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Title: The Battle of April 19, 1775 - in Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Arlington, Cambridge, - Somerville and Charlestown, Massachusetts
Author: Coburn, Frank Warren
Language: English
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  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  Superscripts are represented by ^, for example 19^{th}.

  All changes in the Errata, found at the end of the narrative and
  before the main Index, have been applied to the etext.

  Other obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  More detail can be found at the end of the book.



  [Illustration: MAJOR JOHN PITCAIRN

  BY WHOSE ORDER THE OPENING VOLLEY OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION WAS
  FIRED.]



  SPECIAL LIMITED EDITION,

  WITH THE

  MUSTER ROLLS

  OF THE

  PARTICIPATING AMERICAN

  COMPANIES.

  Number of copies printed:

  This one No.



  THE BATTLE OF APRIL 19, 1775,

  IN

  LEXINGTON, CONCORD,
  LINCOLN,
  ARLINGTON, CAMBRIDGE,
  SOMERVILLE AND CHARLESTOWN,
  MASSACHUSETTS.

  BY

  FRANK WARREN COBURN.

  LEXINGTON, MASS., U. S. A.,
  PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR,
  1912.



  COPYRIGHT,
  1912,
  FRANK WARREN COBURN.

  F. L. COBURN & CO., PRINTERS, BOSTON, MASS., U. S. A.



DEDICATION.


  TO MY SON:

  CHARLES LYMAN COBURN,

  A NATIVE OF LEXINGTON.



PREFACE.


There have been many histories of the Battle of Lexington and of the
Battle of Concord, some of them excellent to the extent of that part
of the contest to which they were devoted. From time to time gifted
orators have gone to the one town or to the other, and eloquently
portrayed the heroic deeds of men within that town on the opening
day of the American Revolution. No fault should be found with any of
those, designed as a healthy stimulus to local pride, and to foster
sentiments of national patriotism.

But the student in American local history needs a more extensive view
of the operations of that day. He needs to be better informed as to
the various scenes of carnage that were waged along all of those
nearly twenty miles of highway. Men were slain in Lexington, and in
Concord; but there were many others slain in Lincoln, in Arlington,
in Cambridge, and in Somerville. Nor should we forget the youngest
martyr of the day, but fourteen years of age, who fell in Charlestown.

For the purpose, then, of presenting to such as may be interested,
I have assembled here the most comprehensive account that has ever
been offered, and one that aims to be a history of the entire day.
I have endeavored to make it not only complete and interesting, but
just and reliable, recognizing fully the rights of my own ancestors
to rebel, and also recognizing the rights of the mother country
to prevent such rebellion--even by an appeal to arms. Since those
days we have grown to be a mother country ourselves, and have had
reason, on more than one occasion, to exercise that accepted right of
parental control.

This narrative is based upon official reports, sworn statements,
diaries, letters, and narratives of participants and witnesses; upon
accounts of local historians and national orators; and, in a few
cases, upon tradition, if such seemed authentic and trustworthy.

But I am sorry to say, that in more than one instance, I have
found even the sworn statements at variance with each other. I am
satisfied that the authors did not intend to mislead in any way, but
simply tried to tell to others what appeared to them. Their mental
excitement naturally added a little of that vivid coloring noticeable
in most war narratives of a personal nature. My work has been to
harmonize and simplify these, and to extract simply the truth.

In 1775 the greater part of the present town of Arlington was a part
of Cambridge, and known as the Menotomy Precinct. Later it was
incorporated as a separate town and called West Cambridge. Later
still its name was changed to Arlington. Somerville, in that year,
was a part of Charlestown. What remained of Charlestown eventually
became a part of Boston, though still retaining its ancient name.
In writing of the events that happened within the boundaries of
each, I shall speak of them as of Arlington, of Somerville, and of
Charlestown.

I am glad to add that the bitterness and hatred, so much in evidence
on that long-ago battle day, no longer exist between the children of
the great British Nation.

  FRANK WARREN COBURN.

  Lexington Mass., April 19, 1912.



CONTENTS.


  AUTHORITIES                                            XII

  IN PARLIAMENT                                            1

  THE PROVINCIAL CONGRESS                                  5

  BRITISH FORCES IN BOSTON                                13

  THE BRITISH START FOR LEXINGTON AND CONCORD             19

  THE MESSENGERS OF ALARM                                 20

  FLIGHT OF HANCOCK AND ADAMS                             30

  ALARMS IN OTHER PLACES                                  32

  LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S ADVANCE THROUGH CAMBRIDGE           47

  LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S ADVANCE THROUGH SOMERVILLE          48

  LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S ADVANCE THROUGH CAMBRIDGE           50

  LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S ADVANCE THROUGH ARLINGTON           51

  LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S ADVANCE THROUGH LEXINGTON           57

  THE OPENING BATTLE ON LEXINGTON COMMON                  58

  LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S ADVANCE THROUGH LINCOLN             72

  LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S ADVANCE INTO CONCORD                73

  BATTLE AT NORTH BRIDGE IN CONCORD                       78

  LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S RETREAT THROUGH CONCORD             95

  LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S RETREAT THROUGH LINCOLN             99

  LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S RETREAT TO LEXINGTON VILLAGE       105

  EARL PERCY MARCHES TO REINFORCE LIEUT.-COL. SMITH      114

  PERCY'S RETREAT THROUGH ARLINGTON                      130

  PERCY'S RETREAT THROUGH CAMBRIDGE                      145

  PERCY'S RETREAT THROUGH SOMERVILLE                     150

  PERCY'S ARRIVAL IN CHARLESTOWN                         154

  AMERICAN KILLED, WOUNDED AND MISSING                   157

  BRITISH KILLED, WOUNDED, PRISONERS AND MISSING         159

  DISTANCES MARCHED BY THE BRITISH SOLDIERS              161

  ENGLISH FRIENDS AFTER THE BATTLE                       162

  INDEX                                                  165



ILLUSTRATIONS.


  MAJOR JOHN PITCAIRN                           facing title

  Copied from a rare miniature in the possession of the Lexington
  Historical Society, and published in this work by their permission.


  THE DOOLITTLE PICTURES.

  PLATE I. THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON, APRIL 19TH,
  1775                                        facing page 58

  PLATE II. A VIEW OF THE TOWN OF CONCORD,    facing page 73

  PLATE III. THE ENGAGEMENT AT THE NORTH BRIDGE
  IN CONCORD                                  facing pace 78

  PLATE IV. A VIEW OF THE SOUTH PART OF
  LEXINGTON                                  facing page 122

  The Amos Doolittle Pictures of Lexington and Concord, copperplate
  engravings, size about 12 x 18 inches, and hand-colored, were
  originally published by James Lockwood in New Haven, December
  13, 1775. The drawings were made by Mr. Earl, a portrait painter,
  and the engravings therefrom were by Amos Doolittle. Both were
  members of the Governor's Guard, and came on to Cambridge as
  volunteers under Benedict Arnold immediately after the battle of
  April 19th, and soon after commenced these early specimens of
  American art. The student of today prizes them, not for their
  artistic excellence, but for their faithfulness in depicting the
  scenery, buildings, and troops engaged.

  In the _Book Buyer_ for January, 1898, is an illustrated article
  on Early American Copperplate Engraving, by William Loring
  Andrews. I am indebted to him, and to the publishers, Charles
  Scribners' Sons, for permission to copy the Doolittle set for this
  work.

  HUGH EARL PERCY                            facing page 114

  From a contemporary copperplate engraving published by John
  Fielding. London, 1785.

  GENERAL WILLIAM HEATH,                     facing page 154

  From a portrait in _Harper's Magazine_, October, 1883, and copied
  for publication in this work by permission of Harper & Brothers.



MAPS.


  BOSTON AND VICINITY IN 1775-6,              facing page 19

  Copied from part of the map to illustrate the Siege of Boston in
  Marshall's Life of Washington, and dated 1806. I have made slight
  additions to indicate Smith's and Percy's movements.

  LEXINGTON COMMON AND VICINITY,                     page 59

  CONCORD VILLAGE AND VICINITY,                      page 79

  BATTLE ROAD THROUGH CONCORD AND LINCOLN           page 100

  BATTLE ROAD THROUGH ARLINGTON AND CAMBRIDGE       page 131

  BATTLE ROAD THROUGH SOMERVILLE AND CHARLESTOWN    page 151



AUTHORITIES.

_Individuals, Societies, and Historical Works of Value to Me in the
Preparation of this Work._


  Adams, Josiah. Address at Acton, July 21, 1835.

  Adams, Josiah. Letter to Lemuel Shattuck, in Vindication of the
  Claims of Capt. Isaac Davis.

  Allen, Joseph and Lucy Clark Allen, Memorial of, by their
  Children.

  Almanack. George's Cambridge, or the Essex Calendar for 1776.

  Almanack. Nathaniel Low, 1775.

  Almanack. North American, 1775. By Samuel Stearns.

  Almanack. North American, 1776. By Samuel Stearns. Containing
  Rev. Wm. Gordon's Account of the Battle.

  Austin, James T. Life of Elbridge Gerry.

  Bacon, Edwin M. Historical Pilgrimages in New England.

  Bancroft, George. History of the United States.

  Barber, John Warner. Historical Collections of Massachusetts.

  Barber, John W. History and Antiquities of New Haven.

  Barrett, Capt. Amos. Concord and Lexington Battle, in Journal and
  Letters of Rev. Henry True.

  Barry, William. History of Framingham.

  Bartlett, George B. Concord Guide Book.

  Bartlett, S. R. Concord Fight.

  Bolton, Charles Knowles. Brookline, the History of a Favored Town.

  Bolton, Charles Knowles. Letters of Hugh Earl Percy.

  Bond, Henry, M.D. Genealogies of the Families of Watertown.

  Boston. Celebration of the Centennial Anniversary of the
  Evacuation of, by the British Army.

  Booth, E. C. Article in Somerville _Journal_, April, 1875.

  Boutwell, George S. Oration at Acton, Oct. 29, 1851.

  British Officer in Boston in 1775, in _Atlantic Monthly_, April,
  1877.

  Brooks, Charles, and James M. Usher. History of Medford.

  Brown, Abram English. Beneath Old Roof Trees.

  Brown, Abram English. History of Bedford.

  Brown, Charles, of East Lexington.

  Cambridge of 1776. Edited for the Ladies' Centennial Committee,
  by A. G.

  Clarke, Jonas. Pastor of the Church in Lexington. Opening of the
  War of the Revolution. Appended to a Sermon Preached by Him,
  April 19, 1776.

  Cleaveland, Colonel, of the Artillery. Historical Record of the
  52nd Regiment.

  Concord Celebration of the Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary
  of the Incorporation, Sept. 12, 1885.

  Concord Fight, Souvenir of the 120th Anniversary of.

  Converse, Parker Lindall. Legends of Woburn.

  Curtis, George William. Oration on the One Hundredth Anniversary
  of the Fight at Concord.

  Cutter, Ben. and William R. History of Arlington.

  Dana, Richard H. Oration on the One Hundredth Anniversary of the
  Battle of Lexington.

  Dawson, Henry B. Battles of the United States.

  De Bernicre's Report of the Battle.

  Depositions of Eye-witnesses and Participants.

  Drake, Francis S. The Town of Roxbury.

  Drake, Samuel Adams. Historic Fields and Mansions of Middlesex.

  Drake, Samuel Adams. History of Middlesex County.

  Drake, Samuel Adams. Old Landmarks and Historical Personages of
  Boston.

  Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Historical Discourse, Concord, Sept. 12,
  1835. Containing Diary of Rev. William Emerson (eye-witness),
  April 19, 1775.

  Everett, Edward. Oration at Concord, April 19, 1825.

  Everett, Edward. Address at Lexington, April 19 (20), 1835.

  Everett, Edward. Mount Vernon Papers.

  Farmer, John. Historical Memoir of Billerica.

  Frothingham, Richard. History of the Siege of Boston.

  Frothingham, Richard. Rise of the Republic of the United States.

  Gage. Gen. Thomas. Report of the Battle.

  Gettemy, Charles Ferris. True Story of Paul Revere's Ride, in the
  _New England Magazine_, April, 1902.

  Gordon, William, D.D. History of the United States.

  Goss, Elbridge Henry. Life of Col. Paul Revere.

  Graham, James. History of the United States.

  Great Britain, War Office of, for Gen. Gage's Report.

  Green, Samuel Abbott. Groton During the Revolution.

  Hale, Edward E., in Winsor's Memorial History of Boston.

  Hamlin, Rev. Cyrus. My Grandfather, Col. Francis Faulkner.

  Hanson, J. W. History of Danvers.

  Harper's Popular Cyclopaedia of U. S. History.

  Haven, Samuel F. Historical Address, Dedham, Sept. 21, 1836.

  Hawthorne, Nathaniel. Mosses From an Old Manse.

  Hazen, Rev. Henry A. History of Billerica.

  Heath, Major-General. Memoirs of. Written by Himself.

  Historical Records of the British Army. The Fourth or King's Own
  Regiment of Foot.

  Holland, Henry W. William Dawes and His Ride with Paul Revere.

  Houghton, H. M. Plans Locating Graves of British Soldiers.

  Hudson, Alfred Sereno. History of Sudbury.

  Hudson, Charles. History of Lexington.

  Hudson, Charles. History of Marlborough.

  Hudson, Frederic. Concord Fight in _Harper's New Monthly
  Magazine_, May, 1875.

  Hunnewell, James F. A Century of Town Life. A History of
  Charlestown.

  Hurd, D. Hamilton. History of Essex County.

  Hurd, D. Hamilton. History of Middlesex County.

  Jewett, C. F. & Co. History of Worcester County.

  King, Daniel P. Eulogy at the Funeral of Gen. Gideon Foster.

  Lannon, John. Lexington.

  Lexington, Handbook of its Points of Interest, 1891.

  Lexington, Historical Monuments and Tablets.

  Lexington Historical Society, Alonzo E. Locke, President, and
  various officers and attendants.

  Lexington Historical Society, Proceedings of, Vol. I., II.,
  III., IV. Contributions by Edward P. Bliss; Francis H. Brown,
  M.D.; G. W. Brown; Albert W. Bryant; Elizabeth Clarke; Elizabeth
  W. Harrington; Herbert G. Locke; James P. Munroe; Elizabeth W.
  Parker; G. W. Sampson; A. Bradford Smith; Geo. O. Smith; and Rev.
  Carlton A. Staples.

  Lexington, History of the Fight at, From the Best Authorities.

  Lexington, Proceedings at the Centennial Celebration of the
  Battle of.

  Lewis, Alonzo. History of Lynn.

  Lincoln, William. History of Worcester.

  Lincoln, Mass. Celebration of the 150th Anniversary of Its
  Incorporation, April 23, 1904.

  Local Loiterings and Visits in the Vicinity of Boston. By a
  Looker-on.

  Lossing, Benson J. History of the United States.

  McGlenen, Edward W., Boston.

  McKenzie, Rev. Alexander. Address at Dedication of Monument Over
  Cambridge Killed.

  Mansfield, Rev. Isaac, Chaplain of Gen. Thomas's Regiment.
  Thanksgiving Sermon in Camp at Roxbury, Nov. 23, 1775.

  Marshall, John. Life of George Washington.

  Massachusetts Archives, at State House, Boston.

  Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, Vols. II., IV., V.,
  XVIII., and Vol. IV., Second Series.

  Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings, May, 1876.

  Military Journals of Two Private Soldiers, 1758, 1775. Lemuel
  Lyons, Samuel Haws.

  Muzzey, A. B. History of the Battle of Lexington.

  Muzzey, A. B. Reminiscences and Memorials of the Men of the
  Revolution.

  Narrative of the Excursion and Ravages of the King's Troops.
  Worcester, Printed by Isaiah Thomas, by Order of the Provincial
  Congress.

  New England Historic Genealogical Society.

  Osgood, Charles S. and H. M. Batchelder. Historical Sketch of
  Salem.

  Paige, Lucius R. History of Cambridge.

  Parker, Charles S. Town of Arlington, Past and Present.

  Parliamentary History of England. Published Under the
  Superintendence of T. C. Hansard, Vol. XVIII.

  Percy, Acting Brigadier-General, His Report of the Battle.

  Phinney, Elias. History of the Battle of Lexington.

  Provincial Congress of Massachusetts. Journals of Each.

  Rantoul, Robert, Jr. Oration at Concord, on the Seventy-fifth
  Anniversary of the Events of April 19, 1775.

  Revere, Paul. His Account of the Ride to Lexington. Reprinted in
  the Life of Revere by Goss.

  Reynolds, Rev. Grindall. Concord Fight.

  Riply, Rev. Ezra. History of the Fight at Concord.

  Russell, Edward J., Dorchester.

  Samuels, E. A., and H. H. Kimball. Somerville, Past and Present.

  Sawtelle, Ithamar B. History of Townsend.

  Scull, G. D. Memoir and Letters of Capt. W. Glanville Evelyn, of
  the 4th Regiment (King's Own).

  Sewall, Samuel. History of Woburn.

  Shattuck, Lemuel. History of Concord, Bedford, Acton, Lincoln and
  Carlisle.

  Sidney, Margaret. Old Concord, Her Highways and Byways.

  Simonds, Eli. Article Containing his Statement about the Battle
  of Lexington, Boston _Globe_, July 17, 1895.

  Smith, Samuel A. West Cambridge on the Nineteenth of April, 1775.
  An Address.

  Smith, S. F., D.D. History of Newton.

  Somerville, Handbook of the Historic Festival, 1898.

  Staples, Rev. Carlton A.

  Stearns, Jonathan F., D.D. Historical Discourse, Bedford
  Sesqui-Centennial, Aug. 27, 1879.

  Stedman, C. History of the Origin, Progress and Termination of
  the American War.

  Stephens, Alexander. Memoirs of John Horne Tooke.

  Stone, Edwin M. History of Beverly.

  Sumner, William H. History of East Boston.

  Swan, Charles W. MSS. of Levi Harrington. Account of the Battle,
  given by him to his son, Bowen, March, 1846. (Eye-witness on
  Lexington Common, and then about fifteen years of age.)

  Tenney, Wallace Fay.

  Tolman, George. Concord Minute Man.

  Thornton, John Wingate. Pulpit of the American Revolution.

  United States Geological Survey, Maps of.

  Watson, John Lee. Paul Revere's Signal. The True Story of the
  Signal Lanterns.

  Webber, C. H. and W. S. Nevins. Old Naumkeag. Historical Sketch
  of Salem.

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  Wheildon, W. W. Chapter in the History of the Concord Fight.
  Boston _Sunday Herald_, April 19, 1885.

  Winsor, Justin. Memorial History of Boston.

  Worthington, Erastus. History of Dedham.

  Wyman, Thomas B. Genealogies and Estates of Charlestown.



THE BATTLE OF APRIL 19, 1775.



IN PARLIAMENT.


The Treaty of Peace signed at Paris, Feb. 10, 1763, terminated the
prolonged struggle between England and France, for supremacy in the
New World. For seven long years it had lasted, and its cost had been
treasure and blood. Justly proud were the British Colonies of the
martial success of their mother country, a goodly part of which they
had valorously won themselves.

During the war, and at its close, England had been generous
in remitting to the Colonial Treasuries large sums in partial
liquidation of the war expenses advanced by them; but subsequently
it was esteemed wise, by a majority of her statesmen, to gradually
replace such sums in the royal coffers, by a system of colonial
taxation very similar to modern methods of raising war revenues.
In the abstract this fact was not particularly disagreeable to the
colonists, for the necessity was admitted, but the arbitrary method
of levying those taxes was bitterly contested.

England's Parliament claimed the right to tax the distant Colonies
even as it taxed the neighboring Boroughs, and as a commencement of
its financial plan enacted a Stamp Act, so called, to take effect
Nov. 1, 1765, similar in intent and working, to the modern revenue
stamp of our Government. These stamps were to be purchased of the
Crown's officers and affixed to certain articles of merchandise and
in denominations according to a schedule of taxable value.

The opposition to this Act was immediate, continuous, and bitter in
the extreme, and the result was that it was repealed March 18, 1766.

The next move on the part of the Mother Country was the passage of
a Military Act which provided for the partial subsistence of armed
troops on the Colonies. Violent opposition to this was also immediate
and general, but without avail. In Boston one result was a conflict
between the troops and the inhabitants on March 5, 1770, and now
referred to as the Boston Massacre.

In June, 1767, another Act was passed, taxing tea and other
commodities, which was repealed April 12, 1770, on all articles
except the tea. Large consignments were sent to America. Ships
thus laden that arrived in New York were sent back with their full
cargoes. At Charleston the tea was landed but remained unsold. At
Boston, a party disguised as Indians threw it from the ship into the
sea.[1] Parliament in consequence passed the Boston Port Bill, March
7, 1774, closing Boston as a commercial port, and removing the Custom
House to Salem in another harbor a dozen miles or more northward up
the coast.

This Act went into effect June 1, 1774, and was immediately felt
by all classes, for all commerce ceased. Boston merchants became
poor, and Boston poor became beggars. The hand of relief, however,
was extended, even from beyond the sea. The City of London in its
corporate capacity subscribed £30,000[2]. In America the assistance
was liberal and speedy. George Washington headed a subscription paper
with £50[3].

These severe measures of Parliament, with their natural effect of
ruin and starvation among the people of America, served to stimulate
a feeling of insubordination, and hatred of the Mother Country, from
which crystalized the First Continental Congress which assembled at
Philadelphia, Sept. 5, 1774, soon followed by the First Provincial
Congress of Massachusetts which met at Salem, Oct. 7, of the same
year.

On the question of Colonial Government Great Britain and her American
colonies were not divided by the Atlantic Ocean, for on the American
side the Crown had its ardent supporters, while on the other side
friends of the American cause were almost as numerous as were the
oppressors. We have seen how the great City of London contributed
liberally to the Bostonians, shut off from the world by the Port
Bill, and on the floor of Parliament many gifted orators espoused the
American cause.

With prophetic eloquence the Lord Mayor, Mr. Wilkes, exclaimed:

"This I know, a successful resistance is a revolution, not a
rebellion.... Who can tell, sir, whether in consequence of this
day's violent and mad Address to his Majesty, the scabbard may not
be thrown away by them as well as by us?... But I hope the just
vengeance of the people will overtake the authors of these pernicious
councils, and the loss of the first province of the empire be
speedily followed by the loss of the heads of those ministers who
advised these wicked and fatal measures."[4]

Lord Chatham in his motion to withdraw the troops from Boston, said:

"As an American I would recognize to England her supreme right of
regulating commerce and navigation: as an Englishman by birth and
principle I recognize to the Americans their supreme unalienable
right in their property; a right in which they are justified in the
defence of to the last extremity."[5]

The Corporation of the City of London passed a vote of thanks to
Chatham, and to those who supported him for having offered to the
House of Lords a plan to conciliate the differences with America.[6]

When Lord North's unfriendly proposition for conciliating America was
introduced, it naturally found an advocate in the loyal and courtly
Gen. Burgoyne--courtly but courageous; loyal ever to his King but not
blind to the merits of the claims of the Colonists. While modestly
pledging his loyalty to the Crown, he could not refrain from adding:

"There is a charm in the very wanderings and dreams of liberty that
disarms an Englishman's anger."[7]

In the debate on the bill for restraining the Trade and Commerce of
the English Colonies, Lord Camden asked:--

"What are the 10,000 men you have just voted out to Boston? Merely
to save General Gage from the disgrace and destruction of being
sacked in his entrenchments. It is obvious, my Lords, that you
cannot furnish armies or treasure, competent to the mighty purpose
of subduing America.... It is impossible that this petty island can
continue in dependence that mighty continent."[8]

Continuing, he drew a picture of American union and American courage,
that in the end would prevail.

The Earl of Sandwich replied:--

"Suppose the colonists do abound in men, what does that signify? They
are raw, undisciplined, cowardly men. I wish instead of 40 or 50,000
of these brave fellows, they would produce in the field at least
200,000, the more the better, the easier would be the conquest; if
they did not run away, they would starve themselves into compliance
with our measures."[9]

And the Bill was passed.

One has but to read the stirring debates of that memorable year
in Parliament, over the Petitions for Redress of Grievances from
America; over the Petitions for Reconciliation from the Merchants
of Bristol and of London; over the Resolutions offered by its own
members; and over the addresses to them by their King;--to realize
that the great question of American rights had almost as many, and
surely as eloquent advocates, there as here.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] In a little cemetery at West Fairlee, Vt., is a memorial stone
which reads "Wm. Cox, died July 27, 1838, Aged 88. He helped steep
the tea in the Atlantic." His name seems to have been overlooked by
historians, so I mention it here.

[2] Lossing's History of the United States, page 226.

[3] Frothingham's Rise of the Republic, page 326.

[4] Hansard's Parliamentary History, XVIII, cols. 238, 240.

[5] Hansard's Parliamentary History, XVIII, col. 154.

[6] Hansard's Parliamentary History, XVIII, col. 215.

[7] Hansard's Parliamentary History, XVIII, col. 355.

[8] Hansard's Parliamentary History, XVIII, cols. 442, 443.

[9] Hansard's Parliamentary History, XVIII, col. 446.



THE PROVINCIAL CONGRESS.


As we have seen, the First Continental Congress assembled at
Philadelphia, Sept. 5, 1774. They met in Carpenter's Hall. The First
Provincial Congress of Massachusetts met at Salem, Oct. 7, following.
John Hancock was chosen President. In its first set of Resolutions
it announced: "the necessity of its most vigorous and immediate
exertions for preserving the freedom and constitution," of the
Province.

The Royal Governor, Gen. Thos. Gage, had issued his writs the
first day of September, calling upon the inhabitants to return
representatives to the Great and General Court to be convened at
Salem on the fifth of October. In the meantime, becoming alarmed at
the tumults and disorders--the extraordinary resolves passed by some
of the Counties, the instructions given by Boston and some other
towns to their representatives, and the general unhappy condition of
the Province, he determined that the time was not auspicious for such
a gathering, and accordingly issued a proclamation countermanding
the call. However, ninety representatives met on that day, waited
loyally for the Governor, and when he failed to appear, adjourned to
the next day, Oct. 6, and met as a Convention, choosing John Hancock,
Chairman. Not much in the way of business was accomplished on that
day, and they adjourned again, until the next, Oct. 7th, when they
met and declared themselves to be a Provincial Congress and chose
John Hancock, Permanent Chairman.

Thus the First Provincial Congress was, strictly speaking a
self-constituted body, with not even the sanction of a popular vote.
Yet they felt secure in a popular support. They could not pass laws,
but they could resolve, advise and recommend, and such acts were
generally heeded by a majority of their fellow citizens.[10]

The military organization of the Province was equally without
effective power, as they recognized no real commanding officer of
higher rank than Colonel. It is true that the Congress had nominated
three general officers, but their real powers to command were feeble.
The minute men and militia were enrolled by thousands, but they were
poorly equipped, without uniforms, and without discipline. They
marched to Battle Road in company formation, but upon arrival or very
soon after, manœuvred and fought as individuals simply.

The Second Provincial Congress, more nearly an elective body than
the First, realized their own lack of authority over the people and
particularly over the military branch of their constituents. They
wrote to the Continental Congress at Philadelphia, under date of May
16, 1775, stating that they were compelled to raise an army; of their
triumph at having one consisting of their own countrymen; but they
admitted a lack of civil power to provide for, and control it. And
they asked for advice from the greater congress which represented
all the Colonies as to the taking up and exercising of the necessary
powers of a civil government.[11]

Let us, then, as we go forward with this narrative, bear these facts
in mind, that we may not in this very first day of a new nation's
struggle for liberty expect too much from those who, indeed had
the wisdom, had the strength, had the courage and the skill, but
greatly lacked the first elements of a civil government or a military
force--discipline and efficiency.

The First Provincial Congress next met in Concord, Oct. 11, 1774.
Hancock was chosen President, an office higher than Permanent
Chairman. Several following days were devoted to public business.
From there they addressed a communication to Gen. Gage, wherein they
expressed the apprehensions excited in their minds by the rigorous
execution of the Port Bill; by the alteration of the Charter; by
the administration of justice in the Colony; by the number of
troops in the capital [Boston]; and particularly by the formidable
and hostile preparations on Boston Neck. And they asked, rather
pointedly, "whether an inattentive and unconcerned acquiescence in
such alarming, and menacing measures would not evidence a state of
insanity?" They entreated him to reduce the fortress at the entrance
to Boston, and concluded by assuring his Excellency that they had not
the least intention of doing any harm to his Majesty's troops.[12]

Four days later, Oct. 17, sitting at Cambridge, they received his
reply. It was altogether lacking in satisfaction. He answered them
as to the fortification on Boston Neck, that "unless annoyed," it
would "annoy nobody." And the rest of his communication was equally
unassuring.

Oct. 19, a committee was appointed to inquire into the then present
state and operations of the British Army;[13] and on Oct. 20,
another committee to report on what was necessary to be done for the
safety and defence of the Province.[14]

Matters were crystallizing very fast, for on Oct. 24, a committee
was appointed to consider and report on the most proper time for the
Province to provide a stock of powder, ordnance and ordnance stores.
That same afternoon, one of the members, Mr. Bliss, was ordered
to wait upon the Committee to ascertain their reply. They quickly
responded that their opinion was that "_now_" was the proper time to
procure such a stock.[15] Another committee was at once appointed
to take into consideration and determine the quantity and expense
thereof.[16]

On the afternoon of the following day, Oct. 25, the schedule was
presented to the Congress and one of its items called for 1000
barrels of powder, and the proposed expense was £10,737. Items
were added by the Congress to increase the amount to £20,837. It
was likewise ordered "that all the matters which shall come under
consideration before this Congress be kept secret."[17]

Oct. 26, it was resolved that a Committee of Safety should be
appointed, whose business it should be "most carefully and diligently
to inspect and observe all and every such person and persons as
shall at any time, attempt or enterprise the destruction, invasion,
detriment or annoyance of this province." And they should have the
power to alarm, muster and cause to be assembled with the utmost
expedition and completely armed for the defence, such of the militia
as they shall deem necessary for its defence.[18] And it was also
resolved that as the security of the lives, liberties and properties
of these inhabitants depend on their skill in the art military and
in their being properly and effectively armed, it was therefore
recommended that they immediately provide themselves therewith.[19]

On Oct. 27, Congress appointed a Committee of Safety consisting
of nine members, three from Boston and six from the country, John
Hancock, Chairman, and also a Commissary, or Committee of Supplies,
consisting of five members.[20] At a subsequent meeting on the same
day, Jedidiah Preble was elected to be chief in command and Artemas
Ward, second.[21]

Oct. 27 a vote was passed recommending that the inhabitants perfect
themselves in the military art.[22] On that same day a committee
was appointed to wait upon his excellency the governor to express
their surprise at his active warlike preparations, and to announce
that their constituents would not expect them to be guided by his
advice.[23] But before the conclusion of this session another
resolution was passed to the effect that the lives and liberties
of the inhabitants depended upon their knowledge and skill in the
military art.[24]

The First Provincial Congress was dissolved Dec. 10, 1774, every
session of its deliberations having been devoted to the Civil Rights
and Liberties of the People over which it had presided.

The Second Provincial Congress was convened in Concord Feb. 1, 1775.
One of its earliest acts, Feb. 9, was to appoint Hon. Jedidiah
Preble, Hon. Artemas Ward, Col. Seth Pomeroy, Col. John Thomas and
Col. William Heath, general officers.[25] The same day, in an address
to the Inhabitants of the Massachusetts Bay they said, "Though we
deprecate a rupture with the Mother State, yet we must urge you to
every preparation for your necessary defence."[26]

Nor were the Indians neglected in these strong appeals to the
patriotism of the inhabitants of the Massachusetts Bay, for under
date of April 1, 1775, an address was issued to Johoiakin Mothksin
and the rest of the Indians of Stockbridge, expressing great pleasure
that they were "willing to take up the hatchet," and announcing
that Col. Paterson and Capt. Goodridge should present each that had
enlisted a blanket and a ribbon. A committee was also appointed to
address the chief of the Mohawks.[27]

The Committee of Safety met for the first time at the house of Capt.
Stedman, in Cambridge, Wednesday, Nov. 2, 1774, and organized, as
we have stated, with John Hancock, Chairman. John Pigeon was chosen
clerk. Their first vote after organization was a recommendation to
the Committee of Supplies to procure as soon as may be, 335 barrels
of pork, 700 barrels of flour, 20 tierces of rice, 300 bushels of
peas, and that these be distributed in Worcester and Concord. On Nov.
8, following, in joint meeting with the Committee on Supplies, the
latter was advised to procure all of the arms and ammunition possible
from the neighboring provinces, and that they might with safety
engage to pay for the same on arrival.

At subsequent meetings various military stores were liberally
provided. With a unanimous vote on Feb. 21, 1775, by both committees
in joint session, it was decided that the Committee of Supplies
should purchase all kinds of military stores sufficient for an army
of 15,000 men.[28] It did not then seem to them as if a peaceful
solution of the estrangement were longer possible.

The last meeting of the Provincial Congress before the battle, was
held in Concord, April 15, and when it adjourned it was until May
10. But considering "the great uncertainty of the present times,"
it was provided, however, that a call might issue for an earlier
assembling. Only two days elapsed before apprehensions of immediate
danger arose, which grew so intense, that Richard Devens on the 18th,
issued a summons for immediate assembling at Concord. Although it was
circulated with the greatest dispatch many of the members could not
have learned of it before the marching of the British troops on that
same night from Boston Common.

The meeting was finally assembled on April 22, and quickly adjourned
to Watertown, evidently to be in closer touch with the thrilling
events that had so dramatically opened.[29]

FOOTNOTES:

[10] See their "advice" to constables and to tax collectors Oct. 14,
1774, not to pay moneys collected by them to the royal treasurer
of the province, Hon. Harrison Gray (Journals of Each Provincial
Congress, page 19) and their "recommendation" to towns, Oct. 28, to
direct their constables and tax collectors to pay such moneys to
their appointee as Receiver General, Henry Gardner (Journals of Each
Provincial Congress, page 38.)

[11] Journals of Each Provincial Congress, page 230.

[12] Journals of Each Provincial Congress of Mass., page 18.

[13] Journals of Each Provincial Congress of Mass., page 22.

[14] Journals of Each Provincial Congress of Mass., page 23.

[15] Journals of Each Provincial Congress of Mass., page 29.

[16] Journals of Each Provincial Congress, page 29.

[17] Journals of Each Provincial Congress, page 30.

[18] Journals of Each Provincial Congress, page 32.

[19] Journals of Each Provincial Congress, page 34.

[20] Journals of Each Provincial Congress, page 35.

[21] Journals of Each Provincial Congress, page 35.

[22] Journals of Each Provincial Congress, page 41.

[23] Journals of Each Provincial Congress, page 45.

[24] Journals of Each Provincial Congress, page 48.

[25] Journals of Each Provincial Congress, page 90.

[26] Journals of Each Provincial Congress, page 92.

[27] Journals of Each Provincial Congress, pages 115, 116.

[28] Journals of Each Provincial Congress, pages 505, 509.

[29] Journals of Each Provincial Congress, pages 146-7.



BRITISH FORCES IN BOSTON.


General Thomas Gage, Commander of the British forces in America,
and successor of Thomas Hutchinson as Governor of Massachusetts
Bay, landed in Boston, May 13, 1774. Inspired by a hope that his
administration might soften the feeling of resentment against the
Mother Country, by annulling some of its causes, his reception on the
17th was dignified and cordial. He was greeted with cheers by the
multitude, the firing of salutes in his honor, and a lavish banquet
in Faneuil Hall.[30] A few weeks before he had assured his king that
the Americans "will be lions while we are lambs; but if we take the
resolute part they will prove very weak."[31]

His military force then in Boston was less than 4,000 men,[32] and
consisted of the Fourth or King's Own; Fifth; Tenth; Seventeenth:
3 Companies of the Eighteenth; Twenty-second; Twenty-third;
Thirty-eighth; Forty-third; Forty-fourth; Forty-seventh;
Fifty-second; Fifty-ninth; Sixty-third; Sixty-fourth; six or eight
Companies of Artillery; and six or eight Companies of Marines,
numbering 460, under Major Pitcairn.[33]

Major Gen. Heath is the authority for the statement that the
Provincial Congress appointed a committee to make inquiry into the
state of operation of the British Army in Boston, and on the 20th of
March, they reported that there were about 2,850 men distributed as
follows: Boston Common, about 1,700; Fort Hill, 400; Boston Neck,
340; in Barracks at the Castle, about 330; King Street, 80; that they
were erecting works at Boston Neck on both sides of the way, well
constructed and well executed. The works were in forwardness and
mounted with ten brass and two iron cannon. The old fortification at
the entrance of the town was replaced and rendered much stronger by
the addition of timber and earth to the parapet, and ten pieces of
iron cannon were mounted on the old platform. A block house had been
brought from Governor's Island and was being erected on the south
side of the Neck.[34]

But a short time was required to show that in every political
question Gen. Gage was loyal to his king. Accordingly throughout the
Province the press, the pulpit, the expression of opinion in public
meetings, while professing loyalty to the king personally, were
extremely bitter against his representative in command.

Conventions were held in the various Counties of the Province, the
earliest one being in Berkshire County, July 6, 1774, followed by the
one in Worcester County, Aug. 9. Resolutions were passed at each,
professing loyalty to the king, but remonstrating strongly against
Parliament. It was left for the Middlesex County Convention, August
30, to pass resolutions that rang throughout the Province. While also
professing loyalty to the King their final sentence was:

"No danger shall affright, no difficulties intimidate us; and if in
support of our rights we are called to encounter even death, we are
yet undaunted, sensible that he can never die too soon, who lays down
his life in support of the laws and liberty of his country."

These resolutions were passed by a vote of 146 yeas against 4
nays.[35]

Although the town of Boston itself was the headquarters of Gen. Gage,
and his soldiers were parading in its streets, and encamping on its
Common, the patriots had by no means deserted it. There were several
secret societies who made it their business to watch for and report
hostile movements and plans. These were the "North End Caucus;" the
"South End Caucus;" the "Middle District Caucus;" and the "Long Room
Club;" all of which owned allegiance to the "Sons of Liberty," a
body which acted in the capacity of a higher council and which kept
itself in close communication with similar organizations outside of
this Province. Members of these various bodies paraded the streets
nightly, that any sudden or unusual movement of the army might be at
once reported. Paul Revere belonged to one or more of these, and was
active in patriotic work.

Nor was Gen. Gage idle in acquiring information about the Provincial
Army being assembled, and the topographical features of the country
around Boston. His troops were especially trained by marches, over
the highways in the vicinity,[36] and his spies brought him maps and
reports from the scenes of his possible future operations. The two
that acted for him in this secret service were Capt. Brown of the
52nd regiment, and Ensign De Bernicre of the 10th regiment. They were
disguised in "brown clothes" with "reddish handkerchiefs" tied about
their necks, and were accompanied by a servant. All three were well
armed.

Gen. Gage's instructions to them, under date of Feb. 22, 1775,
called for description of the roads, rivers, and hills; available
places for encampments; whether or not the churches and church yards
were advantageous spots to take post in and capable of being made
defensible. They were also told that information would be useful in
reference to the provisions, forage, etc., that could be obtained at
the several places they should pass through.

Their first trip was to Worcester, in the latter part of February,
and their next one to Concord, for which place they set out on March
20, passing through Roxbury, Brookline, and Weston, where they
stopped at the Jones Tavern.

Then they proceeded through Sudbury, crossed over the South Bridge
into Concord village, where they were entertained by a Mr. Bliss, a
friend of the royal government.

Wherever they went their mission was known in spite of their
disguises. They succeeded, however, in bringing back to Gen. Gage
a very tolerable description of the country, and so fulfilled their
mission. In Concord, especially, they located many of the provincial
military stores, information particularly useful to the invading
force on April 19th.

Having thus possessed himself of sufficient data, Gen. Gage then laid
his plans for a midnight march to Lexington and Concord with the
view, possibly, of capturing Hancock and Adams, who were known to be
at the former place, and especially of destroying all the war-like
supplies that had been gathered at Concord.

April 15, the grenadiers and light infantry had been relieved from
duty, with the excuse that they were to learn a new exercise. That
night, about twelve o'clock, boats belonging to the transports which
had been hauled up for repairs were launched and moored under the
sterns of the men-o-war.[37] The _Somerset_ was anchored near the
Charlestown Ferry.[38] These movements awakened the suspicions of
Dr. Warren, who lost no time in notifying Hancock and Adams, then at
Lexington. On the afternoon of April 18th, he learned from several
sources that the British were about to move. A gunsmith named Jasper,
learned as much from a British sergeant and lost no time in informing
Col. Waters of the Committee of Safety, who in turn gave the news to
Warren.[39] John Ballard, connected with the stable in Milk Street,
overheard some one in the Province House remark that there would "be
hell to pay tomorrow;" a remark so full of significance that he
reported it to a friend of liberty in Ann Street, thought to have
been William Dawes, who in turn reported it to Paul Revere.[40]

That night Gen. Gage despatched ten or more sergeants, partially
disguised, along the highways in Cambridge and beyond, towards
Concord. They were instructed to intercept any passers-by, and so
prevent his intended movement from becoming known. A party of his
officers dined at Wetherby's Tavern[41] in Menotomy (now Arlington),
where also met that day the Committee of Safety and Committee of
Supplies, some of whom, Mr. Gerry, Col. Orne and Col. Lee, remained
to pass the night.[42]

[Illustration: BOSTON AND VICINITY, 1775-6.

1--x Lieut.-Col. Smith's starting place.

2--x His landing place in Cambridge.

3. 3. 3. Earl Percy's route from Boston to Cambridge.

Top of the map is north.]

Solomon Brown of Lexington, a young man nineteen years old, was
the first to report in that town the unusual occurrence of so many
officers along the highways in the night, and it was surmised there
that the capture of Hancock and Adams was intended. Brown was
returning home from Boston when they passed him on the road. Somehow
gaining the front again he rode rapidly into Lexington village and
reported what he had seen. Sergeant Munroe and eight men were sent to
guard the parsonage where the patriot statesmen were stopping, and
Solomon Brown, Jonathan Loring, and Elijah Sanderson, all members
of Captain Parker's Company of Minute Men, were despatched to watch
the officers after they had passed through Lexington toward Concord.
They followed them on horseback into Lincoln, about two and a
half miles from Lexington village, where they were ambushed by the
ones they were following, and taken prisoners. It was then about 10
o'clock in the evening of April 18th. They were detained until Revere
was also captured at the same place a few hours later, early in the
morning of the 19th.

