems. Kaylajan came forward and
caught up the Prince and Kurajan snatched Up the King and the
twain flew back with them to Gharib, who caused beat them till
they fainted Then the Marids returned to the Shirazian camp and,
drawing their swords, which no mortal man had strength to wield,
fell upon the Misbelievers and Allah hurried their souls to the
Fire and abiding-place dire, whilst they saw no one and nothing
save two swords flashing and reaping men, as a husbandman reaps
corn. So they left their tents and mounting their horses bare-
backed, fled, and the Marids pursued them two days and slew of
them much people; after which they returned and kissed Gharib's
hand. He thanked them for the deed they had done and said to
them, "The spoil of the Infidels is yours alone: none shall share
with you therein." So they called down blessings on him and going
forth, gathered the booty together and abode in their own homes.
On this wise it fared with them; but as regards Gharib and his
lieges,--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
saying her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Seventy-first Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that after
Gharib had put to flight the host of Khirad Shah, he bade
Kaylajan and Kurajan take the spoil to their own possession nor
hare it with any; so they gathered the booty and abode in their
own homes. Meanwhile the remains of the beaten force ceased not
flying till they reached the city of Shiras and there lifted up
the voice of weeping and began the ceremonial lamentations for
those of them that had been slain. Now King Khirad Shah had a
brother Sírán the Sorcerer highs, than whom there was no greater
wizard in his day, and he lived apart from his brother in a
certain stronghold, called the Fortalice of Fruits,[FN#68] in a
place abounding in trees and streams and birds and blooms, half a
day's journey from Shiras. So the fugitives betook them thither
and went in to Siran the Sorcerer, weeping and wailing aloud.
Quoth he, "O folk, what garreth you weep?" and they told him all
that had happened, especially how the two Marids had carried off
his brother Khirad Shah; whereupon the light of his eyes became
night and he said, "By the virtue of my faith, I will certainly
slay Gharib and all his men and leave not one alive to tell the
tale!" Then he pronounced certain magical words and summoned the
Red King, who appeared and Siran said to him, "Fare for Isbanir
and fall on Gharib, as he sitteth upon his throne." Replied he,
"Hearkening and obedience!" and, gathering his troops, repaired
to Isbanir and assailed Gharib, who seeing him, drew his sword
Al-Mahik and he and Kaylajan and Kurajan fell upon the army of
the Red King and slew of them five hundred and thirty and wounded
the King himself with a grevious wound; whereupon he and his
people fled and stayed not in their flight, till they reached the
Fortalice of Fruits and went into Siran, crying out and
exclaiming, "Woe!" and "Ruin!" And the Red King said to Siran, "O
sage, Gharib hath with him the enchanted sword of Japhet son of
Noah, and whomsoever he smiteth therewith he severeth him in
sunder, and with him also are two Marids from Mount Caucasus,
given to him by King Mura'ash. He it is who slew the Blue King
and Barkan Lord of the Carnelian City, and did to death much
people of the Jinn." When the Enchanter heard this, he said to
the Red King "Go," and he went his ways; whereupon he resumed his
conjurations, and calling up a Marid, by name Zu'ázi'a gave him a
drachm of levigated Bhang and said to him, "Go thou to Isbanir
and enter King Gharib's palace and assume the form of a sparrow.
Wait till he fall asleep and there be none with him; then put the
Bhang up his nostrils and bring him to me." "To hear is to obey,"
replied the Marid and flew to Isbanir, where, changing himself
into a sparrow, he perched on the window of the palace and waited
till all Gharib's attendants retired to their rooms and the King
himself slept. Then he flew down and going up to Gharib, blew the
powdered Bhang into his nostrils, till he lost his senses,
whereupon he wrapped him in the bed-coverlet and flew off with
him, like the storm wind, to the Fortalice of Fruits; where he
arrived at midnight and laid his prize before Siran. The Sorcerer
thanked him and would have put Gharib to death, as he lay
senseless under Bhang; but a man of his people withheld him
saying, "O Sage, an thou slay him, his friend King Mura'ash will
fall on us with all his Ifrits and lay waste our realm." "How
then shall we do with him?" asked Siran, and the other answered,
"Cast him into the Jayhun while he is still in Bhang and he shall
be drowned and none will know who threw him in." And Siran bade
the Marid take Gharib and cast him into Jayhun river.--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

     When it was the Six Hundred and Seventy-second Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
Marid took Gharib and carried him to the Jayhun purposing to cast
him therein, but it was grievous to him to drown him, wherefore
he made a raft of wood and binding it with cords, pushed it out
(and Gharib thereon) into the current, which carried it away.
Thus fared it with Gharib; but as regards his people, when they
awoke in the morning and went in to do their service to their
King, they found him not and seeing his rosary on the throne,
awaited him awhile, but he came not. So they sought out the head
Chamberlain and said to him, "Go into the Harim and look for the
King: for it is not his habit to tarry till this time."
Accordingly, the Chamberlain entered the Serraglio and enquired
for the King, but the women said, "Since yesterday we have not
seen him." Thereupon he returned and told the Officers, who were
confounded and said, "Let us see if he have gone to take his
pleasure in the gardens." Then they went out and questioned the
gardeners if they had seen the King, and they answered, "No;"
whereat they were sore concerned and searched all the garths till
the end of the day, when they returned in tears. Moreover, the
two Marids sought for him all round the city, but came back after
three days, without having happened on any tidings of him. So the
people donned black and made their complaint to the Lord of all
worshipping men who cloth as he is fain. Meanwhile, the current
bore the raft along for five days till it brought it to the salt
sea, where the waves disported with Gharib and his stomach, being
troubled, threw up the Bhang. Then he opened his eyes and finding
himself in the midst of the main, a plaything of the billows,
said, "There is no Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah,
the Glorious, the Great! Would to Heaven I wot who hath done this
deed by me!" Presently as he lay, perplexed concerning his case,
lo! he caught sight of a ship sailing by and signalled with his
sleeve to the sailors, who came to him and took him up, saying,
"Who art thou and whence comest thou?" He replied, "Do ye feed me
and give me to drink, till I recover myself, and after I will
tell you who I am." So they brought him water and victual, and he
ate and drank and Allah restored to him his reason. Then he asked
them, "O folk, what countrymen are ye and what is your Faith?;"
and they answered, "We are from Karaj[FN#69] and we worship an
idol called Minkásh." Cried Gharib, "Perdition to you and your
idol! O dogs, none is worthy of wor strip save Allah who creased
all things, who saith to a thing Be! and it becometh." When they
heard this, they rose up and fell upon him in great wrath and
would have seized him. Now he was without weapons, but whomsoever
he struck, he smote down and deprived of life, till he had felled
forty men, after which they overcame him by force of numbers and
bound him fast, saying, "We will not slay him save in our own
land, that we may first show him to our King." Then they sailed
on till they came to the city of Karaj.--And Shahrazad perceived
the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Seventy-third Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
ship's crew seized Gharib and bound him fast they said, "We will
not slay him save in our own land." Then they sailed on till they
came to the city of Karaj, the builder whereof was an Amalekite,
fierce and furious; and he had set up at each gate of the city a
magical figure of copper which, whenever a stranger entered, blew
a blast on a trumpet, that all in the city heard it and fell upon
the stranger and slew him, except they embraced their creed When
Gharib entered the city, the figure stationed at the gate blew
such a horrible blast that the King was affrighted and going into
his idol, found fire and smoke issuing from its mouth, nose and
eyes. Now a Satan had entered the belly of the idol and speaking
as with its tongue, said, "O King, there is come to thy city one
highs Gharib, King of Al-Irak, who biddeth the folk quit their
belief and worship his Lord; wherefore, when they bring him
before thee, look thou spare him not." So the King went out and
sat down on his throne; and presently, the sailors brought in
Gharib and set him before the presence, saying, "O King, we found
this youth shipwrecked in the midst of the sea, and he is a Kafir
and believeth not in our gods." Then they told him all that had
passed and the King said, "Carry him to the house of the Great
Idol and cut his throat before him, so haply our god may look
lovingly upon us." But the Wazir said, "O King, it befitteth not
to slaughter him thus, for he would die in a moment: better we
imprison him and build a pyre of fuel and burn him with fire."
Thereupon the King commanded to cast Gharib into gaol and caused
wood to be brought, and they made a mighty pyre and set fire to
it, and it burnt till the morning. Then the King and the people
of the city came forth and the Ruler sent to fetch Gharib; but
his lieges found him not; so they returned and told their King
who said, "And how made he his escape?" Quoth they, ‘We found the
chains and shackles cast down and the doors fast locked." Whereat
the King marvelled and asked, Hath this fellow to Heaven up flown
or into the earth gone down?;' and they answered, "We know not."
Then said the King, "I will go and question my God, and he will
inform me whither he is gone." So he rose and went in, to
prostrate himself to his idol, but found it not and began to rub
his eyes and say, "Am I in sleep or on wake?" Then he turned to
his Wazir and said to him, "Where is my God and where is my
prisoner? By my faith, O dog of Wazirs, haddest thou not
counselled me to burn him, I had slaughtered him; for it is he
who hath stolen my god and fled; and there is no help but I take
brood-wreak of him!" Then he drew his sword and struck off the
Wazir's head. Now there was for Gharib's escape with the idol a
strange cause and it was on this wise. When they had shut him up
in a cell adjoining the doomed shrine under which stood the idol,
he rose to pray, calling upon the name of Almighty Allah and
seeking deliverance of Him, to whom be honour and glory! The
Marid who had charge of the idol and spoke in its name, heard him
and fear got hold upon his heart and he said, "O shame upon me!
Who is this seeth me while I see him not?" So he went in to
Gharib and throwing himself at his feet, said to him, "O my Lord,
what must I say that I may become of thy company and enter thy
religion?" Replied Gharib, "Say, ‘There is no god but the God and
Abraham is the Friend of God.'" So the Marid pronounced the
profession of Faith and was enrolled among the people of
felicity. Now his name was Zalzál, son of Al-Muzalzil,[FN#70] one
of the Chiefs of the Kings of the Jinn. Then he unbound Gharib
and taking him and the idol, made for the higher air.--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

     When it was the Six Hundred and Seventy-fourth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the Marid
took up Gharib and the idol and made for the higher air. Such was
his case; but as regards the King, when his soldiers saw what had
befallen and the slaughter of the Wazir they renounced the
worship of the idol and drawing their swords, slew the King;
after which they fell on one another, and the sword went round
amongst them three days, till there abode alive but two men, one
of whom prevailed over the other and killed him. Then the boys
attacked the survivor and slew him and fell to fighting amongst
themselves, till they were all killed; and the women and girls
fled to the hamlets and forted villages; wherefore the city
became desert and none dwelt therein but the owl. Meanwhile, the
Marid Zalzal flew with Gharib towards his own country, the Island
of Camphor and the Castle of Crystal and the Land of the
Enchanted Calf, so called because its King Al Muzalzil, had a
pied calf, which he had clad in housings brocaded with red gold,
and worshipped as a god. One day the King and his people went in
to the calf and found him trembling; so the King said, "O my God,
what hath troubled thee?" whereupon the Satan in the calf's belly
cried out and said, "O Muzalzil, verily thy son hath deserted to
the Faith of Abraham the Friend at the hands of Gharib Lord of
Al-Irak;" and went on to tell him all that had passed from first
to last. When the King heard the words of his calf he was
confounded and going forth, sat down upon his throne. Then he
summoned his Grandees who came in a body, and he told them what
he had heard from the idol, whereat they marvelled and said,
"What shall we do, O King?" Quoth he, "When my son cometh and ye
see him embrace him, do ye lay hold of him." And they said,
"Hearkening and obedience!" After two days came Zalzal and
Gharib, with the King's idol of Karaj, but no sooner had they
entered the palace-gate than the Jinn seized on them and carried
them before Al-Muzalzil, who looked at his son with eyes of ire
and said to him, "O dog of the Jann, hast thou left thy Faith and
that of thy fathers and grandfathers?" Quoth Zalzal, "I have
embraced the True Faith, and on like wise do thou (Woe be to
thee!) seek salvation and thou shalt be saved from the wrath of
the King Almighty in sway, Creator of Night and Day." Therewith
his father waxed wroth and said, "O son of adultery, dost
confront me with these words?" Then he bade clap him in prison
and turning to Gharib, said to him, "O wretch of a mortal, how
hast thou abused my son's wit and seduced him from his Faith?"
Quoth Gharib, "Indeed, I have brought him out of wrongousness
into the way of righteousness, out of Hell into Heaven and out of
unfaith to the True Faith." Whereupon the King cried out to a
Marid called Sayyár, saying "Take this dog and cast him into the
Wady of Fire, that he may perish." Now this valley was in the
"Waste Quarter[FN#71]" and was thus named from the excess of its
heat and the flaming of its fire, which was so fierce that none
who went down therein could live an hour, but was destroyed; and
it was compassed about by mountains high and slippery wherein was
no opening. So Sayyar took up Gharib and flew with him towards
the Valley of Fire, till he came within an hour's journey
thereof, when being weary, he alighted in a valley full of trees
and streams and fruits, and setting down from his back Gharib
chained as he was, fell asleep for fatigue. When Gharib heard him
snore, he strove with his bonds till he burst them; then, taking
up a heavy stone, he cast it down on the Marid's head and crushed
his bones, so that he died on the spot. Then he fared on into the
valley.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
saying her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Seventy-fifth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Gharib
after killing the Marid fared on into the valley and found
himself in a great island in mid-ocean, full of all fruits that
lips and tongue could desire. So he abode alone on the island,
drinking of its waters and eating of its fruits and of fish that
he caught, and days and years passed over him, till he had
sojourned there in his solitude seven years. One day, as he sat,
be hold, there came down on him from the air two Marids, each
carrying a man; and seeing him they said, "Who art thou, O
fellow, and of which of the tribes art thou?" Now they took him
for a Jinni, because his hair was grown long; and he replied,
saying, "I am not of the Jann," whereupon they questioned him,
and he told them all that had befallen him. They grieved for him
and one of the Ifrits said, "Abide thou here till we bear these
two lambs to our King, that he may break his fast on the one and
sup on the other, and after we will come back and carry thee to
thine own country." He thanked them and said, " Where be the
lambs?" Quoth they, "These two mortals are the lambs." And Gharib
said, "I take refuge with Allah the God of Abraham the Friend,
the Lord of all creatures, who hath power over everything! Then
the Marids flew away and Gharib abode awaiting them two days,
when one of them returned, bringing with him a suit of clothes
wherewith he clad him. Then he took him up and flew with him sky-
high out of sight of earth, till Gharib heard the angels
glorifying God in Heaven, and a flaming shaft issued from amongst
them and made for the Marid, who fled from it towards the earth.
The meteor pursued him, till he came within a spear's cast of the
ground, when Gharib leaped from his shoulders and the fiery shaft
overtook the Marid, who became a heap of ashes. As for Gharib, he
fell into the sea and sank two fathoms deep, after which he rose
to the surface and swam for two days and two nights, till his
strength failed him and he made certain of death. But, on the
third day as he was despairing he caught sight of an island steep
and mountainous; so he swam for it and landing, walked on inland,
where he rested a day and a Night, feeding on the growth of the
ground. Then he climbed to the mountain top, and, descending the
opposite slope, fared on two days till he came in sight of a
walled and bulwarked city, abounding in trees and rills. He
walked up to it; but, when he reached the gate, the warders
seized on him, and carried him to their Queen, whose name was Ján
Sháh.[FN#72] Now she was five hundred years old, and every man
who entered the city, they brought to her and she made him sleep
with her, and when he had done his work, she slew him and so had
she slain many men. When she saw Gharib, he pleased her mightily;
so she asked him, "What be thy name and Faith and whence comest
thou?" and he answered, "My name is Gharib King of Irak, and I am
a Moslem." Said she, "Leave this Creed and enter mine and I will
marry thee and make thee King." But he looked at her with eyes of
ire and cried, "Perish thou and thy faith!" Cried she, "Dost thou
blaspheme my idol, which is of red carnelian, set with pearls and
gems?" And she called out to her men, saying, "Imprison him in
the house of the idol; haply it will soften his heart." So they
shut him up in the domed shrine and locking the doors upon him,
went their way.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased to say her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Seventy-sixth Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
they took Gharib, they jailed him in the idol's domed shrine; and
locking the doors upon him, went their way. As soon as they were
gone, Gharib gazed at the idol, which was of red carnelian,  with
collars of pearls and precious stones about its neck, and
presently he went close to it and lifting it up, dashed it on the
ground and brake it in bits; after which he lay down and slept
till daybreak. When morning morrowed, the Queen took seat on her
throne and said, "O men, bring me the prisoner." So they opened
the temple doors and entering, found the idol broken in pieces,
whereupon they buffeted their faces till the blood ran from the
corners of their eyes. Then they made at Gharib to seize him; but
he smote one of them with his fist and slew him, and so did he
with another and yet another, till he had slain five-and-twenty
of them and the rest fled and went in to Queen Jan Shah,
shrieking loudly. Quoth she, "What is the matter?" and quoth
they, "The prisoner hath broken thine idol and slain thy men,"
and told her all that had passed. When she heard this, she cast
her crown to the ground and said, "There is no worth left in
idols!" Then she mounted amid a thousand fighting-men and rode to
the temple, where she found Gharib had gotten him a sword and
come forth and was slaying men and overthrowing warriors. When
she saw his prowess, her heart was drowned in the love of him and
she said to herself, "I have no need of the idol and care for
naught save this Gharib, that he may lie in my bosom the rest of
my life." Then she cried to her men, "Hold aloof from him and
leave him to himself!"; then, going up to him she muttered
certain magical words, whereupon his arm became benumbed, his
forearm relaxed and the sword dropped from his hand. So they
seized him and pinioned him, as he stood confounded, stupefied.
Then the Queen returned to her palace, and seating herself on her
seat of estate, bade her people withdraw and leave Gharib with
her. When they were alone, she said to him, " O dog of the Arabs,
wilt thou shiver my idol and slay my people?" He replied, "O
accursed woman, had he been a god he had defended himself!" Quoth
she, "Stroke me and I will forgive thee all thou hast done." But
he replied, saying, "I will do nought of this." And she said, "By
the virtue of my faith, I will torture thee with grievous
torture!" So she took water and conjuring over it, sprinkled it
upon him and he became an ape. And she used to feed and water and
keep him in a (loses, appointing one to care for him; and in this
plight he abode two years. Then she called him to her one day and
said to him, "Wilt thou hearken to me?" And he signed to her with
his head, "Yes." So she rejoiced and freed him from the
enchantment. Then she brought him food and he ate and toyed with
her and kissed her, so that she trusted in him. When it was night
she lay down and said to him, "Come, do thy business." He
replied, " 'Tis well;" and, mounting on her breast, seized her by
the neck and brake it, nor did he arise from her till life had
left her. Then, seeing an open cabinet, he went in and found
there a sword of damascened[FN#73] steel and a targe of Chinese
iron; so he armed himself cap-à-pie and waited till the day. As
soon as it was morning, he went forth and stood at the gate of
the palace. When the Emirs came and would have gone in to do
their service to the Queen, they found Gharib standing at the
gate, clad in complete war-gear; and he said to them, "O folk,
leave the service of idols and worship the All-wise King, Creator
of Night and Day, the Lord of men, the Quickener of dry bones,
for He made all things and hath dominion over all." When the
Kafirs heard this, they ran at him, but he fell on them like a
rending lion and charged through them again and again, slaying of
them much people;--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased saying her permitted say.

     When it was the Six Hundred and Seventy-seventh Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
Kafirs fell upon Gharib, he slew of them much people; but, when
the night came, they overcame him by dint of numbers and would
have taken him by strenuous effort, when behold, there descended
upon the Infidels a thousand Marids, under the command of Zalzal,
who plied them with the keen sabre and made them drink the cup of
destruction, whilst Allah hurried their souls to Hell-fire, till
but few were left of the people of Jan Shah to tell the tale and
the rest cried out, "Quarter! Quarter!" and believed in the
Requiting King, whom no one thing diverteth from other thing, the
Destroyer of the Jabábirah[FN#74] and Exterminator of the
Akásirah, Lord of this world and of the next. Then Zalzal saluted
Gharib and gave him joy of his safety; and Gharib said to him,
"How knowest thou of my case?" and he replied, "O my lord, my
father kept me in prison two years, after sending thee to the
Valley of Fire; then he released me, and I abode with him another
year, till I was restored to favour with him, when I slew him and
his troops submitted to me. I ruled them for a year's space till,
one Night, I lay down to sleep, having thee in thought, and saw
thee in a dream, fighting against the people of Jan Shah;
wherefore I took these thousand Marids and came to thee." And
Gharib marvelled at this happy conjuncture. Then he seized upon
Jan Shah's treasures and those of the slain and appointed a ruler
over the city; after which the Marids took up Gharib and the
monies and he lay the same night in the Castle of Crystal. He
abode Zalzal's guest six months, when he desired to depart; so
Zalzal gave him rich presents and despatched three thousand
Marids, who brought the spoils of Karaj-city and added them to
those of Jan Shah. Then Zalzal loaded forty-thousand Marids with
the treasure and himself taking up Gharib, flew with his host
towards the city of Isbanir al-Madain where they arrived at
midnight. But as Gharib glanced around he saw the walls invested
on all sides by a conquering army,[FN#75] as it were the surging
sea, so he said to Zalzal, "O my brother, what is the cause of
this siege and whence came this army?" Then he alighted on the
terrace roof of his palace and cried out, saying, "Ho, Star o'
Morn! Ho, Mahdiyah!" Whereupon the twain started up from sleep in
amazement and said, "Who calleth us at this hour?" Quoth he, "
'Tis I, your lord, Gharib, the Marvellous One of the deeds
wondrous." When the Princesses heard their lord's voice, they
rejoiced and so did the women and the eunuchs. Then Gharib went
down to them and they threw themselves upon him and lullilooed
with cries of joy, so that all the palace rang again and the
Captains of the army awoke and said, "What is to do?" So they
made for the palace and asked the eunuchs, "Hath one of the
King's women given birth to a child?"; and they answered, "No;
but rejoice ye, for King Gharib hath returned to you." So they
rejoiced, and Gharib, after salams to the women came forth
amongst his comrades, who threw themselves upon him and kissed
his hands and feet, returning thanks to Almighty Allah and
praising Him. Then he sat down on his throne, with his officers
sitting about him, and questioned them of the beleaguering army.
They replied, "O King, these troops sat down before the city
three days ago and there are amongst them Jinns as well as men;
but we know not what they want, for we have had with them neither
battle nor speech." And presently they added, "The name of the
commander of the besieging army is Murad Shah and he hath with
him an hundred thousand horse and three thousand foot, besides
two hundred tribesmen of the Jinn." Now the manner of his coming
was wondrous.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
to say her permitted say.

     When it was the Six Hundred and Seventy-eighth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the cause
of this army coming upon Isbanir city was wondrous. When the two
men, whom Sabur had charged to drown his daughter Fakhr Taj, let
her go, bidding her flee for her life, she went forth distracted,
unknowing whither to turn and saying, "Where is thine eye, O
Gharib, that thou mayst see my case and the misery I am in?"; and
wandered on from country to country, and valley to valley, till
she came to a Wady abounding in trees and streams, in whose midst
stood a strong-based castle and a lofty-builded as it were one of
the pavilions of Paradise. So she betook herself thither and
entering the fortalice, found it hung and carpeted with stuffs of
silk and great plenty of gold and silver vessels; and therein
were an hundred beautiful damsels. When the maidens saw Fakhr
Taj, they came up to her and saluted her, deeming her of the
virgins of the Jinn, and asked her of her case. Quoth she, "I am
daughter to the Persians' King;" and told them all that had
befallen her; which when they heard, they wept over her and
condoled with her and comforted her, saying, "Be of good cheer
and keep thine eyes cool and clear, for here shalt thou have meat
and drink and raiment, and we all are thy handmaids." She called
down blessings on them and they brought her food, of which she
ate till she was satisfied. Then quoth she to them, "Who is the
owner of this palace and lord over you girls?" and quoth they,
"King Salsál, son of Dal, is our master; he passeth a night here
once in every month and fareth in the morning to rule over the
tribes of the Jann." So Fakhr Taj took up her abode with them and
after five days she gave birth to a male child, as he were the
moon. They cut his navel cord and kohl'd his eyes then they named
him Murad Shah, and he grew up in his mother's lap. After a while
came King Salsal, riding on a paper white elephant, as he were a
tower plastered with lime and attended by the troops of the Jinn.
He entered the palace, where the hundred damsels met him and
kissed ground before him, and amongst them Fakhr Taj. When the
King saw her, he looked at her and said to the others, "Who is
yonder damsel?"; and they replied, "She is the daughter of Sabur,
King of the Persians and Turks and Daylamites." Quoth he, "Who
brought her hither?" So they repeated to him her story; whereat
he was moved to pity for her and said to her, "Grieve not, but
take patience till thy son be grown a man, when I will go to the
land of the Ajamis and strike off thy father's head from between
his shoulders and seat thy son on the throne in his stead." So
she rose and kissed his hands and blessed him. Then she abode in
the castle and her son grew up and was reared with the children
of the King. They used to ride forth together a-hunting and
birding and he became skilled in the chase of wild beasts and
ravening lions and ate of their flesh, till his heart became
harder than the rock. When he reached the age of fifteen, his
spirit waxed big in him and he said to Fakhr Taj, "O my mamma,
who is my papa?" She replied, "O my son, Gharib, King of Irak, is
thy father and I am the King's daughter, of the Persians," and
she told him her story. Quoth he, "Did my grandfather indeed give
orders to slay thee and my father Gharib?"; and quoth she, "Yes."
Whereupon he, "By the claim thou hast on me for rearing me, I
will assuredly go to thy father's city and cut off his head and
bring it into thy pre sence!"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn
of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Seventy-ninth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Murad
Shah son of Fakhr Taj thus bespake his mother, she rejoiced in
his speech. Now he used to go a-riding with two hundred Marids
till he grew to man's estate, when he and they fell to making
raids and cutting off the roads and they pushed their razzias
farther till one day he attacked the city of Shiraz and took it.
Then he proceeded to the palace and cut off the King's head, as
he sat on his throne, and slew many of his troops, whereupon the
rest cried "Quarter! Quarter!" and kissed his stirrups. Finding
that they numbered ten thousand horse, he led them to Balkh,
where he slew the King of the city and put his men to the rout
and made himself master of the riches of the place. Thence he
passed to Núrayn,[FN#76] at the head of an army of thirty-
thousand horse, and the Lord of Nurayn came out to him, with
treasure and tribute, and did him homage. Then he went on to
Samarcand of the Persians and took the city, and after that to
Akhlát[FN#77] and took that town also; nor was there any city he
came to but he captured it. Thus Murad Shah became the head of a
mighty host, and all the booty he made and spoils in the sundry
cities he divided among his soldiery, who loved him for his
velour and munificence. At last he came to Isbanir al-Madain and
sat down before it, saying, "Let us wait till the rest of my army
come up, when I will seize on my grandfather and solace my
mother's heart by smiting his neck in her presence." So he sent
for her, and by reason of this, there was no battle for three
days, when Gharib and Zalzal arrived with the forty-thousand
Marids, laden with treasure and presents. They asked concerning
the besiegers, but none could enlighten them beyond saying that
the host had been there encamped for three days without a fight
taking place. Presently came Fakhr Taj, and her son Murad Shah
embraced her saying, "Sit in thy tent till I bring thy father to
thee." And she sought succour for him of the Lord of the Worlds,
the Lord of the heavens and the Lord of the earths. Next morning,
as soon as it was day, Murad Shah mounted and rode forth, with
the two hundred Marids on his right hand and the Kings of men on
his left, whilst the kettle-drums beat to battle. When Gharib
heard this, he also took to horse and, calling his people to the
combat, rode out, with the jinn on his dexter hand and the men on
his sinistral. Then came forth Murad Shah, armed cap-à-pie and
crave his charger right and left, crying, "O folk, let none come
forth to me but your King. If he conquer me, he shall be lord of
both armies, and if I conquer him, I will slay him, as I have
slain others." When Gharib heard his speech, he said, "Avaunt, O
dog of the Arabs!" And they charged at each other and lunged with
lances, till they broke, then hewed at each other with swords,
till the blades were notched; nor did they cease to advance and
retire and wheel and career, till the day was half spent and
their horses fell down under them, when they dismounted and
gripped each other. Then Murad Shah seizing Gharib lifted him up
and strove to dash him to the ground; but Gharib caught him by
the ears and pulled him with his might, till it seemed to the
youth as if the heavens were. falling on the earth[FN#78] and he
cried out, with his heart in his mouth, saying, "I yield myself
to thy mercy, O Knight of the Age!" So Gharib bound him,--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

        When it was the Six Hundred and Eightieth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Gharib caught Murad Shah by the ears and well nigh tore them off
he cried, "I yield myself to thy mercy, O Knight of the Age!" So
Gharib bound him, and the Marids his comrades would have charged
and rescued him, but Gharib fell on them with a thousand Marids
and was about to smite them down, when they cried out "Quarter!
Quarter!" and threw away their arms. Then Gharib returned to his
Shahmiyánah which was of green silk, embroidered with red gold
and set with pearls and gems; and, seating himself on his throne,
called for Murad Shah. So they brought him, shuffling in his
manacles and shackles. When the prisoner saw him, he hung down
his head for shame; and Gharib said to him, "O dog of the Arabs,
who art thou that thou shouldst ride forth and measure thyself
against kings?" Replied Murad Shah, "O my lord, reproach me not,
for indeed I have excuse." Quoth Gharib, "What manner of excuse
hast thou?"; And quoth he, "Know, O my lord, that I came out to
avenge my mother and my father on Sabur, King of the Persians;
for he would have slain them; but my mother escaped and I know
not whether he killed my father or not." When Gharib heard these
words, he replied, "By Allah, thou art indeed excusable! But who
were thy father and mother and what are their names?" Murad Shah
said, "My sire was Gharib, King of Al-Irak, and my mother Fakhr
Taj, daughter of King Sabur of Persia." When Gharib heard this,
he gave a great cry and fell down fainting. They sprinkled rose-
water on him, till he came to himself, when he said to Murad
Shah, "Art thou indeed Gharib's son by Fakhr Taj?"; and he
replied, "Yes." Cried Gharib, "Thou art a champion, the son of a
champion. Loose my child!" And Sahim and Kaylajan went up to
Murad Shah and set him free. Then Gharib embraced his son and,
seating him beside himself, said to him, "Where is thy mother?"
"She is with me in my tent," answered Murad Shah; and Gharib
said, "Bring her to me." So Murad Shah mounted and repaired to
his camp, where his comrades met him, rejoicing in his safety,
and asked him of his case; but he answered, "This is no time for
questions." Then he went in to his mother and told her what had
passed whereat she was gladdened with exceeding gladness: so he
carried her to Gharib, and they two embraced and rejoiced in each
other. Then Fakhr Taj and Murad Shah islamised and expounded The
Faith to their troops, who all made profession with heart and
tongue. After this, Gharib sent for Sabur and his son Ward Shah,
and upbraided them for their evil dealing and expounded Al-Islam
to them; but they refused to profess wherefore he crucified them
on the gate of the city and the people decorated the town and
held high festival. Then Gharib crowned Murad Shah with the crown
of the Chosroës and made him King of the Persians and Turks and
Medes; moreover, he made his uncle Al-Damigh, King over Al-Irak,
and all the peoples and lands submitted themselves to Gharib.
Then he abode in his kingship, doing justice among his lieges,
wherefore all the people loved him, and he and his wives and
comrades ceased not from all solace of life, till there came to
them the Destroyer of Delights and Sunderer of Societies, and
extolled be the perfection of Him whose glory endureth for ever
and aye and whose boons embrace all His creatures! This is every
thing that hath come down to us of the history of Gharib and
Ajib. And Abdullah bin Ma'amar al Kaysi hath thus related the
tale of

                    OTBAH[FN#79] AND RAYYA.

I went one year on the pilgrimage to the Holy House of Allah, and
when I had accomplished my pilgrimage, I turned back for
visitation of the tomb of the Prophet, whom Allah bless and keep!
One night, as I sat in the garden,[FN#80] between the tomb and
the pulpit, I heard a low moaning in a soft voice; so I listened
to it and it said,

"Have the doves that moan in the lotus-tree * Woke grief in thy
     heart and bred misery?
Or doth memory of maiden in beauty deckt * Cause this doubt in
     thee, this despondency?
O night, thou art longsome for love-sick sprite * Complaining of
     Love and its ecstacy:
Thou makest him wakeful, who burns with fire * Of a love, like
     the live coal's ardency.
The moon is witness my heart is held * By a moonlight brow of the
     brightest blee:
I reckt not to see me by Love ensnared * Till ensnared before I
     could reck or see."

Then the voice ceased and not knowing whence it came to me I
abode perplexed; but lo! it again took up its lament and recited,

"Came Rayya's phantom to grieve thy sight * In the thickest gloom
     of the black-haired Night!
And hath love of slumber deprived those eyes * And the
     phantom-vision vexed thy sprite?
I cried to the Night, whose glooms were like * Seas that surge
     and billow with might, with might:
'O Night, thou art longsome to lover who * Hath no aid nor help
     save the morning light!'
She replied, 'Complain not that I am long: * 'Tis love is the
     cause of thy longsome plight!'"

Now, at the first of the couplets, I sprang up and made for the
quarter whence the sound came, nor had the voice ended repeating
them, ere I was with the speaker and saw a youth of the utmost
beauty, the hair of whose side face had not sprouted and in whose
cheeks tears had worn twin trenches.--And Shahrazad perceived the
dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Eighty-first Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
Abdullah bin Ma'amar al-Kaysi thus continued:--So I sprang up and
made for the quarter whence the sound came, nor had the voice
ended repeating the verses, ere I was with the speaker and saw a
youth on whose side face the hair had not sprouted and in whose
cheeks tears had worn twin trenches. Quoth I to him, "Fair befal
thee for a youth!"; and quoth he, "And thee also! Who art thou?"
I replied, "Abdullah bin Ma'amar al-Kaysi;" and he said, "Dost
thou want aught?" I rejoined, "I was sitting in the garden and
naught hath troubled me this night but thy voice. With my life
would I ransom thee! What aileth thee?" He said, "Sit thee down."
So I sat down and he continued, "I am Otbah bin al-Hubáb bin
al-Mundhir bin al-Jamúh the Ansári.[FN#81] I went out in the
morning to the Mosque Al-Ahzáb[FN#82] and occupied myself there
awhile with prayer-bows and prostrations, after which I withdrew
apart, to worship privily. But lo! up came women, as they were
moons, walking with a swaying gait, and surrounding a damsel of
passing loveliness, perfect in beauty and grace, who stopped
before me and said, 'O Otbah, what sayst thou of union with one
who seeketh union with thee?' Then she left me and went away; and
since that time I have had no tidings of her nor come upon any
trace of her; and behold, I am distracted and do naught but
remove from place to place." Then he cried out and fell to the
ground fainting. When he came to himself, it was as if the damask
of his cheeks were dyed with safflower,[FN#83] and he recited
these couplets,

"I see you with my heart from far countrie * Would Heaven you
     also me from far could see
My heart and eyes for you are sorrowing; * My soul with you
     abides and you with me.
I take no joy in life when you're unseen * Or Heaven or Garden of

Said I, "O Otbah, O son of my uncle, repent to thy Lord and crave
pardon for thy sin; for before thee is the terror of standing up
to Judgment." He replied, "Far be it from me so to do. I shall
never leave to love till the two mimosa-gatherers return."[FN#84]
I abode with him till daybreak, when I said to him, "Come let us
go to the Mosque Al-Ahzab." So we went thither and sat there,
till we had prayed the midday prayers, when lo! up came the
women; but the damsel was not among them. Quoth they to him, "O
Otbah, what thinkest thou of her who seeketh union with thee?" He
said, "And what of her?"; and they replied, "Her father hath
taken her and departed to Al-Samawah."[FN#85] I asked them the
name of the damsel and they said, "She is called Rayyá, daughter
of Al-Ghitríf al-Sulami."[FN#86] Whereupon Otbah raised his head
and recited these verses,

"My friends, Rayya hath mounted soon as morning shone, * And to
Samawah's wilds her caravan is gone.
My friends, I've wept till I can weep no more, Oh, say, * Hath
any one a tear that I can take on loan."

Then said I to him, "O Otbah, I have brought with me great
wealth, wherewith I desire to succour generous men; and by Allah,
I will lavish it before thee,[FN#87] so thou mayst attain thy
desire and more than thy desire! Come with me to the assembly of
the Ansaris." So we rose and went, till we entered their
assembly, when I salam'd to them and they returned my greeting
civilly. Then quoth I, "O assembly, what say ye of Otbah and his
father?": and they replied, "They are of the princes of the
Arabs." I continued, "Know that he is smitten with the calamity
of love and I desire your furtherance to Al-Samawah." And they
said, "To hear is to obey." So they mounted with us, the whole
party, and we rode till we drew near the place of the Banu
Sulaym. Now when Ghitrif heard of our being near, he hastened
forth to meet us, saying, "Long life to you, O nobles!"; whereto
we replied, "And to thee also! Behold we are thy guests." Quoth
he, "Ye have lighted down at a most hospitable abode and ample;"
and alighting he cried out, "Ho, all ye slaves, come down!" So
they came down and spread skin-rugs and cushions and slaughtered
sheep and cattle; but we said, "We will not taste of thy food,
till thou have accomplished our need." He asked, "And what is
your need?"; and we answered, "We demand thy noble daughter in
marriage for Otbah bin Hubab bin Mundhir the illustrious and well
born." "O my brethren," said he, "she whom you demand is owner of
herself, and I will go in to her and tell her." So he rose in
wrath[FN#88] and went in to Rayya, who said to him, "O my papa,
why do I see thee show anger?" And he replied, saying, "Certain
of the Ansaris have come upon me to demand thy hand of me in
marriage." Quoth she, "They are noble chiefs; the Prophet, on
whom be the choicest blessings and peace, intercedeth for them
with Allah. For whom among them do they ask me?" Quoth he, "For a
youth known as Otbah bin al-Hubab;" and she said, "I have heard
of Otbah that he performeth what he promised and findeth what he
seeketh." Ghitrif cried, "I swear that I will never marry thee to
him; no, never, for there hath been reported to me somewhat of
thy converse with him." Said she, "What was that? But in any
case, I swear that the Ansaris shall not be uncivilly rejected;
wherefore do thou offer them a fair excuse." "How so?" "Make the
dowry heavy to them and they will desist." "Thou sayst well,"
said he, and going out in haste, told the Ansaris, "The damsel of
the tribe[FN#89] consenteth; but she requireth a dowry worthy
herself. Who engageth for this?" "I," answered I. Then said he,
"I require for her a thousand bracelets of red gold and five
thousand dirhams of the coinage of Hajar[FN#90] and a hundred
pieces of woollen cloth and striped stuffs[FN#91] of Al-Yaman and
five bladders of ambergris." Said I, "Thou shalt have that much;
dost thou consent?"; and he said, "I do consent." So I despatched
to Al-Medinah the Illumined[FN#92] a party of the Ansaris, who
brought all for which I had become surety; whereupon they
slaughtered sheep and cattle and the folk assembled to eat of the
food. We abode thus forty days when Ghitrif said to us, "Take
your bride." So we sat her in a dromedary-litter and her father
equipped her with thirty camel-loads of things of price; after
which we farewelled him and journeyed till we came within a day's
journey of Al-Medinah the Illumined, when there fell upon us
horsemen, with intent to plunder, and methinks they were of the
Banu Sulaym, Otbah drove at them and slew of them much people,
but fell back, wounded by a lance-thrust, and presently dropped
to the earth. Then there came to us succour of the country
people, who drove away the highwaymen; but Otbah's days were
ended. So we said, "Alas for Otbah, oh!;" and the damsel hearing
it cast herself down from the camel and throwing herself upon
him, cried out grievously and repeated these couplets,

"Patient I seemed, yet Patience shown by me * Was but
     self-guiling till thy sight I see:
Had my soul done as due my life had gone, * Had fled before
     mankind forestalling thee:
Then, after me and thee none shall to friend * Be just, nor any
     soul with soul agree."

Then she sobbed a single sob and gave up the ghost. We dug one
grave for them and laid them in the earth, and I returned to the
dwellings of my people, where I abode seven years. Then I betook
me again to Al-Hijaz and entering Al-Medinah the Illumined for
pious visitation said in my mind, "By Allah, I will go again to
Otbah's tomb!" So I repaired thither, and, behold, over the grave
was a tall tree, on which hung fillets of red and green and
yellow stuffs.[FN#93] So I asked the people of the place, "How be
this tree called?"; and they answered, "The tree of the Bride and
the Bridegroom." I abode by the tomb a day and a night, then went
my way; and this is all I know of Otbah. Almighty Allah have
mercy upon him! And they also tell this tale of


It is related that Hind, daughter of Al-Nu'man, was the fairest
woman of her day, and her beauty and loveliness were reported to
Al-Hajjaj, who sought her in marriage and lavished much treasure
on her. So he took her to wife, engaging to give her a dowry of
two hundred thousand dirhams in case of divorce, and when he went
into her, he abode with her a long time. One day after this, he
went in to her and found her looking at her face in the mirror
and saying,

"Hind is an Arab filly purest bred, * Which hath been covered by
     a mongrel mule;
An colt of horse she throw by Allah! well; * If mule, it but
     results from mulish rule."[FN#95]

When Al-Hajjaj heard this, he turned back and went his way,
unseen of Hind; and, being minded to put her away, he sent
Abdullah bin Tahir to her, to divorce her. So Abdullah went in to
her and said to her, "Al-Hajjaj Abu Mohammed saith to thee: 'Here
be the two hundred thousand dirhams of thy contingent dowry he
oweth thee'; and he hath deputed me to divorce thee." Replied
she, "O Ibn Tahir, I gladly agree to this; for know that I never
for one day took pleasure in him; so, if we separate, by Allah, I
shall never regret him, and these two hundred thousand dirhams I
give to thee as a reward for the glad tidings thou bringest me of
my release from yonder dog of the Thakafites."[FN#96] After this,
the Commander of the Faithful, Abd al-Malik bin Marwan, heard of
her beauty and loveliness, her stature and symmetry, her sweet
speech and the amorous grace of her glances and sent to her, to
ask her in marriage;--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased to say her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Eighty-second Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
Prince of True Believers, Abd al-Malik bin Marwan, hearing of the
lady's beauty and loveliness, sent to ask her in marriage; and
she wrote him in reply a letter, in which, after the
glorification of Allah and benediction of His Prophet, she said,
"But afterwards. Know, O Commander of the Faithful, that the dog
hath lapped in the vase." When the Caliph read her answer, he
laughed and wrote to her, citing his saying (whom may Allah bless
and keep!) "If a dog lap in the vessel of one of you, let him
wash seven times, once thereof with earth," and adding, "Wash the
affront from the place of use."[FN#97] With this she could not
gainsay him; so she replied to him, saying (after praise and
blessing), "O Commander of the Faithful I will not consent save
on one condition, and if thou ask me what it is, I reply that
Al-Hajjaj lead my camel to the town where thou tarriest barefoot
and clad as he is."[FN#98] When the Caliph read her letter, he
laughed long and loudly and sent to Al-Hajjaj, bidding him to do
as she wished. He dared not disobey the order, so he submitted to
the Caliph's commandment and sent to Hind, telling her to make
ready for the journey. So she made ready and mounted her litter,
when Al-Hajjaj with his suite came up to Hind's door and as she
mounted and her damsels and eunuchs rode around her, he
dismounted and took the halter of her camel and led it along,
barefooted, whilst she and her damsels and tirewomen laughed and
jeered at him and made mock of him. Then she said to her
tirewoman, "Draw back the curtain of the litter;" and she drew
back the curtain, till Hind was face to face with Al-Hajjaj,
whereupon she laughed at him and he improvised this couplet,

"Though now thou jeer, O Hind, how many a night * I've left thee
     wakeful sighing for the light."

And she answered him with these two,

"We reck not, an our life escape from bane, * For waste of wealth
     and gear that went in vain:
Money may be regained and rank re-won * When one is cured of
     malady and pain."

And she ceased not to laugh at him and make sport of him, till
they drew near the city of the Caliph, when she threw down a
dinar with her own hand and said to Al-Hajjaj, "O camel-driver, I
have dropped a dirham; look for it and give it to me." So he
looked and seeing naught but the dinar, said, "This is a dinar."
She replied, "Nay, 'tis a dirham." But he said, "This is a
dinar." Then quoth she, "Praise be Allah who hath given us in
exchange for a paltry dirham a dinar! Give it us." And Al-Hajjaj
was abashed at this. Then he carried her to the palace of the
Commander of the Faithful, and she went in to him and became his
favourite.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
saying her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Eighty-third Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that men also
tell a tale anent


There lived once, in the days of the Caliph Sulayman bin Abd
al-Malik[FN#100] a man of the Banu Asad, by name Khuzaymah bin
Bishr, who was famed for bounty and abundant wealth and
excellence and righteous dealing with his brethren. He continued
thus till times grew strait with him and he became in need of the
aid of those Moslem brethren on whom he had lavished favour and
kindness. So they succoured him a while and then grew weary of
him, which when he saw, he went in to his wife who was the
daughter of his father's brother, and said to her, "O my cousin,
I find a change in my brethren; wherefore I am resolved to keep
my house till death come to me." So he shut his door and abode in
his home, living on that which he had by him, till it was spent
and he knew not what to do. Now Ikrimah al-Raba'í, surnamed
Al-Fayyáz, governor of Mesopotamia,[FN#101] had known him, and
one day, as he sat in his Audience-chamber, mention was made of
Khuzaymah, whereupon quoth Ikrimah, "How is it with him?" And
quoth they, "He is in a plight past telling, and hath shut his
door and keepeth the house." Ikrimah rejoined, "This cometh but
of his excessive generosity: but how is it that Khuzaymah bin
Bishr findeth nor comforter nor requiter?" And they replied, "He
hath found naught of this." So when it was night, Ikrimah took
four thousand dinars and laid them in one purse; then, bidding
saddle his beast, he mounted and rode privily to Khuzaymah's
house, attended only by one of his pages, carrying the money.
When he came to the door, he alighted and taking the purse from
the page made him withdraw afar off; after which he went up to
the door and knocked. Khuzaymah came out to him, and he gave him
the purse, saying, "Better thy case herewith." He took it and
finding it heavy put it from his hand and laying hold of the
bridle of Ikrimah's horse, asked, "Who art thou? My soul be thy
ransom!" Answered Ikrimah, "O man I come not to thee at a time
like this desiring that thou shouldst know me." Khuzaymah
rejoined, "I will not let thee go till thou make thyself known to
me," whereupon Ikrimah said "I am hight Jabir Atharat
al-Kiram."[FN#102] Quoth Khuzaymah, "Tell me more." But Ikrimah
cried, "No," and fared forth, whilst Khuzaymah went in to his
cousin and said to her, "Rejoice for Allah hath sent us speedy
relief and wealth; if these be but dirhams, yet are they many.
Arise and light the lamp." She said, "I have not wherewithal to
light it." So he spent the night handling the coins and felt by
their roughness that they were dinars, but could not credit it.
Meanwhile Ikrimah returned to his own house and found that his
wife had missed him and asked for him, and when they told her of
his riding forth, she misdoubted of him, and said to him, "Verily
the Wali of Al-Jazirah rideth not abroad after such an hour of
the night, unattended and secretly, save to a wife or a
mistress." He answered, "Allah knoweth that I went not forth to
either of these." "Tell me then wherefore thou wentest forth?" "I
went not forth at this hour save that none should know it." "I
must needs be told." "Wilt thou keep the matter secret, if I tell
thee?" "Yes!" So he told her the state of the case, adding, "Wilt
thou have me swear to thee?" Answered she, "No, no, my heart is
set at ease and trusteth in that which thou hast told me." As for
Khuzaymah, soon as it was day he made his peace with his
creditors and set his affairs in order; after which he got him
ready and set out for the Court of Sulayman bin Abd al-Malik, who
was then sojourning in Palestine.[FN#103] When he came to the
royal gate, he sought admission of the chamberlain, who went in
and told the Caliph of his presence. Now he was renowned for his
beneficence and Sulayman knew of him; so he bade admit him. When
he entered, he saluted the Caliph after the usual fashion of
saluting[FN#104] and the King asked, "O Khuzaymah, what hath kept
thee so long from us?" Answered he, "Evil case," and quoth the
Caliph, "What hindered thee from having recourse to us?" Quoth
he, "My infirmity, O Commander of the Faithful!" "And why," said
Sulayman, "comest thou to us now?" Khuzaymah replied, "Know, O
Commander of the Faithful, that I was sitting one night late in
my house, when a man knocked at the door and did thus and thus;"
and he went on to tell him of all that had passed between Ikrimah
and himself from first to last. Sulayman asked, "Knowest thou the
man?" and Khuzaymah answered, "No, O Commander of the Faithful,
he was reserved[FN#105] and would say naught save, 'I am hight
Jabir Atharat al-Kiram.'" When Sulayman heard this, his heart
burned within him for anxiety to discover the man, and he said,
"If we knew him, truly we would requite him for his generosity."
Then he bound for Khuzaymah a banner[FN#106] and made him
Governor of Mesopotamia, in the stead of Ikrimah Al-Fayyaz; and
he set out for Al-Jazirah. When he drew near the city, Ikrimah
and the people of the place came forth to meet him and they
saluted each other and went on into the town, where Khuzaymah
took up his lodging in the Government-house and bade take
security for Ikrimah and that he should be called to
account.[FN#107] So an account was taken against him and he was
found to be in default for much money; whereupon Khuzaymah
required of him payment, but he said, "I have no means of paying
aught." Quoth Khuzaymah, "It must be paid;" and quoth Ikrimah, "I
have it not; do what thou hast to do." So Khuzaymah ordered him
to gaol.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to
say her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Eighty-fourth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Khuzaymah,
having ordered the imprisonment of Ikrimah Al-Fayyaz, sent to him
again to demand payment of the debt; but he replied, "I am not of
those who preserve their wealth at the expense of their honour;
do what thou wilt." Then Khuzaymah bade load him with irons and
kept him in prison a month or more, till confinement began to
tell upon him and he became wasted. After this, tidings of his
plight travelled to the daughter of his uncle who was troubled
with sore concern thereat and, sending for a freedwoman of hers,
a woman of abundant judgment, and experience, said to her, "Go
forthwith to the Emir Khuzaymah's gate and say, 'I have a counsel
for the Emir.' If they ask what it is, add, 'I will not tell it
save to himself'; and when thou enterest to him, beg to see him
in private and when private ask him, 'What be this deed thou hast
done? Hath Jabir Atharat al-Kiram deserved of thee no better
reward than to be cast into strait prison and hard bond of
irons?'" The woman did as she was bid, and when Khuzaymah heard
her words, he cried out at the top of his voice, saying, "Alas,
the baseness of it! Was it indeed he?" And she answered, "Yes."
Then he bade saddle his beast forthwith and, summoning the
honourable men of the city, repaired with them to the prison and
opening the door, went in with them to Ikrimah, whom they found
sitting in evil case, worn out and wasted with blows and misery.
When he looked at Khuzaymah, he was abashed and hung his head;
but the other bent down to him and kissed his face; whereupon he
raised his head and asked, "What maketh thee do this?" Answered
Khuzaymah, "The generosity of thy dealing and the vileness of my
requital." And Ikrimah said, "Allah pardon us and thee!" Then
Khuzaymah commanded the jailor to strike off Ikrimah's fetters
and clap them on his own feet; but Ikrimah said, "What is this
thou wilt do?" Quoth the other, "I have a mind to suffer what
thou hast suffered." Quoth Ikrimah, "I conjure thee by Allah, do
not so!" Then they went out together and returned to Khuzaymah's
house, where Ikrimah would have farewelled him and wended his
way; but he forbade him and Ikrimah said, "What is thy will of
me?" Replied Khuzaymah, "I wish to change thy case, for my shame
before the daughter of thine uncle is yet greater than my shame
before thee." So he bade clear the bath and entering with
Ikrimah, served him there in person and when they went forth be
bestowed on him a splendid robe of honour and mounted him and
gave him much money. Then he carried him to his house and asked
his leave to make his excuses to his wife and obtained her
pardon. After this he besought him to accompany him to the Caliph
who was then abiding at Ramlah[FN#108] and he agreed. So they
journeyed thither, and when they reached the royal quarters the
chamberlain went in and acquainted the Caliph Sulayman bin Abd
al-Malik with Khuzaymah's arrival, whereat he was troubled and
said, "What! is the Governor of Mesopotamia come without our
command? This can be only on some grave occasion." Then he bade
admit him and said, before saluting him, "What is behind thee, O
Khuzaymah?" Replied he, "Good, O Commander of the Faithful."
Asked Sulayman, "What bringeth thee?"; and he answered, saying,
"I have discovered Jabir Atharat al-Kiram and thought to gladden
thee with him, knowing thine excessive desire to know him and thy
longing to see him." "Who is he?" quoth the Caliph and quoth
Khuzaymah, "He is Ikrimah Al-Fayyaz." So Sulayman called for
Ikrimah, who approached and saluted him as Caliph; and the King
welcomed him and making him draw near his sitting-place, said to
him, "O Ikrimah, thy good deed to him hath brought thee naught
but evil," adding, "Now write down in a note thy needs each and
every, and that which thou desirest." He did so and the Caliph
commanded to do all that he required and that forthwith. Moreover
he gave him ten thousand dinars more than he asked for and twenty
chests of clothes over and above that he sought, and calling for
a spear, bound him a banner and made him Governor over Armenia
and Azarbiján[FN#109] and Mesopotamia, saying, "Khuzaymah's case
is in thy hands, an thou wilt, continue him in his office, and if
thou wilt, degrade him." And Ikrimah said, "Nay, but I restore
him to his office, O Commander of the Faithful." Then they went
out from him and ceased not to be Governors under Sulayman bin
Abd al-Malik all the days of his Caliphate. And they also tell a
tale of


There lived in the reign of the Caliph Hishám, [FN#110] son of
Abd al-Malik, a man called Yúnus the Scribe well-known to the
general, and he set out one day on a journey to Damascus, having
with him a slave-girl of surpassing beauty and loveliness, whom
he had taught all that was needful to her and whose price was an
hundred thousand dirhams. When they drew near to Damascus, the
caravan halted by the side of a lake and Yunus went down to a
quiet place with his damsel and took out some victual he had with
him and a leather bottle of wine. As he sat at meat, behold, came
up a young man of goodly favour and dignified presence, mounted
on a sorrel horse and followed by two eunuchs, and said to him,
"Wilt thou accept me to guest?" "Yes," replied Yunus. So the
stranger alighted and said, "Give me to drink of thy wine." Yunus
gave him to drink and he said, "If it please thee, sing us a
song." So Yunus sang this couplet extempore,

"She joineth charms were never seen conjoined in mortal dress: *
     And for her love she makes me love my tears and

At which the stranger rejoiced with exceeding joy and Yunus gave
him to drink again and again, till the wine got the better of him
and he said, "Bid thy slave-girl sing." So she improvised this

"A houri, by whose charms my heart is moved to sore distress: *
     Nor wand of tree nor sun nor moon her rivals I confess!"

The stranger was overjoyed with this and they sat drinking till
nightfall, when they prayed the evening-prayer and the youth said
to Yunus, "What bringeth thee to our city?" He replied, "Quest of
wherewithal to pay my debts and better my case." Quoth the other,
"Wilt thou sell me this slave-girl for thirty thousand dirhams?"
Whereto quoth Yunus, "I must have more than that." He asked,
"Will forty thousand content thee?"; but Yunus answered, "That
would only settle my debts, and I should remain empty-handed."
Rejoined the stranger, "We will take her of thee of fifty
thousand dirhams[FN#111] and give thee a suit of clothes to boot
and the expenses of thy journey and make thee a sharer in my
condition as long as thou livest." Cried Yunus, "I sell her to
thee on these terms." Then said the young man, "Wilt thou trust
me to bring thee the money to-morrow and let me take her with me,
or shall she abide with thee till I pay down her price?" Whereto
wine and shame and awe of the stranger led Yunus to reply, "I
will trust thee; take her and Allah bless thee in her!" Whereupon
the visitor bade one of his pages sit her before him on his
beast, and mounting his own horse, farewelled of Yunus and rode
away out of sight. Hardly had he left him, when the seller
bethought himself and knew that he had erred in selling her and
said to himself, "What have I done? I have delivered my slave-
girl to a man with whom I am unacquainted, neither know I who he
is; and grant that I were acquainted with him, how am I to get at
him?" So he abode in thought till the morning, when he prayed the
dawn-prayers and his companions entered Damascus, whilst he sat,
perplexed and wotting not what to do, till the sun scorched him
and it irked him to abide there. He thought to enter the city,
but said in his mind, "If I enter Damascus, I cannot be sure but
that the messenger will come and find me not, in which case I
shall have sinned against myself a second sin." Accordingly he
sat down in the shade of a wall that was there, and towards the
wane of day, up came one of the eunuchs whom he had seen with the
young man, whereat great joy possessed Yunus and he said in
himself, "I know not that aught hath ever given me more delight
than the sight of this castrato." When the eunuch reached him, he
said to him, "O my lord, we have kept thee long waiting"; but
Yunus disclosed nothing to him of the torments of anxiety he had
suffered. Then quoth the castrato, "Knowest thou the man who
bought the girl of thee?"; and quoth Yunus, "No," to which the
other rejoined, "'Twas Walid bin Sahl,[FN#112] the Heir
Apparent." And Yunus was silent. Then said the eunuch, "Ride,"
and made him mount a horse he had with him and they rode till
they came to a mansion, where they dismounted and entered. Here
Yunus found the damsel, who sprang up at his sight and saluted
him. He asked her how she had fared with him who had bought her
and she answered, "He lodged me in this apartment and ordered me
all I needed." Then he sat with her awhile, till suddenly one of
the servants of the houseowner came in and bade him rise and
follow him. So he followed the man into the presence of his
master and found him yesternight's guest, whom he saw seated on
his couch and who said to him, "Who art thou?" "I am Yunus the
Scribe." "Welcome to thee, O Yunus! by Allah, I have long wished
to look on thee; for I have heard of thy report. How didst thou
pass the night?" "Well, may Almighty Allah advance thee!"
"Peradventure thou repentedest thee of that thou didst yesterday
and saidst to thyself: I have delivered my slave-girl to a man
with who I am not acquainted, neither know I his name nor whence
he cometh?" "Allah forbid, O Emir, that I should repent over her!
Had I made gift of her to the Prince, she were the least of the
gifts that are given unto him,"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn
of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Eighty-fifth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Yunus the Scribe said to Walid, "Allah forbid I should repent
over her! Had I made gift of her to the Prince, she were the
least of gifts that are given to him, nor indeed is she worthy of
his rank," Walid rejoined, "By Allah, but I repented me of having
carried her away from thee and said to myself, 'This man is a
stranger and knoweth me not, and I have taken him by surprise and
acted inconsiderately by him, in my haste to take the damsel!'
Dost thou recall what passed between us?" Quoth Yunus, "Yes!" and
quoth Walid, "Dost thou sell this damsel to me for fifty thousand
dirhams?" And Yunus said, "I do." Then the Prince called to one
of his servants to bring him fifty thousand dirhams and a
thousand and five hundred dinars to boot, and gave them all to
Yunus, saying, "Take the slave's price: the thousand dinars are
for thy fair opinion of us and the five hundred are for thy
viaticum and for what present thou shalt buy for thy people. Art
thou content?" "I am content," answered Yunus and kissed his
hands, saying, "By Allah, thou hast filled my eyes and my hands
and my heart!" Quoth Walid, "By Allah, I have as yet had no
privacy of her nor have I taken my fill of her singing. Bring her
to me!" So she came and he bade her sit, then said to her,
"Sing." And she sang these verses,

"O thou who dost comprise all Beauty's boons! * O sweet of
     nature, fain of coquetry!
In Turks and Arabs many beauties dwell; * But, O my fawn, in none
     thy charms I see.
Turn to thy lover, O my fair, and keep * Thy word, though but in
     visioned phantasy:
Shame and disgrace are lawful for thy sake * And wakeful nights
     full fill with joy and glee:
I'm not the first for thee who fared distraught; * Slain by thy
     love how many a many be!
I am content with thee for worldly share * Dearer than life and
     good art thou to me!"

When he heard this, he was delighted exceedingly and praised
Yunus for his excellent teaching of her and her fair education.
Then he bade his servants bring him a roadster with saddle and
housings for his riding, and a mule to carry his gear, and said
to him, "O Yunus, when it shall reach thee that command hath come
to me, do thou join me; and, by Allah, I will fill thy hands with
good and advance thee to honour and make thee rich as long as
thou livest!" So Yunus said, "I took his goods and went my ways;
and when Walid succeeded to the Caliphate, I repaired to him; and
by Allah, he kept his promise and entreated me with high honour
and munificence. Then I abode with him in all content of case and
rise of rank and mine affairs prospered and my wealth increased
and goods and farms became mine, such as sufficed me and will
suffice my heirs after me; nor did I cease to abide with Walid,
till he was slain, the mercy of Almighty Allah be on him!" And
men tell a tale concerning


The Caliph Harun al-Rashid was walking one day with Ja'afar the
Barmecide, when he espied a company of girls drawing water and
went up to them, having a mind to drink. As he drew near, one of
them turned to her fellows and improvised these lines,

"Thy phantom bid thou fleet, and fly * Far from the couch whereon
     I lie;
So I may rest and quench the fire, * Bonfire in bones aye flaming
My love-sick form Love's restless palm * Rolls o'er the rug
     whereon I sigh:
How 'tis with me thou wottest well * How long, then, union wilt

The Caliph marvelled at her elegance and eloquence.--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Eighty-sixth Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
Caliph, hearing the girl's verses, marvelled at her elegance and
eloquence, and said to her, "O daughter of nobles, are these
thine own or a quotation?" Replied she, "They are my very own,"
and he rejoined, "An thou say sooth keep the sense and change the
rhyme." So she said,

"Bid thou thy phantom distance keep * And quit this couch the
     while I sleep;
So I may rest and quench the flames * Through all my body rageful
In love-sick one, whom passion's palms * Roll o'er the bed where
     grief I weep;
How 'tis with me thou wottest well; * All but thy union hold I

Quoth the Caliph, "This also is stolen"; and quoth she, "Nay,
'tis my very own." He said, "If it be indeed thine own, change
the rhyme again and keep the sense." So she recited the

"Unto thy phantom deal behest * To shun my couch the while I
So I repose and quench the fire * That burns what lieth in my
My weary form Love's restless palm * Rolls o'er with boon of
     sleep unblest.
How 'tis with me thou wottest well * When union's bought 'tis
     haply best!"

Quoth Al-Rashid, "This too is stolen"; and quoth she, "Not, so,
'tis mine." He said, "If thy words be true change the rhyme once
more." And she recited,

"Drive off the ghost that ever shows * Beside my couch when I'd
 So I may rest and quench the fire * Beneath my ribs e'er flames
     and glows
 In love-sick one, whom passion's palms * Roll o'er the couch
     where weeping flows.
How 'tis with me thou wottest well * Will union come as union

Then said the Caliph, "Of what part of this camp art thou?"; and
she replied, "Of its middle in dwelling and of its highest in
tentpoles."[FN#113] Wherefore he knew that she was the daughter
of the tribal chief. "And thou," quoth she, "of what art thou
among the guardians of the horses?"; and quoth he, "Of the
highest in tree and of the ripest in fruit." "Allah protect thee,
O Commander of the Faithful!" said she, and kissing ground called
down blessings on him. Then she went away with the maidens of the
Arabs, and the Caliph said to Ja'afar, "There is no help for it
but I take her to wife." So Ja'afar repaired to her father and
said to him, "The Commander of the Faithful hath a mind to thy
daughter." He replied, "With love and goodwill, she is a gift as
a handmaid to His Highness our Lord the Commander of the
Faithful." So he equipped her and carried her to the Caliph, who
took her to wife and went in to her, and she became of the
dearest of his women to him. Furthermore, he bestowed on her
father largesse such as succoured him among Arabs, till he was
transported to the mercy of Almighty Allah. The Caliph, hearing
of his death, went in to her greatly troubled; and, when she saw
him looking afflicted, she entered her chamber and doffing all
that was upon her of rich raiment, donned mourning apparel and
raised lament for her father. It was said to her, "What is the
reason of this?"; and she replied, "My father is dead." So they
repaired to the Caliph and told him and he rose and going in to
her, asked her who had informed her of her father's death; and
she answered "It was thy face, O Commander of the Faithful!" Said
he, "How so?"; and she said, "Since I have been with thee, I
never saw thee on such wise till this time, and there was none
for whom I feared save my father, by reason of his great age; but
may thy head live, O Commander of the Faithful!" The Caliph's
eyes filled with tears and he condoled with her; but she ceased
not to mourn for her father, till she followed him--Allah have
mercy on the twain! And a tale is also told of


The Commander of the Faithful Harun Al-Rashid was exceeding
restless one night and rising from his bed, paced from chamber to
chamber, but could not compose himself to sleep. As soon as it
was day, he said, "Fetch me Al-Asma'i!"[FN#114] So the eunuch
went out and told the doorkeepers; these sent for the poet and
when he came, informed the Caliph who bade admit him and said to
him, "O Asma'i, I wish thee to tell me the best thou hast heard
of stories of women and their verses." Answered Al-Asma'i,
"Hearkening and obedience! I have heard great store of women's
verses; but none pleased me save three sets of couplets I once
heard from three girls."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day
and ceased saying her permitted say.

     When it was the Six Hundred and Eighty-seventh Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Al-
Asma'i said to the Prince of True Believers, "Verily I have heard
much, but nothing pleased me save three sets of couplets
improvised by as many girls." Quoth the Caliph, "Tell me of
them," and quoth he, "Know then, O Commander of the Faithful,
that I once abode in Bassorah, and one day, as I was walking, the
heat was sore upon me and I sought for a siesta-place but found
none. However by looking right and left I came upon a porch swept
and sprinkled, at the upper end whereof was a wooden bench under
an open lattice-window, whence exhaled a scent of musk. I entered
the porch and sitting down on the bench, would have stretcht me
at full length when I heard from within a girl's sweet voice
talking and saying, 'O my sisters, we are here seated to spend
our day in friendly converse; so come, let us each put down an
hundred dinars and recite a line of verse; and whoso
extemporiseth the goodliest and sweetest line, the three hundred
dinars shall be hers.' 'With love and gladness,' said the others;
and the eldest recited the first couplet which is this,

'Would he come to my bed during sleep 'twere delight * But a
     visit on wake were delightsomer sight!'

Quoth the second,

'Naught came to salute me in sleep save his shade * But 'welcome,
     fair welcome,' I cried to the spright!'

Then said the youngest,

'My soul and my folk I engage for the youth * Musk-scented I see
     in my bed every night!'

Quoth I, 'An she be fair as her verse hath grace, the thing is
complete in every case.' Then I came down from my bench[FN#115]
and was about to go away, when behold, the door opened and out
came a slave-girl, who said to me, 'Sit, O Shaykh!' So I climbed
up and sat down again when she gave me a scroll, wherein was
written, in characters of the utmost beauty, with straight
Alifs,[FN#116] big-bellied Has, and rounded Waws, the following,
'We would have the Shaykh (Allah lengthen his days!) to know that
we are three maidens, sisters, sitting in friendly converse, who
have laid down each an hundred dinars, conditioning that whoso
recite the goodliest and sweetest couplet shall have the whole
three hundred dinars; and we appoint thee umpire between us: so
decide as thou seest best, and the Peace be on thee! Quoth I to
the girl, 'Here to me inkcase and paper.' So she went in and,
returning after a little, brought me a silvered inkcase and
gilded pens[FN#117] with which I wrote these couplets,

They talked of three beauties whose converse was quite * Like the
     talk of a man with experience dight:
Three maidens who borrowed the bloom of the dawn       * Making
     hearts of their lovers in sorriest plight.
They were hidden from eyes of the prier and spy        * Who
     slept and their modesty mote not affright;
So they opened whatever lay hid in their hearts        * And in
     frolicsome fun began verse to indite.
Quoth one fair coquette with her amorous grace         * Whose
     teeth for the sweet of her speech flashed bright:--
Would he come to my bed during sleep 'twere delight    * But a
     visit on wake were delightsomer sight!
When she ended, her verse by her smiling was gilt:     * Then
     the second 'gan singing as nightingale might:--
Naught came to salute me in sleep save his shade       * But
     'welcome, fair welcome,' I cried to the spright!
But the third I preferred for she said in reply,       * With
     expression most apposite, exquisite:--
My soul and my folk I engage for the youth             * Musk-
     scented I see in my bed every night!
So when I considered their words to decide,            * And not
     make me the mock of the cynical wight;
I pronounced for the youngest, declaring her verse     * Of all
     verses be that which is nearest the right.'

Then I gave scroll to the slave-girl, who went upsatirs with it,
and behold, I heard a noise of dancing and clapping of hands and
Doomsday astir. Quoth I to myself, ''Tis no time of me to stay
here.' So I came down from the platform and was about to go away,
when the damsel cried out to me, 'Sit down, O Asma'i!' Asked I,
'Who gave thee to know that I was Al-Asma'i?' and she answered,
'O Shaykh, an thy name be unknown to us, thy poetry is not!' So I
sat down again and suddently the door opened and out came the
first damsel, with a dish of fruits and another of sweetmeats. I
ate of both and praised their fashion and would have ganged my
gait; but she cried out, 'Sit down, O Asma'i!' Wherewith I raised
my eyes to her and saw a rosy palm in a saffron sleeve, meseemed
it was the full moon rising splendid in the cloudy East. Then she
threw me a purse containing three hundred dinars and said to me,
'This is mine and I give it to thee by way of douceur in requital
of thy judgment.'" Quoth the Caliph, "Why didst thou decide for
the youngest?" and quoth Al-Asma'i, "O Commander of the Faithful,
whose life Allah prolong! the eldest said, 'I should delight in
him, if he visited my couch in sleep.' Now this is restricted and
dependent upon a condition which may befal or may not befal;
whilst, for the second, an image of dreams came to her in sleep,
and she saluted it; but the youngest's couplet said that she
actually lay with her lover and smelt his breath sweeter than
musk and she engaged her soul and her folk for him, which she had
not done, were he not dearer to her than her sprite." Said the
Caliph, "Thou didst well, O Asma'i." and gave him other three
hundred ducats in payment of his story. And I have heard a tale


Quoth Abu Ishak Ibrahim al-Mausili:--I asked Al-Rashid once to
give me a day's leave that I might be private with the people of
my household and my brethren, and he gave me leave for Saturday
the Sabbath. So I went home and betook myself to making ready
meat and drink and other necessaires and bade the doorkeepers
shut the doors and let none come in to me. However, presently, as
I sat in my sitting-chamber, with my women who were looking after
my wants, behold, there appeared an old man of comely and
reverend aspect,[FN#119] clad in white clothes and a shirt of
fine stuff with a doctor's turband on his head and a silver-
handled staff in his hand, and the house and porch were full of
the perfumes wherewith he was scented. I was greatly vexed at his
coming in to me and thought to turn away the doorkeepers; but he
saluted me after the goodliest fashion and I returned his
greeting and bade him be seated. So he sat down and began
entertaining me with stories of the Arabs and their verses, till
my anger left me and methought my servants had sought to pleasure
me by admitting a man of such good breeding and fine culture.
Then I asked him, "Art thou for meat?"; and he answered, "I have
no need of it." "And for drink?" quoth I, and quoth he, "That is
as thou wilt." So I drank off a pint of wine and poured him out
the like. Then said he, "O Abu Ishak, wilt thou sing us somewhat,
so we may hear of thine art that wherein thou excellest high and
low?" His words angered me; but I swallowed my anger and taking
the lute played and sang. "Well done, O Abu Ishak!"[FN#120] said
he; whereat my wrath redoubled and I said to myself, "Is it not
enough that he should intrude upon me, without my leave, and
importune me thus, but he must call me by name, as though he knew
not the right way to address me?" Quoth he, "An thou wilt sing
something more we will requite thee." I dissembled my annoyance
and took the lute and sang again, taking pains with what I sang
and rising thereto altogether, in consideration of his saying,
"We will requite thee."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day
and ceased to say her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Eighty-eighth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
the Shaykh said to Abu Ishak, "If thou wilt sing something more
we will requite thee," I dissembled my annoyance (continued
Ibrahim) and, taking the lute, sang again with great attention to
my singing and rising altogether thereto, in consideration of his
saying, "We will requite thee." He was delighted, and cried,
"Well done, O my lord!"; presently adding, "Dost thou give me
leave to sing?" "As thou wilt," answered I, deeming him weak of
wit, in that he should think to sing in my presence, after that
which he had heard from me. So he took the lute and swept the
strings, and by Allah, I fancied they spoke in Arabic tongue,
with a sweet and liquid and murmurous voice; then he began and
sang these couplets,

"I bear a hurt heart, who will sell me for this * A heart whole
     and free from all canker and smart?
Nay, none will consent or to barter or buy * Such loss, ne'er
     from sorrow and sickness to part:
I groan wi' the groaning of wine-wounded men * And pine for the
     pining ne'er freeth my heart."

And by Allah, meseemed the doors and the walls and all that was
in the house answered and sang with him, for the beauty of his
voice, so that I fancied my very limbs and clothes replied to
him, and I abode amazed and unable to speak or move, for the
trouble of my heart. Then he sang these couplets,

"Culvers of Liwa![FN#121] to your nests return; * Your mournful
     voices thrill this heart of mine
Then back a-copse they flew, and well-nigh took * My life and
     made me tell my secret pine.
With cooing call they one who's gone, as though * Their breasts
     were maddened with the rage of wine:
Ne'er did mine eyes their like for culvers see * Who weep yet
     tear-drops never dye their eyne."

And also these couplets,

"O Zephyr of Najd, when from Najd thou blow, * Thy breathings
     heap only new woe on woe!
The turtle bespake me in bloom of morn * From the cassia-twig an
     the willow-bough
She moaned with the moaning of love-sick youth * And exposed
     love-secret I ne'er would show:
They say lover wearies of love when near * And is cured of love
     an afar he go:
I tried either cure which ne'er cured my love; * But that
     nearness is better than farness I know:[FN#122]
Yet,--the nearness of love shall no 'vantage prove * An whoso
     thou lovest deny thee of love."

Then said he, "O Ibrahim, sing this song after me, and preserving
the mode thereof in thy singing, teach it to thy slave-girls."
Quoth I, "Repeat it to me." But he answered, "There needs no
repetition; thou hast it by heart nor is there more to learn."
Then he suddenly vanished from my sight. At this I was amazed and
running to my sword drew it and made for the door of the Harim,
but found it closed and said to the women, "What have ye heard?"
Quoth they, "We have heard the sweetest of singing and the
goodliest." Then I went forth amazed, to the house-door and,
finding it locked, questioned the doorkeepers of the old man.
They replied, "What old man? By Allah, no one hath gone in to
thee this day!" So I returned pondering the matter, when, behold,
there arose from one of the corners of the house, a Vox et
praeterea nihil, saying, "O Abu Ishak, no harm shall befal thee.
'Tis I, Abú Murrah,[FN#123] who have been thy cup-companion this
day, so fear nothing!" Then I mounted and rode to the palace,
where I told Al-Rashid what had passed, and he said, "Repeat to
me the airs thou heardest from him." So I took the lute and
played and sang them to him; for, behold, they were rooted in my
heart. The Caliph was charmed with them and drank thereto, albeit
he was no confirmed wine-bibber, saying, "Would he would some day
pleasure us with his company, as he hath pleasured thee!"[FN#124]
Then he ordered me a present and I took it and went away. And men
relate this story anent

             THE LOVERS OF THE BANU UZRAH.[FN#125]

Quoth Masrur the Eunuch, "The Caliph Harun Al-Rashid was very
wakeful one night and said to me, 'See which of the poets is at
the door to-night.' So I went out and finding Jamíl bin Ma'amar
al-Uzrí[FN#126] in the antechamber, said to him, 'Answer the
Commander of the Faithful.' Quoth he, 'I hear and I obey,' and
going in with me, saluted the Caliph, who returned his greeting
and bade him sit down. Then he said to him, 'O, Jamil, hast thou
any of thy wonderful new stories to tell us?' He replied, 'Yes, O
Commander of the Faithful: wouldst thou fainer hear that which I
have seen with mine eyes or that which I have only heard?' Quoth
the Caliph, 'Tell me something thou hast actually beheld.' Quoth
Jamil, ''Tis well, O Prince of True Believers; incline thy heart
to me and lend me thine ears.' The Caliph took a bolster of red
brocade, purfled with gold and stuffed with ostrich-feathers and,
laying it under his thighs, propped up both elbows thereon; then
he said to Jamil, 'Now[FN#127] for thy tale, O Jamil!' Thereupon
he begun, 'Know, O Commander of the Faithful, that I was once
desperately enamoured of a certain girl and used to pay her
frequent visits.'"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased saying her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Eighty-ninth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
Caliph had propped his elbows upon the brocaded cushion, he said,
"Out with thy tale, O Jamil!" and the poet begun:--Know, O
Commander of the Faithful, I was desperately in love with a girl
and used often to visit her, because she was my desire and
delight of all the things of this world. After a while, her
people removed with her, by reason of scarcity of pasture, and I
abode some time without seeing her, till I grew restless for
desire and longed for her sight and the flesh[FN#128] urged me to
journey to her. One night, I could hold out no longer; so I rose
and saddling my she-camel, bound on my turban and donned my
oldest dress.[FN#129] Then I baldricked myself with my sword and
slinging my spear behind me, mounted and rode forth in quest of
her. I fared on fast till, one night, it was pitch dark and
exceeding black, yet I persisted in the hard task of climbing
down Wadys and up hills, hearing on all sides the roaring of
lions and howling of wolves and the cries of the wild beasts. My
reason was troubled thereat and my heart sank within me; but for
all that my tongue ceased not to call on the name of Almighty
Allah. As I went along thus, sleep overtook me and the camel
carried me aside out of my road, till, presently,
something[FN#130] smote me on the head, and I woke, startled and
alarmed, and found myself in a pasturage full of trees and
streams and birds on the branches, warbling their various speech
and notes. As the trees were tangled I alighted and, taking my
camel's halter in hand, fared on softly with her, till I got
clear of the thick growth and came out into the open country,
where I adjusted her saddle and mounted again, knowing not where
to go nor whither the Fates should lead me; but, presently,
peering afar into the desert, I espied a fire in its middle
depth. So I smote my camel and made for the fire. When I drew
near, I saw a tent pitched, and fronted by a spear stuck in the
ground, with a pennon flying[FN#131] and horses tethered and
camels feeding, and said in myself, "Doubtless there hangeth some
grave matter by this tent, for I see none other than it in the
desert." So I went up thereto and said, "Peace be with you, O
people of the tent, and the mercy of Allah and His Blessing!"
Whereupon there came forth to me a young man as youths are when
nineteen years old, who was like the full moon shining in the
East, with valour written between his eyes, and answered, saying,
"And with thee be the Peace, and Allah's mercy and His blessing!
O brother of the Arabs, methinks thou hast lost thy way?" Replied
I, "Even so, direct me right, Allah have mercy on thee!" He
rejoined, "O brother of the Arabs, of a truth this our land is
infested with lions and the night is exceeding dark and dreary,
beyond measure cold and gloomy, and I fear lest the wild beasts
rend thee in pieces; wherefore do thou alight and abide with me
this night in ease and comfort, and to-morrow I will put thee in
the right way." Accordingly, I dismounted and hobbled my she-
camel with the end of her halter;[FN#132] then I put off my heavy
upper clothes and sat down. Presently the young man took a sheep
and slaughtered it and kindled a brisk fire; after which he went
into the tent and bringing out finely powdered salt and spices,
fell to cutting off pieces of mutton and roasting them over the
fire and feeding me therewith, weeping at one while and sighing
at another. Then he groaned heavily and wept sore and improvised
these couplets,

"There remains to him naught save a flitting breath * And an eye
     whose babe ever wandereth.
There remains not a joint in his limbs, but what * Disease firm
     fixt ever tortureth.
His tears are flowing, his vitals burning; * Yet for all his
     tongue still he silenceth.
All foemen in pity beweep his woes; * Ah for freke whom the
     foeman pitieth!"

