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Title: Metal Spinning - Machinery's Reference Series Number 57
Author: Painter, William A., Tuells, C.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  Principles of Metal Spinning, by C. TUELLS                           3

  Tools and Methods Used in Metal Spinning, by WILLIAM A. PAINTER     15

  Copyright, 1912, The Industrial Press, Publishers of MACHINERY
  49-55 Lafayette Street, New York City



Metal spinning, that process of sheet metal goods manufacturing which
deals with the forming of sheet metal into circular shapes of great
variety by means of the lathe, forms and hand-tools, is full of kinks
and schemes peculiar to itself. It is the purpose of this treatise to
give a description of spinning in general, and to outline some of the
methods and tools used in spinning for rapid production.

The products of metal spinning are used in a great many lines of
manufacture. Examples of this work are chandelier parts, cooking
utensils, silver and brittania hollow-ware, automobile lamps,
cane-heads and many other sheet metal specialties. Brass, copper,
zinc, aluminum, iron, soft steel, and, in fact nearly all metals yield
readily to the spinner’s skill. At best spinning is physically hard
work, and the softer the stock, the easier and quicker the spinner can
transform it into the required product.

There are but two practical ways of forming pieces of sheet metal into
hollow circular articles: by dies and by spinning. By far the cheapest
and best method of producing quantities of this class of work is by
the use of dies, but there are many cases where it is impractical or
impossible to follow this course. Dies are expensive and there is
constant danger of breakage, whereas spinning forms are easily and
cheaply made and are almost never damaged by use beyond a reasonable
amount of wear. Thus it will be seen that when the production is small,
it does not pay to make costly dies. Again, the styles or designs of
many articles that are spun are constantly being changed; if made
by dies each change would necessitate a new die, while in spinning
merely a new wooden form is required--and sometimes the old form can
be altered, costing practically nothing. Still other advantages of
spinning are that in working soft steel, a much cheaper grade may be
spun than can be drawn with dies; beads may be rolled at the edges of
shells at little expense; experimental pieces may be made quickly,
and, added to these features comes the fact that very difficult work
that cannot possibly be made with dies can be spun with comparative
ease. It must not be construed from the above that spinning is to be
preferred to die work in all or even in the majority of cases, because,
on the contrary, die work is a more economical method of manufacture,
and should always be used when possible on production work. The cases
already cited are merely given to point out some of the instances in
which, for economical reasons, spinning is to be preferred to die work.

The Spinning Lathe

The principal tool used in the operation of spinning is the spinning
lathe, shown in Fig. 1. While in many respects this machine is similar
to any other lathe, it is built without back-gears, carriage or
lead-screw, is very rigid in construction, and, on the whole, very
much resembles a speed lathe. Like other lathes, the spinning lathe is
fitted with a cone pulley (preferably of wood, because of its lightness
and gripping qualities), allowing the use of four or five different
speeds. Speed is an important factor in spinning. Arbitrary rules for
spinning speeds cannot be given, as the thicker the stock the slower
must be the speed; thus while ¹/₃₂-inch iron can be readily spun at
600 revolutions, ¹/₁₆-inch iron would necessitate reducing the speed
to 400 revolutions per minute. Zinc spins best at from 1,000 to 1,400
revolutions; copper works well at 800 to 1,000; brass and aluminum
require practically the same speed, from 800 to 1,200; while the
comparatively slow speed of 300 to 600 revolutions is effective on iron
and soft steel. Brittania and silver spin best at speeds from 800 to
1,000 revolutions.

[Illustration: Fig. 1 Spinning Lathe]

One of the essential parts of the spinning lathe is the T-rest. The
base of this rest is movable on the ways of the lathe, and it has at
the side nearest the operator, a stud about four inches in diameter
and six inches high, through which is swiveled the T-rest proper. As
the illustration shows, provision is made for raising and lowering
the rest, and the entire rest may be clamped in any desired position
by means of the hand-wheel shown beneath the ways. The rest proper
consists of an arm, 12 to 15 inches long, similar to a wood turner’s
rest, and through the face of this arm are from twelve to sixteen
closely spaced ⅜-inch holes. These holes are to receive the pin against
which the hand tools are held while spinning. The pin is three inches
long and of ¾-inch steel, turned down on one end to loosely fit the
holes in the rest.

Another important part of the spinning lathe is the tail-center. This
center is sometimes the ordinary dead center that is in general machine
shop use, but nearly all spinners use the revolving center, shown in
Fig. 2. The revolving center is ¾ inch diameter (without taper) and
about six inches long, and is fitted into the socket in which it runs;
this socket is, in turn, fitted to the taper hole in the tailstock. At
the bottom of the hole in the socket are two steel buttons, hardened
and ground convex on their faces. These buttons act as ball bearings
and reduce friction to a minimum.

[Illustration: Fig. 2. Revolving Center]

Forms and Chucks for Spinning

The shape of a shell made by spinning is dependent on the form or chuck
upon which the metal is spun. Forms are used for plain spinning where
the shape of the shell will permit of its being readily taken from the
form after the spinning has been completed; but when the shape of the
shell is such that it will not “draw,” as the molders say, it becomes
necessary to employ sectional chucks, similar to the one shown in Fig.
3. Generally speaking, spinning forms are made of kiln dried maple.
After being bored and threaded to fit the lathe spindle, the spinner
turns the maple block to agree with a templet shaped in outline to the
sample shell. When no sample is furnished, the templet must be laid
out from a sketch or drawing; in either case proper allowance is made
for the thickness of the stock. When large quantities of shells are to
be spun, all alike, the form is sometimes made of lignum vitæ. Another
method is to turn the maple form small enough so that one shell may be
spun and cemented to it and then this metal-cased form is used to spin
the balance of the shells. For continuous spinning, forms are made of
cast iron or steel, which of course makes a most satisfactory surface
to spin on and gives indefinite service.

[Illustration: Fig. 3. Sectional Spinning Chuck]

A sectional or “split” chuck, as it is sometimes called, is, as the
name implies, a spinning chuck or form which may be taken apart in
sections after the shell has been spun over it. As before stated, this
class of spinning chuck is only used when the finished shell could
not be removed from an ordinary form after spinning. After a shell
has been spun over a sectional chuck, the shell and the sections of
the chuck are together pulled lengthwise from the core of the chuck.
Then, starting with the key section, it is an easy matter to remove
each section from the inside of the shell. As the sections are removed,
they are replaced upon the core, slipped under the retaining flange
and the chuck is ready for spinning a new shell. The whole operation
of removing and replacing the sections of a chuck takes less time than
it does to tell it, and, as the sections are of different sizes, it is
easy to replace them in the proper order. Like other forms, sectional
chucks are made of wood or metal, according to the requirements of the
job. The core and retaining ring are first made from one piece and then
the sections are turned in a continuous ring and split with a fine saw.
In some cases it is necessary to add a small piece to the last section
to make up for the stock lost in splitting the sections.

Another kind of sectional chuck, known to the trade as a “plug” (shown
in Fig. 5) is used extensively in some shops in cases where the shell
must have projections or shoulders at both ends, and no bottom to the
shell is required. In making the plug, which is always in two parts,
the first half is turned to take the shell from one end to the center
of the smallest diameter. Into the end of this part is bored a hole to
which is fitted the end of the second part, which is afterwards turned
to fit the shell. Over this two-part plug the shell is spun; then the
bottom of the shell is cut out and the first half of the plug removed,
thus allowing the shell to be withdrawn. The first part is then
replaced and the plug is ready for use again. Fig. 4 shows a method of
spinning difficult shells that ordinarily would require a sectional
chuck. The shell shown at the left of Fig. 4 is first spun as far as
the bulged part on an ordinary form that ends at this point. Then
after annealing, it is replaced on the form and while another operator
holds the wooden arm, supported with a pin in the T-rest, the spinner
forms the metal around the bulge-shaped end of the arm. The arm, being
stationary on the inside of the shell, acts as a continuation of the
spinning form, and by this method as good a shell is obtained as could
be spun with a sectional chuck.

[Illustration: Fig. 4. Quick Method of Spinning Difficult Shell Without
Sectional Chuck]

[Illustration: Fig. 5. Spinning on Plugs]

For spinning operations upon tubing or press-drawn tubes, steel arbors
are generally used. Tubing may be readily spun upon an arbor and it can
be reduced or expanded to comply with the shape of shell required much
more quickly than the shell could be spun from the blank.


For holding the sheet metal blank to the spinning form, a block of wood
known as the follower, is used (see Fig. 6). Followers are made to
suit the shape of the work with which they are to be employed, always
being made with the largest possible bearing on the work; thus a shell
with a flat bottom twelve inches in diameter would be turned with the
aid of a follower having an 11¾-inch face, while a shell with a 4-inch
face would take a follower with a 3⅞-inch face. All shells do not have
flat bottoms, consequently, in spinning such as do not, it becomes
necessary to employ hollow followers. Hollow followers have their
bearing surfaces turned out to fit the ends of the forms with which
they are to be used. In practice, the blank is held against the end of
the spherical form with a small flat follower until enough of the shell
has been spun to admit of the hollow follower being used. All followers
are made with a large center hole in one end to receive the revolving

[Illustration: Fig. 6. Three Types of Followers]

In starting to spin a difficult shell it sometimes happens that the
necessarily small follower will not hold the blank. To prevent this
slipping, the face of the follower is covered with emery cloth. Often,
however, on rough work, the spinner will not stop to face the follower,
but will make a large shallow dent at the center of the blank; the
extra pressure required to force the metal against the form will
usually overcome the slipping tendency.

