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Title: Modern Design in Jewellery and Fans
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Modern Design in Jewellery and Fans" ***

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    MODERN DESIGN IN
    JEWELLERY AND FANS

    EDITED BY CHARLES HOLME

    OFFICES OF 'THE STUDIO,' LONDON,
    PARIS, NEW YORK MCMII



PRELIMINARY NOTE


JOHN RUSKIN has laid down some broad and simple rules which are
especially applicable to DESIGN IN JEWELLERY AND FANS. He says, "Never
encourage the manufacture of any article not absolutely necessary, in
the production of which invention has no share." And, again, "Never
encourage imitation, or copying of any kind, except for the sake of
preserving records of great works."

It is in the thorough belief of the soundness or these principles that
the Editor has selected a number of representative modern examples of
design by British and Continental workers, which, from their beauty and
freshness of treatment, bear testimony to the great advance that has
recently been made in the right understanding and rendering of the
jeweller's and fan-maker's arts. If articles of good taste are to be
produced, there must be a demand for them. So long as a public is to be
found that will purchase trinketry in imitation of wheel-barrows, cocks
and hens, flower-pots, and moons and stars, so long will the advance in
art be retarded.

The Editor has pleasure in acknowledging the courtesy of the owners of
copyrights for their kindness in sanctioning the reproduction
of important work; and his best thanks are due to all the
artist-contributors, and especially to those who have made designs
expressly for this publication.



Table of Literary Contents


    MODERN FRENCH JEWELLERY
      AND FANS                        By Gabriel Mourey
    MODERN BRITISH JEWELLERY
      AND FANS                        By Aymer Vallance
    MODERN AUSTRIAN JEWELLERY            By W. Fred
    MODERN GERMAN JEWELLERY
                                      By Chr. Ferdinand Morawe
    MODERN BELGIAN JEWELLERY
      AND FANS                        By F. Khnopff
    MODERN DANISH JEWELLERY           By Georg Brochner



LIST OF CRAFTSMEN AND DESIGNERS


FRENCH SECTION

    Aubert, Félix                                   plate 35
    Bécker, E.                                      plate 15
    Bing, Marcel                               plates 25, 26
    Boucheron                              plates 12, 13, 14
    Cauvin                                          plate 12
    Colonna                                    plates 25, 26
    Desbois, Jules                              " 16, 17, 18
    Dufrène                                     "     28, 33
    Feure, Georges de                           "      1, 35
    Follot, Paul                                "     19, 28
    Fouquet, G.                           plates 7, 8, 9, 11
    Grasset, E.                                     plate 10
    Hirtz, L.                              plates 12, 13, 14
    "L'Art Nouveau"                            plates 25, 26
    Lalique, René                       plates 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
    Lambert, Th.                           "      32, 33, 34
    "La Maison Moderne"    plates 19, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33, 35
    Mangeant, E.                               plates 23, 24
    Monvel, de, Ch. Boutet                        "   21, 22
    Mucha                                            plate 7
    Orazzi                             plates 27, 28, 29, 30
    Richard, Paul                              plates 14, 15
    Rivaud, Charles                                 plate 31
    Templier, P.                           plates 32, 33, 34
    Verger, Ferdinand (_Editeur_)              plates 14, 15
    Vever                                  plates 13, 19, 20


BRITISH SECTION

    Alabaster, Annie                                plate 48
    Alabaster, M.                                     "   34
    Allen, Kate                    plates 19, 29, 31, 33, 38
    Angus, Christine                                plate 12
    Arscott, A. E.                                    "   29
    Ashbee, C. R.                      plates 17, 18, 20, 21
    Baker, Oliver                         "           35, 36
    Barrie, B. J.                         "       19, 31, 34
    Brangwyn, Frank                                  plate 8
    Brown, E. May                                      "  29
    Cook, Thomas A.                            plates 15, 24
    Conder, Frank                          plates 2, 5, 6, 7
    Dawson, Nelson                                  plate 14
    Dawson, Edith                                     "   14
    Dick, Reginald T.                                plate 1
    Evers-Swindell, Nora                   plates 34, 50, 52
    Fell, H. Granville                              plate 11
    Fisher, Kate                               plates 25, 37
    Gaskin, Arthur J.                             "   44, 45
    Guild of Handicraft                plates 17, 18, 20, 21
    Hammett, Lydia C.                                plate 9
    Hart, Dorothy                                      "  34
    Hodgkinson, Ethel M.                   plates 39, 50, 52
    Hodgkinson, Winifred               plates 29, 30, 39, 52
    King, Jessie M.                                 plate 16
    Larcombe, Ethel                            plates 10, 34
    McBean, Isabel                               "    29, 47
    Mackintosh, C. R.                               plate 43
    Mackintosh, Margaret Macdonald                  plate 43
    McLeish, Annie             plates 28, 29, 32, 34, 39, 50
    McLeish, Minnie                            plates 34, 47
    McNair, Frances                             " 21, 22, 42
    McNair, J. H.                               "     22, 23
    Morris, Talwin                              " 40, 41, 42
    Naylor, Myra                                "       3, 4
    Pickett, Edith                              "     25, 49
    Rankin, Arabella                            "         51
    Robinson, F. S.                             "         46
    Simpson, Edgar                              " 26, 27, 36
    Syrett, Nellie                              "     13, 15
    Talbot, J. M.                                   plate 51
    Veazey, David                  plates 19, 34, 39, 48, 50


AUSTRIAN SECTION

    Fischmeister, Herr                           plates 2, 3
    Gringold, Emil                                   plate 7
    Hauptmann, Franz                                   "   4
    Hofstetter, Josef                            plates 1, 5
    Holzinger, E.                                    plate 8
    Mesmer, F.                                   plates 1, 8
    Prutscher, Otto                           plates 1, 5, 6
    Roset, Herr                                 "       2, 3
    Schönthoner, V.                                  plate 1
    Schwartz, Prof.                             "          5
    Unger, Elsa                                  plates 7, 8
    Wagner, Anna                                     plate 8


GERMAN SECTION

    Fahrner, Theodor                             plates 3, 8
    Gosen, Theodor von                               plate 5
    Hirzel, H. R. C.                                   "   4
    Koch, Robert                                       "   1
    Loewenthal, D. and M.                     plates 2, 3, 8
    Möhring, Bruno                                   plate 6
    Morawe, C. Ferdinand                             plate 7
    Olbrich, Joseph M.                        plates 2, 3, 8
    "Vereingte Werkstaetten, Munich,"                plate 5
    Werner, F. H.                                      "   6
    Werner, Louis                                      "   4


BELGIAN SECTION

    Cassiers, H.                                     plate 1
    Dubois, Paul                                       "   9
    Van Strydonck, L.                                plate 2
    Wolfers, Ph.                     plates 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8


DANISH SECTION

    Bindesböll, Th.                                  plate 8
    Bollin, Moyens                            plates 6, 7, 8
    Magnussen, Erick                          plates 2, 5, 6
    Slott-Möller, H.                       plates 1, 2, 3, 4



MODERN FRENCH JEWELLERY & FANS. BY GABRIEL MOUREY.


[Illustration]

French superiority in the art of jewellery seems to be incontestable
to-day. No unbiased observer will deny the fact that with us there is
more richness, more variety, more originality than can be found
elsewhere; and the jewellery section in the Esplanade des Invalides at
the Exhibition of 1900 showed to the whole world the progress made in
this special branch of applied art by our craftsmen and our artists;
showed, too, the verve, the imagination, the fancifulness, which are the
special property of the French race in all that relates to articles of
luxury, to those things which are essentially "useless," if so we may
term a woman's adornments; if so we may regard the beauty of precious
stones, of enamels skilfully and subtly formed--of all that, in a word,
which, taken from Nature's infinite treasure-house, serves to constitute
that adorably vain, that exquisitely superfluous thing--the jewel.
Ruskin once remarked, in his strange, penetrating way, that the
loveliest things are those which are the least useful--lilies and
peacocks' feathers, for instance. Furthermore, to depreciate the part
played by jewellery in relation to decorative art would be equivalent to
minimising the rôle of womankind in civilisation. Then, again, as
regards decoration or adornment, has not the highest mission devolved on
woman? Has she not had to assume the most active part in it all? The
modern jewellery vogue has, I am convinced, done more in France to
propagate new ideas in the way of decorative art than all the æsthetic
theories ever evolved, however sound.

One might say much, might make many reflections on this renascence of
the jeweller's art, as manifested at the present moment in Paris. This
revival reveals itself rich and abundant--perhaps too rich and abundant;
but what of the future? What fruit will it bear when the glamour of that
which it has already borne has passed away? Is there no danger of seeing
good intentions miscarry--high gifts falling into excesses injurious to
the prosperity of the movement? Is not the new fashion--if it be merely
a fashion--being adopted with too much enthusiasm, followed with too
much ardour, to last? Is there no fear of a reaction? Here are several
questions to which we cannot reply with any certainty.

Yet, what matter? Among the works produced during the past five years or
so--that is, since the full expansion of the movement--there are many
which, by their originality, their technical perfection, deserve to
remain. And remain they certainly will, to bear witness to the audacious
fancy, the creative faculty of our artists, and as a sort of passionate
homage laid by the men of to-day at the feet of the Eternal Feminine.

       *       *       *       *       *

The name of M. René Lalique arises instinctively as soon as one begins
to discuss the modern jewel. He is the renovator, or, preferably, the
creator, of the art as we know it nowadays, and one can easily
understand the enthusiasm and the admiration aroused by his work. M.
Lalique is almost as celebrated as M. Edmond Rostand; and he at least
deserves his celebrity, for he is a real, a very great, artist. And such
he must indeed be to be able to make one forget his imitators, many of
whose productions are as detestable as copies can be. At times
even--most unjustly, I admit--one almost comes to hate the art of M.
Lalique himself, so persistently is it badly imitated. One has been
constrained before now to hate Raphael, on seeing a Cabanel or a
Bouguereau! But enough of that!

The jewels by M. Lalique now reproduced are rather different, both in
conception and in treatment, from his usual manner. Here he appears as a
more direct observer of Nature, more devoted to simplicity and breadth.
His new combs, with pansy and sycamore-leaf _motifs_, in horn and
silver--especially the exquisite one with sycamore seeds in horn, silex,
black enamel, and obsidian, with golden insects here and there--show him
still anxious to extend the field of his experiments, never tired of
seeking fresh subjects and testing new materials. Instead of remaining
stationary and falling asleep at his post, he is spurred by a desire for
conquest, and shows himself ever fertile in imagination, of infinite
fancy, constantly advancing, with undiminished freedom and originality.

At the Universal Exhibition the works executed by M. Vever, in
collaboration with M. Eugène Grasset, obtained the success that was
their due. But the most important piece of work achieved by these two
artists was not finished at that time. I refer to the sumptuous and
heroic pendant of Hercules, which we are fortunate enough to be able to
reproduce here from the original water-colour by M. Grasset. It is truly
an admirable work, one in which all the imaginative and technical
qualities possessed by the illustrator of the "Quatre Fils Aymon" are to
be seen in profusion. What richness, what distinction in the details;
what perfection of balance, both in design and in colouring! As for the
execution by the firm of Vever, they deserve as much credit for it as if
they had produced an original work. This is a jewel worthy to find a
permanent place in one of the great European galleries, to rank side by
side with the wonderful productions of the past.

M. Georges Fouquet is a most daring _fantaisiste_, and his creations
impress one by qualities altogether different from those of the MM.
Vever. He might perhaps be said to belong to the Lalique school, not
that he imitates him, but by reason of his imaginative gifts. He is
generally complicated, somewhat Byzantine, and thoroughly modern in any
case. Some of his jewels would, I think, gain by being less rich;
nevertheless, they are very interesting, and they deserve all the
success they have won. The chief objection that can be urged against
them is their lack of spontaneity. M. Georges Fouquet certainly holds a
foremost place in the new movement. Already his production is
considerable. Altogether an artist of rare gifts and splendid audacity.

I have always had a liking for the jewellery of M. Colonna--for some of
it, at any rate, that which is most simple, most original, and most
wearable. His works have this great charm in my eyes, that they are
neither show-case jewels nor mere _bijoux de parade_, things intended
solely for display. As a rule, they are quiet and practical. In most
cases they have no "subject," being simply happy combinations of lines
and curves and reliefs, the _imprévu_ of which has a particular charm.

M. Marcel Bing, all of whose productions, like those of M. Colonna, are
the monopoly of the "Art Nouveau Bing," has done some delightful things.
One can see that he is still somewhat timid and hesitating, but his
taste is sure, and he has an imagination which, if not specially
abundant, is at least delicate and fine. He has a sense of colour too,
and his pretty fancies are carried out with evident delight.