By this I knew, O Commander of the Faithful, that the youth was a
distracted lover (for none knoweth passion save he who hath
tasted the passion-savour), and quoth I to myself, "Shall I ask
him?" But I consulted my judgment and said, "How shall I assail
him with questioning, and I in his abode?" So I restrained myself
and ate my sufficiency of the meat. When we had made an end of
eating, the young man arose and entering the tent, brought out a
handsome basin and ewer and a silken napkin, whose ends were
purfled with red gold and a sprinkling-bottle full of rose-water
mingled with musk. I marvelled at his dainty delicate ways and
said in my mind, "Never wot I of delicacy in the desert." Then we
washed our hands and talked a while, after which he went into the
tent and making a partition between himself and me with a piece
of red brocade, said to me, "Enter, O Chief of the Arabs, and
take thy rest; for thou hast suffered more of toil and travel
than sufficeth this night and in this thy journey." So I entered
and finding a bed of green brocade, doffed my dress and passed a
night such as I had never passed in my life.--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

        When it was the Six Hundred and Ninetieth Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Jamil
spoke, saying:--Never in my life passed I a night like that. I
pondered the young man's case, till the world was dark and all
eyes slept, when I was aroused by the sound of a low voice, never
heard I a softer or sweeter. I raised the curtain which hung
between us and saw a damsel (never beheld I a fairer of face), by
the young man's side and they were both weeping and complaining,
one to other of the pangs of passion and desire and of the excess
of their longing for union.[FN#133] Quoth I, "By Allah, I wonder
who may be this second one! When I entered this tent, there was
none therein save this young man." And after reflection I added,
"Doubtless this damsel is of the daughters of the Jinn and is
enamoured of this youth; so they have secluded themselves with
each other in this solitary place." Then I considered her closely
and behold, she was a mortal and an Arab girl, whose face, when
she unveiled, shamed the shining sun, and the tent was lit up by
the light of her countenance. When I was assured that she was his
beloved, I bethought me of lover-jealousy; so I let drop the
curtain and covering my face, fell asleep. As soon as it was dawn
I arose and donning my clothes, made the Wuzu-ablution and prayed
such prayers as are obligatory and which I had deferred. Then I
said, "O brother of the Arabs, wilt thou direct me into the right
road and thus add to thy favours?" He replied, "At thy leisure, O
chief of the Arabs, the term of the guest-rite is three
days,[FN#134] and I am not one to let thee go before that time."
So I abode with him three days, and on the fourth day as we sat
talking, I asked him of his name and lineage. Quoth he "As for my
lineage, I am of the Banu Odhrah; my name is such an one, son of
such an one and my father's brother is called such an one." And
behold, O Commander of the Faithful, he was the son of my
paternal uncle and of the noblest house of the Banú Uzrah. Said
I, "O my cousin, what moved thee to act on this wise, secluding
thyself in the waste and leaving thy fair estate and that of thy
father and thy slaves and handmaids?" When he heard my words, his
eyes filled with tears and he replied, "Know, O my cousin, that I
fell madly in love of the daughter of my father's brother,
fascinated by her, distracted for her, passion-possessed as by a
Jinn, wholly unable to let her out of my sight. So I sought her
in marriage of her sire, but he refused and married her to a man
of the Banu Odhrah, who went in to her and carried her to his
abiding-place this last year. When she was thus far removed from
me and I was prevented from looking on her, the fiery pangs of
passion and excess of love-longing and desire drove me to forsake
my clan[FN#135] and friends and fortune and take up my abode in
this desert, where I have grown used to my solitude." I asked,
"Where are their dwellings?" and he answered, "They are hard by,
on the crest of yonder hill; and every night, at the dead time,
when all eyes sleep, she stealeth secretly out of the camp,
unseen of any one, and I satisfy my desire of her converse and
she of mine.[FN#136] So I abide thus, solacing myself with her a
part of the night, till Allah work out that which is to be
wrought; either I shall compass my desire, in spite[FN#137] of
the envious, or Allah will determine for me and He is the best of
determinators." Now when the youth told me his case, O Commander
of the Faithful, I was concerned for him and perplexed by reason
of my jealousy for his honour; so I said to him, "O son of my
uncle, wilt thou that I point out to thee a plan and suggest to
thee a project, whereby (please Allah) thou shalt find perfect
welfare and the way of right and successful issue whereby the
Almighty shall do away from thee that thou dreadest?" He replied,
"Say on, O my cousin"; and quoth I, "When it is night and the
girl cometh, set her on my she-camel which is swift of pace, and
mount thou thy steed, whilst I bestride one of these dromedaries.
So will we fare on all night and when the morrow morns, we shall
have traversed wolds and wastes, and thou wilt have attained thy
desire and won the beloved of thy heart. The Almighty's earth is
wide, and by Allah, I will back thee with heart and wealth and
sword."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
saying her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Ninety-first Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Jamil
advised the elopement and night journey, promising his aid as
long as he lived, the youth accepted and said, "O cousin, wait
till I take counsel with her, for she is quick-witted and prudent
and hath insight into affairs." So (continued Jamil) when the
night darkened and the hour of her coming arrived, and he
awaiting her at the appointed tide, she delayed beyond her usual
time, and I saw him go forth the door of the tent and opening his
mouth, inhale the wafts of breeze that blew from her quarter, as
if to snuff her perfume, and he repeated these two couplets:--

"Breeze of East who bringest me gentle air * From the place of
     sojourn where dwells my fair:
O Breeze, of the lover thou bearest sign, * Canst not of her
     coming some signal bear?"

Then he entered the tent and sat weeping awhile; after which he
said to me, "O my cousin, some mischance must have betided the
daughter of mine uncle, or some accident must have hindered her
from coming to me this night," presently adding, "But abide where
thou art, till I bring thee the news." And he took sword and
shield and was absent a while of the night, after which he
returned, carrying something in hand and called aloud to me. So I
hastened to him and he said, "O my cousin, knowest thou what hath
happened?" I replied, "No, by Allah!" Quoth he, "Verily, I am
distraught concerning my cousin this night; for, as she was
coming to me, a lion met her in the way and devoured her, and
there remaineth of her but what thou seest." So saying, he threw
down what he had in his hand, and behold, it was the damsel's
turband and what was left of her bones. Then he wept sore and
casting down his bow,[FN#138] took a bag and went forth again
saying, "Stir not hence till I return to thee, if it please
Almighty Allah." He was absent a while and presently returned,
bearing in his hand a lion's head, which he threw on the ground
and called for water. So I brought him water, with which he
washed the lion's mouth and fell to kissing it and weeping; and
he mourned for her exceedingly and recited these couplets,

"Ho thou lion who broughtest thyself to woe, * Thou art slain and
     worse sorrows my bosom rend!
Thou hast reft me of fairest companionship, * Made her home
     Earth's womb till the world shall end.
To Time, who hath wrought me such grief, I say, * 'Allah grant in
     her stead never show a friend!'"

Then said he to me, "O cousin, I conjure thee by Allah and the
claims of kindred and consanguinity[FN#139] between us, keep thou
my charge. Thou wilt presently see me dead before thee; whereupon
do thou wash me and shroud me and these that remain of my
cousin's bones in this robe and bury us both in one grave and
write thereon these two couplets,

'On Earth surface we lived in rare ease and joy * By fellowship
     joined in one house and home.
But Fate with her changes departed us, * And the shroud conjoins
     us in Earth's cold womb.'"

Then he wept with sore weeping and, entering the tent, was absent
awhile, after which he came forth, groaning and crying out. Then
he gave one sob and departed this world. When I saw that he was
indeed dead, it was grievous to me and so sore was my sorrow for
him that I had well-nigh followed him for excess of mourning over
him. Then I laid him out and did as he had enjoined me, shrouding
his cousin's remains with him in one robe and laying the twain in
one grave. I abode by their tomb three days, after which I
departed and continued to pay frequent pious visits[FN#140] to
the place for two years. This then is their story, O Commander of
the Faithful! Al-Rashid was pleased with Jamil's story and
rewarded him with a robe of honour and a handsome present. And
men also tell a tale concerning

                THE BADAWI AND HIS WIFE.[FN#141]

Caliph Mu'áwiyah was sitting one day in his palace[FN#142] at
Damascus, in a room whose windows were open on all four sides,
that the breeze might enter from every quarter. Now it was a day
of excessive heat, with no breeze from the hills stirring, and
the middle of the day, when the heat was at its height, and the
Caliph saw a man coming along, scorched by the heat of the ground
and limping, as he fared on barefoot. Mu'awiyah considered him
awhile and said to his courtiers, "Hath Allah (may He be extolled
and exalted!) created any miserabler than he who need must hie
abroad at such an hour and in such sultry tide as this?" Quoth
one of them, "Haply he seeketh the Commander of the Faithful;"
and quoth the Caliph, "By Allah, if he seek me, I will assuredly
give to him, and if he be wronged, I will certainly succour him.
Ho, boy! Stand at the door, and if yonder wild Arab seek to come
in to me, forbid him not therefrom." So the page went out and
presently the Arab came up to him and he said, "What dost thou
want?" Answered the other, "I want the Commander of the
Faithful," and the page said, "Enter." So he entered and saluted
the Caliph,--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
to say her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Ninety-second Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
page allowed him to enter, the Badawi saluted the Caliph, who
said to him, "Who art thou?" Replied the Arab, "I am a man of the
Banú Tamím."[FN#143] "And what bringeth thee here at this
season?" asked Mu'awiyah; and the Arab answered, "I come to thee,
complaining and thy protection imploring." "Against whom?"
"Against Marwan bin al-Hakam,[FN#144] thy deputy," replied he,
and began reciting,

"Mu'áwiyah,[FN#145] thou gen'rous lord, and best of men that be;
     * And oh, thou lord of learning, grace and fair humanity,
Thee-wards I come because my way of life is strait to me: * O
     help! and let me not despair thine equity to see.
Deign thou redress the wrong that dealt the tyrant whim of him *
     Who better had my life destroyed than made such wrong to
He robbed me of my wife Su'ad and proved him worst of foes, *
     Stealing mine honour 'mid my folk with foul iniquity;
And went about to take my life before th' appointed day * Hath
     dawned which Allah made my lot by destiny's decree."

Now when Mu'awiyah heard him recite these verses, with the fire
flashing from his mouth, he said to him, "Welcome and fair
welcome, O brother of the Arabs! Tell me thy tale and acquaint me
with thy case." Replied the Arab, "O Commander of the Faithful, I
had a wife whom I loved passing dear with love none came near;
and she was the coolth of mine eyes and the joy of my heart; and
I had a herd of camels, whose produce enabled me to maintain my
condition; but there came upon us a bad year which killed off
hoof and horn and left me naught. When what was in my hand failed
me and wealth fell from me and I lapsed into evil case, I at once
became abject and a burden to those who erewhile wished to visit
me; and when her father knew it, he took her from me and abjured
me and drove me forth without ruth. So I repaired to thy deputy,
Marwan bin al-Hakam, and asked his aid. He summoned her sire and
questioned him of my case, when he denied any knowledge of me.
Quoth I, 'Allah assain the Emir! An it please him to send for the
woman and question her of her father's saying, the truth will
appear.' So he sent for her and brought her; but no sooner had he
set eyes on her than he fell in love with her; so, becoming my
rival, he denied me succour and was wroth with me, and sent me to
prison, where I became as I had fallen from heaven and the wind
had cast me down in a far land. Then said Marwan to her father,
'Wilt thou give her to me to wife, on a present settlement of a
thousand dinars and a contingent dowry of ten thousand
dirhams,[FN#146] and I will engage to free her from yonder wild
Arab!' Her father was seduced by the bribe and agreed to the
bargain; whereupon Marwan sent for me and looking at me like an
angry lion, said to me, 'O Arab, divorce Su'ad.' I replied, 'I
will not put her away;' but he set on me a company of his
servants, who tortured me with all manner of tortures, till I
found no help for it but to divorce her. I did so and he sent me
back to prison, where I abode till the days of her purification
were accomplished, when he married her and let me go. So now I
come hither in thee hoping and thy succour imploring and myself
on thy protection throwing." And he spoke these couplets,

"Within my heart is fire       * Whichever flameth higher;
Within my frame are pains      * For skill of leach too dire.
Live coals in vitals burn      * And sparks from coal up spire:
Tears flood mine eyes and down * Coursing my cheek ne'er tire:
Only God's aid and thine       * I crave for my desire!"

Then he was convulsed,[FN#147] and his teeth chattered and he
fell down in a fit, squirming like a scotched snake. When
Mu'awiyah heard his story and his verse, he said, "Marwan bin al-
Hakam hath transgressed against the laws of the Faith and hath
violated the Harim of True Believers!"--And Shahrazad perceived
the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

      When it was the Six Hundred and Ninety-third Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
the Caliph Mu'awiyah heard the wild Arab's words, he said, "The
son of Al-Hakam hath indeed transgressed against the laws of the
Faith and hath violated the Harim of True Believers," presently
adding, "O Arab, thou comest to me with a story, the like whereof
I never heard!" Then he called for inkcase and paper and wrote to
Marwan as follows, "Verily it hath reached me that thou
transgresseth the laws of the Faith with regard to thy lieges.
Now it behoveth the Wali who governeth the folk to keep his eyes
from their lusts and stay his flesh from its delights." And after
he wrote many words, which (quoth he who told me the tale) I
omit, for brevity's sake, and amongst them these couplets,

"Thou wast invested (woe to thee!)[FN#148] with rule for the
     unfit; * Crave thou of Allah pardon for thy foul adultery.
Th' unhappy youth to us is come complaining 'mid his groans * And
     asks for redress for parting-grief and saddened me through
An oath have I to Allah sworn shall never be forsworn; * Nay,
     for I'll do what Faith and Creed command me to decree.
An thou dare cross me in whate'er to thee I now indite * I of
     thy flesh assuredly will make the vulture free.
Divorce Su'ad, equip her well, and in the hottest haste * With
     Al-Kumayt and Ziban's son, hight Nasr, send to me."

Then he folded the letter and, sealing it with his seal,
delivered it to Al-Kumayt[FN#149] and Nasr bin Zibán (whom he
was wont to employ on weighty matters, because of their
trustiness) who took the missive and carried it to Al-Medinah,
where they went in to Marwan and saluting him delivered to him
the writ and told him how the case stood. He read the letter
and fell a-weeping; but he went in to Su'ad (as 'twas not in
his power to refuse obedience to the Caliph) and, acquainting
her with the case, divorced her in the presence of Al-Kumayt
and Nasr; after which he equipped her and delivered her to
them, together with a letter to the Caliph wherein he
versified as follows,

"Hurry not, Prince of Faithful Men! with best of grace thy vow
     * I will accomplish as 'twas vowed and with the gladdest
I sinned not adulterous sin when loved her I, then how * Canst
     charge me with advowtrous deed or any villainy?
Soon comes to thee that splendid sun which hath no living peer
     * On earth, nor aught in mortal men of Jinns her like
     shalt see."

This he sealed with his own signet and gave to the messengers
who returned with Su'ad to Damascus and delivered to Mu'awiyah
the letter, and when he had read it he cried, "Verily, he hath
obeyed handsomely, but he exceedeth in his praise of the
woman." Then he called for her and saw beauty such as he had
never seen, for comeliness and loveliness, stature and
symmetrical grace; moreover, he talked with her and found her
fluent of speech and choice in words. Quoth he, "Bring me the
Arab." So they fetched the man, who came, sore disordered for
shifts and changes of fortune, and Mu'awiyah said to him, "O
Arab, an thou wilt freely give her up to me, I will bestow
upon thee in her stead three slave girls, high-bosomed maids
like moons, with each a thousand dinars; and I will assign
thee on the Treasury such an annual sum as shall content thee
and enrich thee." When the Arab heard this, he groaned one
groan and swooned away, so that Mu'awiyah thought he was dead;
and, as soon as he revived, the Caliph said to him, "What
aileth thee?" The Arab answered, "With heavy heart and in sore
need have I appealed to thee from the injustice of Marwan bin
al-Hakam; but to whom shall I appeal from thine injustice?"
And he versified in these couplets,

"Make me not (Allah save the Caliph!) one of the betrayed *
     Who from the fiery sands to fire must sue for help and
Deign thou restore Su'ád to this afflicted heart distraught, *
     Which every morn and eve by sorest sorrow is waylaid:
Loose thou my bonds and grudge me not and give her back to me;
     * And if thou do so ne'er thou shalt for lack of thanks

Then said he, "By Allah, O Commander of the Faithful, wert
thou to give me all the riches contained in the Caliphate, yet
would I not take them without Su'ad." And he recited this

"I love Su'ád and unto all but hers my love is dead, * Each
     morn I feel her love to me is drink and daily bread."

Quoth the Caliph, "Thou confessest to having divorced her and
Marwan owned the like; so now we will give her free choice. An
she choose other than thee, we will marry her to him, and if
she choose thee, we will restore her to thee." Replied the
Arab, "Do so." So Mu'awiyah said to her, "What sayest thou, O
Su'ad? Which does thou choose; the Commander of the Faithful,
with his honour and glory and dominion and palaces and
treasures and all else thou seest at this command, or Marwin
bin al-Hakam with his violence and tyranny, or this Arab, with
his hunger and poverty?" So she improvised these couplets,

"This one, whom hunger plagues, and rags unfold, * Dearer than
     tribe and kith and kin I hold;
Than crownèd head, or deputy Marwán, * Or all who boast of
     silver coins and gold."

Then said she, "By Allah, O Commander of the Faithful, I will
not forsake him for the shifts of Fortune or the perfidies of
Fate, there being between us old companionship we may not
forget, and love beyond stay and let; and indeed 'tis but just
that I bear with him in his adversity, even as I shared with
him in prosperity." The Caliph marvelled at her wit and love
and constancy and, ordering her ten thousand dirhams,
delivered her to the Arab, who took his wife and went
away.[FN#150] And they likewise tell a tale of

                   THE LOVERS OF BASSORAH.

The Caliph Harun al-Rashid was sleepless one night; so he sent
for Al-Asma'i and Husayn al-Khalí'a[FN#151] and said to them,
"Tell me a story you twain and do thou begin, O Husayn." He
said, "'Tis well, O Commander of the Faithful;" and thus
began: Some years ago, I dropped down stream to Bassorah, to
present to Mohammed bin Sulayman al-Rabí'í[FN#152] a Kasidah
or elegy I had composed in his praise; and he accepted it and
bade me abide with him. One day, I went out to
Al-Mirbad,[FN#153] by way of Al-Muháliyah;[FN#154] and, being
oppressed by the excessive heat, went up to a great door, to
ask for drink, when I was suddenly aware of a damsel, as she
were a branch swaying, with eyes languishing, eye brows arched
and finely pencilled and smooth cheeks rounded clad in a shift
the colour of a pomegranate flower, and a mantilla of
Sana'á[FN#155] work; but the perfect whiteness of her body
overcame the redness of her shift, through which glittered two
breasts like twin granadoes and a waist, as it were a roll of
fine Coptic linen, with creases like scrolls of pure white
paper stuffed with musk [FN#156] Moreover, O Prince of True
Believers, round her neck was slung an amulet of red gold that
fell down between her breasts, and on the plain of her
forehead were browlocks like jet.[FN#157] Her eyebrows joined
and her eyes were like lakes; she had an aquiline nose and
thereunder shell like lips showing teeth like pearls.
Pleasantness prevailed in every part of her; but she seemed
dejected, disturbed, distracted and in the vestibule came and
went, walking upon the hearts of her lovers, whilst her
legs[FN#158] made mute the voices of their ankle rings; and
indeed she was as saith the poet,

"Each portion of her charms we see * Seems of the whole a

I was overawed by her, O Commander of the Faithful, and drew
near her to greet her, and behold, the house and vestibule and
highways breathed fragrant with musk. So I saluted her and she
returned my salaam with a voice dejected and heart depressed
and with the ardour of passion consumed. Then said I to her,
"O my lady, I am an old man and a stranger and sore troubled
by thirst. Wilt thou order me a draught of water, and win
reward in heaven?" She cried, "Away, O Shaykh, from me! I am
distracted from all thought of meat and drink."--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

     When it was the Six Hundred and Ninety-fourth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
damsel said, "O Shaykh, I am distracted from all thought of
meat and drink." Quoth I (continued Husayn), "By what ailment,
O my lady?" and quoth she, "I love one who dealeth not justly
by me and I desire one who of me will none. Wherefore I am
afflicted with the wakefulness of those who wake star gazing."
I asked, "O my lady, is there on the wide expanse of earth one
to whom thou hast a mind and who to thee hath no mind?"
Answered she, "Yes; and this for the perfection of beauty and
loveliness and goodliness wherewith he is endowed." "And why
standeth thou in this porch?" enquired I. "This is his road,"
replied she, "and the hour of his passing by." I said, "O my
lady, have ye ever foregathered and had such commerce and
converse as might cause this passion?" At this she heaved a
deep sigh; the tears rained down her cheeks, as they were dew
falling upon roses, and she versified with these couplets,

"We were like willow boughs in garden shining * And scented
     joys in happiest life combining;
Whenas one bough from other self would rend * And oh! thou
     seest this for that repining!"

Quoth I, "O maid, and what betideth thee of thy love for this
man?"; and quoth she, "I see the sun upon the walls of his
folk and I think the sun is he; or haply I catch sight of him
unexpectedly and am confounded and the blood and the life fly
my body and I abide in unreasoning plight a week or e'en a
se'nnight." Said I, "Excuse me, for I also have suffered that
which is upon thee of love longing and distraction of soul and
wasting of frame and loss of strength; and I see in thee
pallor of complexion and emaciation, such as testify of the
fever fits of desire. But how shouldst thou be unsmitten of
passion and thou a sojourner in the land of Bassorah?" Said
she, "By Allah, before I fell in love of this youth, I was
perfect in beauty and loveliness and amorous grace which
ravished all the Princes of Bassorah, till he fell in love
with me." I asked, "O maid, and who parted you?"; and she
answered, "The vicissitudes of fortune, but the manner of our
separation was strange; and 'twas on this wise. One New Year's
day I had invited the damsels of Bassorah and amongst them a
girl belonging to Siran, who had bought her out of Oman for
four score thousand dirhams. She loved me and loved me to
madness and when she entered she threw herself upon me and
well nigh tore me in pieces with bites and pinches.[FN#159]
Then we withdrew apart, to drink wine at our ease, till our
meat was ready[FN#160] and our delight was complete, and she
toyed with me and I with her, and now I was upon her and now
she was upon me. Presently, the fumes of the wine moved her to
strike her hand on the inkle of my petticoat trousers, whereby
it became loosed, unknown of either of us, and my trousers
fell down in our play. At this moment he came in unobserved
and, seeing me thus, was wroth at the sight and made off, as
the Arab filly hearing the tinkle of her bridle."--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her
permitted say.

     When it was the Six Hundred and Ninety-fifth Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
maiden said to Husayn al-Khali'a, "When my lover saw me
playing, as I described to thee, with Siran's girl, he went
forth in anger. And 'tis now, O Shaykh, three years ago, and
since then I have never ceased to excuse myself to him and
coax him and crave his indulgence, but he will neither cast a
look at me from the corner of his eye, nor write me a word nor
speak to me by messenger nor hear from me aught." Quoth I,
"Harkye maid, is he an Arab or an Ajam?"; and quoth she, "Out
on thee! He is of the Princes of Bassorah." "Is he old or
young?" asked I; and she looked at me laughingly and answered,
"Thou art certainly a simpleton! He is like the moon on the
night of its full, smooth checked and beardless, nor is there
any defect in him except his aversion to me." Then I put the
question, "What is his name?" and she replied, "What wilt thou
do with him?" I rejoined, "I will do my best to come at him,
that I may bring about reunion between you." Said she, "I will
tell thee on condition that thou carry him a note;" and I said
"I have no objection to that." Then quoth she, "His name is
Zamrah bin al-Mughayrah, hight Abú al-Sakhá,[FN#161] and his
palace is in the Mirbad." Therewith she called to those within
for inkcase and paper and tucking up[FN#162] her sleeves,
showed two wrists like broad rings of silver. She then wrote
after the Basmalah as follows, "My lord, the omission of
blessings[FN#163] at the head of this my letter shows mine
insufficiency, and know that had my prayer been answered, thou
hadst never left me; for how often have I prayed that thou
shouldest not leave me, and yet thou didst leave me! Were it
not that distress with me exceedeth the bounds of restraint,
that which thy servant hath forced herself to do in writing
this writ were an aidance to her, despite her despair of thee,
because of her knowledge of thee that thou wilt fail to
answer. Do thou fulfil her desire, my lord, of a sight of thee
from the porch, as thou passest in the street, wherewith thou
wilt quicken the dead soul in her. Or, far better for her
still than this, do thou write her a letter with thine own
hand (Allah endow it with all excellence!), and appoint it in
requital of the intimacy that was between us in the nights of
time past, whereof thou must preserve the memory. My lord, was
I not to thee a lover sick with passion? An thou answer my
prayer, I will give to thee thanks and to Allah praise; and so
The Peace!"[FN#164] Then she gave me the letter and I went
away. Next morning I repaired to the door of the Viceroy
Mohammed bin Sulayman, where I found an assembly of the
notables of Bassorah, and amongst them a youth who adorned the
gathering and surpassed in beauty and brightness all who were
there; and indeed the Emir Mohammed set him above himself. I
asked who he was and behold, it was Zamrah himself: so I said
in my mind, "Verily, there hath befallen yonder unhappy one
that which hath befallen her[FN#165]!" Then I betook myself to
the Mirbad and stood waiting at the door of his house, till he
came riding up in state, when I accosted him and invoking more
than usual blessings on him, handed him the missive. When he
read it and understood it he said to me, "O Shaykh, we have
taken other in her stead. Say me, wilt thou see the
substitute?" I answered, "Yes." Whereupon he called out a
woman's name, and there came forth a damsel who shamed the two
greater lights; swelling breasted, walking the gait of one who
hasteneth without fear, to whom he gave the note, saying, "Do
thou answer it." When she read it, she turned pale at the
contents and said to me, " O old man, crave pardon of Allah
for this that thou hast brought." So I went out, O Commander
of the Faithful, dragging my feet and returning to her asked
leave to enter. When she saw me, she asked, "What is behind
thee?"; and I answered, "Evil and despair." Quoth she, "Have
thou no concern of him. Where are Allah and His
power?"[FN#166] Then she ordered me five hundred dinars and I
took them and went away. Some days after I passed by the place
and saw there horsemen and footmen. So I went in and lo! these
were the companions of Zamrah, who were begging her to return
to him; but she said, "No, by Allah, I will not look him in
the face!" And she prostrated herself in gratitude to Allah
and exultation over Zamrah's defeat. Then I drew near her, and
she pulled out to me a letter, wherein was written, after the
Bismillah, "My lady, but for my forbearance towards thee
(whose life Allah lengthen!) I would relate somewhat of what
betided from thee and set out my excuse, in that thou
transgressedst against me, whenas thou west manifestly a
sinner against thyself and myself in breach of vows and lack
of constancy and preference of another over us; for, by Allah,
on whom we call for help against that which was of thy free
will, thou didst transgress against the love of me; and so The
Peace!" Then she showed me the presents and rarities he had
sent her, which were of the value of thirty thousand dinars. I
saw her again after this, and Zamrah had married her. Quoth
Al-Rashid, "Had not Zamrah been beforehand with us, I should
certainly have had to do with her myself."[FN#167] And men
tell the tale of


Quoth Ishak bin Ibrahim al-Mausili: I was in my house one
night in the winter time, when the clouds had dispread
themselves and the rains poured down in torrents, as from the
mouths of water skins, and the folk forbore to come and go
about the ways for that which was therein of rain and slough.
Now I was straitened in breast because none of my brethren
came to me nor could I go to them, by reason of the mud and
mire; so I said to my servant, "Bring me wherewithal I may
divert myself." Accordingly he brought me meat and drink, but
I had no heart to eat, without some one to keep me company,
and I ceased not to look out of window and watch the ways till
nightfall, when I bethought myself of a damsel belonging to
one of the sons of Al-Mahdi,[FN#169] whom I loved and who was
skilled in singing and playing upon instruments of music, and
said to myself, "Were she here with us to night, my joy would
be complete and my night would be abridged of the melancholy
and restlessness which are upon me." At this moment one
knocked at the door, saying, "Shall a beloved enter in who
standeth at the door?" Quoth I to myself, "Meseems the plant
of my desire hath fruited." So I went to the door and found my
mistress, with a long green skirt[FN#170] wrapped about her
and a kerchief of brocade on her head, to fend her from the
rain. She was covered with mud to her knees and all that was
upon her was drenched with water from gargoyles[FN#171] and
house spouts; in short, she was in sorry plight. So I said to
her, "O my mistress, what bringeth thee hither through all
this mud?" Replied she, "Thy messenger came and set forth to
me that which was with thee of love and longing, so that I
could not choose but yield and hasten to thee." I marvelled at
this And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say
her permitted say.

     When it was the Six Hundred and Ninety-sixth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
damsel came and knocked at Ishak's door, he went forth to her
and cried, 'O my lady, what bringeth thee hither through all
this mud?"; and she replied, "Thy messenger came and set forth
to me that which was with thee of love and longing, so that I
could not choose but yield and hasten to thee." I marvelled at
this, but did not like to tell her that I had sent no
messenger; wherefore I said, "Praised be Allah for that He
hath brought us together, after all I have suffered by the
mortification of patience! Verily, hadst thou delayed an hour
longer, I must have run to thee, because of my much love for
thee and longing for thy presence." Then I called to my boy
for water, that I might better her plight, and he brought a
kettle full of hot water such as she wanted. I bade pour it
over her feet, whilst I set to work to wash them myself; after
which I called for one of my richest dresses and clad her
therein after she had doffed the muddy clothes. Then, as soon
as we were comfortably seated, I would have called for food,
but she refused and I said to her, "Art thou for wine?"; and
she replied, "Yes." So I fetched cups and she asked me, "Who
shall sing?" "I, O my princess!" "I care not for that;" "One
of my damsels?" "I have no mind to that either!" "Then sing
thyself." "Not I!" "Who then shall sing for thee?" I enquired,
and she rejoined, "Go out and seek some one to sing for me."
So I went out, in obedience to her, though I despaired of
finding any one in such weather and fared on till I came to
the main street, where I suddenly saw a blind man striking the
earth with his staff and saying, "May Allah not requite with
weal those with whom I was! When I sang, they listened not,
and when I was silent, they made light of me." So I said to
him, "Art thou a singer?" and he replied, "Yes." Quoth I,
"Wilt thou finish thy night with us and cheer us with thy
company?"; and quoth he, "If it be thy will, take my hand." So
I took his hand and, leading him to my house, said to the
damsel, "O my mistress, I have brought a blind singer, with
whom we may take our pleasure and he will not see us." She
said, "Bring him to me." So I brought him in and invited him
to eat. He ate but a very little and washed his hands, after
which I brought him wine and he drank three cupsful. Then he
said to me, "Who art thou?"; and I replied, "I am Ishak bin
Ibrahim al-Mausili." Quoth he, "I have heard of thee and now I
rejoice in thy company;" and I, "O my lord, I am glad in thy
gladness." He said, "O Ishak, sing to me." So I took the lute
by way of jest, and cried, "I hear and I obey." When I had
made an end of my song, he said to me, "O Ishak, thou comest
nigh to be a singer!" His words belittled me in mine own eyes
and I threw the lute from my hand, whereupon he said, "Hast
thou not with thee some one who is skilled in singing?" Quoth
I, "I have a damsel with me;" and quoth he "Bid her sing." I
asked him, "Wilt thou sing, when thou hast had enough of her
singing?"; and he answered "Yes." So she sang and he said,
"Nay, thou hast shown no art." Whereupon she flung the lute
from her hand in wrath and cried, "We have done our best: if
thou have aught, favour us with it by way of an alms." Quoth
he, "Bring me a lute hand hath not touched." So I bade the
servant bring him a new lute and he tuned it and preluding in
a mode I knew not began to sing, improvising these couplets,

"Clove through the shades and came to me in night so dark and
     sore * The lover weeting of herself 'twas trysting tide
     once more:
Naught startled us but her salaam and first of words she said
     * 'May a beloved enter in who standeth at the door!'"

When the girl heard this, she looked at me askance and said,
"What secret was between us could not thy breast hold for one
hour, but thou must discover it to this man?" However, I swore
to her that I had not told him and excused myself to her and
fell to kissing her hands and tickling her breasts and biting
her cheeks, till she laughed and, turning to the blind man,
said to him, "Sing, O my lord!" So he took the lute and sang
these two couplets,

"Ah, often have I sought the fair; how often fief and fain *
     My palming felt the finger ends that bear the varied
And tickled pouting breasts that stand firm as pomegranates
     twain * And bit the apple of her cheek kissed o'er and
     o'er again."

So I said to her, "O my princess, who can have told him what
we were about?" Replied she, "True," and we moved away from
him. Presently quoth he, "I must make water;" and quoth I, "O
boy, take the candle and go before him." Then he went out and
tarried a long while. So we went in search of him, but could
not find him; and behold, the doors were locked and the keys
in the closet, and we knew not whether to heaven he had flown
or into earth had sunk. Wherefore I knew that he was Iblis and
that he had done me pimp's duty, and I returned, recalling to
my self the words of Abu Nowas in these couplets,

"I marvel in Iblis such pride to see * Beside his low intent
     and villainy:
He sinned to Adam who to bow refused, * Yet pimps for all of
     Adam's progeny,"

And they tell a tale concerning

                  THE LOVERS OF AL-MEDINAH.

Quoth Ibrahim the father of Ishak,[FN#172] I was ever a
devoted friend to the Barmecide family. And it so happened to
me one day, as I sat at home quite alone, a knock was heard at
the door; so my servant went out and returned, saying, "A
comely youth is at the door, asking admission." I bade admit
him and there came in to me a young man, on whom were signs of
sickness, and he said, "I have long wished to meet thee, for I
have need of thine aid." "What is it thou requirest?" asked I.
Whereupon he pulled out three hundred dinars and laying them
before me, said, "I beseech thee to accept these and compose
me an air to two couplets I have made." Said I, "Repeat them
to me;"--and Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
saying her permitted say.

    When it was the Six Hundred and Ninety-seventh Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
when the youth came in to Ibrahim and placed the gold in his
hands, saying, "Prithee accept it and compose me an air to two
couplets," he replied, "Recite them to me," whereupon he

"By Allah, glance of mine! thou hast opprest * My heart, so
     quench the fire that burns my breast
Blames me the world because in him[FN#173] * I live Yet cannot
     see him till in shroud I rest."

Accordingly, quoth Ibrahim, I set the verses to an air
plaintive as a dirge and sang it to him; whereupon he swooned
away and I thought that he was dead. However, after a while,
he came to himself, and said to me, "Repeat the air." But I
conjured him by Allah to excuse me, saying, "I fear lest thou
die." "Would Heaven it were so!" replied he and ceased not
humbly to importune me, till I had pity on him and repeated
it; whereupon he cried out with a grievous cry and fell into a
fit worse than before and I doubted not but that he was dead;
but I sprinkled rose water on him till he revived and sat up.
I praised Allah for his recovery and laying the ducats before
him, said, "Take thy money and depart from me." Quoth he, "I
have no need of the money and thou shalt have the like of it,
if thou wilt repeat the air." My breast broadened at the
mention of the money and I said, "I will repeat it, but on
three conditions: the first, that thou tarry with me and eat
of my victual, till thou regain strength; the second, that
thou drink wine enough to hearten thy heart, and the third,
that thou tell me thy tale." He agreed to this and ate and
drank; after which he said, "I am of the citizens of
Al-Medinah and I went forth one day a pleasuring with my
friends; and, following the road to Al-Akík,[FN#174] saw a
company of girls and amongst them a damsel as she were a
branch pearled with dew with eyes whose sidelong glances were
never withdrawn till they had stolen away his soul who looked
on them. The maidens rested in the shade till the end of the
day, when they went away leaving in my heart wounds slow to
heal. I returned next morning to scent out news of her, but
found none who could tell me of her; so I sought her in the
streets and markets, but could come on no trace of her;
wherefore I fell ill of grief and told my case to one of my
kinsmen, who said to me, 'No harm shall befall thee: the days
of spring are not yet past and the skies show sign of
rain,[FN#175] whereupon she will go forth, and I will go out
with thee, and do thou thy will.' His words comforted my heart
and I waited till al-Akik ran with water, when I went
forthwith my friends and kinsmen and sat in the very same
place where I first saw her. We had not been seated long
before up came the women, like horses running for a wager; and
I whispered to a girl of my kindred, 'Say to yonder damse--
‘Quoth this man to thee, He did well who spoke this couplet,

'She shot my heart with shaft, then turned on heel * And
     flying dealt fresh wound and scarring wheel.'

So she went to her and repeated my words, to which she replied
saying, 'Tell him that he said well who answered in this

'The like of whatso feelest thou we feel; * Patience!
     perchance swift cure our hearts shall heal.'

I refrained from further speech for fear of scandal and rose
to go away. She rose at my rising, and I followed and she
looked back at me, till she saw I had noted her abode. Then
she began to come to me and I to go to her, so that we
foregathered and met often, till the case was noised abroad
and grew notorious and her sire came to know of it. However I
ceased not to meet her most assiduously and complained of my
condition to my father, who assembled our kindred and repaired
to ask her in marriage for me, of her sire, who cried, 'Had
this been proposed to me before he gave her a bad name by his
assignations, I would have consented; but now the thing is
notorious and I am loath to verify the saying of the folk.' "
Then (continued Ibrahim) I repeated the air to him and he went
away, after having acquainted me with his abode, and we became
friends. Now I was devoted to the Barmecides; so next time
Ja'afar bin Yahya sat to give audience, I attended, as was my
wont, and sang to him the young man's verses. They pleased him
and he drank some cups of wine and said, "Fie upon thee whose
song is this?" So I told him the young man's tale and he bade
me ride over to him and give him assurances of the winning of
his wish. Accordingly I fetched him to Ja'afar who asked him
to repeat his story. He did so and Ja'afar said, "Thou art now
under my protection: trust me to marry thee to her." So his
heart was comforted and he abode with us. When the morning
morrowed Ja'afar mounted and went in to Al-Rashid, to whom he
related the story. The Caliph was pleased with it and sending
for the young man and myself, commanded me to repeat the air
and drank thereto. Then he wrote to the Governor of Al-Hijaz,
bidding him despatch the girl's father and his household in
honour able fashion to his presence and spare no expense for
their outfit. So, in a little while, they came and the Caliph,
sending for the man, commanded him to marry his daughter to
her lover; after which he gave him an hundred thousand dinars,
and the father went back to his folk. As for the young man, he
abode one of Ja'afar's cup companions till there happened what
happened[FN#176] whereupon he returned with his household to
al-Medinah; may Almighty Allah have mercy upon their souls one
and all! And they also tell, O auspicious King, a tale of


There was given to Abú Ámir bin Marwán,[FN#177] a boy of the
Christians, than whom never fell eyes on a handsomer. Al-Nasir
the conquering Soldan saw him and said to Abu Amir, who was
his Wazir, "Whence cometh this boy?" Replied he, "From Allah;"
whereupon the other, "Wilt thou terrify us with stars and make
us prisoner with moons?" Abu Amir excused himself to him and
preparing a present, sent it to him with the boy, to whom he
said, "Be thou part of the gift: were it not of necessity, my
soul had not consented to give thee away." And he wrote with
him these two couplets,

"My lord, this full moon takes in Heaven of thee new birth; *
     Nor can deny we Heaven excelleth humble earth:
Thee with my soul I please and oh! the pleasant case! * No man
     e'er saw I who to give his soul prefer'th."

The thing pleased Al-Nasir and he requited him with much
treasure and the Minister became high in favour with him.
After this, there was presented to the Wazir a slave girl, one
of the loveliest women in the world, and he feared lest this
should come to the King's ears and he desire her, and the like
should happen as with the boy. So he made up a present still
costlier than the first and sent it with her to the King,--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

     When it was the Six Hundred and Ninety-eighth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
Wazir Abu Amir, when presented with the beautiful slave girl,
feared lest it come to the Conquering King's ears and that the
like should happen as with the boy, so he made up a present
still costlier than the first and sent it with her to his
master, accompanying it with these couplets,

"My lord, this be the Sun, the Moon thou hadst before; * So
     the two greater lights now in thy Heaven unite:
Conjunction promising to me prosperity, * And Kausar draught
     to thee and Eden's long delight.
Earth shows no charms, by Allah, ranking as their third, * Nor
     King who secondeth our Conquering King in might."

Wherefore his credit redoubled with al-Nasir; but, after a
while, one of his enemies maligned him to the King, alleging
that there still lurked in him a hot lust for the boy and that
he ceased not to desire him, whenever the cool northern
breezes moved him, and to gnash his teeth for having given him
away. Cried the King, "Wag not thou thy tongue at him, or I
will shear off thy head." However, he wrote Abu Amir a letter,
as from the boy. to the following effect: "O my lord, thou
knowest that thou wast all and one to me and that I never
ceased from delight with thee. Albeit I am with the Sultan,
yet would I choose rather solitude with thee, but that I fear
the King's majesty: wherefore devise thou to demand me of
him." This letter he sent to Abu Amir by a little foot page,
whom he enjoined to say, "This is from such an one: the King
never speaketh to him." When the Wazir read the letter and
heard the cheating message, he noted the poison
draught[FN#178] and wrote on the back of the note these

"Shall man experience-lectured ever care * Fool-like to thrust
     his head in lion's lair?
I'm none of those whose wits to love succumb * Nor witless of
     the snares my foes prepare:
Wert thou my sprite, I'd give thee loyally; * Shall sprite,
     from body sundered, backwards fare?"

When al-Nasir knew of this answer, he marvelled at the Wazir's
quickness of wit and would never again lend ear to aught of
insinuations against him. Then said he to him, "How didst thou
escape falling into the net?" And he replied, "Because my
reason is unentangled in the toils of passion." And they also
tell a tale of


There lived in the time of Harun al-Rashid a man named Ahmad
al-Danaf and another Hasan Shúmán[FN#180] hight, the twain
past-masters in fraud and feints, who had done rare things in
their day;  wherefore the Caliph invested them with caftans of
honour and  made them Captains of the Watch for Baghdad (Ahmad
of the  right hand and Hasan of the left hand); and appointed
to each of  them a stipend of a thousand dinars a month and
forty stalwart  men to be at their bidding. Moreover to
Calamity Ahmad was  committed the watch of the district
outside the walls. So Ahmad  and Hasan went forth in company
of the Emir Khalid, the Wali  or Chief of Police, attended
each by his forty followers on horse-back, and preceded by the
Crier, crying aloud and saying, "By  command of the Caliph!
None is captain of the watch of  the right hand but Ahmad al-
Danaf and none is captain of the  watch of the left hand but
Hasan Shuman, and both are to  be obeyed when they bid and are
to be held in all honour and  worship." Now there was in the
city an old woman called Dalílah  the Wily, who had a daughter
by name Zaynab the Coney-catcher.  They heard the proclamation
made and Zaynab said to Dalilah,  "See, O my mother, this
fellow, Ahmad al-Danaf! He came  hither from Cairo, a
fugitive, and played the double-dealer in  Baghdad, till he
got into the Caliph's company and is now become  captain of
the right hand, whilst that mangy chap Hasan Shuman  is
captain of the left hand, and each hath a table spread morning
and evening and a monthly wage of a thousand dinars; whereas
we abide unemployed and neglected in this house, without
estate  and without honour, and have none to ask of us." Now
Dalilah's  husband had been town-captain of Baghdad with a
monthly wage  of one thousand dinars; but he died leaving two
daughters, one  married and with a son by name Ahmad al-
Lakít[FN#181] or Ahmad the  Abortion; and the other called
Zaynab, a spinster. And this  Dalilah was a past mistress in
all manner of craft and trickery and  double dealing; she
could wile the very dragon out of his den  and Iblis himself
might have learnt deceit of her. Her father[FN#182]  had also
been governor of the carrier-pigeons to the Caliph with a
solde of one thousand dinars a month. He used to rear the
birds  to carry letters and messages, wherefore in time of
need each was  dearer to the Caliph than one of his own sons.
So Zaynab said  to her mother, "Up and play off some feint and
fraud that may  haply make us notorious"--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn  of day and ceased saying her permitted

     When it was the Six Hundred and Ninety-ninth Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
Zaynab  thus addressed her dam, "Up and play off some feint
and fraud  which may haply make us notorious in Baghdad, so
perchance we  shall win our father's stipend for ourselves."
Replied the old  trot, "As thy head liveth, O my daughter, I
will play off higher-class rogueries in Baghdad than ever
played Calamity Ahmad or  Hasan the Pestilent." So saying, she
rose and threw over her  face the Lisam-veil and donned
clothes such as the poorer Sufis  wear, petticoat-trousers
falling over her heels, and a gown of  white wool with a broad
girdle. She also took a pitcher[FN#183] and  filled it with
water to the neck; after which she set three dinars in  the
mouth and stopped it up with a plug of palm-fibre. Then she
threw round her shoulder, baldrick-wise, a rosary as big as a
load  of firewood, and taking in her hand a flag, made of
parti-coloured  rags, red and yellow and green, went out,
crying, "Allah! Allah!"  with tongue celebrating the praises
of the Lord, whilst her heart  galloped in the Devil's race-
course, seeking how she might play  some sharping trick upon
town. She walked from street to street,  till she came to an
alley swept and watered and marble-paved,  where she saw a
vaulted gateway, with a threshold of alabaster,  and a Moorish
porter standing at the door, which was of sandalwood  plated
with brass and furnished with a ring of silver for  knocker.
Now this house belonged to the Chief of the Caliph's
Serjeant-ushers, a man of great wealth in fields, houses and
allowances,  called the Emir Hasan Sharr al-Tarík, or Evil of
the Way,  and therefor called because his blow forewent his
word. He was  married to a fair damsel, Khátún[FN#184] hight,
whom he loved and who  had made him swear, on the night of his
going in unto her, that  he would take none other to wife over
her nor lie abroad for a  single night. And so things went on
till one day, he went to the  Divan and saw that each Emir had
with him a son or two. Then  he entered the Hammam-bath and
looking at his face in the  mirror, noted that the white hairs
in his beard overlay its black,  and he said in himself, "Will
not He who took thy sire bless thee  with a son?" So he went
in to his wife, in angry mood, and she  said to him, "Good
evening to thee"; but he replied, "Get thee  out of my sight:
from the day I saw thee I have seen naught of  good." "How
so?" quoth she. Quoth he, "On the night of my  going in unto
thee, thou madest me swear to take no other wife  over thee,
and this very day I have seen each Emir with a son  and some
with two. So I minded me of death[FN#185]; and also that to
me hath been vouchsafed neither son nor daughter and that
whoso leaveth no male hath no memory. This, then, is the
reason of my anger, for thou art barren; and knowing thee is
like  planing a rock." Cried she, "Allah's name upon thee.
Indeed,  I have worn out the mortars with beating wool and
pounding  drugs,[FN#186] and I am not to blame; the barrenness
is with thee, for  that thou art a snub-nosed mule and thy
sperm is weak and  watery and impregnateth not neither getteth
children." Said he,  "When I return from my journey, I will
take another wife;" and  she, "My luck is with Allah!" Then he
went out from her and  both repented of the sharp words spoken
each to other. Now as  the Emir's wife looked forth of her
lattice, as she were a Bride of  the Hoards[FN#187] for the
jewellery upon her, behold, there stood  Dalilah espying her
and seeing her clad in costly clothes and  ornaments, said to
herself, "'Twould be a rare trick, O Dalilah, to  entice
yonder young lady from her husband's house and strip her  of
all her jewels and clothes and make off with the whole lot."
So she took up her stand under the windows of the Emir's
house,  and fell to calling aloud upon Allah's name and
saying, "Be  present, O ye Walis, ye friends of the Lord!"
Whereupon every  woman in the street looked from her lattice
and, seeing a matron  clad, after Sufi fashion, in clothes of
white wool, as she were a  pavilion of light, said, "Allah
bring us a blessing by the aidance  of this pious old person,
from whose face issueth light!" And  Khatun, the wife of the
Emir Hasan, burst into tears and said to  her handmaid, "Get
thee down, O Makbúlah, and kiss the hand of  Shaykh Abú Alí,
the porter, and say to him, 'Let yonder  Religious enter to my
lady, so haply she may get a blessing of  her.'" So she went
down to the porter and kissing his hand, said  to him, "My
mistress telleth thee, 'Let yonder pious old woman  come in to
me, so may I get a blessing of her'; and belike her
benediction may extend to us likewise."--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

            When it was the Seven Hundredth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
handmaid went down and said to the porter, "Suffer yonder
Religious enter to my lady so haply she may get a blessing of
her, and we too may be blessed, one and all," the gate-keeper
went up to Dalilah and kissed her hand, but she forbade him,
saying, "Away from me, lest my ablution be made null and
void.[FN#188] Thou, also, art of the attracted God-wards and
kindly  looked upon by Allah's Saints and under His especial
guardianship.  May He deliver thee from this servitude, O Abu
Ali!"  Now the Emir owed three months' wage to the porter who
was  straitened thereby, but knew not how to recover his due
from his  lord; so he said to the old woman, "O my mother,
give me to  drink from thy pitcher, so I may win a blessing
through thee."  She took the ewer from her shoulder and
whirled it about in air,  so that the plug flew out of its
mouth and the three dinars fell to  the ground. The porter saw
them and picked them up, saying in  his mind, "Glory to God!
This old woman is one of the Saints that  have hoards at their
command! It hath been revealed to her of  me that I am in want
of money for daily expenses; so she hath  conjured me these
three dinars out of the air." Then said he to  her, "Take, O
my aunt, these three dinars which fell from thy  pitcher;" and
she replied, "Away with them from me! I am of  the folk who
occupy not themselves with the things of the world,  no never!
Take them and use them for thine own benefit, in  lieu of
those the Emir oweth thee." Quoth he, "Thanks to Allah  for
succour! This is of the chapter of revelation!" Thereupon  the
maid accosted her and kissing her hand, carried her up to her
mistress. She found the lady as she were a treasure, whose
guardian talisman had been loosed; and Khatun bade her
welcome and kissed her hand. Quoth she, "O my daughter, I
come not to thee save for thy weal and by Allah's will." Then
Khatun set food before her; but she said, "O my daughter, I
eat  naught except of the food of Paradise and I keep
continual fast  breaking it but five days in the year. But, O
my child, I see thee  chagrined and desire that thou tell me
the cause of thy concern."  "O my mother," replied Khatun, "I
made my husband swear, on  my wedding-night, that he would
wive none but me, and he saw  others with children and longed
for them and said to me, 'Thou art  a barren thing!' I
answered, 'Thou art a mule which begetteth  not'; so he left
me in anger, saying, 'When I come back from my  journey, I
will take another wife,' for he hath villages and lands  and
large allowances, and if he begat children by another, they
will possess the money and take the estates from me." Said
Dalilah, "O my daughter, knowest thou not of my master, the
Shaykh Abú al-Hamlát,[FN#189] whom if any debtor visit, Allah
quitteth him his debt, and if a barren woman, she conceiveth?"
Khatun replied, "O my mother, since the day of my wedding I
have not gone forth the house, no, not even to pay visits of
condolence or congratulation." The old woman rejoined, "O my
child, I will carry thee to him and do thou cast thy burden on
him and make a vow to him: haply when thy husband shall
return from his journey and lie with thee thou shalt conceive
by  him and bear a girl or a boy: but, be it female or male,
it shall  be a dervish of the Shaykh Abu al-Hamlat." Thereupon
Khatun  rose and arrayed herself in her richest raiment, and
donning all  her jewellery said, "Keep thou an eye on the
house," to her  maid, who replied, "I hear and obey, O my
lady." Then she  went down and the porter Abu Ali met her and
asked her,  "Whither away, O my lady?" "I go to visit the
Shaykh Abu  al-Hamlat;" answered she; and he, "Be a year's
fast incumbent  on me! Verily yon Religious is of Allah's
saints and full of  holiness, O my lady, and she hath hidden
treasure at her  command, for she gave me three dinars of red
gold and divined  my case, without my asking her, and knew
that I was in want."  Then the old woman went out with the
young lady Khatun,  saying to her, "Inshallah, O my daughter,
when thou hast visited  the Shaykh Abu al-Hamlat, there shall
betide thee solace of soul  and by leave of Almighty Allah
thou shalt conceive, and thy  husband the Emir shall love thee
by the blessing of the Shaykh  and shall never again let thee
hear a despiteful word." Quoth  Khatun, "I will go with thee
to visit him, O my mother!" But  Dalilah said to herself,
"Where shall I strip her and take her  clothes and jewellery,
with the folk coming and going?" Then  she said to her, "O my
daughter, walk thou behind me, within  sight of me, for this
thy mother is a woman sorely burdened;  everyone who hath a
burden casteth it on me and all who have  pious
offerings[FN#190] to make give them to me and kiss my hand."
So the young lady followed her at a distance, whilst her
anklets  tinkled and her hair-coins[FN#191] clinked as she
went, till they reached  the bazar of the merchants.
Presently, they came to the shop of a  young merchant, by name
Sídí Hasan who was very handsome[FN#192]  and had no hair on
his face. He saw the lady approaching and  fell to casting
stolen glances at her, which when the old woman  saw, she
beckoned to her and said, "Sit down in this shop,  till I
return to thee." Khatun obeyed her and sat down in the  shop-
front of the young merchant, who cast at her one glance of
eyes that cost him a thousand sighs. Then the old woman
accosted him and saluted him, saying, "Tell me, is not thy
name Sidi Hasan, son of the merchant Mohsin?" He replied,
"Yes, who told thee my name?" Quoth she, "Folk of good  repute
direct me to thee. Know that this young lady is my  daughter
and her father was a merchant who died and left her  much
money. She is come of marriageable age and the wise  say,
'Offer thy daughter in marriage and not thy son'; and all  her
life she hath not come forth the house till this day. Now a
divine warning and a command given in secret bid me wed her
to thee; so, if thou art poor, I will give thee capital and
will  open for thee instead of one shop two shops." Thereupon
quoth  the young merchant to himself, "I asked Allah for a
bride, and  He hath given me three things, to wit, coin,
clothing, and coynte."  Then he continued to the old trot, "O
my mother, that where-to thou directest me is well; but this
long while my mother  saith to me, 'I wish to marry thee,' but
I object replying, 'I will  not marry except on the sight of
my own eyes.'" Said Dalilah,  "Rise and follow my steps, and I
will show her to thee, naked."[FN#193]  So he rose and took a
thousand dinars, saying in himself,  "Haply we may need to buy
somewhat"--And Shahrazad  perceived the dawn of day and ceased
saying her permitted say.

        When it was the Seven Hundred and First Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
old woman said to Hasan, son of Mohsin the merchant, "Rise  up
and follow me, and I will show her naked to thee." So he  rose
and took with him a thousand dinars, saying in himself,
"Haply we may need to buy somewhat or pay the fees for
drawing up the marriage contract." The old woman bade him
walk behind the young lady at a distance but within shot of
sight  and said to herself, "Where wilt thou carry the young
lady and  the merchant that thou mayest strip them both whilst
his shop  is still shut?" Then she walked on and Khatun after
her,  followed by the young merchant, till she came to a
dyery, kept  by a master dyer, by name Hajj Mohammed, a man of
ill-repute;  like the colocasia[FN#194] seller's knife cutting
male and female, and  loving to eat both figs and
pomegranates.[FN#195] He heard the tinkle of  the ankle rings
and, raising his head, saw the lady and the young  man.
Presently the old woman came up to him and, after  salaming to
him and sitting down opposite him, asked him, "Art  thou not
Hajj Mohammed the dyer?" He answered, "Yes, I am  he: what
dost thou want?" Quoth she, "Verily, folks of fair  repute
have directed me to thee. Look at yonder handsome girl,  my
daughter, and that comely beardless youth, my son; I brought
them both up and spent much money on both of them. Now,  thou
must know that I have a big old ruinous house which I have
shored up with wood, and the builder saith to me, 'Go and
live in some other place, lest belike it fall upon thee; and
when  this is repaired return hither.' So I went forth to seek
me a  lodging, and people of worth directed me to thee, and I
wish to  lodge my son and daughter with thee." Quoth the dyer
in his  mind, "Verily, here is fresh butter upon cake come to
thee." But  he said to the old woman, "'Tis true I have a
house and saloon  and upper floor; but I cannot spare any part
thereof, for I want it  all for guests and for the indigo-
growers my clients." She replied,  "O my son, 'twill be only
for a month or two at the most, till our  house be repaired,
and we are strange folk. Let the guest-chamber  be shared
between us and thee, and by thy life, O my son, an thou
desire that thy guests be ours, we will welcome them and eat
with  them and sleep with them." Then he gave her the keys,
one big  and one small and one crooked, saying to her "The big
key is  that of the house, the crooked one that of the saloon
and the little  one that of the upper floor." So Dalilah took
the keys and fared  on, followed by the lady who forwent the
young merchant, till  she came to the lane wherein was the
house. She opened the  door and entered, introducing the
damsel to whom said she, "O  my daughter, this (pointing to
the saloon) is the lodging of the  Shaykh Abu al-Hamlat; but
go thou into the upper floor and  loose thy outer veil and
wait till I come to thee." So she went  up and sat down.
Presently appeared the young merchant, whom  Dalilah carried
into the saloon, saying, "Sit down, whilst I fetch  my
daughter and show her to thee." So he sat down and the old
trot went up to Khatun who said to her, "I wish to visit the
Shaykh, before the folk come." Replied the beldame, "O my
daughter, we fear for thee." Asked Khatun, "Why so?" and
Dalilah answered, "Because here is a son of mine, a natural
who  knoweth not summer from winter, but goeth ever naked. He
is  the Shaykh's deputy and, if he saw a girl like thee come
to visit  his chief, he would snatch her earrings and tear her
ears and rend  her silken robes.[FN#196] So do thou doff thy
jewellery and clothes and  I will keep them for thee, till
thou hast made thy pious visitation."  Accordingly the damsel
did off her outer dress and jewels and  gave them to the old
woman, who said, "I will lay them for thee  on the Shaykh's
curtain, that a blessing may betide thee." Then  she went out,
leaving the lady in her shift and petticoat-trousers,  and hid
the clothes and jewels in a place on the staircase; after
which she betook herself to the young merchant, whom she found
impatiently awaiting the girl, and he cried, "Where is thy
daughter, that I may see her?" But she smote palm on breast
and he said "What aileth thee?" Quoth she, "Would there  were
no such thing as the ill neighbour and the envious! They  saw
thee enter the house with me and asked me of thee; and I
said, 'This is a bridegroom I have found for my daughter.' So
they envied me on thine account and said to my girl, 'Is thy
mother  tired of keeping thee, that she marrieth thee to a
leper?' There-upon I swore to her that she should not see thee
save naked."  Quoth he, "I take refuge with Allah from the
envious," and baring  his fore-arm, showed her that it was
like silver. Said she, "Have  no fear; thou shalt see her
naked, even as she shall see thee  naked;" and he said, "Let
her come and look at me. Then he  put off his pelisse and
sables and his girdle and dagger and the  rest of his raiment,
except his shirt and bag-trousers, and would  have laid the
purse of a thousand dinars with them, but Dalilah  cried,
'Give them to me, that I may take care of them." So she  took
them and fetching the girl's clothes and jewellery shouldered
the whole and locking the door upon them went her ways.--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

       When it was the Seven Hundred and Second Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
the old woman had taken the property of the young merchant and
the damsel and wended her ways, having locked the door upon
them, she deposited her spoils with a druggist of her
acquaintance  and returned to the dyer, whom she found
sitting, awaiting her.  Quoth he, "Inshallah, the house
pleaseth thee?"; and quoth she,  "There is a blessing in it;
and I go now to fetch porters to carry  hither our goods and
furniture. But my children would have me  bring them a panade
with meat; so do thou take this dinar and  buy the dish and go
and eat the morning meal with them." Asked  the dyer, "Who
shall guard the dyery meanwhile and the people's  goods that
be therein?"; and the old woman answered, "Thy  lad!" "So be
it," rejoined he, and taking a dish and cover, went  out to do
her bidding. So far concerning the dyer who will again  be
mentioned in the tale; but as regards the old woman, she
fetched the clothes and jewels she had left with the druggist
and  going back to the dyery, said to the lad, "Run after thy
master,  and I will not stir hence till you both return." "To
hear is to  obey," answered he and went away, while she began
to collect all  the customers' goods. Presently, there came up
an ass-driver, a  scavenger, who had been out of work for a
week and who was an  Hashish-eater to boot; and she called
him, saying, "Hither, O  donkey-boy!" So he came to her and
she asked, "Knowest thou  my son the dyer?"; whereto he
answered, "Yes, I know him."  Then she said, "The poor fellow
is insolvent and loaded with  debts, and as often as he is put
in prison, I set him free. Now  we wish to see him declared
bankrupt and I am going to return  the goods to their owners;
so do thou lend me thine ass to carry  the load and receive
this dinar to its hire. When I am gone, take  the handsaw and
empty out the vats and jars and break them, so  that if there
come an officer from the Kází's court, he may find  nothing in
the dyery." Quoth he, "I owe the Hajj a kindness  and will do
something for Allah's love." So she laid the things  on the
ass and, the Protector protecting her, made for her own
house; so that she arrived there in safety and went in to her
daughter Zaynab, who said to her, "O my mother, my heart bath
been with thee! What hast thou done by way of roguery?"
Dalilah replied, "I have played off four tricks on four
wights; the  wife of the Serjeant-usher, a young merchant, a
dyer and an ass-driver, and have brought thee all their spoil
on the donkey-boy's  beast." Cried Zaynab, "O my mother, thou
wilt never more be  able to go about the town, for fear of the
Serjeant-usher, whose  wife's raiment and jewellery thou hast
taken, and the merchant  whom thou hast stripped naked, and
the dyer whose customers'  goods thou hast stolen and the
owner of the ass." Rejoined the  old woman, "Pooh, my girl! I
reck not of them, save the donkey-boy, who knoweth me."
Meanwhile the dyer bought the meat-panade and set out for the
house, followed by his servant with the  food on head. On his
way thither, he passed his shop, where he  found the donkey-
boy breaking the vats and jars and saw that  there was neither
stuff nor liquor left in them and that the dyery  was in
ruins. So he said to him, "Hold thy hand, O ass-driver;"  and
the donkey-boy desisted and cried, "Praised be Allah for thy
safety, O master! Verily my heart was with thee." "Why so?"
"Thou art become bankrupt and they have filed a docket of
thine  insolvency." "Who told thee this?" "Thy mother told me,
and  bade me break the jars and empty the vats, that the
Kazi's officers  might find nothing in the shop, if they
should come." "Allah  confound the far One!"[FN#197] cried the
dyer; "My mother died long  ago." And he beat his breast,
exclaiming, "Alas, for the loss of  my goods and those of the
folk!" The donkey-boy also wept  and ejaculated, "Alas, for
the loss of my ass!"; and he said to  the dyer, "Give me back
my beast which thy mother stole from  me." The dyer laid hold
of him by the throat and fell to buffeting  him, saying,
"Bring me the old woman;" whilst the other buffeted  him in
return saying, "Give me back my beast." So they beat  and
cursed each other, till the folk collected around them--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her
permitted say.

        When it was the Seven Hundred and Third Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
dyer caught hold of the donkey-boy and the donkey-boy caught
hold of the dyer and they beat and cursed each other till the
folk  collected round them and one of them asked, "What is the
matter,  O Master Mohammed?" The ass-driver answered, "I will
tell  thee the tale," and related to them his story, saying,
"I deemed I  was doing the dyer a good turn; but, when he saw
me he beat his  breast and said, 'My mother is dead.' And now,
I for one require  my ass of him, it being he who hath put
this trick on me, that he  might make me lose my beast." Then
said the folk to the dyer,  "O Master Mohammed, dost thou know
this matron, that thou  didst entrust her with the dyery and
all therein?" And he  replied, "I know her not; but she took
lodgings with me to-day,  she and her son and daughter." Quoth
one, "In my judgment,  the dyer is bound to indemnify the ass-
driver." Quoth another,  "Why so?" "Because," replied the
first, "he trusted not the old  Woman nor gave her his ass
save only because he saw that the  dyer had entrusted her with
the dyery and its contents." And a  third said, "O master,
since thou hast lodged her with thee, it  behoveth thee to get
the man back his ass." Then they made for  the house, and the
tale will come round to them again. Mean-while, the young
merchant remained awaiting the old woman's  coming with her
daughter, but she came not nor did her daughter;  whilst the
young lady in like manner sat expecting her return  with leave
from her son, the God-attended one, the Shaykh's  deputy, to
go in to the holy presence. So weary of waiting, she  rose to
visit the Shaykh by herself and went down into the saloon,
where she found the young merchant, who said to her, "Come
hither! where is thy mother, who brought me to marry thee?"
She replied, "My mother is dead, art thou the old woman's son,
the ecstatic, the deputy of the Shaykh Abu al-Hamlat?" Quoth
he, "The swindling old trot is no mother of mine; she hath
cheated me and taken my clothes and a thousand dinars." Quoth
Khatun, "And me also hath she swindled for she brought me to
see the Shaykh Abu al-Hamlat and in lieu of so doing she hath
stripped me." Thereupon he, "I look to thee to make good my
clothes and my thousand dinars;" and she, "I look to thee to
make good my clothes and jewellery." And, behold, at this
moment in came the dyer and seeing them both stripped of their
raiment, said to them, "Tell me where your mother is." So the
young lady related all that had befallen her and the young
merchant related all that had betided him, and the Master-dyer
exclaimed, "Alas, for the loss of my goods and those of the
folk!";  and the ass-driver ejaculated, "Alas, for my ass!
Give me, O  dyer, my ass!" Then said the dyer, "This old woman
is a  sharper. Come forth, that I may lock the door." Quoth
the  young merchant, "'Twere a disgrace to thee that we should
enter  thy house dressed and go forth from it undressed." So
the dyer  clad him and the damsel and sent her back to her
house where we  shall find her after the return of her
husband. Then he shut the  dyery and said to the young
merchant, "Come, let us go and  search for the old woman and
hand her over to the Wali,[FN#198] the  Chief of Police." So
they and the ass-man repaired to the house  of the master of
police and made their complaint to him. Quoth  he, "O folk,
what want ye?" and when they told him he rejoined,  "How many
old women are there not in the town! Go ye and  seek for her
and lay hands on her and bring her to me, and I will  torture
her for you and make her confess." So they sought for  her all
round the town; and an account of them will presently be
given.[FN#199] As for old Dalilah the Wily, she said, "I have
a mind to  play off another trick," to her daughter who
answered, "O my  mother, I fear for thee;" but the beldam
cried, "I am like the bean  husks which fall, proof against
fire and water." So she rose, and  donning a slave-girl's
dress of such as serve people of condition,  went out to look
for some one to defraud. Presently she came to  a by-street,
spread with carpets and lighted with hanging lamps,  and heard
a noise of singing-women and drumming of tambourines.  Here
she saw a handmaid bearing on her shoulder a boy, clad in
trousers laced with silver and a little Abá-cloak of velvet,
with a  pearl embroidered Tarbush-cap on his head, and about
his neck a  collar of gold set with jewels. Now the house
belonged to the  Provost of the Merchants of Baghdad, and the
boy was his son.  He had a virgin daughter, to boot, who was
promised in marriage,  and it was her betrothal they were
celebrating that day. There  was with her mother a company of
noble dames and singing-women, and whenever she went upstairs
or down, the boy clung  to her. So she called the slave-girl
and said to her, "Take thy  young master and play with him,
till the company break up."  Seeing this, Dalilah asked the
handmaid, "What festivities are  these in your mistress's
house;" and was answered "She celebrates  her daughter's
betrothal this day, and she hath singing-women  with her."
Quoth the old woman to herself, "O Dalilah, the  thing to do
is to spirit away this boy from the maid,"--And  Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her  permitted

       When it was the Seven Hundred and Fourth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
old trot said to herself, "O Dalilah, the thing to do is to
spirit  away this boy from the maid!" she began crying out, "O
disgrace! O ill luck!" Then pulling out a brass token,
resembling  a dinar, she said to the maid, who was a
simpleton, "Take  this ducat and go in to thy mistress and say
to her, 'Umm  al-Khayr rejoiceth with thee and is beholden to
thee for thy  favours, and on the day of assembly she and her
daughters will  visit thee and handsel the tiring-women with
the usual gifts.'"  Said the girl, "O my mother, my young
master here catcheth hold  of his mamma, whenever he seeth
her;" and she replied "Give  him to me, whilst thou goest in
and comest back." So she gave  her the child and taking the
token, went in; whereupon Dalilah  made off with the boy to a
by-lane, where she stripped him of his  clothes and jewels,
saying to herself, "O Dalilah, 'twould indeed  be the finest
of tricks, even as thou hast cheated the maid and  taken the
boy from her, so now to carry on the game and pawn  him for a
thousand dinars." So she repaired to the jewel-bazar,  where
she saw a Jew goldsmith seated with a cage full of jewellery
before him, and said to herself, "'Twould be a rare trick to
chouse this Jew fellow and get a thousand gold pieces worth of
jewellery from him and leave the boy in pledge for it."
Presently  the Jew looked at them and seeing the boy with the
old woman,  knew him for the son of the Provost of the
Merchants. Now the  Israelite was a man of great wealth, but
would envy his neighbour  if he sold and himself did not sell;
so espying Dalilah, he said to  her, "What seekest thou, O my
mistress?" She asked, "Art  thou Master Azariah[FN#200] the
Jew?" having first enquired his name  of others; and he
answered, "Yes." Quoth she, "This boy's  sister, daughter of
the Shahbandar of the Merchants, is a promised  bride, and to-
day they celebrate her betrothal; and she hath need  of
jewellery. So give me two pair of gold ankle-rings, a brace of
gold bracelets, and pearl ear-drops, with a girdle, a poignard
and  a seal-ring." He brought them out and she took of him a
thousand  dinars' worth of jewellery, saying, "I will take
these ornaments on  approval; and whatso pleaseth them, they
will keep and I will  bring thee the price and leave this boy
with thee till then." He  said, "Be it as thou wilt!" So she
took the jewellery and made  off to her own house, where her
daughter asked her how the trick  had sped. She told her how
she had taken and stripped the  Shahbandar's boy, and Zaynab
said, "Thou wilt never be able to  walk abroad again in the
town." Meanwhile, the maid went in  to her mistress and said
to her, "O my lady, Umm al-Khayr  saluteth thee and rejoiceth
with thee and on assembly-day she  will come, she and her
daughters, and give the customary  presents." Quoth her
mistress, "Where is thy young master?"  Quoth the slave-girl,
"I left him with her lest he cling to thee,  and she gave me
this, as largesse for the singing-women." So  the lady said to
the chief of the singers, "Take thy money;" and  she took it
and found it a brass counter; whereupon the lady cried  to the
maid, "Get thee down, O whore, and look to thy young  master."
Accordingly, she went down and finding neither boy  nor old
woman, shrieked aloud and fell on her face. Their joy was
changed into annoy, and behold, the Provost came in, when his
wife told him all that had befallen and he went out in quest
of the  child, whilst the other merchants also fared forth and
each sought  his own road. Presently, the Shahbandar, who had
looked every-where, espied his son seated, naked, in the Jew's
shop and said to  tile owner, "This is my son." "'Tis well,"
answered the Jew. So  he took him up, without asking for his
clothes, of the excess of his  joy at finding him; but the Jew
laid hold of him, saying, "Allah  succour the Caliph against
thee!"[FN#201] The Provost asked, "What  aileth thee, O Jew?";
and he answered, "Verily the old woman  took of me a thousand
dinars' worth of jewellery for thy daughter,  and left this
lad in pledge for the price; and I had not trusted  her, but
that she offered to leave the child whom I knew for thy  Son."
Said the Provost, "My daughter needeth no jewellery, give  me
the boy's clothes." Thereupon the Jew shrieked out, "Come  to
my aid, O Moslems!" but at that moment up came the dyer  and
the ass-man and the young merchant, who were going about,
seeking the old woman, and enquired the cause of their jangle.
So they told them the case and they said, "This old woman is a
cheat, who hath cheated us before you." Then they recounted to
them how she had dealt with them, and the Provost said, "Since
I have found my son, be his clothes his ransom! If I come upon
the old woman, I will require them of her." And he carried the
child home to his mother, who rejoiced in his safety. Then the
Jew said to the three others "Whither go ye?"; and they
answered, "We go to look for her." Quoth the Jew, "Take me
with you," presently adding, "Is there any one of you knoweth
her?" The donkey-boy cried, "I know her;" and the Jew said,
"If we all go forth together, we shall never catch her; for
she will  flee from us. Let each take a different road, and be
our rendezvous  at the shop of Hajj Mas'úd, the Moorish
barber." They  agreed to this and set off, each in a different
direction. Presently,  Dalilah sallied forth again to play her
tricks and the ass-driver  met her and knew her. So he caught
hold of her and said to  her, "Woe to thee! Hast thou been
long at this trade?" She  asked, "What aileth thee?"; and he
answered, "Give me back  my ass." Quoth she, "Cover what Allah
covereth, O my son!  Dost thou seek thine ass and the people's
things?" Quoth he,  "I want my ass; that's all;" and quoth
she, "I saw that thou  wast poor: so I deposited thine ass for
thee with the Moorish  barber. Stand off, whilst I speak him
fair, that he may give thee  the beast." So she went up to the
Maghrabi and kissed his hand  and shed tears. He asked her
what ailed her and she said, "O  my son, look at my boy who
standeth yonder. He was ill and  exposed himself to the air,
which injured his intellect. He used  to buy asses and now, if
he stand he saith nothing but, My ass!  if he sit he crieth,
My ass! and if he walk he crieth, My ass!  Now I have been
told by a certain physician that his mind is  disordered and
that nothing will cure him but drawing two of his  grinders
and cauterising him twice on either temple. So do thou  take
this dinar and call him to thee, saying, 'Thine ass is with
me.'" Said the barber, "May I fast for a year, if I do not
give him  his ass in his fist!" Now he had with him two
journeymen, so he  said to one of them "Go, heat the irons."
Then the old woman  went her way and the barber called to the
donkey-boy,[FN#202] saying,  "Thine ass is with me, good
fellow! come and take him, and as  thou livest, I will give
him into thy palm." So he came to him  and the barber carried
him into a dark room, where he knocked  him down and the
journeymen bound him hand and foot. Then  the Maghrabi arose
and pulled out two of his grinders and fired  him on either
temple; after which he let him go, and he rose and  said, "O
Moor, why hast thou used me with this usage?" Quoth  the
barber, "Thy mother told me that thou hadst taken cold whilst
ill, and hadst lost thy reason, so that, whether sitting or
standing  or walking, thou wouldst say nothing but My ass! So
here is  thine ass in thy fist." Said the other, "Allah
requite thee for  pulling out my teeth." Then the barber told
him all that the old  woman had related and he exclaimed,
"Allah torment her!"; and  the twain left the shop and went
out, disputing. When the barber  returned, he found his booth
empty, for, whilst he was absent, the  old woman had taken all
that was therein and made off with it to  her daughter, whom
she acquainted with all that had befallen and  all she had
done. The barber, seeing his place plundered, caught  hold of
the donkey-boy and said to him, "Bring me thy mother"  But he
answered, saying, "She is not my mother; she is a sharper  who
hath cozened much people and stolen my ass." And lo! at  this
moment up came the dyer and the Jew and the young  merchant,
and seeing the Moorish barber holding on to the ass-driver who
was fired on both temples, they said to him, "What  hath
befallen thee, O donkey-boy?" So he told them all that  had
betided him and the barber did the like; and the others in
turn related to the Moor the tricks the old woman had played
them. Then he shut up his shop and went with them to the
office of the Police-master to whom they said, "We look to
thee for our case and our coin."[FN#203] Quoth the Wali, "And
how  many old women are there not in Baghdad! Say me, doth any
of you know her?" Quoth the ass-man, "I do; so give me ten  of
thine officers." He gave them half a score archers and they
all five went out, followed by the sergeants, and patrolled
the  city, till they met the old woman, when they laid hands
on her  and carrying her to the house of the Chief of Police,
stood waiting  under his office windows till he should come
forth. Presently,  the warders fell asleep, for excess of
watching with their chief,  and old Dalilah feigned to follow
their example, till the ass-man  and his fellows slept
likewise, when she stole away from them  and, going in to the
Wali's Harim, kissed the hand of the mistress  of the house
and asked her "Where is the Chief of Police?"  The lady
answered, "He is asleep; what wouldst thou with  him?" Quoth
Dalilah, "My husband is a merchant of chattels  and gave me
five Mamelukes to sell, whilst he went on a journey.  The
Master of Police met me and bought them of me for a  thousand
dinars and two hundred for myself, saying, 'Bring  them to my
house.' So I have brought them."--And  Shahrazad perceived the
dawn of day and ceased saying her  permitted say.

        When it was the Seven Hundred and Fifth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
old woman, entering the Harim of the Police-Master, said to
his  wife, "Verily the Wali bought of me five slaves for one
thousand  ducats and two hundred for myself, saying, 'Bring
them to my  quarters.' So I have brought them." Hearing the
old woman's  story she believed it and asked her, "Where are
the slaves?"  Dalilah replied, "O my lady, they are asleep
under the palace  window"; whereupon the dame looked out and
seeing the Moorish  barber clad in a Mameluke habit and the
young merchant as he  were a drunken Mameluke[FN#204] and the
Jew and the dyer and the ass-driver as they were shaven
Mamelukes, said in herself, "Each  of these white slaves is
worth more than a thousand dinars." So  she opened her chest
and gave the old woman the thousand ducats,  saying, "Fare
thee forth now and come back anon; when my  husband waketh, I
will get thee the other two hundred dinars from  him."
Answered the old woman, "O my lady, an hundred of them  are
thine, under the sherbert-gugglet whereof thou
drinkest,[FN#205] and  the other hundred do thou keep for me
against I come back,"  presently adding, "Now let me out by
the private door." So she  let her out, and the Protector
protected her and she made her way  home to her daughter, to
whom she related how she had gotten a  thousand gold pieces
and sold her five pursuers into slavery,  ending with, "O my
daughter, the one who troubleth me most is  the ass-driver,
for he knoweth me." Said Zaynab, "O my mother,  abide quiet
awhile and let what thou hast done suffice thee, for the
crock shall not always escape the shock." When the Chief of
Police awoke, his wife said to him, "I give thee joy of the
five  slaves thou hast bought of the old woman." Asked he,
"What  slaves?" And she answered, "Why dost thou deny it to
me?  Allah willing, they shall become like thee people of
condition."  Quoth he, "As my head liveth, I have bought no
slaves! Who  saith this?" Quoth she, "The old woman, the
brokeress, from  whom thou boughtest them; and thou didst
promise her a  thousand dinars for them and two hundred for
herself." Cried  he, "Didst thou give her the money?" And she
replied, "Yes;  for I saw the slaves with my own eyes, and on
each is a suit of  clothes worth a thousand dinars; so I sent
out to bid the sergeants  have an eye to them." The Wali went
out and, seeing the five  plaintiffs, said to the officers,
"Where are the five slaves we bought  for a thousand dinars of
the old woman?" Said they, "There  are no slaves here; only
these five men, who found the old woman,  and seized her and
brought her hither. We fell asleep, whilst  waiting for thee,
and she stole away and entered the Harim.  Presently out came
a maid and asked us, 'Are the five with you  with whom the old
woman came?'; and we answered, 'Yes.'"  Cried the Master of
Police, "By Allah, this is the biggest of  swindles!"; and the
five men said, "We look to thee for our  goods." Quoth the
Wali, "The old woman, your mistress, sold  you to me for a
thousand gold pieces." Quoth they, "That were  not allowed of
Allah; we are free-born men and may not be  sold, and we
appeal from thee to the Caliph." Rejoined the Master  of
Police, "None showed her the way to the house save you, and I
will sell you to the galleys for two hundred dinars apiece."
Just  then, behold, up came the Emir Hasan Sharr al-Tarik who,
on his  return from his journey, had found his wife stripped
of her clothes  and jewellery and heard from her all that had
passed; whereupon  quoth he, "The Master of Police shall
answer me this" and  repairing to him, said "Dost thou suffer
old women to go round  about the town and cozen folk of their
goods? This is thy duty  and I look to thee for my wife's
property." Then said he to the  five men, "What is the case
with you?" So they told him their  stories and he said, "Ye
are wronged men," and turning to the  Master of Police, asked
him, "Why dost thou arrest them?"  Answered he, "None brought
the old wretch to my house save  these five, so that she took
a thousand dinars of my money and  sold them to my women."
Whereupon the five cried, "O Emir  Hasan, be thou our advocate
in this cause." Then said the Master  of Police to the Emir,
"Thy wife's goods are at my charge and I  will be surety for
the old woman. But which of you knoweth  her?" They cried, "We
all know her: send ten apparitors with  us, and we will take
her." So he gave them ten men, and the ass-driver said to
them, "Follow me, for I should know her with blue
eyes."[FN#206] Then they fared forth and lo! they meet old
Dalilah  coming out of a by-street: so they at once laid hands
on her and  brought her to the office of the Wali who asked
her, "Where are  the people's goods?" But she answered,
saying, "I have neither  gotten them nor seen them." Then he
cried to the gaoler, "Take  her with thee and clap her in gaol
till the morning;" but he replied,  "I will not take her nor
will I imprison her lest she play a trick  on me and I be
answerable for her." So the Master of Police  mounted and rode
out with Dalilah and the rest to the bank of the  Tigris,
where he bade the lamp-lighter crucify her by her hair.  He
drew her up by the pulley and bound her on the cross; after
which the Master of Police set ten men to guard her and went
home. Presently, the night fell down and sleep overcame the
watchmen. Now a certain Badawi had heard one man say to a
friend, "Praise be to Allah for thy safe return! Where hast
thou  been all this time?" Replied the other, "In Baghdad
where I  broke my fast on honey-fritters."[FN#207] Quoth the
Badawi to himself  "Needs must I go to Baghdad and eat honey-
fritters therein"; for  in all his life he had never entered
Baghdad nor seen fritters of the  sort. So he mounted his
stallion and rode on towards Baghdad,  saying in his mind,
"'Tis a fine thing to eat honey-fritters! On the  honour of an
Arab, I will break my fast with honey-fritters and  naught
else!"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and  ceased to
say her permitted say.

        When it was the Seven Hundred and Sixth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
wild  Arab mounted horse and made for Baghdad saying in his
mind,  "'Tis a fine thing to eat honey-fritters! On the honour
of an  Arab I will break my fast with honey-fritters and
naught else;"  and he rode on till he came to the place where
Dalilah was  crucified and she heard him utter these words. So
he went up  to her and said to her, "What art thou?" Quoth
she, "I throw  myself on thy protection, O Shaykh of the
Arabs!" and quoth  lie, "Allah indeed protect thee! But what
is the cause of thy  crucifixion?" Said she, "I have an enemy,
an oilman, who frieth  fritters, and I stopped to buy some of
him, when I chanced to spit  and my spittle fell on the
fritters. So he complained of me to the  Governor who
commanded to crucify me, saying, 'I adjudge  that ye take ten
pounds of honey-fritters and feed her therewith  upon the
cross. If she eat them, let her go, but if not, leave her
hanging.' And my stomach will not brook sweet things." Cried
the Badawi, "By the honour of the Arabs, I departed not the
camp but that I might taste of honey-fritters! I will eat them
for thee." Quoth she, "None may eat them, except he be hung
up in my place." So he fell into the trap and unbound her;
whereupon she bound him in her stead, after she had stripped
him  of his clothes and turband and put them on; then covering
herself  with his burnouse and mounting his horse, she rode to
her house,  where Zaynab asked her, "What meaneth this
plight?"; and she  answered, "They crucified me;" and told her
all that had befallen  her with the Badawi. This is how it
fared with her; but as regards  the watchmen, the first who
woke roused his companions and they  saw that the day had
broken. So one of them raised his eyes  and cried, "Dalilah."
Replied the Badawi, "By Allah! I have  not eaten all night.
Have ye brought the honey-fritters?" All  exclaimed, "This is
a man and a Badawi, and one of them  asked him, "O Badawi,
where is Dalilah and who loosed her?"  He answered, "'Twas I;
she shall not eat the honey-fritters against  her will; for
her soul abhorreth them." So they knew that the  Arab was
ignorant of her case, whom she had cozened, and said  to one
another, "Shall we flee or abide the accomplishment of that
which Allah hath written for us?" As they were talking, up
came  the Chief of Police, with all the folk whom the old
woman had  cheated, and said to the guards, "Arise, loose
Dalilah." Quoth  the Badawi, "We have not eaten to-night. Hast
thou brought the  honey-fritters?" Whereupon the Wali raised
his eyes to the cross  and seeing the Badawi hung up in the
stead of the old woman,  said to the watchmen, "What is this?"
"Pardon, O our lord!"  "Tell me what hath happened" "We were
weary with watching  with thee on guard and , 'Dalilah is
crucified.' So we fell  asleep, and when we awoke, we found
the Badawi hung up in her  room; and we are at thy mercy." "O
folk, Allah's pardon be  upon you! She is indeed a clever
cheat!" Then they unbound  the Badawi, who laid hold of the
Master of Police, saying, "Allah  succour the Caliph against
thee! I look to none but thee for my  horse and clothes!" So
the Wali questioned him and he told  him what had passed
between Dalilah and himself. The magistrate  marvelled and
asked him, "Why didst thou release her?";  and the Badawi
answered, "I knew not that she was a felon."  Then said the
others, "O Chief of Police, we look to thee in the  matter of
our goods; for we delivered the old woman into thy  hands and
she was in thy guard; and we cite thee before the  Divan of
the Caliph." Now the Emir Hasan had gone up to the  Divan,
when in came the Wali with the Badawi and the five others,
saying, "Verily, we are wronged men!" "Who hath wronged  you?"
asked the Caliph; so each came forward in turn and told  his
story, after which said the Master of Police, "O Commander  of
the Faithful, the old woman cheated me also and sold me these
five men as slaves for a thousand dinars, albeit they are
free-born."  Quoth the Prince of True Believers, "I take upon
myself all that  you have lost"; adding to the Master of
Police, "I charge thee  with the old woman." But he shook his
collar, saying, "O Commander  of the Faithful, I will not
answer for her; for, after I had  hung her on the cross, she
tricked this Badawi and, when he loosed  her, she tied him up
in her room and made off with his clothes and  horse." Quoth
the Caliph, "Whom but thee shall I charge with  her?"; and
quoth the Wali, "Charge Ahmad al-Danaf, for he  hath a
thousand dinars a month and one-and-forty followers, at a
monthly wage of an hundred dinars each." So the Caliph said,
"Harkye, Captain Ahmad!" "At thy service, O Commander of  the
Faithful," said he; and the Caliph cried, "I charge thee to
bring the old woman before us." Replied Ahmad, "I will answer
for her." Then the Caliph kept the Badawi and the five with
him,--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
saying  her permitted say.