[Illustration: Fig. 7. Specimens of Metal Spinning]

Hand Tools

Hand tools, in great variety, form the principal asset of the spinner’s
kit. Spinning tools are made of tool steel forged to the required
shapes, and are hardened and polished on the working end. The round
steel from which they are made varies from ½ inch to 1½ inch in
diameter, according to the class of work upon which they are to be
used. The length of a spinning tool is about 2 feet, and it is fitted
into a wooden handle 2 inches diameter and 18 inches long, making the
total length of the handled tool about 3 feet, as shown in Fig. 8. As
the spinner holds this handle under the right armpit, he secures a
great leverage upon the work and is better able to supply the physical
power required to bring the metal to the desired shape.

[Illustration: Figs. 8 and 9. Spinning Tool and Swivel Cutter]

The commonest and by far the most useful of the spinning tools is
the combination “point and ball” which together with a number of
other tools, is shown in Fig. 11. This tool is used in doing the bulk
of the spinning operations--for starting the work and bringing it
approximately to the shape of the form. Its range of usefulness is
large on account of the many different shapes that may be utilized by
merely turning the tool in a different direction. Next in importance
comes the flat or smoothing tool which, as the name implies, is for
smoothing the shell and finishing any rough surfaces left by the point
and ball tool. The fishtail tool, so named from its shape, is used
principally in flaring the end of a shell from the inside, “spinning on
air,” as it is sometimes termed. This tool is used to good advantage in
any place where it is necessary to stretch the metal to any extent, and
its thin rounding edge proves useful in setting the metal into corners
and narrow grooves. Other tools are the ball tool which is adapted to
finishing curves; the hook tool, used on inside work; and the beading
tool which is needed in rolling over a bead at the edge of a shell when
extra strength or a better finish is desired.

When much beading of one kind is being done, a large heavy pair of
round-nose pliers (Fig. 10) with the jaws bent around in a curve and
sprung apart enough to allow for the thickness of the metal proves to
be a handy tool. After the edge of the shell has been flared out to
start the bead, the pliers are opened enough to admit the metal and
then closed and the stock guided around to form the bead as far as
possible. In this way the larger part of a bead is rapidly formed, one
jaw of the pliers acting as a spinning tool and the other corresponding
to the back-stick. During this operation, the pliers are, of course,
supported by being held against the T-rest.

[Illustration: Fig. 10. Spinners’ Pliers]

Closely allied with these spinning tools are two other tools (also
shown in Fig. 11) known as the diamond point and the skimmer. The
diamond point is for trimming the edges of the shell during the
spinning operation and for cutting out centers or other parts of the
work. The skimmer is for cleaning up the surface of a shell, removing a
small amount of metal in doing so, the amount depending upon the skill
the spinner used in the spinning proper.

[Illustration: Fig. 11. Hand Tools of Various Forms used in Spinning]

When the bottoms are to be cut from a large number of shells and it
is necessary that they be cut exactly alike, a tool known as a swivel
cutter is used. This tool (see Fig. 9) is simply an iron bar with a
cutter on one end, which swivels near the center around a pin in the
T-rest; thus by a slight movement of the arm the cutter is brought up
to the work, cutting a piece from the shell of exactly the same size
each time.

The Spinning Operation

In order to make clear the successive steps in spinning, let us briefly
consider the making of a copper head-light reflector, and the way the
work is handled when a few hundred pieces are to be made.

By trial spinning, the size of the blank required for one of the
reflectors is determined, and with the square shears the copper sheets
are cut into pieces an eighth of an inch larger each way. These squares
are then taken to the circular shears and cut to round shapes ready
for the spinning lathe. The spinning form, of kiln-dried maple, is
screwed to the spindle and the belt thrown to that step of the cone
pulley which will bring the speed nearest to 1,200 revolutions. From
the stock-room a follower is selected whose face will nearly cover the
bottom of the form. It is now “up to” the spinner. Holding a blank and
also the follower against the end of the form, he runs the tail-center
up to the center in the follower just hard enough to hold the blank
in place. Then, starting the lathe, he centers the blank by lightly
pressing against its edge a hard wood stick. As soon as it “lines up”
he runs the center up a little harder and clamps it in place. Some
spinners will “hop in” a blank with the lathe running, but this is
dangerous practice and sometimes the blank will go sailing across the
room. Often this happens in truing up the blank and for this reason it
is considered advisable to have a wire grating at the further side of
the lathe to prevent serious accidents; for a sheet metal blank is a
dangerous missile traveling at the high rate of speed which is imparted
to it by the lathe.

With a piece of beeswax (soap is sometimes used for economical reasons)
the spinner lightly rubs the rapidly revolving blank and then adjusts
the pin in the T-rest to a point near enough to the blank to obtain a
good leverage with the spinning tool. Holding the handle of his point
and ball tool under his right armpit and using the tool as a lever and
the pin on the rest as a fulcrum, he slowly forces the metal disk back
in the direction of the body of the form, never allowing the tool to
rest in one spot, but constantly working it in and out, applying the
pressure on the way out to the edge of the disk and letting up as he
comes back for a new stroke. In the meantime his left hand is busy
holding a short piece of hard wood (called the back-stick), firmly
against the reverse side of the metal at a constantly changing point
opposite the tool. The object of the back-stick is to keep the stock
from wrinkling as it is stretched toward the edge of the disk. Wrinkles
cause the metal to crack at the edges and for this reason they must be
kept from the stock as much as possible.

After a few strokes of the spinning tool have been taken, the shell
will appear about as shown at _B_, Fig. 12, and at this point it
is necessary to trim the shell at the edges with the diamond-point
tool. Trimming is required because spinning stretches the stock and
the resulting uneven edge will cause splits in the metal if it is
not trimmed occasionally. As a carpenter is known by his chips, so
a spinner is known by the way his work stretches. While the even
pressure of a good spinner will stretch the stock very little, the
uneven pressure of the inexperienced man will lead him into all sorts
of trouble on account of the way the stock will “go.” In either case
the metal always stretches least in the direction in which the sheet
stock was originally rolled, consequently giving the edge a slight
oval shape. In trimming zinc, the spinner holds a “swab” of cloth just
above the diamond point, to prevent the chips from flying into his
face and eyes--or those of his neighbors. With other metals the swab is

The reflector is now taking shape. With each successive stroke the
spinner sets a little more of the metal against the form. Not only does
spinning stretch the metal, but it hardens it as well; therefore, at
the stage _C_ it becomes necessary to anneal the partially completed
reflector, which is done by heating it to a low red in a gas furnace.
In running through a lot of shells, the common practice is to spin them
all as far as possible without annealing, and after annealing the whole
lot, to complete the spinning.

[Illustration: Fig. 12. Successive Steps in Spinning a Reflector]

After replacing the shell upon the form, it is trimmed and worked
further along the form, gradually assuming the appearance shown at _D_.
At this time, the spinner goes back to the small radius at the front
end of the shell and with a ball tool he closes the annealed metal hard
down against the form, for the spinning has tended to pull the stock
slightly from the form at this point. The body of the reflector is now
practically completed and the spinner directs his attention to rolling
the bead at the outside edge. Slowly he begins to roll the edge of the
shell back, using his hook tool to complete the bead as far as possible
and exercising care to keep the back-stick firmly against the metal
so as to keep the wrinkles out. Now, with the diamond point, he gives
the edges a final trim, and with the beading tool closes down the bead
snugly against the rest of the shell, as shown at _E_. Lastly, the
swivel cutter is placed in the proper hole of the T-rest and a turn of
the tool cuts out the center to the exact size, and the reflector is
completed. If any burrs or rough places remain they are easily removed
at this time with the skimmer or diamond point, and a little emery
cloth gives the shell a finished appearance.

Referring to the illustration Fig. 7, _A_, _B_ and _C_ represent the
three most important stages of spinning a shell like that shown at _C_.
Annealing is necessary between steps _A_ and _B_. _D_ is a shell spun
upon a form of the plug variety, and _E_ and _F_ are two views of a
shell spun after the method shown in Fig. 4, _F_ being the completed
shell. _G_ illustrates a very difficult shell to spin, on account of
the small follower that must be used; the length of the small diameter
also adds to the difficulty. _H_ shows a shell that must be spun upon a
sectional chuck, while _I_ is a plain easy job of ornamental spinning.
The ball shown at _J_ was spun from one piece of aluminum and it is
more of a curiosity than a specimen of practical spinning. It was first
spun over a form that would leave one-half of the ball complete and the
stock for the other half straight out like a short tube. Next a wooden
split chuck was made, hollowed out to receive the finished end of the
ball and the open end was gradually spun down and in until the ball was
complete with but a ¹/₁₆-inch hole at the end. This hole was plugged
and the hollow ball was done.

[Illustration: Fig. 13. An Interesting Example of Metal Spinning]

As another example of metal spinning, assume the shape shown in Fig.
13. The shell is to be 20 inches in diameter, 6 inches deep, and 0.060
inch thick. The metal to be used is zinc. This is an interesting metal
spinning job, and not a particularly difficult one. The shell can be
best spun with the aid of two spinning forms, such as are illustrated
in Figs. 14 and 15. These forms should be made of kiln-dried maple if
there are comparatively few shells to be spun. If there are many, the
forms should be made of cast iron. Fig. 14 shows the first form to be
used, which conforms to the outside of the shell as far as the centers
of the spherical ring. Beyond these points, the form is straight.
The blank to be spun is placed as indicated by the dotted lines, and
follower No. 1 is used to hold the work against the form. The chief
trouble will be met in properly starting the shell, because of the
small follower that must be employed. However, follower No. 2 may be
substituted after working the metal back against the form a few inches,
and as this gives a better grip on the shell, there will be no further
danger of slipping. After spinning the zinc shell to the shape of the
first form (Fig. 14) it will probably have to be annealed, but this can
only be determined by trial. In annealing zinc, the flame should not
be allowed to touch the metal. The half completed shell is then put on
form No. 2 shown in Fig. 15. It is an easy matter to spin the metal
round to complete the arc. The dotted line shows the position of the
shell before starting the last part of the spinning. Of course, it will
be understood that the shell must be trimmed several times during the
spinning, and if the trimming is frequently done, a well-shaped shell
should result. For spinning on form No. 2, follower No. 3 must be used.
Either beeswax or soap should be frequently rubbed over the work while
spinning. If it is necessary to cut out the center, it can be done
before removing the shell from the last form by simply removing the
follower and using a diamond point tool, or in large product work the
swivel cutter will work well. The shell will cling to the form without
the follower. The spinning speed should be from 800 to 1,000 R. P. M.