"La Maison Moderne," so actively directed by M. Meier-Graefe, has
produced a large number of jewels. Ordinarily the designs are supplied
by MM. Maurice Dufrène, Paul Follot, and Orazzi. Of course, they are not
of uniform merit, but this in no way diminishes the interest attaching
to their efforts. They are marred to some extent, it must be admitted,
by certain extravagances, but even that is better than a relapse into
the old _formulæ_, or the profitless reproduction of the bad models
which were the rage some thirty years since. Moreover, "La Maison
Moderne"--all praise to it!--has brought within the reach of the public
quantities of jewellery which, without being masterpieces of conception
or execution, are yet thoroughly good work based on excellent principles
of novelty and freshness. They are what may be termed "popular" jewels.

The works designed by M. Théodore Lambert, and executed by M. Paul
Templier, are of altogether different character. In these days, when
excessive complications in jewel-work are so general and so much
esteemed, these rings, necklaces and _plaques_, with their symmetrical
linear designs in monochrome or reddish or greenish metal, relieved at
times by pearls only, and with their formal _ajourements_, will
doubtless seem to many people too simple or too commonplace. It will be
justly urged against them that they are not sufficiently symbolic, that
they take no account of the human form. No nymph disports herself amid
the fall of the leaves in a lake of enamel bordered by water-lilies and
iris blooms; no serpent nor devil-fish winds about in spasmodic
contortions: yet these are charming works of art, beautifully and
harmoniously designed, and with lines balanced to perfection. They are,
in fact, jewels meant to be worn, _bijoux de ville_, which, while
attracting no special notice, form nevertheless most exquisite objects
of female adornment.

M. René Foy is a strange artist, rather restless, never altogether
satisfied with himself, and haunted by a perpetual desire for something
novel. Is he completely himself, that which he wishes or strives to be?
This is the question those who have closely watched his career are
asking themselves. For my part, I know some delightful things of his,
extraordinarily delicate and graceful; but I also remember some of his
work in which his exaggerations are such that one despairs of
understanding his meaning. Unless I greatly mistake him, he wants the
jewel to express more than it is possible for the jewel to express, and
therefore is continually restless in his attempts to achieve the
unachievable. He loses himself in a maze of "refinements" which, in my
opinion, are outside the limits of the art he practises. He has created
lovely things, things so novel as to be almost too novel, but I do not
think he has said his final word yet. He is a young man who may have
many surprises in store for us.

The jewels of M. Jules Desbois are works of pure sculpture. His vision,
at once broad and delicate, takes the form of beautiful female forms in
dreamy or voluptuous attitude, sleeping amid the masses of their
abundant hair, against a background of gold, or shell, or whatever the
material may be. Any womanly gesture suffices; and, in truth, what more
is needed to make a real work of art in the form of a brooch or a
button? No conventional flowers, no complicated interlacements, nothing
"decorative" in the bad sense of the word; yet his work is powerfully
and delicately modern. M. Desbois' jewels are perfect pieces of
sculpture.

Victor Prouvé, the painter, has been influenced in a similar way, but,
not being a regular sculptor, he is more complicated without being any
more original on that account. There is more "composition" in his jewels
than in those of M. Desbois, more real, more visible, intention. His
waistbelts, his brooches, &c., are admirably suited to the purpose for
which they are intended, their modelling being full, supple, and keen.
The jewels, executed with scrupulous care and irreproachable _technique_
by M. Rivaud, are real works of art.

M. Bécker and M. Paul Richard, who are both working almost exclusively
for M. Ferdinand Verger ("F. V." is the trademark of the firm), incline
to that type of jewellery which might be termed "sculptured." They are
very conscientious artists, but in my opinion, at any rate, the
originality there may be within them has not yet made itself fully
apparent.

M. Louis Bonny's jewels deserve special attention. Like M. Vever, M.
Bonny shows a predilection for precious stones, which he has the art of
using with rare originality. At the last _salon_ of the Société des
Artistes Français he exhibited a series of jewels which attracted much
attention, among them--in addition to a beautiful necklace of wild grape
in enamel, diamonds, and emerald, in addition to various floral pendants
and neck ornaments in enamel and diamonds--a curious diadem,
representing cocks in gold and enamel fighting for possession of a
superb topaz. This was a real _tour de force_ in the way of execution.
Other beautiful things of his I know, particularly his _plaque de cou_
of geraniums, with the leaves in diamonds, the flowers in rubies, the
stems and buds in dark green enamel, the whole being at once rich and
sober in colouring and most harmoniously and flexibly composed.

M. Joé Descomps is a sound artist, whose efforts, laudable as they may
be, nevertheless lack boldness. He has imagination enough, but it looks
as though he feared to give it rein. With a little less timidity M.
Descomps would doubtless produce something more piquant and more fresh.

I greatly like the work of M. Charles Rivaud. It displays a love of
simplicity too often wanting in the productions of many of his fellow
artists. If his jewels recall--without imitating--the ornamental
jewellery of Egypt or Greece, those of primitive civilisations or those
sorts popular in Russia, I can see no harm in the fact. Better for him
and for us that he should turn to these inexhaustible springs than
become a mere imitator of other imitators of successful jewellers. His
rings and his necklaces, in which he is always careful to leave to the
materials employed all the natural charm they possess, are productions
which will please the artist rather than the _bourgeois_ and the "snob."
They are discreet and honest, never loud or eccentric.

No less interesting, in another way, are the jewels by M. Mangeant and
M. Jacquin. It is urged against them that they are crude, incomplete and
imperfect in execution. The truth is, these two artists--whom I bring
into conjunction, although their work is dissimilar, save from their
common regard for freedom in the use of materials--have, above all, a
love for natural forms. Out of a flower, a piece of seaweed, or any
humble _motif_, vegetable or animal, they construct jewels in gold or
oxidised silver, discreetly relieved by stones, which, if of no great
intrinsic value, are nevertheless highly decorative. M. Mangeant, with
mother-of-pearl and hammered _repoussé_ silver, has created charming
jewels, in which all the constructive parts have been intentionally left
visible. Professional jewellers shrug their shoulders at the sight of
these jewels, which bear so plainly the stamp of the hand that fashioned
them. Yet, in their _naïve_ rudeness, they appeal to me far more
forcibly than does the polychromatic tin-ware of so many highly-esteemed
producers.

M. Charles Boutet de Monvel, although gifted with a richer and subtler
imagination, may be included in this little group. In certain of his
jewels there is, as it were, a reminiscence of Byzantine art--in this
owl-comb, for instance, which I regard as one of his best works. His
swan hair-pin, his seaweed buttons in gold and silver on greenish enamel
with a pearl in the centre, his _plaque de cou_ in translucid enamel,
are also strong and captivating. His sunshade handles too, and his
scarf-pins, are full of delicate fancy.

It is impossible, within the space at my disposal, to describe in detail
the productions of many other workers well worthy of extended mention.
Let it suffice, therefore, to cite the names of M. Henri Nocq, that
fresh and bold artist; of M. and Mme. Pierre Selmersheim; M.
Feuillâtre; Mme. Annie Noufflard; MM. Haas, Cherrier, Chalon,
Falguières, Dabault, G. Laffitte, Houillon, Archambault, L. H. Ruffe,
Quénard, Blanchot, Muret, Desrosiers, Le Couteux, Marioton, Lucien
Hirtz, and Nau--artists who work, some on their own account, some for
the big jewellery firms.

Of the firms in question one must in justice name in the first place
those of Boucheron and Falize frères, not forgetting L. Aucoc, Vever,
Sandoz, Lucien Gaillard, Fouquet, Després, Teterger, Chaumet, Templier,
Ferdinand Verger, J. Duval, Coulon, and Piel frères.

Such, briefly, is the modern art-jewellery movement in France. Its
intensity, as one sees, is so great as to be almost alarming. Whither is
it tending? Some of its excesses are dangerous; what will be the result?
M. Emile Molinier, in a recent article on "Objects of Art in the Salons
of 1901," expresses certain fears which I share. He dreads a reaction
due to the eccentricities of certain artists, to their love of the
outrageous and the _bizarre_, to their lack of proportion, both in form
and in choice of material.

"It would really be a pity," he says, "if so promising a revival of the
true artistic jewellery should come to a bad end. Happily we have not
reached that point yet, but it is a result which may soon be reached if
artists continue to foist these weird things on the public. A fashion in
jewellery should last longer than a fashion in dresses or in hats; but
it should not be forgotten that it must rely in the long run on its
appropriateness and adaptability." My sincere hope is that these fears
may prove to be groundless.

    GABRIEL MOUREY.

[Illustration]


(_French_)

DESIGN FOR A FAN

BY

GEORGES DE FEURE.

[Illustration]

[Illustration:

PLATE 1 ]

[Illustration:

_Comb in Horn, Silex, Black Enamel and Obsidian. Insects in Gold_

RENÉ LALIQUE

PLATE 2]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

_A. Pendant in Gold, Ivory, Enamel and Pearl_

_B. Pendant in Gold, Enamel and Pearl_

RENÉ LALIQUE

PLATE 3 ]

[Illustration:

_Watch in Ivory, Gold and Enamel_

_Clasp, Leaves of Plane Tree, in Silver_

RENÉ LALIQUE

PLATE 4 ]

[Illustration:

_Comb, Leaves of Sycamore Horn and Silver_

RENÉ LALIQUE

PLATE 5 ]

[Illustration:

_Combs in Horn and Silver_

RENÉ LALIQUE

PLATE 6 ]

[Illustration:

_Parure de Corsage, in Gold and Enamels_

MUCHA and G. FOUQUET

PLATE 7 ]

[Illustration:

_Girdle with Pendants in Gold, Pearls and Brilliants_

G. FOUQUET

PLATE 8 ]

[Illustration:

_Necklet with Pendant, Gold and Enamel_

G. FOUQUET

PLATE 9 ]


PENDANT AND NECKLET

BY

E. GRASSET.

[Illustration]

[Illustration:

PLATE 10 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

_A. Pendant in Gold, Enamel and Stones_

_B. Pendant in Gold, Enamel and Pearls_

G. FOUQUET

PLATE 11 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

    _A. Lorgnon in Chased Gold and Chrysoprase_ }
        Designed by CAUVIN                      }
                                                 } Executed by BOUCHERON
    _B. Lorgnon in Chased Gold_                 }
        Designed by L. HIRTZ                    }

PLATE 12 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

FIG. C

                         { _A. Devant de Corsage, Brilliants upon green
                         {     with Emeralds "en cabochon"_
   Executed by BOUCHERON {
                         { _B. Necklet in Chased Gold, with a large Topaz_

Both designed by L. HIRTZ

_C. Pendant in Gold, Diamonds, Pearl, Opal and Enamel_

VEVER

PLATE 13 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

_A. Waist-band Buckle in Silver_

Designed by PAUL RICHARD. Executed by F. V. ÉDITEUR

_B. Brooches in Chased Gold_

Designed by L. HIRTZ. Executed by BOUCHERON

PLATE 14 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

FIG. C

FIG. D

_Chatelaines and Watches_

F. V. ÉDITEUR and PAUL RICHARD

_B_ and _C_ designed by E. BÉCKER

PLATE 15 ]

[Illustration:

_Brooches in Chased Gold_

JULES DESBOIS

PLATE 16 ]

[Illustration:

_Buttons and Brooches in Chased Gold_

JULES DESBOIS

PLATE 17 ]

[Illustration:

_Brooch in Chased Gold and two Waist-band Buckles in Silver_

JULES DESBOIS

PLATE 18 ]


(=French=)

    _Design for a Comb in Enamel Shell, and incrusted Gold_

    From an original drawing by
    HENRI VEVER

    _Comb in Enamel, Shell, and Precious Stones_

    Designed by PAUL FOLLOT
    Executed by LA MAISON MODERNE

    _Comb in Enamel, Gold, Shell, and Precious Stones_

    Designed by PAUL FOLLOT
    Executed by LA MAISON MODERNE

[Illustration]

[Illustration:

PLATE 19 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

    _A. Comb in Gold and Horn. Leaves in
          green translucent Enamel, set with
          Siberian Amethysts_

    _B. Horn Fan Handle, incrusted with
          Gold, Brilliants, and Enamel_

VEVER

PLATE 20 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

    _A. Hat Pins in Gold, Enamel, and Pearl_
    _B. Umbrella Handle, Silver Gilt and Stones_

CH. BOUTET DE MONVEL

PLATE 21 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A FIG. B

    _A. Comb in Horn and Gold with Turquoises_
    _B. Comb in Ivory, Silver and Mother-o'-pearl_

CH. BOUTET DE MONVEL

PLATE 22 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A FIG. B

    _A. Hammered and Chased Silver Brooches_
    _B. Comb in Silver and Mother-o'-pearl_

E. MANGEANT

PLATE 23 ]

[Illustration:

    _Clasps in Hammered and
    Chased Silver_

    E. MANGEANT

    PLATE 24
]