      When it was the Seven Hundred and Seventh Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
the Caliph said to Calamity Ahmad, "I charge thee to bring the
old woman before us," he said, "I will answer for her O
Commander  of the Faithful!" Then the Caliph kept the Badawi
and  the five with him, whilst Ahmad and his men went down to
their  hall,[FN#208] saying to one another, "How shall we lay
hands on her,  seeing that there are many old women in the
town?" And quoth  Ahmad to Hasan Shuman, "What counsellest
thou?" Whereupon  quoth one of them, by name Ali Kitf al-
Jamal,[FN#209] to Al-Danaf, "Of  what dost thou take counsel
with Hasan Shuman? Is the Pestilent  one any great shakes?"
Said Hasan, "O Ali, why dost thou  disparage me? By the Most
Great Name, I will not company  with thee at this time!"; and
he rose and went out in wrath.  Then said Ahmad, "O my braves,
let every sergeant take ten men,  each to his own quarter and
search for Dalilah." All did his  bidding, Ali included, and
they said, "Ere we disperse let us agree  to rendezvous in the
quarter Al-Kalkh." It was noised abroad  in the city that
Calamity Ahmad had undertaken to lay hands on  Dalilah the
Wily, and Zaynab said to her, "O my mother, an thou  be indeed
a trickstress, do thou befool Ahmad al-Danaf and his
company." Answered Dalilah, "I fear none save Hasan Shuman;"
and Zaynab said, "By the life of my browlock, I will assuredly
get thee the clothes of all the one-and-forty." Then she
dressed  and veiled herself and going to a certain druggist,
who had a  saloon with two doors, salamed to him and gave him
an ashrafi  and said to him, "Take this gold piece as a
douceur for thy saloon  and let it to me till the end of the
day." So he gave her the  keys and she fetched carpets and so
forth on the stolen ass and  furnishing the place, set on each
raised pavement a tray of meat  and wine. Then she went out
and stood at the door, with her  face unveiled and behold, up
came Ali Kitf al-Jamal and his  men. She kissed his hand; and
he fell in love with her, seeing  her to be a handsome girl,
and said to her, "What dost thou  want?" Quoth she, "Art thou
Captain Ahmad al-Danaf?";  and quoth he, "No, but I am of his
company and my name is  Ali Camel-shoulder." Asked she,
"Whither fare you?"; and he  answered, "We go about in quest
of a sharkish old woman, who  hath stolen folk's good, and we
mean to lay hands on her. But  who art thou and what is thy
business?" She replied, "My  father was a taverner at Mosul
and he died and left me much  money. So I came hither, for
fear of the Dignities, and asked  the people who would protect
me, to which they replied, 'None  but Ahmad al-Danaf.'" Said
the men, "From this day forth,  thou art under his
protection"; and she replied, "Hearten me  by eating a bit and
drinking a sup of water."[FN#210] They consented  and
entering, ate and drank till they were drunken, when she
drugged them with Bhang and stripped them of their clothes and
arms; and on like wise she did with the three other
companions.  Presently, Calamity Ahmad went out to look for
Dalilah, but  found her not, neither set eyes on any of his
followers, and went  on till he came to the door where Zaynab
was standing. She  kissed his hand and he looked on her and
fell in love with her.  Quoth she, "Art thou Captain Ahmad al-
Danaf?"; and quoth he,  "Yes: who art thou?" She replied, "I
am a stranger from  Mosul. My father was a vintner at that
place and he died and  left me much money wherewith I came to
this city, for fear of the  powers that be, and opened this
tavern. The Master of Police  hath imposed a tax on me, but it
is my desire to put myself under  thy protection and pay thee
what the police would take of me, for  thou hast the better
right to it." Quoth he, "Do not pay him  aught: thou shalt
have my protection and welcome." Then quoth  she, "Please to
heal my heart and eat of my victual," So he  entered and ate
and drank wine, till he could not sit upright, when  she
drugged him and took his clothes and arms. Then she loaded
her purchase on the Badawi's horse and the donkey-boy's ass
and  made off with it, after she had aroused Ali Kitf al-
Jamal. Camel-shoulder awoke and found himself naked and saw
Ahmad and his  men drugged and stripped: so he revived them
with the counter-drug and they awoke and found themselves
naked. Quoth Calamity  Ahmad, "O lads, what is this? We were
going to catch her,  and lo! this strumpet hath caught us! How
Hasan Shuman will  rejoice over us! But we will wait till it
is dark and then go away."  Meanwhile Pestilence Hasan said to
the hall-keeper, "Where are  the men?"; and as he asked, up
they came naked; and he recited  these two couplets[FN#211],

"Men in their purposes are much alike, * But in their issues
     difference comes to light:
Of men some wise are, others simple souls; * As of the stars
     some dull, some pearly bright.

Then he looked at them and asked, "Who hath played you this
trick and made you naked?"; and they answered, "We went in
quest of an old woman, and a pretty girl stripped us." Quoth
Hasan, "She hath done right well." They asked, "Dost thou
know her?"; and he answered, "Yes, I know her and the old trot
too." Quoth they, "What shall we say to the Caliph?"; and
quoth he, "O Danaf, do thou shake thy collar before him, and
he  will say, 'Who is answerable for her'; and if he ask why
thou  hast not caught her; say thou, 'We know her not; but
charge  Hasan Shuman with her.' And if he give her into my
charge, I  will lay hands on her." So they slept that night
and on the  morrow they went up to the Caliph's Divan and
kissed ground  before him. Quoth he, "Where is the old woman,
O Captain  Ahmad?" But he shook his collar. The Caliph asked
him why  he did so, and he answered, "I know her not; but do
thou charge  Hasan Shuman to lay hands on her, for he knoweth
her and her  daughter also." Then Hasan interceded for her
with the Caliph,  saying, "Indeed, she hath not played off
these tricks, because she  coveted the folk's stuff, but to
show her cleverness and that of her  daughter, to the intent
that thou shouldst continue her husband's  stipend to her and
that of her father to her daughter. So an thou  wilt spare her
life I will fetch her to thee." Cried the Caliph,  "By the
life of my ancestors, if she restore the people's goods, I
will pardon her on thine intercession!" And said the
Pestilence,  "Give me a pledge, O Prince of True Believers!"
Whereupon  Al-Rashid gave him the kerchief of pardon. So Hasan
repaired  to Dalilah's house and called to her. Her daughter
Zaynab  answered him and he asked her, "Where is thy mother?"
"Upstairs," she answered; and he said, "Bid her take the
people's  goods and come with me to the presence of the
Caliph; for I  have brought her the kerchief of pardon, and if
she will not come  with a good grace, let her blame only
herself." So Dalilah came  down and tying the kerchief about
her neck gave him the people's  goods on the donkey-boy's ass
and the Badawi's horse. Quoth  he, "There remain the clothes
of my Chief and his men"; and  quoth she, "By the Most Great
Name, 'twas not I who stripped  them!" Rejoined Hasan, "Thou
sayst sooth, it was thy daughter  Zaynab's doing, and this was
a good turn she did thee." Then he  carried her to the Divan
and laying the people's goods and stuff  before the Caliph,
set the old trot in his presence. As soon as he  saw her, he
bade throw her down on the carpet of blood, whereat  she
cried, "I cast myself on thy protection, O Shuman."' So he
rose and kissing the Caliph's hands, said, "Pardon, O
Commander  of the Faithful! Indeed, thou gavest me the
kerchief of pardon."  Said the Prince of True Believers, "I
pardon her for thy sake:  come hither, O old woman; what is
thy name?" "My name is  Wily Dalilah," answered she, and the
Caliph said "Thou art  indeed crafty and full of guile."
Whence she was dubbed Dalilah  the Wily One. Then quoth he,
"Why hast thou played all these  tricks on the folk and
wearied our hearts?" and quoth she, "I did  it not of lust for
their goods, but because I had heard of the  tricks which
Ahmad al-Danaf and Hasan Shuman played in  Baghdad and said to
myself, 'I too will do the like.' And now  I have returned the
folk their goods." But the ass-driver rose  and said "I invoke
Allah's law[FN#212] between me and her; for it  sufficed her
not to take my ass, but she must needs egg on the  Moorish
barber to tear out my eye-teeth and fire me on both
temples."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and  ceased
to say her permitted say.

       When it was the Seven Hundred and Eighth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
donkey-boy rose and cried out, "I invoke Allah's law between
me  and her; for it sufficed her not to take my ass, but she
must needs  egg on the barber to tear out my eye-teeth and
fire me on both  temples;" thereupon the Caliph bade give him
an hundred  dinars and ordered the dyer the like, saying, "Go;
set up thy  dyery again." So they called down blessings on his
head and  went away. The Badawi also took his clothes and
horse and  departed, saying, "'Tis henceforth unlawful and
forbidden me to  enter Baghdad and eat honey-fritters." And
the others took their  goods and went away. Then said the
Caliph, "Ask a boon of  me, O Dalilah!"; and she said,
"Verily, my father was governor  of the carrier-pigeons to
thee and I know how to rear the birds;  and my husband was
town-captain of Baghdad. Now I wish to  have the reversion of
my husband and my daughter wisheth to  have that of her
father." The Caliph granted both their requests  and she said,
"I ask of thee that I may be portress of thy Khan."  Now he
had built a Khan of three stories, for the merchants to  lodge
in, and had assigned to its service forty slaves and also
forty  dogs he had brought from the King of the
Sulaymániyah,[FN#213] when  he deposed him; and there was in
the Khan a cook-slave, who  cooked for the chattels and fed
the hounds for which he let make  collars. Said the Caliph, "O
Dalilah, I will write thee a patent  of guardianship of the
Khan, and if aught be lost therefrom, thou  shalt be
answerable for it. "'Tis well," replied she; "but do  thou
lodge my daughter in the pavilion over the door of the Khan,
for it hath terraced roofs, and carrier-pigeons may not be
reared to  advantage save in an open space." The Caliph
granted her this  also and she and her daughter removed to the
pavilion in question,  where Zaynab hung up the one-and-forty
dresses of Calamity  Ahmad and his company. Moreover, they
delivered to Dalilah  the forty pigeons which carried the
royal messages, and the Caliph  appointed the Wily One
mistress over the forty slaves and charged  them to obey her.
She made the place of her sitting behind the  door of the
Khan, and every day she used to go up to the Caliph's  Divan,
lest he should need to send a message by pigeon-post and  stay
there till eventide whilst the forty slaves stood on guard at
the Khan; and when darkness came on they loosed the forty
dogs that they might keep watch over the place by night. Such
were the doings of Dalilah the Wily One in Baghdad and much
like them were

The Adventures of Mercury Ali of Cairo.[FN#214]

Now as regards the works of Mercury 'Alí; there lived once at
Cairo,[FN#215] in the days of Saláh the Egyptian, who was
Chief of the  Cairo Police and had forty men under him, a
sharper named Ali,  for whom the Master of Police used to set
snares and think that  he had fallen therein; but, when they
sought for him, they found  that he had fled like zaybak, or
quicksilver, wherefore they dubbed  him Ali Zaybak or Mercury
Ali of Cairo. Now one day, as he  sat with his men in his
hall, his heart became heavy within him  and his breast was
straitened. The hall-keeper saw him sitting  with frowning
face and said to him, "What aileth thee, O my  Chief? If thy
breast be straitened take a turn in the streets of  Cairo, for
assuredly walking in her markets will do away with  thy irk."
So he rose up and went out and threaded the streets  awhile,
but only increased in cark and care. Presently, he came  to a
wine-shop and said to himself, "I will go in and drink myself
drunken." So he entered and seeing seven rows of people in
the shop, said, "Harkye, taverner! I will not sit except by
myself." Accordingly, the vintner placed him in a chamber
alone  and set strong pure wine before him whereof he drank
till he lost  his senses. Then he sallied forth again and
walked till he came  to the road called Red, whilst the people
left the street clear  before him, out of fear of him.
Presently, he turned and saw a  water-carrier trudging along,
with his skin and gugglet, crying out  and saying, "O
exchange! There is no drink but what raisins  make, there is
no love-delight but what of the lover we take and  none
sitteth in the place of honour save the sensible
freke[FN#216]!" So  he said to him, "Here, give me to drink!"
The water-carrier  looked at him and gave him the gugglet
which he took and  gazing into it, shook it up and lastly
poured it out on the ground.  Asked the water-carrier, "Why
dost thou not drink?"; and he  answered, saying, "Give me to
drink." So the man filled the cup  a second time and he took
it and shook it and emptied it on the  ground; and thus he did
a third time. Quoth the water-carrier,  "An thou wilt not
drink, I will be off." And Ali said, "Give me  to drink." So
he filled the cup a fourth time and gave it to him;  and he
drank and gave the man a dinar. The water-carrier looked  at
him with disdain and said, belittling him, "Good luck to thee!
Good luck to thee, my lad! Little folk are one thing and great
folk another!"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased saying her permitted say,

       When it was the Seven Hundred and Ninth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
water-carrier receiving the dinar, looked at the giver with
disdain  and said "Good luck to thee! Good luck to thee!
Little folk  are one thing and great folk another." Now when
Mercury Ali  heard this, he caught hold of the man's gaberdine
and drawing on  him a poignard of price, such an one as that
whereof the poet  speaketh in these two couplets,

"Watered steel-blade, the world perfection calls, * Drunk with
     the viper poison foes appals,
Cuts lively, burns the blood whene'er it falls; * And picks up
     gems from pave of marble halls;"[FN#217]

cried to him, "O Shaykh, speak reasonably to me! Thy water-
skin is worth if dear three dirhams, and the gugglets I
emptied on  the ground held a pint or so of water." Replied
the water-carrier  "'Tis well," and Ali rejoined, "I gave thee
a golden ducat: why,  then dost thou belittle me? Say me, hast
thou ever seen any  more valiant than I or more generous than
I?" Answered the  water-carrier; "I have indeed, seen one more
valiant than thou  and eke more generous than thou; for,
never, since women bare  children, was there on earth's face a
brave man who was not  generous." Quoth Ali, "And who is he
thou deemest braver and  more generous than I?" Quoth the
other, "Thou must know  that I have had a strange adventure.
My father was a Shaykh  of the Water-carriers who give drink
in Cairo and, when he died,  he left me five male camels, a
he-mule, a shop and a house; but  the poor man is never
satisfied; or, if he be satisfied he dieth.  So I said to
myself, 'I will go up to Al-Hijaz'; and, taking a  string of
camels, bought goods on tick, till I had run in debt for  five
hundred ducats, all of which I lost in the pilgrimage. Then  I
said in my mind, 'If I return to Cairo the folk will clap me
in  jail for their goods.' So I fared with the pilgrims-
caravan of  Damascus to Aleppo and thence I went on to
Baghdad, where I  sought out the Shaykh of the Water-carriers
of the city and  finding his house I went in and repeated the
opening chapter of  the Koran to him. He questioned me of my
case and I told  him all that had betided me, whereupon he
assigned me a shop  and gave me a water-skin and gear. So I
sallied forth a-morn  trusting in Allah to provide, and went
round about the city. I  offered the gugglet to one, that he
might drink; but he cried, 'I  have eaten naught whereon to
drink; for a niggard invited me  this day and set two gugglets
before me; so I said to him, 'O  son of the sordid, hast thou
given me aught to eat that thou  offerest me drink after it?'
Wherefore wend thy ways, O water-carrier, till I have eaten
somewhat: then come and give me to  drink.' Thereupon I
accosted another and he said, 'Allah  provide thee!' And so I
went on till noon, without taking hansel,  and I said to
myself, 'Would Heaven I had never come to  Baghdad!'
Presently, I saw the folk running as fast as they could;  so I
followed them and behold, a long file of men riding two and
two and clad in steel, with double neck-rings and felt bonnets
and  burnouses and swords and bucklers. I asked one of the
folk  whose suite this was, and he answered, 'That of Captain
Ahmad  al-Danaf.' Quoth I, 'And what is he?' and quoth the
other, 'He  is town-captain of Baghdad and her Divan, and to
him is  committed the care of the suburbs. He getteth a
thousand dinars a  month from the Caliph and Hasan Shuman hath
the like. More-over, each of his men draweth an hundred dinars
a month; and  they are now returning to their barrack from the
Divan.' And lo!  Calamity Ahmad saw me and cried out, 'Come
give me drink.' So  I filled the cup and gave it him, and he
shook it and emptied it  out, like unto thee; and thus he did
a second time. Then I filled  the cup a third time and he took
a draught as thou diddest; after  which he asked me, 'O water-
carrier, whence comest thou?' And  I answered, 'From Cairo,'
and he, 'Allah keep Cairo and her  citizens! What may bring
thee thither?' So I told him my story  and gave him to
understand that I was a debtor fleeing from debt  and
distress. He cried, 'Thou art welcome to Baghdad'; then he
gave me five dinars and said to his men, 'For the love of
Allah be  generous to him.' So each of them gave me a dinar
and Ahmad  said to me, 'O Shaykh, what while thou abidest in
Baghdad thou  shalt have of us the like every time thou givest
us to drink.'  Accordingly, I paid them frequent visits and
good ceased not to  come to me from the folk till, one day,
reckoning up the profit I  had made of them, I found it a
thousand dinars and said to  myself, 'The best thing thou
canst do is to return to Egypt.' So I  went to Ahmad's house
and kissed his hand, and he said, 'What  seekest thou?' Quoth
I, 'I have a mind to depart'; and I repeated  these two

'Sojourn of stranger, in whatever land, * Is like castle based
     upon the wind:
The breaths of breezes level all he raised. * And so on
     homeward-way's the stranger's mind.'

I added, 'The caravan is about to start for Cairo and I wish
to  return to my people.' So he gave me a she-mule and an
hundred  dinars and said to me, 'I desire to send somewhat by
thee, O  Shaykh! Dost thou know the people of Cairo?' 'Yes,'
answered  I";--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased to  say her permitted say.

        When it was the Seven Hundred and Tenth Night,

She pursued, It bath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Ahmad al-Danaf had given the water-carrier a she-mule and an
hundred dinars and said to him, "I desire to send a trust by
thee.  Dost thou know the people of Cairo?" "I answered (quoth
the  water-carrier), 'Yes'; and he said, 'Take this letter and
carry it to  Ali Zaybak of Cairo and say to him, 'Thy Captain
saluteth thee  and he is now with the Caliph.' So I took the
letter and journeyed  back to Cairo, where I paid my debts and
plied my water-carrying  trade; but I have not delivered the
letter, because I know  not the abode of Mercury Ali." Quoth
Ali, "O elder, be of  good cheer and keep thine eyes cool and
clear: I am that Ali,  the first of the lads of Captain Ahmad:
here with the letter!"  So he gave him the missive and he
opened it and read these two  couplets,

"O adornment of beauties to thee write I * On a paper that
     flies as the winds go by:
Could I fly, I had flown to their arms in desire, * But a bird
     with cut wings; how shall ever he fly?"

"But after salutation from Captain Ahmad al-Danaf to the
eldest of his sons, Mercury Ali of Cairo. Thou knowest that I
tormented Salah al-Din the Cairene and befooled him till I
buried  him alive and reduced his lads to obey me, and amongst
them  Ali Kitf al-Jamal; and I am now become town-captain of
Baghdad in the Divan of the Caliph who hath made me over-seer
of the suburbs. An thou be still mindful of our covenant,
come to me; haply thou shalt play some trick in Baghdad which
may promote thee to the Caliph's service, so he may appoint
thee  stipends and allowances and assign thee a lodging, which
is what  thou wouldst see and so peace be on thee." When Ali
read this  letter, he kissed it and laying it on his head,
gave the water-carrier ten dinars; after which he returned to
his barracks and  told his comrades and said to them, "I
commend you one to  other." Then he changed all his clothes
and, donning a travelling  cloak and a tarboosh, took a case,
containing a spear of bamboo-cane, four-and-twenty cubits
long, made in several pieces, to fit  into one another. Quoth
his lieutenant, "Wilt thou go a journey  when the treasury is
empty?"; and quoth Ali, "When I reach  Damascus I will send
you what shall suffice you." Then he set  out and fared on,
till he overtook a caravan about to start,  whereof were the
Shah-bandar, or Provost of the Merchants, and  forty other
traders. They had all loaded their beasts, except  the
Provost, whose loads lay upon the ground, and Ali heard his
caravan-leader, who was a Syrian, say to the muleteers, "Bear
a  hand, one of you!" But they reviled him and abused him.
Quoth Ali in himself, "None will suit me so well to travel
withal as this leader." Now Ali was beardless and well-
favoured;  so he went up to and saluted the leader who
welcomed him and  said, "What seekest thou?" Replied Ali, "O
my uncle, I see  thee alone with forty mule-loads of goods;
but why hast thou not  brought hands to help thee?" Rejoined
the other, "O my son, I  hired two lads and clothed them and
put in each one's pocket  two hundred dinars; and they helped
me till we came to the  Dervishes' Convent,[FN#218] when they
ran away." Quoth Ali, "Whither  are you bound?" and quoth the
Syrian, "to Aleppo," when  Ali said, "I will lend thee a
hand." Accordingly they loaded  the beasts and the Provost
mounted his she-mule and they set out  he rejoicing in Ali;
and presently he loved him and made  much of him and on this
wise they fared on till nightfall, when  they dismounted and
ate and drank. Then came the time of  sleep and Ali lay down
on his side and made as if he slept;  whereupon the Syrian
stretched himself near him and Ali rose  from his stead and
sat down at the door of the merchant's  pavilion. Presently
the Syrian turned over and would have  taken Ali in his arms,
but found him not and said to himself,  "Haply he hath
promised another and he hath taken him;  but I have the first
right and another night I will keep him."  Now Ali continued
sitting at the door of the tent till nigh upon  daybreak, when
he returned and lay down near the Syrian, who  found him by
his side, when he awoke, and said to himself, "If  I ask him
where he hath been, he will leave me and go away."  So he
dissembled with him and they went on till they came to  a
forest, in which was a cave, where dwelt a rending lion. Now
whenever a caravan passed, they would draw lots among
themselves and him on whom the lot fell they would throw to
the beast. So they drew lots and the lot fell not save upon
the  Provost of the Merchants. And lo! the lion cut off their
way  awaiting his prey, wherefore the Provost was sore
distressed  and said to the leader, "Allah disappoint the
fortunes[FN#219] of the far  one and bring his journey to
naught! I charge thee, after my  death, give my loads to my
children." Quoth Ali the Clever  One, "What meaneth all this?"
So they told him the case and  he said, "Why do ye run from
the tom-cat of the desert? I  warrant you I will kill him." So
the Syrian went to the Provost  and told him of this and he
said, "If he slay him, I will give him  a thousand dinars,"
and said the other merchants, "We will  reward him likewise
one and all." With this Ali put off  his mantle and there
appeared upon him a suit of steel; then he  took a chopper of
steel[FN#220] and opening it turned the screw; after  which he
went forth alone and standing in the road before the  lion,
cried out to him. The lion ran at him, but Ali of Cairo  smote
him between the eyes with his chopper and cut him in  sunder,
whilst the caravan-leader and the merchants looked on.  Then
said he to the leader, "Have no fear, O nuncle!" and the
Syrian answered, saying, "O my son, I am thy servant for all
future time." Then the Provost embraced him and kissed him
between the eyes and gave him the thousand dinars, and each of
the other merchants gave him twenty dinars. He deposited all
the coin with the Provost and they slept that night till the
morning,  when they set out again, intending for Baghdad, and
fared on  till they came to the Lion's Clump and the Wady of
Dogs, where  lay a villain Badawi, a brigand and his tribe,
who sallied forth on  them. The folk fled from the highwaymen,
and the Provost said,  "My monies are lost!"; when, lo! up
came Ali in a buff coat  hung with bells, and bringing out his
long lance, fitted the pieces  together. Then he seized one of
the Arab's horses and mounting  it cried out to the Badawi
Chief, saying, "Come out to fight me  with spears!" Moreover
he shook his bells and the Arab's mare  took fright at the
noise and Ali struck the Chief's spear and broke  it. Then he
smote him on the neck and cut off his head.[FN#221] When the
Badawin saw their chief fall, they ran at Ali, but he cried
out, saying,  "Allaho Akbar--God is Most Great!"--and, falling
on them  broke them and put them to flight. Then he raised the
Chief's head  on his spear-point and returned to the
merchants, who rewarded  him liberally and continued their
journey, till they reached  Baghdad. Thereupon Ali took his
money from the Provost and  committed it to the Syrian
caravan-leader, saying, "When thou  returnest to Cairo, ask
for my barracks and give these monies to  my deputy." Then he
slept that night and on the morrow he  entered the city and
threading the streets enquired for Calamity  Ahmad's quarters;
but none would direct him thereto.[FN#222] So he  walked on,
till he came to the square Al-Nafz, where he saw  children at
play, and amongst them a lad called Ahmad al-Lakít,[FN#223]
and said to himself, "O my Ali, thou shalt not get news of
them  but from their little ones." Then he turned and seeing a
sweet-meat-seller bought Halwá of him and called to the
children; but  Ahmad al-Lakit drove the rest away and coming
up to him, said,  "What seekest thou?" Quoth Ali, "I had a son
and he died and  I saw him in a dream asking for sweetmeats:
wherefore I have  bought them and wish to give each child a
bit." So saying, he  gave Ahmad a slice, and he looked at it
and seeing a dinar  sticking to it, said "Begone! I am no
catamite: seek another  than I." Quoth Ali, "O my son, none
but a sharp fellow taketh  the hire, even as he is a sharp one
who giveth it. I have sought  all day for Ahmad al-Danaf's
barrack, but none would direct me  thereto; so this dinar is
thine an thou wilt guide me thither."  Quoth the lad, "I will
run before thee and do thou keep up with  me, till I come to
the place, when I will catch up a pebble with  my foot[FN#224]
and kick it against the door; and so shalt thou know it."
Accordingly he ran on and Ali after him, till they came to the
place, when the boy caught up a pebble between his toes and
kicked it against the door so as to make the place known.--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her
permitted say.

      When it was the Seven Hundred and Eleventh Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Ahmad the Abortion had made known the place, Ali laid hold of
him and would have taken the dinar from him, but could not; so
he said to him, "Go: thou deservest largesse for thou art a
sharp  fellow, whole of wit and stout of heart. Inshallah, if
I become a  captain to the Caliph, I will make thee one of my
lads." Then  the boy made off and Ali Zaybak went up to the
door and knocked;  whereupon quoth Ahmad al-Danaf, "O
doorkeeper, open the  door; that is the knock of Quicksilver
Ali the Cairene." So he  opened the door and Ali entered and
saluted with the salam  Ahmad who embraced him, and the Forty
greeted him. Then  Calamity Ahmad gave him a suit of clothes,
saying, "When the  Caliph made me captain, he clothed my lads
and I kept this suit[FN#225]  for thee." Then they seated him
in the place of honour and  setting on meat they ate well and
drink they drank hard and  made merry till the morning, when
Ahmad said to Ali, "Beware  thou walk not about the streets of
Baghdad, but sit thee still in  this barrack." Asked Ali, "Why
so? Have I come hither to be  shut up? No, I came to look
about me and divert myself."  Replied Ahmad, "O my son, think
not that Baghdad be like  Cairo. Baghdad is the seat of the
Caliphate; sharpers abound  therein and rogueries spring
therefrom as worts spring out of  earth." So Ali abode in the
barrack three days when Ahmad  said to him, "I wish to present
thee to the Caliph, that he  may assign thee an allowance."
But he replied, "When the  time cometh." So he let him go his
own way. One day, as  Ali sat in the barrack, his breast
became straitened and his soul  troubled and he said in
himself, "Come, let us up and thread the  ways of Baghdad and
broaden my bosom." So he went out and  walked from street to
street, till he came to the middle bazar,  where he entered a
cook-shop and dined;[FN#226] after which he went out  to wash
his hands. Presently he saw forty slaves, with felt  bonnets
and steel cutlasses, come walking, two by two; and last of all
came Dalilah the Wily, mounted on a she-mule, with a gilded
helmet which bore a ball of polished steel, and clad in a coat
of  mail, and such like. Now she was returning from the Divan
to  the Khan of which she was portress; and when she espied
Ali,  she looked at him fixedly and saw that he resembled
Calamity  Ahmad in height and breadth. Moreover, he was clad
in a striped  Abá-cloak and a burnous, with a steel cutlass by
his side and  similar gear, while valour shone from his eyes,
testifying in favour  of him and not in disfavour of him. So
she returned to the Khan  and going in to her daughter,
fetched a table of sand, and struck  a geomantic figure,
whereby she discovered that the stranger's  name was Ali of
Cairo and that his fortune overcame her fortune  and that of
her daughter. Asked Zaynab, "O my mother, what  hath befallen
thee that thou hast recourse to the sand-table?"  Answered
Dalilah, "O my daughter, I have seen this day a young  man who
resembleth Calamity Ahmad, and I fear lest he come to  hear
how thou didst strip Ahmad and his men and enter the Khan  and
play us a trick, in revenge for what we did with his chief and
the forty; for methinks he has taken up his lodging in Al-
Danaf's  barrack." Zaynab rejoined, "What is this? Methinks
thou hast  taken his measure." Then she donned her fine
clothes and went  out into the streets. When the people saw
her, they all made love  to her and she promised and sware and
listened and coquetted and  passed from market to market, till
she saw Ali the Cairene coming,  when she went up to him and
rubbed her shoulder against him.  Then she turned and said
"Allah give long life to folk of  discrimination!" Quoth he,
"How goodly is thy form! To whom  dost thou belong?"; and
quoth she, "To the gallant[FN#227] like thee;"  and he said,
"Art thou wife or spinster?" "Married," said she.  Asked Ali,
"Shall it be in my lodging or thine?[FN#228] and she
answered, "I am a merchant's daughter and a merchant's wife
and in all my life I have never been out of doors till to-day,
and  my only reason was that when I made ready food and
thought to  eat, I had no mind thereto without company. When I
saw thee,  love of thee entered my heart: so wilt thou deign
solace my soul  and eat a mouthful with me?" Quoth he, "Whoso
is invited, let  him accept." Thereupon she went on and he
followed her from  street to street, but presently he
bethought himself and said,  "What wilt thou do and thou a
stranger? Verily 'tis said,  'Whoso doth whoredom in his
strangerhood, Allah will send him  back disappointed.' But I
will put her off from thee with fair  words." So he said to
her, "Take this dinar and appoint me a  day other than this;"
and she said, "By the Mighty Name, it  may not be but thou
shalt go home with me as my guest this very  day and I will
take thee to fast friend." So he followed her till  she came
to a house with a lofty porch and a wooden bolt on the  door
and said to him, "Open this lock."[FN#229] Asked he "Where is
the key?"; and she answered, "'Tis lost." Quoth he, "Whoso
openeth a lock without a key is a knave whom it behoveth the
ruler  to punish, and I know not how to open doors without
keys?"[FN#230]  With this she raised her veil and showed him
her face, whereat he  took one glance of eyes that cost him a
thousand sighs. Then she  let fall her veil on the lock and
repeating over it the names of the  mother of Moses, opened it
without a key and entered. He  followed her and saw swords and
steel-weapons hanging up; and she  put off her veil and sat
down with him. Quoth he to himself,  "Accomplish what Allah
bath decreed to thee," and bent over her,  to take a kiss of
her cheek; but she caught the kiss upon her palm,  saying,
"This beseemeth not but by night." Then she brought a  tray of
food and wine, and they ate and drank; after which she  rose
and drawing water from the well, poured it from the ewer over
his hands, whilst he washed them. Now whilst they were on this
wise, she cried out and beat upon her breast, saying, "My
husband  had a signet-ring of ruby, which was pledged to him
for five  hundred dinars, and I put it on; but 'twas too large
for me, so I  straitened it with wax, and when I let down the
bucket,[FN#231] that  ring must have dropped into the well. So
turn thy face to the  door, the while I doff my dress and go
down into the well and  fetch it." Quoth Ali, "'Twere shame on
me that thou shouldst  go down there I being present; none
shall do it save I." So he  put off his clothes and tied the
rope about himself and she let him  down into the well. Now
there was much water therein and she  said to him, "The rope
is too short; loose thyself and drop down."  So he did himself
loose from the rope and dropped into the  water, in which he
sank fathoms deep without touching bottom;  whilst she donned
her mantilla and taking his clothes, returned to  her mother--
And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and  ceased to say her
permitted say.

      When is was the Seven Hundred and Twelfth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Ali
of Cairo was in the well, Zaynab donned her mantilla and,
taking  his clothes, returned to her mother and said, "I have
stripped Ali  the Egyptian and cast him into the Emir Hasan's
well, whence  alas for his chance of escaping!"[FN#232]
Presently, the Emir Hasan,  the master of the house, who had
been absent at the Divan, came  home and, finding the door
open, said to his Syce, "Why didst  thou not draw the bolt?"
"O my lord," replied the groom,  "indeed I locked it with my
own hand." The Emir cried, "As  my head liveth, some robber
hath entered my house!" Then he  went in and searched, but
found none and said to the groom,  "Fill the ewer, that I may
make the Wuzu-ablution." So the  man lowered the bucket into
the well but, when he drew it up, he  found it heavy and
looking down, saw something therein sitting;  whereupon he let
it fall into the water and cried out, saying, "O  my lord, an
Ifrit came up to me out of the well!" Replied the  Emir, "Go
and fetch four doctors of the law, that they may read  the
Koran over him, till he go away." So he fetched the doctors
and the Emir said to them, "Sit round this well and exorcise
me  this Ifrit." They did as he bade them; after which the
groom and  another servant lowered the bucket again and Ali
clung to it and  hid himself under it patiently till he came
near the top, when he  sprang out and landed among the
doctors, who fell a-cuffing one  another and crying out,
"Ifrit! Ifrit!" The Emir looked at Ali  and seeing him a young
man, said to him, "Art thou a thief?"  "No," replied Ali;
"Then what dost thou in the well?" asked  the Emir; and Ali
answered, "I was asleep and dreamt a wet  dream;[FN#233] so I
went down to the Tigris to wash myself and dived,  whereupon
the current carried me under the earth and I came up  in this
well." Quoth the other, "Tell the truth."[FN#234] So Ali told
him all that had befallen him, and the Emir gave him an old
gown and let him go. He returned to Calamity Ahmad's lodging
and related to him all that had passed. Quoth Ahmad, "Did I
not warn thee that Baghdad is full of women who play tricks
upon  men?" And quoth Ali Kitf al-Jamal, "I conjure thee by
the  Mighty Name, tell me how it is that thou art the chief of
the lads  of Cairo and yet hast been stripped by a girl?" This
was  grievous to Ali and he repented him of not having
followed  Ahmad's advice. Then the Calamity gave him another
suit of  clothes and Hasan Shuman said to him, "Dost thou know
the  young person?" "No," replied Ali; and Hasan rejoined,
"'Twas Zaynab, the daughter of Dalilah the Wily, the portress
of  the Caliph's Khan; and hast thou fallen into her toils, O
Ali?"  Quoth he, "Yes," and quoth Hasan, "O Ali, 'twas she who
took  thy Chief's clothes and those of all his men." "This is
a disgrace  to you all!" "And what thinkest thou to do?" "I
purpose to  marry her." "Put away that thought far from thee,
and console thy  heart of her." "O Hasan, do thou counsel me
how I shall do to  marry her." "With all my heart: if thou
wilt drink from my  hand and march under my banner, I will
bring thee to thy will of  her." "I will well." So Hasan made
Ali put off his clothes;  and, taking a cauldron heated
therein somewhat as it were pitch,  wherewith he anointed him
and he became like unto a blackamoor  slave. Moreover, he
smeared his lips and cheeks and pencilled  his eyes with red
Kohl.[FN#235] Then he clad him in a slave's habit and  giving
him a tray of kabobs and wine, said to him, "There is a  black
cook in the Khan who requires from the bazar only meat;  and
thou art now become his like; so go thou to him civilly and
accost him in friendly fashion and speak to him in the blacks'
lingo, and salute him, saying, ''Tis long since we met in the
beer-ken.' He will answer thee, 'I have been too busy: on my
hands be forty slaves, for whom I cook dinner and supper,
besides  making ready a tray for Dalilah and the like for her
daughter  Zaynab and the dogs' food.' And do thou say to him,
'Come, let  us eat kabobs and lush swipes.'[FN#236] Then go
with him into the  saloon and make him drunken and question
him of his service,  how many dishes and what dishes he hath
to cook, and ask him of  the dogs' food and the keys of the
kitchen and the larder; and he  will tell thee; for a man,
when he is drunken, telleth all he would  conceal were he
sober. When thou hast done this drug him and  don his clothes
and sticking the two knives in thy girdle, take the
vegetable-basket and go to the market and buy meat and greens,
with which do thou return to the Khan and enter the kitchen
and  the larder and cook the food. Dish it up and put Bhang in
it, so  as to drug the dogs and the slaves and Dalilah and
Zaynab and  lastly serve up. When all are asleep, hie thee to
the upper  chamber and bring away every suit of clothes thou
wilt find  hanging there. And if thou have a mind to marry
Zaynab, bring  with thee also the forty carrier-pigeons." So
Ali went to the  Khan and going in to the cook, saluted him
and said, "'Tis long  since I have met thee in the beer-ken."
The slave replied, "I  have been busy cooking for the slaves
and the dogs." Then he  took him and making him drunken,
questioned him of his work.  Quoth the kitchener, "Every day I
cook five dishes for dinner  and the like for supper; and
yesterday they sought of me a sixth  dish,[FN#237] yellow
rice,[FN#238] and a seventh, a mess of cooked pomegranate
seed." Ali asked, "And what is the order of thy service?" and
the slave answered, "First I serve up Zaynab's tray, next
Dalilah's;  then I feed the slaves and give the dogs their
sufficiency of meat,  and the least that satisfies them is a
pound each." But, as fate  would have it, he forgot to ask him
of the keys. Then he drugged  him and donned his clothes;
after which he took the basket and  went to the market. There
he bought meat and greens.--And  Shahrazad perceived the dawn
of day and ceased saying her  permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Thirteenth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Ali
of  Cairo, after drugging the cook-slave with Bhang, took the
two  knives which he stuck in his belt and, carrying the
vegetable-basket, went to the market where he bought meat and
greens;  and, presently returning to the Khan, he saw Dalilah
seated at the  gate, watching those who went in and came out,
and the forty  slaves with her, armed. So he heartened his
heart and entered;  but Dalilah knew him and said to him,
"Back, O captain of  thieves! Wilt thou play a trick on me in
the Khan?" Thereupon  he (dressed as a slave) turned and said
to her, "What sayest thou,  O portress?" She asked, "What hast
thou done with the slave,  our cook?; say me if thou hast
killed or drugged him?" He  answered, "What cook? Is there
here another slave-cook than  I?" She rejoined, "Thou liest,
thou art Mercury Ali the Cairene."  And he said to her, in
slaves' patois, "O portress, are the Cairenes  black or white?
I will slave for you no longer." Then said the  slaves to him,
"What is the matter with thee, O our cousin?"  Cried Dalilah,
"This is none of your uncle's children, but Ali  Zaybak the
Egyptian; and meseems he hath either drugged your  cousin or
killed him." But they said, "Indeed this is our cousin
Sa'adu'llah the cook;" and she, "Not so, 'tis Mercury Ali, and
he hath dyed his skin." Quoth the sharper, "And who is Ali? I
am Sa'adu'llah." Then she fetched unguent of proof, with which
she anointed Ali's forearm and rubbed it; but the black did
not  come off; whereupon quoth the slaves "Let him go and
dress us  our dinner." Quoth Dalilah, "If he be indeed your
cousin, he  knoweth what you sought of him yesternight[FN#239]
and how many  dishes he cooketh every day." So they asked him
of this and he  said, "Every day I cook you five dishes for
the morning and the  like for the evening meal, lentils and
rice and broth and stew[FN#240] and  sherbet of roses; and
yesternight ye sought of me a sixth dish and  a seventh, to
wit yellow rice and cooked pomegranate seed." And  the slaves
said "Right!" Then quoth Dalilah, "In with him and  if he know
the kitchen and the larder, he is indeed your cousin;  but, if
not, kill him." Now the cook had a cat which he had  brought
up, and whenever he entered the kitchen it would stand  at the
door and spring to his back, as soon as he went in. So,  when
Ali entered, the cat saw him and jumped on his shoulders;  but
he threw it off and it ran before him to the door of the
kitchen  and stopped there. He guessed that this was the
kitchen door; so  he took the keys and seeing one with traces
of feathers thereon,  knew it for the kitchen key and
therewith opened the door. Then  he entered and setting down
the greens, went out again, led by the  cat, which ran before
him and stopped at another door. He guessed  that this was the
larder and seeing one of the keys marked with  grease, knew it
for the key and opened the door therewith; where-upon quoth
the slaves, "O Dalilah, were he a stranger, he had not  known
the kitchen and the larder, nor had he been able to
distinguish  the keys thereof from the rest; verily, he is our
cousin  Sa'adu'llah." Quoth she, "He learned the places from
the cat and  distinguished the keys one from the other by the
appearance: but  this cleverness imposeth not upon me." Then
he returned to the  kitchen where he cooked the dinner and,
carrying Zaynab's tray up  to her room, saw all the stolen
clothes hanging up; after which he  went down and took Dalilah
her tray and gave the slaves and the  dogs their rations. The
like he did at sundown and drugged  Dalilah's food and that of
Zaynab and the slaves. Now the doors  of the Khan were opened
and shut with the sun. So Ali went  forth and cried out,
saying, "O dwellers in the Khan, the watch  is set and we have
loosed the dogs; whoso stirreth out after this  can blame none
save himself." But he had delayed the dogs'  supper and put
poison therein; consequently when he set it before  them, they
ate of it and died while the slaves and Dalilah and  Zaynab
still slept under Bhang. Then he went up and took all the
clothes and the carrier-pigeons and, opening the gate made off
to  the barrack of the Forty, where he found Hasan Shuman the
Pestilence who said to him, "How hast thou fared?" Thereupon
he told him what had passed and he praised him. Then he
caused him to put off his clothes and boiled a decoction of
herbs  wherewith he washed him, and his skin became white as
it was;  after which he donned his own dress and going back to
the Khan,  clad the cook in the habit he had taken from him
and made him smell  to the counter-drug; upon which the slave
awoke and going forth  to the greengrocer's, bought vegetables
and returned to the Khan.  Such was the case with Al-Zaybak of
Cairo; but as regards Dalilah  the Wily, when the day broke,
one of the lodgers in the Khan came  out of his chamber and,
seeing the gate open and the slaves drugged  and the dogs
dead, he went in to her and found her lying drugged,  with a
scroll on her neck and at her head a sponge steeped in the
counter-drug. He set the sponge to her nostrils and she awoke
and  asked, "Where am I?" The merchant answered, "When I came
down from my chamber I saw the gate of the Khan open and the
dogs dead and found the slaves and thee drugged." So she took
up  the paper and read therein these words, "None did this
deed save  Ali the Egyptian." Then she awoke the slaves and
Zaynab by  making them smell the counter-Bhang and said to
them, "Did I not  tell you that this was Ali of Cairo?";
presently adding to the slaves,  "But do ye conceal the
matter." Then she said to her daughter,  "How often have I
warned thee that Ali would not forego his  revenge? He hath
done this deed in requital of that which  thou diddest with
him and he had it in his power to do with thee  other than
this thing; but he refrained therefrom out of courtesy  and a
desire that there should be love and friendship between us."
So saying, she doffed her man's gear and donned woman's
attire[FN#241]  and, tying the kerchief of peace about her
neck, repaired to Ahmad  al-Danaf's barrack. Now when Ali
entered with the clothes and  the carrier-pigeons, Hasan
Shuman gave the hall-keeper the price  of forty pigeons and he
bought them and cooked them amongst  the men. Presently there
came a knock at the door and Ahmad  said, "That is Dalilah's
knock: rise and open to her, O hall-keeper." So he admitted
her and--And Shahrazad perceived  the dawn of day and ceased
to say her permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Fourteenth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Dalilah was admitted, Hasan asked her, "What bringeth thee
hither, O ill-omened old woman? Verily, thou and thy brother
Zurayk the fishmonger are of a piece!"; and she answered, "O
captain I am in the wrong and this my neck is at thy mercy;
but  tell me which of you it was that played me this trick?"
Quoth  Calamity Ahmad, "'Twas the first of my lads." Rejoined
Dalilah,  "For the sake of Allah intercede with him to give me
back the  carrier-pigeons and what not, and thou wilt lay me
under great  obligation." When Hasan heard this he said,
"Allah requite thee,  O Ali! Why didst thou cook the
pigeons?"; and Ali answered,  "I knew not that they were
carrier-pigeons." Then said Ahmad,  "O hall-keeper bring us
the cooked pigeons." So he brought them  and Dalilah took a
piece and tasting it, said, "This is none of the  carrier-
pigeons' flesh, for I fed them on grains of musk and their
meat is become even as musk." Quoth Shuman, "An thou desire
to have the carrier-pigeons, comply with Ali's will." Asked
she  "What is that?" And Hasan answered, "He would have thee
marry him to thy daughter Zaynab." She said, "I have not
command over her except of affection"; and Hasan said to Ali
the  Cairene "Give her the pigeons." So he gave them to her,
and she  took them and rejoiced in them. Then quoth Hasan to
her,  "There is no help but thou return us a sufficient
reply"; and  Dalilah rejoined, "If it be indeed his wish to
marry her, it availed  nothing to play this clever trick upon
us: it behoveth him rather  to demand her in marriage of her
mother's brother and her  guardian, Captain Zurayk, him who
crieth out, saying, 'Ho! a  pound of fish for two farthings!'
and who hangeth up in his shop  a purse containing two
thousand dinars." When the Forty heard  this, they all rose
and cried out, saying, "What manner of blather  is this, O
harlot? Dost thou wish to bereave us of our brother  Ali of
Cairo?" Then she returned to the Khan and said to her
daughter, "Ali the Egyptian seeketh thee in marriage." Whereat
Zaynab rejoiced, for she loved him because of his chaste
forbearance  towards her,[FN#242] and asked her mother what
had passed. So  she told her, adding, "I made it a condition
that he should demand  thy hand of thine uncle, so I might
make him fall into destruction."  Meanwhile Ali turned to his
fellows and asked them,  "What manner of man is this Zurayk?";
and they answered, "He  was chief of the sharpers of Al-Irak
land and could all but pierce  mountains and lay hold upon the
stars. He would steal the Kohl  from the eye and, in brief, he
had not his match for roguery; but  he hath repented his sins
and foresworn his old way of life and  opened him a
fishmonger's shop. And now he hath amassed two  thousand
dinars by the sale of fish and laid them in a purse with
strings of silk, to which he hath tied bells and rings and
rattles of  brass, hung on a peg within the doorway. Every
time he openeth  his shop he suspendeth the said purse and
crieth out, saying,  'Where are ye, O sharpers of Egypt, O
prigs of Al-Irak, O  tricksters of Ajam-land? Behold, Zurayk
the fishmonger hath  hung up a purse in front of his shop, and
whoso pretendeth to  craft and cunning, and can take it by
sleight, it is his.' So the long  fingered and greedy-minded
come and try to take the purse, but  cannot; for, whilst he
frieth his fish and tendeth the fire, he layeth  at his feet
scone-like circles of lead; and whenever a thief thinketh  to
take him unawares and maketh a snatch at the purse he casteth
at him a load of lead and slayeth him or doeth him a damage.
So  O Ali, wert thou to tackle him, thou wouldst be as one who
jostleth a funeral cortége, unknowing who is dead;[FN#243] for
thou art no  match for him, and we fear his mischief for thee.
Indeed, thou  hast no call to marry Zaynab, and he who leaveth
a thing alone  liveth without it." Cried Ali, "This were
shame, O comrades;  needs must I take the purse: but bring me
a young lady's habit."  So they brought him women's clothes
and he clad himself therein  and stained his hands with Henna,
and modestly hung down his  veil. Then he took a lamb and
killing it, cut out the long  intestine[FN#244] which he
cleaned and tied up below; moreover he filled  it with the
blood and bound it between his thighs; after which he  donned
petticoat-trousers and walking boots. He also made  himself a
pair of false breasts with birds' crops and filled them  with
thickened milk and tied round his hips and over his belly a
piece of linen, which he stuffed with cotton, girding himself
over  all with a kerchief of silk well starched. Then he went
out,  whilst all who saw him exclaimed, "What a fine pair of
hind  cheeks!" Presently he saw an ass-driver coming, so he
gave  him a dinar and mounting, rode till he came to Zurayk's
shop,  where he saw the purse hung up and the gold glittering
through it. Now Zurayk was frying fish, and Ali said, "O  ass-
man, what is that smell?" Replied he, "It's the smell  of
Zurayk's fish." Quoth Ali, "I am a woman with child and  the
smell harmeth me; go, fetch me a slice of the fish." So the
donkey-boy said to Zurayk, "What aileth thee to fry fish so
early  and annoy pregnant women with the smell? I have here
the wife  of the Emir Hasan Sharr al-Tarik, and she is with
child; so give  her a bit of fish, for the babe stirreth in
her womb. O Protector,  O my God, avert from us the mischief
of this day!" Thereupon  Zurayk took a piece of fish and would
have fried it, but the fire  had gone out and he went in to
rekindle it. Meanwhile Ali  dismounted and sitting down,
pressed upon the lamb's intestine till  it burst and the blood
ran out from between his legs. Then he  cried aloud, saying,
"O my back! O my side!" Whereupon the  driver turned and
seeing the blood running, said, "What aileth  thee, O my
lady?" Replied Ali, "I have miscarried"; where-upon Zurayk
looked out and seeing the blood fled affrighted  into the
inner shop. Quoth the donkey-driver, "Allah torment  thee, O
Zurayk! The lady hath miscarried and thou art no  match for
her husband. Why must thou make a stench so early  in the
morning? I said to thee, 'Bring her a slice,' but thou
wouldst not." Thereupon, he took his ass and went his way and,
as Zurayk still did not appear, Ali put out his hand to the
purse;  but no sooner had he touched it than the bells and
rattles and  rings began to jingle and the gold to chink.
Quoth Zurayk, who  returned at the sound, "Thy perfidy hath
come to light, O gallows-bird! Wilt thou put a cheat on me and
thou in a woman's habit?  Now take what cometh to thee!" And
he threw a cake of lead  at him, but it went agley and lighted
on another; whereupon the  people rose against Zurayk and said
to him, "Art thou a trades-man or a swashbuckler? An thou be a
tradesman, take down thy  purse and spare the folk thy
mischief." He replied, "Bismillah,  in the name of Allah! On
my head be it." As for Ali, he made  off to the barrack and
told Hasan Shuman what had happened,  after which he put off
his woman's gear and donning a groom's  habit which was
brought to him by his chief took a dish and five  dirhams.
Then he returned to Zurayk's shop and the fishmonger  said to
him, "What dost thou want, O my master?"[FN#245] He showed
him the dirhams and Zurayk would have given him of the fish
in the tray, but he said, "I will have none save hot fish." So
he  set fish in the earthen pan and finding the fire dead,
went in to  relight it; whereupon Ali put out his hand to the
purse and  caught hold of the end of it. The rattles and rings
and bells  jingled and Zurayk said, "Thy trick hath not
deceived me. I  knew thee for all thou art disguised as a
groom by the grip of  thy hand on the dish and the dirhams."--
And Shahrazad  perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her
permitted say.

      When it was the Seven Hundred and Fifteenth Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Ali of Egypt put out his hand to the purse, the bells and
rings  jingled and Zurayk said, "Thy trick hath not deceived
me for  all thou comest disguised as a groom I knew thee by
the grip of  thy hand on the dish and the dirhams!" So saying,
he threw the  lead at him, but he avoided it and it fell into
the pan full of  hot fish and broke it and overturned it, fat
and all, upon the  breast and shoulders of the Kazi, who was
passing. The oil ran  down inside his clothes to his privy
parts and he cried out, "O  my privities! What a sad pickle
you are in! Alas, unhappy I!  Who hath played me this trick?"
Answered the people, "O  our lord, it was some small boy that
threw a stone into the  pan: but for Allah's word, it had been
worse." Then they  turned and seeing the loaf of lead and that
it was Zurayk who  had thrown it, rose against him and said to
him, "O Zurayk,  this is not allowed of Allah! Take down the
purse or it shall  go ill for thee." Answered he, "I will take
it down, Inshallah!"  Meanwhile Ali returned to the barrack
and told his comrades  who cried, "Where is the purse?", all
that had passed and they  said, "Thou hast exhausted two-
thirds of his cunning." Then  he changed his groom's dress for
the garb of a merchant and  going out, met a snake-charmer,
with a bag of serpents and a  wallet containing his kit to
whom said he, "O charmer, come  and amuse my lads, and thou
shalt have largesse." So he  accompanied him to the barrack,
where he fed him and drugging him  with Bhang, doffed his
clothes and put them on. Then he took  the bags and repairing
to Zurayk's shop began to play the reed-pipe. Quoth Zurayk,
"Allah provide thee!" But Ali pulled  out the serpents and
cast them down before him; whereat the  fishseller, who was
afraid of snakes, fled from them into the  inner shop.
Thereupon Ali picked up the reptiles and, thrusting  them back
into the bag, stretched out his hand and caught hold  of the
end of the purse. The rings again rang and the bells and
rattles jangled, and Zurayk cried, "Wilt thou never cease to
play  me tricks? Now thou feignest thyself a serpent-charmer!"
So  saying, he took up a piece of lead, and hurled it at Ali;
but it  missed him and fell on the head of a groom, who was
passing  by, following his master, a trooper, and knocked him
down.  Quoth the soldier, "Who felled him?"; and the folk
said,  "'Twas a stone fell from the roof." So the soldier
passed on  and the people, seeing the piece of lead, went up
to Zurayk  and cried to him, "Take down the purse!"; and he
said,  "Inshallah, I will take it down this very night!" Ali
ceased  not to practice upon Zurayk till he had made seven
different  attempts but without taking the purse. Then he
returned the  snake-charmer his clothes and kit and gave him
due benevolence;  after which he went back to Zurayk's shop
and heard  him say, "If I leave the purse here to-night, he
will dig through  the shop-wall and take it; I will carry it
home with me." So  he arose and shut the shop; then he took
down the purse and  putting it in his bosom set out home, till
he came near his  house, when he saw a wedding in a
neighbour's lodging and  said to himself, "I will hie me home
and give my wife the purse  and don my fine clothes and return
to the marriage." And Ali  followed him. Now Zurayk had
married a black girl, one of the  freed women of the Wazir
Ja'afar and she had borne him a son,  whom he named Abdallah,
and he had promised her to spend the  money in the purse on
the occasion of the boy's circumcision and  of his marriage-
procession. So he went into his house and, as he  entered, his
wife saw that his face was overcast and asked him,  "What hath
caused thy sadness?" Quoth he, "Allah hath  afflicted me this
day with a rascal who made seven attempts to get  the purse,
but without avail;" and quoth she, "Give it to me, that  I may
lay it up against the boy's festival-day." (Now Ali, who  had
followed him lay hidden in a closet whence he could see and
hear all.) So he gave her the purse and changed his clothes,
saying,  "Keep the purse safely, O Umm Abdallah, for I am
going to  the wedding." But she said, "Take thy sleep awhile."
So he lay  down and fell asleep. Presently, Ali rose and going
on tiptoe to  the purse, took it and went to the house of the
wedding and stood  there, looking on at the fun. Now
meanwhile, Zurayk dreamt  that he saw a bird fly away with the
purse and awaking in affright,  said to his wife, "Rise; look
for the purse." So she looked and  finding it gone, buffeted
her face and said, "Alas the blackness of  thy fortune, O Umm
Abdallah! A sharker hath taken the purse."  Quoth Zurayk, "By
Allah it can be none other than rascal Ali  who hath plagued
me all day! He hath followed me home and  seized the purse;
and there is no help but that I go and get it  back." Quoth
she, "Except thou bring it, I will lock on thee  the door and
leave thee to pass the night in the street." So  he went up to
the house of the wedding, and seeing Ali looking  on, said to
himself, "This is he who took the purse; but he lodgeth  with
Ahmad al-Danaf." So he forewent him to the barrack and,
climbing up at the back, dropped down into the saloon, where
he  found every one asleep. Presently there came a rap at the
door  and Zurayk asked, "Who is there!" "Ali of Cairo,"
answered the  knocker; and Zurayk said, "Hast thou brought the
purse?" So Ali thought it was Hasan Shuman and replied, "I
have brought  it;[FN#246] open the door." Quoth Zurayk,
"Impossible that I open to  thee till I see the purse; for thy
chief and I have laid a wager  about it." Said Ali, "Put out
thy hand." So he put out his hand  through the hole in the
side-door and Ali laid the purse in it;  whereupon Zurayk took
it and going forth, as he had come in,  returned to the
wedding. Ali stood for a long while at the door,  but none
opened to him; and at last he gave a thundering knock  that
awoke all the men and they said, "That is Ali of Cairo's
peculiar rap." So the hall-keeper opened to him and Hasan
Shuman said to him, "Hast thou brought the purse?" Replied
Ali, "Enough of jesting, O Shuman: didst thou not swear that
thou wouldest not open to me till I showed thee the purse, and
did I not give it thee through the hole in the side door? And
didst thou not say to me, 'I am sworn never to open the door
till  thou show me the purse?'" Quoth Hasan? "By Allah, 'twas
not  I who took it, but Zurayk!" Quoth Ali, "Needs must I get
it  again," and repaired to the house of the wedding, where he
heard  the buffoon[FN#247] say, "Bravo,[FN#248] O Abu
Abdallah! Good luck to thee  with thy son!" Said Ali, "My luck
is in the ascendant," and  going to the fishmonger's lodging,
climbed over the back wall of  the house and found his wife
asleep. So he drugged her with  Bhang and clad himself in her
clothes. Then he took the child in  his arms and went round,
searching, till he found a palm-leaf  basket containing
buns,[FN#249] which Zurayk of his niggardliness, had  kept
from the Greater Feast. Presently, the fishmonger returned
and knocked at the door, whereupon Ali imitated his wife's
voice  and asked, "Who is at the door?" "Abu Abdallah,"
answered  Zurayk and Ali said, "I swore that I would not open
the door to  thee, except thou broughtest back the purse."
Quoth the fish-monger, "I have brought it." Cried All, "Here
with it into my  hand before I open the door;" and Zurayk
answered, saying, "Let  down the basket and take it therein."
So Sharper Ali let down  the basket and the other put the
purse therein, whereupon Ali  took it and drugged the child.
Then he aroused the woman and  making off by the back way as
he had entered, returned with the  child and the purse and the
basket of cakes to the barrack and  showed them all to the
Forty, who praised his dexterity. There-upon he gave them
cakes, which they ate, and made over the boy  to Hasan Shuman,
saying, "This is Zurayk's child; hide it by  thee." So he hid
it and fetching a lamb, gave it to the hall-keeper  who cooked
it whole, wrapped in a cloth, and laid it out shrouded  as it
were a dead body. Meanwhile Zurayk stood awhile, waiting  at
the door, then gave a knock like thunder and his wife said to
him, "Hast thou brought the purse?" He replied, "Didst thou
not take it up in the basket thou diddest let down but now?";
and  she rejoined, "I let no basket down to thee, nor have I
set eyes  on the purse." Quoth he, "By Allah the sharper hath
been  beforehand with me and hath taken the purse again!" Then
he  searched the house and found the basket of cakes gone and
the  child missing and cried out, saying, "Alas, my child!"
Where-upon the woman beat her breast and said, "I and thee to
the  Wazir, for none hath killed my son save this sharper, and
all  because of thee." Cried Zurayk, "I will answer for him."
So he  tied the kerchief of truce about his neck and going to
Ahmad  al-Danaf's lodging, knocked at the door. The hall-
keeper admitted him and as he entered Hasan Shuman asked him,
"What  bringeth thee here?" He answered, "Do ye intercede with
Ali  the Cairene to restore me my child and I will yield to
him the  purse of gold." Quoth Hasan, "Allah requite thee, O
Ali! Why  didst thou not tell me it was his child?" "What hath
befallen  him?" cried Zurayk, and Hasan replied, "We gave him
raisins to  eat, and he choked and died and this is he." Quoth
Zurayk  "Alas, my son! What shall I say to his mother?" Then
he  rose and opening the shroud, saw it was a lamb barbecued
and  said, "Thou makest sport of me, O Ali!" Then they gave
him  the child and Calamity Ahmad said to him, "Thou didst
hang up  the purse, proclaiming that it should be the property
of any sharper  who should be able to take it, and Ali hath
taken it; so 'tis the  very property of our Cairene." Zurayk
answered "I make him  a present of it;" but Ali said to him,
"Do thou accept it on  account of thy niece Zaynab." And
Zurayk replied, "I accept it."  Then quoth the Forty, "We
demand of thee Zaynab in marriage  for Ali of Cairo;" but
quoth he, "I have no control over her save  of kindness."
Hasan asked, "Dost thou grant our suit?"; and he  answered,
"Yes, I will grant her in marriage to him who can avail  to
her mahr or marriage-settlement." "And what is her dowry?"
enquired Hasan; and Zurayk replied, "She hath sworn that none
shall mount her breast save the man who bringeth her the robe
of  Kamar, daughter of Azariah the Jew and the rest of her
gear."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to
say her permitted say.

      When it was the Seven Hundred and Sixteenth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Zurayk replied to Shuman, "She hath sworn that none shall
ride astraddle upon her breast save the man who bringeth her
the clothes of Kamar, daughter of Azariah the Jew and her
crown and girdle and pantoufle[FN#250] of gold," Ali cried,
"If I do  not bring her the clothes this very night, I
renounce my claim to  her." Rejoined Zurayk, "O Ali, thou art
a dead man if thou play  any of thy pranks on Kamar." "Why
so?" asked Ali and the  other answered, "Her father, Jew
Azariah, is a skilful, wily,  perfidious magician who hath the
Jinn at his service. He owneth  without the city a castle,
whose walls are one brick of gold and  one of silver and which
is visible to the folk only whilst he is  therein: when he
goeth forth, it disappeareth. He brought his  daughter this
dress I speak of from an enchanted treasure, and  every day he
layeth it in a charger of gold and, opening the  windows of
the palace, crieth out, 'Where are the sharpers of  Cairo, the
prigs of Al-Irak, the master-thieves of Ajam-land?  Whoso
prevaileth to take this dress, 'tis his.' So all the long-
fingered ones essayed the adventure, but failed to take it,
and he  turned them by his magic into apes and asses." But Ali
said, "I  will assuredly take it, and Zaynab shall be
displayed therein."[FN#251]  So he went to the shop of the Jew
and found him a man of stern  and forbidding aspect, seated
with scales and stone-weights and  gold and silver and nests
of drawers and so forth before him, and  a she-mule tethered
hard by. Presently he rose and shutting his  shop, laid the
gold and silver in two purses, which he placed in a  pair of
saddle-bags and set on the she-mule's back. Then he  mounted
and rode till he reached the city-outskirts followed, with-out
his knowledge, by Ali, when he took out some dust from a
pocket-purse and, muttering over it, sprinkled it upon the
air. No  sooner had he done this than sharper Ali saw a castle
which had  not its like, and the Jew mounted the steps upon
his beast which  was a subject Jinni; after which he
dismounted and taking the  saddle-bags off her back, dismissed
the she-mule and she vanished.  Then he entered the castle and
sat down. Presently, he arose and  opening the lattices, took
a wand of gold, which he set up in the  open window and,
hanging thereto a golden charger by chains of  the same metal,
laid in it the dress, whilst Ali watched him from  behind the
door, and presently he cried out, saying, "Where are  the
sharpers of Cairo? Where are the prigs of Al-Irak, the
master-thieves of the Ajam-land? Whoso can take this dress by
his sleight, 'tis his!" Then he pronounced certain magical
words  and a tray of food spread itself before him. He ate and
conjured  a second time, whereupon the tray disappeared; and
yet a third  time, when a table of wine was placed between his
hands and he  drank. Quoth Ali, "I know not how I am to take
the dress  except if he be drunken." Then he stole up behind
the Jew  whinger in grip; but the other turned and conjured,
saying to his  hand, "Hold with the sword;" whereupon Ali's
right arm was held  and abode half-way in the air hending the
hanger. He put out his  left hand to the weapon, but it also
stood fixed in the air, and so  with his right foot, leaving
him standing on one foot. Then the  Jew dispelled the charm
from him and Ali became as before.  Presently Azariah struck a
table of sand and found that the thief's  name was Mercury Ali
of Cairo; so he turned to him and said,  "Come nearer! Who art
thou and what dost thou here?" He  replied, "I am Ali of
Cairo, of the band of Ahmad al-Danaf. I  sought the hand of
Zaynab, daughter of Dalilah the Wily, and  she demanded thy
daughter's dress to her dowry; so do thou give  it to me and
become a Moslem, an thou wouldst save thy life."  Rejoined the
Jew, "After thy death! Many have gone about to  steal the
dress, but failed to take it from me; wherefore an thou  deign
be advised, thou wilt begone and save thyself; for they only
seek the dress of thee, that thou mayst fall into destruction;
and  indeed, had I not seen by geomancy that thy fortune
overrideth  my fortunes I had smitten thy neck." Ali rejoiced
to hear that  his luck overcame that of the Jew and said to
him, "There is no  help for it but I must have the dress and
thou must become a True  Believer." Asked the Jew, "Is this
thy will and last word," and  Ali answered, "Yes." So the Jew
took a cup and filling it with  water, conjured over it and
said to Ali, "Come forth from this  shape of a man into the
form of an ass." Then he sprinkled him  with the water and
straightway he became a donkey, with hoofs  and long ears, and
fell to braying after the manner of asinines.  The Jew drew
round him a circle which became a wall over  against him, and
drank on till the morning, when he said to Ali,  "I will ride
thee to-day and give the she-mule a rest." So he  locked up
the dress, the charger, the rod and the charms in a
cupboard[FN#252] and conjured over Ali, who followed him. Then
he  set the saddle-bags on his back and mounting, fared forth
of the  Castle, whereupon it disappeared from sight and he
rode into  Baghdad, till he came to his shop, where he
alighted and emptied  the bags of gold and silver into the
trays before him. As for Ali,  he was tied up by the shop-
door, where he stood in his asinine  form hearing and
understanding all that passed, without being  able to speak.
And behold, up came a young merchant with  whom fortune had
played the tyrant and who could find no easier  Way of earning
his livelihood than water-carrying. So he brought  his wife's
bracelets to the Jew and said to him, "Give me the  price of
these bracelets, that I may buy me an ass." Asked the  Jew,
"What wilt thou do with him?"; and the other answered,  "O
master, I mean to fetch water from the river on his back, and
earn my living thereby." Quoth the Jew, "Take this ass of
mine."  So he sold him the bracelets and received the ass-
shaped Ali of  Cairo in part payment and carried him home.
Quoth Ali to himself,  "If the Ass-man clap the pannel on thee
and load thee with  water-skins and go with thee half a score
journeys a day he will  ruin thy health and thou wilt die."
So, when the water-carrier's  wife came to bring him his
fodder, he butted her with his head  and she fell on her back;
whereupon he sprang on her and smiting  her brow with his
mouth, put out and displayed that which his  begetter left
him. She cried aloud and the neighbours came to  her
assistance and beat him and raised him off her breast. When
her husband the intended water-carrier came home, she said to
him, "Now either divorce me or return the ass to his owner."
He  asked, "What hath happened?"; and she answered, "This is a
devil in the guise of a donkey. He sprang upon me, and had not
the neighbours beaten him off my bosom he had done with me a
foul thing." So he carried the ass back to the Jew, who said
to him, "Wherefore hast thou brought him back?" and he
replied, "He did a foul thing with my wife." So the Jew gave
him his money again and he went away; and Azariah said to Ali,
"Hast thou recourse to knavery, unlucky wretch that thou art,
in  order that"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased saying her permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Seventeenth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
when  the water-carrier brought back the ass, its Jew owner
returned to  him the monies and turning to Ali of Cairo said,
"Hast thou  recourse to knavery, unlucky wretch that thou art,
in order that  he may return thee to me? But since it pleaseth
thee to be an  ass, I will make thee a spectacle and a
laughing stock to great and  small." Then he mounted him and
rode till he came without the  city, when he brought out the
ashes in powder and conjuring over  it sprinkled it upon the
air and immediately the Castle appeared.  He entered and
taking the saddle-bags off the ass's back set up the rod and
hung to it the charger wherein were the clothes  proclaiming
aloud, "Where be the clever ones of all quarters who  may
avail to take this dress?" Then he conjured as before and
meat was set before him and he ate and then wine when he
drank;  after which he took a cup of water and muttering
certain words  thereover, sprinkled it on the ass Ali, saying,
"Quit this form and  return to thy former shape." Ali
straightway became a man once  more and Azariah said to him,
"O Ali, take good advice and be  content with my mischief.
Thou hast no call to marry Zaynab  nor to take my daughter's
dress, for 'tis no easy matter for thee:  so leave greed and
'twill be better for thee; else will I turn thee  into a bear
or an ape or set on thee an Ifrit, who will cast thee  behind
the Mountain Kaf." He replied, "I have engaged to take  the
dress and needs must I have it and thou must Islamise or I
will slay thee." Rejoined the Jew, "O Ali, thou art like a
walnut;  unless it be broken it cannot be eaten." Then he took
a cup of  water and conjuring over it, sprinkled Ali with
somewhat thereof,  saying, "Take thou shape of bear;"
whereupon he instantly  became a bear and the Jew put a collar
about his neck, muzzled him  and chained him to a picket of
iron. Then he sat down and ate  and drank, now and then
throwing him a morsel of his orts and  emptying the dregs of
the cup over him, till the morning, when he  rose and laid by
the tray and the dress and conjured over the  bear, which
followed him to the shop. There the Jew sat down  and emptied
the gold and silver into the trays before Ali, after  binding
him by the chain; and the bear there abode seeing and
comprehending but not able to speak. Presently up came a man
and a merchant, who accosted the Jew and said to him, "O
Master,  wilt thou sell me yonder bear? I have a wife who is
my cousin  and is sick; and they have prescribed for her to
eat bears' flesh  and anoint herself with bears' grease." At
this the Jew rejoiced  and said to himself, "I will sell him
to this merchant, so he may  slaughter him and we be at peace
from him." And Ali also said in  his mind, "By Allah, this
fellow meaneth to slaughter me; but  deliverance is with the
Almighty." Then said the Jew, "He is a  present from me to
thee." So the merchant took him and carried  him into the
butcher, to whom he said, "Bring thy tools and  company me."
The butcher took his knives and followed the merchant  to his
house, where he bound the beast and fell to sharpening his
blade: but, when he went up to him to slaughter him, the bear
escaped from his hands and rising into the air, disappeared
from sight between heaven and earth; nor did he cease flying
till he  alighted at the Jew's castle. Now the reason thereof
was on this  wise. When the Jew returned home, his daughter
questioned him  of Ali and he told her what had happened;
whereupon she said,  "Summon a Jinni and ask him of the youth,
whether he be indeed  Mercury Ali or another who seeketh to
put a cheat on thee." So  Azariah called a Jinni by
conjurations and questioned him of Ali;  and he replied, "'Tis
Ali of Cairo himself. The butcher hath  pinioned him and
whetted his knife to slaughter him." Quoth the  Jew, "Go,
snatch him up and bring him hither, ere the butcher cut  his
throat." So the Jinni flew off and, snatching Ali out of the
butcher's hands, bore him to the palace and set him down
before  the Jew, who took a cup of water and conjuring over
it, sprinkled  him therewith, saying, "Return to thine own
shape." And he  straightway became a man again as before. The
Jew's daughter  Kamar,[FN#253] seeing him to be a handsome
young man, fell in love with  him and he fell in love with
her; and she said to him, "O unlucky  one, why dost thou go
about to take my dress, enforcing my father  to deal thus with
thee?" Quoth he, "I have engaged to get it for  Zaynab the
Coney-catcher, that I may wed her therewith." And  she said,
"Others than thou have played pranks with my father to  get my
dress, but could not win to it," presently adding, "So put
away this thought from thee." But he answered, "Needs must I
have it, and thy father must become a Moslem, else I will slay
him." Then said the Jew, "See, O my daughter, how this
unlucky fellow seeketh his own destruction," adding, "Now I
will  turn thee into a dog." So he took a cup graven with
characters  and full of water and conjuring over it, sprinkled
some of it upon  Ali, saying, "Take thou form of dog."
Whereupon he straight-way became a dog, and the Jew and his
daughter drank together  till the morning, when the father
laid up the dress and charger  and mounted his mule. Then he
conjured over the dog, which  followed him, as he rode towards
the town, and all dogs barked at  Ali[FN#254] as he passed,
till he came to the shop of a broker, a seller of  second-hand
goods, who rose and drove away the dogs, and Ali  lay down
before him. The Jew turned and looked for him, but finding him
not, passed onwards. Presently, the broker shut up  his shop
and went home, followed by the dog, which, when his  daughter
saw enter the house, she veiled her face and said, "O my
papa, dost thou bring a strange man in to me?" He replied, "O
my daughter, this is a dog." Quoth she, "Not so, 'tis Ali the
Cairene, whom the Jew Azariah hath enchanted;" and she turned
to the dog and said to him, "Art not Ali of Cairo?" And he
signed to her with his head, "Yes." Then her father asked her,
"Why did the Jew enchant him?"; and she answered, "Because  of
his daughter Kamar's dress; but I can release him." Said the
broker, "An thou canst indeed do him this good office, now is
the  time," and she, "If he will marry me, I will release
him." And  he signed to her with his head, "Yes."  So she took
a cup of  water, graven with certain signs and conjuring over
it, was about  to sprinkle Ali therewith, when lo and behold!
she heard a great  cry and the cup fell from her hand. She
turned and found that it  was her father's handmaid, who had
cried out; and she said to  her, "O my mistress, is't thus
thou keepest the covenant between  me and thee? None taught
thee this art save I, and thou didst  agree with me that thou
wouldst do naught without consulting  me and that whoso
married thee should marry me also, and that  one night should
be mine and one night thine." And the broker's  daughter said,
"'Tis well." When the broker heard the maid's  words, he asked
his daughter, "Who taught the maid?"; and  she answered, "O my
papa, enquire of herself." So he put the  question and she
replied, "Know, O my lord, that, when I was  with Azariah the
Jew, I used to spy upon him and listen to him,  when he
performed his gramarye; and when he went forth to his  shop in
Baghdad, I opened his books and read in them, till I  became
skilled in the Cabbala-science. One day, he was warm  with
wine and would have me lie with him, but I objected, saying,
'I may not grant thee this except thou become a Moslem.' He
refused and I said to him, 'Now for the Sultan's
market.'[FN#255] So he  sold me to thee and I taught my young
mistress, making it a  condition with her that she should do
naught without my counsel,  and that whoso might wed her
should wed me also, one night  for me and one night for her."
Then she took a cup of water and  conjuring over it, sprinkled
the dog therewith; saying, "Return  thou to form of man." And
he straightway was restored to his  former shape; whereupon
the broker saluted him with the salam  and asked him the
reason of his enchantment. So Ali told him  all that had
passed--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day  and ceased to
say her permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Eighteenth Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
broker, having saluted Ali of Cairo with the salam, asked him
the  reason of his enchantment and what had befallen him; and
he  answered by telling him all that had passed, when the
broker said  to him, "Will not my daughter and the handmaid
suffice thee?"  but he answered, "Needs must I have Zaynab
also."  Now  suddenly there came a rap at the door and the
maid said, "Who  is at the door?"  The knocker replied,
"Kamar, daughter of  Azariah the Jew; say me, is Ali of Cairo
with you?" Replied  the broker's daughter, "O thou daughter of
a dog! If he be  with us, what wilt thou with him? Go down, O
maid, and open  to her."  So the maid let her in, and when she
looked upon  Ali and he upon her, he said,  "What bringeth
thee hither  O dog's daughter?"  Quoth she, "I testify that
there is no  god but the God and I testify that Mohammed is
the Apostle  of God." And, having thus Islamised, she asked
him, "Do men  in the Faith of Al-Islam give marriage portions
to women or  do women dower men?"  Quoth he, "Men endow
women."  "Then," said she, "I come and dower myself for thee,
bringing thee, as my marriage-portion, my dress together with
the rod and charger and chains and the head of my father,  the
enemy of thee and the foeman of Allah." And she threw  down
the Jew's head before him.  Now the cause of her  slaying her
sire was as follows.  On the night of his turning  Ali into a
dog, she saw, in a dream, a speaker who said to her,  "Become
a Moslemah." She did so; and as soon as she awoke  next
morning she expounded Al-Islam to her father who  refused to
embrace the Faith; so she drugged him with Bhang  and killed
him. As for Ali, he took the gear and said to the  broker,
"Meet we to-morrow at the Caliph's Divan, that I may  take thy
daughter and the handmaid to wife." Then he set out
rejoicing, to return to the barrack of the Forty. On his way
he  met a sweetmeat seller, who was beating hand upon hand and
saying, "There is no Majesty and there is no Might save in
Allah,  the Glorious, the Great! Folk's labour hath waxed
sinful and  man is active only in fraud!" Then said he to Ali,
"I conjure  thee, by Allah, taste of this confection!"  So Ali
took a piece  and ate it and fell down senseless, for there
was Bhang therein;  whereupon the sweetmeat-seller seized the
dress and the charger  and the rest of the gear and thrusting
them into the box where  he kept his sweetmeats hoisted it up
and made off. Presently he  met a Kazi, who called to him,
saying, "Come hither, O sweet-meat seller!" So he went up to
him and setting down his sack  laid the tray of sweetmeats
upon it and asked, "What dost thou  want?" "Halwá and
dragées,[FN#256]" answered the Kazi and, taking  some in his
hand, said, "Both of these are adulterated." Then  he brought
out sweetmeats from his breast-pocket[FN#257] and gave them
to the sweetmeat-seller, saying, "Look at this fashion; how
excellent it is! Eat of it and make the like of it." So he ate
and fell down senseless, for the sweetmeats were drugged with
Bhang, whereupon the Kazi bundled him into the sack and made
off with him, charger and chest and all, to the barrack of the
Forty. Now the Judge in question was Hasan Shuman and the
reason of this was as follows. When Ali had been gone some
days in quest of the dress and they heard no news of him,
Calamity Ahmad said to his men, "O lads, go and seek for your
brother Ali of Cairo." So they sallied forth in quest of him
and  among the rest Hasan Shuman the Pestilence, disguised in
a Kazi's  gear.  He came upon the sweetmeat-seller and,
knowing him  for Ahmad al-Lakit[FN#258] suspected him of
having played some trick  upon Ali; so he drugged him and did
as we have seen. Mean-while, the other Forty fared about the
streets and highways  making search in different directions,
and amongst them Ali  Kitf al-Jamal, who espying a crowd, made
towards the people  and found the Cairene Ali lying drugged
and senseless in their  midst. So he revived him and he came
to himself and seeing the  folk flocking around him asked,
"Where am I?"  Answered  Ali Camel-shoulder and his comrades,
"We found thee lying here  drugged but know not who drugged
thee." Quoth Ali, "'Twas  a certain sweetmeat-seller who
drugged me and took the gear  from me; but where is he gone?"
Quoth his comrades, "We  have seen nothing of him; but come,
rise and go home with  us." So they returned to the barrack,
where they found Ahmad  al-Danaf, who greeted Ali and enquired
if he had brought the  dress.  He replied, "I was coming
hither with it and other  matters, including the Jew's head,
when a sweetmeat-seller met  me and drugged me with Bhang and
took them from me." Then  he told him the whole tale ending
with, "If I come across that  man of goodies again, I will
requite him."  Presently Hasan  Shuman came out of a closet
and said to him, "Hast thou gotten  the gear, O Ali?" So he
told him what had befallen him and  added, "If I know whither
the rascal is gone and where to  find the knave, I would pay
him out. Knowest thou whither  he went?" Answered Hasan, "I
know where he is," and  opening the door of the closet, showed
him the sweetmeat-seller  within, drugged and senseless.  Then
he aroused  him and he opened his eyes and finding himself in
presence of  Mercury Ali and Calamity Ahmad and the Forty,
started up and  said, "Where am I and who hath laid hands on
me?" Replied  Shuman, "'Twas I laid hands on thee;" and Ali
cried, "O  perfidious wretch, wilt thou play thy pranks on
me?" And he  would have slain him: but Hasan said to him,
"Hold thy hand  for this fellow is become thy kinsman."  "How
my kinsman?"  quoth Ali; and quoth Hasan, "This is Ahmad al-
Lakit son of  Zaynab's sister." Then said Ali to the prisoner,
"Why didst thou  thus, O Lakit?" and he replied, "My
grandmother, Dalilah the  Wily, bade me do it; only because
Zurayk the fishmonger fore-gathered with the old woman and
said, 'Mercury Ali of Cairo is  a sharper and a past master in
knavery, and he will certainly slay  the Jew and bring hither
the dress.'  So she sent for me and  said to me, 'O Ahmad,
dost thou know Ali of Cairo?' Answered  I, 'Indeed I do and
'twas I directed him to Ahmad al-Danaf's  lodging when he
first came to Baghdad.' Quoth she, 'Go and set  thy nets for
him, and if he have brought back the gear, put a  cheat on him
and take it from him.' So I went round about the  highways of
the city, till I met a sweetmeat-seller and buying his
clothes and stock-in-trade and gear for ten dinars, did what
was  done." Thereupon quoth Ali, "Go back to thy grandmother
and  Zurayk, and tell them that I have brought the gear and
the Jew's  head and tell them to meet me to-morrow at the
Caliph's Divan, there to receive Zaynab's dowry." And Calamity
Ahmad  rejoiced in this and said, "We have not wasted our
pains in  rearing thee, O Ali!"  Next morning Ali took the
dress, the  charger, the rod and the chains of gold, together
with the head of  Azariah the Jew mounted on a pike, and went
up, accompanied  by Ahmad al-Danaf and the Forty, to the
Divan, where they  kissed ground before the Caliph--And
Shahrazad perceived  the dawn of day and ceased saying her
permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Nineteenth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Ali
the Cairene went up to the Caliph's Divan, accompanied by his
uncle Ahmad al-Danaf and his lads they kissed ground before
the  Caliph who turned and seeing a youth of the most valiant
aspect,  enquired of Calamity Ahmad concerning him and he
replied, "O  Commander of the Faithful, this is Mercury Ali
the Egyptian  captain of the brave boys of Cairo, and he is
the first of my lads."  And the Caliph loved him for the
valour that shone from between  his eyes, testifying for him
and not against him. Then Ali rose;  and, casting the Jew's
head down before him, said, "May thine  every enemy be like
this one, O Prince of True Believers!"  Quoth Al-Rashid,
"Whose head is this?"; and quoth Ali, "'Tis  the head of
Azariah the Jew." "Who slew him?" asked the  Caliph. So Ali
related to him all that had passed, from first to  last, and
the Caliph said, "I had not thought thou wouldst kill  him,
for that he was a sorcerer." Ali replied, "O Commander of  the
Faithful, my Lord made me prevail to his slaughter." Then  the
Caliph sent the Chief of Police to the Jew's palace, where he
found him lying headless; so he laid the body on a
bier,[FN#259] and  carried it to Al-Rashid, who commanded to
burn it. Whereat,  behold, up came Kamar and kissing the
ground before the Caliph,  informed him that she was the
daughter of Jew Azariah and that  she had become a Moslemah.
Then she renewed her profession of Faith before the Commander
of the Faithful and said to him  "Be thou my intercessor with
Sharper Ali that he take me to  wife." She also appointed him
her guardian to consent to her  marriage with the Cairene, to
whom he gave the Jew's palace and  all its contents, saying,
"Ask a boon of me." Quoth Ali, "I beg  of thee to let me stand
on thy carpet and eat of thy table;" and  quoth the Caliph, "O
Ali, hast thou any lads?" He replied, "I  have forty lads; but
they are in Cairo." Rejoined the Caliph,  "Send to Cairo and
fetch them hither," presently adding, "But,  O Ali, hast thou
a barrack for them?" "No," answered Ali;  and Hasan Shuman
said, "I make him a present of my barrack  with all that is
therein, O Commander of the Faithful."  However, the Caliph
retorted, saying, "Thy lodging is thine own, O  Hasan;" and he
bade his treasurer give the court architect ten  thousand
dinars, that he might build Ali a hall with four daises  and
forty sleeping-closets for his lads. Then said he, "O Ali,
hast thou any further wish, that we may command its
fulfilment?".  and said Ali, "O King of the age, be thou my
intercessor with  Dalilah the Wily that she give me her
daughter Zaynab to wife  and take the dress and gear of
Azariah's girl in lieu of dower."  Dalilah accepted the
Caliph's intercession and accepted the  charger and dress and
what not, and they drew up the marriage  contracts between Ali
and Zaynab and Kamar, the Jew's daughter  and the broker's
daughter and the handmaid. Moreover, the  Caliph assigned him
a solde with a table morning and evening,  and stipends and
allowances for fodder; all of the most liberal.  Then Ali the
Cairene fell to making ready for the wedding  festivities and,
after thirty days, he sent a letter to his comrades in  Cairo,
wherein he gave them to know of the favours and honours  which
the Caliph had bestowed upon him and said, "I have  married
four maidens and needs must ye come to the wedding."  So,
after a reasonable time the forty lads arrived and they held
high festival; he homed them in his barrack and entreated them
with the utmost regard and presented them to the Caliph, who
bestowed on them robes of honour and largesse. Then the
tiring-women displayed Zaynab before Ali in the dress of the
Jew's  daughter, and he went in unto her and found her a pearl
unthridden and a filly by all save himself unridden. Then he
went in unto the three other maidens and found them
accomplished  in beauty and loveliness. After this it befel
that Ali of Cairo was  one night on guard by the Caliph who
said to him, "I wish thee  O Ali, to tell me all that hath
befallen thee from first to last with  Dalilah the Wily and
Zaynab the Coney-catcher and Zurayk the  Fishmonger." So Ali
related to him all his adventures and the  Commander of the
Faithful bade record them and lay them up in  the royal
muniment-rooms. So they wrote down all that had  befallen him
and kept it in store with other histories for the  people of
Mohammed the Best of Men. And Ali and his wives  and comrades
abode in all solace of life, and its joyance, till there  came
to them the Destroyer of Delights and Sunderer of Societies;
and Allah (be He extolled and exalted!) is All-
knowing![FN#260] And  also men relate the tale of


There was once in the city of Shíráz a mighty King called Sayf
al-A'azam Shah, who had grown old, without being blessed with
a son. So he summoned the physicists and physicians and said
to them, "I am now in years and ye know my case and the state
of the kingdom and its ordinance; and I fear for my subjects
after me; for that up to this present I have not been
vouchsafed a son." Thereupon they replied, "We will compound
thee a somewhat of drugs wherein shall be efficacy, if it
please Almighty Allah!" So they mixed him drugs, which he used
and knew his wife carnally, and she conceived by leave of the
Most High Lord, who saith to a thing, "Be," and it becometh.
When her months were accomplished, she gave birth to a male
child like the moon, whom his father named Ardashir,[FN#262]
and he grew up and throve and applied himself to the study of
learning and letters, till he attained the age of fifteen. Now
there was in Al-Irak a King called Abd al-Kádir who had a
daughter, by name Hayát al-Nufús, and she was like the rising
full moon, but she had an hatred for men and the folk very
hardly dared name mankind in her presence. The Kings of the
Chosroës had sought her in marriage of her sire; but, when he
spoke with her thereof, she said, "Never will I do this; and
if thou force me thereto, I will slay myself." Now Prince
Ardashir heard of her fame and fell in love with her and told
his father who, seeing his case, took pity on him and promised
him day by day that he should marry her. So he despatched his
Wazir to demand her in wedlock, but King Abd al-Kadir refused,
and when the Minister returned to King Sayf al-A'azam and
acquainted him with what had befallen his mission and the
failure thereof, he was wroth with exceeding wrath and cried,
"Shall the like of me send to one of the Kings on a
requisition and he accomplish it not?" Then he bade a herald
make proclamation to his troops, bidding them bring out the
tents and equip them for war with all diligence, though they
should borrow money for the necessary expenses; and he said,
"I will on no wise turn back, till I have laid waste King Abd
al-Kadir's dominions and slain his men and plundered his
treasures and blotted out his traces!" When the report of this
reached Ardashir he rose from his carpet-bed, and going in to
his father, kissed ground[FN#263] between his hands and said,
"O mighty King, trouble not thyself with aught of this
thing"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to
say her permitted say.

