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Title: The Bombardment of Reims
Author: Ferree, Barr
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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_The_ BOMBARDMENT _of_ REIMS

_By_
BARR FERREE

New York
Leonard Scott Publication Company
1917


Copyright, 1917,
By Barr Ferree.
All rights reserved.


[Illustration: _From "La Cathédrale de Reims," Libraire Centrale des
Beaux-Arts, Paris._

THE WEST FRONT OF THE CATHEDRAL OF REIMS]



CONTENTS


THE BOMBARDMENT OF REIMS                       7

CHRONOLOGY OF THE BOMBARDMENT:
  1914                                        21
  1915                                        33
  1916                                        59
  1917                                        87
  POSTSCRIPT                                 111

THE BUILDINGS OF REIMS                       113

THE DESTRUCTION OF THE BUILDINGS OF   REIMS  122



ILLUSTRATIONS


THE WEST FRONT OF THE CATHEDRAL OF REIMS   _Frontispiece_
  From "La Cathédrale de Reims," Libraire
    Centrale des Beaux-Arts, Paris

THE FRONT AT REIMS IN MAY, 1917                        19

THE WEST PORTALS                                       64
  From "La Cathédrale de Reims," Libraire
    Centrale des Beaux-Arts, Paris

THE CATHEDRAL AFTER THE BOMBARDMENT
OF APRIL, 1917: THE APSE AND SOUTH TRANSEPT            96
  From "L'Illustration"

THE HÔTEL DE VILLE                                    112



The Bombardment of Reims


The bombardment of Reims, and the attendant destruction of its
cathedral, is an event that has particularly excited the indignation of
the civilized world. The sacrifice has seemed so wanton and so
unnecessary that the souls of those who have not known the great church
by personal observation have cried out in indignation against the
outrage, while to those who have known it, its long continued passion
has aroused the feeling of an intense personal loss. No other episode of
the Great War has accomplished such complete destruction of so great a
work of art. Its blackened walls and broken statues are the most
formidable indictment the Germans have yet raised against themselves. As
an event in the War it stands unique among countless other inexcusable
horrors, and it has, therefore seemed worth while to summarize briefly
the dreadful doings at Reims, that the real nature of the hideous
tragedy may be made apparent.

For an American, remote from the seat of war, to attempt a survey of the
bombardment of Reims is a hazardous task. Yet I have ventured to do so
because the continued dreadfulness of this great siege, which has lasted
more than three years, is quite unknown in this country, and, even in
the meagre details here set forth, not fully known in France. The
bombardment of Reims has continued from September 3, 1914, without
interruption, save for the few days of the German occupation in that
month, and some days designated as "calm" in the daily reports. But
these "calm" days form part of the history of the siege, since no one
could tell at what hour the bombardment might be renewed.

Little as to the bombardment of Reims has appeared in the American
papers, and not much more in the Paris papers. The official bulletins
give so small space to it that they have been entirely neglected in the
preparation of this chronology. More than once the papers published in
Reims have complained of the silence of the Paris papers on the attacks
on their beloved city, and have frequently referred to the importance
attached to minor details elsewhere, while nothing at all has been said
as to more important events at Reims.

The hand of the censor has at all times rested heavily on Reims, the
local censor sometimes not permitting the publication of details that
have appeared in the few references in Paris newspapers. At the
beginning of the bombardment the papers of Reims published quite full
details, giving the names and addresses of persons killed or wounded,
and the location of buildings burned or otherwise injured in the
bombardment. These items were speedily suppressed, and the greater part
of the record in available publications is not much more detailed than
is given in these pages.

But if details are wanting it is not impossible to draw an outline
picture of the whole bombardment. This I have undertaken to do; and
while I cannot hope, from an accurate point of view, that this work can
have any value, I am not without hope that as a general review of the
bombardment from the beginning, this little book may find a place in the
vast literature of the war. Certainly the facts here gathered are quite
unknown in America, and, in their entirety, are almost as little known
in France, since no one in that besieged land as yet attempted a similar
undertaking.

The present record covers the three years of the bombardment from
September 3, 1914 to September 3, 1917. A siege extending over so
considerable a period of time, attended as it has been, with months of
ferocious assaults, with great loss of life, and the useless destruction
of great works of art, may well be chronicled for that period. And this
is the more the case since the details here gathered have not before
been grouped together in their entirety.

It is much too soon to attempt a full history of the bombardment of
Reims, but the outlines of the dreadful story may now be brought
together. It should be sufficiently obvious that the bombardment of
Reims is not a small episode in the war, but an event continuous from
the very beginning.

The chronology here published has been compiled from the local
newspapers published at Reims and at Paris. I have made use of "Le
Courrier de la Champagne", published in Reims, "Le Petit Rémois",
published in Paris from December 15, 1915, and the journal "Reims à
Paris", also published in Paris from December, 1914. The editor of the
latter paper having been called to the colours, it was merged with "La
Marne" and has appeared as "Reims à Paris et la Marne" since October 4,
1916. The daily records of the bombardment, printed in "Le Courrier de
la Champagne", are those compiled by its own staff. The records printed
in the other papers are compiled from "Le Courrier de la Champagne" and
"L'Éclaireur de l'Est", also printed in Reims. "Le Petit Rémois" has
made free use of both these papers, and in addition has published the
reports of its editor, M. Pierre Bienvenue, residing in Reims. Owing to
the fury of the bombardment in April "Le Courrier" was forced to suspend
publication for the time being, but "L'Éclaireur" was able to continue
in a much reduced form.

The French Republic paid a fine tribute to this journalistic heroism
when President Poincaré pinned the Cross of the Legion of Honour on the
breast of M. Paul Dramas, the managing editor of "L'Éclaireur de l'Est"
on June 18, 1917, when the same distinction was given to Cardinal Luçon,
Archbishop of Reims, and Deputy Mayors J. de Bruignac and E.
Charbonneaux, and some other heroic citizens. It is impossible to turn
over the pages of these little Reims papers without a heartening sense
of the courage that permitted their publication daily throughout a
harrowing siege. Heroic journalism in a very true sense.

Among other sources of information special mention should be made of "Le
Martyre de Reims", published anonymously in parts. It began with the
admirable purpose of presenting a detailed summary of life and events in
Reims during the bombardment, giving the names of persons killed or
wounded, and the locality of buildings injured. The censor speedily fell
afoul of this useful summary: names of persons and buildings were
stricken out, as well as other details, and finally the diary came to a
temporary end with Part 41.

I must mention also the "Journal d'un Rémois" by M. Henri Jadart, which
appeared in "Les Champs de Bataille, Collection du Tour de France, Les
Cités Meurtries", edited by M. Octave Beauchamp. M. Jadart is librarian
and curator of the Museum of the City of Reims, and has kept in close
touch with everything relating to his city. His "Bibliographie Rémoise",
read before the Academy of Reims, of which he is the Secretary-General,
at a meeting in Paris in June, 1916, is a useful record of the extensive
literature produced by the bombardment. The series "Les Cités Meurtries"
also includes "Reims sous les obus en 1915" by Mlle. Alice Martin,
carrying the story into that year. Mention should also be made of the
publication "Reims et la Marne. Almanach de la Guerre, 1914-1915",
published in Paris by M. Jules Matot. This book contains no calendar of
the bombardment, but a daily summary of general events at Reims, and
therefore it is more particularly of local interest. The article "Trois
Semaines à Reims" by General Dubois, published in "La Revue" for
Oct.-Nov., 1914, contains some useful notes on the first weeks of the
bombardment. Just as my chronology had been completed I obtained the new
book by M. Jules Poirier "Reims (1 Août--31 Décembre, 1914)", giving a
survey of the early events of the war as they related to Reims, and
summarizing the daily events in diary form. It has given me some
additional facts on the first five months of the bombardment. "Sous les
Bombes" by Mlle. Clotilde Jehanne Remy, of which two parts have
appeared, is a personal diary of life in Reims during the bombardment.

Although I have been obliged to place complete dependence on printed
records, it should be pointed out that there is often a wide divergence
between them. The statements printed in the two Reims newspapers do not
always agree for the same day, and "Le Petit Rémois", in endeavouring to
present a fair and just account, has more than once printed the
divergent reports, and clarified the matter by adding its own summary,
which often differed from the other two! I fancy, however, that many of
these differences are apparent only, and are perhaps not so striking as
they first appear.

It has seemed desirable to give the details of the bombardment as far as
the local reports permit. That is to say, the hours of the bombardment,
the number of shells, the number of persons killed or wounded. The hours
of the bombardment are an interesting index to the agitated daily life
at Reims. The number of shells is also of interest as indicating the
possible intensity of the attack. But as ammunition of all kinds and
sizes, huge and small shells, shrapnel, incendiary and asphyxiating
bombs and many other kinds of projectiles have been used in the siege, a
mere statement of number of shells hardly gives a proper index to the
horror of any one bombardment. But the shell records as to kind are
highly incomplete in the published reports, and it has not seemed worth
while to make an effort to indicate them. In the dreadful days of March,
April, May and June, 1917, when the fall of shells was colossal, even
the newspapers gave up attempts at numbering them, and it is probable
the actual totals will never be known. The number of persons killed and
wounded help also to show the severity of the bombardments, and have no
other purpose in this survey. I can scarcely hope that my records of
these items approach completeness, and they have been omitted from
April, May and June, 1917. The number of persons killed or wounded are,
for the most part, those of the civilian population of Reims.

In addition to bombardment from guns Reims has suffered from the German
aviators. I have designated these birds of prey as "Taube", as an
economical form of expression. Every considerable bombardment was
preceded by these visitors. Nearly every day one or more of them
appeared above Reims, and they seem to have been looked upon as so much
matter of course that I suspect their presence was often unnoted in the
reports. Whenever possible they were eagerly welcomed by the guns of
Reims, and hence it followed that, not only was the city subject to the
bombardment of the enemy, but on several occasions injury was done in it
by antiaerial shells falling back.

A mere glance at the daily records shows that, until March, 1917, no
definite purpose was behind this bombardment. It was continued for two
years and a half for no other purpose than to annoy the French. Else why
these daily bombardments of a few shells only, these days of calm or of
little doing, these spurts of agony, bringing sudden death or useless
destruction, only to be followed by lapses into silence? Had the
destruction of Reims been seriously undertaken it might, I suppose, have
been accomplished long since. But it pleased the enemy to irritate
rather than to destroy; a little harm day by day, a little annoyance,
more or less, spread over a considerable period of time, with occasional
outbursts of great violence, this was the programme. Or, more dreadful
still, when the German forces met with defeat, the guns were opened
afresh on the helpless cathedral, that it might be wounded again for
disasters it had in no sense been party to. While doubtless all this has
been thoroughly understood by the French military authorities, little
was known of it to the outside world, for little that went on at Reims
was known anywhere. There were many other and more important things in
the Great War that affected the future of France and of the world.
Humanity held its breath while the heroic battle of Verdun was in
progress, because it was a military event of the first magnitude. But so
little has been heard of Reims that a revelation of its daily martyrdom
must come as a shock to those who have closely followed the war.

The story presented from the month of March, 1917, is quite different
from anything that preceded. Very obviously the foolish game of play-war
was abandoned, and a real effort made to accomplish the destruction of
the city. The mind pales before the needless horrors of these months, so
inefficiently indicated by a record of continuous and continued
bombardment. So full of horror has been this time that the local papers
speak of a daily fall of 600 shells, or even 1000 shells, as a welcome
relief from days just passed!


And the cathedral. That, of course, is the one central overpowering
thing that excites the interest of the world in the bombardment of
Reims. This is not so with the unfortunate people of Reims, who have
seen their loved ones killed, their houses ruined, their occupations
gone, and who have suffered daily privation and martyrdom. Reims is not
alone among the cities and districts of France in such horrors, but its
cathedral is one of the treasures of the world, and in this war of great
crimes no greater crime has been attempted than the destruction of this
splendid church.

Three years ago its vast bulk and massive towers rose grandly above its
surrounding buildings in all the pride of lasting permanency. For seven
hundred years these stones had cried aloud to the glory of God and the
supreme genius of its French builders and decorators. France--that
treasure-house of architectural masterpieces--had no more noble building
than this, so dear to the French people by reason of the supremacy of
its art and as the coronation church of their kings, and once the emblem
and the expression of their nationality.

In its present dismantled, battered, more than half-ruined state, the
cathedral of Reims is of all the unnecessary sacrifices in the War the
most unnecessary. It has been too great and too good a thing to
disappear from the world without leaving an empty place that cannot be
filled. Once, in far back September, 1914, the merciless barbarian
encamped before its holy portals. There he stayed for nine days, and,
leaving in haste, presently bombarded it, so that his own wounded,
temporarily placed within it for safety, were burned alive under the
protecting flag of the Red Cross. A pitiable comment on his regard for
great churches and the well-being of the wounded.

Since then--September 12, 1914, to be exact--no good news has come out
of Reims. Yet of this we may be certain: devoted as the French are to
their great national church, they will gladly sacrifice it utterly if
that sacrifice be required to thrust out the barbaric invading hordes
that know only hate of the good, the true, the beautiful.

The catastrophe of Reims supplies a very sure index as to what passes as
the quality of the German mind. Although of all churches the most
French, the cathedral of Reims belongs to the whole world, a rare,
beautiful and precious structure, hallowed with great memories and
endowed with exquisite art. The question is thus very simple: is the
world better with the cathedral of Reims or without it? The Germans
seem unquestionably to have decreed its destruction. Of this the record
of the bombardment offers ample proof. But as yet the
cathedral-destroyers have offered no word, no hint, no suggestion, as to
how or why the world will be bettered by the wilful destruction of this
matchless church.

[Illustration: THE FRONT AT REIMS IN MAY, 1917]



1914



September, 1914


 2 French army evacuated Reims in the night.

 3 Taube dropped 2 bombs 9:15 A. M.; Dr. Langlet, Mayor of Reims, issued
   proclamation announcing the approach of the Germans and urging calm.
   German officers enter Reims 8:30 P. M.