[Illustration: FIG. A FIG. C FIG. B

                                { _A. Pendant in Gold and Enamel_
                                { _B. Hanging Mirror in Gold and Enamel_
    Executed by L'ART NOUVEAU   {            Designed by MARCEL BING
                                { _C. Pendant in Gold and Pearls_
                                             Designed by COLONNA

    PLATE 25
]

[Illustration: FIG. A FIG. B

FIG. C

                       { _A. Brooch in Gold, Enamel and Ivory_
    Executed by        { _B. Pendant in Gold and Enamel_
    L'ART NOUVEAU      {                   MARCEL BING
                       { _C. Belt Clasp in Gold_
                       {                   COLONNA

    PLATE 26
]

[Illustration:

_Combs in various materials_

    Designed by ORAZZI
    Executed by LA MAISON MODERNE

PLATE 27 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A FIG. C

FIG. D FIG. B

                       { _A. & B.   Brooches in Gold with_
                       {        _Precious Stones_
                       {   Designed by M. DUFRÊNE
    Executed by        {   _C. Comb_
    LA MAISON MODERNE  {   Designed by ORAZZI
                       {   D. _Gold Pendant with Enamels
                       {    and Precious Stones_
                       {    Designed by P. FOLLOT

PLATE 28 ]

[Illustration:

_Combs_

    Designed by ORAZZI
    Executed by LA MAISON MODERNE

PLATE 29 ]

[Illustration:

_Hat and Hair Pins_

    Designed by ORAZZI
    Executed by LA MAISON MODERNE

PLATE 30 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

    _A. Plaque de Corsage in Gold,
    Enamel and Precious Stones_

    _B. Rings_

    CHARLES RIVAUD

PLATE 31 ]

[Illustration:

_Silver Waist-band Buckles_

    Designed by TH. LAMBERT
    Executed by P. TEMPLIER

PLATE 32 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A FIG. B

FIG. C

FIG. E

FIG. C FIG. D

    _A, B, C & D. Silver Brooches_

    Designed by TH. LAMBERT
    Executed by P. TEMPLIER

    _E. Chatelaine and Watch_

    Designed by M. DUFRÈNE
    Executed by LA MAISON MODERNE

PLATE 33 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A FIG. B

FIG. C

    _A & B.   Silver Brooches_
    _C. Silver Necklet with Pendant_

    Designed by TH. LAMBERT
    Executed by P. TEMPLIER

PLATE 34 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

_A. Painted Fan_

GEORGES DE FEURE

_B. Lace Fan_

    Designed by FÉLIX AUBERT
    Executed by LA MAISON MODERNE

PLATE 35 ]


(_British_)

DESIGN FOR A STENCILLED FAN

BY

REGINALD T. DICK.

[Illustration]

[Illustration:

PLATE 1 ]



MODERN BRITISH JEWELLERY & FANS. BY AYMER VALLANCE.


[Illustration]

None but the most superficial observers can have failed to note the
immense advance that has been attained in British jewellery; though how
or at what precise point of time the improvement originated may not be
determined with too rash precision. It began not more than fifteen or
twenty, nor perhaps later than ten years ago. Somewhere between these
two limits is about the approximate date. At any rate, it is certain
that, thirty years since, it was quite impossible to procure jewellery
in the design and composition of which there entered any artistic taste
whatever. Such simply did not exist. Whereas now there is a widespread,
though unhappily not a universal, movement amongst us for the design and
production of jewellery on true æsthetic principles. The movement may
even be described as in a measure concerted, that is, in so far as it
presents certain main characteristics common to the work of the various
individual artists or schools of artists who are concerned with this
branch of decoration.

And, firstly, must be noted the development of the goldsmith's and
silversmith's craft as an important artistic factor entirely distinct
and apart from the subsidiary task of stone-setting. The recognition of
the art of the metal-worker, as worthy and capable in itself of
providing beautiful ornaments, without their serving any such ulterior
purpose as sporting trophies or eccentric badges of buffoonery; and also
without the adventitious attraction of costly gems, is a decided point
gained.

And, secondly, where stones do happen to be employed, there is an
increasing practice of introducing them for the sake of their decorative
properties, not, as formerly, for the commercial value they represent
in pounds sterling. Mere glitter and the vulgar display of affluence are
gradually yielding before the higher considerations of beauty of form
and colour. Nor is it any longer deemed improper, should the æsthetic
effect of the juxtaposition demand, to set diamonds or other valuable
gems side by side with common and inexpensive stones. In these colour
combinations, since flash and transparence are become of minor esteem,
jewels, instead of being cut in facets, are not infrequently polished in
their natural shape, _en cabochon_, or "tallow-cut," as it is called,
their irregularities of formation imparting not a little to the barbaric
richness of the ornaments in which they occur.

Moreover, out of the taste for colour effects in jewellery has arisen an
enthusiastic study of the special peculiarities of many gems not
hitherto much sought after; a study resulting in the adoption of certain
gems not very precious, yet sufficiently rare, and such that, like
Mexican or fire opals, for example, possess peculiar qualities of
chameleon-like iridescence or depth or lustre that render them admirably
appropriate for quaint and picturesque settings. Among other stones thus
employed may be mentioned lapis lazuli; malachite and its corresponding
blue mineral, azurite; Connemara marble, or serpentine; amazonite, a
light green spar; chrysoprase; and lumachella, Hungarian both in name
and origin. The last named consists of fossilised shells imbedded in a
black matrix, the shells of wonderful iridescence, or flecked with
streaks of vivid colour, and possessing, in short, such ornamental
qualities as amply compensate the difficulty of obtaining it and of
working when obtained. Another material included in the same category is
river pearl, or mother-of-pearl, in the form technically known as pearl
"blisters," that is, pearls undeveloped in the shell and misshapen,
which nevertheless are peculiarly useful for decorative jewellery. One
advantage of these substances is that, on account of their comparative
cheapness, one does not scruple to diminish and divide and fashion them
as may best serve the purpose in hand; whereas in the case of the more
precious stones, like diamonds, whose cost, _ceteris paribus_, increases
proportionately with their size and weight, one shrinks from impairing
their commercial value, and consequently is apt to preserve them whole,
very often at the sacrifice of decorative effect. The craftsman is
unhampered in the use of those jewels only which he knows he is at
liberty to treat as adjuncts subordinated to his art.

There has, moreover, taken place an extended revival of enamelling, an
art which offers abundant opportunities for the exercise of the
decorator's skill and fancy. It is worthy of remark that our artists'
imagination in jewellery seldom degenerates into any great extravagance.
For the most part the designs, even among beginners and students in art
schools, a number of whom have taken up this branch of ornament, are
strictly restrained within bounds, in accord, may be, with our national
character of reserve. Few drawings comparatively have been executed, but
there is no reason why a large proportion should not be translated from
paper into actual existence; for they are in general fairly simple,
straightforward, and practicable, or such that, with but slight
modifications, could be rendered quite practicable for working purposes.

It is often stated that art can only flourish through the patronage of
the wealthy, to whose comfort and luxury it ministers. If this be true
at all, then surely of all things in the world the jeweller's craft
should be a case in point, whereas it is conspicuously the reverse. The
artistic jewellery produced in this country has not, from its very
nature, appealed chiefly to the richest classes of the community, but
rather to those of quite moderate means. And while, on the one hand, it
is encouraging to observe how much of good work has been and is being
done towards raising the standard of jewellery design amongst us, it is
nevertheless disappointing to have to record how little support it has
found in influential and official quarters. One notable exception is the
commission Mr. Alfred Gilbert received to design a mayoral collar, chain
and badge for the Corporation of Preston. The sketch model for the same
was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1888, and, for bold originality of
outline, as well as for the crisp curling treatment of the parts
executed in sheet metal, must have been, as was remarked at the time, a
revelation to the ordinary trade jeweller.

Among pioneers of the artistic jewellery movement, Mr. C. R. Ashbee
holds an honourable place. He stood almost alone at the beginning, when
he first made known the jewellery designed by him, and produced under
his personal direction by the Guild and School of Handicraft in the East
End. It was immediately apparent that here was no tentative nor
half-hearted caprice, but that a genuine and earnest phase of an ancient
craft had been re-established. Every design was carefully thought out,
and the work executed with not less careful and consistent technique. In
fact, its high merits were far in advance of anything else in
contemporary jewellery or goldsmith's work. The patterns were based on
conventionalised forms of nature, favourite among them being the
carnation, the rose, and the heartsease, or on abstract forms invited by
the requirements and conditions of the material--the ductility and
lustre of the metal itself. Most of the ornaments were of silver, the
surface of which was not worked up to a brilliantly shining burnish, in
the prevalent fashion of the day, but dull polished in such wise as to
give the charming richness and tone of old silverwork. Mr. Ashbee also
adopted the use of jewels, not lavishly nor ostentatiously, but just
wherever a note of colour would convey the most telling effect, the
stones in themselves, _e.g._ amethysts, amber, and rough pearl, being of
no particular value, save purely from the point of view of decoration.
Novel and revolutionary as were, at its first appearance, the principles
underlying Mr. Ashbee's jewellery work--viz. that the value of a
personal ornament consists not in the commercial cost of the materials
so much as in the artistic quality of its design and treatment--they
became the standard which no artist thenceforward could wisely afford to
ignore, and such furthermore that have even in certain quarters become
appropriated by the trade in recent times. Mr. Ashbee himself is an
enthusiastic student of Benvenuto Cellini, whose treatises he
translated, edited, and printed in 1898. But fortunately the influence
of Italian style is by no means paramount in Mr. Ashbee's own designs
for jewellery, unless indeed the fine and dainty grace which
particularly characterises some of his later work is to be attributed to
this source. One or two of the necklaces here reproduced are examples of
this lighter manner of Mr. Ashbee's, as the two handsome peacock pattern
brooches are of his more solid and substantial jewellery; while, again,
the necklace of green malachite, turquoise, and silver, with pendants of
grape bunches alternating with vine-leaf and tendril ornaments, occupies
an intermediate position midway between the two former classes of his
work.

One is always glad to welcome an artist who is courageous and firm
enough to grapple with the practical difficulties that surround him, and
who sets about to reform, where need requires, the native industry of
his own neighbourhood. Such is the aim of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Gaskin.
Their home is in a locality where a large amount of very deplorable
jewellery is produced; so deplorable that they determined, if possible,
to provide an antidote to the prevailing degradation. And the reason why
the vast mass of the trade jewellery manufactured in Birmingham is bad
is that in style and outline it is utterly devoid of artistic
inspiration, while at the same time it is perfect as concerns mere
technique. The pity of it is that such excellent workmanship should be
wasted on such contemptible design. Mr. Gaskin, therefore, saw no
alternative but to start afresh, reversing the accepted order of things.
His plan is to give the foremost care to the design, and only secondly
to regard technique; and so, by keeping design well in advance,
executive skill following after, to raise the former to its proper
level. Absence of mathematical uniformity is no doubt held to be a
blemish in the opinion of the tradesman, but it gives a living and human
interest to the work, and a decorative quality which machine-made
articles cannot claim to possess. Mr. Gaskin came to the conclusion that
it was of little benefit for a draughtsman to make drawings on paper to
be carried out by someone else; studio and workshop must be one,
designer identical with craftsman. It is not very many years since Mr.
Gaskin, ably seconded by his wife, started with humble, nay, almost
rudimentary apparatus, to make jewellery with his own hands; but the
result has proved how much taste and steadfast endurance can accomplish.
Their designs are so numerous and so varied--rarely is any single one
repeated, except to order--that it is hardly possible to find any
description to apply to all. But it may be noted that, whereas a large
number have been characterised by a light and graceful treatment of
twisted wire, almost like filigree, the two pendants here illustrated
seem to indicate rather a new departure on the part of Mr. Gaskin, with
their plates of chased metal, and pendants attached by rings, a method
not in any sense copied from, yet in some sort recalling the beautiful
fashion with which connoisseurs are familiar in Norwegian and Swedish
peasant jewellery.

Next in order may be mentioned Mr. Fred Robinson. This artist is
actuated by similar ideals as Mr. and Mrs. Gaskin, as is evidenced more
especially by his necklace with bent wire pendants of open-work
arabesque.

Another artist of distinction is Miss Annie McLeish, of Liverpool, whose
jewellery design, particularly in the way in which the several parts are
connected together--an ornamental feature being made out of the
structural requirement of strengthening and tying together the portions
pierced _à jour_--is curiously suggestive of the perforated iron guards
of Japanese sword-handles. At the same time, it is not to be implied
that Miss McLeish is at all an imitator of Japanese work. Another point
to be noticed is her decorative use of the human figure, in which regard
two more lady designers, Miss Larcombe and Miss Winifred Hodgkinson,
also excel. The latter, to whose work black-and-white reproduction
scarcely does adequate justice, is stronger in her figure work than in
that which comes easiest to most people--to wit, the treatment of floral
forms that constitute the subordinate portions of the design.