[Illustration: Fig. 14]

[Illustration: Fig. 15]

While the operation of spinning is a comparatively simple one to
describe, it is not easily learned, and to-day good all-around spinners
are hard to find. The limits of accuracy are not as closely defined
as in straight machine work, but there are times when good fits are
absolutely necessary, as in cases where two shells must slip snugly
together. In this chapter we have taken up only the plain every-day
kind of spinning, and were we to follow its work in the gold and
silversmith’s trade, we would see it evolve into a fine art. In order
to insure really good work coming from the spinning lathe, there is a
wide range of knowledge that the spinner must have. That knowledge may
be brought together and summed up by a single word--_judgment_.



The principal object of this chapter is to describe in detail the
various operations of spinning metal so that a tool-maker or machinist
who has not access to a metal spinner, will be able to make his
own tools, rig up an engine or speed lathe, and make the simple
forms or models that are required in experimental work. To do this
intelligently, it is necessary to follow in detail every step in metal
spinning from the circular blank to annealing, pickling, dipping,
burnishing, etc., and also to know how to make the simpler forms of
spinning tools, what lubricants to use on the different kinds of
metals, what material to make the spinning chuck of, and how far the
metal can be worked before annealing.

Spinning metal into complicated and elaborate shapes, is an art fully
as difficult as any craft, and the man is truly an artist that can
make artistic and graceful outlines in metal, especially when only a
few pieces are required and the cost will not allow of making special
chucks to do the work on and with no outline chucks to govern his
design, the forms being made by skill and manipulation of tools alone.
Such skill is far superior to that of the Russian metal worker, who,
instead of making a vase or ornament of one piece, cuts up several
sections and soft solders them together, after covering them with crude
“gingerbread” work to disguise his poor metal work.

The amateur can imitate the Russian work, but never the work of the
skilled spinner. There are several grades of spinners, most of them
never attaining the skill of the model-maker or the facility for
handling the different metals. A man that has had several years of
experience spinning brass or copper would not be able to spin britannia
or white metal without stretching it to a very uneven thickness.
As brass or copper is harder than the other metals mentioned, they
resist the tool more and require more pressure in forming, and if the
operator used the same pressure on the softer metals, he would stretch
or distort them, so that they would be perhaps one-quarter of the
original thickness at angles and corners where the strain in spinning
would be greatest, which would ruin the articles. The best test for
skill in ordinary spinning, is to take a long difficult shape, after
being finished, and saw it in two lengthwise, and if the variation in
thickness is less than 25 per cent of the original gage, it is good
practice. Some spinners can keep within 10 per cent of the gage on
ordinary work, but they are scarce.

The spinning trade in this country is mostly followed by foreigners,
Germans and Swedes being the best. The American that has intelligence
and skill enough to be a first-class spinner, will generally look
around for something easier about the time that he has the trade
acquired. It is an occupation that cannot be followed up in old age,
as it is too strenuous, the operator being on his feet constantly, and
having to use his head as well as his muscles.

General Remarks on Metal Spinning Chucks

For common plain shapes, a patternmaker’s faceplate, with a tapered
center screw, is sufficient for holding the wood chuck. The hole in the
wood should be the same taper as the screw, thus giving an even grip on
the thread. If a straight hole only is used, and it is not reamed out
before screwing to the plate, it will only have a bearing on one or two
threads, and if the chuck is taken off and replaced on the faceplate,
it will not run true. Care should also be taken to face off the end
of the chuck flat, or to slightly recess it, so that it will screw up
evenly against the faceplate, as a high center will cause it to rock
and run out of true.

In large chucks (over five inches) it is best to have three or four
wood screws, besides the center screw. The holes for these can be
spaced off accurately on a circle in the iron faceplate, and drilled
and countersunk. It is best to have twice as many holes as screws; that
is, if four screws are used there should be eight holes, so that if the
chuck has to be replaced at any time and the wood has shrunk, it can be
turned one-eighth of a revolution further than the original chucking.

Where a chuck has to be used several times, it is better practice to
cut a thread in the wood and screw the chuck directly to the spindle
of a lathe, not using the faceplate. This thread can be chased with
a regular chasing tool, where the operator has the skill, or if not,
the wood can be bored out and a special wood tap used. Such a tap has
no flutes and it is bored hollow, there being a wall about ³/₁₆ inch
thick. One tooth does all the cutting, that is the one at the end of
the thread. The chips go into the hollow part of the tap. The end of
the tap for about ¼ inch should have the same diameter as the hole
before threading to act as guide for the cutting tooth.

It is essential that a chuck should run very true and be balanced
perfectly, as the high speed at which it runs will cause it to vibrate
and run out of true, causing the finished metal to show chatter marks.
The best wood for chucks is hard maple, and it should be selected for
its even grain and absence of checks and cracks. It is best to paint
the ends with paraffine or red lead, or to immerse the chucks in some
vegetable oil after turning. Cottonseed oil is very good for this
purpose, but care should be taken not to soak the chucks too long.

For a man not skilled in spinning, it is better to use metal chucks
than wood, for if there are many shells of a kind, the operator is
liable to bear too hard on the tool, thus compressing the chuck and
making the last shells smaller than the first. Corners and angles not
well supported might also be knocked off. The writer prefers cold
rolled steel for chucks up to 6 inches in diameter and cast iron for
the larger ones, but where good steel castings can be obtained, a
good chuck can be made by turning roughly to shape a wood pattern,
allowing enough for shrinkage and finishing, and hollowing out the back
to lighten it. When the chuck is finished all over in the lathe, it
should balance much better than a cast iron one, as there are not the
chances of having blow holes in the iron, thus throwing the chuck out
of balance.


The distance that metal can be drawn without annealing, can only be
learned by experience. A flat blank rotated in the lathe, being soft,
will offer little resistance and it can be gradually drawn down by a
tool held under the chuck and against the blank. This tool is pushed
from the center outward and forward at the same time, and every time
it passes over the blank or disk the metal becomes harder by friction,
and the change of formation and the resistance at the point of the tool
greater. This can be felt as the tool is under the operator’s arm. When
the spring of the metal is such that the tool does not gain any, but
only hardens the metal, the shell should be taken off and annealed. If
the metal has been under a severe strain, it should be hammered on the
horn of an anvil or any metal piece that will support the inside. The
hammer should be a wood or rawhide mallet, but never metal, the object
being to put dents or flutes in the metal to relieve the strain when
heating for annealing; if this is not done the shell will crack.

After annealing the shell it should be pickled to clean the oxide or
scale from the surface; otherwise the metal will be pitted. When the
scale is crowded into the metal and when it will not finish smooth
after spinning to shape, the metal can be finished by skimming or
shaving the outer surface which cuts out all tool marks; it can then
be finished with medium emery cloth or the shell can be bright dipped,
and be run over with a burnishing tool before buffing. Burnishing can
be done on the spinning chuck, but the speed should be higher than for
spinning; this requires some skill for a good job, and it can be done
only on metal chucks.

Annealing is best accomplished in a wood or gas oven, where a forge
fire is used. The metal should never touch the coke or other fuel,
but it should be held in the flame above the fire. Where only part
annealing is required, the shell can be immersed in water, the part to
be annealed being exposed above the water, and a blowpipe used on it.
The remainder of the shell will then be hard. This way of annealing is
sometimes necessary on a special shapes.

Brass should be heated to a cherry red, and held at that point for a
few minutes, in a muffle furnace. If an open furnace is used, just
bring the metal to a cherry red and then dip it in water; this method
is better than when waiting for it to cool, the action being just the
opposite to that on steel. Brass such as the common yellow brass is not
suitable for spinning, there being but 55 per cent copper and 45 per
cent zinc. There are two grades of brass suitable for spinning. These
are known as “spinning and drawing,” having 60 per cent copper and 40
per cent zinc, and “extra spinning and drawing” having 67 per cent
copper and 33 per cent zinc. There is also a better grade known as “low
brass” having from 75 to 80 per cent copper; it has the color of bronze
and is only used on very deep and difficult spinning.

The scale, after annealing, should be pickled off in an acid bath
(described further on in this chapter), and the part thoroughly washed
in running water. Brass, German silver and the harder metals should be
hammered before annealing; it is not necessary to hammer zinc, copper,
aluminum, etc.

A pyrometer in an annealing furnace would be an advantage where
quantities of the softer metals such as zinc, aluminum, etc., are being
heated. Copper is annealed the same as brass and is also pickled. Zinc
is coated with oil before being put in the oven, and when the oil turns
brown, which occurs when the temperature is about 350 degrees, the
metal is ready to take out; it should then be plunged in water to shed
the scale, but not pickled. The melting point of zinc is 780 degrees
F. Aluminum can be annealed the same as zinc, as the melting point is
1,140 degrees F.

Steel should be annealed by heating to a cherry red and then allowing
it to cool slowly; it should be scaled in a special pickle, thoroughly
washed, and then put back in the fire long enough to evaporate every
particle of acid that may have remained from the pickling operation.
Any acid remaining on the steel will neutralize any lubricant that is
applied when spinning. Annealing should be avoided wherever possible.
Open hearth steel only should be used. It should be free from scale
and preferably cold rolled. Bessemer steel is not suitable, except
for very shallow spinnings. Tin plate made from open hearth steel can
be spun about one-half as deep as its diameter where the shape is not
too irregular. German silver is difficult to spin, especially when
it contains over 15 per cent nickel; it has to be hammered before
annealing, the same as brass, to avoid cracks.