FOOTNOTES:

[30] Frothingham's Rise of the Republic of the U. S., page 330.

[31] Frothingham's Rise of the Republic of the U. S., page 318.

[32] Hale in Memorial History of Boston, III, 79.

[33] This list I make up from a document from among the Swett papers,
and an article in the Atlantic Monthly, April, 1877, entitled A
British Officer in Boston in 1775. The Swett MS. is interesting as
giving the distinctive uniforms as follows:

Fourth or King's Own, red faced with white; 5th, Lord Percy, red
faced with blue; 10th, red faced with green; 17th, Light Dragoons,
red faced with yellow; 22d, Gen. Gage, red faced with white; 23d,
Gen. Howe, red faced with blue; 38th, Gen. Piget, red faced with
yellow; 43rd, red faced with light buff; 44th, red faced with yellow;
52d, red faced with white; 59th, called the Pompadours, red faced
with crimson; 63d, red faced with yellow; 64th, red faced with black;
artillery, blue faced with red; Marines, red faced with white.

Some of these were encamped on the Common.

[34] Heath's Memoirs, written by himself. Boston, 1798. Page 11.

[35] Journals of Each Provincial Congress of Mass., page 114.

[36] Rev. Mr. Gordon, of Roxbury, wrote a very interesting account
of the commencement of hostilities which was published in the North
American Almanack for 1776. He speaks of one of their practice
marches, on March 30, when about 1100 men marched to Jamaica Plain,
by way of Dorchester and back to Boston, about five miles. On this
particular march the soldiers amused themselves by pushing over stone
walls.

[37] Frothingham's Siege of Boston, page 56.

[38] Holland, pages 7, 8.

[39] Holland, page 9.

[40] Holland, page 9.

[41] Known also as the Black Horse Tavern.

[42] Frothingham, page 10.



THE BRITISH START FOR LEXINGTON AND CONCORD.


The grenadiers and light infantry under command of Lieut.-Col.
Francis Smith, of the 10th Regiment, augmented by a detachment of
Marines under Major John Pitcairn, assembled at the foot of Boston
Common, on the evening of April 18th, and at about half-past ten
o'clock embarked for Lechmere Point, or, as it was often called at
that time, Phip's Farm, in East Cambridge. They numbered about eight
hundred men.[43]

The "Foot of the Common," was not far from the present corner of
Boylston and Charles Streets, and just there was the shore line of
the Back Bay, a large body of water opening out into the Charles
River. Since then the Bay has been filled in and is now an attractive
residential district bearing still its ancient aquatic name however.

The transportation was by means of the row boats connected with the
British men-of-war and transports, and was thus necessarily slow,
and undoubtedly required several trips. It seems probable that their
course was westerly a little way, along the present Boylston Street,
then northerly along the present Arlington Street, into the Charles
River and across to Lechmere Point, a distance of about a mile and a
quarter.

They landed in the marshes nearly opposite the Court House on Second
Street, for East Cambridge also was much smaller then than now. The
water was too shallow to allow the heavily loaded boats to reach dry
land, so the troops waded knee deep to the shore. There they were
halted in a "dirty road," as one of the British officers present
termed it,[44] and detained still longer, that each might receive a
day's rations and thirty-six rounds of ammunition.

FOOTNOTES:

[43] Frothingham's Siege of Boston.

[44] Diary of a British Officer in Boston in 1775.



THE MESSENGERS OF ALARM.


The invading army safely across the Charles River was now really
on its way, but with all its precautions for secrecy, its coming
was even at that moment being heralded in every direction. The
ever-vigilant Sons of Liberty had noticed the unusual movements
of the troops after dark, and so informed Dr. Warren. He quickly
summoned William Dawes and Paul Revere. Dawes arriving first was
the first to start, and his route to Lexington was through Roxbury.
So to him belongs the credit of being the first messenger out of
Boston bearing the alarm of the British invasion. Paul Revere came
soon after and was carried over the Charles River considerably
farther down than the British soldiers were crossing, and landed in
Charlestown. His route to Lexington was much shorter than the one
through Roxbury.

Dr. Warren had arranged with these two men for this especial work,
and so they were ready. Dawes had left home that afternoon, not
even confiding to his wife his intention. Immediately after the
embarkation he was ready and on his way. He managed to elude the
guard at Boston Neck by passing out with some soldiers. His ride
was then through Roxbury, Brookline, Brighton, over the Charles
River there by bridge into Cambridge, at Harvard Square, and thence
directly on to Lexington. So much longer was his route than Revere's,
that he did not reach there until half an hour later than Revere did,
and then found that Hancock and Adams had been alarmed. The work of
William Dawes was efficient over the route he traveled. In Lexington,
Revere waited for Dawes, and from there onwards toward Concord they
traveled together. It is to be regretted that a more detailed account
of the ride of William Dawes cannot be given. But momentary flashes
of light reveal his course and his work. Revere left a narrative of
his ride, and historians have fallen into the error of supposing him
to be the only messenger with the warlike tidings. As we progress
with this narrative we shall surmise that William Dawes and Paul
Revere were but two out of many, for the exciting news radiated in
every direction, and could only have been borne by riders equally as
patriotic and fleet as those two.

The previous Sunday evening Paul Revere had been out to Lexington,
for a conference with Hancock and Adams, and on his return that
same night to Charlestown he had agreed with Col. Conant and some
others to display lanterns in the North Church steeple, if the
troops should march; one lantern if they went by land, which meant
out over Boston Neck, through Roxbury, Brookline, and Brighton, into
Harvard Square, Cambridge; and two, if they crossed the Charles
River in boats and landed at Lechmere Point in East Cambridge. This
arrangement was made because it was surmised that no messenger would
be allowed to leave Boston with the news while the troops were
leaving.

When Revere left Warren his first duty was to call upon Capt. John
Pulling, Jr.,[45] and arrange for the signal lanterns. Then he went
to his home in North Square for his boots and surtout, and from
there to where his boat was moored beneath a cob-wharf, near the
present Craigie Bridge, in the north part of the town. Two friends
accompanied him, Joshua Bentley and Thomas Richardson.[46]

Their point of starting was not far from the then Charlestown Ferry,
the boats of which were drawn up nightly at nine o'clock. Out in the
Charles River was anchored the _Somerset_, a British man-of-war.
It was young flood, and the moon was rising.[47] Fearing that the
noise of the oars in the oar-locks might alarm the sentry, Revere
despatched one of his companions for something to muffle them with,
who soon returned with a petticoat, yet warm from the body of a fair
daughter of Liberty who was glad to contribute to the cause.[48]
Rowing out into the river and passing to the eastward of the
_Somerset_ they looked back and there shining from the tall steeple
of Christ Church, the Old North, were two signal lanterns.

Far up into the valleys of the Mystic and the Charles, those
twinkling rays gleamed, and their meaning picked up wherever it fell,
was carried still farther to the remoter hamlets and villages beyond
the hills.

When Capt. Pulling left Paul Revere he proceeded at once to the home
of the sexton of Christ Church, Robert Newman, who lived on Salem
St., opposite Bennett St. Pulling was vestryman of the church and
when he demanded the keys of Newman they were handed to him without
question. Pulling proceeded to the church, climbed the belfry stairs,
hung two lighted lanterns out of the highest little window, forty-two
feet above the sidewalk,[49] descended and made his exit through a
window, and so escaped unnoticed.

These lanterns were seen by all who looked, and quickly British
soldiers sought out the sexton and placed him under arrest. His
denial of any knowledge as to who displayed the lanterns was
believed, and he was released. Pulling, disguised as a sailor,
escaped from Boston in a fishing vessel, landed in Nantucket, and did
not return until after the siege.[50]

Revere and his two companions reached the Charlestown shore in
safety. Their landing place was near the old battery at Gage's Wharf,
not far from No. 85 of the present Water St., near City Square. They
were met by Col. Conant and several others, who reported that the
lanterns had been seen and interpreted. While Revere was waiting for
his horse, which was furnished by Deacon Larkin, Richard Devens, one
of the Committee of Safety, came and told Revere that as he came
down the road from Lexington after sundown that evening, he met ten
British officers, all well mounted and armed, going up the road.

It was about 11 o'clock when Revere started from the Charlestown
shore on his mission to alarm. He had intended to proceed over
Charlestown Neck, through Somerville to Cambridge and thence to
Lexington. Just such a ride as his had been anticipated, for he had
gone but a short distance along the Cambridge road beyond Charlestown
Neck, when he perceived two mounted British officers halted under the
shadows of a tree in a narrow part of the road.[51] Near by was the
gibbet where Mark, the negro slave, executed in 1755 for poisoning
his master, hung in chains for about fifteen years.

Revere wheeled his horse and made his escape, retreating along the
road to the Neck, then turning into the Mystic road, which runs over
Winter Hill into Medford.[52] There he awakened the Captain of the
Minute Men, Isaac Hall, and alarmed almost if not every house on
the way to Lexington. His road was through West Medford to Arlington
Centre, there turning at the Cooper Tavern northwesterly towards
Lexington. He reached the parsonage in Lexington at midnight, which
then stood on the westerly side of the Bedford Road about a quarter
of a mile beyond the Common.[53] Within were sleeping John Hancock
and Samuel Adams. Keeping guard outside were eight men under Sergeant
William Munroe, who cautioned Revere not to make too much noise, lest
he should awaken the family, who had just retired.

"Noise," exclaimed Revere, "You'll have noise enough before long. The
regulars are coming out."

But he had already alarmed the inmates, for the window was raised,
and the parson, Mr. Clarke, inquired who was there. Revere, without
answering the question, said he wished to see Mr. Hancock.

"Come in, Revere," exclaimed Hancock, who also had been awakened, "we
are not afraid of you."

Half an hour later Dawes rode up from his longer ride from
Boston.[54] They partook of refreshments and together set out for
Concord. Not far beyond Lexington Common they were overtaken by a
young man, Dr. Samuel Prescott, whose home was in Concord. That
evening he had been visiting the young lady to whom he was engaged
to be married, Miss Mulliken of Lexington. Revere spoke of the ten
officers that Devens had met, and of the probability that they would
attempt to stop them before they should reach Concord. It was planned
to alarm every house on the way. Dr. Prescott volunteered to remain
with the two riders, as his acquaintance with the people along the
road might be needed to vouch for the genuineness of the message.

His company was accepted and very welcome. They rode along, alarming
each household, a little over two and a half miles from Lexington
Common. Dawes and Prescott had stopped at a house to arouse the
inmates, and Revere was about a hundred rods ahead, when he saw
two men in the highway. He called loudly for Dawes and Prescott to
come up, thinking to capture them, but just then two more appeared,
coming through the bars from a pasture on the right, or northerly
side of the road, where they had been standing in the shadow of a
tree. They proved to be officers of the British Army. Dawes wheeled
his horse back towards Lexington and escaped. Prescott and Revere
attempted to ride towards Concord, but were intercepted and ordered
to move through the bars into the pasture or have their brains blown
out. They preferred to do as ordered, but when a little way inside,
Prescott said to Revere, "put on," and immediately jumped his horse
over the stone wall at his left and disappeared down the farm road
leading into a ravine where rise the headwaters of the Shawsheen
River. He knew the location well, and easily followed the road
through the thicket until it comes out on the Concord road again,
a half mile or so beyond. Revere, not so well acquainted with the
location, headed towards the dense woods on the lower edge of the
pasture, thinking to dismount within their shadows and escape on
foot. Six more British officers were in hiding there, and they easily
seized his horse's bridle and with pistols levelled at his breast
ordered him to dismount.

And so there in Lincoln, about two and one-half miles beyond
Lexington, ended the midnight rides of William Dawes and Paul Revere.
Prescott had gone on to continue the alarm, Dawes had retreated
towards Lexington, and Revere was a prisoner. While the latter was
being secured, three or four of the officers started up the road
in pursuit of Dawes, who galloped his horse furiously up to a farm
house, where he reined in so suddenly that he was thrown to the
ground. With great presence of mind he shouted loudly for assistance,
exclaiming:--

"Hallo, my boys. I've got two of 'em."

The British in pursuit supposing they were ambushed in turn,
retreated and made good their escape. Dawes rose from the ground and
found himself quite alone, for the house, which might have contained
a force of American minute men, was empty and deserted. He mounted
his horse and rode leisurely away.[55]

But Revere was not the only prisoner captured by the British officers
in Lincoln. Solomon Brown, Jonathan Loring, and Elijah Sanderson,
all of Lexington, had been passing along at that place about ten
o'clock, the previous evening (for it is now after midnight, April
19th), and were detained and being held as prisoners when Revere was
added. A one-handed peddler, Allen by name, was also a prisoner,
having been captured after Brown and his two companions. For some
reason he was not long delayed, but released, and went his way.

Revere was ordered to dismount and one of the six proceeded to
examine him, asking his name; if he was an express; and what time he
left Boston. He answered each question truthfully, and added that the
troops in passing the river had got aground; that he had alarmed the
country on the way up; and that 500 Americans would soon be present.
This was rather disturbing news for his captors, and the one who
had acted as spokesman rode to the four who had first halted the
messengers. After a short conference the five returned on a gallop,
and one of them, whom Revere afterwards found to be Major Mitchell of
the Fifth Regiment, clapped a pistol to his head, and, calling him
by name, said he should ask him some questions, and if they were not
answered truthfully, he should blow his brains out. Revere answered
the many questions, some of them new ones and some the same as he had
already answered. He was then directed to mount, and the whole party
proceeded towards Lexington. After riding about a mile Major Mitchell
instructed the officer leading Revere's horse to turn him over to the
Sergeant who was instructed to blow the prisoner's brains out, if he
attempted to escape, or if any insults were offered to his captors on
the way.

When within half a mile of Lexington meeting-house, on the Common,
they heard a gun fired, and Major Mitchell, beginning to feel
alarmed, asked Revere its cause, who told him it was an alarm. The
other prisoners were then ordered to dismount, one of the officers
cut the bridles of their horses and drove them away. Revere asked to
be discharged, also, but his request was not heeded.

Coming a little nearer to the meeting-house, within sight of it, in
fact, they heard a volley of gun shots, whereupon Major Mitchell
called a halt, and questioned Revere again, as to the distance to
Cambridge, and if there were two roads going there, etc. He then
ordered him to dismount and exchange horses with the Sergeant, who
cut away bridle and saddle from his own, which was a small one and
well nigh exhausted, before completing the exchange.[56]

The officers then hastily disappeared down the road towards Lexington
meeting-house, and Revere made his way, probably afoot, across the
old cemetery and the adjacent pasture near Lexington Common, to the
parsonage on Bedford Road, where he had left Hancock and Adams a few
hours earlier.

The entire distance that Revere rode, from the Charlestown shore to
the spot in Lincoln where he was captured, and back to Lexington
Common, was between 18 and 19 miles, and the elapsed time nearly
four hours.

FOOTNOTES:

[45] Boston Sunday Globe, Apr. 19, 1908. Article on Lanterns Hung in
the Steeple.

[46] Goss, E. H., Life of Paul Revere.

[47] Full moon April 15. Moon rose on April 18, at 9.45 P. M. Low's
Almanack for 1775.

[48] She was an ancestor of John R. Adan, and lived in the
Ochterlong-Adan house at the corner of North and North Centre
Streets. Goss, Life of Paul Revere.

[49] Goss, Life of Paul Revere.

[50] Capt. John Pulling, Jr., was son of John and Martha Pulling.
Born in Boston, Feb. 18, 1737. Resided on corner of Ann and Cross
Streets in 1775. Died in 1787. Goss, Life of Paul Revere.

[51] In Somerville on Washington Street, near Crescent Street.

[52] Now Broadway and Main Street, in Somerville, and Main Street in
Medford.

[53] Bedford Road is now called Hancock Street and a newer road
to Bedford is called Bedford Street. The old parsonage is still
standing, though moved from its original location to a few rods
across the street.

[54] Revere's ride was 12-86/88 miles and Dawes's ride was 16-61/88
miles.

[55] Unfortunately no poet has ever thought the ride of William Dawes
a sufficiently thrilling one for a place in poetic literature. When
he left the farm house he rode into obscurity. For the incidents in
Lincoln that he took part in, I am indebted to his granddaughter,
Mrs. Mehitable May Goddard, as narrated in Henry W. Holland's book,
William Dawes and his Ride With Paul Revere.

[56] Tradition says that Deacon Larkin's horse died from the effects
of the strenuous ride of Revere, but it is probable that his second
rider may have been equally or more of a contributory cause, as
Revere's ride was not long and fast enough to kill a horse in sound
condition.



FLIGHT OF HANCOCK AND ADAMS.


The narration of Revere's adventures was eagerly listened to by the
patriots assembled at the parsonage. Hancock and Adams were urged
to flee by their friends. Hancock was loth to do so, but Adams
persuaded him that their duties were executive rather than military,
so they prepared for a hasty retreat. Their flight commenced in a
chaise driven by Jonas Clarke, son of the minister.[57] Mr. Lowell,
Hancock's secretary, and Paul Revere, accompanied them for two miles
into Burlington, where they stopped, first at the house of Mr. Reed
for a little time, and then continued farther on to the home of
Madame Jones, widow of Rev. Thomas Jones and of Rev. Mr. Marrett.
Then they sent back to the parsonage for Hancock's betrothed, Dorothy
Quincy, his aunt, Mrs. Hancock, and lastly, a "fine salmon," which
had been presented to them for dinner, and naturally forgotten as
they started on their flight. All of these arrived in due time,
and then Revere and Lowell returned to Lexington Common, with the
intention of rescuing a trunk and its contents which belonged to
Hancock, and which he had left at the Buckman Tavern.

The fugitives were about to sit down to the salmon dinner when a
Lexington farmer, in great excitement, rushed in exclaiming, that the
British were coming, and that his wife was even then in "eternity."
The salmon dinner was abandoned, and the flight continued under the
guidance of Mr. Marrett, to Amos Wyman's, where they finally sat down
to a dinner, not of salmon, but of cold salt pork and potatoes served
on a wooden tray. The last stopping place was just over the boundary
line of Woburn into Billerica, easterly from the present Lowell
Turnpike, and northerly from the Lexington parsonage about four miles.

Samuel Adams had left behind him somewhere on the road his immortal
saying:--

"What a glorious morning for America is this."[58]

Revere and Lowell reached Buckman Tavern, and there learned from a
man who had just come up the road that the troops were within two
miles. They proceeded to a chamber for the trunk, which they secured,
and looking out of the window towards Boston, saw the King's soldiers
but a little way off. They quickly made their exit from the Tavern,
passed along the Common through Captain Parker's Company, or rather a
small part of it, and heard his words:--

"Let the troops pass by and don't molest them without they begin
first."[59]

When a little farther along, "_not half gun shot off_," as Revere
expresses it, he heard a single gun, turned and saw the smoke of it
rising just in front of the troops, heard them give a great shout,
saw them run a few paces, heard irregular firing as of an advance
guard, and then firing by platoons.

The American Revolution had indeed commenced.

FOOTNOTES:

[57] Holland.

[58] It has sometimes been written that Hancock and Adams first went
to a little wooded hill southeasterly from the parsonage overlooking
Lexington Common, and perhaps half a mile away, and where they
remained concealed until after the British had passed, and that
Adams, looking down upon that first scene of bloodshed expressed
himself as above quoted. But I cannot reconcile that statement with
Revere's own version of the flight wherein he speaks of going with
them two miles and then returning for Hancock's trunk at the Buckman
Tavern, and which he succeeded in getting just before the British
arrived there at five o'clock. Thus Adams could not have witnessed
the opening scene on Lexington Common.

[59] Revere's Narrative. Otherwise quoted as "Don't fire unless fired
upon, but if they want war, let it begin here." Lexington Hist. Soc.
I, 46.



ALARMS IN OTHER PLACES.


It must not be imagined that information of the night march of the
troops was known only along the highway to their destination in
Concord. There were fleet messengers in every direction, through
the Counties of Middlesex and Essex and Norfolk. Those lanterns in
the North Church steeple meant as much to many others as to those
on the Charlestown shore. But few details of their rides have been
left to us. Yet everywhere the hoof-beats, the shadowy form of the
horseman--his cry of alarm, the drums--the bells--the guns--the
assembling of the minute men,--their hurried march towards that one
long and thin highway from Boston to Concord; some of these are
known, and can be written of, as a part of the record of that day.

Northerly along the coast the alarm went. At Lynn, ten miles away,
the inhabitants were awakened in the early morn of the 19th, by the
information that 800 British soldiers had left Boston in the night
and were proceeding towards Concord. Many immediately set out for the
scene of the invasion, singly and in little bands, without waiting
to march in company file.[60]

At Woburn, ten miles from Boston, a man rode up to the house of Mr.
Douglass, about an hour before sunrise--and knocked loudly at the
door, saying:

"There is an alarm--the British are coming out; and if there is any
soldier in the house he must turn out and repair to Lexington as soon
as possible."[61]

Such is the sworn statement of Robert Douglass, who lived in
Portland, Maine, but who was then staying at his father's home
in Woburn. He arose and started for Lexington, four miles away,
with Sylvanus Wood. And Douglass, upon arrival, paraded with Capt.
Parker's Company. Col. Loammi Baldwin resided in Woburn, and entered
in his diary some of his experiences of the day. Under date of April
19, he says that in the morning a little before the break of day,
they were alarmed by Mr. Stedman's express from Cambridge. With
others he hurried to Lexington, but could not reach the Common in
time to participate in the opening struggle. They saw the stains of
blood on the ground, hurried on to Lincoln, and at Tanner's Brook
commenced to harass the British on their return.[62]

In Reading, twelve miles from Boston, alarm guns were fired, just
at sunrise. Edmund Foster in a letter to Col. Daniel Shattuck, of
Concord, dated March 10, 1825, speaks at length of his personal
experiences. Following the guns came a post, bringing the
information that the Regulars had gone to Concord.

In Danvers, sixteen miles away, news of the British advance was given
at about 9 o'clock, and was communicated to the citizens by bells
and drums, who responded by thronging to the rendezvous near the Old
South Church at the bend of the Boston Road. Women were there, not
with entreaty, but to fasten on the belt, and gird on the sword.[63]

At Andover, twenty-five miles away, the alarm was given at about
sunrise, and minute-men were ready to march for Concord at about
10 o'clock. On their way through Tewksbury they learned that eight
Americans had been killed at Lexington; and at Billerica, that
the British were killing Americans at Concord. Reaching Bedford
they learned more definitely that two Americans had been killed at
Concord, and that the enemy was falling back.[64]

Lexington lies in a northwesterly direction from Boston, at a
distance of about eleven miles. At that time it was the abiding place
of John Hancock and Samuel Adams who were stopping at the parsonage
of Rev. Jonas Clarke. It was then supposed that one of the objects
of Gen. Gage was to effect their capture, and that his other object
was the destruction of military stores at Concord. Possibly the
first intimation that Lexington had of the proposed hostile visit of
Gage's troops was communicated by a young man, Solomon Brown, who had
been to Boston, on market business, and on his return had passed a
patrol of British officers. There were ten of them, it was late in
the afternoon, or early evening of April 18, and they were riding
away from Boston towards Lexington, which seemed out of harmony with
their ordinary way of riding back to Boston at night. Mr. Brown
kept somewhat near them along the road for awhile, that he might
the better determine their intentions, allowing them to pass and
repass him several times. Having at last satisfied himself that their
mission meant more than a pleasure sortie into the country, he gained
the lead once more, and when out of their sight rode rapidly to
Lexington and reported his observations to Orderly Sergeant William
Munroe, proprietor of Munroe's Tavern.[65]

These ten officers riding in advance must have known that actual
hostilities were at hand, for they not only detained travelers on the
highway, but deliberately insulted a large number of the inhabitants
along the road. Three or four of them, at least, went far beyond the
behavior of military men in time of peace, for as they rode into
Lexington, they stopped at the house of Matthew Mead, entered and
helped themselves to the prepared family supper of brown bread and
baked beans. Mrs. Mead and her daughter, Rhoda, were within, and Mr.
Mead and two sons were absent. This Lexington home was at the corner
of Massachusetts Avenue and Woburn Street, where the Russell House
now stands.[66]

Quickly following Solomon Brown's message came a written one,
directed to John Hancock, sent by Elbridge Gerry, one of the
Committee of Supplies, then sitting at the Black Horse Tavern in
Menotomy. It was practically to the same effect, "that eight or nine
officers of the King's troops were seen, just before night, passing
the road towards Lexington, in a musing, contemplative posture; and
it was supposed they were out upon some evil design."[67]

Hancock at once replied to Gerry that it was said the officers had
gone to Concord, and that he would send word thither.[68]

But naturally it was surmised that the capture of Hancock and Adams
was intended, so a guard of eight men, under Sergeant William Munroe,
was stationed around the home of Rev. Jonas Clarke. About forty of
the members of Captain Parker's Company gathered at the Buckman
Tavern after the mounted officers passed through Lexington,[69] and
it was deemed best that scouts should be sent out to follow them.
Accordingly Solomon Brown, Jonathan Loring, and Elijah Sanderson
volunteered to act,--and they started about 9 o'clock in the
evening.[70] As we have previously written, they were ambushed and
captured at about 10 o'clock on the road towards Concord, in the town
of Lincoln, by the same ones they had set out to follow.

Soon after the arrival of Paul Revere between 12 and 1 o'clock in the
morning of April 19, with the intelligence of the starting of the
King's troops, Captain Parker assembled his company on the Common.
The roll was called and they were instructed to load with powder
and ball. One of the messengers who had been sent towards Boston,
returned and reported that he could not discover any troops on the
way out, which raised some doubts as to their coming. It was between
1 and 2 o'clock when they were dismissed with instructions, however,
to remain in the immediate neighborhood, for quick response to the
call of the drum. Many of them adjourned to Buckman's Tavern, and the
others, living in the immediate vicinity, returned to their homes.

Between daylight and sunrise Capt. Thaddeus Bowman rode up, and
reported that the regulars were near. The drum was beat, and Captain
Parker's little band assembled on the Common.

The soldiers of the King were but one hundred rods down the road.[71]

Bedford an adjoining town to Lexington, and about fifteen miles from
Boston, was alarmed on the evening of the 18th, by Nathan Munroe and
Benjamin Tidd, both of Lexington, who had been sent there by Captain
Parker because of the suspicious actions of the British officers on
their way to Concord. Munroe and Tidd aroused the town, and some of
the minute-men rallied at the tavern kept by Nathan Fitch, Jr., and
were there served with light refreshments. Captain Willson said:--

"It is a cold breakfast, boys, but we will give the British a hot
dinner. We'll have every dog of them before night."[72]

The larger Bedford rally was at the oak tree standing in the little
triangle a few rods west of the village, where the road to Concord
branches away from the road to Billerica.[73]

Munroe and Tidd continued their alarm to Meriam's Corner in Concord
and returned to Lexington in time to hear the first alarm bell in the
morning of the 19th, and witness the assembling of Capt. Parker's
Company. Munroe, being a member joined the ranks, and Tidd remained
on or near the Common and was dispersed with the rest.[74]

Josiah Nelson, living in the northeast part of Lincoln, was awakened
on the night of the 18th, by horsemen passing up the road. Rushing
out partly dressed, to ascertain who they were, he received a blow on
his head from a sword, cutting sufficiently to draw the blood. He was
seized and detained a little while by his British captors, and when
released had his wound dressed, and hurried to Bedford and gave the
alarm in that town also.[75]

Billerica, seventeen miles northwest from Boston, probably received
the alarm about two o'clock, and when the encounter on Lexington
Common took place few if any families but had heard the call to
arms.[76]

Concord, seventeen miles northwesterly from Boston was first aroused
by Dr. Samuel Prescott, between one and two o'clock in the morning
of the 19th. He had just escaped from the British, in Lincoln, at
the time they captured Revere. It was nearly three o'clock when the
alarm bell was rung, whereupon several posts were despatched, who
returning, brought the news that the regulars were indeed coming;
that they had reached Lexington, and killed six Americans, and then
started for Concord.[77] Capt. Minot's Company took possession of
the hill to the eastward above the meeting house, and Capt. Brown's
Company marched up the road to meet the enemy.[78]

Corporal Amos Barrett of Capt. David Brown's Company has left a
written statement that he thinks one hundred and fifty minute-men had
assembled. His Company resolved to go up the road towards Lexington
and meet the British. They accordingly marched a mile or a mile and
a half, when they saw them coming. They halted and awaited them, and
when they were within one hundred rods were ordered by their captain
to about face. They marched back to the village to the music of their
fife and drum, the British following, also playing their fifes and
drums.[79]

Brown's Company consolidated with Minot's, and both took up a new
position, a little farther north on the adjoining hill, back of the
town. The British were so many more in number, that it was thought
prudent to still farther retire. Accordingly the two companies
marched down the hill, over the North Bridge, distance three-quarters
of a mile from the village, and took a new and stronger position on
Punkatasset Hill, a little more than a mile from the village, but
clearly overlooking it. There they welcomed the reinforcements that
were arriving from the neighboring towns.

In Tewksbury, twenty miles northwesterly from Boston, the alarm was
given at about 2 o'clock in the morning. "The British are on their
way to Concord and I have alarmed all the towns from Charlestown to
here,"[80] were the words that aroused Capt. John Trull, from his
slumber, who in turn fired his gun to arouse Gen. Varnum, across
the Merrimack River over in Dracut, a signal previously agreed upon
between them. When Capt. Trull reached the village his men were
awaiting him and they at once started for Concord. There were two
other Tewksbury companies commanded respectively by Capt. Jonathan
Brown and Capt. Thomas Clark, who also responded to the alarm.

In Acton, twenty-one miles northwesterly from Boston, and the
adjoining town to Concord westerly, the alarm was given early in the
morning. Col. Francis Faulkner resided in South Acton. His son,
Francis, Jr., was lying awake and listening to the clatter of a
horse's feet drawing nearer and nearer. Suddenly he leaped from his
bed and ran to his father's room, adjoining, and exclaimed:

"Father, there's a horse coming on the full run, and he's bringing
news!"

His father had heard the horseman also, for he was partly dressed
with gun in hand. Across the bridge and up to the house came the
messenger.

"Rouse your minute-men, Mr. Faulkner, the British are marching on
Lexington and Concord." And away he rode to spread the news.

Col. Faulkner, without completing his dress, fired his gun three
times as fast as he could load, that being the preconcerted signal.
Very quickly a neighbor repeated it, and the boy, still listening,
heard a repetition many times, each farther away. Thus was Acton
aroused.

At the home of Col. Faulkner very soon assembled Capt. Hunt's
Company. Women were there, too, to help as they might. Stakes were
driven into the lawn, kettles hung, fires built, and a dinner for the
soldiers soon cooked. Some of the older boys were delighted to follow
on and carry it in saddle-bags, separately from the minute-men, with
instructions to take the field roads if the British should be found
occupying the highways. Col. Faulkner marched away with Capt. Hunt's
Company, to take command of the Middlesex Regiment, which he supposed
to be assembling at Concord.

The home of Capt. Davis, was about a mile westerly from the meeting
house in the centre of Acton, and about six miles from the North
Bridge in Concord. His Company were assembling rapidly, and when
about twenty had reported he was anxious to march. A man of serious
mien, he seemed particularly so on the morning of April 19. One
of his companions, speaking cheerily, perhaps lightly, was gently
reproved by the brave Captain, who seemed to have a premonition of
his own fate, and reminded the other of what the day might have in
store for them. They were about to proceed when he turned to his
wife, as if to speak, but he could only say:

"Take good care of the children."[81]

Then he turned and marched away with his little command. It might
have been seven o'clock when he started,[82] to the lively tune of
the "White Cockade" played by his fifer, Luther Blanchard, and his
drummer, Francis Barker.

When they reached the westerly part of Concord they must have learned
what the British were doing at the home of Col. Barrett, for they
left the highway and passed into the fields to the northward of the
Barrett home, stopping for a while a little way off to watch the
King's soldiers in their work of destruction of the military stores.
Continuing again, they marched through the fields until they came
out into the highway at Widow Brown's Tavern,[83] which was situated
across the river from Concord village, a mile away. From there they
proceeded by way of the Back Road, so called, to the high ground
now called Punkatasset Hill, rising about a quarter of a mile to the
westward of the North Bridge.

Other companies of militia and minute-men were already assembled
there, and Capt. Davis marched his men, who now numbered about forty,
to the left of the line, a position that had been assigned to him at
the muster a little while before.

From this position on Punkatasset, they looked down upon the gently
flowing Concord River; upon the old North Bridge which crossed just
in the immediate foreground; upon the red-coated soldiers who stood
grimly on guard at the nearer end; and beyond, up the river to
Concord village, three-quarters of a mile away, where curling volumes
of smoke seemed to indicate the burning of American homes.

In Chelmsford, twenty-three miles northwesterly from Boston, the
alarm was early given by a mounted messenger, upon which guns were
fired and drums beat. Minute-men met at the Alarm-post, a rock
standing where the hay-scales were placed in after years. Captain
Moses Parker's Company, and Captain Oliver Barron's Company, marched,
not in regular order, but in squads, and came into Concord at
Meriam's Corner and on Hardy's Hill in time for the pursuit.

In Dracut, twenty-five miles from Boston, the alarm was given soon
after two o'clock, by the firing of a gun by Capt. Trull across the
Merrimac River in Tewksbury, a signal previously agreed upon, which
aroused Gen. Varnum. Two companies marched immediately, one under
Captain Peter Coburn, and the other under Captain Stephen Russell.
They were, however, too remote from the scene of strife to meet the
British, but continued their rapid march to Cambridge.

Littleton, twenty-five miles from Boston, was alarmed in the morning
by the news of the British march on Concord. The messenger then
hurried over Beaver Brook Bridge, and into the towns beyond on his
mission.

Even in Pepperell, thirty-five miles northwesterly from Boston, the
alarm went, reaching there about 9 o'clock. Gen. Prescott gave orders
to the Pepperell and Hollis companies, to march to Groton, there to
join others of the regiment.[84]

Roxbury, the adjoining town to Boston, southwesterly, was naturally
the first town in that direction to know of the movement of the
British. William Dawes, the first messenger out of Boston, as we have
seen, passed through the town on his round-about-way to Lexington,
and must have delivered his first message there before 11 o'clock on
the evening of the 18th. There were three companies under the command
of Captain Moses Whiting, Captain William Draper, and Captain Lemuel
Child, respectively, who took active parts in the events of the 19th.
As they marched for the scene of strife many women and children fled
to other towns for greater safety.[85]

The news reached Dedham, ten miles southwesterly from Boston, a
little after 9 o'clock in the morning. It came by way of Needham and
Dover.[86]

Framingham, eighteen miles southwesterly from Boston, was alarmed
before 8 o'clock in the morning. A bell was rung, and alarm guns
fired, which assembled many of the two companies of militia and one
of minute-men, who started in about an hour. Captain Edget went on
foot the entire distance, and carried his gun. Those living in the
extreme south and west parts of the town followed on a little later.
Not long after the men had left, a report was started that negroes
were coming to massacre them all, which seemed the more frightful to
the women and children because of the absence of about all of the
able-bodied men. For those defenceless ones at home it was a terrible
day.[87]

Newton, seven miles westerly from Boston, was alarmed at early
dawn by a volley from one of John Pigeon's field-guns, kept at the
gun-house in Newton Centre, near the church.[88]

Sudbury, eighteen miles westerly from Boston, received its first news
by a messenger from Concord, eight miles away, who reported to Thomas
Plympton, a member of the Provincial Congress. Captain Nixon was
aroused by a messenger, who shouted:

"Up, up! the red-coats are up as far as Concord."

Captain Nixon started off at once on horseback.[89]

In Worcester, forty miles westerly from Boston, the people were
alarmed before noon by a messenger mounted on a white horse dripping
with sweat, and bloody from spurring. Driving at full speed through
the town he shouted:

"To arms, to arms! the war has begun!"

At the church the horse fell exhausted. Another was procured and
the news still went on. The bell rang out the alarm, cannon were
fired, and special messengers despatched to every part of the town to
summon the soldiers. In a little while 110 men, under Captain Timothy
Bigelow were paraded on the Green, and soon marched for Concord. They
were met on the way by the intelligence of the British retreat. So
they changed their course towards Boston.[90]

It would be interesting to know the full details of that messenger's
long ride, and just where in the westward it ended. His exhausted
horse, covered with bloody foam, falling in the street before the
church, must have been a spectacular sight, and one that spoke loudly
of that terrific ride, perhaps the longest one of all the messengers.
And we can safely imagine that all along his course, other
messengers, drawing their inspiration from him, rode into the north,
and into the south, bearing with them the news that he bore; and that
in turn their words were echoed by the gun-volley, the clanging bell
and the drum-beat.

The reveille had now been sounded in Essex, in Middlesex, in Norfolk,
and in Worcester Counties, and the minute-men were on their way to
the battle of April 19.

FOOTNOTES:

[60] Lewis and Newhall's History of Lynn, page 338.

[61] Deposition of Robert Douglass.

[62] Beneath Old Roof Trees. A. E. Brown.

[63] Hansen's History of Beverly, page 88; Hurd's Middlesex County,
II, page 1010.

[64] Journal of Thomas Boynton of Capt. Ames's Company, and Hurd's
History of Essex County, II., page 1572.

[65] In an article on the Munroe Tavern in the Proceedings of the
Lexington Hist. Soc., III., 146, Albert W. Bryant recites a tradition
that the information of ten British officers riding up the road was
given to Sergeant Munroe, who gave the first general alarm that
assembled Captain Parker's Company. A messenger later was sent down
the road on a scouting trip for the British, but who did not return.
A second was sent who did not return. A third was sent who also did
not return. A fourth was despatched who did return with the news
that the British Army was really marching on Lexington, and that
the previous messengers who had been sent down the road had met and
passed two or more British soldiers riding in advance of the main
body, who then closed in on them as prisoners. The horse of the
fourth messenger had become frightened at the two advancing Britons
and turned back in spite of his rider, who caught a glimpse of the
British front ranks on the march. [This last messenger was Captain
Thaddeus Bowman, F. W. C.]

[66] Our Grandmothers of 1775, by Miss Elizabeth W. Harrington in
Lex. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, I, 51.

[67] Rev. Jonas Clarke's Narrative.

[68] Life of Elbridge Gerry, by James T. Austin, page 67.

[69] Dep. of Joseph Underwood.

[70] Sanderson having no horse was offered one by Thaddeus
Harrington, which he accepted. Dep. of Elijah Sanderson.

[71] Dep. of William Munroe containing statement also of a British
prisoner.

[72] Brown's History of Bedford, page 24.

[73] Brown's History of Bedford, page 53.

[74] Deposition of Tidd and Abbot.

[75] Brown's History of Bedford, pages 218, 219.

[76] Hazen's History of Billerica, page 235.

[77] Diary of Rev. Wm. Emerson in R. W. Emerson's Discourse, and
Capt. Amos Barrett's Account of the Battle in True's Journal.

[78] Dep. of Capt. Nathan Barret and fifteen others of Concord, and
Dep. of John Hoar and seven others of Lincoln, present in Concord
before the arrival of the British.

[79] Capt. Amos Barrett's Account of the Battle.

[80] Drake's Middlesex County, II, 375-6.

[81] Deposition of his widow.

[82] Between one and two hours after sunrise. Deposition of his widow.

[83] Deposition of Charles Handley.

[84] Lorenzo P. Blood in Hurd's Middlesex County, III, 231.

[85] There is a tradition in the Greaton family that Mrs. Greaton
took her younger children and such articles as she could carry in a
cart and fled to Brookline; the older children walking beside the
vehicle. Drake's Roxbury, 61.

[86] Haven's Historical Address, page 46.

[87] Rev. Josiah H. Temple, in Hurd's Middlesex County, III, 624.

[88] Smith's Newton, 341.

[89] Hudson's Sudbury, 374-5, and Hudson in Hurd's Middlesex County,
II, 401.

[90] Lincoln and Hersey's History of Worcester, 97.



LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S ADVANCE THROUGH CAMBRIDGE.


Let us now return to the King's soldiers under the command of
Lieut.-Col. Smith, whom we left on the shore of Charles River at
Lechmere Point in Cambridge. It was one o'clock on the morning of the
19th, before the column was fully under way.[91]

Lechmere Point then had but one house, which stood on the southern
slope of the hill, on the northern side of Spring Street, between
Third and Fourth Streets, and facing to the south.[92] Where the
troops landed, on Second Street, was sufficiently remote to be out
of sight and hearing, evidently the particular aim of the commanding
officer.

They proceeded cautiously, following an old farm-road around the
northeasterly slope of the hill, sometimes wading in the marshes that
bordered Willis Creek, and fording that stream, waist-deep, in the
vicinity of Bullard's Bridge.

Smith evidently thought that the noise of his soldiers tramping
across the bridge itself might attract attention. His soldiers found
the ford a long one, and the waters deep.[93]

Even thus early on the expedition was the British Army betrayed by
one of its own soldiers, if the tradition handed down by a Mrs.
Moore can be relied upon. Seventy-five years or more ago she related
to Rev. J. L. Sibley, who has stated accordingly, that she was then
living in Cambridge, a young girl, and that one of the soldiers was
taken sick after his landing at Lechmere Point, and accordingly
permitted by his commander to return by boat to Boston. He did
not immediately return, however, but made his way to the solitary
farm-house where Mrs. Moore was living. The occupants gained from
him the significance of his midnight presence, and it was considered
of sufficient importance to communicate speedily to their fellow
townsmen.

Bullard's Bridge crossed Willis Creek, near the present Prospect
Street, which runs from Cambridge to Somerville.[94] Later on the
Creek was called Miller's River. It was then a little tributary to
the Charles River, but has long since been filled in, and modest
dwellings, and more pretentious business establishments now cover its
upper area.

