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Title: Ethnobotany of the Ojibwe Indians
Author: Smith, Huron H.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Ethnobotany of the Ojibwe Indians" ***

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    TRANSCRIBER’S NOTE: Minor typographical errors have been
    addressed, but standardisation of the differing spelling of
    Ojibwe words has not been attempted.



                               BULLETIN
                                OF THE
                PUBLIC MUSEUM OF THE CITY OF MILWAUKEE

         Vol. 4, No. 3, Pp. 327-525, Plates 46-77 May 2, 1932

                       Ethnobotany of the Ojibwe
                                Indians

                                  By
                            Huron H. Smith

                       MILWAUKEE, WIS., U. S. A.
              Published by Order of the Board of Trustees

                            Printed by the
                           AETNA PRESS, INC.
                            Milwaukee, Wis.

                           Engravings by the
                      SCHROEDER ENGRAVING COMPANY
                            Milwaukee, Wis.



Ethnobotany of the Ojibwe Indians



CONTENTS


                                         Page

  Foreword                               333

  Introduction                           337

  Ojibwe Medicines                       348

     Ojibwe Medicinal Materials          352

        Other than plants                352

        Ojibwe Medicinal Plants          353

  Ojibwe Vegetal Foods                   393

     Ojibwe Food Plants                  394

  Ojibwe Vegetal Fibers                  411

     Ojibwe Fiber Plants                 412

  Ojibwe Vegetal Dyes                    424

     Ojibwe Dye Plants                   424

  Miscellaneous Uses of Plants           426

  Conclusion                             433



ILLUSTRATIONS


  Plates

  Plate   XLVI. fig. 1. Ojibwe garden.
                fig. 2. Ojibwe wigwam.

         XLVII. fig. 1. Ojibwe dream dance.
                fig. 2. Jerking deer meat.

        XLVIII. fig. 1. Bead work.
                fig. 2. Lac du Flambeau.

          XLIX. fig. 1. Birch bark baskets.
                fig. 2. Cradle board.

             L. fig. 1. Pounding ash splints.
                fig. 2. Making baskets.

            LI. fig. 1. Rushes for weaving.
                fig. 2. Ojibwe grave houses.

           LII. fig. 1. Peeling birch log.
                fig. 2. Birch bark roll.

          LIII. fig. 1. Splitting cedar log.
                fig. 2. Making canoe ribs.

           LIV. fig. 1. Shaping canoe nose.
                fig. 2. Canoe form.

            LV. fig. 1. Jack Pine roots.
                fig. 2. Coiled roots.

           LVI. fig. 1. Boiling pitch.
                fig. 2. Sewing canoe.

          LVII. fig. 1. Pitching seams.
                fig. 2. Launching canoe.

         LVIII. fig. 1. Ojibwe garden.
                fig. 2. Bark wigwam.

           LIX. fig. 1. Piawantaginum.
                fig. 2. White Cloud.

            LX. fig. 1. Bear Island.
                fig. 2. Tamarack branch.

           LXI. fig. 1. Ground Pine.
                fig. 2. Giant Puffball.

          LXII. fig. 1. Balsam Fir.
                fig. 2. White Spruce.

         LXIII. fig. 1. White Pine.
                fig. 2. Norway Pine.

          LXIV. fig. 1. Bur Oak.
                fig. 2. Red Oak.

           LXV. fig. 1. Red Maple.
                fig. 2. Mountain Holly.

          LXVI. fig. 1. Sphagnum Moss.
                fig. 2. Virginia Grape Fern.

         LXVII. fig. 1. Pitcher-plant.
                fig. 2. Cranberries.

        LXVIII. fig. 1. Poison Ivy.
                fig. 2. Box Elder.

          LXIX. fig. 1. Balsam Apple.
                fig. 2. Great Willow-herb.

           LXX. fig. 1. Wild Currant.
                fig. 2. River-bank Grape.

          LXXI. fig. 1. Canada Mayflower.
                fig. 2. Spikenard.

         LXXII. fig. 1. Twisted Stalk.
                fig. 2. Solomon’s Seal.

        LXXIII. fig. 1. Meadow Rue.
                fig. 2. Carrion-flower.

         LXXIV. fig. 1. Wild Columbine.
                fig. 2. Canada Anemone.

          LXXV. fig. 1. Goldthread.
                fig. 2. Wintergreen.

         LXXVI. fig. 1. Red Baneberry.
                fig. 2. Labrador Tea.

        LXXVII. fig. 1. Agrimony.
                fig. 2. Hawthorn.



FOREWORD


This bulletin is the third in a series of six, recounting the field
work done among Wisconsin Indians to discover their present uses of
native or introduced plants and, insofar as is possible, the history of
these plant uses by their ancestors. As far back as 1888 Hoffman[85]
reported that the medicinal lore of the Ojibwe would soon be gone. But
thirty-two years later, it is still partially recalled and practised
among the more primitive bands of these people. How long it will
persist is problematical. The Ojibwe are the most numerous of any of
our tribes and as long as they live in the northern forest and lake
district of Wisconsin, so long will the older Indians continue to
explain the natural history of their environment to the young men and
women of the tribe.

The writer deplores the brevity of the time that could be devoted to
each tribe, and applauds the similar study reported by Miss Frances
Densmore[86] in her fifteen years of research among the Ojibwe.
Necessarily the most valuable information comes from the oldest
Indians, and many informants have died since this study was made.

Three trips were made, usually of six weeks duration. The first was
made in June, 1923 to the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, in Vilas County,
Wisconsin. The same region was visited again later in the fall. During
the spring of 1924 one trip was made to Leech Lake, Minnesota, where
the remnant of the Pillager Band of the Ojibwe live on Bear Island,
(Plate 60, fig. 1), and the surrounding mainland. Since then, trips
have been made to Redcliff, Bayfield County, to Odanah, Iron County,
to Lac Court Oreilles, Clark County, and to scattered bands in various
sections of northern Wisconsin. The principal work was done at Lac du
Flambeau and Leech Lake. The Leech Lake trip checked results obtained
at Lac du Flambeau.

The writer thanks those officials and private citizens who assisted by
introductions to Indians and by making his stay among them comfortable.
Mr. James W. Balmer, Indian Agent, then at Lac du Flambeau, now at
Pipestone, Minnesota, and his chief clerk, Mr. Walter H. Shawnee,
a Shawnee Indian, still in service at Lac du Flambeau, and Mr. John
Allen, Ojibwe Indian and school disciplinarian all gave valued advice
and quartered us at their Teacher’s Club. Mr. Edward Rogers, of
Walker, Minnesota, a very successful Ojibwe attorney, and the Noble
brothers, Mr. John W. Noble and Mr. E. W. (“Van”) Noble, proprietor of
Forest View Lodge, directly across from Bear Island, rendered valuable
assistance with the Pillager band of Ojibwe.

The writer collected every plant he could find in each region because
he had been informed that the Ojibwe differ from other Wisconsin
Indians in that they believe that every plant that grows is some kind
of medicine or useful for something. The only plants discovered for
which they had no name or use were adventive plants, and one could
fairly well establish the date of their appearance in the state,
because the Indians pay much more attention to our native flora than do
the whites.

Most of our informants were men, because they found it easier to talk
to the writer than the women. It was easy to get the women to talk of
old time methods of preparing aboriginal foods. The Ojibwe had a large
number of hunting medicines used as charms. These were accompanied
by drawings on the ground designating what they hoped to accomplish
in killing game for their larder. About sixty-five per cent of their
medicinal plants were actually valuable medicinally, the remainder
being employed in a shamanistic or superstitious manner. The writer
concludes that their great knowledge of plants has been achieved
through long periods of time by a process of trial and error, basing
this belief upon their fear of mushrooms. Both men and women pointed
out plants in their native habitat and were willing to explain their
uses. They are the real ones to thank for the facts discovered and
without their cooperation such a study would be impossible. A list of
them follows.

In conformity with previous bulletins, the plants will be listed
(1) under their various uses and (2) under each of these captions,
alphabetically by their families. Where possible, the literal
translation of the Indian name is given.[87]



INFORMANTS


In the course of this work many informants have assisted the author,
among whom the following residents of Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin,
should be noted:

Jas. W. Balmer, Indian Agent; Walter H. Shawnee, Chief Clerk;
Charley Burns, Cagkecci, Indian Policeman; John Allen, Indian
Disciplinarian; Anawabi (Exalted One) Village Chief; Jack Doud, Kêkêk
(Sparrow-hawk) Captain in Civil War; Bert Skye, Anawabi’s Son; Mrs.
Bert Skye; Bear Skin, Mûkwean (Bearskin) Medicine Man; Jack Patterson,
Sîkurtz, of Sand Lake; Long John Bear of Pelican Lake; John White
Feather, Wabackiˈganeˈbi, of Flambeau Lake; Mrs. John White Feather;
Webujuonokwe, of Flambeau village; Amîkons (Young Beaver) of Flambeau
village.

We also received information from the following residents of Leech
Lake, Minnesota, Ga-sagaˈskwadjiˈmêkag:

Ben Smith, Pcikci (Deer) of Boy Lake, Minnesota; Edward Rogers
of Walker, Minnesota; John Peper, Jigwaˈbe of Bear Island;
Piˈawantagiˈnûm, Peper’s mother; White Cloud, Wabackaˈnakwad (White
Cloud) of Bear Island; Inwapiˈkwe, White Cloud’s wife; Wasawanaˈkwît,
White Cloud’s son of Federal Dam, Minnesota; John Smith, Ajoˈvbêneˈsa
of Bear Island; Mowîcgaˈwûs of Bear Island; Ed Coming, Getakiˈbînes, of
Brevick, Minnesota.

Miciˈmîn (Apple), Chief, and John Goslin, Wabackiˈganeˈbi, of Lac Court
Oreilles, Wisconsin, also contributed information.



PHONETIC KEY


The Ojibwe have written their language for a longer time than any other
Algonquin tribe and, while they employ a syllabary[88] in corresponding
with absent members of the tribe, it has little value to the
ethnologist. The writer has two books printed in English and Ojibwe.
One is “A collection of Chippeway and English Hymns”, translated by
Peter Jones, Indian Missionary, the second edition of which was printed
by the Methodist Book Concern in 1847. This was given to the writer
by Mr. Henry Ritchie, an Ojibwe, of Laona, Wisconsin. The other is
“A Dictionary of the Otchipwe Language”, explained in English, Part
1, English-Otchipwe, by R.R. Bishop Baraga, published by Beauchemin
and Valois, Montreal, in 1878. This was given to the writer by Capt.
John Valentine Satterlee, of the Menomini tribe, Keshena, Wisconsin.
With the aid of either of them one experiences little difficulty in
pronouncing Ojibwe words.

In this bulletin, the following phonetic system will be used.

VOWELS

  a as in art
  ä as in flat
  e as in prey
  ê as in met
  i as in police
  î as in bit
  o as in go
  û as in luck
  u as in rule
  w, y and h as in English
  ai as in aisle

CONSONANTS

                   Post-Pal  Medio-Pal  Pre-Pal  Dental  Bilabial
  Stop               k, g                 d t       t       b p
  Spirant                                 c j     s z
  Affricative                   dj         tc     f v
  Nasal                ñ                   n                 m
  s as in since
  g as in give
  z as in zeal
  c as sound of sh
  j as sound of zh
  tc as sound of tc in witch
  dj as sound of j in jug

While the writer is not a linguist, Indian pronunciation came easily
to him and he was able to pronounce all plant names in an intelligible
manner to Ojibwe people whom he had never seen before.



INTRODUCTION


The subjects of this bulletin, the Ojibwe Indians, have probably been
designated by more different spellings of their name than any other
tribe in the country. The anglicized version is Chippewa, an adaptation
of the Ojibway of Longfellow. Ojibway means “to roast till puckered
up,” referring to the puckered seams on their moccasins, from “Ojib”,
“to pucker up”, “ub-way”, “to roast”. In historic literature some
of the more common ways of spelling their name have been: Achipoes,
Chepeways, Chipaways, Odjibwag, Otchipwe, Uchipweys. Less familiar
names applied to them have been: Baouichtigouin, Bawichtigouek,
Dewakanha, Dshipowehaga, Estiaghicks, Hahatwawne, Khahkhahtons,
Neayaog, Ninniwas, Saulteur, Santeaux, Wahkahtowah and at least fifty
others.

The Ojibwe is one of the largest tribes in the United States and
Canada, and lived originally along both shores of the Great Lakes as
far west as the Turtle Mountains, North Dakota. They are of Algonkian
stock and in the north are closely related to the Cree and Maskegon
tribes. In the south, through Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota they
have always been closely associated with the Ottawa and Pottawatomi.
These three have been recently called the Three Fires Confederacy.
Their languages were even similar, and Pottawatomi have often told the
writer that their tongue was an abbreviated Ojibwe language,—“like it
was a nickname”.

This numerous people lived far away from the frontiers of the colonial
war period, hence are not often mentioned in the early history of the
United States. The original habitation of the Ojibwe in Wisconsin is
supposed to have been at La Pointe, a town no longer in existence, in
Ashland County, near Lake Superior. The first reference to them in
history is in the Jesuit Relation of 1640 when they resided at Sault
Ste. Marie. It is thought that Nicolet met them either in 1634 or
1639. Father Allouez found them at Superior, Wisconsin, in 1665-67.
According to Perrot,[89] in 1670-99 those Ojibwe on the Lake Superior
shore of Wisconsin cultivated corn and were living peaceably with their
neighbors, the Sioux. About this time they first obtained fire-arms,
and pushed their way westward fighting with the Sioux and the Meskwaki.
The French established a trading post at Shangawawmikong, afterwards
La Pointe, in 1692, which was the most important Ojibwe settlement in
Wisconsin.

In the early years of the eighteenth century, the Ojibwe succeeded in
driving the Meskwaki from northern Wisconsin, when the Meskwaki joined
forces with the Sauk Indians. The Ojibwe then turned their attention
to the Sioux, driving them across the Mississippi and as far as the
Turtle Mountains in North Dakota. The Ojibwe took part in frontier
settlement wars up to the close of the war of 1812. Those living within
the United States made a treaty with the Government in 1815 and have
since remained peaceful, with the exception of a minor uprising among
the Pillager Band of Ojibwe on Leech Lake, Minnesota. Most of them live
on reservations or allotted land in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota and
North Dakota. There was a small band of Swan Creek and Black River
Ojibwe who sold their lands in Michigan in 1836 and went to live with
the Munsee, in Franklin County, Kansas.

It was represented to the writer that the Pillager Band of Ojibwe
should be quite interesting and primitive since they were the only
unsubdued Indians left in the United States. They are supposed to
have revolted during the Civil War, when Government attention was
concentrated on determining whether or not, the Union should be
preserved. They pillaged a small town, killed the inhabitants, took all
of the food stores and fled to Bear Island in Leech Lake, Minnesota,
shown in plate 60, fig. 1. Again, while the United States was at war
with Spain in 1898, the Ojibwe complained bitterly about certain
irregularities in regard to the disposal of the dead and fallen timber
on Leech Lake Reservation. They accused white speculators of firing the
woods to create a class of timber known as dead and down timber, thus
depriving them of their winter livelihood in logging operations.[90]

Rather indiscriminate arrests of the Pillager Indians by United
States marshals caused resentment and the actual warfare was caused
by the attempt of a deputy marshal to arrest certain Indians accused
of selling whiskey on the reservation. On September 15, 1898, two
Indians were arrested by deputy marshals and rescued by their comrades.
Warrants were issued for the arrest of the more than twenty Indians
who had assisted in the rescue. Since the marshals feared the Indians,
they asked for the assistance of troops. It was thought that a show of
force by regular troops would be sufficient. Twenty men of the Third
Regiment U. S. Infantry were sent, but since the Indians showed no sign
of yielding eighty more left Fort Snelling for Walker, Minnesota. Major
M. C. Wilkinson and General J. M. Bacon were in charge.

Two small lake steamers and a barge took the troops to Bear Island, and
they anchored in shoal water just across from the island, proceeding
by barge to the mainland. The battle took place at the house of
Bujonegicig, who died only a few years ago. The troops were fired upon
from the woods and Major Wilkinson, Sergeant Butler and four privates
were killed. Ten were wounded. On October 6, 1898, 214 more troops came
to assist, but no further firing was encountered and the uprising was
over. The Commissioner of Indian Affairs, W. A. Jones, arrived from
Washington, October 10. The next morning he and Father Aloysius, a
priest with great influence over the Indians, held a long and friendly
conference with the Pillager chiefs investigating and settling the
timber complaints. Troops flooded that country and persuaded the
Bear Islanders to respond to the warrants. They were duly tried,
sentenced and fined, but the fines were remitted and after two months
imprisonment the sentences were commuted and pardons granted.

The writer found but few who remembered the battle, for while there
were over a hundred men able to bear arms in 1898, the Ojibwe could
not successfully fight the influenza attack of 1919 and the present
population consists of only fourteen persons: John Peper, wife,
daughter and mother; White Cloud, shown in plate 59, fig. 2, wife and
son; Moîckaˈwus and wife; John Smith, Frank Marshall, wife and two
children. John Peper’s mother was said to be 106 years old and looked
the part, as shown in plate 59, fig. 1. John, her youngest boy was past
70 years of age. Another very old resident, John Smith, had died the
year before the writer arrived. His age was said to be 138 years. His
recollections are said to have included George Washington as President
of the United States.

All of our Ojibwe residents in Wisconsin and those in Michigan and
Minnesota were forest Indians and, as such, great hunters, although
they cultivated maize in a small way. They made very superior birch
bark canoes and were at home on the many lakes of the northland,
subsisting largely on fish and game. While at the present time, they
dress themselves to satisfy the pre-conceived ideas of tourists, in
the early days, their headdress consisted of otter skin caps, often
embellished with eagle feathers, one for each enemy slain in battle and
consequently for each scalp secured. The great feathered bonnet was not
of their culture, but has been more recently borrowed from the Plains
Indians. They never used the tepee of the Plains Indians, such as is
shown in plate 46, fig. 2, and in plate 58, fig. 2, but built a wigwam.
The wigwam was easily constructed in a half-day’s time. Poles were
thrust into the ground in a circle of from twelve to twenty feet, their
tips bent and securely tied in the center with basswood bark cord to
form a hemisphere, about eight feet in height at the center. The whole
was then covered with bark of balsam, or woven cat-tail mats, such
as the one shown in plate 46, fig. 2, and roofed with birch bark. An
entrance and smoke hole were left and mats thrown upon the ground. It
was much warmer than a tepee and better adapted to the heavy snow fall
of the north, and to low temperatures. All of their storage houses and
their smaller sweat lodges were similarly made. Their medicine lodges
followed the same construction though they were much longer: being
eighty, a hundred and even a hundred and fifty feet in length.

We had occasion to see the medicine lodge in use several times during
our stay at Lac du Flambeau. This lodge was in the old Flambeau
village, just at the edge of the woods. It was a huge affair, about one
hundred and fifty feet long, with a stout framework of saplings joined
together and arched over at a height of eight feet. The framework
was rigidly held together with other horizontal saplings secured by
basswood bark cord at every junction of poles. It stood as a framework
for several years. During use, the sides of this framework are covered
with cat-tail mats and the top with sewed birch bark, as shown in
figure 21, of the Museum’s 1923 Yearbook. By using a bone needle and
nettle string the cat-tail mats are sewed together with an invisible
stitch, that makes a windproof cover.

Down the center of the lodge is a long ellipse where countless dance
steps have bared the earth of this otherwise grassy plot. The entrance
of the lodge faces the east, and there is an exit to the west. A
fire is usually burning just inside the eastern entrance, the smoke
ascending through a smoke hole left in the roof. The medicine men are
gathered to the left of the fire on the north while the patient is
usually seated to the right of the fire on the south. The medicine
drum in use during a treatment for healing is smaller than the dream
dance drum, usually seen by tourists, and of a different shape. It is
about eight inches in diameter and sixteen inches high. The buckskin
stretched over the end is moistened from time to time by reversing the
drum which contains water, and rubbing the skin to permit it to take up
the liquid. The tone and volume are greatly enhanced by this procedure.

The medicine lodge members sit in groups around the lodge starting at
the north side, and proceeding down to the west and back along the
south side toward the east again. Every song and march around the lodge
is repeated four times, this being their sacred number. The time needed
in effecting a cure is varied but the writer has seen a woman carried
in on a litter, recover in three hours time and take part in the
dancing.

The Indian Service in the past has wished to discourage treatment
by medicine men and on larger reservations has supplied a resident
physician. It is a constant competition between the two, for naturally
a white physician cannot cure every case any more than a medicine man
can, and when the medicine man apparently effects cures after the
physician has given up or appeared to produce no improvement, the
credulous patients are going to continue to believe in the medicine
men. Christianity has had but little effect upon the Ojibwe so far as
the writer has been able to observe, largely because of the reputation
of the medicine men among them.

According to the late Dr. William Jones, the ethnologist mentioned
in “Ethnobotany of the Meskwaki Indians”, Part 2 of this volume,
the Pillager Band of Bear Island occasionally practiced cannibalism
ceremonially, and even as late as 1902 ate human flesh on the Rainy
River during a famine. He cites the fact in 1905 that polygamy was once
common and even still occurred among wandering bands.

Many visitors to the northland think of the country in terms of sand,
and consider it unfit for use agriculturally. While sandy soil is
common, it is also easy to find very good productive soil and in
some cases even clay. The Indian settlements and homesteads were
never extensive and four or five acres of land seem to suffice them
for growing hay and garden crops. The agency Indian farmer maintains
demonstration garden plots, such as the one shown in plate 46, fig.
1, and also more extensive farms, and constantly advises with those
who are trying to farm. The Indian women even grow some cultivated
flowers. At Lac du Flambeau, the Ojibwe take great pride in their
annual Indian fair and display farm animals, horticultural products,
and native arts and crafts for premiums. It is a pity that more do
not follow agriculture because they have sufficient farming land and
have also good examples to follow. Most of them like the quick returns
made in selling Indian art work, or made acting as guides for fishing
and hunting parties. The easy money is too soon spent and they suffer
considerably before the winter is over.

The native flora is about the same at both Lac du Flambeau and Leech
Lake, and the species are by no means as varied as on the Menomonie
Reservation. They make full use of everything that occurs with them
except the adventive or introduced plants. They recognize regular types
of soil as sources of their medicinal plants. Sandy meadows, sandy
wastes, lakes, still ponds, swamps, upland swamps, rocky openings in
the forest, evergreen forests, and hardwood forests all are searched
for distinctive plants. The greatest number of species of native plants
are found in the composite family and we find the Ojibwe making more
use of these than any other tribe. The heath family contributes many
species and is important to them. Grasses and sedges, while numerous
in species are not so well known to them, although here again they use
more species than the neighboring tribes.

John Whitefeather, of the Couderay Ojibwe, who adopted the writer into
their tribe, related their origin myth. Briefly it is as follows:
There has always been a controversy among the whites as to whether
such an Indian as Hiawatha ever lived. Hiawatha is the name that Henry
Wadsworth Longfellow gave to their cultural hero, Winabojo. Hiawatha or
Winabojo was never seen by man, although sometimes both names have been
used for proper names among the Ojibwe. Their great spirit or ruler of
the universe was named Dzhe Manido.

According to Whitefeather, Winabojo was the one who caused the deluge
that covered the world and was responsible for building it again.
Winabojo was sitting at the mouth of a big river and noticed a stick
bobbing up and down near the middle of the stream. He thought it was
curious that it was not carried on down stream to the big lake and
further thought that it would be fun to sit on the stick. So he swam
out and sat on it. Dzhe Manido had told him two phrases, one of which
he might sing to himself, which is translated “Lake must close in”
and the other was “Lake should spread out”, and he must not say that.
Winabojo became curious to see what would happen if he repeated the
second of these phrases. He said it. Immediately the stick sank and he
fell under. He swam back to the top but could discover no land. Other
animals were swimming around, so he requested muskrat to dive down and
get him some mud from the bottom of the lake. Muskrat dived down but it
was too far and he drowned. The martin tried it and drowned. The otter
tried it and drowned. Then beaver tried it and obtained some mud, but
died as he reached the surface. Winabojo took the mud that remained
between the claws of beaver and rolled it into a little ball. Winabojo
made this ball grow as he rolled it around in his hands, while the
animals swam around him. Finally the ball grew large enough for the
fox to jump upon it and run around. Then it grew larger until all the
animals could get upon it.

So Winabojo and the animals were the first inhabitants and Winabojo
put the plants upon the world. Winabojo lived in a little valley with
his grandmother, Nokomis. Against her wishes, he went on a voyage of
exploration, leaving his valley to climb a hill. In the next valley
he saw a lot of people all dancing and he wanted to dance with them.
So he went down and danced all day, though none of them spoke to him
or said a word to each other. When the wind died down at sunset, he
discovered them to be only cattails, so he started back home. On his
way he was approached by Cumpa. No one knows who sent Cumpa there,
but we think that it was Dzhe Manido. Nokomis had told him that there
were inhabitants somewhere on the earth. Winabojo sat down with Cumpa
and they talked over the matter of how to regulate the world. In their
conference they developed the medicine lodge idea and the Ojibwe count
Winabojo as its founder. The painted post that they erect in their
medicine lodge represents Winabojo. It is carved to resemble a human
form, but not too closely, as they wish it to be understood that
Winabojo is a god and not a human being.

Winabojo started during the month of July to hunt for the inhabitants
of the earth and finally found them in the latter part of December or
early January. Then he stayed with them for several months, teaching
them the secrets of the medicine lodge. He told them how they must
gather roots and what songs they must sing. A specimen song and its
meaning is here given.

        Nin ba ba odjiˈbîke
        _I go to gather roots;_

        oˈoˈweˈdasaˈssema
        _here is tobacco;_

        mînode ni nowi nîmîcîn
        _Give me direct guidance,_

        gi wedjiˈbîkeiˈen
        _You,-maker of roots_

        da mino wi djiˈbîkeiˈan.
        _That I may get the proper roots._

Their story of creation is the common one among the northern
Algonkians. They believe that all objects, both animate and inanimate
possess some mysterious power, and speak of that power as the manido
that dwells in it. On the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, the writer saw
two or three large stones, shown in plate 48, fig. 2, that were thought
to be spirit rocks. They also believed that the spirit of the departed
brave often returns to the grave, as long as the body has not turned
to dust. They often buried the body in a sitting position facing west,
or in a shallow grave on its back or side, making a mound, over which
bark, birch poles or boards were erected, to form a little grave house,
as shown in plate 51, fig. 2. This, they believe to be often inhabited
by the spirit of the departed one which they occasionally feed with
wild rice or dried jerky (deer meat) through a small opening. According
to McKenney,[91] the Ojibwe of Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, buried their
dead in a box which was elevated upon a platform of poles. Mourning for
the departed usually lasted a year, unless some medicine man shortened
the time, or a relative performed some notable feat in war.

Their religion was the teachings of their Grand Medicine society or
midewiwin. The Ojibwe are probably the strictest disciples of this
society of any of our Wisconsin Indians and the part played by plants
is the greatest of any factor. Things other than plants were used, such
as rattlesnake meat, duck bones, clay and feathers, but these were so
far in the minority that they are scarcely worth mentioning. According
to the Ojibwe, every plant is medicine; if not to your particular
informant, then to some other medicine man or woman. It was a matter
of finding the proper informant to get the correct name and use.
Consequently, in the field we gathered every tree, shrub, perennial
or annual, herb or grass we encountered. All of these being medicinal
plants were thus sacred to them and must be secured with the proper
mide ceremony. This consisted of an explanatory song, and the offering
of tobacco to grandmother, the earth, and Winabojo, their cultural hero.

The constant effort of the Government to educate the Indian is
resulting in the gradual discarding of the medicine lodge ceremonies.
The Ojibwe, who have stayed on the frontier of civilization, are among
the last to change, and have clung tenaciously to their medicine
society. As with other Wisconsin Indians, the Ojibwe love their
children dearly and are rarely harsh to them. The children are taught
to dance at an early age and while subsequent education may make them
forget the names and uses of medicinal plants, they never forget the
dance tunes and steps. It is a common conception among white men that
it is useless to educate an Indian. Too many have agreed with Mark
Twain that “the only good Indian is a dead one.” Stories are related
concerning Indian college graduates that revert to the tepee and to
the dog feast. Some of these may be true, but according to Indian
psychology, there is nothing disgraceful about this. It is the fallacy
of the white man in trying to impose his culture on other peoples and
in always assuming that it is superior to any other way of living.
We are prone to point to the exceptional fall from grace, and forget
about the many who have made a success of their life according to
our standards. There are many full-blooded Indian men and women in
Milwaukee, who are useful citizens. Many Milwaukee men and women are
proud of the Indian strain in their blood. Education has been of great
assistance to the Ojibwe, who have many times proven that they have
the same capabilities as their white brothers. The Indian has the same
anatomical characteristics as the Caucasian race and is capable of
going far along the road of education.

Since the field work among the Ojibwe was completed in 1923 and 1924,
some scattering members of the tribe have adopted the peyote lodge. The
Ojibwe are fond of visiting and, in the summer time, some are always
away on visits to other tribes in Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, the
Dakotas, Kansas or Oklahoma. The old idea of fighting other tribes was
forgotten long ago and they feel that all red men are their brothers.
Those Ojibwe who have visited the Winnebago Indians in Wisconsin have
been especially influenced to adopt the peyote cult. This rarely
happens where the Ojibwe live in close contact with their tribesmen on
reservations. But several live as isolated families on the shores of
our northern lakes, and when they adopt the peyote religion they throw
overboard all of their medicine lodge paraphernalia and beliefs.

The members of the peyote cult, chew and swallow the peyote buttons
which are the button-shaped branches of a cactus (_Lophophora
williamsii_) found in Texas, New Mexico and Old Mexico. The practice
is said to have originated among the Indians of old Mexico. Under
its narcotic influence the peyote Indian claims to see in a vision
and to commune with Jesus Christ, who gives him the rule of conduct
for his life. The Indians justify their use of peyote by comparing
it to the sacramental wine of the white man. However, peyote carries
a governmental disapproval and the Indian police are supposed to be
vigilantly alert for peyote. A jail sentence, as well as confiscation
of the supply of peyote, is meted out to any member they can detect
using it.

Another type of ceremonial dance used by the Ojibwe, and in fact by
all of the forest Indians of Wisconsin, is the dream dance, such as is
shown in plate 47, fig. 1. While this is sacred, it is not performed
in secret, and the white people are often invited to come and witness
these dances. They do come from many miles away to see the Indian
dances and games. At the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, they perform
several kinds of dances, such as the corn dance, the warrior dance, the
prisoner dance, the deer hunt dance, and many others.

One dance in particular was brought back from Oklahoma by Anawabi.
It is called the “Squaw Dance.” In it men and women dance together,
as shown in figure 20 of the Museum’s Yearbook for 1923. Anawabi,
the medicine man, was credited with powers of witchcraft as well as
healing. A young Ojibwe boy sick with pneumonia, told his parents in
a delirium that Anawabi had come and was taking his breath away. His
parents believed him, and he eventually died, but before he did, some
friend hastened to Anawabi and Anawabi stood not on the order of his
going, but left at once for Oklahoma where he stayed two years. He
probably witnessed the modern two step among the Oklahoma Indians,
which they called the “Squaw Dance.” It is distinctly opposed to the
Indian way of dancing. It has always been the custom for women to
remain in the background at any of the old time dances, dancing by
themselves, outside and back of the circle or group of the men. For
them to take an equal part in a dance seems out of place. This caused a
rift in the tribe, and the older residents at the old Flambeau village
will have nothing to do with such dances.

The participants in the dream dance usually dress in all of their
native finery and nowadays wear many ornaments that are not of Ojibwe
origin. While under the spell of the singing and drumming, the dancers
assume a smiling face and are usually oblivious to the presence of any
spectators.

The Ojibwe use two types of drums. One is the large dream-dance drum,
about two feet in diameter and fourteen inches deep. The other is
a tambourine-shaped drum of rawhide only a couple of inches thick
and possibly ten inches in diameter, suspended by a loop of sinew,
decorated with human figures, and beaten with the hands or a smaller
bone drum stick. This drum is used in games and the songs differ
considerably for the various games. La Crosse, the woman’s shinny game,
the bowl and dice game, the moccasin game and others are all announced
by preliminary songs from the chief, who accompanies himself on the
game drum.

In writing this bulletin, the system adopted in previous bulletins will
be followed. Plants not found to be of use are included in this list,
as other investigators may find that they were used. The listing of
each plant will be by family and English names, followed by the Latin
binomial according to Gray’s Manual of Botany, then the Ojibwe name and
its literal translation, if that be known. Following this will be the
uses, methods of use, supposed properties, its value as an official
or eclectic drug by the whites, and any known myth connected with it.
The same procedure will be followed in the other subheadings under
investigation, viz.: foods, fibers, dyes, and plants of miscellaneous
uses such as utility, good luck charms, love potions and so on.



OJIBWE MEDICINES


The Ojibwe are probably the best informed and the strictest observers
of the medicine lodge ceremonies in the country. Their knowledge of
plants both in their own environment and far away is probably the best
of any group of Indians. While their flora is not so rich in species as
that of Indians farther south, they make trips far away from their home
to obtain necessary plants.

As among the white people, one plant may bear several common names,
according to different individuals in different sections of the
country, and again, one name may be given to several plants, as in the
case of plants used as “revivers”. Yet, there is an agreement in names
of Lac du Flambeau and Leech Lake Ojibwe, that well checks information
received. The name is usually descriptive, just as their names for
animals usually are either descriptive or representative of the cry
or note uttered by the animal, like “ko-ko-ko-o”, the hoot owl, or
“ka-ka-ka”, the raven or crow. The medicine name usually tells what
the plant looks like, where it may be found, some peculiar taste or
property, or its chief use. Often a termination is added signifying the
plural of a noun or the part of the plant used, such as the wood, the
leaf, the flower, the root, or the berry or fruit.

It is worth noting that they understand the proper time to gather the
plant part. At times, the medicinal qualities are inert, undeveloped
or dispersed by being too old. Much of the knowledge of white men
originated from studying the Indian plant uses, in the early days.
Eclectic practitioners sought the Indian herbs and observed carefully
what parts of the plant were used. This mass of early information
was sifted scientifically by the students of medicine, and finally
tested physiologically on animals. Perhaps sixty-five per cent of
their remedies were found to be potent and are included in our
pharmacopoeas; the other thirty-five per cent were discovered to be
valueless medicinally. All of the references to uses of the plants by
white men were obtained from the 1916 edition of the National Standard
Dispensatory, by Hare, Caspari & Rusby.