      When it was the Seven Hundred and Twentieth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
when report of this reached the Prince he went in to his sire
the King and, kissing ground between his hands, said, "O
mighty King, trouble not thy soul with aught of this thing and
levy not thy champions and armies neither spend thy monies.
Thou art stronger than he, and if thou loose upon him this thy
host, thou wilt lay waste his cities and dominions and spoil
his good and slay his strong men and himself; but when his
daughter shall come to know what hath befallen her father and
his people by reason of her, she will slay herself, and I
shall die on her account; for I can never live after her; no,
never." Asked the King, "And what then thinkest thou to do, O
my son?" and the Prince answered, "I will don a merchant's
habit and cast about how I may win to the Princess and compass
my desire of her." Quoth Sayf al-A'azam, "Art thou determined
upon this?"; and quoth the Prince, "Yes, O my sire;" whereupon
the King called to his Wazir, and said to him, "Do thou
journey with my son, the core of my heart, and help him to win
his will and watch over him and guide him with thy sound
judgment, for thou standest to him even in my stead." "I hear
and obey," answered the Minister; and the King gave his son
three hundred thousand dinars in gold and great store of
jewels and precious stones and goldsmiths' ware and stuffs and
other things of price. Then Prince Ardashir went in to his
mother and kissed her hands and asked her blessing. She
blessed him and, forthright opening her treasures, brought out
to him necklaces and trinkets and apparel and all manner of
other costly objects hoarded up from the time of the bygone
Kings, whose price might not be evened with coin. Moreover, he
took with him of his Mamelukes and negro-slaves and cattle all
that he needed for the road and clad himself and the Wazir and
their company in traders' gear. Then he farewelled his parents
and kinsfolk and friends; and, setting out, fared on over
wolds and wastes all hours of the day and watches of the
night; and whenas the way was longsome upon him he improvised
these couplets,

"My longing bred of love with mine unease for ever grows; *
     Nor against all the wrongs of time one succourer arose:
When Pleiads and the Fishes show in sky the rise I watch, * As
     worshipper within whose breast a pious burning glows:
For Star o' Morn I speer until at last when it is seen, * I'm
     madded with my passion and my fancy's woes and throes:
I swear by you that never from your love have I been loosed; *
     Naught am I save a watcher who of slumber nothing knows!
Though hard appear my hope to win, though languor aye
     increase, * And after thee my patience fails and ne'er a
     helper shows;
Yet will I wait till Allah shall be pleased to join our loves;
     * I'll mortify the jealous and I'll mock me of my foes."

When he ended his verse he swooned away and the Wazir
sprinkled rose-water on him, till the Prince came to himself,
when the Minister said to him, "O King's son, possess thy soul
in patience; for the consequence of patience is consolation,
and behold, thou art on the way to whatso thou wishest." And
he ceased not to bespeak him fair and comfort him till his
trouble subsided; and they continued their journey with all
diligence. Presently, the Prince again became impatient of the
length of the way and bethought him of his beloved and recited
these couplets,

"Longsome is absence, restlessness increaseth and despite; *
     And burn my vitals in the blaze my love and longings
Grows my hair gray from pains and pangs which I am doomed bear
     * For pine, while tear-floods stream from eyes and sore
     offend my sight:
I swear, O Hope of me, O End of every wish and will, * By Him
     who made mankind and every branch with leafage dight,
A passion-load for thee, O my Desire, I must endure, * And
     boast I that to bear such load no lover hath the might.
Question the Night of me and Night thy soul shall satisfy *
     Mine eyelids never close in sleep throughout the livelong

Then he wept with sore weeping and 'plained of that he
suffered for stress of love-longing; but the Wazir comforted
him and spoke him fair, promising him the winning of his wish;
after which they fared on again for a few days, when they drew
near to the White City, the capital of King Abd al-Kadir, soon
after sunrise. Then said the Minister to the Prince, "Rejoice,
O King's son, in all good; for see, yonder is the White City,
that which thou seekest." Whereat the Prince rejoiced with
exceeding joy and recited these couplets,

"My friends, I yearn in heart distraught for him; * Longing
     abides and with sore pains I brim:
I mourn like childless mother, nor can find       * One to
     console me when the light grows dim;
Yet when the breezes blow from off thy land,      * I feel
     their freshness shed on heart and limb;
And rail mine eyes like water-laden clouds,       * While in a
     tear-sea shed by heart I swim."

Now when they entered the White City they asked for the
Merchants' Khan, a place of moneyed men; and when shown the
hostelry they hired three magazines and on receiving the
keys[FN#264] they laid up therein all their goods and gear.
They abode in the Khan till they were rested, when the Wazir
applied himself to devise a device for the Prince,--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her
permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Twenty-first Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
Prince and the Minister alighted at the Khan and lodged their
goods in the ground-floor magazines and there settled their
servants. Then they tarried awhile till they had rested, when
the Wazir arose and applied himself to devise a device for the
Prince, and said to him, "I have bethought me of somewhat
wherein, methinks, will be success for thee, so it please
Almighty Allah." Quoth Ardashir, "O thou Wazir of good
counsel, do what cometh to thy mind, and may the Lord direct
thy rede aright!" Quoth the Minister, "I purpose to hire thee
a shop in the market-street of the stuff-sellers and set thee
therein; for that all, great and small, have recourse to the
bazar and, meseems, when the folk see thee with their own eyes
sitting in the shop their hearts will incline to thee and thou
wilt thus be enabled to attain thy desire, for thou art fair
of favour and souls incline to thee and sight rejoiceth in
thee." The other replied, "Do what seemeth good to thee." So
the Wazir forthright began to robe the Prince and himself in
their richest raiment and, putting a purse of a thousand
dinars in his breast-pocket, went forth and walked about the
city, whilst all who looked upon them marvelled at the beauty
of the King's son, saying, "Glory be to Him who created this
youth 'of vile water[FN#265]'! Blessed be Allah excellentest
of Creators!" Great was the talk anent him and some said,
"This is no mortal, 'this is naught save a noble
angel'";[FN#266] and others, "Hath Rizwan, the door-keeper of
the Eden-garden, left the gate of Paradise unguarded, that
this youth hath come forth." The people followed them to the
stuff- market, where they entered and stood, till there came
up to them an old man of dignified presence and venerable
appearance, who saluted them, and they returned his salam.
Then the Shaykh said to them, "O my lords, have ye any need,
that we may have the honour of accomplishing?"; and the Wazir
asked him, "Who art thou, O elder?" He answered, "I am the
Overseer of the market." Quoth the Wazir, "Know then, O
Shaykh, that this youth is my son and I wish to hire him a
shop in the bazar, that he may sit therein and learn to sell
and buy and take and give, and come to ken merchants' ways and
habits." "I hear and I obey," replied the Overseer and brought
them without stay or delay the key of a shop, which he caused
the brokers sweep and clean. And they did his bidding. Then
the Wazir sent for a high mattress, stuffed with ostrich-down,
and set it up in the shop, spreading upon it a small
prayer-carpet, and a cushion fringed with broidery of red
gold. Moreover he brought pillows and transported thither so
much of the goods and stuffs that he had brought with him as
filled the shop. Next morning the young Prince came and
opening the shop, seated himself on the divan, and stationed
two Mamelukes, clad in the richest of raiment before him and
two black slaves of the goodliest of the Abyssinians in the
lower part of the shop. The Wazir enjoined him to keep his
secret from the folk, so thereby he might find aid in the
winning of his wishes; then he left him and charging him to
acquaint him with what befel him in the shop, day by day
returned to the Khan. The Prince sat in the shop till night as
he were the moon at its fullest, whilst the folk, hearing tell
of his comeliness, flocked to the place, without errand, to
gaze on his beauty and loveliness and symmetry and perfect
grace and glorify the Almighty who created and shaped him,
till none could pass through that bazar for the excessive
crowding of the folk about him. The King's son turned right
and left, abashed at the throng of people that stared at him,
hoping to make acquaintance with some one about the court, of
whom he might get news of the Princess; but he found no way to
this, wherefore his breast was straitened. Meanwhile, the
Wazir daily promised him the attainment of his desire and the
case so continued for a time till, one morning, as the youth
sat in the shop, there came up an old woman of respectable
semblance and dignified presence clad in raiment of
devotees[FN#267] and followed by two slave-girls like moons.
She stopped before the shop and, having considered the Prince
awhile, cried, "Glory be to God who fashioned that face and
perfected that figure!" Then she saluted him and he returned
her salam and seated her by his side. Quoth she, "Whence
cometh thou, O fair of favour?"; and quoth he, "From the parts
of Hind, O my mother; and I have come to this city to see the
world and look about me." "Honour to thee for a visitor! What
goods and stuffs hast thou? Show me something handsome, fit
for Kings." "If thou wish for handsome stuffs, I will show
them to thee; for I have wares that beseem persons of every
condition." "O my son, I want somewhat costly of price and
seemly to sight; brief, the best thou hast." "Thou must needs
tell me for whom thou seekest it, that I may show thee goods
according to the rank of the requiter." "Thou speakest sooth,
O my son," said she. "I want somewhat for my mistress, Hayat
al-Nufus, daughter of Abd al-Kadir, lord of this land and King
of this country." Now when Ardashir heard his mistress's name,
his reason flew for joy and his heart fluttered and he gave no
order to slave or servant, but, putting his hand behind him,
pulled out a purse of an hundred dinars and offered it to the
old woman, saying, "This is for the washing of thy clothes."
Then he again put forth his hand and brought out of a wrapper
a dress worth ten thousand dinars or more and said to her,
"This is of that which I have brought to your country." When
the old woman saw it, it pleased her and she asked, "What is
the price of this dress, O perfect in qualities?" Answered he,
"I will take no price for it!" whereupon she thanked him and
repeated her question; but he said, "By Allah, I will take no
price for it. I make thee a present of it, an the Princess
will not accept it and 'tis a guest-gift from me to thee.
Alham- dolillah--Glory be to God--who hath brought us
together, so that, if one day I have a want, I shall find in
thee a helper to me in winning it!" She marvelled at the
goodliness of his speech and the excess of his generosity and
the perfection of his courtesy and said to him, "What is thy
name, O my lord?" He replied, "My name is Ardashir;" and she
cried, "By Allah this is a rare name! Therewith are Kings'
sons named, and thou art in a guise of the sons of the
merchants!" Quoth he, "Of the love my father bore me, he gave
me this name, but a name signifieth naught;" and quoth she in
wonder, "O my son, take the price of thy goods." But he swore
that he would not take aught. Then the old lady said to him,
"O my dear one, Truth (I would have thee know) is the greatest
of all things and thou hadst not dealt thus generously by me
but for a special reason: so tell me thy case and thy secret
thought; belike thou hast some wish to whose winning I may
help thee." Thereupon he laid his hand in hers and, after
exacting an oath of secrecy, told her the whole story of his
passion for the Princess and his condition by reason thereof.
The old woman shook her head and said, "True; but O my son,
the wise say, in the current adage, 'An thou wouldest be
obeyed, abstain from ordering what may not be made'; and thou,
my son, thy name is Merchant, and though thou hadst the keys
of the Hidden Hoards, yet wouldst thou be called naught but
Merchant. An thou wouldst rise to high rank, according to thy
station, then seek the hand of a Kazi's daughter or even an
Emir's; but why, O my son, aspirest thou to none but the
daughter of the King of the age and the time, and she a clean
maid, who knoweth nothing of the things of the world and hath
never in her life seen anything but her palace wherein she
dwelleth? Yet, for all her tender age, she is intelligent,
shrewd, vivacious, penetrating, quick of wit, sharp of act and
rare of rede: her father hath no other child and she is dearer
to him than his life and soul. Every morning he cometh to her
and giveth her good-morrow, and all who dwell in the palace
stand in dread of her. Think not, O my son, that any dare
bespeak her with aught of these words; nor is there any way
for me thereto. By Allah, O my son, my heart and vitals love
thee and were it in my power to give thee access to her, I
would assuredly do it; but I will tell thee somewhat, wherein
Allah may haply appoint the healing of thy heart, and will
risk life and goods for thee, till I win thy will for thee."
He asked, "And what is that, O my mother?" and she answered,
"Seek of me the daughter of a Wazir or an Emir, and I will
grant thy request; but it may not be that one should mount
from earth to heaven at one bound." When the Prince heard
this, he replied to her with courtesy and sense, "O my mother,
thou art a woman of wit and knowest how things go. Say me doth
a man, when his head irketh him, bind up his hand?" Quoth she,
"No, by Allah, O my son"; and quoth he, "Even so my heart
seeketh none but her and naught slayeth me but love of her. By
Allah, I am a dead man, and I find not one to counsel me
aright and succour me! Allah upon thee, O my mother, take pity
on my strangerhood and the streaming of my tears!"--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Twenty-second Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
Ardashir, the King's son said to the old woman, "Allah upon
thee, O my mother, take pity on my strangerhood and the
streaming of my tears." Replied she, "By Allah, O my son, thy
words rend my heart, but my hand hath no cunning wherewith to
help thee." Quoth he, "I beseech thee of thy favour, carry her
a letter and kiss her hands for me." So she had compassion on
him and said, "Write what thou wilt and I will bear it to
her." When he heard this, he was ready to fly for joy and
calling for ink-case and paper, wrote these couplets,

"O Hayát al-Núfus, be gen'rous, and incline * To one who
     loving thee for parting's doomed to pine.
I was in all delight, in gladsomest of life, * But now I am
     distraught with sufferings condign.
To wakefulness I cling through longsomeness of night * And
     with me sorrow chats[FN#268] through each sad eye of
Pity a lover sad, a sore afflicted wretch, * Whose eyelids
     ever ulcered are with tearful brine;
And when the morning comes at last, the real morn, * He finds
     him drunken and distraught with passion's wine."

Then he folded the scroll and kissing it, gave it to the old
woman; after which he put his hand to a chest and took out a
second purse containing an hundred dinars, which he presented
to her, saying, "Divide this among the slave-girls." She
refused it and cried, "By Allah, O my son, I am not with thee
for aught of this!"; however, he thanked her and answered,
"There is no help but that thou accept of it." So she took it
and kissing his hands, returned home; and going in to the
Princess, cried, "O my lady, I have brought thee somewhat the
like whereof is not with the people of our city, and it cometh
from a handsome young man, than whom there is not a goodlier
on earth's face!" She asked "O my nurse, and whence cometh the
youth?" and the old woman answered, "From the parts of Hind;
and he hath given me this dress of gold brocade, embroidered
with pearls and gems and worth the Kingdom of Chosroes and
Caesar." Thereupon she opened the dress and the whole palace
was illuminated by its brightness, because of the beauty of
its fashion and the wealth of unions and jewels wherewith it
was broidered, and all who were present marvelled at it. The
Princess examined it and, judging it to be worth no less than
a whole year's revenue of her father's kingdom, said to the
old woman, "O my nurse, cometh this dress from him or from
another?"[FN#269] Replied she, "From him;" and Hayat al-Nufus
asked, "Is this trader of our town or a stranger?" The old
woman answered, "He is a foreigner, O my lady, newly come
hither; and by Allah he hath servants and slaves; and he is
fair of face, symmetrical of form, well mannered, open-handed
and open-hearted, never saw I a goodlier than he, save
thyself." The King's daughter rejoined, "Indeed this is an
extraordinary thing, that a dress like this, which money
cannot buy, should be in the hands of a merchant! What price
did he set on it, O my nurse?" Quoth she, "By Allah, he would
set no price on it, but gave me back the money thou sentest by
me and swore that he would take naught thereof, saying, ''Tis
a gift from me to the King's daughter; for it beseemeth none
but her; and if she will not accept it, I make thee a present
of it.'" Cried the Princess, "By Allah, this is indeed
marvellous generosity and wondrous munificence! But I fear the
issue of his affair, lest haply[FN#270] he be brought to
necessity. Why didst thou not ask him, O my nurse, if he had
any desire, that we might fulfil it for him?" The nurse
replied, "O my lady, I did ask him, and he said to me, 'I have
indeed a desire'; but he would not tell me what it was.
However, he gave me this letter and said, 'Carry it to the
Princess.'" So Hayat al-Nufus took the letter and opened and
read it to the end; whereupon she was sore chafed; and lost
temper and changing colour for anger she cried out to the old
woman, saying, "Woe to thee, O nurse! What is the name of this
dog who durst write this language to a King's daughter? What
affinity is there between me and this hound that he should
address me thus? By Almighty Allah, Lord of the well Zemzem
and of the Hatim Wall,[FN#271] but that I fear the Omnipotent,
the Most High, I would send and bind the cur's hands behind
him and slit his nostrils, and shear off his nose and ears and
after, by way of example, crucify him on the gate of the bazar
wherein is his booth!" When the old woman heard these words,
she waxed yellow; her side-muscles[FN#272] quivered and her
tongue clave to her mouth; but she heartened her heart and
said, "Softly, O my lady! What is there in his letter to
trouble thee thus? Is it aught but a memorial containing his
complaint to thee of poverty or oppression, from which he
hopeth to be relieved by thy favour?" Replied she, "No, by
Allah, O my nurse, 'tis naught of this; but verses and
shameful words! However, O my nurse, this dog must be in one
of three cases: either he is Jinn-mad, and hath no wit, or he
seeketh his own slaughter, or else he is assisted to his wish
of me by some one of exceeding puissance and a mighty Sultan.
Or hath he heard that I am one of the baggages of the city,
who lie a night or two with whosoever seeketh them, that he
writeth me immodest verses to debauch my reason by talking of
such matters?" Rejoined the old woman, "By Allah, O my lady,
thou sayst sooth! But reck not thou of yonder ignorant hound,
for thou art seated in thy lofty, firm-builded and
unapproachable palace, to which the very birds cannot soar
neither the wind pass over it, and as for him, he is clean
distraught. Wherefore do thou write him a letter and chide him
angrily and spare him no manner of reproof, but threaten him
with dreadful threats and menace him with death and say to
him, 'Whence hast thou knowledge of me, that thou durst write
me, O dog of a merchant, O thou who trudgest far and wide all
thy days in wilds and wolds for the sake of gaining a dirham
or a dinar? By Allah, except thou awake from thy sleep and put
off thine intoxication, I will assuredly crucify thee on the
gate of the market-street wherein is thy shop!'" Quoth the
Princess, "I fear lest he presume, if I write to him"; and
quoth the nurse, "And pray what is he and what is his rank
that he should presume to us? Indeed, we write him but to the
intent that his presumption may be cut off and his fear
magnified." And she ceased not craftily to persuade her, till
she called for ink-case and paper and wrote him these

"O thou who claimest to be prey of love and ecstasy; * Thou,
     who for passion spendest nights in grief and saddest
Say, dost thou (haughty one!) desire enjoyment of the moon? *
     Did man e'er sue the moon for grace whate'er his lunacy?
I verily will counsel thee with rede the best to hear: * Cut
     short this course ere come thou nigh sore risk, nay
     death, to dree!
If thou to this request return, surely on thee shall fall *
     Sore punishment, for vile offence a grievous penalty.
Be reasonable then, be wise, hark back unto thy wits; *
     Behold, in very truth I speak with best advice to thee:
By Him who did all things that be create from nothingness; *
     Who dressed the face of heaven with stars in brightest
If in the like of this thy speech thou dare to sin again! *
     I'll surely have thee crucified upon a trunk of tree."

Then she rolled up the letter and gave it to the old woman who
took it and, repairing to Ardashir's shop, delivered it to
him, --And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
saying her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Twenty-third Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
old woman took that letter from Hayat al-Nufus she fared forth
till she found the youth who was sitting in his shop and gave
it to him, saying, "Read thine answer and know that when she
perused thy paper she was wroth with exceeding wrath; but I
soothed her and spake her fair, till she consented to write
thee a reply." He took the letter joyfully but, when he had
read it and understood its drift, he wept sore, whereat the
old woman's heart ached and she cried, "O my son, Allah never
cause thine eyes to weep nor thy heart to mourn! What can be
more gracious than that she should answer thy letter when thou
hast done what thou diddest?" He replied, "O my mother what
shall I do for a subtle device? Behold, she writeth to me,
threatening me with death and crucifixion and forbidding me
from writing to her; and I, by Allah, see my death to be
better than my life; but I beg thee of thy grace[FN#273] to
carry her another letter from me." She said, "Write and I
warrant I'll bring thee an answer. By Allah, I will assuredly
venture my life to win for thee thy wish, though I die to
pleasure thee!" He thanked her and kissing her hands, wrote
these verses,

"Do you threaten me wi' death for my loving you so well? *
     When Death to me were rest and all dying is by Fate?
And man's death is but a boon, when so longsome to him grows *
     His life, and rejected he lives in lonest state:
Then visit ye a lover who hath ne'er a soul to aid; * For on
     pious works of men Heaven's blessing shall await.
But an ye be resolved on this deed then up and on; * I'm in
     bonds to you, a bondsman confined within your gate:
What path have I whose patience without you is no more? * How
     is this, when a lover's heart in stress of love is
O my lady show me ruth, who by passion am misused; * For all
     who love the noble stand for evermore excused."

He then folded the scroll and gave it to the old woman,
together with two purses of two hundred dinars, which she
would have refused, but he conjured her by oath to accept of
them. So she took them both and said, "Needs must I bring thee
to thy desire, despite the noses of thy foes." Then she
repaired to the palace and gave the letter to Hayat al-Nufus
who said, "What is this, O my nurse? Here are we in a
correspondence and thou coming and going! Indeed, I fear lest
the matter get wind and we be disgraced." Rejoined the old
woman, "How so, O my lady? Who dare speak such word?" So she
took the letter and after reading and understanding it she
smote hand on hand, saying "Verily, this is a calamity which
is fallen upon us, and I know not whence this young man came
to us!" Quoth the old woman, "O my lady, Allah upon thee,
write him another letter; but be rough with him this time and
say to him, 'An thou write me another word after this, I will
have thy head struck off.'" Quoth the Princess, "O my nurse, I
am assured that the matter will not end on such wise; 'twere
better to break off this exchange of letters; and, except the
puppy take warning by my previous threats, I will strike off
his head." The old woman said, "Then write him a letter and
give him to know this condition." So Hayat al-Nufus called for
pen-case and paper and wrote these couplets,

'Ho, thou heedless of Time and his sore despight! * Ho, thou
     heart whom hopes of my favours excite!
Think O pride-full! would'st win for thyself the skies? *
     Would'st attain to the moon shining clear and bright?
I will burn thee with fire that shall ne'er be quenched, * Or
     will slay thee with scymitar's sharpest bite!
Leave it, friend, and 'scape the tormenting pains, * Such as
     turn hair- partings[FN#274] from black to white.
Take my warning and fly from the road of love; * Draw thee
     back from a course nor seemly nor right!"

Then she folded the scroll and gave it to the old woman, who
was puzzled and perplexed by the matter. She carried it to
Ardashir, and the Prince read the letter and bowed his head to
the earth, making as if he wrote with his finger and speaking
not a word. Quoth the old woman, "How is it I see thee silent
stay and not say thy say?"; and quoth he, "O my mother, what
shall I say, seeing that she doth but threaten me and
redoubleth in hard- heartedness and aversion?" Rejoined the
nurse, "Write her a letter of what thou wilt: I will protect
thee; nor let thy heart be cast down, for needs must I bring
you twain together." He thanked her for her kindness and
kissing her hand, wrote these couplets,

"A heart, by Allah! never soft to lover-wight, * Who sighs for
     union only with his friends, his sprite!
Who with tear-ulcered eyelids evermore must bide, * When
     falleth upon earth first darkness of the night:
Be just, be gen'rous, lend thy ruth and deign give alms * To
     love-molested lover, parted, forced to flight!
He spends the length of longsome night without a doze; *
     Fire-brent and drent in tear-flood flowing infinite:
Ah; cut not off the longing of my fondest heart * Now
     disappointed, wasted, flutt'ring for its blight."

Then he folded the scroll and gave it to the old woman,
together with three hundred dinars, saying, "This is for the
washing of thy hands." She thanked him and kissed his hands,
after which she returned to the palace and gave the letter to
the Princess, who took it and read it and throwing it from her
fingers, sprang to her feet. Then she walked, shod as she was
with pattens of gold, set with pearls and jewels, till she
came to her sire's palace, whilst the vein of anger started
out between her eyes, and none dared ask her of her case. When
she reached the palace, she enquired for the King, and the
slave-girls and concubines replied to her, "O my lady, he is
gone forth a-hunting and sporting." So she returned, as she
were a rending lioness, and bespake none for the space of
three hours, when her brow cleared and her wrath cooled. As
soon as the old woman saw that her irk and anger were past,
she went up to her and, kissing ground between her hands,
asked her, "O my lady, whither went those noble steps?" The
Princess answered, "To the palace of the King my sire." "And
could no one do thine errand?" enquired the nurse. Replied the
Princess, "No, for I went to acquaint him of that which hath
befallen me with yonder cur of a merchant, so he might lay
hands on him and on all the merchants of his bazar and crucify
them over their shops nor suffer a single foreign merchant to
tarry in our town." Quoth the old woman, "And was this thine
only reason, O my lady, for going to thy sire?"; and quoth
Hayat al-Nufus, "Yes, but I found him absent a-hunting and
sporting and now I await his return." Cried the old nurse, "I
take refuge with Allah, the All hearing, the All knowing!
Praised be He! O my lady, thou art the most sensible of women
and how couldst thou think of telling the King these fond
words, which it behoveth none to publish?" Asked the Princess,
"And why so?" and the nurse answered, "Suppose thou had found
the King in his palace and told him all this tale and he had
sent after the merchants and commanded to hang them over their
shops, the folk would have seen them hanging and asked the
reason and it would have been answered them, 'They sought to
seduce the King's daughter.'" --And Shahrazad perceived the
dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Twenty-fourth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
old woman said to the Princess, "Suppose thou had told this to
the King and he had ordered the merchants to be hanged, would
not folk have seen them and have asked the cause of the
execution when the answer would have been, 'They sought to
seduce the King's daughter?' Then would they have dispread
divers reports concerning thee, some saying, 'She abode with
them ten days, away from her palace, till they had taken their
fill of her'; and other some in otherguise: for woman's
honour, O my lady, is like ourded milk, the least dust fouleth
it; and like glass, which, if it be cracked, may not be
mended. So beware of telling thy sire or any other of this
matter, lest thy fair fame be smirched, O mistress mine, for
'twill never profit thee to tell folk aught; no, never! Weigh
what I say with thy keen wit, and if thou find it not just, do
whatso thou wilt." The Princess pondered her words, and seeing
them to be altogether profitable and right, said, "Thou
speaketh sooth, O my nurse; but anger had blinded my
judgment." Quoth the old woman, "Thy resolve to tell no one is
pleasing to the Almighty; but something remaineth to be done:
we must not let the shamelessness of yonder vile dog of a
merchant pass without notice. Write him a letter and say to
him 'O vilest of traders, but that I found the King my father
absent, I had straightway commanded to hang thee and all thy
neighbours. But thou shalt gain nothing by this; for I swear
to thee, by Allah the Most High, that an thou return to the
like of this talk, I will blot out the trace of thee from the
face of earth!' And deal thou roughly with him in words, so
shalt thou discourage him in this attempt and arouse him from
his heedlessness." "And will these words cause him to abstain
from his offending?" asked the Princess; and the old woman
answered, "How should he not abstain? Besides, I will talk
with him and tell him what hath passed." So the Princess
called for ink-case and paper and wrote these couplets,

"To win our favours still thy hopes are bent;    * And still
     to win thy will art confident!
Naught save his pride-full aim shall slay a man; * And he by
     us shall die of his intent
 Thou art no lord of might, no chief of men,     * Nabob or
     Prince or Soldan Heaven-sent;
And were this deed of one who is our peer,       * He had
     returned with hair for fear white-sprent:
Yet will I deign once more excuse thy sin        * So from
     this time thou prove thee penitent."

Then she gave the missive to the old woman, saying, "O my
nurse, do thou admonish this puppy lest I be forced to cut off
his head and sin on his account." Replied the old woman, "By
Allah, O my lady, I will not leave him a side to turn on!"
Then she returned to the youth and, when salams had been
exchanged, she gave him the letter. He read it and shook his
head, saying, "Verily, we are Allah's and unto him shall we
return!" adding, "O my mother, what shall I do? My fortitude
faileth me and my patience palleth upon me!" She replied, "O
my son, be long- suffering: peradventure, after this Allah
shall bring somewhat to pass. Write that which is in thy mind
and I will fetch thee an answer, and be of good cheer and keep
thine eyes cool and clear; for needs must I bring about union
between thee and her,-- Inshallah!" He blessed her and wrote
to the Princess a note containing these couplets,

"Since none will lend my love a helping hand, * And I by
     passion's bale in death low-lain,
I bear a flaming fire within my heart * By day and night nor
     place of rest attain,
How cease to hope in thee, my wishes' term? * Or with my
     longings to be glad and fain?
The Lord of highmost Heaven to grant my prayer * Pray I, whom
     love of lady fair hath slain;
And as I'm clean o'erthrown by love and fear, * To grant me
     speedy union deign, oh deign!"

Then he folded the scroll and gave it to the old woman,
bringing out at the same time a purse of four hundred dinars.
She took the whole and returning to the palace sought the
Princess to whom she gave the letter; but the King's daughter
refused to take it and cried, "What is this?" Replied the old
woman, "O my lady, this is only the answer to the letter thou
sentest to that merchant dog." Quoth Hayat al-Nufus, "Didst
thou forbid him as I told thee?"; and quoth she, "Yes, and
this is his reply." So the Princess took the letter and read
it to the end; then she turned to the old woman and exclaimed,
"Where is the result of thy promise?" "O my lady, saith he not
in his letter that he repenteth and will not again offend,
excusing himself for the past?" "Not so, by Allah!: on the
contrary, he increaseth." "O my lady, write him a letter and
thou shalt presently see what I will do with him." "There
needeth nor letter nor answer." "I must have a letter that I
may rebuke him roughly and cut off his hopes." "Thou canst do
that without a letter." "I cannot do it without the letter."
So Hayat al-Nufus called for pen-case and paper and wrote
these verses,

"Long have I chid thee but my chiding hindereth thee not * How
     often would my verse with writ o' hand ensnare thee, ah!
Then keep thy passion hidden deep and ever unrevealed, * And
     if thou dare gainsay me Earth shall no more bear thee,
And if, despite my warning, thou dost to such words return, *
     Death's Messenger[FN#275] shall go his rounds and dead
     declare thee, ah!
Soon shall the wold's fierce chilling blast o'erblow that
     corse o' thine; * And birds o' the wild with ravening
     bills and beaks shall tear thee, ah!
Return to righteous course; perchance that same will profit
     thee; * If bent on wilful aims and lewd I fain forswear
     thee, ah!"

When she had made an end of her writing this, she cast the
writ from her hand in wrath, and the old woman picked it up
and went with it to Ardashir. When he read it to the last he
knew that she had not softened to him, but only redoubled in
rage against him and that he would never win to meet her, so
he bethought himself to write her an answer invoking Allah's
help against her. Thereupon he indited these couplets,

"O Lord, by the Five Shaykhs, I pray deliver me * From love,
     which gars me bear such grief and misery.
Thou knowest what I bear for passion's fiery flame; * What
     stress of sickness for that merciless maid I dree.
She hath no pity on the pangs to me decreed; * How long on
     weakly wight shall last her tyranny?
I am distraught for her with passing agonies * And find no
     friend, O folk! to hear my plaint and plea.
How long, when Night hath drooped her pinions o'er the world,
     * Shall I lament in public as in privacy?
For love of you I cannot find forgetfulness; * And how forget
     when Patience taketh wings to flee?
O thou wild parting-bird[FN#276] say is she safe and sure *
     From shift and change of time and the world's cruelty?"

Then he folded the scroll and gave it to the old woman, adding
a purse of five hundred dinars; and she took it and carried it
to the Princess, who read it to the end and learned its
purport. Then, casting it from her hand, she cried, "Tell me O
wicked old woman, the cause of all that hath befallen me from
thee and from thy cunning and thine advocacy of him, so that
thou hast made me write letter after letter and thou ceasest
not to carry messages, going and coming between us twain, till
thou hast brought about a correspondence and a connection.
Thou leavest not to say, 'I will ensure thee against his
mischief and cut off from thee his speech'; but thou speakest
not thus save only to the intent that I may continue to write
thee letters and thou to fetch and carry between us, evening
and morning, till thou ruin my repute. Woe to thee! Ho,
eunuchs, seize her!" Then Hayat al-Nufus commanded them to
beat her, and they lashed her till her whole body flowed with
blood and she fainted away, whereupon the King's daughter
caused her slave-women to drag her forth by the feet and cast
her without the palace and bade one of them stand by her head
till she recovered, and say to her, "The Princess hath sworn
an oath that thou shalt never return to and re-enter this
palace; and she hath commanded to slay thee without mercy an
thou dare return hither." So, when she came to herself, the
damsel told her what the King's daughter said and she
answered, "Hearkening and obedience." Presently the
slave-girls fetched a basket and a porter whom they caused
carry her to her own house; and they sent after her a
physician, bidding him tend her assiduously till she
recovered. He did what he was told to do and as soon as she
was whole she mounted and rode to the shop of Ardashir who was
concerned with sore concern for her absence and was longing
for news of her. As soon as he saw her, he sprang up and
coming to meet her, saluted her; then he noticed that she was
weak and ailing; so he questioned her of her case and she told
him all that had befallen her from her nursling. When he heard
this, he found it grievous and smote hand upon hand, saying,
"By Allah, O my mother, this that hath betided thee
straiteneth my heart! But, what, O my mother, is the reason of
the Princess's hatred to men?" Replied the old woman, "Thou
must know O my son, that she hath a beautiful garden, than
which there is naught goodlier on earth's face and it chanced
that she lay there one night. In the joyance of sleep, she
dreamt a dream and 'twas this, that she went down into the
garden, where she saw a fowler set up his net and strew corn
thereabout, after which he withdrew and sat down afar off to
await what game should fall into it. Ere an hour had passed
the birds flocked to pick up the corn and a male
pigeon[FN#277] fell into the net and struggled in it, whereat
all the others took fright and fled from him. His mate was
amongst them, but she returned to him after the shortest
delay; and, coming up to the net, sought out the mesh wherein
his foot was entangled and ceased not to peck at it with her
bill, till she severed it and released her husband, with whom
she flew away. All this while, the fowler sat dozing, and when
he awoke, he looked at the net and found it spoilt. So he
mended it and strewed fresh grain, then withdrew to a distance
and sat down to watch it again. The birds soon returned and
began to pick up the corn, and among the rest the pair of
pigeons. Presently, the she-pigeon fell into the net and
struggled to get free; whereupon all the other birds flew
away, and her mate, whom she had saved, fled with the rest and
did not return to her. Meantime, sleep had again overcome the
fowler; and, when he awoke after long slumbering, he saw the
she-pigeon caught in the net; so he went up to her and freeing
her feet from the meshes, cut her throat. The Princess
startled by the dream awoke troubled, and said, 'Thus do men
with women, for women have pity on men and throw away their
lives for them, when they are in difficulties; but if the Lord
decree against a woman and she fall into calamity, her mate
deserteth her and rescueth her not, and wasted is that which
she did with him of kindness. Allah curse her who putteth her
trust in men, for they ill requite the fair offices which
women do them!' And from that day she conceived an hatred to
men." Said the King's son, "O my mother, doth she never go out
into the highways?"; and the old woman replied, "Nay, O my
son; but I will tell thee somewhat wherein, Allah willing,
there shall be profit for thee. She hath a garden which is of
the goodliest pleasaunces of the age; and every year, at the
time of the ripening of the fruits, she goeth thither and
taketh her pleasure therein only one day, nor layeth the night
but in her pavilion. She entereth the garden by the private
wicket of the palace which leadeth thereto; and thou must know
that it wanteth now but a month to the time of her going
forth. So take my advice and hie thee this very day to the
keeper of that garden and make acquaintance with him and gain
his good graces, for he admitteth not one of Allah's creatures
into the garth, because of its communication with the
Princess's palace. I will let thee know two days beforehand of
the day fixed for her coming forth, when do thou repair to the
garden, as of thy wont, and make shift to night there. When
the King's daughter cometh be thou hidden in some place or
other";--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
saying her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Twenty-fifth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
old woman charged the King's son, saying, "I will let thee
know two days beforehand of the King's daughter going down to
the garden: do thou hide thee in some place or other; and,
when thou espiest her, come forth and show thyself to her.
When she seeth thee, she will fall in love with thee; for thou
art fair to look upon and love covereth all things. So keep
thine eyes cool and clear[FN#278] and be of good cheer, O my
son, for needs must I bring about union between thee and her."
The young Prince kissed her hand and thanked her and gave her
three pieces of Alexandrian silk and three of satin of various
colours, and with each piece, linen for shifts and stuff for
trousers and a kerchief for the turband and fine white cotton
cloth of Ba'albak for the linings, so as to make her six
complete suits, each handsomer than its sister. Moreover, he
gave her a purse containing six hundred gold pieces and said
to her, "This is for the tailoring." She took the whole and
said to him, "O my son, art thou not pleased to acquaint me
with thine abiding-place and I also will show thee the way to
my lodging?" "Yes," answered he and sent a Mameluke with her
to note her home and show her his own house. Then he rose and
bidding his slaves shut the shop, went back to the Wazir, to
whom he related all that had passed between him and the old
woman, from first to last. Quoth the Minister, "O my son,
should the Princess Hayat al-Nufus come out and look upon thee
and thou find no favour with her what wilt thou do?" Quoth
Ardashir, "There will be nothing left but to pass from words
to deeds and risk my life with her; for I will snatch her up
from amongst her attendants and set her behind me on a swift
horse and make for the wildest of the wold. If I escape, I
shall have won my wish and if I perish, I shall be at rest
from this hateful life." Rejoined the Minister, "O my son,
dost thou think to do this thing and live? How shall we make
our escape, seeing that our country is far distant, and how
wilt thou deal thus with a King of the Kings of the Age, who
hath under his hand an hundred thousand horse, nor can we be
sure but that he will despatch some of his troops to cut off
our way? Verily, there is no good in this project which no
wise man would attempt." Asked Ardashir, "And how then shall
we do, O Wazir of good counsel? For unless I win her I am a
dead man without a chance." The Minister answered, "Wait till
to-morrow when we will visit this garden and note its
condition and see what betideth us with the care-taker." So
when the morning morrowed they took a thousand dinars in a
poke and, repairing to the garden, found it compassed about
with high walls and strong, rich in trees and rill-full leas
and goodly fruiteries. And indeed its flowers breathed perfume
and its birds warbled amid the bloom as it were a garden of
the gardens of Paradise. Within the door sat a Shaykh, an old
man on a stone bench and they saluted him. When he saw them
and noted the fairness of their favour, he rose to his feet
after returning their salute, and said, "O my lords, perchance
ye have a wish which we may have the honour of satisfying?"
Replied the Wazir, "Know, O elder, that we are strangers and
the heat hath overcome us: our lodging is afar off at the
other end of the city; so we desire of thy courtesy that thou
take these two dinars and buy us somewhat of provaunt and open
us meanwhile the door of this flower-garden and seat us in
some shaded place, where there is cold water, that we may cool
ourselves there, against thy return with the provision, when
we will eat, and thou with us, and then, rested and refreshed,
we shall wend our ways." So saying, he pulled out of his pouch
a couple of dinars and put them into the keeper's hand. Now
this care-taker was a man aged three-score and ten, who had
never in all his life possessed so much money: so, when he saw
the two dinars in his hand, he was like to fly for joy and
rising forthwith opened the garden gate to the Prince and the
Wazir, and made them enter and sit down under a
wide-spreading, fruit-laden, shade-affording tree, saying,
"Sit ye here and go no further into the garden, for it hath a
privy door communicating with the palace of the Princess Hayat
al-Nufus." They replied, "We will not stir hence." Whereupon
he went out to buy what they had ordered and returned after
awhile, with a porter bearing on his head a roasted lamb and
bread. They ate and drank together and talked awhile, till,
presently, the Wazir, looking about him in all corners right
and left, caught sight of a lofty pavilion at the farther end
of the garden; but it was old and the plaster was peeled from
its walls and its buttresses were broken down. So he said to
the Gardener, "O Shaykh, is this garden thine own or dost thou
hire it?"; and he replied, "I am neither owner nor tenant of
the garden, only its care-taker." Asked the Minister, "And
what is thy wage?" whereto the old man answered, "A dinar a
month," and quoth the Wazir, "Verily they wrong thee,
especially an thou have a family." Quoth the elder, "By Allah,
O my lord, I have eight children and I"-- The Wazir broke in,
"There is no Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah, the
Glorious, the Great! Thou makest me bear thy grief my poor
fellow! What wouldst thou say of him who should do thee a good
turn, on account of this family of thine?" Replied the old
man, "O my lord, whatsoever good thou dost shall be garnered
up for thee with God the Most High!" Thereupon said the Wazir,
"O Shaykh, thou knowest this garden of thine to be a goodly
place; but the pavilion yonder is old and ruinous. Now I mean
to repair it and stucco it anew and paint it handsomely, so
that it will be the finest thing in the garth; and when the
owner comes and finds the pavilion restored and beautified, he
will not fail to question thee concerning it. Then do thou
say, 'O my lord, at great expense I set it in repair, for that
I saw it in ruins and none could make use of it nor could
anyone sit therein.' If he says, 'Whence hadst thou the money
for this?' reply, 'I spent of my own money upon the stucco,
thereby thinking to whiten my face with thee and hoping for
thy bounties.' And needs must he recompense thee fairly over
the extent of thine expenses. To-morrow I will bring builders
and plasterers and painters to repair this pavilion and will
give thee what I promised thee." Then he pulled out of his
poke a purse of five hundred dinars and gave it to the
Gardener, saying, "Take these gold pieces and expend them upon
thy family and let them pray for me and for this my son."
Thereupon the Prince asked the Wazir, "What is the meaning of
all this?" and he answered, "Thou shalt presently see the
issue thereof."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased to say her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Twenty-sixth Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
the Wazir gave five hundred ducats to the old Gardener,
saying, "Take these gold pieces and expend them upon thy
family and let them pray for this my son," the old man looked
at the gold and his wits fled; so he fell down at the Wazir's
feet, kissing them and invoking blessings on him and his son;
and when they went away, he said to them, "I shall expect you
to-morrow: for by Allah Almighty, there must be no parting
between us, night or day." Next morning the Wazir went to the
Prince's shop and sent for the syndic of the builders; then he
carried him and his men to the garth, where the Gardener
rejoiced in their sight. He gave them the price of
rations[FN#279] and what was needful to the work- men for the
restoration of the pavilion, and they repaired it and stucco'd
it and decorated it. Then said the Minister to the painters,
"Harkye, my masters, listen to my words and apprehend my wish
and my aim. Know that I have a garden like this, where I was
sleeping one night among the nights and saw in a dream a
fowler set up nets and sprinkle corn thereabout. The birds
flocked to pick up the grain, and a cock-bird fell into the
net, whereupon the others took fright and flew away, and
amongst the rest his mate; but, after awhile, she returned
alone and picked at the mesh that held his feet, till she set
him free and they flew away together. Now the fowler had
fallen asleep and, when he awoke, he found the net empty; so
he mended it and strewing fresh grain sat down afar off,
waiting for game to fall into that snare. Presently the birds
assembled again to pick up the grains, and amongst the rest
the two pigeons. By-and-by, the hen-bird fell into the net,
when all the other birds took fright at her and flew away, and
her husband flew with them and did not return; whereupon the
fowler came up and taking the quarry, cut her throat. Now,
when her mate flew away with the others, a bird of raven
seized him and slew him and ate his flesh and drank his blood,
and I would have you pourtray me the presentment of this my
dream, even as I have related it to you, in the liveliest
colours, laying the fair scene in this rare garden, with its
walls and trees and rills, and dwell especially on the fowler
and the falcon. If ye do this I have set forth to you and the
work please me, I will give you what shall gladden your
hearts, over and above your wage." The painters, hearing these
words, applied themselves with all diligence to do what he
required of them and wrought it out in masterly style; and
when they had made an end of the work, they showed it to the
Wazir who, seeing his so-called dream set forth as it
was[FN#280] was pleased and thanked them and rewarded them
munificently. Presently, the Prince came in, according to his
custom, and entered the pavilion, unweeting what the Wazir had
done. So when he saw the portraiture of the fowler and the
birds and the net and beheld the male pigeon in the clutches
of the hawk, which had slain him and was drinking his blood
and eating his flesh, his understanding was confounded and he
returned to the Minister and said, "O Wazir of good counsel, I
have seen this day a marvel which, were it graven with
needle-gravers on the eye-corners would be a warner to whoso
will be warned?" Asked the Minister, "And what is that, O my
lord?"; and the Prince answered, "Did I not tell thee of the
dream the Princess had and how it was the cause of her hatred
for men?" "Yes," replied the Wazir; and Ardashir rejoined, "By
Allah, O Minister, I have seen the whole dream pourtrayed in
painting, as I had eyed it with mine own eyes; but I found
therein a circumstance which was hidden from the Princess, so
that she saw it not, and 'tis upon this that I rely for the
winning of my wish." Quoth the Wazir, "And what is that, O my
son?"; and quoth the Prince, "I saw that, when the male bird
flew away; and, leaving his mate entangled in the net, failed
to return and save her, a falcon pounced on him and slaying
him, ate his flesh and drank his blood. Would to Heaven the
Princess had seen the whole of the dream and had beheld the
cause of his failure to return and rescue her!" Replied the
Wazir, "By Allah, O auspicious King, this is indeed a rare
thing and a wonderful!" And the King's son ceased not to
marvel at the picture and lament that the King's daughter had
not beheld the dream to its end, saying in himself, "Would she
had seen it to the last or might see the whole over again,
though but in the imbroglio of sleep!" Then quoth the Wazir to
him, "Thou saidst to me, 'Why wilt thou repair the pavilion?';
and I replied, 'Thou shalt presently see the issue thereof.'
And behold, now its issue thou seest; for it was I did this
deed and bade the painters pourtray the Princess's dream thus
and paint the male bird in the pounces of the falcon which
eateth his flesh and drinketh his blood; so that when she
cometh to the pavilion, she will behold her dream depicted and
see how the cock-pigeon was slain and excuse him and turn from
her hate for men." When the Prince heard the Wazir's words, he
kissed his hands and thanked him, saying, "Verily, the like of
thee is fit to be Minister to the most mighty King, and, by
Allah, an I win my wish and return to my sire, rejoicing, I
will assuredly acquaint him with this, that he may redouble in
honouring thee and advance thee in dignity and hearken to
thine every word." So the Wazir kissed his hand and they both
went to the old Gardener and said, "Look at yonder pavilion
and see how fine it is!" And he replied, "This is all of your
happy thought." Then said they, "O elder, when the owners of
the place question thee concerning the restoration of the
pavilion, say thou, ''Twas I did it of my own monies'; to the
intent that there may betide thee fair favour and good
fortune." He said, "I hear and I obey"; and the Prince
continued to pay him frequent visits. Such was the case with
the Prince and the Wazir; but as regards Hayat al-Nufus, when
she ceased to receive the Prince's letters and messages and
when the old woman was absent from her, she rejoiced with joy
exceeding and concluded that the young man had returned to his
own country. One day, there came to her a covered tray from
her father; so she uncovered it and finding therein fine
fruits, asked her waiting-women, "Is the season of these
fruits come?" Answered they, "Yes." Thereupon she cried,
"Would we might make ready to take our pleasure in the
flower-garden!"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased saying her permitted say.

   When it was the Seven Hundred and Twenty-seventh Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
Princess, after receiving the fruit from her sire, asked, "Is
the season of these fruits set in?"; and they answered, "Yes!"
Thereupon she cried, "Would we might make ready to take our
pleasure in the flower-garden!" "O my lady," they replied,
"thou sayest well, and by Allah, we also long for the garden!"
So she enquired, "How shall we do, seeing that every year it
is none save my nurse who taketh us to walk in the garden and
who pointeth out to us the various trees and plants; and I
have beaten her and forbidden her from me? Indeed, I repent me
of what was done by me to her, for that, in any case, she is
my nurse and hath over me the right of fosterage. But there is
no Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah, the Glorious,
the Great!" When her handmaids heard this, they all sprang up;
and, kissing the ground between her hands, exclaimed, "Allah
upon thee, O my lady, do thou pardon her and bid her to the
presence!"; and quoth she, "By Allah, I am resolved upon this;
but which of you will go to her, for I have prepared her a
splendid robe of honour?" Hereupon two damsels came forward,
by name Bulbul and Siwad al-'Ayn, who were comely and graceful
and the principals among the Princess's women, and her
favourites. And they said, "We will go to her, O King's
daughter!"; and she said, "Do what seemeth good to you." So
they went to the house of the nurse and knocked at the door
and entered; and she, recognising the twain, received them
with open arms and welcomed them. When they had sat awhile
with her, they said to her, "O nurse, the Princess pardoneth
thee and desireth to take thee back into favour." She replied,
"This may never be, though I drink the cup of ruin! Hast thou
forgotten how she put me to shame before those who love me and
those who hate me, when my clothes were dyed with my blood and
I well nigh died for stress of beating, and after this they
dragged me forth by the feet, like a dead dog, and cast me
without the door? So by Allah, I will never return to her nor
fill my eyes with her sight!" Quoth the two girls, "Disappoint
not our pains in coming to thee nor send us away unsuccessful.
Where is thy courtesy uswards? Think but who it is that cometh
in to visit thee: canst thou wish for any higher of standing
than we with the King's daughter?" She replied, "I take refuge
with Allah: well I wot that my station is less than yours;
were it not that the Princess's favour exalted me above all
her women, so that, were I wroth with the greatest of them,
she had died in her skin of fright." They rejoined, "All is as
it was and naught is in anywise changed. Indeed, 'tis better
than before, for the Princess humbleth herself to thee and
seeketh a reconciliation without intermediary." Said the old
woman, "By Allah, were it not for your presence and
intercession with me, I had never returned to her; no, not
though she had commanded to slay me!" They thanked her for
this and she rose and dressing herself accompanied them to the
palace. Now when the King's daughter saw her, she sprang to
her feet in honour, and the old woman said, "Allah! Allah! O
King's daughter, say me, whose was the fault, mine or thine?"
Hayat al-Nufus replied, "The fault was mine, and 'tis thine to
pardon and forgive. By Allah, O my nurse, thy rank is high
with me and thou hast over me the right of fosterage; but thou
knowest that Allah (extolled and exalted be He!) hath allotted
to His creatures four things, disposition, life, daily bread
and death; nor is it in man's power to avert that which is
decreed. Verily, I was beside myself and could not recover my
senses; but, O my nurse, I repent of what deed I did." With
this, the crone's anger ceased from her and she rose and
kissed the ground before the Princess, who called for a costly
robe of honour and threw it over her, whereat she rejoiced
with exceeding joy in the presence of the Princess's slaves
and women. When all ended thus happily, Hayat al-Nufus said to
the old woman, "O my nurse, how go the fruits and growths of
our garth?"; and she replied, "O my lady, I see excellent
fruits in the town; but I will enquire of this matter and
return thee an answer this very day." Then she withdrew,
honoured with all honour and betook herself to Ardashir, who
received her with open arms and embraced her and rejoiced in
her coming, for that he had expected her long and longingly.
She told him all that had passed between herself and the
Princess and how her mistress was minded to go down into the
garden on such a day.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day
and ceased to say her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Twenty-eighth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
old woman betook herself to the Prince and told him all that
had passed between herself and the Princess Hayat al-Nufus;
and how her mistress was minded to go down into the garden on
such a day and said to him, "Hast thou done as I bade thee
with the Warder of the garden and hast thou made him taste of
thy bounties?" He replied, "Yes, and the oldster is become my
good friend: my way is his way and he would well I had need of
him." Then he told her all that had happened and of the
dream-paintings which the Wazir had caused to be limned in the
pavilion; especially of the fowler, the net and the falcon:
whereat she joyed with great joy and said, "Allah upon thee,
do thou set thy Minister mid- most thy heart, for this that he
hath done pointeth to the keenness of his wit and he hath
helped thee to the winning thy wish. So rise forthright, O my
son, and go to the Hammam-bath and don thy daintiest dress,
wherein may be our success. Then fare thou to the Gardener and
make shift to pass the night in the garden, for though he
should give the earth full of gold none may win to pass into
it, whilst the King's daughter is therein. When thou hast
entered, hide thee where no eye may espy thee and keep
concealed till thou hear me cry, 'O Thou whose boons are
hidden, save us from that we fear!' Then come forth from thine
ambush and walk among the trees and show thy beauty and
loveliness which put the moons to shame, to the intent that
Princess Hayat al-Nufus may see thee and that her heart and
soul may be filled with love of thee; so shalt thou attain to
thy wish and thy grief be gone." "To hear is to obey," replied
the young Prince and gave her a purse of a thousand dinars,
which she took and went away. Thereupon Ardashir fared
straight for the bath and washed; after which he arrayed
himself in the richest of robes of the apparel of the Kings of
the Chosroes and girt his middle with a girdle wherein were
conjoined all manner precious stones and donned a turband
inwoven with red gold and purfled with pearls and gems. His
cheeks shone rosy-red and his lips were scarlet; his eyelids
like the gazelle's wantoned; like a wine-struck wight in his
gait he swayed; beauty and loveliness garbed him, and his
shape shamed the bowing of the bough. Then he put in his
pocket a purse containing a thousand dinars and, repairing to
the flower-garden, knocked at the door. The Gardener opened to
him and rejoicing with great joy salamed to him in most
worshipful fashion; then, observing that his face was
overcast, he asked him how he did. The King's son answered,
"Know, O elder, that I am dear to my father and he never laid
his hand on me till this day, when words arose between us and
he abused me and smote me on the face and struck me with his
staff and drave me away. Now I have no friend to turn to and I
fear the perfidy of Fortune, for thou knowest that the wrath
of parents is no light thing. Wherefore I come to thee, O
uncle, seeing that to my father thou art known, and I desire
of thy favour that thou suffer me abide in the garden till the
end of the day, or pass the night there, till Allah grant good
understanding between myself and my sire." When the old man
heard these words he was concerned anent what had occurred and
said, "O my lord, dost thou give me leave to go to thy sire
and be the means of reconciliation between thee and him?"
Replied Ardashir, "O uncle, thou must know that my father is
of impatient nature, and irascible; so an thou proffer him
reconciliation in his heat of temper he will make thee no
answer; but when a day or two shall have passed, his heat will
soften. Then go thou in to him and thereupon he will relent."
"Hearkening and obedience," quoth the Gardener; "But, O my
lord, do thou come with me to my house, where thou shalt night
with my children and my family and none shall reproach this to
us." Quoth Ardashir, "O uncle, I must be alone when I am
angry."[FN#281] The old man said, "It irketh me that thou
shouldst lie solitary in the garden, when I have a house." But
Ardashir said, "O uncle, I have an aim in this, that the
trouble of my mind may be dispelled from me and I know that in
this lies the means of regaining his favour and softening his
heart to me." Rejoined the Gardener, "I will fetch thee a
carpet to sleep on and a coverlet wherewith to cover thee;"
and the Prince said, "There is no harm in that, O uncle." So
the keeper rose and opened the garden to him, and brought him
the carpet and coverlet, knowing not that the King's daughter
was minded to visit the garth. On this wise fared it with the
Prince; but as regards the nurse, she returned to the Princess
and told her that the fruits were kindly ripe on the garden
trees; whereupon she said, "O my nurse, go down with me
to-morrow into the garden, that we may walk about in it and
take our pleasure,--Inshallah; and send meanwhile to the
Gardener, to let him know what we purpose." So she sent to the
Gardener to say, "The Princess will visit the parterre
to-morrow, so leave neither water-carriers nor tree-tenders
therein, nor let one of Allah's creatures enter the garth."
When word came to him, he set his water-ways and channels in
order and, going to Ardashir, said to him, "O my lord, the
King's daughter is mistress of this garden; and I have only to
crave thy pardon, for the place is thy place and I live only
in thy favours, except that my tongue is under thy
feet.[FN#282] I must tell thee that the Princess Hayat
al-Nufus hath a mind to visit it to-morrow at the first of the
day and hath bidden me leave none therein who might look upon
her. So I would have thee of thy favour go forth of the garden
this day, for the Queen will abide only in it till the time of
mid-afternoon prayer and after it shall be at thy service for
se'nnights and fortnights, months and years." Ardashir asked,
"O elder, haply we have caused thee some mishap?"; and the
other answered, "By Allah, O my lord, naught hath betided me
from thee but honour!" Rejoined the Prince, "An it be so,
nothing but all good shall befal thee through us; for I will
hide in the garden and none shall espy me, till the King's
daughter hath gone back to her palace." Said the Gardener, "O
my lord, an she espy the shadow of a man in the garden or any
of Allah's male creatures she will strike off my head;"--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her
permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Twenty-ninth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
when the Gardener said to the Prince, "An the King's daughter
espy the shadow of a man in her garden, she will strike off my
head;" the youth replied, "Have no fear, I will on no wise let
any see me. But doubtless to-day thou lackest of
spending-money for thy family." Then he put his hand to his
purse and pulled out five hundred ducats, which he gave to him
saying, "Take this gold and lay it out on thy family, that thy
heart may be at ease concerning them." When the Shaykh looked
upon the gold, his life seemed a light thing to him[FN#283]
and he suffered the Prince to tarry where he was, charging him
straitly not to show himself in the garden. Then he left him
loitering about. Meanwhile, when the eunuchs went in to the
Princess at break of day, she bade open the private wicket
leading from the palace to the parterres and donned a royal
robe, embroidered with pearls and jewels and gems, over a
shift of fine silk purfled with rubies. Under the whole was
that which tongue refuseth to explain, whereat was confounded
the brain and whose love would embrave the craven's strain. On
her head she set a crown of red gold, inlaid with pearls and
gems and she tripped in pattens of cloth of gold, embroidered
with fresh pearls[FN#284] and adorned with all manner precious
stones. Then she put her hand upon the old woman's shoulder
and commanded to go forth by the privy door; but the nurse
looked at the garden and, seeing it full of eunuchs and
handmaids walking about, eating the fruits and troubling the
streams and taking their ease of sport and pleasure in the
water said to the Princess, "O my lady, is this a garden or a
madhouse?" Quoth the Princess, "What meaneth thy speech, O
nurse?"; and quoth the old woman, "Verily the garden is full
of slave-girls and eunuchs, eating of the fruits and troubling
the streams and scaring the birds and hindering us from taking
our ease and sporting and laughing and what not else; and thou
hast no need of them. Wert thou going forth of thy palace into
the highway, this would be fitting, as an honour and a ward to
thee; but, now, O my lady, thou goest forth of the wicket into
the garden, where none of Almighty Allah's creatures may look
on thee." Rejoined the Princess, "By Allah, O nurse mine, thou
sayst sooth! But how shall we do?"; and the old woman said,
"Bid the eunuchs send them all away and keep only two of the
slave-girls, that we may make merry with them. So she
dismissed them all, with the exception of two of her handmaids
who were most in favour with her. But when the old woman saw
that her heart was light and that the season was pleasant to
her, she said to her, "Now we can enjoy ourselves aright: so
up and let us take our pleasance in the garden." The Princess
put her hand upon her shoulder and went out by the private
door. The two waiting-women walked in front and she followed
them laughing at them and swaying gracefully to and fro in her
ample robes; whilst the nurse forewent her, showing her the
trees and feeding her with fruits; and so they fared on from
place to place, till they came to the pavilion, which when the
King's daughter beheld and saw that it had been restored, she
asked the old woman, "O my nurse, seest thou yonder pavilion?
It hath been repaired and its walls whitened." She answered,
"By Allah, O my lady, I heard say that the keeper of the
garden had taken stuffs of a company of merchants and sold
them and bought bricks and lime and plaster and stones and so
forth with the price; so I asked him what he had done with all
this, and he said, 'I have repaired the pavilion which lay in
ruins,' presently adding, 'And when the merchants sought their
due of me, I said to them, 'Wait 'till the Princess visit the
garden and see the repairs and they satisfy her; then will I
take of her what she is pleased to bestow on me, and pay you
what is your due.' Quoth I, 'What moved thee to do this
thing?'; and quoth he, 'I saw the pavilion in ruins, the
coigns thrown down and the stucco peeled from the walls, and
none had the grace to repair it; so I borrowed the coin on my
own account and restored the place; and I trust in the King's
daughter to deal with me as befitteth her dignity.' I said,
'The Princess is all goodness and generosity and will no doubt
requite thee.' And he did all this but in hopes of thy
bounty." Replied the Princess, "By Allah, he hath dealt nobly
in rebuilding it and hath done the deed of generous men! Call
me my purse-keeperess." The old woman accordingly fetched the
purse-keeperess, whom the Princess bade give the Gardener two
thousand dinars; whereupon the nurse sent to him, bidding him
to the presence of the King's daughter. But when the messenger
said to him, "Obey the Queen's order," the Gardener felt
feeble and, trembling in every joint, said in himself,
"Doubtless, the Princess hath seen the young man, and this day
will be the most unlucky of days for me." So he went home and
told his wife and children what had happened and gave them his
last charges and farewelled them, while they wept for and with
him. Then he presented himself before the Princess, with a
face the colour of turmeric and ready to fall flat at full
length. The old woman remarked his plight and hastened to
forestall him, saying "O Shaykh, kiss the earth in
thanksgiving to Almighty Allah and be constant in prayer to
Him for the Princess. I told her what thou didst in the matter
of repairing the ruined pavilion, and she rejoiceth in this
and bestoweth on thee two thousand dinars in requital of thy
pains; so take them from the purse-keeperess and kiss the
earth before the King's daughter and bless her and wend thy
way." Hearing these words he took the gold and kissed the
ground before Hayat al-Nufus, calling down blessings on her.
Then he returned to his house, and his family rejoiced in him
and blessed him[FN#285] who had been the prime cause of this
business.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
to say her permitted say.

      When it was the Seven Hundred and Thirtieth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
the Care-taker took the two thousand ducats from the Princess
and returned to his house, all his family rejoiced in him and
blessed him who had been the prime cause of this business.
Thus it fared with these; but as regards the old woman, she
said to the Princess, "O my lady, this is indeed become a fine
place! Never saw I a purer white than its plastering nor
properer than its painting! I wonder if he have also repaired
it within: else hath he made the outside white and left the
inside black. Come, let us enter and inspect." So they went
in, the nurse preceding, and found the interior painted and
gilded in the goodliest way. The Princess looked right and
left, till she came to the upper end of the estrade, when she
fixed her eyes upon the wall and gazed long and earnestly
thereat; whereupon the old woman knew that her glance had
lighted on the presentment of her dream and took the two
waiting-women away with her, that they might not divert her
mind. When the King's daughter had made an end of examining
the painting, she turned to the old woman, wondering and
beating hand on hand, and said to her, "O my nurse, come, see
a wondrous thing which were it graven with needle-gravers on
the eye corners would be a warner to whoso will be warned."
She replied, "And what is that, O my lady?"; when the Princess
rejoined, "Go, look at the upper end of the estrade, and tell
me what thou seest there." So she went up and considered the
dream-drawing: then she came down, wondering, and said, "By
Allah, O my lady, here is depicted the garden and the fowler
and his net and the birds and all thou sawest in thy dream;
and verily, nothing but urgent need withheld the male pigeon
from returning to free his mate after he had fled her, for I
see him in the talons of a bird of raven which hath
slaughtered him and is drinking his blood and rending his
flesh and eating it; and this, O my lady, caused his tarrying
to return and rescue her from the net. But, O my mistress, the
wonder is how thy dream came to be thus depicted, for, wert
thou minded to set it forth in painture, thou hadst not
availed to portray it. By Allah, this is a marvel which should
be recorded in histories! Surely, O my lady, the angels
appointed to attend upon the sons of Adam, knew that the
cock-pigeon was wronged of us, because we blamed him for
deserting his mate; so they embraced his cause and made
manifest his excuse; and now for the first time we see him in
the hawk's pounces a dead bird." Quoth the Princess, "O my
nurse, verily, Fate and Fortune had course against this bird,
and we did him wrong." Quoth the nurse, "O my mistress, foes
shall meet before Allah the Most High: but, O my lady, verily,
the truth hath been made manifest and the male pigeon's excuse
certified to us; for had the hawk not seized him and drunk his
blood and rent his flesh he had not held aloof from his mate,
but had returned to her, and set her free from the net; but
against death there is no recourse, nor, O my lady, is there
aught in the world more tenderly solicitous than the male for
the female, among all creatures which Almighty Allah hath
created. And especially 'tis thus with man; for he starveth
himself to feed his wife, strippeth himself to clothe her,
angereth his family to please her and disobeyeth and denieth
his parents to endow her. She knoweth his secrets and
concealeth them and she cannot endure from him a single
hour.[FN#286] An he be absent from her one night, her eyes
sleep not, nor is there a dearer to her than he: she loveth
him more than her parents and they lie down to sleep in each
other's arms, with his hand under her neck and her hand under
his neck, even as saith the poet,

'I made my wrist her pillow and I lay with her in litter; *
     And I said to Night 'Be long!' while the full moon showed
Ah me, it was a night, Allah never made its like; * Whose
     first was sweetest sweet and whose last bitt'rest

Then he kisseth her and she kisseth him; and I have heard of a
certain King that, when his wife fell sick and died, he buried
himself alive with her, submitting himself to death, for the
love of her and the strait companionship which was between
them. Moreover, a certain King sickened and died, and when
they were about to bury him, his wife said to her people: 'Let
me bury myself alive with him: else will I slay myself and my
blood shall be on your heads.' So, when they saw she would not
be turned from this thing, they left her, and she cast herself
into the grave with her dead husband, of the greatness of her
love and tenderness for him." And the old woman ceased not to
ply the Princess with anecdotes of conjugal love between men
and women, till there ceased that which was in her heart of
hatred for the sex masculine; and when she felt that she had
succeeded in renewing in her the natural inclination of woman
to man, she said to her, "'Tis time to go and walk in the
garden." So they fared forth from the pavilion and paced among
the trees. Presently the Prince chanced to turn and his eyes
fell on Hayat al-Nufus; and when he saw the symmetry of her
shape and the rosiclearness of her cheeks and the blackness of
her eyes and her exceeding grace and her passing loveliness
and her excelling beauty and her prevailing elegance and her
abounding perfection, his reason was confounded and he could
not take his eyes off her. Passion annihilated his right
judgment and love overpassed all limits in him; his vitals
were occupied with her service and his heart was aflame with
the fire of repine, so that he swooned away and fell to the
ground. When he came to himself, she had passed from his sight
and was hidden from him among the trees;--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Thirty-first Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Prince Ardashir, who lay hid in the garden, saw the Princess
and her nurse walking amongst the trees, he swooned away for
very love-longing. When he came to himself Hayat al-Nufus had
passed from his sight and was hidden from him among the trees;
so he sighed from his heart-core and improvised these

"Whenas mine eyes behold her loveliness, * My heart is torn
     with love's own ecstasy.
I wake o'erthrown, castdown on face of earth * Nor can the
     Princess[FN#288] my sore torment see.
She turned and ravished this sad Love-thrall'd sprite; *
     Mercy, by Allah, ruth; nay, sympathy!
O Lord, afford me union, deign Thou soothe * My soul, ere
     grave-niche house this corse of me;
I'll kiss her ten times ten times, and times ten * For lover's
     wasted cheek the kisses be!"

The old woman ceased not to lead the Princess a-pleasuring
about the garden, till they reached the place where the Prince
lay ambushed, when, behold she said, "O Thou whose bounties
are hidden, vouchsafe us assurance from that we fear!" The
King's son hearing the signal, left his lurking-place and,
surprised by the summons, walked among the trees, swaying to
and fro with a proud and graceful gait and a shape that shamed
the branches. His brow was crowned with pearly drops and his
cheeks red as the afterglow, extolled be Allah the Almighty in
that He hath created! When the King's daughter caught sight of
him, she gazed a long while on him and noticed his beauty and
grace and loveliness and his eyes that wantoned like the
gazelle's, and his shape that outvied the branches of the
myrobalan; wherefore her wits were confounded and her soul
captivated and her heart transfixed with the arrows of his
glances. Then she said to the old woman, "O my nurse, whence
came yonder handsome youth?"; and the nurse asked, "Where is
he, O my lady?" "There he is," answered Hayat al-Nufus; "near
hand, among the trees." The old woman turned right and left,
as if she knew not of his presence, and cried, "And pray, who
can have taught this youth the way into this garden?" Quoth
Hayat al-Nufus, "Who shall give us news of the young man?
Glory be to Him who created men! But say me, dost thou know
him, O my nurse?" Quoth the old woman, "O my lady, he is the
young merchant who wrote to thee by me." The Princess (and
indeed she was drowned in the sea of her desire and the fire
of her passion and love-longing) broke out, "O my nurse, how
goodly is this youth! Indeed he is fair of favour. Methinks,
there is not on the face of earth a goodlier than he!" Now
when the old woman was assured that the love of him had gotten
possession of the Princess, she said to her, "Did I not tell
thee, O my lady, that he was a comely youth with a beaming
favour?" Replied Hayat al-Nufus, "O my nurse, King's daughters
know not the ways of the world nor the manners of those that
be therein, for that they company with none, neither give they
nor take they. O my nurse, how shall I do to bring about a
meeting and present myself to him, and what shall I say to him
and what will he say to me?" Said the old woman, "What device
is left me? Indeed, we were confounded in this matter by thy
behaviour"; and the Princess said, "O my nurse, know thou that
if any ever died of passion, I shall do so, and behold, I look
for nothing but death on the spot by reason of the fire of my
love-longing." When the old woman heard her words and saw the
transport of her desire for him, she answered, "O my lady, now
as for his coming to thee, there is no way thereto; and indeed
thou art excused from going to him, because of thy tender age;
but rise with me and follow me. I will accost him: so shalt
thou not be put to shame, and in the twinkling of an eye
affection shall ensue between you." The King's daughter cried,
"Go thou before me, for the decree of Allah may not be
rejected." Accordingly they went up to the place where
Ardashir sat, as he were the full moon at its fullest, and the
old woman said to him, "See O youth, who is present before
thee! 'Tis the daughter of our King of the age, Hayat
al-Nufus: bethink thee of her rank and appreciate the honour
she doth thee in coming to thee and rise out of respect for
her and stand before her." The Prince sprang to his feet in an
instant and his eyes met her eyes, whereupon they both became
as they were drunken without wine. Then the love of him and
desire redoubled upon the Princess and she opened her arms and
he his, and they embraced; but love-longing and passion
overcame them and they swooned away and fell to the ground and
lay a long while without sense. The old woman, fearing
scandalous exposure, carried them both into the pavilion, and,
sitting down at the door, said to the two waiting-women,
"Seize the occasion to take your pleasure in the garden, for
the Princess sleepeth." So they returned to their diversion.
Presently the lovers revived from their swoon and found
themselves in the pavilion, whereat quoth the Prince, "Allah
upon thee, O Princess of fair ones, is this vision or
sleep-illusion?" Then the twain embraced and intoxicated
themselves without wine, complaining each to other of the
anguish of passion; and the Prince improvised these couplets,

"Sun riseth sheen from her brilliant brow, * And her cheek
     shows the rosiest afterglow:
And when both appear to the looker-on, * The skyline star
     ne'er for shame will show:
An the leven flash from those smiling lips, * Morn breaks and
     the rays dusk and gloom o'erthrow.
And when with her graceful shape she sways, * Droops leafiest
     Ban-tree[FN#289] for envy low:
Me her sight suffices; naught crave I more: * Lord of Men and
     Morn, be her guard from foe!
The full moon borrows a part of her charms; * The sun would
     rival but fails his lowe.
Whence could Sol aspire to that bending grace? * Whence should
     Luna see such wit and such mind-gifts know?
Who shall blame me for being all love to her, * 'Twixt accord
     and discord aye doomed to woe:
'Tis she won my heart with those forms that bend * What shall
     lover's heart from such charms defend?"

--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say
her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Thirty-second Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
Prince had made an end of his verses, the Princess strained
him to her bosom and kissed him on the mouth and between the
eyes; whereupon his soul returned to him and he fell to
complaining to her of that he had endured for stress of love
and tyranny of longing and excess of transport and distraction
and all he had suffered for the hardness of her heart. Hearing
those words she kissed his hands and feet and bared her
head,[FN#290] whereupon the gloom gathered and the full moons
dawned therein. Then said she to him, "O my beloved and term
of all my wishes, would the day of estrangement had never been
and Allah grant it may never return between us!" And they
embraced and wept together, whilst she recited these couplets,

"O who shamest the Moon and the sunny glow: * Thou whose
     slaught'ring tyranny lays me low;
With the sword of a look thou hast shorn my heart, * How
     escape thy sword-glance fatal of blow?
Thus eke are thine eyebrows a bow that shot * My bosom with
     shafts of fiercest lowe:
From thy cheeks' rich crop cometh Paradise; * How, then, shall
     my heart the rich crop forego?
Thy graceful shape is a blooming branch, * And shall pluck the
     fruits who shall bear that bough.
Perforce thou drawest me, robst my sleep; * In thy love I
     strip me and shameless show:[FN#291]
Allah lend thee the rays of most righteous light, * Draw the
     farthest near and a tryst bestow:
Then have ruth on the vitals thy love hath seared, * And the
     heart that flies to thy side the mo'e!"

And when she ended her recitation, passion overcame her and
she was distraught for love and wept copious tears, rain-like
streaming down. This burnt the Prince's heart and he in turn
became troubled and distracted for love of her. So he drew
nearer to her and kissed her hands and wept with sore weeping
and they ceased not from lover-reproaches and converse and
versifying, until the call to mid-afternoon prayer (nor was
there aught between them other than this), when they bethought
them of parting and she said to him, "O light of mine eyes and
core of my heart, the time of severance has come between us
twain: when shall we meet again?" "By Allah," replied he (and
indeed her words shot him as with shafts), "to mention of
parting I am never fain!" Then she went forth of the pavilion,
and he turned and saw her sighing sighs would melt the rock
and weeping shower-like tears; whereupon he for love was
sunken in the sea of desolation and improvised these couplets,

"O my heart's desire! grows my misery * From the stress of
     love, and what cure for me?
By thy face, like dawn when it lights the dark, * And thy hair
     whose hue beareth night-tide's blee,
And thy form like the branch which in grace inclines * To
     Zephyr's[FN#292] breath blowing fain and free,
By the glance of thine eyes like the fawn's soft gaze, * When
     she views pursuer of high degree,
And thy waist down borne by the weight of hips, * These so
     heavy and that lacking gravity,
By the wine of thy lip-dew, the sweetest of drink, * Fresh
     water and musk in its purity,
O gazelle of the tribe, ease my soul of grief, * And grant me
     thy phantom in sleep to see!"