FOOTNOTES:

[91] A British officer in Boston in 1775 (See Atlantic Monthly,
April, 1877). In his Diary he places the time of starting at two
o'clock, and De Bernicre, in his report, at about two o'clock, but I
am compelled to compute it about one o'clock considering the distance
they had to march and the well known time they arrived at Lexington
Common, viz., almost eleven miles and reaching there at half past
four.

[92] E. C. Booth, in The Somerville Journal, April, 1875.

[93] Diary of a British officer in Boston in 1775.

[94] The interested reader should consult the map of Boston and
vicinity by J. F. W. Des Barres first published, May 5, 1775, and
reprinted in Shattuck's History of Boston, and the one by Henry
Pelham, first published in London, June 2, 1777, and reprinted in the
Siege and Evacuation of Boston. A study of them will enable one to
more fully understand the topography of the country about Boston at
that time.



LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S ADVANCE THROUGH SOMERVILLE.


The invading army emerging from Willis Creek were now in Somerville.
They quickly arrived at Piper's Tavern, then standing in what is now
Union Square. It was after two o'clock, but the moon was shining
sufficiently bright for some of the soldiers to read the sign
aloud, which an awakened inmate heard. Up the present Bow Street
they marched, passing the Choate and Frost houses, continuing
along the present Somerville Avenue to Jonathan Ireland's house,
at the southwest corner of the present School Street. None of the
inhabitants just along there seem to have been disturbed. A few rods
farther lived Samuel Tufts on the westerly side of the road near the
present Laurel Street. He was casting bullets in a little hut back of
his dwelling, and being assisted by his negro, but neither of them
heard the tread of soldiers in the road. But yet a little farther
along, however, at the northwest corner of the present Central Street
lived the widow Rand. She was disturbed by the unusual noise in the
road, and came down stairs in her night-clothes to investigate. A hog
had been killed for her the day before, and she feared a midnight
thief. Upon opening the door she saw the soldiers, but hid behind the
rain-water hogshead until they had passed and then hurried across
the road to tell her neighbor Tufts of the unusual sight. At first
he could not believe the story, but with his lantern's aid saw the
many foot-prints in the road, and became convinced. Springing to his
horse's back he took a short cut bridle path to Cambridge, there to
spread the alarm.

Then marched the column by Samuel Kent's house on the westerly side
of the road, at the corner of the present Garden Court. Kent did not
awake. Then by the Capen house, a little farther on the easterly
side. No one there awakened. Then by the Hunnewell brothers on the
easterly side at the turn of the road. They were both somewhat deaf
and did not hear the military tread.

The next house is the home of Timothy Tufts, on the easterly side
of the road, nearly opposite Beech Street. Mrs. Tufts heard the
soldiers, and saw from her bed the gun-barrels shining in the
moonlight. She awakened her husband and they both looked out upon
that red-coated column, as it halted long enough for some of the
soldiers to drink at the well.



LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S ADVANCE THROUGH CAMBRIDGE.


The march was again resumed a few rods farther along the Milk Row
road, then wheeling left southwesterly into Cambridge through what
is now Beech Street, less than an eighth of a mile in length, then
wheeling right into the Lexington and Concord road, towards the
northwest.[95] They were then on what is now known as Massachusetts
Avenue.

Along this part of Battle Road in Cambridge, were perhaps captured
the first prisoners, Thomas Robins and David Harrington, both of
Lexington. Robins was carrying milk to Boston, and in company with
Harrington when they reached the vicinity of Menotomy River, the
present dividing line between Cambridge and Arlington. They were
detained, and compelled to return to Lexington with the soldiers, and
released at the commencement of hostilities on the Common.[96]

FOOTNOTES:

[95] E. C. Booth in The Somerville Journal, April, 1875.

[96] Francis H. Brown, M.D., in Lexington Historical Society
Proceedings, III, 101.



LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S ADVANCE THROUGH ARLINGTON.


Just after crossing the Menotomy River into Arlington they passed a
house where lived the venerable Samuel Whittemore[97] with his sons
and grandchildren. Silent as was the march intended to be, it awoke
the inmates and preparations for the day commenced.

The troops soon arrived opposite to the Black Horse Tavern, kept by
Mr. Wetherby. Thus far their march had not been heralded other than
by the flashing lights and fleet and silent messengers. Lieut.-Col.
Smith still thought his little army unnoticed, for he rode a little
way beyond the Tavern, halted his men, and sent back an officer with
a file of men, to surround and guard the house, while others should
search the interior for members of the rebel congress whom he thought
to be within. His surmise was correct, to some extent, for three
members were there, just awakened by the heavy tread, and who heard
the low-voiced commands to halt.

The day before, April 18, the Committee of Safety and the Committee
of Supplies, had held a joint meeting at the Tavern, and there were
present, Col. Azor Orne, Col. Joseph Palmer, Col. William Heath,
Col. Thomas Gardner, Richard Devens, Abraham Watson, Capt. Benjamin
White, and John Pigeon, of the Committee of Safety, and David
Cheever, Elbridge Gerry, Col. Charles Lee, and Col. Benjamin Lincoln,
of the Committee of Supplies. At the close of the meeting most of
them, being near enough, had departed for their homes. It will be
remembered that Richard Devens of Charlestown departed early enough
to meet Revere on the Charlestown shore, and acquaint him with the
movement of the ten British officers riding up the road. It will also
be recalled that Elbridge Gerry had sent from here a messenger to
John Hancock at Lexington to the same effect.

However, there were three members of the two committees who chose
to remain at the Black Horse Tavern that night. They were Col. Azor
Orne, Elbridge Gerry, and Col. Charles Lee.

It was not quite three o'clock when the slumbers of these three men
were disturbed by the unusual noise in the road, and they went to the
windows and looked out into the moonlight and down on the marching
host and its gleaming arms. They watched with eager curiosity. Not
for a moment did they connect themselves individually with the
movement, but when they heard the command to halt, and saw a file
of soldiers leave the ranks for the Tavern they were startled, and
then it suddenly occurred to them that possibly they were the objects
of those military manœuvres. They hurried down stairs, even clad in
their night-clothes as they were, and finally sought a safe exit at
the rear. It is said that Mr. Gerry, in his nervous haste to escape,
was on the point of opening the front door and rushing out that way,
but was prevented by the cry of the landlord:

"For God's sake, don't open that door," and who then conducted the
three to the back part of the house, and headed them for a field of
corn stubble. Elbridge Gerry stumbled and fell, and cried out to his
friend:

"Stop, Orne, for me, till I can get up; I have hurt myself."

His position, flat on the ground, out of sight because of the
corn-stubble, suggested that it would be a good hiding-place for all,
so the three lay prone on the ground until the King's troops passed
on. They returned to the Tavern finally to find that the house had
indeed been searched for them, very ineffectively, for even their
personal effects including Mr. Gerry's gold watch, left ticking under
his pillow, had not been disturbed. The search by the soldiers had
not been a very thorough one.

Col. Lee never recovered from the ill effect of his exposure on the
damp ground in the night air, too thinly clad as he was, for he died
within a month.[98]

The march of the British forces under Lieut. Col. Smith up to this
point, was a little over five miles, and it was nearly three o'clock.
He continued serenely for a little farther, for unknown to him the
inmates of many houses that he passed were aroused by the measured
tread of his men.

Solomon Bowman, Lieutenant in Captain Benjamin Locke's Company of
Minute-men, lived in Menotomy, now Arlington.[99] He came to the door
to witness the unusual sight. A soldier perceiving him, left the
ranks and asked for a drink of water. Bowman refused the request,
but asked him:--

"What are you out at this time of night for?"

The reply of the thirsty soldier was not recorded, but whatever it
was Bowman readily drew his own conclusions, and when the column
disappeared up the road, hastened to call out members of his company.
They formed at day-break on the Common.[100]

But at the house across the road, with its chimneys painted white,
the reception was more gracious. A tory lived there, and white
chimneys, it has been said, indicated the owner's politics.[101]

The column halted again, briefly in the centre of the town, and
Lieut.-Col. Smith despatched forward six companies of light infantry
under Major Pitcairn, for the purpose of earlier securing the two
bridges on the roads just beyond Concord village.[102] Scarcely
had he done so, when signal guns and alarm bells were heard,
which indicated a general awakening to arms of the Provincials.
Smith realized the full meaning of those ominous sounds, and from
there, in Arlington village, promptly sent back to Gen. Gage for
reinforcements. Fortunate for him that he did so, for otherwise the
day's climax for his force would have been even more disastrous than
it was.

His marching soldiers could now hardly expect to pass any house
unseen. A party of young men, playing cards, even at that late hour,
in an old shop that stood near the road, lost their interest in the
game and gave it up.[103]

At the Tufts Tavern, still standing on the easterly side of
Massachusetts Avenue, nearly opposite Mt. Vernon Street, the soldiers
halted and some of them proceeded towards Mr. Tufts's barn. He was
awake, and saw them, and suspected that their mission might be the
confiscation of his favorite white horse. He called for his gun, but
his prudent wife informed him that it had been loaned. Opening the
door however, he addressed a British officer saying:

"You are taking an early ride, sir!"

"You had better go to bed and get your sleep while you can," replied
the officer significantly.[104]

At the corner of the main road and the one leading to Winchester, now
Forest Street, "At the Foot of the Rocks," lived a shoemaker. A light
glimmering through the shutters caught the attention of an officer,
who sent a soldier to investigate its cause, so late in the night.
The good wife replied that her "old man" was sick and she was "making
some herb tea." That excuse satisfied the officer, for the family
was left undisturbed. The "tea" was in fact melted pewter plates
being run into bullets. When the rap first came at the door the old
man took to his bed, and his wife emptied the molten pewter into
the ashes, where it was readily found after the soldiers had passed
on.[105] It is probable that ere night some of the leaden tea had
hardened into leaden fruit, and was used for other than medicinal
purposes.

In the next house, still standing (1912) and numbered 1193
Massachusetts Avenue, lived Capt. Benjamin Locke. He looked out and
saw the marching red-coats, and knew what their mission was. He lost
no time in arousing such of his command as lived in that neighborhood.

The British continued along the main road, which at that time ran up
the hill westerly from Capt. Locke's home, and is now called Appleton
Street, into Paul Revere Road, and out again into the present
Massachusetts Avenue. At that time there was no highway between the
extreme ends of these two.

Through the rest of Arlington the march was uneventful, save the
capture of the scouts sent out from Lexington, who were so neatly
ambushed and taken. As we have seen, they were permitted to come down
the road passing a few soldiers who were out in advance, and who
secreted themselves when an approaching horseman was heard. After the
unfortunate scout had passed into the stretch of road bounded by the
advance guard and the main body he was not permitted to return to
Lexington.

Two men from Woburn, Asahel Porter and Josiah Richardson, were
thus captured. It has been stated that they were on their way to
the Boston market. If they lived in that part of Woburn which
adjoins Lexington, then their natural journey would have been into
Lexington, and thence through Arlington and Cambridge. But it may
be that they were scouting simply, for they were on horseback, and
therefore without any apparent market business. They were compelled
to dismount, their horses taken, and then forced to walk along as
prisoners. Reaching the Common in Lexington they were both released
by their kindly disposed guard, with the particular understanding
that they were to walk, not run, away. Richardson accepted those
conditions, carried them out and so escaped. But Porter, once over
Rufus Merriam's garden-wall, twenty rods away from his captors,
started into a run. Some other soldier than his guard saw him, and
evidently thinking that a prisoner was escaping, promptly shot him
through the body. Those captures were probably made in Arlington, and
not far from the Lexington boundary line.

FOOTNOTES:

[97] House still standing, (1912) and numbered 54 Massachusetts
Avenue.

[98] Samuel A. Smith's Address at West Cambridge, page 17.

[99] House still standing on the northerly side of Massachusetts
Avenue, numbered 417, nearly opposite Whittemore Street. Arlington
Past and Present, Parker, page 141.

[100] Statement of Mrs. Hill, daughter of Bowman, in Smith's Address,
page 18.

[101] Smith, 18.

[102] Lieut.-Col. Smith's Report.

[103] A. R. Proctor, who heard it from William Hill and told it to
Mr. Smith. The shop stood front of the residence occupied by James
Schouler in 1864. Smith, West Cambridge Address, page 19.

[104] Mrs. Almira T. Whittemore in Parker's Arlington, 194-5.

[105] Mrs. Henry Whittemore's Statement, Smith's West Cambridge
Address, 20.



LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S ADVANCE THROUGH LEXINGTON.


It must have been just over the line into Lexington that the young
man, Simon Winship, was met. He was on horseback, unarmed, and
passing along in a peaceable manner, when he was halted and ordered
to dismount. He questioned their right to treat him in that manner,
but for answer they forced him from his horse and compelled him to
march on foot in their midst. They asked him if he had been out
warning the minute-men, to which he replied that he had not, but that
he was returning home to his father's. He was kept as a prisoner
until they arrived at Lexington Common, two and one-half miles, where
he was compelled to witness the shooting of his fellow townsmen.

Half a mile farther along, and about two miles from Lexington Common,
Benjamin Wellington, one of Capt. Parker's Company of minute-men, was
captured. This took place very nearly at the corner of Massachusetts
Avenue and Pleasant Street. Wellington was armed and on his way from
home on Pleasant Street to join his company. Thus it is claimed, and
rightly, that he was the first belligerent or armed man captured
by the British. But for some reason he was allowed to depart, not
towards the Common, but for home. His gun was not returned to him,
however. He started towards home but when out of their sight, turned
and passed northerly along the crest of the hills, parallel to the
highway, and reached the Common just after Thaddeus Bowman, but ahead
of the British.



THE OPENING BATTLE ON LEXINGTON COMMON.


The six companies of light infantry under command of Major Pitcairn
were now considerably in advance of the main body under Smith, and up
the road somewhat farther than the present high school building, even
farther along than where the Woburn road, now Woburn Street, turns
off to the eastward. When still nearer Lexington Common, within about
one hundred rods of it, they heard the beating of a drum by William
Dimond, drummer in Captain Parker's Company. It was the summons for
that little band to assemble across the pathway of an invading army.
Major Pitcairn accepted it as a challenge, and promptly ordered his
soldiers to halt and load their muskets,[106] and then to march on
the double quick for Lexington Common.[107]

[Illustration: _The Battle of Lexington, April 19^{th}, 1775. Plate
I._]

[Illustration: LEXINGTON COMMON AND VICINITY.

1. Lexington Common. 2. Meeting House. 3. Belfry. 4. Marrett Munroe.
5. Emerson. 6. Buckman Tavern. 7. Harrington. 8. Rev. Jonas Clarke.
9. Merriam. 10. Loring. 11. Mead. 12. Mulliken. 13. Bond. 14. Munroe
Tavern. 15. Sanderson. 16. Mason. 17. Percy's Cannon. 18. Lieut.-Col.
Smith wounded. 19. Hayward mortally wounded. 20. Wellington captured.]

Captain John Parker's company numbered, all told, one hundred and
twenty men, but only a few more than half answered to this call at
day-break, April 19. It will be remembered that Paul Revere did not
reach Lexington with his message of alarm until midnight. Many of
the minute-men lived too remote to be so quickly summoned. Captain
Parker's home was over two miles away, in the southwesterly part
of the town, near the Waltham line. He was called at about one
o'clock,[108] and stood on the Common before two o'clock with such
of his men as had then assembled. We have seen how they answered the
roll-call and then dispersed to be within call of the drum, as the
night was chilly. Those who lived near, went home, and those who
lived too far away, to quickly go and come, repaired to Buckman's
Tavern, close at hand.

Captain Parker has been described by his grandson, Theodore Parker,
the celebrated Unitarian preacher, as being "a great, tall man, with
a large head, and a high, wide brow." His great grand-daughter,
Elizabeth S. Parker, has described him as stout, large-framed, medium
height, like Rev. Theodore Parker, but with a longer face.[109] We
can imagine him as a prudent man, with a quiet, yet firm courage.

Two men from Woburn had just arrived, and it was then a little
before five o'clock. They were Sylvanus Wood and Robert Douglass.
They had come about three miles, having heard, about an hour before,
the ringing of the bell in the Old Belfry, which stood near the
church on the Common. As Wood came up he approached Captain Parker
and inquired the news. Parker replied that he did not know what to
believe, for, half an hour before, a messenger had returned with the
assurance that no British were on the way. While talking, another
messenger, Thaddeus Bowman, rode up with the startling announcement
that the British were within half a mile. They were nearer than
that--not even down the road as far as Woburn Street.

Captain Parker then ordered his drummer, William Dimond[110] to beat
to arms. The minute-men assembled from their homes and from the
Buckman Tavern. They were but few, so few indeed, that he turned to
Wood and begged him to join their ranks. Wood consented. Parker asked
him if his young companion, meaning Robert Douglass, would also join.
And Douglass also enlisted into Captain Parker's Company. These two
were indeed brave, for the danger was really then and there.

The minute-men gathered around their captain in the middle of the
road, about half way between the meeting-house and the tavern. The
meeting-house then stood where the heroic statue of a minute-man in
bronze now stands. The tavern is still standing (1912).

Parker then said:

"Every man of you who is equipped, follow me; and those of you who
are not equipped, go into the meeting-house and furnish yourselves
from the magazine, and immediately join the company."[111] Joseph
Comee, Caleb Harrington and Joshua Simonds then went into the
meeting-house, to comply with the Captain's command.

Then Parker led those who were equipped, to the northerly end of the
Common, where they formed in single line. Sylvanus Wood stepped from
the ranks long enough to count them, and has left his sworn statement
that there were thirty-eight, "and no more."[112]

In the brief moments which followed others were hastening to join the
ranks, and as they arrived Orderly Sergeant William Munroe attempted
to form them into a second line, and partially succeeded.[113]
Even later still a few more reached the Common, and were back to
the British as they wheeled grandly around the easterly end of the
meeting-house and at last stood on Lexington Common.[114] Captain
Parker's entire force then numbered between sixty and seventy
men,[115] ununiformed, scantily armed, poorly disciplined, pitifully
few as compared with the three or four hundred of the British.

It is no wonder that one minute-man exclaimed:

"There are so few of us it is folly to stand here."

Captain Parker heard the remark, and answered:

"The first man who offers to run shall be shot down."[116]

On came the British, almost on the run,[117] the light companies of
the Tenth Regiment in advance.[118] At their head rode Major John
Pitcairn and two other mounted officers.[119]

"Stand your ground," exclaimed Parker; "don't fire unless fired upon.
But if they want to have a war let it begin here!"[120]

Major Pitcairn galloped up to within six rods of Captain Parker's
foremost line, and exclaimed:

"Lay down your arms, you damned rebels, and disperse."

Captain Parker, seeing the utter hopelessness of armed resistance,
gave the order to disperse and not to fire.[121] He did not, however,
order his men to lay down their arms. Evidently Pitcairn wished to
disarm them, for while they were dispersing he shouted again:--

"Damn you, why don't you lay down your arms?"[122]

But no answer came back, and each one of Capt. Parker's little band
retiring from the field, carried his gun with him.

Then one of the other mounted officers, about two rods behind
Pitcairn, name unknown, brandished his sword and the regulars huzzaed
in unison. He then pointed his pistol towards the minute-men and
fired.[123]

Pitcairn was back to that officer, so did not see him fire. He heard
the discharge, and easily might have mistaken it as coming from
an enemy, for he had not authorized it himself.[124] Furious with
passion he gave the order:

"Fire!"

There was hesitation to obey from his men, for he repeated:

"Fire, damn you, fire!"[125]

The first platoon of eight or nine men then fired, evidently over
the heads of the minute-men, for none were killed or wounded.[126]
Pitcairn saw the effects of that volley and realized that his men did
not aim to kill. Then came his next order:

"G----d d----n you, fire _at_ them!"[127]

The second volley surely was fired to kill.

John Munroe, one of the minute-men in line, thought that the first
volley was nothing but powder and so remarked to Ebenezer Munroe, who
stood next to him. But as the second volley came quickly and with
fatal effect, the latter answered that something more than powder was
being used for he had received a wound in his arm, and, he added:

"I'll give them the guts of my gun."[128]

These two Munroes then deliberately fired at the British, though
the smoke from the latter's guns prevented a deliberate and careful
aim.[129] John Munroe, after retreating about ten rods, loaded a
second time, with two balls, and fired, but the charge was too heavy,
and he lost about a foot from the muzzle end of his gun.[130]

Jonas Parker, cousin to the Captain, was mortally wounded through the
body,[131] from the second volley, but having sufficient strength,
fired in return. He had but just uttered his determination not to
run, and had placed his hat on the ground at his feet, and in it put
his bullets and extra flints. The British bullet in his body caused
him to sink to his knees, but he heroically endeavored to reload. He
could not, before the advancing enemy were upon him, and one of them
ended his sufferings with a bayonet thrust.[132]

Jonathan Harrington, Jr., was mortally wounded, but staggered towards
his home, on the northerly end of the Common. He fell before reaching
there, struggled to his feet again, and staggered almost to his own
door, where he expired, just as his wife rushed to meet him. He fell
near the barn, then standing in what is now Bedford Street.[133]

Ensign Robert Munroe was killed while attempting to escape. He was
just at the edge of the Common, by the wall at Merriam's barn.[134]
His daughter, Anna, wife of Daniel Harrington, who lived at the
northerly end of the Common, must have seen the tragedy, as must also
his two sons, Ebenezer and John, and his two sons-in-law, Daniel
Harrington and Lieut. Tidd, all four in line with Captain Parker.

When Parker directed such of his force as were without ammunition
to proceed into the meeting-house near by, and supply themselves
from the town's stock, as we have written, Joseph Comee, Caleb
Harrington and Joshua Simonds entered the sacred edifice for that
purpose. Simonds succeeded in getting down from the upper loft to
the first balcony, two quarter casks of powder, and had removed
the head from one.[135] The opening volley, but a few rods away,
indicated to him that hostilities had commenced. He expected to meet
his fate. Pointing his gun to the open cask he resolved to blow up
the meeting-house, himself and his enemies, rather than to have them
enter and capture him.[136] Comee and Harrington attempted to escape,
and were running from the westerly end of the meeting-house, when the
latter was shot and instantly killed,[137] and the former wounded in
the arm. He made his way to the Marrett Munroe house, passed through
it and out of the back door, and escaped over the hill at the rear.

Then with savage ferocity the British rushed on, hunting down the
fleeing minute-men, as they attempted to escape in all directions. A
mounted officer, supposed to be Pitcairn, pursued William Tidd up the
North road (now Hancock Street), about thirty rods, calling out to
him:

"Damn you, stop, or you are a dead man!"

Thereupon Tidd leaped over a pair of bars, made a stand and
discharged his gun at his pursuer, who then retreated to the main
body.[138]

Solomon Brown was not idle. Though not in line with Captain Parker's
men, he was an active participant. After their second volley, he
opened fire from the back door of Buckman's Tavern, and then in order
to get a better shot, passed through to the front door, and fired
from there. The British retaliated with a return volley, and the
bullet holes in the old building still vouch for it. John Buckman,
the landlord, remonstrated with Brown, against having his house used
as a fort, so the latter took a new position, lying down behind a
neighboring stone wall back of the barn, and opened fire again.[139]
The British again responded. Their leaden bullets spattered against
the wall and from their impact little clouds of stone dust like
smoke, told a witness where they struck.[140] Brown's aim was at an
officer, and group of soldiers, and subsequently Abijah Harrington
saw a pool of blood on the ground where they stood.[141]

John Brown and Samuel Hadley were killed on the edge of the swamp, a
little way to the north of the Common. They were retreating, but not
beyond the reach of their pursuers' bullets.[142]

Asahel Porter, unarmed, non-combatant, and who had been brought
up from Menotomy with Josiah Richardson as prisoners, was killed
a few rods over the wall in Buckman's garden, to the eastward of
the Tavern. He had been liberated with other prisoners, and had
been cautioned not to _run_, but walk away. After walking a little
distance he felt impelled to run, and was pursued by a British
bullet, with fatal effect. Richardson walked away, and safely escaped.

The work of the British on Lexington Common, occupying less than
half an hour, was now finished. Their casualties were slight, one man
of the Tenth Regiment wounded in the thigh, another in the hand, and
Major Pitcairn's horse shot in two places.[143] The killing of the
minute-men, had, however, wrought the rank and file up to a frenzied
pitch of excitement, so much so, that the officers had difficulty
in forming them into line again.[144] They succeeded though. In the
meantime the main body under Lieut.-Col. Smith arrived, and when they
were all in marching order a volley was fired, and huzzas shouted as
an expression of victory, and then they proceeded on their way.[145]
Just then the sun rose on this new field of battle.[146]

Again the fife and drum, at first harsh and loud, echoing against the
neighboring hills; then fainter and fainter, as the troops marched up
and over the summit of Concord Hill, a mile away.

And when they were indeed gone, the men and women and children of
Lexington came forth from their hiding places and looked upon the
scene. We of today, have never seen our Common as they saw it, its
turf torn with horses' hoofs, and clotted here and there with human
blood; with prostrate figures of men, some with faces upward to the
sky, others with theirs smothered helplessly in the dust. One might
almost think they were asleep.

Such was the fulfilment of their solemn pledge, that they stood ready
to sacrifice "_everything dear in life, yea and life itself, in
support of the common cause_."[147]

Strong and willing arms then bore all of those precious dead into
the house of God. And we can imagine, as they came forth, that their
faces were turned towards Concord Hill, shining with a patriot's full
meaning. We can go with them through the day, as they join the men
of Acton; of Concord;--men from all over Middlesex, and Essex, and
Norfolk Counties, who also stood so ready to defend the common cause,
yea, even with life itself!

The dead on or near Lexington Common were Jonas Parker, Jonathan
Harrington, Jr., Ensign Robert Munroe, Isaac Muzzy, John Brown,
Samuel Hadley, Caleb Harrington, and Asahel Porter. The wounded were
John Robbins, so that he could not write his name or even make his
mark;[148] Solomon Pierce; John Tidd, sabre cut on his head by a
British officer;[149] Joseph Comee, on his arm;[149] Ebenezer Munroe,
Jr., on his arm;[150] Thomas Winship; Nathaniel Farmer; Prince
Estabrook (colored) and Jedediah Munroe (who was killed later in the
day).

Hardly had the soldiers of King George reached the summit of Concord
Hill, a mile away, ere stragglers, wearing the same uniform, were
seen coming up the road, apparently without fear or guile. There
were five in all, but as they came singly or in twos, were not
looked upon as dangerous belligerents. Joshua Simonds emerging
from the meeting-house, captured the first one, took his gun away,
and gave it to Captain Parker.[151] Deacon Benjamin Brown captured
one.[152] Joshua Reed, of Woburn, captured one, took away his gun
and other warlike equipments and turned him over to James Reed of
Burlington,[153] then called Woburn Precinct. Two more were taken on
or near the Common, and their arms, or those of two Britons at all
events, carried into Buckman Tavern by Ebenezer Munroe, later given
to minute-men, who had none of their own.[154]

Another prisoner, the sixth, was captured by Sylvanus Wood of
Woburn, the man who joined Captain Parker's Company, and stood in
line to receive the first volley, as the British marched into sight.
When they marched away he followed on, up over Concord and Fiske
Hills. Arriving at a turn in the road, beyond the latter, he came
unexpectedly upon a soldier who for some good reason had dropped
out of the ranks. He was seated at the roadside, and his gun leaned
at rest beyond his reach. Wood was a little man, about five feet
tall, but large in valor. So he demanded the surrender of his enemy.
Helpless as he was he could only comply, and Wood marched him back to
Lexington Common and placed him in the charge of a Mr. Welsh.[155]

This prisoner also was captured in Lexington, at the bluff near the
Bull Tavern, later kept by Mr. Viles. It stood not far from the
Lincoln line. He and four of the others taken on Lexington Common
were escorted to James Reed's in Burlington by Thomas R. Willard,
William Munroe, and E. Welsh.[156]

FOOTNOTES:

[106] Deposition of Wm. Munroe who states that he saw about two
hundred cartridge ends dropped by the soldiers when loading.

[107] Deposition of William Munroe, reciting a statement to him by a
British prisoner.

[108] Deposition of Captain John Parker.

[109] Article by Elizabeth S. Parker in Lexington Historical Society,
I, 47.

[110] "William Dimond. Died July 29, 1828. Aged 73." Inscription
on his gravestone in Peterboro, N. H. See article in the Boston
Globe, Sept. 23, 1903, speaking of him at length as the drummer in
Capt. Parker's Company. See also the deposition of Sylvanus Wood who
called him William Dimon. See also list of Capt. Parker's Company in
Boutwell's Oration at Acton.

[111] Deposition of Sylvanus Wood.

[112] Deposition of Sylvanus Wood.

[113] Deposition of William Munroe.

[114] Depositions of Nathaniel Parkhurst and thirteen others, and of
Nathaniel Mulliken and thirty-three others.

[115] Depositions of John Munroe, of Ebenezer Munroe, and of William
Tidd. Also of Lieut. Edward Thornton Gould, of the Fourth or King's
Own Regiment, taken prisoner at Concord.

[116] Depositions of Robert Douglass and of Joseph Underwood.

[117] Deposition of William Draper.

[118] Historical Memoirs of the 52nd Regiment copied in Evelyn's
Memoirs, pages 56-7.

[119] Depositions of Thomas Fessenden and of John Robbins.

[120] When this scene was re-enacted in 1822, William Munroe, Orderly
Sergeant under Parker that morning, repeated the words of Captain
Parker as above quoted, and added: "Them are the very words that
Captain Parker said." Report of the Committee on Historical Monuments
and Tablets, 1884. Paul Revere heard Captain Parker say: "Let the
troops pass by and don't molest them without they begin first." See
Revere's Narrative.

[121] Deposition of Captain John Parker.

[122] Rev. Jonas Clarke.

[123] Deposition of Thomas Fessenden.

[124] The English contention is that the Americans fired first. See
letter of W. S. Evelyn, who was with Percy; De Bernicre's Account,
and Lieut.-Col. Smith's Report. It seems to me of but little moment
as to who fired first. The council of war, convened by Gen. Gage,
April 18, wherein it was determined to march out and destroy the
public stores of Massachusetts was the first real hostile act and
could only lead to war. Major Pitcairn has denied that he authorized
that first shot. I believe him to have been gruff and profane, but
honest, brave, and faithful to his King. He died from wounds received
in the Battle of Bunker Hill.

[125] Depositions of William Draper; of William Munroe; of Simon
Winship; of John Munroe; and of John Bateman, a British soldier.

[126] Deposition of William Wood.

[127] MSS. narrative of Levi Harrington, a youthful spectator.

[128] Deposition of John Munroe.

[129] Deposition of John Munroe.

[130] MSS. narrative of Levi Harrington, and Deposition of John
Munroe.

[131] MSS. Narrative of Levi Harrington.

[132] Deposition of William Munroe.

[133] MSS. Narrative of Levi Harrington.

[134] MSS. Narrative of Levi Harrington.

[135] Phinney's History of the Battle of Lexington.

[136] Deposition of Ebenezer Munroe.

[137] MSS. Narrative of Levi Harrington.

[138] Deposition of William Tidd.

[139] Miss Mary Merriam, ninety years of age in 1887, reported to
Edward P. Bliss, that she had heard her father say (and he was
thirteen years old when the battle took place) that on that morning
some who would not stand up for their country believed the British
would not fire on _them_. They were at the Tavern. The British fired
on them, however, and they promptly retreated to the cellar and
attic. Edward P. Bliss in Lexington Hist. Society Proceedings, I, 71.

[140] Depositions of William Munroe, minute-man, and of Elijah
Sanderson, spectator. Also statement of Rufus Merriam, spectator,
then in his thirteenth year, to Rev. A. B. Muzzey. Young Merriam
overheard Buckman's remonstrance. Muzzey's Battle of Lexington, page
6. MSS. Narrative of Levi Harrington.

[141] MSS. Narrative of Levi Harrington; Deposition of Abijah
Harrington.

[142] MSS. Narrative of Levi Harrington, who, however, erroneously
names them John Parker and Isaac Hadley.

[143] A British officer in Boston in 1775, De Bernicre's Account,
Report of Lieut.-Col. Smith, Statement of a British Prisoner as
recited in Ebenezer Munroe's Deposition.

[144] A British Officer in Boston in 1775.

[145] Rev. Jonas Clarke, an eye-witness of this incident.

[146] At 5.19 A. M. Astronomical Diary and Almanack for 1775, by
Nathaniel Low.

[147] From a patriotic resolution passed in Town Meeting in December,
1773. Hudson's History of Lexington, page 92.

[148] His deposition April 24, 1775.

[149] MSS. Narrative of Levi Harrington.

[150] His deposition.

[151] This gun descended to his grandson, Rev. Theodore Parker, who
gave it to the State of Massachusetts. Bradford Smith in Lexington
Hist. Soc. Proceedings, II, 145.

[152] Deposition of Abijah Harrington.

[153] Deposition of James Reed.

[154] Deposition of Ebenezer Munroe.

[155] Mt. Vernon Papers by Edward Everett, page 430. Everett, a
member of Congress in 1826, secured a pension of $96 per year for
Wood. Once, when the latter was in Washington he introduced him to
President Jackson. See also the History of Woburn, by Sewall, who
received his information from Wood's son. Also see the deposition of
Wood.

[156] Deposition of E. Welsh.



LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S ADVANCE THROUGH LINCOLN.


The march of the British from Lexington Common to the Lincoln line
and thence through the Town of Lincoln and into Concord to Meriam's
Corner, a distance of a little over five miles, was without unusual
incidents. That part of Lincoln through which they passed is the
edge of the town, and then, as now, but sparsely settled. The
village of Lincoln is considerably to the westward, fortunately,
and thus most of the inhabitants were too remote for insult or more
serious trouble. The men of Lincoln, however, were not unmindful of
the enemy's movements, as we shall see later on. In the woods that
bordered the highway, the British saw some of them,[157] but not in
sufficient number evidently to oppose their advance.

[Illustration: _Plate II. A View of the Town of Concord_]

FOOTNOTE:

[157] Deposition of Lieut. Edward Thornton Gould, a British prisoner.



LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S ADVANCE INTO CONCORD.


From Meriam's Corner in Concord to the centre of Concord village is
about a mile and a quarter. From the Corner and on the northerly
side of the road, commences a line of hills rising fully sixty
feet,[158] or more above the road, which skirts along their edges,
and perhaps an eighth of mile from, and parallel to, their summits.
The ridge commands very easily and nicely the road, for the entire
distance, and was looked upon by both sides as a desirable place to
occupy. Captain Nathan Barrett and his company of Concord militia
had occupied that part of it near the meeting-house from about an
hour after sunrise, for they had received the intelligence of the
killing of six Americans at Lexington.[159] Capt. George Minot
and his company of minute-men, assembled there also.[160] Farther
along the ridge, towards Meriam's Corner, other Americans had taken
position,[161] probably as individuals. It was about two hours after
sunrise when the enemy came into sight.[162]

As Lieut.-Col. Smith came into view of this location he saw the body
of provincials along the ridge, and quickly decided to dislodge them.
The light infantry were ordered to that work, and they succeeded in
forcing the Americans back to the village. The grenadiers continued
along the road, driving before them there, Captain David Brown's
Company of Concord minute-men, who had marched up from the village
as far as Meriam's Corner, on a scouting trip. When the British were
seen descending from the hills of Lincoln, they halted, and when the
enemy came within about one hundred rods, wheeled about and marched
back to the village, the fifes and drums of both forces playing.[163]

On the hill not far from the village stood the Liberty Pole, from the
summit of which some kind of a flag was flying. The British cut it
down.[164]

It was between seven and eight o'clock, when the enemy reached
Concord village.[165] The march from Lexington must have been a
steady one, without interruption. The distance is about six and
a quarter miles and the elapsed time about two hours. The entire
distance from Lechmere Point is about seventeen miles, sufficiently
long, even thus far, to weary many of the soldiers. Add to the
length of the march, their loss of sleep, before starting, and the
excitement on Lexington Common, it is easy to imagine that a few
halts for rest were allowed, though an anxiety to accomplish their
errand would not have permitted of unnecessary delays.

Their advance into Concord village compelled the Americans to
move along to an adjoining hill just to the northward, which they
subsequently abandoned, and marched still farther along, passing
over the North Bridge and taking a stronger position on Punkatasset
Hill whose summit is fully two hundred feet[166] higher than Concord
River, and perhaps half a mile from the bridge, and rather more than
a mile from the village itself. It was their third position, and then
about eight o'clock in the morning.[167]

Reaching Concord village Lieut.-Col. Smith proceeded at once to carry
out the plan of his expedition, viz., the destruction of the military
stores. Ensign De Bernicre acted as guide to where they could be
found, for he had been one of the spies sent out by Gen. Gage for the
express purpose of locating them.

Smith found but few people in the village, for the able-bodied
men were with their companies, and many of the non-combatants had
considered other places more secure. Some, however, remained, and the
British officers labored to convince them that no bodily harm was
intended.

Pitcairn was especially active in that diplomatic work, but insisting
all the time that their doors must be unlocked that the soldiers
might search their premises. Many would not submit peaceably to
such an indignity, and one of those old men of Concord, had the
courage to strike Major John Pitcairn in the presence of the King's
soldiers.[168] We can imagine this incident happened before that
doughty officer entered Wright's Tavern, and called for liquor,
into which he plunged his finger to stir the sweetening. Some of
the precious fluid slopped over, which he likened to the way Yankee
blood should spill ere nightfall, a remark possibly inspired by his
over-wrought feelings at the affront.

Captain Lawrence Parsons of the Tenth Regiment, with six light
companies, was immediately despatched for the North Bridge, distance
three quarters of a mile. There he left Capt. Walter Sloane Lawrie of
the Forty-third Regiment, with three of the companies for guard duty,
while he proceeded with the other three companies, guided by Ensign
De Bernicre over the bridge and up the left bank of the Concord River
and its northerly branch, the Assabet River, to the home of Colonel
Barrett,[169] almost two miles from the bridge.[170]

Capt. Lawrie, arriving near the bridge, assigned one company of the
Forty-third Regiment to the bridge itself, one of the Tenth Regiment,
to a nearby hill, and one of the Fourth or King's Own Regiment to
another hill a quarter of a mile farther away,[171] so arranged as to
be within supporting distance of each other.[172]

After the six companies under Parsons had departed Lieut.-Col. Smith
sent Capt. Mundy Pole of the Tenth Regiment with a force, towards the
South Bridge, incidentally for guard duty there, and in particular to
destroy such military stores as they might find.[173] The distance
from the village to the bridge is almost a mile.[174] They went a
little beyond, to the homes of Amos and Ephraim Wood, and in the
vicinity of Lee's Hill.[175]

Within the village the British were very active in their search
for the military supplies. Public buildings, stores, and private
dwellings were alike examined. At the malt house of Ebenezer Hubbard
a considerable quantity of flour was discovered, and the end boards
of the building were pulled off, that the barrels might the easier
and faster be rolled out into the road, where they were broken open,
and the contents mixed with the dust.[176] At the store house of
Timothy Wheeler, another lot of flour was found, which the miller, by
a little artifice, saved. It was indeed public property, but Wheeler,
placing his hand upon the bags of meal, one after another, and which
stood with the flour, assured the soldiers that he was a miller, and
that they were his.

They were considerate enough to spare his personal property, and
included the flour.[177]

At the neighboring grist-mill several barrels were seized, and rolled
to or into the mill pond, but part was subsequently saved, as it
hardly reached the water.[178]

Deacon Thomas Barrett, brother of Colonel Barrett, was a resident of
the village. He was an aged man, and remained quietly in or near his
home while the soldiers were busy in looting and destroying. He was a
man of gentle demeanor, and unarmed, but they seized him, called him
rebel, and even threatened to take his life. He pleaded with them to
dispense with that trouble, for his extreme age meant that he should
soon die anyway. They permitted him to go in peace. In his building
was a gun-factory carried on by his son, Samuel Barrett.[179]

FOOTNOTES:

[158] U. S. Geological Survey, 1886.

[159] Deposition of Capt. Nathan Barrett and fifteen others, all of
Concord.

[160] Diary of Rev. William Emerson.

[161] Deposition of Lieut. Edward Thornton Gould, British.

[162] Deposition of Capt. Nathan Barrett and fifteen others.

[163] Capt. Amos Barrett's Account, who was then present as a member
of Brown's Company.

[164] A British Officer in Boston in 1775.

[165] De Bernicre, the British authority who was present, states the
time as being between nine and ten o'clock, but I follow Captain
Barrett and fifteen others who state in their deposition that it was
about two hours after sunrise.

[166] U. S. Geological Survey, 1886.

[167] Frederic Hudson in Harper's Magazine, May, 1875.

[168] Lieut.-Col. Smith's report.

[169] De Bernicre and Editor's Note to Diary of a British Officer.

[170] 1-74/88 miles, to be exact.

[171] Editor's Note in A British Officer in Boston in 1775, and
Deposition of Lieut. Edward Thornton Gould, British officer present.

[172] De Bernicre.

[173] De Bernicre.

[174] 82/88 mile to be exact.

[175] Frederic Hudson, in Harper's Magazine, May, 1875.

[176] Ripley, Rev. Ezra. History of the Fight at Concord.

[177] Ripley.

[178] The old mill-pond occupied a goodly portion of the land bounded
by Lexington Road, Heywood, Walden, and Main Streets, the northerly
corner almost reaching Wright's Tavern. Subsequently it was filled in
and now stores and dwellings occupy its entire area.

[179] Ripley.



BATTLE AT NORTH BRIDGE IN CONCORD.


In the meantime large numbers of Americans were gathering on the
hills to the northward beyond the river. The commander of the British
at the North Bridge and vicinity was not unmindful of that, and
deemed it wise to concentrate his little army of three companies
at the bridge itself, as that seemed to be the threatened point of
attack. Consequently the two remoter companies were marched down from
the hills and joined the third, and then all three marched to the
easterly or nearer end of the bridge.

[Illustration: _Plate III. The Engagement at the North Bridge in
Concord_]

[Illustration: CONCORD VILLAGE AND VICINITY.

1. Col. Barrett. 2. Barrett's Mill. 3. John Handley. 4. John White's
Store. 5. Widow Brown's Tavern. 6. J. Davis. 7. John Brown. 8. Fourth
American Position. 9. Major Buttrick. 10. Third American Position.
11. North Bridge. 12. Rev. Mr. Emerson. 13. Elisha Jones. 14. Second
American Position. 15. Capt. Eph. Jones's Tavern. 16. Grist Mill.
17. Wright's Tavern. 18. First American Position. 19. Meriam's
Corner. 20. South Bridge. 21. Lieut. Jos. Hosmer. 22. Eph. Wood. 23.
Discontinues Roads. 24. New Roads.]