The medicine man depended largely upon his reputation and often cured
fancied diseases by shamanistic suggestions. His peculiar incantations
to the patient to inspire confidence and induce the patient to think
he was getting well, often worked, as it works in the case of quack
doctors and credulous white men. The young man who had the proper
dream following the period of fasting in his youth, predicting his
predilection towards the medicine man’s profession, was taken through
a rigorous course of training. Individual knowledge was handed down
through the family. Instruction to boys and girls usually comes from
the uncle or aunt, and if they have no natural uncle or aunt, then one
is assigned to them. This is considered the closest relationship among
Wisconsin Indians, and when one is adopted into the tribe and given a
medicine bag, it will be through the sponsorship of an uncle for his
nephew. Among the Ojibwe, both at Lac du Flambeau and at Lac Court
Oreilles, the writer is known as Shagashkandawe “Flying Squirrel,”
which they say was the name of a famous old chief and medicine man.

The Ojibwe still use the songs essential to digging medicine roots.
Jack Doud, the old scout captain of the Civil War, of the old Flambeau
village, told the writer that Winabojo, their deity, had received the
seeds of all plants from Dzhe Manido, the creator of the universe, and
that Winabojo had given them to Nokomis, grandmother, the Earth, to
keep in her bosom, for the use of the Indians. Jack Doud also said that
Winabojo took some of the native foods from his own body. He said that
Winabojo pulled out a little pinch of flesh and threw it on the ground
telling it to grow there as _mandamin_ or corn for the Indians. Another
pinch yielded squash, another beans and so on until Winabojo had very
little flesh left on his body. In other words, the Indians did not know
the sources of their cultivated crops, and had invented this tradition
to attempt to explain their presence.

As with other Algonkians, the Ojibwe place tobacco in the cavity
from which they dig the root, as an offering to Grandmother Earth,
to Winabojo, and to Dzhe Manido, praying in song to these deities
to make their chosen medicine potent. The medicine man or woman is
usually distinguished by two long braids of hair over either shoulder.
They are usually shrewd diagnosticians, and depend upon their senses
for discovering the ailment. They feel the pulse rate, look at the
pupils of the eyes, at the condition of the tongue, at the complexion
variation, feel the body temperature and inquire where the pain is
felt. From these symptoms they diagnose the disease. Usually they
want time to dream over the case, and drink a draught of their own
dream-inducing medicine before going to sleep. In a vision or dream,
they are directed to the proper medicine to use, and concoct it the
following day. External afflictions are treated with lotions or
poultices, while internal troubles are almost invariably treated with
a medicinal tea. The ingredients are steeped in lukewarm water, and
copious draughts are prescribed several times a day. The writer has
taken such draughts of various medicines and finds them not unpleasant
to the taste. Bitter and nauseous ingredients are usually disguised by
“seasoners” which they add to make them taste good. The time alloted
for a cure is usually four days, their sacred number, and unless there
is marked improvement in the patient at the end of that period, the
medicine man will change the treatment.

Some of the medicine men have “tattooing outfits”, which are not really
tattooing outfits as we understand the term, but rather blood-letting
instruments. Sharp fish teeth are mounted at the end of a four or
five-inch stick, and with a quick stroke on the upper side of the elbow
or near the collar bone the blood is caused to gush out. The patient
holds the arm out tensely while lying down and when the artery is
tapped the blood spurts out rapidly. A tourniquet is applied to the
upper arm when the medicine man thinks enough blood has flowed and the
medicine man then sucks out the residue. The wound is then bandaged
and the tourniquet removed. It is the thought of the medicine man that
it is necessary to let out a certain amount of bad blood, so that the
remaining blood in the patient’s body can be more easily purified by
his heart and his breathing.

The Ojibwe also believe that the medicine man can make bad medicine as
well as good, and can prescribe certain medicines from his medicine
bundle that will enable him to get the better of his enemies. They had
many hunting charms which were supposed to help them get game. The
hunter in using these would often trace the outline of the desired game
upon the ground drawing a line to its heart. He would then pierce the
heart with the line and put the proper medicine on the heart puncture
indicated. A similar procedure might be followed against human enemies.
Such practices were always kept a deep secret, becoming valueless
should anyone see the perpetrator making the figure. They were likewise
deprecated and resented by the tribe and punishment was apt to follow
anyone caught in such a practice, which all agreed was a perversion
of the grand medicine society teachings. Most of the remedies of
the medicine men were kept tied in little bits of cloth, compounded
and ready to steep for use. Combinations of nine to twelve herbs are
common. These have been ground with a mortar and pestle until it would
be difficult to identify the ingredients of the prepared medicines.
Even if one knew all of the ingredients, the amounts of each herb would
be difficult to ascertain. Often, as in the case of Sweet Flag (_Acorus
calamus_), the amount must be very limited since the medicinal effect
is so severe.

The medicine men are taught that their medicines have a great value
and will not be efficacious if disposed of cheaply. Since money is not
so plentiful they are quite willing to accept pay in valuable goods.
This may be a pony, so many blankets, so much wild rice or whatever
the patient has of value. The patient usually calls the medicine man
for ailments that have not responded to his own individual treatment.
When the patient pays what the medicine man thinks is proper, then
he may be told what was used to effect the cure, and how and when to
gather the ingredients and how to administer the remedy. The recipient
is admonished to see that he does not impart the knowledge unless he
is well paid for it, as he paid the medicine man. This explains the
difficulty one encounters when he tries to get medicinal information.
Only by completely securing the confidence of the Indians, can a white
man get this information without pay, and then it must be thoroughly
understood that the investigator is not copying their medicines to
take commercial advantage of this knowledge. The Indian is quick to
appreciate favors and to acknowledge the respect that is given to him
by the white man, and becomes quite confident when he realizes that his
confidence is not abused.


OJIBWE MEDICINAL MATERIALS

While the Ojibwe use a few remedies outside the plant kingdom, they
are not of such great importance as among some other tribes. These are
here considered first, the plants following under the proper families
alphabetically.


OTHER THAN PLANTS


REPTILES

=Rattlesnake=, “jicigwe”. The flesh of the rattlesnake commonly known
as the massasauga rattler, is sometimes used in combination with
other medicines, for its lubricant effect, similar to Russian mineral
oil. The Plains Indians and those farther south in the United States
consider rattlesnake meat quite efficient in making childbirth easier.


FISH

=Sturgeon=, “namê”. Fine teeth of the sturgeon were said to be
used to make the “tattooing” tool employed by the medicine man in
blood-letting. Large fish bladders, “pîkwadj”, were sometimes used as
syringes; a hollow duck bone bound with sinew in the end of it, being
used for anal applications.


MINERALS

=White Clay=, “wabaˈbîgan”. White clay was sometimes mixed with
medicinal powders to make them into pellets or pills, and the clay was
supposed to be a medicine, too, but for what purpose we were unable to
discover. Red Clay “osaˈman” was also used in fabricating poultices and
was supposed to help draw out the inflammation.


MAMMALS

=Bear=, “mûkwo”. Bear’s fat was used in several compounds. Melted
alone and swallowed it became a drastic physic. Buds of the Balsam
Poplar (_Populus balsamifera_) and the Large-toothed Poplar (_Populus
grandidentata_) stewed in bear fat, yielded an aromatic salve that was
used in curing ear-ache, soothing boils, and healing wounds and ulcers.


OJIBWE MEDICINAL PLANTS


ACERACEAE (MAPLE FAMILY)

=Box Elder= (_Acer negundo_ L.), “adjagobiˈmûk”, shown in plate 68,
fig. 2. The Pillager Band of Ojibwe reported that the inner bark of the
box-elder is steeped to make an emetic. There is no record of its use
by the whites.

=Red Maple= (_Acer rubrum_ L.) “cicigîmeˈwîc”, shown in plate 65, fig.
1. The Flambeau Ojibwe boil the bark of the red maple to obtain a tea
with which to wash and cure sore eyes. There is no record of its use by
the whites.

=Mountain Maple= (_Acer spicatum_ Lam.) “cacagobiˈmûk” [emetic bark].
The Pillager Ojibwe extract the pith of the twig and pinch off small
particles which are put into the eye like flax seed to remove foreign
matter. It becomes sticky and holds foreign matter which can then
be removed with the pith. The pith is also soaked in water to make
a lotion for treating sore eyes. Among the whites, Mountain Maple
bark is often gathered and sold for Cramp Bark (_Viburnum opulus_ L.
var. _americanum_ [Mill.] Ait.) In fact, it has often been wholly
substituted for it, and seems about as effective as a uterine sedative
and preventative of abortion.


ALISMACEAE (WATER-PLANTAIN FAMILY)

=Arum-leaved Arrowhead= (_Sagittaria arifolia_ Nutt.) “wabasiˈ pîn”
[white potato].[92] Upon short lateral rootlets, amongst the mass of
fibrous roots of the arrowhead, firm corms develop, pinkish-white and
bulb-shaped, but solid and composed of a sweetish, starchy texture.
These are the choice Indian potatoes. These corms break away from
the root mass very easily so that the utmost care is necessary in
digging to get them _in situ_. Muskrats are very fond of them, as are
beavers, and sometimes store up large covered caches, which the Indian
recognizes and appropriates. They will also dig for them, if they
cannot be more easily obtained. While they are chiefly prized for food,
they are also taken to be a remedy for indigestion among the Pillager
Ojibwe.


ANACARDIACEAE (SUMAC FAMILY)

=Smooth Sumac= (_Rhus glabra_ L.) “bakwaˈ nak” [binding tree].
According to Jack Doud and other Flambeau Ojibwe all parts of the
Smooth Sumac are suitable for medicine, the root bark, trunk bark,
twig bark, leaves, flowers and fruit. The root bark tea is used as
a hemostatic. Trunk and twig innerbark are used in combination with
other medicine for their astringent qualities. Blossoms are sometimes
steeped for sore eyes, leaves are used in poultices, and the fruit is
considered a throat cleanser as well as being the basis of a beverage.
Eclectic practitioners, or the old time herbalists, used the berries of
_Rhus glabra_ because of the malic acid in the skin, claiming it to be
a good gargle in acute throat inflammation.

=Staghorn Sumac= (_Rhus typhina_ L.) “bakwanaˈ tîg” [binding tree].[93]
The Staghorn Sumac was absent from the Flambeau Ojibwe territory, but
plentiful around Leech Lake, Minnesota, while the Smooth Sumac was not
found near Leech Lake. The Pillager Ojibwe only used the root as a
medicine to stop a hemorrhage. They suggested that they had heard of it
being used in medicinal combinations but did not know how to make or
use them.

=Poison Ivy= (_Rhus toxicodendron_ L.) “anîmîkiˈbûg” [cloud], shown in
plate 68, fig. 1. Mukwean (Bearskin), Flambeau medicine man, called
this a poison to the skin and said that the Ojibwe have no distinctive
name for it. John Peper, one of the Bear Island Pillager Indians, gave
us the Indian name and said that no one now alive there knew how to use
it. Since Kepeosatok, Meskwaki medicine man, at Tama, Iowa, used it in
a certain manner for poulticing some kinds of swellings, the writer
thinks this may be the use to which John Peper referred.


APOCYNACEAE (DOGBANE FAMILY)

=Spreading Dogbane= (_Apocynum androsaemifolium_ L.) “wesaˈ wûckwûn”
[nearly blue flowers] or “magosîñeˈ cnakwûk” [needle-like].[94]
Bearskin, Flambeau medicine man, said that the stalk and root of this
plant are steeped to make a tea for women to drink. It keeps the
kidneys free during pregnancy. Other Flambeau Ojibwe agreed with the
use but cited the second name as more correct for it. Under the Ojibwe
name of “mîdewîdjiˈbîk” [medicine lodge root], the Pillager Ojibwe
declared it to be one of the sacred roots that is eaten during the
medicine lodge ceremony. They use it also for throat trouble. When one
has a coated tongue and is afflicted with headache, the root is also
used. In the case of headache, the root is placed upon live coals and
the incense is inhaled.


AQUIFOLIACEAE (HOLLY FAMILY)

=Winterberry= (_Ilex verticillata_ [L.] Gray), “aweˈnîsibûg”
[wintergreen leaf], and “anîmûˈcîmînûn” [dog berry]. The bark of this
native holly is medicine among the Flambeau Ojibwe, but the use could
not be discovered, other than that it might be used for diarrhea.
Winterberry has been employed by eclectic practitioners as a tonic
and astringent. It has been substituted for quinine in the treatment
of periodical fevers, and also used in the treatment of diarrhea. The
eclectic practitioner has also used it in treating malignant ulcers and
chronic skin eruptions.

=Mountain Holly= (_Nemopanthus mucronata_ [L.] Trel.), “mîckimînûˈ
nîmîc” [red berry tree], shown in plate 65, fig. 2. This bush is very
common around the reservation of the Flambeau Ojibwe and the berries
are used as medicine, but the writer was unable to discover for what
disease or how used. There is no record of its use among the whites.


ARACEAE (ARUM FAMILY)

=Sweet Flag= (_Acorus calamus_ L.) “naˈ bûgûck” [something flat]. The
root of Sweet Flag is a quick acting physic, supposed to act in half
a day. Bearskin cautioned the writer that no more than one and a half
inches was to be used, as more would make one ill, and even this much
is quite harsh. The Pillager Ojibwe recognize the Sweet Flag under the
name “weˈke”, which is the same word used by another tribe for the
Yellow Water-lily, and by another for the Blue Flag. John Peper said
that the root was used for curing a cold in the throat or for curing a
cramp in the stomach. In earlier days, among the whites, slices were
candied to create a more popular form of medication. It was formerly
used among the white men as a tonic for dyspepsia and for correcting
flatulent colic. It was also supposed to be beneficial as a mild
stimulant in typhoid cases.

=Indian Turnip= (_Arisaema triphyllum_ [L.] Schott.), “cacaˈ
gomîn.”[95] The root of Indian Turnip was said by John Peper, Bear
Island Ojibwe, to be used in treating sore eyes, but he did not know
how to use it. One wonders if the calcium oxalate crystals so firefull
to the mouth lining were equally so to the delicate membranes of the
eye.

Small doses of the partially dried root have been used by the white man
in the treatment of chronic bronchitis, asthma, flatulent colic and
rheumatism, certainly widely different maladies. The juice of the fresh
corm in lard has been used by the white man as a local application to
cure ringworm.


ARALIACEAE (GINSENG FAMILY)

=Wild Sarsaparilla= (_Aralia nudicaulis_ L.) “bebamabiˈ k” [root runs
far through the ground]. The Flambeau Ojibwe recognize the root of this
plant as a strong medicine, but do not steep it to make tea. The fresh
root is pounded and applied as a poultice to bring a boil to a head or
to cure a carbuncle. Among the Pillager Ojibwe, the writer found two
names applied to this, one of which he thinks to be a case of mistaken
identification by the informant. “O kadak” [wild carrot] is more likely
to refer to _Aralia racemosa_ though no specimens were found there.
They used it under this name as a special squaw remedy for blood
purification during pregnancy. The root was pounded in a mortar, then
boiled in hot water. Under their name “waboˈ s ûskwe” [rabbit] the root
was prepared the same way and the tea was used to cure a cough.

Among the white men, this root has the same properties and uses as the
Indian Spikenard (_Aralia racemosa_); namely, stimulant, diaphoretic,
and alterative.

=Ginseng= (_Panax quinquefolium_ L.) “_jîssêˈns._” Evidently the word
they used was an attempt to pronounce the white man’s term for it. The
writer was unable to discover any medical use made of it by the Ojibwe,
though they gathered it assiduously for sale to the traders. Their
method of gathering was a thoughtful one. Although they undoubtedly
recognized it in any stage of growth, they only gathered the root
when the red berries were mature, but before they were ready to drop.
Into the hole from whence the root came, they would thrust the whole
fruiting top, and carefully firm the soil upon it. Knowing the location
well, they would revisit the place in three to five years and find more
roots than they harvested in the first instance.

According to our pharmacopoeia, the medicinal value of ginseng is
almost nothing, but there is a great market for it in China, where it
is worshipped as a sort of fetish, and is acclaimed as a panacea for
sexual impotency, nervousness, vomiting and dyspepsia. The more nearly
the root approximates the human torso, the more valuable it is to the
Chinese. Thus one root in a six hundred-pound bale may be worth many
times the entire remainder of the bale, and when ten dollars a pound is
the price, one can realize the extreme value of such a piece.


ARISTOLOCHIACEAE (BIRTHWORT FAMILY)

=Wild Ginger= (_Asarum canadense_ L. var. _acuminatum_ Ashe.) “nameˈ
pîn” [sturgeon potato].[96] The Pillager Ojibwe called this a potato
for sick people. They are supposed to chew the root, and then they can
eat anything they desire.

The white man calls this Canada Snakeroot in his dispensatories,
considering it a feeble remedy with tonic, aromatic and diuretic
properties. Cases of convalescent acute febrile infections are
sometimes given the extract of wild ginger root.


ASCLEPIADACEAE (MILKWEED FAMILY)

=Common Milkweed= (_Asclepias syriaca_ L.) “caboˈ sîkûn” [milk]
or “înîniˈwûnj” [Indian plant], according to Flambeau Ojibwe.[97]
Although the Pillager Ojibwe used this chiefly for food, the root
was also used as a female remedy, but for what phase of illness, we
were not able to discover. Eclectic practitioners have used the roots
as counter-irritants or internally as stomachics, carminatives, or
anti-spasmodics of the stimulating class.


BALSAMINACEAE (TOUCH-ME-NOT FAMILY)

=Spotted Touch-me-not= (_Impatiens biflora_ Walt.) “wesaˈ wûs
gaˈskonêk” [yellow light]. Bearskin, Flambeau medicine man said that
the fresh juice of this plant rubbed on the head would cure a headache.
The leaves are steeped for a medicinal tea, but the ailment was
undiscovered.

The herbage of this plant, under the name Wild Celadine, has been
largely employed by homoeopathic physicians and eclectics. The chemical
constituents are not known though the leaves apparently contain tannin.
The medicinal value is questionable, though fresh applications of the
juice appear to relieve skin irritations of various kinds, especially
that of Poison Ivy.


BERBERIDACEAE (BARBERRY FAMILY)

=Blue Cohosh= (_Caulophyllum thalictroides_ [L.] Michx). “ociˈ
gîmîc”.[98] The Pillager Ojibwe use the root for female troubles
especially for cramps in the stomach during painful menstruation. The
fine roots are also boiled to make a tea for emetic purposes. White
people seldom use it. Eclectics have used it in the treatment of
hysteria and uterine diseases. They have claimed that it will prevent
abortion, by causing uterine contraction when uterine inertia is
present.


BETULACEAE (BIRCH FAMILY)

=Speckled Alder= (_Alnus incana_ [L.] Moench.) “wadoˈ bîn” [root to
sew a canoe]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the root for its hemostatic
qualities. When one passes blood in his stools, the root tea will act
as an astringent and coagulant.

The white man has also used alder bark for its mild astringent
properties. The eclectic practitioner in the United States and Canada
employed it in a powdered condition for dusting upon chafed body
surfaces.

=Paper Birch= (_Betula alba_ [L.] var. _papyrifera_ [Marsh.] Spach.)
“wîgwas”. From “wîgwas” comes the word “wigwam” or house, because birch
bark was used in covering the house, furnishing a waterproof roof.
The root of the Paper Birch was used in medicines as a seasoner. Its
sweetish, aromatic, wintergreen flavor disguised less pleasant doses.
The root bark and maple sugar cooked together made a soothing syrup to
alleviate cramps in the stomach. The white man has employed only the
leaves medicinally as a diuretic.

=Low Birch= (_Betula pumila_ L. var. _glandulifera_ Regel.) “bîneˈ
mîcins” [partridge tips]. Among the Pillager Ojibwe, the Low Birch
is a valued source of medicine. Although it is plentiful around the
Flambeau Reservation, none of them seemed to consider it medicine,
although their name agreed, “bîneˈ mîc”, without the diminutive. The
Pillager Ojibwe use the tiny cones upon a plate of coals as an incense
to cure catarrh. No doubt the resinous covering of the twigs and cones
in this variety causes the aromatic incense. Also a tea made from the
cones is drunk by women in their menses. Such tea is also accounted
strengthening when the patient is enfeebled by childbirth. The leaves
probably possess diuretic properties as do other species of _Betula_.
No record of its use by white men has been discovered.

=Hazelnut= (_Corylus americana_ Walt.) “mûkwobagaˈ nak” [bear nut].[99]
Bearskin said that the bark of the hazelnut bush is medicine. It is
boiled and used as a poultice on cuts to close and heal them. No record
of its medical use by white men has been discovered.

=Beaked Hazelnut= (_Corylus rostrata_ Ait.), “bagaˈn” or “bagaˈnak”
[nut] Flambeau names, and “bagaˈnamijic” [nut tree], Pillager name.
Bearskin assigned the same properties and uses to the bark of the
Beaked Hazelnut as to the Hazelnut. The Pillager Ojibwe used only the
hairs of the hazelnut husk as a medicine to expel worms. Eclectic
practitioners have used it in the same manner as an anthelmintic,
depending probably on the irritant effect of the tiny stickers.


BORAGINACEAE (BORAGE FAMILY)

=Hound’s Tongue= (_Cynoglossum boreale_ Fernald), “masaˈn”. Three terms
are used to denote the action of such plants as this, which are burned
upon live coals that the patient may inhale the fumes. They are: “abaˈ
bûson”,—to revive or “head standing by smoke”; “sasaˈ bîkwat”,—to
snuff it; and “nokweˈ sîkûn”,—“smell as it comes”. They are used
interchangeably in designating the use of the plant. Hound’s Tongue is
specifically fumed to cure a headache.

Among the whites, Hound’s Tongue has been recommended as a sedative and
demulcent in the treatment of bronchial and pulmonary affections. It
is said to be of value also in dysentery. The fresh leaves are used
locally as a remedy for superficial burns and abraded surfaces.


CAMPANULACEAE (BELLFLOWER FAMILY)

=Marsh Bellflower= (_Campanula aparinoides_ Pursh.) Although plentiful
around the Lac du Flambeau region, our informants said that this is not
used.

=Harebell= (_Campanula rotundifolia_ L.) “adotaˈgons” [little bell].
The Pillager Ojibwe use the root of the Harebell combined with three
other unnamed roots for lung troubles. There is no record of its use by
whites.


CAPRIFOLIACEAE (HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY)

=Bush Honeysuckle= (_Diervilla lonicera_ Mill.), “osawaˈ skanet”
[yellow fluid]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the root together with other
plants such as the Ground Pine, for their most valued urinary remedy.
It is also known among white men as a diuretic and a remedy to relieve
itching.

=Red Elderberry= (_Sambucus racemosa_ L.), “papaskatcîksiˈganaˈtîg”
[popgun wood]. According to the Pillager Ojibwe, this bark is an emetic
or a purgative, depending upon how it is prepared for use. It is a last
resort purgative to be used when other remedies for the same complaint
are of no avail. It may be said that the Ojibwe have more plants for
physic than for any other purpose, thus the Red Elder will be seen to
be their most important one.

Four internodes of the stalk are taken, because four is their magic
number. These sections are measured carefully from the point of the
ulna to the point of the humerus. The inner bark is secured by peeling
downward. This is steeped and boiled, and the resulting liquid is
drunk for constipation. It is supposed to thus save the life of one
threatened with serious constipation. It is reserved for extreme cases,
because of the many other physics they employ, and they consider it
drastic and dangerous otherwise. If these same four sticks had been
peeled upwards and the resulting tea drunk, then it would have acted as
a powerful emetic. The writer can testify to its strength, but notes
that it works both ways at once, no matter how prepared, so that the
method of preparation is doubtless superstitious.

Among the whites only the elder flowers are recognized in the New
Formulary, but the inner bark has been known to produce death in
children, a short time after being eaten, with symptoms similar to
Poison Hemlock (_Cicuta_). In moderate doses, it is also known to
produce vomiting and purging. The active alkaloid evidently works only
in the fresh state, as it loses its potency in a dried state.

=Snowberry= (_Symphoricarpos racemosus_ Michx.) “anîgomijiˈ
mînagaˈwûnj” [little crow bush]. Among the Pillager Ojibwe, the root
of the Snowberry is used to make a tea to clear up the afterbirth, and
enable quicker convalescence. Among the Meskwaki Indians the same use
is ascribed to the Wolfberry (_Symphoricarpos occidentalis_). There is
no record of its use by white men.

=Nannyberry= (_Viburnum lentago_ L.), “atîteˈ tamînûn” or “atîteˈ
tamînagaˈwûnj.”[100] The Pillager Ojibwe collect the inner bark of the
trunk, down low next to the ground, to yield a tea which is used as a
diuretic.

Among the white men, Nannyberry is often sold as _Viburnum prunifolium_
which is official in our pharmacopoeia. The virtues assigned to this
class of medicine are as feeble as they are numerous. It has been used
as a nervine, astringent, tonic, diuretic and has been said to have
value as an uterine sedative and preventive of abortion.

=Highbush Cranberry= (_Viburnum opulus_ L. var. _americanum_ [Mill.]
Ait.) “aˈnibîmîˈnûgaˈwûck” [anib means elm, berries, bush].[101] The
Pillager Ojibwe used the inner bark as a physic, and also drank the tea
to cure cramps in the stomach.

Among the white men, _Viburnum opulus_ is considered to be the same
as _Viburnum prunifolium_, only less potent. It is recommended as
an antispasmodic in asthma, hysteria, puerperal convulsions, and
dysmenorrhea.


CARYOPHYLLACEAE (PINK FAMILY)

=White Campion= (_Lychnis alba_ Mill.) “basiˈ bûgûk” [small leaf]. The
Flambeau Ojibwe use the root of this for a tea to physic a patient.
There is no record of its use by white men.


CELASTRACEAE (STAFF TREE FAMILY)

=Climbing Bittersweet= (_Celastrus scandens_ L.) “manîdobimaˈ kwît”
[spirit-twisted]. The Pillager Ojibwe use the red berries of this plant
for stomach trouble.

The white man uses the berries for decorative purposes, and has used
the bark for emetic, diaphoretic and antisyphilitic purposes.


COMPOSITAE (COMPOSITE FAMILY)

The composite family is represented by many species in northern
Wisconsin and also in northern Minnesota. There are probably three
times as many plants in this family as in any other, hence it furnishes
numerous medicines.

=Woolly Yarrow= (_Achillea lanulosa_ Nutt.), “waˈ bîgwûn”
[white-flower]. The Flambeau Ojibwe, under the name given, use the
leaves of this plant as a poultice to cure the bite of a spider. The
dried flowering heads are smoked in mixture with other things, much as
kinnikinnik, not for pleasure, but more for ceremonial purposes.

It has not been distinguished by the eclectic practitioner from the
Common Yarrow, which was used for its bitter and aromatic principles.
It was used as an emmenagogue and for various ailments of the
reproductive organs. It was sometimes used to cure diseased conditions
of the entire gastro-intestinal tract.

=Yarrow= (_Achillea millefolium_ L.), “adjidamoˈ anûk” [squirrel
tail].[102] The Pillager Ojibwe used the florets in ceremonial smoking
and placed them on a bed of coals inhaling the smoke to break a fever.

Yarrow has always been a home remedy of the white man, and the Germans
still use the dried flowers in a tea, called “schafesgarbetee”, to
break a fever. Other uses are the same as above.

=Pearly Everlasting= (_Anaphalis margaritacea_ [L.] B. & H.), “basiˈ
bagûk” [small leaf]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the flowers of this plant,
calling attention to the fact that it smells like acorns, reducing them
to a powder which is sprinkled on live coals as a “nokweˈ sîgûn” or
perfume. This is inhaled by a party who has had a stroke of paralysis
and is said to revive him.

The Pearly Everlasting has never been properly analyzed by white men,
but the flowers have been locally used by them as soothing expectorants
and are known to have more or less marked stomachic properties.

=Lesser Cat’s-Foot= (_Antennaria neodioica_ Greene) “gagîgeˈ bûg”
[everlasting leaf]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the whole herb as a valued
remedy to make a tea to be given to the mother after child birth. It is
to purge the afterbirth and heal them internally.

Eclectic practitioners have used this plant as a hemostatic.

=Common Burdock= (_Arctium minus_ Bernh.), “giˈ masan” [big stickers].
The Flambeau Ojibwe use the root of burdock as one of the ingredients
of a medicine for pain in the stomach. It is also supposed to have a
tonic effect.

Burdock root has quite a reputation among home practitioners among
the white men as a diaphoretic, diuretic, alterative, aperient and
depurative. It has been used for rheumatism, gout, pulmonary catarrh,
chronic skin diseases such as scrofula and syphilis, and to dissolve
urinary deposits. Externally it has been used as a salve or wash for
eruptions, burns, wounds, hemorrhoids and swelling.

=White Sage= (_Artemisia ludoviciana_ Nutt.) “îmbjîˈgoa” according to
White Cloud, Bear Island Ojibwe, but “wîngûskw” or “bebejiˈgogaˈnji”
[horse medicine] by John Peper, another Bear Islander. Peper said the
Pillager Ojibwe used it as a horse medicine, but the Sioux smoked it.

Miners and frontiersmen prized it in their treatment of “mountain
fevers.”

=Large-leaved Aster= (_Aster macrophyllus_ L.), “naskosiˈ îcûs”. The
Flambeau Ojibwe consider this a feeble remedy but also good as a charm
in hunting. Young roots were used to make a tea to bathe the head for
headache. The informant giving this latter use called it “megîsiˈ bûg”
[eagle leaf]. There is no record of its use by the whites.

=Ox-eye Daisy= (_Chrysanthemum leucanthemum_ L.). The Flambeau Ojibwe
had no name for this, as they said it was from the south, and they do
not use it.

=Canada Thistle= (_Cirsium arvense_ [L.] Scop.) “masaˈ nûck”
[prickly]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the plant for a bowel tonic. Canada
Thistle is one of the worst American weeds, and white men have used the
dried plant for a diuretic and tonic.

=Common Thistle= (_Cirsium lanceolatum_ [L.] Hill), “jiˈ masaˈnûck”.
The Flambeau Ojibwe use the root of this for alleviating stomach cramps
in both men and women. The dried plant has been used by the whites as a
diuretic and tonic.

=Philadelphia Fleabane= (_Erigeron philadelphicus_ L.) “mîcaoˈgacan”
[odor of deer hoof]. The Pillager Ojibwe use the flowers to make a tea
to break fevers. The smoke of the dried flowers is inhaled to cure a
cold in the head. The disk flowers, pulverized, were snuffed up the
nostrils to cause the patient to sneeze and thus loosen a cold in the
head. The whites have used the Canada Fleabane as a remedy in the
pharmacopoeia, and also have used the Philadelphia Fleabane locally,
but for different purposes. It is diuretic rather than astringent.

=Daisy Fleabane= (_Erigeron ramosus_ [Walt.] BSP). The Flambeau
Ojibwe do not assign this plant a special name but class it as a
“nokweˈ sîgûn” or perfume for curing sick headache. Several species of
_Erigeron_ have been substituted by white men for the Canada Fleabane,
which is used as a diaphoretic and expectorant.

=Joe-Pye Weed= (_Eupatorium purpureum_ L.), “bûˈ gîsowe” [bathing]. The
Flambeau Ojibwe make a strong solution of the root, with which to wash
a papoose up till the time he is six years old. This is supposed to
strengthen him.

Joe-Pye is officinal but not official among white men. Official
designates that it is authorized by the U. S. Pharmacopoeia while
officinal means that it is regularly kept for sale in drug stores.
Officinal remedies are much used by eclectic practitioners. The root
has the odor of old hay and is diuretic, stimulant, astringent and
tonic. It has been used in chronic urinary disorders, gout, rheumatism,
and hematuria.

=Tall Blue Lettuce= (_Lactuca spicata_ [Lam.] Hitchc.), “dadocaˈbo”
[milk]. The Flambeau Ojibwe employ the plant to make a tea given to
women with caked breasts to render lactation easier. A dog whisker hair
is used to pierce the teat. Among white men _Lactuca_ was formerly
employed as a soporific and sedative.

=White Lettuce= (_Prenanthus alba_ L.), “wecaˈ wûs waˈ ckwînêsk”
[yellow light]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the milk of the White Lettuce
as a diuretic, especially in female diseases. The root is also used as
a female remedy.

White men have used the root decoction internally for dysentery. Old
time herb doctors gave the milk of the plant internally, and used the
leaves, steeped in hot water, as a poultice for the bite of a snake.

=Black-eyed Susan= (_Rudbeckia hirta_ L.). The Flambeau Ojibwe claim
that this plant is adventive from the south and have no name or use for
it. It has been used by the white men as a diuretic.

=Golden Ragwort= (_Senecio aureus_ L.).

=Entire-leaved Groundsel= (_Senecio integerrimus_ Nutt.) Both of these
plants are considered adventive by the Pillager Ojibwe and neither was
named nor used.

Under the name squaw weed, white men have exploited the Golden Ragwort
as a female regulator, claiming diuretic, pectoral, diaphoretic and
tonic properties. It is also said to be useful in treating gravel and
other urinary affections.

=Indian Cup Plant= (_Silphium perfoliatum_ L.), “asasaˈ weskûk” [square
stem]. According to John White Feather, of the Flambeau Ojibwe, this
root was carried from Iowa and transplanted on the Lac du Flambeau
Ojibwe Reservation. They all accept it as great medicine. A tea is
made from the root for lumbago and some other kinds of rheumatic pains
in the back. John Peper, Pillager Ojibwe, gave it the same Indian
name and said that an old Indian had brought it to Bear Island from
Iowa a hundred years ago, and had planted it in his field, whence it
escaped to the south end of the island. He said they use it for stomach
trouble, and hemorrhage. White men have used the Indian Cup Plant root
for its tonic, diaphoretic and alterative properties. It has also been
used in intermittent fevers, ulcers, liver affections and debility. The
resinous gum collected from the stem has been used by the whites as a
stimulant and antispasmodic.

=Fragrant Golden-rod= (_Solidago graminifolia_ [L.] Salisb.), “wasaˈ
waskwûneˈk” [yellow light]. Besides being of use in hunting medicine,
the flowers in infusion were used by the Flambeau Ojibwe for a pain in
the chest.

Golden-rod leaves and flowers have at times held a rather important
place in materia medica, for their carminative, and antispasmodic
properties. They have also been used as an intestinal astringent.