 4 First bombardment 9:22 A. M., 176 shells, many killed and wounded;
   minor injuries to the cathedral, glass broken; St. Remi and St. André
   injured; German troops enter in afternoon; anniversary of the German
   occupation of 1870.

 5 German occupation.

 6 German occupation.

 7 German occupation.

 8 German occupation.

 9 German occupation.

10 German occupation.

11 German occupation.

12 German troops evacuate Reims in afternoon; French officers appear
   6:30 P. M.

13 French troops re-enter Reims 6 A. M.; Taube 5 P. M.; last vespers in
   the cathedral (in chapel of the Cardinal): Te Deum for Benedict XV.

14 Cannonade from 5 A. M.; bombardment 9:45 A. M. to 12:15 P. M.;
   renewed 1 to 3:30 P. M.; 59 killed, many wounded; cannonade all night.

15 Taubes 5 A. M.; bombardment 9:30 to 11 A. M.; renewed 4 P. M., 13
   killed.

16 Bombardment 3:30 A. M. to 6:30 P. M., 30 killed.

17 Bombardment from 9 A. M.; renewed 2:30 to 4 P. M., 3 shells on
   cathedral.

18 Cannonade from 2 A. M.; bombardment from 8:15 A. M., 13 shells on
   cathedral, 37 killed; Sous-Préfecture burned.

19 Bombardment 7:45 A. M. to 4 P. M., 16 shells on cathedral; cathedral
   took fire from incendiary bomb 2:30 P. M.; cathedral and
   Archiepiscopal Palace burned; 32 killed; artillery all night.

20 Bombardment 9:30 to 11 A. M.; renewed 3:30 to 4:30 P. M.

21 Calm; artillery at night.

22 Bombardment 12 to 3:30 P. M., 7 killed, Cardinal Luçon returned to
   Reims from Conclave at Rome.

23 Taube 6 A. M.; bombardment 3 to 5 P. M.

24 Taube 6 A. M.; bombardment 9:30 to 11 A. M.; renewed 3 to 5 P. M.;
   bomb struck cathedral and Civil Hospital; 10 killed; cannonade all
   night.

25 Trenches bombarded in morning; Reims bombarded 3 to 5 P. M.; bomb
   struck St. Remi, 1 killed; cannonade all night.

26 Bombardment 11:45 A. M. to 12:15 P. M., 13 killed; renewed 3:30 to
   4:30 P. M., 17 killed.

27 Bombardment 3:30 P. M.; cannonade at night.

28 Bombardment 2:30 P. M.; cannonade at night.

29 Bombardment 9:30 to 10:30 A. M.; renewed 4 to 6 P. M.; again 9 P. M.
   to 6 A. M., 3 killed, many wounded.

30 Bombardment continued to 6 A. M.; renewed 8 A. M. and 4:30 P. M.



October, 1914


 1 Some shells 9 A. M.; 2 aerial bombs 5:15 P. M.; cannonade at night.

 2 Bombardment 4:30 P. M., 2 shells, 3 killed.

 3 Bombardment 10:30 A. M. to 3 P. M., 1 killed, 5 or 6 wounded.

 4 Bombardment 9 A. M.; renewed 12 to 1 P. M., 50 shells.

 5 Aerial combat; bombardment 9 to 11 A. M., 7 killed, 7 wounded;
   renewed 3 P. M. to 10 A. M.

 6 Bombardment continued to 10 A. M., 200 shells; 3 spies shot 5 A. M.

 7 Bombardment 12:05 to 2 P. M., 50 shells, 2 killed, 2 wounded; renewed
   8 P. M.

 8 1 shell in morning; bombardment 3:30 P. M., 15 shells, 1 killed, 1
   wounded.

 9 Bombardment at night, 20 shells to 5 A. M.

10 Bombardment continued to 5 A. M. Taube 11 A. M.

11 Calm.

12 Bombardment 2 to 5 P. M., 3 shells on cathedral 3 P. M., 2 killed, 2
   wounded.

13 Bombardment from 2 A. M., 1 shell on cathedral 3 A. M.; renewed 9:30
   to 11 A. M., 2 wounded. Taube dropped bomb 2:30 P. M.; bombardment
   renewed; violent artillery around Reims at night.

14 Bombardment 2 to 3:30 P. M., 4 wounded, artillery at night.

15 Calm.

16 Bombardment 3:30 to 5 P. M., 2 wounded.

17 Calm.

18 Calm.

19 Calm.

20 Calm.

21 Bombardment 2 to 5:30 P. M., 1 wounded.

22 Bombardment 3:30 P. M.; cannonade at night.

23 3 Taube bombs 11 A. M., 2 wounded; Taube 2 P. M.; bombardment 4 to 5
   P. M., 1 wounded.

24 Bombardment 2 P. M.; cannonade at night.

25 Bombardment to noon; renewed 2 P. M., 4 killed, 8 wounded; distant
   cannonade at night.

26 Calm; violent cannonade at night.

27 Bombardment 9:15 A. M.

28 Tranquil. 127 persons wounded since September 4.

29 Bombardment 4 to 6 A. M., 50 shells; cannonade at night.

30 Bombardment 3 to 5:30 P. M., 50 to 60 shells, 1 killed, 2 wounded;
   renewed 9:30 P. M. to 9 A. M.

31 Bombardment continued to 9 A. M., 60 to 70 shells, 2 killed, 2
   wounded; renewed 4 to 5 P. M., 20 shells.



November, 1914


 1 Taube dropped 2 bombs 10:30 A. M.; bombardment 11:30 A. M., 6 shells,
   2 wounded; renewed 2:30 to 5 P. M.

 2 Bombardment 9:30 to 11 A. M., 20 shells. Taube dropped bomb
   2:10 P. M.; bombardment renewed 2:30 to 4:30 P. M., 70 shells.

 3 Bombardment from 9:30 A. M.; renewed 4 to 6 P. M.; again at
   8:45 P. M., 8 killed, 2 wounded.

 4 Taube dropped 4 bombs 4 P. M.; bombardment, 30 shells, 2 wounded;
renewed 11 P. M.

 5 Taube 7:30 A. M.; violent bombardment 2 to 6 P. M.; renewed 8 P. M.
   to 5 A. M.; 300 shells, 9 killed, 15 wounded.

 6 Bombardment continued to 5 A. M.; renewed 11 A. M.; again 10 P. M.;
   2 shells.

 7 Bombardment 8 P. M. to midnight.

 8 Dr. Langlet, Mayor of Reims, decorated with Legion of Honour.
   Bombardment 7 to 8:30 P. M.; 50 shells.

 9 Calm.

10 Day calm; bombardment 10 to 11 P. M.; 20 shells.

11 Bombardment 8 to 9 A. M.; renewed 12 to 2:15 P. M.

12 Bombardment 1:30 to 5:30 P. M.; cathedral apse pinnacle demolished;
   shrapnel fell within near high altar; renewed 8 P. M. to 5:10 A. M.;
   400 shells for the day.

13 Bombardment continued to 5:10 A. M.; some shells in morning and at
   2:30 P. M.

14 Taube 7 A. M.; bombardment 9 A. M., 2 shells; Taube dropped fusées
   3 P. M.; cannonade at night.

15 Taube dropped bomb 8 A. M.

16 Some shells in morning and at 2 P. M.; heavy bombardment 8:30 P. M.
   to 5 A. M.; apse chapel in St. Remi demolished.

17 Bombardment to 5 A. M.; renewed 2:30 P. M.; Taube dropped 2 bombs.

18 Taube dropped 2 bombs 7 A. M.; bombardment 9 A. M. to 5 P. M.

19 Bombardment 3 A. M.; day somewhat calm.

20 Some shells on interdicted zone; bombardment 10 P. M. to 4:30 A. M.,
   3 wounded.

21 Bombardment continued to 4:30 A. M.; renewed 2:30 P. M., 100 shells.

22 Heavy bombardment 9:30 A. M. to noon; renewed 2 to 5:30 P. M.;
   2 shells on cathedral; 6 killed, 24 wounded; again 8 to 11 P. M.

23 Bombardment 8 A. M. to 6 P. M.; cannonade all night.

24 Bombardment 2:30 to 4:30 P. M., 50 shells.

25 Bombardment 6 A. M., 20 shells.

26 Bombardment 8 A. M. to 5:30 P. M., 28 killed, 23 wounded.

27 Bombardment from midnight; relatively calm to 2 P. M.; bombardment
   renewed 2:15 to 6 P. M.; again 10 P. M. to 2 A. M.

28 Bombardment continued to 2 A. M.; renewed 3:30 A. M., 27 killed.

29 Calm.

30 Bombardment 10:30 A. M. to noon.



December, 1914


 1 Intermittent bombardment.

 2 Bombardment 10 A. M.

 3 Bombardment 9 A. M., 2 or 3 shells.

 4 Taube 11:30 A. M.; bombardment 1:30 to 8 P. M.

 5 Bombardment 3:30 A. M. to noon.

 6 Taube dropped 3 bombs 11 A. M.

 7 Bombardment 5 to 6 P. M., 40 shells.

 8 Bombardment 1 to 3 P. M., 50 shells.

 9 Bombardment in afternoon, 12 shells; renewed in evening, 6 shells.

10 Shrapnel morning and afternoon.

11 Bombardment in morning, 4 shells; renewed 5:30 to 6:30 P. M.

12 Bombardment on vacant land, 10 A. M., 14 shells.

13 Bombardment 9:30 to 11 A. M., 50 shells. President Poincaré visited
   Reims.

14 Bombardment in morning; renewed in evening, 20 shells.

15 Bombardment 10 A. M.; renewed 4 P. M., 30 shells.

16 Bombardment 5:30 to 6 P. M., 8 shells; renewed 9 P. M.

17 Taube dropped bomb 9 A. M.; bombardment 11:10 A. M. to dawn, more
   than 200 shells at night, 2 killed, 9 wounded.

18 Bombardment continued to dawn; renewed morning and afternoon.

19 Bombardment 11 A. M. to 12:30 P. M., 13 wounded.

20 Bombardment 6 P. M., 50 shells.

21 Bombardment 11 A. M., 50 shells; Taube 4 P. M.

22 2 Taubes 3 P. M.; bombardment 3:30 P. M., 30 shells; artillery in
   evening to 9:30 P. M.