About a quarter of a mile beyond the North Bridge, and in a westerly
direction from it, is a little hill about forty feet higher than
the river.[180] To reach it by road from the bridge meant traveling
over two sides of an irregular triangle, and going nearly half a
mile.[181] The crest of the elevation commands a beautiful view up
and down the river, with the North Bridge in the middle foreground,
and the village nearly a mile away to the southward.

The Americans moved forward from Punkatasset Hill to this, their
fourth position, at about nine o'clock, as their reinforcements had
augmented sufficiently to induce a growing feeling of aggressiveness.
Here were assembling the sturdy men of Concord and of Acton; of
Bedford, Lincoln, and Carlisle, and of other neighboring towns.
Joseph Hosmer acted as Adjutant, forming the soldiers as they
arrived, the minute companies on the right and the militia on the
left, facing the bridge.[182]

Col. James Barrett summoned his subordinate officers for a council of
war, the first one of the American Revolution, and while they were so
engaged, Captain Isaac Davis and his company of minute-men from Acton
arrived, and marched to a position on the left of the line, as they
had been accustomed to on training-days. After halting his little
command, Capt. Davis joined his brother officers in their council of
war.

There were then assembled on that little hill, four Concord
companies, commanded respectively by Capt. David Brown, fifty-two
men; Capt. Charles Miles, fifty-two men; Capt. George Minot, number
of men unknown; and Capt. Nathan Barrett, number of men also unknown.
From Acton there were three companies, one under Capt. Isaac Davis,
thirty-eight men; one under Capt. Joseph Robins, number of men
unknown; and one under Capt. Simon Hunt,[183] number of men also
unknown. There were two companies from Bedford, one being under
Capt. John Moore, fifty-one men; and the other under Capt. Jonathan
Willson, twenty-eight men. A little later Captain Willson was killed
and his command fell to Lieut. Moses Abbott. Lincoln was represented
by Capt. William Smith with sixty-two men.[184]

In addition to these regular organized soldiers, there were many
individuals present, who undoubtedly took a patriotic part in the
subsequent events, and easily constituted the American force as one
of at least four hundred and ninety.

These men looked down on the hostile troops at the Bridge, and beyond
the river to the village, where huge volumes of smoke were rising
from the bonfires of military stores. These seemed to them as the
burning of their homes. Inspired by that fear, and by their knowledge
of the bloodshed at Lexington, they were ready to follow where their
officers should lead. Their council could only decide in one way:

"_To march into the middle of the town for its defence, or die in the
attempt._"[185]

Col. Barrett then gave the order to Major John Buttrick to lead
an advance over the Bridge and to the centre of the town. And his
instructions were like those of Captain Parker a few hours before,
not to fire unless fired upon.

It was then between nine and ten o'clock.[186] Col. Barrett retired
to the rear on higher ground,[187] and Major Buttrick hastened to
execute his order. His choice for a company to lead was naturally
one from Concord, but the Captain of that one replied that he would
rather not.[188] We wonder at the reason, for Concord seemed to be
the most deeply concerned just at that hour. However, it could not
have been for lack of courage, for the Concord companies were a part
of that advance. Then Buttrick turned to Capt. Davis, and asked him
if he was afraid to go. Davis promptly responded:

"No, I am not; and there isn't a man in my company that is."[189]

He immediately gave the command to march, and the men of Acton
wheeled from the left of the line to the right, and were the first to
march upon the invaders.

Major John Buttrick of Concord led in person this little army down
the slope towards the river, but not until he had offered the command
to a superior officer who happened to be present, but without a
command, Lieut.-Col. John Robinson of Prescott's Regiment. Robinson
lived in Westford, and had responded to the alarm. Magnanimously he
refused the honor to lead, but with characteristic bravery, begged
that he might march by Buttrick's side, which the latter acceded to.
These were the two men in front of all the American host to first
march against the soldiers of their King.

Then came Captain Isaac Davis and his company of thirty-seven men
from Acton. Then next, a Concord company under Charles Miles. Then
two more Concord companies under Capt. David Brown and Capt. Nathan
Barrett.[190] Another company from Acton, then fell into line, the
one commanded by Capt. Simon Hunt. They were just turning the corner
of the main road when the firing at the bridge took place.[191] By
order of Col. Barrett the companies from Bedford and Lincoln next
fell into line. The march was by twos, and to the tune of "The White
Cockade," played by two young fifers, Luther Blanchard of Davis's
Acton company, and John Buttrick of Brown's Concord company.[192]

Down the road, now discontinued, in a southerly direction to the
point of the triangle, then back towards the Bridge in an easterly
direction, in all about a quarter of a mile, they marched.[193] The
British watched the advance keenly, and when the southerly point of
the triangle was reached, and the columns wheeled left towards the
Bridge, they commenced to pull up the planks. Major Buttrick, in a
loud voice, ordered them to desist, whereupon they left the Bridge
and hastily formed for action in the road just beyond the easterly
end. Then came the report of the first hostile gun in the battle of
Concord, fired from the British ranks. Solomon Smith,[194] a member
of Davis's Acton company, saw where the ball struck the river, on his
right, which then ran nearly parallel to the road. This was quickly
followed by two others, but they were not thought by the Americans to
be aimed at them either.

Still onward marched Major Buttrick and his little band. They soon
came nearly to the Bridge, when a sudden volley from the British
indicated their serious intention to check the American advance.
Luther Blanchard, the fifer from Acton, was slightly wounded.[195]

Major Buttrick heard his cry of anguish, and almost jumping into the
air, exclaimed:

"Fire, for God's sake, fire!"

The order was obeyed. The British responded, killing Capt. Davis and
one of his privates, Abner Hosmer. Davis on realizing that Blanchard
was wounded had taken a firmer position on a flat stepping-stone, and
while aiming his gun received a bullet through his heart. Hosmer was
killed by a bullet through his head.[196] Ezekiel Davis, brother of
the Captain, and a private in his company, was wounded, as was also
Joshua Brooks of Lincoln, whose forehead was slightly cut by a bullet
which continued through his hat.[197]

The opening volley of the Americans was also effective, killing one
private, and wounding Lieut. Hull of the Forty-third Regiment;
Lieut. Gould of the Fourth; Lieut. Kelly of the Tenth; Lieut.
Sutherland of the Thirty-eighth; and a number of the rank and file.

The Americans under Major Buttrick advanced and the three British
companies, under Lowrie, gave way, and retreated towards Concord
village. They were met on the way by reinforcements consisting of
two or three companies headed by Lieut.-Col. Smith himself, who was
responding to a very urgent request for assistance from Capt. Lowrie,
sent just before the engagement began. Smith being a "very fat, heavy
man," according to the testimony of one of his officers, who has left
an interesting diary for our perusal,[198] instead of reaching Lowrie
at the Bridge met him but a little way out of the village.

From the moment of that heroic advance of the Americans over the
bridge, military discipline among them ceased.[199] They rushed
after the retreating British but a few rods, then proceeded to an
eminence on the east side of the road back of Elisha Jones's house,
taking position there behind a stone wall, and perhaps an eighth of
a mile from where the British halted when they were met by their
reinforcements.[200]

Why the Americans turned aside instead of pursuing their enemies
into Concord village as they had resolved to do, can only be
surmised. Why they gave no heed to the small force still behind
them up the river, engaged in destroying American property at Col.
Barrett's, excites our wonder, too. Not lack of personal courage
surely, but rather a lack of military experience.

While these scenes were being enacted at the North Bridge, the
British force above alluded to, and consisting of three companies
under Capt. Parsons, had gone up the river, to the home of Col.
Barrett, nearly two miles from the Bridge. They were under the direct
guidance of the spy, Ensign De Bernicre, who had previously gone
over the road, and made himself familiar with its topography, and
particularly with the hiding of military stores among the homes along
the way. He knew thoroughly well of those at Col. Barrett's, and that
place above all others was the principal objective.

Early that morning the men in the Barrett family had busied
themselves in securing the Colonial stores. They had plowed a tract
of land about thirty feet square, south of the old barn and later
used as a kitchen garden. One guided a yoke of oxen, in turning over
the furrows, into which others dropped the muskets that had been
stored in the house. Succeeding furrows covered them nicely. Musket
balls were carried to the attic, put into the bottoms of barrels
which were then filled with feathers.[201] Other munitions were
hidden in the adjoining woods.[202]

When the soldiers reached there they found the homestead in care
of the venerable wife of Col. Barrett. Capt. Parsons explained his
mission, and assured her it was his aim to destroy public property
only, and to capture Col. Barrett.[203] They commenced their search,
but did not find as much as expected.[204] Nor did they capture the
commander of the minute-men.

While this work was in progress, Col. Barrett's son, Stephen, a young
man of about twenty-five years, returned from his mission, up the
river road to Price Plain, to intercept minute-men expected from
Stow, Harvard, and other towns in that vicinity. He wished to inform
them of the danger surrounding his own home, that they might travel
by some other road into Concord.

Reaching the kitchen door of his own home he was met by a British
officer, who, thinking he might be Col. Barrett, placed him under
arrest. Upon learning from Mrs. Barrett, however, of his mistake,
that he was her son, the young man was released.[205] Another son,
James, Jr., being lame and inactive, did not attract any hostile
attention.[206]

So successfully had Col. Barrett and his numerous assistants secreted
the large amount of provincial property left in his charge, that
Capt. Parsons found but little to confiscate or destroy. He seized
and burned a few gun-carriages in the road near the house.[207]

This was the remotest point of the British invasion. The three
companies at Col. Barrett's had by far the longest route of any, by
several miles. After a night without sleep, and so long a march they
were hungry and thirsty, and Mrs. Barrett was requested to supply
their wants. She was in no position to refuse. Some, if not all, were
willing to pay for what they had, but the good lady refused, saying:

"We are commanded to feed our enemy if he hunger."

Some, however, insisted, and on leaving tossed their money into her
lap. She could only exclaim:

"It is the price of blood!"[208]

The object of their mission being accomplished, so far as within
their power, they set out for a return march to the village by the
same roundabout route over the North Bridge, as they came. When at
Widow Brown's Tavern at the cross roads, within about a mile of the
Bridge, they halted and three or four officers entered the house
for drink. The soldiers sat at the roadside, and drink was carried
out to them. Pay was offered to Mrs. Brown by the officers, but she
declined to receive it. Charles Handley, a youth in his thirteenth
year, and a native of Concord, was living there, and has left his
sworn statement, that he then heard the guns at the Bridge, but that
the British did not appear to notice them. It was then generally
understood that they knew nothing of the engagement until their
arrival at the scene, and saw the British slain.[209] There were
two, one having been killed instantly, and the other, at first
wounded, and while helpless, despatched with a savage cut in the head
with a hatchet. It seems that after the British had been driven from
the Bridge and the Americans had also passed in pursuit, a young man
employed by Rev. William Emerson, at the Old Manse (still standing,
1912), came forth to view the field of strife. He saw the wounded
Briton attempting to arise, and in a thoughtless moment, conceived it
his patriotic duty to kill him. He did so, as the soldier was on his
knees, in a futile attempt to stand. The hatchet sank deep into his
skull, and the blood gushed forth, and covered the top of his head,
as he sank back to Concord battle ground. A little later the British
force under Capt. Parsons passed him on their way to the village.
They could only shudder, and bear away the impression, which was
subsequently published, that the Americans had scalped and cut off
the ears of their enemies.[210] The young man who did the deed lived
many years, and often confessed that his conscience had been sorely
troubled.[211]

The men under Captain Parsons were thus permitted to join the main
body of British very much to their surprise, and which was forcibly
expressed by Ensign De Bernicre in his account of the battle.[212]
As we have seen, the main body of the Americans halted on the high
ground to the eastward of the Elisha Jones house. From that moment to
the arrival of the British at Charlestown Neck, no one seemed to be
in command, and discipline of any kind was not attempted.

While Military critics cannot endorse the kind of warfare employed by
the Americans on that day, almost if not quite of a guerilla nature,
yet it must be confessed that their death roll was much smaller and
their success, in some respects much greater, than it would have been
had they fought as an army, in the open, under some brave commander.
The British, on the other hand, were ever in the highway, standing
or marching in a solid formation. The Americans were never more than
a dozen or a score, side by side, and usually not more than two
or three. Their selected position was a sheltered one; behind the
walls; among the trees; even within the houses. Often the vigilant
flank-guard, which Lieut.-Col. Smith counted upon so intelligently,
came upon them unawares, and so added to the American death roll. Had
they known the value of the flanking movements, and still fought as
individuals as they did from the North Bridge to Charlestown Neck,
but few would have been slain.

As we have seen, the Americans halted on the high ground to the
eastward of Elisha Jones's house. They felt that when the retreating
British were reinforced, they would return and renew the struggle.
In their strong position behind the stone wall they had no cause to
fear an assault, for the advantage would be greatly with them. But
Lieut.-Col. Smith also realized as much and turned his troops back
into Concord village.

Several of the minute-men then returned to the North Bridge, and
conveyed the bodies of Capt. Isaac Davis and private Abner Hosmer
to the home of Major Buttrick, which stood near the spot from which
they started on their fatal march.[213] Later in the day they were
conveyed to Acton.

Such was the baptism of Concord soil with the blood of its brave
defenders.

Captain Mundy Pole of the Tenth Regiment with one hundred men, had
been detailed by Lieut.-Col. Smith for guard duty at the South
Bridge. He was also instructed to destroy any public stores that he
might find in that vicinity.

The Bridge is nearly a mile southerly from the village, and in an
opposite direction from the North Bridge, the two being nearly two
miles apart.

Captain Pole reached there about eight o'clock, and promptly placed
a guard at the Bridge to prevent any one passing into or out of the
village. Then he foraged the immediate neighborhood for food and
drink for his force, which was easily accomplished, as most of the
able bodied men were absent on patriotic duties.

They searched the houses of Ephraim Wood, Joseph Hosmer and Amos
Wood, but with slight success, for most of the stores once there
had been secreted elsewhere. The Britons demeaned themselves nicely
in this neighborhood and were generous enough to pay for what food
they took. Each of the women at Amos Wood's house was presented
with a guinea. In this home was one room pretty well filled with
goods that were sought for. It was locked, but the gallant officer
believing that women were hiding within, issued orders that none of
his soldiers should enter it.

Capt. Mundy Pole's little expedition to this part of Concord, was
not entirely without results, however. He succeeded in knocking off
the trunnions of three iron twenty-four pounders, burning their
carriages, destroying a small quantity of flour, and several barrels
of trenchers and wooden spoons.[214]

Some of his soldiers ascended Lee's Hill, about one hundred feet[215]
higher than, and overlooking, the river down to North Bridge. From
there they could plainly see the growing excitement, as evidenced by
the moving about of the minute-men, and the constant accession to
their numbers. Finally there came echoing up the valley, the signal
gun, then two more, then the volley; and they knew the scene on
Lexington Common was being re-enacted.

They descended the Hill, and gathered with the others at the South
Bridge, removed the planks therefrom to protect their retreat, and
marched rapidly back to the main body in the village.[216]

Lieut.-Col. Smith now commenced to realize his distance from Boston
and the dangers that might lurk along the way. He had his entire
force assembled in Concord village very soon after ten o'clock, but
his many wounded soldiers required attention before he could begin
his return march. Some of them were attended by Dr. Cumings and Dr.
Minot, of the village.[217] As no provision had been made by the
British commander for the transportation of his disabled soldiers,
the people of Concord were called upon to supply the deficiency.
A chaise was confiscated from Reuben Brown, and another from John
Beaton. Bedding from near-by houses was added for the comfort of the
riders. Several horses were taken, among them one belonging to Capt.
Smith of the Lincoln Company, which he had, for some reason, left at
Wright Tavern, before he marched for North Bridge. Lieut. Hayward
of Concord, recaptured Reuben Brown's chaise from the regulars in
Arlington, and with it a horse, bedquilt, pillow, etc., for the
owners of which he advertised in the _Essex Gazette_ of Aug. 10,
1775.[218]

Besides his wounded, Lieut.-Col. Smith had his able-bodied men to
consider also. They had been without sleep since the time of starting
from Boston Common, at half past ten o'clock the evening before, and
possibly back to the night before that. They had already marched over
seventeen miles to Concord village, and those who had gone to Col.
Barrett's, and to the North and South Bridges, so much farther yet.
They had passed through the exciting scenes of bloodshed at Lexington
Common and North Bridge, which must have added agitated minds to
weary bodies. His soldiers needed rest and Smith knew it, and was
justified in granting the two hours that he did.

Aside from those reasons Smith had another good one for not
starting, at once. It will be remembered that when he had reached
Arlington (Menotomy) realizing his march had aroused the entire
community, he had sent back an urgent request to Gen. Gage for
strong reinforcements. He could reasonably expect them to reach any
place that he had, within three hours at least, of his time. But
unfortunately for Smith the forces under Percy had not started until
nine o'clock that morning, and were then less than five miles on the
way, and coming over a longer route than he had taken.[219]

The destruction of the public military stores, according to the
report of Lieut.-Col. Smith, hardly balanced his loss of prestige
even, to say nothing of the British lives that had been and would
be given up in the cause. He gives his men credit for knocking the
trunnions off from three field pieces of iron ordnance; destroying by
fire some new gun carriages, and a great number of carriage wheels;
and throwing into the river considerable flour, some powder, musket
balls and other small articles. De Bernicre in his account, adds
to the list, by mentioning barrels of trenchers and spoons of wood
destroyed by Capt. Pole.

While the bonfire was consuming the cannon wheels, it was discovered
that the Court House, facing the Green, was on fire. It was noticed
by Mrs. Martha Moulton, an elderly widow who lived close by, and
who had not fled with the younger part of the population as the
enemy approached. She felt that her years, seventy-one, would be
her protection, as indeed they were. She has left an interesting
statement of the events of those few hours,--how her home was invaded
by the soldiers for food and water; how Pitcairn and other officers
sat before her door, watching the soldiers in their destructive
work; how she discovered the Court House on fire, and how earnestly
she pleaded with them to put it out, even bringing water for them
to do so. At first they were indifferent, but finally yielded, and
extinguished the flames. Thus was the Court House saved, and possibly
some of the adjoining homes, by Martha Moulton.[220]

The provincial Congress, in their published account of the damages
sustained in Concord, aside from the public stores, set the value at
£274, 16s. 7d. of which £3, 6s. was for broken locks in His Majesty's
Jail.[221]

FOOTNOTES:

[180] U. S. Geological Survey, 1886.

[181] The road forming one side of the triangle, and leading from the
bridge, has been discontinued and now appears only as a part of the
river meadow.

[182] Lemuel Shattuck as quoted by Josiah Adams, page 27.

[183] Statement of Aaron Jones, a member, in Adams's Address, page 21.

[184] Affidavit of Amos Baker, a member.

[185] Survivors testified that both Major Buttrick and Capt. Davis
used these words. See Ripley's History of the Concord Fight.

[186] Journal of Capt. David Brown, Commander of one of the Concord
companies, as quoted by Adams, page 32.

[187] Ripley.

[188] Deposition of Bradley Stone.

[189] Depositions of Bradley Stone and Solomon Smith.

[190] Corporal Amos Barrett of Brown's Company indicates Davis's as
first and his own company as third. The exact order of the other
participating companies I am unable to give.

[191] Statement of Aaron Jones, a member, to Mr. Adams. See Adams's
Address, page 21.

[192] Frederic Hudson.

[193] Doolittle picture. Adams, 1835. Frothingham, 1851.

[194] Deposition of Solomon Smith.

[195] Deposition of Solomon Smith.

[196] Frederic Hudson.

[197] Deposition of Amos Baker.

[198] A British Officer in Boston in 1775. See also Rev. Mr.
Emerson's account, who speaks of the "marches and counter-marches for
half an hour," and their "great fickleness and inconstancy of mind."
Smith can hardly be blamed for nervousness at that moment with part
of his eight hundred men at Col. Barrett's, five hundred Americans
between, and another part of his force at the South Bridge.

[199] "Our company and most of the others pursued, but in great
disorder." Deposition of Thomas Thorp of the Acton Company. "The loss
of our Captain was the cause of much of the confusion that followed."
Deposition of Solomon Smith of the Acton Company.

[200] Deposition of Solomon Smith.

[201] Sidney, Margaret. Old Concord, Her Highways and Byways.

[202] Rev. Mr. Emerson's Narrative.

[203] Sidney.

[204] De Bernicre.

[205] Sidney, page 23.

[206] Frederic Hudson. The Concord Fight in Harper's New Monthly
Magazine, May, 1875.

[207] Ripley.

[208] Frederic Hudson.

[209] Charles Handley's Deposition.

[210] Deposition of Zechariah Brown and Thomas Davis, Jr., who buried
the two soldiers in a common grave near where they fell. A memorial
stone marks the spot.

[211] I have his name, but do not think it best to insert it in this
narrative. Revenge was deeply impressed on his mind by the bitterness
of public feeling against the mother country. He was too young to
exercise proper judgment in separating the soldier from his King.

[212] See De Bernicre's Account.

[213] Deposition of Solomon Smith.

[214] De Bernicre.

[215] U. S. Geological Survey, 1886.

[216] Frederic Hudson.

[217] Frederic Hudson.

[218] Frederic Hudson.

[219] In the Diary of A British Officer in Boston in 1775, and who
was with Smith in the Concord expedition, he writes of the return to
Lexington and the expected reinforcements: "We had been flatter'd
ever since the morning with the expectation of the Brigade coming
out, but at this time had given up all hope of it, as it was so late."

[220] Petition of Martha Moulton, Concord, Feb. 4, 1776, to the
Honorable Court of the Province of Massachusetts Bay for recognition
of her services on that occasion.

[221] Journals of Each Provincial Congress.



LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S RETREAT THROUGH CONCORD.


It was about twelve o'clock when Lieut.-Col. Smith gave the order to
march. As the neighboring hills were covered with provincials,[222]
he ordered out even larger bodies of flankers, and farther away from
the main body in the highway. The march along the Lexington road for
a little more than a mile to Meriam's Corner, was uneventful, but at
that place the struggle was renewed. There the men of Concord, Acton,
Lincoln, and Bedford, came within rifle shot of the highway. They had
passed along the Great Meadow, so called, northerly from the range of
hills near the highway, and reached Meriam's Corner at about the same
time that Smith did.

New American forces joined the contest here also. Billerica sent
Lieut. Crosby with twelve men; Capt. Edward Farmer, thirty-five men;
and Capt. Jonathan Stickney, fifty-four men. Chelmsford sent Capt.
Oliver Barron, sixty-one men, and Colonel Moses Parker's company,
forty-three men. Framingham sent Capt. Simon Edget, seventy-six men;
Capt. Jesse Emes, twenty-four men; Capt. Micajah Gleason, forty-nine
men.[223] Reading sent Capt. John Bacheller, sixty-one men; Capt.
Thomas Eaton, sixty-three men; Capt. John Flint, seventy-nine
men, and Capt. John Walton, eighty-eight men. Some of the Reading
companies, at least, marched from home under Major, afterwards
Governor, John Brooks. Rev. Edmund Foster accompanied Capt.
Bacheller's company, as a volunteer, and has left an interesting
narrative of what he saw. Sudbury sent Capt. Nathaniel Cudworth,
forty men; Capt. Aaron Haynes, forty men; Capt. Isaac Locker, thirty
men; Capt. John Nixon, fifty-four men; Capt. Joseph Smith, fifty
men, and Capt. Moses Stone, thirty-five men. Woburn sent Capt. Samuel
Belknap, sixty-six men; Capt. Jonathan Fox, seventy-two men; and
Capt. Joshua Walker, one hundred and seventeen men.

The American reinforcements coming in at Meriam's Corner numbered
eleven hundred and forty-nine, making a total of fifteen hundred and
seventy-seven enrolled men in the ranks of the Provincials if all at
the North Bridge still remained in the fight.

There were many other minute-men anxious to be in the first struggle,
but who lived too far away. Stow sent a company of militia belonging
to Col. Prescott's regiment, commanded by Capt. William Whitcom,
numbering eighty-one men. They did not reach North Bridge until
about noon, too late to be in the action there, but in ample time
to be active in the pursuit. We are told that another company from
Stow under Capt. Hapgood, also joined, but I find no returns in the
Massachusetts State Archives.

Three companies from Westford reached the North Bridge too late, but
were active afterwards. They were respectively under the command of
Capt. Oliver Bates, thirty-six men; Capt. Jonathan Minot, thirty-six
men; and Capt. Joshua Parker, forty-one men.

As the Reading men came along the road from Bedford, and nearing
Meriam's Corner, they discovered the flank guard of the British just
descending the ridge of hills. There were from eighty to one hundred
red-coats, and they were marching slowly and deliberately down the
hill, without music and without words. The Americans were but a
little over three hundred feet away. They halted and remained in
silence watching their foes. The British flankers soon gained the
main road, at the Corner, and passed along a few hundred feet towards
Lincoln and Lexington, over the little bridge that spans Mill Brook.
The Americans gathered around the Meriam house. As the British passed
the bridge they wheeled suddenly and fired in volley, but too high,
so no one was struck. Then the Americans returned the fire with
better aim, and two Britons fell on the easterly side of the little
stream, while several were wounded, among them Ensign Lester of the
Tenth Regiment.[224]

Less than half a mile along that road, from Meriam's Corner, is the
northerly corner of the town of Lincoln. Along on the edge of Lincoln
the highway continues; still in an easterly direction, for less than
another half mile, this stretch being on rather higher ground, the
northerly side of the road in Concord, the southerly side in Lincoln.
On the Lincoln side is the Brooks Tavern (still standing, 1912). This
little elevation is called Hardy's Hill, and is about sixty feet
higher than Concord village.[225] Along the summit the skirmishing
was actively renewed, and continued down its easterly slope into
Lincoln.

This ended the struggle in Concord, but her sons and the others were
not mindful of the boundary line. To them it was more than the Battle
of Concord; it was the Battle of April Nineteenth.

The patriots who died in Concord were Capt. Isaac Davis, and private
Abner Hosmer, both of Acton. The wounded were Luther Blanchard and
Ezekiel Davis also of Acton; Jonas Brown of Concord and Joshua Brooks
of Lincoln. These were all at the North Bridge. Abel Prescott, Jr.,
of Concord was wounded while in the village. The British killed were
two privates at North Bridge, and two at Meriam's Corner bridge.
Their wounded were Lieut. Gould of the Fourth Regiment, Lieut. Kelly
of the Tenth Regiment, Lieut. Sutherland of the Thirty-eighth, and
Lieut. Hull of the Forty-third, and a number of privates; all at the
North Bridge. At the little bridge near Meriam's Corner Ensign Lester
of the Tenth Regiment and several privates were wounded.

FOOTNOTES:

[222] De Bernicre thought there could not have been less than five
thousand rebels on the hills about Concord. His anxiety greatly
multiplied the real number.

[223] Massachusetts Archives.

[224] Rev. Edmund Foster and Ensign De Bernicre.

[225] U. S. Geological Survey, 1886.



LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S RETREAT THROUGH LINCOLN.


At the foot of the easterly slope of Hardy's Hill is a little stream
crossing the road in a northerly direction. It is in Lincoln, and on
most maps is put down as Mill Brook, the same that curves around and
crosses the road near Meriam's Corner, rather more than a mile back.
At Hardy's Hill it has sometimes been called Tanner's Brook.[226]

The British had now reached this point, and were marching rapidly,
keeping their flankers out parallel to the highway.

[Illustration: BATTLE ROAD THROUGH CONCORD AND LINCOLN.

1. Col. Barrett. 2. North Bridge. 3. South Bridge. 4. Meriam's
Corner. 5. Bloody Angle. 6. Sergt. John Hartwell. 7. Sergt. Samuel
Hartwell. 8. Revere Captured. 9. Nelson. 10. Hastings.]

Over the bridge and up another slight rise and then the road turns
at a sharp angle to the left, northeasterly, to still higher ground
about eighty feet higher than Concord village. On the northwesterly
side of that road was a heavy growth of trees and on the opposite
side a younger growth. On each side of the road, in those two
forest growths, many American minute-men were posted.[227] They had
anticipated the passing of the British, by hurrying across the Great
Fields, so called, from the Bedford Road near Meriam's Corner. Among
these were the Bedford company under Capt. Willson. This forest lined
road was only about a half of a mile in extent before it turned again
to the eastward.

When the foremost British reached this location the Americans poured
in a deadly volley, that killed eight and wounded many others.

The contest was by no means one-sided. The attention of the Americans
here, as all along the line to Charlestown, was too firmly fixed on
the ranks of the enemy marching in the road. The British flankers
were unnoticed and unthought of. Silently and rapidly they swung
along, on their parallel lines, and very often closed in on those
little tell-tale puffs of smoke that arose behind the trees and
walls, and among the bowlders. Thus were many Americans surprised and
slain--more, probably twice or thrice over, than were killed by the
soldiers in the highway.

It was at this bloody angle of Battle Road, that Capt. Jonathan
Willson of Bedford met his death. And so did Nathaniel Wyman, a
native of Billerica, but a member of Capt. Parker's Company. Daniel
Thompson, of Woburn, was also killed here. Another son of Bedford,
Job Lane, was severely wounded and disabled for life.[228]

The next day five of the British killed were removed to the little
cemetery, near Lincoln village several miles away, for burial. Not
many years ago the Town of Lincoln caused to be placed over their
common grave, a neat and appropriately lettered Memorial Stone.

After the northeasterly angle the road turns again easterly towards
Lexington. Half or three quarters of a mile along are the two
Hartwell houses, still standing (1912), on the northerly side of the
road, and but a few hundred feet apart.

In the westerly, or first one, lived Sergt. John Hartwell, and in the
easterly one, Sergt. Samuel Hartwell, both members of Capt. Smith's
Lincoln Company. Both were absent on duty then, but the wife of
Samuel was at home. She has furnished a vivid narrative of what she
saw and experienced, that afternoon and the following morning. Her
first alarm of the coming Britons was reports of musketry, seemingly
in the vicinity of the Brooks Tavern. Then nearer and nearer, to the
bloody angle. Then the hurrying red-coats themselves, anxious and
wild in their demeanor, as they hurried along past her house. And how
one, in his insane anger, fired into their garret, though he could
see no foeman there.[229]

For another mile along the Lincoln road the British must have had
some relief, for the country is comparatively level, the fields
extending away smoothly on either side. It was not a complete lull in
the battle, however, for an American bullet terminated the life of
one Briton at least. The remains were uncovered a few years ago when
the road builders were widening and grading anew the highway. He was
re-interred over the bordering wall in the field to the southwest of
the highway, a short distance westerly from Folly Pond.[230]

Then comes an easterly bend in the road, though still continuing
nearly level, and for about a quarter of a mile, to the Nelson
house.[231] Here lived Josiah Nelson, the Lincoln patriot, who, as
we have written, alarmed his neighbors in Bedford the night before.
Around it were many picturesque bowlders, large enough to shelter
venturesome minute-men. And they were there. William Thorning, one
of Capt. Smith's Lincoln company, had fired on the British from some
hiding place in this neighborhood, and they had returned his fire and
chased him into the woods. As he was thus escaping the main body,
he met the ever vigilant flank-guard, and but narrowly escaped them
also. Later as they passed along, he advanced to one of the Nelson
bowlders and fired again, at the British, probably with fatal effect.
Across the road from the house is a little knoll which is called
"The Soldiers' Graves,"[232] even to this day, for therein sleep
two British soldiers whose summons undoubtedly came from behind the
Nelson bowlders.

About a sixth of a mile yet farther along, stood the home of Samuel
Hastings, near the Lexington boundary line, yet within the town
of Lincoln. Hastings was a member of Capt. Parker's Lexington
Company,[233] and was present and in line for action when Pitcairn
gave that first order to fire. As the British column swept along, one
of the soldiers left the ranks and entered the house for plunder,
unmindful of the dangers lurking in the adjoining woods and fields.
As he emerged and stood on the door-stone, an American bullet met
him, and he sank seriously wounded. There he lay, until the family
returned later in the afternoon, and found him. Tenderly they carried
him into the house, and ministered to his wants as best they could,
but his wound was fatal. After his death they found some of their
silver spoons in his pocket. He was buried a short distance westerly
from the house.[234]

It was in Lincoln that Captain Parker's Lexington Company, numbering
in all one hundred and forty men, again went into the action,
probably not far from the Nelson and Hastings homes; and also the
Cambridge Company under Capt. Samuel Thatcher, seventy-seven men,
joined the pursuit from there.[235]

The American fatalities in Lincoln, as we have seen, were Capt.
Jonathan Willson, of Bedford; Nathaniel Wyman of Billerica, who was
a member of Capt. Parker's Lexington Company; and Daniel Thompson of
Woburn. Job Lane of Bedford was slightly wounded.

The exact British loss in Lincoln cannot be stated. It is known that
eight were killed at the Bloody Angle, and at least four more along
the road from there to the Hastings house. Many were wounded but no
statement or estimate has ever been given. The distance across that
part of the town is about two miles, and the fighting severe for more
than half the way.

FOOTNOTES:

[226] Frothingham's Siege of Boston. Rev. Mr. Foster's Account.

[227] Foster's Account.

[228] Stearns, Jonathan F. Bedford Sesqui-Centennial, page 26.
Ripley, page 21, seems to think that Lane was wounded a little
farther along at the Hartwell barn.

[229] Beneath Old Roof Trees, by Abram English Brown, page 221.

[230] Statement of Mr. George Nelson, near-by resident, who saw the
remains and pointed out to me in 1890 the locations of the old and
new graves.

[231] Standing until a few years ago, although in a shattered
condition. It had been abandoned as a habitation for many years. A
conflagration completed its destruction, and now only the scar of its
cellar-hole, and a pile of bricks that formed its mammoth chimney and
hospitable hearth, mark where it stood.

[232] Statement to me in 1890, of Mr. Nelson, owner of the old ruins
with the surrounding fields, and who pointed out "The Soldiers'
Graves."

[233] See his deposition in Journals of Each Provincial Congress of
Mass., but I do not find his name in any other place as a member.

[234] I am indebted to the great-grandchildren of Samuel Hastings,
Cornelius and Charles A. Wellington, for this statement. They were
residents of Lexington, but since both have died.

[235] See Massachusetts State Archives where twenty-eight miles is
the distance charged for by most of his men.



LIEUT.-COL. SMITH'S RETREAT TO LEXINGTON VILLAGE.


As the British forces again invaded Lexington soil undoubtedly they
looked for vengeance from the hands of the little band that stood
before them in the early morning. If they did anticipate as much they
were not disappointed, for as we have stated Captain Parker and his
men had come out into the edge of Lincoln to meet them.

Just over the line into Lexington, and a few rods north of the road,
the land rises about fifty feet rather abruptly and with a ledgy
face. This little summit commands a grand view up and down the road,
for quite a distance, and therefore was an ideal location for the
minute-men. Many were there awaiting the passing of the British, and
when they were opposite, poured down on them a volley. At least one
fell, an officer, for a few years ago a sword was taken up from the
depth of about four feet, evidently from his grave. It was almost
consumed with rust, but enough remaining to identify it as of British
make and of that period. The reports of muskets, and little puffs of
blue smoke betrayed the location of the marksmen, and the British
at once returned the fire. Their aim was without effect. One of
their bullets flattened against the ledge, and was also found by the
present owner of the land, buried in the decayed leaves and refuse at
the base of the ledge.[236]

Not more than a quarter of a mile farther along the road, stood
Bull's Tavern,[237] in later times known as Viles Tavern. Nothing
now remains of it but the cellar-hole and that is not so deep as
once. The soldiers ransacked the house for food and drink, but left
no recompense. A few rods more the road turns northeasterly around
a bluff twenty feet high, perhaps. The struggle was renewed there
furiously, for the British flankers could not manœuvre to protect
the main column so well, and they suffered severely for half a mile
or more towards Fiske Hill. Lieut.-Col. Smith was wounded by a
bullet passing through his leg.[238] Major Pitcairn's horse becoming
unmanageable through fright, threw him to the ground, and escaped
into the American lines, where he was captured, together with
equipments, including the Major's beautiful brace of pistols.[239]

Many British were wounded, and many killed, along this part of Battle
Road. A little way from the bluff, over the wall on the opposite
side of the road and in a southerly direction, are graves of two. No
memorial stone marks the exact spot, and even the mounds, too, have
long since dissolved away.[240]

The contending forces were now climbing Fiske Hill, about sixty feet
higher than the bluff.[241] The road at that time passed higher up
than at present, and near the summit fighting was more severe again.
One Briton, at least, fell there and was buried in the little strip
of ground between the old and new road. A heap of small stones once
marked the spot, but they have disappeared.[242]

Down the easterly slope of Fiske Hill stands a modest little
farmhouse, on the southerly side of the road. It was then the home of
Benjamin Fiske. The entire family had fled, and the stragglers from
the British columns entered for pillage. One in his greed stayed too
long. Brave James Hayward of Acton, willing to fight though exempt
from military service because of a partially dismembered foot, met
him at the door, laden with booty. The Briton recognized in Hayward
an enemy, and raising his gun, exclaimed,

"You are a dead man!"

"And so are you," responded Hayward as he raised his gun also. Both
fired--both fell, the British instantly killed and Hayward mortally
wounded, the ball piercing his bullet-pouch and entering his side.
He lived eight hours and was conscious to the last. Calling for his
powder horn and bullet-pouch, he remarked that he started with one
pound of powder and forty bullets. A very little powder and two or
three balls were all that were left.

"You see what I have been about," he exclaimed, calling attention
to the slight remainder. "I am not sorry; I die willingly for my
country."[243] And so Concord and Lexington, too, reverently treasure
the memory of brave Acton men, whose life blood stained the soil of
each.

Up the westerly slope of Concord Hill, an elevation named after
her sister town, marched the British. Their ranks were broken and
disordered. Many had been wounded, many had been killed, and many
had fallen exhausted by the wayside. It was then about half past
one o'clock, and they had marched rather more than twenty-three
miles. At that time their ammunition began to give out, which added
to their discomfiture. Their enemies seemed to be countless and
everywhere. De Bernicre, the spy, who was with them, has left a vivid
word picture of how anxious they were getting. "There could not be
less than 5,000," he says in his account, "so they kept the road
always lined, and a very hot fire on us without intermission....
We began to run rather than retreat in order." Lieut.-Col. Smith,
says, in his report, that the firing on his troops, which began in
Concord, "increased to a very great degree and continued without the
intermission of five minutes, altogether for I believe upwards of
eighteen miles."

Such was the impression on the minds of Smith, and his weary soldiers
as they hurried along down Fiske Hill and up Concord Hill. If he
entertained any idea of surrendering, though I have no evidence
that he did, he must have realized the hopelessness of that, for no
one seemed to be commanding the multitude before him, beside him,
and behind him. They constituted a large circle of individuals, but
made no attempt to stay his march or guide it in any way. They just
followed along, seemingly intent only on hunting down the King's
soldiers. Had some master mind been in charge of the patriot army,
Smith's entire force could easily have been taken prisoners. But this
was the first day of the war, and was only a contest between soldiers
and citizens. And so Smith was allowed to march along.

Near the foot of the westerly slope of Concord Hill stood the home of
Thaddeus Reed.[244] He was one of Captain Parker's Company. After the
British passed along the Americans picked up three severely wounded
soldiers and carried them into the house, where they all died. They
were buried not far away, a few feet westerly of Wood St., on the
northerly side of a stone wall still standing, and but a few rods
from Battle Road. Their graves are unmarked and almost unknown.[245]

The British flankers were now so thoroughly tired out that they could
hardly act in that capacity, and were of but little use as protectors
of the main body. The severely wounded were abandoned to some extent.
Many of the slightly wounded were carried along somehow, but they
greatly impeded the march. Hopes of reinforcements were practically
abandoned.[246]

And so they proceeded up the hill, the summit of which is fully
forty feet higher than Fiske Hill and at least eighty feet higher
than Lexington Common,[247] now in view less than a mile away. They
must have been anxious to reach and pass that little field. Down
the easterly slope of Concord Hill they almost ran, in more or
less confusion and intense excitement. The Americans were actively
keeping up their firing, and so more Britons were killed and wounded,
three of the latter so severely that they were abandoned by their
fellow soldiers, fell into the hands of the Americans and were taken
into Buckman Tavern.[248] One subsequently died and was buried with
the British slain in the old cemetery near by. Their graves are
unmarked.[249]

The British did not stop to disperse any rebels on Lexington Common,
for none were there to oppose their retreat, but passed off the
southeasterly point, as the Americans came promptly after them on the
northwesterly side. It was between two and three o'clock when they
reached the site of the present Lexington High School, a trifle more
than half a mile from the Common. There they met the long-wished for
reinforcements, under Lord Percy, who opened his ranks, and enclosed
them in his protecting care. Many sank immediately into the road
where they halted, for their physical condition was pitiful in the
extreme. One of the contemporary English historians, an officer in
the British Army in America, has described them as lying prone on the
ground, like dogs with protruding tongues.[250]

Percy then quickly wheeled about his two field pieces,[251] and
opened fire up the road, towards the Common, where he could see the
Americans were gathered. It was not fatal in its effect, but served
to scatter them and do considerable damage to the meeting-house, one
ball passing through it. Col. Loammi Baldwin, of Woburn, was one who
had been standing in sight of the British, but he sought shelter
behind the sacred edifice when he realized the enemy had opened fire
with artillery. When a ball passed through the meeting-house and came
out near his head he retreated northwesterly to the meadow.[252]

Not many of the Americans had been killed thus far, in the retreat
of the British through Lexington. We have spoken of James Hayward of
Acton, killed on the easterly side of Fiske Hill, and must add the
name of Deacon Josiah Haynes of Capt. Nixon's Sudbury Company, who
met his death somewhere along the road from Fiske Hill to Lexington
Common.[253] He was a venerable man, in his seventy-ninth year,[254]
and had marched from his home down to Concord village, up through
Lincoln, and into Lexington. He was thoroughly in earnest in his work
of driving the British back to Boston, and in an unguarded moment
exposed himself to one of the King's riflemen.