The number of ladies who have achieved success in jewellery design
proves this, indeed, to be a craft to which a woman's light and dainty
manipulation is peculiarly adapted. Besides those already mentioned one
has only to instance Miss Ethel Hodgkinson and Miss Swindell, who both
contribute graceful designs for hat-pins and other small articles; Miss
Dorothy Hart, whose charming _pentacol_ is executed by herself; Miss
Kate Fisher and Miss McBean, in whose designs for clasps, etc., enamel
is a prominent item; Miss Alabaster, whose beautiful gold brooch,
adorned with blue and green enamel, is based on a _motif_ of trees with
intertwining stems and roots; and Miss Rankin, whose four silver
hat-pins of handsome design, representing a peacock, thistles, and
Celtic beasts respectively, are executed by Mr. Talbot, of Edinburgh,
himself a designer as well as artificer. Miss Edith Pickert, in her
designs for various articles of jewellery, usually employs a fairly
thick outline of metal to enclose a coloured enamel surface. How
diversely one and the same _motif_ may be rendered in different hands is
illustrated by a comparison of Miss Pickert's belt design and Mr. Nelson
Dawson's belt-clasps, both in enamel and both founded on the flower
"love in a mist."

Mr. Nelson Dawson, well known as an eminent metal-worker and active
member of the Society of Arts and Crafts, is also Director of the
Artificers' Guild. Another belt-clasp from his design represents the
delicate form of the harebell plant.

Mr. Edgar Simpson, of Nottingham, is an artist of great gifts, as his
drawings and, still more, the specimens of his actual handiwork here
illustrated fully testify. Many excellent designs lose vigour and
character in the process of execution from the original sketch; but Mr.
Simpson, on the contrary, manages to give his designs additional charm
by the exquisite finish with which he works them out in metal.
Particularly happy is this artist's rendering of dolphins and other
marine creatures; as in the circular pendant where the swirling motion
of water is conveyed by elegant curving lines of silver, with a pearl,
to represent an air-bubble, issuing from the fish's mouth.

Mr. David Veazey's work, including, among other things, a hair comb
decorated with enamel, has a variegated opal-tinted quality of colour;
while Miss Barrie obtains admirable effects in translucent enamel
without backing, after the Russian method. Her design for a belt-clasp
with interlaced ornament and stones is excellent. Other belt-clasps and
buckles are from designs by Mr. Oliver Baker. Some of this strap-work
ornament looks as though it might have been produced by casting from a
model; but, as a matter of fact, it is entirely wrought and folded by
hand.

Mr. and Mrs. McNair's jewellery, as well as that of Mr. and Mrs.
Mackintosh, has that quaint mannerism which one instinctively associates
with the Glasgow school of decorators, as also, in a still more marked
degree, that of Mr. Talwyn Morris, whose characteristic book-covers are
well known. For jewellery, he frequently elects to work in aluminium.
His design is strikingly original in effect, though on analysis it is
found to consist of very simple units, such as various-sized rectangles
overlaid, their boundary lines interpenetrating; with the occasional
apparition of a peacock's eye-feather or the bird's neck and head in the
midst. In these cases a completer sense of organic unity might be
obtained if, instead of a detached limb, the whole bird were
represented, or some other logical coherence established between the
incidents of the composition.

Mr. Thomas Cook, of West Ham, inserts small slabs of mosaic, after the
Italian mode, only he frankly adopts a purely conventional treatment,
wisely refraining from any approach to pictorial realism.

It is a hopeful sign that in many of the technical art schools
throughout the land students are taking up jewellery design, and not
only that, but in some cases carrying out the actual work themselves. It
is largely due to the same fostering influence that the beautiful art of
enamelling, frequently referred to above, has been developed amongst us,
notably at the Central School of Arts and Crafts, where classes for this
department were inaugurated under the able guidance of Mr. Alexander
Fisher. But if the improvement in jewellery is to be general and
permanent, in order to set it on a secure basis the motive power must
come from within. Much good, therefore, may be expected to result from
the official sanction afforded by the Goldsmiths' Company to the
jewellery work of their Technical Institute, to which a number of very
creditable designs owe their existence. Among others may be singled out
some decorations for watch-backs, a branch of the craft as useful as it
is neglected; those who have taken it up, like Miss Kate Allen, for
instance, being unfortunately but rare exceptions. There is no reason,
however, why everyone who carries a watch should not enjoy in it the
constant companionship of a thing of beauty.

To sum up, then, if our modern art jewellery cannot boast any
conspicuously brilliant features, at any rate it is of a high average
standard. And though, as is the case of all good work, it must needs
share many qualities in common with the noble treasures of the past, it
yet does not assimilate to any historic style. In fine, it is original;
and, withal, there may be traced in most of it a certain family
likeness. It seems almost as if some new-born idea were really beginning
to dominate it with the impress of a distinct nationality, destined to
develop some day into a tradition which future generations may justly
feel it a privilege to follow.

The case of fans is the exact opposite to that of jewellery. In the
former department, it cannot be said that there exists any sort of
consensus of ideals, nor any paramount type of ornament. And,
notwithstanding the existence amongst us of some few fan-painters of
very considerable repute, their operations remain as yet quite personal
and individualistic. They have no regular following; have founded no
school of decoration. It is, therefore, a subject still open to
determine by what principles the ornament of fans should be guided.

Firstly should be taken into account the peculiar shape of the surface
available for decoration; and, secondly, the fact that this surface is
not a flat plane, but such that must in practice infallibly be broken
into so many set divisions or folds. The latter circumstance is the real
crux of the question, many decorations, otherwise beautiful enough in
the flat, being utterly ruined in effect as soon as they undergo the
ordeal of mounting. Thus it may perhaps seem an ingenious plan to
subdivide the space horizontally, but it must be remembered that every
horizontal line will lose its value when converted, as it must be, into
a series of irregular zigzags. The folding is an essential factor,
without taking which into account no fan decoration can be satisfactory.
In setting out the design, then, it should always be borne in mind that
no sharply defined straight lines are admissible, except those that
radiate from the centre; and that, of curves, concentric ones are the
best, such, that is, as are parallel with the arc shape. If the ornament
is floral, it may take the form either of a powdering, or of an all-over
pattern of moderately small scrolls. Those on a large scale would run
counter to the folds in too emphatic a manner to be agreeable. In figure
subjects, of course, care should be taken so to dispose them that no
important feature like an eye or a nose be split asunder by the lines of
the folds. The larger and more pronounced the pattern, the more
necessary it is to observe these conditions. On the other hand, where
the colouring is of fairly even tone, and without strongly contrasted
masses, or where the design is on a small scale, the surface can the
more safely be spaced out by lines or medallions or cartouches, or other
devices that may commend themselves.

As regards material, there is no question that a silk ground, prepared
with rice-size and stretched, until the decoration is completed, on a
stretcher, offers as suitable a texture as one could desire for delicate
and softly-blended harmonies in water-colour; as the fans of Mr. Conder,
a prolific fan-painter, whose work appeals to a large circle of
admirers, amply testify. The detail is all Mr. Conder's own, though the
influence of French XVIIIth century ornament is unmistakable.

Miss Syrett again is a clever artist working on somewhat similar lines.
No one, however, who knew her figure compositions in her Slade School
days, productions full of promise, if marred by the attenuated model
with prim, smooth-drawn hair, the type of Carlos Schwabe's illustrations
to "Le Rêve" and "l'Évangile," could have foreseen that Miss Syrett
would develop in the direction of her present work. The reduced
black-and-white illustrations convey no idea of the tender beauty of the
colouring, nor of the exquisite pen-work in brown with which such
features as the faces, hair, and hands are executed.

Another gifted artist is Mr. Brangwyn, who now makes his _début_ as a
fan decorator, with a finished painting on silk, and also a crayon study
for the same purpose. His design shows how much individuality an artist
may impart even to work consciously founded on that of a past style.
Here, for example, in the drawing of Cupids shooting their darts at a
pair of lovers, may be recognised the very figures of the Trianon
period, but happily without any of their doll-like affectation and
effeminacy.

Those who recollect Miss Jessie King's drawing in the last winter's
special number of THE STUDIO--her _Pelleas and Mélisande_--in which the
lank forms of Schwabe or Torop were combined with a wealth of accessory
ornament of the artist's own, will scarcely recognise her hand in the
present fan. She seems to be able to pass with marvellous facility from
one fully matured style to another. The elaborate, nay, luxuriant finish
of the whole, to say nothing of separate details such as the
butterflies, the festoons, knots, etc., vividly recall the work of the
late Aubrey Beardsley. It is no derogation of Miss King's remarkable
powers to assert that, but for the existence of Mr. Beardsley, this
drawing of hers would certainly not have been what it is. One could wish
that, for the sake of support to the leaf, more room had been allowed to
the sticks. But, apart from this defect, the dainty care with which
every minute detail is consistently carried out merits little else than
praise.

Miss Christine Angus contributes two designs--one, in a pictorial style,
for a paper fan, not nearly so decorative as the other, of nude boys
and sweet peas, for painting on silk. Miss Ethel Larcombe's gauze fans
are attractive compositions, which bear tokens of a diligent
appreciation of Granville Fell.

Another kind of fan ornamentation is exemplified by the stencil work of
Mr. Reginald Dick and Mr. Thomas Cook. It is true these decorations are
in a degree, but only in a slight degree, mechanical. The one
unchangeable element is the white tie-lines of the pattern. For the
rest, no little skill is required of the artist in devising and cutting
his stencil. The number of plates is limited, but the mode adopted of
colouring by hand admits of such variations that no two specimens from
the identical stencil plates would ever be alike. Mr. Dick's fan is
provided with enamelled sticks in keeping with the other parts of the
decoration. Mr. Cook's design is the less characteristic of this
particular method. Indeed, though finished off at either end with a
certain plausibility, the pattern is an obvious repeat, and such that
might very well be the section of a circular dish border.

Less ambitious are the designs for different sorts of lacework by Miss
Hammett and Miss Naylor. Each of these patterns, while keeping strictly
within the limits of the special technique proposed, shows yet much
freshness and fertility of resource. In the one case the design is
floral, in the other the theme is relieved by the introduction of bird
forms into the composition.

To conclude, the scope for decoration that fans afford is so great, and
the possible methods so manifold, that the wonder is there are not many
more artists employed in this industry. It is one well worthy of their
attention; and it is to be hoped that no long time may elapse before the
joint efforts of designers may, in this, as already in other branches
of arts and crafts, result in something like a native style of
ornamentation being evolved.

    AYMER VALLANCE.


(_British_)

A FAN PAINTED ON SILK

BY

FRANK CONDER.

(_In the possession of Thomas Greg, Esq._)

[Illustration]

[Illustration

PLATE 2 ]

[Illustration:

_Design for a Lace Fan_

MYRA NAYLOR

PLATE 3 ]

[Illustration:

_Design for a Lace Fan_

MYRA NAYLOR

PLATE 4 ]


(_British_)

A FAN PAINTED ON SILK

BY

FRANK CONDER.

(_In the possession of Dalhousie Young, Esq._)

[Illustration]

[Illustration:

PLATE 5 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

    _A. "The Medallion" Fan_
    _B. "A Travesty" Fan_

FRANK CONDER

(_By permission of Messrs. Carfax & Co._)

PLATE 6 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

    _A. "The Empire" Fan_
    _B. "L'Anglaise" Fan_

FRANK CONDER

(_By permission of Messrs. Carfax & Co._)

PLATE 7 ]


(_British_)

A PAINTED SILK FAN

BY

FRANK BRANGWYN.

[Illustration]

[Illustration:

PLATE 8]

[Illustration: _Designs for Lace Fans_

LYDIA C. HAMMETT

PLATE 9]

[Illustration: _Designs for Painted Gauze Fans_

ETHEL LARCOMBE

PLATE 10]


(_British_)

"THE COURT OF LOVE"

DESIGN FOR A PAINTED FAN

BY

H. GRANVILLE FELL.

[Illustration]

[Illustration:

PLATE 11]

[Illustration: _Designs for Painted Silk Fans_

CHRISTINE ANGUS

PLATE 12]

[Illustration: _Painted Silk Fans_

NELLIE SYRETT

PLATE 13]


(_British_)

BUCKLE IN WROUGHT SILVER AND ENAMEL

BY

NELSON AND EDITH DAWSON.