Now when she heard his verses in praise of her, she turned
back to him and embracing him, with a heart on fire for the
anguish of severance, fire which naught save kisses and
embraces might quench, cried, "Sooth the byword saith,
Patience is for a lover and not the lack thereof. There is no
help for it but I contrive a means for our reunion." Then she
farewelled him and fared forth, knowing not where she set her
feet, for stress of her love; nor did she stay her steps till
she found herself in her own chamber. When she was gone,
passion and love-longing redoubled upon the young Prince and
the delight of sleep was forbidden him, and the Princess in
her turn tasted not food and her patience failed and she
sickened for desire. As soon as dawned the day, she sent for
the nurse, who came and found her condition changed and she
cried, "Question me not of my case; for all I suffer is due to
thy handiwork. Where is the beloved of my heart?" "O my lady,
when did he leave thee? Hath he been absent from thee more
than this night?" "Can I endure absence from him an hour?
Come, find some means to bring us together speedily, for my
soul is like to flee my body." "O my lady, have patience till
I contrive thee some subtle device, whereof none shall be
ware." "By the Great God, except thou bring him to me this
very day, I will tell the King that thou hast corrupted me,
and he will cut off thy head!" "I conjure thee, by Allah, have
patience with me, for this is a dangerous matter!" And the
nurse humbled herself to her, till she granted her three days'
delay, saying, "O my nurse, the three days will be three years
to me; and if the fourth day pass and thou bring him not, I
will go about to slay thee." So the old woman left her and
returned to her lodging, where she abode till the morning of
the fourth day, when she summoned the tirewomen of the town
and sought of them fine dyes and rouge for the painting of a
virgin girl and adorning; and they brought her cosmetics of
the best. Then she sent for the Prince and, opening her chest,
brought out a bundle containing a suit of woman's apparel,
worth five thousand dinars, and a head-kerchief fringed with
all manner gems. Then said she to him, "O my son, hast thou a
mind to foregather with Hayat al-Nufus?"; and he replied,
"Yes." So she took a pair of tweezers and pulled out the hairs
of his face and pencilled his eyes with Kohl.[FN#293] Then she
stripped him and painted him with Henna[FN#294] from his nails
to his shoulders and from his insteps to his thighs and
tattooed[FN#295] him about the body, till he was like red
roses upon alabaster slabs. After a little, she washed him and
dried him and bringing out a shift and a pair of
petticoat-trousers made him put them on. Then she clad him in
the royal suit aforesaid and, binding the kerchief about his
head, veiled him and taught him how to walk, saying, "Advance
thy left and draw back thy right." He did her bidding and
forewent her, as he were a Houri faring abroad from Paradise.
Then said she to him, "Fortify thy heart, for thou art going
to the King's palace, where there will without fail be guards
and eunuchs at the gate; and if thou be startled at them and
show doubt or dread, they will suspect thee and examine thee,
and we shall both get into grievous trouble and haply lose our
lives: wherefore an thou feel thyself unable to this, tell
me." He answered, "In very sooth this thing hath no terrors
for me, so be of good cheer and keep thine eyes cool and
clear." Then she went out preceding him till the twain came to
the palace-gate, which was full of eunuchs. She turned and
looked at him, as much as to say, "Art thou troubled or no?"
and finding him all unchanged, went on. The chief eunuch
glanced at the nurse and knew her but, seeing a damsel
following her, whose charms confounded the reason, he said in
his mind, "As for the old woman, she is the nurse; but as for
the girl who is with her there is none in our land resembleth
her in favour or approacheth her in fairness save the Princess
Hayat al-Nufus, who is secluded and never goeth out. Would I
knew how she came into the streets and would Heaven I wot
whether or no 'twas by leave of the King!" Then he rose to
learn somewhat concerning her and well nigh thirty castratos
followed him; which when the old woman saw, her reason fled
for fear and she said, "Verily, we are Allah's and to Him we
shall return! Without recourse we are dead folk this
time."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
saying her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Thirty-third Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
when the old nurse saw the head of the eunuchry and his
assistants making for her she was in exceeding fear and cried,
"There is no Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah, the
Glorious, the Great! Verily we are God's and unto him we shall
return; without recourse we be dead folk this time." When the
head eunuch heard her speak thus, fear gat hold upon him, by
reason of that which he knew of the Princess's violence and
that her father was ruled by her, and he said to himself,
"Belike the King hath commanded the nurse to carry his
daughter forth upon some occasion of hers, whereof she would
have none know; and if I oppose her, she will be wroth with me
and will say, 'This eunuch fellow stopped me, that he might
pry into my affairs.' So she will do her best to kill me, and
I have no call to meddle in this matter." So saying, he turned
back, and with him the thirty assistants who drove the people
from the door of the palace; whereupon the nurse entered and
saluted the eunuchs with her head, whilst all the thirty stood
to do her honour and returned her salam. She led in the Prince
and he ceased not following her from door to door, and the
Protector protected them, so that they passed all the guards,
till they came to the seventh door: it was that of the great
pavilion, wherein was the King's throne, and it communicated
with the chambers of his women and the saloons of the Harim,
as well as with his daughter's pavilion. So the old woman
halted and said, "Here we are, O my son, and glory be to Him
who hath brought us thus far in safety! But, O my son, we
cannot foregather with the Princess except by night; for night
enveileth the fearful." He replied, "True, but what is to be
done?" Quoth she, "Hide thee in this black hole," showing him
behind the door a dark and deep cistern, with a cover thereto.
So he entered the cistern, and she went away and left him
there till ended day, when she returned and carried him into
the palace, till they came to the door of Hayat al-Nufus's
apartment. The old woman knocked and a little maid came out
and said, "Who is at the door?" Said the nurse, "'Tis I,"
whereupon the maid returned and craved permission of her lady,
who said, "Open to her and let her come in with any who may
accompany her." So they entered and the nurse, casting a
glance around, perceived that the Princess had made ready the
sitting-chamber and ranged the lamps in row and lighted
candles of wax in chandeliers of gold and silver and spread
the divans and estrades with carpets and cushions. Moreover,
she had set on trays of food and fruits and confections and
she had perfumed the place with musk and aloes-wood and
ambergris. She was seated among the lamps and the tapers and
the light of her face outshone the lustre of them all. When
she saw the old woman, she said to her, "O nurse, where is the
beloved of my heart?"; and the other replied, "O my lady, I
cannot find him nor have mine eyes espied him, but I have
brought thee his own sister; and here she is." Cried the
Princess, "Art thou Jinn-mad? What need have I of his sister?
Say me, an a man's head irk him, doth he bind up his hand?"
The old woman answered, "No, by Allah, O my lady! But look on
her, and if she pleases thee, let her be with thee." Then she
uncovered the Prince's face, whereupon Hayat al-Nufus knew him
and running to him, pressed him to her bosom, and he pressed
her to his breast. Then they both fell down in a swoon and lay
without sense a long while. The old woman sprinkled rose-water
upon them till they came to themselves, when she kissed him on
the mouth more than a thousand times and improvised these

"Sought me this heart's dear love at gloom of night; * I rose
     in honour till he sat forthright,
And said, 'O aim of mine, O sole desire * In such night-visit
     hast of guards no fright?'
Replied he, 'Yes, I feared much, but Love * Robbed me of all
     my wits and reft my sprite.'
We clipt with kisses and awhile clung we, * For here 'twas
     safe; nor feared we watchman-wight:
Then rose we parting without doubtful deed * And shook out
     skirts where none a stain could sight."

--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say
her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Thirty-fourth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
her lover visited Hayat al-Nufus in her palace, the twain
embraced and she improvised some happy couplets beseeming the
occasion. And when she had ended her extempore lines she said,
"Is it indeed true that I see thee in my abode and that thou
art my cup-mate and my familiar?" Then passion grew on her and
love was grievous to her, so that her reason well-nigh fled
for joy and she improvised these couplets,

"With all my soul I'll ransom him who came to me in gloom * Of
     night, whilst I had waited long to see his figure loom;
And naught aroused me save his weeping voice of tender tone *
     And whispered I, 'Fair fall thy foot and welcome and well
His cheek I kissed a thousand times, and yet a thousand more;
     * Then clipt and clung about his breast enveiled in
     darkling room.
And cried, 'Now verily I've won the aim of every wish * So
     praise and prayers to Allah for this grace now best
Then slept we even as we would the goodliest of nights * Till
     morning came to end our night and light up earth with

As soon as it was day, she made him enter a place in her
apartment unknown to any and he abode there till nightfall,
when she brought him out and they sat in converse and carouse.
Presently he said to her, "I wish to return to my own country
and tell my father what hath passed between us, that he may
equip his Wazir to demand thee in marriage of thy sire." She
replied, "O my love, I fear, an thou return to thy country and
kingdom, thou wilt be distracted from me and forget the love
of me; or that thy father will not further thy wishes in this
matter and I shall die. Meseems the better rede were that thou
abide with me and in my hand-grasp, I looking on thy face, and
thou on mine, till I devise some plan, whereby we may escape
together some night and flee to thy country; for I have cut
off my hopes from my own people and I despair of them." He
rejoined, "I hear and obey;" and they fell again to their
carousal and conversing. He tarried with her thus for some
time till, one night, the wine was pleasant to them and they
lay not down nor did they sleep till break of day. Now it
chanced that one of the Kings sent her father a present, and
amongst other things, a necklace of union jewels,
nine-and-twenty grains, to whose price a King's treasures
might not suffice. Quoth Abd al-Kadir, "This riviere beseemeth
none but my daughter Hayat al-Nufus;" and, turning to an
eunuch, whose jaw-teeth the Princess had knocked out for
reasons best known to herself,[FN#296] he called to him and
said, "Carry the necklace to thy lady and say to her, 'One of
the Kings hath sent thy father this, as a present, and its
price may not be paid with money; put it on thy neck.'" The
slave took the necklace, saying in himself, "Allah Almighty
make it the last thing she shall put on in this world, for
that she deprived me of the benefit of my grinder-teeth!"; and
repairing to the Princess's apartment, found the door locked
and the old woman asleep before the threshold. He shook her,
and she awoke in affright and asked, "What dost thou want?";
to which he answered, "The King hath sent me on an errand to
his daughter." Quoth the nurse, "The key is not here, go away,
whilst I fetch it;" but quoth he, "I cannot go back to the
King without having done his commandment." So she went away,
as if to fetch the key; but fear overtook her and she sought
safety in flight. Then the eunuch awaited her awhile; then,
finding she did not return, he feared that the King would be
angry at his delay; so he rattled at the door and shook it,
whereupon the bolt gave way and the leaf opened. He entered
and passed on, till he came to the seventh door and walking in
to the Princess's chamber found the place splendidly furnished
and saw candles and flagons there. At this spectacle he
marvelled and going close up to the bed, which was curtained
by a hanging of silk, embroidered with a net-work of jewels,
drew back the curtain from before the Princess and saw her
sleeping with her arms about the neck of a young man handsomer
than herself; whereat he magnified Allah Almighty, who had
created such a youth of vile water, and said, "How goodly be
this fashion for one who hateth men! How came she by this
fellow? Methinks 'twas on his account that she knocked out my
back teeth!" Then he drew the curtain and made for the door;
but the King's daughter awoke in affright and seeing the
eunuch, whose name was Kafur, called to him. He made her no
answer: so she came down from the bed on the estrade; and
catching hold of his skirt laid it on her head and kissed his
feet, saying, "Veil what Allah veileth!" Quoth he, "May Allah
not veil thee nor him who would veil thee! Thou didst knock
out my grinders and saidst to me, 'Let none make mention to me
aught of men and their ways!'" So saying, he disengaged
himself from her grasp and running out, locked the door on
them and set another eunuch to guard it. Then he went in to
the King who said to him "Hast thou given the necklace to
Hayat al-Nufus?" The eunuch replied, "By Allah, thou deservest
altogether a better fate;" and the King asked, "What hath
happened? Tell me quickly;" whereto he answered, "I will not
tell thee, save in private and between our eyes," but the King
retorted, saying, "Tell me at once and in public." Cried the
eunuch, "Then grant me immunity." So the King threw him the
kerchief of immunity and he said, "O King, I went into the
Princess Hayat al-Nufus and found her asleep in a carpeted
chamber and on her bosom was a young man. So I locked the door
upon the two and came back to thee." When the King heard these
words he started up and taking a sword in his hand, cried out
to the Rais of the eunuchs, saying, "Take thy lads and go to
the Princess's chamber and bring me her and him who is with
her as they twain lie on the bed; but cover them both
up."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
saying her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Thirty-fifth Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
the King commanded the head eunuch to take his lads and to
fetch and set before him Hayat al-Nufus and him who was with
her, the chief and his men entered the Princess's apartment
where he found her standing up, dissolved in railing tears,
and the Prince by her side; so he said to them, "Lie down on
the bed, as thou wast and let him do likewise." The King's
daughter feared for her lover[FN#297] and said to him, "This
is no time for resistance." So they both lay down and the
eunuchs covered them up and carried the twain into the King's
presence. Thereupon Abd al-Kadir pulled off the coverings and
the Princess sprang to her feet. He looked at her and would
have smitten her neck: but the Prince threw himself on the
father's breast, saying, "The fault was not hers but mine
only: kill me before thou killest her." The King made at him,
to cut him down, but Hayat al-Nufus cast herself on her father
and said, "Kill me not him; for he is the son of a great King,
lord of all the land in its length and breadth." When the King
heard this, he turned to the Chief Wazir, who was a
gathering-place of all that is evil, and said to him, "What
sayst thou of this matter, O Minister?" Quoth his Wazir, "What
I say is that all who find themselves in such case as this
have need of lying, and there is nothing for it but to cut off
both their heads, after torturing them with all manner of
tortures." Hereupon the King called his sworder of vengeance,
who came with his lads, and said to him, "Take this gallows
bird and strike off his head and after do the like with this
harlot and burn their bodies, and consult me not about them a
second time." So the headsmen put his hand to her back, to
take her; but the King cried out at him and cast at him
somewhat he hent in hand, which had well-nigh killed him,
saying, "O dog, how durst thou show ruth to those with whom I
am wroth? Put thy hand to her hair and drag her along by it,
so that she may fall on her face." Accordingly he haled her by
her hair and the Prince in like manner to the place of blood,
where he tore off a piece of his skirt and therewith bound the
Prince's eyes putting the Princess last, in the hope that some
one would intercede for her. Then, having made ready the
Prince he swung his sharp sword three times (whilst all the
troops wept and prayed Allah to send them deliverance by some
intercessor), and raised his hand to cut off Ardashir's head
when, behold, there arose a cloud of dust, that spread and
flew till it veiled the view. Now the cause thereof was that
when the young Prince had delayed beyond measure, the King,
his sire, had levied a mighty host and had marched with it in
person to get tidings of his son. Such was his case; but as
regards King Abd al-Kadir, when he saw this, he said, "O
wights, what is the meaning of yonder dust that dimmeth
sights?" The Grand Wazir sprang up and went out to reconnoitre
and found behind the cloud men like locusts, of whom no count
could be made nor aught avail of aid, filling the hills and
plains and valleys. So he returned with the report to the
King, who said to him, "Go down and learn for us what may be
this host and the cause of its marching upon our country. Ask
also of their commander and salute him for me and enquire the
reason of his coming. An he came in quest of aught, we will
aid him, and if he have a blood-feud with one of the Kings, we
will ride with him; or, if he desire a gift, we will handsel
him; for this is indeed a numerous host and a power uttermost,
and we fear for our land from its mischief." So the Minister
went forth and walked among the tents and troopers and
body-guards, and ceased not faring on from the first of the
day till near sundown, when he came to the warders with gilded
swords in tents star-studded. Passing these, he made his way
through Emirs and Wazirs and Nabobs and Chamberlains, to the
pavilion of the Sultan, and found him a mighty King. When the
King's officers saw him, they cried out to him, saying, "Kiss
ground! Kiss ground!"[FN#298] He did so and would have risen,
but they cried out at him a second and a third time. So he
kissed the earth again and again and raised his head and would
have stood up, but fell down at full length for excess of awe.
When at last he was set between the hands of the King he said
to him, "Allah prolong thy days and increase thy sovranty and
exalt thy rank, O thou auspicious King! And furthermore, of a
truth, King Abd al-Kadir saluteth thee and kisseth the earth
before thee and asketh on what weighty business thou art come.
An thou seek to avenge thee for blood on any King, he will
take horse in thy service; or, an thou come in quest of aught,
wherein it is in his power to help thee, he standeth up at thy
service on account thereof." So Ardashir's father replied to
the Wazir, saying, "O messenger, return to thy lord and tell
him that the most mighty King Sayf al-A'azam Shah, Lord of
Shiraz, had a son who hath been long absent from him and news
of him have not come and all traces of him have been cut off.
An he be in this city, he will take him and depart from you;
but, if aught have befallen him or any mischief have ensued to
him from you, his father will lay waste your land and make
spoil of your goods and slay your men and seize your women.
Return, therefore, to thy lord in haste and tell him this, ere
evil befal him." Answered the Minister, "To hear is to obey!"
and turned to go away, when the Chamberlains cried out to him,
saying, "Kiss ground! Kiss ground!" So he kissed the ground a
score of times and rose not till his life-breath was in his
nostrils.[FN#299] Then he left the King's high court and
returned to the city, full of anxious thought concerning the
affair of this King and the multitude of his troops, and going
in to King Abd al-Kadir, pale with fear and trembling in his
side-muscles, acquainted him with that had befallen him; --And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Thirty-sixth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
Wazir returned from the court of the Great King, pale with
fear and with side-muscles quivering for dread exceeding; and
acquainted his lord with that had befallen him. Hereat
disquietude and terror for himself and for his people laid
hold upon him and he said to the Minister, "O Wazir, and who
is this King's son?" Replied the other, "'Tis even he whom
thou badest put to death, but praised be Allah who hastened
not his slaughter! Else had his father wasted our lands and
spoiled our good." Quoth the King "See now thy corrupt
judgment, in that thou didst counsel us to slay him! Where is
the young man, the son of yonder magnanimous King?" And quoth
the Wazir, "O mighty King, thou didst command him be put to
death." When the King heard this, he was clean distraught and
cried out from his heart's core and in-most of head, saying,
"Woe to you! Fetch me the Heads- man forthright, lest death
fall on him!" So they fetched the Sworder and he said, "0 King
of the Age, I have smitten off his head even as thou badest
me." Cried Abd al-Kadir "O dog, an this be true, I will
assuredly send thee after him." The Heads- man replied, "O
King, thou didst command me to slay him without consulting
thee a second time." Said the King, "I was in my wrath; but
speak the truth, ere thou lose thy life;" and said the
Sworder, "O King, he is yet in the chains of life." At this
Abd al-Kadir rejoiced and his heart was set at rest; then he
called for Ardashir, and when he came, he stood up to receive
him and kissed his mouth, saying, "O my son, I ask pardon of
Allah Almighty for the wrong I have done thee, and say thou
not aught that may lower my credit with thy sire, the Great
King." The Prince asked "O King of the Age, and where is my
father?" and the other answered, "He is come hither on thine
account." Thereupon quoth Ardashir, "By thy worship, I will
not stir from before thee till I have cleared my honour and
the honour of thy daughter from that which thou laidest to our
charge; for she is a pure virgin. Send for the midwives and
let them examine her before thee. An they find her maidenhead
gone, I give thee leave to shed my blood; and if they find her
a clean maid, her innocence of dishonour and mine also will be
made manifest." So he summoned the midwives, who examined the
Princess and found her a pure virgin and so told the King,
seeking largesse of him. He gave them what they sought,
putting off his royal robes to bestow on them, and in like
manner he was bountiful to all who were in the Harim. And they
brought forth the scent-cups and perfumed all the Lords of
estate and Grandees; and not one but rejoiced with exceeding
joy. Then the King threw his arms about Ardashir's neck and
entreated him with all worship and honour, bidding his chief
eunuchs bear him to the bath. When he came out, he cast over
his shoulders a costly robe and crowned him with a coronet of
jewels; he also girt him with a girdle of silk, purfled with
red gold and set with pearls and gems, and mounted him on one
of his noblest mares, with selle and trappings of gold inlaid
with pearls and jewels. Then he bade his Grandees and Captains
mount on his service and escort him to his father's presence;
and charged him tell his sire that King Abd al-Kadir was at
his disposal, hearkening to and obeying him in whatso he
should bid or forbid. "I will not fail of this," answered
Ardashir and farewelling him, repaired to his father who, at
sight of him, was transported for delight and springing up,
advanced to meet him and embraced him, whilst joy and gladness
spread among all the host of the Great King. Then came the
Wazirs and Chamberlains and Captains and guards and kissed the
ground before the Prince and rejoiced in his coming: and it
was a great day with them for enjoyment, for the King's son
gave leave to those of King Abd al-Kadir's officers who had
accompanied him and others of the townsfolk, to view the
ordinance of his father's host, without let or stay, so they
might know the multitude of the Great King's troops and the
might of his empire. And all who had seen him selling stuffs
in the linendrapers' bazar marvelled how his soul could have
consented thereto, considering the nobility of his spirit and
the loftiness of his dignity; but it was his love and
inclination to the King's daughter that to this had
constrained him. Meanwhile, news of the multitude of her
lover's troops came to Hayat al-Nufus, who was still jailed by
her sire's commandment, till they knew what he should order
respecting her, whether pardon and release or death and
burning; and she looked down from the terrace-roof of the
palace and, turning towards the mountains, saw even these
covered with armed men. When she beheld all those warriors and
knew that they were the army of Ardashir's father, she feared
lest he should be diverted from her by his sire and forget her
and depart from her, whereupon her father would slay her. So
she called a handmaid that was with her in her apartment by
way of service, and said to her, "Go to Ardashir, son of the
Great King, and fear not. When thou comest into his presence,
kiss the ground before him and tell him what thou art and say
to him, 'My lady saluteth thee and would have thee to know
that she is a prisoner in her father's palace, awaiting his
sentence, whether he be minded to pardon her or put her to
death, and she beseecheth thee not to forget her or forsake
her; for to-day thou art all-powerful; and, in whatso thou
commandest, no man dare cross thee. Wherefore, an it seem good
to thee to rescue her from her sire and take her with thee, it
were of thy bounty, for indeed she endureth all these trials
for thy sake. But, an this seem not good to thee, for that thy
desire of her is at an end, still speak to thy sire, so haply
he may intercede for her with her father and he depart not,
till he have made him set her free and taken surety from and
made covenant with him, that he will not go about to put her
to death nor work her aught of harm. This is her last word to
thee, may Allah not desolate her of thee, and so The
Peace!'"[FN#300]--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased saying her permitted say.

   When it was the Seven Hundred and Thirty-seventh Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
bondmaid sent by Hayat al-Nufus made her way to Ardashir and
delivered him her lady's message, which when he heard, he wept
with sore weeping and said to her, "Know that Hayat al-Nufus
is my mistress and that I am her slave and the captive of her
love. I have not forgotten what was between us nor the
bitterness of the parting day; so do thou say to her, after
thou hast kissed her feet, that I will speak with my father of
her, and he shall send his Wazir, who sought her aforetime in
marriage for me, to demand her hand once more of her sire, for
he dare not refuse. So, if he send to her to consult her, let
her make no opposition; for I will not return to my country
without her." Then the handmaid returned to Hayat al-Nufus;
and, kissing her hands, delivered to her the message, which
when she heard, she wept for very joy and returned thanks to
Almighty Allah. Such was her case; but as regards Ardashir, he
was alone with his father that night and the Great King
questioned him of his case, whereupon he told him all that had
befallen him, first and last. Then quoth the King, "What wilt
thou have me do for thee, O my son? An thou desire Abd
al-Kadir's ruin, I will lay waste his lands and spoil his
hoards and dishonour his house." Replied Ardashir, "I do not
desire that, O my father, for he hath done nothing to me
deserving thereof; but I wish for union with her; wherefore I
beseech thee of thy favour to make ready a present for her
father (but let it be a magnificent gift!) and send it to him
by thy Minister, the man of just judgment." Quoth the King, "I
hear and consent;" and sending for the treasures he had laid
up from time past, brought out all manner precious things and
showed them to his son, who was pleased with them. Then he
called his Wazir and bade him bear the present with
him[FN#301] to King Abd al-Kadir and demand his daughter in
marriage for Ardashir, saying, "Accept the present and return
him a reply." Now from the time of Ardashir's departure, King
Abd al-Kadir had been troubled and ceased not to be heavy at
heart, fearing the laying waste of his reign and the spoiling
of his realm; when behold, the Wazir came in to him and
saluting him, kissed ground before him. He rose up standing
and received him with honour; but the Minister made haste to
fall at his feet and kissing them cried, "Pardon, O King of
the Age! The like of thee should not rise to the like of me,
for I am the least of servants' slaves. Know, O King, that
Prince Ardashir hath acquainted his father with some of the
favours and kindnesses thou hast done him, wherefore he
thanketh thee and sendeth thee in company of thy servant who
standeth before thee, a present, saluting thee and wishing
thee especial blessings and prosperities." Abd al-Kadir could
not believe what he heard of the excess of his fear, till the
Wazir laid the present before him, when he saw it to be such
gift as no money could purchase nor could one of the Kings of
the earth avail to the like thereof; wherefore he was
belittled in his own eyes and springing to his feet, praised
Almighty Allah and glorified Him and thanked the Prince. Then
said the Minister to him, "O noble King, give ear to my word
and know that the Great King sendeth to thee, desiring thine
alliance, and I come to thee seeking and craving the hand of
thy daughter, the chaste dame and treasured gem Hayat
al-Nufus, in wedlock for his son Ardashir, wherefore, if thou
consent to this proposal and accept of him, do thou agree with
me for her marriage-portion." Abd al-Kadir hearing these words
replied, "I hear and obey. For my part, I make no objection,
and nothing can be more pleasurable to me; but the girl is of
full age and reason and her affair is in her own hand. So be
assured that I will refer it to her and she shall choose for
herself." Then he turned to the chief eunuch and bade him go
and acquaint the Princess with the event. So he repaired to
the Harim and, kissing the Princess's hands, acquainted her
with the Great King's offer adding, "What sayest thou in
answer?" "I hear and I obey," replied she.--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Thirty-eighth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
chief eunuch of the Harim having informed the Princess how she
had been demanded in marriage by the Great King and having
heard her reply, "I hear and I obey," returned therewith to
the King and gave him this answer, whereat he rejoiced with
exceeding joy and, calling for a costly robe of honour, threw
it over the Wazir's shoulders. Furthermore, he ordered him ten
thousand dinars and bade him carry the answer to the Great
King and crave leave for him to pay him a visit. "Hearing and
obeying," answered the Minister; and, returning to his master,
delivered him the reply and Abd al-Kadir's message, and
repeated all their talk, whereat he rejoiced greatly and
Ardashir was transported for delight and his breast broadened
and he was a most happy man. King Sayf al-A'azam also gave
King Abd al-Kadir leave to come forth to visit him; so, on the
morrow, he took horse and rode to the camp of the Great King,
who came to meet him and saluting him, seated him in the place
of honour, and gave him welcome; and they two sat whilst
Ardashir stood before them. Then arose an orator of the King
Abd al-Kadir's court and pronounced an eloquent discourse,
giving the Prince joy of the attainment of his desire and of
his marriage with the Princess, a Queen among King's
daughters. When he sat down the Great King caused bring a
chest full of pearls and gems, together with fifty thousand
dinars, and said to King Abd al-Kadir, "I am my son's deputy
in all that concerneth this matter." So Abd al-Kadir
acknowledged receipt of the marriage-portion and amongst the
rest, fifty thousand dinars for the nuptial festivities; after
which they fetched the Kazis and the witnesses, who wrote out
the contract of marriage between the Prince and Princess, and
it was a notable day, wherein all lovers made merry and all
haters and enviers were mortified. They spread the
marriage-feasts and banquets and lastly Ardashir went in unto
the Princess and found her a jewel which had been hidden, an
union pearl unthridden and a filly that none but he had
ridden, so he notified this to his sire. Then King Sayf
al-A'azam asked his son, "Hast thou any wish thou wouldst have
fulfilled ere we depart?"; and he answered, "Yes, O King, know
that I would fain take my wreak of the Wazir who entreated us
on evil wise and the eunuch who forged a lie against us." So
the King sent forthright to Abd al-Kadir, demanding of him the
Minister and the castrato, whereupon he despatched them both
to him and he commanded to hang them over the city gate. After
this, they abode a little while and then sought of Abd
al-Kadir leave for his daughter to equip her for departure. So
he equipped her and mounted her in a Takhtrawan, a travelling
litter of red gold, inlaid with pearls and gems and drawn by
noble steeds. She carried with her all her waiting-women and
eunuchs, as well as the nurse, who had returned, after her
flight, and resumed her office. Then King Sayf al-A'azam and
his son mounted and Abd al-Kadir mounted also with all the
lords of his land, to take leave of his son-in-law and
daughter; and it was a day to be reckoned of the goodliest of
days. After they had gone some distance, the Great King
conjured Abd al-Kadir to turn back; so he farewelled him and
his son, after he had strained him to his breast and kissed
him between the eyes and thanked him for his grace and favours
and commended his daughter to his care. Then he went in to the
Princess and embraced her; and she kissed his hands and they
wept in the standing-place of parting. After this he returned
to his capital and Ardashir and his company fared on, till
they reached Shiraz, where they celebrated the marriage-
festivities anew. And they abode in all comfort and solace and
joyance of life, till there came to them the Destroyer of
delights and Severer of societies; the Depopulator of palaces
and the Garnerer of graveyards. And men also relate the tale

                    BADR BASIM OF PERSIA.

There was once in days of yore and in ages and times long gone
before, in Ajam-land a King Shahrimán[FN#302] hight, whose
abiding place was Khorásán. He owned an hundred concubines,
but by none of them had he been blessed with boon of child,
male or female, all the days of his life. One day, among the
days, he bethought him of this and fell lamenting for that the
most part of his existence was past and he had not been
vouchsafed a son to inherit the kingdom after him, even as he
had inherited it from his fathers and forebears; by reason
whereof there betided him sore cark and care and chagrin
exceeding. As he sat thus one of his Mamelukes came in to him
and said, "O my lord, at the door is a slave girl with her
merchant, and fairer than she eye hath never seen." Quoth the
King, "Hither to me with merchant and maid!"; and both came in
to him. Now when Shahriman beheld the girl, he saw that she
was like a Rudaynian lance,[FN#303] and she was wrapped in a
veil of gold-purfled silk. The merchant uncovered her face,
whereupon the place was illumined by her beauty and her seven
tresses hung down to her anklets like horses' tails. She had
Nature kohl'd eyes, heavy hips and thighs and waist of
slenderest guise, her sight healed all maladies and quenched
the fire of sighs, for she was even as the poet cries,

"I love her madly for she is perfect fair, * Complete in
     gravity and gracious way;
Nor overtall nor overshort, the while * Too full for trousers
     are those hips that sway:
Her shape is midmost 'twixt o'er small and tall; * Nor long to
     blame nor little to gainsay:
O'erfall her anklets tresses black as night * Yet in her face
     resplends eternal day."

 The King seeing her marvelled at her beauty and loveliness,
her symmetry and perfect grace and said to the merchant, "O
Shaykh, how much for this maiden?" Replied the merchant, "O my
lord, I bought her for two thousand diners of the merchant who
owned her before myself, since when I have travelled with her
three years and she hath cost me, up to the time of my coming
hither, other three thousand gold pieces; but she is a gift
from me to thee." The King robed him with a splendid robe of
honour and ordered him ten thousand ducats, whereupon he
kissed his hands, thanking him for his bounty and beneficence,
and went his ways. Then the King committed the damsel to the
tire women, saying, "Amend ye the case of this maiden[FN#304]
and adorn her and furnish her a bower and set her therein."
And he bade his chamberlains carry her everything she needed
and shut all the doors upon her. Now his capital wherein he
dwelt  was called the White City and was seated on the sea
shore; so they lodged her in a chamber, whose latticed
casements overlooked the main.--And Shahrazad perceived the
dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Thirty-ninth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the King
after taking the maiden, committed her to the tire women
bidding them amend her case and set her in a bower, and
ordered his chamberlains to shut all the doors upon her when
they had lodged her in a chamber whose latticed casements
overlooked the main. Then Shahriman went in to her; but she
spake not to him neither took any note of him.[FN#305] Quoth
he, 'Twould seem she hath been with folk who have not taught
her manners." Then he looked at the damsel and saw her
surpassing beauty and loveliness and symmetry and perfect
grace, with a face like the rondure of the moon at its full or
the sun shining in the sheeny sky. So he marvelled at her
charms of favour and figure and he praised Allah the Creator
(magnified be His might!), after which he walked up to her and
sat him down by her side; then he pressed her to his bosom and
seating her on his thighs, sucked the dew of her lips' which
he found sweeter than honey. Presently he called for trays
spread with richest viands of all kinds and ate and fed her by
mouthfuls, till she had enough; yet she spoke not one word.
The King began to talk to her and asked her of her name; but
she abode still silent and uttered not a syllable nor made him
any answer, neither ceased to hang down her head groundwards,
and it was but the excess of her beauty and loveliness and the
amorous grace that saved her from the royal wrath. Quoth he to
himself, "Glory be to God, the Creator of this girl! How
charming she is, save that she speaketh not! But perfection
belongeth only to Allah the Most High." And he asked the slave
girls whether she had spoken, and they said, "From the time of
her coming until now she hath not uttered a word nor have we
heard her address us." Then he summoned some of his women and
concubines and bade them sing to her and make merry with her,
so haply she might speak. Accordingly they played before her
all manner instruments of music and sports and what not and
sang, till the whole company was moved to mirth, except the
damsel, who looked at them in silence, but neither laughed nor
spoke. The King's breast was straitened; thereupon he
dismissed the women and abode alone with that damsel: after
which he doffed his clothes and disrobing her with his own
hand, looked upon her body and saw it as it were a silvern
ingot. So he loved her with exceeding love and falling upon
her, took her maidenhead and found her a pure virgin; whereat
he rejoiced with excessive joy and said in himself, "By Allah,
'tis a wonder that a girl so fair of form and face should have
been left by the merchants a clean maid as she is!"[FN#306]
Then he devoted himself altogether to her, heeding none other
and forsaking all his concubines and favourites, and tarried
with her a whole year as it were a single day. Still she spoke
not till, one morning he said to her (and indeed the love of
her and longing waxed upon him), "O desire of souls, verily
passion for thee is great with me, and I have forsaken for thy
sake all my slave girls and concubines and women and
favourites and I have made thee my portion of the world and
had patience with thee a whole year; and now I beseech
Almighty Allah, of His favour, to soften thy heart to me, so
thou mayst speak to me. Or, an thou be dumb, tell me by a
sign, that I may give up hope of thy speech. I pray the Lord
(extolled be He!) to vouchsafe me by thee a son child, who
shall inherit the kingdom after me; for I am old and lone and
have none to be my heir. Wherefore, Allah upon thee, an thou
love me, return me a reply." The damsel bowed her head awhile
in thought, and presently raising it, smiled in his face,
whereat it seemed to him as if lightning filled the chamber.
Then she said, "O magnanimous liege lord, and valorous lion,
Allah hath answered thy prayer, for I am with child by thee
and the time of my delivery is near at hand, though I know not
if the unborn babe be male or female.[FN#307] But, had I not
conceived by thee, I had not spoken to thee one word." When
the King heard her speech, his face shone with joy and
gladness and he kissed her head and hands for excess of
delight, saying Alhamdolillah--laud to Lord--who hath
vouchsafed me the things I desired!, first, thy speech, and
secondly, thy tidings that thou art with child by me." Then he
rose up and went forth from her and, seating himself on the
throne of his kingship, in an ecstasy of happiness, bade his
Wazir distribute to the poor and needy and widows and others
an hundred thousand dinars, by way of thank offering to Allah
Most High and alms on his own account. The Minister did as
bidden by the King who, returning to the damsel, sat with her
and embraced and pressed her to his breast, saying, "O my
lady, my queen, whose slave I am, prithee what was the cause
of this thy silence? Thou hast been with me a whole year,
night and day, waking and sleeping, yet hast not spoken to me
till this day." She replied, "Hearken, O King of the Age, and
know that I am a wretched exile, broken hearted and far parted
from my mother and my family and my brother." When the King
heard her words, he knew her desire and said, "As for thy
saying that thou art wretched, there is for such speech no
ground, inasmuch as my kingdom and good and all I possess are
at thy service and I also am become thy bondman; but, as for
thy saying, 'I am parted from my mother and brother and
family', tell me where they are and I will send and fetch them
to thee." There' upon she answered, "Know, then, O auspicious
King, that I am called Julnár[FN#308] the Sea born and that my
father was of the Kings of the Main. He died and left us his
reign, but while we were yet unsettled, behold, one of the
other Kings arose against us and took the realm from our
hands. I have a brother called Sálih, and my mother also is a
woman of the sea; but I fell out with my brother 'The Pious'
and swore that I would throw myself into the hands of a man of
the folk of the land. So I came forth of the sea and sat down
on the edge of an island in the moonshine[FN#309], where a
passer by found me and, carrying me to his house, besought me
of love liesse; but I smote him on the head, so that he all
but died; whereupon he carried me forth and sold me to the
merchant from whom thou hadst me, and this was a good man and
a virtuous; pious, loyal and generous. Were it not that thy
heart loved me and that thou promotedest me over all thy
concubines, I had not remained with thee a single hour, but
had cast myself from this window into the sea and gone to my
mother and family; but I was ashamed to fare themwards, being
with child by thee; for they would have deemed evilly of me
and would not have credited me, even although I swore to them,
an I told them that a King had bought me with his gold and
made me his portion of the world and preferred me over all his
wives and every thing that his right hand possessed. This then
is my story and--the Peace!"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn
of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

      When it was the Seven Hundred and Fortieth Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Julnar[FN#310] the Sea-born, answering the question of King
Shahriman, told him her past from first to last, the King
thanked her and kissed her between the eyes, saying, "By
Allah, O my lady and light of mine eyes" I cannot bear to be
parted from thee one hour; and given thou leave me, I shall
die forthright. What then is to be done?" Replied she "O my
lord, the time of my delivery is at hand and my family needs
must be present, that they may tend me; for the women of the
land know not the manner of child bearing of the women of the
sea, nor do the daughters of the ocean know the manner of the
daughters of the earth; and when my people come, I shall be
reconciled to them and they will be reconciled to me." Quoth
the King, "How do the people of the sea walk therein, without
being wetted?"; and quoth she, "O King of the Age, we walk in
the waters with our eyes open, as do ye on the ground, by the
blessing of the names graven upon the seal-ring of Solomon
Davidson (on whom be peace!). But, O King, when my kith and
kin come, I will tell them how thou boughtest me with thy
gold, and hast entreated me with kindness and benevolence. It
behoveth that thou confirm my words to them and that they
witness thine estate with their own eyes and they learn that
thou art a King, son of a King." He rejoined, "O my lady, do
what seemeth good to thee and what pleaseth thee and I will
consent to thee in all thou wouldst do." The damsel continued,
yes, we walk in the sea and see what is therein and behold the
sun, moon, stars and sky, as it were on the surface of earth
and this irketh us naught. Know also that there be many
peoples in the main and various forms and creatures of all
kinds that are on the land, and that all that is on the land
compared with that which is in the main is but a very small
matter." And the King marvelled at her words. Then she pulled
out from her bosom two bits of Comorin lign-aloes and,
kindling fire in a chafing dish, chose somewhat of them and
threw it in, then she whistled a loud whistle and spake words
none understood. Thereupon arose a great smoke and she said to
the King, who was looking on, "O my lord, arise and hide
thyself in a closet, that I may show thee my brother and
mother and family, whilst they see thee not; for I design to
bung them hither, and thou shalt presently espy a wondrous
thing and shalt marvel at the several creatures and strange
shapes which Almighty Allah hath created." So he arose without
stay or delay and entering a closet, fell a-watching what she
should do. She continued her fumigations and conjurations till
the sea foamed and frothed turbid and there rose from it a
handsome young man of a bright favour, as he were the moon at
its full, with brow flower-white, cheeks of ruddy light and
teeth like the marguerite. He was the likest of all creatures
to his sister and the tongue of the case spoke in his praise
these two couplets,

"The full moon groweth perfect once a month * But thy face
     each day we see perfected.
And the full moon dwelleth in single sign, * But to thee all
     hearts be a dwelling stead."

After him there came forth of the sea an ancient dame with
hair speckled gray and five maidens, as they were moons,
bearing a likeness to the damsel hight Julnar. The King looked
upon them as they all walked upon the face of the water, till
they drew near the window and saw Julnar, whereupon they knew
her and went in to her. She rose to them and met them with joy
and gladness, and they embraced her and wept with sore
weeping. Then said they to her, "O Julnar, how couldst thou
leave us four years, and we unknowing of thine abiding place?
By Allah the world hath been straitened upon us for stress of
severance from thee, and we have had no delight of food or
drink; no, not for one day, but have wept with sore weeping
night and day for the excess of our longing after thee!" Then
she fell to kissing the hands of the youth her brother and her
mother and cousins, and they sat with her awhile, questioning
her of her case and of what had betided her, as well as of her
present estate. "Know," replied she, "that, when I left you, I
issued from the sea and sat down on the shore of an island,
where a man found me and sold me to a merchant, who brought me
to this city and sold me for ten thousand diners to the King
of the country, who entreated me with honour and forsook all
his concubines and women and favourites for my sake and was
distracted by me from all he had and all that was in his
city." Quoth her brother, "Praised be Allah, who hath reunited
us with thee! But now, O my sister, 'tis my purpose that thou
arise and go with us to our country and people." When the King
heard these words, his wits fled him for fear lest the damsel
accept her brother's words and he himself avail not to stay
her, albeit he loved her passionately, and he became
distracted with fear of losing her. But Julnar answered, "By
Allah, O my brother, the mortal who bought me is lord of this
city and he is a mighty King and a wise man, good and generous
with extreme generosity. Moreover, he is a personage of great
worth and wealth and hath neither son nor daughter. He hath
entreated me with honour and done me all manner of favour and
kindness; nor, from the day of his buying me to this time have
I heard from him an ill word to hurt my heart: but he hath
never ceased to use me courteously; doing nothing save with my
counsel, and I am in the best of case with him and in the
perfection of fair fortune. Furthermore, were I to leave him,
he would perish; for he cannot endure to be parted from me an
hour; and if I left him, I also should die, for the excess of
the love I bear him, by reason of his great goodness to me
during the time of my sojourn with him; for, were my father
alive, my estate with him would not be like my estate with
this great and glorious and puissant potentate. And verily, ye
see me with child by him and praise be to Allah, who hath made
me a daughter of the Kings of the sea, and my husband the
mightiest of the Kings of the land, and Allah, in very sooth,
he hath compensated me for whatso I lost."--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Forty-first Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Julnar
the Sea born told her brother all her tale, adding "Allah hath
not cut me off, but hath compensated me for whatso I lost. Now
this King hath no issue, male or female, so I pray the
Almighty to vouchsafe me a son who shall inherit of this
mighty sovran that which the Lord hath bestowed upon him of
lands and palaces and possessions." Now when her brother and
the daughters of her uncle heard this her speech, their eyes
were cooled thereby and they said, 'O Julnar, thou knowest thy
value with us and thou wottest the affection we bear thee and
thou art certified that thou art to us the dearest of all
creatures and thou art assured that we seek but ease for thee,
without travail or trouble. Wherefore, an thou be in unease,
arise and go with us to our land and our folk but, an thou be
at thine ease here, in honour and happiness, this is our wish
and our will; for we desire naught save thy welfare in any
case.''[FN#311] Quoth she, "By Allah, I am here in the utmost
ease and solace and honour and grace!" When the King heard
what she said, he joyed with a heart set at rest and thanked
her silently for this; the love of her redoubled on him and
entered his heart core and he knew that she loved him as he
loved her and that she desired to abide with him, that she
might see his child by her. Then Julnar bade her women lay the
tables and set on all sorts of viands, which had been cooked
in kitchen under her own eyes, and fruits and sweetmeats,
whereof she ate, she and her kinsfolk. But, presently, they
said to her, "O Julnar, thy lord is a stranger to us, and we
have entered his house, without his leave or weeting. Thou
hast extolled to us his excellence and eke thou hast set
before us of his victual whereof we have eaten; yet have we
not companied with him nor seen him, neither hath he seen us
nor come to our presence and eaten with us, so there might be
between us bread and salt." And they all left eating and were
wroth with her, and fire, issued from their mouths, as from
cressets; which when the King saw, his wits fled for excess of
fear of them. But Julnar arose and soothed them and going to
the closet where was the King her lord, said to him, "O my
lord, hast thou seen and heard how I praised thee and extolled
thee to my people and hast thou noted what they said to me of
their desire to carry me away with them?" Quoth he, "I both
heard and saw: May the Almighty abundantly requite thee for
me! By Allah, I knew not the full measure of thy fondness
until this blessed hour, and now I doubt not of thy love to
me!" Quoth she, "O my lord, is the reward of kindness aught
but kindness? Verily, thou hast dealt generously with me and
hast entreated me with worship and I have seen that thou
lovest me with the utmost love, and thou hast done me all
manner of honour and kindness and preferred me above all thou
lovest and desirest. So how should my heart be content to
leave thee and depart from thee, and how should I do thus
after all thy goodness to me? But now I desire of thy courtesy
that thou come and salute my family, so thou mayst see them
and they thee and pure love and friendship may be between you;
for know, O King of the Age, that my brother and mother and
cousins love thee with exceeding love, by reason of my praises
of thee to them, and they say, 'We will not depart from thee
nor go to our homes till we have foregathered with the King
and saluted him.' For indeed they desire to see thee and make
acquaintance with thee." The King replied, "To hear is to
obey, for this is my very own wish." So saying, he rose and
went in to them and saluted them with the goodliest
salutation; and they sprang up to him and received him with
the utmost worship, after which he sat down in the palace and
ate with them; and he entertained them thus for the space of
thirty days. Then, being desirous of returning home, they took
leave of the King and Queen and departed with due permission
to their own land, after he had done them all possible honour.
Awhile after this, Julnar completed the days of her pregnancy
and the time of her delivery being come, she bore a boy, as he
were the moon at its full, whereat the utmost joy betided the
King, for that he had never in his life been vouchsafed son or
daughter. So they held high festival and decorated the city
seven days, in the extreme of joy and jollity: and on the
seventh day came Queen Julnar's mother, Faráshah
hight,[FN#312] and brother and cousins, whenas they knew of
her delivery.--And Shahrazad perceived the light of day and
ceased to say her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Forty-second Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Julnar was brought to bed and was visited by her people, the
King received them with joy at their coming and said to them,
"I said that I would not give my son a name till you should
come and name him of your knowledge." So they named him Badr
Básim,[FN#313] and all agreed upon this name. Then they showed
the child to his uncle Salih, who took him in his arms and
arising began to walk about the chamber with him in all
directions right and left. Presently he carried him forth of
the palace and going down to the salt sea, fared on with him,
till he was hidden from the King's sight. Now when Shahriman
saw him take his son and disappear with him in the depth of
the sea, he gave the child up for lost and fell to weeping and
wailing; but Julnar said to him, "O King of the Age, fear not,
neither grieve for thy son, for I love my child more than thou
and he is with my brother, so reck thou not of the sea neither
fear for him drowning. Had my brother known that aught of harm
would betide the little one, he had not done this deed; and he
will presently bring thee thy son safe, Inshallah--an it
please the Almighty." Nor was an hour past before the sea
became turbid and troubled and King Salih came forth and flew
from the sea till he came up to them with the child lying
quiet and showing a face like the moon on the night of
fulness. Then, looking at the King he said, "Haply thou
fearedst harm for thy son, whenas I plunged into the sea with
him?" Replied the father, "Yes, O my lord, I did indeed fear
for him and thought he would never be saved therefrom."
Rejoined Salih, "O King of the land, we pencilled his eyes
with an eye powder we know of and recited over him the names
graven upon the seal-ring of Solomon David son (on whom be the
Peace!), for this is what we use to do with children newly
born among us; and now thou needst not fear for him drowning
or suffocation in all the oceans of the world, if he should go
down into them; for, even as ye walk on the land, so walk we
in the sea." Then he pulled out of his pocket a casket, graven
and sealed and, breaking open the seals, emptied it; whereupon
there fell from it strings of all manner jacinths and other
jewels, besides three hundred bugles of emerald and other
three hundred hollow gems, as big as ostrich eggs, whose light
dimmed that of sun and moon. Quoth Salih, "O King of the Age,
these jewels and jacinths are a present from me to thee. We
never yet brought thee a gift, for that we knew not Julnar's
abiding place neither had we of her any tidings or trace; but
now that we see thee to be united with her and we are all
become one thing, we have brought thee this present; and every
little while we will bring thee the like thereof, Inshallah!
for that these jewels and jacinths are more plentiful with us
than pebbles on the beach and we know the good and the bad of
them and their whereabouts and the way to them, and they are
easy to us." When the King saw the jewels, his wits were
bewildered and his sense was astounded and he said, "By Allah,
one single gem of these jewels is worth my realm!" Then he
thanked for his bounty Salih the Sea born and, looking towards
Queen Julnar, said, "I am abashed before thy brother, for that
he hath dealt munificently by me and bestowed on me this
splendid gift, which the folk of the land were unable to
present." So she thanked her brother for his deed and he said,
"O King of the Age, thou hast the prior claim on us and it
behoves us to thank thee, for thou hast entreated our sister
with kindness and we have entered thy dwelling and eaten of
thy victual; and the poet saith[FN#314],

'Had I wept before she did in my passion for Saada, * I had
     healed my soul before repentance came.
But she wept before I did: her tears drew mine; and I said, *
     The merit belongs to the precedent.'"

"And" (resumed Salih the Pious) "if we stood on our faces in
thy service, O King of the Age, a thousand years, yet had we
not the might to requite thee, and this were but a scantling
of thy due." The King thanked him with heartiest thanks and
the Merman and Merwomen abode with him forty days' space, at
the end of which Salih arose and kissed the ground before his
brother in law, who asked ' What wantest thou, O Salih?" He
answered, "O King of the Age, indeed thou hast done us
overabundant favours, and we crave of thy bounties that thou
deal charitably with us and grant us permission to depart; for
we yearn after our people and country and kinsfolk and our
homes; so will we never forsake thy service nor that of my
sister and my nephew; and by Allah, O King of the Age, 'tis
not pleasant to my heart to part from thee; but how shall we
do, seeing that we have been reared in the sea and that the
sojourn of the shore liketh us not?" When the King heard these
words he rose to his feet and farewelled Salih the Sea born
and his mother and his cousins, and all wept together, because
of parting and presently they said to him, "Anon we will be
with thee again, nor will we forsake thee, but will visit thee
every few days." Then they flew off and descending into the
sea, disappeared from sight.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn
of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Forty-third Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
relations of Julnar the Sea-born farewelled the King and her,
weeping together because of parting; then they flew off and
descending into the depths disappeared from sight. After this
King Shahriman showed the more kindness to Julnar and honoured
her with increase of honour; and the little one grew up and
flourished, whilst his maternal uncle and grandam and cousins
visited the King every few days and abode with him a month or
two months at a time. The boy ceased not to increase in beauty
and loveliness with increase of years, till he attained the
age of fifteen and was unique in his perfection and symmetry.
He learnt writing and Koran reading; history, syntax and
lexicography; archery, spearplay and horsemanship and what not
else behoveth the sons of Kings; nor was there one of the
children of the folk of the city, men or women, but would talk
of the youth's charms, for he was of surpassing beauty and
perfection, even such an one as is praised in the saying of
the poet,[FN#315]

"The whiskers write upon his cheek, with ambergris on pearl, *
     Two lines, as 'twere with jet upon an apple, line for
Death harbours in his languid eye and slays with every glance,
     * And in his cheek is drunkenness, and not in any wine."

And in that of another,

"Upsprings from table of his lovely cheeks[FN#316]* A growth
     like broidery my wonder is:
As 'twere a lamp that burns through night hung up * Beneath
     the gloom[FN#317] in chains of ambergris."

And indeed the King loved him with exceeding love, and
summoning his Wazir and Emirs and the Chief Officers of state
and Grandees of his realm, required of them a binding oath
that they would make Badr Basim King over them after his sire;
and they sware the oath gladly, for the sovran was liberal to
the lieges, pleasant in parley and a very compend of goodness,
saying naught but that wherein was advantage for the people.
On the morrow Shahriman mounted, with all his troops and Emirs
and Lords, and went forth into the city and returned. When
they drew near the palace, the King dismounted, to wait upon
his son who abode on horseback, and he and all the Emirs and
Grandees bore the saddlecloth of honour before him, each and
every of them bearing it in his turn, till they came to the
vestibule of the palace, where the Prince alighted and his
father and the Emirs embraced him and seated him on the throne
of Kingship, whilst they (including his sire) stood before
him. Then Badr Basim judged the people, deposing the unjust
and promoting the just and continued so doing till near upon
noon, when he descended from the throne and went in to his
mother, Julnar the Sea-born, with the crown upon his head, as
he were the moon. When she saw him, with the King standing
before him, she rose and kissing him, gave him joy of the
Sultanate and wished him and his sire length of life and
victory over their foes. He sat with her and rested till the
hour of mid afternoon prayer, when he took horse and repaired,
with the Emirs before him, to the Maydan plain, where he
played at arms with his father and his lords, till night fall,
when he returned to the palace, preceded by all the folk. He
rode forth thus every day to the tilting ground, returning to
sit and judge the people and do justice between earl and
churl; and thus he continued doing a whole year, at the end of
which he began to ride out a-hunting and a-chasing and to go
round about in the cities and countries under his rule,
proclaiming security and satisfaction and doing after the
fashion of Kings; and he was unique among the people of his
day for glory and valour and just dealing among the subjects.
And it chanced that one day the old King fell sick and his
fluttering heart forebode him of translation to the Mansion of
Eternity. His sickness grew upon him till he was nigh upon
death, when he called his son and commended his mother and
subjects to his care and caused all the Emirs and Grandees
once more swear allegiance to the Prince and assured himself
of them by strongest oaths; after which he lingered a few days
and departed to the mercy of Almighty Allah. His son and widow
and all the Emirs and Wazirs and Lords mourned over him, and
they built him a tomb and buried him therein. They ceased not
ceremonially to mourn for him a whole month, till Salih and
his mother and cousins arrived and condoled with their
grieving for the King and said, "O Julnar, though the King be
dead, yet hath he left this noble and peerless youth, and not
dead is whoso leaveth the like of him, the rending lion and
the shining moon."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day
and ceased to say her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Forty-fourth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Salih
brother of Julnar and her mother and cousins said to her,
"Albeit the King be dead, yet hath he left behind him as
successor this noble and peerless youth, the rending lion and
the shining moon." Thereupon the Grandees and notables of the
Empire went in to King Badr Basim and said to him, "O King,
there is no harm in mourning for the late sovran: but over-
mourning beseemeth none save women; wherefore occupy thou not
thy heart and our hearts with mourning for thy sire; inasmuch
as he hath left thee behind him, and whoso leaveth the like of
thee is not dead." Then they comforted him and diverted him
and lastly carried him to the bath. When he came out of the
Hammam, he donned a rich robe, purfled with gold and
embroidered with jewels and jacinths; and, setting the royal
crown on his head, sat down on his throne of kingship and
ordered the affairs of the folk, doing equal justice between
strong and weak, and exacting from the prince the dues of the
pauper; wherefore the people loved him with exceeding love.
Thus he continued doing for a full year, whilst, every now and
then. his kinsfolk of the sea visited him, and his life was
pleasant and his eye was cooled. Now it came to pass that his
uncle Salih went in one night of the nights to Julnar and
saluted her; whereupon she rose and embracing him seated him
by her side and asked him, "O my brother, how art thou and my
mother and my cousins?" He answered, "O my sister, they are
well and glad and in good case, lacking naught save a sight of
thy face." Then she set somewhat of food before him and he
ate, after which talk ensued between the twain and they spake
of King Badr Basim and his beauty and loveliness, his symmetry
and skill in cavalarice and cleverness and good breeding. Now
Badr was propped upon his elbow hard by them; and, hearing his
mother and uncle speak of him, he feigned sleep and listened
to their talk.[FN#318] Presently Salih said to his sister,
"Thy son is now seventeen years old and is unmarried, and I
fear lest mishap befal him and he have no son; wherefore it is
my desire to marry him to a Princess of the princesses of the
sea, who shall be a match for him in beauty and loveliness."
Quoth Julnar, "Name them to me for I know them all." So Salih
proceeded to enumerate them to her, one by one, but to each
she said, "I like not this one for my son; I will not marry
him but to one who is his equal in beauty and loveliness and
wit and piety and good breeding and magnanimity and dominion
and rank and lineage."[FN#319] Quoth Salih, "I know none other
of the daughters of the Kings of the sea, for I have numbered
to thee more than an hundred girls and not one of them
pleaseth thee: but see, O my sister, whether thy son be asleep
or no." So she felt Badr and finding on him the signs of
slumber said to Salih, "He is asleep; what hast thou to say
and what is thine object in making sure his sleeping?" Replied
he, "O my sister, know that I have bethought me of a Mermaid
of the mermaids who befitteth thy son; but I fear to name her,
lest he be awake and his heart be taken with her love and
maybe we shall be unable to win to her; so should he and we
and the Grandees of the realm be wearied in vain and trouble
betide us through this; for, as saith the poet,

'Love, at first sight, is a spurt of spray;[FN#320] * But a
     spreading sea when it gaineth sway.'"

When she heard these words, she cried, "Tell me the condition
of this girl, and her name for I know all the damsels of the
sea, Kings' daughters and others; and, if I judge her worthy
of him, I will demand her in marriage for him of her father,
though I spend on her whatso my hand possesseth. So recount to
me all anent her and fear naught, for my son sleepeth." Quoth
Salih, "I fear lest he be awake; and the poet saith,

'I loved him, soon as his praise I heard; * For ear oft loveth
     ere eye survey.' "

But Julnar said, "Speak out and be brief and fear not, O my
brother." So he said, "By Allah, O my sister, none is worthy
of thy son save the Princess Jauharah, daughter of King Al-
Samandal,[FN#321] for that she is like unto him in beauty and
loveliness and brilliancy and perfection; nor is there found,
in sea or on land, a sweeter or pleasanter of gifts than she;
for she is prime in comeliness and seemlihead of face and
symmetrical shape of perfect grace; her cheek is ruddy dight,
her brow flower white, her teeth gem bright, her eyes blackest
black and whitest white, her hips of heavy weight, her waist
slight and her favour exquisite. When she turneth she shameth
the wild cattle[FN#322] and the gazelles and when she walketh,
she breedeth envy in the willow branch: when she unveileth her
face outshineth sun and moon and all who look upon her she
enslaveth soon: sweet lipped and soft sided indeed is she."
Now when Julnar heard what Salih said, she replied, "Thou
sayest sooth, O my brother! By Allah, I have seen her many and
many a time and she was my companion, when we were little ones
but now we have no knowledge of each other, for constraint of
distance; nor have I set eyes on her for eighteen years. By
Allah none is worthy of my son but she!" Now Badr heard all
they said and mastered what had passed, first and last, of
these praises bestowed on Jauharah daughter of King Al-
Samandal; so he fell in love with her on hearsay, pretending
sleep the while, wherefore fire was kindled in his heart on
her account full sore and he was drowned in a sea without
bottom or shore.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased saying her permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Forty-fifth Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
King Badr Basim heard the words of his uncle Salih and his
mother Julnar, praising the daughter of King Al-Samandal, a
flame of fire burnt in his heart full sore and he was drowned
in a sea which hath nor bottom nor shore. Then Salih, looking
at his sister, exclaimed, "By Allah, O my sister, there is no
greater fool among the Kings of the sea than her father nor
one more violent of temper than he! So name thou not the girl
to thy son, till we demand her in marriage of her father. If
he favour us with his assent, we will praise Allah Almighty;
and if he refuse us and will not give her to thy son to wife,
we will say no more about it and seek another match." Answered
Julnar, "Right is thy rede;" and they parleyed no more: but
Badr passed the night with a heart on fire with passion for
Princess Jauharah. However he concealed his case and spake not
of her to his mother or his uncle, albeit he was on coals of
fire for love of her. Now when it was morning, the King and
his uncle went to the Hammam-bath and washed, after which they
came forth and drank wine and the servants set food before
them, whereof they and Julnar ate their sufficiency, and
washed their hands. Then Salih rose and said to his nephew and
sister, "With your leave, I would fain go to my mother and my
folk for I have been with you some days and their hearts are
troubled with awaiting me." But Badr Basim said to him, "Tarry
with us this day;" and he consented. Then quoth the King,
"Come, O my uncle, let us go forth to the garden." So they
sallied forth and promenaded about the pastures and took their
solace awhile, after which King Badr lay down under a shady
tree, thinking to rest and sleep; but he remembered his
uncle's description of the maiden and her beauty and
loveliness and shed railing tears, reciting these two

"Were it said to me while the flame is burning within me, *
     And the fire blazing in my heart and bowels,
'Wouldst thou rather that thou shouldest behold them * Or a
     draught of pure water?'--I would answer, 'Them.' "

Then he sighed and wept and lamented, reciting these verses

"Who shall save me from love of a lovely gazelle, * Brighter
     browed than the sunshine, my bonnibel!
My heart, erst free from her love, now burns * With fire for
     the maid of Al-Samandal."

When Salih heard what his nephew said, he smote hand upon hand
and said, "There is no god but the God! Mohammed is the
Apostle of God and there is no Majesty and there is no Might
save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great!" adding, "O my son,
heardest thou what passed between me and thy mother respecting
Princess Jauharah?" Replied Badr Basim, "Yes, O my uncle, and
I fell in love with her by hearsay through what I heard you
say. Indeed, my heart cleaveth to her and I cannot live
without her." Rejoined his uncle, "O King, let us return to
thy mother and tell her how the case standeth and crave her
leave that I may take thee with me and seek the Princess in
marriage of her sire; after which we will farewell her and I
and thou will return. Indeed, I fear to take thee and go
without her leave, lest she be wroth with me; and verily the
right would be on her side, for I should be the cause of her
separation from us. Moreover, the city would be left without
king and there would be none to govern the citizens and look
to their affairs, so should the realm be disordered against
thee and the kingship depart from thy hands." But Badr Basim,
hearing these words, cried, "O my uncle, if I return to my
mother and consult her on such matter, she will not suffer me
to do this; wherefore I will not return to my mother nor
consult her." And he wept before him and presently added, "I
will go with thee and tell her not and after will return."
When Salih heard what his nephew said, he was confused anent
his case and said, "I crave help of the Almighty in any
event." Then, seeing that Badr Basim was resolved to go with
him, whether his mother would let him or no, he drew from his
finger a seal ring, whereon were graven certain of the names
of Allah the Most High, and gave it to him, saying, "Put this
on thy finger, and thou shalt be safe from drowning and other
perils and from the mischief of sea beasts and great fishes."
So King Badr Basim took the ring and set it on his finger.
Then they dove into the deep--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn
of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Forty-sixth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Badr
Basim and his uncle, after diving into the deep, fared on till
they came to Salih's palace, where they found Badr Basim's
grandmother, the mother of his mother, seated with her
kinsfolk and, going in to them, kissed their hands. When the
old Queen saw Badr, she rose to him and embracing him, kissed
him between the eyes and said to him, "A blessed coming, O my
son! How didst thou leave thy mother Julnar?" He replied, "She
is well in health and fortune, and saluteth thee and her
uncle's daughters." Then Salih related to his mother what had
occurred between him and his sister and how King Badr Basim
had fallen in love with the Princess Jauharah daughter of Al-
Samandal by report and told her the whole tale from beginning
to end adding, "He hath not come save to demand her in wedlock
of her sire;" which when the old Queen heard, she was wroth
against her son with exceeding wrath and sore troubled and
concerned and said, "O Salih, O my son, in very sooth thou
diddest wrong to name the Princess before thy nephew, knowing,
as thou dost, that her father is stupid and violent, little of
wit and tyrannical of temper, grudging his daughter to every
suitor; for all the Monarchs of the Main have sought her hand,
but he rejected them all; nay, he would none of them, saying,
'Ye are no match for her in beauty or in loveliness or in
aught else.' Wherefore we fear to demand her in wedlock of
him, lest he reject us, even as be hath rejected others; and
we are a folk of high spirit and should return broken-
hearted." Hearing these words Salih answered, "O my mother
what is to do? For King Badr Basim saith, 'There is no help
but that I seek her in marriage of her sire, though I expend
my whole kingdom'; and he avoucheth that, an he take her not
to wife, he will die of love for her and longing." And Salih
continued, "He is handsomer and goodlier than she; his father
was King of all the Persians, whose King he now is, and none
is worthy of Jauharah save Badr Basim. Wherefore I purpose to
carry her father a gift of jacinths and jewels befitting his
dignity, and demand her of him in marriage. An he object to us
that he is a King, behold, our man also is a King and the son
of a King; or, if he object to us her beauty, behold our man
is more beautiful than she; or, again, if he object to us the
vastness of his dominion, behold our man's dominion is vaster
than hers and her father's and numbereth more troops and
guards, for that his kingdom is greater than that of Al-
Samandal. Needs must I do my endeavour to further the desire
of my sister's son, though it relieve me of my life; because I
was the cause of whatso hath betided; and, even as I plunged
him into the ocean of her love, so will I go about to marry
him to her, and may Almighty Allah help me thereto!" Rejoined
his mother, "Do as thou wilt, but beware of giving her father
rough words, whenas thou speakest with him; for thou knowest
his stupidity and violence and I fear lest he do thee a
mischief, for he knoweth not respect for any." And Salih
answered, "Hearkening and obedience." Then he sprang up and
taking two bags full of gems such as rubies and bugles of
emerald, noble ores and all manner jewels gave them to his
servants to carry and set out with his nephew for the palace
of Al-Samandal. When they came thither, he sought audience of
the King and being admitted to his presence, kissed ground
before him and saluted him with the goodliest Salam. The King
rose to him and honouring him with the utmost honour, bade him
be seated. So he sat down and presently the King said to him,
"A blessed coming: indeed thou hast desolated us, O Salih! But
what bringeth thee to us? Tell me thine errand that we may
fulfil it to thee." Whereupon Salih arose and, kissing the
ground a second time, said, "O King of the Age, my errand is
to Allah and the magnanimous liege lord and the valiant lion,
the report of whose good qualities the caravans far and near
have dispread and whose renown for benefits and beneficence
and clemency and graciousness and liberality to all climes and
countries hath sped." Thereupon he opened the two bags and,
displaying their contents before Al-Samandal, said to him, "O
King of the Age, haply wilt thou accept my gift and by showing
favour to me heal my heart."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn
of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Forty-seventh Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
when Salih offered his gift to the King, saying, "My aim and
end is that the Sovran show favour to me and heal my heart by
accepting my present," King Al-Samandal asked, "With what
object dost thou gift me with this gift? Tell me thy tale and
acquaint me with thy requirement. An its accomplishment be in
my power I will straightway accomplish it to thee and spare
thee toil and trouble; and if I be unable thereunto, Allah
compelleth not any soul aught beyond its power.''[FN#324] So
Salih rose and kissing ground three times, said, "O King of
the Age, that which I desire thou art indeed able to do; it is
in thy power and thou art master thereof; and I impose not on
the King a difficulty, nor am I Jinn-demented, that I should
crave of the King a thing whereto he availeth not; for one of
the sages saith, 'An thou wouldst be complied with ask that
which can be readily supplied'. Wherefore, that of which I am
come in quest, the King (whom Allah preserve!) is able to
grant." The King replied, "Ask what thou wouldst have, and
state thy case and seek thy need." Then said Salih,[FN#325] "O
King of the Age, know that I come as a suitor, seeking the
unique pearl and the hoarded jewel, the Princess Jauharah,
daughter of our lord the King; wherefore, O King disappoint
thou not thy suitor." Now when the King heard this, he laughed
till he fell backwards, in mockery of him and said, "O Salih,
I had thought thee a man of worth and a youth of sense,
seeking naught save what was reasonable and speaking not save
advisedly. What then hath befallen thy reason and urged thee
to this monstrous matter and mighty hazard, that thou seekest
in marriage daughters of Kings, lords of cities and climates?
Say me, art thou of a rank to aspire to this great eminence
and hath thy wit failed thee to this extreme pass that thou
affrontest me with this demand?" Replied Salih, "Allah amend
the King! I seek her not for myself (albeit, an I did, I am
her match and more than her match, for thou knowest that my
father was King of the Kings of the sea, for all thou art this
day our King), but I seek her for King Badr Basim, lord of the
lands of the Persians and son of King Shahriman, whose
puissance thou knowest. An thou object that thou art a mighty
great King, King Badr is a greater; and if thou object thy
daughter's beauty King Badr is more beautiful than she and
fairer of form and more excellent of rank and lineage; and he
is the champion of the people of his day. Wherefore, if thou
grant my request, O King of the Age thou wilt have set the
thing in its stead; but, if thou deal arrogantly with us, thou
wilt not use us justly nor travel with us the 'road which is
straght'.[FN#326] Moreover, O King, thou knowest that the
Princess Jauharah, the daughter of our lord the King must
needs be wedded and bedded, for the sage saith, a girl's lot
is either grace of marriage or the grave.[FN#327] Wherefore,
an thou mean to marry her, my sister's son is worthier of her
than any other man." Now when King Al-Samandal heard Salih's
words, he was wroth with exceeding wrath; his reason well nigh
fled and his soul was like to depart his body for rage, and he
cried, "O dog, shall the like of thee dare to bespeak me thus
and name my daughter in the assemblies,[FN#328] saying that
the son of thy sister Julnar is a match for her? Who art thou
and who is this sister of thine and who is her son and who was
his father,[FN#329] that thou durst say to me such say and
address me with such address? What are ye all, in comparison
with my daughter, but dogs?" And he cried out to his pages,
saying, "Take yonder gallows bird's head!" So they drew their
swords and made for Salih but he fled and for the palace gate
sped; and reaching the entrance, he found of his cousins and
kinsfolk and servants, more than a thousand horse armed cap-à-
pie in iron and close knitted mail-coats, hending in hand
spears and naked swords glittering white. And these when they
saw Salih come running out of the palace (they having been
sent by his mother to his succour), questioned him and he told
them what was to do; whereupon they knew that the King was a
fool and violent tempered to boot. So they dismounted and
baring their blades, went in to the King Al-Samandal, whom
they found seated upon the throne of his Kingship, unaware of
their coming and enraged against Salih with furious rage; and
they beheld his eunuchs and pages and officers unprepared.
When the King saw them enter, drawn brand in hand, he cried
out to his people, saying "Woe to you! Take me the heads of
these hounds!" But ere an hour had sped Al-Samandal's party
were put to the route and relied upon flight, and Salih and
his kinsfolk seized upon the King and pinioned him.--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Forty-eighth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Salih and his kinsfolk pinioned the King, Princess Jauharah
awoke and knew that her father was a captive and his guards
slain. So she fled forth the palace to a certain island, and
climbing up into a high tree, hid herself in its summit. Now
when the two parties came to blows, some of King Al-Samandal's
pages fled and Badr Basim meeting them, questioned them of
their case and they told him what had happened. But when he
heard that the King was a prisoner, Badr feared for himself
and fled, saying in his heart, "Verily, all this turmoil is on
my account and none is wanted but I." So he sought safety in
flight, security to sight, knowing not whither he went; but
destiny from Eternity fore-ordained crave him to the very
island where the Princess had taken refuge, and he came to the
very tree whereon she sat and threw himself down, like a dead
man, thinking to lie and repose himself and knowing not there
is no rest for the pursued, for none knoweth what Fate hideth
for him in the future. As he lay down, he raised his eyes to
the tree and they met the eyes of the Princess. So he looked
at her and seeing her to be like the moon rising in the East,
cried, "Glory to Him who fashioned yonder perfect form, Him
who is the Creator of all things and who over all things is
Almighty! Glory to the Great God, the Maker, the Shaper and
Fashioner! By Allah, if my presentiments be true, this is
Jauharah, daughter of King Al-Samandal! Methinks that, when
she heard of our coming to blows with her father, she fled to
this island and, happening upon this tree, hid herself on its
head; but, if this be not the Princess herself, 'tis one yet
goodlier than she." Then he bethought himself of her case and
said in himself, "I will arise and lay hands on her and
question her of her condition; and, if she be indeed the she,
I will demand her in wedlock of herself and so win my wish."
So he stood up and said to her, "O end of all desire, who art
thou and who brought thee hither?" She looked at Badr Basim
and seeing him to be as the full moon,[FN#330] when it shineth
from under the black cloud, slender of shape and sweet of
smile answered, "O fair of fashion, I am Princess Jauharah,
daughter of King Al-Samandal, and I took refuge in this place,
because Salih and his host came to blows with my sire and slew
his troops and took him prisoner, with some of his men,
wherefore I fled, fearing for my very life," presently adding,
"And I weet not what fortune hath done with my father." When
King Badr Basim heard these words he marvelled with exceeding
marvel at this strange chance, and thought: "Doubtless I have
won my wish by the capture of her sire." Then he looked at
Jauharah and said to her, "Come down, O my lady; for I am
slain for love of thee and thine eyes have captivated me. On
my account and thine are all these broils and battles; for
thou must know that I am King Badr Basim, Lord of the Persians
and Salih is my mother's brother and he it is who came to thy
sire to demand thee of him in marriage. As for me, I have
quitted my kingdom for thy sake, and our meeting here is the
rarest coincidence. So come down to me and let us twain fare
for thy father's palace, that I may beseech uncle Salih to
release him and I may make thee my lawful wife." When Jauharah
heard his words, she said in herself, " 'Twas on this
miserable gallows bird's account, then, that all this hath
befallen and that my father hath fallen prisoner and his
chamberlains and suite have been slain and I have been
departed from my palace, a miserable exile and have fled for
refuge to this island. But, an I devise not against him some
device to defend myself from him, he will possess himself of
me and take his will of me; for he is in love and for aught
that he doeth a lover is not blamed.'" Then she beguiled him
with winning words and soft speeches, whilst he knew not the
perfidy against him she purposed, and asked him, "O my lord
and light of my eyes, say me, art thou indeed King Badr Basim,
son of Queen Julnar?" And he answered, "Yes, O my lady."--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her
permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Forty-ninth Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
Jauharah, daughter of King Al-Samandal, asked the youth, "Art
thou in very sooth King Badr Basim, son of Queen Julnar?" And
he answered, "Yes, O my lady!" Then she, "May Allah cut off my
father and gar his kingdom cease from him and heal not his
heart neither avert from him strangerhood, if he could desire
a comelier than thou or aught goodlier than these fair
qualities of thine! By Allah, he is of little wit and
judgment!" presently adding, "But, O King of the Age, punish
him not for that he hath done; more by token that an thou love
me a span, verily I love thee a cubit. Indeed, I have fallen
into the net of thy love and am become of the number of thy
slain. The love that was with thee hath transferred itself to
me and there is left thereof with thee but a tithe of that
which is with me." So saying, she came down from the tree and
drawing near him strained him to her bosom and fell to kissing
him; whereat passion and desire for her redoubled on him and
doubting not but she loved him, he trusted in her, and
returned her kisses and caresses. Presently he said to her,
"By Allah, O Princess, my uncle Salih set forth to me not a
fortieth part of thy charms; no, nor a quarter-carat[FN#331]
of the four and twenty." Then Jauharah pressed him to her
bosom and pronounced some unintelligible words; then spat on
his face, saying, "Quit this form of man and take shape of
bird, the handsomest of birds, white of robe, with red bill
and legs." Hardly had she spoken, when King Badr Basim found
himself transformed into a bird, the handsomest of birds, who
shook himself and stood looking at her. Now Jauharah had with
her one of her slave girls, by name Marsinah[FN#332]; so she
called her and said to her, "By Allah, but that I fear for the
life of my father, who is his uncle's prisoner, I would kill
him! Allah never requite him with good! How unlucky was his
coming to us; for all this trouble is due to his hard
headedness! But do thou, O slave girl, bear him to the Thirsty
Island and leave him there to die of thirst." So Marsinah
carried him to the island in question and would have returned
and left him there but she said in herself, "By Allah, the
lord of such beauty and loveliness deserveth not to die of
thirst!" So she went forth from that island and brought him to
another abounding in trees and fruits and rills and, setting
him down there, returned to her mistress and told her, "I have
left him on the Thirsty Island." Such was the case with Badr
Basim; but as regards King Salih he sought for Jauharah after
capturing the King and killing his folk; but, finding her not,
returned to his palace and said to his mother, "Where is my
sister's son, King Badr Basim?" "By Allah, O my son," replied
she, "I know nothing of him! For when it reached him that you
and King Al-Samandal had come to blows and that strife and
slaughter had betided between you, he was affrighted and
fled." When Salih heard this, he grieved for his nephew and
said, "O my mother, by Allah, we have dealt negligently by
King Badr and I fear lest he perish or lest one of King Al-
Samandal's soldiers or his daughter Jauharah fall in with him.
So should we come to shame with his mother and no good betide
us from her, for that I took him without her leave." Then he
despatched guards and scouts throughout the sea and elsewhere
to seek for Badr; but they could learn no tidings of him; so
they returned and told King Salih, wherefore cark and care
redoubled on him and his breast was straitened for King Badr
Basim. So far concerning nephew and uncle, but as for Julnar
the Sea-born, after their departure she abode in expectation
of them, but her son returned not and she heard no report of
him. So when many days of fruitless waiting had gone by, she
arose and going down into the sea, repaired to her mother, who
sighting her rose to her and kissed her and embraced her, as
did the Mermaids her cousins. Then she questioned her mother
of King Badr Basim, and she answered, saying, "O my daughter,
of a truth he came hither with his uncle, who took jacinths
and jewels and carrying them to King Al-Samandal, demanded his
daughter in marriage for thy son but he consented not and was
violent against thy brother in words. Now I had sent Salih
nigh upon a thousand horse and a battle befel between him and
King Al-Samandal; but Allah aided thy brother against him, and
he slew his guards and troops and took himself prisoner.
Meanwhile, tidings of this reached thy son, and it would seem
as if he feared for himself; wherefore he fled forth from us,
without our will, and returned not to us, nor have we heard
any news of him." Then Julnar enquired for King Salih, and his
mother said, "He is seated on the throne of his kingship, in
the stead of King Al-Samandal, and hath sent in all directions
to seek thy son and Princess Jauharah." When Julnar heard the
maternal words, she mourned for her son with sad mourning and
was highly incensed against her brother Salih for that he had
taken him and gone down with him into the sea without her
leave; and she said, "O my mother, I fear for our realm; as I
came to thee without letting any know; and I dread tarrying
with thee, lest the state fall into disorder and the kingdom
pass from our hands. Wherefore I deem best to return and
govern the reign till it please Allah to order our son's
affair for us. But look ye forget him not neither neglect his
case; for should he come to any harm, it would infallibly kill
me, since I see not the world save in him and delight but in
his life." She replied, "With love and gladness, O my
daughter. Ask not what we suffer by reason of his loss and
absence." Then she sent to seek for her grandson, whilst
Julnar returned to her kingdom, weeping-eyed and heavy-
hearted, and indeed the gladness of the world was straitened
upon her.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
to say her permitted say.