Common yellow soap cut up in strips about ½ inch or ¾ inch square is a
good lubricant for spinning most metals. It should be applied evenly
to the disk or blank while it is revolving, by holding the soap in
the hand and drawing it across the surface. Beeswax is the best for
spinning steel, but it is expensive. Lard oil mixed with white lead is
a fair substitute. Either mutton or beef tallow applied with a cloth
swab is very good on most all metals; also vaseline and graphite mixed
to a paste and applied the same as tallow.

Examples of Spinning Various Metals

The different metals are malleable, ductile and tenacious in the
following order; white metal or britannia, aluminum, zinc, copper, low
brass, high brass, German silver, steel, tin plate. White metal does
not harden in spinning, but it requires special skill in handling, or
the metal will be of very uneven gage. The best metal for an amateur to
start on is copper, as it is both tenacious and ductile, and will stand
much abuse in the fire and on the lathe. One of the peculiar properties
of zinc is that it has a grain or texture, and when spinning, the two
sides that go through the rolls lengthwise will be longer than the
sides that have the cross grain, requiring the shell to be trimmed off
quite a distance to even the edge.

To show the possibilities of working the different metals, and their
relative spinning values, a number of articles made from different
materials are illustrated herewith.

[Illustration: Fig. 16. Zinc Lamp Shade Spun in One Operation without

A zinc lamp shade is shown in Fig. 16 that is 14¼ inches in diameter
and 4¾ inches deep. This shade was spun in one operation, without
annealing, from a flat circular blank. All zinc should be warmed before
spinning, either over a gas burner at the lathe or in hot soap water,
and the chuck also should be heated, as otherwise the blank will soon
chill, if spun on a cold metal chuck, as the chuck absorbs the heat
long before the operation is finished. Of course this does not apply
to wooden chucks. The chuck may be heated by using the burner shown in
Fig. 17, which is located around the spindle of the lathe. The size of
the burner should, of course, be in proportion to that of the chuck
used. The burner illustrated is 8 inches in diameter. It has several
small holes drilled for the gas on the side facing the chuck. The heat
of the chuck is regulated by varying the supply of gas to the burner.
The blank is heated before it is put on the chuck and the friction of
the spinning tool helps to keep it warm until it comes in contact with
the chuck. The metal retains its heat until the job is finished, and
this sometimes saves an annealing operation.

In Fig. 18 is shown an example of aluminum spinning. The article
illustrated is a cuspidor having a top 7¾ inches in diameter, a neck
with a 4-inch flare, a diameter at the top of 9½ inches, and a height
of 6½ inches. This shell was spun without annealing, which shows the
extreme ductility of aluminum. The copper shell shown in Fig. 19, has
a maximum diameter of 7 inches, and a depth of 8 inches; it was spun
with four annealings. A German silver reflector, which is 10 inches in
diameter at the largest end and 5 inches deep, is shown in Fig. 20.
The spinning of such a reflector, when made from this material, is
quite difficult. An open hearth cold-rolled steel shell with a maximum
diameter of 3 inches and a depth of 4 inches is shown in Fig. 21. This
shell was spun without annealing, which shows that the grade of steel
used is well adapted for this work.

[Illustration: Fig. 17. Gas Burner for Heating Spinning Chuck]

[Illustration: Figs. 18 and 19. Examples of Aluminum and Copper

[Illustration: Fig. 20. German Silver Reflector

Fig. 21. Open Hearth Cold-rolled Steel Shell]

In Fig. 22 two finished brass shells are shown to the right, and also
the number of operations required to change the form of the metal. The
upper shell is 6 inches long and 3½ inches in diameter at the large
end, while the lower one is 7¼ inches long by 3¾ inches in diameter.
It was necessary to anneal these shells between each operation, the
upper shell being annealed four times and the lower one three times.
These pieces were made in quantities sufficient to warrant the making
of chucks for each operation, which enabled them to be spun with less
skill than would be required if a finishing chuck only were made. When
a single finishing chuck is used, the various operations in spinning a
shell of this kind would be left to the judgment of the spinner, who
would decide the limit of the stretch of metal between the operations
before annealing.

[Illustration: Fig. 22. Various Steps in Spinning the Two Brass Shells
at the Right]

A brass shell that is made in five operations and with four annealings
is shown in Fig. 23. The finishing chuck used is a split or key chuck
on which it is necessary to cut out the end of the shell in order
to withdraw the key after the shell is spun. This shell, which is
shown finished to the right, is 5½ inches long. It is spun smooth
on a machine steel chuck, and is not skimmed, but gone over with a
planishing tool at the last operation. The two pieces shown in Fig. 22
were also finished in this way.

[Illustration: Fig. 23. Another Brass Spinning Operation; the Chuck
used is shown at A]

Fig. 24 shows a brass shell, which is a good example of “air spinning,”
so called because the finishing or second operation on part of the
shape is done in the air, thus avoiding the use of a sectional or split
chuck. The shell shown is about 5½ inches in diameter. The first or
breaking-down chuck is shown at _A_. The neck or small part of the
piece, and also a portion of the spherical surface, is formed by the
spinning tool without any support from the chuck. After the shell is
spun or broken down on chuck _A_, it is annealed and pickled. It is
then put back on chuck _A_ and planished or hardened on the part that
is to retain its present shape. The work is then placed on the chuck
_B_ and the soft part is manipulated by the tool until it conforms to
the shape shown to the right. While this soft part of the metal is
being formed, the part which was previously hardened retains its shape.

[Illustration: Fig. 24. An Example of “Air Spinning” and the Chucks

Various Types of Metal-spinning Chucks and their Construction

A miscellaneous collection of spinning chucks is shown in Fig. 25. As
will be seen, the larger ones are machined out in the back to lighten
them, and also to give them an even balance. The larger of those
illustrated measure about 9½ inches in diameter, and they are made of
cast iron, while the smaller chucks shown in this view are of machine
steel. The chuck marked _A_ is a key chuck. Another collection of
spinning chucks of various shapes is shown in Fig. 26. Those in the
upper row are all key or split chucks, and the keys are shown withdrawn
from the sockets. All these chucks, up to 6 inches in diameter, are
made of machine steel; those seen in the lower row are shapes which are
comparatively easy to spin.

[Illustration: Fig. 25. Miscellaneous Collection of Spinning Chucks]

[Illustration: Fig. 26. Another Group of Spinning Chucks. Those in the
Upper Row are of the Split or Key Type]

A collection of hard maple chucks is shown in Fig. 27, some of which
represent shapes that are difficult to spin. The chuck _A_ is 15 inches
long, and the maximum diameter of _B_ is 12½ inches. These figures will
serve to give an idea of the proportions of the other chucks. All of
the chucks shown have threads cut in them and they are screwed directly
to the spindle of the lathe, the faceplate being dispensed with. Some
of the larger wooden chucks used measure approximately 5 feet in
diameter. A chuck of this size is built up of sections which are glued

[Illustration: Fig. 27. Various Forms of Spinning Chucks made from Hard

A number of bronze sectional split chucks are shown in Fig. 28. When
spinning over a sectional chuck, it is first necessary to break down
the shell as far as is practicable on a solid chuck. Care should be
taken, however, to leave sufficient clearance so that the work may be
withdrawn. The shell is then annealed, after which it is put on the
sectional chuck and the under cut or small end is spun down to the
chuck surface. When the entire surface of the shell is spun down to a
bearing, the shell is planished or skimmed to a smooth surface; the
open edge is also trimmed even and the shell is polished with emery

[Illustration: Fig. 28. A Group of Bronze Sectional Chucks]

A large bronze chuck of seven sections, one of which is a key section,
is shown at _A_. The largest diameter of this chuck is 10 inches. It
has a cast iron center hub and a steel cap at the top for holding the
sections in place. This cap, when in place in the retaining groove
shown, is flush with the top of the chuck. Another large chuck having
five sections and one key section is shown at _B_. The retaining cap in
this case is of a different form. The lower parts of the sections of
all these chucks fit in a groove at the bottom of the hub. A chuck of
five sections that is without a binding cap, is shown at _C_. This is
not a good design as the hub or center is too straight, and all of the
grip or drive is from the bottom groove, which is not sufficient. The
shape shown at _D_ is more difficult to spin than any of the others,
as it is smaller at the opening in proportion to its size. This chuck
also requires more sections in order that it may be withdrawn from the
shell after the latter is spun. The chuck _E_ is intended for a small
shell that is also difficult to spin. The drive pins which prevent the
segments of the chuck _E_ from turning may be seen projecting from its
base. The centering pins at the outer end of chucks _D_ and _E_ and the
binding caps may also be seen. The chuck _A_, because of its size, is
hollowed out to reduce the weight. All of these chucks were made for
hard service, and they have been used in spinning thousands of shells.

Another group of sectional chucks is shown in Fig. 29. They are mostly
made from hard maple. The sections of chuck _A_ are planed and fitted
together and thin pieces of paper are glued to these sections before
they are glued collectively for turning. By using the paper between
the joints, the sections may be easily separated after they are turned
to the proper size and form. If the different sections were glued
without paper between them, the joint formed would be so good that the
separation of the sections could not be controlled, and parts from
opposite sections would be torn away. The use of the paper, however,
between the glued joints, controls the separation of the sections. The
chuck shown at _D_ is also made with the paper between the sections.
Chucks _B_ and _E_ are turned from the solid, care being taken to have
the grain of the wood lengthwise. After they are turned to the required
form, they are split into sections with a sharp chisel. Before doing
this, the key-section should first be laid out. There should be as few
sections as possible, the number being just sufficient to enable the
withdrawing of the chuck from the shell after the latter is spun to
shape. This method of making a chuck, while quicker than the other, is
not good practice, except for small work.