[Illustration]

[Illustration:

PLATE 14]

[Illustration: FIG. A

_A. Painted Silk Fan_

THOMAS A. COOK

FIG. B

_B. Painted Silk Fan_

NELLIE SYRETT

PLATE 15]

[Illustration: _Design for a Fan_

JESSIE M. KING

PLATE 16]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

    _A. Necklet in Gold and Silver, with Amethysts and Enamels_
    _B. Necklet in Silver and Gold, green Malachite and Turquoise_

    Designed by C. R. ASHBEE
    Executed by THE GUILD OF HANDICRAFT

PLATE 17 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

    _A. Necklet in Gold, Pearls and Enamels_
    _B. Silver Muff-Chain with Pearl Blisters_

    Designed by C. R. ASHBEE
    Executed by THE GUILD OF HANDICRAFT

PLATE 18 ]


(_British_)

    _Comb in Mother-of-pearl and Enamel_
    B. J. BARRIE

    _Comb in Beaten Silver with Ivory Prongs_
    DAVID VEAZEY

    _Hair Comb in Silver and Transparent Enamels_
    KATE ALLEN

[Illustration]

[Illustration:

PLATE 19 ]

[Illustration:

FIG. A

FIG. B

FIG. C

    _A. Peacock Brooch with Pearls, White
          Enamel and Turquoises_

    _B. Silver Brooch, with Green and
          Blue Enamels_

    _C. Peacock Brooch, in Gold, with
          Pearls and Diamonds, a Ruby in
          the Peacock's eye_

    Designed by C. R. ASHBEE
    Executed by
    THE GUILD OF HANDICRAFT

PLATE 20 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

_A. Silver Clasp, enriched with Amethysts, Pearls and pale violet
Enamel_

    Designed by C. R. ASHBEE
    Executed by THE GUILD OF HANDICRAFT

_B. Hair Comb, in Silver and Enamels_

FRANCES McNAIR

PLATE 21 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

_A. Vinaigrette and Chain_

J. HERBERT McNAIR

_B. Pendant in beaten Silver, pierced and enamelled to hold a Crystal
Locket_

FRANCES McNAIR

PLATE 22 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

    _A. Belt-buckle and two Brooches in beaten Silver and Wire_
    _B. Brooches and Earrings_

J. HERBERT McNAIR

PLATE 23 ]



(_British_)


    DESIGNS FOR JEWELLERY IN GOLD, SILVER,
    ENAMELS, MOSAIC AND PRECIOUS STONES

    BY

    THOMAS A. COOK.

[Illustration]

[Illustration:

PLATE 24]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

_A. Necklace in Gold and Enamel_

KATE FISHER

_B. Belt in Silver and Enamel_

EDITH PICKETT

PLATE 25 ]

[Illustration: _Silver Clasps and Gold Pendants set with Opals and
Amethysts_

EDGAR SIMPSON

PLATE 26]

[Illustration: _A Pendant, Two Buttons, a Brooch and a Cloak Clasp in
Silver_

EDGAR SIMPSON

PLATE 27]

[Illustration: _Silver Pendant, Brooch and Clasp_

ANNIE McLEISH

PLATE 28]


(_British_)

    _Enamelled Silver Brooch_
    A. E. ARSCOTT

    _Silver Pendant touched with Enamel_
    E. MAY BROWN

    _Enamelled Silver Brooch_
    W. HODGKINSON

    _Silver Brooch with Beads of Enamel_
    ANNIE McLEISH

    _Brooch in Silver and Enamel_
    KATE ALLEN

    _Silver Brooch set with Red Coral_
    ISABEL McBEAN

    _Silver Locket Enamelled_
    W. HODGKINSON

    _Brooch in Gold and Enamel with Pearl Centre_
    KATE ALLEN

    _Brooch, Silver and Enamel_
    A. E. ARSCOTT

    _Silver Brooch enriched with Enamel_
    ANNIE McLEISH

    _Enamelled Silver Brooch_
    W. HODGKINSON

[Illustration]

[Illustration:

PLATE 29]

[Illustration: _Belt Buckles in Silver, Niello and Enamels_

WINIFRED HODGKINSON

PLATE 30]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

_A. Enamelled Silver Belt-Clasp_

KATE ALLEN

_B. Silver Clasp set with Stones_

B. J. BARRIE

PLATE 31 ]

[Illustration: _Clasps in Silver and Enamel_

ANNIE McLEISH

PLATE 32]

[Illustration: _Watch Backs in Silver and Enamels_

KATE ALLEN

PLATE 33]


(_British_)

    _Brooch in Silver and Enamel_
    DAVID VEAZEY

    _Brooch in Silver, Enamel, and Precious Stones_
    B. J. BARRIE

    _Gold Pendant with Pearls, and Turquoise, and Champlevé Enamel_
    DOROTHY HART

    _Gold Pendant enriched with Enamel_
    E. LARCOMBE

    _Silver Pendant with Enamel_
    MINNIE MCLEISH

    _Brooch in Silver and Enamel_
    ANNIE MCLEISH

    _Enamelled Silver Brooch_
    MINNIE MCLEISH

    _Enamelled Brooch in Silver_
    N. EVERS-SWINDELL

    _Brooch in Gold and Enamel_
    M. ALABASTER

[Illustration]

[Illustration:

PLATE 34]

[Illustration: _Silver Clasps set with Stones_

OLIVER BAKER

PLATE 35]

[Illustration: British

FIG. A

FIG. B

FIG. C

_A. Silver Pendant set with Opal in matrix_

EDGAR SIMPSON

_B and C. Silver Buckles_

OLIVER BAKER

PLATE 36 ]

[Illustration: _Clasps in Silver and Enamels_

KATE FISHER

PLATE 37]

[Illustration: _Clasps in Silver and Enamels_

KATE ALLEN

PLATE 38]


    _Pin in Beaten Silver and Enamel_
    D. VEAZEY

    _Hair Pin in Silver and Enamel_
    E. M. HODGKINSON

    _Pin in Silver and Enamel_
    E. M. HODGKINSON

    _Pin in Beaten Silver and Enamel_
    D. VEAZEY

    _Pin in Beaten Silver and Enamel_
    D. VEAZEY

    _Silver Hair Pin touched with Enamel_
    ANNIE MCLEISH

    _Hair Pin of Gold decorated with Enamel
    and Mother-of-pearl_
    W. HODGKINSON

    _Hair Pin in Silver and Enamel_
    E. M. HODGKINSON

[Illustration]

[Illustration:

PLATE 39]

[Illustration: FIG. C

FIG. A

FIG. B

FIG. D

    _A and B. Jewelled Brooches in beaten Copper_
    _C and D. Jewelled Buckles in beaten Aluminium_

TALWIN MORRIS

PLATE 40 ]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

FIG. C

    _A Jewelled Shoe-Buckle in beaten Copper_
    _B. Cloak Clasp in beaten Silver_
    _C. Waist-band Clasp in beaten Silver_

TALWIN MORRIS

PLATE 41]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

FIG. C

_A and B. Buckles in beaten Aluminium_

TALWIN MORRIS

_C. Pendants in Silver; the upper one with Enamels, the lower with
Turquoises_

FRANCES MCNAIR

PLATE 42]

[Illustration: _Silver Finger Ring set with Pearls, Amethysts, and
Rubies_

CHARLES R. MACINTOSH

_Silver Brooch and Pendant Heart set with Rubies, Pearls, and
Turquoises_

M. MACDONALD MACKINTOSH

PLATE 43]

[Illustration: _Necklet of beaten Silver, chased, and set with Fire
Opals_

ARTHUR J. GASKIN

PLATE 44]

[Illustration: _Silver Pendant and Chain set with Turquoises and
Chrysoprase_

ARTHUR J. GASKIN

PLATE 45]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

    _A. Silver Belt_
    _B. Silver Necklet, set with Pearl Blisters,
    Coral and Aquamarine_

FRED S. ROBINSON

PLATE 46]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

_A. Silver Chain and Pendants set with Stones_

ISABEL McBEAN

_B. Enamelled Silver Pendant_

MINNIE McLEISH

PLATE 47]


    _Silver Clasp enriched with Enamel_
    ANNIE ALABASTER

    _Silver Clasp inset with Enamel_
    DAVID VEAZEY

[Illustration]

[Illustration:

PLATE 48]

[Illustration: _Silver and Enamel Clasps, Pins and Brooches_

EDITH PICKETT

PLATE 49]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

FIG. C

FIG. E

FIG. D

FIG. F

FIG. G

_A, D, G. Brooches and a Cross in Gold, set with Stones_

ANNIE McLEISH

_B. Brooch in Silver and Enamels_

DAVID VEAZEY

_C. Silver Brooch with Opals_

ETHEL M. HODGKINSON

_F. Brooch in Silver, Enamel and Pearls_

NORA EVERS-SWINDELL

PLATE 50]

[Illustration: _Four Silver Hat Pins_

Designed by ARABELLA RANKIN

Executed by J. M. TALBOT

PLATE 51]

[Illustration: _A. Six Pins in Silver and Enamel_

NORA EVERS-SWINDELL

_B. Two Pins in Silver and Enamel_

WINIFRED HODGKINSON

_C. Two Silver Pins set with Enamel_

ETHEL M. HODGKINSON

PLATE 52]



MODERN AUSTRIAN JEWELLERY. By W. FRED.


[Illustration]

Critical examination of the jewellery of any particular period cannot
fail to be practically a chapter of the history of culture. The popular
saying: "Every time has the poet it deserves," is superficially true,
yet holds within itself a certain element of falsehood, as does pretty
well every commonplace proverb of the same kind. However, if the
sentence be slightly modified, as it very well may be, so that it reads,
"Every time has the jewellery it deserves," there will be absolutely
nothing untrue about it, for the ornaments worn, whether on the dress,
the hair, or the person of the wearer, have always reflected in a marked
degree the taste of their period, and are very distinctly differentiated
from those of any other time, so that changes in fashion imply changes
of a more radical description in popular feeling.

A history of personal ornament is open to many side issues, and unfolds
itself in two different--indeed, opposite--directions. Primitive
savages, as is well known, wear ornaments before they take to clothes.
The Fiji islanders sport gold chains round their necks, and the African
negroes in their untamed state load themselves with every glittering
object they can get hold of, looking upon the multiplication of
ornaments as a sign of wealth. Very different, of course, is the state
of civilisation of those who look upon decoration as an evidence of art
culture, and care only for such ornaments as require the exercise of
technical skill in their production, valuing them in proportion to the
amount of that skill displayed by their craftsmen, rather than the
intrinsic value of their material. The time of the Italian Renaissance
is an instance of the truth of this. As has so often before been the
case in the times of transition which are of inevitable recurrence, our
own modern epoch is characterised by a certain unrest and confusion, in
which many tendencies are contending with each other side by side, and
neutralising, to a great extent, each other's effects. In America, the
Tiffany company seems to aim at producing masses of precious stones,
which will give primarily the impression of the great wealth of their
owner and producer; whereas, in France, Lalique the jeweller endeavours
rather to throw into the background the actual value of the jewels,
their artistic setting being the first thing to strike the observer. We
in Austria have greater leanings to France than to America, and precious
stones, however great their intrinsic value, are looked upon as of quite
secondary value in modern art-work to beauty of line and of colour.
French influence on Austrian work cannot fail to be recognised. Its
germs fell indeed on a soil of exceptional fertility, with the result
that they have taken root and borne abundant fruit. It should perhaps,
however, be remarked that those races who are the heirs of a strong art
tradition do not need, as do others less fortunate, to prove the wealth
of their inheritance by the use of lavish ornament. Their inherent
artistic culture is indeed evidenced by the fact that they expect their
artists to exercise their skill on materials less costly than do those
who, to a certain extent, have their reputations still to make.
Benvenuto Cellini had to be content to work in silver, the Americans
want to have every stick or umbrella-handle to be of gold.

If we cast a glance, however hasty and cursory it may be, over the
development of jewellery in Vienna, noting the forms most popular in
that city in past times, it is impossible not to be struck with the way
in which every historical phase of art is reflected in these forms. The
favourite style with Viennese jewellers, and that in which the most
effective, and at the same time the most characteristic, results have
been achieved was undoubtedly the so-called _baroque_, a term originally
restricted to a precise architecture or art-style alone, but now loosely
applied to characterise any ornamental design of an unusual kind. It is
in this half-serious, half-sportive style, with its grotesque yet bold
effects and its complete freedom from convention, that the finest pieces
of Austrian jewellery have been produced. At the time of the great
Congress of Vienna, when the representatives of the Powers met in that
city to settle the affairs of Europe after the fall of Napoleon--that is
to say, about one hundred years later than the first introduction of the
_baroque_ style from Italy, French work, though it was of a crude
description, exercised an influence over Austrian jewellers, and what
seemed like a second renaissance of the art of ornament began in
Austria.

The art of jewellery in Austria remained under French influence almost
until the present day--in fact, throughout the whole of the 19th
century--and it has only been in the last year that Austrian
art-industries have been set free from the foreign yoke which so long
oppressed them, so that the true Viennese style of jewellery has but
rarely come to the fore. Now at last, however, the liberating influence
of the modern spirit is making itself felt in the art of jewellery, as
in everything else; and every ornament produced, whether in precious
stones or in enamel, bears the unmistakable impress of the distinctive
psychic character of our capital city, which even foreigners do not fail
to recognise. The result of this individuality is that a work of art is
indissolubly bound up with the personality of its creator, and with the
idiosyncrasies of the town which was its birthplace.