       When it was the Seven Hundred and Fiftieth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Queen Juluar returned from her mother to her own realm, her
breast was straitened and she was in ill-case. So fared it
with her; but as regards King Badr Basim, after Princess
Jauharah had ensorcelled him and had sent him with her
handmaid to the Thirsty Island, saying, "Leave him there to
die of thirst," and Marsinah had set him down in a green
islet, he abode days and nights in the semblance of a bird
eating of its fruits and drinking of its waters and knowing
not whither to go nor how to fly; till, one day, there came a
certain fowler to the island to catch somewhat wherewithal to
get his living. He espied King Badr Basim in his form of a
white robed bird, with red bill and legs, captivating the
sight and bewildering the thought; and, looking thereat, said
in himself "Verily, yonder is a beautiful bird: never saw I
its like in fairness or form." So he cast his net over Badr
and taking him, carried him to the town, mentally resolved to
sell him for a high price. On his way one of the townsfolk
accosted him and said, "For how much this fowl, O fowler?"
Quoth the fowler, "What wilt thou do with him an thou buy
him?" Answered the other, "I will cut his throat and eat him;"
whereupon said the birder, "Who could have the heart to kill
this bird and eat him? Verily, I mean to present him to our
King, who will give me more than thou wouldest give me and
will not kill him, but will divert himself by gazing upon his
beauty and grace, for in all my life, since I have been a
fowler, I never saw his like among land game or water fowl.
The utmost thou wouldst give me for him, however much thou
covet him, would be a dirham, and, by Allah Almighty I will
not sell him!" Then he carried the bird up to the King's
palace and when the King saw it, its beauty and grace pleased
him and the red colour of its beak and legs. So he sent an
eunuch to buy it, who accosted the fowler and said to him,
"Wilt thou sell this bird?" Answered he, "Nay, 'tis a gift
from me to the King.''[FN#333] So the eunuch carried the bird
to the King and told him what the man had said; and he took it
and gave the fowler ten dinars, whereupon he kissed ground and
fared forth. Then the eunuch carried the bird to the palace
and placing him in a fine cage, hung him up after setting meat
and drink by him. When the King came down from the Divan, he
said to the eunuch, "Where is the bird? Bring it to me, that I
may look upon it; for, by Allah, 'tis beautiful!" So the
eunuch brought the cage and set it between the hands of the
King, who looked and seeing the food untouched, said, "By
Allah, I wis not what it will eat, that I may nourish it!"
Then he called for food and they laid the tables and the King
ate. Now when the bird saw the flesh and meats and fruits and
sweet meats, he ate of all that was upon the trays before the
King, whereat the Sovran and all the bystanders marvelled and
the King said to his attendants, eunuchs and Mamelukes, "In
all my life I never saw a bird eat as doth this bird!" Then he
sent an eunuch to fetch his wife that she might enjoy looking
upon the bird, and he went in to summon her and said, "O my
lady, the King desireth thy presence, that thou mayst divert
thyself with the sight of a bird he hath bought. When we set
on the food, it flew down from its cage and perching on the
table, ate of all that was thereon. So arise, O my lady, and
solace thee with the sight for it is goodly of aspect and is a
wonder of the wonders of the age." Hearing these words she
came in haste; but, when she noted the bird, she veiled her
face and turned to fare away. The King rose up and looking at
her, asked, "Why dost thou veil thy face when there is none in
presence save the women and eunuchs who wait on thee and thy
husband?" Answered she, "O King, this bird is no bird, but a
man like thyself." He rejoined, "Thou liest, this is too much
of a jest. How should he be other than a bird?"; and she "O
King, by Allah, I do not jest with thee nor do I tell thee
aught but the truth; for verily this bird is King Badr Basim,
son of King Shahriman, Lord of the land of the Persians, and
his mother is Julnar the Sea-born."--And Shahrazad perceived
the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Fifty-first Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
when the King's wife said to the King, "Verily, this is no
bird but a man like thyself: he is King Badr Basim son of King
Shariman and his mother is Julnar the Sea born," quoth the
King, "And how came he in this shape?"; and quoth she,
"Princess Jauharah, daughter of King Al-Samandal, hath
enchanted him:" and told him all that had passed with King
Badr Basim from first to last.[FN#334] The King marvelled
exceedingly at his wife's words and conjured her, on his life,
to free Badr from his enchantment (for she was the notablest
enchantress of her age), and not leave him in torment, saying,
"May Almighty Allah cut off Jauharah's hand, for a foul witch
as she is! How little is her faith and how great her craft and
perfidy!" Said the Queen, "Do thou say to him, 'O Badr Basim,
enter yonder closet!'" So the King bade him enter the closet
and he went in obediently. Then the Queen veiled her face and
taking in her hand a cup of water,[FN#335] entered the closet
where she pronounced over the water certain incomprehensible
words ending with, "By the virtue of these mighty names and
holy verses and by the majesty of Allah Almighty, Creator of
heaven and earth, the Quickener of the dead and Appointer of
the means of daily bread and the terms determined, quit this
thy form wherein thou art and return to the shape in which the
Lord created thee!" Hardly had she made an end of her words,
when the bird trembled once and became a man; and the King saw
before him a handsome youth, than whom on earth's face was
none goodlier. But when King Badr Basim found himself thus
restored to his own form he cried, "There is no god but the
God and Mohammed is the Apostle of God! Glory be to the
Creator of all creatures and Provider of their provision, and
Ordainer of their life terms preordained!" Then he kissed the
King's hand and wished him long life, and the King kissed his
head and said to him, "O Badr Basim, tell me thy history from
commencement to conclusion." So he told him his whole tale,
concealing naught; and the King marvelled thereat and said to
him, "O Badr Basim, Allah hath saved thee from the spell: but
what hath thy judgment decided and what thinkest thou to do?"
Replied he, "O King of the Age, I desire thy bounty that thou
equip me a ship with a company of thy servants and all that is
needful; for 'tis long since I have been absent and I dread
lest the kingdom depart from me. And I misdoubt me my mother
is dead of grief for my loss, and this doubt is the stronger
for that she knoweth not what is come of me nor whether I am
alive or dead. Wherefore, I beseech thee, O King, to crown thy
favours to me by granting me what I seek." The King, after
beholding the beauty and grace of Badr Basim and listening to
his sweet speech, said, "I hear and obey." So he fitted him
out a ship, to which he transported all that was needful and
which he manned with a company of his servants; and Badr Basim
set sail in it, after having taken leave of the King. They
sailed over the sea ten successive days with a favouring wind;
but, on the eleventh day, the ocean became troubled with
exceeding trouble, the ship rose and fell and the sailors were
powerless to govern her. So they drifted at the mercy of the
waves, till the craft neared a rock in mid-sea which fell upon
her[FN#336] and broke her up and all on board were drowned,
save King Badr Basim who got astride one of the planks of the
vessel, after having been nigh upon destruction. The plank
ceased not to be borne by the set of the sea, whilst he knew
not whither he went and had no means of directing its motion,
as the wind and waves wrought for three whole days. But on the
fourth the plank grounded with him on the sea shore where he
sighted a white city, as it were a dove passing white, builded
upon a tongue of land that jutted out into the deep and it was
goodly of ordinance, with high towers and lofty walls against
which the waves beat. When Badr Basim saw this, he rejoiced
with exceeding joy, for he was well-nigh dead of hunger and
thirst, and dismounting from the plank, would have gone up the
beach to the city; but there came down to him mules and asses
and horses, in number as the see sends and fell to striking at
him and staying him from landing. So he swam round to the back
of the city, where he waded to shore and entering the place,
found none therein and marvelled at this, saying, "Would I
knew to whom cloth this city belong, wherein is no lord nor
any liege, and whence came these mules and asses and horses
that hindered me from landing." And he mused over his case.
Then he walked on at hazard till he espied an old man, a
grocer.[FN#337] So he saluted him and the other returned his
salam and seeing him to be a handsome young man, said to him,
"O youth, whence comest thou and what brought thee to this
city?" Badr told him his story; at which the old man marvelled
and said, "O my son, didst thou see any on thy way?" He
replied, "Indeed, O my father, I wondered in good sooth to
sight a city void of folk." Quoth the Shaykh, my son, come up
into the shop, lest thou perish." So Badr Basim went up into
the shop and sat down; whereupon the old man set before him
somewhat of food, saying, "O my son, enter the inner shop;
glory be to Him who hath preserved thee from yonder she-
Sathanas!" King Badr Basim was sore affrighted at the grocer's
words; but he ate his fill and washed his hands then glanced
at his host and said to him, "O my lord, what is the meaning
of these words? Verily thou hast made me fearful of this city
and its folk." Replied the old man, "Know, O my son that this
is the City of the Magicians and its Queen is as she were She-
Satan, a sorceress and a mighty enchantress, passing crafty
and perfidious exceedingly. All thou sawest of horses and
mules and asses were once sons of Adam like thee and me; they
were also strangers, for whoever entereth this city, being a
young man like thyself this miscreant witch taketh him and
hometh him for forty days, after which she enchanteth him, and
he becometh a mule or a horse or an ass, of those animals thou
sawest on the sea-shore."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of
day and ceased to say her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Fifty-second Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
old grocer related to King Badr Basim the history of the
enchantress ending with, "All these people hath she spelled;
and, when it was thy intent to land they feared lest thou be
transmewed like themselves; so they counselled thee by signs
that said, 'Land not,' of their solicitude for thee, fearing
that haply she should do with thee like as she had done with
them. She possessed herself of this city and seized it from
its citizens by sorcery and her name is Queen Lab, which being
interpreted, meaneth in Arabic 'Almanac of the Sun.' "[FN#338]
When Badr Basim heard what the old man said, he was affrighted
with sore affright and trembled like reed in wind saying in
himself, "Hardly do I feel me free from the affliction wherein
I was by reason of sorcery, when Destiny casteth me into yet
sorrier case!" And he fell a-musing over his condition and
that which had betided him. When the Shaykh looked at him and
saw the violence of his terror, he said to him, "O my son,
come, sit at the threshold of the shop and look upon yonder
creatures and upon their dress and complexion and that wherein
they are by reason of gramarye and dread not; for the Queen
and all in the city love and tender me and will not vex my
heart or trouble my mind." So King Badr Basim came out and sat
at the shop door, looking out upon the folk; and there passed
by him a world of creatures without number. But when the
people saw him, they accosted the grocer and said to him, "O
elder, is this thy captive and thy prey gotten in these days?"
The old man replied, "He is my brother's son, I heard that his
father was dead; so I sent for him and brought him here that I
might quench with him the fire of my home sickness." Quoth
they, "Verily, he is a comely youth; but we fear for him from
Queen Lab, lest she turn on thee with treachery and take him
from thee, for she loveth handsome young men." Quoth the
Shaykh, "The Queen will not gainsay my commandment, for she
loveth and tendereth me; and when she shall know that he is my
brother's son, she will not molest him or afflict me in him
neither trouble my heart on his account." Then King Badr Basim
abode some months with the grocer, eating and drinking, and
the old man loved him with exceeding love. One day, as he sat
in the shop according to his custom, behold, there came up a
thousand eunuchs, with drawn swords and clad in various kinds
of raiment and girt with jewelled girdles: all rode Arabian
steeds and bore in baldrick Indian blades. They saluted the
grocer, as they passed his shop and were followed by a
thousand damsels like moons, clad in various raiments of silks
and satins fringed with gold and embroidered with jewels of
sorts, and spears were slung to their shoulders. In their
midst rode a damsel mounted on a Rabite mare, saddled with a
saddle of gold set with various kinds of jewels and jacinths;
and they reached in a body the Shaykh's shop. The damsels
saluted him and passed on, till, lo and behold! up came Queen
Lab, in great state, and seeing King Badr Basim sitting in the
shop, as he were the moon at its full, was amazed at his
beauty and loveliness and became passionately enamoured of
him, and distraught with desire of him. So she alighted and
sitting down by King Badr Basim said to the old man, "Whence
hadst thou this handsome one?"; and the Shaykh replied, "He is
my brother's son, and is lately come to me." Quoth Lab, "Let
him be with me this night, that I may talk with him;' and
quoth the old man, "Wilt thou take him from me and not enchant
him?" Said she, "Yes," and said he, Swear to me." So she sware
to him that she would not do him any hurt or ensorcell him,
and bidding bring him a fine horse, saddled and bridled with a
golden bridle and decked with trappings all of gold set with
jewels, gave the old man a thousand dinars saying, "Use
this.''[FN#339] Then she took Badr Basim and carried him off,
as he were the full moon on its fourteenth night, whilst all
the folk, seeing his beauty, were grieved for him and said,
"By Allah, verily, this youth deserveth not to be bewitched by
yonder sorceress, the accursed!" Now King Badr Basim heard all
they said, but was silent, committing his case to Allah
Almighty, till they came to--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn
of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Fifty-third Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that King
Badr Basim ceased not faring with Queen Lab and her suite till
they came to her palace-gate, where the Emirs and eunuchs and
Lords of the realm took foot and she bade the Chamberlains
dismiss her Officers and Grandees, who kissed ground and went
away, whilst she entered the palace with Badr Basim and her
eunuchs and women. Here he found a place, whose like he had
never seen at all, for it was builded of gold and in its midst
was a great basin brimfull of water midmost a vast flower-
garden. He looked at the garden and saw it abounding in birds
of various kinds and colours, warbling in all manner tongues
and voices pleasurable and plaintive. And everywhere he beheld
great state and dominion and said, "Glory be to God, who of
His bounty and long suffering provideth those who serve other
than Himself!" The Queen sat down at a latticed window
overlooking the garden on a couch of ivory, whereon was a high
bed, and King Badr Basim seated himself by her side. She
kissed him and pressing him to her breast, bade her women
bring a tray of food. So they brought a tray of red gold,
inlaid with pearls and jewels and spread with all manner of
viands and he and she ate, till they were satisfied, and
washed their hands; after which the waiting women set on
flagons of gold and silver and glass, together with all kinds
of flowers and dishes of dried fruits. Then the Queen summoned
the singing-women and there came ten maidens, as they were
moons, bending all manner of musical instruments. Queen Lab
crowned a cup and drinking it off, filled another and passed
it to King Badr Basim, who took and drank; and they ceased not
to drink till they had their sufficiency. Then she bade the
damsels sing, and they sang all manner modes till it seemed to
Badr Basim as if the palace danced with him for joy. His sense
was ecstasied and his breast broadened, and he forgot his
strangerhood and said in himself, "Verily, this Queen is young
and beautiful[FN#340] and I will never leave her; for her
kingdom is vaster than my kingdom and she is fairer than
Princess Jauharah.'' So he ceased not to drink with her till
even tide came, when they lighted the lamps and waxen candles
and diffused censer-perfumes; nor did they leave drinking,
till they were both drunken, and the singing women sang the
while. Then Queen Lab, being in liquor, rose from her seat and
lay down on a bed and dismissing her women called to Badr
Basim to come and sleep by her side. So he lay with her, in
all delight of life till the morning.--And Shahrazad perceived
the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Fifty-fourth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
Queen awoke she repaired to the Hammam-bath in the palace,
King Badr Basim being with her, and they bathed and were
purified; after which she clad him in the finest of raiment
and called for the service of wine. So the waiting women
brought the drinking-gear and they drank. Presently, the Queen
arose and taking Badr Basim by the hand, sat down with him on
chairs and bade bring food, whereof they ate, and washed their
hands. Then the damsels fetched the drinking gear and fruits
and flowers and confections, and they ceased not to eat and
drink,[FN#341] whilst the singing-girls sang various airs till
the evening. They gave not over eating and drinking and merry-
making for a space of forty days, when the Queen said to him,
"O Badr Basim, say me whether is the more pleasant, this place
or the shop of thine uncle the grocer?" He replied, "By Allah,
O Queen, this is the pleasenter, for my uncle is but a
beggarly man, who vendeth pot-herbs." She laughed at his words
and the twain lay together in the pleasantest of case till the
morning, when King Badr Basim awoke from sleep and found not
Queen Lab by his side, so he said, "Would Heaven I knew where
can she have gone!" And indeed he was troubled at her absence
and perplexed about the case, for she stayed away from him a
great while and did not return; so he donned his dress and
went seeking her but not finding her, and he said to himself,
"Haply, she is gone to the flower-garden." Thereupon he went
out into the garden and came to a running rill beside which he
saw a white she-bird and on the stream-bank a tree full of
birds of various colours, and he stood and watched the birds
without their seeing him. And behold, a black bird flew down
upon that white-she bird and fell to billing her pigeon-
fashion, then he leapt on her and trod her three consecutive
times, after which the bird changed and became a woman. Badr
looked at her and lo! it was Queen Lab. So he knew that the
black bird was a man transmewed and that she was enamoured of
him and had transformed herself into a bird, that he might
enjoy her; wherefore jealousy got hold upon him and he was
wroth with the Queen because of the black bird. Then he
returned to his place and lay down on the carpet-bed and after
an hour or so she came back to him and fell to kissing him and
jesting with him; but being sore incensed against her he
answered her not a word. She saw what was to do with him and
was assured that he had witnessed what befel her when she was
a white bird and was trodden by the black bird; yet she
discovered naught to him but concealed what ailed her. When he
had done her need, he said to her, "O Queen, I would have thee
give me leave to go to my uncle's shop, for I long after him
and have not seen him these forty days." She replied, "Go to
him but tarry not from me, for I cannot brook to be parted
from thee, nor can I endure without thee an hour." He said, "I
hear and I obey," and mounting, rode to the shop of the
Shaykh, the grocer, who welcomed him and rose to him and
embracing him said to him, "How hast thou fared with yonder
idolatress?" He replied, "I was well in health and happiness
till this last night," and told him what had passed in the
garden with the black bird.[FN#342] Now when the old man heard
his words, he said, "Beware of her, for know that the birds
upon the tree were all young men and strangers, whom she loved
and enchanted and turned into birds. That black bird thou
sawest was one of her Mamelukes whom she loved with exceeding
love, till he cast his eyes upon one of her women, wherefore
she changed him into a black bird";--And Shahrazad perceived
the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Fifty-fifth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
when Badr Basim acquainted the old grocer with all the doings
of Queen Lab and what he had seen of her proceedings, the
Shaykh gave him to know that all the birds upon the tree were
young men and strangers whom she had enchanted, and that the
black bird was one of her Mamelukes whom she had transmewed.
"And," continued the Shaykh, "whenas she lusteth after him she
transformeth herself into a she-bird that he may enjoy her,
for she still loveth him with passionate love. When she found
that thou knewest of her case, she plotted evil against thee,
for she loveth thee not wholly. But no harm shall betide thee
from her, so long as I protect thee; therefore fear nothing;
for I am a Moslem, by name Abdallah, and there is none in my
day more magical than I; yet do I not make use of gramarye
save upon constraint. Many a time have I put to naught the
sorceries of yonder accursed and delivered folk from her, and
I care not for her, because she can do me no hurt: nay, she
feareth me with exceeding fear, as do all in the city who,
like her, are magicians and serve the fire, not the Omnipotent
Sire. So to-morrow, come thou to me and tell me what she doth
with thee; for this very night she will cast about to destroy
thee, and I will tell thee how thou shalt do with her, that
thou mayst save thyself from her malice." Then King Badr Basim
farewelled the Shaykh and returned to the Queen whom he found
awaiting him. When she saw him, she rose and seating him and
welcoming him brought him meat and drink and the two ate till
they had enough and washed their hands; after which she called
for wine and they drank till the night was well nigh half
spent, when she plied him with cup after cup till he was
drunken and lost sense[FN#343] and wit. When she saw him thus,
she said to him, "I conjure thee by Allah and by whatso thou
worshippest, if I ask thee a question wilt thou inform me
rightly and answer me truly?" And he being drunken, answered,
"Yes, O my lady." Quoth she, "O my lord and light of mine
eyes, when thou awokest last night and foundest me not, thou
soughtest me, till thou sawest me in the garden under the
guise of a white she-bird, and also thou sawest the black bird
leap on me and tread me. Now I will tell the truth of this
matter. That black bird was one of my Mamelukes, whom I loved
with exceeding love; but one day he cast his eyes upon a
certain of my slave-girls, wherefore jealousy gat hold upon me
and I transformed him by my spells into a black bird and her I
slew. But now I cannot endure without him a single hour, so,
whenever I lust after him, I change myself into a she- bird
and go to him, that he may leap me and enjoy me, even as thou
hast seen. Art thou not therefore incensed against me, because
of this, albeit by the virtue of Fire and Light, Shade and
Heat, I love thee more than ever and have made thee my portion
of the world?" He answered (being drunken), "Thy conjecture of
the cause of my rage is correct, and it had no reason other
than this." With this she embraced him and kissed him and made
great show of love to him; then she lay down to sleep and he
by her side Presently about midnight she rose from the carpet-
bed and King Badr Basim was awake; but he feigned sleep and
watched stealthily to see what she would do. She took out of a
red bag a something red, which she planted a-middlemost the
chamber, and it became a stream, running like the sea; after
which she took a handful of barley and strewing it on the
ground, watered it with water from the river; whereupon it
became wheat in the ear, and she gathered it and ground it
into flour. Then she set it aside and returning to bed, lay
down by Badr Basim till morning when he arose and washed his
face and asked her leave to visit the Shaykh his uncle. She
gave him permission and he repaired to Abdallah and told him
what had passed. The old man laughed and said, "By Allah, this
miscreant witch plotteth mischief against thee; but reck thou
not of her ever!" Then he gave him a pound of parched
corn[FN#344] and said to him, "Take this with thee and know
that, when she seeth it, she will ask thee, 'What is this and
what wilt thou do with it?' Do thou answer, 'Abundance of good
things is good'; and eat of it. Then will she bring forth to
thee parched grain of her own and say to thee, 'Eat of this
Sawik; and do thou feign to her that thou eatest thereof, but
eat of this instead, and beware and have a care lest thou eat
of hers even a grain; for, an thou eat so much as a grain
thereof, her spells will have power over thee and she will
enchant thee and say to thee, 'Leave this form of a man.'
Whereupon thou wilt quit thine own shape for what shape she
will. But, an thou eat not thereof, her enchantments will be
null and void and no harm will betide thee therefrom; whereat
she will be shamed with shame exceeding and say to thee, 'I
did but jest with thee!' Then will she make a show of love and
fondness to thee; but this will all be but hypocrisy in her
and craft. And do thou also make a show of love to her and say
to her, 'O my lady and light of mine eyes, eat of this parched
barley and see how delicious it is.' And if she eat thereof,
though it be but a grain, take water in thy hand and throw it
in her face, saying, 'Quit this human form' (for what form
soever thou wilt have her take). Then leave her and come to me
and I will counsel thee what to do." So Badr Basim took leave
of him and returning to the palace, went in to the Queen, who
said to him, "Welcome and well come and good cheer to thee!"
And she rose and kissed him, saying, "Thou hast tarried long
from me, O my lord." He replied, "I have been with my uncle,
and he gave me to eat of this Sawik." Quoth she, "We have
better than that." Then she laid his parched Sawik in one
plate and hers in another and said to him, "Eat of this, for
'tis better than thine." So he feigned to eat of it and when
she thought he had done so, she took water in her hand and
sprinkled him therewith, saying, "Quit this form, O thou
gallows- bird, thou miserable, and take that of a mule one-
eyed and foul of favour." But he changed not; which when she
saw, she arose and went up to him and kissed him between the
eyes, saying, "O my beloved, I did but jest with thee; bear me
no malice because of this." Quoth he, "O my lady, I bear thee
no whit of malice; nay, I am assured that thou lovest me: but
eat of this my parched barley." So she ate a mouthful of
Abdallah's Sawik; but no sooner had it settled in her stomach
than she was convulsed; and King Badr Basim took water in his
palm and threw it in her face, saying, "Quit this human form
and take that of a dapple mule." No sooner had he spoken than
she found herself changed into a she-mule, whereupon the tears
rolled down her cheeks and she fell to rubbing her muzzle
against his feet. Then he would have bridled her, but she
would not take the bit; so he left her and, going to the
grocer, told him what had passed. Abdallah brought out for him
a bridle and bade him rein her forthwith. So he took it to the
palace, and when she saw him, she came up to him and he set
the bit in her mouth and mounting her, rode forth to find the
Shaykh. But when the old man saw her, he rose and said to her,
"Almighty Allah confound thee, O accursed woman!" Then quoth
he to Badr, "O my son, there is no more tarrying for thee in
this city; so ride her and fare with her whither thou wilt and
beware lest thou commit the bridle[FN#345] to any." King Badr
thanked him and farewelling him, fared on three days, without
ceasing, till he drew near another city and there met him an
old man, gray headed and comely, who said to him, "Whence
comest thou, O my son?" Badr replied, "From the city of this
witch"; and the old man said, "Thou art my guest to-night." He
consented and went with him; but by the way behold, they met
an old woman, who wept when she saw the mule, and said, "There
is no god but the God! Verily, this mule resembleth my son's
she-mule, which is dead, and my heart acheth for her; so,
Allah upon thee, O my lord, do thou sell her to me!" He
replied, "By Allah, O my mother, I cannot sell her." But she
cried, "Allah upon thee, do not refuse my request, for my son
will surely be a dead man except I buy him this mule." And she
importuned him, till he exclaimed, "I will not sell her save
for a thousand dinars," saying in himself, "Whence should this
old woman get a thousand gold pieces?" Thereupon she brought
out from her girdle a purse containing a thousand ducats,
which when King Badr Basim saw, he said, "O my mother, I did
but jest with thee; I cannot sell her." But the old man looked
at him and said, "O my son, in this city none may lie, for
whoso lieth they put to death." So King Badr Basim lighted
down from the mule.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day
and ceased to say her permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Fifty-sixth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Badr Basim dismounted from and delivered the mule to the old
woman, she drew the bit from her mouth and, taking water in
her hand, sprinkled the mule therewith, saying, "O my
daughter, quit this shape for that form wherein thou wast
aforetime!" Upon this she was straightway restored to her
original semblance and the two women embraced and kissed each
other. So King Badr Basim knew that the old woman was Queen
Lab's mother and that he had been tricked and would have fled;
when, lo! the old woman whistled a loud whistle and her call
was obeyed by an Ifrit as he were a great mountain, whereat
Badr was affrighted and stood still. Then the old woman
mounted on the Ifrit's back, taking her daughter behind her
and King Badr Basim before her, and the Ifrit flew off with
them; nor was it a full hour ere they were in the palace of
Queen Lab, who sat down on the throne of kingship and said to
Badr, "Gallows-bird that thou art, now am I come hither and
have attained to that I desired and soon will I show thee how
I will do with thee and with yonder old man the grocer! How
many favours have I shown him! Yet he cloth me frowardness;
for thou hast not attained thine end but by means of him."
Then she took water and sprinkled him therewith, saying, "Quit
the shape wherein thou art for the form of a foul-favoured
fowl, the foulest of all fowls"; and she set him in a cage and
cut off from him meat and drink; but one of her women seeing
this cruelty, took compassion on him and gave him food and
water without her knowledge. One day, the damsel took her
mistress at unawares and going forth the palace, repaired to
the old grocer, to whom she told the whole case, saying,
"Queen Lab is minded to make an end of thy brother's son." The
Shaykh thanked her and said, "There is no help but that I take
the city from her and make thee Queen thereof in her stead."
Then he whistled a loud whistle and there came forth to him an
Ifrit with four wings, to whom he said, "Take up this damsel
and carry her to the city of Julnar the Sea-born and her
mother Faráshah[FN#346] for they twain are the most powerful
magicians on face of earth." And he said to the damsel, "When
thou comest thither, tell them that King Badr Basim is Queen
Lab's captive." Then the Ifrit took up his load and, flying
off with her, in a little while set her down upon the terrace
roof of Queen Julnar's palace. So she descended and going in
to the Queen, kissed the earth and told her what had passed to
her son, first and last, whereupon Julnar rose to her and
entreated her with honour and thanked her. Then she let beat
the drums in the city and acquainted her lieges and the lords
of her realm with the good news that King Badr Basim was found
after which she and her mother Farashah and her brother Salih
assembled all the tribes of the Jinn and the troops of the
main; for the Kings of the Jinn obeyed them since the taking
of King Al-Samandal. Presently they all flew up into the air
and lighting down on the city of the sorceress, sacked the
town and the palace and slew all the Unbelievers therein in
the twinkling of an eye. Then said Julnar to the damsel,
"Where is my son?" And the slave girl brought her the cage and
signing to the bird within, cried, "This is thy son." So
Julnar took him forth of the cage and sprinkled him with
water, saying, "Quit this shape for the form wherein thou wast
aforetime;" nor had she made an end of her speech ere he shook
and became a man as before: whereupon his mother, seeing him
restored to human shape, embraced him and he wept with sore
weeping. On like wise did his uncle Salih and his grandmother
and the daughters of his uncle and fell to kissing his hands
and feet. Then Julnar sent for Shaykh Abdallah and thanking
him for his kind dealing with her son, married him to the
damsel, whom he had despatched to her with news of him, and
made him King of the city. Moreover, she summoned those who
survived of the citizens (and they were Moslems), and made
them swear fealty to him and take the oath of loyalty, whereto
they replied, "Hearkening and obedience!" Then she and her
company farewelled him and returned to their own capital. The
townsfolk came out to meet them, with drums beating, and
decorated the place three days and held high festival, of the
greatness of their joy for the return of their King Badr
Basim. After this Badr said to his mother, "O my mother,
naught remains but that I marry and we be all united." She
replied, "Right is thy rede, O my son, but wait till we ask
who befitteth thee among the daughters of the Kings." And his
grandmother Farashah, and the daughters of both his uncles
said, "O Badr Basim, we will help thee to win thy wish
forthright." Then each of them arose and fared forth questing
in the lands, whilst Julnar sent out her waiting women on the
necks of Ifrits, bidding them leave not a city nor a King's
palace without noting all the handsome girls that were
therein. But, when King Badr Basim saw the trouble they were
taking in this matter, he said to Julnar, "O my mother, leave
this thing, for none will content me save Jauharah, daughter
of King Al-Samandal; for that she is indeed a jewel,[FN#347]
according to her name." Replied Julnar, "I know that which
thou seekest;" and bade forthright bring Al-Samandal the King.
As soon as he was present, she sent for Badr Basim and
acquainted him with the King's coming, whereupon he went in to
him. Now when Al-Samandal was aware of his presence, he rose
to him and saluted him and bade him welcome; and King Badr
Basim demanded of him his daughter Jauharah in marriage. Quoth
he, "She is thine handmaid and at thy service and
disposition," and despatched some of his suite bidding them
seek her abode and, after telling her that her sire was in the
hands of King Badr Basim, to bring her forthright. So they
flew up into the air and disappeared and they returned after a
while, with the Princess who, as soon as she saw her father,
went up to him and threw her arms round his neck. Then looking
at her he said, "O my daughter, know that I have given thee in
wedlock to this magnanimous Sovran, and valiant lion King Badr
Basim, son of Queen Julnar the Sea-born, for that he is the
goodliest of the folk of his day and most powerful and the
most exalted of them in degree and the noblest in rank; he
befitteth none but thee and thou none but him." Answered she,
"I may not gainsay thee, O my sire do as thou wilt, for indeed
chagrin and despite are at an end, and I am one of his
handmaids." So they summoned the Kazi and the witnesses who
drew up the marriage contract between King Badr Basim and the
Princess Jauharah, and the citizens decorated the city and
beat the drums of rejoicing, and they released all who were in
the jails, whilst the King clothed the widows and the orphans
and bestowed robes of honour upon the Lords of the Realm and
Emirs and Grandees: and they made bride-feasts and held high
festival night and morn ten days, at the end of which time
they displayed the bride, in nine different dresses, before
King Badr Basim who bestowed an honourable robe upon King Al-
Samandal and sent him back to his country and people and
kinsfolk. And they ceased not from living the most delectable
of life and the most solaceful of days, eating and drinking
and enjoying every luxury, till there came to them the
Destroyer of delights and the Sunderer of Societies; and this
is the end of their story[FN#348], may Allah have mercy on
them all! Moreover, O auspicious King, a tale is also told

                       MERCHANT HASAN.

There was once, in days of yore and in ages and times long
gone before, a King of the Kings of the Persians, by name
Mohammed bin Sabáik, who ruled over Khorásán-land and used
every year to go on razzia into the countries of the
Miscreants in Hind and Sind and China and the lands of
Máwarannahr beyond the Oxus and other regions of the
barbarians and what not else. He was a just King, a valiant
and a generous, and loved table-talk[FN#349] and tales and
verses and anecdotes and histories and entertaining stories
and legends of the ancients. Whoso knew a rare recital and
related it to him in such fashion as to please him he would
bestow on him a sumptuous robe of honour and clothe him from
head to foot and give him a thousand dinars, and mount him on
a horse saddled and bridled besides other great gifts; and the
man would take all this and wend his way. Now it chanced that
one day there came an old man before him and related to him a
rare story, which pleased the King and made him marvel, so he
ordered him a magnificent present, amongst other things a
thousand dinars of Khorasan and a horse with its housings and
trappings. After this, the bruit of the King's munificence was
blazed abroad in all countries and there heard of him a man,
Hasan the Merchant hight, who was a generous, open-handed and
learned, a scholar and an accomplished poet. Now the King had
an envious Wazir, a multum-in-parvo of ill, loving no man,
rich nor poor, and whoso came before the King and he gave him
aught he envied him and said, "Verily, this fashion
annihilateth wealth and ruineth the land; and such is the
custom of the King." But this was naught save envy and despite
in that Minister. Presently the King heard talk of Hasan the
Merchant and sending for him, said to him as soon as he came
into the presence, "O Merchant Hasan, this Wazir of mine
vexeth and thwarteth me concerning the money I give to poets
and boon-companions and story-tellers and glee-men, and I
would have thee tell me a goodly history and a rare story,
such as I have never before heard. An it please me, I will
give thee lands galore, with their forts, in free tenure, in
addition to thy fiefs and untaxed lands; besides which I will
put my whole kingdom in thy hands and make thee my Chief
Wazir; so shalt thy sit on my right hand and rule my subjects.
But an thou bring me not that which I bid thee, I will take
all that is thy hand and banish thee my realm." Replied Hasan,
"Hearkening and obedience to our lord the King! But thy slave
beseecheth thee to have patience with him a year; then will he
tell thee a tale, such as thou hast never in thy life heard,
neither hath other than thou heard its like, not to say a
better than it." Quoth the King, "I grant thee a whole year's
delay." And he called for a costly robe of honour wherein he
robed Hasan, saying, "Keep thy house and mount not horse,
neither go nor come for a year's time, till thou bring me that
I seek of thee. An thou bring it, especial favour awaiteth
thee and thou mayst count upon that which I have promised
thee; but an thou bring it not, thou art not of us nor are we
of thee."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
saying her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Fifty-seventh Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
King Mohammed son of Sabaik said to Hasan the Merchant, "An
thou bring me that I seek of thee, especial favour awaiteth
thee and thou mayest now rejoice in that which I have promised
thee; but, an thou bring it not, thou art not of us nor are we
of thee." Hasan kissed ground before the King and went out
from the presence. Then he chose five of the best of his
Mamelukes, who could all write and read and were learned,
intelligent, accomplished; and he gave each of them five
thousand dinars, saying, "I reared you not save for the like
of this day; so do ye help me to further the King's desire and
deliver me from his hand." Quoth they, "What wilt thou have us
do? Our lives be thy ransom!" Quoth he, "I wish you to go each
to a different country and seek out diligently the learned and
erudite and literate and the tellers of wondrous stories and
marvellous histories and do your endeavour to procure me the
story of Sayf al-Mulúk. If ye find it with any one, pay him
what price soever he asketh for it although he demand a
thousand dinars; give him what ye may and promise him the rest
and bring me the story; for whoso happeneth on it and bringeth
it to me, I will bestow on him a costly robe of honour and
largesse galore, and there shall be to me none more worshipped
than he." Then said he to one of them, "Hie thou to Al-Hind
and Al-Sind and all their provinces and dependencies." To
another, "Hie thou to the home of the Persians and to China
and her climates." To the third, "Hie thou to the land of
Khorasan with its districts." To the fourth, "Hie thou to
Mauritania and all its regions, districts, provinces and
quarters." And to the fifth, "Hie thou to Syria and Egypt and
their outliers." Moreover, he chose them out an auspicious day
and said to them, "Fare ye forth this day and be diligent in
the accomplishment of my need and be not slothful, though the
case cost you your lives." So they farewelled him and
departed, each taking the direction perscribed to him. Now,
four of them were absent four months, and searched but found
nothing; so they returned and told their master, whose breast
was straitened, that they had ransacked towns and cities and
countries for the thing he sought, but had happened upon
naught thereof. Meanwhile, the fifth servant journeyed till he
came to the land of Syria and entered Damascus, which he found
a pleasant city and a secure, abounding in trees and rills,
leas and fruiteries and birds chanting the praises of Allah
the One, the All-powerful of sway, Creator of Night and Day.
Here he tarried some time, asking for his master's desire, but
non answered him, wherefore he was on the point of departing
thence to another place, when he met a young man running and
stumbling over his skirts. So he asked of him, "Wherefore
runnest thou in such eagerness and whither dost thou press?"
And he answered, "There is an elder here, a man of learning,
who every day at this time taketh his seat on a stool[FN#350]
and relateth tales and stories and delectable anecdotes,
whereof never heard any the like; and I am running to get me a
place near him and fear I shall find no room, because of the
much folk." Quoth the Mameluke, "Take me with thee;" and quoth
the youth, "Make haste in thy walking." So he shut his door
and hastened with him to the place of recitation, where he saw
an old man of bright favour seated on a stool holding forth to
the folk. He sat down near him and addressed himself to hear
his story, till the going down of the sun, when the old man
made an end of his tale and the people, having heard it all,
dispersed from about him; whereupon the Mameluke accosted him
and saluted him, and he returned his salam and greeted him
with the utmost worship and courtesy. Then said the messenger
to him, "O my lord Shaykh, thou art a comely and reverend man,
and thy discourse is goodly; but I would fain ask thee of
somewhat." Replied the old man, "Ask of what thou wilt!" Then
said the Mameluke, "Hast thou the story of Sayf al-Muluk and
Badí'a al-Jamál?" Rejoined the elder, "And who told thee of
this story and informed thee thereof?" Answered the messenger,
"None told me of it, but I am come from a far country, in
quest of this tale, and I will pay thee whatever thou askest
for its price if thou have it and wilt, of thy bounty and
charity, impart it to me and make it an alms to me, of the
generosity of thy nature for, had I my life in my hand and
lavished it upon thee for this thing, yet were it pleasing to
my heart." Replied the old man, "Be of good cheer and keep
thine eye cool and clear: thou shalt have it; but this is no
story that one telleth in the beaten highway, nor do I give it
to every one." Cried the other, "By Allah, O my lord, do not
grudge it me, but ask of me what price thou wilt." And the old
man, "If thou wish for the history give me an hundred dinars
and thou shalt have it; but upon five conditions." Now when
the Mameluke knew that the old man had the story and was
willing to sell it to him, he joyed with exceeding joy and
said, "I will give thee the hundred dinars by way of price and
ten to boot as a gratuity and take it on the conditions of
which thou speakest." Said the old man, "Then go and fetch the
gold pieces, and take that thou seekest." So the messenger
kissed his hands and joyful and happy returned to his lodging,
where he laid an hundred and ten dinars[FN#351] in a purse he
had by him. As soon as morning morrowed, he donned his clothes
and taking the dinars, repaired to the story-teller, whom he
found seated at the door of his house. So he saluted him and
the other returned his salam. Then he gave him the gold and
the old man took it and carrying the messenger into his house
made him sit down in a convenient place, when he set before
him ink-case and reed-pen and paper and giving him a book,
said to him, "Write out what thou seekest of the
night-story[FN#352] of Sayf al-Muluk from this book."
Accordingly the Mameluke fell to work and wrote till he had
made an end of his copy, when he read it to the old man, and
he corrected it and presently said to him, "Know, O my son,
that my five conditions are as follows; firstly, that thou
tell not this story in the beaten high road nor before women
and slave-girls nor to black slaves nor feather-heads; nor
again to boys; but read it only before Kings and Emirs and
Wazirs and men of learning, such as expounders of the Koran
and others." Thereupon the messenger accepted the conditions
and kissing the old man'shand, took leave of him, and fared
forth.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to
say her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Fifty-eighth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
when the Mameluke of Hasan the Merchant had copied the tale
out of the book belonging to the old man of Damascus, and had
accepted his conditions and farewelled him, he fared forth on
the same day, glad and joyful, and journeyed on diligently, of
the excess of his contentment, for that he had gotten the
story of Sayf al-Muluk, till he came to his own country, when
he despatched his servant to bear the good news to his master
and say to him, "Thy Mameluke is come back in safety and hath
won his will and his aim." (Now of the term appointed between
Hasan and the King there wanted but ten days.) Then, after
taking rest in his own quarters he himself went in to the
Merchant and told him all that had befallen him and gave him
the book containing the story of Sayf al-Muluk and Badi'a
al-Jamal, when Hasan joyed with exceeding joy at the sight and
bestowed on him all the clothes he had on and gave him ten
thoroughbred horses and the like number of camels and mules
and three negro chattels and two white slaves. Then Hasan took
the book and copied out the story plainly in his own hand;
after which he presented himself before the King and said to
him, "O thou auspicious King, I have brought thee a
night-story and a rarely pleasant relation, whose like none
ever heard at all." When these words reached the King's ear,
he sent forthright for all the Emirs, who were men of
understanding, and all the learned doctors and folk of
erudition and culture and poets and wits; and Hasan sat down
and read the history before the King, who marvelled thereat
and approved it, as did all who were present, and they
showered gold and silver and jewels upon the Merchant.
Moreover, the King bestowed on him a costly robe of honour of
the richest of his raiment and gave him a great city with its
castles and outliers; and he appointed him one of his Chief
Wazirs and seated him on his right hand. Then he caused the
scribes write the story in letters of gold and lay it up in
his privy treasures: and whenever his breast was straitened,
he would summon Hasan and he would read him the story,[FN#353]
which was as follows:--

Story of Prince Sayf al-Muluk and the Princess Badi'a al-Jamal.

There was once, in days of old and in ages and times long
told, a King in Egypt called Asim bin Safwán,[FN#354] who was
a liberal and beneficent sovran, venerable and majestic. He
owned many cities and sconces and fortresses and troops and
warriors and had a Wazir named Fáris bin Sálih,[FN#355] and he
and all his subjects worshipped the sun and the fire, instead
of the All-powerful Sire, the Glorious, the Victorious. Now
this King was become a very old man, weakened and wasted with
age and sickness and decrepitude; for he had lived an hundred
and fourscore years and had no child, male or female, by
reason whereof he was ever in cark and care from morning to
night and from night to morn. It so happened that one day of
the days, he was sitting on the throne of his Kingship, with
his Emirs and Wazirs and Captains and Grandees in attendance
on him, according to their custom, in their several stations,
and whenever there came in an Emir, who had with him a son or
two sons, or haply three who stood at the sides of their sires
the King envied him and said in himself, "Every one of these
is happy and rejoiceth in his children, whilst I, I have no
child, and to-morrow I die and leave my reign and throne and
lands and hoards, and strangers will take them and none will
bear me in memory nor will there remain any mention of me in
the world." Then he became drowned in the sea of thought and
for the much thronging of griefs and anxieties upon his hear,
like travellers faring for the well, he shed tears and
descending from his throne, sat down upon the floor,[FN#356]
weeping and humbling himself before the Lord. Now when the
Wazir and notables of the realm and others who were present in
the assembly saw him do thus with his royal person, they
feared for their lives and let the poursuivants cry aloud to
the lieges, saying, "Hie ye to your homes and rest till the
King recover from what aileth him." So they went away, leaving
none in the presence save the Minister who, as soon as the
King came to himself, kissed ground between his hands and
said, "O King of the Age and the Time, wherefore this weeping
and wailing? Tell me who hath transgressed against thee of the
Kings or Castellans or Emirs or Grandees, and inform me who
hath thwarted thee, O my liege lord, that we may all fall on
him and tear his soul from his two sides." But he spake not
neither raised his head; whereupon the Minister kissed ground
before him a second time and said to him, "O Master,[FN#357] I
am even as thy son and thy slave, nay, I have reared thee; yet
know I not the cause of thy cark and chagrin and of this thy
case; and who should know but I who should stand in my stead
between thy hands? Tell me therefore why this weeping and
wherefore thine affliction." Nevertheless, the King neither
opened his mouth nor raised his head, but ceased not to weep
and cry with a loud crying and lament with exceeding
lamentation and ejaculate, "Alas!" The Wazir took patience
with him awhile, after which he said to him, "Except thou tell
me the cause of this thine affliction, I will set this sword
to my heart and will slay myself before thine eyes, rather
than see thee thus distressed." Then King Asim raised his head
and, wiping away his tears, said, "O Minister of good counself
and experience, leave me to my care and my chagrin, for that
which is in my heart of sorrow sufficeth me." But Faris said,
"Tell me, O King, the cause of this thy weeping, haply Allah
will appoint thee relief at my hands."--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Fifty-ninth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
Wazir said to King Asim, "Tell me the cause of this thy
weeping: haply Allah shall appoint thee relief at my hands."
Replied the King, "O Wazir, I weep not for monies nor horses
nor kingdoms nor aught else, but that I am become an old man,
yea, very old, nigh upon an hundred and fourscore years of
age, and I have not been blessed with a child, male or female;
so, when I die, they will bury me and my trace will be effaced
and my name cut off; the stranger will take my throne and
reign and none will ever make mention of my being." Rejoined
the Minister Faris, "O King of the Age, I am older than thou
by an hundred years yet have I never been blest with boon of
child and cease not day and night from cark and care and
concern; so how shall we do, I and thou?" Quoth Asim, "O
Wazir, hast thou no device or shift in this matter?" and quoth
the Minister, "Know, O King that I have heard of a Sovran in
the land of Sabá[FN#358] by name Solomon David-son (upon the
twain be the Peace!),[FN#359] who pretendeth to prophetship
and avoucheth that he hath a mighty Lord who can do all things
and whose kingdom is in the Heavens and who hath dominion over
all mankind and birds and beasts and over the wind and the
Jinn. Moreover, he kenneth the speech of birds and the
language of every other created thing; and withal, he calleth
all creatures to the worship of his Lord and discourseth to
them of their service. So let us send him a messenger in the
King's name and seek of him our need, beseeching him to put up
prayer to his Lord, that He vouchsafe each of us boon of
issue. If his Faith be soothfast and his Lord Omnipotent, He
will assuredly bless each of us with a child male or female,
and if the thing thus fall out, we will enter his faith and
worship his Lord; else will we take patience and devise us
another device." The King cried, "This is well seen, and my
breast is braodened by this thy speech; but where shall we
find a messenger befitting this grave matter, for that this
Solomon is no Kinglet and the approaching him is no light
affair? Indeed, I will send him none, on the like of this
matter, save thyself; for thou art ancient and versed in all
manner affairs and the like of thee is the like of myself;
wherefore I desire that thou weary thyself and journey to him
and occupy thyself sedulously with accomplishing this matter,
so haply solace may be at thy hand." The Minister said, "I
hear and I obey; but rise thou forthwith and seat thee upon
the throne, so the Emirs and Lords of the realm and officers
and the lieges may enter applying themselves to thy service,
according to their custom; for they all went away from thee,
troubled at heart on thine account. Then will I go out and set
forth on the Sovran's errand." So the King arose forthright
and sat down on the throne of his kingship, whilst the Wazir
went out and said to the Chamberlain, "Bid the folk proceed to
their service, as of their wont." Accordingly the troops and
Captains and Lords of the land entered, after they had spread
the tables and ate and drank and withdrew as was their wont,
after which the Wazir Faris went forth from King Asim and,
repairing to his own house, equipped himself for travel and
returned to the King, who opened to him the treasuries and
provided him with rarities and things of price and rich stuffs
and gear without compare, such as nor Emir nor Wazir hath
power to possess. Moreover, King Asim charged him to accost
Solomon with reverence, foregoing him with the salam, but not
exceeding in speech; "and (continued he) then do thou ask of
him thy need, and if he say 'tis granted, return to us in
haste, for I shall be awaiting thee." Accordingly, the
Minister kissed hands and took the presents and setting out,
fared on night and day, till he came within fifteen days'
journey of Saba. Meanwhile Allah (extolled and exalted be He!)
inspired Solomon the son of David (the Peace be upon both!)
and said to him, "O Solomon, the King of Egypt sendeth unto
thee his Chief Wazir, with a present of rarities and such and
such things of price; so do thou also despatch thy Counsellor
Asaf bin Barkhiyá to meet him with honour and with victual at
the halting-places; and when he cometh to thy presence, say
unto him, 'Verily, thy King hath sent thee in quest of this
and that and thy business is thus and thus.' Then do thou
propound to him The Saving Faith."[FN#360] Whereupon Solomon
bade his Wazir make ready a company of his retainers and go
forth to meet the Minister of Egypt with honour and sumptuous
provision at the halting-places. So Asaf made ready all that
was needed for their entertainment and setting out, fared on
till he fell in with Faris and accosted him with the salam,
honouring him and his company with exceeding honour. Moreover,
he brought them provaunt and provender at the halting-places
and said to them, "Well come and welcome and fair welcome to
the coming guests! Rejoice in the certain winning of your
wish! Be your souls of good cheer and your eyes cool and clear
and your breasts be broadened!" Quoth Faris in himself, "Who
acquainted him with this?"; and he said to Asaf,[FN#361] "O my
lord, and who gave thee to know of us and our need?" "It was
Solomon son of David (on whom be the Peace!), told us of
this!" "And who told our lord Solomon?" "The Lord of the
heaven and the earth told him, the God of all creatures!"
"This is none other than a mighty God!" "And do ye not worship
him?" "We worship the Sun, and prostrate ourselves thereto."
"O Wazir Faris, the sun is but a star of the stars created by
Allah (extolled and exalted be He!), and Allah forbid that it
should be a Lord! Because whiles it riseth and whiles it
setteth, but our Lord is ever present and never absent and He
over all things is Omnipotent!" Then they journeyed on a
little while till they came to the land Saba and drew near the
throne of Solomon David-son, (upon the twain be peace!), who
commanded his hosts of men and Jinn and others[FN#362] to form
line on their road. So the beasts of the sea and the elephants
and leopards and lynxes and all beasts of the land ranged
themselves in espalier on either side of the way, after their
several kinds, and similarly the Jinn drew out in two ranks,
appearing all to mortal eyes without concealment, in divers
forms grisly and gruesome. So they lined the road on either
hand, and the birds bespread their wings over the host of
creatures to shade them, warbling one to other in all manner
of voices and tongues. Now when the people of Egypt came to
this terrible array, they dreaded it and durst not proceed;
but Asaf said to them, "Pass on amidst them and walk forward
and fear them not: for they are slaves of Solomon son of
David, and none of them will harm you." So saying, he entered
between the ranks, followed by all the folk and amongst them
the Wazir of Egypt and his company, fearful: and they ceased
not faring forwards till they reached the city, where they
lodged the embassy in the guest-house and for the space of
three days entertained them sumptuously, entreating them with
the utmost honour. Then they carried them before Solomon,
prophet of Allah (on whom be the Peace!), and when entering
they would have kissed the earth before him; but he forbade
them, saying, "It befitteth not a man prostrate himself to
earth save before Allah (to whom belong Might and Majesty!),
Creator of Earth and Heaven and all other things; wherefore,
whosoever of you hath a mint to sit let him be seated in my
service, or to stand, let him stand, but let none stand to do
me worship." So they obeyed him and the Wazir Faris and some
of his intimates sat down, whilst certain of the lesser sort
remained afoot to wait on him. When they had sat awhile, the
servants spread the tables and they all, men and beasts, ate
their sufficiency.[FN#363] Then Solomon bade Faris expound his
errand, that it might be accomplished, saying, "Speak and hide
naught of that wherefor thou art come; for I know why ye come
and what is your errand, which is thus and thus. The King of
Egypt who despatched thee, Asim hight, hath become a very old
man, infirm, decrepit; and Allah (whose name be exalted!) hath
not blessed him with offspring, male or female. So he abode in
cark and care and chagrin from morn to night and from night to
morn. It so happened that one day of the days as he sat upon
the throne of his kingship with his Emirs and Wazirs, and
Captains and Grandees in attendance on him, he saw some of
them with two sons, others with one, and others even three,
who came with their sires to do him service. So he said in
himself, of the excess of his sorrow, 'Who shall get my
kingdom after my death? Will any save a stranger take it? And
thus shall I pass out of being as though I had never been!' On
this account he became drowned in the sea of thought, until
his eyes were flooded with tears and he covered his face with
his kerchief and wept with sore weeping. Then he rose from off
his throne and sat down upon the floor wailing and lamenting
and none knew what was in heart as he grovelled in the ground
save Allah Almighty."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day
and ceased to say her permitted say.

      When it was the Seven Hundred and Sixtieth Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
Solomon David-son (upon both of whom be peace!) after
disclosing to the Wazir Faris that which had passed between
himself and his master, King Asim, said to him, "Is this that
I have told thee the truth, O Wazir?" Replied Faris, "O
prophet of Allah, this thou hast said is indeed sooth and
verity; but when we discoursed of this matter, none was with
the King and myself, nor was any ware of our case; who, then
told thee of all these things?" Answered Solomon, "They were
told to me by my Lord who knoweth whatso is concealed[FN#364]
from the eye and what is hidden in the breasts." Quoth Faris,
"O Prophet of Allah, verily this is none other than a mighty
Lord and an omnipotent God!" And he Islamized with all his
many. Then said Solomon to him, "Thou hast with thee such and
such presents and rarities;" and Faris replied "Yes." The
prophet continued, "I accept them all and give them in free
gift unto thee. So do ye rest, thou and thy company, in the
place where you have been lodging, till the fatigue of the
journey shall cease from you; and to-morrow, Inshallah! thine
errand shall be accomplished to the uttermost, if it be the
will of Allah the Most High, Lord of heaven and earth and the
light which followeth the gloom; Creator of all creatures." So
Faris returned to his quarters and passed the night in deep
thought. But when morning morrowed he presented himself before
the Lord Solomon, who said to him, "When thou returnest to
King Asim bin Safwan and you twain are re-united, do ye both
go forth some day armed with bow, bolts and brand, and fare to
such a place, where ye shall find a certain tree. Mount upon
it and sit silent until the midhour between noon-prayer and
that of mid-afternoon, when the noontide heat hath cooled;
then descend and look at the foot of the tree, whence ye will
see two serpents come forth, one with a head like an ape's and
the other with a head like an Ifrit's. Shoot them ye twain
with bolts and kill them both; then cut off a span's length
from their heads and the like from their tails and throw it
away. The rest of the flesh cook and cook well and give it to
your wives to eat: then lie with them that night and, by
Allah's leave, they shall conceive and bear male children."
Moreover, he gave him a seal-ring, a sword, and a wrapper
containing two tunics[FN#365] embroidered with gold and
jewels, saying, "O Wazir Faris, when your sons grow up to
man's estate, give to each of them one of these tunics." Then
said he, "In the name of Allah! May the Almighty accomplish
your desire! And now nothing remaineth for thee but to depart,
relying on the blessing of the Lord the Most High, for the
King looketh for thy return night and day and his eye is ever
gazing on the road." So the Wazir advanced to the prophet
Solomon son of David (upon both of whom be the Peace!) and
farewelled him and fared forth from him after kissing his
hands. Rejoicing in the accomplishment of his errand he
travelled on with all diligence night and day, and ceased not
wayfaring till he drew near to Cairo, when he despatched one
of his servants to acquaint King Asim with his approach and
the successful issue of his journey; which when the King heard
he joyed with exceeding joy, he and his Grandees and Officers
and troops especially in the Wazir's safe return. When they
met, the Minister dismounted and, kissing ground before the
King, gave him the glad news anent the winning of his wish in
fullest fashion; after which he expounded the True Faith to
him, and the King and all his people embraced Al-Islam with
much joy and gladness. Then said Asim to his Wazir, "Go home
and rest this night and a week to boot; then go to the
Hammambath and come to me, that I may inform thee of what we
shall have to consider." So Faris kissed ground and withdrew,
with his suite, pages and eunuchs, to his house, where he
rested eight days; after which he repaired to the King and
related to him all that had passed between Solomon and
himself, adding, "Do thou rise and go forth with me alone."
Then the King and the Minister took two bows and two bolts and
repairing to the tree indicated by Solomon, clomb up into it
and there sat in silence till the mid-day heat had passed away
and it was near upon the hour of mid-afternoon prayer, when
they descended and looking about them saw a
serpent-couple[FN#366] issue from the roots of the tree. The
King gazed at them, marvelling to see them ringed with collars
of gold about their necks, and said to Faris, "O Wazir, verily
these snakes have golden torques! By Allah, this is forsooth a
rare thing! Let us catch them and set them in a cage and keep
them to look upon." But the Minister said, "These hath Allah
created for profitable use;[FN#367] so do thou shoot one and I
will shoot the other with these our shafts." Accordingly they
shot at them with arrows and slew them; after which they cut
off a span's length of their heads and tails and threw it
away. Then they carried the rest to the King's palace, where
they called the kitchener and giving him the flesh said,
"Dress this meat daintily, with onion-sauce[FN#368] and
spices, and ladle it out into two saucers and bring them
hither at such an hour, without delay!"--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Sixty-first Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
King and the Wazir gave the serpents' flesh to the kitchener,
saying, "Cook it and ladle it out into two saucers and bring
them hither without delay!"; the cook took the meat and went
with it to the kitchen, where he cooked it and dressed it in
skilful fashion with a mighty fine onion-sauce and hot spices;
after which he ladled it out into two saucers and set them
before the King and the Wazir, who took each a dish and gave
their wives to eat of the meat. Then they went in that night
unto them and knew them carnally, and by the good pleasure of
Allah (extolled and exalted be He!) and His all-might and
furtherance, they both conceived on one and the same night.
The King abode three months, troubled in mind and saying in
himself, "I wonder whether this thing will prove true or
untrue"; till one day, as the lady his Queen was sitting, the
child stirred in her womb and she felt a pain and her colour
changed. So she knew that she was with child and calling the
chief of her eunuchs, gave him this command, "Go to the King,
wherever he may be and congratulate him saying, 'O King of the
Age, I bring thee the glad tidings that our lady's pregnancy
is become manifest, for the child stirreth in her womb'." So
the eunuch went out in haste, rejoicing, and finding the King
alone, with cheek on palm, pondering this thing, kissed ground
between his hands and acquainted him with his wife's
pregnancy. When the King heard his words, he sprang to his
feet and in the excess of his joy, he kissed[FN#369] the
eunuch's hands and head and doffing the clothes he had on,
gave them to him. Moreover, he said to those who were present
in his assembly, "Whoso loveth me, let him bestow largesse
upon this man."[FN#370] And they gave him of coin and jewels
and jacinths and horses and mules and estates and gardens what
was beyond count or calculation. At that moment in came the
Wazir Faris and said to Asim, "O my master, but now I was
sitting alone at home and absorbed in thought, pondering the
matter of the pregnancy and saying to myself, 'Would I wot an
this thing be true and whether my wife Khátún[FN#371] have
conceived or not!' when, behold, an eunuch came in to me and
brought me the glad tidings that his lady was indeed pregnant,
for that her colour was changed and the child stirred in her
womb; whereupon, in my joy, I doffed all the clothes I had on
and gave them to him, together with a thousand dinars, and
made him Chief of the Eunuchs." Rejoined the King, "O
Minister, Allah (extolled and exalted be He!) hath, of His
grace and bounty and goodness, and beneficence, made gift to
us of the True Faith and brought us out of night into light,
and hath been bountiful to us, of His favour and benevolence;
wherefore I am minded to solace the folk and cause them to
rejoice." Quoth Faris, "Do what thou wilt,[FN#372]" and quoth
the King, "O Wazir, go down without stay or delay and set free
all who are in the prisons, both criminals and debtors, and
whoso transgresseth after this, we will requite as he
deserveth even to the striking off of his head. Moreover, we
forgive the people three years' taxes, and do thou set up
kitchens all around about the city walls[FN#373] and bid the
kitcheners hang over the fire all kinds of cooking pots and
cook all manner of meats, continuing their cooking night and
day, and let all comers, both of our citizens and of the
neighbouring countries, far and near, eat and drink and carry
to their houses. And do thou command the people to make
holiday and decorate the city seven days and shut not the
taverns night nor day[FN#374]; and if thou delay I will behead
thee[FN#375]!" So he did as the King bade him and the folk
decorated the city and citadel and bulwarks after the
goodliest fashion and, donning their richest attire, passed
their time in feasting and sporting and making merry, till the
days of the Queen's pregnancy were accomplished and she was
taken, one night, with labour pains hard before dawn. Then the
King bade summon all the Olema and astronomers, mathematicians
and men of learning, astrologers, scientists and scribes in
the city, and they assembled and sat awaiting the throwing of
a bead into the cup[FN#376] which was to be the signal to the
Astrophils, as well as to the nurses and attendants, that the
child was born. Presently, as they sat in expectation, the
Queen gave birth to a boy like a slice of the moon when
fullest and the astrologers fell to calculating and noted his
star and nativity and drew his horoscope. Then, on being
summoned they rose and, kissing the earth before the King,
gave him the glad tidings, saying, "In very sooth the new-born
child is of happy augury and born under an auspicious aspect,
but" they added, "in the first of his life there will befall
him a thing which we fear to name before the King." Quoth
Asim, "Speak and fear not;" so quoth they, "O King, this boy
will fare forth from this land and journey in strangerhood and
suffer shipwreck and hardship and prisonment and distress, and
indeed he hath before him the sorest of sufferings; but he
shall free him of them in the end, and win to his wish and
live the happiest of lives the rest of his days, ruling over
subjects with a strong hand and having dominion in the land,
despite enemies and enviers." Now when the King heard the
astrologers' words, he said, "The matter is a mystery; but all
that Allah Almighty hath written for the creature of good and
bad cometh to pass and needs must betide him from this day to
that a thousand solaces." So he paid no heed to their words or
attention to their speeches but bestowed on them robes of
honour, as well upon all who were present, and dismissed them;
when, behold, in came Faris the Wazir and kissed the earth
before the King in huge joy, saying, "Good tidings, O King! My
wife hath but now given birth to a son, as he were a slice of
the moon." Replied Asim, "O Wazir, go, bring thy wife and
child hither, that she may abide with my wife in my palace,
and they shall bring up the two boys together." So Faris
fetched his wife and son and they committed the two children
to the nurses wet and dry. And after seven days had passed
over them, they brought them before the King and said to him,
"What wilt thou name the twain?" Quoth he, "Do ye name them;"
but quoth they, "None nameth the son save his sire." So he
said, "Name my son Sayf al-Muluk, after my grandfather, and
the Minister's son Sa'id[FN#377] Then he bestowed robes of
honour on the nurses wet and dry and said to them, "Be ye
ruthful over them and rear them after the goodliest fashion."
So they brought up the two boys diligently till they reached
the age of five, when the King committed them to a doctor of
Sciences[FN#378] who taught them to read the Koran and write.
When they were ten years old, King Asim gave them in charge to
masters, who instructed them in cavalarice and shooting with
shafts and lunging with lance and play of Polo and the like
till, by the time they were fifteen years old, they were
clever in all manner of martial exercises, nor was there one
to view with them in horsemanship, for each of them would do
battle with a thousand men and make head against them single
handed. So when they came to years of discretion, whenever
King Asim looked on them he joyed in them with exceeding joy;
and when they attained their twenty-fifth year, he took Faris
his Minister apart one day and said to him, "O Wazir, I am
minded to consult with thee concerning a thing I desire to
do." Replied he, "Whatever thou hast a mind to do, do it; for
thy judgment is blessed." Quoth the King, "O Wazir, I am
become a very old and decrepit man, sore stricken in years,
and I desire to take up my abode in an oratory, that I may
worship Allah Almighty and give my kingdom and Sultanate to my
son Sayf al-Muluk for that he is grown a goodly youth, perfect
in knightly exercises and intellectual attainments, polite
letters and gravity, dignity and the art of government. What
sayst thou, O Minister, of this project?" And quoth the
counsellor, "Right indeed is thy rede: the idea is a blessed
and a fortunate, and if thou do this, I will do the like and
my son Sa'id shall be the Prince's Wazir, for he is a comely
young man and complete in knowledge and judgment. Thus will
the two youths be together, and we will order their affair and
neglect not their case, but guide them to goodness and in the
way that is straight." Quoth the King, "Write letters and send
them by couriers to all the countries and cities and sconces
and fortresses that be under our hands, bidding their chiefs
be present on such a day at the Horse-course of the
Elephant."[FN#379] So the Wazir went out without stay or delay
and despatched letters of this purport to all the deputies and
governors of fortresses and others under King Asim; and he
commanded also that all in the city should be present, far and
near, high and low. When the appointed time drew nigh, King
Asim bade the tent-pitchers plant pavilions in the midst of
the Champ-de-Mars and decorate them after the most sumptuous
fashion and set up the great throne whereon he sat not but on
festivals. And they at once did his bidding. Then he and all
his Nabobs and Chamberlains and Emirs sallied forth, and he
commanded proclamation be made to the people, saying, "In the
name of Allah, come forth to the Maydán!" So all the Emirs and
Wazirs and Governors of provinces and Feudatories[FN#380] came
forth to the place of assembly and, entering the royal
pavilion, addressed themselves to the service of the King as
was their wont, and abode in their several stations, some
sitting and others standing, till all the people were gathered
together, when the King bade spread the tables and they ate
and drank and prayed for him. Then he commanded the
Chamberlains[FN#381] to proclaim to the people that they
should not depart: so they made proclamation to them, saying,
"Let none of you fare hence till he have heard the King's
words!" So they withdrew the curtains of the royal pavilion
and the King said, "Whoso loveth me, let him remain till he
have heard my speech!" Whereupon all the folk sat down in mind
tranquil after they had been fearful, saying, "Wherefore have
we been summoned by the King?" Then the Sovran rose to his
feet, and making them swear that none would stir from his
stead, said to them, "O ye Emirs and Wazirs and Lords of the
land; the great and the small of you, and all ye who are
present of the people; say me, wot ye not that this kingdom
was an inheritance to me from my fathers and forefathers?"
Answered they, "Yes, O King we all know that." And he
continued, "I and you, we all worshipped the sun and moon,
till Allah (extolled and exalted be He!) vouchsafed us the
knowledge of the True Faith and brought us out of darkness
unto light, and directed us to the religion of Al-Islam. Know
that I am become a very old man, feeble and decrepit, and I
desire to take up my abode in a hermitage[FN#382] there to
worship Allah Almighty and crave His pardon for past offenses
and make this my son Sayf al-Muluk ruler. Ye know full well
that he is a comely youth, eloquent, liberal, learned, versed
in affairs, intelligent, equitable; wherefore I am minded
presently to resign to him my realm and to make him ruler over
you and seat him as Sultan in my stead, whilst I give myself
to solitude and to the worship of Allah in an oratory, and my
son and heir shall judge between you. What say ye then, all of
you?" Thereupon they all rose and kissing ground before him,
made answer with "Hearing and obedience," saying, "O our King
and our defender an thou should set over us one of thy
blackamoor slaves we would obey him and hearken to thy word
and accept thy command: how much more then with thy son Sayf
al-Muluk? Indeed, we accept of him and approve him on our eyes
and heads!" So King Asim bin Safwan arose and came down from
his seat and seating his son on the great throne,[FN#383] took
the crown from his own head and set it on the head of Sayf
al-Muluk and girt his middle with the royal girdle.[FN#384]
Then he sat down beside his son on the throne of his kingship,
whilst the Emirs and Wazirs and Lords of the land and all the
rest of the folk rose and kissed ground before him, saying,
"Indeed, he is worthy of the kingship and hath better right to
it than any other." Then the Chamberlains made proclamation
crying, "Amán! Amán! Safety! Safety!" and offered up prayers
for his victory and prosperity. And Sayf al-Muluk scattered
gold and silver on the heads of the lieges one and all.--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Sixty-second Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
King Asim seated his son, Sayf al-Muluk, upon the throne and
all the people prayed for his victory and prosperity, the
youth scattered gold and silver on the heads of the lieges,
one and all, and conferred robes of honour and gave gifts and
largesse. Then, after a moment, the Wazir Faris arose and
kissing ground said, "O Emirs, O Grandees, ye ken that I am
Wazir and that my Wazirate dateth from old, before the
accession of King Asim bin Safwan, who hath now divested
himself of the Kingship and made his son King in his stead?"
Answered they, "Yes, we know that thy Wazirate is from sire
after grandsire." He continued, "And now in my turn I divest
myself of office and invest this my son Sa'id, for he is
intelligent, quick-witted, sagacious. What say ye all?" And
they replied, "None is worthy to be Wazir to King Sayf
al-Muluk but thy son, Sa'id, and they befit each other." With
this Faris arose and taking off his Wazirial turband, set it
on his son's head and eke laid his ink-case of office before
him, whilst the Chamberlains and the Emirs said, "Indeed, he
is deserving of the Wazirship" and the Heralds cried aloud,
"Mubárak! Mubarak!--Felix sit et faustus!" After this, King
Asim and Faris the Minister arose and, opening the royal
treasuries, conferred magnificent robes of honour on all the
Viceroys and Emirs and Wazirs and Lords of the land and other
folk and gave salaries and benefactions and wrote them new
mandates and diplomas with the signatures of King Sayf
al-Muluk and his Wazir Sa'id. Moreover, he made distribution
of money to the men-at-arms and gave guerdons, and the
provincials abode in the city a full week ere they departed
each to his own country and place. Then King Asim carried his
son and his Wazir Sa'id back to the palace which was in the
city and bade the treasurer bring the seal-ring and
signet,[FN#385] sword and wrapper; which being done, he said
to the two young men, "O my sons, come hither and let each of
you choose two of these things and take them." The first to
make choice was Sayf al-Muluk, who put out his hand and took
the ring and the wrapper, whilst Sa'id took the sword and the
signet; after which they both kissed the King's hands and went
away to their lodging. Now Sayf al-Muluk opened not the
wrapper to see what was therein, but threw it on the couch
where he and Sa'id slept by night, for it was their habit to
lie together. Presently they spread them the bed and the two
lay down with a pair of wax candles burning over them and
slept till midnight, when Sayf al-Muluk awoke and, seeing the
bundle at his head, said in his mind, "I wonder what thing of
price is in this wrapper my father gave me!" So he took it
together with a candle and descended from the couch leaving
Sa'id sleeping and carried the bundle into a closet, where he
opened it and found within a tunic of the fabric of the Jann.
He spread it out and saw on the lining[FN#386] of the back,
the portraiture wroughten in gold of a girl and marvellous was
her loveliness; and no sooner had he set eyes on the figure
than his reason fled his head and he became Jinn-mad for love
thereof, so that he fell down in a swoon and presently
recovering, began to weep and lament, beating his face and
breast and kissing her. And he recited these verses,

"Love, at the first, is a spurt of spray[FN#387] * Which Doom
     disposes and Fates display;
Till, when deep diveth youth in passion-sea * Unbearable
     sorrows his soul waylay."

And also these two couplets,

"Had I known of Love in what fashion he * Robbeth heart and
     soul I had guarded me:
But of malice prepense I threw self away * Unwitting of Love
     what his nature be."

And Sayf al-Muluk ceased not to weep and wail and beat face
and breast, till Sa'id awoke and missing him from the bed and
seeing but a single candle, said to himself, "Whither is Sayf
al-Muluk gone?" Then he took the other candle and went round
about the palace, till he came upon the closet where he saw
the Prince lying at full length, weeping with sore weeping and
lamenting aloud. So he said to him, "O my brother, for what
cause are these tears and what hath befallen thee? Speak to me
and tell me the reason thereof." But Sayf al-Muluk spoke not
neither raised his head and continued to weep and wail and
beat hand on breast. Seeing him in this case quoth Sa'id, "I
am thy Wazir and thy brother, and we were reared together, I
and thou; so an thou do not unburden thy breast and discover
thy secret to me, to whom shalt thou reveal it and disclose
its cause?" And he went on to humble himself and kiss the
ground before him a full hour, whilst Sayf al-Muluk paid no
heed to him nor answered him a word, but gave not over to
weeping. At last, being affrighted at his case and weary of
striving with him, he went out and fetched a sword, with which
he returned to the closet, and setting the point to his own
breast, said to the Prince, "Rouse thee, O my brother! An thou
tell me not what aileth thee, I will slay myself and see thee
no longer in this case." Whereupon Sayf al-Muluk raised his
head towards the Wazir and answered him, "O my brother, I am
ashamed to tell thee what hath betided me;" but Sa'id said, "I
conjure thee by Allah, Lord of Lords, Liberator of
Necks,[FN#388] Causer of causes, the One, the Ruthful, the
Gift-full, the Bountiful, that thou tell me what aileth thee
and be not abashed at me, for I am thy slave and thy Minister
and counsellor in all thine affairs!" Quoth Sayf al-Muluk,
"Come and look at this likeness." So Sa'id looked at it awhile
and considering it straitly, behold, he saw written, as a
crown over its head, in letters of pearl, these words, "This
is the counterfeit presentment of Badi'a al-Jamal, daughter of
Shahyál bin Shárukh, a King of the Kings of the true-believing
Jann who have taken up their abode in the city of Babel and
sojourn in the garden of Iram, Son of 'Ad the
Greater.'"[FN#389]--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day
and ceased saying her permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Sixty-third Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
when Sa'id, son of the Wazir Faris, had read to Sayf al-Muluk,
son of King Asim, the writ on the tunic, which showed the
portraiture of Badi'a al-Jamal, daughter of Shahyal bin
Sharukh, a King of the Kings of the Moslem Jinns dwelling in
Babel-city and in the Garden of Iram, son of 'Ad the Greater,
he cried, "O my brother, knowest thou of what woman this is
the presentment, that we may seek for her?" Sayf al-Muluk
replied, "No, by Allah, O my brother, I know her not!" and
Sa'id rejoined, "Come, read this writing on the crown." So
Sayf al-Muluk read it and cried out from his heart's core and
very vitals, saying, "Alas! Alas! Alas!" Quoth Sa'id, "O my
brother, an the original of the portrait exist and her name be
Badi'a al-Jamal, and she abide in the world, I will hasten to
seek her, that thou mayst win thy will without delay. But,
Allah upon thee, O my brother, leave this weeping and ascend
thy throne, that the Officers of the State may come in to do
their service to thee, and in the undurn, do thou summon the
merchants and fakirs and travellers and pilgrims and paupers
and ask of them concerning this city and the garden of Iram;
haply by the help and blessing of Allah (extolled and exalted
be He!), some one of them shall direct us thither." So, when
it was day, Sayf al-Muluk went forth and mounted the throne,
clasping the tunic in his arms, for he could neither stand nor
sit without it, nor would sleep visit him save it were with
him; and the Emirs and Wazirs and Lords and Officers came in
to him. When the Divan was complete all being assembled in
their places he said to his Minister, "Go forth to them and
tell them that the King hath been suddenly struck by sickness
and he, by Allah, hath passed the night in ill case." So Sa'id
fared forth and told the folk what he said; which when old
King Asim heard, he was concerned for his son and, summoning
the physicians and astrologers, carried them in to Sayf
al-Muluk. They looked at him and prescribed him ptisanes and
diet-drinks, simples and medicinal waters and wrote him
characts and incensed him with Nadd and aloes-wood and
ambergris three days' space; but his malady persisted three
months, till King Asim was wroth with the leaches and said to
them, "Woe to you, O dogs! What? Are all of you impotent to
cure my son? Except ye heal him forthright, I will put the
whole of you to death." The Archiater replied, "O King of the
Age, in very sooth we know that this is thy son and thou
wottest that we fail not of diligence in tending a stranger;
so how much more with medicining thy son? But thy son is
afflicted with a malady hard to heal, which, if thou desire to
know, we will discover it to thee." Quoth Asim, "What then
find ye to be the malady of my son?"; and quoth the leach, "O
King of the Age, thy son is in love and he loveth one to whose
enjoyment he hath no way of access." At this the King was
wroth and asked, "How know ye that my son is in love and how
came love to him?"; they answered, "Enquire of his Wazir and
brother Sa'id for he knoweth his case." The King rose and
repaired to his private closet and summoning Sa'id said to
him, "Tell me the truth of thy brother's malady." But Sa'id
replied, "I know it not." So King Asim said to the Sworder,
"Take Sa'id and bind his eyes and strike his neck." Whereupon
Sa'id feared for himself and cried, "O King of the Age, grant
me immunity." Replied the King, "Speak and thou shalt have
it." "Thy son is in love." "With whom is he in love?" "With a
King's daughter of the Jann." "And where could he have espied
a daughter of the Jinns?" "Her portrait is wroughten on the
tunic that was in the bundle given thee by Solomon, prophet of
Allah!" When the King heard this, he rose, and going in to
Sayf al-Muluk, said to him, "O my son, what hath afflicted
thee? What is this portrait whereof thou art enamoured? And
why didst thou not tell me." He replied, "O my sire, I was
ashamed to name this to thee and could not bring myself to
discover aught thereof to any one at all; but now thou knowest
my case, look how thou mayest do to cure me." Rejoined his
father, "What is to be done? Were this one of the daughters of
men we might devise a device for coming at her; but she is a
King's daughter of the Jinns and who can woo and win her, save
it be Solomon David-son, and hardly he?[FN#390] However, O my
son, do thou arise forthright and hearten thy heart and take
horse and ride out a-hunting or to weapon-play in the Maydan.
Divert thyself with eating and drinking and put away cark and
care from thy heart, and I will bring thee an hundred maids of
the daughters of Kings; for thou hast no need to the daughters
of the Jann, over whom we lack controul and of kind other than
ours." But he said, "I cannot renounce her nor will I seek
other than her." Asked King Asim, "How then shall we do, O my
son?"; and Sayf al-Muluk answered, "Bring us all the merchants
and travellers and wanderers in the city, that we may question
them thereof. Peradventure, Allah will lead us to the city of
Babel and the garden of Iram." So King Asim bade summon all
the merchants in the city and strangers and seacaptains and,
as each came, enquired of him anent the city of Babel and its
peninsula[FN#391] and the garden of Iram; but none of them
knew these places nor could any give him tidings thereof.
However, when the séance broke up, one of them said, "O King
of the Age, an thou be minded to ken this thing, up and hie
thee to the land of China; for it hath a vast city[FN#392] and
a safe, wherein are store of rarities and things of price and
folk of all kinds; and thou shalt not come to the knowledge of
this city and garden but from its folk; it may be one of them
will direct thee to that thou seekest." Whereupon quoth Sayf
al-Muluk, "O my sire, equip me a ship, that I may fare to the
China-land; and do thou rule the reign in my stead." Replied
the old King, "O my son, abide thou on the throne of thy
kingship and govern thy commons, and I myself will make the
voyage to China and ask for thee of the city of Babel and the
garden of Iram." But Sayf al-Muluk rejoined, "O my sire, in
very sooth this affair concerneth me and none can search after
it like myself: so, come what will, an thou give me leave to
make the voyage, I will depart and wander awhile. If I find
trace or tidings of her, my wish will be won, and if not,
belike the voyage will broaden my breast and recruit my
courage; and haply by foreign travel my case will be made easy
to me, and if I live, I shall return to thee safe and
sound."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to
say her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Sixty-fourth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Sayf
al-Muluk said to his sire King Asim, "Equip me a ship that I
may fare therein to the China-land and search for the object
of my desire. If I live I shall return to thee safe and
sound." The old King looked at his son and saw nothing for it
but to do what he desired; so he gave him the leave he wanted
and fitted him forty ships, manned with twenty thousand armed
Mamelukes, besides servants, and presented him with great
plenty of money and necessaries and warlike gear, as much as
he required. When the ships were laden with water and victual,
weapons and troops, Sayf al-Muluk's father and mother
farewelled him and King Asim said, "Depart, O my son, and
travel in weal and health and safety. I commend thee to Him
with Whom deposits are not lost."[FN#393] So the Prince bade
adieu to his parents and embarked, with his brother Sa'id and
they weighed anchor and sailed till they came to the City of
China. When the Chinamen heard of the coming of forty ships,
full of armed men and stores, weapons and hoards, they made
sure that these were enemies come to battle with them and
seige them; so they bolted the gates of the town and made
ready the mangonels.[FN#394] But Sayf al-Muluk, hearing of
this, sent two of his Chief Mamelukes to the King of China,
bidding them say to him, "This is Sayf al-Muluk, son of King
Asim of Egypt, who is come to thy city as a guest, to divert
himself by viewing thy country awhile, and not for conquest or
contention; wherefore, an thou wilt receive him, he will come
ashore to thee; and if not he will return and will not
disquiet thee nor the people of thy capital." They presented
themselves at the city gates and said, "We are messengers from
King Sayf al-Muluk." Whereupon the townsfolk opened the gates
and carried them to their King, whose name was Faghfúr[FN#395]
Shah and between whom and King Asim there had erst been
acquaintance. So, when he heard that the new-comer Prince was
the son of King Asim, he bestowed robes of honour on the
messengers and, bidding open the gates, made ready guest-gifts
and went forth in person with the chief officers of his realm,
to meet Sayf al-Muluk, and the two Kings embraced. Then
Faghfur said to his guest, "Well come and welcome and fair
cheer to him who cometh to us! I am thy slave and the slave of
thy sire: my city is between thy hands to command and whatso
thou seekest shall be brought before thee." Then he presented
him with the guest-gifts and victual for the folk at their
stations; and they took horse, with the Wazir Sa'id and the
chiefs of their officers and the rest of their troops, and
rode from the sea-shore to the city, which they entered with
cymbals clashing and drums beating in token of rejoicing.
There they abode in the enjoyment of fair entertainment for
forty days, at the end of which quoth the King of China to
Sayf al-Muluk, "O son of my brother, how is thy case[FN#396]?
Doth my country please thee?"; and quoth Sayf al-Muluk, "May
Allah Almighty long honour it with thee, O King!" Said
Faghfur, "Naught hath brought thee hither save some need which
hath occurred to thee; and whatso thou desirest of my country
I will accomplish it to the." Replied Sayf al-Muluk, "O King,
my case is a wondrous, "and told him how he had fallen in love
with the portrait of Badi'a al-Jamal, and wept bitter tears.
When the King of China heard his story, he wept for pity and
solicitude for him and cried, "And what wouldst thou have now,
O Sayf al-Muluk?"; and he rejoined, "I would have thee bring
me all the wanderers and travellers, the seafarers and
sea-captains, that I may question them of the original of this
portrait; perhaps one of them may give me tidings of her." So
Faghfur Shah sent out his Nabobs and Chamberlains and
body-guards to fetch all the wanderers and travellers in the
land, and they brought them before the two Kings, and they
were a numerous company. Then Sayf al-Muluk questioned them of
the City of Babel and the Garden of Iram, but none of them
returned him a reply, whereupon he was bewildered and wist not
what to do; but one of the sea-captains said to him, "O
auspicious King, an thou wouldst know of this city and that
garden, up and hie thee to the Islands of the Indian
realm."[FN#397] Thereupon Sayf al-Muluk bade bring the ships;
which being done, they freighted them with vivers and water
and all that they needed, and the Prince and his Wazir
re-embarked, with all their men, after they had farewelled
King Faghfur Shah. They sailed the seas four months with a
fair wind, in safety and satisfaction till it chanced tha tone
day of the days there came out upon them a wind and the
billows buffeted them from all quarters. The rain and
hail[FN#398] descended on them and during twenty days the sea
was troubled for the violence of the wind; wherefor the ships
drave one against other and brake up, as did the
carracks[FN#399] and all on board were drowned, except Sayf
al-Muluk and some of his servants, who saved themselves in a
little cock-boat. Then the wind fell by the decree of Allah
Almighty and the sun shone out; whereupon Sayf al-Muluk opened
his eyes and seeing no sign of the ships nor aught, but sky
and sea, said to the Mamelukes who were with him, "Where are
the carracks and cock-boats and where is my brother Sa'id?"
They replied, "O King of the Age, there remain nor ships nor
boats nor those who were therein; for they are all drowned and
become food for fishes." Now when he heard this, he cried
aloud and repeated the saying which whoso saith shall not be
confounded, and it is, "There is no Majesty and there is no
Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great!" Then he fell to
buffeting his face and would have cast himself into the sea,
but his Mamelukes withheld him, saying "O King, what will this
profit thee? Thou hast brought all this on thyself; for, hadst
thou hearkened to thy father's words, naught thereof had
betided thee. But this was written from all eternity by the
will of the Creator of Souls."--And Shahrazad perceived the
dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Sixty-fifth Night,

She resume, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Sayf al-Muluk would have cast himself into the main, his
Mamelukes withheld him saying, "What will this profit thee?
Thou hast done this deed by thyself, yet was it written from
all eternity by the will of the Creator of Souls, that the
creature might accomplish that which Allah hath decreed unto
him. And indeed, at the time of thy birth, the astrologers
assured thy sire that all manner troubles should befal thee.
So there is naught for it but patience till Allah deliver us
from this our strait." Replied the Prince, "There is no
Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the
Great! Neither is there refuge nor fleeing from that which He
decreeth!" And he sighed and recited these couplets,

"By the Compassionate, I'm dazed about my case for lo! *
     Troubles and griefs beset me sore; I know not whence they
I will be patient, so the folk, that I against a thing *
     Bitt'rer than very aloes' self,[FN#400] endurèd have, may
Less bitter than my patience is the taste of aloes-juice; *
     I've borne with patience what's more hot than coals with
     fire aglow.
In this my trouble what resource have I, save to commit * My
     case to Him who orders all that is, for weal or woe?"