[Illustration: Fig. 29. Sectional Chucks made from Wood]

A lignum vitæ chuck is shown at _A_ in Fig. 30; this was made with
paper between the sections. The key-section is shown on top. This wood,
while being more durable than hard maple, costs sixteen cents a pound
in the rough and, counting the waste material, is not any cheaper
than bronze, and is less durable. The hard maple chucks _B_ and _C_
were turned from the solid, after which the sections were split. The
segments shown in the center of the illustration did not split evenly,
owing to a winding or twisting grain.

[Illustration: Fig. 30. Other Examples of Wooden Sectional Chucks]

The construction of a sectional spinning chuck is shown in Fig. 31.
This illustration also shows the proper proportion for the central hub
and its taper. This hub should never be straight, but should have from
5 to 7½ degrees taper on the central part. There should also be a taper
of 1½ degree on the other binding surfaces as indicated. These parts
are made tapering so that the shell can be released from the lathe
after spinning, without hammering or driving; when straight surfaces
are used the work has to be pried off, and it is also harder to set
up the sections for the next shell. Another disadvantage is that with
straight fittings the wear cannot be taken up. An end cap or binder
should be used wherever possible as it steadies the chuck. A drive pin
should also be used and the hole for it drilled in the largest section;
this is important, as it gives the sections a more positive drive. If
they slip they will soon wear themselves loose and leave openings at
the joints.

[Illustration: Fig. 31. Elevation and Plan showing Construction of
Sectional Chuck]

The plan view shows the method of laying out the various sections. The
key should be laid out first. One key is enough for the particular
form of chuck illustrated, but it is often necessary to use two key
sections when the shell opening is small.

When a sectional chuck is to be made, it is important to decide first
on the size of the central hub _A_, the number of sections _C_, and
also the design of the cap or binder _B_. This cap must not exceed in
size the opening in the finished shell, as it would be impossible to
remove it after the chuck sections were taken out. After the size of
the hub _A_ has been decided upon, a wooden form should be turned that
is a duplicate of _A_, except that a spherical surface _E_ should be
added. This spherical part should be slightly smaller than the inner
diameter of the bronze sections in order to allow for machining them.
In turning this wooden pattern on which the plaster patterns for the
sections are to be formed, the shoulder _D_ should be omitted, as a
removable metal ring will take its place.

When the wooden hub is ready, two metal partitions or templets of the
same outline as the chuck, though about one-half inch larger than its
total diameter, for shrinkage and finishing, are fastened to the hub in
the correct position for making a plaster pattern for the key section.
These patterns should have extension ends so that the sections when
cast may be held by them while they are being turned. The templets
should be banked around with a wad of clay, and they should also be
coated on the inside with sperm oil to keep the plaster from sticking.
There should be two brads driven in the hub for each section of plaster
to hold the sections in place while they are being turned. After the
plaster for the key section has hardened, the templets should be
located one on each side of the key section, so that the two adjacent
sections may be made. In this way all the sections are finished. After
about forty-eight hours the plaster will be hard enough to turn in the
lathe with a hand tool. The form should be roughly outlined and plenty
of stock left for shrinkage, as bronze shrinks considerably. Before
taking the sections off the wooden frame, the metal band _D_ should be
removed to allow the sections to be separated. This should not be done,
however, until they are numbered, so that they can be again placed in
their proper positions. After the sections are cast, they should be
surfaced on a disk grinder, or finished with a file, care being taken
to remove as little metal as possible. Each section is next tinned on
both contact faces, and then all are assembled and sweated or soldered
together by a blow-pipe. It is sometimes necessary to put a couple of
strong metal bands around the sections to hold them firmly in place
when soldering and also to support them during the turning operation.

[Illustration: Fig. 32. A Modern Spinning Lathe]

The central hub _A_ should be machined first; then the assembled
outside shell should be machined to fit the hub _A_, both on the
taper part and at the point _D_. While the segments are being bored
and faced, they are held by the extension ends (not shown) which were
provided for this purpose. This outer shell should also be machined all
over the inside so that it will be in balance. It is then taken out of
the chuck and a hole is drilled in the largest section for drive pin
_H_. The hub _A_ is then caught in the lathe chuck with the assembled
sections on it, and a seat is turned for the cap _B_. After this is
done the binder bands can be removed, but not before. The chuck can be
finished with a hand tool and file after the roughing cut is taken.
After the sections are removed from the hub and numbered at the bottom
or inner ends, they can be separated by heating them. If the joints are
properly fitted there will be only a thin film of solder, which can be
wiped off when hot.

A twenty-four-inch metal spinning lathe that is rigged up in a modern
way, is shown in Fig. 32. The hand wheel of the tailstock has been
discarded for the lever _A_, which is more rapid and can be manipulated
without stopping the lathe. This lathe has a roller bearing for the
center _B_ which is a practical improvement over types previously used.
The pin _C_, which is used in the rest as a fulcrum for the spinning
tools, is also an improvement, being larger than those ordinarily
used. It is ¾ inch in diameter, 6 inches long, and it has a reduced
end for the holes in the rest, ⅜ inch in diameter by 1 inch long. This
pin is large enough so that the spinner can conveniently hold it with
his left hand when necessary, and it can also be rapidly changed to
different holes. The pins ordinarily used, because of their small size,
do not have these advantages. The speed of a spinning lathe having a
five-step cone should be about 2,250 to 2,300 revolutions per minute
with the belt on the smallest step, and from 600 to 700 revolutions per
minute with the belt on the largest step. The fastest speed given is
suitable for all work under 5 inches in diameter, and the slowest for
work within the capacity of the lathe. On large shells it is sometimes
necessary to change from one speed to another as the work progresses.
Figs. 33 and 34 show the spinner at work, and illustrate how the tool
should be held, and also the proper position of the left hand.

[Illustration: Fig. 33. View showing how the Tool is held when Spinning]

[Illustration: Fig. 34. Another View showing the Position of the
Spinner and the Way the Tool is held when forming the Metal]

Construction of the Tailstock and Back-center

Fig. 35 shows a spinning-lathe tailstock, which has been changed from
the hand-wheel-and-screw type to one having a lever and a roller
bearing. The spindle _A_ which is withdrawn from the lever and turned
one-quarter of a revolution to give a better view of the rollers, is
made from 1¾-inch cold rolled steel. The rollers against which the
center bears do not project beyond the spindle, so that the latter
can be withdrawn through the tailstock. This eliminates the excessive
overhang caused by ball bearings and other centers. When the center
projects too far, the tailstock cannot be set close to the work owing
to the necessity of withdrawing the center when removing the spun part.
The application of this principle to a spinning lathe is original and
the type of center illustrated was used only after all other kinds
had failed, including all the types of ball bearings and revolving
pins. The best forms of ball bearing centers do not last over a year,
if in constant use, and they will not always revolve on small work.
Two other spindles are shown in this engraving, which were taken
from other lathes in order to show different views of the parts. The
cylindrical pieces _B_ are the hardened friction rollers which belong
in the slot of the spindle _F_, and _C_ is the hardened pin upon which
they revolve. The hardened center _D_ has a threaded end on which the
back-centers _E_ of different lengths and shapes are screwed. The
friction rollers should always be in a vertical position, and care
should be taken to have them exactly central with the spindle.

    [See Transcriber’s Note at the end of this book.]

and also gives the principal dimensions of a roller bearing for a
1¾-inch spindle. _A_ is a hardened steel bushing, which is driven into
the machine steel spindle. The parts _B_ are the hardened steel rollers
which travel in opposite directions. These rollers have a small amount
of friction, and this is distributed over a large area. A spindle
revolving at 2,300 revolutions per minute will not cause these rollers
to rotate very rapidly, while a ball bearing with balls traveling in a
channel 1½ inch or 2 inches in diameter would be traveling at the same
speed as the driving spindle. They also wear out rapidly as the end
strain is very great, it being necessary to force the center against
the metal with considerable pressure to keep it from slipping. _C_
is the hardened pin upon which the rollers revolve, and _D_ is the
hardened spindle on which the various back-centers are screwed. The
collar _E_ should either be flattened for a wrench, or a ⁵/₁₆-inch
hole, in which a wire can be inserted, should be drilled through the
spindle, so that it can be kept from rotating when screwing on the
back-centers. Some spinners prefer the spindle loose, so that it can
be withdrawn when changing the centers, while others prefer one with
considerable lateral motion, but not enough to permit of withdrawal. By
inserting a screw-point in the recess _F_, the center has considerable
lateral motion, but not enough to allow it to be withdrawn. This
recess is useful in that it helps to distribute the oil. All parts
should be hardened and drawn to a light straw color; they should
also be ground or lapped to a true fit after hardening. Back-centers
of this construction have been in use for over three years in one
establishment, and it has not been necessary to replace a single part.

[Illustration: Fig. 35. Detailed View of a Spinning-lathe Tailstock]

[Illustration: Fig. 36. Sectional View showing the Back-center and its
Double Roller Bearing]

Tools Used in Metal Spinning

Fig. 37 shows an attachment which is used to roll any bead or form.
This tool, when in use, is inserted in the tailstock spindle in place
of the regular center. It is adjustable for any diameter. The roll
illustrated is for making a sharp turn, but rounds and other forms are
used. The shell being spun by this tool should be held on a hollow
chuck. The roll is set at a point where the metal is to be turned over,
and by its use the curve may be governed and made uniform with less
skill than when the work is done by “air spinning.” In addition, the
spinning may be done in less time. This attachment, for some shapes,
makes the use of sectional chucks unnecessary.