=Tansy= (_Tanacetum vulgare_ L.) “muckikiˈwît” [medicine]. The Flambeau
Ojibwe have no distinctive name for this plant, claiming it came from
the south and they were told it was good for fevers.

Among white men, it is deemed tonic, emmenagogue and diaphoretic. It
has been used in a cold infusion in convalescence from exhausting
diseases, dyspepsia, hysteria and jaundice.

=Dandelion= (_Taraxacum officinale_ Weber) “wesaˈusakwûnek” [yellow
light].[103] While the Flambeau Ojibwe do not use this plant, the
Pillager Ojibwe give it a name and use the root for a tea for
heartburn. It was found growing at the north end of Bear Island in
Leech Lake, Minnesota.

Among the whites, the virtues of the root are much overrated. The dried
root is steeped in boiling water and is used as a stomachic and tonic,
with slight diuretic and aperient action.

=Cocklebur= (_Xanthium commune_ Britton), “sakatiˈkomûk” [stickers].
Although giving it a name, the Flambeau Ojibwe did not use it. It has
been used by white men in intermittent fevers, also as a diuretic,
diaphoretic and sialagogue.


CORNACEAE (DOGWOOD FAMILY)

=Alternate-leaved Dogwood= (_Cornus alternifolia_ L. f.) “mosoˈmîc”
[moose tree].[104] The Pillager Ojibwe use the inner bark for an
emetic. Although other species of _Cornus_ are officinal with white
men, there is no record of the use of this species.

=Bunchberry= (_Cornus canadensis_ L.) “odeˈ imînîdjiˈ bîk” [strawberry
root, or heart-berry root]. The Bunchberry or Dwarf Cornel somewhat
resembles the Wild Strawberry. The Flambeau Ojibwe make a tea from the
root, which is used to cure babies of colic. There is no record of its
medicinal use by the whites, though it has been eaten by them.

=Panicled Dogwood= (_Cornus paniculata_ L’Her.), “meskwabiˈ mîc” [red
bush]. It is peculiar that the Flambeau Ojibwe would call this a red
bush, for the branches are distinctly gray. Only the fruit stalks
or pedicels are bright red. The bark is used as a tea for flux. An
aggregate of this bark compressed into a stopper shape is forced into
the anus as a treatment for piles. There is no record of its use by the
whites.


CRUCIFERAE (MUSTARD FAMILY)

=Tower Mustard= (_Arabis glabra_ [L.] Bernh.), “misodjidamoˈ anûk”
[black squirrel tail]. Although the Pillager Ojibwe have a name for
this plant, they say it is from the south, and they do not use it.
There is no record of its use by white men.

=Marsh Cress= (_Radicula palustris_ [L.] var. _hispida_ [Desv.]
Robinson), “wabîgwûn” [yellow flower]. The Flambeau Ojibwe name for
Marsh Cress is not very distinctive although it does have yellowish
flowers. They have no use for the plant as it came in from the south,
according to them. Neither have white men.

=Tansy-mustard= (_Sisymbrium canescens_ Nutt.) The Pillager Ojibwe do
not know this plant, which they consider to be adventive from the south
and do not use it. Aside from the fact that the seeds have a volatile
oil similar to mustard seed, the whites do not use it.


CUCURBITACEAE (GOURD FAMILY)

=Squash= (_Cucurbita maxima_ Duchesne.) “ogwîssiˈmaun oˈwasokwûneˈk”
[threads like hair; yellow light]. The Flambeau Ojibwe used the seed
tea as a diuretic. There is no distinctive medicinal use of squash
among the whites.

=Wild Balsam-apple= (_Echinocystis lobata_ [Michx.] T. & G.) “nîgîtîniˈ
gûnûk” or “mîtcigiˈ mênûk” [man in the ground], shown in plate 69,
fig. 1. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the root tea as a bitter medicine for
stomach troubles and as a tonic. The root is certainly bitter enough.
On the west coast, the root has been employed by white men as a simple
bitter.


CYPERACEAE (SEDGE FAMILY)

=Hare’s Tail= (_Eriophorum callitrix_ Cham.) “bîweeˈ ckînûk” [fuzz of
fruit]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the matted fuzz as a hemostatic. Under
the name “mesadiˈ wackons” [little catkins from popple], the Pillager
Ojibwe refer to it, but none of them knew any use for it. There has
been a limited use of its tannic properties as an astringent by white
men.


EQUISETACEAE (HORSETAIL FAMILY)

=Field Horsetail= (_Equisetum arvense_ L.) “gîjiˈ bînûsk,” [duck
round].[105] The Pillager Ojibwe use the whole plant to make a tea
to cure the dropsy. The plant has been used indefinitely chiefly in
domestic practice by the whites.

=Wood Horsetail= (_Equisetum sylvaticum_ L.), “sibaˈ mûckûn”. The
Pillager Ojibwe use the whole plant to make a tea to cure kidney
trouble and dropsy. It has not been much used by the whites, except as
a domestic remedy for gravel.


ERICACEAE (HEATH FAMILY)

=Bog Rosemary= (_Andromeda glaucophylla_ Link.), “bîneˈ mîkci”
[swamp partridge berry]. The plant was found on the Flambeau Ojibwe
Reservation, but was not used medicinally. Among the whites, it is
credited with poisonous properties.

=Prince’s Pine= (_Chimaphila umbellata_ [L.] Nutt.), “gaˈ gîgeˈbûg”
[everlasting leaf].[106] The Flambeau Ojibwe pronounce the name of
Prince’s Pine nearly the same as the Menomini Indians, and use it
for the same purposes, namely a tea for treating stomach troubles.
_Chimaphila_ is official with white men as a tonic and diuretic. It
stimulates the mucous membrane of the genito-urinary tract, and has
been used in renal dropsy, scrofulous conditions, chronic ulcers and
skin lesions. It is employed both internally and as an embrocation.

=Wintergreen= (_Gaultheria procumbens_ L.), “wînîsiˈ bûgûd”, [dirty
leaves], shown in plate 75, fig. 2. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the leaves
to brew a tea to cure rheumatism and “to make one feel good.” The
white man discovered the properties of this plant from the Indians,
and originally wintergreen was the chief source of methyl salicylate.
Aspirin is synthetically the same thing. Birch twigs were later used
as a source and finally it was made from coal tar dye. Like other
volatile oils, methyl salicylate was used as an antiseptic, analgesic,
carminative and flavoring agent. It was added to liniments for rubbing
muscular rheumatism, and similar complaints. Overdoses of the pure oil
on the skin produce drowsiness, congestion and delirium.

=Cranberry= (_Vaccinium oxycoccus_ L.) “mûckiˈ mînagaˈ wûnj” [swamp
berry bush]. A tea for a person who is slightly ill with nausea. White
men have used the bitter, astringent leaves in diarrhea and diabetes
and for purifying the blood.

=Blueberry= (_Vaccinium pennsylvanicum_ Lam.), “minûgaˈ wûnj” [berry
bush]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the leaves of this common blueberry for
a medicinal tea as a blood purifier. White men have employed it in the
same manner.


EUPHORBIACEAE (SPURGE FAMILY)

=Flowering Spurge= (_Euphorbia corollata_ L.), “cabosîˈ kûn” [milky
bitter root]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the root for a physic. A half
inch of the root is pounded and steeped in a cup of water, which is
drunk before eating. The resinous, milky juice of the root has been
employed by eclectic practitioners as an emetic, but its use has been
practically abandoned because of its irritant and uncertain qualities.


FAGACEAE (BEECH FAMILY)

=Bur Oak= (_Quercus macrocarpa_ Michx.), “mîtîgoˈ mîc” [wooden tree],
shown in plate 64, fig. 1. The bark is an astringent medicine to the
Pillager Ojibwe. They also use it to bandage a broken foot or leg.
All oaks are noted among the whites for their astringent properties.
Eclectic practitioners used it for gargles in cases of inflammation of
the tonsils and pharynx. It was also used in treating leucorrhea and
piles.

=Red Oak= (_Quercus rubra_ L.), “mîtîgoˈ mîc”, [wooden tree], shown
in plate 64, fig. 2. The bark,—“mîtîgoˈ mîc wenaˈ gêk”. The bark is a
medicine for heart troubles and bronchial affections among the Flambeau
Ojibwe. Its use by white men was approximately the same as Bur Oak.


FUMARIACEAE (FUMITORY FAMILY)

=Golden Corydalis= (_Corydalis aurea_ Willd.), “tîpotîeˈ kwason,”
[looks like pants]. The Pillager Ojibwe place the root on coals and
inhale the smoke for clearing the head and reviving the patient. There
is no record of its use by white men.


FUNGI

The Ojibwe have evidently had disastrous experiences with mushrooms in
the past and do not use them as a food. The children often gather the
common brackets (_Fomes applanatus_) and draw pictures on them, using
them as toys.

=Giant Puffball= (_Calvatia craniiformis_ Schw.) shown in plate 61,
fig. 2, “oskweˈtûk”. This is kept on hand in the mature stage. The
inner part has an organized mass of threads and does not break down
entirely into spores as do the smaller puffballs. The substance is
snuffed up the nose to stop nose bleed.

The Ojibwe also made use of an unidentified fungus matte material,
found in the windshake spaces of down timber. This is the matted
vegetating mycelium of some timber fungus, such as _Fomes_, _Trametes_,
_Polyporus_ or _Pholiota_. This made a good tinder for use in the fire
base block, and when the fire stick was rapidly twirled against this
material, it caught fire and was blown into a blaze that became the
basis of their fire. In all medicine lodge ceremonials, the fire was
kindled in this manner and thus deemed a sacred fire. Things cooked
over this fire were ceremonial, and the calumet or pipe used in the
ceremonies was always lighted from a coal of the sacred fire.


GERANIACEAE (GERANIUM FAMILY)

=Wild Geranium= (_Geranium maculatum_ L.), “oˈ sawaskwîniˈ s” [yellow
light].[107] The Pillager Ojibwe use the astringent root for the
treatment of flux, and also for healing a sore mouth. Eclectic
practitioners have also used it as a mild internal astringent, useful
for infants and people who have a delicate stomach, because it is not
irritating. It is valuable in serious diarrheas. It has also been used
by white men for rectal and vaginal injections to tone up weak muscles.


GRAMINEAE (GRASS FAMILY)

=Rattlesnake Grass= (_Glyceria canadensis_ [Michx.] Trin.), “anagoneˈ
wûck” [fern]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the roots of this as a female
remedy, but it is difficult to understand why they call it a fern.
There is no record of its use by white men.


HYDROPHYLLACEAE (WATERLEAF FAMILY)

=Virginia Waterleaf= (_Hydrophyllum virginianum_ L.),[108] “neˈ
bîneankweˈ ûk” according to the Pillager Ojibwe White Cloud on Bear
Island, Leech Lake, Minnesota, but “anîmûcîdeˈ bîgons” [dog feet
medicine], according to John Peper, of the same island. It furnishes a
root that may be used to keep flux in check. He states that it is good
for man, woman or child. It was used for the same purpose among the
Meskwaki Indians, but there is no record of its use by whites.


IRIDACEAE (IRIS FAMILY)

=Blue Flag= (_Iris versicolor_ L.), “naˈ bûkûck”.[109] The Flambeau
Ojibwe use a half inch of the root boiled in water as a quick physic.
Under the name “caboˈsîkûn” [milk root], the Pillager Ojibwe use a
little piece of the root in boiling water, drinking a tablespoonful and
a half as an emetic and physic.

Blue Flag root has been accounted one of the most valuable remedies by
the eclectic practitioner. It is alterative, cathartic, sialagogue,
vermifuge and diuretic. It has been used in scrofula and syphilis,
chronic hepatic, renal and splenitic affections.


LABIATAE (MINT FAMILY)

=Wild Mint= (_Mentha arvensis_ L. var. _canadensis_ [L.] Briquet),
“nameˈ wûckons” [little sturgeon plant].[110] Among the Flambeau Ojibwe
a tea is brewed from the entire plant, to be taken as a blood remedy.
It is also used by them in the sweat bath, “akûskati”. John Peper,
Pillager Ojibwe, made an especial trip to find this on the lake shore
but calls it “andegoˈ bîgons” [little crow leaf] and says that they use
it as a tea to break fevers. This species of mint was rarely used by
white men for carminative, stimulant and anodyne affects.

=Wild Bergamot= (_Monarda fistulosa_ L.), “wecaˈ wûs wackwîˈ nek”
[yellow light].[111] The Flambeau Ojibwe gather and dry the whole
plant, boiling it in a vessel to obtain the volatile oil to inhale to
cure catarrh and bronchial affections. In some sections, the whites use
it as a domestic antiperiodic and diaphoretic.

=Catnip= (_Nepeta cataria_ L.) “tciˈ nameˈ wûck” [big sturgeon
plant].[112] The Flambeau Ojibwe brew a tea of catnip leaves for
a blood purifier. The mint water obtained by steeping the herb
in lukewarm water is used to bathe a patient, to raise the body
temperature. The plant is employed by the whites as an emmenagogue and
antispasmodic. It has been used as a carminative to allay flatulent
colic in infants, and is supposed to be useful in allaying hysteria.

=Heal-all= (_Prunella vulgaris_ L.), “basiˈ bûgûk” [partridge leaf].
The root is used by the Flambeau Ojibwe in combination with others
for a female remedy. It has been used by eclectic practitioners as a
pungent and bitter tonic and antispasmodic. It has vermifuge properties
and is slightly diuretic. It has also been used for obstructions of the
liver, cramps and fits.

=Marsh Skullcap= (_Scutellaria galericulata_ L.), “tcatcabonûˈ ksîk”
[refers to the way the stem comes up through the leaves]. The Flambeau
Ojibwe use this for medicine, having something to do with heart
trouble, but we could get no definite information upon it. There is
no record of its use by white men, although a similar species, _S.
lateriflora_ has been used as a nervine, tonic and antispasmodic in
chorea, convulsions, fits, delirium tremens and all nervous affections.


LEGUMINOSAE (PULSE FAMILY)

=Creamy Vetchling= (_Lathyrus ochroleucus_ Hook.) “bûgwaˈ dj ûk pîniˈ k
mîneˈ bûg” [unusual potato, berry, leaf]. John Peper, Pillager Ojibwe,
said that the foliage was fed to a pony to make him lively for a race.
The Flambeau Ojibwe call it “basiˈ bûgûk” [partridge leaf], in common
with several other plants, and say that the Creamy Vetch is used for
stomach trouble. By the white men, it is considered one of the loco
weeds, bad for horses.

=Marsh Vetchling= (_Lathyrus palustris_ L.), “bebejîgogaˈnji mackiˈ
ki” [horse medicine]. The Pillager Ojibwe feed this to a pony that is
sick and claim it will make him fat. There is no record of its use as
medicine by white men.

=White Sweet Clover= (_Melilotus alba_ Desr.). The Flambeau Ojibwe
claim that this plant is adventive and so they do not use it. There is
no record of its use as medicine by white men.


LICHENS

=Reindeer Moss= (_Cladonia rangiferina_ [L.] Hoffm.) “asaˈ gûniñkˈ”
[moss].

The Ojibwe boil this moss and use the water to wash a new born baby.
They declare it is the same as if you were putting salt into the water.
So far as is known, it has never been utilized as a medicine by the
white man.


LILIACEAE (LILY FAMILY)

=Northern Clintonia= (_Clintonia borealis_ [Ait.] Raf.), “gînoseˈ
wibûg” [muskellunge leaf].[113] The Flambeau Ojibwe use the root tea
as a remedy to help parturition. John Peper, Pillager Ojibwe called
it “adotaˈgons” [little bell] and said that the dogs use it to poison
their teeth so that they can kill their prey. Should they bite a
person, then it would be necessary to procure the same root and put it
on the bite to draw out the poison. This curious superstition was also
encountered in another tribe,—the Menomini. There is no record of its
medicinal use by white men.

=Canada Mayflower= (_Maianthemum canadense_ Desf.), “agoñgosiˈ mînûn”
[chipmunk berries], shown in plate 71, fig. 1. The Flambeau Ojibwe
recognize that this is somewhat different from Spikenard (_Smilacina
racemosa_), but give it the same name and uses, namely to keep the
kidneys open during pregnancy, to cure sore throat and headaches. It is
also used to make smoke for inhaling. The Pillager Ojibwe do not know
or use it.

=Small Solomon’s Seal= (_Polygonatum biflorum_ [Walt.] Ell.)
“nanîbîteˈodeˈkîn”, [grows in a row], shown in plate 72, fig. 2. The
Pillager Ojibwe use the root as a physic and it is also cooked to yield
a tea to treat a cough. White men have used it as a substitute for
_Convallaria_ for the same purposes, namely the treatment of dropsy.

=False Spikenard= (_Smilacina racemosa_ [L.] Desf.), “agoñgoˈ sîmînûn”
[chipmunk berries], shown in plate 71, fig. 2. The Flambeau Ojibwe
use this root in combination with Spreading Dogbane (_Apocynum
androsaemifolium_) to keep the kidneys open during pregnancy, to cure
sore throat and headache. It is also used as a reviver, “abaˈbûsûn”.
Convallarin is the important constituent of Spikenard and it is classed
the same as Solomon’s Seal and Canada Mayflower.

=Star-flowered Solomon’s Seal= (_Smilacina stellata_ [L.] Desf.) The
Pillager Ojibwe have no name nor use for this root.

=Carrion-flower= (_Smilax herbacea_ L.), “gîneˈ bîgomînagaˈwûnj” [snake
berry bush], shown in plate 73, fig. 2. The root of this plant was used
in lung troubles according to the Pillager Ojibwe. It has been used by
eclectic practitioners as an alterative.

=Twisted Stalk= (_Streptopus roseus_ Michx.), “nanibîteˈ odeˈ kîn”,
[grows in a row], shown in plate 72, fig. 1. This plant is called by
the same name as _Polygonatum biflorum_ among the Pillager Ojibwe,
but this particular one is always referred to as the squaw, while
_Polygonatum_ has always been called the man. It is used for a physic
or to make tea for a cough. There is no record of its medicinal use by
white men.

=Large Flowered Bellwort= (_Uvularia grandiflora_ Sm.), “wesawabiˈ
kwonêk” [yellow light][114], the name applied to the plant, but the
root is called “wabûckadjiˈ bîk” [white root]. The Pillager Ojibwe use
the root for stomach trouble. The trouble is described as a pain in the
solar plexus, which may mean pleurisy. It has been used by eclectic
practitioners for erysipelas, ulcerated mouth, etc.


LYCOPODIACEAE (CLUB MOSS FAMILY)

=Ground Pine= (_Lycopodium complanatum_ L.), “gîjiˈk gandoˈ gûng”
[cedar-like]. The dried leaves are used by the Flambeau Ojibwe as a
“nokweˈsîkûn” or reviver. _Lycopodium_ spores are used by the white man
as a surgical dusting powder.

=Ground Pine= (_Lycopodium obscurum_ L. var. dendroideum [Michx.] D.
C. Eaton) “cigonaˈ gan” [evergreen], shown in plate 61, fig. 1. The
Flambeau Ojibwe use this plant in combination with Bush Honeysuckle
roots (_Diervilla lonicera_) as a diuretic. The spores are the only
part used by the white man for medicine. They are an antiseptic dusting
powder.


MENISPERMACEAE (MOONSEED FAMILY)

=Canada Moonseed= (_Menispermum canadense_ L.), “bîmaˈ kwît waˈ
bîgons” [twisted pod or stick]. White Cloud, Pillager Ojibwe of Bear
Island, did not know the use of this root, but assured the writer that
other Ojibwe knew it and used it. Moonseed root is used by eclectic
practitioners as a tonic and alterative, and has been employed as a
substitute for Sarsaparilla.


MYRICACEAE (BAYBERRY FAMILY)

=Sweet Fern= (_Myrica asplenifolia_ L.), “gibaimeˈ nûnaˈgwûs”
[coverer]. Sweet fern is called “a coverer,” because it is used to line
the blueberry pails and cover the berries to keep them from spoiling.
The word is almost the same as that used by the Menomini and means the
same. The Flambeau Ojibwe consider the leaves too strong for a beverage
tea, but make a medicinal tea to cure the flux and cramps in the
stomach. The white man uses Sweet Fern as a stimulant and astringent;
sometimes using it to relieve colic and check diarrhea. It has also
been used in a fomentation to relieve rheumatic pains.


NYCTAGINACEAE (FOUR-O’CLOCK FAMILY)

=Heart-leaved Umbrella-wort= (_Oxybaphus nyctagineus_ [Michx.] Sweet)
“gokoˈ coadjiˈ bîk” (pig root). The Pillager Ojibwe say that the pig is
fond of the roots of this plant because they are large and succulent,
hence call it “pig root”. The root is used by them to reduce sprains
and swellings. There is no record of its use among the whites.


NYMPHAEACEAE (WATER LILY FAMILY)

=Sweet White Water Lily= (_Castalia odorata_ [Ait.] Woodville &
Wood.), “odîteˈabûg waˈ bîgwûn” [flat heart leaf, white flower]. The
Flambeau Ojibwe use the root as a cough medicine for those who have
tuberculosis. The roots have been used by white men in the treatment of
diarrhea, dysentery and leucorrhea.

=Yellow Water Lily= (_Nymphaea advena_ Ait.), “ogaˈ da mûn” [standing
on legs]. The Flambeau Ojibwe word is a bit different in spelling but
means the same as the Menomini word for this plant. The Ojibwe call the
leaves, “odîteˈabûg” [flat heart leaf]. The root is the only medicinal
part and is grated to make a poultice for sores. Other ingredients such
as Skunk Cabbage root are added to this poultice. The Ojibwe gather
goodly quantities of the large underwater stems; which we are prone to
call roots, dry them and reduce them to powder. The powder alone is
supposed to heal cuts and swellings. The roots have been used by white
men in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and leucorrhea.


OLEACEAE (OLIVE FAMILY)

=Red Ash= (_Fraxinus pennsylvanica_ Marsh), “aˈ gîmaˈk” [snow-shoe
wood]. The Pillager Ojibwe use the inner bark in combination with
other things for a tonic. The inner bark is official with white men as
a bitter tonic and astringent. It is also said to be valuable as an
antiperiodic.


ONAGRACEAE (EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY)

=Great Willow-herb= (_Epilobium angustifolium_ L.), “oˈ ca cadjiˈ
bîkes” [slippery or soap root], shown in plate 69, fig. 2. The Flambeau
Ojibwe say that the outer rind of this root lathers in water and they
pound it to make a poultice. This is used to draw out inflammation from
a boil or a carbuncle. With white men, it is a demulcent, tonic and
astringent. It has been used internally for its tonic effect on mucous
surfaces and its value in intestinal disorders.

=Evening Primrose= (_Oenothera biennis_ L.) While the Flambeau Ojibwe
have no Indian name for this, still they use the whole plant soaked
in warm water to make a poultice to heal bruises. Because of its
antispasmodic properties, the white man has used it internally in the
treatment of whooping cough, hiccough and spasmodic asthma.


OPHIOGLOSSACEAE (ADDER’S TONGUE FAMILY)

=Virginia Grape Fern= (_Botrychium virginianum_ [L.] Sw.), “gîckênsîneˈ
namûkûk” [man, squaw and baby], shown in plate 66, fig. 2. John Peper,
Pillager Ojibwe, hunted a long time for this plant around Leech Lake,
Minnesota, because his mother said it was good for lung trouble and
consumption. He called attention to the fact that one always finds two
stems together in the proper plant to use, which he described as the
man and squaw, with the little one or fruiting frond, in the center.
There is no record of its use by white men.


ORCHIDACEAE (ORCHIS FAMILY)

=Yellow Ladies’ Slipper= (_Cypripedium parviflorum_ Salisb. var.
_pubescens_ [Willd.] Knight), “maˈ kasîn” [moccasin].[115] Among the
Pillager Ojibwe, the root of this species is said to be a good remedy
for female troubles of all kinds. The white man has used it as a
gentle tonic for the nerves, a stimulant and antispasmodic, similar to
Valerian, only less powerful.

=Rein Orchis= (_Habenaria bracteata_ [Willd.] R. Br.), “gokoˈcgûnda
mînêskweˈ mîn” [pig-woman enticer root]. The Ojibwe Pillager would
smuggle this into food as an aphrodisiac, which they considered a bad
use and not to be talked about or countenanced. There is no record of
its use by the white men.

=Adder’s Mouth= (_Microstylis unifolia_ [Michx.] BSP.) “aîaˈ nîkotciˈ
mîn” [twisted berry]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the tiny root of this
plant to mix with Bush Honeysuckle bark (_Diervilla lonicera_) as a
diuretic. There is no record of its use by white men.


PAPAVERACEAE (POPPY FAMILY)

=Bloodroot= (_Sanguinaria canadensis_ L.)[116] “meskwaˈ djiˈ bîkûk”
[red root]. The Pillager Ojibwe use the orange-red juice of the
Bloodroot to cure sore throat. The juice is squeezed out on a lump of
maple sugar, and this is retained in the mouth until it has melted
away. They also use the juice to paint the face for the medicine lodge
ceremony or when on the warpath.

_Sanguinaria_ is official only in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, and in small
doses it produces a sense of warmth in the stomach and stimulates
gastric secretion. It is given as an expectorant and in larger doses as
an emetic.


PINACEAE (PINE FAMILY)

=Balsam Fir= (_Abies balsamea_ [L.] Mill), “jîngoˈ b” [any kind of
fir tree name], shown in plate 62, fig. 1. While the Flambeau Ojibwe
call the tree “jîngoˈ b” as a short term, the full name of the Balsam
Fir according to them is “jîngoˈ b pîkewaˈ ndag”. They claim that the
liquid balsam is used direct from the bark blister upon the eyes, for
sore eyes. The leaves are a reviver or “abaˈ bûsûn” and are also used
in combinations as a wash. The Pillager Ojibwe call it “jîngoˈ bandag”,
and use the balsam gum for colds and to heal sores. This corresponds
to the way the Hudson Bay Indians use the bark. The needle-like leaves
are placed upon live coals and the smoke is inhaled for colds. They are
also used as a part of the medicine for the sweat bath.

The sweat bath is taken in a small hemispherical wigwam, like the
regular abode, but entirely covered with mats or nowadays with
canvas. The medicines are coiled into wreaths to fit into large iron
kettles. Water is added and finally hot rocks which cause steam. The
Indian taking the sweat bath may be taking it for ceremonial reasons,
for cleansing, but most likely as a medicated steam bath. He sits
naked within until there is no more steam and his body is entirely
dried again. He then puts on all clean clothes and will not wear
the discarded clothes until they have all been thoroughly washed.
The candidate for degrees in the medicine lodge, must undergo the
sweat bath in a ceremonial way. Usual plants employed to medicate
the steam are White Pine leaves, Hemlock leaves, Arbor Vitae leaves,
Wild Bergamot plant, Balsam needles, Peppermint plants, and the like.
They are undoubtedly very beneficial to the health. Canada balsam is
accounted the same medicinally as turpentine, but its principal value
to the white man today is its perfect transparency and peculiar optical
properties, which fit it for use in mounting microscopic specimens.

=Tamarack= (_Larix laricina_ [Du Roi] Koch), “mûckîgwaˈ tîg” [swamp
tree], shown in plate 60, fig. 2. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the dried
leaves as an inhalant and fumigator, “nokweˈsîkûn”. Larch bark has
been highly valued in the past in chronic bronchitis with profuse
expectoration, in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages, and in
phases of hemorrhage.

=White Spruce= (_Picea canadensis_ [Mill.] BSP.), “gawaˈ ndag”, shown
in plate 62, fig. 2. The leaves of White Spruce are used in the same
manner as Larch, as a “nokweˈsîkûn”, an inhalant or fumigator. The
needle oil is considered about the same as turpentine, by white men.

=Black Spruce= (_Picea mariana_ [Mill.] BSP.), “jingwûp”. If the bark
is meant as a medicinal salt, then its name is “jingwûˈ p gawaˈ ndag”
but if the leaves are the part meant for a reviver, “aba busun”, then
it carries only the name “jingwup”. The needle oil is used by white men
the same as turpentine.

=Jack Pine= (_Pinus banksiana_ Lamb.), “gîgaˈ ndag”. The leaves are
used as a reviver,—“nokweˈ sîkûn” according to the Flambeau Ojibwe.
There is no record of its medicinal use by the white men.

=Norway Pine= (_Pinus resinosa_ Ait.), “abakwanûg iˈmûg” [bark in
plates], shown in plate 63, fig. 2. The Norway Pine is used in all
particulars by the Flambeau Ojibwe, just as the White Pine.

=White Pine= (_Pinus strobus_ L.), “jîngwak kweseskweˈ tûk” according
to Bearskin of the Flambeau Ojibwe, shown in plate 63, fig. 1, “jîngwak
waceskweˈdo” according to Charley Burns of the Flambeau Ojibwe. The
bark medicine is, “jîngwak onaˈ gêk” and is gathered in the same manner
as by the Menomini, with a song to grandmother Earth, and the placing
of tobacco on the ground. The cones, when boiled and likewise the
bark of the young tree trunk yield a pitch which is medicine, called
“jîngwak bûgîo.” The dried leaves are powdered and used as a reviver or
inhalant. There are three names referring to this sort of treatment,
as said before,—“nokweˈ sîkûn”, “sasaˈ bîkwat” and “abaˈ bûsûn”. Of
these three terms, “sasaˈ bîkwat” is the proper one to use when White
Pine needles are employed in this manner. White Pine is a very valuable
remedy with all Ojibwe, but Norway Pine is sometimes substituted for
it. White Pine bark is used in making cough syrup, by white men, but it
possesses only feeble properties as an expectorant.

=Arbor Vitae= (_Thuja occidentalis_ L.), “giˈ jîkandag” [sky or cedar
tree].[117] The Flambeau Ojibwe use the leaves as a perfume, “abaˈ
bûsûn” and also as a tea for headache. During ceremonies of the
medicine lodge, it is necessary to purify sacred objects and the hands
and persons of participants. A plate of live coals is used and dried
Arbor Vitae leaves placed upon them. The servitor wafts the incense
over sacred objects by fanning the smoke with his hands. Others hold
their hands over and in the smoke, waving it upon their persons.

The Pillager Ojibwe call it by the simple name “giˈ jîk” [sky or
cedar]. They also use it as a purifying incense, and as an ingredient
for the sweat bath with White Pine, Balsam, Hemlock and other plants.
They drink the boiled leaves claiming that the steam goes through the
blood and purifies it. This treatment cures coughs.

The U. S. Pharmacopoeia formerly required that leaves for medicinal
use be in a fresh state but the new formulary only requires them
to be recently dried and leafy. Internally it has been used for an
emmenagogue, for fevers, bronchial catarrh, rheumatism and to remove
intestinal worms. Externally it is applied in ointment to treat ulcers,
warts and cancerous growths.

=Hemlock= (_Tsuga canadensis_ [L.] Carr.), “gagagiˈ wîc” [raven tree].
The Flambeau Ojibwe medicine man puts the leaves in his medicinal tea
to disguise the taste. The bark is used for healing cuts and wounds,
and for stopping the flow of blood from a wound. The bark is rich in
tannin and naturally quite astringent. White men have used the bark
and its resulting pitch as substitutes for burgundy pitch in making
plasters. These have been used as external remedies for lumbago,
chronic rheumatic pains, chronic bronchitis and pleurisy.


PLANTAGINACEAE (PLANTAIN FAMILY)

=Common Plantain= (_Plantago major_ L.), “cecaˈ gûskiˈ bûge sînk”
[leaves grow up and also lie flat on the ground].[118] The Flambeau
Ojibwe soak the leaves in warm water then bind them on bruises, sprains
or sores as a poultice. It is also a healing and soothing remedy for
burns, scalds, bee stings, and snake bites. The Flambeau Ojibwe also
refer to it as “pakwan”. The Pillager Ojibwe use it in the same manner
but call it “jimûckiˈ gobûg” [sort of swamp leaf]. Although plantain
is a feeble remedy, it has been ascribed potency in many diseases by
eclectic practitioners. They still use it to some extent in treating
inflammation of the skin, malignant ulcers, intermittent fevers, etc.
The leaves are of some value in arresting hemorrhages when applied to
the bleeding surfaces. The writer cured a badly swollen and lacerated
hand, which swelled to three times its normal size, probably because
dirt from a sewer was ground into it, with the simple leaf bound upon
the hand.


POLYGONACEAE (BUCKWHEAT FAMILY)

=Carey’s Persicaria= (_Polygonum careyi_ Olney). The Ojibwe have no
name or use for this, nor have white men.

=Swamp Persicaria= (_Polygonum muhlenbergii_ [Meisn.] Wats.), “agoñgoˈ
simînûn” [chipmunk berries]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use this plant for a
tea to cure a pain in the stomach. It is also hunting medicine. Several
of the polygonums have been used by eclectic practitioners for their
astringent properties.

=Curled Dock= (_Rumex crispus_ L.) “ciˈobûg” [twisted leaf]. The
Flambeau Ojibwe use the root, which contains considerable tannin, for
closing and healing cuts. White men have used it for its astringent
properties.


POLYPODIACEAE (FERN FAMILY)

=Shield Fern= (_Aspidium cristatum_ [L.] Sw.), “anaˈ ganûck” [fern].
The Flambeau Ojibwe use the root tea for stomach trouble. Among the
white men, this fern has been found to have almost the same value as
Male Fern as a teniafuge. Great care is exercised in the size of the
dose and to see that no part of the drug remains in the system after it
has performed its task of killing intestinal worms, as fatalities have
been known to occur.

=Female Fern= (_Asplenium filix-femina_ [L.] Bernh.), “anaˈ ganûck”
[fern]. The Flambeau Ojibwe grate the dry root into a powder which
is used as a healing powder for sores. The Pillager Ojibwe call it
“nokomiˈ skînûn” [grandmother?]. The root is made into a tea to cause
milk flow in patients with caked breast. There is a record of its
medicinal use by white men to alleviate backache.

=Sensitive Fern= (_Onoclea sensibilis_ L.), “aˈ nanaˈ ganûck” [fern].
The Pillager Ojibwe powder the dry root, and make a tea to give the
patient whose breasts are caked, to stimulate the flow of milk. There
is no record of its medicinal use by white men.