On the Lexington part of Battle Road, many British were killed and
many wounded. Among the latter were Lieut. Hawkshaw, Lieut. Cox, and
Lieut. Baker, all of the Fifth Regiment; Ensign Baldwin and Lieut.
McCloud, of the Forty-seventh Regiment; and Captain Souter and
Lieut. Potter of the Marines.[255] I have previously mentioned the
wounding of the commander, Lieut.-Col. Smith, on the westerly slope
of Fiske Hill.

After the British had departed from Lexington immediate attention
was given to the Lexington patriot dead who were slain on the Common
in the early morning. From the field of battle they had been borne
to the meeting-house, and there a simple service held over them,
consisting of a prayer by Rev. Jonas Clarke. Then they were carried
to the little church-yard, where one broad grave received them all.
It had been a day of terror in Lexington, and some fear was felt that
the enemy might return and wreak yet further vengeance, even upon the
dead. So the grave was made in a remote part of the yard, near the
woods, and the fresh mound of earth itself hidden beneath branches
cut from the neighboring trees.[256] And not forgotten three score
years later, their grateful fellow townsmen removed their remains to
the field where they died, and erected a monument to their memory.

FOOTNOTES:

[236] The sword and bullet were found by Mr. John Lannon about 1895,
and from whom I obtained them. He was then as now owner of the farm.
In removing a bowlder from his garden it was necessary to dig around
it and on one side to a depth of about four feet. There he found
the sword and a little of its rust-eaten scabbard, and quite likely
in the grave by the side of its wearer. The bullet once round, now
not half that, had struck the ledge rather than the American on its
summit, and fell harmlessly at the base.

[237] Rev. Mr. Foster called it Benjamin's Tavern.

[238] De Bernicre's Account.

[239] The accoutrements were taken to Concord and later sold by
auction. Capt. Nathan Barrett bought the pistols, beautiful ones,
with elaborately chased silver mountings, with Pitcairn's name
engraved thereon. Capt. Barrett offered them to Gen. Washington, who
declined them, and then to Gen. Putnam, who carried them through the
war. They were brought to Lexington on Centennial Day, April 19,
1875, for exhibition by Rev. S. I. Prime, D.D., on behalf of the
owner, a widow of John P. Putnam, of Cambridge, N. Y., who was the
grandson of Gen. Putnam and to whom they descended. Later Mrs. Putnam
gave them to the town of Lexington and they are now on exhibition by
the Lexington Historical Society (See Handbook of Lexington, 1891.)
Rev. William Emerson of Concord, requested of the Third Provincial
Congress, June 1, 1775, the use of a horse, probably Pitcairn's,
which they granted specifying one captured from a regular by Isaac
Kittredge, of Tewksbury, Capt. Nathan Barrett, and Henry Flint, of
Concord, Mr. Emerson to pay a reasonable price for its keeping up to
that time.

[240] Statement to me by the late Rev. Carlton A. Staples.

[241] U. S. Geological Survey, 1886.

[242] Statement of H. M. Houghton to the Rev. Carlton A. Staples,
who so informed me. Mr. Houghton lived in that vicinity during his
boyhood and furnished a roughly sketched plan to Mr. Staples.

[243] James Fletcher's History of Acton, in Hurd's History of
Middlesex County.

[244] See Foster's Narrative.

[245] The exact spot was pointed out to me by the late Rev. Carlton
A. Staples, Sept. 11, 1900, who received his information accompanied
by a plan from H. M. Houghton.

[246] Diary of a British Officer in Boston in 1775, who was a member
of the expedition.

[247] U. S. Geological Surveys, 1898, 1900.

[248] Foster's Account. E. P. Bliss gives the number as two, in
Lexington Hist. Soc., I, 75.

[249] E. P. Bliss, in Lexington Historical Society, I, 75.

[250] C. Stedman. History of the Origin, Progress, and Termination of
the American War. London, 1794.

[251] Percy's Report to Gen. Gage.

[252] The damage to the meeting-house by the cannon ball cost the
Town of Lexington to repair £1 1s. Rev. C. A. Staples in Lexington
Historical Society, I, 21.

[253] Ripley.

[254] Hudson's History of Sudbury.

[255] De Bernicre.

[256] "Father sent Jonas down to Grandfather Cook's to see who was
killed and what their condition was and, in the afternoon, Father,
Mother with me and the Baby went to the Meeting House, there was the
eight men that was killed, seven of them my Father's parishoners,
one from Woburn, all in Boxes made of four large Boards Nailed up
and, after Pa had prayed, they were put into two horse carts and took
into the grave yard where your Grandfather and some of the Neighbors
had made a large trench, as near the Woods as possible and there we
followed the bodies of those _first slain_, _Father_, _Mother_, I
and the Baby, there I stood and there I saw them let down into the
ground, it was a little rainey but we waited to see them covered up
with the Clods and then for fear the British should find them, my
Father thought some of the men had best Cut some pine or oak bows and
spread them on their place of burial so that it looked like a heap of
Brush."

I am indebted to the Lexington Historical Society, Proceedings, Vol.
IV, page 92, for the above extract from a letter written by Miss
Elizabeth Clarke, daughter of Rev. Jonas Clarke. It is dated from
Lexington, April 19, 1841, and written to her niece, Mrs. Lucy Ware
Allen, whose mother was Mary, another daughter of Rev. Mr. Clarke.
The writer, Miss Elizabeth, was then in her seventy-eighth year. I am
inclined to think that Asahel Porter, the Woburn man, was buried in
his own town. Though killed near the Common he was not one of Capt.
Parker's Company.



EARL PERCY MARCHES TO REINFORCE LIEUT.-COL. SMITH.


As the command of Lieut.-Col. Smith will now rest for a brief period,
let us go back to Boston and start with Earl Percy, on his mission to
reinforce the former, and consider his delays and difficulties, and
why he got no farther than Lexington.

As we have seen, it was between two and three o'clock in the morning
when Smith reached Arlington, and becoming alarmed at the increasing
attention his soldiers were attracting;--attention that seemed to
him hostile, he despatched back to Gen. Gage an urgent request for
reinforcements. His messenger should have reached Gage within two
hours easily, for to retrace the march was less than six miles by
land with an additional half a mile or little more by boat across
the Charles River. So Gen. Gage should have had Smith's message by
five o'clock, at least. He acted promptly, by ordering the First
Brigade, consisting of eight companies of the Fourth, Twenty-third,
and Forty-seventh Regiments, under arms, and to these were added two
detachments of the Royal Marines to be under Major John Pitcairn. Two
pieces of artillery, six-pounders, were also added to the force, and
the whole placed under the command of Lord Percy, with the title, for
the occasion, of Acting Brigadier-General. His little army numbered
about one thousand men.

[Illustration: HUGH, _EARL_ PERCY.

_Published, Sep.^r 30^{th} 1785, by John Fielding, Pater Noster
Row._]

It was about seven o'clock when the eight companies assembled on
Tremont Street, and the line extended from Scollay Square to the
lower part of the Common. There they waited for Pitcairn and his
Marines, nearly two hours. Finally it dawned upon the mind of General
Gage that his orders to that worthy officer might still be lying on
his desk unopened, for he had been granted permission to accompany
Lieut.-Col. Smith as a volunteer, and perhaps had gone. Such proved
to be the case and the two hours were lost. Then another commander
for them was selected, and they were in line at nine o'clock.[257]
These two hours would have meant Percy's force almost into Concord
instead of into Lexington village, and would have made great
difference in the results of the day's fighting.

Percy, mounted on a beautiful white horse, headed the column, and
they proceeded over Boston Neck, through the present Washington
Street, to Roxbury, up the hill to the meeting-house, then to the
right, where the old Parting Stone then stood, even as it does
to-day. In Roxbury his soldiers excited the attention of a very young
patriot, who laughed derisively as the musicians played "Yankee
Doodle." Lord Percy noticed him and asked the reason of his mirth.
The boy responded:

"To think how you will dance by-and-by to Chevy Chase."

The British commander felt uncomfortable the rest of the day because
of the suggestive and prophetic reply.[258] He continued into
Brighton and to the westerly bank of the Charles River, opposite to
Harvard Square in Cambridge. At that place the river is narrow and
thus easily bridged even in those early days, and over that was then
the only way into Boston by road from the upper towns in Middlesex
County.

The Americans, anticipating Percy's movements, had taken up the
planks of the bridge, but did not continue the good work thoroughly,
for they piled them handily on the Cambridge side. It was a simple
matter for Percy's engineers to cross over on the stringers and
re-lay enough of them for his soldiers to pass into Cambridge. But
had the planks been farther removed Percy was prepared to replace
them, for he had brought with him sufficient for the purpose and
carpenters to do the work. He anticipated the partial destruction of
the bridge at least, and prepared his remedy accordingly, and must
have been surprised at the point where the Americans concluded their
labors. He carried his planks along about a mile and a half, and then
sent them back as they were only an encumbrance. He had no use for
them on his return for he had another plan, as we shall see later
on.[259]

It was at the bridge that Percy marched ahead and left his wagon
train of supplies to follow on, as soon as they could safely cross.
The delay to them was considerable and so the main army soon passed
out of sight.

The round about route the British had taken to reach Harvard Square
was necessary, at that time, because as we have stated, no bridge
crossed the river lower down. Could he have crossed as we do to-day,
the distance would have been but a little over three miles, whereas
it was eight miles as he marched, or nearly two hours more time. He
could not cross in boats as did Lieut.-Col. Smith, for two reasons:
first, his soldiers were too many, and secondly, the boats were even
then moored on the Cambridge side awaiting Smith's return.

When Percy reached Cambridge, he was somewhat puzzled to know just
which way to start for Lexington. In his official report he declares
the houses were all shut up and there was not a single inhabitant to
give him any information about the force under Smith. He did find one
man, Isaac Smith, a tutor in Harvard College, who directed him along
the right highway. When his fellow citizens of Cambridge learned of
this free intelligence, a little later on, they were indignant--and
Isaac Smith, feeling reproved, shortly afterwards left the country
for a while. It does not appear that he intended to aid and abet
the enemy, but granted the little courtesy without thinking of its
value. It was regretted that Percy was not sent down into the marshes
bordering Willis Creek, and so delayed an hour or more.[260]

The British marched rapidly on leaving Harvard Square and were
soon quite a distance ahead of the baggage train, deeming it safe
to leave it to follow under the guidance of a sergeant's guard of
twelve men. It was no small task to get it safely over the dismantled
bridge, and the delay there was considerable. Vigilant Americans
watched the proceedings and realized the opportunity to seize it.
They hurried on to Arlington to formulate their plans for its
capture. As Cambridge seemed to be generally deserted, the sergeant
and his men evidently felt no uneasiness at their delay. In due time,
however, they were on the march again, headed for Lexington.[261]

Not long after they passed the Charlestown road, the Beech Street of
today, Dr. Joseph Warren and his friend Dr. Thomas Welsh came into
Cambridge. Warren lived in Boston, and left his home that morning
and crossed the ferry into Charlestown. There he met Welsh and many
other citizens and communicated to them the news he had received by
special messenger from Lexington. It was then about ten o'clock.[262]
A little after, he and Dr. Welsh on horseback, were on their way to
Cambridge, where they arrived, only to find the road ahead occupied
by the baggage-train. They endeavored to pass but were not permitted
to do so. The sergeant inquired of Dr. Warren if he knew where the
British troops then were; but the doctor could only give a negative
reply. There seemed to be quite a little uneasiness in the minds of
the British, as they evidently feared they were too widely separated
from the main body and might be captured.[263] A guard of twelve men
is not a large force to conduct a baggage-train through a hostile
country. Percy's first and most serious mistake had been committed.
It was then noon-time, or a little after.

In the meantime about a dozen of the elderly men of Menotomy, exempts
mostly, assembled near the centre of the village and waited the
arrival of the baggage train. Among them were Jason Belknap, Joe
Belknap, James Budge, Israel Mead, Ammi Cutter and David Lamson, a
half Indian. Some of them had served in the French War. Rev. Phillips
Payson, A.M., of Chelsea, was also present and took an active
part.[264] They chose Lamson to be leader, and took a position behind
a stone wall on the northerly side of the road, nearly opposite the
First Parish Meeting-House. As the baggage-train appeared nearly
opposite, Lamson ordered his men to rest and aim at the horses, at
the same time calling out to the sergeant to surrender. He made no
reply, and his driver whipped up the horses to escape. It was too
late, for American bullets easily stopped them, killed two British
soldiers and wounded several others.[265] The soldiers then abandoned
their charge and ran southerly along the westerly shore of Spy Pond,
as far as Spring Valley, where they came upon an elderly lady of
Menotomy, known as Mother Bathericke, engaged in digging dandelions.
They begged her assistance and protection, consequently she
conducted them to the house of Capt. Ephraim Frost, where they were
detained as prisoners,[266] and probably to their mental relief. They
were thoughtful enough not to include their guns in the surrender,
for some were thrown into Spy Pond, and one was ruined by striking it
heavily over a stone wall and bending it hopelessly out of shape.

The captured wagons were drawn down into the hollow, still to be seen
a little northeasterly of the present Arlington railroad station,
where the contents were distributed freely to all comers. The living
horses were driven off to Medford, and the bodies of the dead ones,
in accordance with the suggestion of the Rev. Mr. Cook, who feared
exciting the anger of the returning British, were dragged away to the
field near Spring Valley, westerly of Spy Pond. And there, for many
years, their bones bleached in the sun.[267]

All other marks of the contest were obliterated from the highway,
that Percy might not trace what had happened to his baggage-wagons
and wreak vengeance upon the townspeople.

Gen. Percy[268] marched less than two miles beyond Arlington centre,
when he distinctly heard the firing in Lexington. He was not far from
the boundary line between Arlington and Lexington and the time was,
as he has written, between one and two o'clock.[269] At about that
time he met Lieut. Gould of the Fourth, or King's Own Regiment, who,
as we have written, was wounded at the North Bridge and was then
returning in a borrowed Concord chaise, drawn by a borrowed Concord
horse. From him Percy learned the details of Lieut.-Col. Smith's
march, and of his present urgent need of assistance. He hurried along
towards Lexington, and Lieut. Gould continued his retreat towards
Boston, but was captured as he reached Arlington village. The exact
spot was on the present Massachusetts Avenue, near Mill Street,
and his captors were some of the old men who had destroyed the
baggage-wagons. Gould was first taken to Ammi Cutter's, and then to
Medford,[270] and his own deposition shows that he was kindly treated.

At last, after a march of nearly sixteen miles,[271] Percy met the
returning force under Lieut.-Col. Smith, who had passed Lexington
Common, the scene of his engagement in the morning, and was down the
road towards Boston, half a mile. The place of meeting was opposite
the present Lexington High School, and the time between two and three
o'clock. Percy being the ranking officer, immediately took command of
the united forces. It did not take him long to realize the terrible
condition that Smith's troops were in, and to minister to their
wants. As they halted in the road, his own ranks opened to receive
them, and there they sank to the ground utterly exhausted. Such as
could eat or drink were supplied from his own stores, while the
wounded were taken still farther down the road, less than a quarter
of a mile, to the Munroe Tavern, which he proceeded to establish
as his headquarters and for use as a hospital. Near the place of
meeting, coming in from the eastward, was then and is now, the Woburn
road, the bordering walls of which sheltered plenty of American
minute-men. Back a little to the southward rose the modest elevation
now sometimes called Mt. Vernon. Americans were there also, for it
was high enough for them to look down on the highway very nicely if
permitted to do so. Percy's flankers, however, were directed to clear
all surrounding locations of enemies to the King, and Mt. Vernon and
the Woburn road were soon under the British flag again, or nearly
so. But occasionally from some obscure or neglected corner, rose a
puff of blue smoke and then the wearer of that brilliant red uniform
would tumble over in the road, wounded or dying, or dead. Little
bodies of minute-men, unorganized always, were seen dodging back and
forth around the meeting-house on the Common. Other little groups,
and many singly, were noticed climbing over walls, emerging from, and
disappearing again, behind clumps of bushes, and trees, and houses;
hardly ever in sight long enough to shoot at. Percy, thinking to awe
them, wheeled his two six-pounders into position and opened his first
cannonade on the meeting-house on Lexington Common. It was likewise
the first cannon fired in the American Revolution. No American was
killed, or even wounded, but the house of God in Lexington suffered,
and it cost the town some money to repair it. The cannon ball
crashing through the meeting-house did have the effect to drive the
Americans farther back, and probably out of rifle range for a while.

[Illustration: _Plate IV. A View of the South Part of Lexington_]

Percy having thus scattered his near-by enemies then moved one of his
six-pounders a few rods down the road near the present Bloomfield
Street, then up the little elevation to the southward, now called Mt.
Vernon. The precise spot was probably about opposite the northerly
end of the present Warren Street. He strongly supported it with a
part of his brigade.[272] This location was an excellent one for
artillery, as it commanded the highway for fully a mile to Lexington
Common and beyond. As before, his gunner could find no American long
enough in one place to aim at. So there were no fatalities.

While Smith's soldiers were resting, some of those under Percy
as reinforcements wandered about that part of the village bent
on mischief and pillage, not the kind usually indulged in by the
average rowdy element of an army, but on a much larger and grander
scale. Houses and outlying buildings were looted and burned. The
first ones were owned by Deacon Joseph Loring, non-combatant,
seventy-three years of age, situated close by the meeting place of
the two detachments, on the westerly side of the road. This group
of buildings consisted of a mansion house, a barn seventy-five feet
long, and a corn house. All were completely destroyed, together
with such of their contents as could not be carried away. About
two hundred rods of Loring's stone walls were also pushed over,
emphasizing strongly the feeling of hostility existing among the
British soldiers for their American cousins. His loss was £720.[273]
This wanton and needless destruction of property must have been by
the express command of Percy, for he was but a few rods away.

On the easterly side of the road, nearly opposite the Loring house,
standing on the site of the present Russell House, was the home of
Matthew Mead. That, too, was within a few rods of where Percy sat on
his white horse, but it was ransacked by his soldiers, and Mead's
loss was £101.[274]

Another plundered Lexington home in that neighborhood belonged to
Benjamin Merriam, one of Parker's Company, and of course absent. His
house was not burned, but damaged to the extent of £6. His loss of
personal property amounted to £217, 4s.[275] The building is still in
existence, but has been moved easterly into Woburn Street across the
railroad tracks. Its original location was on the westerly side of
Massachusetts Avenue, a few rods north of Winthrop Road, and easily
within sight of the British commander, Lord Percy.

And let us not forget that from that time on, Percy was in supreme
command of the united British forces, amounting to nearly eighteen
hundred men. To him belongs the credit of a masterly retreat, for
his loss in killed and wounded was surprisingly small considering
the number of American riflemen in pursuit. To him belongs the blame
also for the burned homes of inoffensive non-combatants, for the
killing of such helpless old men as Raymond; for the summary removal
of Hannah Adams and her infant from child-bed; for the killing of
feeble-minded William Marcy; for the killing of fourteen-year old
Edward Barber. His entire march back to Charlestown was thickly
dotted with just such incidents, unrelieved by any conspicuous
merciful action, or by any deed of bravery. It was a masterly
retreat, indeed,--and it was a brutal one, too. Happily for the
American patriots in succeeding contests, no other British commander
seemed inspired by such revengeful instincts. Happily for the British
historian he has no other such brutal events to apologize or blush
for. Percy occupies his one page in history, uniquely, at least.
His services in America, terminated soon thereafter, and at his
own request, and for some reason which we know not of. Possibly he
was satisfied with the fame, such as it was, which he won on that
glorious day.[276]

The next Lexington home to be destroyed by the incendiary belonged
to the widow Lydia Mulliken and her son. It stood not far from
Loring's, on the main road to Boston, nearly opposite the present
Munroe School. The clock shop connected with the same estate was
also burned. As in the previous cases such personal effects as were
desired by the soldiers were first removed and subsequently carried
away. The works of a valuable musical clock were found in the
knapsack of a wounded Briton, when he was subsequently captured.[277]
The Mulliken loss was £431.[278]

John Mulliken, cabinet-maker, son of the widow, and living in
Concord, joined in the pursuit, and came as far as Lexington. There
he saw his mother's house in flames, which affected him so deeply
that he could proceed no farther.[279]

A modest little home and shop belonging to Joshua Bond, standing
northwesterly from Munroe Tavern, and very near the present beginning
of "Percy Road," were first looted, and then burned. His loss was
£189, 16s. 7d.

The greater part of these happenings were within that first half hour
after Percy took command of the united British forces, and before he
began his retreat. This energetic destroyer of American homes had
selected Munroe Tavern as his temporary headquarters, and ordered his
wounded conveyed there also. While their wounds were being dressed
his men demanded such refreshments as the place could provide, and
unlike Smith's subordinates in Concord, were not considerate enough
to pay for them. So landlord William Munroe's loss was £203, 11s.
9d., of which £90 was in the "retail shop," presumably of a liquid
nature. As he was orderly sergeant in Captain Parker's Company, he
was naturally absent on duty, and left a lame man, John Raymond, in
charge, who waited upon the unbidden guests because he was compelled
to. His last service was to mix a glass of punch for one of the
red-coats, after which he essayed to escape through the garden.
He was not alert enough, for two soldiers fired, and one of their
bullets readily overtook him as he hobbled away.[280] Thus one more
was added to the list of American dead, one of the easiest victims,
of course, for he was simply an unarmed cripple. This probably
happened at the rear of the Tavern.

A few rods from the Tavern, down the road towards Boston, were two
more Lexington homes, on opposite sides of the street, and so quite
near to each other. They are still standing (1912). In the one on
the westerly side lived Samuel Sanderson, a member of Capt. Parker's
Company. He was not at home, so they killed his cow instead, not
for food, but for the pure pleasure of killing something. Evidently
landlord Munroe's liquor was having some effect, if not in making men
braver, then in making them more brutal. Sanderson did not report the
amount of his loss to the Legislature. On the easterly side of the
road lived John Mason and family. All were absent so the soldiers
permitted themselves to carry away property to the value of £14, 13s.
4d.[281]

Many other homes in Lexington were ransacked, mostly during Percy's
halt. The total loss, as reported to the Legislature in 1783,
amounted to £1761, 1s. 5d.; nearly $9,000 as computed in money of
to-day. Undoubtedly many minor losses were not reported at all.

While these events were happening, the American riflemen were not
idle. From Mt. Vernon to the westward, and from the Munroe meadows to
the eastward, came many leaden messengers, some of them effective.
Among the British officers wounded, and probably most of them during
the halt, were Lieut. Hawkshaw, Lieut. Cox, and Lieut. Baker, of the
Fifth, Ensign Baldwin and Lieut. McCloud of the Forty-seventh; and
Capt. Souter and Lieut. Potter of the Marines. Many privates were
killed and wounded.[282]

Shortly after the meeting of Percy and Smith, Gen. William Heath
of Roxbury arrived in Lexington, and endeavored to effect the
organization of the American forces into the semblance of an army.
Dr. Joseph Warren arrived on the scene at the same time. Heath's
efforts were hardly successful, as the patriots chose to fight as
they had from the beginning, singly and self-commanded. It appears
that Heath had first gone to Cambridge, to meet the Committee of
Safety, and from there intended to go to Lexington, but fearing
the British were in possession of the road in that direction had
taken one across to Watertown. Finding there some of the militia
of the town awaiting orders, he directed them to Cambridge to take
up the planks of the Boston bridge, barricade its southerly end and
dispute the passage of the retreating British on their way home to
Boston. Then he proceeded to Lexington and upon his arrival there
was generally recognized as the commanding officer of the American
forces. He found the people there aroused to great excitement caused
by the bombardment of the meeting-house and the burning of so many
homes.[283]

It must have been half past three, or perhaps nearly four o'clock,
when Percy gave the order to march. He realized the distance
to Boston, and the dangers along the way. "As it now began to
grow pretty late," he says in his official report, "and we had
15 miles[284] to retire, and only our 36 rounds, I ordered the
Grenadiers and Light Infantry to move off first,[285] and covered
them with my Brigade, sending out very strong flanking parties."

The imposing display and the vigilant flankers had the desired effect
of keeping the Americans at a comparatively safe distance, and so
Percy and his little army marched down through East Lexington in
safety.

The looting section picked up considerable plunder from the abandoned
homes along the way, evidently without protest from the commander.
The march was a slow one, for Smith's weary and wounded soldiers had
to be considered. Many of them were on the verge of collapse and
quite a few dropped out of the ranks for good. De Bernicre in his
account places the "missing" at twenty-six. One of these, a German,
was discovered by the roadside in East Lexington soon after Percy had
passed out of sight. He was well treated by the Americans, and made
his home among them for many years.[286]

The Americans killed in Lexington during the afternoon were Jedediah
Munroe, and John Raymond. The British loss was much greater, for
the Americans were being reinforced constantly by minute-men from
the remote towns. Three companies from Newton entered the battle at
Lexington, under the command respectively of Lieut. John Marean,
thirty-eight men; Capt. Amariah Fuller, one hundred and six men; and
Capt. Jeremiah Wiswell, seventy-six men. Together these numbered two
hundred and nineteen men, making the total enrolment of the Americans
in pursuit of Percy as he passed out of Lexington, two thousand and
thirteen men.

FOOTNOTES:

[257] Frothingham's History of the Siege of Boston.

[258] William Gordon's History of the Rise, Progress, and
Establishment of the Independence of the United States of America. N.
Y., 1794. Vol. I, page 312.

[259] Rev. Isaac Mansfield, Jr., Chaplain of Gen. Thomas's Regiment,
in a Thanksgiving Sermon in Camp at Roxbury, Nov. 23, 1775. See
Thornton's Pulpit of the American Revolution, page 236.

[260] Edward Everett Hale in Memorial History of Boston. Vol. 3.

[261] West Cambridge on the Nineteenth of April, 1775, An Address by
Samuel Abbot Smith, Boston, 1864, page 27.

[262] Frothingham's Siege of Boston.

[263] Edward Everett Hale in Memorial History of Boston, Vol. 3.

[264] Brown's Beneath Old Roof Trees.

[265] Smith's Address.

[266] Smith's Address. Some of the opposition newspapers in England
were quite merry and some quite sarcastic over the surrender of six
lusty soldiers to one old woman, and inquired, on that basis, how
many British troops would it take to conquer America?

[267] Smith's Address.

[268] He signed his official report to Gen. Gage, "Percy, Acting
Brig. Gen." So that was his title for April Nineteenth.

[269] See the rough or preliminary draft of his report to Gage.

[270] Smith's Address, pages 31, 32.

[271] To be exact, for I have measured the route over which he
marched, it was 15-74/88 miles.

[272] In his report he states that he "drew up the Brigade on a
height." Only Mount Vernon was easily accessible for such a movement.
See also Doolittle's "A View of the South Part of Lexington," for
confirmation.

[273] Journals of Each Provincial Congress of Mass. in 1775, page 686.

[274] Journals of Each Provincial Congress of Mass. in 1775, page 688.

[275] Journals of Each Provincial Congress of Mass. in 1775, page 688.

[276] A majority of the voters of Lexington in town meeting assembled
have re-named a near-by street, "Percy Road," in commemoration of his
visit on that Nineteenth of April. Almost any other foeman's name
would have been better, if it is thus necessary to mark a growing
feeling of respect and kindliness between two nations of kindred
blood. Its older name was Mt. Vernon Street!

The town has many street names in memory of that battle day, such
as Adams, Clarke, Hancock, Muzzey, Revere. Percy Road starts from
near the old Munroe Tavern. What better name could there be for
this thoroughfare than Munroe Avenue, in memory of Sergeant William
Munroe, or of his grandson James S. Munroe, who has generously left
the Tavern to be forever open to the public for inspection.

[277] Lexington Historical Society Proceedings, III, 135.

[278] See Doolittle's "A View of the South Part of Lexington," for an
idea of those burning Lexington homes.

[279] Lexington Historical Society Proceedings, III, 135.

[280] A carefully written newspaper clipping evidently from a Boston
periodical, dated April 19, 1858, preserved in a scrap book once
belonging to the Thomas Waterman collection of American History.

[281] Journals of Each Provincial Congress of Mass. in 1775.

[282] De Bernicre's Report.

[283] Heath's Memoirs, page 201.

[284] Then he had in mind to return by way of Roxbury, a longer march
than to Charlestown.

[285] De Bernicre says the Light Infantry was in front, then the
Grenadiers.

[286] Told to me by the venerable Charles Brown still living (1911)
in East Lexington. His grandfather, Capt. Edmund Munroe, was an
active participant in the events of April 19th.



PERCY'S RETREAT THROUGH ARLINGTON.

[Illustration: BATTLE ROAD THROUGH ARLINGTON AND CAMBRIDGE.

1. Capt. Benj. Locke. 2. Tuft's Tavern. 3. Adams. 4. Russell. 5.
Percy's Baggage Wagons Captured. 6. Adams. 7. Cooper Tavern. 8.
Lieut. Solomon Bowman. 9. Black Horse Tavern. 10. Whittemore. 11.
Watson. 12. Tufts. 13. Whittemore Wounded.]

It was not far from half past four when the British crossed the
Lexington line and entered into Arlington. Their retreating march in
Lexington measured about two and one quarter miles. Along the road
they had striven to kill in honorable battle. They had succeeded
but slightly, and paid an unusual price with a much larger number
of their own dead and wounded. Percy's aim seemed to have been to
terrorize his opponents at whatever cost. The life of Raymond was
not taken in battle, nor can rapine and incendiarism add glory to
his military renown. Lexington's highway to Arlington ran between
pillaged and burning homes, and his soldiers staggered along under
heavy burdens of property stolen from those whose King was his
King. Concord and Lincoln have none of Percy's deeds related in
their chronicles, but Lexington, and Arlington, and Cambridge, and
Somerville, and Charlestown have good reason to remember his terrible
conception of warfare.

Gen. William Heath, as the commanding officer of the Americans,
endeavored to organize his forces into something like an army. He did
not greatly succeed, but re-formed some of the forces that had been
scattered by Percy's cannonade, directed towards the meeting-house on
Lexington Common.[287]

Descending the high lands in the upper part of Arlington by the road,
now known as Appleton Street, that skirts along the base of Arlington
Heights, and drops to the "Foot of the Rocks," the Americans pressed
in greater numbers and greater courage on Percy's rear guard. The
bravery of individuals at this point became conspicuous and often
foolishly hazardous. Percy, in his report, speaks of some concealed
in houses by the wayside, who would emerge therefrom and approach
within ten yards to fire at him and his officers--though sure of a
fatal fire in return. He seemed surprised at their enthusiasm, as
he called it, evidently forgetting how much he had excited their
anger. It is almost beyond belief that he could have escaped through
such a gauntlet, mounted as he was, on his beautiful white horse, a
conspicuous mark from the hillsides along the way. But he did,--for
such is occasionally the fortune of war as granted to brave men. His
personal courage was beyond question.

The forces of the Americans were greatly augmented during the pursuit
through Arlington. Minute-men from the nearby Middlesex towns, and
from Essex and Norfolk counties, arrived at the time and disposed
themselves along a line parallel to the highway as their individual
fancies dictated, and independent of any commander-in-chief. Along
the hillside to the south, behind the walls, and even within
buildings adjacent to the road, they were posted, singly and in
squads, among them many unerring marksmen, who added greatly to the
British loss in killed and wounded. Percy would have been dismayed
had he known the number of reinforcements he must then contend
with, but they were not paraded for his inspection. His own army
at the highest had not numbered over eighteen hundred men, but now
considerably depleted, by his losses along the way, it is doubtful if
it would equal fifteen hundred really effective soldiers.

The Americans entering the contest at Arlington were from Brookline,
Capt. Thomas White and ninety-five men, and possibly two other
companies under Col. Thos. Aspinwall and Major Isaac Gardner, number
of men unknown;[288] Watertown, Capt. Samuel Barnard, one hundred
and thirty-four men; Medford, Capt. Isaac Hall, fifty-nine men;
Malden, Capt. Benjamin Blaney, seventy-five men; Roxbury, Capt.
Lemuel Child, thirty-five men, Capt. William Draper, fifty men,
Capt. Moses Whiting, fifty-five men; Dedham, Capt. Eben Battle,
sixty-six men, Capt. Wm. Bullard, fifty-nine men, Capt. Daniel
Draper, twenty-four men, Capt. William Ellis, thirty-one men, Capt.
David Fairbanks, fourteen men, Capt. Aaron Fuller, sixty-seven men,
Capt. George Gould, seventeen men, Capt. Joseph Guild, fifty-nine
men; Needham, Capt. Aaron Smith, seventy men, Capt. Robert Smith,
seventy-five men, Capt. Caleb Kingsbery, forty men; Lynn, Capt.
Nathaniel Bancroft, thirty-eight men, Capt. William Farrington,
fifty-two men, Capt. Rufus Mansfield, forty-six men, Capt. Ezra
Newhall, forty-nine men, Capt. David Parker, sixty-three men;
Beverly, Capt. Caleb Dodge, thirty-two men, Capt. Larkin Thorndike,
forty-eight men, Lieut. Peter Shaw, forty-two men; Danvers, Capt.
Samuel Epes, eighty-two men, Capt. Samuel Flint, forty-five men,
Capt. Israel Hutchinson, fifty-three men, Capt. Caleb Lowe,
twenty-three men, Capt. Jeremiah Page, thirty-nine men, Capt. Asa
Prince, thirty-seven men, Capt. Edm. Putnam, seventeen men, Capt.
John Putnam, thirty-five men; Menotomy, Capt. Benjamin Locke,
fifty-three men. Undoubtedly some of Locke's men were engaged
earlier in the day, particularly those who lived in Arlington, for
twenty-six of them assembled on the Common at daybreak, and must
have gone up to Lexington, at least. Of the other members, eleven
were from Charlestown, seven from Boston, three from Stoneham, two
from Lexington, one from Newton, and one residence unknown. Together
these reinforcements at Arlington numbered seventeen hundred and
seventy-nine men.

Under the combined efforts of Gen. Heath and Dr. Warren the
minute-men were encouraged to rally and draw nearer the rear guard
of Percy's column, to harass and destroy them. The two British field
pieces were often turned on the Americans but were too cumbersome for
effective use against the elusive minute-men. The cannon balls went
tearing up the road, smashing trees and shrubs, toppling over stone
walls, pushing jagged holes through buildings, striking terror into
the hearts of women and children, and presumably many of the men, who
were unused to war.

This renewal of activities commenced in Arlington where the road
comes in from Lexington, and skirts along the northerly base of
Peirce's Hill, now called Arlington Heights. The descent from there
to the plain is by a steep grade and the lower end of that part of
the highway was then, and is now, known as Foot of the Rocks. This
skirting, curved road around Peirce's Hill still exists. Its westerly
end is now called Paul Revere Road, and its easterly end, Appleton
St. Since that time a straight road with gentler grade has been made
to connect the two ends of that part of Battle Road, and forms a part
of the new Massachusetts Avenue from Boston to the Concord line.

It was at the Foot of the Rocks that Dr. Warren, brave even to
recklessness, exposed himself to some vigilant British marksman, who
could not fail to notice his enthusiasm and influence. The bullet
came dangerously near the doctor's head, so near, in fact, as to
strike a pin from his ear-lock.[289] Here, also, Dr. Downer of
Roxbury engaged in single combat with a British soldier, whom he slew
with a bayonet thrust.[290]

Towards the summit of Peirce's Hill was the Robbins home. The family
had fled. Percy's flank-guard ransacked the house, built a fire
on the kitchen floor, which burned off a line full of wet clothes
hanging over it, letting them fall into the flames which were thereby
extinguished.[291]

Down this road a little farther stood the Tufts Tavern, once occupied
by Mr. Cutler, the rich farmer and butcher, but at that time by John
Tufts, previously of Medford, whose wife was Rebecca, a daughter of
Mr. Cutler. It will be recalled that Tufts had been aroused in the
early morning by the British, and when they returned the family had
fled. Soldiers broke into the upper end of it, loaded themselves with
such plunder as they could carry away, and maliciously destroyed
some that they were obliged to leave behind. One thrust his bayonet
through the best mirror, the frame of which was long preserved.[292]
While others, thinking to serve their King, opened the taps of the
casks containing molasses and spirits, allowing them to escape. Then
they set fire to the building, and left in haste to rejoin their
retreating companions. A faithful colored slave of Mr. Cutler's
watching from a distance, entered soon after their departure and
extinguished the fire.

Richer plunder awaited the looters at the home of Joseph Adams, a
venerable deacon of the Second Precinct Church. He had remained
at home with his family until Percy's troops came into sight up
the road. Then fearing his outspoken views, strongly antagonistic
to the British ministry, might subject him to abuse by Percy and
his soldiers, he determined to make his way across the fields to
the Rev. Mr. Cook's barn. He was seen, and a volley of bullets
followed, but he reached the barn, and hid in the hay. Some of the
soldiers followed, even into the barn, and pierced the hay with their
bayonets, but he was not exactly there. Some of them burst open the
door of his home, and three broke into the chamber, where lay his
wife and their infant child, but a few days old. The mother was too
ill to arise, even. One of the soldiers opened the bed-curtains and
with fixed bayonet, pointing to her breast, seemed about to slay her.
She begged him not to kill her, but he only angrily replied:

"Damn you!"

Another soldier, with a more humane heart, interceded, and said,

"We will not kill the woman if she will go out of the house, but we
will surely burn it."

Inspired by the threat, Mrs. Adams then arose, drew a blanket about
herself and little infant,[293] and painfully made her way to the
corn-house close by. It was the first journey since her illness, as
far as her chamber door even. Other children were left within the
house, but she was too weak to be of any assistance to them. They
had hidden under a bed, but curiosity getting the better of Joel,
aged nine years, the little folks were all discovered, but not
harmed. They saw the sheets stripped from the beds and household
valuables dumped into them, even including the works of an old clock,
an heirloom in the family. Most valuable of all the booty, was the
silver tankard belonging to the communion service given to the church
in 1769, by Jonathan Butterfield. It was subsequently pawned by the
thief, to a Boston silversmith, Austin by name, who read the engraved
inscription thereon and notified Deacon Adams. After the evacuation
of Boston by the British, the two deacons redeemed the tankard at
their own expense, and returned it to the church, where it is still
in use.

The soldiers of Lord Percy, then emptied a basket of chips on the
floor, set them on fire with a brand from the hearth, and went on
their way. The Adams children put out the blaze with a quantity
of home-brewed beer, but not until the floor was badly burned,
the ceiling smoked and a quantity of pewter plates on the dresser
melted.[294]

A little farther along, on the westerly side of the road, lived
Jason Russell, aged fifty-eight years.[295] Somewhat helpless because
lame, he had started with his family at noontime for refuge at George
Prentiss's on the hill. After going a little way he felt impelled to
return and look after the safety of his home. He barricaded his gate
with bundles of shingles and from behind them took his position to
fire upon the enemy as they should come along and pass by in the road
a rod away. Rather a feeble fortress from any military standpoint,
and one that proved to be a death trap for its builder. Northerly
across the road and across the brook lived Ammi Cutter, a kindly
neighbor, who came and pleaded with Russell to abandon his door-yard
for a place of greater safety. Russell replied that "An Englishman's
house is his castle." Cutter remained by his side until the advancing
British were seen up the road, and then started on the run across the
road, over the wall and through the fields towards his home. Reaching
the old mill-yard, and still running, he stumbled and fell between
two logs, and the enemy's bullets scattered bark over him as he lay.
They thought him dead because he fell as they fired, and so left him.
But he was entirely uninjured.

Back of the Russell house in a southerly direction, the land slopes
gently upward for a little way, and then rises to a considerable
height. Near the foot of this hill a goodly number of Americans were
posted, among them the men from Danvers. Approaching along the
slope of the hill, and parallel to the highway, was a strong British
flanking party driving all before it. The Americans at that point
were too few to openly resist, so retreated and entered the Russell
house. Down the road came the main body under Percy, and perceiving
the minute-men, advanced and opened fire. Russell being lame, was
the last to reach the door-way, where two bullets felled him. The
soldiers rushed in and pierced him, as he lay, with eleven bayonet
thrusts. Then they entered the house, and within that little home
enacted the bloodiest tragedy of the day. Here, the seven men from
Danvers were killed. The other Americans retreated to the cellar, and
from the foot of the stairs threatened death to any Briton who should
come down. One attempted to, and died on the way. Another died in the
struggle overhead. Then the house was plundered in accordance with
Percy's method of warfare.

After the British had passed, the Americans gathered at the home of
Jason Russell. The dead from the yard, and within the house, were
laid, side by side, in the little south room. There were twelve of
them, and the blood from their wounds mingled in one common pool upon
the floor.[296]

The highway from Jason Russell's house, to the centre of Arlington
village, proved to be the bloodiest half mile of all the Battle Road.
Within this little stretch were killed twenty or more Americans,
and as many or more Britons. And here, on the northerly side of the
road, not far from where the British convoy was captured, in the
forenoon, stood another Adams home. It was punctured with bullets and
it was stained with blood, for the dead and dying and wounded were
carried there after the combatants had passed on.[297]

One of the most unequal duels of any war was fought near here,
between the venerable Samuel Whittemore, aged eighty years, and
a number of British soldiers, acting as a flanking party, on the
easterly side of the road.