[Illustration: Fig. 37. Attachment used for Rolling Sharp Turns and

Fig. 38 shows several spinning tools, the heads of which were turned in
the lathe instead of being forged. This method of making spinning tools
is believed to be original. The spinners prefer them to the tools which
are forged in one piece, because the heads which are screwed to the
shanks are made of the best quality of steel, such as the high-speed
or self-hardening steel. The shapes are also better and the surfaces
more true. The heads of these tools are all threaded with standard
¼-inch, ⅜-inch and ½-inch pipe taps, according to the size. Obviously,
a spinner can have as many different shaped heads as may be required of
each of the sizes given, and only one handle. The tapering threads in
these heads insure that they will always screw on the shanks tightly no
matter how often they may be replaced. The ¼-inch size takes a ½-inch
cold rolled holder; the ⅜-inch, a ⅝-inch holder, and the ½-inch, a
¾-inch holder. These will be found large enough for the heaviest work.
The egg-shaped tool _A_ is a good form for roughing or breaking down,
as it has plenty of clearance on the heel, and a blunt point that will
not tear the metal. This tool is shown in four sizes. The ball or
spherical tool _B_ is a good one to use on curves and large sweeps.
The tool _C_ is elliptic, and is slightly different from _A_, as it
has a blunter point. One of these heads is shown at _D_ screwed onto
a reducer by which it is held in the lathe chuck while being turned.
These heads or points can also be turned while on the handle by using a
steady rest.

[Illustration: Fig. 38. Metal Spinning Tools with High-speed Steel
Removable Heads]

A group of trimmers, skimmers and edgers is shown in Fig. 39. Three
skimmers of the built-up type are illustrated, the shanks being of
machine steel and the blades being riveted to the holders. These
blades are made of either high-speed or regular steel. Skimmers
which are forged in the regular way from one piece of steel, are
shown at _B_. A number of edgers _C_, which are made of high-speed
or self-hardening steel, are also illustrated. These tools are used
without handles until they are worn down short, after which tangs are
forged on their ends and they are used in handles. Edgers are utilized
on all kinds of work for trimming the ends of the shells. The skimmer
is seldom used on metal chucks, but mostly in connection with wooden
chucks, where the metal cannot be smoothed down with a planisher.
The skimmer is run over the metal lightly, taking a thin shaving and
smoothing the uneven surfaces. It requires considerable skill to
use this tool without wasting the metal. The surface of the work is
finished with emery cloth after skimming.

[Illustration: Fig. 39. Tools used for Trimming and Skimming Spun Work]

Figs. 40 and 41 show a number of spinning tools of various shapes. The
letters _A_ indicate the breaking-down or round-nosed tools of different
sizes. This type of tool, which is finished smooth and has a blunt
point, is used for forming corners and sharp angles, and it is the
tool most commonly used by spinners. The planishers and burnishers
_B_ are used on all convex surfaces and for finishing on metal chucks
where there is to be no skimming done. The tools _C_ are known as hook
or poker tools, and they are used to turn up beads or curves from the
inside of the shell. The holders having rollers are used for turning
over beads, the metal first being trimmed and turned to a vertical
position. The other shapes shown are irregular tools for special work
and they are not in daily use.

[Illustration: Fig. 40. A Group of Spinning Tools of Various Shapes]

[Illustration: Fig. 41. Another Group of Spinning Tools]

Two pairs of spinners’ pliers for turning over the edge of the metal
when making large curves are shown in Fig. 42. The wedge-shaped pieces
shown in this illustration are used when breaking down or roughing
shells to give a bearing to the metal in order to prevent it from
wrinkling or buckling when changing its formation. These pieces are
made of hard wood with the exception of the one to the right, which is
of steel. When one of these pieces is in use it is held in the left
hand at a point directly opposite the spinning tool, the metal being
between the two. Wood is preferable in most cases, as it does not
harden the metal blank.

[Illustration: Fig. 42. Spinners’ Pliers which are used for turning the
Edge of the Metal when making a Large Bend]

The tools shown in Fig. 43 are used in spinning steel. The round tools
are of drawn brass, and they can be used where the steel tools cannot,
for while a steel tool is perfection on brass, a brass tool is the only
thing on steel. It wears out, however, much more rapidly than one of
steel. The rolls shown in the center are used for breaking down steel
shells. These tools are hardened and have hardened roller bearings. The
handles are made of one-inch iron pipe, which is filled with lead to
give weight and strength.

[Illustration: Fig. 43. Some Spinning Tools used in Working Steel]

Hard wood tools that are used for breaking down large thin copper
blanks ranging from 2 to 5 feet in diameter are shown in Fig. 44. These
tools are also used where the surface that the tool will cover without
hardening the metal is important. Blanks which are broken down with
these tools are finished with the regular types.

The handles of spinning tools vary in diameter from 1¼ to 1¾ inch, and
in length from 16 inches to 20 inches. The tools should project from
the handles from 9 to 18 inches, and the total length of the tool and
handle should average from 30 to 34 inches.

[Illustration: Fig. 44. Wooden Tools which are used on Large Thin
Copper Blanks]

A group of wood working tools is shown in Fig. 45. These tools are
of the type commonly used by spinners for turning the various shapes
of wooden spinning chucks. As the tools illustrated are the kind
regularly used for wood turning by patternmakers and other wood-workers
generally, they will need no description.

[Illustration: Fig. 45. Wood-turning Tools which are used in turning
Spinning Chucks]

Preparation of the Metal

Brass, copper, and German silver should be pickled after annealing in
order to get the scale or oxide from the surface. There are furnaces
that anneal without scaling by excluding the air when heating, but
they are not in general use. A pickling bath may be made by using one
part of oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) and five parts of water. The
shells can be put in hot, or the bath can be heated by a coil of lead
or copper pipe running through it. Steam in no case should enter the
bath, as the iron in the feed pipe will spoil the pickle. Any basket
or box that may be used to hold the shells in the pickle should not
contain any iron. If a box is used it should be held together with
copper nails. The pickle can be used cold, but it will take a little
longer time to remove the scale. As soon as the scale is free, which
will be in about half an hour, the shells should be removed or washed
thoroughly in running water. The shells should be allowed to dry before
the next operation, which is that of spinning. A lead-lined wooden
tank or an earthen jar may be used for holding the pickle. The pickle
which is used for steel should be about half as strong as that employed
for brass. After the work is in this pickle, the latter should be
brought to the boiling point, after which the pieces should be taken
out and washed. They are then replaced in the fire for a short time to
evaporate any acid that may remain after washing.

Finished brass articles may be given different shades by dipping them
in a solution consisting of one part aqua fortis (nitric acid) and two
parts oil of vitriol. This solution should stand seven or eight hours
to cool after mixing, and be kept in a crock immersed in a water bath.


Any intelligent man engaged in mechanical work can acquire a
well-rounded mechanical education by using as a guide in his studies
the outline of the course in mechanical subjects given below. The
course is laid out so as to make it possible for a man of little or
no education to go ahead, beginning wherever he finds that his needs
begin. The course is made up of units so that it may be followed either
from beginning to end; or the reader may choose any specific subject
which may be of especial importance to him.

Preliminary Course in Arithmetic

JIG SHEETS 1A TO 5A:--Whole Numbers: Addition, Subtraction,
Multiplication, Division, and Factoring.

JIG SHEETS 6A TO 15A:--Common Fractions and Decimal Fractions.

Shop Calculations



Reference Series No. 53. USE OF LOGARITHMIC TABLES.

Reference Series Nos. 54 and 55. SOLUTION OF TRIANGLES.

Data Sheet Series No. 16. MATHEMATICAL TABLES. A book for
general reference.

Drafting-room Practice

Reference Series No. 2. DRAFTING-ROOM PRACTICE.


Reference Series No. 33. SYSTEMS AND PRACTICE OF THE

General Shop Practice


Reference Series No. 7. LATHE AND PLANER TOOLS.

Reference Series No. 25. DEEP HOLE DRILLING.


Reference Series No. 48. FILES AND FILING.

Reference Series No. 32. SCREW THREAD CUTTING.

Data Sheet Series No. 1. SCREW THREADS. Tables relating to all
the standard systems.

Data Sheet Series No. 2. SCREWS, BOLTS AND NUTS. Tables of

Data Sheet Series Nos. 10 and 11. MACHINE TOOL OPERATION.
Tables relating to the operation of lathes, screw machines, milling
machines, etc.

Reference Series Nos. 50 and 51. PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF

Reference Series No. 57. METAL SPINNING.

Jigs and Fixtures

Reference Series Nos. 41, 42 and 43. JIGS AND FIXTURES.

Reference Series No. 3. DRILL JIGS.

Reference Series No. 4. MILLING FIXTURES.

Punch and Die Work

Reference Series No. 6. PUNCH AND DIE WORK.

Reference Series No. 13. BLANKING DIES.


Tool Making

Reference Series No. 64. GAGE MAKING AND LAPPING.

Reference Series No. 21. MEASURING TOOLS.

Reference Series No. 31. SCREW THREAD TOOLS AND GAGES.

Data Sheet Series No. 3. TAPS AND THREADING DIES.


Hardening and Tempering

Reference Series No. 46. HARDENING AND TEMPERING.

Reference Series No. 63. HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL.

Blacksmith Shop Practice and Drop Forging

Reference Series No. 44. MACHINE BLACKSMITHING.

Reference Series No. 61. BLACKSMITH SHOP PRACTICE.

Reference Series No. 45. DROP FORGING.

Automobile Construction



Theoretical Mechanics


Reference Series No. 19. USE OF FORMULAS IN MECHANICS.


Reference Series No. 15. SPUR GEARING.

Reference Series No. 37. BEVEL GEARING.

Reference Series No. 1. WORM GEARING.

Reference Series No. 20. SPIRAL GEARING.

Data Sheet Series No. 5. SPUR GEARING. General reference book
containing tables and formulas.

General reference book containing tables and formulas.

General Machine Design


Reference Series No. 11. BEARINGS.

Reference Series No. 56. BALL BEARINGS.


Reference Series No. 17. STRENGTH OF CYLINDERS.