=Brake= (_Pteris aquilina_ L.), “anaˈ ganûck” [general fern name]. This
is the general name of the bracken fern, where used for food. When used
for medicine, it is called by the Flambeau Ojibwe—“makateˈ wa anaˈ
ganûck” [black fern], and the root is made into tea to alleviate cramps
in the stomach. It is only used by the women for this purpose. The
dried leaves are smoked upon live coals to relieve a headache. Under
the name “aˈ nanaganaˈ wûck” the root is used by the Pillager Ojibwe in
the same manner as by the Flambeau Ojibwe. White men have considered
this root to be pectoral, demulcent, purgative and anthelmintic. A
syrup solution is used in pulmonary and hepatic diseases. A strong
decoction is used to expel worms.


PRIMULACEAE (PRIMROSE FAMILY)

So far as is known, none of the Primrose family is used by the Ojibwe
for medicine. The Pillager Ojibwe did not know the Tufted Loosestrife
(_Lysimachia thyrsiflora_ L.).


RANUNCULACEAE (CROWFOOT FAMILY)

=Red Baneberry= (_Actaea rubra_ [Ait.] Willd.), “wîckobidjiˈbîk” [sweet
root], shown in plate 76, fig. 1. The Pillager Ojibwe make a tea from
the root, to be drunk by women after childbirth. It is to clear up the
system. A man also eats the root for stomach troubles. White men use
the root as a substitute for Black Cohosh (_Cimicifuga racemosa_),
which it resembles in appearances and properties. It has been used in
treating ovarian neuralgia, uterine tenderness, subinvolution, and
amenorrhea. It has also been used as a substitute for digitalis in
fatty or irritable heart, but only after other remedies have failed.
Headache due to eyestrain has also been cured by this root.

=Canada Anemone= (_Anemone canadensis_ L.), “mîdewidjiˈ bîk” [medicine
lodge root], shown in plate 74, fig. 2. The Pillager Ojibwe eat the
root of this plant to clear the throat so they can sing well in the
medicine lodge ceremony,—a sort of throat lozenge. Most of the
anemones have been substituted for _Pulsatilla_ and used for the
same host of diseases by eclectic practitioners. Included in these
ailments are: cataract, paralysis, rheumatism, melancholia, syphilis,
dysmenorrhea, and many other morbid conditions.

=Thimble-weed= (_Anemone cylindrica_ Gray.), “gande gwaˈ soninkeˈ
cînagwûk” [looks like tumble-weed]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the root
for making a tea to relieve lung congestion and tuberculosis. Among the
white men it has the same uses as Canada Anemone.

=Wild Columbine= (_Aquilegia canadensis_ L.), shown in plate 74, fig.
1. The Pillager Ojibwe have no name for this plant, but the root is
considered a good medicine for stomach trouble. Eclectic practitioners
consider it a diuretic, diaphoretic, and antiscorbutic, using it in
jaundice, in smallpox to promote eruption, and in scurvy.

=Goldthread= (_Coptis trifolia_ [L.] Salisb.), “wesa waˈ nikweˈak”
[yellow?] and “wesa wadjiˈbîkweˈak” [yellow root], shown in plate 75,
fig. 1. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the decoction of the root to soothe and
heal the baby’s gums while it is teething. It is also used as a mouth
wash for adults when their mouths are sore. This use has been adopted
by white men, who also use it in dyspepsia and chronic inflammation of
the stomach.

=Bristly Crowfoot= (_Ranunculus pennsylvanicus_ L. f.), “manweˈ gons”.
The seeds are a hunting medicine with the Flambeau Ojibwe. Several of
the _Ranunculaceae_ have been used as counter-irritants by the white
men.

=Cursed Crowfoot= (_Ranunculus sceleratus_ L.). The Pillager Ojibwe do
not know this plant, and have no name for it. Eclectic practitioners
have used it as a counter-irritant.

=Purple Meadow Rue= (_Thalictrum dasycarpum_ Fisch. & Lall.), shown in
plate 73, fig. 1. The Pillager Ojibwe have no Indian name for this, but
use the root to make a tea to reduce fever. The properties of this root
are considered almost identical with _Berberis_, which is used by white
men as a tonic, stimulant and antiperiodic.


ROSACEAE (ROSE FAMILY)

=Agrimony= (_Agrimonia gryposepala_ Wallr.), “sagaˈ tîgans” [seeds
stick], shown in plate 77, fig. 1. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the root
with other ingredients as a medicine for urinary troubles. It is not
much valued now by white men, although it has been used for its bitter
astringent properties.

=Smooth Juneberry= (_Amelanchier laevis_ Wiegand),
“gozigaˈgominagaˈwûnj” [thorny wood][119] according to John
Whitefeather, Flambeau Ojibwe, and “bîsegaˈgomînagaˈwûnj” according to
Charley Burns, another Flambeau Ojibwe who said that the bark was used
for medicine, but he did not know what it was to treat. The Pillager
Ojibwe call it “gozigaˈgomînûk” and say that the bark is to make a tea
for the expectant mother. There is no record of its medicinal use by
white men.

=Hawthorn= (_Crataegus_ sp.), “mînesagaˈ wûnj” [berries and thorn
bush], shown in plate 77, fig. 2. The Flambeau Ojibwe use both the
fruit and the bark for medicine, a kind not made now, other than
for women. Eclectic practitioners have used the berries for their
astringent and reputed cardiac properties.

=Wild Strawberry= (_Fragaria virginiana_ Duchesne), “odeˈ imînîdjiˈ
bîk,” [heart berry root].[120] The root of the common Wild Strawberry
is used to make a tea good for the stomach-ache, and especially for
babies. The white man uses the herb as an astringent and tonic for
convalescents and especially for children having bowel and bladder
weakness.

=Large-leaved Avens= (_Geum macrophyllum_ Willd.), “wicaˈwasaˈ konek”
[yellow light]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use this for a female remedy.
Eclectic practitioners consider the root tonic and astringent.

=Rough Cinquefoil= (_Potentilla monspeliensis_ L.), “tcodeˈ imînagaˈ
wûnj” [like a strawberry]. This plant seemed to be known to all the
Pillager Ojibwe, even the eight-year-old girls, as a physic. There is
no record of its use as a medicine by white men.

=Marsh Five-finger= (_Potentilla palustris_ [L.] Scop.), “bebaˈ
akwûndek” [floats about]. This was dug from the water by John
Whitefeather’s wife, Flambeau Ojibwe, who said it was a cure for
cramps in the stomach, and is used alone as one medicine. Under the
Pillager Ojibwe name of “mûckiˈ godjiˈbîk” [swamp root], John Peper
said that it was medicine with them, but he did not know how to use it.
There is no record of its use as medicine by white men.

=Pin Cherry= (_Prunus pennsylvanica_ L. f.), “baeˈwimînûn”. The inner
bark is a valued remedy for coughs. Most of the species of cherry have
been used by white men for the bitter principle contained, which suits
it for use as a stomachic and bitter tonic in gastric atony and general
debility. The syrup of wild cherry has been used as a pleasant vehicle
for other drugs.

=Wild Cherry= (_Prunus serotina_ Ehrh.) “okweˈ mîn” [worm out of
a fly’s egg; refers to the little worms in a cherry when it is
ripe].[121] The Flambeau Ojibwe value the bark of this species to make
a tea as a remedy for coughs and colds. It is used the same as Pin
Cherry by white men.

=Choke Cherry= (_Prunus virginiana_ L.), “aˈ sasaweˈ mînagaˈ
wûnj.”[122] The Pillager Ojibwe make a tea for lung trouble from the
inner bark. This is the official bark in the pharmacopoeia, which
is used as a stomachic and bitter tonic useful in gastric atony and
general debility. Wild cherry syrup is used to mask other unpleasant
drugs.

=Smooth Rose= (_Rosa blanda_ Ait.), “ogîneˈ mînagaˈ ons” [rose
berries].[123] The Pillager Ojibwe use the skin of the fruit or “rose
hip” for stomach trouble. The Flambeau Ojibwe call it “ogîni” or
“ogîniˈ gawûnj” [rose berries]. They dry and powder the flowers for use
in relieving heartburn. The skin of the rose hips is a medicine for
indigestion. Rose hips are described by white men as refrigerant and
astringent, but are only used in medicine to prepare the confection of
hips. Roses are used almost wholly today to impart their pleasant odor
to pharmaceutical preparations.

=High Bush Blackberry= (_Rubus allegheniensis_ Porter), “oˈdatagaˈ
gomîc” [its name].[124] The Flambeau Ojibwe boil the canes to obtain
a tea that is used as a diuretic. The roots furnish a tea for
arresting flux. Blackberry and Dewberry root are official in the U.
S. Pharmacopoeia because of their tonic and astringent properties.
They are favorite household remedies among white men in the treatment
of summer diarrhea of children and adults. Blackberry cordial is often
used for the same purpose.

=Red Raspberry= (_Rubus idaeus_ L. _aculeatissimus_ [C. A. Mey] Regel
& Tiling) “meskwaˈ mînagaˈ wûnj” [red bush berry]. The Flambeau Ojibwe
value the berries as a seasoner for their medicines. That is, the
flavor is used to disguise less pleasant ingredients. The root bark
makes a tea for healing sore eyes. Under the name Rubi Idei Fructus, N.
F. white men use the berries for making an agreeable syrup as a vehicle
for less pleasant tasting medicines. When the Red Raspberry is not
readily available the Black Cap Raspberry is used in the same manner.

=Meadow-sweet= (_Spiraea salicifolia_ L.), “wabûckîkiˈ bug” [rabbit
leaf]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the root as a trapping medicine. There
is no record of its use by the white man.

=Steeple Bush= (_Spiraea tomentosa_ L.), “memîsgwûˈnagûg” [squaws’
drink]. The Flambeau Ojibwe make a tea from the leaves and flowers of
the Steeple Bush to drink for the sickness of pregnancy and to act as
an easy parturient. The whites have used the root and the leaves as an
astringent and tonic, in diarrhea, hemorrhages, gonorrhea, ulcers, etc.


RUBIACEAE (MADDER FAMILY)

=Goose Grass= (_Galium aparine_ L.), “sakateˈ bwi” [stickers]. The
whole plant is used by the Pillager Ojibwe to make a tea used for a
diuretic, in kidney trouble, gravel, stoppage of urine, and allied
ailments. Other species are used in much the same way and for the same
purposes. White men have recognized it as a valuable refrigerant and
diuretic, and have found it useful in diseases of the urinary organs.
It is not recommended for diseases of a passive character, on account
of its refrigerant and sedative effects, but is used freely in fevers
and all acute diseases.

=Small Cleaver= (_Galium tinctorium_ L.), “waboskîkiˈ mînûn” [rabbit
swamp berries]. The Flambeau Ojibwe make a medicinal tea from the
whole plant, for its beneficial effect upon the respiratory organs.
Eclectic practitioners have used it for its nervine, antispasmodic,
expectorant and diaphoretic properties. It has been successfully used
in asthma, cough, and chronic bronchitis. The plant has a pungent,
aromatic, pleasant, persistent taste.

=Small Bedstraw= (_Galium trifidum_ L.), “ojîbweˈ oweˈ cûwûn”, [ojibwe
male genitalia]. The Pillager Ojibwe make a medicinal tea of this
species for skin diseases such as eczema, ringworm and scrofula. White
men undoubtedly use it in much the same way as the preceding species
through error in identifying it correctly.


RUTACEAE (RUE FAMILY)

=Prickly Ash= (_Zanthoxylum americanum_ Mill.), “gawaˈ kumîc”,[125]
[its name]. Both Flambeau and Pillager Ojibwe make trips further south
to get this bark, since none of the trees grow near them. They want it
for treating quinsy and sore throat. They say that even the berries are
good for a hot tea to treat sore throat, and also to use as a spray on
the chest to cool and relieve congestion in bronchitis. Among the white
men, it is considered a stimulant, tonic, alterative and sialagogue
and is used for chronic rheumatism, colic, syphilis, and hepatic
derangements.


SALICACEAE (WILLOW FAMILY)

=Balsam Poplar= (_Populus balsamifera_ L.), “manasaˈ di” [perfume
poplar]. The Pillager Ojibwe cook the buds of the Balsam Poplar in lard
or bear fat, and use the cold product for a salve on cuts, wounds or
bruises. They also rub it on the inside of the nostrils, so that the
balsamic odors can course through the respiratory passages and open
them in case of congestion from cold, catarrh or bronchitis. Poplar
buds are also official with white men who use them as a stimulating
expectorant, and in the form of an ointment in treating sluggish ulcers
and sores. Eclectic practitioners have used tinctures of the buds
for stomach and kidney treatment and in scurvy and rheumatism, and
sometimes, apply it to the chest. The bark is used by white men for a
tonic and cathartic, of service in gout and rheumatism.

=Large-toothed Aspen= (_Populus grandidentata_ Michx.), “asadi”
[bitter bark]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the young roots of this tree in
a tea as a hemostatic. There is no record of its use by the whites.

=Quaking Aspen= (_Populus tremuloides_ Michx.), “asadi” [poplar]. The
Flambeau Ojibwe give this tree the same name as the Large-toothed
Aspen. They use the bark of a young trunk for poulticing cuts and
wounds. The astringent salacin in the inner bark undoubtedly draws
the cuts together and causes healing. The Pillager Ojibwe distinguish
the tree with a slightly different name, “asadins”, the diminutive
of “asadi”, meaning “little poplar”. They use the inner bark for
poulticing a sore arm or leg, and make the inner layer of their splints
of the inner bark so that a broken limb may heal healthily. Eclectic
practitioners use both bark and leaves in treating acute rheumatism,
also to lower the temperature in fevers, to relieve pain and reduce
arterial swellings, colds, hay fever, influenza, neuralgia and
diabetes. Externally the whites have used it as a wash for gangrenous
wounds, eczema, cancer, burns, and body odor.

=Crack Willow= (_Salix fragilis_ L.), “sizigoˈ bimîc” [willow name].
This tree has escaped from cultivation around the water-courses of
the Flambeau Reservation and has been accepted by the Ojibwe there as
efficacious along with the native willows. The bark is astringent from
its salacin content and is used as a styptic and poultice for sores.
Willow bark was formerly employed by physicians among the whites as a
stomachic and antiperiodic in the treatment of intermittents, but is
rarely used today.

=Shining Willow= (_Salix lucida_ Muhl.), “zigoˈ bamîc”. The Pillager
Ojibwe use the bark of this species as an external remedy for sores.
The Ojibwe do not generally distinguish any particular willow with any
other name, but Whitefeather, Flambeau Ojibwe, called this species
“mûckigoˈ bamîc” [swamp tree] and said it was used on a cut to stop the
bleeding, and that the bark was also a poultice material for sores.
Other Flambeau Ojibwe called it “sizigoˈ bamîc”, but it was generally
noticed that in that latitude the Shining Willow was invariably found
in swamps, and not along streams, so there is justification for
Whitefeather’s name. Among the whites, this bark was used formerly as a
stomachic and antiperiodic.

=Bog Willow= (_Salix pedicellaris_ Pursh.), “sizigoˈ bamîc”. This is
a species of the cold bogs and meadows found far up toward the Arctic
Circle. While the Pillager Ojibwe did not give it a distinctive name,
they said it was not used for bark to smoke, but for bark to treat
stomach trouble. There is no record of its use by whites.


SARRACENIACEAE (PITCHER-PLANT FAMILY)

=Pitcher-plant= (_Sarracenia purpurea_ L.), “oˈ makakiˈ wîdass” [frog’s
leggins], as shown in plate 67, fig. 1. Bearskin, Flambeau Ojibwe
medicine man had a slight variant in pronouncing this—“oˈ makakiˈ
odass”. He said that the root is used to make a tea to help a woman
accomplish parturition. Eclectic practitioners used the whole plant to
make a tea for a tonic, stimulant, diuretic and laxative.


SAXIFRAGACEAE (SAXIFRAGE FAMILY)

=Wild Red Currant= (_Ribes triste_ Pall.), “mîciˈ tcimînûk.” The
Flambeau Ojibwe use the leaves as some sort of a female remedy. There
is no record of its use by the whites.


SCROPHULARIACEAE (FIGWORT FAMILY)

=Butter and Eggs= (_Linaria vulgaris_ Hill.), “owacawaˈ skwûneg”
[yellow light]. The whole plant is dried by the Flambeau Ojibwe and
used in the kettle with other foliage and twigs as a bronchial inhalant
in the sweat lodge. The Ojibwe name for medicine to be inhaled is
“nokweˈsîkûn” which sounds much like the Menomini Indian name for the
same thing,—“naˈ sîkon”. The eclectic practitioners claimed that the
plant is diuretic, and cathartic, using it in dropsy, jaundice, and
cutaneous eruptions. The fresh plant was sometimes used as a poultice
for hemorrhoidal tumors, and an ointment was made of the fresh flowers
for the same purpose and to use locally in diseases of the skin. In
Germany, the flowers were used for a yellow dye.

=Cow Wheat= (_Melampyrum lineare_ Lam.), “agoñgasiˈ mînûk” [chipmunk
berries]. The Flambeau Ojibwe say that this plant is made into a tea,
which is a “little medicine for the eyes”. There is no record of its
medicinal use by the whites.

=Wood Betony= (_Pedicularis canadensis_ L.), “mandamîˈ nîodjiˈ bîkîns”
[little corn root]. According to John Peper, Pillager Ojibwe, this root
was a bad kind of medicine, an aphrodisiac, when cut fine and placed
in some dish of food without the knowledge of those who were going to
eat it. There is no record of its medicinal use by the whites.

=Mullein= (_Verbascum thapsus_ L.). The Flambeau Ojibwe have no name
for this since it has come into their territory from the south and
they do not use it. The writer has gathered this for his grandmother
who smoked the leaves for relieving asthma and bronchitis. The flowers
are supposed to have diuretic properties and have been used in the
treatment of tuberculosis.


THYMELEACEAE (MEZEREUM FAMILY)

=Moosewood= (_Dirca palustris_ L.), “djibeˈ gûb” [djibe means a dead
person, or ghost or spirit]. The bark of Moosewood is very soft, strong
and elastic, so that twigs can be tied into knots. The Pillager Ojibwe
say that all their people use it as a tea for a diuretic. The bark
is sometimes substituted for Mezereum bark, which is official in the
U. S. pharmacopoeia. It is usually used in a compound decoction with
sarsaparilla for chronic skin diseases, and syphilitic, rheumatic and
scrofulous conditions. As an external ointment, it was used for a
stimulant to foul or ill-conditioned ulcers.


TYPHACEAE (CAT-TAIL FAMILY)

=Cat-tail= (_Typha latifolia_ L.), “bebamasûˈn” [it flies around]. The
Flambeau Ojibwe used the fuzz of the fruit for a war medicine. They
claim that the fuzz thrown into an enemy’s face will blind him.


UMBELLIFERAE (PARSLEY FAMILY)

=Musquash Root= (_Cicuta maculata_ L.), “apagwasîˈgons”. The Pillager
Ojibwe say that this root is used a little in their medicine, but did
not know just how. It was smoked in hunting.

=Cow Parsnip= (_Heracleum lanatum_ Michx.) “piˈ pîgweˈ wanûck” [flute
stem].[126] The Pillager Ojibwe pound the fresh root and apply it
as a poultice to cure sores. The fresh leaves and root are known to
produce vesication or blisters by the whites, and therefore have been
used by them as counter-irritants. The root has been used by eclectic
practitioners to cure epilepsy. In infusions, it is thought to cure
dyspeptic disorders.

=Sweet Cicely= (_Osmorhiza longistylis_ [Torr.] D. C.), “osagaˈ tîkûm”
[interlaced twigs]. The same name was applied by the Pillager Ojibwe
to _O. claytoni_, and evidently they did not distinguish between the
two species. A tea for making parturition easier is prepared from the
roots. The liquorice flavor of the tea is said to be good for a sore
throat.

=Wild Parsnip= (_Pastinaca sativa_ L.), “pigweˈwûnûsk” [flute stem].
The Pillager Ojibwe are quite cautious in using this poisonous root.
They claim that a little bit is very powerful, while much is poisonous.
They use a very minute quantity mixed with four other kinds of roots
to make a medicinal tea for female troubles. There is no record of its
medicinal use by the whites.

=Black Snakeroot= (_Sanicula marilandica_ L.), “masan” [from the
woods]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the root pounded as a poultice to cure
rattlesnake bite or any snake bite. Bearskin, chief Flambeau medicine
man said that if this root be chewed, it would cause eruptions on
the epithelial lining of the mouth. They consider it a very potent
remedy. The Pillager Ojibwe call it “gîneˈbîg odjiˈ bîk” [snake root]
and make a root tea that is used to cure fevers of various kinds.
Eclectic practitioners have accredited it with active aromatic, bitter
principles. They have used it in intermittent fevers, sore throat,
erysipelas and cutaneous affections. It has been also used for St.
Vitus dance and other nervous affections.


URTICACEAE (NETTLE FAMILY)

=Hop= (_Humulus lupulus_ L.), “jiwîˈcgoniˈbûg”. The Pillager Ojibwe use
the common hop to make a tea which acts like saleratus on the system,
increasing the excresence of urine and reducing its acidity. It is
official in the U. S. pharmacopoeia as a tonic, diuretic, sedative and
somewhat anaphrodisiac.

=Wood Nettle= (_Laportea canadensis_ [L.] Gaud.), “masaˈnatîk” [forest
wood]. The Pillager Ojibwe use the root to make a medicinal tea for
its diuretic properties. It is said to cure various urinary ailments.
Eclectic practitioners have considered it tonic, astringent and
diuretic. They use both roots and leaves. The seeds and flowers are
given in wine for the ague.

=Slippery Elm= (_Ulmus fulva_ Michx.), “anib”. The Pillager Ojibwe use
the slippery inner bark for sore throat, especially when the throat is
apt to be dry. Slippery Elm is official in the U. S. pharmacopoeia as a
demulcent, emollient and nutritive. It is considered useful internally
for dysentery, diarrhea and bronchitis. Pounded bark for poultices has
been used for boils and inflammations, and in compounding suppositories.

=Lyall’s Nettle= (_Urtica lyallii_ Wats.), “masan” [woods]. The
Flambeau Ojibwe use only the leaves as medicine. These are soaked in
warm water and used as a poultice for heat rashes. It is something like
fighting fire with fire. Among the whites, nettles are known for their
powerful and peculiar diuretic properties.


VIOLACEAE (VIOLET FAMILY)

=Canada Violet= (_Viola canadensis_ L.) Although a common violet in
the territory of the Pillager Ojibwe, they claimed to have no name or
use for it. It was formerly used by eclectic practitioners as a blood
purifier and as a remedy in chronic affections of the lungs, and in
skin diseases, but is no longer used.

=American Dog Violet= (_Viola conspersa_ Reichenb.), “wewaîeˈ bûgûg”.
The whole plant is used by the Flambeau Ojibwe to make a tea for heart
trouble. The whole plants have been used among the whites as alterative
and expectorant remedies. They were said to be useful in skin diseases,
scrofula, syphilis and bronchitis.


VITACEAE (VINE FAMILY)

=River-bank Grape= (_Vitis vulpina_ L.), “ciˈwî mînûn” or “ciwî mînaga
wûnj”, shown in plate 70, fig. 2. The Pillager Ojibwe used a tea of
boiled twigs for women to drink to clear up afterbirth and enable it
to pass easily. They use the sap as a medicine for stomach and bowel
trouble. Among the whites, the tender branchlets and leaves were
sometimes employed for their agreeable acidulous flavor.



OJIBWE VEGETAL FOODS


The Ojibwe have always lived far from the haunts of civilization. They
were too far in the back country to participate in the colonial and
pre-colonial wars. They have always preferred to live where game is
abundant, and even today they are still able to subsist partly on deer
and fish. The products of the hunt were very important to them, and
they possess a very large number of hunting charms, which are roots,
seeds or blossoms that are used as good luck omens or actual lures in
trapping and fishing.

They have always made the greatest use of the edible plants of their
environment, but did not progress very far in an agricultural way
until the last quarter century, when each reservation was furnished
with an Indian or white farmer, preferably an Indian. He has used the
school children to cultivate demonstration farms, and his example
is persisting in some of his former pupils. The older people had
a few simple products from prehistoric days and have not allowed
them to completely run out. The garden patch was always small, and
the caretaker was invariably the woman of the household. Among the
cultivated crops were: Cranberry pole beans, maize or Indian corn,
potatoes of an early variety, squash and tobacco. The last crop has
not been grown by them in fifty years, as they now depend upon the
white men for their source of supply. At the present time, they raise
any of the crops, that the white men raise. In their gardens, one will
find lettuce and onions, radishes, carrots, parsnips, beets, turnips,
cabbage, potatoes of standard varieties, beans and peas, and any other
crop one will find in an up-to-date garden. Stranger still, one may
find garden flowers, and the lady of the house will be quite proud of
them, and usually a little jealous, if her neighbor has some flowers
that she has not.

Some of the wild crops they gather possess considerable commercial
value, such as blueberries and wild rice. The laborious work of
preparing wild rice for table use has boosted the price to $1.05 a
pound, which those “in the know” gladly pay. Blueberries yield a goodly
part of their cash income, for the berries usually sell for about
twenty cents a quart, and it is easy for an Indian family to pick
eighty quarts in a day. They do not pick them like the white man does,
but comb the bushes with their fingers, removing the leaves and twigs
later.

The Ojibwe are fond of their native foods, and since they regard all
plants as the gift of their deities, and sacred to their uses, they
feel that their native foods are medicine to keep them in health as
well as foods. While they know nothing about vitamins or chemical
constituents, they think that there are some salts or minerals in their
native foods that keep them well. We know that they are correct in
that. They ascribe many of their present diseases to the abandonment of
their native foods and the adoption of white men’s foods. They think
that the early failure of their teeth is due to using too much white
flour for bread.

From the middle of July to the middle of September, one will find
the women busily caring for the various food harvests. Maize will be
drying on cloth screens, and blueberries will be drying to tough, inky
pellets. Raspberries and dewberries are cooked into jams, cranberries
are cooked with maple sugar into a jelly, and circles of squash are
strung on a basswood bark string. Men and women are busy at the shallow
lake harvesting wild rice, and all are very active. Sundays they will
stop for a pow-wow or dream dance, but not if it is the wild rice
harvest time. The food plants are listed alphabetically by families.


OJIBWE FOOD PLANTS


ACERACEAE (MAPLE FAMILY)

=Box Elder= (_Acer negundo_ L.), “adjagobiˈ mûk”. The Pillager Ojibwe
collect the sap of the Box Elder and mix it with the sap of the regular
Sugar Maple to drink as a beverage.

=Sugar Maple= (_Acer saccharum_ Marsh.), “înenaˈ tîg” [Indian tree]
and “adjagobiˈ mîn”. Both names came from the Pillager Ojibwe,[127]
and although the trees were scarce on the Flambeau Reservation, they
also call it “înenaˈ tîg”, and gather quantities of the sap somewhere
south of the reservation. Maple sugar is one of their most important
foods and is used in almost every kind of cookery. Maple sap is saved
to drink as it comes from the tree, sometimes with the added sap of
the Box Elder or Yellow Birch. Again it is allowed to become sour to
make a vinegar “cîwaˈbo” used in their cookery of venison, which,
when afterwards sweetened with maple sugar, corresponds to the German
fashion of sweet-sour meat. Before they had the salt of the white
man, maple sugar took its place and still does when they can get it.
All kinds of meats were seasoned with it. There are many interesting
legends about the tree, its discovery and sugar making, as related in
Mr. Alanson Skinner’s “Material Culture of the Menomini”.[128] The
Ojibwe garner their sugar crop much the same way as they did years
ago, except that they have used large iron kettles since the coming of
the white man. The sugar camps are rather permanent affairs, and the
framework of the boiling house with its upright poles around the fire
place to hold the kettles is left intact. A bark-covered wigwam is used
to store the tools of sugar sap gathering, and granulation. Most of
the sap vessels and storage vessels are made of birch bark, sewed with
boiled basswood fiber or the core of the Jack Pine root. The vessels
are rendered waterproof by the application of pitch secured by boiling
Jack Pine cones.

In early April, the Ojibwe visit their camps, the men to repair the
camps and the storage vats of hollowed logs, and to cut fire wood, the
women to see that the sap buckets and mokoks are scrupulously clean and
watertight. If some can not be repaired, rolls of birchbark are there
to make new ones. The whole family then move to the camp and live in
the large wigwam, while they make sugar for a month. During the sap
flow, a man can chop holes and set taps into from two to three hundred
trees in a day. The first flow of sap is the best, and it gets to be
of a rather poor quality by the end of the flow. The Ojibwe will not
use the night flow of the sap, which they say is bitter, so they cease
collecting an hour before dark. Gathered sap is stored in hollowed
basswood log vats, and covered over with birch bark to keep it clean.
Boiling in the iron kettles is done much as the white man does it,
except that foam is dissipated by stirring with a fresh brush of a
spruce branch. The syrup is strained through a cloth and recooked in
two or three quart quantities until it is ready to sugar. Then, while
still warm, it is poured into a wooden trough, where it is pounded
and crushed with a heavy wooden paddle as it hardens. It is stored
in covered birch bark baskets called mokoks, of from twenty-five to
seventy-five pounds capacity. The sugar is graded according to its
whiteness and stored away. Sap is often added to the dregs in the
kettles and a second grade sugar is secured. To waste or spill any of
the sap is considered an affront to their deities, who punish such an
act by causing the sugar to shrink after it is made.


ALISMACEAE (WATER-PLANTAIN FAMILY)

=Arum-leaved Arrowhead= (_Sagittaria arifolia_ Nutt.) “wabasiˈ pîn”
[white potato].[129] Both the Flambeau and the Pillager Ojibwe call
this by the same name and use it exactly alike as far as its food value
is concerned. The Pillager Ojibwe also use it as a medicine for man and
horse. The Flambeau Ojibwe recognize that it is also a favorite food of
ducks and geese. A similar species found in California is used by the
Indians there as a potato under the name “wappate” or “wapatoo”, and
is called by the whites there “Tule root.”[130] The corms are a most
valued food source to the Ojibwe. They will dig them if they cannot
get them more easily. Muskrat and beavers store them in large caches,
which the Indians have learned to recognize and appropriate. It is
difficult to dig them out still attached to the plant, because the
connection between the roots and the corm is so fragile and small. The
round corms are attached by a tiny rootlet to the main mass of fibrous
roots, and are capable of reproducing the plant in a vegetative manner,
just as the Irish Potato does. They are from one-half to an inch and
a half in diameter and about three-quarters to two inches long. They
are pure white inside, sweet and quite starchy. The Indian does not
differentiate between this species and the Broad-leaved Arrowhead. For
winter use, the potato is boiled, then sliced and strung on a piece of
basswood bark fiber and hung up overhead for storage. They also use the
fresh corms, cooking them with deer meat, and maple sugar. Some of the
potatoes are kept over after cooking and the maple sugar is thickened
until they might almost be called candied sweet potatoes.


ANACARDIACEAE (SUMAC FAMILY)

=Smooth Sumac= (_Rhus glabra_ L.), “bakwaˈ nak” [binding tree]. The
Flambeau Ojibwe gather the berries to make a pleasant beverage much
like lemonade. The berries are tart and are sweetened with maple sugar,
soaked in water until required for use. They also gather and dry them
for winter use. The dried berries are cooked in water with maple sugar,
and form a hot drink, instead of a cooling one, as used in the summer
and fall.

=Staghorn Sumac= (_Rhus typhina_ L.), “bakwaˈ natîg” [binding
tree].[131] The Pillager Ojibwe use the berries in the same way as the
Flambeau Ojibwe use this species, and under the same name. They also
store up the dried seed heads for winter use.


ARISTOLOCHIACEAE (BIRTHWORT FAMILY)

=Wild Ginger= (_Asarum canadense_ L. var. _acuminatum_ Ashe), “nameˈ
pîn”, [sturgeon potato].[132] The Pillager Ojibwe often use this root
in cookery to season the food. They claim it takes away any muddy taste
from fish, and will render any meat dish digestible by anyone, even if
they are sick. The roots are processed in lye water for cookery on a
large scale.


ASCLEPIADACEAE (MILKWEED FAMILY)

=Common Milkweed= (_Asclepias syriaca_ L.), “caboˈ sîkûn” [milk],
“înîniwûnj” [indian plant] Flambeau name.[133] The Pillager Ojibwe
eat the fresh flowers and tips of the shoots in soups. They are
usually cooked with some kind of meat and become somewhat mucilaginous
like okra, when cooked. They also gather and dry the flowers for
refreshening in the winter time, to make into soup.


BETULACEAE (BIRCH FAMILY)

=Yellow Birch= (_Betula lutea_ Michx. f.), “wiˈnîsîk”. The Flambeau and
Couderay Ojibwe tap the Yellow Birch for sap to add to maple sap for a
pleasant beverage drink.

=Hazelnut= (_Corylus americana_ Walt.), “mûkwobagaˈ nak” [bear
nut].[134] The Flambeau Indians use the hazel nut as a food and are
especially fond of the newly gathered nuts before the kernel has
hardened. The name is often shortened to “bagaˈ nak”.

=Beaked Hazelnut= (_Corylus rostrata_ Ait.), “baˈ ganaˈ mîc” [nut
tree]. The Pillager Ojibwe also use the Beaked Hazelnut. The Flambeau
Ojibwe also recognize it as “bagaˈ nak” [nut] and use it as a food.


CAPRIFOLIACEAE (HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY)

=Nannyberry= (_Viburnum lentago_ L.), “atîteˈ tamîn”.[135] The berries
are eaten when ripe, fresh from the bush, and are also used in jam with
wild grapes.


CELASTRACEAE (STAFF TREE FAMILY)

=Climbing Bittersweet= (_Celastrus scandens_ L.), “manîdobîmaˈ kwît”
[spirit twisted].[136] The Pillager Ojibwe story of this plant is
practically the same as that of the Menomini, as given in Museum
bulletin Vol. IV, No. 1, pp. 63-64. Bittersweet is fairly abundant
around Leech Lake, and is found in dense hardwood forests climbing to
tops of trees thirty feet or more in height. When food is unobtainable
in the winter, because the snow is too deep and game is scarce, the
Ojibwe gather this bark and separate the inner bark to make a thick
soup for a meal. While it is not so very palatable, it is sustaining
and they may subsist on it for a considerable time, until they are able
to get some game, or to go to some relatives and get other foodstuffs.
The Ojibwe name refers as does the Menomini name, to the twisted
intestines of their cultural hero, Winabojo.