Whittemore lived with a son and grandchildren near Menotomy River,
and had been aroused early in the morning by the passing of Smith's
forces on their way to Concord. Mrs. Whittemore then commenced her
preparations for flight, to another son's house, near Mystic River,
towards Medford. She supposed that her husband intended to accompany
her, but was surprised to find him engaged in the warlike occupation
of oiling his musket and pistols, and sharpening his sword. In his
younger days he had been an officer in the militia. She urged him to
accompany her and the children. He refused, with the excuse that he
was going "up town" as he expressed it. He did so, arriving there
before the British had returned. When they reached the neighborhood
of the present railroad crossing they halted, some of them opposite
Mystic Street. Whittemore had posted himself behind a stone wall,
down Mystic Street about four hundred and fifty feet, near the
corner of the present Chestnut Street. The distance seemed an easy
range for him, and he opened fire killing the soldier he aimed at.
They must have discovered his hiding-place from the smoke-puff, and
hastened to close in on him. With one pistol he killed the second
Briton, and with his other fatally wounded a third one. In the
meantime the ever vigilant flank-guard were attracted to the contest,
and a ball from one of their muskets struck his head and rendered
him unconscious. They rushed to the spot, and clubbed him with their
muskets and pierced him with their bayonets until they felt sure that
he was dead. Soon after they left him, he was found by the Americans,
and as he seemed to still live they bore him to the Cooper Tavern.
Dr. Tufts of Medford was summoned, but declared it useless to dress
so many wounds as the aged man could not possibly survive. However,
he was persuaded to try, and Whittemore lived eighteen more years,
dying in 1793, at the age of ninety-eight. When he was recovering,
his wife could not forbear asking him if he did not regret he had
not remained with the rest of the family from the first. But the old
hero, still suffering from his many wounds, replied:

"No! I would run the same chance again."[298]

Four hundred feet farther along, at the corner of the Medford road,
now Medford Street, stood the Cooper Tavern, Benjamin Cooper,
landlord. He and his wife, Rachel, were mixing flip at the bar. Two
of their guests, and possibly those two were all at the time, were
Jason Winship, about forty-five years old, and his brother-in-law,
Jabez Wyman, in his fortieth year.[299] Evidently they were
non-combatants, and as such expected to remain unmolested. But the
soldiers were lashed to a fury by the reception they had met along
the road, particularly that of the last half mile. So many houses
along back had concealed minute-men, that about all were freely
riddled with bullets, then ransacked, and then set on fire. Cooper
Tavern was not considered by them as a privileged exception. More
than a hundred bullets were fired into it through the doors and
windows. Then the soldiers entered for their finishing strokes. Mr.
and Mrs. Cooper escaped to the cellar, but Wyman and Winship, both
unarmed, were stabbed in many places, their heads mauled until their
skulls were broken, and brains scattered about on the floor and
walls.[300]

The death of these two unarmed men, formed the climax of Arlington's
part of the battle, for Percy's troops passed through the rest of
the town, and crossed Menotomy River into Cambridge without further
bloody incident.

The Americans who were killed in Arlington, were Jason Russell, Jason
Winship and Jabez Wyman of Arlington; Reuben Kennison, of Beverly;
Samuel Cook, Benjamin Daland, Ebenezer Goldthwait, Henry Jacobs,
Perley Putnam, George Southwick, and Jotham Webb, of Danvers; Elias
Haven of Dedham; William Flint, Thomas Hadley, Abednego Ramsdell, and
Daniel Townsend, of Lynn; William Polly and Henry Putnam, of Medford;
Lieut. John Bacon, Nathaniel Chamberlain, Amos Mills, Sergt. Elisha
Mills, and Jonathan Parker of Needham; Benjamin Peirce of Salem;
and Jacob Coolidge of Watertown. These numbered twenty-five, and
constituted half of all the Americans killed during the day.

The wounded in Arlington were Samuel Whittemore, of Arlington;
Nathaniel Cleaves, Samuel Woodbury, and William Dodge, 3rd, of
Beverly; Nathan Putnam, and Dennison Wallace of Danvers; Israel
Everett of Dedham; Eleazer Kingsbury, and a son of Dr. Tolman, of
Needham. They numbered nine out of the thirty-nine Americans wounded
during the day.

The British killed in Arlington were at least forty, more than half
of all their loss during the day.

The patriot dead of old Menotomy and her sister towns were gathered,
and twelve of them placed on a sled and drawn by a yoke of oxen to
the little village church-yard. There they were laid away in one
large grave, side by side, in the same bloody garments they wore
when they fell. One monument marks the place. In the meeting-house
close by, friends and relatives met on the following Sabbath, and, we
are told that among them were Anna, infant grand-daughter of Jason
Russell, born on the day of the battle, and the little son of Jason
Winship, who was brought to the altar for baptism. It must have been
a sacred and patriotic consecration for all.[301] Some of the other
slain from distant towns, were borne by their comrades back to their
own homes.[302]

In Arlington, then, as the casualties show, the battle reached its
climax. The savage ferocity of the personal encounters show to what a
maddening frenzy the King's troops had been wrought. As in Lexington,
Percy attempted the wholesale destruction of the American homes by
the torch, but so closely had he been followed by the ever-increasing
minute-men, that his efforts were futile. His soldiers had the time
to start the fires, but not the time to fan them into conflagrations,
and thus old Menotomy escaped the fate of Lexington.

Percy continued his march through the town of Arlington, crossing
Menotomy River into Cambridge between five and six o'clock. The
minute-men hovered dangerously near his rear guard so that he paused
often long enough to wheel his two six-pounders about and prevent
them from coming too near. They were entirely without fatal effect,
but inspired at all times a wholesome respect, and kept the Americans
farther away.

FOOTNOTES:

[287] Heath's Memoirs.

[288] Bolton's Brookline. White's was the only company to file claim
for pay, however. See Mass. Archives.

[289] Heath's Memoirs.

[290] Heath's Memoirs.

[291] Mrs. Lydia Peirce's statement in Smith's Address, page 33.

[292] Mrs. Almira T. Whittemore in Parker's Arlington, page 194. The
tavern is still standing, or part of it, numbered 965 Massachusetts
Ave., opposite Mt. Vernon Street.

[293] This little child lived into womanhood and became the wife of
James Hill.

[294] Mrs. Adams's Deposition and Smith's Address, wherein he quotes
Mrs. Thos. Hall, grand-daughter of Mrs. Adams, Rev. Mr. Brown's
Sermon on James Hill, and S. G. Damon's article in The Christian
Register, Oct. 28, 1854. The building, or part of it, is still
standing (1912) being the ell of a building on the southerly side of
Massachusetts Avenue, third house westerly from Bartlett Avenue.

[295] Born Jan. 25, 1717. Paige's History of Cambridge. The old
grave-stone in the cemetery at Arlington calls him 59 years old.

[296] King's Address and Smith's Address. The old home is still
standing though removed a few rods back from its original location.

[297] It stood easterly of the present (1911) Town Hall. When
the railroad went through, part of the house blocked the way and
therefore the whole had to be demolished. The grand old elm that
shaded the yard was destroyed in a gale and a smaller one now takes
its place.

[298] Statement of F. H. Whittemore. Smith's Address, pages 43, 44.

[299] Cutter's Arlington and Paige's Cambridge.

[300] Deposition of Rachel Cooper.

[301] Smith's Address, page 52.

[302] King's Address, page 14.



PERCY'S RETREAT THROUGH CAMBRIDGE.


Occasionally the contest narrowed down to personal encounters between
two or more. It was near the Menotomy River, on the Cambridge side,
that Lieut. Bowman, of Arlington, overtook a straggler from the
British ranks, and engaged him in single combat. Both had guns,
but neither one was loaded. The Briton rushed at Bowman with fixed
bayonet, but the latter warded it off, and with his musket clubbed
his antagonist to the ground. Then he took him prisoner.[303]

Cambridge was the home of Capt. Samuel Thatcher's company of
seventy-seven men, but it is probable that Smith had encountered them
as far back as Lincoln, for the muster roll in the Massachusetts
Archives states that most of them marched twenty-eight miles, which
would mean up into Lincoln and return, and to Charlestown Neck and
return.

Percy's march through Cambridge, from Menotomy River to the
Somerville line, measured nearly a mile and a quarter. The
provincials expected that he would return to Boston by the route he
came out, that is through Harvard Square over Charles River bridge
into Brighton, thence through Roxbury, and along Boston Neck and
into Boston. Anticipating as much, it was ordered that the bridge
should be made impassable. But Percy deemed it wise to hurry on to
Charlestown, trusting that Gen. Gage would have an ample force there
to receive and protect him. It was several miles nearer, and with
no possibility of dismantled bridges to reconstruct, for his troops
to pass over. Nor should it be forgotten that Percy's original plan
was to remain that night, at least, in Harvard Square, but he had
not counted on such intense hostility, from so large an army of
minute-men in open rebellion. He deemed it wiser, therefore, to move
constantly forward towards the main army.

This mile and a quarter in Cambridge proved to be one of continual
battle, also. The Americans were ever on the alert, and growing more
and more active as they realized more and more the real meaning of
the invasion. The sight of many of the British soldiers loaded down
with plunder; the curling smoke and flames from American dwellings;
the dying and the dead, some of them horribly mutilated, scattered
all along the highway, were at last inspiring an intense feeling
of hatred, and a longing for a satisfying vengeance. Percy's army
experienced practically the same sensations. Trained as soldiers
to the usages of open warfare, they deemed the frontier method of
fighting as unfair and cowardly. They held in contempt the man
who should remain concealed in safety and shoot down one who was
compelled to remain in the open. Undoubtedly, too, the memory of a
comrade, lying at the North Bridge with that ugly hatchet death-wound
in the head, aroused the most savage instincts, that seemed to cry
for brutal retaliation. Whittemore, and Wyman, and Winship seem to
have been victims of vengeance rather than of war.

The Americans did not profit much by the lessons which they had
received, earlier in the day, for they again fell victims to the
British flankers. Quite a number had gathered near the home of
Jacob Watson, situated on the southerly side of the highway near
the present Rindge Avenue. Their fragile security was a pile of
empty casks, not far from the road, from behind which they awaited
the oncoming of the British. But the flank-guard came up in their
rear, unobserved, and completely surprised them, killing Major Isaac
Gardner of Brookline, a favorite son of that town, and the first
graduate of Harvard College to fall in the War, and two Cambridge
men, John Hicks, nearly fifty years old, and Moses Richardson,
fifty-three years old. And near the same place, another Cambridge
man, William Marcy, as tradition says[304] of feeble intellect, and
a non-combatant. He was sitting on the fence, evidently enjoying
the military spectacle, and perhaps good-naturedly cheering on
the marching red-coats. His friendly demonstrations were entirely
mistaken for shouts of derision. In the midst of his simple pleasure,
some Briton esteemed it his duty to kill him as an enemy of the King.

The British loss at this place was but one killed.

On they marched, wheeling to the left, into Beech Street, a
thoroughfare about seven hundred feet long, and thence out of
Cambridge and into Somerville.

Soon after this, the wife of John Hicks, whose home is still standing
(1912) at the corner of Dunster and Winthrop Streets, fearing for his
safety, sent her son, fourteen years of age, to look for him. He had
been absent since morning, and undoubtedly the noise of battle, a
mile and a quarter away, coming across the fields, bore a sad burden
of prophecy. Her misgivings were well founded, for the son found his
father by the roadside where he fell, and near him the others.

The body of Isaac Gardner was taken to Brookline and there buried the
next day. The remains of John Hicks, Moses Richardson and William
Marcy, were immediately taken to the little churchyard near the
Common, a mile from where they fell. They were buried in one grave,
without coffins or shrouds even. A son of Moses Richardson, standing
by, realizing that the earth was to fall directly on their faces,
jumped down into the grave and arranged the cape of his father's
coat, that it might shield him somewhat from the falling earth.

We may wonder now, at that hasty burial, without much, if any,
ceremony; but let us associate with it the trail of the invading
army, and of what seemed possible for the morrow, if it should
return, greatly reinforced, for vengeance. Boston was not far away,
and Gen. Gage, even then, might be preparing to move on Cambridge,
with a force sufficiently large for its subjection. The Americans
did not fully realize their own power or their own courage, not even
as well as Gen. Gage did, who wisely decreed to remain in Boston and
Charlestown, and decide later whether to pursue an aggressive or a
defensive campaign. The spontaneous rousing of the country was an
impressive one to the British commander.

It had evidently been Percy's plan to camp on Cambridge Common
that night, and while awaiting expected reinforcements, or upon
their arrival, lay the buildings of Harvard College, and others, in
ruins. Such a course would have been in harmony with his warfare in
Lexington and Arlington, and serve as a practical lesson to those in
rebellion, of the disposition and readiness of their King to wreak
a swift and terrible vengeance upon his enemies.[305] But Percy's
plans were rudely disarranged, and he commenced to realize that he
was really being driven back to Boston.

FOOTNOTES:

[303] Dr. B. Cutter's Statement in Smith's Address, page 47.

[304] Paige's History of Cambridge, page 414.

[305] See Thanksgiving Sermon in the Camp at Roxbury, Nov. 23, 1775,
by Rev. Isaac Mansfield, Jr., Chaplain to Gen. Thomas's Regiment. Mr.
Mansfield fully believed such plans to have been made and states that
his information came so direct that he could not hesitate to accept
it but did not feel at liberty to publish the name of his informer.



PERCY'S RETREAT THROUGH SOMERVILLE.


It was about half past six o'clock when Percy left Cambridge and
entered the present city of Somerville, crossing the line at the
corner of Beech and Elm Streets. Just about at the Somerville line
the battle was hotly renewed. Near the corner of Beech Street, and
on the easterly side of Elm Street, stood, and still stands (1912),
the house of Timothy Tufts. Here Percy halted his army while his
two field-pieces were dragged up the hill back of the Tufts house
and discharged towards his pursuers, with the usual result of his
cannonading--none killed. From out a grove a little way up the road,
came a scattering fire of American sharpshooters and in consequence
quite a number of Britons were killed. They fell in the road, just in
front of the Tufts house, and a tablet there marks where they were
buried.

[Illustration: BATTLE ROAD THROUGH SOMERVILLE AND CHARLESTOWN.

1. Tufts. 2. Hunnewell. 3. Capen. 4. Kent. 5. Rand. 6. Tufts. 7. A
pond. 8. Ireland. 9. Frost. 10. Choate. 11. Piper's Tavern. 12. Shed.
13. Miller Killed. 14. Miller's Home. 15. Revere Stopped by British.
16. Barber.]

Along Elm Street to Oak Street, and then continuing in Somerville
Avenue, was their route, when the march was resumed. At the foot
of Laurel Street on Somerville Avenue was then a little pond. Into
that many weary Britons threw themselves--some for the refreshing
plunge, others to quench their thirst.[306]

Their march was continued rapidly now, and in consequence the
fatalities on the American side were slight, if any, on the road from
the Tufts house through Bow Street, for that was a part of Battle
Road then, to Union Square. From the latter place they continued
through Washington Street, where the American sharpshooters had a
grand opportunity to renew their havoc. Washington Street skirts
along the westerly foot of Prospect Hill, the summit of which
commands easily a stretch of highway for more than half a mile. Many
were killed and wounded, some of the latter of whom were taken into
the house then standing at the corner of Washington and Prospect
Streets. Here Percy paused long enough to train his two field pieces
up the road, and again with his usual lack of fatal results. But he
checked the Americans.

A little way farther along on the northerly side of the road, stood
the home of Samuel Shed. Percy's troops halted there, for the few
moments necessary to turn his field pieces on his pursuers again.
While there one of the Britons, ambitious for plunder, entered
the Shed home, and finding there a bureau or highboy filled with
household effects, commenced the work of selecting what he desired.
It took him too long, for his companions passed on, and left him
still too busy to notice their departure or the coming of the
Americans. Bullets came through the window, one of which killed him,
and three riddled the old bureau, spattering his blood over it, and
on the floor.[307]

A few rods farther, the grassy slope of Prospect Hill descended in a
southerly direction to Washington Street, then called the Cambridge
Road. James Miller, about sixty-six years old, stood there awaiting
the British. With him was a companion, and both fired with deadly
effect, again and again, as the British marched by in the road below.
They were discovered finally, and Miller's companion urged him to
retreat.

"Come, Miller, we've got to go."

"I'm too old to run," replied Miller, and he remained only to be
pierced with a volley of thirteen bullets.[308] His home was but a
short distance down the road, and is still standing, next to the
house on the easterly corner of Washington and Franklin Streets.

Miller was the only American killed in Somerville, as the British
were in too full retreat to act very much on the aggressive. Their
loss was considerable, however, and along the entire Battle Road,
for the minute-men were exceedingly active in the rear and on the
northerly side of the road, particularly.

The policy of property destruction was continued by Percy through
Somerville. The limited time at his command did not allow of very
thorough work, but he accomplished something. The estate of James
Miller whom they killed on the slope of Prospect Hill, was damaged
to the extent of £4, 12s. ($23.00). Ebenezer Shed lost his house,
barn, and another building, valued at £140 ($700), and the damage to
his crop, fences, etc., he estimated at £279, 3s. 2d. ($1395.79). The
widow of Abigal Shed suffered to some extent in the same way.[309]

FOOTNOTES:

[306] Booth, in Somerville Journal. April, 1875.

[307] The old highboy was in existence in 1910 and treasured by a
Somerville man, Francis Tufts, to whom it descended. I have seen it,
with its blood stains and three bullet holes.

[308] E. C. Booth in an article on Somerville in Drake's History of
Middlesex County, Vol. 2, page 312.

[309] J. F. Hunnewell, A Century of Town Life, page 153.



PERCY'S ARRIVAL IN CHARLESTOWN.


The sun set at seven o'clock on that nineteenth day of April, in
1775.[310] It never rose again on Middlesex County under kingly rule.
Percy must have been in the vicinity of Union Square, Somerville, at
that particular moment. The pauses for his artillery demonstration;
the destruction of the few buildings; the killing of Miller; and the
hurried march to the Charlestown line, did not occupy more than half
an hour. It was just dark enough for the musket flashes to be seen
across the marshes and across the waters of the Charles River to the
Boston shore, where were grouped anxious watchers awaiting the news
of battle.

Percy's thirty-six rounds for each of his soldiers had been about all
expended. He describes the fire all around his marching column as
"incessant," coming from behind stone walls, and from houses that he
at first supposed had been evacuated.[311]

[Illustration: GENERAL WILLIAM HEATH.]

Charlestown Common, now Sullivan Square, was soon reached, and his
column gladly wheeled to the right and marched up Bunker Hill. As
they did so, a mile away, on top of Winter Hill, in Somerville, were
just then arriving three hundred more Americans, who had marched from
Salem under Col. Timothy Pickering. They were half an hour late to be
particularly effective. No blame can be attached to them for that,
for there were thousands of other minute-men, from distant towns who
were also late, for April 19th, but who were in ample time to join
the besieging army on April 20th.

At Charlestown Common, on the corner of the road to the Penny Ferry
which crossed the Mystic River to Everett,[312] stood the home of
William Barber, sea captain. His family consisted of his wife, Anne
Hay, and their thirteen children. One of them, Edward, fourteen
years old, sat at the window looking out upon the brilliant pageant
of marching soldiers in the road. Many of the soldiers must have
seen him, for he was not in hiding. One did, at all events, and with
that thirst for killing some one, even though but a boy, shot him
and saw him fall back into the room dead. Thus Edward Barber became
Charlestown's martyr of April 19th.

While Charlestown did not officially contribute to the organized
minute-men who were pursuing Percy, yet many individuals must
have been in the American ranks on that day, for in the afternoon
Gen. Gage wrote to James Russell of Charlestown that he had been
informed people of that town had gone out armed to oppose His
Majesty's Troops, and that if a single man more went out armed, the
most disagreeable consequences might be expected. The people of
Charlestown indeed had reason to be in terror, surrounded as they
were by the soldiers, frenzied with their disastrous retreat from
Lexington. The Selectmen arranged with Percy an armistice, agreeing
that the troops should not be attacked, and that assistance should
be given in getting them across the ferry to Boston, provided they
would not attack the citizens or destroy their homes. This agreement
seems to have been kept in good faith by both parties.[313] British
officers walked up and down the streets, directing the women to keep
within doors.

Percy's force remained on Bunker Hill until arrangements were
completed for their trip across the Charles River to Boston. The
wounded were sent over first, being conveyed by the boats of the
_Somerset_ man-of-war, which still lay there, as it did when Revere
crossed the night before.

Gen. Gage sent pickets from Boston, selected from the Tenth and
Sixty-fourth Regiments to do guard duty in Charlestown.[314]

Gen. William Heath, as commander of the American forces, assembled
the officers of the minute-men at the foot of Prospect Hill, in
Somerville, for a Council of War. Then he ordered the formation of a
guard to be posted near, and sentinels along the road now known as
Washington Street in Somerville, and Cambridge Street in Charlestown,
to Charlestown Neck. The remainder of the force was ordered back to
Cambridge,[315] which place was to be for a while the Headquarters of
the American Army.

FOOTNOTES:

[310] Low's Almanack, Boston, 1775.

[311] See his report to Gen. Gage.

[312] Everett was then a part of Malden.

[313] De Bernicre's Report.

[314] De Bernicre, and Diary of a British Officer in Boston in 1775.

[315] Heath's Memoirs.



AMERICAN KILLED, WOUNDED AND MISSING.


  _Acton._ Killed: Capt. Isaac Davis, James Hayward, Abner Hosmer.
  Wounded: Luther Blanchard and Ezekiel Davis.

  _Arlington._ Killed: Jason Russell, Jason Winship, Jabez Wyman.
  Wounded: Samuel Whittemore.

  _Bedford._ Killed: Captain Jonathan Willson. Wounded: Job Lane.

  _Beverly._ Killed: Reuben Kennison. Wounded: Nathaniel Cleaves,
  William Dodge, 3rd, Samuel Woodbury.

  _Billerica._ Wounded: Timothy Blanchard, John Nichols.

  _Brookline._ Killed: Major Isaac Gardner.

  _Cambridge._ Killed: John Hicks, William Marcy, Moses Richardson.
  Missing: Samuel Frost, Seth Russell.

  _Concord._ Wounded: Capt. Nathan Barrett, Jonas Brown, Capt.
  Charles Miles, Capt. George Minot, Abel Prescott, Jr.

  _Charlestown._ Killed: Edward Barber.

  _Chelmsford._ Wounded: Oliver Barron, Aaron Chamberlain.

  _Danvers._ Killed: Samuel Cook, Benjamin Daland, Ebenezer
  Goldthwait, Henry Jacobs, Perley Putnam, George Southwick, Jotham
  Webb. Wounded: Nathan Putnam, Dennison Wallis. Missing: Joseph
  Bell.

  _Dedham._ Killed: Elias Haven. Wounded: Israel Everett.

  _Framingham._ Wounded: Daniel Hemenway.

  _Lexington._ Killed: John Brown, Samuel Hadley, Caleb Harrington,
  Jonathan Harrington, Jr., Jedediah Munroe, Robert Munroe, Isaac
  Muzzy, Jonas Parker, John Raymond, Nathaniel Wyman. Wounded:
  Francis Brown, Joseph Comee, Prince Estabrook, Nathaniel Farmer,
  Ebenezer Munroe, Jr., Jedediah Munroe (killed later), Solomon
  Pierce, John Robbins, John Tidd, Thomas Winship.

  _Lincoln._ Wounded: Joshua Brooks.

  _Lynn._ Killed: William Flint, Thomas Hadley, Abednego Ramsdell,
  Daniel Townsend. Wounded: Joshua Felt, Timothy Monroe. Missing:
  Josiah Breed.

  _Medford._ Killed: William Polly, Henry Putnam.

  _Needham._ Killed: Lieut. John Bacon, Nathaniel Chamberlain, Amos
  Mills, Sergt. Elisha Mills, Jonathan Parker. Wounded: Eleazer
  Kingsbury, ---- Tolman (son of Dr. Tolman).

  _Newton._ Wounded: Noah Wiswell.

  _Roxbury._ Missing: Elijah Seaver.

  _Salem._ Killed: Benjamin Pierce.

  _Somerville._ Killed: James Miller.

  _Sudbury._ Killed: Josiah Haynes, Asahel Reed. Wounded: Joshua
  Haynes, Jr.

  _Stow._ Wounded: Daniel Conant.

  _Watertown._ Killed: Joseph Coolidge.

  _Woburn._ Killed: Asahel Porter, Daniel Thompson. Wounded: Jacob
  Bacon, ---- Johnson, George Reed.

  _Totals._ Killed: 49. Wounded: 41. Missing: 5. Total loss: 95.



BRITISH KILLED, WOUNDED, PRISONERS AND MISSING.[316]


"Return of the Commission, Non-Commission Officers, Drummers, Rank
and File, killed and wounded, prisoners and missing, on the 19th of
April, 1775.

"4th or King's Own Regiment, Lieutenant Knight, killed. Lieutenant
Gould, wounded and prisoner. 3 Serjeants, 1 Drummer, wounded. 7 Rank
and File, killed, 21 wounded, 8 missing.

"5th Regiment, Lieutenant Thomas Baker, Lieutenant William Cox,
Lieutenant Thomas Hawkshaw, wounded. 5 Rank and File killed. 15
wounded, 1 missing.

"10th Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith, Captain Lawrence
Parsons, Lieutenant Wald. Kelly, Ensign Jeremiah Lester, wounded. 1
Rank and File killed, 13 wounded, 1 missing.

"18th Regiment. 1 Rank and File killed, 4 wounded, 1 missing.

"23rd Regiment. Lieutenant Colonel Bery Bernard, wounded. 4 Rank and
File killed, 26 wounded, 6 missing.

"38th Regiment. Lieutenant William Sutherland, wounded. 1 Sergeant
wounded. 4 Rank and File killed, 11 wounded.

"43rd Regiment. Lieutenant Hull, wounded and prisoner. 4 Rank and
File killed, 5 wounded, 2 missing.

"47th Regiment. Lieutenant Donald McCloud, Ensign Henry Baldwin,
wounded. 1 Sergeant wounded. 5 Rank and File killed, 21 wounded.

"52nd Regiment. 1 Sergeant missing. 3 Rank and File killed, 2 wounded.

"59th Regiment. 3 Rank and File killed, 3 wounded.

"Marines. Captain Souter, Second Lieutenant McDonald, wounded. Second
Lieutenant Isaac Potter, missing. 1 Sergeant killed, 2 wounded, 1
missing. 1 Drummer killed. 25 Rank and File killed, 36 wounded, 5
missing.

"Total. 1 Lieutenant killed. 2 Lieutenant Colonels wounded. 2
Captains wounded. 9 Lieutenants wounded. 1 Lieutenant missing. 2
Ensigns wounded. 1 Sergeant killed, 7 wounded, 2 missing. 1 Drummer
killed, 1 wounded. 62 Rank and File killed, 157 wounded, 24 missing.

"N. B. Lieutenant Isaac Potter reported to be wounded and taken
prisoner.

  "Signed

  "THO. GAGE."

Lieut. Hull, of the 43rd Regiment, wounded traveling in a chaise,
fell behind the troops, again wounded, and carried into the house of
Samuel Butterfield, in Arlington, where he died, two weeks later.[317]

The forces participating were about eighteen hundred British, well
organized and well commanded, opposed by about thirty-seven hundred
and ninety-two Americans, without effective organization and without
a real commanding officer.

FOOTNOTES:

[316] I am under obligations to the Military Secretary of the English
War Office for a copy of the official returns of Gen. Gage of his
losses on April 19, 1775, accompanied by the following:


"WAR OFFICE

"The Military Secretary begs to inform Mr. Frank W. Coburn with
reference to his letter of the 27th November last, addressed to the
late Commander in Chief, that the only information available on the
subject of the casualties sustained by the British Troops during the
action at Lexington on 19th April, 1775, is contained in the Lords'
Gazette of 6-10 June, 1775, an extract of which is enclosed.

  "WAR OFFICE,
  "25th Sept., 1901."

  "MR. FRANK W. COBURN,
  "Lexington, Massachusetts."


[317] Smith's West Cambridge Address.



DISTANCES MARCHED BY THE BRITISH SOLDIERS.


I have measured the routes of the various detachments and am enabled
to give them as follows, in each case of Smith's force from the shore
of Charles River in Cambridge, out to Concord and back to the shore
of Charles River in Charlestown. The route of Percy's force was
from School Street, Boston, out through Roxbury, etc., to the High
School in Lexington, and return to the shore of Charles River, in
Charlestown. My cyclometer is divided into eighty-eight fractions of
a mile, each one of sixty feet.

Three companies under Capt. Lawrence Parsons to the home of Col.
Barrett, beyond North Bridge, Concord, 39-71/88 miles.

Three companies under Capt. Walter Sloane Lawrie to the North Bridge,
Concord, 36-11/88 miles.

Force of about one hundred men under Capt. Mundy Pole, to the South
Bridge, Concord, 36-40/88 mile.

Main division under Lieut.-Col. Smith, to Concord village, 34-55/88
miles.

Earl Percy's reinforcement, to the High School in Lexington,
25-(70½)/88 miles.

That of his baggage train captured and destroyed in Arlington,
11-(39⅓)/88 miles.



ENGLISH FRIENDS AFTER THE BATTLE.


As in the beginning of this little history we gratefully chronicled
the warm and sympathetic friendship for America that permeated the
British nation, and particularly the councils of Parliament, so as
we close, we may glance across the ocean again to see if that same
friendship can survive the shock of rebellion against the King. In
quarrels of a family nature one does not feel unpatriotic if he
happens to espouse the cause of the minority. So it was with John
Horne Tooke.[318] His intense friendship for this part of the British
Kingdom was evident at the start and reached a decided climax after
the battle. He was a member of the Constitutional Society, and during
an adjournment or recess of a meeting held June 7th proposed that a
subscription should be immediately entered into "for raising the sum
of one hundred pounds, to be applied to the relief of the widows,
orphans, and aged parents, of our beloved American fellow-subjects,
who, faithful to the character of Englishmen, preferring death to
slavery, were, for that reason only, inhumanly murdered by the King's
troops at or near Lexington and Concord." The money was raised
and placed at the disposal of Benjamin Franklin, to distribute in
accordance with its purpose. The resolution was forwarded to several
newspapers, and its publication naturally aroused considerable
surprise and painful comment.

Mr. Horne was arrested and tried for "a false, wicked, malicious,
scandalous and seditious libel of, and concerning, his said Majesty's
government, and the employment of his troops," etc.[319] He was found
guilty and sentenced to a fine of £200; to be imprisoned for twelve
months; and that he find securities in £800 for his good behavior,
for three years.[320]

I have not read of any other Briton punished to that extent at that
time, for friendship for his fellow subjects on this side of the
ocean. There were many as sincere and devoted to the cause of the
colonists as Horne, and perhaps as openly, too, but he happened to be
the one selected to bear the heavy burden of his King's displeasure.

On a much larger and more impressive scale was the petition of the
Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Commons, of the City of London, in Common
Council assembled, to the Lords Spiritual and Temporal in Parliament
assembled. It was presented in October, and recited how that body had
"taken into the most serious consideration the present distressed
situation of our fellow subjects in America," and concluded with
the prayer that the House would be "pleased to adopt such measures
for the healing of the present unhappy disputes between the mother
country and the colonies, as may be speedy, permanent and honourable."

But the wise counsels of the great city did not prevail in the House
of Parliament, for that body simply ordered their petition to "lie
upon the table."[321]

So was fought the opening battle of the American Revolution, the
beginning of that long struggle which rent in twain the great English
nation, and gave birth to these United States.


END.

FOOTNOTES:

[318] At that time his name was simply John Horne.

[319] "The Battle of Lexington as looked at in London before Chief
Justice Mansfield and a jury in the Trial of John Horne, Esq. By John
Winslow."

[320] See Memoirs of John Horne Tooke, by Alexander Stephens, London,
1813. Vol. I, page 431, etc.

[321] Parliamentary History of England, XVIII, column 698.



ERRATA


  Page  XV. line 25 Genealogical, not Genealogicol.
        11  line 20 Mothksin, not Mothskin.
        11  bottom line, 115, 116, not 116, 117.
        13  line 31, MS. not MSS.
        16  line 4, of the note, 1100, not 100.
        45  line 8, Edget, not Edgell.
        67  line 7, latter, not former.
        67  line 8, former, not latter.
              (_ie._ Comee wounded, Harrington killed).
        96  line 18, Colonel, not Lieutenant.
        96  line 20, Edget, not Edgett.
        96  line 21, Micajah, not Micajab.
        96  line 32, Nathaniel, not Nathan.
        96  line 33, forty, not thirty-nine.
        97  line 1, fifty, not forty-nine.
        97  line 2, thirty-five, not twenty-five.
        97  line 5, seventeen, not sixteen.
        97  line 8 and 9, 1149, not 1137.
        97  line 9 and 10, 1577, not 1565.
        97  line 17, Whitcom, not Whitcomb.
       104  line 27, forty, not twenty.
       114  line 15, becoming, not became.
       128  line 6, 5, not 15.
       130  line 17, Cook's Company was commanded by his
              Lieutenant John Marean, thirty-eight men.
       130  lines 23 and 24, 2013, not 1981.
       133  line 11, were, not was.
       134  line 4, seventy-five, not seventy-six.
       134  line 16, Kingsbery, not Kingsbury.
       134  line 23, Lieut. Shaw, not Capt. Shaw.
       134  line 31, fifty-three, not fifty-two.
       148  line 23, Dunster, not Dusnster.
       161  lines 2 and 3, 3792, not 3760.



INDEX.


  Acton, alarm in, 40
    Killed and wounded, 157
    Men of, 81

  Abbott, Lieut. Moses, 81

  Adams children, 138
    Hannah, removed from her home, 125
    Home, 141
    Joel, 138
    Deacon Joseph, 137,
      home set on fire and looted, 137; 138
    Mrs. Joseph, 137
    Samuel, 17; 18; 21; 25; 29; 30; 31; 34; 36

  Adan, John R., note, 23

  Alarm in other places, 32

  Allen, the one-handed peddler, 28

  Americans killed and wounded, 157
    Number of, engaged, 161

  Andover, alarm in, 34

  Arlington, battle in, 130
    Killed and wounded of, 157
    Men of, 134
    Smith's advance through, 51
    Percy's retreat through, 130

  Aspinwall, Capt. Thomas, 133


  Bacheller, Capt. John, 96

  Bacon, Jacob, 158
    Lieut., John, 143; 158

  Baggage wagons of Percy captured, 119
    Length of their route, 161

  Baker, Lieut. Thomas, of the 5th Regt., 112; 128; 159

  Baldwin, Ensign Henry, of the 47th Regt., 112; 128; 160
    Col. Loammi, 33; 112

  Ballard, John, 17

  Bancroft, Capt. Nathaniel, 134

  Barber, Mrs. Anne Hay, 155
    William, home of, 155
    Edward, 125; 155; 157

  Barker, Francis, 42

  Barnard, Capt. Samuel, 134

  Barrett, Corporal Amos, 39
    Col. James, 42; 76; 80; 81; 82; 83; 86; 87; 88; 161
    Mrs. James, 87; 88
    James, Jr., 87
    Capt. Nathan, 73; 80; 157
    Samuel, 78
    Stephen, 87
    Deacon Thomas, 78

  Barron, Capt. Oliver, 43; 96; 157

  Bates, Capt. Oliver, 97

  Bathericke, Mother, 119

  Battle, Capt. Eben, 134

  Beaton, John, 93

  Bedford, alarm in, 37
    Killed and wounded, 157
    Men of, 37

  Belfry, the Old, in Lexington, 61

  Belknap, Jason, 119
    Joe, 119
    Capt. Samuel, 97

  Bell, Joseph, 157

  Bentley, Joshua, 22

  Berkshire County Convention, 14

  Bernard, Lieut.-Col. Bery, 159

  Beverly, killed and wounded, 157
    Men of, 134

  Bigelow, Capt. Timothy, 46

  Billerica, alarm in, 39
    Men of, 96
    Wounded, 157

  Black Horse Tavern (see also Wetherby's Tavern), 18; 36; 51; 52

  Blanchard, Luther, 42; 83; 84; 99; 157
    Timothy, 157

  Blaney, Capt. Benjamin, 134

  Bliss, Mr., 9
    Mr. (tory), 16

  Bloody Angle in Lincoln, battle at, 101; 105

  Bond, Joshua, house and shop of, burned, 126

  Boston Massacre, 2

  Boston Port Bill, 2

  Boston, start of Percy from, 114
    Start of Smith from, 19

  Bowman, Lieut. Solomon, 53; 54; 145
    Capt. Thaddeus, note 35; 37; 58; 61

  Boynton, Thomas, Journal of, note 34

  Breed, Joshua, 158

  British Forces, 13
    Killed, wounded, prisoners and missing, 159
    Number of engaged, 160
    Prisoners, first ones captured, 71
    Start for Lexington and Concord, 19

  Brookline, killed, 157
    Men of, 133

  Brooks, Major John, 96
    Joshua, 84; 99; 158
    Tavern, 98; 102

  Brown, Deacon Benjamin, 71
    Capt. David, 39; 40; 74; 80; 83
    Francis, 158
    John, 60; 70; 158
    Jonas, 99; 157
    Jonathan, 40
    Reuben, 93
    Solomon, 18; 27; 28; 34; 35; 36; 67; 68
    Widow, her Tavern, 42; 88

  Bryant, Albert W., note, 35

  Buckman, John, 67
    Tavern, 30; 31; 36; 37; 60; 61; 62; 67; 68; 71; 111

  Budge, James, 119

  Bullard's Bridge, 47; 48

  Bullet found in Lexington, 106

  Bull's Tavern, 72; 106

  Burgoyne, Gen. John, 4

  Butterfield, Jonathan, 138
    Samuel, home of, 160

  Buttrick, Major John, 81; 82; 84; 85; 91
    John (fifer), 83


  Cambridge, battle of, 145
    Burial of the patriot dead of, 149
    Killed and missing, 157
    Men of, 104
    Percy's retreat through, 145
    Smith lands at, 20;
      advances through, 47; 50

  Camden, Lord, 4

  Cannon, carriages of, burned, 92; 94
    Percy's opening bombardment in Lexington, 122; 123
    Trunnions knocked off, 92; 94

  Capen house, 49

  Chamberlain, Aaron, 157
    Nathaniel, 143; 153

  Charlestown, battle in, 154
    Killed, 157
    Percy's arrival in, 154
    Selectmen arrange an armistice with Percy, 156

  Chatham, Lord, 4

  Cheever, David, 51

  Chelmsford, alarm in, 43
    Men of, 96
    Wounded, 157

  "Cheevy Chase," 115

  Child, Capt. Lemuel, 44; 134

  Choate house, in Somerville, 49

  Christ Church (Old North) in Boston, 23

  Clarke, Miss Elizabeth, letter of, note, 113
    Rev. Jonas, 25; 34; 36; 113
    Jonas, son of Rev. Jonas, 30

  Clark, Capt. Thomas, 40

  Cleaves, Nathaniel, 144; 157

  Coburn, Capt. Peter, 44

  Concord, alarm in, 39
    Battle of, 78
    Court House saved, 95
    Damages in, 95
    Men of, 81
    Smith's advance into, 73
    Smith's retreat from, 95
    Wounded, 157

  Comee, Joseph, 62; 66; 67; 70; 158

  Committee of Safety, 9; 10; 11; 12; 18; 51; 128
    Supplies, 10; 11; 12; 18; 51

  Conant, Col., 21; 24
    Daniel, 158

  Congress, First, Continental, 3
    First, Provincial, 3; 5
      Its limited power, 6; 7
    Second, Provincial, 7; 11

  Cook, Capt. Phinehas, 130
    Rev. Mr., 120; 137
    Samuel, 143; 157

  Cooper, Benjamin, 142; 143
    Rachel, 142; 143
    Tavern, 25; 142; 143

  Coolidge, Jacob, 144
    Joseph, 158

  Council of War in Concord, 80; 81
    In Somerville, 156

  Court House in Concord saved, 95

  Cox, Lieut., of the 5th Regt., 112; 128; 159
    William, one of the Boston Tea Party, note, 2

  Crosby, Lieut., 96

  Cudworth, Capt. Nathan, 96

  Cumings, Dr., 93

  Cutler, Mr., 136
    Rebecca, 136

  Cutter, Ammi, 119; 121; 139


  Daland, Benjamin, 143; 157

  Damages in Concord, 95

  Damages in Lexington, viz., Bond's, 126;
      Loring's, 124;
      Mason's, 128;
      Mead's, 124;
      Meeting House, 112; 123;
      Merriam's, 124;
      Mulliken's, 126;
      Munroe's, 127;
      Sanderson's, 127;
      Total, 128

  Damages in Somerville, viz., Miller's, 153;
      Abigal Shed, 154;
      Ebenezer Shed, 154

  Danvers, alarm in, 34
    Killed, wounded and missing, 157
    Men of, 134

  Davis, Ezekiel, 84; 99; 157
    Capt. Isaac, 41; 42; 43; 80; 81; 82; 83; 84; 91; 99; 157

  Dawes, William, 18; 20; 21; 25; 26; 27; 44

  De Bernicre, Ensign, 16; 75; 76; 86; 89; 94; 109; 130

  Dedham, alarm in, 44
    Killed and wounded, 157
    Men of, 134

  Des Barres's Map of Boston and Vicinity, note, 48

  Devens, Richard, 12; 24; 26; 51; 52

  Dimond, William, 58; 61

  Distances marched by the British soldiers, 16

  Dodge, Capt. Caleb, 134
    William, 3rd, 144; 157

  Douglass, Robert, 33; 61

  Downer, Dr., 136

  Dracut, alarm in, 43
    Men of, 44

  Draper, Capt. Daniel, 134
    Capt. William, 44; 134


  Ears, cutting off of, charged to Americans, 89

  Eaton, Capt. Thomas, 96

  Edgett, Capt. Simon, 45; 96

  Ellis, Capt. William, 134

  Emerson, Rev. William, 39; 89

  Emes, Capt. Jesse, 96

  English friends after the battle, 162

  English War Office, letter from the Military Secretary of, note, 159

  Epes, Capt. Samuel, 134

  Estabrook, Prince, 70; 158

  Everett, Israel, 144; 157


  Fairbanks, Capt. David, 134

  Farmer, Capt. Edward, 96
    Nathaniel, 70; 158

  Farrington, Capt. William, 134

  Faulkner, Col. Francis, 41
    Francis, Jr., 41

  Felt, Joshua, 158

  Fiske, Benjamin, home of, 108

  Fiske Hill in Lexington, fighting near, 106

  Fitch, Nathan, Jr., Tavern of, 38

  Flight of Hancock and Adams, 30

  Flint, Capt. John, 96
    Capt. Samuel, 134
    William, 143; 158

  Flour in Concord destroyed, 92; 94

  Forces of the Americans and British compared, 160

  Foster, Rev. Edmund, 33; 96

  Fox, Capt. Jonathan, 97

  Framingham, alarm in, 45
    Men of, 96
    Wounded, 157

  Franklin, Benjamin, 162

  Friends, English, after the battle, 162

  Frost, Capt. Ephraim, 120
    House in Somerville, 49
    Samuel, 157

  Fuller, Capt. Aaron, 134
    Capt. Amariah, 130


  Gage, Gen. Thomas, 5; 6; 8; 13; 14; 15; 16; 17; 18; 34; 54; 75; 94;
       114; 115; 146; 149; 155; 156; 160