Then he became drowned in the depth of thoughts and his tears
ran down upon his cheeks like torrent-rain; and he slept a
while of the day, after which he awoke and sought of food
somewhat. So they set meat before him and he ate his
sufficiency, till they removed the food from before him,
whilst the boat drove on with them they knew not whither it
was wandering. It drifted with them at the will of the winds
and the waves, night and day a great while, till their victual
was spent and they saw themselves shent and were reduced to
extreme hunger and thirst and exhaustion, when behold,
suddenly they sighted an island from afar and the breezes
wafted them on, till they came thither. Then, making the
cock-boat fast to the coast and leaving one therein to guard
it, they fared on into the island, where they found abundance
of fruits of all colours and ate of them till they were
satisfied. Presently, they saw a person sitting among those
trees and he was long-faced, of strange favour and white of
beard and body. He called to one of the Mamelukes by his name,
saying, "Eat not of these fruits, for they are unripe; but
come hither to me, that I may give thee to eat of the best and
the ripest." The slave looked at him and thought that he was
one of the shipwrecked, who had made his way to that island;
so he joyed with exceeding joy at sight of him and went close
up to him, knowing not what was decreed to him in the Secret
Purpose nor what was writ upon his brow. But, when he drew
near, the stranger in human shape leapt upon him, for he was a
Marid,[FN#401] and riding upon his shoulderblades and twisting
one of his legs about his neck, let the other hang down upon
his back, saying, "Walk on, fellow; for there is no escape for
thee from me and thou art become mine ass." Thereupon the
Mameluke fell a-weeping and cried out to his comrades, "Alas,
my lord! Flee ye forth of this wood and save yourselves, for
one of the dwellers therein hath mounted on my shoulders, and
the rest seek you, desiring to ride you like me."When they
heard these words, all fled down to the boat and pushed off to
sea; whilst the islanders followed them into the water,
saying, "Whither wend ye? Come, tarry with us and we will
mount on your backs and give you meat and drink, and you shall
be our donkeys." Hearing this they hastened the more seawards
till they left them in the distance and fared on, trusting in
Allah Almighty; nor did they leave faring for a month, till
another island rose before them and thereon they landed. Here
they found fruits of various kinds and busied themselves with
eating of them, when behold, they saw from afar, somewhat
lying in the road, a hideous creature as it were a column of
silver. So they went up to it and one of the men gave it a
kick, when lo! it was a thing of human semblance, long of eyes
and cloven of head and hidden under one of his ears, for he
was wont, whenas he lay down to sleep, to spread on ear under
his head, and cover his face with the other ear.[FN#402] He
snatched up the Mameluke who had kicked him and carried him
off into the middle of the island, and behold, it was all full
of Ghuls who eat the sons of Adam. The man cried out to his
fellows, "Save yourselves, for this is the island of the
man-eating Ghuls, and they mean to tear me to bits and devour
me." When they heard these words they fled back to the boat,
without gathering any store of the fruits and putting out to
sea, fared on some days till it so happened that they came to
another island, where they found a high mountain. So they
climbed to the top and there saw a thick copse. Now they were
sore anhungered; so they took to eating of the fruits; but,
before they were aware, there came upon them from among the
trees black men of terrible aspect, each fifty cubits high
with eye-teeth[FN#403] protruding from their mouths like
elephants' tusks; and, laying hands on Sayf al-Muluk and his
company, carried them to their King, whom they found seated on
a piece of black felt laid on a rock, and about him a great
company of Zanzibar-blacks, standing in his service. The
blackamoors who had captured the Prince and his Mamelukes set
them before the King and said to him, "We found these birds
amoung the trees"; and the King was sharp-set; so he took two
of the servants and cut their throats and ate them;--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Sixty-sixth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
Zanzibar-blacks took Sayf al-Muluk and his Mamelukes and set
them before the King, saying, "O King, we came upon these
birds among the trees." Thereupon the King seized two of the
Mamelukes and cut their throats and ate them; which, when Sayf
al-Muluk saw, he feared for himself and wept and repeated
these verses,

"Familiar with my heart are woes and with them I * Who shunned
     them; for familiar are great hearts and high.
The woes I suffer are not all of single kind. * I have, thank
     Allah, varied thousands to aby!"

Then he signed and repeated these also,

"The World hath shot me with its sorrows till * My heart is
     covered with shafts galore;
And now, when strike me other shafts, must break * Against th'
     old points the points that latest pour."

When the King heard his weeping and wailing, he said, "Verily
these birds have sweet voices and their song pleaseth me: put
them in cages." So they set them each in his own cage and hung
them up at the King's head that he might listen to their
warbling. On this wise Sayf al-Muluk and his Mamelukes abode
and the blackamoors gave them to eat and drink: and now they
wept and now laughed, now spake and now were hushed, whilst
the King of the blacks delighted in the sound of their voices.
And so they continued for a long time. Now this King had a
daughter married in another island who, hearing that her
father had birds with sweet voices, sent a messenger to him
seeking of him some of them. So he sent her, by her
Cossid,[FN#404] Sayf al-Muluk and three of his men in four
cages; and, when she saw them, they pleased her and she bade
hang them up in a place over her head. The Prince fell to
marvelling at that which had befallen him and calling to mind
his former high and honourable estate and weeping for himself;
and the three servants wept for themselves; and the King's
daughter deemed that they sang. Now it was her wont, whenever
any one from the land of Egypt or elsewhere fell into her
hands and he pleased her, to advance him to great favour with
her; and by the decree of Allah Almighty it befel that, when
she saw Sayf al-Muluk she was charmed by his beauty and
loveliness and symmetry and perfect grace, and she commanded
to entreat him and his companions with honour and to loose
them from their cages. Now one day she took the Prince apart
and would have him enjoy her; but he refused, saying, "O my
lady, I am a banisht wight and with passion for a beloved one
in piteous plight, nor with other will I consent to
love-delight." Then she coaxed him and importuned him, but he
held aloof from her, and she could not approach him nor get
her desire of him by any ways and means. At last, when she was
weary of courting him in vain, she waxed wroth with him and
his Mamelukes, and commanded that they should serve her and
fetch her wood and water. In such condition they abode four
years till Sayf al-Muluk became weary of his life and sent to
intercede with the Princess, so haply she might release them
and let them wend their ways and be at rest from that their
hard labour. So she sent for him and said to him, "If thou
wilt do my desire, I will free thee from this thy durance vile
and thou shalt go to thy country, safe and sound." And she
wept and ceased not to humble herself to him and wheedle him,
but he would not hearken to her words; whereupon she turned
from him, in anger, and he and his companions abode on the
island in the same plight. The islanders knew them for "The
Princess's birds" and durst not work them any wrong; and her
heart was at ease concerning them, being assured that they
could not escape from the island. So they used to absent
themselves from her two and three days at a time and go round
about the desert parts in al directions, gathering firewood,
which they brought to the Princess's kitchen; and thus they
abode five[FN#405] years. Now one day it so chanced that the
Prince and his men were sitting on the sea-shore, devising of
what had befallen, and Sayf al-Muluk, seeing himself and his
men in such case, bethought him of his mother and father and
his brother Sa'id and, calling to mind what high degree he had
been in, fell a-weeping and lamenting passing sore, whilst his
slaves wept likewise. Then said they to him, "O King of the
Age, how long shall we weep? Weeping availeth not; for this
thing was written on our brows by the ordinance of Allah, to
whom belong Might and Majesty. Indeed, the Pen runneth with
that He decreeth and nought will serve us but patience: haply
Allah (extolled and exalted be He!) who hath saddened us shall
gladden us!" Quoth he, "O my brothers, how shall we win free
from this accursed woman? I see no way of escape for us, save
Allah of his grace deliver us from her; but methinks we may
flee and be at rest from this hard labour." And quoth they, "O
King of the Age, whither shall we flee? For the whole island
is full of Ghuls which devour the Sons of Adam, and
whithersoever we go, they will find us there and either eat us
or capture and carry us back to that accursed, the King's
daughter, who will be wroth with us." Sayf al-Muluk rejoined,
"I will contrive you somewhat, whereby peradventure Allah
Almighty shall deliver us and help us to escape from this
island." They asked, "And how wilt thou do?"; and he answered,
"Let us cut some of these long pieces of wood, and twist ropes
of their bark and bind them one with another, and make of them
a raft[FN#406] which we will launch and load with these
fruits: then we will fashion us paddles and embark on the raft
after breaking our bonds with the axe. It may be that Almighty
Allah will make it the means of our deliverance from this
accursed woman and vouchsafe us a fair wind to bring us to the
land of Hind, for He over all things is Almighty!" Said they,
"Right is thy rede," and rejoiced thereat with exceeding joy.
So they arose without stay or delay and cut with their axes
wood for the raft and twisted ropes to bind the logs and at
this they worked a whole month. Every day about evening they
gathered somewhat of fuel and bore it to the Princess's
kitchen, and employed the rest of the twenty-four hours
working at the raft.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day
and ceased saying her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Sixty-seventh Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
Sayf al-Muluk and his Mamelukes, having cut the wood and
twisted the ropes for their raft, made an end of it and
launched it upon the sea; then, after breaking their bonds
with the axe, and loading the craft with fruits plucked from
the island-trees, they embarked at close of day; nor did any
wot of their intent. They put out to sea in their raft and
paddled on four months, knowing not whither the craft carried
them, till their provaunt failed them and they were suffering
the severest extreme of hunger and thirst, when behold, the
sea waxed troubled and foamed and rose in high waves, and
there came forth upon them a frightful crocodile,[FN#407]
which put out its claw and catching up one of the Mamelukes
swallowed him. At the sight of this horror Sayf al-Muluk wept
bitterly and he and the two men[FN#408] that remained to him
pushed off from the place where they had seen the crocodile,
sore affrighted. After this they continued drifting on till
one day they espied a mountain terrible tall and spiring high
in air, whereat they rejoiced, when presently an island
appeared. They made towards it with all their might
congratulating one another on the prospect of making land; but
hardly had they sighted the island on which was the mountain,
when the sea changed face and boiled and rose in big waves and
a second crocodile raised its head and putting out its claw
caught up the two remaining Mamelukes and swallowed them. So
Sayf al-Muluk abode alone, and making his way to the island,
toiled till he reached the mountain-top, where he looked about
and found a copse, and walking among the trees feel to eating
of the fruits. Presently, he saw among the branches more than
twenty great apes, each bigger than a he-mule, whereat he was
seized with exceeding fear. The apes came down and surrounded
him;[FN#409] then forewent him, signing to him to follow them,
and walked on, and he too, till he came to a castle, tall of
base and strong of build whose ordinance was one brick of gold
and one of silver. The apes entered and he after them, and he
saw in the castle all manner of rarities, jewels and precious
metals such as tongue faileth to describe. Here also he found
a young man, passing tall of stature with no hair on his
cheeks, and Sayf al-Muluk was cheered by the sight for there
was no human being but he in the castle. The stranger
marvelled exceedingly at sight of the Prince and asked him,
"What is thy name and of what land art thou and how camest
thou hither? Tell me thy tale and hide from me naught
thereof." Answered the Prince, "By Allah, I came not hither of
my own consent nor is this place of my intent; yet I cannot
but go from place to place till I win my wish." Quoth the
youth, "And what is thy object?"; and quoth the other, "I am
of the land of Egypt and my name is Sayf al-Muluk son of King
Asim bin Safwan"; and told him all that had passed with him,
from first to last. Whereupon the youth arose and stood in his
service, saying, "O King of the Age, I was erst in Egypt and
heard that thou hadst gone to the land of China; but where is
this land and where lies China-land?[FN#410] Verily, this is a
wondrous thing and marvellous matter!" Answered the Prince,
"Sooth thou speakest but, when I left China-land, I set out,
intending for the land of Hind and a stormy wind arose and the
sea boiled and broke all my ships"; brief, he told him all
that had befallen him till he came thither; whereupon quoth
the other, "O King's son, thou hast had enough of strangerhood
and its sufferings; Alhamdolillah,--praised be Allah who hath
brought thee hither! So now do thou abide with me, that I may
enjoy thy company till I die, when thou shalt become King over
this island, to which no bound is known, and these apes thou
seest are indeed skilled in all manner of crafts; and whatso
thou seekest here shalt thou find." Replied Sayf al-Muluk, "O
my brother I may not tarry in any place till my wish be won,
albeit I compass the whole world in pursuit thereof and make
quest of every one so peradventure Allah may bring me to my
desire or my course lead me to the place wherein is the
appointed term of my days, and I shall die my death." Then the
youth turned with a sign to one of the apes, and he went out
and was absent awhile, after which he returned with other apes
girt with silken zones.[FN#411] They brought the trays and set
on near[FN#412] an hundred chargers of gold and saucers of
silver, containing all manner of meats. Then they stood, after
the manner of servants between the hands of Kings, till the
youth signalled to the Chamberlains, who sat down, and he
whose wont it was to serve stood, whilst the two Princes ate
their sufficiency. Then the apes cleared the table and brought
basins and ewers of gold, and they washed their hands in rose
water; after which they set on fine sugar and nigh forty
flagons, in each a different kind of wine, and they drank and
took their pleasure and made merry and had a fine time. And
all the apes danced and gambolled before them, what while the
eaters sat at meat; which when Sayf al-Muluk saw, he marvelled
at them and forgot that which had befallen him of
sufferings.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased to say her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Sixty-eighth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Sayf al-Muluk saw the gestures and gambols of the apes, he
marvelled thereat and forgot that which had betided him of
strangerhood and its sufferings. At nightfall they lighted
waxen candles in candlesticks of gold studded with gems and
set on dishes of confections and fruits of sugar-candy. So
they ate; and when the hour of rest was come, the apes spread
them bedding and they slept. And when morning morrowed, the
young man arose, as was his wont, before sunrise and waking
Sayf al-Muluk said to him, "Put thy head forth of this lattice
and see what standeth beneath it." So he put out his head and
saw the wide waste and all the wold filled with apes, whose
number none knew save Allah Almighty. Quoth he, "Here be great
plenty of apes, for they cover the whole country: but why are
they assembled at this hour?" Quoth the youth, "This is their
custom. Every Sabbath,[FN#413] all the apes in the island come
hither, some from two and three days' distance, and stand here
till I awake from sleep and put forth my head from this
lattice, when they kiss ground before me and go about their
business." So saying, he put his head out of the window; and
when the apes saw him, they kissed the earth before him and
went their way. Sayf al-Muluk abode with the young man a whole
month when he farewelled him and departed, escorted by a party
of nigh a hundred apes, which the young man bade escort him.
They journeyed with him seven days, till they came to the
limits of their islands,[FN#414] when they took leave of him
and returned to their places, while Sayf al-Muluk fared on
alone over mount and hill, desert and plain, four months'
journey, one day anhungered and the next satiated, now eating
of the herbs of the earth and then of the fruits of the trees,
till he repented him of the harm he had done himself by
leaving the young man; and he was about to retrace his steps
to him, when he saw something black afar off and said to
himself, "Is this a city or trees? But I will not turn back
till I see what it is." So he made towards it and when he drew
near, he saw that it was a palace tall of base. Now he who
built it was Japhet son of Noah (on whom be peace!) and it is
of this palace that God the Most High speaketh in His precious
Book, whenas He saith, "And an abandoned well and a
high-builded palace."[FN#415] Sayf al-Muluk sat down at the
gate and said in his mind, "Would I knew what is within yonder
palace and what King dwelleth there and who shall acquaint me
whether its folk are men or Jinn? Who will tell me the truth
of the case?" He sat considering awhile, but, seeing none go
in or come out, he rose and committing himself to Allah
Almighty entered the palace and walked on, till he had counted
seven vestibules; yet saw no one. Presently looking to his
right he beheld three doors, while before him was a fourth,
over which hung a curtain. So he went up to this and raising
the curtain, found himself in a great hall[FN#416] spread with
silken carpets. At the upper end rose a throne of gold whereon
sat a damsel, whose face was like the moon, arrayed in royal
raiment and beautified as she were a bride on the night of her
displaying; and at the foot of the throne was a table of forty
trays spread with golden and silvern dishes full of dainty
viands. The Prince went up and saluted her, and she returned
his salam, saying, "Art thou of mankind or of the Jinn?"
Replied he, "I am a man of the best of mankind;[FN#417] for I
am a King, son of a King." She rejoined, "What seekest thou?
Up with thee and eat of yonder food, and after tell me thy
past from first to last and how thou camest hither." So he sat
down at the table and removing the cover from a tray of meats
(he being hungry), ate till he was full; then washed his right
hand and going up to the throne, sat down by the damsel who
asked him, "Who art thou and what is thy name and whence
comest thou and who brought thee hither?" He answered, "Indeed
my story is a long but do thou first tell me who and what and
whence thou art and why thou dwellest in this place alone."
She rejoined, "My name is Daulat Khátun[FN#418] and I am the
daughter of the King of Hind. My father dwelleth in the
Capital-city of Sarandíb and hath a great and goodly garden,
there is no goodlier in all the land of Hind or its
dependencies; and in this garden is a great tank. One day, I
went out into the garden with my slave-women and I stripped me
naked and they likewise and, entering the tank, fell to
sporting and solacing ourselves therein. Presently, before I
could be ware, a something as it were a cloud swooped down on
me and snatching me up from amongst my handmaids, soared aloft
with me betwixt heaven and earth, saying, 'Fear not, O Daulat
Khatun, but be of good heart.' Then he flew on with me a
little while, after which he set me down in this palace and
straightway without stay or delay became a handsome young man
daintily apparelled, who said to me, 'Now dost thou know me?'
Replied I, 'No, O my lord'; and he said, 'I am the Blue King,
Sovran of the Jann; my father dwelleth in the Castle
Al-Kulzum[FN#419] hight, and hath under his hand six hundred
thousand Jinn, flyers and divers. It chanced that while
passing on my way I saw thee and fell in love with thee for
thy lovely form: so I swooped down on thee and snatched thee
up from among the slave-girls and brought thee to this the
High-builded Castle, which is my dwelling-place. None may fare
hither be he man or be he Jinni, and from Hind hither is a
journey of an hundred and twenty years: wherefore do thou hold
that thou wilt never again behold the land of thy father and
thy mother; so abide with me here, in contentment of heart and
peace, and I will bring to thy hands whatso thou seekest.'
Then he embraced me and kissed me,"--And Shahrazad perceived
the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Sixty-ninth Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
damsel said to Sayf al-Muluk, "Then the King of the Jann,
after he had acquainted me with his case, embraced me and
kissed me, saying, 'Abide here and fear nothing'; whereupon he
went away from me for an hour and presently returned with
these tables and carpets and furniture. He comes to me every
Third[FN#420] and abideth with me three days and on Friday, at
the time of mid-afternoon prayer, he departeth and is absent
till the following Third. When he is here, he eateth and
drinketh and kisseth and huggeth me, but doth naught else with
me, and I am a pure virgin, even as Allah Almighty created me.
My father's name is Táj al-Mulúk, and he wotteth not what is
come of me nor hath he hit upon any trace of me. This is my
story: now tell me thy tale." Answered the Prince, "My story
is a long and I fear lest while I am telling it to thee the
Ifrit come." Quoth she "He went out from me but an hour before
thy entering and will not return till Third: so sit thee down
and take thine ease and hearten thy heart and tell me what
hath betided thee, from beginning to end." And quoth he, "I
hear and I obey." So he fell to telling her all that had
befallen him from commencement to conclusion but, when she
heard speak of Badi'a al-Jamal, her eyes ran over with railing
tears and she cried, "O Badi'a al-Jamal, I had not thought
this of thee! Alack for our luck! O Badi'a al-Jamal, dost thou
not remember me nor say, 'My sister Daulat Khatun whither is
she gone?'" And her weeping redoubled, lamenting for that
Badi'a al-Jamal had forgotten her.[FN#421] Then said Sayf
al-Muluk, "O Daulat Khatun, thou art a mortal and she is a
Jinniyah: how then can she be thy sister?" Replied the
Princess, "She is my sister by fosterage and this is how it
came about. My mother went out to solace herself in the
garden, when labour-pangs seized her and she bare me. Now the
mother of Badi'a al-Jamal chanced to be passing with her
guards, when she also was taken with travail-pains; so she
alighted in a side of the garden and there brought forth
Badi'a al-Jamal. She despatched one of her women to seek food
and childbirth-gear of my mother, who sent her what she sought
and invited her to visit her. So she came to her with Badi'a
al-Jamal and my mother suckled the child, who with her mother
tarried with us in the garden two months. And before wending
her ways the mother of Badi'a al-Jamal gave my mother
somewhat,[FN#422] saying, 'When thou hast need of me, I will
come to thee a middlemost the garden,' and departed to her own
land; but she and her daughter used to visit us every year and
abide with us awhile before returning home. Wherefore an I
were with my mother, O Sayf al-Muluk, and if thou wert with me
in my own country and Badi'a al-Jamal and I were together as
of wont, I would devise some device with her to bring thee to
thy desire of her: but I am here and they know naught of me;
for that an they kenned what is become of me, they have power
to deliver me from this place; however, the matter is in
Allah's hands (extolled and exalteth be He!) and what can I
do?" Quoth Sayf al-Muluk, "Rise and let us flee and go whither
the Almighty willeth;" but, quoth she, "We cannot do that:
for, by Allah, though we fled hence a year's journey that
accursed would overtake us in an hour and slaughter us." Then
said the Prince, "I will hide myself in his way, and when he
passeth by I will smite him with the sword and slay him."
Daulat Khatun replied, "Thou canst not succeed in slaying him
save thou his soul." Asked he, "And where is his soul?"; and
she answered, "Many a time have I questioned him thereof but
he would not tell me, till one day I pressed him and he waxed
wroth with me and said to me, 'How often wilt thou ask me of
my soul? What hast thou to do with my soul?' I rejoined, 'O
Hátim,[FN#423] there remaineth none to me but thou, except
Allah; and my life dependeth on thy life and whilst thou
livest, all is well for me; so, except I care for thy soul and
set it in the apple of this mine eye, how shall I live in
thine absence? An I knew where thy soul abideth, I would never
cease whilst I live, to hold it in mine embrace and would keep
it as my right eye.' Whereupon said he to me, 'What time I was
born, the astrologers predicted that I should lose my soul at
the hands of the son of a king of mankind. So I took it and
set it in the crop of a sparrow, and shut up the bird in a
box. The box I set in a casket, and enclosing this in seven
other caskets and seven chests, laid the whole in a
alabastrine coffer,[FN#424] which I buried within the marge of
yon earth-circling sea; for that these parts are far from the
world of men and none of them can win hither. So now see I
have told thee what thou wouldst know, and do thou tell none
thereof, for it is a secret between me and thee.'"--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

     When it was the Seven Hundred and Seventieth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Daulat Khatun acquainted Sayf al-Muluk with the whereabouts of
the soul of the Jinni who had carried her off and repeated to
him his speech ending with, "And this is a secret between me
and thee!" "I rejoined," quoth she, "'To whom should I tell
it, seeing that none but thou cometh hither with whom I may
talk thereof?' adding, 'By Allah, thou hast indeed set thy
soul in the strongest of strongholds to which none may gain
access! How should a man win to it, unless the impossible be
fore-ordained and Allah decree like as the astrologers
predicted?' Thereupon the Jinni, 'Peradventure one may come,
having on his finger the seal-ring of Solomon son of David (on
the twain be peace!) and lay his hand with the ring on the
face of the water, saying, 'By the virtue of the names
engraven upon this ring, let the soul of such an one come
forth!' Whereupon the coffer will rise to the surface and he
will break it open and do the like with the chests and
caskets, till he come to the little box, when he will take out
the sparrow and strangle it, and I shall die.'" Then said Sayf
al-Muluk, "I am the King's son of whom he spake, and this is
the ring of Solomon David-son on my finger: so rise, let us go
down to the sea-shore and see if his words be leal or
leasing!" Thereupon the two walked down to the sea-shore and
the Princess stood on the beach, whilst the Prince waded into
the water to his waist and laying his hand with the ring on
the surface of the sea, said, "By the virtue of the names and
talismans engraven on this ring, and by the might of Sulayman
bid Dáúd (on whom be the Peace!), let the soul of Hatim the
Jinni, son of the Blue King, come forth!" Whereat the sea
boiled in billows and the coffer of alabaster rose to the
surface. Sayf al-Muluk took it and shattered it against the
rock and broke open the chests and caskets, till he came to
the little box and drew thereout the sparrow. Then the twain
returned to the castle and sat down on the throne; but hardly
had they done this, when lo and behold! there arose a
dust-cloud terrifying and some huge thing came flying and
crying, "Spare me, O King's son, and slay me not; but make me
thy freedman, and I will bring thee to thy desire!" Quoth
Daulat Khatun, "The Jinni cometh; slay the sparrow, lest this
accursed enter the palace and take it from thee and slaughter
me and slaughter thee after me." So the Prince wrung the
sparrow's neck and it died, whereupon the Jinni fell down at
the palace-door and became a heap of black ashes. Then said
Daulat Khatun, "We are delivered from the hand of yonder
accursed; what shall we do now?"; and Sayf al-Muluk replied,
"It behoveth us to ask aid of Allah Almighty who hath
afflicted us; belike He will direct us and help us to escape
from this our strait." So saying, he arose and pulling
up[FN#425] half a score of the doors of the palace, which were
of sandal-wood and lign-aloes with nails of gold and silver,
bound them together with ropes of silk and floss[FN#426]-silk
and fine linen and wrought of them a raft, which he and the
Princess aided each other to hale down to the sea-shore. They
launched it upon the water till it floated and, making it fast
to the beach, returned to the palace, whence they removed all
the chargers of gold and saucers of silver and jewels and
precious stones and metals and what else was light of load and
weighty of worth and freighted the raft therewith. Then they
embarked after fashioning two pieces of wood into the likeness
of paddles and casting off the rope-moorings, let the raft
drift out to sea with them, committing themselves to Allah the
Most High, who contenteth those that put their trust in Him
and disappointeth not them who rely upon Him. They ceased not
faring on thus four months until their victual was exhausted
and their sufferings waxed severe and their souls were
straitened; so they prayed Allah to vouchsafe them deliverance
from that danger. But all this time when they lay down to
sleep, Sayf al-Muluk set Daulat Khatun behind him and laid a
naked brand at his back, so that, when he turned in sleep the
sword was between them.[FN#427] At last it chanced one night,
when Sayf al-Muluk was asleep and Daulat Khatun awake, that
behold, the raft drifted landwards and entered a port wherein
were ships. The Princess saw the ships and heard a man, he
being the chief and head of the captains, talking with the
sailors; whereby she knew that this was the port of some city
and that they were come to an inhabited country. So she joyed
with exceeding joy and waking the Prince said to him, "Ask the
captain the name of the city and harbour." Thereupon Sayf
al-Muluk arose and said to the captain, "O my brother, how is
this harbour hight and what be the names of yonder city and
its King?" Replied the Captain, "O false face![FN#428] O
frosty beard! an thou knew not the name of this port and city,
how camest thou hither?" Quoth Sayf al-Muluk, "I am a stranger
and had taken passage in a merchant ship which was wrecked and
sank with all on board; but I saved myself on a plank and made
my way hither; wherefore I asked thee the name of the place,
and in asking is no offence." Then said the captain, "This is
the city of 'Amáriyah and this harbour is called Kamín
al-Bahrayn."[FN#429] When the Princess heard this she rejoiced
with exceeding joy and said, "Praised be Allah!" He asked,
"What is to do?"; and she answered, "O Sayf al-Muluk, rejoice
in succour near hand; for the King of this city is my uncle,
my father's brother."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day
and ceased saying her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Seventy-first Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
Daulat Khatun said to Sayf al-Muluk, "Rejoice in safety near
hand; for the King of this city is my uncle, my father's
brother and his name is 'Ali al-Mulúk,"[FN#430] adding, "Say
thou then to the captain, 'Is the Sultan of the city, Ali
al-Muluk, well?'" He asked but the captain was wroth with him
and cried, "Thou sayest, 'I am a stranger and never in my life
came hither.' Who then told thee the name of the lord of the
city?" When Daulat Khatun heard this, she rejoiced and knew
him for Mu'ín al-Dín,[FN#431] one of her father's captains.
Now he had fared forth in search of her, after she was lost
and finding her not, he never ceased cruising till he came to
her uncle's city. Then she bade Sayf al-Muluk say to him, "O
Captain Mu'in al-Din, come and speak with thy mistress!" So he
called out to him as she bade, whereat he was wroth with
exceeding wrath and answered, "O dog, O thief, O spy, who art
thou and how knowest thou me?" Then he said to one of the
sailors, "Give me an ash[FN#432]-stave, that I may go to
yonder plaguing Arab and break his head." So he tookt he stick
and made for Sayf al-Muluk, but, when he came to the raft, he
saw a something, wondrous, beauteous, which confounded his
wits and considering it straitly he made sure that it was
Daulat Khatun sitting there, as she were a slice of the moon;
whereat he said to the Prince, "Who is that with thee?"
Replied he, "A damsel by name Daulat Khatun." When the captain
heard the Princess's name and knew that she was his mistress
and the daughter of his King, he fell down in a fainting-fit,
and when he came to himself, he left the raft and whatso was
thereon and riding up to the palace, craved an audience of the
King; whereupon the chamberlain went in to the presence and
said, "Captain Mu'in al-Din is come to bring thee good news;
so bid he be brought in." The King bade admit him; accordingly
he entered and kissing ground[FN#433] said to him, "O King,
thou owest me a gift for glad tidings; for thy brother's
daughter Daulat Khatun hath reached our city safe and sound,
and is now on a raft in the harbour, in company with a young
man like the moon on the night of its full." When the King
heard this, he rejoiced and conferred a costly robe of honour
on the captain. Then he straightway bade decorate the city in
honour of the safe return of his brother's daughter, and
sending for her and Sayf al-Muluk, saluted the twain and gave
them joy of their safety; after which he despatched a
messenger to his brother, to let him know that his daughter
was found and was with him. As soon as the news reached Taj
al-Muluk he gat him ready and assembling his troops set out
for his brother's capital, where he found his daughter and
they rejoiced with exceeding joy. He sojourned with his
brother a week, after which he took his daughter and Sayf
al-Muluk and returned to Sarandib, where the Princess
foregathered with her mother and they rejoiced at her safe
return; and held high festival and that day was a great day,
never was seen its like. As for Sayf al-Muluk, the King
entreated him with honour and said to him, "O Sayf al-Muluk,
thou hast done me and my daughter all this good for which I
cannot requite thee nor can any requite thee, save the Lord of
the three Worlds; but I wish thee to sit upon the throne in my
stead and rule the land of Hind, for I offer thee of my throne
and kingdom and treasures and servants, all this in free gift
to thee." Whereupon Sayf al-Muluk rose and kissing the ground
before the King, thanked him and answered, "O King of the Age,
I accept all thou givest me and return it to thee in freest
gift; for I, O King of the Age, covet not sovranty nor
sultanate nor desire aught but that Allah the Most High bring
me to my desire." Rejoined the King, "O Sayf al-Muluk these my
treasures are at thy disposal: take of them what thou wilt,
without consulting me, and Allah requite thee for me with all
weal!" Quoth the Prince, "Allah advance the King! There is no
delight for me in money or in dominion till I win my wish: but
now I have a mind to solace myself in the city and view its
thoroughfares and market-streets." So the King bade bring him
a mare of the thoroughbreds, saddled and bridled; and Sayf
al-Muluk mounted her and rode through the streets and markets
of the city. As he looked about him right and left, lo! his
eyes fell on a young man, who was carrying a tunic and crying
it for sale at fifteen dinars: so he considered him and saw
him to be like his brother Sa'id; and indeed it was his very
self, but he was wan of blee and changed for long strangerhood
and the travails of travel, so that he knew him not. However,
he said to his attendants, "Take yonder youth and carry him to
the palace where I lodge, and keep him with you till my return
from the ride when I will question him." But they understood
him to say, "Carry him to the prison," and said in themselves
"Haply this is some runaway Mameluke of his." So they took him
and bore him to the bridewell, where they laid him in irons
and left him seated in solitude, unremembered by any.
Presently Sayf al-Muluk returned to the palace, but he forgot
his brother Sa'id, and none made mention of him. So he abode
in prison, and when they brought out the prisoners, to cut
ashlar from the quarries they took Sa'id with them, and he
wrought with the rest. He abode a month's space, in this
squalor and sore sorrow, pondering his case and saying in
himself, "What is the cause of my imprisonment?"; while Sayf
al-Muluk's mind was diverted from him by rejoicing and other
things; but one day, as he sat, he bethought him of Sa'id and
said to his Mamelukes, "Where is the white slave I gave into
your charge on such a day?" Quoth they, "Didst thou not bid us
bear him to the bridewell?"; and quoth he, "Nay, I said not
so; I bade you carry him to my palace after the ride." Then he
sent his Chamberlains and Emirs for Sa'id and they fetched him
in fetters, and loosing him from his irons set him before the
Prince, who asked him, "O young man, what countryman art
thou?"; and he answered, "I am from Egypt and my name is
Sa'id, son of Faris the Wazir." Now hearing these words Sayf
al-Muluk sprang to his feet and throwing himself off the
throne and upon his friend, hung on his neck, weeping aloud
for very joy and saying, "O my brother, O Sa'id, praise be
Allah for King Asim." Then they embraced and shed tears
together and all who were present marvelled at them. After
this Sayf al-Muluk bade his people bear Sa'id to the
Hammam-bath: and they did so. When he came out, they clad him
in costly clothing and carried him back to Sayf al-Muluk who
seated him on the throne beside himself. When King Taj
al-Muluk heard of the reunion of Sayf al-Muluk and his brother
Sa'id, he joyed with you exceeding and came to them, and the
three sat devising of all that had befallen them in the past
from first to last. Then said Sa'id, "O my brother, O Sayf
al-Muluk, when the ship sank with all on board I saved myself
on a plank with a company of Mamelukes and it drifted with us
a whole month, when the wind cast us, by the ordinance of
Allah Almighty, upon an island. So we landed and entering
among the trees took to eating of the fruits, for we were
anhungred. Whilst we were busy eating, there fell on us
unawares, folk like Ifrits[FN#434] and springing on our
shoulders rode us[FN#435] and said to us, 'Go on with us; for
ye are become our asses.' So I said to him who had mounted me,
'What art thou and why mountest thou me?' At this he twisted
one of his legs about my neck, till I was all but dead, and
beat upon my back the while with the other leg, till I thought
he had broken my backbone. So I fell to the ground on my face,
having no strength left in me for famine and thirst. From my
fall he knew that I was hungry and taking me by the hand, led
me to a tree laden with fruit which was a pear-tree[FN#436]
and said to me, 'Eat thy fill of this tree.' So I ate till I
had enough and rose to walk against my will; but, ere I had
fared afar the creature turned and leaping on my shoulders
again drove me on, now walking, now running and now trotting,
and he the while mounted on me, laughing and saying, 'Never in
my life saw I a donkey like unto thee!' We abode thus for
years till, one day of the days, it chanced that we saw there
great plenty of vines, covered with ripe fruit; so we gathered
a quantity of grape-bunches and throwing them into a pit, trod
them with our feet, till the pit became a great water-pool.
Then we waited awhile and presently returning thither, found
that the sun had wroughten on the grape-juice and it was
become wine. So we used to drink it till we were drunken and
our faces flushed and we fell to singing and dancing and
running about in the merriment of drunkenness;[FN#437]
whereupon our masters said to us, 'What is it that reddeneth
your faces and maketh you dance and sing?' We replied, 'Ask us
not, what is your quest in questioning us hereof?' But they
insisted, saying, 'You must tell us so that we may know the
truth of the case,' till we told them how we had pressed
grapes and made wine. Quoth they, 'Give us to drink thereof';
but quoth we, 'The grapes are spent.' So they brought us to a
Wady, whose length we knew not from its breadth nor its
beginning from its end wherein were vines each bunch of grapes
on them weighing twenty pounds[FN#438] by the scale and all
within easy reach, and they said, 'Gather of these.' So we
gathered a mighty great store of grapes and finding there a
big trench bigger than the great tank in the King's garden we
filled it full of fruit. This we trod with our feet and did
with the juice as before till it became strong wine, which it
did after a month; whereupon we said to them, ''Tis come to
perfection; but in what will ye drink it?' And they replied,
'We had asses like unto you; but we ate them and kept their
heads: so give us to drink in their skulls.' We went to their
caves which we found full of heads and bones of the Sons of
Adam, and we gave them to drink, when they became drunken and
lay down, nigh two hundred of them. Then we said to one
another, 'Is it not enough that they should ride us, but they
must eat us also? There is no Majesty and there is no Might
save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great! But we will ply them
with wine, till they are overcome by drunkenness, when we will
slay them and be at rest from them.' Accordingly, we awoke
them and fell to filling the skulls and gave them to drink,
but they said, 'This is bitter.' We replied, 'Why say ye 'tis
bitter? Whoso saith thus, except he drink of it ten times, he
dieth the same day.' When they heard this, they feared death
and cried to us, 'Give us to drink the whole ten times.' So we
gave them to drink, and when they swallowed the rest of the
ten draughts they waxed drunken exceedingly and their strength
failed them and they availed not to mount us. Thereupon we
dragged them together by their hands and laying them one upon
another, collected great plenty of dry vine-stalks and
branches and heaped it about and upon them: then we set fire
to the pile and stood afar off, to see what became of
them."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to
say her permitted say.

   When it was the Seven Hundred and Seventy-second Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Sa'id
continued, "When we set fire to the pile wherein were the
Ghuls, I with the Mamelukes stood afar off to see what became
of them; and, as soon the fire was burnt out, we came back and
found them a heap of ashes, wherefore we praised Allah
Almighty who had delivered us from them. Then we went forth
about the island and sought the sea-shore, where we parted and
I and two of the Mamelukes fared on till we came to a thick
copse full of fruit and there busied ourselves with eating,
and behold, presently up came a man tall of stature, long of
beard and lengthy of ear, with eyes like cressets, driving
before him and feeding a great flock of sheep.[FN#439] When he
saw us he rejoiced and said to us, 'Well come, and fair
welcome to you! Draw near me that I may slaughter you an ewe
of these sheep and roast it and give you to eat.' Quoth we,
'Where is thine abode?' And quoth he, 'Hard by yonder
mountain; go on towards it till ye come to a cave and enter
therein, for you will see many guests like yourselves; and do
ye sit with them, whilst we make ready for you the
guest-meal.' We believed him so fared on, as he bade us, till
we came to the cavern, where we found many guests, Sons of
Adam like ourselves, but they were all blinded;[FN#440] and
when we entered, one said, 'I'm sick'; and another, 'I'm
weak.' So we cried to them, 'What is this you say and what is
the cauase of your sickness and weakness?' They asked, 'Who
are ye?'; and we answered, 'We are guests.' Then said they,
'What hath made you fall into the hands of yonder accursed?
But there is no Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah,
the Glorious, the Great! This is a Ghul who devoureth the Sons
of Adam and he hath blinded us and meaneth to eat us.' Said
we, 'And how did he blind you?' and they replied, 'Even as he
will blind yourselves anon.' Quoth we, 'And how so?' And quoth
they, 'He will bring you bowls of soured milk[FN#441] and will
say to you, 'Ye are weary with wayfare: take this milk and
drink it.' And when ye have drunken thereof, ye will become
blind like us.' Said I to myself, 'There is no escape for us
but by contrivance.' So I dug a hole in the ground and sat
over it. After an hour or so in came the accursed Ghul with
bowls of milk, whereof he gave to each of us, saying, 'Ye come
from the desert and are athirst: so take this milk and drink
it, whilst I roast you the flesh.' I took the cup and carried
it to my mouth but emptied it into the hole; then I cried out,
'Alas! my sight is gone and I am blind!' and clapping my hand
to my eyes, fell a-weeping and a-wailing, whilst the accursed
laughed and said, 'Fear not, thou art now become like mine
other guests.' But, as for my two comrades, they drank the
milk and became blind. Thereupon the Ghul arose and stopping
up the mouth of the cavern came to me and felt my ribs, but
found me lean and with no flesh on my bones: so he tried
another and finding him fat, rejoiced. Then he slaughtered
three sheep and skinned them and fetching iron spits, spitted
the flesh thereon and set them over the fire to roast. When
the meat was done, he placed it before my comrades who ate and
he with them; after which he brought a leather-bag full of
wine and drank thereof and lay down prone and snored. Said I
to myself, 'He's drowned in sleep: how shall I slay him?' Then
I bethought me of the spits and thrusting two of them into the
fire, waited till they were as red-hot coals: whereupon I
arose and girded myself and taking a spit in each hand went up
to the accursed Ghul and thrust them into his eyes, pressing
upon them with all my might. He sprang to his feet for sweet
life and would have laid hold of me; but he was blind. So I
fled from him into the inner cavern, whilst he ran after me;
but I found no place of refuge from him nor whence I might
escape into the open country, for the cave was stopped up with
stones; wherefore I was bewildered and said to the blind men,
'How shall I do with this accursed?' Replied one of them, 'O
Sa'id, with a run and a spring mount up to yonder
niche[FN#442] and thou wilt find there a sharpened scymitar of
copper: bring it to me and I will tell thee what to do.' So I
clombed to the niche and taking the blade, returned to the
blind man, who said to me, 'Smite him with the sword in his
middle, and he will die forthright.' So I rushed after the
Ghul, who was weary with running after me and felt for the
blind men that he might kill them and, coming up to him smote
him with the sword a single stroke across his waist and he
fell in twain. then he screamed and cried out to me, 'O man,
an thou desire to slay me, strike me a second stroke.'
Accordingly, I was about to smite him another cut; but he who
had directed me to the niche and the scymitar said, 'Smite him
not a second time, for then he will not die, but will live and
destroy us.'"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased saying her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Seventy-third Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Sa'id
continued, "Now when I struck the Ghul with the sword he cried
out to me, 'O man, an thou desire to slay me, strike me a
second stroke!" I was about so to do when he who had directed
me to the scymitar said, 'Smite him not a second time, for
then he will not die but will live and destroy us!' So I held
my hand as he bade me, and the Ghul died. Then said the blind
man to me, 'Open the mouth of the cave and let us fare forth;
so haply Allah may help us and bring us to rest from this
place.' And I said, 'No harm can come to us now; let us rather
abide here and repose and eat of these sheep and drink of this
wine, for long is the land.' Accordingly we tarried there two
months, eating of the sheep and of the fruits of the island
and drinking the generous grape-juice till it so chanced one
day, as we sat upon the beach, we caught sight of a ship
looming large in the distance; so we made signs for the crew
and holla'd to them. They feared to draw near, knowing that
the island was inhabited by a Ghul[FN#443] who ate Adamites,
and would have sheered off; but we ran down to the marge of
the sea and made signs to them, with our turband-ends and
shouted to them, whereupon one of the sailors, who was sharp
of sight, said to the rest, "Harkye, comrades, I see these men
formed lke ourselves, for they have not the fashion of Ghuls.'
So they made for us, little by little, till they drew near us
in the dinghy[FN#444] and were certified that we were indeed
human beings, when they saluted us and we returned their salam
and gave them the glad tidings of the slaying of the accursed,
wherefore they thanked us. Then we carried to the ship all
that was in the cave of stuffs and sheep and treasure,
together with a viaticum of the island-fruits, such as should
serve us days and months, and embarking, sailed on with a fair
breeze three days; at the end of which the wind veered round
against us and the air became exceeding dark; nor had an hour
passed before the wind drave the craft on to a rock, where it
broke up and its planks were torn asunder.[FN#445] However,
the Great God decreed that I should lay hold of one of the
planks, which I bestrode, and it bore me along two days, for
the wind had fallen fair again, and I paddled with my feet
awhile, till Allah the Most High brought me safe ashore and I
landed and came to this city, where I found myself a stranger,
solitary, friendless, not knowing what to do; for hunger was
sore upon me and I was in great tribulation. Thereupon I, O my
brother, hid myself and pulling off this my tunic, carried it
to the market, saying in my mind, 'I will sell it and live on
its price, till Allah accomplish to me whatso he will
accomplish.' Then I took the tunic in my hand and cried it for
sale, and the folk were looking at it and bidding for it,
when, O my brother, thou camest by and seeing me commandedst
me to the palace; but thy pages arrested and thrust me into
the prison and there I abode till thou bethoughtest thee of me
and badst bring me before thee. So now I have told thee what
befel me, and Alhamdolillah--Glorified be God--for reunion!"
Much marvelled the two Kings at Sa'id's tale and Taj al-Muluk
having made ready a goodly dwelling for Sayf al-Muluk and his
Wazir, Daulat Khatun used to visit the Prince there and thank
him for his favours and talk with him. One day, he met her and
said to her, "O my lady, where is the promise thou madest me,
in the palace of Japhet son of Noah, saying, 'Were I with my
people, I would make shift to bring thee to thy desire?'" And
Sa'id said to her, "O Princess, I crave thine aid to enable
him to win his will." Answered she, "Yea, verily; I will do my
endeavour for him, that he may attain his aim, if it please
Allah Almighty." And she turned to Sayf al-Muluk and said to
him, "Be of good cheer and keep thine eyes cool and clear."
Then she rose and going in to her mother, said to her, "Come
with me forthright and let us purify ourselves and make
fumigations[FN#446] that Badi'a al-Jamal and her mother may
come and see me and rejoice in me." Answered the Queen, "With
love and goodly gree;" and rising, betook herself to the
garden and burnt off these perfumes which she always had by
her; nor was it long before Badi'a al-Jamal and her mother
made their appearance. The Queen of Hind foregathered with the
other Queen and acquainted her with her daughter's safe
return, whereat she rejoiced; and rejoiced in each other. Then
they pitched the pavilions[FN#447] and dressed dainty viands
and made ready the place of entertainment; whilst the two
Princesses withdrew to a tent apart and ate together and drank
and made merry; after which they sat down to converse, and
Badi'a al-Jamal said, "What hath befallen thee in thy
strangerhood?" Replied Daulat Khatun, "O my sister how sad is
severance and how gladsome is reunion; ask me not what hath
befallen me! Oh, what hardships mortals suffer!" cried she,
"How so?" and the other said to her, "O my sister, I was
inmured in the High-builded Castle of Japhet son of Noah,
whither the son of the Blue King carried me off, till Sayf
al-Muluk slew the Jinni and brought me back to my sire;" and
she told her to boot all that the Prince had undergone of
hardships and horrors before he came to the Castle.[FN#448]
Badi'a al-Jamal marvelled at her tale and said, "By Allah, O
my sister, this is the most wondrous of wonders! This Sayf
al-Muluk is indeed a man! But why did he leave his father and
mother and betake himself to travel and expose himself to
these perils?" Quoth Daulat Khatun, "I have a mind to tell
thee the first part of his history; but shame of thee
hindereth me therefrom." Quoth Badi'a al-Jamal, "Why shouldst
thou have shame of me, seeing that thou art my sister and my
bosom-friend and there is muchel a matter between thee and me
and I know thou willest me naught but well? Tell me then what
thou hast to say and be not abashed at me and hide nothing
from me and have no fear of consequences." Answered Daulat
Khatun, "By Allah, all the calamities that have betided this
unfortunate have been on thine account and because of thee!"
Asked Badi'a al-Jamal, "How so, O my sister?"; and the other
answered, "Know that he saw thy portrait wrought on a tunic
which thy father sent to Solomon son of David (on the twain be
peace!) and he opened it not neither looked at it, but
despatched it, with other presents and rarities to Asim bin
Safwan, King of Egypt, who gave it, still unopened, to his son
Sayf al-Muluk. The Prince unfolded the tunic, thinking to put
it on, and seeing thy portrait, became enamoured of it;
wherefore he came forth in quest of thee, and left his folk
and reign and suffered all these terrors and hardships on
thine account."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased to say her permitted say.

   When it was the Seven Hundred and Seventy-fourth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Daulat
Khatun related to Badi'a al-Jamal the first part of Sayf
al-Muluk's history; how his love for her was caused by the
tunic whereon her presentment was wrought; how he went forth,
passion-distraught, in quest of her; how he forsook his people
and his kingdom for her sake and how he had suffered all these
terrors and hardships on her account. When Badi'a al-Jamal
hear this, she blushed rosy red and was confounded at Daulat
Khatun and said, "Verily this may never, never be; for man
accordeth not with the Jann." Then Daulat Khatun went on to
praise Sayf al-Muluk and extol his comeliness and courage and
cavalarice, and ceased not repeating her memories of his
prowess and his excellent qualities till she ended with
saying, "For the sake of Almighty Allah and of me, O sister
mine, come and speak with him, though but one word!" But
Badi'a al-Jamal cried, "By Allah, O sister mine, this that
thou sayest I will not hear, neither will I assent to thee
therein;" and it was as if she heard naught of what the other
said and as if no love of Sayf al-Muluk and his beauty and
bearing and bravery had gotten hold upon her heart. Then
Daulat Khatun humbled herself and said, "O Badi'a al-Jamal, by
the milk we have sucked, I and thou, and by that which is
graven on the seal-ring of Solomon (on whom be peace!) hearken
to these my words for I pledged myself in the High-builded
Castle of Japhet, to show him thy face. So Allah upon thee,
show it to him once, for the love of me, and look thyself on
him!" And she ceased not to weep and implore her and kiss her
hands and feet, till she consented and said, "For thy sake I
will show him my face once and he shall have a single glance."
With that Daulat Khatun's heart was gladdened and she kissed
her hands and feet. Then she went forth and fared to the great
pavilion in the garden and bade her slave-women spread it with
carpets and set up a couch of gold and place the wine-vessels
in order; after which she went into Sayf al-Muluk and to his
Wazir Sa'id, whom she found seated in their lodging, and gave
the Prince the glad tidings of the winning of his wish,
saying, "Go to the pavilion in the garden, thou and thy
brother, and hide yourselves there from the eyes of men so
none in the palace may espy you, till I come to you with
Badi'a al-Jamal." So they rose and repaired to the appointed
pavilion, where they found the couch of gold set and furnished
with cushions, and meat and wine ready served. So they sat
awhile, whilst Sayf al-Muluk bethought him of his beloved and
his breast was straitened and love and longing assailed him:
wherefore he rose and walked forth from the vestibule of the
pavilion. Sa'id would have followed him, but he said to him,
"O my brother, follow me not, but sit in thy stead till I
return to thee." So Sa'id abode seated, whilst Sayf al-Muluk
went down into the garden, drunken with the wine of desire and
distracted for excess of love-longing and passion-fire:
yearning agitated him and transport overcame him and he
recited these couplets,

"O passing Fair[FN#449] I have none else but thee; * Pity this
     slave in thy love's slavery!
Thou art my search, my joy and my desire! * None save thyself
     shall love this heart of me:
Would Heaven I knew thou knewest of my wails * Night-long and
     eyelids oped by memory.
Bid sleep to soourn on these eyen-lids * Haply in vision I thy
     sight shall see.
Show favour then to one thus love-distraught: * Save him from
     ruin by thy cruelty!
Allah increase thy beauty and thy weal; * And be thy ransom
     every enemy!
So shall on Doomsday lovers range beneath * Thy flag, and
     beauties 'neath thy banner be."

Then he wept and recited these also,

"That rarest beauty ever bides my foe * Who holds my heart and
     lurks in secresy:
Speaking, I speak of nothing save her charms * And when I'm
     dumb in heart-core woneth she."

Then he wept sore and recited the following,

"And in my liver higher flames the fire; * You are my wish and
     longsome still I yearn:
To you (none other!) bend I and I hope * (Lovers long-
     suffering are!) your grace to earn;
And that you pity me whose frame by Love * Is waste and weak
     his heart with sore concern:
Relent, be gen'rous, tender-hearted, kind: * From you I'll
     ne'er remove, from you ne'er turn!"

Then he wept and recited these also,

"Came to me care when came the love of thee, * Cruel sleep
     fled me like thy cruelty:
Tells me the messenger that thou are wroth: * Allah forfend
     what evils told me he!"

Presently Sa'id waxed weary of awaiting him and going forth in
quest of him, found him walking in the garden, distraught and
reciting these two couplets,

"By Allah, by th' Almighty, by his right[FN#450] * Who read
     the Koran-Chapter 'Fátír[FN#451] hight;
Ne'er roam my glances o'er the charms I see; * Thy grace, rare
     beauty, is my talk by night."

So he joined him and the twain walked about the garden
together solacing themselves and ate of its fruits. Such was
their case;[FN#452] but as regards the two Princesses, they
came to the pavilion and entering therein after the eunuchs
had richly furnished it, according to command, sat down on the
couch of gold, beside which was a window that gave upon the
garden. The castratos then set before them all manner rich
meats and they ate, Daulat Khatun feeding her foster-sister by
mouthfuls,[FN#453] till she was satisfied; when she called for
divers kinds of sweetmeats, and when the neutrals brought
them, they ate what they would of them and washed their hands.
After this Daulat Khatun made ready wine and its service,
setting on the ewers and bowls and she proceeded to crown the
cups and give Badi'a al-amal to drink, filling for herself
after and drinking in turn. The Badi'a al-Jamal looked from
the window into the garden and gazed upon the fruits and
branches that were therein, till her glance fell on Sayf
al-Muluk, and she saw him wandering about the parterres,
followed by Sa'id, and she heard him recite verses, raining
the while railing tears. And that glance of eyes cost her a
thousand signs,--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased saying her permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Seventy-fifth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
when Badi'a al-Jamal caught sight of Sayf al-Muluk as he
wandered about the garden, that glance of eyes cost her a
thousand sighs, and she turned to Daulat Khatun and said to
her (and indeed the wine sported with her senses), "O my
sister, who is that young man I see in the garden, distraught,
love-abying, disappointed, sighing?" Quoth the other, "Dost
thou give me leave to bring him hither, that we may look on
him?"; and quoth the other, "An thou can avail to bring him,
bring him." So Daulat Khatun called to him, saying "O King's
son, come up to us and bring us thy beauty and thy
loveliness!" Sayf al-Muluk recognised her voice and came up to
into the pavilion; but no sooner had he set eyes on Badi'a
al-Jamal, than he fell down in a swoon; whereupon Daulat
Khatun sprinkled on him a little rose-water and he revived.
Then he rose and kissed ground before Badi'a al-Jamal who was
amazed at his beauty and loveliness; and Daulat Khatun said to
her, "Know, O Princess, that this is Sayf al-Muluk, whose hand
saved me by the ordinance of Allah Almighty and he it is who
hath borne all manner burthens on thine account: wherefore I
would have thee look upon him with favour." Hearing this
Badi'a al-Jamal laughed and said, "And who keepeth faith, that
this youth should do so? For there is no true love in men."
Cried Sayf al-Muluk, "O Princess, never shall lack of faith be
in me, and all men are not created alike." And he wept before
her and recited these verses,

"O thou, Badi'a 'l-Jamál, show thou some clemency * To one
     those lovely eyes opprest with witchery!
By rights of beauteous hues and tints thy cheeks combine * Of
     snowy white and glowing red anemone,
Punish not with disdain one who is sorely sick * By long, long
     parting waste hath waxed this frame of me:
This is my wish, my will, the end of my desire, * And Union is
     my hope an haply this may be!"

Then he wept with violent weeping; and love and longing got
the mastery over him and he greeted her with these couplets,

"Peace be to you from lover's wasted love, * All noble hearts
     to noble favour show:
Peace be to you! Ne'er fail your form my dreams; * Nor hall
     nor chamber the fair sight forego!
Of you I'm jealous: none may name your name: * Lovers to
     lovers aye should bend thee low:
So cut not off your grace from him who loves * While sickness
     wastes and sorrows overthrow.
I watch the flowery stars which frighten me; * While cark and
     care mine every night foreslow.
Nor Patience bides with me nor plan appears: * What shall I
     say when questioned of my foe?
God's peace be with you in the hour of need, * Peace sent by
     lover patient bearing woe!"

Then for the excess of his desire and ecstasy he repeated
these coupletes also,

"If I to aught save you, O lords of me, incline; * Ne'er may I
     win of you my wish, my sole design!
Who doth comprise all loveliness save only you? * Who makes
     the Doomsday dawn e'en now before these eyne?
Far be it Love find any rest, for I am one * Who lost for love
     of you this heart, these vitals mine."

When he had made an end of his verses, he wept with sore
weeping and she said to him, "O Prince, I fear to grant myself
wholly to thee lest I find in thee nor fondness nor affection;
for oftentimes man's fidelity is small and his perfidy is
great and thou knowest how the lord Solomon, son of David (on
whom be the Peace!), took Bilkis to his love but, whenas he
saw another fairer than she, turned from her thereto." Sayf
al-Muluk replied, "O my eye and O my soul, Allah hath not made
all men alike, and I, Inshallah, will keep my troth and die
beneath thy feet. Soon shalt thou see what I will do in
accordance with my words, and for whatso I say Allah is my
warrant." Quoth Badi'a al-Jamal, "Sit and be of good heart and
swear to me by the right of thy Faith and let us covenant
together that each will not be false to other; and whichever
of us breaketh faith may Almighty Allah punish!" At these
words he sat down and set his hand in her hand and they sware
each to other that neither of them would ever prefer to the
other any one, either of man or of the Jann. Then they
embraced for a whole hour and wept for excess of their joy,
whilst passion overcame Sayf al-Muluk and he recited these

"I weep for longing love's own ardency * To her who claims the
     heart and soul of me.
And sore's my sorrow parted long from you, * And short's my
     arm to reach the prize I see;
And mourning grief for what my patience marred * To blamer's
     eye unveiled my secresy;
And waxed strait that whilome was so wide * Patience nor force
     remains nor power to dree.
Would Heaven I knew if God will ever deign to join * Our
     lives, and from our cark and care and grief set free!"

After this mutual troth-plighting, Sayf al-Muluk arose and
walked in the garden and Badi'a al-Jamal arose also and went
forth also afoot followed by a slave-girl bearing somewhat of
food and a flask[FN#454] of wine. The Princess sat down and
the damsel set the meat and wine before her: nor remained they
long ere they were joined by Sayf al-Muluk, who was received
with greeting and the two embraced and sat them down.--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

    When it was the Seven Hundred and Seventy-sixth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that
having provided food and wine, Badi'a al-Jamal met Sayf
al-Muluk with greetings, and the twain having embraced and
kissed sat them down awhile to eat and drink. Then said she to
him, "O King's son, thou must now go to the garden of Iram,
where dwelleth my grandmother, and seek her consent to our
marriage. My slave-girl Marjánah will convey thee thither and
as thou farest therein thou wilt see a great pavilion of red
satin, lined with green silk. Enter the pavilion heartening
thyself and thou wilt see inside it an ancient dame sitting on
a couch of red gold set with pearls and jewels. Salute her
with respect and courtesy: then look at the foot of the couch,
where thou wilt descry a pair of sandals[FN#455] of cloth
interwoven with bars of gold, embroidered with jewels. Take
them and kiss them and lay them on thy head[FN#456]; then put
them under thy right armpit and stand before the old woman, in
silence and with thy head bowed down. If she ask thee, 'Who
art thou and how camest thou hither and who led thee to this
land? And why hast thou taken up the sandals?' make her no
answer, but abide silent till Marjanah enter, when she will
speak with her and seek to win her aproof for thee and cause
her look on thee with consent; so haply Allah Almight may
incline her heart to thee and she may grant thee thy wish."
Then she called the handmaid Marjanah hight and said to her,
"As thou lovest me, do my errand this day and be not
neglectful therein! An thou acccomplish it, thou shalt be a
free woman for the sake of Allah Almighty, and I will deal
honourably by thee with gifts and there shall be none dearer
to me than thou, nor will I discover my secrets to any save
thee. So, by my love for thee, fulfil this my need and be not
slothful therein." Replied Marjanah, "O my lady and light of
mine eyes, tell me what is it thou requirest of me, that I may
accomplish it with both mine eyes." Badi'a rejoined, "Take
this mortal on thy shoulders and bear him to the bloom-garden
of Iram and the pavilion of my grandmother, my father's
mother, and be careful of his safety. When thou hast brought
him into her presence and seest him take the slippers and do
them homage, and hearest her ask him, saying, 'Whence art thou
and by what road art come and who led thee to this land, and
why hast thou taken up the sandals and what is thy need that I
give heed to it?' do thou come forward in haste and salute her
with the salam and say to her, 'O my lady, I am she who
brought him hither and he is the King's son of Egypt.[FN#457]
'Tis he who went to the High-builded Castle and slew the son
of the Blue King and delivered the Princess Daulat Khatun from
the Castle of Japhet son of Noah and brought her back safe to
her father: and I have brought him to thee, that he may give
thee the glad tidings of her safety: so deign thou be gracious
to him.' Then do thou say to her, 'Allah upon thee! is not
this young man handsome, O my lady?' She will reply, 'Yes';
and do thou rejoin, 'O my lady, indeed he is complete in
honour and manhood and valour and he is lord and King of Egypt
and compriseth all praiseworthy qualities.' An she ask thee,
'What is his need?' do thou make answer, 'My lady saluteth
thee and saith to thee, how long shall she sit at home, a maid
and unmarried? Indeed, the time is longsome upon her for she
is as a magazine wherein wheat is heaped up.[FN#458] What then
is thine intent in leaving her without a mate and why dost
thou not marry her in thy lifetide and that of her mother,
like other girls?' If she say, 'How shall we do to marry her?
An she have any one in mind, let her tell us of him, and we
will do her will as far as may be!" do thou make answer, 'O my
lady, thy daughter saith to thee, 'Ye were minded aforetime to
marry me to Solomon (on whom be peace!) and portrayed him my
portrait on a tunic. But he had no lot in me; so he sent the
tunic to the King of Egypt and he gave it to his son, who saw
my portrait figured thereon and fell in love with me;
wherefore he left his father and mother's realm and turning
away from the world and whatso is therein, went forth at a
venture, a wanderer, love-distraught, and hath borne the
utmost hardships and honours for my sake of me.' Now thou
seest his beauty and loveliness, and thy daughter's heart is
enamoured of him; so if ye have a mind to marry her, marry her
to this young man and forbid her not from him for he is young
and passing comely and King of Egypt, nor wilt thou find a
goodlier than he; and if ye will not give her to him, she will
slay herself and marry none neither man nor Jinn.'" "And,"
continued Badi'a al-Jamal, "Look thou, O Marjanah, ma
mie,[FN#459] how thou mayst do with my grandmother, to win her
consent, and beguile her with soft words, so haply she may do
my desire." Quoth the damsel, "O my lady, upon my head and
eyes will I serve thee and do what shall content thee." Then
she took Sayf al-Muluk on her shoulders and said to him, "O
King's son, shut thine eyes." He did so and she flew up with
him into the welkin; and after awhile she said to him, "O
King's son, open thine eyes." He opened them and found himself
in a garden, which was none other than the garden of Iram; and
she showed him the pavilion and said, "O Sayf al-Muluk, enter
therein!" Thereupon he pronounced the name of Allah Almighty
and entering cast a look upon the garden, when he saw the old
Queen sitting on the couch, attended by her waiting women. So
he drew near her with courtesy and reverence and taking the
sandals bussed them and did as Badi'a al-Jamal had enjoined
him. Quoth the ancient dame, "Who art thou and what is thy
country; whence comest thou and who brought thee hither and
what may be thy wish? Wherefore dost thou take the sandals and
kiss them and when didst thou ask of me a favour which I did
not grant?" With this in came Marjanah[FN#460] and saluting
her reverently and worshipfully, repeated to her what Badi'a
al-Jamal had told her; which when the old Queen heard, she
cried out at her and was wroth with her and said, "How shall
there be accord between man and Jinn?"--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

End of Vol. 7

                   Arabian Nights, Volume 7

[FN#1] Mayyafarikin, whose adjective for shortness is
"Fárikí": the place is often mentioned in The Nights as the
then capital of Diyár Bakr, thirty parasangs from Násibín, the
classical Nisibis, between the upper Euphrates and Tigris.

[FN#2] This proportion is singular to moderns but
characterised Arab and more especially Turcoman armies.

[FN#3] Such is the bathos caused by the Saja'-assonance: in
the music of the Arabic it contrasts strangely with the
baldness of translation. The same is the case with the Koran
beautiful in the original and miserably dull in European
languages, it is like the glorious style of the "Anglican
Version" by the side of its bastard brothers in Hindostani or
Marathi; one of these marvels of stupidity translating the
"Lamb of God" by "God's little goat.

[FN#4] This incident is taken from the Life of Mohammed who,
in the "Year of Missions" (A. H. 7) sent letters to foreign
potentates bidding them embrace Al-Islam, and, his seal being
in three lines, Mohammed|Apostle|of Allah, Khusrau Parwíz
(=the Charming) was offended because his name was placed below
Mohammed's. So he tore the letter in pieces adding, says
Firdausi, these words:--

          Hath the Arab's daring performed such feat,
          Fed on camel's milk and the lizard's meat,
          That he cast on Kayánian crown his eye?
          Fie, O whirling world! on thy faith and fie!

Hearing of this insult Mohammed exclaimed, "Allah shall tear
his kingdom!" a prophecy which was of course fulfilled, or we
should not have heard of it. These lines are horribly
mutilated in the Dabistan (iii. 99).

[FN#5] This "Taklíd" must not be translated "girt on the
sword." The Arab carries his weapon by a baldrick or bandoleer
passed over his right shoulder. In modern days the " Majdal"
over the left shoulder supports on the right hip a line of
Tatárif or brass cylinders for cartridges: the other cross-
belt (Al-Masdar) bears on the left side the Kharízah or
bullet-pouch of hide; and the Hizám or waist-belt holds the
dagger and extra cartridges. (Pilgrimage iii. 90.)

[FN#6] Arab. "Bab," which may mean door or gate. The plural
form (Abwáb) occurs in the next line, meaning that he
displayed all manner of martial prowess.

[FN#7] Arab. "Farrásh" (also used in Persian), a man of
general utility who pitches tents, speeps the floors.
administers floggings, etc. etc. (Pilgrimage iii. 90.)

[FN#8] i.e. the slogan-cry of "Allaho Akbar," which M. C.
Barbier de Meynard compares with the Christian "Te Deum."

[FN#9] The Anglo-Indian term for the Moslem rite of killing
animals for food. (Pilgrimage i. 377.)

[FN#10] Arab. "tawílan jiddan" a hideous Cairenism in these
days; but formerly used by Al-Mas'údí and other good writers.

[FN#11] Arab. " 'Ajwah," enucleated dates pressed together
into a solid mass so as to be sliced with a knife like cold
pudding. The allusion is to the dough-idols of the Hanífah
tribe, whose eating their gods made the saturnine Caliph Omar

[FN#12] Mr. Payne writes "Julned." In a fancy name we must not
look for grammar, but a quiescent lám (l) followed by nún (n)
is unknown to Arabic while we find sundry cases of "lan"
(fath'd lám and nún), and Jalandah means noxious or injurious.
In Oman also there was a dynasty called Julándah. for which
see Mr. Badger (xiii. and passim).

[FN#13] Doubtless for Jawan-mard--un giovane, a brave See vol.
iv., p. 208.

[FN#14] Mr. Payne transposes the distichs, making the last
first. I have followed the Arabic order finding it in the Mac.
and Bul. Edits. (ii. 129).

[FN#15] Al-Irak like Al-Yaman may lose the article in verse.

[FN#16] Arab. "Ka'ka'at": hence Jabal Ka'ka'án, the higher
levels in Meccah, of old inhabited by the Jurhamites and so
called from their clashing and jangling arms; whilst the
Amalekites dwelt in the lower grounds called Jiyád from their
generous steeds. (Pilgrimage iii. 191.)

[FN#17] Al-Shara', a mountain in Arabia.

[FN#18] See vol. vi., 249. "This (mace) is a dangerous weapon
when struck on the shoulders or unguarded arm: I am convinced
that a blow with it on a head armoured with a salade (cassis
cælata, a light iron helmet) would stun a man" (says La

[FN#19] Oman, which the natives pronounce "Amán," is the
region best known by its capital Maskat. These are the Omana
Moscha and Omanum Emporium of Ptolemy and the Periplus. Ibn
Batutah writes Ammán, but the best dictionaries give "Oman."
(N.B.--Mr. Badger, p. 1, wrongly derives Sachalitis from
"Sawáhíly": it is evidently "Sáhili.") The people bear by no
means the best character: Ibn Batutah (fourteenth century)
says, "their wives are most base; yet, without denying this,
their husbands express nothing like jealousy on the subject."
(Lee, p. 62.)

[FN#20] The name I have said of a quasi-historical personage,
son of Joktan, the first Arabist and the founder of the Tobbá
("successor") dynasty in Al-Yaman; while Jurham, his brother,
established that of Al-Hijaz. The name is probably chosen
because well-known.

[FN#21] Arab. "Hákim": lit. one who orders; often confounded
by the unscientific with Hakím, doctor, a philosopher. The
latter re-appears in the Heb. Khákhám applied in modern days
to the Jewish scribe who takes the place of the Rabbi.

[FN#22] As has been seen, acids have ever been and are still
administered as counter-inebriants, while hot spices and
sweets greatly increase the effect of Bhang, opium, henbane,
datura &c. The Persians have a most unpleasant form of
treating men when dead-drunk with wine or spirits. They hang
them up by the heels, as we used to do with the drowned, and
stuff their mouths with human ordure which is sure to produce

[FN#23] Compare the description of the elephant-faced Vetála
(Kathá S.S. Fasc. xi. p. 388).

[FN#24] The lover's name Sá'ik= the Striker (with lightning);
Najmah, the beloved= the star.

[FN#25] I have modified the last three lines of the Mac. Edit.
which contain a repetition evidently introduced by the
carelessness of the copyist.

[FN#26] The Hindu Charvakas explain the Triad, Bramha, Vishnu
and Shiva, by the sexual organs and upon Vishnu's having four
arms they gloss, "At the time of sexual intercourse, each man
and woman has as many." (Dabistan ii. 202.) This is the
Eastern view of Rabelais' "beast with two backs."

[FN#27] Arab. "Rabbat-i," my she Lord, fire (nár) being

[FN#28] The prose-rhyme is answerable for this galimatias.

[FN#29] A common phrase equivalent to our "started from his

[FN#30] Arab. "Máridúna"=rebels (against Allah and his

[FN#31] Arab. Yáfis or Yáfat. He had eleven sons and was
entitled Abú al-Turk because this one engendered the Turcomans
as others did the Chinese, Scythians, Slaves (Saklab), Gog,
Magog, and the Muscovites or Russians. According to the
Moslems there was a rapid falling off in size amongst this
family. Noah's grave at Karak (the Ruin) a suburb of Zahlah,
in La Brocquière's "Valley of Noah, where the Ark was built,"
is 104 ft. 10 in. Iong by 8 ft. 8 in. broad. (N.B.--It is a
bit of the old aqueduct which Mr. Porter, the learned author
of the "Giant Cities of Bashan," quotes as a "traditional
memorial of primeval giants"--talibus carduis pascuntur
asini!). Nabi Ham measures only 9 ft. 6 in. between headstone
and tombstone, being in fact about as long as his father was

[FN#32] See Night dcliv., vol. vii, p. 43, infra.

[FN#33] According to Turcoman legends (evidently pose-
Mohammedan) Noah gave his son, Japhet a stone inscribed with
the Greatest Name, and it had the virtue of bringing on or
driving off rain. The Moghuls long preserved the tradition and
hence probably the sword.

[FN#34] This expresses Moslem sentiment; the convert to Al-
Islam being theoretically respected and practically despised.
The Turks call him a "Burmá"=twister, a turncoat, and no one
either trusts him or believes in his sincerity.

[FN#35] The name of the city first appears here: it is found
also in the Bul. Edit., vol. ii. p. 132.

[FN#36] Arab. " 'Amala hílah," a Syro-Egyptian vulgarism.

[FN#37] i.e. his cousin, but he will not use the word.

[FN#38] Arab. "La'ab," meaning very serious use of the sword:
we still preserve the old "sword-play."

[FN#39] Arab. " Ikhsa,"  from a root meaning to drive away a

[FN#40] Arab. "Hazza-hu," the quivering motion given to the
"Harbak" (a light throw-spear or javelin) before it leaves the

[FN#41] Here the translator must either order the sequence of
the sentences or follow the rhyme.

[FN#42] Possibly taken from the Lions' Court in the
Alhambra=(Dár) Al-hamrá, the Red House.

[FN#43] Arab. "Sházarwán" from Pers. Shadurwán, a palace,
cornice, etc. That of the Meccan Ka'abah is a projection of
about a foot broad in pent-house shape sloping downwards and
two feet above the granite pavement: its only use appears in
the large brass rings welded into it to hold down the
covering. There are two breaks in it, one under the doorway
and the other opposite Ishmael's tomb; and pilgrims are
directed during circuit to keep the whole body outside it.

[FN#44] The "Musáfahah" before noticed, vol. vi., p. 287.

[FN#45] i.e. He was confounded at its beauty.

[FN#46] Arab. "'Ajíb," punning upon the name.

[FN#47] Arab. "Zarráf" (whence our word) from "Zarf"=walking
hastily: the old "cameleopard" which originated the nursery
idea of its origin. It is one of the most timid of the
antelope tribe and unfit for riding.

[FN#48] Arab. "Takht," a useful word, meaning even a saddle.
The usual term is "Haudaj"=the Anglo Indian "howdah."

[FN#49] "Thunder-King," Arab. and Persian.

[FN#50] i.e. "He who violently assaults his peers" (the best
men of the age). Batshat al- Kubrá=the Great Disaster, is
applied to the unhappy "Battle of Bedr" (Badr) on Ramazan 17,
A.H. 2 (=Jan. 13, 624) when Mohammed was so nearly defeated
that the Angels were obliged to assist him (Koran, chapts.
iii. 11; i. 42; viii. 9). Mohammed is soundly rated by
Christian writers for beheading two prisoners Utbah ibn Rabí'a
who had once spat on his face and Nazir ibn Háris who recited
Persian romances and preferred them to the "foolish fables of
the Koran." What would our forefathers have done to a man who
spat in the face of John Knox and openly preferred a French
play to Pentateuch ?

[FN#51] Arab. "Jilbáb" either habergeon (mail-coat) or the
buff-jacket worn under it.

[FN#52] A favourite way, rough and ready, of carrying light
weapons, often alluded to in The Nights. So Khusrawán in Antar
carried "under his thighs four small darts, each like a
blazing flame."

[FN#53] Mr. Payne very reasonably supplants here and below
Fakhr Taj (who in Night dcxxxiv is left in her father's palace
and who is reported to be dead in Night dclxvii.) by Star o'
Morn. But the former is also given in the Bul. Edit. (ii.
148), so the story teller must have forgotten all about her. I
leave it as a model specimen of Eastern incuriousness.

[FN#54] There is some chivalry in his unwillingness to use the
magical blade. As a rule the Knights of Romance utterly ignore
fair play and take every dirty advantage in the magic line
that comes to hand.

[FN#55] Arab. "Hammál al-Hatabi"=one who carries to market the
fuel-sticks which he picks up m the waste. In the Koran
(chaps. cxi.) it is applied to Umm Jamíl, wife of Mohammed's
hostile cousin, Abd al-Uzza, there termed Abú Lahab (Father of
smokeless Flame) with the implied meaning that she will bear
fuel to feed Hell-fire.

[FN#56] Arab. "Akyál," lit. whose word (Kaul) is obeyed, a
title of the Himyarite Kings, of whom Al-Bergendi relates that
one of them left an inscription at Samarcand, which many
centuries ago no man could read. This evidently alludes to the
dynasty which preceded the "Tobba" and to No. xxiv. Shamar
Yar'ash (Shamar the Palsied). Some make him son of Malik
surnamed Náshir al-Ni'am (Scatterer of Blessings) others of
Afríkús (No. xviii.), who, according to Al-Jannabi, Ahmad bin
Yusuf and Ibn Ibdun (Pocock, Spec. Hist. Arab.) founded the
Berber (Barber) race, the remnants of the Causanites expelled
by the "robber, Joshua son of Nún," and became the eponymus of
"Africa." This word which, under the Romans, denoted a small
province on the Northern Sea-board, is, I would suggest,
A'far-Káhi (Afar-land), the Afar being now the Dankali race,
the country of Osiris whom my learned friend, the late
Mariette Pasha, derived from the Egyptian "Punt" identified by
him with the Somali country. This would make "Africa," as it
ought to be, an Egyptian (Coptic) term.

[FN#57] Herodotus (i. 80) notes this concerning the camel.
Elephants are not allowed to walk the streets in Anglo-Indian
cities, where they have caused many accidents.

[FN#58] Arab. Wahk or Wahak, suggesting the Roman retiarius.
But the lasso pure and simple, the favourite weapon of
shepherd and herdsmen was well-known to the old Egyptians and
in ancient India. It forms one of the T-letters in the

[FN#59] Compare with this and other Arab battle-pieces the
Pandit's description in the Kathá Sarit Sagara, e.g. "Then a
confused battle arose with dint of arrow, javelin, lance, mace
and axe, costing the lives of countless soldiers (N.B.--
Millions are nothing to him); rivers of blood flowed with the
bodies of elephants and horses for alligators, with the pearls
from the heads of elephants for sands and with the heads of
heroes for stones. That feast of battle delighted the flesh-
loving demons who, drunk with blood instead of wine, were
dancing with the palpitating trunks," etc.. etc. Fasc. xii.

[FN#60] The giraffe is here mal-placé: it is, I repeat, one of
the most timid of the antelope tribe. Nothing can be more
graceful than this huge game as it stands under a tree
extending its long and slender neck to the foliage above it;
but when in flight all the limbs seem loose and the head is
carried almost on a level with the back.

[FN#61] The fire-arms may have been inserted by the copier;
the cross-bow (Arcubalista) is of unknown antiquity. I have
remarked in my book of the Sword (p. 19) that the bow is the
first crucial evidence of the distinction between the human
weapon and the bestial arm, and like the hymen or membrane of
virginity proves a difference of degree if not of kind between
man and the so-called lower animals. I note from Yule's Marco
Polo (ii., 143) " that the cross-bow was re-introduced into
European warfare during the twelfth century"; but the
arbalesta was well known to the bon roi Charlemagne (Regnier
Sat. X).

[FN#62] In Al-Islam this was unjustifiable homicide, excused
only because the Kafir had tried to slay his own son. He
should have been summoned to become a tributary and then, on
express refusal, he might legally have been put to death.

[FN#63] i.e. "Rose King," like the Sikh name "Gulab
Singh"=Rosewater Lion, sounding in translation almost too
absurd to be true.

[FN#64] "Repentance acquits the penitent" is a favourite and
noble saying popular in Al-Islam. It is first found in Seneca;
and is probably as old as the dawn of literature.

[FN#65] Here an ejaculation of impatience.

[FN#66] i.e. "King Intelligence": it has a ludicrous sound
suggesting only "Dandanha-i-Khirad,,=wisdom-teeth. The Mac.
Edit. persistently keeps "Ward Shah," copyist error.

[FN#67] i.e. Fakhr Taj, who had been promised him in marriage.
See Night dcxxxlii. supra, vol. vi.

[FN#68] The name does not appear till further on, after vague
Eastern fashion which, here and elsewhere I have not had the
heart to adopt. The same may be found in Ariosto, passim.

[FN#69] A town in Persian Irak, unhappily far from the "Salt

[FN#70] "Earthquake son of Ennosigaius" (the Earthquake-

[FN#71] Arab. "Ruba'al-Kharáb" or Ruba'al-Khálí (empty
quarter), the great central wilderness of Arabia covering some
50,000 square miles and still left white on our maps.
(Pilgrimage, i 14.)

[FN#72] Pers. "Life King", women also assume the title of

[FN#73] Arab. "Mujauhar": the watery or wavy mark upon Eastern
blades is called the "jauhar," lit.=jewel. The peculiarity is
also called water and grain, which gives rise to a host of
double-entendres, puns, paronomasias and conceits more or less

[FN#74] Etymologically meaning tyrants or giants; and applied
to great heathen conquerors like Nimrod and the mighty rulers
of Syria, the Anakim, Giants and other peoples of Hebrew
fable. The Akásirah are the Chosroës before noticed.

[FN#75] Arab. "Asker jarrár" lit. "drawing": so in Egyptian
slang "Nás jarrár"=folk who wish to draw your money out of
your pocket, greedy cheats.

[FN#76] In Turkestan: the name means "Two lights."

[FN#77] In Armenia, mentioned by Sadik Isfaháni (Transl. p.

[FN#78] This is the only ludicrous incident in the tale which
justifies Von Hammer's suspicion. Compare it with the combat
between Rustam and his son Sohráb.

[FN#79] I cannot understand why Trébutien, iii., 457, writes
this word Afba. He remarks that it is the "Oina and Riya" of
Jámí, elegantly translated by M. de Chezy in the Journal
Asiatique, vol. 1, 144.

[FN#80] I have described this part of the Medinah Mosque in
Pilgrimage ii., 62-69. The name derives from a saying of
Mohammed (of which there are many variants), "Between my tomb
and my pulpit is a garden of the Gardens of Paradise"
(Burckhardt, Arabia, p. 337). The whole Southern portico (not
only a part) now enjoys that honoured name and the tawdry
decorations are intended to suggest a parterre.

[FN#81] Mohammed's companions (Asháb), numbering some five
hundred, were divided into two orders, the Muhájirin
(fugitives) or Meccans who accompanied the Apostle to
Al-Medinah (Pilgrimage ii. 138) and the Ansár (Auxiliaries) or
Medinites who invited him to their city and lent him zealous
aid (Ibid. ii. 130). The terms constantly occur in Arab

[FN#82] The "Mosque of the Troops," also called Al-Fath
(victory), the largest of the "Four Mosques:" it is still a
place of pious visitation where prayer is granted. Koran,
chap. xxxiii., and Pilgrimage ii. 325.

[FN#83] Arab. "Al-Wars," with two meanings. The Alfáz Adwiyah
gives it=Kurkum, curcuma, turmeric, safran d'Inde; but popular
usage assigns it to Usfur, Kurtum or safflower (carthamus
tinctorius). I saw the shrub growing all about Harar which
exports it, and it is plentiful in Al-Yaman (Niebuhr, p. 133),
where women affect it to stain the skin a light yellow and
remove freckles: it is also an internal remedy in leprosy. But
the main use is that of a dye, and the Tob stained with Wars
is almost universal in some parts of Arabia. Sonnini (p. 510)
describes it at length and says that Europeans in Egypt call
it "Parrot-seeds" because the bird loves it, and the Levant
trader "Saffrenum."

[FN#84] Two men of the great 'Anazah race went forth to gather
Karaz, the fruit of the Sant (Mimosa Nilotica) both used for
tanning, and never returned. Hence the proverb which is
obsolete in conversation. See Burckhardt, Prov. 659: where it
takes the place of "ad Graecas Kalendas."

[FN#85] Name of a desert (Mafázah) and a settlement on the
Euphrates' bank between Basrah and the site of old Kufah near
Kerbela; the well known visitation place in Babylonian Irak.

[FN#86] Of the Banu Sulaym tribe; the adjective is Sulami not

[FN#87] Arab. "Amám-ak"=before thee (in space); from the same
root as Imam=antistes, leader of prayer; and conducing to
perpetual puns, e.g. "You are Imám-i (my leader) and therefore
should be Amám-i" (in advance of me).

[FN#88] He was angry, as presently appears, because he had
heard of certain love passages between the two and this in
Arabia is a dishonour to the family.

[FN#89] Euphemy for "my daughter."

[FN#90] The Badawin call a sound dollar "Kirsh hajar" or
"Riyal hajar" (a stone dollar; but the word is spelt with the
greater h).

[FN#91] Arab. Burdah and Habárah. The former often translated
mantle is a thick woollen stuff, brown or gray, woven oblong
and used like a plaid by day and by night. Mohammed's Burdah
woven in his Harem and given to the poet, Ka'ab, was 7 1/2 ft.
long by 4 1/2: it is still in the upper Serraglio of Stambul.
In early days the stuff was mostly striped; now it is either
plain or with lines so narrow that it looks like one colour.
The Habarah is a Burd made in Al-Yaman and not to be
confounded with the Egyptian mantilla of like name (Lane, M.
E. chapt. iii.).

[FN#92] Every Eastern city has its special title. Al-Medinah
is entitled "Al-Munawwarah" (the Illumined) from the blinding
light which surrounds the Prophet's tomb and which does not
show to eyes profane (Pilgrimage ii. 3). I presume that the
idea arose from the huge lamps of "The Garden." I have noted
that Mohammed's coffin suspended by magnets is an idea unknown
to Moslems, but we find the fancy in Al-Harawi related of St.
Peter, "Simon Cephas (the rock) is in the City of Great Rome,
in its largest church within a silver ark hanging by chains
from the ceiling." (Lee, Ibn Batutah, p. 161).