23 Calm.

24 Taube 3:30 P. M.; bombardment in evening, 8 shells.

25 Christmas Day. Taube 3:30 P. M., dropped 4 bombs; bombardment
   5:15 P. M., 30 shells.

26 Taube 2:30 P. M.; bombardment 5 to 6 P. M., 40 shells.

27 Bombardment 5 to 6:30 P. M., 10 shells.

28 Bombardment 11:30 A. M., 15 shells; 2 shells in evening.

29 Bombardment 5 to 6 P. M., 14 shells.

30 Bombardment 11 A. M.; renewed 5 to 6 P. M., 20 shells.

31 Bombardment 11 A. M., 2 killed, 3 wounded; cannonade at night.



1915



January, 1915


 1 Relatively calm; bombardment at night, 30 shells.

 2 Bombardment 3 to 4 P. M.; renewed 9 P. M.

 3 Bombardment in morning.

 4 Bombardment 10 A. M.; renewed 5 to 6 P. M.

 5 Bombardment in morning; renewed in evening; 3 killed.

 6 Bombardment in morning, 4 shells; renewed 5:30 P. M., 12 shells.

 7 Bombardment from 11 A. M., 108 shells.

 8 Bombardment all day; 86 shells at night; 3 killed, 3 wounded.

 9 Copious bombardment.

10 Bombardment in morning; renewed 5:30 P. M.

11 Bombardment 5:30 P. M.

12 Bombardment in morning; renewed 3:30 P. M.; again 5:30 P. M.

13 Bombardment 11 A. M.; renewed in afternoon and night.

14 No report available.

15 Bombardment 8 P. M.

16 Bombardment in afternoon.

17 Bombardment 4:30 P. M.; renewed 7 P. M.

18 Bombardment 1 P. M., 3 killed; renewed 4 to 5 P. M.; again 9 P. M.

19 Bombardment 6 P. M.

20 Copious bombardment.

21 Bombardment at noon.

22 Bombardment 6 to 7 P. M.

23 Bombardment in afternoon; renewed 9 P. M.

24 Bombardment 8:30 to 9 A. M.

25 Bombardment 8:30 P. M.

26 Bombardment 4:30 A. M.; renewed in evening.

27 Kaiser's birthday; bombardment afternoon and evening.

28 Heavy bombardment; renewed 5:30 P. M.

29 Bombardment 3 to 4:30 P. M.; renewed 8 P. M.

30 Bombardment in morning; renewed 5 P. M.

31 Bombardment 6 A. M.



February, 1915


 1 Calm.

 2 Calm.

 3 Bombardment of vacant land in morning; renewed 2 P. M.; again 6 P. M.

 4 Bombardment 11:30 A. M. to 1 P. M.; renewed at night.

 5 Bombardment in evening.

 6 Copious bombardment.

 7 Calm.

 8 Some small calibre shells in morning.

 9 Bombardment 12:15 P. M.; renewed 3 P. M., 1 killed, 3 wounded.

10 Some shells.

11 Calm.

12 Bombardment 1 P. M.

13 Bombardment 11 A. M.

14 Bombardment in morning.

15 Calm.

16 Bombardment 5 P. M.

17 Bombardment in afternoon, 1 killed, 3 wounded.

18 Bombardment 11 A. M. and in afternoon, 9 killed, several wounded.

19 Bombardment 9 A. M.

20 Bombardment 9 P. M.

21 Bombardment 2:30 P. M.; ferociously renewed 9 P. M. to 2:30 A. M.

22 Bombardment continued to 2:30 A. M., 2000 shells, many killed and
   wounded; renewed in day, 4 killed.

23 Bombardment continued.

24 Bombardment 10:15 A. M.; renewed 7 P. M.; Taube dropped bomb.

25 Bombardment from 7 A. M.

26 Bombardment from 9 A. M.; renewed 1 to 5 P. M.; 2 shells on
   cathedral.

27 Bombardment from 6 A. M.; renewed in afternoon.

28 Bombardment in morning.



March, 1915


 1 Day calm; bombardment at night; several killed and wounded.

 2 Bombardment 12 to 5 P. M.; renewed 9:30 P. M., 2 wounded.

 3 Bombardment morning and afternoon, 4 killed, 14 wounded.

 4 Bombardment 11 A. M. to 1:30 P. M., 1 killed, 6 wounded; renewed 2 to
   5:30 P. M., 3 killed, 2 wounded.

 5 Bombardment 9 A. M. to 2 P. M., 1 killed, 2 wounded; renewed 4 P. M.;
   again 8 to 9:30 P. M., 1 killed, 4 wounded.

 6 Bombardment in morning, 3 wounded.

 7 Bombardment most of the day.

 8 Bombardment continued, and at night.

 9 Bombardment continued, 8 wounded; renewed 8 P. M. to 4 A. M.

10 Bombardment continued to 4 A. M., 1 killed, 1 wounded; renewed
   5 P. M.; again from 7:30 P. M.

11 Bombardment 5:30 P. M.; renewed 8 P. M.

12 Day calm; bombardment from 7:30 P. M., 1 wounded.

13 Bombardment 10 A. M., 2 victims; renewed 8 P. M. to 4 A. M.; Taube in
   afternoon.

14 Bombardment continued to 4 A. M.; renewed in day, 4 wounded.

15 Bombardment 4 A. M.; renewed 9 A. M.; again 5 to 6 P. M., 4 wounded.

16 Calm; some shells at night.

17 Bombardment 2:15 to 4 P. M.

18 Day relatively calm; some shells.

19 Moderate bombardment; some shells 5 P. M.

20 Unimportant bombardment in afternoon.

21 Bombardment 4 A. M.; Taubes dropped bombs in morning; some shells in
   evening.

22 Day relatively calm; some shells 6 P. M.

23 Bombardment 11 A. M. to noon.

24 Bombardment in morning; renewed 2 to 4 P. M., again 10 P. M.

25 Bombardment afternoon and night.

26 Intermittent bombardment.

27 Bombardment morning and afternoon.

28 Bombardment morning and afternoon; Taube dropped bomb on cathedral
   apse.

29 Bombardment continued.

30 Taube dropped 3 bombs 7 A. M.

31 Almost complete calm.



April, 1915


 1 Taube dropped 4 bombs 7 A. M.; bombardment in afternoon.

 2 Taube dropped bombs 6 A. M.

 3 Unimportant bombardment.

 4 Easter Day. Nothing to note.

 5 Bombardment on vacant land.

 6 Nothing to note.

 7 Nothing to note.

 8 Intense bombardment 9 P. M. to 2 A. M.

 9 Bombardment continued to 2 A. M.; no shells in the day.

10 Nothing to note.

11 Unimportant bombardment.

12 No report available.

13 Almost calm; some incendiary bombs 4 P. M.; shells 9 P. M.

14 No report available.

15 Taube dropped 4 bombs 7 A. M.

16 Taube 6 A. M.; bombardment 4:30 to 6:30 P. M.

17 Bombardment continued.

18 Taube dropped 3 bombs 5:30 A. M.; bombardment 5 P. M.

19 Some incendiary bombs 3 P. M.

20 Incendiary bombs 5 A. M.; bombardment continued through day.

21 Bombardment 5 to 7 P. M.; renewed at night.

22 Incendiary bombs 10 A. M.; bombardment in afternoon.

23 Calm.

24 Bombardment 9:30 A. M.; afternoon and night calm.

25 Bombardment 11:30 A. M.; renewed 4 P. M.

26 Some shells in morning.

27 Calm.

28 Bombardment 10:30 A. M.; renewed 4 to 5 P. M.; again 7 to 11 P. M.

29 Taubes in morning; bombardment in afternoon.

30 Bombardment 7:30 A. M., 20 shells; violent bombardment 5 to 7 P. M.



May, 1915


 1 Taube 4:30 A. M.; bombardment morning and afternoon.

 2 Bombardment in morning.

 3 Bombardment 7 A. M.

 4 Bombardment 7 A. M.; renewed 5 to 6 P. M.

 5 Bombardment 10 A. M.

 6 Bombardment 9 A. M.; renewed 3 to 5 P. M.

 7 Bombardment 6:30 A. M.

 8 Bombardment 9:30 A. M.

 9 Bombardment in morning.

10 Taubes dropped 2 bombs 5:30 A. M.; rifle fire at night.

11 Bombardment morning and afternoon.

12 Bombardment in morning.

13 Infantry fire on French lines at night.

14 Bombardment in morning.

15 Taubes and bombardment in morning.

16 More intense bombardment.

17 Calm.

18 Calm.

19 Calm.

20 Bombardment in morning, 2 or 3 shells.

21 Bombardment 9 P. M.

22 Bombardment at noon, 20 shells.

23 Calm; a few shells at midnight.

24 General calm.

25 Bombardment at night.

26 Calm.

27 Calm.

28 Bombardment in afternoon.

29 No shells; some rifle shots in sector at night.

30 Bombardment in day.

31 Taube; bombardment in afternoon.



June, 1915


 1 Bombardment 9 A. M. to noon.

 2 Day calm; Germans bombard French aeros 7 A. M.

 3 Bombardment 9 to 11 A. M.; renewed 5 to 6:30 P. M.

 4 Bombardment 5 to 6 P. M.

 5 Tranquil.

 6 Brief bombardment.

 7 Violent artillery combat on front, 1 to 4 A. M., 6 shells on Reims.

 8 Calm.

 9 Calm.

10 Bombardment in afternoon.

11 Nothing to note.

12 Nothing to note; violent artillery fire on front east of Reims at
   night.

13 Nothing to note.

14 No report available.

15 Bombardment, 2 or 3 shells; renewed 11 to 11:30 P. M., 80 shells,
   some on cathedral.

16 No report available.

17 Bombardment 10 A. M., 3 or 4 shells.

18 Calm.

19 Bombardment in afternoon.

20 German fire on French aeros.

21 Nothing to note.

22 Nothing to note.

23 Nothing to note.

24 Nothing to note.

25 Nothing to note; French artillery at night; no response.

26 Nothing to note; French artillery in day; no response.

27 Bombardment from 6:15 A. M.

28 Nothing to note.

29 Bombardment in morning.

30 Bombardment in afternoon.



July, 1915


 1 Bombardment in morning; renewed 5:30 P. M.

 2 Calm.

 3 German fire on French aeros in morning; bombardment 9 to 9:30 P. M.

 4 Bombardment 3 to 6 P. M.

 5 Bombardment 4:30 P. M.

 6 Nothing to note.

 7 Nothing to note.

 8 Nothing to note.

 9 Nothing to note.

10 Nothing to note.

11 Bombardment 10 A. M. to 2 P. M.

12 Nothing to note.

13 Nothing to note.

14 Bombardment 2 P. M.

15 Calm.

16 Calm.

17 Bombardment 10 A. M. to noon, 20 shells, 1 killed, 1 wounded.

18 Copious bombardment.

19 Bombardment 3:30 A. M.; renewed 9 A. M.; again 4 P. M.

20 Taube 5 A. M.; bombardment 11 A. M. to 12:15 P. M.

21 Taube 7 A. M., 1 shell; aeros at night.

22 Calm; artillery on front at night.

23 Bombardment 11:30 A. M.; renewed 6:45 P. M.; again 11 to 11:20 P. M.

24 Bombardment 9:30 to 10:15 A. M.; renewed at night, 12 shells.

25 Calm.

26 Calm; violent cannonade at night.

27 Bombardment 5:30 P. M.

28 Bombardment in morning.

29 Bombardment 8 A. M.; renewed at night.

30 Bombardment 6 P. M., 12 shells; artillery on all fronts at night.

31 Some shells in day.



August, 1915


 1 No report available.

 2 Bombardment 9:30 A. M., 2 bombs on faubourgs; renewed 5 P. M.

 3 Nothing to note.

 4 Nothing to note.

 5 Some shells 5:30 P. M.

 6 French aviator violently cannonaded.

 7 Nothing to note; violent cannonade around Reims at night.

 8 Cannonade around Reims in day; some shells 5:15 P. M.; incendiary
   bombs at night.

 9 Cannonade on front at night.

10 Unimportant bombardment.

11 No report available.

12 No shells on Reims; artillery actions on near-by places.

13 Calm.

14 Calm.

15 No report available.

16 Calm.

17 Some shells in afternoon.

18 Bombardment from 10:40 A. M.; some victims.

19 Bombardment 2 to 3:30 P. M.; some killed and wounded.

20 Bombardment 2 to 3:30 P. M.; some victims.

21 Some shells 10 A. M.; heavy bombardment 2 to 3:30 P. M., some
   victims.

22 Some shells in morning; bombardment 2 to 3:30 P. M.

23 Calm; fire on Taube.

24 Fire on Taube; some shells 5 P. M.

25 Taube dropped 3 bombs 5:20 P. M., 1 killed; bombardment 6 to
   7:10 P. M., 150 shells, 1 killed, 4 wounded.

26 Calm.

27 Bombardment 4:30 P. M.

28 Calm.

29 Bombardment 2:45 P. M.; renewed 5 P. M., 1 killed; cannonade at
   night.

30 Calm.

31 Bombardment 7:30 A. M.; rest of day calm.



September, 1915


 1 Bombardment 11 A. M. to noon, 1 wounded; renewed 1 to 1:30 P. M.,
   2 wounded; 100 shells for the day.

 2 Bombardment 10 to 10:15 A. M.

 3 Bombardment 10 A. M.; renewed 3:15 P. M.

 4 Anniversary of first bombardment. Bombardment 4 A. M., 20 shells;
   renewed 5 P. M.

 5 Calm.

 6 Calm.

 7 Calm.

 8 Calm.

 9 No shells; French cannonade morning and afternoon.

10 Artillery duel; some shells 10 A. M.

11 Day calm; French artillery and German fire on aeros in afternoon.

12 Day calm; bombardment 11:40 P. M.

13 Bombardment 10 A. M.; cannonade at night.

14 Calm.

15 Calm.

16 Calm.

17 Bombardment in afternoon, 6 shells.

18 Bombardment 7 A. M.; cannonade at night.

19 Anniversary of cathedral fire in 1914; Way of the Cross by the
   priests of Reims in the cathedral. French artillery 4 A. M., feeble
   response; bombardment in morning and at 5 P. M., 1 wounded.

20 Bombardment 3 P. M.; cannonade at night.

21 Bombardment 9:30 to 10 A. M.; renewed 4 to 5 P. M.

22 Bombardment morning and afternoon, 30 shells.

23 Bombardment 3 to 5:30 P. M., 150 shells, 3 killed, several wounded.

24 Bombardment 4 to 5:30 P. M., 100 shells, 4 killed, 2 wounded.

25 Bombardment 10 A. M., 20 shells, 1 killed; renewed 3 P. M.; 100
   shells for the day.

26 French artillery.

27 Artillery on left front; some shells on Reims 3 P. M.

28 2 or 3 shells on faubourgs; cannonade on front.

29 No shells on Reims; less cannonade.

30 Calm.



October, 1915


 1 Calm.

 2 Calm.

 3 Artillery duel; some shells on faubourgs at night.

 4 No report available.

 5 Some shrapnel on faubourgs in afternoon.

 6 Some shells; French artillery at night.

 7 French artillery; no shells on Reims.

 8 Calm.

 9 Calm.

10 Some shrapnel in afternoon.

11 Calm.

12 Bombardment 10:30 A. M.; renewed 3 P. M.; again 4 P. M.; French aeros
   over German lines.

13 Some shells in morning.

14 Bombardment 2:30 to 5 P. M.; French aeros.

15 Taube dropped bomb in afternoon; bombardment in evening.

16 Taube dropped bombs.

17 Calm in sector; 3 shells at night.

18 A few shells 5 P. M.

19 French artillery 5 A. M.; bombardment 8 to 11 A. M., 500 shells, some
   wounded.

20 Bombardment 1:30 to 8 P. M., more than 200 shells and 100 shrapnel;
   6 shells at night, 2 killed, 6 wounded.

21 Calm.

22 Some shells afternoon and night.

23 Calm.

24 Calm.

25 Calm.

26 Calm.

27 Calm.

28 1 shell 4:45 P. M.

29 Calm; complete stoppage of artillery on front.

30 Complete calm.

31 Incessant cannonade on front.



November, 1915


 1 Calm.

 2 Bombardment 11 A. M.; renewed 2 P. M.

 3 Some shells morning and afternoon.

 4 Calm.

 5 Calm; cannonade on front.

 6 Calm; cannonade on front.

 7 Calm; a shell at night.

 8 Calm.

 9 Calm.

10 Calm; cannonade on front in afternoon.

11 Calm; cannonade on front in afternoon.

12 Calm.

13 1 bomb 4:30 P. M.

14 Calm; French artillery, no response.

15 Calm.

16 No shells; artillery on front all afternoon.

17 No shells; artillery on front in afternoon.

18 Calm.

19 Artillery action; some shells in morning.

20 Artillery; no shells on Reims.

21 Artillery all day; no shells on Reims.

22 Artillery in morning; fire on aeros in afternoon.

23 French artillery in afternoon.

24 Artillery action; 4 shells 2:15 P. M.

25 Calm.

26 Some shells.

27 Calm.

28 French artillery; no shells on Reims.

29 Artillery in afternoon.

30 Some shells in morning.



December, 1915


 1 Bombardment in morning.

 2 Artillery action; some shrapnel.

 3 Bombardment in morning, 1 killed.

 4 Bombardment 8:30 A. M. to 1:30 P. M., 50 shells.

 5 Some shells day and night.

 6 Calm.

 7 Some shrapnel in morning.

 8 Calm; 1 shell 9:30 A. M.

 9 French artillery 4 P. M.; no response.

10 Calm.

11 French artillery 12:30 P. M.; German response 4:30 P. M.; no shells
   on Reims.

12 Artillery duel 3:30 P. M.

13 Cannonade 7 A. M.; renewed 10:30 A. M.

14 Calm; French aero over German lines 2:30 P. M.

15 Cannonade 6:30 to 8 A. M.

16 Calm.

17 Short violent cannonade at noon.

18 French artillery all day; no shells on Reims.

19 15 shells on faubourgs in afternoon; intermittent cannonade at night.