In Austria men wear very little jewellery, and the only noteworthy
examples of ornaments made for them which can be quoted are a few rings
and charms, the former perhaps adorned with designs in low-relief. The
flat gold circle of the wedding-ring, which can be easily carried in the
waistcoat pocket, and the engagement-ring, the psychic meaning of which
is clear enough, the latter generally bearing one large diamond or other
precious stone, do not afford much scope for the æsthetic feeling of
their makers. A man who ventures to wear much jewellery is called
old-fashioned, but there are still people who dare to sport a single
great diamond or some other simple ornament on their shirt fronts. A
pearl without setting, an emerald, or so-called sapphire _en cabochon_,
are still frequently seen. The present fashion allowing men to tie their
cravats in all manner of different styles to suit their own particular
fancy, has led to the manufacture of a few varieties of scarf rings
which admit of a certain amount of artistic intertwining of the gold, if
it be gold of which they are made. When the making of jewellery for men
is left to the unfettered imagination of the artist, he generally
produces something quaintly original and fantastic, such as queer
figurals, grotesque masks, comic caricatures of human or half-human
figures or faces, etc.

On the other hand, there is no doubt that there is far more activity in
the production of jewellery for women in Vienna than in almost any other
city. The culture of our town is, indeed, essentially feminine. The
graceful and witty, yet dreamy and passionate, girls and women of Vienna
give to it its distinctive character. A foreigner who once spent two
days only in our capital was yet able to say of it, that all through his
wanderings in its streets and alleys the rhythm of female culture was
sounding in his ears. The men of Vienna pride themselves more than the
French, more even than the people of Northern Europe, on their women,
and as a result of this pride there is sure to be plenty of beautiful
jewellery of varied design to be met with in the town in which they
live.

Amongst jewels and precious stones the spotless white pearl is perhaps
the favourite, but, as proved at the last great Exhibition in Paris, the
pale rose-coloured coral from the East runs it very close. Diamonds are
still set in the old-fashioned way--that is to say, after simple
designs, the best of which are copies from Renaissance or _baroque_
models. Only now and then is any attempt made to produce lightly incised
representations direct from Nature of flowers, birds, or leaves. Of
course, bouquets of brilliants and leaves consisting entirely of
diamonds have always been easily made at any period; but what is now
aimed at for that very reason is the evolution of designs which shall be
essentially true to Nature, but at the same time really artistic. Crude
masses of naturalistic flowers are really of no account whatever, for a
bouquet of diamonds can never have the exquisite charm of a fresh,
sweet-smelling bunch of real blossoms. Only a fairly good design,
founded on some flower or leaf which can be satisfactorily reproduced
in, and is, so to speak, _en rapport_ with, the jewels to be used, can
succeed in pleasing through beauty of form alone, independently of any
association. Good examples of the best style of ornament in which
precious stones are used are the necklace, figured herewith, with the
earrings to match, by Roset and Fischmeister. In them the natural form,
which has been the motive from which the design was evolved, was the
fruit and leaf of the rare plant known in Germany as the Gingopflanze.
The delicate separate stems are worked in dull gold, and the way the
joining is managed cannot fail to be admired, whilst the single stems
are in platinum. The charm and distinction of this piece of jewellery is
due above all to its beauty of form, in other words it is not the gross
value of the precious stones with which it is set which makes it a
worthy possession, but the skill with which the motive has been worked
out.

Viennese jewellers do not use the colourless precious stones much. They
generally combine jewels with enamel, and also with what they themselves
call the coloured Halbedelsteine, or half-jewels, such as the agate,
onyx, cornelian, and other less valuable precious stones. The modern
tendency is in every case to rely upon colour and line for effect rather
than upon massive form, so that the greater number of new designs, or of
revived designs of the past, require for their satisfactory treatment
what may be almost characterised as a new technique.

First of all, the modern buckle for the belt or girdle claims attention.
The lately revived custom of wearing the blouse led, as a matter of
course, to the use of the belt with a more or less ornate buckle, just
as, a few years ago, the long necklace came into general use again. The
young women of the present day found both all ready for use in the
jewel-chests of their grandmothers. It seems likely, too, that there
will presently be a revival of the costly shoulder-clasps which used to
be the fashion in the time of the Empire, and if this be the case, the
new fancy will probably, to some extent, oust the belt buckle from
popular favour. In the designing of ornaments for the neck, art
jewellers have far more scope than formerly for the exercise of their
imagination, and they are disposed, to some extent, to follow the French
mode, that is to say, they make necklaces flat and broad, so as to give
an effect of slenderness to the throat of the wearer. It is a matter of
course that combs and pins for the hair are often of very fine
workmanship, showing much skill and taste on the part of their
designers. Strange to say, however, even in Vienna, few rings for women
of real art value are produced. In certain cases, however, the pendants
in gold relief, in crystal, or in enamel, are of pleasing, though not
particularly original design.

Working in enamel is of course an independent art in itself, and to
begin with, I must remark that, as a general rule, beautiful as are the
colour effects produced by Viennese craftsmen, it is impossible to
reproduce exactly the delicate charm of the original sketches from which
the designs are worked out. Very good results can, however, be obtained
in what the French call _émail à jour_, or _émail translucide_, as well
as in the old-fashioned opaque enamel. It would, however, be out of
place here to attempt to describe the various modifications of what may
now be called an international art.

Gustav Gurschner is a sculptor _par excellence_. His fingers are
accustomed to moulding clay or plaster designs in such a manner as to be
readily reproduced in bronze. His slim and graceful statuettes holding
candles or gongs, and other artistically designed objects for household
use, have all a distinctly Viennese character. His charming nude figures
are full alike of childlike innocence and nervous strength, and are
moreover instinct with the spiritual expression which naturally belonged
to their originals. Gurschner's designs for jewellery have very much
the same effect upon a true judge. The great thing distinguishing his
work from that of his contemporaries is the fact that it is modelled
from the living figure, not as is generally the case, from mere
water-colour sketches. The difference cannot fail to strike the most
superficial observer. Elsewhere, colour is often the chief
consideration; with Gurschner it is form.

In modern decorative work, silver is now very largely used and
appreciated. It is her skilful use of this material which has won so
high a position for Elsa Unger, a daughter of the wonderfully successful
etcher, Professor William Unger. Elsa Unger has a very great
predilection for silver, and has attained to rare skill in expressing
herself in that material. She herself knows perfectly well how to deal
with it at every stage of its progress as art material. She can hammer
it out and chisel it; she can engrave it, and combine with it beautiful
_émail à jour_ of soft, harmonious colouring. One of the most noteworthy
peculiarities of Elsa Unger's work is, indeed, her mastery of her
material. She is not content, as are unfortunately most of her
contemporaries, with delegating to others the working out of her
designs, but she herself sees to every detail, doing all the work with
her own hands. Some of her articles, such as gentlemen's studs and
sleeve-links, in beaten silver, relieved with blue enamel, are alike
simple and elegant, and have the rare advantage of being also cheap.

With Elsa Unger may be classed another woman worker in silver, Anna
Wagner, who has produced amongst other tasteful work a beautiful silver
buckle, relieved with enamel. Amongst men who have won a reputation as
skilful workers in silver maybe named E. Holzinger and Franz Mesmer, who
were trained in the same institution as Elsa Unger and Anna Wagner, the
School of Art Craftsmanship connected with the Museum of Vienna, well
known for the thoroughness of the instruction given in it. In this
academy, which was thoroughly reformed a few years ago, and is now under
the able direction of Baron Myrbach, the students learn to esteem skill
in art craftsmanship as it deserves, and become thoroughly familiar with
the materials employed in it. In the course of their training, feeling
for true beauty and elegance is mixed, so to speak, with their very
blood, becoming part of their natures, so that they cannot go far wrong.
Look, for instance, at some of the combs made by Elsa Unger. How
delicately harmonised are the beaten silver and the pale lilac-coloured
enamel, and how well the gracefully curving lines of the two materials
blend with and melt into each other! How chastely effective, moreover,
is the way in which the leaf-motive is worked out in the pins for the
hair designed by Mesmer, and what a happy thought it was to make the
many-coloured half-jewels, or jewels of minor value, emerge as they do
from the beaten silver. These works are, moreover, a very striking
example of how necessity may sometimes become a virtue. The cheapness of
material, so essential in an educational establishment, has not been
allowed to detract in the very slightest degree from the beauty of the
work produced; so that it is possible to have a real work of art, of
which but few examples are produced, at a very low price--say from about
thirty-five shillings; and that work is not a machine-made article, but
one the production of which, by his or her own hand, has been a true
labour of love to the designer, marking a real progress in art culture.

To the Technical Academy of Vienna the architect, Otto Prutscher, and
the painter, V. Schoenthoner, also owe much, but the charm of their work
consists rather in its colour than in its form. Much is to be hoped in
the future from both of these talented artists, and what they have
already produced proves that there has been no sacrifice of
individuality, no cramping of special tendencies, such as is so much to
be deprecated elsewhere, in the training they have received.

Otto Prutscher's necklaces and rings are remarkable alike for the beauty
and harmonious variety of their colouring. He uses enamel to a great
extent, and also quite small precious stones. Very uncommon, too, is the
way in which he employs metal, though only enough of it to hold the
enamel in its place. It would appear as if the artist had in his mind a
vision of the women who are to wear his work, who are too tender and
frail to carry any weight, so that the use of much metal in ornaments
for them would be quite unsuitable. For a Salome or a Queen of Sheba
that sort of thing is scarcely appropriate--but it is done for the
softly nurtured Mignonne of the present day. The little coloured pins
designed by F. Schoenthoner are also noticeable for their elegance and
suitability for the purpose for which they are intended.

A word of unstinted praise must be accorded to the graceful designs of
the talented Fräulein Eugenie Munk, whose skill and good taste have been
devoted to the production of a great deal of very beautiful and refined
jewellery.

I have already spoken of the work in diamonds of Roset and Fischmeister,
and I should like to refer to those two master craftsmen again in
connection with some of their figural ornaments, such as buckles for
belts, rings, studs for shirt fronts and cuffs, etc., worked in dull or
bright gold, all of which I consider worthy to be spoken of as Viennese
works of art. The different masks on the studs, each with its own
individual expression, really display quite remarkable talent in their
designer, for they are not only thoroughly artistic but most amusing
studies in physiognomy. Unfortunately it is impossible to give in
reproductions of such work any true idea of the subtle manner in which
the blue-green colours of the enamels, the gleaming white of the
diamonds, and the pearly opaline tints of the moonstones, harmonize with
each other and with the gold of their setting in the beautiful necklaces
of Messrs. Roset and Fischmeister. The watch-chains for men, with their
finely-modelled and characteristic ornaments, manufactured by the firm
of F. Hofstetter, must also be mentioned on account of the skill with
which the links are interwoven. The pendant is designed from a sketch
made by Professor Stephan Schwartz. Two other designs from the same firm
show very considerable skill.

Very interesting is the way in which the materials are combined in the
belt-buckles by Franz Hauptmann. The water-lily buckle is of greenish
gold, and the enamel, which is of the translucid variety, is also of a
green hue, as are the onyx stones worked into the design. The motive is
the flower and seed of the water-lily, and from the water, represented
in enamel, rise up the delicate flowers in the same material of a snowy
whiteness.

An examination of the sketches of designs for jewellery, reproduced
here, cannot fail to bring one fact forcibly before the mind.
Mechanical repetition is most carefully avoided, and as a result every
example retains its own unique charm--the mark of the artist's hand.

    W. FRED.


    _Scarf Pin_
    V. SCHÖNTHONER

    _Scarf Pin_
    V. SCHÖNTHONER

    _Scarf Pin_
    V. SCHÖNTHONER

    _Silver Brooch with Enamel_
    F. MESMER

    _Pendant in Gold, Enamel and Pearls_
    OTTO PRUTSCHER

    _Silver Brooch with Enamel_
    JOSEF HOFSTETTER

    _Scarf Pin_
    V. SCHÖNTHONER

    _Head of Scarf Pin_
    V. SCHÖNTHONER

    _Head of Scarf Pin_
    OTTO PRUTSCHER

    _Silver Brooch with Enamel_
    F. MESMER

    _Gold Brooch with Enamel_
    OTTO PRUTSCHER

[Illustration]

[Illustration:

PLATE 1.]