COMPOSITAE (COMPOSITE FAMILY)

=Large-leaved Aster= (_Aster macrophyllus_ L.), “mêgêsiˈ bûg”, [eagle
leaf]. The leaves of this aster are eaten when young and tender. The
Flambeau Ojibwe declare that they are fine-flavored and good to eat,
because they act as medicine at the same time that they are food. Among
the Pillager Ojibwe they use the root of this same aster as a soup
material, but call it “nêmêgosiˈ bûg” [trout leaf].

=Philadelphia Fleabane= (_Erigeron philadelphicus_ L.), “micao gacan”
[odor of split hoof of doe]. The Pillager Ojibwe say that deer and
cows eat this plant and that they use it in their smoking tobacco or
kinnikinnik mixture.

=Dandelion= (_Taraxacum officinale_ Weber) “wecaˈ waskwûneˈ k” [yellow
light]. The Flambeau Ojibwe gather the young leaves in the spring and
cook them with pork or venison for greens, using vinegar made from
soured maple sap.


CORNACEAE (DOGWOOD FAMILY)

=Panicled Dogwood= (_Cornus paniculata_ L’Her.) “meskwabiˈ mîc” [red
bush]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use this bark in their kinnikinnik or native
smoking tobacco. Sometimes real tobacco is mixed with it and sometimes
not, as real tobacco is expensive. The twig bark is peeled and toasted
over coals on a crude drying fork, then further shredded to carry in
their tobacco pouches and smoke in their pipes.


CRUCIFERAE (MUSTARD FAMILY)

=Large Toothwort= (_Dentaria maxima_ Nutt.), “mûkwopîniˈk” [bear
potato]. The rootstocks of this cress are very abundant in wet, springy
ground in the forest. The white man can only identify this plant in the
spring of the year when the flower and leaf are found, but the Ojibwe
knows the root and where it grows so gathers it when it has matured.
It is a favored wild potato, but has a very pungent acrid taste when
freshly dug. They heap the mass of cleaned roots upon a blanket and
cover it closely to exclude the air for four or five days. During this
time the roots ferment and lose the acrid taste, becoming sweet and
palatable. The Ojibwe cook them with corn and deer meat, or with beans
and deer meat, and say that, besides being a fine food, they are a good
medicine for the stomach.


CUCURBITACEAE (GOURD FAMILY)

=Cucumber= (_Cucumis sativus_ L.), “eckaˈdamîn” [its name]. The Ojibwe
use their cucumbers raw, but sometimes flavor them with a vinegar
“cîwaˈbo” made from souring maple sap. They are further flavored with
powdered maple sugar.

=Ojibwe Squash= (_Cucurbita maxima_ Duchesne), “ogwîˈssi maun owaso
kwoneˈk” [pumpkin, yellow light]. Their word “ogwissimaun” literally
means “tangled hairs”, and refers to the strings inside upon which
the seeds are borne. The Flambeau Ojibwe cultivate their own variety
of squash, although they say that they got it originally from the
Iroquois. They dry rings of squash for winter use.

=Large Pie Pumpkin= (_Cucurbita pepo_ L.), “missaˈ bîgon” [little giant
plant]. They have cultivated this original Ojibwe dark yellow pie
pumpkin since long before the advent of the white man. They cut it into
rings and sun dry it for winter use.

=Gourds= (_Lagenaria vulgaris_ Ser.), “jicaˈwîgan” [hollow like]. The
Ojibwe cultivate the gourds, which they eat when young, before the rind
has hardened. They also make use of them for drinking and dipping cups,
and for rattles in the medicine lodge. The medicine man, “mîdewag”,
keeps the rhythm of his songs by shaking them. They are pierced,
kernels of corn or shells inserted, and then corked again for use.


EQUISETACEAE (HORSETAIL FAMILY)

=Field Horsetail= (_Equisetum arvense_ L.), “gîjiˈ bînûsk” [duck
food].[137] The Pillager Ojibwe gather this for their domesticated
ducks to eat and also to feed their ponies, to make their coats glossy.


ERICACEAE (HEATH FAMILY)

=Bog Rosemary= (_Andromeda glaucophylla_ Link.), “bîneˈ mîkci” [swamp].
Young, tender leaves and tips of this plant are used by the Flambeau
Ojibwe to boil for a beverage tea. While they often pick and use it
fresh on the hunting trail, they also gather and dry it for later use.
It is not a bad substitute for “store tea.”

=Leather Leaf= (_Chamaedaphne calyculata_ [L.] Moench.), “wabackîkiˈ
bûg” [rabbit leaf]. This is another beverage tea leaf, prized by the
Flambeau Ojibwe. It is used on the trail or dried and saved for future
use. The Pillager Ojibwe also use it in the same manner, under the
name,—“mackiˈ gobûgons” [little swamp leaf].

=Wintergreen= (_Gaultheria procumbens_ L.), “wînîsiˈ bûgûd” [dirty
leaf], shown in plate 75, fig. 2. While the Flambeau Ojibwe use this as
a rheumatic medicine, they also use the leaf tea from the youngest,
tenderest leaves as a beverage tea, and especially favor it because it
“makes them feel good”. They also eat the wintergreen berry which they
call “owînîsiˈ mîn”.

=Labrador Tea= (_Ledum groenlandicum_ Oeder.), “waboskîkiˈ bûg” [rabbit
leaf], shown in plate 76, fig. 2. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the tender
leaves of this plant for a beverage tea, and will even eat the leaves
in the tea. It is a well known tea to many northern and Canadian
Indians.

=Cranberry= (_Vaccinium oxycoccos_ L.), “mûckiˈ mîn” [swamp berry]
shown in plate 67, fig. 2. This is an important wild food of the
Flambeau Indians and also of the Pillager Ojibwe, who use a slightly
different pronunciation, “mûckîtciˈ mîn” [swamp berry]. The train
men that go through that reservation never seem to tire of getting
Johnnie Frog to say “cranberry pie” for them in Ojibwe. It sounds
so complicated because they really have no word for pie in their
language but must say, “swamp berries made into sauce rolled between
bread”,—“mûckiˈ gimînûn backiˈ mînasîgûn wiwegidaˈsîgûn”.

=Blueberry= (_Vaccinium pennsylvanicum_ Lam.), “mînûn” [berries]. The
Flambeau and the Pillager Ojibwe harvest quantities of blueberries both
for themselves and to sell. They dry them in large quantities on raised
scaffolds of rush mats, like currants, or raisins, which they somewhat
resemble. In the winter, they like to cook them with dried sweet corn,
sweetened with maple sugar. They also cook them with wild rice, and
venison and make a sweet bread with them. They have different names for
different varieties of blueberries. The Low Blueberry (_V. vacillans_
Kalm.) is called “gimîneˈsît” while the low Black Blueberry (_V.
nigrum_ [Wood] Britton) is called “makateˈ mîn” [black blueberry]. No
specimens of the last two were secured, but the names were common among
the Ojibwe.


FAGACEAE (BEECH FAMILY)

=Beech= (_Fagus grandifolia_ Ehrh.) “gaweˈmîc”. All the Ojibwe know and
appreciate the sweet nuts of the beech tree. They are never plentiful
enough to store for winter, but the Indians like them fresh.

=White Oak= (_Quercus alba_ L.), “mîciˈ mîn” [oak berry]. All Ojibwe
encountered told of their former dependence upon acorns for their soup
stock. It seems that at least every Algonkian tribe knew and used all
species of acorns. They got rid of the bitter tannin taste by soaking
the acorns in hot lye. Wood ashes in water, when boiled gave them the
lye. A regular woven bark bag held a quantity of acorns and the lye
was leached out by washing the whole bagful in several changes of warm
water. The acorns were then dried for storage, and when wanted, pounded
and ground to a coarse flour which was used to thicken soups or form a
sort of mush. Blueberries were often cooked with this mush to give it
a good flavor and it was seasoned with maple sugar. White Oak acorns
needed no lye treatment.

=Bur Oak= (_Quercus macrocarpa_ Michx.), “mîtîgoˈ mîc” [wooden tree].
Bur Oak acorns are bitter, but yield to the lye treatment to become as
edible as the acorns of the White Oak.

=Red Oak= (_Quercus rubra_ L.), “mîtîgoˈ mîc” [wooden tree]. Because
Red Oak was so abundant in the Ojibwe territory and so large in size,
the acorns were one of their most important starchy foods. They leached
the tannic acid flavor with lye and brought them to a par with the
sweet acorns of White Oak.

=Black Oak= (_Quercus velutina_ Lam.) “têˈ komîn”. The name is
evidently an abbreviation of “mêtîgoˈ mîn”, but probably an intentional
one for this tree was always referred to by the abbreviation. Its
acorns were equally good as others when the tannin was extracted.


FUNGI

The writer found that none of the Ojibwe eat any of the mushrooms
although they have two names for them,—“pîkwaˈ djîc” and “wajackweˈ do”
[muskrat]. Probably some remote ancestor had a fatal experience with
mushrooms and the news has been handed down. Although the Ojibwe have
fanciful stories explaining why they use certain plants, no doubt their
knowledge came by a process of trial and error through the centuries
and the errors have been duly buried but not entirely forgotten.


GRAMINAE (GRASS FAMILY)

=Corn= (_Zea mays_ L.), “mandaˈ mîn”. Corn is a traditional heritage of
the Ojibwe, although none knew a time when they did not have it. Their
origin myth is that it was a pinch of flesh taken from the side of
their culture hero, Winabojo, by himself and cast upon the ground, to
grow and become corn for them. This is the same as acknowledging that
they do not know how it came to be here. When mandamin matures, they
say that only horses can eat it raw in that condition. They have to
soak it in lye water, wash out the lye and then parboil it to prepare
it for the table. This is the same as our hominy. Scientists think now
that corn originated in Mexico from an accidental crossing of teosinte
and gama grass. While the Ojibwe cultivate and grow the approved
strains of corn for Wisconsin, they also cling to their own “calico”
corn, with all sorts of colors of grains on different cobs. They have
two names for sweet corn,—“wîckobiˈ mandaˈmîn” [sweet maize], and
“wîckobiˈ sîˈganûg” [turns sweet in cooking]. Their sweet or soft corns
are different from those used by the white man. They roast the ears in
the husk and make it into hominy as the white man does. They cut the
kernels from their sweet corn and dry them for winter use. It is also
boiled in a kettle, and when half-cooked, is cut from the cob and dried
for winter use.

They had a name for popcorn, but the writer saw none of it while around
them.

=Wild Rice= (_Zizania palustris_ L.), “manoˈ mîn” [good berry]. The
Ojibwe word is their pronunciation of the Menomini term for wild rice.
Most Algonkians have the same word for wild rice and it forms a very
important part of their food. The writer has often been present at the
Ojibwe rice harvests. The largest operation seen was that of the Ojibwe
at Mole Lake in Forest County, Wisconsin. There about twenty families
were working at one time and the writer worked at each operation to
become familiar with it. Wild rice preparation is the hardest kind of
labor, and they earn all they get for it when they sell it. It sells
in Milwaukee for $1.05 a pound, but one can buy it from the Indians at
$.25 to $.35 a pound. One man reaped 1325 pounds of rice in the harvest
time. The Menomini Rice Harvest group in the Public Museum exhibition
halls, shows very well most features of the operation.

Various families have definite parts of the lake for their share,
while others travel to small lakes and stay there until the harvest is
complete. They set up a family camp, while the grain is still in the
milk stage and wait for it to ripen. When this time arrives, having
made experimental collections to determine it, they make a ceremonial
gathering. Three to a canoe, two women and a man go to the rice beds
and gather sufficient rice for a preliminary feast. With a hooked
stick, held in a crescent by a string, the women pull the rice over
the canoe and beat off the kernels with a stick, into the canoe bed.
Sometimes, when the Indians do not want to waste any of the rice, they
will go into the beds before it is ripe and tie several heads together
to ripen in that manner. The first collection is prepared complete,
with songs to their deities and a ceremonial feast is observed. After
that all hands fall to in earnest and gather unremittingly until all
the rice is harvested.

When the canoe is partly loaded, they pole back to camp, to prepare
it. Wild rice grows in a mucky soil which may be quite deep. Ten foot
poles, with a wide fork to secure a hold on the grass, are used to
propel the canoe through the rice. On the return trip when loaded, the
women trample the rice to break off the spiny beards or awns. The next
step is roasting or parching. A wash tub is tilted against a large back
log and a fire maintained under it. To keep the rice from burning, one
must use a forty inch paddle and stir constantly for about three hours.
The roasting destroys any weevils that might be present, gives the rice
a pleasant flavor, loosens the husks or glumes and hardens the rice so
it may be kept indefinitely.

In earlier times, a hole was dug into the ground and carefully lined
with buckskin. Nowadays a candy bucket is sunk into the hole. This is
the threshing floor. A man with new moccasins steps in to trample and
thresh it.[138] He has a couple of poles, slanting near the hole, and
supported on a tree with which he balances, while trampling the rice.
He gives a circular, twisting pressure to the rice with his feet to
grind off the husks. Then the chaff is winnowed away by a woman as
shown in the present series, Vol. IV, plate 29, fig. 2. A large shallow
birchbark tray is shaken up and down by the woman as she stands in
a breeze. If there is no wind, the chaff accumulates on top and is
pushed over the edge from time to time. After the winnowing, the rice
is washed to clean it of foreign matter and of the smoky flavor of
parching. It is then dried and ready to use or store. Wild rice swells
more than cultivated rice in cooking. It is often moistened with six
times its bulk in water. The kernels are about six times as long as
thick and in cooking the ends curl backward to meet in the center, thus
differing from _Oryza sativa_, the white man’s rice. The proper way to
cook it Indian fashion is with deer broth and season with maple sugar.
Wild rice cooked with wild fowl takes away the muddy or wild taste and
is highly prized by those whites who know its qualities.


HYDROPHYLLACEAE (WATERLEAF FAMILY)

=Virginia Waterleaf= (_Hydrophyllum virginianum_ L.),
“nebîneˈnanikweˈîag”[139] [having hair on only one side]. The Pillager
Ojibwe use the root as a feed for ponies to make them fatten rapidly.


JUGLANDACEAE (WALNUT FAMILY)

=Shell-bark Hickory= (_Carya ovata_ [Mill.] K. Koch.), “bagaˈ nakoˈ
bagan”. Hickory trees are scarce in the north, but the Ojibwe
appreciate the edible nuts.

=Butternut= (_Juglans cinerea_ L.), “bagaˈ nag”. Butternut is plentiful
in the north and in most Ojibwe territory, while the Black Walnut is
not to be found. They use the nuts for food and the hulls for dye.


LABIATAE (MINT FAMILY)

=Wild Mint= (_Mentha arvensis_ L. var. _canadensis_ [L.] Briquet.)
“andegoˈ bîgons” [little crow leaf].[140] The Pillager Ojibwe use the
foliage to make a beverage tea.

=Catnip= (_Nepeta cataria_ L.), “tciˈ nameˈwûck” [big sturgeon leaf].
Catnip leaves are used by the Flambeau Ojibwe in making a beverage tea.


LEGUMINOSAE (PULSE FAMILY)

=Hog Peanut= (_Amphicarpa pitcheri_ T. & G.), “bûgwaˈ dj mîskodiˈ
sîmîn” [unusual red bean]. The Pillager Ojibwe cook the beans and are
very fond of the unusual flavor imparted to their cooking in this way.
They also cook the roots, although they are really too small to be
considered of much importance.

=Creamy Vetchling= (_Lathyrus ochroleucus_ Hook.), “bûgwaˈdj pînik”
[unusual potato]. The Pillager Ojibwe use the root of this plant as a
sort of Indian potato, and store it in deep pits in the garden, as they
do their regular potatoes.

=Navy Bean= (_Phaseolus vulgaris_ L.), “wabeniˈmînesa” [little white
berry]. The Ojibwe claim to have always had the sort of beans that the
white man uses and while their original Navy Bean is not exactly like
that of the white man, still it is near enough to be confused with it.

=Lima Bean= (_Phaseolus lunatus macrocarpus_),“wabeniˈ mîna” [big white
berry]. The Ojibwe also claim to have originally had the Lima Bean, but
that is doubtful.

=Cranberry Pole Bean= (_Phaseolus vulgaris_ L.), “mêskodiˈ mînûn” [red
heart berry]. The Red Cranberry Pole Bean is the original source of all
our best commercial pole beans. The Indians cultivated it in aboriginal
times. They use it alone or in many peculiar combinations.


LICHENS

Tree Lichen (_Sticta glomulifera_), “jîngwakons wakun” [little white
pine and row of eggs] or “jîngwaˈkwak” [pine egg]. On the bark at the
base of an old White Pine, will be found lichens growing from the
ground to a height of perhaps three feet. The Ojibwe gather these and
boil them until they coagulate or “come together” like scrambled eggs.
They say that they taste like eggs “wawîn”, but they call them “wakûn”,
which is a term applied to the roe or eggs of a fish. It is a favorite
dish and a very ancient one.


LILIACEAE (LILY FAMILY)

=Wild Onion= (_Allium cernuum_ Roth.), “cîgagaˈ wûnj” [skunk plant].
Both Pillager and Flambeau Ojibwe like the Wild Onion and Wild Leek in
the spring as an article of food.

=Wild Leek= (_Allium tricoccum_ Ait.), “bûgwaˈ djijîcaˈ gowûnj”
[unusual onion] “jîcago” really means skunk, and from this word Chicago
was named. This is the larger wild onion and is known as Winabojo’s
onion, or the one he pointed out for food. It is gathered in the
spring when it is round and plumper than in the fall. It is also
gathered and dried for future use. The Wild Leek is somewhat bitter,
while the smaller wild onion is sweet.

=False Spikenard= (_Smilacina racemosa_ [L.] Desf.), “agoñgosiˈ wîdjiˈ
bîk” [chipmunk root]. The Pillager Ojibwe use this root added to oats
to make a pony grow fat. The Flambeau Ojibwe also prepare and eat the
False Spikenard root. It is soaked in lye water and parboiled to get
rid of the lye, then cooked like potatoes.


NYMPHAEACEAE (WATER LILY FAMILY)

=Sweet White Water Lily= (_Castalia odorata_ [Ait.] Woodville & Wood),
“odîteˈabûg wabîˈgwûn” [flat heart-shaped leaf, white flowered]. The
Flambeau Ojibwe eat the buds of this water lily before they open.

=Yellow Lotus= (_Nelumbo lutea_ (Willd.) Pers.), “wesawasaˈ kwuneˈk
odîteˈabûg” [yellow light, flat heart-shaped leaf].[141] Most of the
Wisconsin Ojibwe know about this favored wild potato; and also use the
hard chestnut-like seeds to roast and make into a sweet meal. They cut
off the terminal shoots, at either end of the underground creeping
rootstock and the remainder is their potato. These shoots are similar
in shape and size to a banana, and form the starchy storage reservoirs
for future growth. They have pores inside, but have more substance to
them than the stems. They are cut crosswise and strung upon basswood
strings, to hang from the rafters for winter use. They are soaked when
needed and then cooked with venison, corn or beans.


OLEACEAE (OLIVE FAMILY)

=Red Ash= (_Fraxinus pennsylvanica_ Marsh.) “aˈgîmak” [snow-shoe wood].
The cambium layer of the ash is scraped down in long, fluffy layers and
cooked. It is called “sagîmaˈ kwûn”, which incorporates the name of the
ash with “wûn” or eggs. They say it tastes like eggs. Many other trees
are given the same sort of treatment for food purposes.


PINACEAE (PINE FAMILY)

=White Pine= (_Pinus strobus_ L.), “jîngwaˈ k”. In the spring the
Ojibwe use the young staminate catkins of the pine to cook for food.
It is stewed with meat. One might think this would taste rather like
pitch, but they assured the writer that it was sweet and had no pitchy
flavor.

=Hemlock= (_Tsuga canadensis_ [L.] Carr.), “gagagiˈ wîc”. The Flambeau
Ojibwe use the leaves of Hemlock to make a beverage tea. This sort
of tea is oftentimes used by the Indian Medicine man to carry his
medicaments and disguise the fact that the patient is taking medicine.


POLYPODIACEAE (FERN FAMILY)

=Brake= (_Pteris aquilina_ L.), “ana ˈganûck” [general fern name]. The
Flambeau Ojibwe are fond of young fern sprouts as a soup material. The
young fern tips, with coiled fronds, are about like asparagus tips,
only not stringy with fibrovascular bundles like asparagus. The tips
are thrown into hot water for an hour to rid them of ants, then put
into soup stock and thickened with flour. The flavor resembles wild
rice. Hunters are very careful to live wholly upon this when stalking
does in the spring. The doe feeds upon the fronds and the hunter does
also, so that his breath does not betray his presence. He claims to be
able to approach within twenty feet without disturbing the deer, from
which distance he can easily make a fatal shot with his bow and arrow.
After killing the deer, the hunter will eat whatever strikes his fancy.


RANUNCULACEAE (CROWFOOT FAMILY)

=Marsh Marigold= (_Caltha palustris_ L.), “o ˈgîteˈ bûg”. The Flambeau
Ojibwe use the leaves as a green to cook with pork in the springtime.


ROSACEAE (ROSE FAMILY)

=Smooth Juneberry= (_Amelanchier laevis_ Wiegand), “gozîgagoˈ mînûn”
[thorny berry]. According to John Whitefeather, Flambeau Ojibwe,
this is the name of the Juneberry, while Charley Burns on the same
reservation called it “bîsegaˈ gwomîn”. Both knew it only as a food,
although some tribes use the bark as a medicine. Juneberries were also
dried for winter use, the Indians often preferring them to blueberries.
The Pillager Ojibwe also use them as a food and use the bark as a
medicine.

=Red Haw Apple= (_Crataegus_ sp.), “mînesagaˈ wûnj”. The Pillager
Ojibwe use the haw apples as a food in the fall of the year.

=Wild Strawberry= (_Fragaria virginiana_ Duchesne), “odeˈ imîn” [heart
berry]. Both Flambeau and Pillager Ojibwe have the same name for the
Wild Strawberry, and call it the heart berry from its shape and color.
They are very fond of it in season and make preserves of it for winter
use.

=Wild Plum= (_Prunus nigra_ Ait.), “bûgeˈ sanatîg”. The Pillager Ojibwe
find quantities of the Wild Plum in thickets and gather it for food and
for preserves.

=Pin Cherry= (_Prunus pennsylvanica_ L.f.), “baeˈ wimînûn”. The Pin
Cherry is abundant around the Flambeau Reservation and the Ojibwe are
fond of it. It is an education in itself to see a group of Ojibwe women
working on mats with a supply of fruit laden branches beside them.
With one hand they will start a stream of berries into the mouth and
the stream of cherry stones ejected from the other corner of the mouth
seems ceaseless. The Pillager Ojibwe also have the tree and use it in
the same manner.

=Sand Cherry= (_Prunus pumila_ L.), “sewaˈkomîn”. The Flambeau Ojibwe
find plenty of this species on sandy openings in the forest, and gather
the fruit for food.

=Wild Cherry= (_Prunus serotina_ Ehrh.), “okweˈ mîn” [worm from egg
of a fly]. The Flambeau Ojibwe prefer this cherry to all other wild
cherries, and dry it for winter use. Some of them also make whiskey
from the ripe cherries.

=Choke Cherry= (_Prunus virginiana_ L.), “saweˈ mîn”. Although the
fruit of this cherry is sufficiently acrid to be unsatisfactory to the
whites as a food, the Pillager Ojibwe like it, especially after the
fruit has been frosted.

=High Bush Blackberry= (_Rubus allegheniensis_ Porter), “odatagaˈ
gomîc” [blackberry stem].[142] The Flambeau Ojibwe relish the
Blackberry and also the Dewberry (_Rubus villosus_ Ait.) although we
found no specimen nor distinctive name for it. They make a jam of the
berries for winter use.

=Red Raspberry= (_Rubus idaeus_ L. var. _aculaetissimus_ [C. A. Mey.]
Regel & Tiling) “meskwaˈ mîn” [red berry]. This is a favorite fresh
fruit of the Flambeau Ojibwe and is also used for making jams for
winter use.


SALICACEAE (WILLOW FAMILY)

=Large-toothed Aspen= (_Populus grandidentata_ Michx.), “asadiˈ”
[bitter bark]. The Ojibwe scrape the cambium layer to obtain a food
which is boiled and is something like eggs. They also scrape the
cambium of several other trees for food.


SAXIFRAGACEAE (SAXIFRAGE FAMILY)

=Prickly Gooseberry= (_Ribes cynosbati_ L.), “meˈ skwacaboˈ mînûk” [red
berries with thorns]. The Flambeau Ojibwe relish these berries when
ripe and make them into preserves for winter use.

=Wild Black Currant= (_Ribes americanum_ Mill.), “amîˈkomîn” [beaver
berries], shown in plate 70, fig. 1. The Pillager Ojibwe eat these
berries fresh, in jams, and preserves and dry them for winter. In the
winter, a favorite dish is wild currants cooked with sweet corn. The
Flambeau Indians use them in a like manner, but call them “kagagîtciˈ
mîn” [raven berries].

=Wild Red Currant= (_Ribes triste_ Pall.), “mîcitciˈ mînûk”. The
Flambeau Ojibwe gather these currants and use them as they do the Wild
Black Currants.

=Smooth Gooseberry= (_Ribes oxyacanthoides_ L.), “caboˈ mînûk” [smooth
berry]. The Flambeau Ojibwe gather this berry for fresh food, and also
make it into preserves for winter use. It is often cooked with sweet
corn.


SOLANACEAE (NIGHTSHADE FAMILY)

=Ojibwe Potato= (_Solanum tuberosum_ L.), “opîn” [potato].[143] The
Ojibwe have cultivated this early potato, according to their traditions
since aboriginal times, and it surely looks primitive enough. It is
round in circumference, about two or three inches long, has purplish
flesh, and never cooks to a mealy consistency. It is much prized for
soups and is always firm and crisp when cooked. White Cloud’s potato
patch on Bear Island, Leech Lake, Minnesota, is shown in plate 58, fig.
1.


URTICACEAE (NETTLE FAMILY)

=Hop= (_Humulus lupulus_ L.) “jiˈwîciniˈ goniˈ bûg”. The Pillager
Ojibwe often use the hop fruit as a substitute for baking soda.


VITACEAE (VINE FAMILY)

=Virginia Creeper= (_Psedera quinquefolia_ [L.] Greene), “manîdoˈ
bimakwît” [spirit twisted]. The Pillager Ojibwe say that the root of
this vine was cooked and eaten a long time ago by their people and that
it had been given as a special food by Winabojo.

=River-bank Grape= (_Vitis vulpina_ L.), “cîˈ wimînûn”. The Pillager
Ojibwe use these grapes after they have been frosted, and make them
into jelly for winter use.



OJIBWE VEGETAL FIBERS


The Ojibwe Indians have always been far removed from the beaten paths
of the white men, and for this reason make good use of their native
plant materials. Oft times, it seems to the white man that they bestow
considerable labor, upon making cord, string, mats, baskets and similar
articles that might as easily be purchased at a store. But money is not
plentiful, and many of the things that can be purchased have inferior
lasting qualities. Disgust for a poor substitute, pride in their own
resourcefulness, and the habit of centuries has kept them constantly
proving that they are the master of their environment and continuing to
make their products in the good old Ojibwe way.

Outside of yarn sashes, they have not woven textiles for a long time.
Perhaps the last of their textile work is in storage bags made from
nettle fiber or basswood string. Cedar bark fiber was used long ago for
some coarse textiles but not within the past century.

Their bark wigwams are quite comfortable and probably more Ojibwe live
in these native houses, shown in plate 46, fig. 2, and plate 58, fig.
2, than in frame houses. Certainly they use more of these than any
other Wisconsin tribe. The mats for the benches or beds at the outer
rim of the wigwam, or for the floor inside, are skillfully made. They
can make their wigwams wind and waterproof with sewed cat-tail mats
and birch bark, as shown in plate 46, fig. 2, and can even live very
comfortably in their wigwams in sub-zero temperatures.

There are several agency schools scattered about the reservations,
where the children may go to school, and happily the teachers usually
encourage the children to learn their own Indian arts. The schools are
really boarding schools, where the children stay continuously for nine
months, being completely clothed by the Indian service. Sometimes boys
and girls will escape and run home to hide, but the disciplinarian and
Indian policeman usually ferret them out and bring them back, or else
seize the father and hold him in jail until the scholar is produced
again. Indian children are taught more of the useful arts and household
arts than are the white children, but also have access to a college
education through their university or normal schools.

Under the head of vegetal fibers, we also consider their uses of
forest trees, since these are so closely related. As before, the plant
families are listed alphabetically, and descriptions of uses are made
along the same lines as in the preceding divisions of this bulletin.


OJIBWE FIBER PLANTS


ACERACEAE (MAPLE FAMILY)

=Red Maple= (_Acer rubrum_ L.), “cicigîmeˈwîc”. This leaf is frequently
used in the Ojibwe beadwork designs. In fact, many leaves, flowers and
fruits furnish designs. Since the plants are sacred to their midewiwin
or medicine lodge, it is common for them to use especially valuable
remedies in their designs. These may be worked in either porcupine
quills or beads. Shell and copper beads were used in the older work,
while tiny glass beads obtainable from the whites are now used. Indian
women are usually most apt at their own aboriginal designs and do a
rather poor job, when they are given a white man’s design to copy.
In the early days, the Indian men drew outline pictures on birchbark
scrolls to remind them of midewiwin rituals, practices and medicines.
Indian women experimented with plant materials laid upon birch bark
until they found the design that suited them. Deer horns burned in the
fire to furnish charcoal or else flour was used to coat the underside
of a leaf, which was then pressed upon birch bark to leave its outline
as from a carbon copy. The birch bark design would be placed beneath
the native bead loom, as shown in plate 48, fig. 1, and the pattern
copied in beads. Sashes, anklets, bracelets, kneelets, belts, coats and
waists were beaded, also moccasins. The public is not very discerning
in choosing real Indian designs, but the ethnologist can quickly pick
the originals, even though he may never have seen that tribe of Indians
before.

=Mountain Maple= (_Acer spicatum_ Lam.), “cacagobiˈmûk” [emetic bark].
The three-lobed leaf of the Mountain Maple is a great favorite with
Ojibwe women for design work for beading, and it is more often seen
than any other kind of leaf.

=Sugar Maple= (_Acer saccharum_ Marsh.), “înênatîg” [Indian tree].[144]
Paddles for stirring maple sugar or wild rice while scorching or
parching it, bowls and many other objects of utility were made by the
Ojibwe from this wood.


APOCYNACEAE (DOGBANE FAMILY)

=Spreading Dogbane= (_Apocynum androsaemifolium_ L.), “wesaˈwûskwûn”
[nearly blue flowers]. The Flambeau women used to use the outer rind
for fine sewing. In the fall, when mature this fiber makes one of the
strongest native fibers, stronger even than the cultivated hemp to
which it is related.


BETULACEAE (BIRCH FAMILY)

=Paper Birch= (_Betula alba_ L. var. papyrifera [Marsh.] Spach)
“wîgwas”. Birch occupies almost as important a position in the life of
the Ojibwe as dates do in the life of an Arabian or cocoanuts in the
life of a South Sea Islander. The bark is used for buckets, baskets,
wigwam covering, and canoes. Patterns for their decorative art were
made upon the bark; records of their medicine lodge ritual were kept
on its virgin surface. It and cedar form the two most sacred trees of
the Ojibwe, both of which are so useful to them. They regard the birch
bark as a distinct contribution from Winabojo and point to the fact
that it is the last part of the tree to decay. It keeps its form even
after the wood has changed to dust and can be readily slipped from
the wood in decayed logs. It also has the property of protecting from
decay articles stored in it. They claim that a birch is never struck by
lightning, hence offers a safe harbor in a thunderstorm.

No birch or cedar is gathered by the Ojibwe without due offering of
tobacco to Winabojo and Grandmother Earth. Families make a pilgrimage
to birch groves during the latter part of June and in July to gather
their supply of birch bark, because it peels most easily at that time.
As everyone knows, there are many layers of bark on a birch tree
ranging from the thinnest paper to quite heavy pieces that make very
durable canoes.

George L. Waite, Honorary Curator of Botany in this museum, made a
special series of pictures, thirty in number, detailing every step
in the manufacture of their canoes or “tciman” as they call them.
Ogabeˈgijîg [rift in the clouds] and his wife Cawasînoˈkwe [rays of
light from cloud] both 80 years old, about the only old couple at Lac
du Flambeau, still remembering the proper Ojibwe method of making a
birchbark canoe were engaged to carry on the work. Important steps are
shown in plates accompanying this bulletin.

To find a tree with thick bark suitable for canoe-making often
necessitates a considerable journey on foot as it did in this case. The
trunk should be ten to fifteen inches in diameter, smooth and straight
as can be selected. Paper birches are of slow growth and the usual
specimen of that diameter will be from fifty to seventy years old.
This tree was collected with all the proper ceremony. Into a hole in
the ground at the base of the tree, tobacco was placed as an offering.
Tobacco was smoked by the man, who saluted the cardinal points of the
compass, and likewise heaven and earth. The tree was then cut down.
They say that usually it will be left standing on the stump, so that
the bark may be undamaged, but for this canoe where the outside of the
bark becomes the inside of the canoe, they felled crossed logs to hold
it off the ground.

To remove the bark, a long perpendicular slit is made the length
desired. From this cut the bark is laid back on either side, with an
axe, and peeled from the log as shown in plate 52, fig. 1. To overcome
the natural curl of the bark, it is then rolled up with the inner side
outmost, in proper lengths and tied with inner bark of the basswood,
which is their ready cord material. With a tump-line over the head, as
shown in plate 52, fig. 2, the man is ready to carry the bark home,
where he will make the canoe.

The framework was made of White Cedar or Arbor Vitae because it
is light, elastic, strong and easy to split. In plate 53, fig. 1,
Ogabeˈgijîg is shown splitting the cedar log to obtain the ribs and
framework. There are two lengths, sixteen feet for top rails, and six
feet for ribs, as shown in plate 53, fig. 2. The curves of the prow and
stern are obtained by slitting a stave twelve times so that it may be
bent at right angles, tied securely with basswood string, and held in
place until dried as shown in plate 54, fig. 1.