20 Bombardment 10 A. M.; renewed in afternoon, 1 wounded.

21 1 shell in afternoon.

22 Calm; French artillery at long intervals.

23 Calm.

24 Calm.

25 Christmas Day. Bombardment 2 to 3 P. M., 400 shells.

26 Reciprocal cannonade.

27 Heavy bombardment from 9 A. M., 2 killed, 14 wounded.

28 Artillery duel 9:30 A. M.

29 Cannonade 9 A. M.; 1 shell 11 A. M.; renewed in afternoon, again at
   9 P. M.; again at 11 P. M.

30 Intense cannonade in Reims sector in afternoon.

31 Calm; Taube 2:30 P. M.



1916



January, 1916


 1 Artillery duel at night.

 2 Artillery duel in afternoon; artillery at night.

 3 Nothing to note.

 4 French artillery; some shells on outskirts.

 5 Taube; some shells.

 6 Day calm; French artillery at night; small response.

 7 Calm; artillery to left, 4 P. M.

 8 Calm; artillery at night.

 9 Artillery duel in morning; Taubes in afternoon; violent artillery at
   night.

10 Calm.

11 Day calm; artillery at night.

12 Taube 2 P. M.; artillery at night.

13 A shell fell in a garden 10 A. M.; Taube 2 P. M.; night calm.

14 Some artillery 4 P. M.

15 Calm.

16 Calm.

17 Aerial battle 11 A. M.

18 Calm; artillery at end of afternoon and at night.

19 Bombardment 2 to 2:30 P. M., 200 shells, 1 killed.

20 Day calm; bombs in evening, 3 killed, 5 wounded.

21 Artillery in sector.

22 Calm; artillery on front.

23 Artillery morning and afternoon; aerial combat in afternoon.

24 Calm.

25 Day calm; short cannonade at midnight.

26 Calm; artillery chiefly to north of Reims.

27 Kaiser's birthday. Bombardment 11 A. M. to 2 P. M., 7 killed,
   27 wounded.

28 Calm; Taube 12:30 P. M.; French artillery to west of Reims.

29 Bombardment 2 P. M., 50 shells; renewed 7 P. M.; Taube 3 P. M.

30 Calm.

31 Artillery on all Reims fronts; Taubes and aeros 10 A. M. to 2 P. M.



February, 1916


 1 Taubes; artillery duel to right and left.

 2 Bombardment from 2:30 P. M., 250 shells.

 3 Aeros; French artillery 1 P. M.

 4 Calm.

 5 Bombardment 3 to 4:30 P. M., 20 shells.

 6 3 shells on a faubourg 10 A. M.

 7 French artillery; no response; artillery duel on front 9 P. M.

 8 Bombardment 11 to 11:30 A. M., 4 shells on faubourg; renewed 2 to
   2:30 P. M., 50 shells, 1 wounded.

 9 Bombardment 5 P. M., 12 shells on faubourg; artillery duel 7 to
   9 P. M.

10 French artillery on left 9 A. M.

11 Artillery in sector in morning.

12 Violent bombardment 9:30 to 11:30 A. M., 110 shells, 1 killed;
   renewed in afternoon; French artillery on left at night.

13 Bombardment in morning, 12 shells; renewed 12:15 P. M., 6 shells,
   6    wounded.

14 Bombardment on left 3:30 to 10 A. M.; renewed 10:30 A. M. to
   12:30 P. M., more than 100 shells.

15 Calm.

16 Some shells on faubourgs.

17 Cannonade 10 A. M.; some shells.

18 Artillery in sector.

19 Artillery in sector.

20 Bombardment 2 to 3 P. M., 20 shells.

21 Taube dropped 7 bombs 9:30 A. M., 2 killed, 5 wounded; 2 shells in
   afternoon; French artillery at night, no response.

22 French artillery from 4 P. M.

23 Day calm; 1 shell in evening.

24 Taube dropped bomb 11 A. M.; French artillery 4 to 5 P. M.

25 Violent cannonade and some bombs on extremities in afternoon.

26 Bombardment 9 to 11:30 A. M., 40 shells, 2 killed, 1 wounded; renewed
   2 to 4 P. M., 6 shells.

27 Bombardment 11 A. M., 8 shells; renewed 3 to 5 P. M., 7 shells.

28 Bombardment 8 A. M., 12 shells; renewed 12:30 to 2:30 P. M., 32
   shells; Taube 2 P. M.; renewed 4 to 5 P. M., 50 shells, 3 wounded.

29 10 shells on suburbs in morning; French artillery 6 P. M.


[Illustration: _From "La Cathédrale de Reims," Libraire Centrale des
Beaux-Arts, Paris._

THE WEST PORTALS]



March, 1916


 1 Bombardment 9 A. M. to 2 P. M., 120 shells, 10 killed; renewed 8 to
   9 P. M.

 2 Bombardment 10 A. M. to 2 P. M., 5 killed, 4 wounded; renewed 7 to
   9:30 P. M., 50 shells, 2 wounded.

 3 French artillery 5 A. M.; bombardment 1:45 P. M.; renewed 6 to
   8 P. M., 50 shells, 1 killed, 2 wounded.

 4 Bombardment 5 A. M.; renewed on faubourgs 5:30 P. M.

 5 Bombardment 11 A. M.; renewed 3 P. M.

 6 Aerial bomb 9 A. M.; some shells 11 A. M.; French artillery in
   afternoon.

 7 Aerial activity; no shells on Reims.

 8 Aerial activity and bombs, 2 wounded.

 9 Aerial activity and bombs; artillery on front in evening.

10 Aerial activity.

11 Aerial activity; French artillery 9 A. M., feeble response.

12 Taube 9 A. M.; bombardment 5 to 6 P. M., 50 shells, several wounded.

13 Aerial activity from 8 A. M.; bombardment 4 P. M.

14 Aerial combat 10 A. M.; no shells on Reims.

15 Calm; some shells on faubourgs.

16 Aerial shell 5:15 A. M.; bombardment in morning, 15 shells; French
   artillery in evening.

17 Bombardment 1:30 to 3:30 P. M.; renewed 4 to 6:30 P. M., 200 shells,
   some wounded.

18 Artillery 2:30 and 5 A. M.; Taube 7 A. M.; aerial activity in
   morning; artillery duel in afternoon; cannonade 11 P. M.

19 Artillery and aerial activity.

20 Calm.

21 Calm; short artillery action in morning.

22 Feeble cannonade in morning; no shells on Reims.

23 Calm; French artillery in sector 11 to 12 P. M.

24 Calm.

25 2 aerial bombs 4 P. M.

26 Calm.

27 Heavy bombardment 9 to 11 A. M., 300 shells, 25 killed and wounded;
   renewed 2 P. M.

28 Calm.

29 Artillery on front from 1 A. M. to daybreak; day calm in Reims.

30 Aeros; no shells.

31 Aeros; Taubes and some shells.



April, 1916


 1 Some shells on faubourgs.

 2 Violent bombardment 9 A. M. to 5:30 P. M., 1500 shells, 5 killed,
   41 wounded.

 3 Calm.

 4 Bombardment 5 to 6 P. M., 150 shells.

 5 Some shells; artillery at night.

 6 Day calm; French artillery at night.

 7 Day calm; artillery at night, 15 shells.

 8 French artillery in morning; 1 shell 8 P. M.

 9 French artillery; Taubes morning and afternoon; cannonade at night.

10 Taubes 9 A. M.; bombardment 11 A. M., 50 shells, 1 killed; renewed
   4 to 4:30 P. M., 9 shells; again 10 to 11:30 P. M., 26 shells.

11 Taube 6 A. M.; artillery afternoon and night.

12 Bombardment 10 A. M., 2 victims; renewed 3 P. M.; artillery afternoon
   and night.

13 Some shells 3 to 4 P. M.; artillery at night.

14 Some shells 2 P. M.; artillery day and night.

15 Bombardment 10 to 11:40 A. M.; renewed 2 to 5:30 P. M.; again
   8:30 P. M.

16 Taubes 6:30 and 9 A. M.; bombardment 11 to 11:30 A. M.; renewed
   5:30 P. M.

17 Bombardment in afternoon.

18 No shells on Reims.

19 Calm.

20 Some shells 6:30 A. M.; aerial combat 5:30 P. M.

21 Bombardment 11 A. M., 12 shells.

22 Bombardment 3 P. M., 2 shells, 1 wounded; renewed 4:15 P. M.,
   4 shells; again 5 to 6 P. M.

23 Easter Day. No shells.

24 Taubes in morning; bombardment 2:30 to 7:30 P. M., 200 shells.
   4 killed, 19 wounded.

25 Calm.

26 Bombardment 10:30 to 11:30 A. M., 30 shells.

27 Anti-aerial fire in afternoon; 5 or 6 shells in evening; French
   artillery at night.

28 Bombardment 7 to 11 A. M., 16 shells; renewed 1:30 to 3:30 P. M.,
   28 shells; again 5 to 6 P. M., 15 shells; again 9 P. M., 9 shells.

29 A few shells.

30 Bombardment 3 to 5 P. M., 8 shells; renewed 5:15 to 6 P. M.,
   11 shells; again 9:30 P. M., 7 shells, 2 victims.



May, 1916


 1 Taube dropped bomb 5:30 A. M.; bombardment 11:45 A. M., 6 shells;
   renewed 6 to 8 P. M., 50 shells.

 2 Day calm; bombardment to south and north-west 8:30 P. M., 9 shells.

 3 Taube 6 A. M.; no shells on Reims; artillery at night.

 4 Taube 7:30 A. M. and 11:30 A. M.; bombardment 7 to 8 P. M., 37 shells,
   1 wounded.

 5 Bombardment 10 to 11 A. M., 15 shells; renewed 4:30 P. M., 3 shells.

 6 Bombardment 8 to 10 A. M., 2 wounded; renewed 2:30 to 2:45 P. M.,
   4 shells; artillery at night.

 7 Bombardment 7 to 8 A. M., 2 shells; renewed 9 to 10 A. M., 23 shells.

 8 Bombardment 8 A. M.; renewed 3 to 6 P. M.; artillery at night.

 9 Bombardment 7:30 A. M., 5 shells; renewed from 9 A. M. to night,
   300 shells; French artillery at night.

10 Bombardment 7 to 9 P. M., more than 100 shells, 4 wounded; renewed
   10 P. M.

11 Bombardment 8 to 10 A. M.; renewed 1 to 2 P. M., 30 shells,
   3 wounded.

12 1 shell in morning; bombardment of observation balloon,
   5 to 6 P. M., 25 shells.

13 1 shell 9 A. M.

14 Complete calm.

15 Short bombardment 3 P. M.; some shells at night.

16 Taube early morning; bombardment 11 A. M. to noon, 100 shells;
   renewed 5 to 7 P. M., 4 killed, 10 wounded.

17 Aerial combat 8 A. M.; bombardment 12:30 to 2:30 P. M., 120 shells,
   8 killed, 10 wounded; renewed 4 to 6 P. M.

18 Bombardment 2 A. M.; 2 Taube bombs; renewed 9 to 11 A. M., more than
   200 shells; French artillery at night.

19 Bombardment in afternoon, 50 shells.

20 Bombardment 2:15 to 2:30 P. M., 15 shells, 1 killed; renewed at
   midnight, 20 shells.

21 Bombardment 12:30 A. M., 1 shell; renewed 11 A. M. to noon, 20
   shells; again 2 to 3 P. M., 32 shells; again 5 P. M., 6 shells.

22 Bombardment 3 A. M.; Taube 6 A. M.; bombardment renewed 2 to 3 P. M.,
   32 shells; again 5:30 P. M., 6 shells; artillery at night.

23 Day calm; bombardment 9:30 P. M., 12 shells, 2 killed.

24 Bombardment 1:30 to 5 P. M., 1 killed, 11 wounded.

25 Intermittent bombardment from 1:30 P. M.

26 Bombardment in afternoon.

27 Some shells in afternoon.

28 Bombardment 9 A. M.; renewed 2 P. M.

29 Artillery duel; some shells in morning.

30 Calm.

31 Day calm; some shells 8:30 and 11:30 P. M.



June, 1916


 1 Taube at dawn; bombardment 6:30 to 9 A. M., 5 shells; renewed 10 to
   11 A. M., 8 shells; again 3:30 to 4 P. M., 15 shells; again 10 P. M.,
   3 shells, 1 wounded.

 2 Bombardment 6 to 7:30 A. M., 25 shells; renewed 11 A. M.; again
   3 P. M.

 3 Bombardment 6 to 7 P. M., 100 shells; renewed 9 to 10 P. M.,
   11 shells.

 4 Bombardment 8:30 to 9 P. M.

 5 Bombardment 9:30 A. M., 7 shells; renewed 3 P. M., 5 shells.

 6 Bombardment 9 to 10 A. M., 20 shells; renewed 5 P. M., 3 shells.

 7 Bombardment 9 to 10 A. M., 12 shells; renewed at noon, 3 shells; again
   8 P. M., 4 shells on vacant land.

 8 1 shell 9 A. M.; 1 shell 5 P. M.

 9 Bombardment 8 to 9 A. M.; renewed in afternoon, 8 shells; again
   10 P. M.

10 Bombardment 7:30 to 9 A. M., 6 shells.

11 Bombardment 9 to 10 A. M.

12 Calm.

13 1 shell; artillery on front.