[Illustration: _Necklace of Brilliants_

ROSET & FISCHMEISTER

PLATE 2]

[Illustration: _Jewellery_

ROSET & FISCHMEISTER

PLATE 3]

[Illustration: _Belt-Buckles in greenish Gold, enriched with Onyx Stones
and Enamel_

FRANZ HAUPTMANN

PLATE 4]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

FIGS. C & D

    _A. Silver Pendant and Chain_
    The Chain by J. HOFSTETTER
    The Pendant by PROF. SCHWARTZ

    _B. A Comb in Silver and Horn_
    J. HOFSTETTER

    _C and D.   Gold Pendants set with Precious Stones_
    OTTO PRUTSCHER

PLATE 5 ]

[Illustration: _Jewellery_

OTTO PRUTSCHER

PLATE 6]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

FIG. C

    _A. Belt and Silver Clasp_
    EMIL GRINGOLD

    _B and C. Silver-mounted Combs_
    ELSA UNGER

PLATE 7 ]

[Illustration:

    _Necklace_ E. HOLZINGER & ELSA UNGER
    _Threefold Clasp, Upper Central Clasp_ E. HOLZINGER & F. MESMER
    _Large Twofold Silver Clasp_ ANNA WAGNER
    _Brooches and Links_ E. HOLZINGER, E. UNGER & A. WAGNER

PLATE 8]



MODERN GERMAN JEWELLERY. BY CHR. FERDINAND MORAWE.


[Illustration]

My opportunities of surveying the German jewellery market, and of making
acquaintance with the ins and outs of the jewellers' business, have been
limited; but it is certain that both are flourishing; at least, the
German jewellers do not look as if they starved! Moreover, the demand
for precious ornaments seems to increase year by year, and the display
in the jewellers' windows grows more and more luxurious, as is the case
with most other businesses. Nobody will store superfluous and
unmarketable goods, least of all the jeweller, who is always a business
man. You will be thoroughly aware of this fact if you start discussing
art with him. He is cautious and suspicious of anything in the shape of
novelty. He seems to say to himself: "This artist has ideas; he wants to
show something new; but we cannot agree with these ideas, for we do not
know if we shall be able to do business." This is a great pity, for the
trade in women's ornaments offers more artistic scope than almost any
other. It is not enough nowadays just to set some nicely polished stones
neatly, or to be so lavish of material that the ornament produced
represents an immense value; for the result will probably be something
not at all artistic. Indeed, this generally occurs. The lot of the
artist who designs women's ornaments is not a happy one, and it is
almost like a message from heaven when a jeweller tells him that he will
really condescend to carry out an original design. Even then he must
sometimes put up with the fact that his design, which was intended for
one person or purpose only, is repeated, like a manufactured article, a
hundred and a thousand times again.

Happily there are some artists in Germany, as in England, France, and
Belgium, who are above the fashion, and whose artistic individuality is
so strong that they are bound to succeed in other spheres of art as well
as in that of women's jewellery.

Two of the first to show activity in this direction were the Berlin
artists, Hirzel and Möhring. Both chose for their ornaments the same
manner and methods which Eckmann and his fellow-workers had previously
employed in decorative art; they adhered as closely as possible to
simple natural plant-forms, especially Hirzel. Thallmayr, of Munich, is
still working in the same style, but with more individuality than
Hirzel. Thallmayr will certainly spend his life studying the leaves and
blossoms of the trees and the flowers in his garden, while the other
will doubtless produce new results, departing somewhat from the real
forms of nature. Möhring's works already showed this tendency when he
produced them nearly at the same time as Hirzel his. Subsequently these
artists were occupied less with women's ornaments than with other things
coming within the category of decorative art,--this owing to lack of
intelligence and enterprise on the part of the jewellers and
manufacturers. Tables, chairs, and other necessary household articles
found a much wider market. But we are now dealing exclusively with
women's ornaments. Two circumstances in this connection are very
strange. In the first place, it seems that the artists of the present
time (I speak of Germany) are not successful in designing finger-rings.
Here and there one sees an attempt made to design characteristic shapes,
but the sphere of the ring is so confined that nobody has succeeded in
producing anything really elegant and novel. Mostly one sees extravagant
examples, of confused design. The second peculiar fact is, that one very
seldom finds an artist devoting himself to designing earrings. The whole
artistic movement in relation to women's ornaments is still somewhat
puerile. This may be recognised by the absence of the ear-ring, that
most superior ornament, which, unlike all others, has an independent
language of its own. Although in the list of female ornaments the clasp
and the brooch occupy the foremost place, the pendant for the breast
should not be forgotten. The mission of the pendant is to show by its
fancy and its tastefulness how and in what degree the German is
distinguished from the Englishman and from the Frenchman.

I will mention in this connection two artists living in Germany who are
not Germans, but by their manner of life and work might be such. Both
these artists, in their several ways, will exercise great influence on
the development of our ornaments. I refer to Van der Velde and Olbrich.
It is well known that the first is a Belgian, while the other is a
foreigner, inasmuch as he comes from Austria.

Olbrich's pendants and pins are very characteristic. He takes a hammered
gold-plate, enriches it with precious stones and enamel, and adds a rim
set with long pearls. It is easy to see that he is fond of rummaging
among the treasures of the old cathedrals and convents; he knows the
secret of their effect, and, besides this, he has an extraordinary
talent for inventing new things himself. His jewellery is the best we
have now in Germany, because it is superior to fashions and periods. His
jewels are pure, thoughtful works of art. When worn, they produce a most
sumptuous effect; but their richness has nothing tawdry about it. These
jewels show us how we ought to deck our wives, both at home and at the
theatre; moreover, they suggest things fit for the lady superiors of
religious orders, for abbesses, even for our queens. They show us too
how our burgomasters' chains, with their insignificant crosses and
stars, might be improved. These ideas are perhaps at present as
intangible as a beautiful dream, but that is no reason why we should not
indulge our fancy in this direction. For the moment, however, we must be
satisfied if the jeweller is inclined to carry out our designs.

Looking further among our artists, we find Karl Gross, of Dresden. Mr.
Gross, who formerly lived in Munich, delighted us while there with a
good many beautiful designs for jewellery. He produced not only female
ornaments, but also paper-cutters, seals, and so on. He always displayed
good taste and a fine sense of form, having, like Olbrich, the capacity
to carry out his designs quite independently, without consideration of
his predecessors' effects. A hair-pin of Gross's may be regarded as
quite an independent work, although it relies on an old tradition. Those
artists, indeed, show the most freedom who have adapted the beautiful
examples of past generations.

Examining our new jewellery, we find very little work which has the
appearance of having been done by a strong hand. Most of it in time
becomes unbearably monotonous. Still, it is something that we in Germany
have at least two artists who design in so fresh and characteristic a
manner that their works are always looked at with the greatest interest.
I already have mentioned them--Olbrich and Van der Velde--and I fall
back again upon them, though I have already taken them in consideration.

We have other artists, too, who follow sound principles in other
branches of decorative art. One of the most individual of these is
Riemerschmid, of Munich. Others there are who are nearly on the right
way, but whose personal artistic sense is not broad enough to make them
produce something really good. This general mention is, therefore, all
their work demands.

In addition to finger and earrings our jewellery artists are responsible
for other objects, such as the bracelet, the watch, and the fan. I think
it is very difficult to rescue the bracelet from conventionality. We
must hope the best for the future. But what about watch-cases,
especially those of ladies' watches? This art is quite neglected, not so
much by the manufacturers as by the artists. At this year's Darmstadt
Exhibition there were two watches displayed. One of them had the case
enamelled, if I mistake not, in the form of a chrysanthemum, and on the
other was modelled the figure of one of the "Fates." The effect of the
chrysanthemum watch was fairly good, but the less said about the "Fate"
the better. Why is it not possible to design an ornament with taste and
furnish it with precious stones and enamel? It is the greatest pity that
our sculptors have no imagination. Having arrived at the determination
to think of a watch, the artist has no idea beyond depicting one of the
"Fates" with the thread and the scissors. I said just now that the watch
was neglected less by the manufacturers than by the artists. Nowadays
you may find watches indeed with gaily-coloured cases, but the
decorations are miserable, like everything else that is invented by the
manufacturers. They don't want to pay a good price for the artist's
sketch, and they are proud of the inspiration of their own Muse. In this
case one cannot avoid the conclusion that the artists are themselves to
blame for their neglect of this branch of the jeweller's art.

THE condition of affairs with regard to the fan is also very
astonishing. Why do our artists not supply our ladies with nice fans?
Please do not confound "nice" with "precious." The fan as we know it now
is so utterly "played out" that scarcely anything can be done with it.
New arrangements of the feathers are invented; the handle is trimmed in
different ways; new materials are used, but a really new and artistic
idea cannot be devised. Titian's "Lady with the Fan" is admired; the fan
is known very well, but nobody thinks of making use of it. Meanwhile
another kind of fan is being more and more extensively employed. I refer
to the palm-leaf of the Japanese and the Chinese. People are very fond
of being fanned by these leaves, but nobody observes their artistic
possibilities. An artist who can afford to be independent of mere
fashion is therefore wanted to give new life to the fan. Such an artist
will win lasting success.

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

_A. Collar Ornament in Gold, Enamel, Onyx, and Brilliants_

_B. Collar Ornament in Gold, Enamel, and Brilliants_

ROBERT KOCH

PLATE 1]

[Illustration: _Gold Pendant, set with Lapis Lazuli, Pearls, and
Rubies_ Designed by JOSEPH M. OLBRICH

_Silver Pendant, set with Bloodstones and a large Pearl_ Executed by D.
& M. LOEWENTHAL

PLATE 2]

[Illustration: _Pendant in Gold, Silver, Enamel, and Pearl_ Executed by
THEODOR FAHRNER

_Gold Pendant set with Amethysts and Pearls_ Executed by D. & M.
LOEWENTHAL

Both designed by J. M. OLBRICH

PLATE 3]

[Illustration: _Gold Brooches_

Designed by HERMANN R. C. HIRZEL

Executed by LOUIS WERNER

PLATE 4]

[Illustration: _Gold Brooches_

    Designed by THEODOR VON GOSEN
    Executed by "VEREINIGTE WERKSTAETTEN," MUNICH

PLATE 5]

[Illustration: _Gold Brooches_

    Designed by BRUNO MÖHRING
    Executed by F. H. WERNER

PLATE 6]

[Illustration: FIG. A FIG. B FIG. C

    _A and C. Gold Pendants set with a Turquoise_
    _B. Gold Pendant set with Turquoises and Moss-Agates_

CHR. FERDINAND MORAWE

PLATE 7]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

_A. Silver Brooch set with Turquoise and Enamel_

Executed by THEODOR FAHRNER

_B. Gold Pendant set with Pearls and Sapphires_

Executed by D. & M. LOEWENTHAL

Both designed by JOSEPH M. OLBRICH

PLATE 8]



MODERN BELGIAN JEWELLERY AND FANS. By F. KHNOPFF.


[Illustration]

Recent _Salons_ in Belgium have been notoriously unsuccessful, and it
cannot be disputed that the public is becoming less and less interested
in the large exhibitions of Fine Arts. Notable artists have been
conspicuously absent; new works have been as scarce as old ones have
been abundant; and, lastly, the general arrangements have been
altogether lacking in attractiveness. Despite the violent opposition of
interested persons, official and otherwise, the type of display started
some time ago in Brussels by the "XX" club, and continued by the "Libre
Esthétique" and "Pour L'Art" societies, has succeeded in attracting the
attention of _connoisseurs_ and art lovers generally, with, apparently,
every prospect of retaining it.

The combination of works of painting and sculpture with the most
exquisite productions of ceramic art, glass-ware, and all that is most
delicate in jewellery and goldsmith's work, adds a special attraction to
these exhibitions, which are always looked for with the utmost interest.
It is, indeed, the jewellers, who, among all our Belgian art workers,
have succeeded in making themselves and their productions the best known
and most widely appreciated; the more so as in their case one was able
to compare their works closely and determine their relative merits. It
may truly be said that their most notable characteristic is diversity--a
diversity which is shown, not only by the amateurs, so to speak, but
also among the professionals.

No remarks on Belgian sculpture--particularly in its decorative
sense--are complete without mention being made of Charles Van der
Stappen. True, he has executed but a small number of detached ornaments,
but in the arrangement of the hair in his exquisitely fanciful busts he
has lavished a wealth of fine modelling, the influence of which is still
widely felt.

In the works of M. Paul Dubois we discover the sculptor modelling the
details of his buckles and clasps as he would so many powerful muscles.
M. Fernand Dubois seems to be a _chercheur_ of a more subtle kind; but
this very excess of ingenuity sometimes mars the plastic effect of his
jewels.

From Victor Rousseau we have had so far nothing more than a gold
bracelet. The subject is quite simple--two hands holding a pearl; but
the work is in every way worthy of the young Brussels artist, whom I
regard as one of the most remarkable personalities in the domain of
contemporary Belgian sculpture.

The decorator Van de Velde, who has left Brussels, and is now settled in
Berlin, exhibited at some of the "Libre Esthétique" _salons_ a series of
jewels remarkable for their firm and consistent construction.

The jewels displayed recently by M. Feys are distinguished by grace and
felicitous appropriateness; but even more striking is the perfection of
their execution, which is really extraordinary in its suggestion of
suppleness.

Other jewels displayed recently at the "Libre Esthétique" by M. Morren
and Mlle. de Bronckère also deserve notice.