A staked form eighteen feet long is next laid out on the ground, as
shown in plate 54, fig. 2. The bark is secured between the two stakes
so that it cannot slip and is then ready for sewing together. Large
rocks are piled inside to overcome any tendency of the bark to curl.
The sewing material is the root of Jack Pine. These are especially
suitable since they are long and straight. Ogabeˈgijîg is seen pulling
them out of the ground after digging with a grub hoe, in plate 55, fig.
1. The central core is tough and is about the same diameter at the tip
as it is close to the main trunk of the tree. It is split into two and
coiled, to furnish a very tough flexible cord. The coils are shown with
Cawasînoˈkwe under the Jack Pine tree from whence they came in plate
55, fig. 2. Both cedar sticks and root fiber are sunk in the lake till
needed.

Sewing makes awl holes necessary, and a White Oak wood awl is used.
Both ends are drawn through the same hole with a lock stitch, like
the shoemaker used to use in putting on half soles. All holes must be
caulked and made watertight. Pitch is obtained from a Balsam, Norway
Pine, or White Pine. Notches made in the tree trunk fill with resin in
ten days. This is boiled with tallow in a kettle, as shown in plate
56, fig. 1. The resin is cooked a second time to obtain the pitch and
Hemlock or Larch bark is used to furnish the heat, because it produces
more steady heat than a wood fire.

Cawasînoˈkwe is seen again sewing the canoe into its form in plate
56, figure 2, and is shown applying pitch to the seams in plate 57,
figure 1. Decorations are made with native dyes such as blue clay and
red ochre. Nowadays white men’s colors are used and clan marks painted
on each end. Ogabeˈgijîg uses a bear picture for his clan mark while
Cawasînoˈkwe belongs to the chicken clan. The finished canoe is seen in
plate 57, fig. 2, as they are launching it upon Flambeau Lake. Very few
Ojibwe can still make a real birch bark canoe in this manner and the
museum considers this series of photographs a valuable one.

The tree is later salvaged for firewood, but the bark may be used right
away as soon as obtained. Emergency trays or buckets may be fashioned
at once in the woods, or the bark may be stored for future use. The
application of heat is all that is necessary to bend it in any shape
desired. Although it is highly inflammable, still buckets of birch bark
can be used to cook meats. Where water covers the inside of the vessel,
it will not burn. The Ojibwe woman saves scraps of birchbark to kindle
or light fires with them. A handy torch which will burn all night can
be made by rolling birch bark tightly. It is often used by the Ojibwe
in lieu of candles.

Nearly any kitchen utensil common to the white man, can be duplicated
in birchbark by the Ojibwe. Even funnels for pouring hot lard are
easily made. The mokoks or baskets are made for gathering and storing
berries, for storing maple sugar, dried fish, meat, or any food.
The birchbark keeps the food from spoiling. Some of the mokoks for
gathering berries or carrying maple sap, have bark handles like bucket
handles, as shown in plate 49, fig. 1, while larger storage baskets
have no handles, but a lid, or sometimes a flap of the basket itself is
used to close it tightly. All sorts of drying trays are made from birch
bark. Shallow trays for winnowing wild rice are also made of it.

Sheets of bark are sewed together with basswood string and made into
birchbark rolls, used as waterproof roofing for wigwams, as shown in
plate 46, fig. 2. Sticks tied across the end of the roll keep it from
splitting and tearing. A fine opportunity to see these bark rolls
was afforded during the Court of Neptune pageant in 1926 on the lake
front in Milwaukee, when the writer brought down over a hundred Ojibwe
Indians from Lac Court Oreilles, Wisconsin, and set up a model old time
village of eleven wigwams. There they lived for a week demonstrating
their former methods of life, jerking meats over open fires, as shown
in plate 47, fig. 2, and practicing their native arts and crafts.

=Low Birch= (_Betula pumila_ L. var. _glandulifera_ Regel), “bîneˈmîc”
[partridge bush]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the twigs of this dwarf birch
for the ribs of baskets, where sweet grass is the weaving material.

=Hazelnut= (_Corylus americana_ Walt.), “mûkwoˈbagaˈnak”.[145] A
crooked stick with an enlarged base such as can often be obtained in a
hazel bush makes the favorite drum stick for the Flambeau Ojibwe. The
finer twigs are bound into a bundle, with the tips sheared, to serve as
a primitive broom or brush to be used on the bare ground in the wigwam.
The finer twigs may also be used as ribs in making woven baskets for
collecting or storing acorns or hard fruits.


CAPRIFOLIACEAE (HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY)

=Downy Arrow-wood= (_Viburnum pubescens_ [Ait.] Pursh), “wabanweˈak”
[east stick]. The bark of this species furnished one of the ingredients
of a Pillager Ojibwe kinnikinnik, which the writer smoked and
pronounces good.


COMPOSITAE (COMPOSITE FAMILY)

=Woolly Yarrow= (_Achillea lanulosa_ Nutt.), “wabîgwon” [white flower].
The flower heads are used in the kinnikinnik mixture for smoking by the
Flambeau Ojibwe. This mixture, is not however smoked for pleasure, but
in medicine lodge ceremonies for ceremonial purposes.

=White Sage= (_Artemisia ludoviciana_ Nutt.), “bebejiˈgoganjîˈ
wîˈngûsk” [horse hollow tube]. While the Pillager Ojibwe use this plant
as a horse medicine, they report that their neighbors the Sioux use it
in their smoking tobacco.


CORNACEAE (DOGWOOD FAMILY)

=Alternate-leaved Dogwood= (_Cornus alternifolia_ L. f.), “mosoˈmîc”
[moose tree]. The bark of this dogwood is used for kinnikinnik, while
the twigs are used in thatching and for various purposes by the
Pillager Ojibwe.

=Panicled Dogwood= (_Cornus paniculata_ L’Her.), “meskwabiˈmîc” [red
tree]. The Flambeau Ojibwe make kinnikinnik from the bark of this
species for smoking.


CYPERACEAE (SEDGE FAMILY)

=Wool Grass= (_Scirpus cyperinus_ [L.] Kunth.), “gaîeˈwûckûk”. The
Flambeau Ojibwe use these small rushes for a certain kind of mat, and
formerly used them for woven bags for storage.

=Great Bulrush= (_Scirpus validus_ Vahl.), “jîkaˈmiûskûn”. The Pillager
Ojibwe use this rush for their best mats. The bleached rushes are
shown in plate 51, fig. 1, after they have been immersed in water for
a few days and then cleansed. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the same rush in
the same way. They select long rushes, with small diameters, so that
the pith content is small. When the mat is in service, such a fiber
will not crush readily. The rush when gathered is an intense green,
white only at the base where it stands in water. All rushes must first
be bleached pure white, and afterwards colored as desired. They are
pulled, rather than cut, in order to obtain the maximum length. When
thoroughly bleached and dried, they dye them with white men’s dyes.
Formerly they used native dyes, which they really prefer. The writer
tried for a long time to secure the proper dyes for Whitefeather, but
without success. They had a small quantity of German dye bought in
1914, which was satisfactory, but the six lots sent them were not equal
to the small sample in penetration nor permanence. The bleached rushes
preponderate in any rug, and are ivory-white in color. The finished rug
or mat is three feet wide and from four to eight feet long, and sells
for from $8 to $30.[146] The edge is bound securely with nettle fiber
cord. The Flambeau Ojibwe use a more general term in referring to the
rushes “anaˈganûck” meaning rushes in general.


EQUISETACEAE (HORSETAIL FAMILY)

=Scouring Rush= (_Equisetum hyemale_ L.), “gîjiˈbînûsk” [duck plant].
The Pillager Ojibwe, besides using this for a medicine, employ a
handful of the stems to scour their kettles and pans.


FAGACEAE (BEECH FAMILY)

=White Oak= (_Quercus alba_ L.), “mîtîˈgomîc”. The wood is of much
value to all the Ojibwe, especially for making awls to punch holes in
birch bark as they are sewing it with Jack Pine roots. They use it in
making wigwams and for several other things. In fact, all the oaks are
used and appreciated.


GRAMINEAE (GRASS FAMILY)

=Sweet Grass= (_Anthoxanthum odoratum_ L.), “wîckoˈbimûckoˈsi” [sweet
grass]. While Sweet Grass is scarce around the Flambeau and Pillager
reservations, they secure it elsewhere for making baskets, and say that
in olden times it was used ceremonially because of its persistent sweet
scent.


HYDROPHYLLACEAE (WATERLEAF FAMILY)

=Virginia Waterleaf= (_Hydrophyllum virginianum_ L.),
“nebîneˈnanikweˈîag.” [having hair on only one side]. According to
White Cloud, Pillager Ojibwe, this root was chopped up and put into
pony feed to make them grow fat and have glossy hair.


JUGLANDACEAE (WALNUT FAMILY)

=Shell-bark Hickory= (_Carya ovata_ [Mill.] K. Koch.), “mîtîgwabaˈk”
[wooden?]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the wood for making bows. Some are
quite particular about the piece of wood they select, choosing a billet
from the tree that includes heart wood on one side and sap wood on the
other. The heart wood is the front of the bow in use, while the sap
wood is nearest the user. It is likewise a wood of general utility.


JUNCACEAE (RUSH FAMILY)

=Dudley’s Rush= (_Juncus dudleyi_ Wiegand), “jîgomiˈûskûn”. The
Pillager Ojibwe use this tiny rush in their finest mat work, for small
pieces.


LEGUMINOSAE (PULSE FAMILY)

=Creamy Vetchling= (_Lathyrus ochroleucus_, Hook.), “bûgwaˈdjûk
pîniˈkmîneˈbûg” [unusual potato, berry leaf]. The leaves and roots of
this were used by the Pillager Ojibwe to put spirit into a pony just
before they expected to race him.

=Marsh Vetchling= (_Lathyrus palustris_ L.), “bebejiˈgoganjiˈ mackiˈki”
[horse medicine or literally “animal with only one hoof” medicine]. The
foliage was specially fed to a pony by the Pillager Ojibwe to make it
grow fat.


MYRICACEAE (BAYBERRY FAMILY)

=Sweet Fern= (_Myrica asplenifolia_ L.), “gibaimeˈnûnagwûs” [coverer].
This word is almost the same as the Menomini word for Sweet Fern and
means the same thing. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the leaves to line their
buckets when they pick blueberries and also cover them with the leaves,
to keep them from spoiling.


OLEACEAE (OLIVE FAMILY)

=Black Ash= (_Fraxinus nigra_ Marsh). Black Ash is the wood chosen
for basketry splints by the Ojibwe. While our Wisconsin Indians are
skilled at basket making, their product is more useful than highly
ornamental. If they had the yucca leaves, the devil’s claw fiber, the
sumac twigs, the bunch grass, and the other splendid basketry fibers
of the southwestern Indians, no doubt they would make equally fine
baskets. The Wisconsin Indians exercise possibly more ingenuity in
gathering and preparing their basketry material. They select a Black
Ash log from a swamp and peel it carefully. Then with a butcher knife,
they make a cut about a half inch deep and by pounding with an axe head
cause it to split up from the log, as seen in plate 50, figure 1. By
inserting wedges, and continually pounding ahead of them, they cause
the wood to separate along the annual rings. Then a further cut is
made in the center of the annual ring and the two halves peeled back
leaving a glossy surface. These splints are curled up into coils to be
immersed in kettles of dye stuffs. Then they are woven by the women of
the household as shown in plate 50, figure 2.

=Red Ash= (_Fraxinus pennsylvanica_ Marsh.), “aˈgîmak” [snow-shoe
wood]. All ash wood is quite valuable to the Ojibwe, as they use it for
bows and arrows, snow-shoe frames, sleds, basketry splints and cradle
boards as shown in plate 49, fig. 2. The Red Ash is not used for the
basketry splints when they can get Black Ash.


PINACEAE (PINE FAMILY)

=Balsam Fir= (_Abies balsamea_ [L.] Mill.), “jîngoˈb” [any kind of
fir tree]. More properly “jîngoˈb pikewaˈndag” [fir tree that goes up
to a peak]. The Ojibwe chop a hole in the trunk and allow the resin
to accumulate and harden. When gathered and boiled it becomes a canoe
pitch. It is usually boiled a second time with the addition of suet or
fat to make a canoe pitch of the proper consistency. Another name given
the tree is “jîngoˈbandag”.

=Tamarack= (_Larix laricina_ [DuRoi] Koch), “mûckiˈgwatîg” [swamp
tree]. Larch roots are also used as a sewing material by the Flambeau
and Couderay Ojibwe and they used to sew canoes with them. They also
make bags from the root fibers, which are considered especially durable.

=Black Spruce= (_Picea mariana_ [Mill.] BSP.), “jîngwûp” [its name].
The Flambeau and Couderay Ojibwe used these roots to sew canoes, and
from incisions in the bark gathered the resin to be boiled with tallow
to make pitch for caulking canoes.

=Jack Pine= (_Pinus banksiana_ Lamb.), “gîgaˈndag” [its name]. Jack
Pine roots have ever been esteemed by all Ojibwe as fine sewing
material for their canoes and other coarse and durable sewing. They
dig the roots with a grub hoe as shown in plate 55, fig. 1, and often
find them fifty or sixty feet long. These are split lengthwise into
two halves starting at the tree end, and are wrapped in coils as shown
in plate 55, fig. 2. They are then sunk in the lake which loosens the
bark and enables them to be scraped clean, as well as adding to their
flexibility. They are an ivory white when used and very tough and
flexible. An Ojibwe woman is shown sewing a canoe with them in plate
56, figure 2.

=Norway Pine= (_Pinus resinosa_ Ait.), “abakwanûgiˈmûg” [bark in
plates], shown in plate 63, fig. 2. The Flambeau Ojibwe gather resin
from the Norway Pine just as they do from the White Pine, Balsam and
Spruce, by chopping a hole into the trunk and collecting the resin as
it forms. It is boiled twice, being combined with tallow the second
time, to make a serviceable waterproof pitch. This is not only used for
caulking canoes, but for mending roof rolls of birch bark and other
things. The wood is also utilized.

=White Pine= (_Pinus strobus_ L.), “jîngwaˈkwacêskweˈdo” [white pine
cone], shown in plate 63, fig. 1. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the pitch
from the boiled cones, along with the resin that flows from boxed
trees, for caulking and waterproofing purposes.

=Arbor Vitae= (_Thuja occidentalis_ L.), “giˈjîg” [cedar or sky].
The Ojibwe worships the Arbor Vitae or White Cedar and the Paper or
Canoe Birch, as the two most useful trees in the forest. The pungent
fragrance of the leaves and wood of the Arbor Vitae are always an
acceptable incense to Winabojo, and the wood is their choice for light,
strong straight-grained canoe frames and ribs, as shown in plate 53,
figure 2. In earlier times, the tough stringy bark was used in making
fiber bags, but these are scarcely ever seen today.

=Hemlock= (_Tsuga canadensis_ [L.] Carr.), “gagagiˈwîc” [its name].
Hemlock bark was used by the Flambeau Ojibwe for fuel, when boiling
their pitch the second time, because the heat from it was more easily
regulated than that from a wood fire.


ROSACEAE (ROSE FAMILY)

=Hawthorn= (_Crataegus_ sp.), “mîneˈsagaˈwûnj”. The Flambeau Ojibwe
women use the sharp thorns for sewing awls on finer work such as
buckskin sewing with sinew.


SALICACEAE (WILLOW FAMILY)

=Shining Willow= (_Salix lucida_ Muhl.), “azisiˈgobmîc” [its name]. The
Flambeau Ojibwe use this bark for their kinnikinnik or native smoking
mixture. It is peeled and toasted over a fire and reduced to flakes.


SPHAGNACEAE (SPHAGNUM MOSS FAMILY)

=Sphagnum= (_Sphagnum dusenii_ C. Jens.), “asaˈgûmîg” [moss]. The
Flambeau and Pillager Ojibwe find Sphagnum Moss, shown in plate 66,
fig. 1, readily available. They gather and dry it to make mattresses.


TILIACEAE (BASSWOOD FAMILY)

=Basswood= (_Tilia americana_ L.), “wigub” [its name]. The tough
fibrous bark of young basswood trees furnishes all Ojibwe with ready
cordage and string in the woods, but it is also prepared by the women
for future use. They strip the bark and peel the outer edge from the
inner fiber with their teeth. The rolls are then kept in coils or
are boiled and kept as coils until needed, being soaked again when
used, to make them pliable. While they have countless uses for this
cordage perhaps the most important is in tying the poles together for
the framework of the wigwam or medicine lodge, as shown in plate 46,
figure 2. When these crossings of poles are lashed together with wet
bark fiber, it is easy to get a tight knot which shrinks when dry and
makes an even tighter joint. The bark of an elm or a balsam, cut into
broad strips is then sewed into place on the framework with basswood
string. In olden times, an oak wood awl was used to punch holes in the
bark, but at Leech Lake when they made the writer’s wigwam, as shown in
plate 58, figure 2, they used an old file end for an awl. The writer
lived in this new wigwam all the time he was among the Pillager Ojibwe
and scarcely a night passed without a group of them visiting him and
sitting around the campfire, telling old time stories.


TYPHACEAE (CAT-TAIL FAMILY)

=Cat-tail= (_Typha latifolia_ L.), “abûkweˈskwe” [wigwam cover; that
is, the plant leaves]. The Flambeau Ojibwe women use the cat-tail
leaves to make wind and rain-proof mats to be placed on the sides of
the medicine lodge or any temporary wigwam or sweat lodge. They sew
with a bone needle and nettle or basswood fiber with a hidden stitch,
and bind the edges securely with their sewing cord. These mats are made
quite large to cover the wigwams, and are rolled and carried around
with them. They are not quite rain-proof as a roofing material, so
birchbark rolls are used for that purpose. The fuzz or seed of the
cat-tail is called “bebamasûˈn” [it flies around], and is used to make
mattresses and sleeping bags. They say the fuzz will blind one if it
gets into his eyes. They gather the heads and boil them first, which
causes all the bugs to come out of them. Then they dry them and strip
the fuzz, to make a mattress, which they claim is as soft as feathers,
but very prone to mat together, so that it must be shaken often and
thoroughly. They also make a quilt of it, and from the quilt a sleeping
bag. This is declared to be soft and warm in the coldest weather.


URTICACEAE (NETTLE FAMILY)

=Wood Nettle= (_Laportea canadensis_ [L.] Gaud.), “masanaˈtîg” [woods
fiber]. The Pillager Ojibwe say that their old people used the rind of
this nettle as a sewing fiber.

=Slippery Elm= (_Ulmus fulva_ Michx.), “aniˈb” [its name]. The Pillager
Ojibwe strip this bark to use as a wigwam cover, for the sides of the
wigwam.

=Lyall’s Nettle= (_Urtica lyalli_ Wats.), “masan” [woods]. In
aboriginal times, the Flambeau Ojibwe used the bark or rind of this
nettle to give them a fine, stout sewing fiber.



OJIBWE VEGETAL DYES


Some of the old people among all Ojibwe still use vegetable and native
dye stuffs, especially upon a mat or piece of material that they
expect to keep for their own use. For the tourist trade, they will use
“Diamond” dyes or any sort they can get as they are not especially
interested in how well the color lasts in that case. John Whitefeather,
Flambeau Ojibwe, asked the writer to find a good dye for them, as he
had been unable to buy any since 1914. Several lots were sent to him,
but none was found that had the penetration and permanence of the
German dyes that he had before the war. He had to resort to native
dye stuffs to get those qualities, but, of course, could not get the
same range of colors in native dye stuffs. That was the main reason he
sought more of the white man’s dyes.

They boil the material they wish to color in the mixture of plant parts
and some earth to set the color. For this they use various clays, the
red or black sand that bubbles up in a spring, or stone dust, perhaps
with a few, rusty, iron nails thrown in the kettle for good measure.
Sometimes the bark of Black Oak (_Quercus velutina_ Lam.) was used to
set the color.


OJIBWE DYE PLANTS


ANACARDIACEAE (SUMAC FAMILY)

=Smooth Sumac= (_Rhus glabra_ L.), “bakwaˈnak” [binding tree]. The
Flambeau Ojibwe use the inner bark and the central pith of the stem of
the Smooth Sumac, mixed with Bloodroot to obtain an orange color. The
material is boiled in the mixture.

=Staghorn Sumac= (_Rhus typhina_ L.), “bakwanaˈtîg”. The Pillager
Ojibwe do not have the Smooth Sumac, but use the Staghorn Sumac in the
same way as the Flambeau Ojibwe use the other. The writer was unable to
discover how they set the color unless it was with some stone dust that
accumulated in the base of the kettle.


BALSAMINACEAE (TOUCH-ME-NOT FAMILY)

=Spotted Touch-me-not= (_Impatiens biflora_ Walt.), “oˈsawaskodjiˈbîk”
[yellow root]. The whole plant is used by the Pillager Ojibwe to make a
yellow dye and the material is boiled in the mixture with a few rusty
nails.


BETULACEAE (BIRCH FAMILY)

=Speckled Alder= (_Alnus incana_ [L.] Moench.), “wadoˈb” [its name].
The Flambeau Ojibwe use the inner bark for dyeing a light yellow, or
with other ingredients to get a red, red brown or black. In occasional
cases where sweet grass is dyed reddish yellow, the woman chews the
inner bark and draws a wisp of sweet grass through her mouth weaving it
in for color.

=Paper Birch= (_Betula alba_ L. var. _papyrifera_ [Marsh.] Spach),
“wîgwas” [birch]. The innermost bark of the White Birch is boiled to
extract a reddish dye by the Flambeau Ojibwe.

=Hazelnut= (_Corylus americana_ Walt.), “mûkwoˈbagaˈnak”. The Flambeau
Ojibwe make use of the seed hulls of the Hazelnut in setting the black
color of butternut dye. They are boiled together and the tannic acid of
the hull sets the color.


FAGACEAE (BEECH FAMILY)

=Bur Oak= (_Quercus macrocarpa_ Michx.), “mêtîˈgomîc”. The Flambeau
Ojibwe use this bark in combination with other materials to set color.

=Black Oak= (_Quercus velutina_ Lam.), “mêtîˈgomic”. The Flambeau
Ojibwe use this bark for a reddish yellow dye and it sets its own color.


JUGLANDACEAE (WALNUT FAMILY)

=Butternut= (_Juglans cinerea_ L.), “bagaˈnag”. The Flambeau and
Pillager Ojibwe find this one of their best brown dyes, because they
can get it from the tree at any time of the year. It is usually used in
other combinations for brown and black colors.


MYRICACEAE (BAYBERRY FAMILY)

=Sweet Gale= (_Myrica gale_ L.), “waˈsawasniˈmîke” [yellow catkins]. In
the fall of the year, the tips of the branches grow into an abortive
scale or gall-like structure that is plucked and boiled to yield a
brown dye stuff. The Flambeau Ojibwe seem to be the only Ojibwe that
know this.


PAPAVERACEAE (POPPY FAMILY)

=Bloodroot= (_Sanguinaria canadensis_ L.), “meskwaˈdjibîkûk” [red
root]. The Ojibwe use this root in four or five combinations in dyeing
various materials. It is not necessary to mix it with other materials
to set the color and alone it gives a dark yellow or orange color. They
use it to paint the face, also, making different clan marks with it.
Either the fresh root or dried root may be used.


PINACEAE (PINE FAMILY)

=Hemlock= (_Tsuga canadensis_ [L.] Carr.), “gagagiˈwîc”. The Flambeau
Ojibwe use the bark together with a little rock dust to set the color,
to dye materials a dark red brown.


RANUNCULACEAE (CROWFOOT FAMILY)

=Goldthread= (_Coptis trifolia_ [L.] Salisb.), “weˈsawadjiˈbîkweˈak”
[yellow root?], shown in plate 75, fig. 1. The Flambeau Ojibwe add the
golden-colored roots to other plant dyes to emphasize the yellow color.

=Bristly Crowfoot= (_Ranunculus pennsylvanicus_ L. f.), “manweˈgons”.
The entire plant is boiled by the Flambeau Ojibwe to yield a red
coloring dye. Bur Oak is added to set the color.


ROSACEAE (ROSE FAMILY)

=Wild Plum= (_Prunus nigra_ Ait.), “bûgesanaˈtîg”. The Flambeau Ojibwe
use the inner bark as an astringent color fixative in dyeing with other
plant dyes.



MISCELLANEOUS USES OF PLANTS


John Whitefeather, of the Couderay Ojibwe, in explaining the four
degrees of the medicine lodge, told the writer about the many uses of
charms or bewitching plants that the initiate learned in the fourth
degree. The Mîde who perfected himself in the fourth degree was called
a juggler or “Jessakîd”. He is supposed to have supernatural powers
of magic, and can read the thoughts of others, as well as call forth
the ghosts or spirits of the other world. He can give Indians charms or
lures which will aid them to do almost anything they have in mind, and
he is most feared and respected among the Ojibwe.

These charms are supposed to work without physical contact and are thus
different from medicines. They are addressed and prayed over, often
with ceremonial tobacco offered to the four points of the compass, to
heaven and the earth. They are usually referred to as medicine, and are
carried in little buckskin packages about the person of the owner. Much
of the contents of the war bundle, hunting bundle or medicine bundle,
is composed of such charms. They guarantee a safe journey, the winning
of a lacrosse or bowl and dice game, and the ability to find persons
lost in the woods or lost articles. They can bewitch a man’s wife, win
the love of the opposite sex, work evil, and attract game to be shot,
or small animals to one’s traps. There is no doubt that medicines were
often applied with as much faith in their power to charm as belief in
the medicinal value of the medicine root for that specific disease. The
connection between actual and superstitious remedies was oftentimes
close.

Although a juggler or witch doctor had the power to cast these spells
or charms, he was also supposed to have the power to dispel them and
cure them. John Whitefeather called attention to the frequent wry mouth
or twisted side of an Indian’s face, and said that it had been caused
by some witch doctor, but that it could be corrected by the victim, if
he would pay the medicine man more to heal it than the one had paid for
bringing on the affliction in the first instance. Many of their people
think this unjust and the medicine man who does it may have to leave
the village and flee for his life. This actually happened in the case
of Anawabi and the boy who died of pneumonia, the parents claiming that
Anawabi took his breath away. Of course, Anawabi was not within miles
of the boy and assured the writer that he had nothing at all to do with
that case, nor had even thought about it, but he made a hurried trip to
Oklahoma and remained a couple of years until the anger of the parents
had lessened.

Some plants had been used in various tanning processes a very long time
ago by the Ojibwe, but none know anything about it now, so far as the
writer could discover.


APOCYNACEAE (DOGBANE FAMILY)

=Spreading Dogbane= (_Apocynum androsaemifolium_ L.),
“magoˈsiñeˈcnakwûk” [needle like].[147] The Pillager Ojibwe say that
this is one of the roots the use of which is taught in the fourth
degree of the medicine lodge, and that it is not only eaten during the
medicine lodge ceremony, but is also chewed to keep the other witch
doctors from affecting one with an evil charm.


ARACEAE (ARUM FAMILY)

=Sweet Flag= (_Acorus calamus_ L.), “naˈbûgûck” [something flat]. The
root tea of this is used by Big George, Flambeau Ojibwe, on his gill
net to bring him a fine catch of white fish. The net still smelled of
the Calamus root after being in the water more than twelve hours, and
he caught 121 white fish in one pull of the net in Flambeau Lake. It is
combined with the root of Sarsaparilla.


ARALIACEAE (GINSENG FAMILY)

=Wild Sarsaparilla= (_Aralia nudicaulis_ L.), “bebamabiˈk” [root runs
far through the ground]. This root is mixed with Sweet Flag root to
make a tea to soak a gill net before setting it to catch fish during
the night. Big George Skye, at Lac du Flambeau, was quite successful in
catching them.


ASCLEPIADACEAE (MILKWEED FAMILY)

=Common Milkweed= (_Asclepias syriaca_ L.), “înîniˈwûnj” [Indian
plant].[148] The Pillager Ojibwe use the milk of the Common Milkweed
along with the milk of Canada Hawkweed to put on a deer call, thinking
that it will better imitate the call of a fawn that is hungry or in
distress.


COMPOSITAE (COMPOSITE FAMILY)

=Blue Wood Aster= (_Aster cordifolius_ L.), “naskosiˈîcûs”. A number of
the composites as well as plants from other families are used in the
Ojibwe hunting charms. The deer carries its scent or spoor in between
its toes, and wherever the foot is impressed into the ground, other
animals can detect its presence. It is thus dogs track them. It is a
peculiar scent and the Ojibwe tries successfully to counterfeit it with
roots and herbs. The root of this aster is but one of nineteen that
can be used to make a smoke or incense when smoked in a pipe, which
attracts the deer near enough to shoot it with a bow and arrow. They
say that the white man drives the deer away when he smokes cigarettes
or cigars, but the Indians bring them closer.

=Large-leaved Aster= (_Aster macrophyllus_ L.), “naskosiˈîcûs”. This is
one of the Flambeau Ojibwe hunting charms. It is smoked to attract deer.

=Horse-weed= (_Erigeron canadensis_ L.), “wabîˈgwûn” [white flower].
This is one of the Flambeau Ojibwe hunting charms. The disk florets are
smoked.

=Philadelphia Fleabane= (_Erigeron philadelphicus_ L.), “mîcaoˈgacan”
[odor of split hoof of female deer]. The Pillager Ojibwe use the disk
florets of this plant to smoke to attract the buck deer. They say that
cows and deer eat the blossoms.

=Canada Hawkweed= (_Hieracium canadense_ Michx.) Under the name
“wabîˈgwûn” [white flower], some of the Flambeau Ojibwe use the flowers
to make a hunting lure, and mix it with their other hunting charms.
Others call it “mêmîskûˈnakûk” and say that they cut off the roots and
nibble at them when hunting. The roots are milky like the stem and the
hunter wanting a doe will pretend he is a fawn trying to suckle and
thus attract a doe close enough to shoot with bow and arrow.

=Tall Blue Lettuce= (_Lactuca spicata_ [Lam.] Hitchc.), “dodocaˈbo”
[milk]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use this plant in the same manner as they
do the Canada Hawkweed to attract a doe to them for a close shot.

=Fragrant Golden-rod= (_Solidago graminifolia_ [L.] Salisb.),
“waˈsawaskwûneˈk” [yellow light]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the flowers
of this golden-rod to add to their hunting medicine, which is smoked to
simulate the odor of a deer’s hoof.

=Tansy= (_Tanacetum vulgare_ L.), “mûckîkiˈwît” [medicine plant]. The
yellow flowers are used by the Flambeau Ojibwe as an addition to their
odorous hunting mixture which they smoke to attract deer.


CORNACEAE (DOGWOOD FAMILY)

=Alternate-leaved Dogwood= (_Cornus alternifolia_ L. f.), “mosoˈmîc”
[moose tree]. The root is boiled by the Flambeau Ojibwe to wash a
muskrat trap and make it lure the muskrat.


ERICACEAE (HEATH FAMILY)

=Shin Leaf= (_Pyrola americana_ Sweet.), “bîneˈbûg” [partridge leaf].
The Flambeau Ojibwe hunter makes a tea from dried leaves of this plant
and drinks it as a good luck potion in the morning before he starts to
hunt.


IRIDACEAE (IRIS FAMILY)

=Blue Flag= (_Iris versicolor_ L.) “wikê”.[149] Both Flambeau and
Pillager Ojibwe use this as a charm against snakes and claim that
Indians all over the country use it the same way. When the Ojibwe
go out blueberrying all day, every one carries a piece of it in his
clothes and will handle it every little while to perpetuate the scent.
They believe that snakes will shun them while so protected. They say
that the Arizona Indians use it when they hold their snake dances and
are never struck as long as their clothes are fumigated with it. They
also chew it to get the odor into their mouths, preparatory to taking
rattlesnakes into their teeth. The rattlesnake never offers to bite
them so long as the scent of the Blue Flag persists.


LABIATAE (MINT FAMILY)

=Heal-all= (_Prunella vulgaris_ L.), “basiˈbûgûk”. The Flambeau Ojibwe
use the root of this plant to make a tea to drink before going hunting.
It is supposed to sharpen their powers of observation.


LILIACEAE (LILY FAMILY)

=Northern Clintonia= (_Clintonia borealis_ [Ait.] Raf.), “adotaˈgans”
[little bell].[150] The Pillager Ojibwe claim that dogs chew the roots
of this plant to poison their teeth, and if they then bite an animal it
will die. A man may protect himself from such a bite by using the same
root as a poultice on the wound.

=Sessile-leaved Bellwort= (_Oakesia sessilifolia_ [L.] Wats.),
“neweîaˈkwisînk” [one sided]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the root of this
plant as a part of their mîcaoˈgacan hunting medicine to bring a buck
deer near the hunter.


ORCHIDACEAE (ORCHIS FAMILY)

=Rein Orchis= (_Habenaria bracteata_ [Willd.] R. Br.), “gokoˈcgûnda
mîneskweˈmîn” [pig does, red root]. This plant is a sort of love charm
among the Pillager Ojibwe often put to bad use.

=Slender Ladies’ Tresses= (_Spiranthes gracilis_ [Bigel.] Beck),
“bîneˈbûg” [partridge leaf]. The Flambeau Ojibwe use the root as an
ingredient of their hunting charm to bring game to them.


PLANTAGINACEAE (PLANTAIN FAMILY)

=Common Plantain= (_Plantago major_ L.), “cecaˈgûski bûgeˈsînk” [leaves
grow up and also lie flat on the ground].[151] The highly colored base
and root of this plant appeal to the Flambeau Ojibwe who always carry
some of the ground root in their pockets to ward off snakes.


POLYGONACEAE (BUCKWHEAT FAMILY)

=Swamp Persicaria= (_Polygonum muhlenbergii_ [Meisn.] Wats.)
“agoñgosiˈmînûn”. The Flambeau Ojibwe dry the flower of this plant and
then include it in their hunting medicine, which is smoked to attract
deer to the hunter.

=Curled Dock= (_Rumex crispus_ L.), “ciobûg”. The dried seeds of this
dock are smoked when dried by the Flambeau Ojibwe, as a favorable lure
to game when mixed with kinnikinnik.


PRIMULACEAE (PRIMROSE FAMILY)

=Starflower= (_Trientalis americana_ [Pers.] Pursh.), “nawoˈbûgûk”
[four-leaved clover]. The root of this is mixed with many others to
make the smoking scent that attracts the deer to the hunter, according
to the Flambeau Ojibwe.


RANUNCULACEAE (CROWFOOT FAMILY)

=Bristly Crowfoot= (_Ranunculus pennsylvanicus_ L. f.), “manweˈ gons”.
The Flambeau Ojibwe smoke the seeds of this in their hunting medicine
to lure the buck deer near enough for a shot with bow and arrow.