14 Some shells in afternoon.

15 Calm.

16 Calm.

17 Taube 5 A. M.; bombardment 8:43 to 11 A. M., 7 shells; renewed 1 to
   1:30 P. M., 3 shells; French artillery 4 P. M.

18 No shells.

19 Bombardment 9 to 11 A. M. on faubourgs; aerial combat in afternoon,
   4 shells fell into Reims.

20 Aerial fire 6:30 P. M.; artillery on front at night.

21 Anti-aerial shell fell back 6:15 A. M.

22 Artillery on front; bombardment 3 to 4 P. M., 24 shells; aerial shell
   fell back 6:30 P. M.

23 Bombardment 9:30 to 10 P. M., 41 shells.

24 Bombardment 3:30 to 5 P. M., 50 shells.

25 French artillery 4 P. M., no response.

26 Calm.

27 French artillery, no response.

28 Bombardment 2 to 2:30 P. M., 5 shells; French artillery at night.

29 Bombardment 9:30 to 11:15 A. M., 45 shells; renewed 12 to 1:30 P. M.,
   18 shells, 1 killed; again 3:30 to 5 P. M., 34 shells.

30 Bombardment 9:30 to 10 A. M., 10 shells; renewed 2:20 to 2:45 P. M.,
   15 shells, 1 killed, 2 wounded; again 4 to 5 P. M., 6 shells,
   3 killed, 2 wounded; French artillery at night.



July, 1916


 1 Taubes in morning; bombardment 5 to 6 P. M., 12 shells; artillery at
   night.

 2 Bombardment 5 to 8 P. M., 356 shells.

 3 3 Taube bombs 4:30 A. M.; somewhat tranquil.

 4 Nothing to note.

 5 Some shells 4:30 P. M.; artillery on front.

 6 Taube 6:30 A. M.

 7 Complete calm.

 8 Complete calm.

 9 Complete calm.

10 Taube 10 A. M.; 1 bomb 2 P. M.; French artillery at night.

11 Bombardment 10 A. M., 4 shells; renewed 5:45 to 7 P. M., 96 shells;
   again 9 P. M., 50 shells, 5 killed, 6 wounded; French artillery at
   night.

12 Some German prisoners passed through Reims.

13 Calm.

14 Calm.

15 Calm.

16 Calm; French fire on German trenches in afternoon, no response.

17 Calm.

18 Calm; artillery duel at night.

19 2 Taube bombs on fields.

20 French aeros over German lines 3 A. M.

21 Artillery duel 4 P. M.

22 Taube 6 A. M.; French artillery 10 P. M.

23 Calm.

24 Taube 4:30 A. M.

25 Taube 6 P. M.; French artillery at night, no response.

26 Day calm; Taube 5 P. M.; French artillery and some shells at night.

27 Taube 6 A. M.; bombardment 3:30 P. M., 13 shells.

28 Bombardment 5 P. M., 3 shells; 20 shells later.

29 Some artillery in afternoon; French aeros over German lines.

30 Calm.

31 1 shell 6 A. M.; Taube 8 A. M.



August, 1916


 1 Bombardment 5 to 6 A. M., 55 shells; renewed 6 to 7 P. M., 54 shells;
   French artillery 10 P. M. to 1 A. M.

 2 French artillery to 1 A. M.; shells early morning; artillery on front
   10 P. M. to 2 A. M.

 3 Artillery on front to 2 A. M.; bombardment 4:30 to 5:15 P. M.,
   5 shells; 1 shell at night.

 4 Bombardment 4:30 to 5:30 P. M., 3 shells; artillery at night.

 5 Bombardment 1 to 2 P. M., 3 shells; renewed 5 to 6:30 P. M.,
   34 shells; again 10 P. M.

 6 Taube early; intermittent bombardment; more serious 4:15 to 7 P. M.;
   French artillery 11:15 P. M., no response.

 7 Day calm; bombardment 7:30 to 8 P. M., 3 shells; French artillery at
   night.

 8 Some shells 6 P. M.

 9 Taube early; bombardment 11 to 11:30 A. M., 5 shells; renewed 6 P. M.

10 Bombardment 5:30 P. M., 2 shells; renewed 6:15 P. M., 2 shells; again
   8 to 9 P. M., 50 shells.

11 Day calm; French artillery at end of afternoon.

12 Bombardment 5:30 P. M., 14 shells, 1 killed, 2 wounded; renewed 7 to
   8 P. M., 25 shells; French artillery at night, no response.

13 7 Taubes dropped 19 bombs, 7 P. M., 21 victims. Civil Hospital
   burned; St. Remi menaced; 21 shells from bombardment.

14 Calm; French artillery at night.

15 4 shells in evacuated zone; bombardment 10 to 11:30 P. M.

16 Calm.

17 Day calm; 8 shells at night.

18 Calm; Taube 9 P. M.

19 Calm.

20 Calm.

21 Calm.

22 Calm.

23 Bombardment 10:45 to 11:15 A. M., 20 shells.

24 Taube 8 A. M.; bombardment 12:15 P. M.; aerial combat 1 P. M.,
   2 bombs dropped.

25 Bombardment 11 to 11:15 A. M., shells on faubourgs.

26 Bombardment 5 to 5:15 P. M., 7 shells; again 9 P. M., 4 shells.

27 Bombardment 8:30 A. M., 12 shells; renewed 11:30 A. M. to 1:15 P. M.,
   26 shells.

28 Bombardment 10 to 10:15 A. M., 12 shells, 1 wounded; renewed 5 to
   6:30 P. M., 28 shells.

29 Bombardment 8 to 9:30 A. M., 13 shells, 2 wounded.

30 Calm.

31 Bombardment 10 A. M. to noon, 36 shells.



September, 1916


 1 Calm.

 2 Calm; 2 Taubes 5 P. M.

 3 Taube; bombardment 8:30 to 10:30 A. M., 13 shells; renewed
   5 to 7 P. M.

 4 Calm.

 5 Bombardment 10:30 A. M., 3 shells.

 6 No shells.

 7 No shells.

 8 No shells.

 9 Some shells in morning, 1 wounded; Taube dropped 2 bombs 6 P. M.,
   1 killed, 1 wounded; artillery to south at night.

10 Calm.

11 French artillery in morning; no shells.

12 Calm.

13 Calm.

14 Calm.

15 20 Taube bombs 12:15 P. M., 2 killed, 1 wounded; intermittent French
   artillery at night.

16 Calm.

17 Taubes in morning; no shells; French artillery to south in afternoon;
   Taube 6 P. M.

18 Calm.

19 Anniversary of cathedral fire in 1914; calm; Taube in afternoon;
   French artillery at night.

20 Calm.

21 French artillery 11 A. M., no response.

22 Bombardment 9:30 A. M. to noon, 32 shells, 1 killed, 6 wounded.

23 Taube 8 A. M.; bombardment 9:30 to 11 A. M., 33 shells.

24 Taube 8 A. M.; bombardment 11 A. M., 32 shells; renewed 1:30 P. M.,
   10 shells on observation balloon in rear of Reims.

25 German fire on aeros; bombardment 1:30 to 4 P. M., 21 shells.

26 Bombardment 3:30 to 5 P. M.; renewed 5:30 to 6:30 P. M.; 19 shells in
   all.

27 Bombardment 1:30 to 3:30 P. M., 31 shells.

28 Bombardment 10:30 A. M.; no shells on Reims.

29 Very calm; no cannon sounds in sector.

30 Calm.



October, 1916


 1 Bombardment 1 P. M., 3 shells; renewed 1:15 P. M., 13 shells.

 2 Calm; some cannonade in morning.

 3 Nothing to note.

 4 Taube 6 A. M.; bombardment 10 to 11 A. M., 9 shells; renewed 4 to
   5:45 P. M., 40 shells.

 5 Bombardment 12 to 12:30 P. M., 7 shells; renewed 4 P. M., Taube
   shrapnel, 1 wounded.

 6 Taube 10 A. M.

 7 Nothing to note.

 8 Calm.

 9 Calm.

10 Taube in morning; bombardment 3:30 to 6 P. M., 28 shells.

11 4 Taubes 6 to 11 A. M., dropped 4 shells; artillery 5 P. M.

12 Calm.

13 Bombardment 8 A. M., 4 shells.

14 Distant bombardment 11 A. M.; some shells.

15 Calm.

16 Bombardment 2 P. M.

17 Bombardment 8 A. M., 10 shells.

18 No shells; French artillery 4 P. M.

19 Calm.

20 Bombardment 10 to 11 A. M., 18 shells; renewed 3 to 5 P. M.,
   13 shells.

21 Bombardment 9:30 to 11:30 A. M., 19 shells; 8 shells in afternoon.

22 Fire on Taubes.

23 Fire on Taubes 7 A. M.; some shells in the day.

24 Fire on Taubes.

25 Bombardment 10:30 A. M., 11 shells; renewed 1:30 to 5 P. M., 400 to
   500 shells; French artillery from 9 P. M.

26 Relatively calm.

27 Heavy bombardment 6:45 A. M. to 5 P. M., about 1200 shells.

28 Bombardment 3 to 5 P. M., 13 shells.

29 Calm.

30 French artillery in morning, no response.

31 Some shells in morning.



November, 1916


 1 Bombardment 2:45 to 3:45 P. M., 7 shells; renewed 4 to 5 P. M.,
   12 shells.

 2 Calm.

 3 Morning calm; anti-aerial fire in afternoon.

 4 French artillery 8 A. M.; bombardment 9:45 to 11 A. M., 28 shells;
   violently renewed 2 to 4:30 P. M., 600 shells.

 5 Artillery in sector.

 6 Bombardment 3:10 to 5:30 P. M., 100 shells.

 7 Bombardment 6:30 to 7:30 A. M., 36 shells; renewed 11 to 11:30 A. M.,
   67 shells.

 8 Bombardment 7:30 P. M., 6 shells.

 9 Nothing to note.

10 Aviation 10 A. M.; French artillery in afternoon.

11 Taube 11 A. M.; French artillery in afternoon.

12 Nothing to note.

13 Nothing to note.

14 Bombardment 11 to 11:30 A. M., 12 shells; renewed 12:30 to 1 P. M.,
   12 shells; French artillery 8:30 to 10 P. M.

15 Taube; bombardment 2 to 4 P. M., 14 shells; renewed 5 to 6:30 P. M.,
   12 shells; again 7 P. M.

16 Taube; light bombardment 11 A. M.; renewed 5 to 6:15 P. M., 12
   shells.

17 Bombardment 3 P. M., 12 shells.

18 Calm.

19 Bombardment 3:30 to 4 P. M., 7 shells.

20 Nothing to note.

21 Nothing to note.

22 Nothing to note.

23 Nothing to note.

24 Aerial activity.

25 Nothing to note.

26 Nothing to note.

27 Nothing to note.

28 Nothing to note.

29 Bombardment of fields near Reims 10 A. M.

30 Short artillery duel in morning.



December, 1916


 1 Calm.

 2 4 shells in morning.

 3 Nothing to note.

 4 Nothing to note.

 5 Nothing to note.

 6 Calm.

 7 Complete calm.

 8 Complete calm.

 9 Some shells morning and afternoon.

10 Bombardment 1 to 2 P. M., 15 shells.

11 Bombardment morning and afternoon.

12 Complete calm.

13 Bombardment 9 to 9:45 A. M.; renewed 1 to 2 P. M.; 9 shells.

14 Bombardment 1 to 4 P. M., 32 shells.

15 Bombardment 10 A. M. to 12:30 P. M., 36 shells.

16 Nothing to note.

17 Nothing to note.

18 Bombardment at intervals.

19 Bombardment in afternoon to 11:30 P. M., 39 shells.

20 Some shells in afternoon.

21 Calm.

22 Calm.

23 Calm.

24 Cannonade in afternoon.

25 Christmas Day; nothing to note.

26 Artillery in afternoon.

27 Bombardment 8:30 to 11:30 A. M., 50 shells; renewed 5:30 to 8 P. M.,
   6 shells.

28 Calm.

29 Calm.

30 Violent cannonade in sector all day and greater part of night; no
   shells on Reims.

31 No shells.



1917



January, 1917


 1 Day calm; 1 shell at night.

 2 Bombardment 1 to 3 P. M., 19 shells.

 3 Bombardment 11 A. M., 2 shells; artillery at night.

 4 Some shells.

 5 Some shells.

 6 Calm.

 7 Calm.

 8 Nothing to note.

 9 Bombardment 5 to 5:30 P. M., 16 shells.

10 Almost complete silence.

11 Nothing to note.

12 Calm.

13 Calm.

14 Bombardment 12:15 to 1 P. M., 12 shells; heavy cannonade on front to
   next morning.

15 Intermittent artillery in day; more active at night.

16 Some artillery; continued in night.

17 Nothing to note.

18 Nothing to note.

19 Nothing to note.

20 Nothing to note.

21 Bombardment 12:30 to 3 P. M., 15 shells; renewed 3 to 4 P. M.,
   24 shells.

22 Bombardment 5:30 to 6 P. M., 8 shells.

23 Bombardment 7 A. M., 1 shell; renewed 10:30 to 11:45 A. M., 10
   shells; again 4:30 P. M., 1 shell; again 5 to 6:30 P. M., 10 shells.

24 Bombardment 9 A. M. to noon, 26 shells; renewed 12:30 to 2 P. M.,
   19 shells; again 2 to 4:30 P. M., 13 shells; again 7 to 8 P. M.,
   14 shells.