Reference Series No. 40. FLYWHEELS.

Data Sheet Series No. 7. SHAFTING, KEYS AND KEYWAYS.



Data Sheet Series No. 19. BELT, ROPE AND CHAIN DRIVES.

Machine Tool Design


Reference Series No. 16. MACHINE TOOL DRIVES.

Crane Design

Reference Series No. 23. THEORY OF CRANE DESIGN.



Steam and Gas Engine Design

Reference Series Nos. 67 to 72, inclusive. STEAM BOILERS, ENGINES,


Data Sheet Series No. 13. BOILERS AND CHIMNEYS.


Special Course in Locomotive Design




Reference Series No. 30. SPRINGS, TRUCKS, CAB AND TENDER.


Dynamos and Motors



Reference Series Nos. 73 to 78, inclusive. PRINCIPLES AND

Heating and Ventilation




Iron and Steel

Reference Series No. 36. IRON AND STEEL.


General Reference Books


Data Sheet Series No. 12. PIPE AND PIPE FITTINGS.





This treatise is one unit in a comprehensive Series of Reference books
originated by MACHINERY, and including an indefinite number of
compact units, each covering one subject thoroughly. The whole series
comprises a complete working library of mechanical literature. The
price of each book is 25 cents (one shilling) delivered anywhere in the


=No. 1. Worm Gearing.=--Calculating Dimensions; Hobs; Location of Pitch
Circle; Self-Locking Worm Gearing, etc.

=No. 2. Drafting-Room Practice.=--Systems; Tracing, Lettering and

=No. 3. Drill Jigs.=--Principles of Drill Jigs; Jig Plates; Examples of

=No. 4. Milling Fixtures.=--Principles of Fixtures; Examples of Design.

=No. 5. First Principles of Theoretical Mechanics.=

=No. 6. Punch and Die Work.=--Principles of Punch and Die Work; Making
and Using Dies; Die and Punch Design.

=No. 7. Lathe and Planer Tools.=--Cutting Tools; Boring Tools; Shape of
Standard Shop Tools; Forming Tools.

=No. 8. Working Drawings and Drafting-Room Kinks.=

=No. 9. Designing and Cutting Cams.=--Drafting of Cams; Cam Curves; Cam
Design and Cam Cutting.

=No. 10. Examples of Machine Shop Practice.=--Cutting Bevel Gears;
Making a Worm-Gear; Spindle Construction.

=No. 11. Bearings.=--Design of Bearings; Causes of Hot Bearings; Alloys
for Bearings; Friction and Lubrication.

=No. 12.= Out of print.

=No. 13. Blanking Dies.=--Making Blanking Dies; Blanking and Piercing
Dies; Split Dies; Novel Ideas in Die Making.

=No. 14. Details of Machine Tool Design.=--Cone Pulleys and Belts;
Strength of Countershafts; Tumbler Gear Design; Faults of Iron Castings.

=No. 15. Spur Gearing.=--Dimensions; Design; Strength; Durability.

=No. 16. Machine Tool Drives.=--Speeds and Feeds; Single Pulley Drives;
Drives for High Speed Cutting Tools.

=No. 17. Strength of Cylinders.=--Formulas, Charts, and Diagrams.

=No. 18. Shop Arithmetic for the Machinist.=--Tapers; Change Gears;
Cutting Speeds; Feeds; Indexing; Gearing for Cutting Spirals; Angles.

=No. 19. Use of Formulas in Mechanics.=--With numerous applications.

=No. 20. Spiral Gearing.=--Rules, Formulas, and Diagrams, etc.

=No. 21. Measuring Tools.=--History of Standard Measurements; Calipers;
Compasses; Micrometer Tools; Protractors.

=No. 22. Calculation of Elements of Machine Design.=--Factor of Safety;
Strength of Bolts; Riveted Joints; Keys and Keyways; Toggle-joints.

=No. 23. Theory of Crane Design.=--Jib Cranes; Shafts, Gears, and
Bearings; Force to Move Crane Trolleys; Pillar Cranes.

=No. 24. Examples of Calculating Designs.=--Charts in Designing; Punch
and Riveter Frames; Shear Frames; Billet and Bar Passes; etc.

=No. 25. Deep Hole Drilling.=--Methods of Drilling; Construction of

=No. 26. Modern Punch and Die Construction.=--Construction and Use of
Sub-press Dies; Modern Blanking Die Construction; Drawing and Forming

=No. 27. Locomotive Design=, Part I.--Boilers, Cylinders, Pipes and

=No. 28. Locomotive Design=, Part II.--Stephenson and Walschaerts Valve
Motions; Theory, Calculation and Design.

=No. 29. Locomotive Design=, Part III.--Smokebox; Exhaust Pipe;
Frames; Cross-heads; Guide Bars; Connecting-rods; Crank-pins; Axles;

=No. 30. Locomotive Design=, Part IV.--Springs, Trucks, Cab and Tender.

=No. 31. Screw Thread Tools and Gages.=

=No. 32. Screw Thread Cutting.=--Lathe Change Gears; Thread Tools;

=No. 33. Systems and Practice of the Drafting-Room.=

=No. 34. Care and Repair of Dynamos and Motors.=

=No. 35. Tables and Formulas for Shop and Drafting-Room.=--The Use of
Formulas; Solution of Triangles; Strength of Materials; Gearing; Screw
Threads; Tap Drills; Drill Sizes; Tapers; Keys, etc.

=No. 36. Iron and Steel.=--Principles of Manufacture and Treatment.

=No. 37. Bevel Gearing.=--Rules and Formulas; Examples of Calculation;
Tooth Outlines; Strength and Durability; Design; Methods of Cutting

=No. 38.= Out of print. See No. 98.

=No. 39. Fans, Ventilation and Heating.=--Fans; Heaters; Shop Heating.

=No. 40. Fly-Wheels.=--Their Purpose, Calculation and Design.

=No. 41. Jigs and Fixtures=, Part I.--Principles of Design; Drill Jig
Bushings; Locating Points; Clamping Devices.

=No. 42. Jigs and Fixtures=, Part II.--Open and Closed Drill Jigs.

=No. 43. Jigs and Fixtures=, Part III.--Boring and Milling Fixtures.

=No. 44. Machine Blacksmithing.=--Systems, Tools and Machines used.

=No. 45. Drop Forging.=--Lay-out of Plant; Methods of Drop Forging;

=No. 46. Hardening and Tempering.=--Hardening Plants; Treating
High-Speed Steel; Hardening Gages.

=No. 47. Electric Overhead Cranes.=--Design and Calculation.

=No. 48. Files and Filing.=--Types of Files; Using and Making Files.

=No. 49. Girders for Electric Overhead Cranes.=

=No. 50. Principles and Practice of Assembling Machine Tools=, Part I.

=No. 51. Principles and Practice of Assembling Machine Tools=, Part II.

=No. 52. Advanced Shop Arithmetic for the Machinist.=

=No. 53. Use of Logarithms and Logarithmic Tables.=

=No. 54. Solution of Triangles=, Part I.--Methods, Rules and Examples.

=No. 55. Solution of Triangles=, Part II.--Tables of Natural Functions.

=No. 56. Ball Bearings.=--Principles of Design and Construction.

=No. 57. Metal Spinning.=--Machines, Tools and Methods Used.

=No. 58. Helical and Elliptic Springs.=--Calculation and Design.

=No. 59. Machines, Tools and Methods of Automobile Manufacture.=

=No. 60. Construction and Manufacture of Automobiles.=

=No. 61. Blacksmith Shop Practice.=--Model Blacksmith Shop; Welding;
Forging of Hooks and Chains; Miscellaneous.

=No. 62. Hardness and Durability Testing of Metals.=

=No. 63. Heat Treatment of Steel.=--Hardening, Tempering,

=No. 64. Gage Making and Lapping.=

=No. 65. Formulas and Constants for Gas Engine Design.=

=No. 66. Heating and Ventilation of Shops and Offices.=

=No. 67. Boilers.=

=No. 68. Boiler Furnaces and Chimneys.=

=No. 69. Feed Water Appliances.=

=No. 70. Steam Engines.=

=No. 71. Steam Turbines.=

=No. 72. Pumps, Condensers, Steam and Water Piping.=

=No. 73. Principles and Applications of Electricity=, Part I.--Static
Electricity; Electrical Measurements; Batteries.

=No. 74. Principles and Applications of Electricity=, Part
II.--Magnetism; Electro-Magnetism; Electro-Plating.

=No. 75. Principles and Applications of Electricity=, Part
III.--Dynamos; Motors; Electric Railways.

=No. 76. Principles and Applications of Electricity=, Part
IV.--Electric Lighting.

=No. 77. Principles and Applications of Electricity=, Part
V.--Telegraph and Telephone.

=No. 78. Principles and Applications of Electricity=, Part
VI.--Transmission of Power.

=No. 79. Locomotive Building=, Part I.--Main and Side Rods.

=No. 80. Locomotive Building=, Part II.--Wheels; Axles; Driving Boxes.

=No. 81. Locomotive Building=, Part III.--Cylinders and Frames.

=No. 82. Locomotive Building=, Part IV.--Valve Motion.

=No. 83. Locomotive Building=, Part V.--Boiler Shop Practice.

=No. 84. Locomotive Building=, Part VI.--Erecting.

=No. 85. Mechanical Drawing=, Part I.--Instruments; Materials;
Geometrical Problems.

=No. 86. Mechanical Drawing=, Part II.--Projection.

=No. 87. Mechanical Drawing=, Part III.--Machine Details.

=No. 88. Mechanical Drawing=, Part IV.--Machine Details.

=No. 89. The Theory of Shrinkage and Forced Fits.=

=No. 90. Railway Repair Shop Practice.=

=No. 91. Operation of Machine Tools.=--The Lathe, Part I.