  Gardner, Henry, note, 7
    Major Isaac, 133; 147; 157
    Col. Thomas, 51

  Gerry, Elbridge, 18; 36; 51; 52; 53

  Gleason, Capt. Micajab, 96

  Goddard, Mrs. Mehitable Gay, 27

  Goldthwaite, Ebenezer, 143; 157

  Goodridge, Capt., 11

  Gordon, Rev. William, note, 16

  Gould, Lieut. Edward Thornton, of the 4th or King's Own Regt., 85;
        99; 121; 159

  Gould, Capt. George, 134

  Great Fields in Concord, 101

  Great Meadows in Concord, 96

  Greaton Family, note, 44

  Guild, Capt. Joseph, 134

  Gun carriages in Concord burned, 87


  Hadley, Samuel, 68; 158
    Thomas, 143; 158

  Hall, Capt. Isaac, 25; 134
    Mrs. Thomas, note, 138

  Hancock, John, 6; 8; 10; 17; 18; 21; 25; 29; 30; 34; 36; 52
    Mrs., 30

  Handley, Charles, 88

  Hapgood, Capt., 97

  Hardy's Hill, fight at, 98

  Harrington, Caleb, 62; 66; 67; 68; 70; 158
    David, 50; 66
    Jonathan, Jr., 66; 68; 70; 158
    Thaddeus, note, 37

  Hartwell houses in Lincoln, 102
    Sergt. John, 102
    Sergt. Samuel, 102
    Mrs. Samuel, 102

  Harvard College, Percy's contemplated destruction of, 116; 149

  Hastings, Samuel, 104

  Hatchet, British soldier killed with a, 89

  Haven, Elias, 143; 157

  Hawkshaw, Lieut. Thomas, of the 5th Regt., 112; 128; 159

  Haynes, Capt. Aaron, 96
    Deacon Josiah, 112; 158
    Joshua, Jr., 158

  Hayward, James, 108; 112; 157
    Lieut., 93

  Hicks, John, 148; 157
    Mrs. John, 148
    Son of John, 148

  Hill, Mrs. James, note, 138

  Heath, Gen. William, 11; 14; 51; 128; 132; 135; 156

  Hemenway, Daniel, 157

  Horne, John, 162; 163

  Hosmer, Abner, 84; 91; 99; 157
    Adjutant Joseph, 80; 91

  Hubbard, Ebenezer, 77

  Hull, Lieut., of the 43rd Regt., 85; 99; 160

  Hunnewell brothers, 49

  Hunt, Capt. Simon, 41; 81; 83

  Hutchinson, Capt. Israel, 134
    Thomas, 13


  Indians of Stockbridge, 11

  Ireland, Jonathan, 49


  Jacobs, Henry, 143; 157

  Jasper, Mr., gunsmith, 17

  Johnson, Mr., 158

  Jones, Elisha, house of, 85; 90
    Madame, 30

  Jones Tavern, 16

  Jones, Rev. Thomas, 30


  Kelly, Lieut. Waldo of the 10th Regt., 85; 99; 159

  Kennison, Reuben, 143; 157

  Kent, Samuel, 49

  Killed, wounded and missing, Americans, 157

  Killed, wounded and missing, British, 159

  Kingsbury, Capt. Caleb, 134
    Eleazer, 144; 158

  Knight, Lieut., 159


  Lamson, David, 119

  Lane, Job, 102; 105; 157

  Lanterns, signal, 23

  Larkin, Deacon, 24, note, 25

  Lawrie, Capt. Walter Sloane, of the 43rd Regt., 76; 85; 161

  Lechmere Point, Smith lands at, 20; 47; 48; 74

  Lee, Col. Charles, 18; 51; 52; 53

  Lee's Hill, Concord, 77; 82

  Lester, Ensign Jeremiah, of the 10th Regt., 98; 99; 159

  Lexington, alarm in, 34
    Battle of, 57
    Burial of the slain, 113
    Damages, 128
    Killed and wounded, 158
    Men of, 58
    Meeting house bombarded by Percy, 112
    Smith's advance through, 57
    Smith's retreat to Lexington Village, 105

  Liberty pole in Concord, 74

  Lincoln, Col. Benjamin, 51

  Lincoln, alarm in, 38
    Men of, 81
    Wounded, 158
    Smith's advance through, 72
    Smith's retreat through, 99

  Littleton, alarm in, 44

  Locke, Capt. Benjamin, 56; 134

  Locker, Capt. Isaac, 96

  London, City of, 3
    Petition to Parliament, 163

  Long Room Club, 15

  Loring, Jonathan, 18; 28; 36
    Deacon Joseph, 123;
      his loss, 124

  Lowe, Capt. Caleb, 134

  Lowell, Mr., 30; 31

  Lynn, alarm in, 32
    Killed, wounded and missing, 153
    Men of, 134


  McDonald, Second Lieutenant, 160

  McCloud, Lt. Donald, of the 47th Regt., 112; 128; 160

  Malden, men of, 134

  Mansfield, Capt. Rufus, 134

  Marcy, William, 125; 148; 149; 157

  Mark, the negro slave, 24

  Marrett, Rev. Mr., 30; 31

  Mason, John, 127;
      home of, looted, 128

  Mead home, looted, 124

  Mead, Israel, 119
    Mrs. Matthew, 35; 36
    Rhodes, 35

  Medford, killed, 158
    Men of, 134

  Meeting house in Lexington, bombarded by Percy, 122

  Menotomy, men of, 134

  Meriam's Corner, fight at, 96

  Merriam, Benjamin, home of, looted, 124

  Messengers of alarm, 20

  Middle District Caucus, 15

  Middlesex County convention, 14

  Miles, Capt. Charles, 80; 83; 157

  Miller, James, 153; 158

  Miller's River, 48

  Mills, Amos, 143; 158
    Sergt. Elisha, 144; 158

  Minot, Capt. George, 39; 40; 73; 80; 157
    Dr., 93
    Capt. Jonathan, 97

  Military Act, 2

  Mitchell, Major, 28; 29

  Mohawks, Chief of the, 11

  Monroe, Timothy, 158

  Moore, Capt. John, 81
    Mrs., 48

  Mothskin, Johoiakin, 11

  Moulton, Martha, 95

  Mount Vernon, in Lexington, 122; 123; 128

  Mulliken, John, 126
    Lydia, house of, burned, 126;
      her loss, 126
    Miss, 26

  Munroe Avenue, suggested as a substitute name for Percy Road, note,
        125
    Anna, 66
    Ebenezer, Jr., 65; 70; 71; 158
    Jedediah, 70; 130; 158
    John, 65
    Marrett, house of, 67
    Nathan, 37; 38
    Ensign Robert, 66; 68; 158
    Sergt. William, 18; 25; 35; 36; note, 37; 62; 72; 127

  Munroe Tavern, 122; 126

  Musket balls thrown into the river, 94

  Muzzy, Isaac, 68; 158


  Needham, killed and wounded, 158
    Men of, 134

  Nelson, Josiah, 38; 103

  Newhall, Capt. Ezra, 134

  Newman, Robert, 23

  Newton, alarm in, 45
    Men of, 130
    Wounded, 158

  Nichols, John, 157

  Nixon, Capt. John, 45; 96; 112

  North Bridge, Concord, 75
    Battle at, 78; 80
    Occupied by the British, 76

  North Church, Old North, or Christ Church, in Boston, 23

  North End Caucus, 15

  North, Lord, 4


  Old Belfry, in Lexington, 61

  Old Manse, in Concord, 89

  Orne, Col. Azor, 18; 51; 52; 53


  Page, Capt. Jeremiah, 134

  Parker, Capt. David, 134
    Elizabeth S., 60
    Capt. John, 18; 31; 37; 38; 58; 60; 61; 62; 63; 64; 66; 67; 71;
        82; 101; 104; 105; 110; 124; 127
    Jonas, 65; 70; 158
    Jonathan, 144; 158
    Capt. Joshua, 97
    Capt. Moses, 43; 96
    Rev. Theodore, 60

  Palmer, Col. Joseph, 51

  Parliament, 1; 163

  Parsons, Capt. Lawrence, of the 10th Regt., 76; 86; 87; 89; 159; 161

  Paterson, Col., 11

  Payson, Rev. Phillips, A.M., 119

  Peirce, Benjamin, 144

  Pelham's map of Boston and vicinity, note, 48

  Pepperell, alarm in, 44

  Percy, Earl, Acting Brigadier-General, 94; 111; 114; 115; 116; 117;
        119; 120; 121; 122; 123; 124; 125; 126; 128; 129; 130; 132;
        133; 135; 137; 138; 140; 143; 145; 146; 147; 149; 150; 152;
        153; 154; 155; 156; 161

  "Percy Road," note, 125; 126
    Change to Munroe Avenue suggested, note, 125

  Phip's Farm, 19

  Pickering, Col. Timothy, 155

  Pierce, Benjamin, 158
    Solomon, 70; 158

  Pigeon, John, 11; 45; 51

  Piper's Tavern, 48

  Pistols of Major John Pitcairn, note, 107

  Pitcairn, Major John, 13; 19; 54; 58; 63; 64; 67; 69; 75; 104; 107;
        114; 115

  Plympton, Thomas, 45

  Pole, Capt. Mundy, of the 10th Regt., 76; 91; 92; 94; 161

  Pole, William, 143; 158

  Pomeroy, Col. Seth, 11

  Porter, Asahel, 56; 57; 68; 70; 158

  Potter, Second Lieut. Isaac, 113; 128; 160

  Powder, thrown into the river, 94

  Preble, Jedidiah, 10; 11

  Prentiss, George, 139

  Prescott, Abel, Jr., 99; 157
    Gen., 44
    Dr. Samuel, 25; 26; 27; 39

  Price Plain, 87

  Prince, Capt. Asa, 134

  Prisoners, first Americans that were captured, 50

  Pulling, Capt. John, Jr., 22; 23

  Punkatasset Hill, 40; 43; 75; 80

  Putnam, Capt. Edm., 134
    Henry, 143; 158
    Capt. John, 134
    Mrs. John P., presents Pitcairn's pistols to the town of Lexington,
       note 107
    Nathan, 144; 157
    Perley, 143; 157


  Quincy, Dorothy, 30


  Ramsdell, Abednego, 143; 158

  Rand, the widow, 49

  Raymond, John, 125; 127; 130; 132; 158

  Reading, alarm in, 33
    Men of, 96

  Reed, Asahel, 158
    George, 158
    James, 71; 72
    Joshua, 71
    Mr., 30
    Thaddeus, 110

  Revere, Paul, 15; 19; 20; 21; 22; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31;
        32; 37; 39; 52; 60

  Richardson, Josiah, 56; 57; 68
    Moses, 148; 149; 157
    Thomas, 22

  Robbins home, 136
    John, 70; 158

  Robins, Capt. Joseph, 81
    Thomas, 50

  Robinson, Lieut.-Col. John, 82

  Roxbury, alarm in, 44
    Men of, 134
    Missing, 158

  Russell, Anna, 144

  Russell House, Lexington, 36; 124
    James, 155
    Jason, 139;
      home looted, 140; 143; 157
    Seth, 157
    Capt. Stephen, 44


  Salem, killed, 158
    Men of, 155

  Sanderson, Elijah, 18; 28; 36
    Samuel, 127;
      killing of his cow, 127

  Sandwich, Earl of, 5

  Scalping, charged to the Americans, 89

  Seaver, Elijah, 158

  Sentinels, first posting of American, 156

  Shaw, Capt. Peter, 134

  Shed, Abigal, widow of, 154
    Ebenezer, 154
    Samuel, house of, 152

  Shattuck, Col. Daniel, 33

  Sibley, Rev. J. L., 48

  Silver Tankard of the Communion Service belonging to the Church in
        Menotomy, stolen, 138

  Simonds, Joshua, 62; 66; 71

  Smith, Capt. Aaron, 134
    Lieut.-Col. Francis, 19; 47; 48; 50; 51; 57; 69; 72; 73; 75; 76;
        85; 91; 92; 93; 94; 95; 99; 105;
      wounded, 106; 109; 110; 113; 115; 117; 121; 123; 126; 128; 129;
        146; 159; 161
    Isaac, 117
    Capt. Joseph, 97; 103
    Capt. Robert, 134
    Solomon, 84
    Capt. William, 81; 83

  Somerset, man-of-war, 17; 22; 23

  Somerville, battle of, 150
    Council of war in, 156
    Killed, 158
    Percy's retreat through, 150
    Smith's advance through, 48

  Sons of Liberty, 15; 20

  Souter, Capt., of the Marines, 113; 128; 160

  South Bridge, Concord, 76; 91; 92

  South End Caucus, 15

  Southwick, George, 143; 157

  Spring Valley, 119; 120

  Spy Pond, 119; 120

  Stamp Act, 1;
      repealed, 2

  Stedman, Capt., 11; 33

  Stickney, Capt. Jonathan, 96

  Stone, Capt. Moses, 97

  Stow, men of, 97
    Wounded, 158

  Sudbury, alarm in, 45
    Killed and wounded, 158
    Men of, 96

  Sutherland, Lieut., of the 38th Regt., 85; 99; 159

  Sword of slain British officer found, 106


  Tanner's brook, 99

  Tea, tax on, 2

  Tewksbury, alarm in, 40

  Thatcher, Capt. Samuel, 105; 146

  Thompson, Daniel, 101; 105; 158

  Thorndike, Capt. Larkin, 134

  Thorning, William, 103

  Tidd, Benjamin, 37; 38
    John, 158
    Lieut. William, 66; 67; 70

  Tolman, son of Dr. Tolman, 144; 158

  Tooke, John Horne, 162

  Townsend, Daniel, 143; 158

  Treaty of Peace, Feb. 10, 1763, 1

  Trenchers destroyed, 92

  Trull, Capt. John, 40; 43

  Tufts, Dr., 142
    John, 136
    Mr., 55
    Mrs. Rebecca, 136
    Samuel, 49

  Tufts Tavern, 55; 136;
      looted and set on fire, 137

  Tufts, Timothy, 50; 150
    Mrs. Timothy, 50


  Varnum, Gen., 40; 43

  Viles Tavern, 72; 106


  Walker, Capt. Joshua, 97

  Wallace, Dennison, 144; 157

  Walton, Capt. John, 96

  Ward, Artemas, 10; 11

  Warren, Dr. Joseph, 17; 20; 21; 22; 118; 128; 135; 136

  Washington, George, 3

  Waters, Col., 17

  Watertown, killed, 158
    Men of, 134

  Watson, Abraham, 51
    Jacob, home of, 147

  Webb, Jotham, 143; 157

  Wellington, Benjamin, 58

  Welsh, E., 72
    Mr., 72
    Dr. Thomas, 118

  Westford, men of, 97

  Wetherby's Tavern, 18; 51
    (See also Black Horse Tavern.)

  Wheeler, Timothy, 77

  Whitcomb, Capt. William, 97

  White, Capt. Benjamin, 51
    Capt. Thomas, 133

  "White Cockade," 42; 83

  Whiting, Capt. Moses, 44; 134

  Whittemore, Samuel, 51; 141; 142; 144; 147; 157
    Mrs. Samuel, 141; 142

  Wilkes, Lord Mayor of London, 3

  Willard, Thomas R., 72

  Willis Creek, 47; 48

  Willson, Capt. Jonathan, 38; 81; 101; 105; 157

  Winship, Jason; 142; 143; 147; 157
    Son of Jason, 144
    Simon, 57
    Thomas, 70; 158

  Wiswell, Capt. Jeremiah, 130
    Noah, 158

  Woburn, alarm in, 33
    Killed and wounded, 158
    Men of, 97

  Wood, Amos, 77; 91
    Ephraim, 77; 91
    Sylvanus, 33; 61; 62; 71

  Woodbury, Samuel, 144; 157

  Wooden spoons destroyed, 92

  Worcester, alarm in, 45

  Worcester County convention, 14

  Wyman, Amos, 31
    Jabez, 142; 143; 147; 157
    Nathaniel, 101; 105; 158

  Wright's Tavern, 75; 93


  "Yankee Doodle," 115



  MUSTER ROLLS

  OF THE PARTICIPATING COMPANIES

  OF

  AMERICAN MILITIA AND MINUTE-MEN

  IN

  THE BATTLE OF APRIL 19, 1775,

  MOSTLY FROM THE

  ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONWEALTH
  OF MASSACHUSETTS,

  BUT A FEW FROM OTHER SOURCES.


  COMPILED BY

  FRANK WARREN COBURN.


  LEXINGTON, MASS., U. S. A.,

  PUBLISHED BY FRANK WARREN COBURN.

  1912.


  THE FOLLOWING MATTER, INCLUDING THE MUSTER ROLLS, IS NOT COPYRIGHTED.

  FRANK WARREN COBURN.



PREFACE.


I have copied the greater part of these patriotic names from the
original Rolls in the Archives of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts,
where they were filed soon after the battle of April 19, 1775, as
claims against the State for services on that and succeeding days.

These Companies were all participants, with the exception of those
of Dracut, Stow and Westford. I have given them, as they came so
nearly into the contest. We know there were scores of others also,
who started with the same patriotic fervor, but who were too many
miles away. Their records of time and distances are also in the State
Archives.

Of all the participating Companies, as I have given them, there were
but ten that filed no claims for services rendered, and they were:
two from Acton, the one from Arlington, two from Brookline, the four
from Concord, and the one from Lexington. I am able to give the Rolls
of four of those (perhaps imperfectly), but cannot give the two of
Acton, two of Brookline, and two of Concord.

I have made no attempt to correct the spelling of names, believing
such a task to be beyond my ability, and I imagine the interested
reader would much prefer, himself or herself, to make any such change
in the family name as may be deemed necessary or fitting.

In most of the Rolls the names of the slain are omitted. I have not
attempted to restore them, as I am not sure in every case to which
Company they may have belonged. They will be found, however, in the
preceding part of this book as the "Americans Killed, Wounded, and
Missing."

  FRANK WARREN COBURN.

  Lexington, Mass., November 5, 1912.



THE BATTLE OF APRIL 19, 1775.


LEXINGTON.

CAPTAIN JOHN PARKER'S COMPANY.

ON LEXINGTON COMMON, AND THE FIRST COMPANY IN THE CONTEST.

As no claim for services on April 19 was filed with the Commonwealth,
I have no official Roll. Hudson, in his "History of Lexington," gives
the names of one hundred and twenty as constituting the Company, and
in the genealogical department of the same work gives several others.
In the depositions of participants published in the "Journals of Each
Provincial Congress of Massachusetts, 1774-5," are quite a number who
named themselves as of Parker's Company, one of them being Phillip
Russell; and Moses Harrington, in the same, places "Jr." after his
name. In this Company I have also included the two Woburn men, Robert
Douglass and Sylvanus Wood, who joined Parker on the Common at break
of day, and accepted his invitation to become members for that
occasion.

  _Captain_, John Parker
  _Lieutenant_, William Tidd
  _Ensign_, Robert Munroe
  _Ensign_, Joseph Simonds
  _Clerk_, David Harrington
  _Orderly_, _Sergeant_, William Munroe
  _Sergeant_, Francis Brown
  _Sergeant_, Ebenezer White
  _Corporal_, Joel Viles
  _Corporal_, Samuel Sanderson
  _Corporal_, John Munroe
  _Corporal_, Ebenezer Parker
  _Drummer_, William Dimond
  Isaac Blodgett
  Ebenezer Bowman
  Francis Bowman
  John Bridge, Jr.
  Joseph Bridge
  James Brown
  John Brown
  Solomon Brown
  John Buckman
  Eli Burdoo
  John Chandler
  John Chandler, Jr.
  Abijah Child
  Joseph Comee
  Thomas Cutler
  Robert Douglass
  Isaac Durant
  Prince Estabrook
  Nathaniel Farmer
  Nathan Fessenden
  Thomas Fessenden
  Dr. John Fiske
  Isaac Green
  William Grimes
  Benjamin Hadley
  Ebenezer Hadley
  Samuel Hadley
  Thomas Hadley
  Micah Hagar
  Caleb Harrington
  Jeremiah Harrington
  John Harrington
  Jonathan Harrington
  Jonathan Harrington, Jr.
  Jonathan Harrington, 3d
  Moses Harrington
  Moses Harrington, 3d
  Moses Harrington, Jr.
  Thaddeus Harrington
  Thomas Harrington
  William Harrington
  Isaac Hastings
  Samuel Hastings
  Samuel Hastings, Jr.
  Isaac Hastings
  John Hosmer
  Amos Locke
  Benjamin Locke
  Joseph Loring
  Jonathan Loring
  Amos Marrett
  David Mason
  Joseph Mason
  Abner Mead
  Benjamin Merriam
  William Merriam
  Asa Munroe
  Ebenezer Munroe
  Ebenezer Munroe, Jr.
  Edmund Munroe
  George Munroe
  Jedidiah Munroe
  John Munroe
  John Munroe, 2d
  Nathan Munroe
  Philemon Munroe
  Stephen Munroe
  William Munroe, Jr.
  William Munroe, 3d
  Nathaniel Mulliken
  Amos Muzzy
  Isaac Muzzy
  John Muzzy
  Thaddeus Muzzy
  Jonas Parker
  Thaddeus Parker
  John Parkhurst
  Nathaniel Parkhurst
  Solomon Pierce
  Asahel Porter
  Israel Porter
  John Raymond
  Hammon Reed
  Joshua Reed
  Joshua Reed, Jr.
  Josiah Reed
  Nathan Reed
  Robert Reed
  Thaddeus Reed
  William Reed
  John Robbins
  Thomas Robbins
  Joseph Robinson
  Phillip Russell
  Elijah Sanderson
  Ebenezer Simonds
  Joshua Simonds
  Abraham Smith
  David Smith
  Ebenezer Smith
  John Smith
  Jonathan Smith
  Josiah Smith
  Joseph Smith
  Phinehas Smith
  Samuel Smith
  Thaddeus Smith
  William Smith
  Simeon Snow
  Asahel Stearns
  Phineas Stearns
  Jonas Stone
  Benjamin Tidd
  John Tidd
  Samuel Tidd
  Joseph Underwood
  Joel Viles
  Benjamin Wellington
  Enoch Wellington
  Timothy Wellington
  John Williams
  John Winship
  Samuel Winship
  Thomas Winship
  Sylvanus Wood
  James Wyman
  Nathan Wyman


CONCORD.

In the vicinity of Concord were two regiments, one of militia under
Col. James Barrett of Concord, with Ezekiel How of Sudbury as
Lieutenant Colonel, and one of minute-men under Col. Abijah Pierce of
Lincoln, with Thomas Nixon of Framingham as Lieutenant Colonel, and
John Buttrick of Concord as Major. These two regiments did not appear
as such at the North Bridge, the entire force there at the opening
being under the command of Barrett, who directed the advance to be
led by Major Buttrick. Quite a number of the Companies of each were
in line, but not in regimental formation.

  _Colonel_, James Barrett of Concord
  _Lieut.-Colonel_, Ezekiel How of Sudbury
  _Captain_, Nathan Barrett of Concord
  _Captain_, George Minot of Concord
  _Captain_, Joseph Robbins of Acton
  _Captain_, John Moore of Bedford
  _Captain_, Samuel Farrar of Lincoln
  _Captain_, Moses Stone of Sudbury
  _Captain_, Aaron Haynes of Sudbury
  _Colonel_, Abijah Pierce of Lincoln
  _Lieut.-Colonel_, Thomas Nixon of Framingham
  _Major_, John Buttrick of Concord
  _Second Major_, Jacob Miller of Holliston
  _Adjutant_, Thomas Hurd of East Sudbury
  _Captain_, David Brown of Concord
  _Captain_, Charles Miles of Concord
  _Captain_, Isaac Davis of Acton
  _Captain_, William Smith of Lincoln
  _Captain_, Jonathan Willson of Bedford
  _Captain_, John Nixon of Sudbury
  _Captain_, George Minot
  _Captain_, Nathan Barrett

There were four Concord Companies present, commanded respectively
by Captains Brown, Miles, Minot, and Barrett. No claims for service
were filed with the Commonwealth in their behalf, therefore, I can
present no official Rolls. I found in Tolman's "Concord Minute Men" a
roster of Brown's Company, and for those constituting Miles's Company
I am indebted to the rare original manuscript belonging to the late
Dr. Charles E. Clark of Lynn, and which was sold at auction by C. F.
Libbie & Co., in Boston, Jan. 15, 1901, for $275.00.


CAPTAIN DAVID BROWN'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  _Captain_, David Brown
  _Lieutenant_, David Wheeler
  _Lieutenant_, Silas Man
  _Sergeant_, Abishai Brown
  _Sergeant_, Emerson Cogswell
  _Sergeant_, Amos Wood
  _Corporal_, Amos Barrett
  _Corporal_, Stephen Barrett
  _Corporal_, Reuben Hunt
  _Corporal_, Stephen Jones
  _Fifer_, John Buttrick, Jr.
  Phineas Alin
  Humphrey Barrett, Jr.
  Elias Barron
  Jonas Bateman
  John Brown, Jr.
  Jonas Brown
  Purchase Brown
  Abiel Buttrick
  Daniel Buttrick
  Oliver Buttrick
  Tilly Buttrick
  Willard Buttrick
  William Buttrick
  Daniel Cray
  Amos Davis
  Abraham Davis
  Joseph Davis, Jr.
  Joseph Dudley
  Charles Flint
  Edward Flint
  Edward Flint, Jr.
  Nathan Flint
  Ezekiel Hagar
  Isaac Hoar
  David Hubbare
  John Laughton
  David Melvin, Jr.
  William Mercer
  John Minot, Jr.
  Thomas Prescott
  Bradbury Robinson
  Ebenezer Stowe
  Nathan Stowe
  Thomas Thurston
  Jotham Wheeler
  Peter Wheeler
  Zachary Wheeler
  Ammi White
  John White
  Jonas Whitney
  Aaron Wright


CAPTAIN CHARLES MILES'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  _Captain_, Charles Miles
  _Lieutenant_, Jonathan Farrar
  _Lieutenant_, Francis Wheeler
  _Sergeant_, David Hartwell
  _Sergeant_, Amos Hosmer
  _Sergeant_, Silas Walker
  _Sergeant_, Edward Richardson
  _Drummer_, Daniel Brown
  _Fifer_, Samuel Darby
  _Corporal_, Simeon Hayward
  _Corporal_, Nathan Peirce
  _Corporal_, James Cogswell
  Joseph Cleasby
  Simeon Buridge
  Israel Barratt
  Daniel Hore
  Ephraim Brooks
  William Buridge
  Joseph Stratton
  Stephan Brooks
  Simon Wheeler
  Ebenezer Johnson
  Stephan Starns
  William Brown
  Jeremiah Clark
  Jacob Ames
  Benjamin Hosmer
  Joel Hosmer
  Samuel Wheeler
  Warham Wheeler
  Oliver Wheeler
  Jesse Hosmer
  Amos Darby
  John Corneall
  Levi Hosmer
  Solomon Rice
  Thaddeas Bancraft
  Amos Melven
  Samuel Melven
  Nathan Dudley
  Oliver Parlin
  John Flagg
  Samuel Emery
  John Cole
  Daniel Cole
  Barnabas Davis
  Major Raley
  Edward Wilkens
  Daniel Farrar
  Oliver Harris
  Samuel Jewet
  Daniel Wheat


CAPTAIN GEORGE MINOT'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

Names and number of men unknown.


CAPTAIN NATHAN BARRETT'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

Names and number of men unknown.


ACTON.

CAPTAIN ISAAC DAVIS'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

Davis was killed and the command fell to his Lieutenant, John
Hayward, who became Captain. The following official Roll does not
include Acton's slain:

  "A list of the names of a minute-Company under the Command of
  Captain John Hayward in Colonel Abijah Pierce's Regiment, who
  entered the Service nineteenth of April One Thousand Seven
  Hundred and Seventy Five."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 116_

  (_Captain_, Isaac Davis, killed)
  (_Succeeding_) _Captain_, John Hayward
  _Lieutenant_, John Heald
  _Second Lieutenant_, David Forbush
  _Sergeant_, William Macksfield
  _Sergeant_, Oliver Emerson
  _Corporal_, John Davis
  _Corporal_, David Davis
  _Corporal_, John Barker
  Thomas Darby
  John Harris
  Ebenezer Heald
  James Davis
  Phillip Piper
  Reuben Low
  Benjn. Hayward
  Simon Hunt, Jur.
  Elijah Davice
  Ephraim Forbush
  Abraham Hapgood
  Ezekiel Davis
  Ebenezer Edwards
  John Robbins
  Joseph Barker
  William Johnson
  Reuben Davis
  Joseph Reed
  Stephen Shepherd
  Thomas Thorp
  Solomon Smith
  Jonas Hunt
  Moses Wood
  Ephraim Billings
  Joseph Chaffin
  Samuel Tempel
  Abraham Young
  Francis Barker, _Drummer_
  Luther Blanchard, _Fifer_


ACTING CAPTAIN LIEUTENANT SIMON HUNT'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

Names and number of men unknown.


CAPTAIN JOSEPH ROBIN'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

Names and number of men unknown.

  _Captain_, Joseph Robins
  (_Officer_) Israel Heald
  (_Officer_) Robert Chaffin
  _Acting Captain_, Simon Hunt
  _Ensign_, Thomas Noyes


BEDFORD.

CAPTAIN JOHN MOORE'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "The Account of Capt. John Moore, Commander of the Military
  Company, in Bedford, for himself & those of his Company numbered
  in the following Roll for time & Travel Spent in the Service
  & Defence of the Colony, on & Directly after the alarm on the
  Nineteenth Day of April last: Exhibiting, in Destinct Columns
  against Each mans name, the number of miles he Travelled, The
  allowance thereof, The number of Days he was in the Service, and
  the wages thereof; with the Sum total of the Whole; agreeable to
  the Resolve of the Honl. Court published in the news-papers and a
  vacant Column for Deductions, if any shall be made."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 9._

  _Captain_, John Moore
  _First Lieutenant_, John Meriam
  _Second Lieutenant_, Eleazer Davis
  _Sergeant_, Joseph Convars
  _Sergeant_, James Wright
  _Sergeant_, Jeremiah Fitch, Jnr.
  _Fifer_, David Lane
  James Lane, 3rd
  Oliver Reed, Junr.
  Samuel Lane
  Israel Putnam, Jur.
  Samuel Bacon
  Samuel Davis
  Ebenezer Page
  Thaddeus Davis
  Edward Stearns
  Solomon Stearns
  William Page
  William Maxwell
  Samuel Meeds
  Josiah Upton
  Samuel Meriam
  Abel Bowman
  David Fitch
  Abijah Bacon
  Joseph Hartwell
  Thomas Bacon
  John Fitch
  Samuel Lane
  John Lane, Junr.
  Solomon Lane
  Matthew Pollard
  Ziba Lane
  Stephen Lane
  Samson Hardy
  Job Lane, Junr.
  Lemuel Blanchard
  Oliver Pollard, Junr.
  Edward Stevens
  Jeremiah Blood
  Josiah Davis
  John Reed, Junr.
  Reuben Bacon
  Simon Parker
  Ebenezer Johnson
  Joseph Ross
  Malachi Allen
  Jabez Carter
  Abraham Merriam
  John Lane, 3rd
  Timothy Page


CAPTAIN JONATHAN WILLSON'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

Willson was killed and the command fell to his Lieutenant, Moses
Abbott.

  "the Account of the Time that Eatch man who belonged to the minit
  men of the Town of Bedford Spent at Cambridge in defence of the
  County together with Nineteenth of April last & also of their
  travil Receoned from the middle of the town according to the mind
  of the Company."

  _Lexington Alarms, XI, 192._

  (_Captain_, Joseph Willson, killed)
  _First Lieutenant_, Moses Abbott
  _Second Lieutenant_, Timothy Jones
  _Sergeant_, Christopher Page
  _Sergeant_, Seth Saultmarsh
  _Sergeant_, Ebenezer Fitch
  _Sergeant_, Asa Fassett
  _Drummer_, Olover Bacon
  _Fifer_, Jonas Welch
  Jabez Russell
  Jonas Gleason
  Nathan Bacon
  Nathaniel Page, Jun.
  Joseph Meeds, Jun.
  Ruben Duren
  Elijah Bacon
  Benjamin Bacon
  Timothy Johnson
  Moses Fitch
  David Bacon
  David Reed
  Nathan Bomar (or Boman)
  Ephram Smith
  Asa Duren
  Obediah Johnson
  Benjamin Winship
  Ruben Bacon
  William Merriam


LINCOLN.

CAPTAIN WILLIAM SMITH'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "A List of a Company of Minute Men, under the Command of Capt.
  William Smith in Colo. Abijah Pierces Regt. who entered the
  Service April ye 19th 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 97._

  _Captain_ William Smith
  _Lieutenant_ Samuel Farrar
  _Second Lieutenant_, Samuel Hoar
  _Sergeant_ Saml Hartwell
  _Sergeant_ David Fisk
  _Sergeant_ John Hartwell
  _Sergeant_ Jonas Mason
  _Corporal_ Abijah Mead
  _Corporal_ Elijah Willington
  _Corporal_ Ebenezer Brown
  _Corporal_ Joseph Abbot
  _Fifer_ Joseph Mason
  _Fifer_ Elijah Mason
  _Drummer_ Danl Brown
  Nehemiah Abbot
  Daniel Child
  Abel Adams
  Daniel Hosmer
  Abijah Munroe
  Joseph Peirce
  Abra Peirce
  Artemas Reed
  Jesse Smith
  Nathan Tidd
  Willm Thorning
  Solomon Whitney
  Jonathan Gage
  Isaac Gage
  John Parks
  Ebenezer Parks
  Jonas Parks
  Aaron Parks
  Nathan Billings
  Timothy Billings
  Nathl. Baker
  James Baker
  Nathan Brown, Jr.
  Saml Dakin, Jr.
  Humphry Farrar
  James Parks
  Jona. Smith z
  John Wesson, Junr.
  Enos Wheeler
  Jacob Baker, Jr.
  John Garfield
  Joel Adams
  Joshua Brooks, Jr.
  Benja. Brooks
  Thomas Blodget
  Joshua Child, Junr.
  Jacob Foster
  Nathl. Gove
  Daniel Harrington
  Isaac Hartwell
  Gregory Stone, Jr.
  John Thorning
  John Wesson
  Joseph Wheet
  Danl Billings
  William Parks
  Willard Parks
  Willm. Hosmer


BILLERICA.

LIEUTENANT OLIVER CROSBY'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "A Muster Roll of a Number of men belonging To Billerica in Coll
  green's Regt under the Command of Lieut Oliver Crosby being the
  Remainder of the Thurd Company in said Town after the Inlisting
  the minet men Who were in the Concord Battle & after ward in the
  army at Cambridge the Time after mentioned."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 16._

  _Lieutenant_, Oliver Crosby
  _Sergeant_, Josiah Bowen
  Josiah Crosby
  Ebnr. Richardson
  Joseph Farmer
  Reuben Kendal, Jun.
  Benja. Beard
  Edward Farmer
  Josiah Richardson
  Ezekiel Wallker
  Joseph Richardson
  Abijah Beard


EDWARD FARMER'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "A Muster roll of the Company, under the Command of Capt. Edwd.
  Farmer, of Billerica in Colo. Green's Regt. of Melitia, which
  march'd on the Alarm April 19th 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 73._

  _Captain_, Edwd. Farmer
  _Lieutenant_, John Farmer
  Imas Sanders
  Thos. Baldwin
  Stephen Bassett
  Nathl. Blanchard
  Sears Cook
  Timo. Davis
  Oliver Farmer
  Samuel Trull
  John Patten, Jun.
  Wm. Gleason
  Reuben Kendle
  Benja. Pollard
  Asa Patten
  Jerh. Allen
  Jona. Richardson
  Oliver Richardson
  Isaac Holt
  John Ross
  Oliver Stearns
  Benja. Sanders
  Solo Sanders
  John Sanders
  Benja. Sanders, Jr.
  Saml. Trull, Junr.
  Benja. Davis
  Ebenr. Sanders
  John Tolman
  Jacob Cory
  Isaac Beard
  Justice Blanchard
  Benja. Baldwin
  Benja. Dutten
  John Bell


CAPTAIN JONATHAN STICKNEY'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "A Muster Role of the Company under the Command of Capt. Jona
  Stickney in Coll Bridges Regt of Minet men wich marched on the
  alarm April 19th 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 118._

  _Captain_, Jona. Stickney
  _Lieutenant_, James Lewis
  _Lieutenant_, John Lewis
  _Sergeant_, Timo. Whiting
  Jacob Richardson
  Josiah Bowars
  Wm. Stickney
  _Private_, Wm Baldwin
  John Blanchard
  Saml. Blanchard
  Timo. Blanchard
  Timo. Whiting, jun.
  Solomon Pollard
  Joseph Willson
  Isaac White
  Benja. Davis
  Joseph Foster
  John Foster
  Simo Stevens
  Thomas Richardson
  Joseph Mace
  Josiah Damforth
  Daniel Killam
  John Willson
  Saml. Walker
  Joel Walker
  Wm. Tarbel
  Saml. Hill
  John Parker
  Nicholas French
  Saml. Russ
  Saml. Core
  Saml. Kidder
  Benja. Lewis, Jun.
  Asa Spaldwin
  Thomas Ditson
  Saml. Ditson
  Benja. Needham
  John Whiting
  Joseph Fox
  Abijah Blanchard
  John Colton
  Elijah Danforth
  Samuel Richardson
  Peter Hill
  Solo. Maning
  Jeremiah Reed
  Jacob Marshall
  Jeremiah Hill
  Benja. Bowers
  Saml. Roggers
  Isaac Lewiston
  Josiah Bard
  Benja. Dows


CHELMSFORD.

CAPTAIN OLIVER BARRON'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "A list of the Travil and Service of Capt. Oliver Barron of
  Chelmsford in the County of Middlesex and the men under him,
  belonging to the Regiment of Militia whereof David Green Esqr is
  Colonel. We in Consequence of the Alarm made on ye 19th of April
  1775 marched from home for the Defence of This Colloney against
  the ministerial Troops."

  _Lexington Alarms, XI, 210._

  _Captain_, Oliver Barron
  _Lieutenant_, Samuel Stevens
  _Sergeant_, John Ford
  _Sergeant_, Benjamin Warren
  _Sergeant_, Silos Spaulding
  _Corporal_, Jonas Peirce
  _Drummer_, John Spaulding
  Jacob Howard
  Benjamin Spaulding
  David Burge
  Ephrain Parkhurst
  Oliver Richardson
  Daniel Dammon
  Daniel Sillaway
  Willard Howard
  William Bowers
  Josiah Richardson
  John Dunn
  John Twiss
  Henry Spaulding, Junr.
  Joseph Marshall
  Stephen Peirce, Junr.
  Samuel Fletcher
  Joshua Davis
  Oliver Fletcher
  Jonathan Peirce
  Nathaniel Farrar
  Joseph Tylor
  Thomas Marshall, Junr.
  William Mears
  John Roby
  Benjamin Parkhurst
  Moses Barron
  John Mears
  Jeremiah Abbott
  Reuben Parker
  David Danforth
  Benjamin Parker
  Amos Mastes
  Isaac Hunt, Junr.
  David Marshall
  Benjamin Melvin
  Samuel Marshall
  Daniel Keyes
  John Keyes
  William Dunn
  Benjamin Barrit
  James Dunn, Junr.
  Francis Daverson
  Moses Esterbrooks
  William Cambel
  Daniel Chambers
  John Chambers
  Jonathan Sprague
  Isaiah Foster, Junr.
  Samuel Britton
  William Chambers
  Benjamin Parker, Junr.
  Benjamin Peirce
  Josiah Fletcher, Junr.
  Joseph Spaulding


ACTING CAPTAIN COL. MOSES PARKER'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "A Muster Roll of Col. Moses Parker Company, year 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 153_

  (_Acting Captain_) _Colonel_ Moses Parker
  _Lieutenant_, Benjamin Walker
  _Lieutenant_, Isaac Parker
  _Sergeant_, John Freland
  _Sergeant_, Wm. Parker
  _Sergeant_, Azariah Procter
  _Sergeant_, Villard Parker
  Simeon Barritt
  Wm. Abbot
  Saml. Perham
  Wm. Parkes
  Isaac Foster
  David Spaulding
  Aaron Chamberling
  Henry Fletcher
  Wm. Fletcher 3d
  Ieptha Spauling
  Mica Spaulding
  Robert Adams
  (?) ly Reed
  Leui Peirce
  Isaac Marshal
  John Bates
  Nathaniel Foster
  Benj'n Farley
  Enah Cleaueland
  Benja Butterfield
  Reuben Foster
  Joseph Spaulding, Jr.
  Solomon Keys
  John Parker
  John Adams
  Ebenezer Goold
  Josiah Blood
  Zacheous Fletcher
  Robert Peirce
  Saml. Marshal
  Joseph Ausgood
  Charles Fletcher
  Thomas Adams
  Benjn Ausgood
  Josharny Durant
  David Walker


FRAMINGHAM.