In the course of a very interesting study on M. Ph. Wolfers, M. Sander
Pièrron, the sagacious Brussels critic, thus described the work of this
remarkable specialist in the "Revue des Arts Décoratifs":--

"M. Wolfers seeks his inspiration in the study of the nature and the
forms of his marvellous domain, and his vision of things is specially
defined in his jewels. The detail therein contributes largely to the
spirit of the entire work, which borrows its character from the
decoration itself or from the subject of that decoration. He never
allows himself to stray into the regions of fancy; at most, he permits
his imagination to approach the confines of ornamental abstraction.
Nevertheless, he interprets Nature, but is never dominated by it. He has
too true, too exact a sense of the decorative principle to conform to
the absolute reality of the things he admires and reproduces. His art,
by virtue of this rule, is thus a modified translation of real forms. He
has too much taste to introduce into the composition of one and the same
jewel flowers or animals which have no parallel symbol or, at least,
some family likeness or significance. He will associate swans with
water-lilies--the flowers which frame, as it were, the life of those
grand poetic birds; or he will put the owl or the bat with the
poppy--that triple evocation of Night and Mystery; or the heron with the
eel--symbols of distant, melancholy streams. He rightly judges that in
art one must endeavour to reconcile everything, both the idea and the
materials whereby one tries to make that idea live and speak. Inspired,
doubtless, by the fact that the ancients chose black stones for the
carving of the infernal or fatal deities, M. Wolfers uses a dark
amethyst for his owls, which gives them a special significance. The
Grecians used the aqua-marina exclusively for the engraving of their
marine gods, by reason of its similarity to the colour of the sea, just
as they never carved the features of Bacchus in anything but
amethyst--that stone whose essence suggests the purple flow of wine."

M. van Strydonck expresses himself to me in the following terms on the
subject of his art:--

"I am of opinion that the jewel can be produced without the aid of
stones, enamels, etc. I do not exclude them entirely, but they should
not be used unless it be to give the finishing touch, or occasionally to
relieve an _ensemble_ lacking in vigour of colour. My preference is for
oxydations, for in general effect they are more harmonious to the eye,
and by careful seeking one can find all the tones required. I think you
will share my opinion that it is much easier to use enamels, by means of
which one's object is instantly attained. Yet it is seldom one produces
a beautiful symphony of colour. Enamel can only be employed in small
quantities. Why? Because, in the first place, he who uses it must have a
profound knowledge of colours and a special colourist's eye; he must
remember, moreover, that he is appealing to a _clientèle_ composed
principally of ladies, who in most cases regard the jewel simply as a
means to complete such and such a toilette.

"It seems to me, indeed," continues M. van Strydonck, "that translucent
enamel is the most suitable because it simply serves as an auxiliary--a
basis necessary to the completion of the _ensemble_--and adds value to
workmanship and design; and there is nothing to prevent its alliance
with the beautiful oxydations which come almost naturally from gold."

Note how, little by little, enamel is being abandoned in favour of
stones, such as onyx, agate, and malachite, materials of no special
value, which can be cut in different ways, and whose colour gives fine
effects infinitely preferable to those of inferior enamels.

Of course, I do not despise the fine stone, which, by its bold colour,
often relieves the work, but this is not altogether the object of the
jewel, unless profit be the sole object of the maker; and I ought to add
that the revival of the jewel in recent years has not been favourably
regarded by certain firms, who saw therein a distinct diminution of
gain, the fact being that their large stock of fine stones--beautiful
in themselves, but out of place in works such as I have
mentioned--threatens to remain on their hands.

One cannot truly say that Belgian _eventaillistes_ exist, for it is only
very occasionally that such water-colour painters as MM. Cassiers,
Stacquet, and Uytterschaut carry out their delightful landscapes and
seascapes in the shape required for a fan.

Something has been done in lacework in connection with the fan, and on
this point I should mention in terms of praise M. Van Cutsem, a
Brussels designer, who has made numerous models for M. Bart and M.
Sacré, amongst which may be noted several happy experiments in the
direction of the "modern style."

To conclude, let me refer to the lace by Mlle. Bienaimé, admirably
mounted by M. Goosens, of Brussels.


(_Belgian_)

A FAN PAINTED ON SILK

BY

H. CASSIERS.

[Illustration]

[Illustration:

PLATE 1]

[Illustration: _Design for a Necklet in Silver and Enamel_

L. VAN STRYDONCK

PLATE 2]

[Illustration: _Pendant with Chain. The masque is an Iris with red
Enamel for the hair. The Orchid's petals are in translucent Enamel of
opalescent tones_

PH. WOLFERS

PLATE 3]

[Illustration: _Pendant and Chain set with Brilliants and Pearls. The
Figure in Gold, the Serpent in black and brown Enamel_

PH. WOLFERS

PLATE 4]

[Illustration: _Necklet, with Ornaments of transparent Enamel_

PH. WOLFERS

PLATE 5]

[Illustration: _Parure de Corsage, set with Emeralds, Brilliants and
transparent Pearls_

PH. WOLFERS

PLATE 6]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

_A. Waist-band Buckle. The Serpent in green Bronze, the Crab in
Silver-gilt_

_B. Pendant. The Pheasants in green and yellow-brown Enamel, the centre
Stone a pale-green Ceylon Sapphire_

PH. WOLFERS

PLATE 7]

[Illustration: _Coiffure, set with Brilliants; the petals in Opal, the
Serpent in Gold touched with a slight patina_

PH. WOLFERS

PLATE 8]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

FIG. C

FIG. D

    _A, B, and D. Silver Belt-Clasps_
    _C. Silver Buckles_

PAUL DUBOIS

PLATE 9]



MODERN DANISH JEWELLERY.

BY GEORG BROCHNER.


[Illustration]

Emanating from England--and, I am tempted to add, with THE STUDIO for
its pioneer--the new movement, the rejuvenation, the second Renaissance,
or whatever one may be pleased to call it, in matters of Fine, and more
especially Applied Art, is like a mighty wave making its way over many
lands. But, as with the waves of the ocean, its movements are often
fitful and impulsive, its progress irregular and spasmodic. Why this is
so it is often futile to speculate upon, and even where a plausible
explanation is apparently near at hand, it may on closer investigation
prove more or less of a fallacy. Thus it may appear natural enough that
a small country should be unable to vie with large and rich empires in
the matter of jewellery, for the making of such is likely to entail
expenditure out of proportion to the buying capacity of smaller nations.
Yet this argument really does not hold good, for inasmuch as in modern
jewellery it is more the design and conception, more the intrinsic
artistic value and the proper choice and handling of the material which
are the main things (and not the quantity of precious stones used), the
cost need by no means be excessive. For day wear, at least, delightful
jewellery is now made entirely from gold and silver, and enamel, and
even bronze, possessing decorative properties immeasurably beyond those
of the far more costly articles produced up to only a few years ago.

Be this as it may, the fructifying effects of these new ideas have, on
the whole, been somewhat slow in making themselves felt within the craft
of the gold and the silver-smith, or, rather, within that branch of it
which embraces articles for personal adornment. Some countries have so
far ignored them altogether; in others they are only just beginning to
take root. In Denmark, for instance, which in other fields of applied
art holds such an honourably prominent position, comparatively little
attention has hitherto been given to jewellery by those distinguished
artists who have for years brought their talent to bear upon other
crafts. But, if I mistake not, a change is beginning to manifest itself
in this respect, and I have very little doubt that the material for an
article on modern Danish jewellery will be vastly augmented within a
span of but a few years, although it is unfortunately a little scanty at
the time of writing.

Bindesböll, whose characteristic style is so easily recognised, has some
good clasps and brooches to his credit. They are distinguished by that
unconventional boldness and freedom which one always hails with unmixed
pleasure wherever one finds them, whether it be on a book-cover, on a
sofa cushion, on a metal vessel, or in some architectural decoration. It
is only very rarely Bindesböll deigns to employ a distinct figure or
motif in his designs, but, in spite of a capriciousness in his lines--a
capriciousness which at times borders upon recklessness--the effect is
almost invariably harmonious and decorative.

Of a totally different stamp is Harald Slott-Möller, to whom is due the
place of honour when dealing with modern Danish jewellery. His designs
are carefully conceived and they almost invariably illustrate a fine
poetic idea or allegory, always happily chosen. They are somewhat
elaborate, both in details and drawing, and in the choice of material,
with regard to which he is rather extravagant than otherwise. His
jewellery is possessed of a distinguished decorative beauty, and
although he is entirely original, both in his choice of motifs and in
his way of dealing with them, it might perhaps not be very difficult to
trace certain English influences in his work. He is himself a skilful
craftsman, whilst some of his designs have been executed at the famous
establishment of Mr. Michelsen, Danish Court jeweller. For one of Mr.
Michelsen's daughters, Slott-Möller designed the exceedingly beautiful
brooch of which we give an illustration (Plate 4). It is made of silver,
which is strongly oxidised, with blue, white, and green enamel. The
stars are set in diamonds, and the pendants at the side are pearls. The
comb with the butterflies on the lyre is the property of another sister,
and is made of tortoise-shell and gold, with enamel, set with pearls,
diamonds, and sapphires. A second comb, likewise made of tortoise-shell,
has for its decorative motif a mermaid, gold, enamel, and coral being
used with no mean skill. In the necklace the myth of Helen is
represented. The central portion is of dark oxidised silver, with flames
and sparks in gold, the walls of burning Troy and the grass are enamel,
and the figure of Helen is carved in ivory. On the side plates men fight
and die, illustrating the inscription, in Greek: "She brought
devastation, she gave fame." Slott-Möller has himself made the whole of
this elaborate and charming necklace. The hand-mirror is made in silver,
with an ivory handle, in the likeness of a candle, round the flame of
which a number of luckless moths flutter; the moths and the ooze from
the candle are oxidised.

Moyens Bollin, who has lately gone in for the making of artistic metal
objects, has also designed several pretty combs, clasps, etc., made in
silver or bronze. In the former material is a clasp, of which we give an
illustration, with flowers in blossom and bud, admirably drawn so as to
fill their allotted space. Another clasp, a butterfly, is in bronze.

Erick Magnussen is a very young artist, who seems to give promise. The
"1901" in the pendant mirror is very deftly drawn, covering its space
evenly and well, as does also the design of the "Fish" clasp
illustrated. The other, with the mermaids, shows that he can also
successfully employ the female form for decorative purposes.

A silver clasp and brooch by Niels Dyrlund are distinguished by a
quaint but well balanced intertwining of lines, the effect produced
being pleasing and decorative, and Einar Nielsen, the talented painter,
Axel Hou, and Georg Jensen have also recently taken to the designing of
clasps and such like objects.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: _Necklace representing the story of Helen of Troy. The
central part in dark oxidised Silver, with flames and sparks in Gold;
the walls of burning Troy and the grass in Enamel; the figure of Helen
is carved in Ivory_

HARALD SLOTT-MÖLLER

PLATE 1]

[Illustration: _A. Belt-Mirror in chased Silver_

ERICK MAGNUSSEN

_B. Silver Hand-Mirror with an Ivory handle. The moths are oxidised_

HARALD SLOTT-MÖLLER

PLATE 2]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

_A. "Butterfly" Comb in Tortoiseshell and Gold, with Enamel, and set
with Pearls, Diamonds, and Sapphires_

_B. "Mermaid" Comb in Tortoiseshell and Gold, with Coral and Enamel_

HARALD SLOTT-MÖLLER

PLATE 3]

[Illustration: _Enamelled Brooches in oxidised Silver_

HARALD SLOTT-MÖLLER

PLATE 4]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

_A. Silver Clasp_

_B. Enamelled Silver Clasp_

ERICK MAGNUSSEN

PLATE 5]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

_A. Twofold Silver Clasp_

MOYENS BOLLIN

_B. Silver Belt-Clasp_

ERICK MAGNUSSEN

PLATE 6]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

_A. "Butterfly" Clasp in Bronze_

_B. Silver Clasp_

MOYENS BOLLIN

PLATE 7]

[Illustration: FIG. A

FIG. B

_A. Silver Clasp in three pieces_

MOYENS BOLLIN

_B. Silver Buckles and Brooches_

TH. BINDESBÖLL

PLATE 8]

       *       *       *       *       *
    +----------------------------------------------------------+
    |                                                          |
    |                Transcriber's notes:                      |
    |                                                          |
    | P.1. 'unbiassed' changed to 'unbiased'.                  |
    | P.4.(French) no devil-fish, 'no' changed to 'nor'.       |
    | P.7. 'themelves' changed to 'themselves'.                |
    | Plate 43. 'Pendent' changed to 'Pendant'.                |
    | Corrected various punctuation.                           |
    |                                                          |
    | '=' around words mean bold as in =French=.               |
    | '_' around words mean italic as in _French_.             |
    |                                                          |
    +----------------------------------------------------------+





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ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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