25 Various bombardments in day; 10 shells, 5 to 6 P. M.

26 Relatively calm; some shells.

27 Kaiser's birthday. Bombardment 11 A. M. to 5 P. M., 77 shells;
   renewed 9 P. M.

28 Bombardment 12 to 5 P. M., 24 shells; renewed 9 to 9:45 P. M.,
   10 shells.

29 Bombardment 10:30 A. M. to 12:30 P. M., 4 shells; renewed 3 to
   4 P. M., 4 shells; again 10 P. M. to 3 A. M.

30 Bombardment continued to 3 A. M.; intermittent bombardment in
   afternoon.

31 Bombardment 4 to 6 P. M., 82 shells.



February, 1917


 1 Nothing to note.

 2 Absolute calm.

 3 Nothing to note.

 4 Nothing to note.

 5 Some shells at end of day.

 6 Intermittent bombardment all day; 16 shells 4:30 to 5:30 P. M.

 7 Bombardment 10 to 11 A. M., 14 shells; renewed 3 to 5 P. M., 12
shells.

 8 Bombardment 4 P. M., 13 shells; renewed 8 to 8:30 P. M., 16 shells.

 9 Bombardment 9:30 A. M.; renewed 1 to 5 P. M., 57 shells.

10 Nothing to note.

11 Bombardment 4:30 to 5 P. M., 2 shells.

12 Bombardment 3:15 to 3:45 P. M., 5 shells.

13 Bombardment 11:30 A. M. to 3:30 A. M., 117 shells.

14 Bombardment continued to 3:30 A. M.; day calm; renewed 9:30 P. M.

15 Bombardment 10 A. M. to noon, 8 shells; renewed 12 to 3 P. M.,
   8 shells; again 5 to 6 P. M., 64 shells; again 8 P. M., 1 shell.

16 Nothing to note.

17 Nothing to note.

18 Some shells in early morning.

19 Calm.

20 Calm.

21 Calm.

22 1 shell in afternoon.

23 Nothing to note.

24 Bombardment 7:30 to 10 P. M., 13 shells; renewed 10:30 P. M. to
   2 A. M., 25 shells.

25 Bombardment continued to 2 A. M.; renewed at noon, 3 or 4 shells;
   again 9 P. M., 3 shells.

26 Bombardment 5:30 P. M., 3 shells; renewed 9:30 P. M. to 5:30 A. M.,
   20 shells.

27 Bombardment continued to 5:30 A. M.; renewed 9 A. M., 5 shells;
   distant artillery afternoon and night.

28 Bombardment 3 A. M., 5 shells; renewed 5:30 P. M., 5 shells; 3 shells
   in night.



March, 1917


 1 Bombardment 1:30 to 4:30 P. M., 20 shells.

 2 Relatively calm; some distant shells.

 3 Bombardment 3:30 P. M., 2 shells and distant projectiles.

 4 Bombardment 5 to 6:30 P. M., 18 shells.

 5 Bombardment 4:30 to 6 A. M., 6 shells; renewed 11:30 A. M., 1 shell.

 6 Bombardment 11:30 A. M., 4 shells; renewed 3:45 P. M., 1 shell; again
   8:30 P. M., 1 shell.

 7 Day relatively calm; some shells at night.

 8 Distant shells 12:30 P. M.

 9 Distant artillery.

10 Some distant shells at night.

11 Bombardment 11:30 A. M., 2 shells; renewed 2:30 P. M., 2 shells;
   distant artillery at night.

12 Bombardment 10:30 to 11:30 A. M., 15 shells; agitated night.

13 Bombardment 1 to 7:30 A. M., 200 shells; renewed 5 to 6 P. M.,
   20 shells.

14 Bombardment 9 to 10 A. M., 12 shells; renewed 1:15 to 2 P. M.,
   19 shells; again 6 P. M., 5 shells.

15 Bombardment 12 to 3 P. M.; renewed 5:30 to 7 P. M., 50 shells.

16 Bombardment in morning; renewed 1 P. M., 12 shells; again
   4:30 P. M., 20 shells; again 6 P. M., 12 shells.

17 Bombardment 4:30 to 5:30 A. M., 541 shells; renewed 1 P. M.,
   3 shells; agitated night.

18 Bombardment 8:10 A. M., 12 shells; renewed 10:30 A. M., 9 shells;
   occasional shells in afternoon and evening.

19 Bombardment 9 to 10 A. M., 180 shells; renewed 6 P. M., 27 shells.

20 Distant shells all morning; bombardment 2:10 to 5:45 P. M.,
   41 shells; renewed 7 P. M. to 5 A. M., 120 shells.

21 Bombardment continued to 5 A. M.; renewed 10 to 11 A. M., 18 shells;
   renewed 2:30 P. M., 4 shells.

22 Bombardment 12:30 P. M., 4 shells; boisterous night.

23 Bombardment 10 A. M. to 2 P. M., 82 shells; boisterous night.

24 Bombardment 9 A. M. to noon, 234 shells; 12 shells in afternoon.

25 Bombardment 8 A. M. to 2 P. M., 453 shells; renewed 2:30 P. M.,
   26 shells.

26 Bombardment 1:30 A. M., 39 shells; some shells in afternoon.

27 Bombardment 3 to 4 A. M.; renewed 8 A. M. to noon and at night.

28 Bombardment 10 A. M. to noon, 401 shells; renewed 2 to 5:30 P. M.,
   181 shells.

29 Bombardment 1:45 to 2 P. M., 9 shells; renewed 4:45 to 5:15 P. M.,
   4 shells; again 5:40 P. M., 2 shells; again 8 to 9 P. M., 37 shells.

30 Bombardment 12:30 A. M., 2 shells; renewed 2 A. M., 8 shells; again
   9 A. M. to 1:50 P. M., 56 shells; again 3 to 6 P. M., 160 shells.

31 Bombardment from midnight to 5:30 A. M., 29 shells; renewed 8:30 to
   10:30 A. M., 45 shells; again 3 to 6 P. M., 32 shells; again 7 to
   7:30 P. M., 6 shells.



April, 1917


 1 Bombardment 4:30 to 5:30 A. M., 684 shells; renewed from 9 A. M.,
   2048 shells; total for the day, 2732 shells.

 2 Bombardment from 8 A. M., 2259 shells; some shells at night.

 3 Bombardment 9 A. M. to 8:30 P. M., 1744 shells.

 4 Bombardment all day, particularly violent 4:30 to 8 P. M.,
   2123 shells; some shells 9 P. M.

 5 Bombardment in morning, 10 shells; renewed in afternoon to
   5:30 A. M., 795 shells.

 6 Bombardment continued to 5:30 A. M.; renewed 4 to 8 P. M., and again
   in night.

 7 Bombardment to 8 P. M., 8785 shells for April 6 and 7. Grand
   Séminaire burned 4 P. M.

 8 Easter Day. Bombardment 2:30 to 9 P. M., particularly violent
   5:30 P. M.

 9 Bombardment from 4:30 A. M.; particularly violent 2 to 4 P. M. and at
   7 P. M.; continued during part of the night; evacuation of civil
   population ordered.

10 Bombardment in afternoon; particularly violent 4 to 9 P. M.;
   continued in night.

11 Bombardment day and night.

12 Bombardment day and night, particularly at 9 P. M.; perhaps 7000 or
   8000 shells.

13 Bombardment diminished 7 A. M.; renewed for the day, 10 A. M.

14 Bombardment day and night, particularly from 5 P. M. to 5 A. M.

15 Bombardment day and night; St. André burned 4:30 P. M.; 15 shells on
   the cathedral.

16 Bombardment 2:30 to 5 P. M.

17 Bombardment day and night.

18 Bombardment 12:30 to 3 P. M.; French artillery from 4:30 P. M.;
   80 fires in Reims from April 7 to April 18.

19 Bombardment from midnight to 3 A. M.; renewed 10:30 A. M. to
   7:30 P. M., 25 shells on cathedral, north tower, vaults and transept
   injured; renewed 10 P. M. to 5 A. M., 600 shells. Cardinal Luçon
   issued protest against bombardment.

20 Bombardment continued to 5 A. M.; renewed 10 to 11 A. M., 50 shells;
   again 12 to 8:30 P. M., 300 shells, particularly violent 6 P. M.;
   2 shells on cathedral.

21 Bombardment 3 to 6 A. M.; renewed 10:30 A. M.; again 1 P. M., Hôtel
   de Ville gravely injured; again 2:30 P. M.; again 6 to 8 P. M.;
   artillery at night. Cathedral injured, 8 shells.

22 Bombardment 9 A. M. to noon, 100 shells; renewed 2 to 6 P. M.,
   600 shells; cathedral injured, 3 shells; agitated night.

23 Bombardment 7:30 A. M. to 3 P. M.; renewed 6:30 P. M.; night calm;
   cathedral injured.

24 Cannonade from 4 A. M.; bombardment from 7:30 A. M., furious from
   9 A. M. to 3 P. M., cathedral injured; few night shells.

25 Bombardment 9:30 A. M. to 7 P. M.; disturbed night.

26 Bombardment 1 A. M.; renewed 7:30 A. M. to 4 P. M.; again 7 P. M.;
   night calm.

27 Bombardment from 7:30 A. M.

28 Bombardment continued, particularly violent 12 to 3 P. M. and 7 to
   8:20 P. M.; St. Thomas and St. André injured.

29 Bombardment all day.

30 Bombardment continued; perhaps 1200 shells.


[Illustration:

_L'Illustration_

THE CATHEDRAL AFTER THE BOMBARDMENTS OF APRIL, 1917

THE APSE AND SOUTH TRANSEPT]



May, 1917


 1 Bombardment continued, 1200 shells.

 2 Bombardment violently continued, 600 shells.

 3 Bombardment continued day and most of night; Hôtel de Ville took fire
   2 P. M.; library lost.

 4 Bombardment continued day and night; Hôtel de Ville still burning.

 5 Bombardment continued; furious at night.

 6 Bombardment continued day and night.

 7 Bombardment continued; night less agitated.

 8 Bombardment from 9 A. M.; centre of Reims violently bombarded
   11:30 A. M.; some shells in afternoon; renewed 10 to 11 P. M.

 9 Bombardment 9 A. M.; renewed 10 P. M.; perhaps 900 shells.

10 Bombardment from 10 A. M.; redoubled 1 to 7:30 P. M.; renewed 9 P. M.
   for the night.

11 Bombardment continued to 11:30 A. M.; renewed at noon; considerably
   diminished 2 P. M.; renewed 4:30 P. M.

12 Bombardment continued day and night.

13 Bombardment continued day and night; 15,000 shells, estimated, since
   May 11.

14 Bombardment 9 A. M. to 2 P. M.; renewed in night.

15 Bombardment continued afternoon and part of night, with less
   intensity.

16 Bombardment continued, less intense.

17 Bombardment continued.

18 Bombardment 11:55 A. M.; renewed 2 to 3 P. M.; continued in night;
   500 shells in day.

19 Bombardment continued; 3000 to 4000 shells estimated for day and
   night.

20 Bombardment day and night, about 500 shells.

21 Bombardment continued day and night, 1000 shells.

22 Bombardment continued with less intensity, about 200 shells.

23 Bombardment continued day and night, 500 shells.

24 Morning calm; bombardment in afternoon, 200 shells.

25 Bombardment continued; 500 shells.

26 Relatively calm; bombardment 2 P. M., 200 shells.

27 Bombardment from 5 A. M., more than 1000 shells; asphyxiating shells
   6 to 8 A. M.; night relatively calm.

28 Bombardment from 6 A. M.; perhaps 2000 shells.

29 Bombardment from 4 A. M., day and night.

30 Bombardment continued in day, 300 shells; night calm.

31 1 shell 1 A. M.; bombardment from 6 A. M., day and night, 200 shells.



June, 1917


 1 Taube dropped 2 bombs 12:30 A. M.; bombardment continued, 500 shells;
   night calm.

 2 Bombardment from 7 A. M., 500 shells.

 3 Bombardment from 6:30 A. M., day and night, more than 1000 shells.

 4 Bombardment from 7 A. M., 300 shells.

 5 Bombardment from 7 A. M., 200 shells.

 6 Bombardment from 6:30 A. M., 1500 shells; St. Benoît injured.

 7 Bombardment from 5:30 A. M., 200 shells; night calm.

 8 Bombardment continued, 400 shells.

 9 Bombardment day and night, 500 shells.

10 Bombardment from 4 P. M.

11 Bombardment afternoon and night, 500 to 600 shells.

12 Bombardment from 6 A. M., 1200 shells.

13 Bombardment from 5 A. M., 400 to 500 shells.

14 Bombardment from 6 A. M., 500 shells.

15 Bombardment from 5 A. M.

16 Bombardment from 5 A. M.; violent 9 A. M. to 2 P. M., 500 shells;
   continued at night; 1500 shells in all.

17 Bombardment from 7:30 A. M., day and night, 2500 shells.

18 President Poincaré visited Reims; gave decoration of Legion of
   Honour to Cardinal Luçon, Archbishop of Reims; MM. de Bruignac and
   Émile Charbonneaux, adjuncts to the Mayor of Reims; Dr. Harman of
   the hospital service; M. Beauvais, director of the School of Commerce
   and Industry; M. Martin, secretary-in-chief to the Sous-Préfecture,
   and M. Paul Dramas, editor-in-chief of "L'Eclaireur de l'Est."
   Bombardment from 5 A. M. and at night, 500 to 600 shells.

19 Bombardment all day, 3000 shells.

20 Bombardment from 6 A. M., day and night, 500 to 600 shells.

21 Morning calm; bombardment 4 to 7 P. M., 450 shells; renewed at night.

22 Bombardment most of the day; renewed 10 P. M. to 4 A. M., 850 shells.

23 Bombardment continued to 4 A. M.; renewed 6 A. M., more than 1300
   shells (800 from 9 A. M. to 1 P. M.; 205 from 1 to 3 P. M.; 255 from
   3 to 7 P. M.; more than 50 at night).

24 Bombardment continued, 717 shells.

25 Bombardment continued; terrible in the afternoon and night, 2442
   shells.

26 Bombardment day and night, less intense, 617 shells.

27 Bombardment continued day and night.

28 Bombardment continued; 8 shells on the cathedral.

29 Bombardment continued day and night, 772 shells.

30 Day relatively calm; intense bombardment at night, 200 shells.



July, 1917


 1 Bombardment continued, 200 shells.

 2 Bombardment continued, more than 600 shells.

 3 Bombardment continued, 1200 shells (120 from 9 A. M. to 1 P. M.;
   400    from 2 to 5 P. M.; 20 from 7 to 8 P. M.; 600 from 9 P. M. to
   2 A. M.).