ROSACEAE (ROSE FAMILY)

=Hawthorn= (_Crataegus_ Sp.), “mînesagaˈwûnj”, shown in plate 77, fig.
2. The bark of the Hawthorn was used by the Flambeau Ojibwe in making
up their deer scent for smoking to attract deer while hunting.


SCROPHULARIACEAE (FIGWORT FAMILY)

=Wood Betony= (_Pedicularis canadensis_ L.), “mandaˈmînîodjiˈbîkêns”
[little corn root]. This is a sort of love charm according to John
Peper, Pillager Ojibwe, who said that the root was chopped up and put
into some dish of food that was cooking, without the knowledge of the
people who were going to eat it, and if they had been quarrelsome, then
they became lovers again. However, he said it was too often put to bad
uses.


TYPHACEAE (CAT-TAIL FAMILY)

=Cat-tail= (_Typha latifolia_ L.) “bebaˈmasûn” [it flies around]. The
Flambeau Ojibwe used to throw the fuzz of the fruit into the eyes of
their enemies, the Sioux, claiming that it blinded them.


UMBELLIFERAE (PARSLEY FAMILY)

=Musquash Root= (_Cicuta maculata_ L.), “abagwasîˈgans”. The root of
this is used in making a hunting medicine to be smoked to attract the
buck deer near enough to shoot with bow and arrow.

=Cow Parsnip= (_Heracleum lanatum_ Michx.) “pipigweˈwanûck” [flute
reed]. According to the Flambeau Ojibwe, there is a bad spirit
“sokênau”, who is always present trying to steal away one’s luck in
hunting game. He must be driven away from the camp of the hunter
by smudging a fire with the roots of the Cow Parsnip. This gets
into Sokênau’s eyes and he cannot see the hunter leave the camp, so
naturally does not follow and bother him. Other Flambeau Ojibwe call
it “acaweˈskûk” but use it in the same way. The Pillager Ojibwe have
the same name for the plant, but put the seed of the plant on a fire to
drive away Sokênau. They boil the root to sprinkle their fishing nets
and lure fish.

=Water Parsnip= (_Sium cicutaefolium_ Schrank.), “waneˈmîgons”. The
seed of this is smoked over a fire by the Flambeau Ojibwe to drive away
and blind Sokênau, the evil spirit that steals away one’s hunting luck.

=Yellow Pimpernel= (_Taenidia integerrima_ [L.] Drude), “manweˈgons” or
“manweˈkos”. The Flambeau Ojibwe declare that the seeds of this plant
are very good for smoking in a pipe when one goes hunting for they will
bring him luck.



CONCLUSION


The Ojibwe will always be interesting, because they prefer to live in
the backwoods, and because they cling so closely to their traditions. A
further reason is that they are more numerous than any other Wisconsin
tribe. They are good friends of the white people and find it hard to
keep to a strictly commercial basis, when hired as guides for fishing
and hunting. Many Milwaukee sportsmen have much appreciated friends
among the Ojibwe, who have ever been strict and upright in their
dealings with them.

There remains a considerable amount of folk lore or ethnology to be
studied and recorded, and since it is easy to find well educated men
and women among them, who still recall the traditions and stories of
their early life, it should prove a fertile field of investigation for
some student. The writer is satisfied that he has only touched the
surface in their ethnobotanical uses, knowing that three or four months
are really too short a time to get this lore from them. But he wishes
to close by saying that the Ojibwe are one of the most interesting
people he has ever met.



FOOTNOTES:

[85] Walter J. Hoffman. “The Midewiwin or ‘Grand Medicine Society’ of
the Ojibwa.” In the 7th Annual Report of Bur. of Ethnol. 1891, pp.
143-299.

[86] Miss Frances Densmore. “Use of Plants by the Chippewa Indians.” In
44th Ann. Rept. Bur. Am. Ethnol., 1928, pp. 275-397.

[87] Field work is completed upon the ethnobotany of the Forest
Pottawatomi, Winnebago and Oneida Indians, and bulletins will appear
upon their ethnobotany at a future date. All will follow the same
general plan.

[88] OJIBWE SYLLABARY

  ba be bi bo
  ka ke ki ko
  sa se si so
  wa we wi we
  sha she shi sho
  ya ye yi yo
  na ne ni no
  a e i o
  ma me mi mo
  da de di do
  ta te ti to
  ga ge gi go
  tta tte tti tto

The letters all have the English value except tta and ga, which are
pronounced cha and kwa. A, e, i, and o when pronounced alone become ha,
he, hi, ho. Extra characters are Ji, pronounced zhi, and di, pronounced
dzhi.

[89] “The Indian tribes of the Upper Mississippi Valley and region of
the Great Lakes” By Nicolas Perrot, translated by E. H. Blair, 1911,
Vol. 1, p. 109.

[90] “The last Indian uprising in the U.S.” Louis H. Roddis, Minn.
Hist. Bull. Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 273-290.

[91] “Sketches of a tour of the Lakes, of the character and customs of
the Chippeway Indians, and of the incidents connected with the treaty
of Fond du Lac,” Thos. L. McKenney, (Balto. 1827).

[92] Present Series, Vol. IV, pl. 31, fig. 3

[93] Present Series, Vol. IV, pl. 31, fig. 4

[94] Present Series, Vol. IV, pl. 35, fig. 4.

[95] Present Series, Vol. IV, pl. 15, fig. 4

[96] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 45, fig. 1.

[97] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 26, fig. 2.

[98] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 28, fig. 2.

[99] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 16, fig. 3.

[100] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 17, fig. 1.

[101] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 17, fig. 2.

[102] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 16, fig. 1.

[103] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 31, fig. 1.

[104] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 18, fig. 1.

[105] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 11, fig. 1.

[106] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 20, fig. 1.

[107] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 19, fig. 2.

[108] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 33, fig. 1.

[109] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 40, fig. 2.

[110] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 20, fig. 3.

[111] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 19, fig. 3.

[112] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 19, fig. 4.

[113] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 14, fig. 3.

[114] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 13, fig. 1.

[115] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 32, fig. 3.

[116] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 14, fig. 2.

[117] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 8, fig. 3.

[118] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 31, fig. 2.

[119] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 30, fig. 2.

[120] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 33, fig. 2.

[121] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 23, fig. 3.

[122] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 8, fig. 1.

[123] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 37, fig. 3.

[124] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 25, fig. 4.

[125] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 23, fig. 2.

[126] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 24, fig. 1, and pl. 37, fig. 1.

[127] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 7, fig. 1.

[128] Indian Notes and Monographs, Museum of the American Indian, Heye
Foundation, Misc. Publ. 20, pp. 164-165, 1921.

[129] Present series, Vol. IV, plate 31, fig. 3.

[130] Lyons, A. N.—Plant Names, Scientific and Popular, 1907, Detroit,
p. 408, Art. 1906.

[131] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 9, fig. 4.

[132] Present series. Vol. IV, pl. 45, fig. 1.

[133] Present series. Vol. IV, pl. 26, fig. 2.

[134] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 16, fig. 3.

[135] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 17, fig. 1.

[136] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 34, fig. 3.

[137] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 11, fig. 1.

[138] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 29, fig. 1.

[139] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 33, fig. 1.

[140] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 20, fig. 3.

[141] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 40, fig. 3, and pl. 41, fig. 2.

[142] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 25, fig. 4.

[143] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 32, fig. 2.

[144] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 7, fig. 2.

[145] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 16, fig. 3.

[146] 1923 Yearbook, fig. 17.

[147] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 35, fig. 4.

[148] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 26, fig. 2.

[149] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 40, fig. 2.

[150] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 14, fig. 3.

[151] Present series, Vol. IV, pl. 31, fig. 2.



FINDING LIST OF PLANTS


BY SCIENTIFIC NAME

  Abies balsamea                           378, 420

  ACERACEAE                           353, 394, 412

  Acer negundo                             353, 394

  Acer rubrum                              353, 412

  Acer spicatum                            353, 413

  Acer saccharum                           394, 413

  Achillea lanulosa                        362, 417

  Achillea millefolium                          362

  Acorus calamus                           355, 428

  Actaea rubra                                  382

  Agrimonia gryposepala                         383

  ALISMACEAE                               353, 396

  Allium cernuum                                406

  Allium tricoccum                              406

  Alnus incana                             358, 425

  Amelanchier laevis                       384, 408

  Amphicarpa pitcheri                           405

  ANACARDIACEAE                       354, 397, 424

  Anaphalis margaritacea                        362

  Andromeda glaucophylla                   368, 400

  Anemone canadensis                            382

  Anemone cylindrica                            383

  Antennaria neodioica                          363

  Anthoxanthum odoratum                         419

  APOCYNACEAE                         354, 413, 428

  Apocynum androsaemifolium      354, 374, 413, 428

  Aquilegia canadensis                          383

  AQUIFOLIACEAE                                 355

  Arabis glabra                                 367

  ARACEAE                                  355, 428

  ARALIACEAE                               356, 428

  Aralia nudicaulis                        356, 428

  Aralia racemosa                               356

  Arctium minus                                 363

  Arisaema triphyllum                           356

  ARISTOLOCHIACEAE                         357, 397

  Artemisia ludoviciana                    363, 417

  Asarum canadense acuminatum              357, 397

  ASCLEPIADACEAE                      357, 397, 428

  Asclepias syriaca                   357, 397, 428

  Aspidium cristatum                            381

  Asplenium filix-femina                        381

  Aster cordifolius                             428

  Aster macrophyllus                  363, 398, 429


  BALSAMINACEAE                            357, 425

  BERBERIDACEAE                                 358

  Betula alba papyrifera              358, 413, 425

  BETULACEAE                     358, 397, 413, 425

  Betula lutea                                  397

  Betula pumila glandulifera               359, 417

  BORAGINACEAE                                  359

  Botrychium virginianum                        377


  Caltha palustris                              408

  Calvatia craniiformis                         370

  Campanula aparinoides                         360

  CAMPANULACEAE                                 360

  Campanula rotundifolia                        360

  CAPRIFOLIACEAE                      360, 398, 417

  Carya ovata                              405, 419

  CARYOPHYLLACEAE                               361

  Castalia odorata                         376, 407

  Caulophyllum thalictroides                    358

  CELASTRACEAE                             362, 398

  Celastrus scandens                       362, 398

  Chamaedaphne calyculata                       400

  Chimaphila umbellata                          368

  Chrysanthemum leucanthemum                    363

  Cicuta maculata                          390, 432

  Cimicifuga racemosa                           382

  Cirsium arvense                               364

  Cirsium lanceolatum                           364

  Cladonia rangiferina                          373

  Clintonia borealis                       373, 430

  COMPOSITAE                     362, 398, 417, 428

  Coptis trifolia                          383, 426

  CORNACEAE                      366, 399, 417, 429

  Cornus alternifolia                 366, 417, 429

  Cornus canadensis                             366

  Cornus paniculata                   367, 399, 418

  Corydalis aurea                               370

  Corylus americana              359, 397, 417, 425

  Corylus rostrata                         359, 398

  Crataegus sp                   384, 409, 422, 431

  CRUCIFERAE                               367, 399

  Cucumis sativa                                399

  CUCURBITACEAE                            367, 399

  Cucurbita maxima                         367, 399

  Cucurbita pepo                                400

  Cynoglossum boreale                           359

  CYPERACEAE                               368, 418

  Cypripedium parviflorum                       377


  Dentaria maxima                               399

  Diervilla lonicera                  360, 375, 377

  Dirca palustris                               390


  Echinocystis lobata                           367

  Epilobium angustifolium                       376

  EQUISETACEAE                        368, 400, 418

  Equisetum arvense                        368, 400

  Equisetum hyemale                        368, 418

  ERICACEAE                           368, 400, 430

  Erigeron canadensis                           429

  Erigeron philadelphicus             364, 398, 429

  Erigeron ramosus                              364

  Eriophorum callitrix                          368

  Eupatorium purpureum                          364

  EUPHORBIACEAE                                 369

  Euphorbia corollata                           369


  FAGACEAE                       369, 401, 418, 425

  Fagus grandifolia                             401

  Fomes applanatus                              370

  Fragaria virginiana                      384, 409

  Fraxinus nigra                                420

  Fraxinus pennsylvanica              376, 407, 420

  FUMARIACEAE                                   370

  FUNGI                                    370, 402


  Galium aparine                                386

  Galium tinctorium                             386

  Galium trifidum                               387

  Gaultheria procumbens                    369, 400

  GERANIACEAE                                   370

  Geranium maculatum                            370

  Geum macrophyllum                             384

  Glyceria canadensis                           371

  GRAMINAE                            371, 402, 419


  Habenaria bracteata                      377, 431

  Heracleum lanatum                        390, 432

  Hieracium canadense                           429

  Humulus lupulus                          391, 411

  HYDROPHYLLACEAE                     371, 405, 419

  Hydrophyllum virginianum            371, 405, 419


  Ilex verticillata                             355

  Impatiens biflora                        357, 425

  IRIDACEAE                                371, 430

  Iris versicolor                          371, 430


  JUGLANDACEAE                        405, 419, 425

  Juglans cinerea                          405, 425

  JUNCACEAE                                     419

  Juncus dudleyi                                419


  LABIATAE                            371, 405, 430

  Lactuca spicata                          364, 429

  Lagenaria vulgaris                            400

  Laportea canadensis                      391, 423

  Larix laricina                           378, 421

  Lathyrus ochroleucus                371, 406, 419

  Lathyrus palustris                       373, 419

  Ledum groenlandicum                           401

  LEGUMINOSAE                         371, 405, 419

  LICHENS                                  373, 406

  LILIACEAE                                373, 430

  Linaria vulgaris                              389

  Lychnis alba                                  361

  LYCOPODIACEAE                                 375

  Lycopodium complanatum                        375

  Lycopodium obscurum dendroideum               375

  Lysimachia thyrsiflora                        382


  Maianthemum canadense                         373

  Melampyrum lineare                            389

  Melilotus alba                                373

  MENISPERMACEAE                                375

  Menispermum canadense                         375

  Mentha arvensis canadensis               371, 405

  Microstylis unifolia                          377

  Monarda fistulosa                             371

  Myrica asplenifolia                      375, 420

  MYRICACEAE                          375, 420, 425

  Myrica gale                                   425


  Nelumbo lutea                                 407

  Nemopanthus mucronata                         355

  Nepeta cataria                           371, 405

  Nymphaea advena                               376

  NYMPHAEACEAE                             376, 407

  NYCTAGINACEAE                                 375


  Oakesia sessilifolia                          430

  Oenothera biennis                             376

  OLEACEAE                                 376, 420

  ONAGRACEAE                                    376

  Onoclea sensibilis                            382

  OPHIOGLOSSACEAE                               377

  ORCHIDACEAE                              377, 431

  Osmorhiza claytoni                            391

  Osmorhiza longistylis                         391

  Oxybaphus nyctagineus                         375


  Panax quinquefolium                           356

  PAPAVERACEAE                             377, 426

  Pastinaca sativa                              391

  Pedicularis canadensis                   389, 432

  Phaseolus lunatus macrocarpa                  406

  Phaseolus vulgaris                            406

  Picea canadensis                              379

  Picea mariana                            379, 421

  PINACEAE                       378, 407, 420, 426

  Pinus banksiana                          379, 421

  Pinus resinosa                           379, 421

  Pinus strobus                       379, 407, 421

  PLANTAGINACEAE                           380, 431

  Plantago major                           380, 431

  POLYGONACEAE                             381, 431

  Polygonatum biflorum                          374

  Polygonum careyi                              381

  Polygonum muhlenbergii                   381, 431

  POLYPODIACEAE                            381, 408

  Populus balsamifera                      352, 387

  Populus grandidentata               352, 387, 410

  Populus tremuloides                           388

  Potentilla monspeliensis                      384

  Potentilla palustris                          384

  Prenanthus alba                               365

  PRIMULACEAE                              382, 431

  Prunella vulgaris                        371, 430

  Prunus nigra                             409, 426

  Prunus pennsylvanica                     385, 409

  Prunus pumila                                 409

  Prunus serotina                          385, 409

  Prunus virginiana                        385, 409

  Psedera quinquefolia                          411

  Pteris aquilina                          382, 408

  Pyrola americana                              430


  Quercus alba                             401, 418

  Quercus macrocarpa                  369, 402, 425

  Quercus rubra                            369, 402

  Quercus velutina                    402, 424, 425


  Radicula palustris                            367

  RANUNCULACEAE                  382, 408, 426, 431

  Ranunculus pennsylvanicus           383, 426, 431

  Ranunculus sceleratus                         383

  Rhus glabra                         354, 397, 424

  Rhus toxicodendron                            354

  Rhus typhina                        354, 397, 424

  Ribes americanum                              410

  Ribes cynosbati                               410

  Ribes oxyacanthoides                          410

  Ribes triste                             389, 410

  Rosa blanda                                   385

  ROSACEAE                       408, 422, 426, 431

  RUBIACEAE                                     386

  Rubus allegheniensis                     385, 409

  Rubus idaeus aculeatissimus              386, 410

  Rubus villosus                                409

  Rudbeckia hirta                               365

  Rumex crispus                            381, 431

  RUTACEAE                                      387


  Sagittaria arifolia                      353, 396

  SALICACEAE                          387, 410, 422

  Salix fragilis                                388

  Salix lucida                             388, 422

  Salix pedicellaris                            388

  Sambucus racemosus                            360

  Sanguinaria canadensis                   377, 426

  Sanicula marilandica                          391

  SARRACENIACEAE                                389

  Sarracenia purpurea                           389

  SAXIFRAGACEAE                            389, 410

  Scirpus cyperinus                             418

  Scirpus validus                               418

  SCROPHULARIACEAE                         389, 432

  Scutellaria galericulata                      371

  Senecio aureus                                365

  Senecio integerrimus                          365

  Silphium perfoliatum                          365

  Sisymbrium canescens                          367

  Sium cicutaefolium                            432

  Smilacina racemosa                       374, 407

  Smilacina stellata                            374

  Smilax herbacea                               374

  SOLANACEAE                                    410

  Solanum tuberosum                             410

  Solidago graminifolia                    366, 429

  SPHAGNACEAE                                   422

  Spiraea salicifolia                           386

  Spiraea tomentosa                             386

  Spiranthes gracilis                           431

  Sticta glomulifera                            406

  Streptopus roseus                             374

  Symphoricarpos occidentalis                   361

  Symphoricarpos racemosus                      361


  Taenidia integerrima                          432

  Tanacetum vulgare                        366, 429

  Taraxacum officinale                     366, 399

  Thalictrum dasycarpum                         383

  Thuja occidentalis                       380, 421

  THYMELEACEAE                                  390

  Tilia americana                               422

  TILIACEAE                                     422

  Trientalis americana                          431

  Tsuga canadensis               380, 408, 422, 426

  TYPHACEAE                           390, 423, 432

  Typha latifolia                     390, 423, 432


  Ulmus fulva                              392, 423

  UMBELLIFERAE                                  432

  URTICACEAE                          391, 411, 423

  Urtica lyallii                           392, 423

  Uvularia grandiflora                          374


  Vaccinium nigrum                              401

  Vaccinium oxycoccus                      369, 401

  Vaccinium pennsylvanicum                 369, 401

  Vaccinium vacillans                           401

  Verbascum thapsus                             390

  Viburnum lentago                         361, 398

  Viburnum opulus americanum               353, 361

  Viburnum prunifolium                          361

  Viburnum pubescens                            417

  Viola canadensis                              392

  VIOLACEAE                                     392

  Viola conspersa                               392

  VITACEAE                                 392, 411

  Vitis vulpina                            392, 411


  Xanthium commune                              366


  Zanthoxylum americanum                        387

  Zea mays                                      402

  Zizania palustris                             403


BY ENGLISH NAME

  Adder’s Mouth                                 377

  ADDER’S TONGUE FAMILY                         377

  Agrimony                                      383

  Alder, Speckled                          358, 425

  Anemone, Canada                               382

  Apple, Red Haw                                409

  Arbor Vitae                              380, 421

  Arrowhead, Arum Leaved                   353, 396

  Arrow-wood, Downy                             417

  ARUM FAMILY                              355, 428

  Ash, Black                                    420

  Ash, Prickly                                  387

  Ash, Red                            376, 407, 420

  Aspen, Large-toothed                     387, 410

  Aspen, Quaking                                388

  Aster, Blue Wood                              428

  Aster, Large-leaved                 363, 398, 429

  Avens, Large-leaved                           384


  Balsam-apple, Wild                            367

  Balsam Fir                               378, 420

  Baneberry, Red                                382

  BARBERRY FAMILY                               358

  BASSWOOD FAMILY                               422

  BAYBERRY FAMILY                     375, 420, 425

  Bean, Cranberry Pole                          406

  Bean, Lima                                    406

  Bean, Navy                                    406

  Bear                                          352

  Bedstraw, Small                               387

  Beech                                         401

  BEECH FAMILY                   369, 401, 418, 425

  BELLFLOWER FAMILY                             360

  Bellflower, Marsh                             360

  Bellwort, Large-flowered                      374

  Bellwort, Sessile-leaved                      430

  Bergamot, Wild                                371

  Betony, Wood                             389, 432

  BIRCH FAMILY                   358, 397, 413, 425

  Birch, Low                               359, 417

  Birch, Paper                        358, 413, 425

  Birch, Yellow                                 397

  BIRTHWORT FAMILY                         357, 397

  Bittersweet, Climbing                    362, 398

  Blackberry, High Bush                    385, 409

  Bloodroot                                377, 426

  Blueberry                                369, 401

  Blueberry, Black Low                          401

  Blueberry, Low                                401

  Blue Flag                                     430

  BORAGE FAMILY                                 359

  Box Elder                                353, 394

  Brake                                    382, 408

  BUCKWHEAT FAMILY                         381, 431

  Bulrush, Great                                418

  Bunchberry                                    366

  Burdock, Common                               363

  Bush, Steeple                                 386

  Butter and Eggs                               389

  Butternut                                405, 425


  Campion, White                                361

  Canada Mayflower                              373

  Carrion-flower                                374

  Catnip                                   371, 405

  Cat’s-Foot, Lesser                            363

  Cat-tail                                 390, 432

  CAT-TAIL FAMILY                          390, 432

  Cedar, White                                  421

  Celadine, Wild                                358

  Cherry, Choke                            385, 409

  Cherry, Pin                              385, 409

  Cherry, Sand                                  409

  Cherry, Wild                             385, 409

  Cicely, Sweet                                 391

  Cinquefoil, Rough                             384

  Clay, Red                                     352

  Clay, White                                   352

  Cleaver, Small                                386

  Clintonia, Northern                      373, 430

  Clover, White Sweet                           373

  CLUB MOSS FAMILY                              375

  Cocklebur                                     366

  Cohosh, Black                                 382

  Cohosh, Blue                                  358

  Columbine, Wild                               383

  COMPOSITE FAMILY               362, 398, 417, 428

  Corn                                          402

  Cornel, Dwarf                                 366

  Corydalis, Golden                             370

  Cow Parsnip                              390, 432

  Cow Wheat                                     389

  Cramp Bark                                    353

  Cranberry                                369, 401

  Cranberry, Highbush                           361

  Cress, Marsh                                  367

  Crowfoot, Bristly                   383, 426, 431

  Crowfoot, Cursed                              383

  CROWFOOT FAMILY                382, 408, 426, 431

  Cucumber                                      399

  Cup, Indian                                   365

  Currant, Wild Black                           410

  Currant, Wild Red                        389, 410


  Daisy, Ox-eye                                 363

  Dandelion                                366, 399

  Dewberry                                      409

  Dock, Curled                             381, 431

  DOGBANE FAMILY                      354, 413, 428

  Dogbane, Spreading             354, 374, 413, 428

  DOGWOOD FAMILY                 366, 399, 417, 429

  Dogwood, Alternate-leaved           366, 417, 429

  Dogwood, Panicled                   367, 399, 418

  Dyes                                          424


  Elderberry, Red                               360

  Elder, Box                                    394

  Elm, Slippery                                 392

  EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY                       376

  Everlasting, Pearly                           362


  FERN FAMILY                              381, 408

  Fern, Female                                  381

  Fern, Sensitive                               382

  Fern, Shield                                  381

  Fern, Sweet                              375, 420

  Fern, Virginia Grape                          377

  Fibers                                        411

  FIGWORT FAMILY                           389, 432

  Fir, Balsam                              378, 420

  Fish                                          352

  Five-finger, Marsh                            384

  Flag, Blue                          355, 371, 430

  Flag, Sweet                              355, 428

  Fleabane, Daisy                               364

  Fleabane, Philadelphia              364, 398, 429

  Food Plants                                   394

  FOUR O’CLOCK FAMILY                           375

  FUMITORY FAMILY                               370

  FUNGI                                         402


  Gale, Sweet                                   425

  GERANIUM FAMILY                               370

  Geranium, Wild                                370

  Ginger, Wild                             357, 397

  Ginseng                                       356

  GINSENG FAMILY                           356, 428

  Golden-rod, Fragrant                     366, 429

  Goldthread                               383, 426

  Gooseberry, Prickly                           410

  Gooseberry, Smooth                            410

  Goose Grass                                   386

  GOURD FAMILY                             367, 399

  Gourds                                        400

  Grape, River-bank                        392, 411

  GRASS FAMILY                        371, 402, 419

  Grass, Goose                                  386

  Grass, Rattlesnake                            371

  Grass, Sweet                                  419

  Grass, Wool                                   418

  Ground Pine                                   375

  Groundsel, Entire-leaved                      365


  Harebell                                      360

  Hare’s Tail                                   368

  Hawkweed, Canada                              429

  Hawthorn                            384, 422, 431

  Hazelnut                       359, 397, 417, 425

  Hazelnut, Beaked                         359, 398

  Heal-all                                 371, 430

  HEATH FAMILY                        368, 400, 430

  Hemlock                        380, 408, 422, 426

  Hemlock, Poison                               361

  Hickory, Shell-bark                      405, 419

  HOLLY FAMILY                                  355

  Honeysuckle, Bush                   360, 375, 377

  HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY                  360, 398, 417

  Hop                                      391, 411

  HORSETAIL FAMILY                    368, 400, 418

  Horsetail, Field                         368, 400

  Horsetail, Wood                               368

  Horse-weed                                    429

  Hound’s Tongue                                359


  IRIS FAMILY                              371, 430

  Ivy, Poison                                   354


  Joe Pye Weed                                  364

  Juneberry, Smooth                        384, 408


  Labrador Tea                                  401

  Ladies’ Slipper, Yellow                       377

  Ladies’ Tresses, Slender                      431

  Leaf, Leather                                 400

  Leather Leaf                                  400

  Leek, Wild                                    406

  Lettuce, Tall Blue                       364, 429

  Lettuce, White                                365

  Lichens                                  373, 406

  Lichen, Tree                                  406

  LILY FAMILY                         373, 406, 430

  Loosestrife, Tufted                           382

  Lotus, Yellow                                 407


  MADDER FAMILY                                 386

  Mammals                                       352

  MAPLE FAMILY                        353, 394, 412

  Maple, Mountain                          353, 413

  Maple, Red                               353, 412

  Maple, Sugar                             394, 413

  Marigold, Marsh                               408

  Mayflower, Canada                             373

  Meadow Sweet                                  386

  Medicinal Plants                              353

  MEZEREUM FAMILY                               390

  Milkweed, Common                    357, 397, 428

  MILKWEED FAMILY                     357, 397, 428

  Minerals                                      352

  MINT FAMILY                         371, 405, 430

  Mint, Wild                               371, 405

  Miscellaneous uses                            426

  Moonseed, Canada                              375

  MOONSEED FAMILY                               375

  Moosewood                                     390

  Moss, Reindeer                                373

  Mullein                                       390

  Musquash Root                            390, 432

  MUSTARD FAMILY                           367, 399

  Mustard, Tansy                                367

  Mustard, Tower                                367


  Nannyberry                               361, 398

  NETTLE FAMILY                            391, 411

  Nettle, Lyall’s                               392

  Nettle, Wood                                  391

  NIGHTSHADE FAMILY                             410


  Oak, Black                          402, 424, 425

  Oak, Bur                       369, 402, 425, 426

  Oak, Red                                 369, 402

  Oak, White                               401, 418

  OLIVE FAMILY                        376, 407, 420

  Onion, Wild                                   406

  ORCHIS FAMILY                            377, 431

  Orchis, Rein                             377, 431


  PARSLEY FAMILY                           390, 432

  Parsnip, Cow                             390, 432

  Parsnip, Water                                432

  Parsnip, Wild                                 391

  Peanut, Hog                                   405

  Persicaria, Carey’s                           381

  Persicaria, Swamp                        381, 431

  Pimpernel, Yellow                             432

  PINE FAMILY                    378, 407, 420, 426

  Pine, Ground                                  375

  Pine, Jack                               379, 421

  Pine, Norway                             379, 421

  Pine, Prince’s                                368

  Pine, White                         379, 407, 421

  PINK FAMILY                                   361

  Pitcher-plant                                 389

  PITCHER-PLANT FAMILY                          389

  Plantain, Common                         380, 431

  PLANTAIN FAMILY                          380, 431

  Plum, Wild                               409, 426

  Poplar, Balsam                           352, 387

  Poplar, Large Toothed                         352

  POPPY FAMILY                             377, 426

  Potato, Ojibwe                                410

  Primrose, Evening                             376

  PRIMROSE FAMILY                          382, 431

  Prince’s Pine                                 368

  Puffball, Giant                               370

  Pulsatilla                                    382

  PULSE FAMILY                        371, 405, 419

  Pumpkin, Large Pie                            400


  Ragwort, Golden                               365

  Raspberry, Red                           386, 410

  Rattlesnake                                   352

  Reindeer Moss                                 373

  Reptiles                                      352

  Rice, Wild                                    403

  ROSE FAMILY               383, 408, 422, 426, 431

  Rosemary, Bog                            368, 400

  Rose, Smooth                                  385

  RUE FAMILY                                    387

  Rue, Purple Meadow                            383

  Rush, Dudley’s                                419

  RUSH FAMILY                                   419

  Rush, Scouring                                418


  Sage, White                              363, 417

  Sarsaparilla, Wild                       356, 428

  SAXIFRAGE FAMILY                         389, 410

  SEDGE FAMILY                             368, 418

  Sensitive Fern                                382

  Shin Leaf                                     430

  Skullcap, Marsh                               371

  Slippery Elm                                  392

  Snakeroot, Black                              391

  Snakeroot, Canada                             357

  Snowberry                                     361

  Solomon’s Seal, Small                         374

  Solomon’s Seal, Star-flowered                 374

  SPHAGNUM MOSS FAMILY                          422

  Spikenard, False                         374, 407

  Spikenard, Indian                             356

  Spruce, Black                            379, 421

  Spruce, White                                 379

  SPURGE FAMILY                                 369

  Spurge, Flowering                             369

  Squash                                        367

  Squash, Ojibwe                                399

  STAFF TREE FAMILY                        362, 398

  Stalk, Twisted                                374

  Starflower                                    431

  Steeple Bush                                  386

  Strawberry, Wild                         384, 409

  Sturgeon                                      352

  Sugar Maple                                   394

  SUMAC FAMILY                        354, 397, 424

  Sumac, Smooth                       354, 397, 424

  Sumac, Staghorn                     354, 397, 424

  Susan, Black-eyed                             365

  Sweet Cicely                                  391

  Sweet Fern                                    375

  Sweet Flag                                    428


  Tamarack                                 378, 421

  Tansy                                    366, 429

  Tattooing                                     352

  Tea, Labrador                                 401

  Thimble-weed                                  383

  Thistle, Canada                               364

  Thistle, Common                               364

  Toothwort, Large                              399

  TOUCH-ME-NOT FAMILY                      357, 425

  Touch-me-not, Spotted                    357, 425

  Turnip, Indian                                356

  Twisted Stalk                                 374


  Umbrella-wort, Heart-leaved                   375


  Vetchling, Creamy                   371, 406, 419

  Vetchling, Marsh                         373, 419

  Violet, American Dog                          392

  Violet, Canada                                392

  VIOLET FAMILY                                 392

  VINE FAMILY                              392, 411

  Virginia Creeper                              411


  WALNUT FAMILY                       405, 419, 425

  WATERLEAF FAMILY                    371, 405, 419

  Waterleaf, Virginia                 371, 405, 419

  WATER LILY FAMILY                        375, 407

  Water Lily, Sweet White                  376, 407

  Water Lily, Yellow                            355

  WATER PLANTAIN FAMILY                    353, 396

  Wheat, Cow                                    389

  Willow, Bog                                   388

  Willow, Crack                                 388

  WILLOW FAMILY                       387, 410, 422

  Willow-herb, Great                            376

  Willow, Shining                          388, 422

  Winterberry                                   355

  Wintergreen                              369, 400

  Wolfberry                                     361

  Wood Betony                              389, 432


  Yarrow                                        362

  Yarrow, Woolly                           362, 417


By OJIBWE NAMES

  Ojibwe                  Latin                       Use              Page

  abaˈbûsûn               Smilacina racemosa          Kidneys           374
  abagwasîˈgans           Cicuta maculata             Hunting           432
  abakwanûgiˈmûg          Pinus resinosa              Pitch             421
  abakwanûgiˈmûg          Pinus resinosa              Sudatory          379
  abûkweˈskwe             Typha latifolia             Fiber             423
  acaweˈskûk              Heracleum lanatum           Hunting           432
  adjagobiˈmîn            Acer saccharum              Sugar             394
  adjagobiˈmûk            Acer negundo                Emetic            353
  adjagobiˈmûk            Acer negundo                Sugar             394
  adjidamoˈanûk           Achillea millefolium        Fever             362
  adotaˈgons              Campanula rotundifolia      Lungs             360
  adotaˈgons              Clintonia borealis          Parturient        373
  adotaˈgons              Clintonia borealis          Poison       373, 430
  aˈgîmak                 Fraxinus pennsylvanica      Tonic             376
  aˈgîmak                 Fraxinus pennsylvanica      Food              407
  aˈgîmak                 Fraxinus pennsylvanica      Crafts            420
  agoñgasiˈmînûk          Melampyrum lineare          Eyes              389
  agoñgosiˈmînûn          Maianthemum canadense       Kidneys           373
  agoñgoˈsîmînûn          Polygonum muhlenbergii      Stomach           381
  agoñgosiˈmînûn          Polygonum muhlenbergii      Hunting           431
  agoñgoˈsîmînûn          Smilacina racemosa          Kidneys           374
  agoñgosiˈwîdjiˈbîk      Smilacina racemosa          Food              407
  aîaˈnîkotciˈmîn         Microstylis unifolia        Diuretic          377
  amîˈkomîn               Ribes americanum            Food              410
  anaˈganûck              Asplenium filix-femina      Sores             381
  anaˈganûck              Aspidium cristatum          Stomach           381
  anaˈganûck              Pteris aquilina             Cramps            382
  anaˈganûck              Pteris aquilina             Food              408
  anaˈganûck              Scirpus validus             Textiles          418
  anagoneˈwûck            Glyceria canadensis         Female remedy     371
  aˈnanaganaˈwûck         Pteris aquilina             Cramps            382
  aˈnanaˈganûck           Onoclea sensibilis          Caked breast      382
  andegoˈbîgons           Mentha arvensis canadensis  Beverage          405
  andegoˈbîgons           Mentha arvensis canadensis  Blood remedy      372
  anib                    Ulmus fulva                 Expectorant       392
  anib                    Ulmus fulva                 Fiber             423
  aˈnibîmînîˈnûgaˈwûck    Viburnum opulus americanum  Cramps            361
  anîgomijiˈ mînagaˈwûnj  Symphoricarpos racemosus    Afterbirth        361
  anîmîkiˈbûg             Rhus toxicodendron          Poison            354
  anîmûcîdeˈbîgons        Hydrophyllum virginianum    Flux              371
  anîmûˈcîmînûn           Ilex verticillata           Diarrhoea         355
  apagwasîˈgons           Cicuta maculata             Hunting           390
  asadi                   Populus grandidentata       Hemostatic        387
  asadi                   Populus grandidentata       Food              410
  asadi                   Populus tremuloides         Wounds            388
  asadins                 Populus tremuloides         Poultices         388
  asaˈgûmîg               Sphagnum dusenii            Fiber             422
  asaˈgûniñk              Cladonia rangiferina        Cleanser          373
  aˈsasaweˈmînagaˈwûnj    Prunus virginiana           Lungs             385
  asasaˈweskûk            Silphium perfoliatum        Lumbago           365
  atîteˈtamîn             Viburnum lentago            Food              398
  atîteˈtamînagaˈwûnj     Viburnum lentago            Diuretic          361
  atîteˈtamînûn           Viburnum lentago            Diuretic          361
  aweˈnîsiˈbûg            Ilex verticillata           Diarrhoea         355
  azisiˈgobimîc           Salix lucida                Smoking           422