=No. 92. Operation of Machine Tools=.--The Lathe, Part II.

=No. 93. Operation of Machine Tools.=--Planer, Shaper, Slotter.

=No. 94. Operation of Machine Tools.=--Drilling Machines.

=No. 95. Operation of Machine Tools.=--Boring Machines.

=No. 96. Operation of Machine Tools.=--Milling Machines, Part I.

=No. 97. Operation of Machine Tools.=--Milling Machines, Part II.

=No. 98. Operation of Machine Tools.=--Grinding Machines.

=No. 99. Automatic Screw Machine Practice=, Part I.--Operation of the
Brown & Sharpe Automatic Screw Machine.

=No. 100. Automatic Screw Machine Practice=, Part II.--Designing and
Cutting Cams for the Automatic Screw Machine.

=No. 101. Automatic Screw Machine Practice=, Part III.--Circular
Forming and Cut-off Tools.

=No. 102. Automatic Screw Machine Practice=, Part IV.--External Cutting

=No. 103. Automatic Screw Machine Practice=, Part V.--Internal Cutting

=No. 104. Automatic Screw Machine Practice=, Part VI.--Threading

=No. 105. Automatic Screw Machine Practice=, Part VII.--Knurling

=No. 106. Automatic Screw Machine Practice=, Part VIII.--Cross
Drilling, Burring and Slotting Operations.



MACHINERY’s Data Sheet Books include the well-known series of
Data Sheets originated by MACHINERY, and issued monthly as
supplements to the publication; of these Data Sheets over 500 have been
published, and 6,000,000 copies sold. Revised and greatly amplified,
they are now presented in book form, kindred subjects being grouped
together. The purchaser may secure either the books on those subjects
in which he is specially interested, or, if he pleases, the whole
set at one time. The price of each book is 25 cents (one shilling)
delivered anywhere in the world.


=No. 1. Screw Threads.=--United States, Whitworth, Sharp V--and
British Association Standard Threads; Briggs Pipe Thread; Oil Well
Casing Gages; Fire Hose Connections; Acme Thread; Worm Threads; Metric
Threads; Machine, Wood, and Lag Screw Threads; Carriage Bolt Threads,

=No. 2. Screws, Bolts and Nuts.=--Fillister-head, Square-head,
Headless, Collar-head and Hexagon-head Screws; Standard and Special
Nuts; T-nuts, T-bolts and Washers; Thumb Screws and Nuts; A. L. A. M.
Standard Screws and Nuts; Machine Screw Heads; Wood Screws; Tap Drills;
Lock Nuts; Eye-bolts, etc.

=No. 3. Taps and Dies.=--Hand, Machine, Tapper and Machine Screw Taps;
Taper Die Taps; Sellers Hobs; Screw Machine Taps; Straight and Taper
Boiler Taps; Stay-bolt, Washout, and Patch-bolt Taps; Pipe Taps and
Hobs; Solid Square, Round Adjustable and Spring Screw Threading Dies.

=No. 4. Reamers, Sockets, Drills and Milling Cutters.=--Hand Reamers;
Shell Reamers and Arbors; Pipe Reamers; Taper Pins and Reamers; Brown &
Sharpe, Morse and Jarno Taper Sockets and Reamers; Drills; Wire Gages;
Milling Cutters; Setting Angles for Milling Teeth in End Mills and
Angular Cutters, etc.

=No. 5. Spur Gearing.=--Diametral and Circular Pitch; Dimensions of
Spur Gears; Tables of Pitch Diameters; Odontograph Tables; Rolling Mill
Gearing; Strength of Spur Gears; Horsepower Transmitted by Cast-iron
and Rawhide Pinions; Design of Spur Gears; Weight of Cast-iron Gears;
Epicyclic Gearing.

=No. 6. Bevel, Spiral and Worm Gearing.=--Rules and Formulas for Bevel
Gears; Strength of Bevel Gears; Design of Bevel Gears; Rules and
Formulas for Spiral Gearing; Tables Facilitating Calculations; Diagram
for Cutters for Spiral Gears; Rules and Formulas for Worm Gearing, etc.

=No. 7. Shafting, Keys and Keyways.=--Horsepower of Shafting; Diagrams
and Tables for the Strength of Shafting; Forcing, Driving, Shrinking
and Running Fits; Woodruff Keys; United States Navy Standard Keys; Gib
Keys; Milling Keyways; Duplex Keys.

=No. 8. Bearings, Couplings, Clutches, Crane Chain and Hooks.=--Pillow
Blocks; Babbitted Bearings; Ball and Roller Bearings; Clamp Couplings;
Plate Couplings; Flange Couplings; Tooth Clutches; Crab Couplings; Cone
Clutches; Universal Joints; Crane Chain; Chain Friction; Crane Hooks;
Drum Scores.

=No. 9. Springs, Slides and Machine Details.=--Formulas and Tables
for Spring Calculations; Machine Slides; Machine Handles and Levers;
Collars; Hand Wheels; Pins and Cotters; Turn-buckles, etc.

=No. 10. Motor Drive, Speeds and Feeds, Change Gearing, and Boring
Bars.=--Power required for Machine Tools; Cutting Speeds and Feeds
for Carbon and High-speed Steel; Screw Machine Speeds and Feeds; Heat
Treatment of High-speed Steel Tools; Taper Turning; Change Gearing for
the Lathe; Boring Bars and Tools etc.

=No. 11. Milling Machine Indexing, Clamping Devices and Planer
Jacks.=--Tables for Milling Machine Indexing; Change Gears for Milling
Spirals; Angles for setting Indexing Head when Milling Clutches; Jig
Clamping Devices; Straps and Clamps; Planer Jacks.

=No. 12. Pipe and Pipe Fittings.=--Pipe Threads and Gages; Cast-iron
Fittings; Bronze Fittings; Pipe Flanges; Pipe Bends; Pipe Clamps and
Hangers; Dimensions of Pipe for Various Services, etc.

=No. 13. Boilers and Chimneys.=--Flue Spacing and Bracing for Boilers;
Strength of Boiler Joints; Riveting; Boiler Setting; Chimneys.

=No. 14. Locomotive and Railway Data.=--Locomotive Boilers; Bearing
Pressures for Locomotive Journals; Locomotive Classifications; Rail
Sections; Frogs, Switches and Cross-overs; Tires; Tractive Force;
Inertia of Trains; Brake Levers; Brake Rods, etc.

=No. 15. Steam and Gas Engines.=--Saturated Steam; Steam Pipe Sizes;
Steam Engine Design; Volume of Cylinders; Stuffing Boxes; Setting
Corliss Engine Valve Gears; Condenser and Air Pump Data; Horsepower of
Gasoline Engines; Automobile Engine Crankshafts, etc.

=No. 16. Mathematical Tables.=--Squares of Mixed Numbers; Functions of
Fractions; Circumference and Diameters of Circles; Tables for Spacing
off Circles; Solution of Triangles; Formulas for Solving Regular
Polygons; Geometrical Progression, etc.

=No. 17. Mechanics and Strength of Materials.=--Work; Energy;
Centrifugal Force; Center of Gravity; Motion; Friction; Pendulum;
Falling Bodies; Strength of Materials; Strength of Flat Plates; Ratio
of Outside and Inside Radii of Thick Cylinders, etc.

=No. 18. Beam Formulas and Structural Design.=--Beam Formulas;
Sectional Moduli of Structural Shapes; Beam Charts; Net Areas of
Structural Angles; Rivet Spacing; Splices for Channels and I-beams;
Stresses in Roof Trusses, etc.

=No. 19. Belt, Rope and Chain Drives.=--Dimensions of Pulleys; Weights
of Pulleys; Horsepower of Belting; Belt Velocity; Angular Belt Drives;
Horsepower transmitted by Ropes; Sheaves for Rope Drive; Bending
Stresses in Wire Ropes; Sprockets for Link Chains; Formulas and Tables
for Various Classes of Driving Chain.

=No. 20. Wiring Diagrams, Heating and Ventilation, and Miscellaneous
Tables.=--Typical Motor Wiring Diagrams; Resistance of Round Copper
Wire; Rubber Covered Cables; Current Densities for Various Contacts
and Materials; Centrifugal Fan and Blower Capacities; Hot Water
Main Capacities; Miscellaneous Tables: Decimal Equivalents, Metric
Conversion Tables, Weights and Specific Gravity of Metals, Weights of
Fillets, Drafting-room Conventions, etc.

MACHINERY, the monthly mechanical journal, originator of the Reference
and Data Sheet Series, is published in four editions--the _Shop
Edition_, $1.00 a year; the _Engineering Edition_, $2.00 a year; the
_Railway Edition_, $2.00 a year, and the _Foreign Edition_, $3.00 a

The Industrial Press, Publishers of MACHINERY,

49-55 Lafayette Street, New York City, U. S. A.


[1] MACHINERY, December, 1909.

[2] MACHINERY, March and April, 1910.

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber’s Notes:

Italic text is denoted by _underscores_ and bold text by =equal signs=.

A span of text between pages 30 and 31 is missing in the original of
this book.

The page of advertisements preceding the title page has been moved to
the end of this book.

Variations in spelling and hyphenation remain as in the original unless
noted below.

  Page 20, period added after “Fig” (“In Fig. 18 is shown an example”).
  Page 33, superfluous word “to” removed (“B is a good one to use”).
  Page 34, “Fig, 39” changed to “Fig. 39.”
  Ads section, “books” changed to “book” (“The price of each book”).
  Ads section, period added after “Locomotive Building, Part V.”
  Ads section, period added after “Automatic Screw Machine Practice,
    Part V.”
  Ads section, “Stuffiing” changed to “Stuffing” (“Volume of Cylinders;
    Stuffing Boxes”).
  Ads section, period added after “No.” (“Reference Series No. 64.”).

Original scans of this book can be found here:

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