 4 Bombardment continued, 300 shells.

 5 Bombardment continued, 800 shells (100 from 12 to 2 P. M.; 700 from
   2 to 8:30 P. M.; 3 in the night).

 6 Bombardment continued, 600 shells (350 from 6 A. M. to 2 P. M.;
   50 from 3 to 4 P. M.; 200 after 4 P. M.).

 7 Bombardment continued, 350 shells (250 from 4 to 9 A. M.; 15 from
   9 to 10 A. M.; 1 at 6:45 P. M.; 100 from 11 P. M. to midnight).

 8 Bombardment continued; 12 shells at 9 A. M.; 14 shells at 2 P. M.

 9 Bombardment continued; 20 shells 2 to 5 A. M.; 90 at 8 A. M.; 25 from
   9 A. M. to noon; 40 from 2 to 3 P. M.; 2 at 8 P. M.

10 Bombardment continued; 20 shells 4 to 5 P. M.; 60 at 8 P. M.; 55 in
   the night.

11 Bombardment continued; 61 shells 9 to 11 A. M.; 12 at 7 P. M.

12 Bombardment continued, 1350 shells (30 from 7 to 10 A. M.; 1260 from
   8 to 10 P. M.; 60 from 10 P. M. to 2 A. M.).

13 Bombardment continued, 2000 shells (250 from 7:30 to 11 A. M.; more
   than 300 in the afternoon; 900 from 5 to 10 P. M.; more than 500 in
   the night).

14 Bombardment continued, 2500 to 3000 shells (1650 from 5 A. M. to
   1 P. M.; 700 from 2 to 10 P. M.; 13 in the night).

15 Bombardment continued, 800 shells (50 from 11 A. M. to noon; 700 from
   12 to 1 P. M.; 50 in the night).

16 Bombardment continued, 2537 shells (50 at 6 A. M.; 250 from 8 A. M.
   to 1 P. M.; 1231 from 2 to 7 P. M.; 30 from 8 to 10 P. M.).

17 Bombardment continued, but day relatively calm, 129 shells (4 at
   11 A. M.; 125 at 7 P. M.).

18 Bombardment continued, 840 shells (160 at 7 P. M.; 580 from 9 P. M.
   to 2 A. M.).

19 Bombardment continued, 80 shells.

20 Bombardment continued, 119 shells.

21 Bombardment continued, more than 900 shells (30 from 7 to 8 A. M.; 30
   from 8:30 to 11 A. M.; 760 from 1 to 3 P. M.; 100 from 11 P. M.).

22 Bombardment continued, 828 shells (50 from 8 to 9 A. M.; 122 from
   9 to 10:30 A. M.; 6 from 12 to 4 P. M.; 650 after 4 P. M.).

23 Bombardment continued, 1340 shells (400 from 8 A. M. to 1 P. M.;
   650 from 2 to 4 P. M.; 290 after 9 P. M.).

24 Bombardment continued, 140 shells (40 at 10 A. M.; 65 at 3 P. M.;
   35 at 9:30 P. M.).

25 Bombardment continued, 420 shells (200 from 6 to 11 A. M.; 220 at
   9:30 P. M.).

26 Bombardment continued to 3 A. M., 443 shells; 286 shells in the day
   (6 at 6 P. M., 280 at 10 P. M.).

27 Bombardment continued, 1201 shells (160 from 8 A. M. to noon;
   120 from 4 to 5 P. M.; 100 at 8 P. M.; 821 after 11 P. M.).

28 Bombardment continued, 627 shells (200 from 9 to 11 A. M.; 100 from
   7 to 8 P. M.; 327 after 10 P. M.).

29 Bombardment continued, 513 shells (25 from 9 to 10:30 A. M.; 100 at
   2 P. M.; 50 from 4 to 6 P. M.; 300 from 9 to 10 P. M.; 30 in the
   night). M. Martin, decorated by the President on June 18, killed by
   a shell at the temporary Sous-Préfecture near Reims.

30 Bombardment continued, more than 1300 shells (695 from 3 to 4 P. M.;
   590 from 5:30 to 7 P. M.; 20 from 9 to 10 P. M.).

31 Bombardment from 3 to 4 P. M., 20 shells.



August, 1917


 1 Bombardment continued.

 2 Bombardment continued, 35 shells in the day; 405 after 9 P. M.

 3 No shells in the day, 13 shells between 10 and 10:45 P. M.

 4 Bombardment continued, 51 shells (5 from 1:45 to 2:30 P. M.; 40 from
   4 to 6 P. M.; 6 from 6:30 to 7 P. M.).

 5 Bombardment continued, 58 shells (40 from 5 to 6 P. M.; 11 from 6 to
   7 P. M.; 7 from 9 to 10 P. M.).

 6 Bombardment continued, 26 shells (16 from 12 to 1 P. M.; 10 from 4 to
   5 P. M.).

 7 Bombardment continued.

 8 Bombardment continued, 141 shells (29 from 10 to 11 A. M.; 20 from 4
   to 4:30 P. M.; 92 from 6 to 7 P. M.).

 9 Bombardment continued, 140 shells (50 from 9 to 11 A. M.; 90 from 10
   to 11 P. M.).

10 Bombardment continued, 126 shells (6 from 3 to 3:30 P. M.; 48 from
   3:30 to 4:30 P. M.; 14 from 6 to 7 P. M.; 58 from 11 P. M. to
   midnight).

11 Bombardment continued, 600 to 660 shells (60 from 3 to 5 A. M.; 50
   from 9:30 to 10:30 A. M.; more than 500 from 3 to 9 P. M.).

12 Bombardment continued, more than 400 shells (15 at 7:30 A. M.; 30 at
   9 A. M.; 159 at 5 P. M.; 132 from 6 to 7 P. M.; 79 in the night).

13 Bombardment continued, 1,680 shells.

14 Bombardment continued, 200 shells.

15 Bombardment continued, 55 shells (27 from 3 to 3:30 P. M.; 28 from 9
   to 11 P. M.).

16 Bombardment continued, 173 shells (25 from 3:30 to 6 P. M.; 140 from
   6 to 8 P. M.; 8 from 8:45 to 9 P. M.).

17 Bombardment continued, 378 shells (39 from 6:30 to 8:30 A. M.; 10
   from 10 to 10:30 A. M.; 30 from 2 to 2:30 P. M.; 299 from 5 to
   11 P. M.).

18 Bombardment continued, 128 shells (108 from 12 to 4 P. M.; 20 from
   6 to 8 P. M.).

19 Bombardment continued, 588 shells (392 from midnight to 2 A. M.;
   52 from 4 to 9 A. M.; 144 from 7 to 10 P. M.).

20 Bombardment continued, 563 shells (28 from 12:30 to 1:30 P. M.;
   514 from 3 to 6 P. M.; 20 from 9 P. M. to midnight).

21 Bombardment continued, 150 shells (2 at 8 A. M.; 63 at 12:30 P. M.;
   40 in the afternoon; 45 after 8:45 P. M.).

22 Bombardment continued, 140 shells (30 from 10:30 to 11:30 A. M.;
   100 from 12:30 to 2 P. M.; 10 at 5:30 P. M.).

23 Bombardment continued, 103 shells (3 at 4 A. M.; 15 at 10 A. M.;
   50 from 3 to 4 P. M.; 35 in the night).

24 Bombardment continued, 30 shells, from 9 P. M. to midnight.

25 Bombardment continued, 153 shells (6 from 4 to 5 A. M.; 52 from 4 to
   10 P. M.; 95 from 10 P. M. to 2 A. M.).

26 Bombardment continued, 129 shells to 2 A. M.; 52 from 4 to 7 P. M.;
   77 from 9:30 to 11:15 P. M.

27 Bombardment continued, 144 shells (53 from 12 to 2 P. M.; 91 from
   4 to 5 P. M.).

28 Bombardment continued, 126 shells (1 at 1 A. M.; 4 at 10:30 A. M.;
   16 from 4 to 6 P. M.; 92 from 7 to 8 P. M.; 13 at 9 P. M.).

29 Bombardment continued, 59 shells (28 at 5 P. M.; 10 from 7 to
   8 P. M.; 21 from 10:30 to midnight).

30 Bombardment continued, 83 shells (15 from 2 to 3 A. M.; 16 at
   10:30 A. M.; 12 from 4 to 5 P. M.; 40 from 9 to 11 P. M.).

31 Bombardment continued, 34 shells from 9 to 11 P. M.



September, 1917


 1 Bombardment continued, 107 shells (83 from 1 to 4 P. M.; 24 at
   8:30 P. M.).

 2 Bombardment continued, 12 shells (2 at 6:30 A. M.; 7 from 10 to
   11:15 A. M.; 3 at 6 P. M.).

 3 Third anniversary of the first bombardment of September 3, 1914.
   Bombardment continued, 10 shells.



Postscript


The present chronicle stops at the third anniversary of the first
bombardment. On September 2, 1914 the French army evacuated Reims. The
bombardment actually began on September 3, 1914 by the dropping of two
bombs by German aviators. It was an unexpected preface to the formal
bombardment of the next day, when the Germans sent 176 shells into
Reims, although actually in possession of the city. September 3, 1917
thus completes three full years of the bombardment, which has
accomplished nothing save the ruin of the city and the destruction of
its great cathedral.

After a city has been besieged for three years; after it has, for that
time, been subjected to the agony of modern artillery warfare, it would
seem quite time to review such details as are obtainable and survey the
results achieved by the besiegers. The daily summary given in the
foregoing pages shows exactly what the Germans have done and what they
have accomplished. Day after day, particularly in 1917, they have thrown
innumerable projectiles into Reims, and wrought the utmost damage they
could. But the outstanding fact to the French is that the Germans are
still bombarding Reims. The siege did not stop with the end of the third
year, but it is still going on as these pages pass through the press.
This is the triumph of Reims, that it is still French, bent and broken
as it is, bowed as its vast church is with the great trials to which it
has been subjected, the city and its cathedral are still French! Before
this ruined heap of stones--for Reims is scarce more than that, this may
yield small comfort. Yet Reims is still France, knock the barbarian ever
so fiercely.

It is, perhaps ominous that while detailed figures of the German
missiles thrown in Reims have been published in the local newspapers
rather freely, no word as to the destruction they may have accomplished
has been uttered. The veil that covers Reims has not yet been lifted,
nor can the full measure of her agony yet be reckoned.

[Illustration: THE HÔTEL DE VILLE]



The Buildings of Reims


THE CATHEDRAL OF NOTRE DAME

This magnificent church was begun May 6, 1211, the foundation stone
being laid on that date on the site of an earlier edifice burned in
1210. The work was pushed so rapidly that the choir was completed and
occupied September 7, 1241. The architect was Jean d'Orbais, to whom the
initial conception is due, and who continued in charge to 1231. He was
succeeded by Jean Le Loup (1231-1247), who completed the choir and about
1240 undertook the façade of the north transept. Gaucher de Reims
(1247-1255) apparently began the west portals towards 1255, before the
nave was completed. Bernard de Soissons (1255-1290) built the five west
bays of the nave and the great west rose window. He was succeeded by
Robert de Coucy, who died in 1311, to whom is attributed the towers and
the upper parts of the west front. The roof and upper parts of the
cathedral were heavily damaged by fire in 1481, but repairs were
speedily carried out. Restored several times in the nineteenth century,
new restorations were in progress until the time of the first
bombardment.

The cathedral is a vast and splendid church, with a nave of nine bays,
transepts with aisles, and a rather short choir, surrounded with five
chapels. There are no nave chapels. The decorations are of great
magnificence, the external sculptures, especially those of the great
west portals and the portals of the north transept, being most
elaborate, and including some of the finest mediæval sculptures in
France. The interior is noted for the arcaded screen applied to the west
end of the nave, surrounding the central doorway, consisting of a series
of niches with statues. The foliated capitals of the nave piers also
deserve mention. The glass of the windows, which suffered some
unfortunate changes in the XVIII century, was of extraordinary beauty
and interest, and ranked among the finest in France; most of it was
destroyed in the bombardment. The cathedral had a superb collection of
tapestries, fortunately removed to Paris before the fire. The Treasury
of the cathedral contained many rare and beautiful objects.

Notwithstanding the numerous and heavy bombardments to which the
cathedral has been subjected, the statue of Jeanne d'Arc by Paul Dubois,
erected in the open space before the cathedral (Place du Parvis) in
1896, has not yet been touched by shells. The sculpture of the west
front and of other exposed parts were heavily protected by sand bags
immediately after the first bombardment.


Palais Archiépiscopal

Immediately adjoins the south transept of the cathedral. Repaired and
rebuilt many times. The oldest surviving portion is the chapel called
the "Chapelle Palatine," built in two stories, and attributed to Jean
d'Orbais, the architect of the cathedral. It lost its roof early in the
bombardment. The great hall of the place, called the "Salle du Tau" was
built at the end of the XV century; it contains a Gothic chimneypiece
dating from 1498. The apartments of the King consisting of five rooms,
restored in 1825, were richly decorated. The palace was totally
destroyed in the bombardment.


THE ABBEY CHURCH OF ST. REMI

One of the most beautiful Romanesque churches in northern France. The
larger part of its structure dates from 1005 to 1049, having been built
in three efforts within that time. The choir, with its fine circlet of
radiating chapels, was built between 1170 and 1190. The south transept
front was rebuilt in 1506. The church has been many times repaired and
its form and structure modified. The west front was so completely
modified after 1840 that only the two lower stages remain of the earlier
building. The building is of vast size, and the upper windows contained
some remarkable glass. The tomb of St. Remi, the bishop of Reims who
baptized Clovis, and which for centuries was a famous place of
pilgrimage, was built in 1847, replacing an earlier monument destroyed
in the Revolution, which, in its turn, replaced an earlier memorial.