  baeˈwîmînûn             Prunus pennsylvanica        Coughs            385
  baeˈwîmînûn             Prunus pennsylvanica        Food              409
  bagaˈn                  Corylus rostrata            Poultices         359
  bagaˈnag                Juglans cinerea             Food              405
  bagaˈnag                Juglans cinerea             Dye          405, 425
  bagaˈnak                Corylus rostrata            Poultices         359
  bagaˈnak                Corylus americana           Food              398
  bagaˈnak                Corylus rostrata            Food              398
  bagaˈnakoˈbagan         Carya ovata                 Food              405
  baganaˈmîc              Corylus rostrata            Food              398
  bagaˈnamijîc            Corylus rostrata            Anthelmintic      359
  bakwaˈnak               Rhus glabra                 Astringent        354
  bakwaˈnak               Rhus glabra                 Beverage          397
  bakwaˈnak               Rhus glabra                 Dye               424
  bakwanaˈtîg             Rhus typhina                Hemorrhage        354
  bakwaˈnatîg             Rhus typhina                Beverage          397
  bakwanaˈtîg             Rhus typhina                Dye               424
  basiˈbagûk              Anaphalis margaritacea      Paralysis         362
  basiˈbûgûk              Prunella vulgaris           Female remedy     372
  basiˈbûgûk              Lathyrus ochroleucus        Stomach           373
  basiˈbûgûk              Prunella vulgaris           Hunting           430
  basiˈbûkûk              Lychnis alba                Physic            361
  bebaˈakwûndek           Potentilla palustris        Cramps            384
  bebamabiˈk              Aralia nudicaulis           Boils             356
  bebamabiˈk              Aralia nudicaulis           Fish lure         428
  bebamasûˈn              Typha latifolia             War medicine 390, 432
  bebamasûˈn              Typha latifolia             Fiber             423
  bebaˈmasûn              Typha latifolia             Weapon            423
  bebejiˈgogaˈnji         Artemisia ludoviciana       Veterinary use    363
  bebejigogaˈnji mackiˈki Lathyrus palustris          Veterinary use    373
  bebejiˈgoganjiˈmackiˈki Lathyrus palustris          Horse medicine    419
  bebejiˈgoganjî wîˈngûsk Artemisia ludoviciana       Horse medicine    417
  bîmaˈkwîtwaˈbîgons      Menispermum canadense       ?                 375
  bîneˈbûg                Spiranthes gracilis         Hunting           431
  bîneˈbûg                Pyrola americana            Hunting           430
  bîneˈmîc                Betula pumila glandulifera  Fiber             417
  bîneˈmîc                Betula pumila glandulifera  Catarrh           359
  bîneˈmîcins             Betula pumila glandulifera  Menstruant        359
  bîneˈmîcki              Andromeda glaucophylla      ?            368, 400
  bîsegaˈgomînagaˈwûnj    Amelanchier laevis          ?                 384
  bîsegaˈgwomîn           Amelanchier laevis          Food              408
  bîweeˈckînûk            Eriophorum callitrix        Hemostatic        368
  bûgesanaˈtîg            Prunus nigra                Dye               426
  bûgeˈsanatîg            Prunus nigra                Food              409
  bûˈgîsowe               Eupatorium purpureum        Sudatory          364
  bûgwaˈdjijîcaˈgowûnj    Allium tricoccum            Food              406
  bûgwaˈdjiûkˈ pîniˈk     Lathyrus ochroleucus        Veterinary use    372
    mîneˈbûg
  bûgwaˈdjmîskodiˈsîmîn   Amphicarpa pitcheri         Food              405
  bûgwaˈdjpînik           Lathyrus ochroleucus        Food              406
  bûgwaˈdjûk pîniˈk       Lathyrus ochroleucus        Horse        372, 419
    mîneˈbûg                                            medicine

  caboˈmînûk              Ribes oxyacanthoides        Food              410
  caboˈsîkûn              Asclepias syriaca           Food              397
  caboˈsîkûn              Iris versicolor             Physic            371
  cabosîˈkûn              Euphorbia corollata         Physic            369
  caboˈsîkûn              Asclepias syriaca           Female remedy     357
  cacagobiˈmûk            Acer spicatum               Arts              413
  cacagobiˈmûk            Acer spicatum               Sore eyes         353
  cacaˈgomîn              Arisaema triphyllum         Sore eyes         356
  cecaˈgûskiˈbûgeˈsînk    Plantago major              Sprains           380
  cecaˈgûskiˈbûgeˈsînk    Plantago major              Charm             431
  cicigîmeˈwîc            Acer rubrum                 Arts              412
  cicigîmeˈwîc            Acer rubrum                 Sore eyes         353
  cîgagaˈwûnj             Allium cernuum              Food              406
  cigonaˈgan              Lycopodium obscurum         Diuretic          375
                            dendroideum
  ciˈobûg                 Rumex crispus               Hunting           431
  ciˈobûg                 Rumex crispus               Cuts              381
  cîwaˈbo                 Acer saccharum              Vinegar           395
  ciwiˈmînagaˈwûnj        Vitis vulpina               Afterbirth        392
  ciˈwiminûn              Vitis vulpina               Food              411
  cîˈwimînûn              Vitis vulpina               Afterbirth        392

  dadocaˈbo               Lactuca spicata             Lactary           364
  djibeˈgûb               Dirca palustris             Diuretic          390
  dodocaˈbo               Lactuca spicata             Hunting           428

  eckaˈdamîn              Cucumis sativa              Food              399

  gaîeˈwûckûk             Scirpus cyperinus           Textiles          418
  gaˈgîgeˈbûg             Chimaphila umbellata        Stomach           368
  gagîgeˈbûg              Antennaria neodioica        Afterbirth        363
  gagagiˈwîc              Tsuga canadensis            Dye          422, 426
  gagagiˈwîc              Tsuga canadensis            Beverage          408
  gagagiˈwîc              Tsuga canadensis            Wounds            380
  gandegwaˈsonînkeˈ       Anemone cylindrica          Stomach           383
    cînagwûk
  gawaˈkumîc              Zanthoxylum americanum      Quinsy            387
  gawaˈndag               Picea canadensis            Inhalant          379
  gaweˈmîc                Fagus grandifolia           Food              401
  gibaimeˈnûnaˈgwûs       Myrica asplenifolia         Cramps            375
  gibaimeˈ nûnagwûs       Myrica asplenifolia         Utensils          420
  gîckênsîneˈnamûkûk      Botrychium virginianum      Consumption       377
  gigaˈndag               Pinus banksiana             Fiber             421
  gigaˈndag               Pinus banksiana             Reviver           379
  gîjiˈbînûsk             Equisetum arvense           Dropsy            368
  gîjiˈbînûsk             Equisetum arvense           Fodder            400
  gîjiˈbînûsk             Equisetum hyemale           Scouring          418
  giˈjîg                  Thuja occidentalis          Crafts            421
  giˈjîk                  Thuja occidentalis          Incense           380
  giˈjîkandag             Thuja occidentalis          Headache          380
  gîjiˈkgandoˈgûng        Lycopodium complanatum      Reviver           375
  giˈmasan                Arctium minus               Tonic             363
  gimîneˈsît              Vaccinium vacillans         Food              401
  gîneˈbîg odjiˈbîk       Sanicula marilandica        Fevers            391
  gîneˈbîgomînagaˈwûnj    Smilax herbacea             Lungs             374
  gînoseˈwîbûg            Clintonia borealis          Parturient        373
  gokoˈcgûnda             Habenaria bracteata         Aphrodisiac       377
    mînêskweˈmîn
  gokoˈcgûnda             Habenaria bracteata         Love charm        431
    mînêskweˈmîn
  gokoˈcoadjiˈbîk         Oxybaphus nyctagineus       Sprains           375
  gozigaˈgomînagaˈwûnj    Amelanchier laevis          ?                 384
  gozigaˈgomînûk          Amelanchier laevis          Prenatal remedy   384
  gozigagoˈmînûn          Amelanchier laevis          Food              408

  îmbjîˈgoa               Artemisia ludoviciana       Veterinary use    363
  înenaˈtîg               Acer saccharum              Sugar             394
  inênatîg                Acer saccharum              Utensils          413
  înîniˈwûnj              Asclepias syriaca           Female remedy     357
  înîniwûnj               Asclepias syriaca           Food              397
  înîniˈwûnj              Asclepias syriaca           Hunting           428

  jicaˈwîgan              Lagenaria vulgaris          Food              400
  jicigwe                 Rattlesnake                 Childbirth        352
  jîgomiˈûskûn            Juncus dudleyi              Arts              419
  jîkaˈmiûskûn            Scirpus validus             Textiles          418
  jiˈmasaˈnûck            Cirsium lanceolatum         Cramps            364
  jimûckiˈgobûg           Plantago major              Bruises           381
  jîngoˈb                 Abies balsamea              Crafts            420
  jîngoˈb                 Abies balsamea              Sore eyes         378
  jîngoˈbandag            Abies balsamea              Crafts       378, 420
  jîngoˈb pîkewaˈndag     Abies balsamea              Crafts            420
  jîngoˈb pîkewaˈndag     Abies balsamea              Sore eyes         378
  jîngwaˈk                Pinus strobus               Food              407
  jîngwakˈbûgîo           Pinus strobus               Inhalant          379
  jîngwakˈ kweseskweˈtûk  Pinus strobus               Inhalant          379
  jîngwak onaˈgêk         Pinus strobus               Sudatory          379
  jîngwakons wakun        Sticta glomulifera          Food              406
  jîngwaˈk wacêskweˈdo    Pinus strobus               Resin             421
  jîngwaˈk wacêskweˈdo    Pinus strobus               Sudatory          379
  jîngwaˈkwak             Sticta glomulifera          Food              406
  jîngwûp                 Picea mariana               Crafts            421
  jîngwûp                 Picea mariana               Reviver           379
  jîngwuˈp gawaˈndag      Picea mariana               Medicinal salt    379
  jîssêˈns                Panax quinquefolium         Commerce          356
  jiwîˈcgoniˈbûg          Humulus lupulus             Diuretic          391
  jiˈwîciniˈgoniˈbûg      Humulus lupulus             Cooking           411

  kagagîtciˈmîn           Ribes americanum            Food              410

  mackiˈgobûgons          Chamaedaphne calyculata     Beverage          400
  magoˈsiñeˈcnakwûk       Apocynum androsaemifolium   Charm             428
  magosîñeˈcnakwûk        Apocynum androsaemifolium   Kidneys           354
  maˈkasîn                Cypripedium parviflorum     Female remedy     377
  makateˈmîn              Vaccinium nigrum            Food              401
  makateˈwa anaˈganûck    Pteris aquilina             Cramps            382
  manasaˈdi               Populus balsamifera         Wounds            387
  manasaˈtîg              Laportea canadensis         Fiber        378, 421
  mandamîn                Zea mays                    Food              402
  mandamîˈnîodjiˈbîkîns   Pedicularis canadensis      Aphrodisiac       389
  mandaˈmînîodjiˈbîkêns   Pedicularis canadensis      Love charm        432
  manîdobimaˈkwît         Celastrus scandens          Stomach           362
  manîdobîmaˈkwît         Celastrus scandens          Food              398
  manîdoˈbimakwît         Psedera quinquefolia        Food              411
  manoˈmîn                Zizania palustris           Food              403
  manweˈgons              Ranunculus pennsylvanicus   Hunting           383
  manweˈgons              Ranunculus pennsylvanicus   Dye               426
  manweˈgons              Ranunculus pennsylvanicus   Hunting           431
  manweˈgons              Taenidia integerrima        Hunting           432
  manweˈkos               Taenidia integerrima        Hunting           432
  masan                   Sanicula marilandica        Snake bite        391
  masaˈn                  Cynoglossum boreale         Inhalant          359
  masan                   Urtica lyallii              Fiber             423
  masan                   Urtica lyallii              Heat rash         392
  masaˈnatîk              Laportea canadensis         Diuretic     391, 423
  masaˈnûck               Cirsium arvense             Bowel tonic       364
  mêgêsiˈbûg              Aster macrophyllus          Food              398
  mêgisiˈbûg              Aster macrophyllus          Headache          363
  mêmisgwûˈnagûg          Spiraea tomentosa           Parturient        386
  mêmîskûˈnakûk           Hieracium canadense         Hunting           429
  mesadiˈwackons          Eriophorum callitrix        ?                 368
  mêskodiˈmînûn           Phaseolus vulgaris          Food              406
  meskwabiˈmîc            Cornus paniculata           Flux              367
  meskwabiˈmîc            Cornus paniculata           Smoking      399, 418
  meskwaˈcaboˈmînûk       Ribes cynosbati             Food              410
  meskwaˈdjiˈbîkûk        Sanguinaria canadensis      Sore throat       377
  meskwaˈdjibîkûk         Sanguinaria canadensis      Dye               426
  meskwaˈmîn              Rubus idaeus aculeatissimus Food              410
  meskwaˈmînagaˈwûnj      Rubus idaeus aculeatissimus Seasoner          386
  metîˈgomîc              Quercus velutina            Dye               425
  metîˈgomîc              Quercus macrocarpa          Dye               425
  mêtîgoˈmîn              Quercus velutina            Food              402
  mîcaoˈgacan             Erigeron philadelphicus     Hunting           428
  mîcaoˈgacan             Erigeron philadelphicus     Smoking           398
  mîcaoˈgacan             Erigeron philadelphicus     Fever             364
  mîciˈmîn                Quercus alba                Food              401
  mîciˈtcimînûk           Ribes triste               Female remedy 389, 410
  mîckimînûˈnîmîc         Nemopanthus mucronata       ?                 355
  mîdewidjiˈbîk           Anemone canadensis          Lozenge           382
  mîdewidjiˈbîk           Apocynum androsaemifolium   Ceremonial        354
  mînesagaˈwûnj           Crataegus sp.               Female remedy     384
  mînesagaˈwûnj           Crataegus sp.               Food              409
  mîneˈsagaˈwûnj          Crataegus sp.               Crafts            422
  mînesagaˈwûnj           Crataegus sp.               Hunting           431
  mînûgaˈwûnj             Vaccinium pennsylvanicum    Blood             369
  mînûn                   Vaccinium pennsylvanicum    Food              401
  missaˈbîgon             Cucurbita pepo              Food              400
  misodjidamoˈanûk        Arabis glabra               ?                 367
  mîtcigiˈmênûk           Echinocystis lobata         Tonic             367
  mîtîˈgomîc              Quercus alba                Utensils          418
  mîtîgoˈmîc              Quercus macrocarpa          Astringent        369
  mîtîgoˈmîc              Quercus macrocarpa          Food              402
  mîtîgoˈmîc wenaˈgêk     Quercus rubra               Bronchitis        369
  mîtîgoˈmîc              Quercus rubra               Food              402
  mîtîgwabaˈk             Carya ovata                 Bows              419
  mosoˈmîc                Cornus alternifolia         Emetic            366
  mosoˈmîc                Cornus alternifolia         Smoking           417
  mosoˈmîc                Cornus alternifolia         Trap lure         428
  mûckigoˈbamîc           Salix lucida                Sores             388
  mûckiˈgodjiˈbîk         Potentilla palustris        Stomach           385
  mûckîgwaˈtîg            Larix laricina              Inhalant          378
  mûckiˈ gwatîg           Larix laricina              Crafts            421
  mûckikiˈwît             Tanacetum vulgare—          Fevers            366
  mûckîkiˈwît             Tanacetum vulgare           Hunting           428
  mûckiˈmîn               Vaccinium oxycoccus—        Food              401
  mûckiˈmînagaˈwûnj       Vaccinium oxycoccus         Nausea            369
  mûckîtciˈmîn            Vaccinium oxycoccus         Food              401
  mûkwo                   Bear fat                    Physic            352
  mûkwoˈbagaˈnak          Corylus americana           Dye               425
  mûkwoˈbagaˈnak          Corylus americana           Utensils          417
  mûkwobagaˈnak           Corylus americana           Poultices         359
  mûkwobagaˈnak           Corylus americana           Food              397
  mûkwopîniˈk             Dentaria maxima             Food              399

  naˈbûgûck               Acorus calamus              Physic            355
  naˈbûgûck               Acorus calamus              Fish lure         428
  naˈbûkûck               Iris versicolor             Physic            371
  nameˈ                   Sturgeon                    Tattooing tool    352
  nameˈpîn                Asarum canadense acuminatum Stomachic         357
  nameˈpîn                Asarum canadense acuminatum Food              397
  nameˈwûckons            Mentha arvensis canadensis  Blood remedy      371
  nanîbîteˈodeˈkîn        Polygonatum biflorum        Cough             374
  nanibîteˈodeˈkîn        Streptopus roseus           Cough             374
  naskosiˈîcûs            Aster macrophyllus          Hunting           363
  naskosiˈîcûs            Aster cordifolius           Hunting           428
  naskosiˈîcûs            Aster macrophyllus          Hunting           428
  nawoˈbûgûk              Trientalis americana        Hunting           431
  neˈbîneankweˈûk         Hydrophyllum virginianum    Flux              371
  nebîneˈnanikweˈîag      Hydrophyllum virginianum    Horse        405, 419
                                                        medicine
  nebîneˈnanikweˈîag      Hydrophyllum virginianum    Fodder            405
  nêmêgosiˈbûg            Aster macrophyllus          Food              398
  neweîaˈkwisînk          Oakesia sessilifolia        Hunting           430
  nîgîtîniˈgûnûk          Echinocystis lobata         Tonic             367
  nokomiˈskînûn           Asplenium filix-femina      Caked breast      381
  nokweˈsîgûn             Erigeron ramosus            Headache          364

  oˈcacadjiˈbîkes         Epilobium angustifolium     Carbuncle         376
  ociˈgîmîc               Caulophyllum thalictroides  Cramps            358
  odatagaˈgomîc           Rubus allegheniensis        Food              409
  oˈdatagaˈgomîc          Rubus allegheniensis        Diuretic          385
  odeˈimîn                Fragaria virginiana         Food              409
  odeˈimînîdjiˈbîk        Fragaria virginiana         Colic             384
  odeˈimînîdjiˈbîk        Cornus canadensis           Cold              366
  odîteaˈbûg              Nymphaea advena             Poultices         376
  odîteˈabûg waˈbîgwûn    Castalia odorata            Cough             376
  odîteˈabûg wabîˈgwûn    Castalia odorata            Food              407
  ogaˈdamûn               Nymphaea advena             Poultices         376
  ogini                   Rosa blanda                 Heartburn         385
  ogîniˈgawûnj            Rosa blanda                 Heartburn         385
  ogîneˈminagaˈons        Rosa blanda                 Heartburn         385
  oˈgîteˈbûg              Caltha palustris            Food              408
  ogwiˈssimaun            Cucurbita maxima            Food              399
    owasokwoneˈk
  ogwîssiˈmaun            Cucurbita maxima            Diuretic          367
    oˈwasokwûneˈk
  ojîbweˈoweˈcûwûn        Galium trifidum             Skin diseases     387
  okadak                  Aralia nudicaulis           Blood purifier    356
  okweˈmîn                Prunus serotina             Cough             385
  okweˈmîn                Prunus serotina             Food              409
  oˈmakakiˈodass          Sarracenia purpurea         Parturient        389
  oˈmakakiˈwîdass         Sarracenia purpurea         Parturient        389
  opin                    Solanum tuberosum           Food              410
  osagaˈtîkûm             Osmorhiza longistylis       Parturient        391
  osaˈman                 Red clay                    Poultices         352
  osawaˈskanet            Diervilla lonicera          Diuretic          360
  oˈsawaskodjiˈbîk        Impatiens biflora           Dye               425
  oˈsawaskwîniˈs          Geranium maculatum          Flux              370
  oskweˈtûk               Calvatia craniiformis       Nose-bleed        370
  owacawaˈskwûneg         Linaria vulgaris            Bronchitis        389
  owinîsiˈmîn             Gaultheria procumbens       Food              401

  pakwan                  Plantago major              Sprains           380
  papaskatcîksiˈganaˈtîg  Sambucus racemosa           Purgative         360
  pigweˈwûnûsk            Pastinaca sativa            Female remedy     391
  pîkwadj                 Fish Bladder                Syringe           352
  pîkwaˈdjîc              Mushrooms                   Poison            402
  piˈpîgweˈwanûck         Heracleum lanatum           Sores             390
  pipigweˈwanûck          Heracleum lanatum           Hunting           432

  sagaˈtîgons             Agrimonia gryposepala       Diuretic          383
  sagîmaˈkwûn             Fraxinus pennsylvanica      Food              407
  sakateˈbwi              Galium aparine              Kidneys           386
  sakatiˈkomûk            Xanthium commune            ?                 366
  saweˈmîn                Prunus virginiana           Food              409
  sewaˈkomîn              Prunus pumila               Food              409
  sibaˈmûckûn             Equisetum sylvaticum        Dropsy            368
  sizigoˈbimîc            Salix fragilis              Styptic           388
  sizigoˈbamîc            Salix pedicellaris          Stomach           388
  sizigoˈbamîc            Salix lucida                Sores             388

  tcatcabonûˈksîk         Scutellaria galericulata    Heart             372
  tciˈnameˈwûck           Nepeta cataria              Blood purifier    372
  tciˈnameˈwûck           Nepeta cataria              Beverage          405
  tcodeˈimînagaˈwûnj      Potentilla monspeliensis    Physic            384
  teˈkomîn                Quercus velutina            Food              402
  tîpotîeˈkwason          Corydalis aurea             Reviver           370

  wabaˈbîgan              White Clay                  Pills             352
  wabackîkiˈbûg           Chamaedaphne calyculata     Beverage          400
  wabanweˈak              Viburnum pubescens          Smoking           417
  wabasiˈpîn              Sagittaria arifolia         Indigestion       353
  wabasiˈpîn              Sagittaria arifolia         Food              396
  wabeniˈmîna             Phaseolus lunatus           Food              406
                            macrocarpus
  wabeniˈmînesa           Phaseolus vulgaris          Food              406
  wabîgwon                Achillea lanulosa           Smoking           417
  waˈbîgwûn               Achillea lanulosa           Insect bites      362
  wabîgwûn                Radicula palustris hispida  ?                 367
  wabîˈgwûn               Erigeron canadensis         Hunting           428
  wabîˈgwûn               Hieracium canadense         Hunting           428
  waboskîkiˈbûg           Ledum groenlandicum         Beverage          401
  waboskîkiˈmînûn         Galium tinctorium           Lungs             386
  waboˈsûskwe             Aralia nudicaulis           Cough             356
  wabûckadjî bîk          Uvularia grandiflora        Pleurisy          374
  wabûckîkiˈbûg           Spiraea salicifolia         Trapping          386
  wadoˈb                  Alnus incana                Dye               425
  wadoˈbîn                Alnus incana                Hemostatic        358
  wajackweˈdo             Mushrooms                   Poison            402
  waneˈmîgons             Sium cicutaefolium          Hunting           432
  waˈsawaskwûneˈk         Solidago graminifolia       Hunting           428
  wasaˈwaskwûneˈk         Solidago graminifolia       Chest pain        366
  waˈsawasniˈmîke         Myrica gale                 Dye               425
  wapate (California      Sagittaria arifolia         Food              396
    tribe)
  wapatoo (California     Sagittaria arifolia         Food              396
    tribe)
  wecaˈwaskwûneˈk         Taraxacum officinale        Food              399
  wecaˈwûs wackwîˈnek     Monarda fistulosa           Catarrh           372
  wecaˈwûs waˈckwînêsk    Prenanthus alba             Diuretic          365
  weˈke                   Acorus calamus              Physic            355
  wesaˈusakwûnek          Taraxacum officinale        Heartburn         366
  wesawabiˈkwonêk         Uvularia grandiflora        Stomach           374
  wesawadjiˈbîkweˈak      Coptis trifolia             Sore mouth        383
  wesawadjiˈbikweˈak      Coptis trifolia             Dye               426
  wesawaˈnikweˈak         Coptis trifolia             Sore mouth        383
  wesawasaˈkwûneˈk        Nelumbo lutea               Food              407
    odîteˈabûg
  wesaˈwûckûn             Apocynum androsaemifolium   Kidneys           354
  wesaˈwûsgaˈskonêk       Impatiens biflora           Headache          357
  wesaˈwûskwûn            Apocynum androsaemifolium   Fiber             413
  wewaîeˈbûgûg            Viola conspersa             Heart             392
  wicaˈwasaˈkonek         Geum macrophyllum           Female remedy     384
  wîckobidjiˈbîk          Actaea rubra                Childbirth        382
  wîckobiˈmandamîn        Zea mays                    Food              403
  wîckoˈbimûckoˈsi        Anthoxanthum odoratum       Arts              419
  wîckobiˈsîˈganûg        Zea mays                    Food              403
  wigub                   Tilia americana             Fiber             422
  wîgwas                  Betula alba papyrifera      Dye               425
  wîgwas                  Betula alba papyrifera      Utensils          413
  wîgwas                  Betula alba papyrifera      Aromatic          358
  wikêˈ                   Iris versicolor             Snake charm       430
  wînîsiˈbûgûd            Gaultheria procumbens       Rheumatism   369, 400
  wiˈnîsîk                Betula lutea                Beverage          397
  wîngûskw                Artemisia ludoviciana       Veterinary use    363

  zigoˈ                   Salix lucida                Sores             388



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLVI.

Figure 1. Ojibwe demonstration garden at Lac du Flambeau, Wis. See page
342.

Figure 2. Ojibwe wigwam at Lac du Flambeau, Wis. Covered with cat-tail
mats and birch bark rolls. See pages 340, 416, 422.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. XLVI.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLVII.

Figure 1. Ojibwe dream dance at Lac du Flambeau, Wis. See page 346.

Figure 2. Jerking deer meat at Lac du Flambeau, Wis. See page 417.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. XLVII.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLVIII.

Figure 1. Ojibwe bead loom and work, Lac du Flambeau, Wis. John
Whitefeather and wife. See page 413.

Figure 2. Lac du Flambeau, Wis., showing Pokegama and Flambeau lakes.
See page 344.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. XLVIII.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLIX.

Figure 1. Birch bark baskets. Wife of Webujuonokwe, Flambeau Village,
Wis. See page 416.

Figure 2. Ojibwe cradle board. See page 420.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. XLIX.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE L.

Figure 1. Pounding out Black Ash basketry splints. See page 420.

Figure 2. Making ash splint baskets. See page 420.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. L.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LI.

Figure 1. Great Bulrushes (_Scirpus validus_) for weaving mats. See
page 418.

Figure 2. Ojibwe burial on Bear Island, Leech Lake, Minnesota. See page
344.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LI.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LII.

Figure 1. Peeling birch log for canoe bark. Lac du Flambeau, Wis. See
page 415.

Figure 2. Birch bark roll and method of transportation. See page 415.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LII.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LIII.

Figure 1. Splitting canoe ribs from Cedar (_Thuja occidentalis_). See
page 415.

Figure 2. Making canoe ribs. See page 415.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LIII.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LIV.

Figure 1. Shaping canoe nose. See page 415.

Figure 2. Sewing canoe in form. See page 415.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LIV.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LV.

Figure 1. Grubbing out Jack Pine roots (_Pinus banksiana_). See pages
415, 421.

Figure 2. Split Jack Pine roots coiled. See pages 415, 421.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LV.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LVI.

Figure 1. Boiling pitch of the Balsam Fir (_Abies balsamea_). See page
415.

Figure 2. Sewing birch bark canoe. See pages 416, 421.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LVI.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LVII.

Figure 1. Applying pitch to seams for waterproofing. See page 416.

Figure 2. Launching completed canoe in Flambeau Lake. See page 416.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LVII.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LVIII.

Figure 1. White Cloud’s garden and potato patch, Bear Island, Leech
Lake, Minnesota. See page 411.

Figure 2. Balsam bark wigwam, Leech Lake, Minnesota. See pages 340,
423.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LVIII.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LIX.

Figure 1. Piawantaginum, mother of John Peper. Age 106. Bear Island,
Leech Lake, Minnesota. See page 339.

Figure 2. White Cloud, Bear Island, Leech Lake, Minn. See page 339.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LIX.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LX.

Figure 1. Bear Island, Leech Lake, Minnesota. See page 338.

Figure 2. Tamarack branch (_Larix laricina_). Source of medicine and
food. See page 378.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LX.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXI.

Figure 1. Ground Pine (_Lycopodium dendroideum_). Source of medicine.
See page 375.

Figure 2. Giant Puffball (_Calvatia craniiformis_). Source of medicine.
See page 370.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LXI.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXII.

Figure 1. Balsam Fir (_Abies balsamea_). Source of medicine. See page
378.

Figure 2. White Spruce (_Picea canadensis_). Source of medicine. See
page 379.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LXII.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXIII.

Figure 1. White Pine (_Pinus strobus_). Source of medicine. See pages
379, 421.

Figure 2. Norway Pine (_Pinus resinosa_). Source of medicine. See pages
379, 421.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LXIII.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXIV.

Figure 1. Bur Oak (_Quercus macrocarpa_). Source of medicine. See page
369.

Figure 2. Red Oak (_Quercus rubra_). Source of medicine. See page 370.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LXIV.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXV.

Figure 1. Red Maple (_Acer rubrum_). Used in arts. See pages 353, 412.

Figure 2. Mountain Holly (_Nemopanthus mucronata_). Source of medicine.
See page 355.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LXV.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXVI.

Figure 1. Sphagnum Moss (_Sphagnum dusenii_). Used in arts. See page
422.

Figure 2. Virginia Grape Fern (_Botrichium virginianum_). Source of
medicine. See page 377.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LXVI.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXVII.

Figure 1. Pitcher-plant (_Sarracenia purpurea_). Source of medicine.
See page 389.

Figure 2. Cranberries in fruit (_Vaccinium oxycoccus_). Source of
medicine and food. See pages 369, 401.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LXVII.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXVIII.

Figure 1. Poison Ivy (_Rhus toxicodendron_). Source of medicine. See
page 354.

Figure 2. Box Elder (_Acer negundo_). Source of medicine and food. See
pages 353, 394.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LXVIII.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXIX.

Figure 1. Balsam Apple (_Echinocystis lobata_). Source of medicine. See
page 367.

Figure 2. Great Willow-herb (_Epilobium angustifolium_). Source of
medicine. See page 376.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LXIX.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXX.

Figure 1. Wild Currant (_Ribes americanum_ Mill.). Source of food. See
page 410.

Figure 2. River-bank Grape (_Vitis vulpina_). Source of medicine and
food. See pages 392, 411.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LXX.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXI.

Figure 1. Canada Mayflower (_Maianthemum canadense_). Source of
medicine. See page 373.

Figure 2. False Spikenard (_Smilacina racemosa_). Source of medicine.
See page 374.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LXXI.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXII.

Figure 1. Twisted Stalk (_Streptopus roseus_). Source of medicine. See
page 374.

Figure 2. Solomon’s Seal (_Polygonatum biflorum_). Source of medicine.
See page 374.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LXXII.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXIII.

Figure 1. Purple Meadow Rue (_Thalictrum dasycarpum_). Source of
medicine. See page 383.

Figure 2. Carrion-flower (_Smilax herbacea_). Source of medicine. See
page 374.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LXXIII.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXIV.

Figure 1. Wild Columbine (_Aquilegia canadensis_). Source of charm. See
page 383.

Figure 2. Canada Anemone (_Anemone canadensis_). Source of medicine.
See page 382.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LXXIV.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXV.

Figure 1. Goldthread (_Coptis trifolia_). Source of medicine and dye.
See pages 383, 426.

Figure 2. Wintergreen (_Gaultheria procumbens_). Source of medicine.
See pages 369, 400.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LXXV.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXVI.

Figure 1. Red Baneberry (_Actaea rubra_). Source of medicine. See page
382.

Figure 2. Labrador Tea (_Ledum groenlandicum_). Source of beverage. See
page 401.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LXXVI.]



[Illustration: EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXVII.

Figure 1. Agrimony (_Agrimonia gryposepala_). Source of medicine. See
page 384.

Figure 2. Hawthorn (_Crataegus_ sp.). Source of food and utility. See
pages 384, 431.

BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. VOL. 4, PL. LXXVII.]





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