[FN#93] Here the fillets are hung instead of the normal
rag-strips to denote an honoured tomb. Lane (iii. 242) and
many others are puzzled about the use of these articles. In
many cases they are suspended to trees in order to transfer
sickness from the body to the tree and whoever shall touch it.
The Sawáhílí people term such articles a Keti (seat or
vehicle) for the mysterious haunter of the tree who prefers
occupying it to the patient's person. Briefly the custom still
popular throughout Arabia, is African and Fetish.

[FN#94] Al-Mas'údí (chap. xcv.), mentions a Hind bint Asmá and
tells a facetious story of her and the "enemy of Allah," the
poet Jarir.

[FN#95] Here the old Shiah hatred of the energetic conqueror
of Oman crops out again. Hind's song is that of Maysum
concerning her husband Mu'áwiyah which Mrs. Godfrey Clark
('Ilâm-en-Nâs, p. 108) thus translates:--

     A hut that the winds make tremble
        Is dearer to me than a noble palace;
     And a dish of crumbs on the floor of my home
        Is dearer to me than a varied feast;
     And the soughing of the breeze through every crevice
        Is dearer to me than the beating of drums.

Compare with Dr. Carlyle's No. X.:--

     The russet suit of camel's hair
        With spirits light and eye serene
     Is dearer to my bosom far
        Than all the trappings of a queen, etc. etc.

And with mine (Pilgrimage iii. 262):--

     O take these purple robes away,
        Give back my cloak of camel's hair
     And bear me from this towering pile
        To where the black tents flap i' the air, etc. etc.

[FN#96] AI-Hajjaj's tribal name was Al-Thakifi or descendant
of Thakíf. According to Al-Mas'udi, he was son of Faríghah
(the tall Beauty) by Yúsuf bin Ukayl the Thakafite and vint au
monde tout difforme avec l'anus obstrué. As he refused the
breast, Satan, in human form, advised suckling him with the
blood of two black kids, a black buck-goat and a black snake;
which had the desired effect.

[FN#97] Trebutien, iii., 465, translates these sayings into

[FN#98] Making him a "Kawwád"=leader, i.e. pimp; a true piece
of feminine spite. But the Caliph prized Al-Hajjaj too highly
to treat him as in the text.

[FN#99] i.e. "The overflowing," with benefits; on account of
his generosity.

[FN#100] The seventh Ommiade A. H. 96-99 (715-719). He died of
his fine appetite after eating at a sitting a lamb, six fowls,
seventy pomegranates, and 11 1/4 lbs. of currants. He was also
proud of his youth and beauty and was wont to say, "Mohammed
was the Apostle and Abu Bakr witness to the Truth; Omar the
Discriminator and Othman the Bashful, Mu'awiyah the Mild and
Yazid the Patient; Abd al-Malik the Administrator and Walid
the Tyrant; but I am the Young King!"

[FN#101] Arab. Al-Jazírah, "the Island;" name of the region
and the capital.

[FN#102] i.e. "Repairer of the Slips of the Generous," an
evasive reply, which of course did not deceive the questioner.

[FN#103] Arab. "Falastín," now obsolete. The word has echoed
far west and the name of the noble race has been degraded to
"Philister," a bourgeois, a greasy burgher.

[FN#104] Saying, "The Peace be with thee, O Prince of True

[FN#105] Arab. "Mutanakkir," which may also mean proud or in

[FN#106] On appointment as viceroy. See vol. iii 307.

[FN#107] The custom with outgoing Governors. It was adopted by
the Spaniards and Portuguese especially in America. The
generosity of Ikrimah without the slightest regard to justice
or common honesty is characteristic of the Arab in

[FN#108] The celebrated half-way house between Jaffa and

[FN#109] Alias the Kohistan or mountain region, Susiana
(Khuzistan) whose capital was Susa; and the head-quarters of
fire-worship. Azar (fire) was the name of Abraham's father
whom Eusebius calls "Athar." (Pilgrimage iii. 336.)

[FN#110] Tenth Ommiade A.H. 105-125 (=724-743), a wise and
discreet ruler with an inclination to avarice and asceticism.
According to some, the Ommiades produced only three statesmen,
Mu'awayah, Abd al-Malik and Hisham; and the reign of the
latter was the end of sage government and wise administration.

[FN#111] About £1,250, which seems a long price; but in those
days Damascus had been enriched with the spoils of the world

[FN#112] Eleventh Ommiade dynasty, A.H. 125-126 (=743-744).
Ibn Sahl (son of ease, i.e. free and easy) was a nickname; he
was the son of Yazíd II. and brother of Hishám. He scandalised
the lieges by his profligacy, wishing to make the pilgrimage
in order to drink upon the Ka'abah-roof; so they attacked the
palace and lynched him. His death is supposed to have been
brought about (27th of Jamáda al-Akhirah = April 16, 744) by
his cousin and successor Yazíd (No. iii.) surnamed the
Retrencher. The tale in the text speaks well for him; but
generosity amongst the Arabs covers a multitude of sins, and
people say, "Better a liberal sinner than a stingy saint."

[FN#113] The tents of black wool woven by the Badawi women are
generally supported by three parallel rows of poles lengthways
and crossways (the highest line being the central) and the
covering is pegged down. Thus the outline of the roofs forms
two or more hanging curves, and these characterise the
architecture of the Tartars and Chinese; they are still
preserved in the Turkish (and sometimes in the European)
"Kiosque," and they have extended to the Brazil where the
upturned eaves, often painted vermilion below, at once attract
the traveller's notice.

[FN#114] See vol. iv., 159. The author of "Antar," known to
Englishmen by the old translation of Mr. Terrick Hamilton,
secretary of Legation at Constantinople. There is an
abridgement of the forty-five volumes of Al-Asma'i's "Antar"
which mostly supplies or rather supplied the "Antariyyah" or
professional tale-tellers; whose theme was the heroic Mulatto

[FN#115] The "Dakkah" or long wooden sofa, as opposed to the
"mastabah" or stone bench, is often a tall platform and in
mosques is a kind of ambo railed round and supported by
columns. Here readers recite the Koran: Lane (M.E. chapt.
iii.) sketches it in the "Interior of a Mosque."

[FN#116] Alif, Ha and Waw, the first, twenty-seventh and
twenty-sixth letters of the Arabic alphabet: No. 1 is the most
simple and difficult to write caligraphically.

[FN#117] Reeds washed with gold and used for love-letters, &c.

[FN#118] Lane introduced this tale into vol. i., p. 223, notes
on chapt. iii., apparently not knowing that it was in The
Nights. He gives a mere abstract, omitting all the verse, and
he borrowed it either from the Halbat al-Kumayt (chapt. xiv.)
or from Al-Mas'údí (chapt. cxi.). See the French translation,
vol. vi. p. 340. I am at pains to understand why M. C. Barbier
de Maynard writes "Réchid" with an accented vowel; although
French delicacy made him render, by "fils de courtisane," the
expression in the text, "O biter of thy mother's enlarged (or
uncircumcised) clitoris" (Bazar).

[FN#119] In Al-Mas'údi the Devil is "a young man fair of
favour and formous of figure," which is more appropriate to a
"Tempter." He also wears light stuffs of dyed silks.

[FN#120] It would have been more courteous in an utter
stranger to say, O my lord.

[FN#121] The Arab Tempe (of fiction, not of grisly fact).

[FN#122] These four lines are in Al-Mas'údi, chapt, cxviii.
Fr. Trans. vii. 313, but that author does not tell us who
wrote them.

[FN#123] i.e. Father of Bitterness=the Devil. This legend of
the Foul Fiend appearing to Ibrahim of Mosul (and also to
Isam, N. dcxcv.) seems to have been accepted by contemporaries
and reminds us of similar visitations in Europe--notably to
Dr. Faust. One can only exclaim, "Lor, papa, what nonsense you
are talking!" the words of a small girl whose father thought
proper to indoctrinate her into certain Biblical stories. I
once began to write a biography of the Devil; but I found that
European folk-lore had made such an unmitigated fool of the
grand old Typhon-Ahriman as to take away from him all human

[FN#124] In Al-Mas'udi the Caliph exclaims, "Verily thou hast
received a visit from Satan!"

[FN#125] Al-Mas'udi, chapt. cxix. (Fr. transl. vii., 351)
mentions the Banu Odhrah as famed for lovers and tells the
pathetic tale of 'Orwah and 'Afrá.

[FN#126] Jamil bin Ma'amar the poet has been noticed in Vol.
ii. 102; and he has no business here as he died years before
Al-Rashid was born. The tale begins like that of Ibn Mansúr
and the Lady Budúr (Night cccxxvii.), except that Mansur does
not offer his advice.

[FN#127] Arab. "Halumma," an interjection=bring! a congener of
the Heb. "Halúm"; the grammarians of Kufah and Bassorah are
divided concerning its origin.

[FN#128] Arab. "Nafs-í" which here corresponds with our
canting "the flesh" the "Old Adam," &c.

[FN#129] Arab. "Atmárí" used for travel. The Anglo-Americans
are the only people who have the common sense to travel (where
they are not known) in their "store clothes" and reserve the
worst for where they are known.

[FN#130] e.g. a branch or bough.

[FN#131] Arab. "Ráyah káimah," which Lane translates a "beast

[FN#132] Tying up the near foreleg just above the knee; and
even with this a camel can hop over sundry miles of ground in
the course of a night. The hobbling is shown in Lane. (Nights
vol. ii., p. 46.)

[FN#133] As opposed to "Severance" in the old knightly
language of love, which is now apparently lost to the world. I
tried it in the Lyrics of Camoens and found that I was
speaking a forgotten tongue, which mightily amused the common
sort of critic and reviewer.

[FN#134] More exactly three days and eight hours, after which
the guest becomes a friend, and as in the Argentine prairies
is expected to do friend's duty. The popular saying is, "The
entertainment of a guest is three days; the viaticum (jáizah)
is a day and a night, and whatso exceedeth this is alms."

[FN#135] Arab. "'Ashírah." Books tell us there are seven
degrees of connection among the Badawin: Sha'ab, tribe or
rather race; nation (as the Anazah) descended from a common
ancestor; Kabílah the tribe proper (whence les Kabyles);
Fasílah (sept), Imarah; Ashirah (all a man's connections);
Fakhiz (lit. the thigh, i.e., his blood relations) and Batn
(belly) his kith and kin. Practically Kabílah is the tribe,
Ashírah the clan, and Bayt the household; while Hayy may be
anything between tribe and kith and kin.

[FN#136] This is the true platonic love of noble Arabs, the
Ishk 'uzrí, noted in vol. ii., 104.

[FN#137] Arab. "'Alá raghm," a favourite term. It occurs in
theology; for instance, when the Shí'ahs are asked the cause
of such and such a ritual distinction they will reply, "Ala
raghmi 'l-Tasannun": lit.=to spite the Sunnis.

[FN#138] In the text "Al-Kaus" for which Lane and Payne
substitute a shield. The bow had not been mentioned but--
n'importe, the Arab reader would say. In the text it is left
at home because it is a cowardly, far-killing weapon compared
with sword and lance. Hence the Spaniard calls and justly
calls the knife the "bravest of arms" as it wants a man behind

[FN#139] Arab. "Rahim" or "Rihm"=womb, uterine relations, pity
or sympathy, which may here be meant.

[FN#140] Reciting Fátihahs and so forth, as I have described
in the Cemetery of Al-Medinah (ii. 300). Moslems do not pay
for prayers to benefit the dead like the majority of
Christendom and, according to Calvinistic Wahhábi-ism, their
prayers and blessings are of no avail. But the mourner's heart
loathes reason and he prays for his dead instinctively like
the so-termed "Protestant." Amongst the latter, by the bye, I
find four great Sommités, (1) Paul of Tarsus who protested
against the Hebraism of Peter; (2) Mohammed who protested
against the perversions of Christianity; (3) Luther who
protested against Italian rule in Germany, and lastly (4) one
(who shall be nameless) that protests against the whole

[FN#141] Lane transfers this to vol. i. 520 (notes to chapt.
vii); and gives a mere abstract as of that preceding.

[FN#142] We learn from Ibn Batutah that it stood South of the
Great Mosque and afterwards became the Coppersmiths' Bazar.
The site was known as Al-Khazrá (the Green) and the building
was destroyed by the Abbasides. See Defrémery and Sanguinetti,
i. 206.

[FN#143] This great tribe or rather nation has been noticed
before (vol. ii. 170). The name means "Strong," and derives
from one Tamim bin Murr of the race of Adnan, nat. circ. A.D.
121. They hold the North-Eastern uplands of Najd, comprising
the great desert Al-Dahná and extend to Al-Bahrayn. They are
split up into a multitude of clans and septs; and they can
boast of producing two famous sectarians. One was Abdullah bin
Suffár, head of the Suffriyah; and the other Abdullah bin Ibáz
(Ibadh) whence the Ibázíyah heretics of Oman who long included
her princes. Mr. Palgrave wrongly writes Abadeeyah and
Biadeeyah and my "Bayázi" was an Arab vulgarism used by the
Zanzibarians. Dr. Badger rightly prefers Ibáziyah which he
writes Ibâdhiyah (Hist. of the Imams, etc.).

[FN#144] Governor of Al-Medinah under Mu'awiyah and afterwards
(A.H. 64-65=683-4) fourth Ommiade. Al-Siyúti (p. 216) will not
account him amongst the princes of the Faithful, holding him a
rebel against Al-Zubayr. Ockley makes Ibn al-Zubayr ninth and
Marwán tenth Caliph.

[FN#145] The address, without the vocative particle, is more
emphatic; and the P.N. Mu'awiyah seems to court the omission.

[FN#146] This may also mean that the £500 were the woman's
"mahr" or marriage dowry and the £250 a present to buy the
father's consent.

[FN#147] Quite true to nature. See an account of the quasi-
epileptic fits to which Syrians are subject and by them called
Al-Wahtah in "The Inner Life of Syria," i. 233.

[FN#148] Arab. "Wayha-k" here equivalent to Wayla-k. M. C.
Barbier de Meynard renders the first "mon ami" and the second

[FN#149] This is an instance when the article (Al) is
correctly used with one proper name and not with another. Al-
Kumayt (P. N. of poet) lit. means a bay horse with black
points: Nasr is victory.

[FN#150] This anecdote, which reads like truth, is ample set-
off for a cart-load of abuse of women. But even the Hindu,
determined misogynists in books, sometimes relent. Says the
Katha Sarit Sagara: "So you see, King, honourable matrons are
devoted to their husbands, and it is not the case that all
women are always bad" (ii. 624). Let me hope that after all
this Mistress Su'ad did not lead her husband a hardish life.

[FN#151] Al-Khalí'a has been explained in vol. i. 311 {Vol 1,
FN#633}:  the translation of Al-Mas'udi (vi. 10) renders it
"scélerat." Abú Alí al-Husayn the Wag was a Bassorite and a
worthy companion of Abu Nowas the Debauchee; but he adorned
the Court of Al-Amin the son not of Al-Rashid the father.

[FN#152] Governor of Bassorah, but not in Al-Husayn's day

[FN#153] The famous market-place where poems were recited,
mentioned by Al-Hariri.

[FN#154] A quarter of Bassorah.

[FN#155] Capital of Al-Yaman, and then famed for its leather
and other work (vol. v. 16).

[FN#156] The creases in the stomach like the large navel are
always insisted upon. Says the Kathá (ii. 525) "And he looked
on that torrent river of the elixir of beauty, adorned with a
waist made charming by those wave-like wrinkles," etc.

[FN#157] Arab. Sabaj (not Sabah, as the Mac. Edit. misprints
it): I am not sure of its meaning.

[FN#158] A truly Arab conceit, suggesting–

     The music breathing from her face;

her calves moved rhythmically, suggesting the movement and
consequent sound of a musical instrument.

[FN#159] The morosa voluptas of the Catholic divines. The
Sapphist described in the text would procure an orgasm (in
gloria, as the Italians call it) by biting and rolling over
the girl she loved; but by loosening the trouser-string she
evidently aims at a closer tribadism the Arab " Musáhikah."

[FN#160] We drink (or drank) after dinner, Easterns before the
meal and half-Easterns (like the Russians) before and after.
We talk of liquor being unwholesome on an empty stomach; but
the truth is that all is purely habit. And as the Russian
accompanies his Vodka with caviare, etc., so the Oriental
drinks his Raki or Mahayá (Ma al-hayát=aqua vitæ) alternately
with a Salátah, for whose composition see Pilgrimage i. 198.
The Eastern practice has its advantages: it awakens the
appetite, stimulates digestion and, what Easterns greatly
regard, it is economical; half a bottle doing the work of a
whole. Bhang and Kusumbá (opium dissolved and strained through
a pledges of cotton) are always drunk before dinner and thus
the "jolly" time is the preprandial, not the postprandial.

[FN#161] "Abu al-Sakhá" (pronounced Abussakhá) = Father of

[FN#162] 'Arab. "Shammara," also used for gathering up the
gown, so as to run the faster.

[FN#163] i.e., blessing the Prophet and all True Believers
(herself included).

[FN#164] The style of this letter is that of a public scribe
in a Cairo market-place thirty years ago.

[FN#165] i.e.. she could not help falling in love with this
beauty of a man.

[FN#166] "Kudrat," used somewhat in the sense of our vague
"Providence." The sentence means, leave Omnipotence to manage
him. Mr. Redhouse, who forces a likeness between Moslem and
Christian theology, tells us that "Qader is unjustly
translated by Fate and Destiny, an old pagan idea abhorrent to
Al-Islam which reposes on God's providence." He makes Kazá and
Kismet quasi-synonymes of "Qazá" and "Qader," the former
signifying God's decree, the latter our allotted portion, and
he would render both by dispensation. Of course it is
convenient to forget the Guarded Tablet of the learned and the
Night of Power and skull-lectures of the vulgar. The eminent
Turkish scholar would also translate Salát by worship (du'á
being prayer) because it signifies a simple act of adoration
without entreaty. If he will read the Opener of the Koran,
recited in every set of prayers, he will find an especial
request to be "led to the path which is straight." These
vagaries are seriously adopted by Mr. E. J. W. Gibb in his
Ottoman Poems (p. 245, etc.) London: Trübner and Co., 1882;
and they deserve, I think, reprehension, because they serve
only to mislead; and the high authority of the source whence
they come necessarily recommends them to many.

[FN#167] The reader will have noticed the likeness of this
tale to that of Ibn Mansúr and the Lady Budúr (vol. iv., 228
et seq.){Vol 4, Tale 42} For this reason Lane leaves it
untranslated (iii. 252).

[FN#168] Lane also omits this tale (iii. 252). See Night
dclxxxviii., vol. vii. p. 113 et seq., for a variant of the

[FN#169] Third Abbaside, A.H. 158-169 (=775-785), and father
of Harun Al-Rashid. He is known chiefly for his
eccentricities, such as cutting the throats of all his
carrier-pigeons, making a man dine off marrow and sugar and
having snow sent to him at Meccah, a distance of 700 miles.

[FN#170] Arab. "Mirt"; the dictionaries give a short shift,
cloak or breeches of wool or coarse silk.

[FN#171] Arab. "Mayázíb" plur. of the Pers. Mizáb (orig.
Míz-i-áb=channel of water) a spout for roof-rain. That which
drains the Ka'abah on the N.-W. side is called Mizáb al-Rahmah
(Gargoyle of Mercy) and pilgrims stand under it for a douche
of holy water. It is supposed to be of gold, but really of
silver gold-plated and is described of Burckhardt and myself.
(Pilgrimage iii. 164.) The length is 4 feet 10 in.; width 9
in.; height of sides 8 in.; and slope at mouth 1 foot 6 in

[FN#172]  The Mac. and Bull Edits. have by mistake "Son of
Ishak." Lane has "Is-hale the Son of Ibrahim" following
Trébutien (iii. 483) but suggests in a note the right reading
as above.

[FN#173] Again masculine for feminine.

[FN#174] There are two of this name. The Upper al-Akik
contains the whole site of Al-Medinah; the Lower is on the
Meccan road about four miles S.W. of the city. The Prophet
called it "blessed" because ordered by an angel to pray
therein. The poets have said pretty things about it, e.g.

     O friend, this is the vale Akik; here stand and strive in
     If not a very lover, strive to be by love distraught!

for whose esoteric meaning see Pilgrimage ii. 24. I passed
through Al-Akík in July when it was dry as summer dust and its
"beautiful trees" were mere vegetable mummies.

[FN#175] Those who live in the wet climates of the Northern
temperates can hardly understand the delight of a shower in
rainless lands, like Arabia and Nubia. In Sind we used to
strip and stand in the downfall and raise faces sky-wards to
get the full benefit of the douche. In Southern Persia food is
hastily cooked at such times, wine strained, Kaliuns made
ready and horses saddled for a ride to the nearest gardens and
a happy drinking-bout under the cypresses. If a man refused,
his friends would say of him, " See how he turns his back upon
the blessing of Allah!" (like an ass which presents its tail
to the weather).

[FN#176] i.e. the destruction of the Barmecides.

[FN#177] He was Wazir to the Great "Saladin" (Saláh al-Din = one
conforming with the Faith):, ) See vol. iv. 271, where Saladin
is also entitled Al-Malik c al-Nasir = the Conquering King. He
was a Kurd and therefore fond of boys (like Virgil, Horace,
etc.), but that perversion did not prey prevent his being one
of the noblest of men. He lies in the Great Amawi Mosque of
Damascus and I never visited a tomb with more reverence.

[FN#178] Arab. "Ahassa bi'l-Shurbah :" in our idiom "he smelt
a rat".

[FN#179] This and the next tale are omitted by Lane (iii. 254)
on "account of its vulgarity, rendered more objectionable by
indecent incidents." It has been honoured with a lithographed
reprint at Cairo A.H. 1278 and the Bresl. Edit. ix. 193 calls
it the "Tale of Ahmad al-Danaf with Dalílah."

[FN#180] "Ahmad, the Distressing Sickness," or "Calamity;"
Hasan the Pestilent and Dalílah the bawd. See vol. ii. 329,
and vol. iv. 75.

[FN#181] A fœtus, a foundling, a contemptible fellow.

[FN#182] In the Mac. Edit. "her husband": the end of the tale
shows the error, infra, p. 171. The Bresl. Edit., x. 195,
informs us that Dalilah was a "Faylasúfiyah"=philosopheress.

[FN#183] Arab. "Ibrík" usually a ewer, a spout-pot, from the
Pers. Ab-ríz=water-pourer: the old woman thus vaunted her
ceremonial purity. The basin and ewer are called in poetry
"the two rumourers," because they rattle when borne about.

[FN#184] Khátún in Turk. is=a lady, a dame of high degree; at
times as here and elsewhere, it becomes a P. N.

[FN#185] Arab. "Maut," a word mostly avoided in the Koran and
by the Founder of Christianity.

[FN#186] Arab. "Akákír," drugs, spices, simples which cannot
be distinguished without study and practice. Hence the proverb
(Burckhardt, 703), Is this an art of drugs?--difficult as the
druggist's craft?

[FN#187] i.e. Beautiful as the fairy damsels who guard
enchanted treasures, such as that of Al-Shamardal (vol. vi.

[FN#188] i.e. by contact with a person in a state of
ceremonial impurity; servants are not particular upon this
point and "Salát mamlúkíyah" (Mameluke's prayers) means
praying without ablution.

[FN#189] i.e. Father of assaults, burdens or pregnancies; the
last being here the meaning.

[FN#190] Ex votos and so forth.

[FN#191] Arab. "Iksah," plaits, braids, also the little gold
coins and other ornaments worn in the hair, now mostly by the
middle and lower classes. Low Europeans sometimes take
advantage of the native prostitutes by detaching these
valuables, a form of "bilking" peculiar to the Nile-Valley.

[FN#192] In Bresl. Edit. Malíh Kawí (pron. 'Awi), a Cairene

[FN#193] Meaning without veil or upper clothing.

[FN#194] Arab. "Kallakás" the edible African arum before
explained. This Colocasia is supposed to bear, unlike the
palm, male and female flowers in one spathe.

[FN#195] See vol. iii. 302. The figs refer to the anus and the
pomegranates, like the sycomore, to the female parts. Me nec
fæmina nec puer, &c., says Horace in pensive mood.

[FN#196] It is in accordance to custom that the Shaykh be
attended by a half-witted fanatic who would be made furious by
seeing gold and silks in the reverend presence so coyly

[FN#197] In English, "God damn everything an inch high!"

[FN#198] Burckhardt notes that the Wali, or chief police
officer at Cairo, was exclusively termed Al-Aghá and quotes
the proverb (No. 156) "One night the whore repented and
cried:--What! no Wali (Al-Aghá) to lay whores by the heels?"
Some of these Egyptian by-words are most amusing and
characteristic; but they require literal translation, not the
timid touch of the last generation. I am preparing, for the
use of my friend, Bernard Quaritch, a bonâ fide version which
awaits only the promised volume of Herr Landberg.

[FN#199] Lit. for "we leave them for the present": the formula
is much used in this tale, showing another hand, author or

[FN#200] Arab. "Uzrah."

[FN#201] i.e. "Thou art unjust and violent enough to wrong
even the Caliph!"

[FN#202] I may note that a "donkey-boy" like our "post-boy"
can be of any age in Egypt.

[FN#203] They could legally demand to be recouped but the
chief would have found some pretext to put off payment. Such
at least is the legal process of these days.

[FN#204] i.e. drunk with the excess of his beauty.

[FN#205] A delicate way of offering a fee. When officers
commanding regiments in India contracted for clothing the men,
they found these douceurs under their dinner-napkins. All that
is now changed; but I doubt the change being an improvement:
the public is plundered by a "Board" instead of an individual.

[FN#206] This may mean, I should know her even were my eyes
blue (or blind) with cataract and the Bresl. Edit. ix. 231,
reads "Ayní"=my eye; or it may be, I should know her by her
staring, glittering, hungry eyes, as opposed to the "Hawar"
soft-black and languishing (Arab. Prov. i. 115, and ii. 848).
The Prophet said "blue-eyed (women) are of good omen." And
when one man reproached another saying "Thou art Azrak"
(blue-eyed!) he retorted, "So is the falcon!" "Zurk-an" in
Kor. xx. 102, is translated by Mr. Rodwell "leaden eyes." It
ought to be blue-eyed, dim-sighted, purblind.

[FN#207] Arab, "Zalábiyah bi-'Asal."

[FN#208] Arab. "Ká'ah," their mess-room, barracks.

[FN#209] i.e. Camel shoulder-blade.

[FN#210] So in the Brazil you are invited to drink a copa
d'agua and find a splendid banquet. There is a smack of
Chinese ceremony in this practice which lingers throughout
southern Europe; but the less advanced society is, the more it
is fettered by ceremony and "etiquette."

[FN#211] The Bresl. edit. (ix. 239) prefers these lines:--

     Some of us be hawks and some sparrow-hawks, *
          And vultures some which at carrion pike;
     And maidens deem all alike we be *
          But, save in our turbands, we're not alike.

[FN#212] Arab. Shar a=holy law; here it especially applies to
Al-Kisás=lex talionis, which would order her eye-tooth to be
torn out.

[FN#213] i.e., of the Afghans. Sulaymáni is the Egypt and
Hijazi term for an Afghan and the proverb says "Sulaymáni
harámi"--the Afghan is a villainous man. See Pilgrimage i. 59,
which gives them a better character. The Bresl. Edit. simply
says, "King Sulaymán."

[FN#214] This is a sequel to the Story of Dalilah and both are
highly relished by Arabs. The Bresl. Edit. ix. 245, runs both
into one.

[FN#215] Arab. "Misr" (Masr), the Capital, says Savary,
applied alternately to Memphis, Fostat and Grand Cairo each of
which had a Jízah (pron. Gízah), skirt, angle, outlying

[FN#216] For the curious street-cries of old Cairo see Lane
(M. E. chapt. xiv.) and my Pilgrimage (i. 120): here the
rhymes are of Zabíb (raisins), habíb (lover) and labíb (man of

[FN#217] The Mac. and Bul. Edits. give two silly couplets of
moral advice:--

     Strike with thy stubborn steel, and never fear *
          Aught save the Godhead of Allmighty Might;
     And shun ill practices and never show *
          Through life but generous gifts to human sight.

The above is from the Bresl. Edit. ix. 247.

[FN#218] Arab. "Al-Khanakah" now more usually termed a
Takíyah. (Pilgrim. i. 124.)

[FN#219] Arab. "Ka'b al-ba'íd" (Bresl. Edit. ix. 255)=heel or
ankle, metaph. for fortune, reputation: so the Arabs say the
"Ka'b of the tribe is gone!" here "the far one"=the

[FN#220] Arab. "Sharít," from Sharata=he Scarified;
"Mishrat"=a lancet and "Sharítah"=a mason's rule. Mr. Payne
renders "Sharít" by whinyard: it must be a chopper-like
weapon, with a pin or screw (laulab) to keep the blade open
like the snap of the Spaniard's cuchillo. Dozy explains
it=epée, synonyme de Sayf.

[FN#221] Text "Dimágh," a Persianism when used for the head:
the word properly means brain or meninx.

[FN#222] They were afraid even to stand and answer this
remarkable ruffian.

[FN#223] Ahmad the Abortion, or the Foundling, nephew
(sister's son) of Zaynab the Coneycatcher. See supra, p. 145.

[FN#224] Here the sharp lad discovers the direction without
pointing it out. I need hardly enlarge upon the prehensile
powers of the Eastern foot: the tailor will hold his cloth
between his toes and pick up his needle with it, whilst the
woman can knead every muscle and at times catch a mosquito
between the toes. I knew an officer in India whose mistress
hurt his feelings by so doing at a critical time when he
attributed her movement to pleasure.

[FN#225] Arab. "Hullah"=dress. In old days it was composed of
the Burd or Ridá, the shoulder-cloth from 6 to 9 or 10 feet
long, and the Izár or waistcloth which was either tied or
tucked into a girdle of leather or metal. The woman's
waistcloth was called Nitáh and descended to the feet while
the upper part was doubled and provided with a Tikkah or
string over which it fell to the knees, overhanging the lower
folds. This doubling of the "Hujrah," or part round the waist,
was called the "Hubkah."

[FN#226] Arab. "Taghaddá," the dinner being at eleven a.m. or

[FN#227] Arab. Ghandúr for which the Dictionaries give only
"fat, thick." It applies in Arabia especially to a Harámi,
brigand or freebooter, most honourable of professions, slain
in foray or fray, opposed to "Fatís" or carrion (the corps
crévé of the Klephts), the man who dies the straw-death.
Pilgrimage iii. 66.

[FN#228] My fair readers will note with surprise how such
matters are hurried in the East. The picture is, however, true
to life in lands where "flirtation" is utterly unknown and,
indeed, impossible.

[FN#229] Arab. "Zabbah," the wooden bolt (before noticed)
which forms the lock and is opened by a slider and pins. It is
illustrated by Lane (M. E. Introduction).

[FN#230] i.e. I am not a petty thief.

[FN#231] Arab. Satl=kettle, bucket. Lat. Situla (?).

[FN#232] i.e. "there is no chance of his escaping." It may
also mean, "And far from him (Hayhát) is escape."

[FN#233] Arab. "Ihtilám" the sign of puberty in boy or girl;
this, like all emissions of semen, voluntary or involuntary,
requires the Ghuzl or total ablution before prayers can be
said, etc. See vol. v. 199, in the Tale of Tawaddud.

[FN#234] This is the way to take an Eastern when he tells a
deliberate lie; and it often surprises him into speaking the

[FN#235] The conjunctiva in Africans is seldom white; often it
is red and more frequently yellow.

[FN#236] So in the texts, possibly a clerical error for the
wine which he had brought with the kabobs. But beer is the
especial tipple of African slaves in Egypt.

[FN#237] Arab. "Laun", prop.=color, hue; but applied to
species and genus, our "kind"; and especially to dishes which
differ in appearance; whilst in Egypt it means any dish.

[FN#238] Arab. "Zardah"=rice dressed with honey and saffron.
Vol. ii. 313. The word is still common in Turkey.

[FN#239] Arab. "Laylat Arms," the night of yesterday
(Al-bárihah) not our "last night" which would be the night of
the day spoken of.

[FN#240] Arab. "Yakhní," a word much used in Persia and India
and properly applied to the complicated broth prepared for the
rice and meat. For a good recipe see Herklots, Appendix xxix.

[FN#241] In token of defeat and in acknowledgment that she was
no match for men.

[FN#242] This is a neat touch of nature. Many a woman, even of
the world, has fallen in love with a man before indifferent to
her because he did not take advantage of her when he had the

[FN#243] The slightest movement causes a fight at a funeral or
a wedding-procession in the East; even amongst the "mild

[FN#244] Arab. "Al-Musrán" (plur. of "Masír") properly the
intestines which contain the chyle. The bag made by Ali was,
in fact, a "Cundum" (so called from the inventor, Colonel
Cundum of the Guards in the days of Charles Second) or "French
letter"; une capote anglaise, a "check upon child." Captain
Grose says (Class. Dict. etc. s.v. Cundum) "The dried gut of a
sheep worn by a man in the act of coition to prevent venereal
infection. These machines were long prepared and sold by a
matron of the name of Philips at the Green Canister in Half
Moon Street in the Strand * * * Also a false scabbard over a
sword and the oilskin case for the colours of a regiment."
Another account is given in the Guide Pratique des Maladies
Secrètes, Dr. G. Harris, Bruxelles. Librairie Populaire. He
calls these petits sachets de baudruche "Candoms, from the
doctor who invented them" (Littré ignores the word) and
declares that the famous Ricord compared them with a bad
umbrella which a storm can break or burst, while others term
them cuirasses against pleasure and cobwebs against infection.
They were much used in the last century. "Those pretended
stolen goods were Mr. Wilkes's Papers, many of which tended to
prove his authorship of the North Briton, No. 45, April 23,
1763, and some Cundums enclosed in an envelope" (Records of C.
of King's Bench, London, 1763). "Pour finir l'inventaire de
ces curiosités du cabinet de Madame Gourdan, il ne faut pas
omettre une multitude de redingottes appelées d'Angleterre, je
ne sais pourquois. Vous connoissez, an surplus, ces especes de
boucliers qu'on oppose aux traits empoisonnés de l'amour; et
qui n'emoussent que ceux du plaisir." (L'Observateur Anglois,
Londres 1778, iii. 69.) Again we read:--

     "Les capotes mélancoliques
     Qui pendent chez les gros Millan (?)
     S'enflent d'elles-memes, lubriques,
     Et dechargent en se gonflant."
                                Passage Satyrique.

Also in Louis Prolat:--

     "Il fuyait, me laissant une capote au cul."

The articles are now of two kinds mostly of baudruche (sheep's
gut) and a few of caout-chouc. They are made almost
exclusively in the faubourgs of Paris, giving employment to
many women and young girls; Grenelle turns out the baudruche
and Grenelle and Lilas the India-rubber article; and of the
three or four makers M. Deschamps is best known. The sheep's
gut is not joined in any way but of single piece as it comes
from the animal after, of course, much manipulation to make it
thin and supple; the inferior qualities are stuck together at
the sides. Prices vary from 4 1/2 to 36 francs per gross.
Those of India-rubber are always joined at the side with a
solution especially prepared for the purpose. I have also
heard of fish-bladders but can give no details on the subject.
The Cundum was unknown to the ancients of Europe although
syphilis was not: even prehistoric skeletons show traces of
its ravages.

[FN#245] Arab. "Yá Ustá" (for "Ustáz.") The Pers. term is
Ustád=a craft-master, an artisan and especially a barber. Here
it is merely a polite address.

[FN#246] In common parlance Arabs answer a question (like the
classics of Europe who rarely used Yes and No, Yea and Nay),
by repeating its last words. They have, however, many
affirmative particles e.g. Ni'am which answers a negative
"Dost thou not go?"--Ni'am (Yes!); and Ajal, a stronger form
following a command, e.g. Sir (go)--Ajal, Yes verily. The
popular form is Aywá ('lláhi)=Yes, by Allah. The chief
negatives are Má and Lá, both often used in the sense of
"There is not."

[FN#247] Arab. "Khalbús," prop. the servant of the Almah-girls
who acts buffoon as well as pimp. The "Maskharah" (whence our
"mask") corresponds with the fool or jester of mediæval
Europe: amongst the Arnauts he is called "Suttari" and is
known by his fox's tails: he mounts a mare, tom-toms on the
kettle-drum and is generally one of the bravest of the corps.
These buffoons are noted for extreme indecency: they generally
appear in the ring provided with an enormous phallus of
whip-cord and with this they charge man, woman and child, to
the infinite delight of the public.

[FN#248] Arab. "Shúbash" pronounced in Egypt Shobash: it is
the Persian Sháh-básh lit.=be a King, equivalent to our bravo.
Here, however, the allusion is to the buffoon's cry at an
Egyptian feast, "Shohbash 'alayk, yá Sáhib al-faraj,"=a
present is due from thee, O giver of the fête " Sec Lane M. E.

[FN#249] Arab. "Ka'ak al-I'd:" the former is the Arab form of
the Persian "Kahk" (still retained in Egypt) whence I would
derive our word "cake." It alludes to the sweet cakes which
are served up with dates, the quatre mendiants and sherbets
during visits of the Lesser (not the greater) Festival, at the
end of the Ramazan fast. (Lane M.E. xxv.)

[FN#250] Arab. "Tásámah," a rare word for a peculiar slipper.
Dozy (s. v.) says only, espece de chaussure, sandale,
pantoufle, soulier.

[FN#251] Arab. "Ijtilá"=the displaying of the bride on her
wedding night so often alluded to in The Nights.

[FN#252] Arab. Khiskhánah; a mixed word from Klaysh=canvass or
stuffs generally and Pers. Khánah=house room. Dozy (s.v.) says
armoire, buffet.

[FN#253] The Bresl. Edit. "Kamaríyah"=Moon-like (fem.) for

[FN#254] Every traveller describes the manners and customs of
dogs in Eastern cities where they furiously attack all canine
intruders. I have noticed the subject in writing of Al-Medinah
where the beasts are confined to the suburbs. (Pilgrimage ii.

[FN#255] She could legally compel him to sell her; because,
being an Infidel, he had attempted to debauch a Moslemah.

[FN#256] Arab. "Haláwat wa Mulabbas"; the latter
etymologically means one dressed or clothed. Here it alludes
to almonds, etc., clothed or coated with sugar. See Dozy
(s.v.) "labas."

[FN#257] Arab. "'Ubb" from a root=being long: Dozy (s.v.),
says poche au sein; Habb al-'ubb is a woman's ornament.

[FN#258] Who, it will be remembered, was Dalilah's grandson.

[FN#259] Arab. "Tábút," a term applied to the Ark of the
Covenant (Koran ii. 349), which contained Moses' rod and
shoes, Aaron's mitre, the manna-pot, the broken Tables of the
Law, and the portraits of all the prophets which are to appear
till the end of time--an extensive list for a box measuring 3
by 2 cubits. Europeans often translate it coffin, but it is
properly the wooden case placed over an honoured grave. "Irán"
is the Ark of Moses' exposure, also the large hearse on which
tribal chiefs were carried to earth.

[FN#260] i.e. What we have related is not "Gospel Truth."

[FN#261] Omitted by Lane (iii. 252) "because little more than a
repetition" of Taj al-Mulúk and the Lady Dunyá. This is true;
but the nice progress of the nurse's pimping is a
well-finished picture and the old woman's speech (infra p.
243) is a gem.

[FN#262] Artaxerxes; in the Mac. Edit. Azdashir, a misprint.

[FN#263] I use "kiss ground" as we say "kiss hands." But it
must not be understood literally: the nearest approach would
be to touch the earth with the finger-tips and apply them to
the lips or brow. Amongst Hindus the Ashtánga-prostration
included actually kissing the ground.

[FN#264] The "key" is mentioned because a fee so called
(miftáh) is paid on its being handed to the new lodger.
(Pilgrimage i. 62.)

[FN#265] The Koranic term for semen, often quoted.

[FN#266] Koran, xii. 31, in the story of Joseph, before

[FN#267] Probably the white woollens, so often mentioned,
whose use is now returning to Europe, where men have a
reasonable fear of dyed stuffs, especially since Aniline
conquered Cochineal.

[FN#268] Arab. "samír," one who enjoys the musámarah or
night-talk outside the Arab tents. "Samar" is the shade of the
moon, or half darkness when only stars shine without a moon,
or the darkness of a moonless night. Hence the proverb (A. P.
ii. 513) "Má af'al-hú al-samar wa'l kamar;" I will not do it
by moondarkness or by moonshine, i.e. never. I have elsewhere
remarked that "Early to bed and early to rise" is a civilised
maxim; most barbarians sit deep into the night in the light of
the moon or a camp-fire and will not rise till nearly noon.
They agree in our modern version of the old saw:--

     Early to bed and early to rise
     Makes a man surly and gives him red eyes.

The Shayks of Arab tribes especially transact most of their
public business during the dark hours.

[FN#269] Suspecting that it had been sent by some Royal lover.

[FN#270] Arab. "Rubbamá" a particle more emphatic than
rubba,=perhaps, sometimes, often.

[FN#271] "The broken (wall)" from Hatim=breaking. It fences
the Hijr or space where Ishmael is buried (vol. vi. 205); and
I have described it in Pilgrimage iii. 165.

[FN#272] Arab. "Faráis" (plur. of farísah): the phrase has
often occurred and is=our "trembled in every nerve." As often
happens in Arabic, it is "horsey;" alluding to the
shoulder-muscles (not shoulder-blades, Preston p. 89) between
neck and flank which readily quiver in blood-horses when
excited or frightened.

[FN#273] Arab. "Fazl"=exceeding goodness as in "Fazl wa
ma'rifah"=virtue and learning.

[FN#274] Arab. "Al-Mafárik" (plur. of Mafrak),=the pole or
crown of the head, where the hair parts naturally and where
baldness mostly begins.

[FN#275] Arab. "Ná'i al-maut", the person sent round to
announce a death to the friends and relations of the deceased
and invite them to the funeral.

[FN#276] Arab. "Táir al-bayn", any bird, not only the Hátim or
black crow, which announces separation. Crows and ravens flock
for food to the camps broken up for the springtide and
autumnal marches, and thus become emblems of desertion and
desolation. The same birds are also connected with Abel's
burial in the Koran (v. 34), a Jewish tradition borrowed by
Mohammed. Lastly, here is a paranomasia in the words "Ghuráb
al-Bayn"=Raven of the Wold (the black bird with white breast
and red beak and legs): "Ghuráb" (Heb. Oreb) connects with
Ghurbah=strangerhood, exile, and "Bayn" with distance,
interval, disunion, the desert (between the cultivated spots).
There is another and a similar pun anent the Bán-tree; the
first word meaning "he fared, he left."

[FN#277] Arab. "Tayr," any flying thing, a bird; with true
Arab carelessness the writer waits till the tale is nearly
ended before letting us know that the birds are pigeons

[FN#278] Arab. "Karr'aynan." The Arabs say, "Allah cool thine
eye," because tears of grief are hot and those of joy cool
(Al-Asma'i); others say the cool eye is opposed to that heated
by watching; and Al-Hariri (Ass. xxvii.) makes a scorching
afternoon "hotter than the tear of a childless mother." In the
burning climate of Arabia coolth and refrigeration are
equivalent to refreshment and delight.

[FN#279] Arab. "Muunah," the "Mona" of Maroccan travellers
(English not Italian who are scandalised by "Mona") meaning
the provisions supplied gratis by the unhappy villagers to all
who visit them with passport from the Sultan. Our cousins
German have lately scored a great success by paying for all
their rations which the Ministers of other nations, England
included, were mean enough to accept.

[FN#280] Arab. "Kaannahu huwa"; lit.=as he (was) he. This
reminds us of the great grammarian, Sibawayh, whose name the
Persians derive from "Apple-flavour"(Sib + bú). He was
disputing, in presence of Harun al-Rashid with a rival
Al-Kisá'í, and advocated the Basrian form, "Fa-izá huwa hú"
(behold, it was he) against the Kufan, "Fa-izá huwa iyyáhu"
(behold, it was him). The enemy overcame him by appealing to
Badawin, who spoke impurely, whereupon Sibawayh left the
court, retired to Khorasan and died, it is said of a broken

[FN#281] This is a sign of the Saudáwí or melancholic
temperament in which black bile pre-dominates. It is supposed
to cause a distaste for society and a longing for solitude, an
unsettled habit of mind and neglect of worldly affairs. I
remarked that in Arabia students are subject to it, and that
amongst philosophers and literary men of Mecca and Al-Medinah
there was hardly one who was not spoken of as a "Saudawi." See
Pilgrimage ii. 49, 50.

[FN#282] i.e. I am a servant and bound to tell thee what my
orders are.

[FN#283] A touching lesson on how bribes settle matters in the

[FN#284] i.e. fresh from water (Arab. "Rutub"), before the air
can tarnish them. The pearl (margarita) in Arab. is Lu'lu';
the "unio" or large pearl Durr, plur. Durar. In modern
parlance Durr is the second quality of the twelve into which
pearls are divided.

[FN#285] i.e. the Wazir, but purposely left vague.

[FN#286] The whole of the nurse's speech is admirable: its
naïve and striking picture of conjugal affection goes far to
redeem the grossness of The Nights.

[FN#287] The bitterness was the parting in the morning.

[FN#288] English "Prin'cess," too often pronounced in French
fashion Princess.

[FN#289] In dictionaries "Bán" (Anglice ben-tree) is the
myrobalan which produces gum benzoin. It resembles the
tamarisk. Mr. Lyall (p. 74 Translations of Ancient Arab
Poetry, Williams and Norgate, 1885), calls it a species of
Moringa, tall, with plentiful and intensely green foliage used
for comparisons on account of its straightness and graceful
shape of its branches. The nut supplies a medicinal oil.

[FN#290] A sign of extreme familiarity: the glooms are the
hands and the full moons are the eyes.

[FN#291] Arab. "Khal'a al-'izár": lit.=stripping off jaws or

[FN#292] Arab. "Shimál"=the north wind.

[FN#293] An operation well described by Juvenal--

     Illa supercilium, modicâ fuligine tactum,
     Obliquâ producit acu, pingitque, trementes
     Attolens oculos.

Sonnini (Travels in Egypt, chapt. xvi.) justly remarks that
this pencilling the angles of the eyes with Kohl, which the
old Levant trade called alquifoux or arquifoux, makes them
appear large and more oblong; and I have noted that the modern
Egyptian (especially Coptic) eye, like that of the Sphinx and
the old figures looks in profile as if it were seen in full.
(Pilgrimage i. 214.)

[FN#294] The same traveller notes a singular property in the
Henna-flower that when smelt closely it exhales a "very
powerful spermatic odour," hence it became a favourite with
women as the tea-rose with us. He finds it on the nails of
mummies, and identifies it with the Kupros of the ancient
Greeks (the moderns call it Kene or Kena) and the
       (Botrus cypri) of Solomon's Song (i. 14). The Hebr. is
"Copher," a well-known word which the A. V. translates by "a
cluster of camphire (?) in the vineyards of En-gedi"; and a
note on iv. 13 ineptly adds, "or, cypress." The Revised Edit.
amends it to "a cluster of henna-flowers." The Solomonic (?)
description is very correct; the shrub affects vineyards, and
about Bombay forms fine hedges which can be smelt from a

[FN#295] Hardly the equivalent of the Arab. "Kataba" (which
includes true tattooing with needles) and is applied to
painting "patches" of blue or green colour, with sprigs and
arabesques upon the arms and especially the breasts of women.
"Kataba" would also be applied to striping the fingers with
Henna which becomes a shining black under a paste of honey,
lime and sal-ammoniac. This "patching" is alluded to by Strabo
and Galen (Lane M. E. chapt. ii.); and we may note that
savages and barbarians can leave nothing of beauty unadorned;
they seem to hate a plain surface like the Hindu silversmith,
whose art is shown only in chasing.

[FN#296] A violent temper, accompanied with voies de fait and
personal violence, is by no means rare amongst Eastern
princesses; and terrible tales are told in Persia concerning
the daughters of Fath Ali Shah. Few men and no woman can
resist the temptations of absolute command. The daughter of a
certain Dictator all-powerful in the Argentine Republic was
once seen on horseback with a white bridle of peculiar
leather; it was made of the skin of a man who had boasted of
her favours. The slave-girls suffer first from these masterful
young persons and then it is the turn of the eunuchry.

[FN#297] A neat touch; she was too thorough-bred to care for
herself first.

[FN#298] Here the ground or earth is really kissed.

[FN#299] Corresponding with our phrase, "His heart was in his

[FN#300] Very artful is the contrast of the love-lorn
Princess's humility with her furious behaviour, in the pride
of her purity, while she was yet a virginette and fancy free.

[FN#301] Arab. "Suhbat-hu" lit.=in company with him, a popular
idiom in Egypt and Syria. It often occurs in the Bresl. Edit.

[FN#302] In the Mac. Edit. "Shahzamán," a corruption of Sháh
Zamán=King of the Age. (See vol. i. 2)

[FN#303] For a note on this subject see vol. ii. 2.

[FN#304] i.e. bathe her and apply cosmetics to remove ail traces
of travel.

[FN#305] These pretentious and curious displays of coquetry
are not uncommon in handsome slave-girls when newly bought;
and it is a kind of pundonor to humour them. They may also
refuse their favours and a master who took possession of their
persons by brute force would be blamed by his friends, men and
women. Even the most despotic of despots, Fath Ali Shah of
Persia, put up with refusals from his slave-girls and did not,
as would the mean-minded, marry them to the grooms or cooks of
the palace.

[FN#306] Such continence is rarely shown by the young Jallabs or
slave-traders; when older they learn how much money is lost
with the chattel's virginity.

[FN#307] Midwives in the East, as in the less civilised parts of
the West, have many nostrums for divining the sex of the
unborn child.

[FN#308] Arabic (which has no written "g") from Pers. Gulnár
(Gul-i-anár) pomegranate-flower the Gulnare" of Byron who
learnt his Orientalism at the Mekhitarist (Armenian) Convent,
Venice. I regret to see the little honour now paid to the
gallant poet in the land where he should be honoured the most.
The systematic depreciation was begun by the late Mr.
Thackeray, perhaps the last man to value the noble
independence of Byron's spirit; and it has been perpetuated, I
regret to see, by better judges. These critics seem wholly to
ignore the fact that Byron founded a school which covered
Europe from Russia to Spain, from Norway to Sicily, and which
from England passed over to the two Americas. This exceptional
success, which has not yet fallen even to Shakespeare's lot,
was due to genius only, for the poet almost ignored study and
poetic art. His great misfortune was being born in England
under the Gerogium Sidus. Any Continental people would have
regarded him s one of the prime glories of his race.

[FN#309] Arab. "Fí al-Kamar," which Lane renders "in the
moonlight" It seems to me that the allusion is to the Comorin
Islands; but the sequel speaks simply of an island.

[FN#310] The Mac. Edit. misprints Julnár as Julnáz (so the Bul
Edit. ii. 233), and Lane 's Jullanár is an Egyptian vulgarism.
He is right in suspecting the "White City" to be imaginary,
but its sea has no apparent connection with the Caspian. The
mermen and mermaids appear to him to be of an inferior order
of the Jinn, termed Al-Ghawwásah, the Divers, who fly through
air and are made of fire which at times issues from their

[FN#311] Arab. "  lá Kulli hál," a popular phrase, like the
Anglo-American " anyhow."

[FN#312] In the text the name does not appear till near the end
of the tale.

[FN#313] i.e. Full moon smiling.

[FN#314] These lines have occurred in vol. iii. 264. so I quote
Lane ii. 499.

[FN#315] 'These lines occurred in vol. ii. 301. I quote Mr.

[FN#316] Arab. "Khadd" = cheek from the eye-orbit to the place
where the beard grows; also applied to the side of a rough
highland, the side-planks of a litter, etc. etc.

[FN#317] The black hair of youth.

[FN#318] This manner of listening is not held dishonourable
amongst Arabs or Easterns generally; who, however, hear as
little good of themselves as Westerns declare in proverb.

[FN#319] Arab. "Hasab wa nasab," before explained as inherited
degree and acquired dignity. See vol. iv. 171.

[FN#320] Arab. "Mujájat"=spittle running from the mouth: hence
Lane, "is like running saliva," which, in poetry is not

[FN#321] Arab. and Heb. "Salmandra" from Pers. Samandal (--
dar--duk--dun, etc.), a Salamander, a mouse which lives in
fire, some say a bird in India and China and others confuse
with the chameleon (Bochart Hiero. Part ii. chapt. vi).

[FN#322] Arab. "Mahá" one of the four kinds of wild cows or
bovine antelopes, bubalus, Antelope defassa, A. Ieucoryx, etc.

[FN#323] These lines have occurred in vol. iii. 279; so I quote
Lane (iii. 274) by way of variety; although I do not like his
" bowels."

[FN#324] The last verse (286) of chapt. ii. The Cow:
"compelleth" in the sense of "burdeneth."

[FN#325] Salih's speeches are euphuistic.

[FN#326]  From the Fátihah.

[FN#327] A truly Eastern saying, which ignores the "old maids"
of the West.

[FN#328] i.e naming her before the lieges as if the speaker
were her and his superior. It would have been more polite not
to have gone beyond " the unique pearl and the hoarded jewel
:" the offensive part of the speech was using the girl's name.

[FN#329] Meaning emphatically that one and all were nobodies.

[FN#330] Arab Badr, the usual pun.

[FN#331] Arab. "Kirát" (        ) the bean of the Abrus
precatorius, used as a weight in Arabia and India and as a
bead for decoration in Africa. It is equal to four Kamhahs or
wheat grains and about 3 grs. avoir.; and being the twenty
fourth of a miskal, it is applied to that proportion of
everything. Thus the Arabs say of a perfect man, " He is of
four-and-twenty Kirát" i.e. pure gold. See vol. iii. 239.

[FN#332] The (she) myrtle: Kazimirski (A. de Biberstein)
Dictionnaire Arabe-Francais (Pairs Maisonneuve 1867) gives
Marsín=Rose de Jericho: myrte.

[FN#333] Needless to note that the fowler had a right to
expect a return present worth double or treble the price of
his gift. Such is the universal practice of the East: in the
West the extortioner says, "I leave it to you, sir!"

[FN#334] And she does tell him all that the reader well knows.

[FN#335] This was for sprinkling him, but the texts omit that
operation. Arabic has distinct terms for various forms of
metamorphosis. " Naskh " is change from a lower to a higher,
as beast to man; " Maskh " (the common expression) is the
reverse, " Raskh " is from animate to inanimate (man to stone)
and "Faskh" is absolute wasting away to corruption.

[FN#336] I render this improbable detail literally: it can
only mean that the ship was dashed against a rock.

[FN#337] Who was probably squatting on his shop counter. The
"Bakkál" (who must not be confounded with the épicier), lit.
"vender of herbs" =greengrocer, and according to Richardson
used incorrectly for Baddál ( ?) vendor of provisions.
Popularly it is applied to a seller of oil, honey, butter and
fruit, like the Ital. "Pizzicagnolo"=Salsamentarius, and in
North-West Africa to an inn-keeper.

[FN#338] Here the Shaykh is mistaken: he should have said,
"The Sun in old Persian." "Almanac" simply makes nonsense of
the Arabian Circe's name. In Arab. it is "Takwím," whence the
Span. and Port. "Tacuino:" in Heb. Hakamathá-Takunah=sapientia
dis positionis astrorum (Asiat. Research. iii.120).

[FN#339] i.e. for thy daily expenses.

[FN#340] Un adolescent aime toutes les femmes. Man is by
nature polygamic whereas woman as a rule is monogamic and
polyandrous only when tired of her lover. For the man, as has
been truly said, loves the woman, but the love of the woman is
for the love of the man.

[FN#341] I have already noted that the heroes and heroines of
Eastern love-tales are always bonne fourchettes: they eat and
drink hard enough to scandalise the sentimental amourist of
the West; but it is understood that this abundant diet is
necessary to qualify them for the Herculean labours of the
love night.

[FN#342] Here again a little excision is necessary; the reader
already knows all about it.

[FN#343] Arab. "Hiss," prop. speaking a perception (as of
sound or motion) as opposed to "Hades," a surmise or opinion
without proof.

[FN#344] Arab. "Sawík," the old and modern name for native
frumenty, green grain (mostly barley) toasted, pounded, mixed
with dates or sugar and eaten on journeys when cooking is
impracticable. M. C. de Perceval (iii. 54), gives it a
different and now unknown name; and Mr. Lane also applies it
to "ptisane." It named the " Day of Sawaykah " (for which see
Pilgrimage ii. 19), called by our popular authors the " War of
the Meal-sacks."

[FN#345] Mr. Keightley (H. 122-24 Tales and Popular Fictions,
a book now somewhat obsolete) remarks, "There is nothing said
about the bridle in the account of the sale (infra), but I am
sure that in the original tale, Badr's misfortunes must have
been owing to his having parted with it. In Chaucer's Squier's
Tale the bridle would also appear to have been of some
importance. "He quotes a story from the Notti Piacevoli of
Straparola, the Milanese, published at Venice in 1550. And
there is a popular story of the kind in Germany.

[FN#346] Here, for the first time we find the name of the
mother who has often been mentioned in the story. Faráshah is
the fem. or singular form of "Farásh," a butterfly, a moth.
Lane notes that his Shaykh gives it the very unusual sense of
"a locust."

[FN#347] Punning upon Jauharah= "a jewel" a name which has an
Hibernian smack.

[FN#348] In the old version "All the lovers of the Magic Queen
resumed their pristine forms as soon as she ceased to live;"
moreover, they were all sons of kings, princes, or persons of
high degree.

[FN#349] Arab. "Munádamah," = conversation over the cup
(Lane), used somewhat in the sense of "Musámarah" = talks by

[FN#350] Arab. "Kursi," a word of many meanings; here it would
allure to the square crate-like seat of palm-fronds used by
the Ráwi or public reciter of tales when he is not pacing
about the coffee-house.

[FN#351] Von Hammer remarks that this is precisely the sum
paid in Egypt for a MS. copy of The Nights.

[FN#352] Arab. "Samar," the origin of Musámarah, which see,
vol. iv. 237.

[FN#353] The pomp and circumstance, with which the tale is
introduced to the reader showing the importance attached to
it. Lane, most inudiciously I think, transfers the Proemium to
a note in chapt. xxiv., thus converting an Arabian Night into
an Arabian Note.

[FN#354] 'Asim = defending (honour) or defended, son of Safwán
= clear, cold (dry). Trébutien ii. 126, has Safran.

[FN#355] Fáris = the rider, the Knight, son of Sálih = the
righteous, the pious, the just.

[FN#356] In sign of the deepest dejection, when a man would
signify that he can fall no lower.

[FN#357] Arab. Yá Khawand (in Bresl. Edit. vol. iv. 191) and
fem. form Khawandah (p. 20) from Pers. Kháwand or Kháwandagár
= superior, lord, master; Khudáwand is still used in popular
as in classical Persian, and is universally understood in

[FN#358] The Biblical Sheba, whence came the Queen of many
Hebrew fables.

[FN#359] These would be the interjections of the writer or
story-teller. The Mac. Edit. is here a sketch which must be
filled up by the Bresl. Edit. vol. iv. 189-318: "Tale of King
Asim and his son Sayf al-Mulúk with Badí'a al-Jamál."

[FN#360] The oath by the Seal-ring of Solomon was the Stygian
"swear" in Fairy-land. The signet consisted of four jewels,
presented by as many angels, representing the Winds, the
Birds, Earth (including sea) and Spirits, and the gems were
inscribed with as many sentences: (1) To Allah belong Majesty
and Might; (2) All created things praise the Lord; (3) Heaven
and Earth are Allah's slaves and (4) There is no god but the
God and Mohammed is His messenger. For Sakhr and his theft of
the signet see Dr. Weil's, "The Bible, the Koran, and the

[FN#361] Trébutien (ii. 128) remarks, "Cet Assaf peut être
celui auquel David adresse plusieurs de ses psaumes, et que
nos interprètes disent avoir été son maître de chapelle (from
Biblioth. Orient).

[FN#362] Mermen, monsters, beasts, etc.

[FN#363] This is in accordance with Eastern etiqette; the
guest must be fed before his errand is asked. The Porte, in
the days of its pride, managed in this way sorely to insult
the Ambassadors of the most powerful European kingdoms and the
first French Republic had the honour of abating the
barbarians' nuisance. So the old Scottish Highlanders never
asked the name or clan of a chance guest, lest he prove a foe
before he had eaten their food.

[FN#364] In Bresl. Edit. (301) Kháfiyah: in Mac. Kháinah, the

[FN#365] So in the Mac. Edit., in the Bresl. only one "Kabá"
or Kaftan; but from the sequel it seems to be a clerical

[FN#366] Arab. "Su'ubán" (Thu'ubán) popularly translated
"basilisk." The Egyptians suppose that when this serpent forms
ring round the Ibn 'Irs (weasel or ichneumon) the latter emits
a peculiar air which causes the reptile to burst.

[FN#367] i.e. that prophesied by Solomon.

[FN#368] Arab. "Takliyah" from kaly, a fry: Lane's Shaykh
explained it as "onions cooked in clarified butter, after
which they are put upon other cooked food." The mention of
onions points to Egypt as the origin of this tale and
certainly not to Arabia, where the strong-smelling root is

[FN#369] Von Hammer quotes the case of the Grand Vizier Yúsuf
throwing his own pelisse over the shoulders of the Aleppine
Merchant who brought him the news of the death of his enemy,
Jazzár Pasha.

[FN#370] This peculiar style of generosity was also the custom
in contemporary Europe.

[FN#371] Khátún, which follows the name (e.g. Hurmat Khatun),
in India corresponds with the male title Khan, taken by the
Pathan Moslems (e.g. Pír Khán). Khánum is the affix to the
Moghul or Tartar nobility, the men assuming a double
designation e.g. Mirza Abdallah Beg. See Oriental collections
(Ouseley's) vol. i. 97.

[FN#372] Lit. "Whatso thou wouldest do that do!" a contrast
with our European laconism.

[FN#373] These are booths built against and outside the walls,
made of palm-fronds and light materials.

[FN#374] Von Hammer in Trébutien (ii. 135) says, "Such
rejoicings are still customary at Constantinople, under the
name of Donánmá, not only when the Sultanas are enceintes, but
also when they are brought to bed. In 1803 the rumour of the
pregnancy of a Sultana, being falsely spread, involved all the
Ministers in useless expenses to prepare for a Donánmá which
never took place." Lane justly remarks upon this passage that
the title Sultán precedes while the feminine Sultánah follows
the name.

[FN#375] These words (Bresl. Edit.) would be spoken in jest, a
grim joke enough, but showing the elation of the King's

[FN#376] A signal like a gong: the Mac. Edit. reads "Tákah," =
in at the window.

[FN#377] Sayf al-Mulúk = "Sword (Egyptian Sif, Arab. Sayf, Gr.
     ) of the Kings"; and he must not be called tout bonnement
Sayf. Sái'd = the forearm.

[FN#378] Arab. "Fakíh" = a divine, from Fikh = theology, a man
versed in law and divinity i.e. (1) the Koran and its
interpretation comprehending the sacred ancient history of the
creation and prophets (Chapters iii., iv., v. and vi.), (2)
the traditions and legends connected with early Moslem History
and (3) some auxiliary sciences as grammar, syntax and
prosody; logic, rhetoric and philosophy. See p. 18 of
"El-Mas'údí's Historical Encyclopædia etc.," By my friend
Prof. Aloys Springer, London 1841. This fine fragment printed
by the Oriental Translation Fund has been left unfinished
whilst the Asiatic Society of Paris has printed in Eight Vols.
8vo the text and translation of MM. Barbier de Meynard and
Pavet de Courteille. What a national disgrace! And the same
with the mere abridgment of Ibn Batutah by Prof. Lee (Orient.
Tr. Fund 1820) when the French have the fine Edition and
translation by Defrémery and Sanguinetti with index etc. in 4
vols. 8vo 1858-59. But England is now content to rank in such
matters as encouragement of learning, endowment of research
etc., with the basest of kingdoms, and the contrast of status
between the learned Societies of London and of Paris, Berlin,
Vienna or Rome is mortifying to an Englishman--a national

[FN#379] Arab. "Maydán al-Fíl," prob. for Birkat al-Fíl, the
Tank of the Elephant before-mentioned. Lane quotes Al Makrizi
who in his Khitat informs us that the lakelet was made abot
the end of the seventh century (A.H.), and in the seventeenth
year of the eighth century became the site of the stables. The
Bresl. Edit. (iv. 214) reads "Maydan al-'Adl," prob. for
Al-'Ádil the name of the King who laid out the Maydán.

[FN#380] Arab. "Asháb al-Ziyá'," the latter word mostly
signifies estates consisting, strictly speaking of land under
artificial irrigation.

[FN#381] The Bresl. Edit. (iv. 215) has "Chawáshiyah" =
'Chiaush, the Turkish word, written with the Pers. "ch," a
letter which in Arabic is supplanted by "sh," everywhere
except in Morocco.

[FN#382] Arab. "Záwiyah" lit. a corner, a cell. Lane (M. F.,
chapt. xxiv.) renders it "a small kiosque," and translates the
famous Zawiyat al-Umyán (Blind Men's Angle) near the
south-eastern corner of the Azhar or great Collegiate Mosque
of Cairo, "Chapel of the Blind" (chapt. ix.). In popular
parlance it suggests a hermitage.

[FN#383] Arab. "Takht," a Pers. word used as more emphatic
than the Arab. Sarír.

[FN#384] This girding the sovereign is found in the
hieroglyphs as a peculiarity of the ancient Kings of Egypt,
says Von Hammer referring readers to Denon.

[FN#385] Arab. "Mohr," which was not amongst the gifts of
Solomon in Night dcclx. The Bresl. Edit. (p. 220) adds "and
the bow," which is also de trop.

[FN#386] Arab. "Batánah," the ordinary lining opp. to Tazríb,
or quilting with a layer of coton between two folds of cloth.
The idea in the text is that the unhappy wearer would have to
carry his cross (the girl) on his back.

[FN#387] This line has occurred in Night dccxliv. supra p.

[FN#388] Arab. "Mu'attik al-Rikáb" i.e. who frees those in
bondage from the yoke.

[FN#389] In the Mac. Edit. and in Trébutien (ii. 143) the King
is here called Schimakh son of Scharoukh, but elsewhere,
Schohiali = Shahyál, in the Bresl. Edit. Shahál. What the
author means by "Son of 'Ad the Greater," I cannot divine.

[FN#390] Lit. "For he is the man who can avail thereto," with
the meaning given in the text.

[FN#391] Arab. "Jazírat," insula or peninsula, vol. i. 2.

[FN#392] Probably Canton with which the Arabs were familiar.

[FN#393] i.e. "Who disappointeth not those who put their trust
in Him."

[FN#394] Arab. "Al-Manjaníkát" plur. of manjanik, from Gr.
        , Lat. Manganum (Engl. Mangonel from the dim.
Mangonella). Ducange Glossarium, s.v. The Greek is applied
originally to defensive weapons, then to the artillery of the
day, Ballista, catapults, etc. The kindred Arab. form
"Manjanín" is applied chiefly to the Noria or Persian

[FN#395] Faghfúr is the common Moslem title for the Emperors
of China; in the Kamus the first syllable is Zammated (Fugh);
in Al-Mas'udi (chapt. xiv.) we find Baghfúr and in Al-Idrisi
Baghbúgh, or Baghbún. In Al-Asma'i Bagh = god or idol (Pehlewi
and Persian); hence according to some Baghdád (?) and
Bághistán a pagoda (?). Sprenger (Al-Mas'údi, p. 327) remarks
that Baghfúr is a literal translation of Tien-tse and quotes
Visdelou, "pour mieux faire comprendre de quel ciel ils
veulent parler, ils poussent la généalogie (of the Emperor)
plus loin. Ils lui donnent le ciel pour père, la terre pour
mère, le soleil pour frère aîné et la lune pour sœur aînée."

[FN#396] Arab. "Kayf hálak" = how de doo? the salutation of a

[FN#397] i.e. subject to the Maharajah of Hind.

[FN#398] This is not a mistake: I have seen heavy hail in
Africa, N. Lat. 4 degrees; within sight of the Equator.

[FN#399] Arab. "Harrákta." here used in the sense of smaller
craft, and presently for a cock-boat.

[FN#400] See vol. i. 138: here by way of variety I quote Mr.

[FN#401] This explains the Arab idea of the "Old Man of the
Sea" in Sindbad the Seaman (vol. vi. 50). He was not a monkey
nor an unknown monster; but an evil Jinni of the most powerful
class, yet subject to defeat and death.

[FN#402] These Plinian monsters abound in Persian literature.
For a specimen see Richardson Dissert. p. xlviii.

[FN#403] Arab. "Anyáb," plur. of "Náb" = canine tooth
(eye-tooth of man), tusks of horse and camel, etc.

[FN#404] Arab, "Kásid," the Anglo-Indian Cossid. The post is
called Baríd from the Persian "burídah" (cut) because the
mules used for the purpose were dock-tailed. Barid applies
equally to the post-mule, the rider and the distance from one
station (Sikkah) to another which varied from two to six
parasangs. The letter-carrier was termed Al-Faránik from the
Pers. Parwánah, a servant. In the Diwán al-Baríd (Post-office)
every letter was entered in a Madraj or list called in Arabic
Al-Askidár from the Persian "Az Kih dárí" = from whom hast
thou it?

[FN#405] "Ten years" in the Bresl. Edit. iv. 244.

[FN#406] In the Bresl. Edit. (iv. 245) we find "Kalak," a
raft, like those used upon the Euphrates, and better than the
"Fulk," or ship, of the Mac. Edit.

[FN#407] Arab. "Timsah" from Coptic (Old Egypt) Emsuh or Msuh.
The animal cannot live in salt-water, a fact which proves that
the Crocodile Lakes on the Suez Canal were in old days fed by
Nile-water; and this was necessarily a Canal.

[FN#408] So in the Bresl. Edit. (iv. 245). In the Mac. text
"one man," which better suits the second crocodile, for the
animal can hardly be expected to take two at a time.

[FN#409] He had ample reason to be frightened. The large
Cynocephalus is exceedingly dangerous. When travelling on the
Gold Coast with my late friend Colonel De Ruvignes, we
suddenly came in the grey of the morning upon a herd of these
beasts. We dismounted, hobbled our nags and sat down, sword
and revolver in hand. Luckily it was feeding time for the
vicious brutes, which scowled at us but did not attack us.
During my four years' service on the West African Coast I
heard enough to satisfy me that these powerful beasts often
kill me and rape women; but I could not convince myself that
they ever kept the women as concubines.

[FN#410] As we should say in English "it is a far cry to Loch
Awe": the Hindu by-word is, "Dihlí (Delhi) is a long way off."
See vol. i. 37.

[FN#411] Arab. "Fútah", a napkin, a waistcloth, the Indian
Zones alluded to by the old Greek travellers.

[FN#412] Arab. "Yají (it comes) miat khwánjah"--quite Fellah

[FN#413] As Trébutien shows (ii. 155) these apes were a
remnant of some ancient tribe possibly those of Ád who had
gone to Meccah to pray for rain and thus escaped the general
destruction. See vol. i. 65. Perhaps they were the Jews of
Aylah who in David's day were transformed into monkeys for
fishing on the Sabbath (Saturday) Koran ii. 61.

[FN#414] I can see no reason why Lane purposely changes this
to "the extremity of their country."

[FN#415] Koran xxii. 44, Mr. Payne remarks:--This absurd
addition is probably due to some copyist, who thought to show
his knowledge of the Koran, but did not understand the meaning
of the verse from which the quotation is taken and which runs
thus, "How many cities have We destroyed, whilst yet they
transgressed, and they are laid low on their own foundations
and wells abandoned and high-builded palaces!" Mr. Lane
observes that the words are either misunderstood or purposely
misapplied by the author of the tale. Purposeful perversions
of Holy Writ are very popular amongst Moslems and form part of
their rhetoric; but such is not the case here. According to
Von Hammer (Trébutien ii. 154), "Eastern geographers place the
Bir al-Mu'utallal (Ruined Well) and the Kasr al-Mashíd
(High-builded Castle) in the province of Hadramaut, and we
wait for a new Niebuhr to inform us what are the monuments or
the ruins so called." His text translates puits arides et
palais de plâtre (not likely!). Lane remarks that Mashíd
mostly means "plastered," but here = Mushayyad, lofty,
explained in the Jalálayn Commentary as = rafí'a, high-raised.
The two places are also mentioned by Al-Mas'údi; and they
occur in Al-Kazwíni (see Night dccclviii.): both of these
authors making the Koran directly allude to them.

[FN#416] Arab. (from Pers.) "Aywán" which here corresponds
with the Egyptian "líwán" a tall saloon with estrades.

[FN#417] This naïve style of "renowning it" is customary in
the East, contrasting with the servile address of the
subject--"thy slave" etc.

[FN#418] Daulat (not Dawlah) the Anglo-Indian Dowlat; prop.
meaning the shifts of affairs, hence, fortune, empire,
kingdom. Khátún = "lady," I have noted, follows the name after
Turkish fashion.

[FN#419] The old name of Suez-town from the Greek Clysma (the
shutting), which named the Gulf of Suez "Sea of Kulzum." The
ruins in the shape of a huge mound, upon which Sá'id Pasha
built a Kiosk-palace, lie to the north of the modern town and
have been noticed by me. (Pilgrimage, Midian, etc.) The Rev.
Prof. Sayce examined the mound and from the Roman remains
found in it determined it to be a fort guarding the old mouth
of the Old Egyptian Sweet-water Canal which then debouched
near the town.

[FN#420] i.e. Tuesday. See vol. iii. 249.

[FN#421] Because being a Jinniyah the foster-sister could have
come to her and saved her from old maidenhood.

[FN#422] Arab. "Hájah" properly a needful thing. This
consisted according to the Bresl. Edit. of certain perfumes,
by burning which she could summon the Queen of the Jinn.

[FN#423] Probably used in its sense of a "black crow." The
Bresl. Edit. (iv. 261) has "Khátim" (seal-ring) which is but
one of its almost innumerable misprints.

[FN#424] Here it is called "Tábik" and afterwards "Tábút."

[FN#425] i.e. raising from the lower hinge-pins. See vol. ii.

[FN#426] Arab. "Abrísam" or "Ibrísam" (from Persian Abrísham
or Ibrísham) = raw silk or floss, i.e. untwisted silk.

[FN#427] This knightly practice, evidently borrowed from the
East, appears in many romances of chivalry e.g. When Sir
Tristram is found by King Mark asleep beside Ysonde (Isentt)
with drawn sword between them, the former cried:--

          Gif they weren in sinne
          Nought so they no lay.

And we are told:--

          Sir Amys and the lady bright
               To bed gan they go;
          And when they weren in bed laid,
          Sir Amys his sword out-brayed
          And held it between them two.

This occurs in the old French romance of Amys and Amyloun
which is taken into the tale of the Ravens in the Seven Wise
Masters where Ludovic personates his friend Alexander in
marrying the King of Egypt's daughter and sleeps every night
with a bare blade between him and the bride. See also Aladdin
and his lamp. An Englishman remarked, "The drawn sword would
be little hindrance to a man and maid coming together." The
drawn sword represented only the Prince's honour.

[FN#428] Arab. "Ya Sáki' al-Wajh," which Lane translates by
"lying" or "liar."

[FN#429] Kamín (in Bresl. Edit. "bayn" = between) Al-Bahrayn =
Ambuscade or lurking-place of the two seas. The name of the
city in Lane is "'Emareeych" imaginary but derived from Emarch
('imárah) = being populous. Trébutien (ii. 161) takes from
Bresl. Edit. "Amar" and translates the port-name, "le lieu de
refuge des deux mers."

[FN#430] i.e. "High of (among) the Kings." Lane proposes to
read 'Ali al-Mulk = high in dominion.

[FN#431] Pronounce Mu'inuddeen = Aider of the Faith. The
Bresl. Edit. (iv. 266) also read "Mu'in al-Riyásah" = Mu'in of
the Captaincies.

[FN#432] Arab. "Shúm" = a tough wood used for the staves with
which donkeys are driven. Sir Gardner Wilkinson informed Lane
that it is the ash.

[FN#433] In Persian we find the fuller metaphorical form,
"kissing the ground of obedience."

[FN#434] For the Shaykh of the Sea(-board) in Sindbad the
Seaman see vol. vi. 50.

[FN#435] That this riding is a facetious exaggeration of the
African practice I find was guessed by Mr. Keightley.

[FN#436] Arab. "Kummasra": the root seems to be "Kamsara" =
being slender or compact.

[FN#437] Lane translates, "by reason of the exhilaration
produced by intoxication." But the Arabic here has no
assonance. The passage also alludes to the drunken habits of
those blameless Ethiopians, the races of Central Africa where,
after midday a chief is rarely if ever found sober. We hear
much about drink in England but Englishmen are mere babes
compared with these stalwart Negroes. In Unyamwezi I found all
the standing bedsteads of pole-sleepers and bark-slabs
disposed at an angle of about 20 degrees for the purpose of
draining off the huge pottle-fulls of Pome (Osirian beer)
drained by the occupants; and, comminxit lectum potus might be
said of the whole male population.

[FN#438] This is not exaggerated. When at Hebron I saw the
biblical spectacle of two men carrying a huge bunch slung to a
pole, not so much for the weight as to keep the grapes from

[FN#439] The Mac. and Bul. Edits. add, "and with him a host of
others after his kind"; but these words are omitted by the
Bresl. Edit. and apparently from the sequel there was only one

[FN#440] Probably alluding to the most barbarous Persian
practice of plucking or tearing out the eyes from their
sockets. See Sir John Malcolm's description of the capture of
Kirmán and Morier (in Zohrab, the hostage) for the wholesale
blinding of the Asterabadian by the Eunuch-King Agha Mohammed
Shah. I may note that the mediæval Italian practice called
bacinare, or scorching with red-hot basins, came from Persia.

[FN#441] Arab. "Laban" as opposed to "Halíb": in Night
dcclxxiv. (infra p. 365) the former is used for sweet milk,
and other passages could be cited. I have noted that all
galaktophagi, or milk-drinking races, prefer the artificially
soured to the sweet, choosing the fermentation to take place
outside rather than inside their stomachs. Amongst the Somal I
never saw man, woman or child drink a drop of fresh milk; and
they offered considerable opposition to our heating it for

[FN#442] Arab. "Tákah" not "an aperture" as Lane has it, but
an arched hollow in the wall.

[FN#443] In Trébutien (ii. 168) the cannibal is called "Goul
Eli-Fenioun" and Von Hammer remarks, "There is no need of such
likeness of name to prove that al this episode is a manifest
imitation of the adventures of Ulysses in Polyphemus's cave; *
* * and this induces the belief that the Arabs have been
acquainted with the poems of Homer." Living intimately with
the Greeks they could not have ignored the Iliad and the
Odyssey: indeed we know by tradition that they had
translations, now apparently lost. I cannot however, accept
Lane's conjecture that "the story of Ulysses and Polyphemus
may have been of Eastern origin." Possibly the myth came from
Egypt, for I have shown that the opening of the Iliad bears a
suspicious likeness to the proem of Pentaur's Epic.

[FN#444] Arab. "Shakhtúr".

[FN#445] In the Bresl. Edit. the ship ips not wrecked but
lands Sa'id in safety.

[FN#446] So in the Shah-nameth the Símurgh-bird gives one of
her feathers to her protégé Zál which he will throw into the
fire when she is wanted.

[FN#447] Bresl. Edit. "Al-Zardakhánát" Arab. plur of
Zarad-Khánah, a bastard word = armoury, from Arab. Zarad
(hauberk) and Pers. Khánah = house etc.

[FN#448] Some retrenchment was here found necessary to avoid
"damnable iteration."

[FN#449] i.e. Badi'a al-Jamal.

[FN#450] Mohammed.

[FN#451] Koran xxxv. "The Creator" (Fátir) or the Angels, so
called from the first verse.

[FN#452] In the Bresl. Edit. (p. 263) Sayf al-Muluk drops
asleep under a tree to the lulling sound of a Sákiyah or
water-wheel, and is seen by Badi'a al-Jamal, who falls in love
with im and drops tears upon his cheeks, etc. The scene,
containing much recitation, is long and well told.

[FN#453] Arab. "Lukmah" = a bouchée of bread, meat, fruit or
pastry, and especially applied to the rice balled with the
hand and delicately inserted into a friend's mouth.

[FN#454] Arab. "Saláhiyah," also written Saráhiyah: it means
an ewer-shaped glass-bottle.

[FN#455] Arab. "Sarmújah," of which Von Hammer remarks that
the dictionaries ignore it; Dozy gives the forms Sarmúj,
Sarmúz, and Sarmúzah and explains them by "espèce de guêtre,
de sandale ou de mule, qu'on chausse par-dessus la botte."

[FN#456] In token of profound submission.

[FN#457] Arab. "Misr" in Ibn Khaldún is a land whose people
are settled and civilised hence "Namsur" = we settle; and
"Amsár" = settled provinces. Al-Misrayn was the title of
Basrah and Kufah the two military cantonments founded by
Caliph Omar on the frontier of conquering Arabia and conquered
Persia. Hence "Tamsír" = founding such posts, which were
planted in Mesopotamia, Syria and Egypt. In these camps were
stationed the veterans who had fought under Mohammed; but the
spoils of the East soon changed them to splendid cities where
luxury and learning fluorished side by side. Sprenger
(Al-Mas'údi pp. 19, 177) compares them ecclesiastically with
the primitive Christian Churches such as Jerusalem, Alexandria
and Antioch. But the Moslems were animated with an ardent love
of liberty and Kufah under Al-Hajjaj the masterful, lost
100,000 of her turbulent sons without the thirst for
independence being quenched. This can hardly be said of the
Early Christians who, with the exception of a few
staunch-hearted martyrs, appear in history as pauvres diables
and poules mouillées, ever oppressed by their own most
ignorant and harmful fancy that the world was about to end.

[FN#458] i.e. Waiting to be sold and wasting away in single

[FN#459] Arab. "Yá dádati": dádat is an old servant-woman or
slave, often applied to a nurse, like its congener the Pers.
Dádá, the latter often pronounced Daddeh, as Daddeh Bazm-árá
in the Kuisum-nameh (Atkinson's "Customs of the Women of
Persia," London, 8vo, 1832).

[FN#460] Marjánah has been already explained. D'Herbelot
derives from it the Romance name Morgante la Déconvenue, here
confounding Morgana with Urganda; and Keltic scholars make
Morgain = Mor Gwynn-the white maid (p. 10, Keightley's Fairy
Mythology, London, Whittaker, 1833).

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night — Volume 07" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.