ST. JACQUES

Of the church begun in 1190 and continued in the first years of the XII
century, only fragmentary parts remain. It was partially reconstructed
at the beginning of the XIV century. The choir and its chapels date from
the XVI century. The lantern of the crossing replaced a Gothic spire
removed in 1711, and the north transept and other parts were rebuilt in
1854.


ST. MAURICE

The choir, dating from 1627, is flanked by a beautiful flamboyant chapel
built towards 1546. The nave is modern.


MODERN CHURCHES

_St. André_, built between 1857 and 1864.--_St. Thomas_, built in
1847.--_St. Geneviève_, built in 1877.--_St. Clotilde_, built in
commemoration of the fourteenth centenary of the baptism of Clovis
(496-1896).--_St. Benoît_ and _St. Jean Baptiste de la Salle_ are very
recent churches.


HÔTEL DE VILLE

The fine Hôtel de Ville was commenced in 1627 on the plans of a native
architect, Jean Bonhomme. Begun with the left pavilion, the main façade,
with the central pavilion and its tower, were completed by 1630. Left
incomplete for nearly two centuries, the right pavilion was added in
1823-1825 by Serrurier, also an architect of Reims. Great additions and
new buildings around a central court were added between 1875 and 1880.
The relief of Louis XIII in the central pediment by Milhomme, placed in
1818, occupies the place of an earlier one by Nicolas Jacques, placed in
1636 and destroyed in the Revolution. The building contained the Museum
and Public Library of Reims. Destroyed by fire, May 3, 1917. The more
valuable books of the library, and the departmental archives had long
before been placed in safety elsewhere.


BUILDINGS OF NOTE

The _Place Royale_, begun in 1757, is closed on one side by the _Hôtel
des Fermes_, a stately edifice with a central pediment supported by
columns. In the centre of the Place is a statue of Louis XV by
Cartellier, replacing an earlier statue by Pigalle, inaugurated in 1765
and destroyed in the Revolution. Two allegorical groups by Pigalle for
the pedestal survived.

_Maison des Musiciens_, dating from the time of St. Louis, has a
remarkable façade of large twin-windows alternating with trilobed niches
containing seated statues of musicians, larger than life size. Purchased
by the city and by public subscription in 1905.

Reims contains two other dwellings of the XIII century. A larger house
in the Rue de Tambour, with a completely modernized interior, offers a
façade of much interest, notwithstanding a repair in 1832.--Another
house, in the Rue de Sedan, is a simple artisan's dwelling, retaining
almost intact its gabled façade of the end of the XIII century.--A
Gothic building in the same street, transformed into a school in 1890,
retains parts of the XVI and XVII centuries.--A house in the Rue de
Vesle has a façade of the XIV century, destroyed and burned by the
bombardment of September 19, 1914.--Fragments of the former priory of
St. Bernard remain in the same street behind a modern store front.--A
house in the Rue de la Grue is an interesting type of the end of the
XVII century; ruined in bombardment of September 19, 1914.

_Hôtel de Bezannes_, a large dwelling of the middle of the XV century,
was probably built by Pierre de Bezannes, lieutenant of the inhabitants
of Reims (1450-1467), whose arms remain on the buildings of the court.
It became a school in 1901.

_Hôtel Le Vergeur_, a large building retaining fragments of all styles
since the end of the XIII century.--The _Maison du Long-Vêtu_, the
birthplace of Colbert, the celebrated minister of Louis XIV, has a
façade of the middle ages, and another of the XVII century.--A hotel of
the XV century, in the Rue de Pouilly, was the dwelling of an uncle of
Colbert's. It is now the house of the Soeurs de l'Espérance; a part of
the façade was demolished in 1908.--_Pavilion de Muire_, built by
Nicolas Noel, lord of Muire, towards 1565, a remarkable structure in the
style of Henri III.--_Hôtel de Montlaurent_ of the XVI century, has lost
much of its interior interest, but the court offers some of the
primitive decoration.--_Hôtel de la Salle_, the birthplace of J. B. de
la Salle, is one of the most beautiful types of domestic Renaissance
architecture in Reims; the façade bears the date 1545.--_Cour Mopinot_
has a portico of the XVI century.--_Hôtel Thiret de Prin_ was built
under Henri IV; Richelieu lived in this building during his sojourn in
Reims in 1641.--_Maison de l'Ecu de Reims_ bears the date 1652.--_Maison
de Jean Maillefer_, built in 1651.--_Hôtel Lagoille de Courtagnon_ has a
façade of the XVII century.--_Hôtel Rogier_, built towards 1750; sold at
public auction, in January, 1914.--Two wooden houses with pointed gables
of the end of the XV century, are in the Place des Marchés.--An
inscription on the _Hôtel de la Maison-Rouge_ states that the father
and mother of Jeanne d'Arc were lodged in this building at public
expense in 1429, at the coronation of Charles VII. It was then known as
the _Ane Rayé_.--The Société des Amis du Vieux Reims maintained an
extensive collection of objects relating to Reims in the former _Hôtel
Coquebert_.

The _Porte de Mars_, a Roman triumphal arch of three arches, is the most
considerable monument in Reims dating from Roman times.


EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS

_Grand Séminaire_, occupies the buildings of the former abbey of St.
Denis. The original parts are of the time of Louis XV; they were
considerably modified and added to in 1822, when the seminary took
possession of them. It later served as the Musée des Beaux-Arts,
inaugurated in 1913.

The _Lycée_ occupies the buildings of the University or college founded
by the Cardinal of Lorraine in the XVI century, and rebuilt in 1676.
Although greatly changed, the interior court, half wood, half masonry,
retains the original aspect of the XVI century. Much new construction
was added at the end of the last century.


HOSPITALS

_Hôtel-Dieu_ [Civil Hospital], founded by archbishop Hincmar in 848, was
transferred to the buildings of the abbey of St. Remi in 1827. Repaired
and rebuilt at various times, they retain few vestiges of the middle
ages. They were partly renewed after a fire in 1774. Burned in the
bombardment of August 13, 1916.--_Hôpital General_, occupies the former
college of the Jesuits, the older parts dating from the XVII century.
The former library, now the linen room, is an apartment of some
magnificence. It adjoins the church of St. Maurice.--_Hôpital St.
Marcoul_, or home for incurables, dates from about 1650; it was added to
in 1651, 1869 and 1873.--_Maison de Retraite_, a modern foundation due
to bequests and munificent gifts.


OTHER BUILDINGS

_Palais de Justice_, built in 1845, on the site of the old Hôtel Dieu; a
new façade was recently added.--_Théâtre_, built between
1866-1873.--_Chambre de Commerce_ occupies the former Hôtel
Clicquot-Ponsardin, in the style of Louis XVI.



The Destructions of the Buildings of Reims


While the material for a survey of the destruction of the buildings of
Reims is not yet available, the following notes may be found of interest
in forming a judgment on the effects of the bombardment, and its
military uselessness. The record is manifestly incomplete, for
practically the entire city has been destroyed.


THE CATHEDRAL


1914

_September 4._ The window glass in the aisle of the north transept was
broken by a bomb falling in the adjoining street. Other shells fell
directly on the cathedral, striking the gable of the north transept; the
upper nave windows were pierced, and the rose window over the central
west portal. Some of the portal statues, including the Virgin of the
group of the Visitation, and an apostle of the south porch were broken.
There were various external indications of projectiles and minor
injuries.

_September 17._ Three shells fell on the cathedral, striking the stone
gallery and roof of the north transept; the chevet was subjected to
similar injury, and the glass of the choir chapel windows was destroyed.

_September 18._ Thirteen shells fell on the cathedral. The windows of
the south aisle of the nave to the transept were broken, many being
emptied of their ancient glass. The buttresses on the south side were
mutilated in their lower parts, and many of the pinnacles broken off or
destroyed. The flying buttress at the angle of the choir and north
transept was entirely destroyed. The stone gallery surrounding the base
of the nave roof was ruined in many places, and parts of it thrown onto
the roof created other injuries and broke windows.

_September 19._ The day of the fire. Sixteen shells on the cathedral,
one on the summit of the north tower. At 2:30 P. M. (the exact hour
varies in different accounts) an incendiary bomb set afire the
scaffolding erected in May, 1913, for the repair of this tower. Although
not the first catastrophe, it was the most serious. The fire spread with
great rapidity, the great roof, with its magnificent internal woodwork
of the fifteenth century, was wholly consumed. The "Clocher à l'Ange",
at the furthest extremity of the roof, and which dated from 1485, fell.
Its name was derived from a copper angel formerly on the summit, removed
for security in 1860. The carillon on the low tower at the crossing of
the nave and transept, and which had been re-established by the Académie
Nationale de Reims, was destroyed. Much of the old glass in the upper
windows, dating from the thirteenth century, was destroyed, as well as
much of the external sculpture. The internal injuries were also very
grave. The cathedral was filled with straw, requisitioned by the German
command for the use of wounded German soldiers it was proposed to place
within the church, but who were only taken there after the evacuation;
some of them lost their lives in the fire. The greater part of the
interior furniture was destroyed, including the eighteenth century
woodwork of the choir, together with the stalls and the archiepiscopal
throne. A tapestry of the coronation of Charles X was lost. The
remarkable sculptures surrounding the interior of the nave doorway were
ruined.

_September 24._ Three bombs struck the cathedral, one of which fell on
the vault of the crossing, bared by the fire of September 19. One struck
the third buttress on the south side of the nave.

_October 12._ A bomb of large calibre fell on the high gallery of the
chevet, ruining eight metres of the arcading. Two gargoyles of the
chevet were broken off.

_October 13._ A shell fell on the north side of the cathedral at 3 P. M.

_November 11._ A bomb fell near the cathedral, enveloping it in thick
clouds of smoke.

_November 12._ A shell exploded on the roof, demolishing a pinnacle on
the south side of the chevet, and damaging some sculptures. Shrapnel
fell within near the high altar.

_November 22._ Two shells fell on the superstructure, accomplishing no
great harm.


1915

_February 26._ Two shells fell on the cathedral.

_March 28._ A Taube dropped a bomb on the cathedral apse.

_June 1._ The "Communiqué Officiel" of this date, for 3 P. M., says the
cathedral was particularly bombarded. This is not mentioned in the local
reports.

_June 15._ Several shells fell on the cathedral.


1917

_April 15._ 15 shells fell on the cathedral. The chapel of the Cardinal
ruined.

_April 19_. 20 shells on the cathedral. The north tower, vaults and
transept injured.

The cathedral was subjected to other injuries on April 20 (2 shells),
April 21 (8 shells), April 22 (3 shells), April 23 and April 24. The
angle of the south transept and the chevet was particularly hurt on the
date last named.


PALAIS ARCHIÉPISCOPAL

Burned on September 19, 1914, in which the cathedral was so seriously
injured. The building was almost wholly destroyed. The chapel lost its
roof and glass. The library and collections of the Académie Nationale
de Reims, which were housed in the palace, were lost, together with the
archeological collections, including the prehistoric collection
(Collection Posteaux) and the ethnographic collection (Musée Guillot).


ST. REMI

Injured in the bombardment of September 4, 1914. The vault of the south
transept fell through, the ancient glass of the apse triforium and of
the upper nave windows was broken, as well as the modern glass of the
apse chapels windows, and in other parts. The interior was ruined, the
losses including a painting "The Entry of Clovis to Reims" and one of
the tapestries of the "Life of St. Remi". The chapel facing the
baptismal font suffered some exterior injury.

A bomb destroyed the apse chapel of Notre Dame de l'Usine et de
l'Atelier on November 16, 1914. On August 13, 1916, the church was
menaced by the fire of the Hôtel Dieu (Civil Hospital). Flames attacked
the north transept, destroying the glass of the rose window.


OTHER CHURCHES

_St. André._ On September 19, 1914, a bomb fell on the left transept
portal, breaking the glass in near-by parts; painting of "The Baptism of
Clovis" lost. September 22, 1914, a shell fell on the church at 11 A.
M. April 15, 1917, it caught fire, and it was again injured on April 28.

_St. Jean Baptiste de la Salle._ 3 shells fell on this church in the
bombardment of December, 1914. The glass was broken and the interior
injured.

_St. Clotilde._ September 22, 1914, most of the glass ruined by a
near-by shell. January 4, 1915, injured by 4 bombs.

_St. Benoît._ 3 shells in January, 1915.

_St. Geneviève._ Injured in the bombardment of April 15, 1917.


CIVIC BUILDINGS

_Hôtel de Ville._ Lost the glass of the west side September 14, 1914.
Received several shells in the bombardment of September 19, 1914. A fire
started, but no essential injury resulted. It was gravely injured April
21, 1917, and was destroyed by fire on May 3.

_Palais de Justice._ Lost the glass of its main façades September 4,
1914. A shell fell through the roof on October 2, 1914, injuring the
interior; both façades were hurt, especially the newer one. February 3,
1916, some fragments of French shells fell on the building. September
18, 1916, a bomb fell through the roof and upper story.

_Hôtel Dieu_ [_Civil Hospital_]. Some shells fell on the buildings on
September 18, 1914; two patients were killed and another buried under
débris; two nurses were badly wounded. On August 13, 1916, the Hospital
caught fire in the bombardment and was destroyed save for two pavilions.

_Théâtre._ The lantern was destroyed in the bombardment of September 4,
1914, and the chandelier suspended from it fell down. A bomb fell on the
building on October 5, 1914.

_Musée des Beaux-Arts._ Injured September 4, 1914, by three bombs on the
west front. Much interior damage and many valuable paintings lost.

_Sous-Préfecture._ Burned September 18, 1914.

_Place Royale._ Many of the buildings surroundings this place were
burned in the bombardment of September 19, 1914.

_Hôtel de la Salle._ Injured by a shell in November, 1914.

_Gothic House in Rue de Vesle._ Wholly ruined in the catastrophe of
September 19, 1914.





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