CAPTAIN SIMON EDGET'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "A Muster Roll of A Minute Company Belonging to Framingham Under
  the Command of Capt. Simon Edget, In the Conty of Middlesex who
  marched on the alarm on the 19th of april 1775 to Concord &
  Cambridge."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 84._

  _Captain_, Simon Edget
  _First Lieutenant_, James Dvrury (?)
  _Second Lieutenant_, Jon Buckmnster
  _First Sergeant_, William Mayner
  _Second Sergeant_, Joseph Bigelow
  _Third Sergeant_, Noah Eaton
  _Fourth Sergeant_, (?) Bent
  _First Corporal_, (?) rd Manson
  _Second Corporal_, Samll Forest
  _Fourth Corporal_, (?) d Morse
  _Third Corporal_, Joseph Temple
  _Drummer_, (?) eh Atkinson
  _Fifer_, Moses Edget
  (?) Fisk
  (?) njn Eaton
  Joseph Nickle
  Joseph Bennet
  (?) Clerki
  (?) Dadomon
  (?) nj Eaton
  (?) m Auerton
  (?) s Gates
  Ioh Hill
  (?) Heminway
  (?) Holden
  (?) Larned
  Samll Ordway
  Simon Pratt
  Josiah Bant
  John Trowbridge
  George Gates
  David Peterson
  Timothy Bollard
  Solenas Ballard
  Joshua Furlong
  Cyrus Minger
  Asa Pike
  Abrm. Belknap
  Joseph Mixter
  Isaace Goodman
  Joshua Trowbrig
  Joseph Tenning
  David Senger
  Jesse Hoden
  James Clayas
  Charles Gates
  John Eaton
  Malkih Eaton
  James Morse
  Daniel Hemenway
  William Cushing
  Silas Pike
  Abel Stone
  Abner Stone
  Luther Stone
  Asa Morse
  Nathan Dvrury
  Samll Abbott
  (?) sh Haven
  Jothan Morse
  John Mixter
  Simon Rogers
  Nennuh Write
  Samll Underwood
  John Stone
  Silas Eaton
  Isaace Hevven
  Increase Claflin
  Peter Salem
  Jacob Heminway
  Jonas Underwood
  Noah Eaton, Jor.
  Janers Greenwood
  Andra Allord
  Nathan Dodmon
  Phinhas Green (?)


CAPTAIN JESSE EMES'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "an Abstract of melitia Compny Belonging to Framingham."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 79._

  _Captain_, Jesse Emes
  _Lieutenant_, John Shattuck
  _Lieutenant_, John Eames
  _Sergeant_, (?) Hemenway
  _Sergeant_, John Clayes
  _Sergeant_, James Glover
  _Corporal_, Richard Rice
  _Corporal_, Thos. Bent
  _Corporal_, Thads. Hager
  _Corporal_, John Jones, Joner
  Abner Prat
  Hennry Emes
  Gershom Emes
  Jotham Emes
  Seth Harden
  Nathl. Emes, Joner
  Silas Winch
  Asa Nvrs
  John Nvrs
  Jam Mellen
  Isace Gibbs
  Daniel Jones
  Wm. Hemenway
  Ebenr. Boolwell


CAPTAIN MICAJAH GLEASON'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "A Role of the minute men Under the Command of Capt. Micajah
  Gleason at Concord April ye 19th, 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 94._

  _Captain_, Micajah Gleason
  _Lieutenant_, John Eames
  _Lieutenant_, Samuel Gleason
  _Sergeant_, John Gleason
  _Sergeant_, Thomas Buckminster
  _Clerk_, Ebenezer Hemenway
  _Sergeant_, Shubeb Sever
  _Sergeant_, Jonathan Hill
  _Corporal_, Gideon Rider
  _Corporal_, Alphais Nichols
  _Corporal_, Ebenezer Winch
  _Corporal_, Roger Brown
  _Drummer_, Isaac Heminway
  _Fifer_, Thomas Nixon
  Jonathan Temple
  Silas Hemenway
  Elisha Drury
  Moses Fisk
  Nathan Emes
  Zaccaus Fairbanks
  John Hemenway
  Nathan Hemenway
  Perley How
  John Mahew
  David Rice, Junr.
  Samuel Stone
  Joseph Tower
  Joseph Winch
  Andrew Brown
  Jonathan Adams
  John Maynard
  Nedham Maynard
  Abel Child
  Josiah Weight
  David Weight
  Francis How
  Charles Dority
  Micah Dority
  Jonathan Hemenway
  Daniel Bridge
  Joseph How
  Ezekiel Rice
  Joseph Webb
  Simon How
  Azariah Walker
  Joseph Emes
  Moses Rice
  Chever Kindell
  Joseph Brown


READING.

CAPTAIN JOHN BACHELLER'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "A Muster Roll of Cap John Bachellers Company of Minute men in
  Colo Ebenezer Bridges Regt."

  _Lexington Alarms, XI, 245._

  _Captain_, John Bacheller
  _First Lieutenant_, Ebenr. Damon
  _Second Lieutenant_, James Bancroft
  _Sergeant_, Thomas Hartsons
  _Sergeant_, Abraham Foster
  _Sergeant_, Edm Eaton
  _Sergeant_, John Green
  _Corporal_, Wm. Redding
  _Corporal_, Nathl. Cowdry
  _Corporal_, Joseph Burnap
  _Corporal_, Jona. Flint
  _Fifer_, Wm. Wilson
  _Fifer_, Charles Eaton
  Benja. Badger
  Thos. Brown
  James Bryant
  Amos Bryant
  Cleveland Bird
  John Burnap
  Stephen Buxton
  Benja. Buxton
  Eben Buxton
  Tho Damon
  Dan Damon
  Eben Damon
  Ezra Damon
  Joseph Emerson
  Kendall Emerson
  Thomas Eaton
  Joshua Eaton
  Wm. Eaton
  Samuel Eaton
  Edm Foster
  Levi Flint
  Sam Felt
  Nat Graves
  Wm. Hartshorn
  John Hartshorn
  Joseph Holt
  Joseph Hill
  James Hill
  Robert Homer
  Wm. Johnson
  Thos. Nichols
  Simon Nichols
  Edw. Prat
  Ephm Pratt
  Danl. Pratt
  David Parker
  Nathan Parker
  Joseph Parker
  Ionas Parker
  Thos. Richardson
  Luke Richardson
  Elijah Upton
  Isaac Upton
  Benja. Walton
  Isaac Watson
  Benja. Williams
  Timo. Wiley
  Timo. Wakefield


CAPTAIN THOMAS EATON'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "A Muster roll of Capt. Eaton's Compy. in Col.^o Green's Regt."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 93._

  _Captain_, Thomas Eaton
  _Lieutenant_, Jonas Parker
  _Ensign_, John Emerson
  _Sergeant_, Amos Parson
  _Sergeant_, Jos. Bancroft
  _Sergeant_, Wm. Parker
  _Sergeant_, John Boutell
  _Corporal_, John Temple
  _Corporal_, Asa Parker
  _Corporal_, Isaac Pratt
  _Drummer_, Wm. Nichols
  Edmd. Bancroft
  Saml. Emerson
  (?) nl Damon
  (?) bra Eaton
  John Nichols
  Danl. Parker, Jr.
  Benja. Parker
  John Pratt
  Richd. Nichalls
  Thomas Symonds
  Jethro Richardson
  Wm. Foster
  (?) r Richardson
  (?) l Weston
  (?) a Pool
  (?) n Emerson
  (?) h Parker
  (?) F (?) de
  Wm. Beard
  (?) Pratt
  (?) Nicholls
  James Boutell
  James Eaton
  Jonas Eaton
  Edmd. Parker
  Saml. Pratt
  Ephm. Parker, 2d
  Abijah Weston
  Aaron Parker
  Isaac Parker
  John Hartson
  Timo. Wakefield
  John Farmer
  John Buxton
  Joseph Boutell
  Richd. Mason
  Reuben Weston
  Benja. Young
  Wm. Thompson
  Queduthn Buxton
  Jona. Nichols
  Jona. Weston, Jr.
  John Stimson
  Jacob Townshend
  Andrew Beard
  Danl Parker
  (?) ahm Parker
  Joseph Hill
  (?) ona Weston
  (John?) Weston
  Jabez Damon
  Ebenr Emerson


CAPTAIN JOHN FLINT'S COMPANY.

  "A Roll of Capt. John Flint's Company in Colo. David Greens
  Regiment."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 68._

  _Captain_, John Flint
  _First Lieutenant_, John Dix
  _Second Lieutenant_, Ephm. Pratt
  (_Sergeant?_) Timo Russell
  (_Sergeant?_) George Flint
  (_Sergeant?_) Benja. Upton
  (_Sergeant?_) Jabez Upton
  Jona Batchellor
  Job Bancroft
  John Burnap
  John Bragg
  John Clammons
  Stephn Curtis
  Ezra Dammon
  David Dammon
  Deacn Jereh. Eaton
  Timo. Eaton
  Israel Eaton
  Nathl Eaton, Jun
  Nathl Evans
  Saml Elenwood
  Lieutenant, Eleazr Flint
  Lieutenant, Benja. Flint
  Jona. Flint
  James Flint
  Ebenr Flint, jun.
  Benja. Flint, jun.
  Benj. Flint, 3d
  Benja. Flint, 4th
  Jona. Flint, Junr.
  Willm Flint
  James Foster
  Benja. Foster
  Nathan Foster
  Abra. Foster
  Martin Herrick
  Samuel Herrick
  (Jacob?) Herrick
  Benja. Holt
  John Hayward
  Danl. Hart
  Asa Hart
  Ensign, Jos. Lewis
  Benja. McIntyer
  Benja. McIntyer, Jr.
  (?) McIntyer
  Hezekh McIntyer
  Ebenr McIntyer
  Ephm. McIntyer
  Solo McIntyer
  (Mc?) Jacob McIntyer
  Wm. Nichols
  Henry Putnam
  Jos. Phelps
  David Parker
  Saml Parker
  Isaac Tinckcom
  Wm. Russell
  Sergeant, Abra. Sheldon
  _Ensign_, Wm. Sawyer
  John Stack
  Nathl. Sheldon, Jr.
  Zacha. Sheldon
  Wm. Stone
  Thos. Taylor, Jr.
  Saml. Taylor
  Joseph Upton
  Jacob Upton
  Amos Upton, Jr.
  Amos Upton, 3d
  Ebenr Upton
  Wm. Upton
  Nathl Upton, Jr.
  John Upton
  David Upton
  Wm. Whitridge
  David Wright
  Doct. Amos Upton
  _Corporal_, Hezh. Upton


CAPTAIN JOHN WALTON'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "A Muster roll of Capt. John Walton's Compy in Colo. David Greens
  Regiment April 19th, 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 166._

  _Captain_, John Walton
  _Lieutenant_, John Pratt
  _Ensign_, Thomas Green
  _Sergeant_, John Brown
  _Sergeant_, John Vinton
  _Sergeant_, Wm. Green
  _Sergeant_, Saml Gould
  _Corporal_, James Smith
  _Corporal_, James Bennett
  _Drummer_, Thomas Pool
  _Fifer_, Thomas Hudson
  Aaron Green
  John Fowl
  Isaac Smith
  Michael Sweetser
  Nathl Wiley
  David Smith
  Benja. Bordman
  Reuben Eaton
  (?) n Gould
  Wm Gould, Junr.
  James Wiley
  Amos Bordman
  Nathan Green
  Wm Tarbox
  James Johnson
  John Pratt
  Nathl Gary
  Isaac Green
  (?) omas Green
  Josiah Briant
  (?) h Briant
  Jona. Evans
  Thos Evans
  Jonas Evans
  Ebenezer Smith
  Saml Feltch
  (? Catei) Feltch
  Nathan Feltch
  John Farrier
  Nathan Wolley
  Cornelius Sweetser
  Danl. Lewis
  Timo. Briant
  Saml Evans
  Ebenr. Parker
  John Colman
  John Lambert
  Ebenr. Williams
  Thos. Damon
  Benja. Hartshorn
  Jona. Hartshorn
  Ebenr. Stimpson
  Ebenr. Hopkins
  Wm Bennett
  John Goodwin
  Benja. Emerson
  Jacob Walton
  Benja. Butters
  Saml. Hitchens
  S (?) r Emerson
  Thos Davis
  Jona. Eaton
  Benja. Brown
  Wm Brown
  Jos. Emerson
  Elias Bordman
  Thos Parker
  Jacob Emerson
  Joseph Gould
  Thos Parker, Jr.
  Thos Emerson
  Thos Emerson, Jr.
  John Pike
  Aaron Nirs
  (?) Eaton
  Jona. Foster
  Jereh. Brown
  Wm. Walton
  Ebenr. Walton
  Oliver Walton
  John Hawks
  Brown Emerson
  Jabex Carter
  (Uriah or Josiah) Green, of Stoneham
  Thomas Hay, do
  Saml Hartshorn
  John Green


SUDBURY.

CAPTAIN NATHANIEL CUDWORTH'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "A Muster Roll of the Minute Compy. under the Command of Capt
  Nathl. Cudworth, in Col. Abijah Peirce's Regiment."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 8._

  _Captain_, Nathl. Cudworth
  _Lieutenant_, Thadeus Russell
  _Ensign_, Nathl. Maynard
  _Sergeant_, Nathl. Reeves
  _Sergeant_, Jona. Hoar
  _Sergeant_, Caleb Moulton
  _Sergeant_, Thoms. Rutter
  _Corporal_, Josih. Willington
  _Corporal_, Thads. Bond
  _Corporal_, David Clough
  _Corporal_, Josha. Kendell
  _Drummer_, John Trask
  Phins. Gleason
  Ebenr. Dudley
  John Noyes. Jr.
  Timothy Underwood, Jr.
  Peter Brintnal
  Zebr. Farrar
  Jona Parmenter, Jr.
  Jona. Wesson
  Saml. Pollard
  Danl Rice
  Leml. Whitney
  Benjn. Adams
  Saml. Curtis
  Richd. Heard, Jr.
  Saml Bent
  Saml. Haynes
  Joseph Nichols
  Willm Grout
  Saml Merriam
  David Underwood
  Naum Dudley
  James Phillips
  Edmd. Rice, Jr.
  Nathl. Parmentor
  David Damon
  David Rice
  Edward How
  Timothy Sherman


CAPTAIN AARON HAYNES'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "A Muster Role of Millitia Company a part of an Alarm Company
  that Marched to Cambrdg by Concord on the Alarum on the ninteth
  of April last the Comand of Capt. Aaron Haynes of Sudbury and
  Returning home."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 123._

  _Captain_, Aaron Haynes
  _Lieutenant_, Daniel Bowker
  _Second Lieutenant_, James Puffer
  _Sergeant_, Joshua Haynes
  _Sergeant_, Samll. Dakin
  _Sergeant_, Samll. Puffer
  _Sergeant_, Jona. Haynes
  _Corporal_, Benja. Smith
  _Corporal_, Asahel Balcom
  _Corporal_, Hope Brown
  _Corporal_, Ithamar Rice
  _Clerk_, Phinehas Puffer
  _Fifer_, Aaron Haynes
  Abel Maynard
  Silas Tower
  Thomas Puffer
  Rufus Parmenter
  James Parmenter
  Ebenr. Plymton
  Abel Tower
  Francis Grean
  Jason Haynes
  Joseph Haynes
  Joel Brigham
  Abel Willis
  Isaac Rice
  John Beamis
  Moses Noyes
  David Moore
  Micah Howard
  John Maynard
  James Haynes
  Isaac Puffer
  _Lieutenant_, Oliver Dakin
  _Sergeant_, Abijah Brigham
  Israel Haynes
  Edmund Parmenter
  Henry Smith
  Dean Thos. Plymton
  (And possibly Silas How, not given in official roll.--F. W. C.)


CAPTAIN ISAAC LOCKER'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "Province of the Massachusetts Dr To Isaac Locker & the men under
  me by name, in ye Colony for service done in defence of the
  Country on ye 19th day of April to ye 21st of the same when the
  alarm at Concord agreeable to the General Courts Order made up
  this accot."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 178._

  _Captain_, Isaac Locker
  _Lieutenant_, Oliver Noyes
  _Quartermaster_, Jas. Ruffer
  _Corporal_, Jas. Noyes
  _Corporal_, Jesse Gibbs
  _Corporal_, Abel Smith
  (Da?) Wood Moore
  Ephm Moore
  Jonas Wheeler
  Jesse Mostman
  Rufus Bent
  Jason Bent
  Wm Wyman
  Jos. Butler
  Wm. Noyes
  Timo. Sharmon
  Danl. Moore, Jr.
  David Curtis
  Zachh. Heard
  Jacob Jones
  Nathl. Knowlton
  Jonas Rice
  Nathan Stearns
  Micah Greaves
  Nathl. Jenison
  Stephn Locker
  Asaph Travis
  Jonas Locker
  Simon Newton
  David Heard


CAPTAIN JOHN NIXON'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "A List of a Company of Minute men under the command of Capt
  John Nixon in Colonel Abijah Pierce's Regiment who entered the
  Service April Nineteenth One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy
  Five."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 26._

  _Captain_ John Nixon
  _Lieutenant_ David Moor
  _Second Lieutenant_ Asahel Wheeler
  _Sergeant_ Micah Goodenow
  _Sergeant_ Elijah Willis
  _Sergeant_ Jeremiah Robins
  _Sergeant_ Abel Holden
  _Corporal_ Hopstill Brown
  _Corporal_ Jesse Moor
  _Corporal_ Uriah Wheelr
  _Corporal_ William Moor
  Joseph Baleum
  Phillmon Brown
  Samll. Brigham
  Samll. Cuting
  Asher Cutler
  William Dun
  Aaron Ames
  Robert Ames
  Saml. Gleason
  Thomas Goodenow
  Jesse Goodenow
  William Goodenow
  Reuben Haynes
  Joshua Haynes
  Caleb Wheeler
  John Weighton
  Elishai Wheeler
  Israel Willis
  Hopestill Willis
  Ebenezer Wood
  Jonas Holden
  Simeon Hingerson
  Daniel Looring
  Thaddeus Moor
  William Maynard
  Daniel Maynard
  Eliale Moor
  Uriah Moor
  Isaac Moor
  John Moor
  Josiah Richardson
  Nathan Reed
  Charles Rice
  Oliver Rice
  Jonas Rice
  Ezra Smith
  John Shirley
  Peter Smith
  Abraham Thompson
  Daniel Wright
  Nathaniel Rice
  Daniel Putnam
  Micah Grout


CAPTAIN JOSEPH SMITH'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "A Muster roll of the Company under the Command of Capt Joseph
  Smith, in Colo James Barrett's Regiment from Sudbury on April
  19th 1775, in pursuit of the Ministerial Troops."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 94._

  _Captain_ Jos. Smith
  _Lieutenant_ Josiah Farrar
  _Lieutenant_ Ephm. Smith
  _Ensign_ Timo. Underwood
  _Sergeant_ Wm. Bent
  _Sergeant_ Saml. Griffen
  _Sergeant_ Robt. Cutting
  _Sergeant_ John Bruce
  _Corporal_ Saml. Tilton
  _Corporal_ Nathn. Smith
  _Corporal_ Peter Johnson
  _Corporal_ John Meriam
  _Drummer_ Thos. Trask
  Edwd. Sherman
  Timo. Bent
  Micah Rice
  Isaac Gould
  John Barnay
  Joel Stone
  Isaac Daman
  John Tilton, Junr.
  John Cutting
  Sami. Tilton, Junr.
  Amos Oddaway
  (?) Travis
  Roland Bennett
  Isaac Stone
  John Stone
  Isaac Rice, Junr.
  Wm. Dudley
  John Peton
  Frances Jones
  (James) Sharman
  [?] Thomas
  Joseph Goodenow
  Josiah Allen
  Elisha Cutting
  Jacob Gould
  Benja. Dudly
  Zachh. Briant
  Ebenr. Johnson
  Jona. Bent
  Sarion Belcher
  John Dean
  James Sanderson
  Ephm. Barker
  Jona Cutting
  James Davis
  Jason Parmenter
  (And possibly Samuel Sharmon, not given in official list. F. W. C.)


CAPTAIN MOSES STONE'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "These certify that the men's names hereafter annex'd march'd on
  ye 19th of April last, to Head Qrs we being under Command of Lt
  Colo Ezekiel How of Sudbury and Moses Stone Capt."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 86._

  _Captain_ Moses Stone
  _Lieutenant_ Jona. Rice
  _Second Lieutenant_ Joseph Goodnow
  _Sergeant_ Joseph Moore
  _Corporal_ Ephm Carter
  David How
  Benja. Berry
  Ion Carter
  Elijah Goodnow
  David How
  Ezekl How, Jr.
  Jonas Wheeler
  Isaac Lincoln
  Thos Ames
  Thos Burbank
  Nathl Bryant
  Israel Maynard
  Thos Carr, Junr.
  Isaac Moore
  Uriah Moore
  Abner Walker
  Wm. Walker
  Abel Parmenter
  Danl Asburn
  Thos Derumple

  "These Certify that the Names hereafter annex'd march'd on the
  19th of April last to Hd Qrs we being under the Command of Lt.
  Col^o Ezekiel How of Sudbury and Moses Stone Capt.---- I would
  inform all well wishers to North America, those hereafter nam'd
  are the men that went off without a proper Dismission.

  "Attest Moses Stone Capt."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 86._

  Peter Haynes
  _Lieutenant_ Elisha Wheeler
  Aaron Good'now
  Thomas Walker
  Ebenr Burbank
  Thos Derumple
  Nathl Brown
  Uriah Hayden
  [Is?]rael Willis
  Calvin Clark


WOBURN.

CAPTAIN SAMUEL BELKNAP'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "A List of the names of the Men who Marched from Woburn [torn
  off] Concord and from thence to Cambridge on the nineteenth day
  of April 1775 under the Command of Capt. Samuel Belknap together
  with their after Services untill the Army was form'd."

  _Lexington Alarms, XI, 194._

  _Captain_ Samuel Belknap
  _Lieutenant_ Joseph Winn
  _Lieutenant_ Nathaniel Brooks
  _Sergeant_ Joshua Tay
  _Sergeant_ Samuel Person
  _Sergeant_ William Fox
  _Clerk_ Abijah Tompson
  _Drummer_ Jonathan Wright
  _Drummer_ Jesse Russell, Junr.
  _Fifer_ Jonathan Kendol
  Israel Reed
  Jesse Russell
  Jona. Brooks
  John Bruce
  William Abbit
  Jona. Tottingham
  Ephram. Tottingham
  William Breuster
  Samuel Winn
  Cyrus Bruce
  John Flagg
  Robert Convers
  James Foyle, 3
  James Fowle, 4
  Seth Johnson
  Thos. Deen, Junr.
  Jonathan Laurence
  Daniel Reed
  Josiah Walker, Junr.
  Nathan Kendol
  Zeb Simonds
  Cotton Center
  Asael Simonds
  Robert Douglass
  John Cutter, Junr.
  Francis Johnson, Junr.
  Samuel Simms
  Nathaniel Kendol
  Jabez Thompson
  Samuel Peirce
  Hiram Thompson
  Josiah Parker
  Thos. Bruce
  Peter Wyman, Junr.
  Joseph Laurence
  Jacob Peirce
  Isaac Reed
  Nathaniel Wyman
  Silas Simonds
  Benjamin Parker
  Joseph Bruce
  James Baldwin
  David Johnson
  James Wright
  George Bruce
  Ruben Johnson
  James Convers
  Ichobod Richardson
  Thomas Wright, Junr.
  Dudley Porter
  Samuel Russell
  George Reed
  William Simms
  John Burnam
  Jeames Snow
  Samuel Wyman, Junr.


CAPTAIN JONATHAN FOX'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "A Roll of the Trauel and Seruice of the men that went under my
  command on the alaram on 19 of Aprel 1775 Last for the Defences
  of thes Coloney and the Rites of America we went from Woburn to
  Concord we went to Cambrege With the number of miles each man
  went and the Dayes he was in the servieces."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 70._

  _Captain_ Jona. Fox
  _Lieutenant_ James Wymon
  _Lieutenant_ John Richardson
  _(Quartermaster?_) Judothon Richardson
  _Sergeant_ Gosse Richardson
  _Sergeant_ Samll. Tay
  _Sergeant_ Gasse Wymon
  _Doctor_ Aaron Mason
  _Sergeant_ John Fowle
  Josiah Richardson
  (Lanrd?) Richardson
  Abraham Skens
  Abel Richardson
  John Skens
  Josiah Fowle
  Josepht Skens
  Ben. Richardson
  Josiah Right
  Admon Richardson
  Zack Brooks
  Joshuay Reed
  Will Tay
  John Tay
  Joshuay Wymon
  John Fox
  Elezr Poole
  Thomas Parmer
  Nathan Wymon
  John Duglesh
  Ruben Richardson
  Hare Richardson
  Thomos Muthes
  Andro Evens
  Archebl Tay
  Will Wats
  Josiah Brown
  Silas Richardson
  Ase Richardson
  Samll. Richardson
  Silos Wymon
  Tim. Brooks
  Gasse Right
  David Richardson
  David Richardson, Jur.
  Noah Eighten
  Jona. Smeth
  Zack. Richardson
  Tomas Wymon
  Bart. Richardson
  Joshuay Parse
  Ben Richardson, Jur.
  Jacob Eames, Jun.
  Silos Richardson
  John Right
  Jona. Richardson
  John Richrdson
  Aaron Tay
  Pall Wymon
  Stuen Richards
  Nathenl Wats
  Barny Richrdson
  Ebrz Richrdson
  Zack. Richrdson
  Will Brooks
  Zablon Richrdson
  Ebnr Richrdson, Jur.
  Nathan Richardson
  Samll. Thompson
  Lanrd Fowle
  Joseph Fowle
  Jacob Eames
  Josephel Brown


CAPTAIN JOSHUA WALKER'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT CONCORD.

  "A muster Roll of Capt. Joshua Walker's Company under the Command
  of Colonel David Greene of the 2d Regiment of Foot in the County
  of Middlesix."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 155._

  _Captain_ Joshua Walker
  _First Lieutenant_, Jona. Tidd
  _Second Lieutenant_ John Wood
  _Ensign_, Jos. Johnson, 3d
  _Sergeant_ Saml. Dean
  _Sergeant_ Jacob Caldwell
  _Sergeant_ Nathl. Cutler
  _Sergeant_ Ezra Wyman
  _Corporal_ Isaac Buxton
  _Corporal_ Ruben Kimbal
  _Corporal_ James Read
  _Drummer_ Jacob Winn
  Abraham Andrews
  John Alexander
  Giles Alexander
  David Blanchard
  David Blanchard, Junr.
  James Tomson, Junr.
  _Corporal_ John Cal (?) h
  Ebenzr. Cummings
  David Cummings
  William Carter, Jr.
  Nathl. Cutler, Junr.
  Saml. Cutler
  Andrew Dodge
  (?) Dean
  Alexander Ross
  (?) Reed
  (?) Read
  (?) Read
  (   ?   )
  Tho Skilton, Jun.
  Dayz Skilton
  Luther Simonds
  Jona. Simonds
  Calvin Simonds
  Abijah Smith
  Timothy Twist
  David Tweed
  Increas Winn
  Timothy Wilson
  Abel Wyman
  Eliaphaz Wyman
  Edward Wilk (?)
  Saml. Johnson
  Timothy Winn, Junr.
  Amos Blodget
  Solomon Wood
  John Cheever
  Nehh. Wyman
  Amos Read
  James Twist
  John Gleason
  Thos. Gleason
  David Daniels
  Elkanah Welsh
  (?) na. Proctor
  Nathl. Wyman
  Benja. Stratton
  Benj. (?) yel
  Joseph Giddens
  Joshua Jones
  William Johnson
  Wm. Johnson, Junr.
  James Johnson
  Azel Johnson
  Shuball Johnson
  Abiather Johnson
  Isaac Jaquwith
  Jona. Jones
  Jona. Johnson
  Jona. Johnson, Junr.
  Joatham Johnson
  John Kembal
  Josh. Kembal
  Wm. Lock
  Amos Lock
  Thos. Lock, Junr.
  Thos. Larrabe
  Isaac Men(?)
  Ina (?)t
  Saml. Nevers
  Saml. Nevers, Junr.
  Joshua Read
  Micah Read
  Nathan Dix
  Stephen Bennet
  Tho Bennett
  James Bennett
  Ebenr. Ne (arman?)
  Cate Simonds
  Nathl. Trask
  David Trask
  Benja. Kendal
  Selverus Wood
  Abram. Alexander
  Benja. Blanchard
  Thos. Dean
  Robt. Fisk
  Benja. Gloyd
  Abijah Johnson
  Ebenzr Merion
  Thos. Phillips
  Newhall Read
  John Read
  Sephen Twist
  Solomon Twist
  Jona. Tidd, Junr.
  Isaac Pierce
  Jonas Wyman
  Abel Winship
  James Walker
  Edw Wood
  Edw. Twist, Junr.
  John Bruce
  Joel Read
  Ebenr. (Lorty?)


STOW.

The men from Stow did not reach Concord in time to enter the
engagement, but pursued the British so closely as to deserve especial
mention.


CAPTAIN WILLIAM WHITCOM'S COMPANY.

  "A list of the travel of Cap William Whitcom's company of Stow
  in the County of Middlesex and the men under him belonging to the
  Regiment of Malitia whereof James Prescott Esq. is Colonel, we
  in consequence of the Alarm made on the 19 of April 1775 for the
  defence of this Colony against the Ministerial troops &c."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 168._

  _Captain_, Wm. Whitcom
  _Lieutenant_, Joseph Taylor
  _Sergeant_, Benj. Munro
  _Sergeant_, Sam. Osborn
  _Sergeant_, Ephm Tailor
  _Corporal_, Dan Hapgood
  _Corporal_, Sam Barnard
  Jos. Skinner
  Wm. Graves
  Thos. Wetherbe
  Jonas Hale
  Stephen Strow(?)
  Isaac Whitney
  Phinehas Stevens
  Nat. Sergant
  Arrington Gibson
  Eph. Conant
  Wm. Hoit
  Jona. Puffer
  John Eveleth
  Philemon Allen
  Daniel Gates
  Fras. Hemenway
  Dan Barker
  Jonas Adams
  Simon Puffer
  Morris McClarg
  Stephen Hale
  Jona. Piper
  Iude Wetherbe
  Solomon Taylor
  Jona. Robins
  (?) as Loring
  (illegible)
  Chas Whitney
  Israel Robbins
  Chas. Brown
  John P. (?) ting
  Jona. Hall
  Willm. Walcot
  Benja. Pool
  Joseph Ellet
  Ezra Jewell
  Jason Whitney
  Abra. Randall
  Jacob Stevens
  (?) Taylor
  Luke Brooks
  Stephen Brooks
  Stephen Gibson
  Thomas Brown
  Daniel Jewett
  Noah Gates
  Phinehas Gates, jr.
  Josiah Piper
  Oliver Gates
  Josiah Gilbert
  Jonah Cho (?)
  Sam Gates
  (?) Gates
  (?) Ray
  Phinehas Taylor, jr.
  John Taylor
  John Davison
  James Davison
  Sam Hapgood
  Asahel Smith
  Jacob Hale
  Jas (?) Wetherbe
  Sam. Randall, jr.
  Fras. Everleth, jr.
  Silas Wetherbe
  Levi Wheeler
  Nehe. Bachelor
  Ben. Brown
  Josiah Randall
  Oliver Wyman
  Robert Coolidge
  Ruben Wetherbe
  John Burgess
  Asa Parmenter


WESTFORD.

The men from Westford did not reach Concord in time to enter the
engagement, but pursued the British so closely as to deserve especial
mention.


CAPTAIN OLIVER BATES'S COMPANY.

  "A List of the Travels & Service of Capt Oliver Bates of Westford
  In the County of Middlesex and the Men under him belonging to the
  Regiment of Militia where of James Prescott Esq. is Coll We in
  Consequence of the Alarm made on the 19th of April 1775 Marched
  from home For the Defence of this Collony against the Ministerial
  Troops."

  _Lexington Alarms, XI, 216._

  _Captain_, Oliver Bates
  _Lieutenant_, David Goodhoe
  _Second Lieutenant_, John Abbot
  _Sergeant_, Thomas Rogers
  _Sergeant_, Solomon Spaulding
  _Corporal_, Joseph Prescot
  _Corporal_, Daniel Goodhoe
  _Corporal_, John Prescot
  _Drummer_, Timothy Cummings
  William Nichols
  John Hadley
  Ephraim Bixbe
  Levi Bixby
  Jacob Bixbe
  Nathaniel Cummings
  Abel Read
  David Dutton
  Amos Fletcher, Jor.
  Joseph Fletcher
  Peletiah Wright
  Timothy Prescot
  Jonas Prescot 3d
  Ephraim Wright
  Joseph Wright, Jor.
  Jonas Holding
  David Bixbe
  Abel Boynton
  Ephraim Dutton
  Benjamin Eastabrook
  Josiah Fletcher
  Ephraim Haild
  Nathaniel Prentice
  Stephen Read
  Silas Spaulding
  Jonathan Hadley
  John Barrot


CAPTAIN JONATHAN MINOT'S COMPANY.

  "A list of the Travil and Servis of Capt Jonathan Minot of wesord
  In the County of Middlesex and the men under him belonging to
  the Regement of Melitia where of James Prescott Esq. is Colonel
  We in Consequence of the alarm made on the 19th of April 1775
  marched from home for the defence of this Colloney against the
  Minesterial Troops &c."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 194._

  _Captain_, Jonathan Minot
  _First Lieutenant_, Zaceheus Wright
  _Second Lieutenant_, Leonard Proctor
  _Sergeant_, Aaron Parker, jun.
  _Sergeant_, Gershom Fletcher
  _Sergeant_, William Hildreth
  _Sergeant_, Samuel White
  _Corporal_, Nehemiah Green
  _Corporal_, Amos Wright
  _Corporal_, Hosea Hildreth
  _Drummer_, Jonathan Minot, Junr.
  John Robins
  Thomas Meads
  John Robins, Junr.
  Peter Robins
  David Parker
  Job Dodge
  Benjamin Osgood
  James Wright
  Ebenezer Parker
  Francis Kidder
  Thomas Kidder
  Rogers King
  Amos Parlin
  Francis Laughton
  Joshua Reed
  Elijah Hildreth
  John Pushee
  Peter Brown
  Zechariah Robins, Junr.
  Abijah Mason
  Nathaniel Holmes
  Francis Smith
  Charles Proctor
  Ceasor Bason
  Aaron Blood


CAPTAIN JOSHUA PARKER'S COMPANY.

  "A Return of the mens Names & When entered the Service."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 56._

  _Captain_, Joshua Parker
  _Lieutenant_, Thomas Rogers
  _Sergeant_, Solomon Spaulding
  _Sergeant_, Nehemiah Green
  _Sergeant_, Silas Proctor
  _Sergeant_, Jonathan Minott
  _Corporal_, Peter Brown
  _Corporal_, Levi Temple
  _Corporal_, Jonas Harding
  _Fifer_, Ephrm. Spaulding
  _Drummer_, Isaac Parker
  Calvin Blanchard
  Aaron Blood
  Ebenezar Chandler
  Samuel Craft
  Ephraim Dutton
  Ephraim Chamberlin
  Benjamin Easter Brooks
  Levi Fletcher
  Joshua Fassitt
  Josiah Fletcher
  Isaac Green
  Ephraim Heald
  Edward Haws
  Samuel Keyes
  John Parker
  John Pushee
  Oliver Read
  Stephen Read
  Francis Smith
  Silas Spaulding
  Joseph Underwood
  Jacob Wendol
  James Parry
  George Deal
  Jonas Blogget
  Nathaniel Holmes
  Joseph Minott
  Jonathan Hadley
  John Gordon
  _Lieutenant_, Ameziah Fassett


DRACUT.

The men of Dracut did not reach the scene of actual conflict but
tried to, and came so near the British rear guard as to deserve a
place in this record.


CAPTAIN PETER COBURN'S COMPANY.

  "Muster roll of Capt Peter Coburn Company of minute men under the
  Command of Colo. Bridge."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 25._

  _Captain_ Peter Coburn
  _Lieutenant_ Josiah Foster
  _Lieutenant_ Ebenr Varnum
  _Sergeant_ Miles Flint
  _Sergeant_ Isaac Bradly
  _Sergeant_ Parker Varnum
  _Drummer_ Wm. Webster
  Josiah Hildrick
  Samuel Barron
  John Bowers
  Edwd. Wyman
  Saml. Coburn
  Wm. Hildrick
  Leonard Coburn
  Hezh. Coburn
  Bradly Varnum
  Peter Hezeltine
  Jona. Parkhurst
  Isaac Merrill
  Solo. Hill
  Hencksn. Richardsn
  Hencksn Richardsn
  Zebh. Jones
  Micah Heldreth
  James Varnum
  Jos. Hunt
  Phineas Coburn
  Jona. Hamlet
  John Varnum
  Benja. Barron
  Jonas Varnum
  John Bradly
  Jonas Whiting
  Josiah Fox
  Abijah Fox
  Solo. Wood
  Jona. Richardson
  Abijah Hill
  Benja. Crosby
  Jona. Jones


CAPTAIN STEPHEN RUSSELL'S COMPANY.

  "A Muster Roll of the Company of Militia under the Command of
  Capt. Stephen Russell of Dracutt in Colo. Greens Regt. that
  march'd on ye 19th of April A.D. 1775, against the Ministerial
  Troops &c."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 79._

  _Captain_ Stephn. Russell
  _First Lieutenant_ Ephm. Coburn
  _Second Lieutenant_ Abra. Coburn
  _Sergeant_ Matthew Parker
  _Sergeant_ Benja. French
  _Sergeant_ Timo. Barker
  Reuben Sawyer
  David Jones
  Saml. Brown
  Moses Goodhue
  John Austin
  Jos. Hebberd
  Jas. (y ? y)
  (?) Crosby, Junr.
  Obadh. Richardson
  Zachr. Goodhue, Jr.
  Wm. Hildreth
  Robert Nicklas
  Caleb Austin
  Ezra Coburn
  Saml. Piper
  Ephrm. Wright
  David Austin
  Wm. Farnum
  Hincher Parker
  John Harvey
  James Manser
  Wm. Lyndsey
  Wm. Coburn
  Francis Sawyer
  Jeshua Pilsbery
  James Harvey
  Wm. Taylor
  David Trull
  Thomas Taylor
  David Jones, Jr.
  Ephraim Hall
  Ephraim Parker
  Ezekiel Cheever
  Timothy Fry
  John Wood
  Stephen Wood
  Elipha. Fox
  Caleb Sawyer
  Job Coburn
  Wm. Clough
  Nehh. Flint
  Hugh Jones
  Jesse Adams
  George Burns
  Kindal Parker
  James Davis
  Mitchell Calley
  Green Parker
  James Sprague
  Moses Davies
  David Blood
  Joseph B. Varnum
  Abijah Wood
  Jacob Coburn
  Thomas Varnum
  James Reed
  Jona. Coburn
  Jona. Taylor
  Wm. Wood
  Jonas Richarson
  Simon Fox
  John Gilcrest
  Bartho. Massey
  David Fox
  Uriah Coburn
  David Adams
  John Bowers
  John Taylor
  Wm. Harvey
  John Hancock
  Danl. Clough
  Solo. Jones
  Moses Barker
  David Clement
  David Lyndsey
  Timo. Davis
  John Barron
  John Thissell
  John Roper
  Thomas Wright
  Timo. Brown, Jr.


CAMBRIDGE.

CAPTAIN SAMUEL THATCHER'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT LINCOLN.

  "A Muster Roll of the Company under the Command of Capt. Saml
  Thatcher in Colo Gardner's Regiment of Militia which Marched on
  the Alarm April 19 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 143._

  _Captain_ Samuel Thatcher
  _Lieutenant_ John Walton
  _Second Lieutenant_ Jotham Walton
  _Sergeant_ Josiah Moore
  _Sergeant_ Joseph Bates
  _Sergeant_ Saml. Butterfield
  _Sergeant_ James Kittle
  _Corporal_ Thomas Fillebrown
  _Corporal_ Belcher Hancock
  _Drummer_ Joshua Gammage
  _Drummer_ Will Bradish
  Joseph Ayres
  John Batherick
  Will Bordman, Junr.
  Oliver Brown
  Benja. Butterfield
  Edmund Bowman
  Will Brewer
  John Caldwell
  Walter Coxs
  Sam Coxs
  Joseph Coxs
  Solomon Cooper
  Henry Dickson
  Isaiah Dickson
  John Dickson
  John Euers
  Ebenr. Fisher
  Stephen Frost
  Jonathan Frost
  David Frost
  John Frost
  Ebenr. Fessenden
  Stephen Goddard
  Benj Goddard
  Thos. Goddard
  Nathaniel Goddard
  Torry Hancock
  Philemon Hastings, 2d
  Thomas Hastings
  Stephen Hastings
  Will Manning
  Abel Moore
  Alexander Nelson
  John Phillips, Junr.
  Thomas Prentice
  Nathll. Prentice
  Daniel Prentice
  Samll. Prentice
  Israiel Porter
  Stephen Palmer, Junr.
  Joseph Palmer
  James Stone
  Robert Treadwell
  Josiah Temple
  Ebenr. Wyeth
  Jonas Wyeth
  Jonas Wyeth, Junr.
  Noah Wyeth
  Joseph Wyeth
  John Wyman
  Nathan Watson
  Joshua Walker
  John Warland
  Thomas Warland
  Nathll. Wait
  Thomas Barrett
  James (Reed ?)
  John Butterfield
  Edward Fillebrown
  John Prentice
  Parson Smith
  John Haven
  (Blank) Bangs
  (Blank) Killam
  Cato Stedman, a negro
  Cato Bordman, Do


FOR CAPTAIN LOCKE'S COMPANY SEE UNDER ARLINGTON.


NEWTON.


CAPTAIN PHINEHAS COOK'S COMPANY, UNDER COMMAND OF JOHN MAREAN,
CAPTAIN-LIEUTENANT.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT LEXINGTON.

  "A Muster Role of the Several persons that Marched from Newton to
  head Quarters at Cambridge on the nineteenth Day of April 1775 on
  the Alarem under the Command of John Marean, Capt. Lieut."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 20._

  _Captain_ Phinehas Cook
  _Captain Lieutenant_ John Marean
  _First Lieutenant_ Joseph Craft
  _Second Lieutenant_ Caleb Kenrick
  _Sergeant_ Samuel Jackson
  _Sergeant_ John Thwing
  _Sergeant_ Aaron Richerdson
  _Sergeant_ Semuel Giuld
  Michael Jackson
  Elisha Barker
  Elisha Fuller
  Joshua Jackson
  John Barber
  John Healy
  John Brown
  Joseph White
  Daniel Richards
  Eliphalet Lyon
  John Jarvice
  Luke Bartlett
  Joshua Jackson, Junr.
  Jonathan Clark
  Robert Prentice
  Edward Hall, Junr.
  Thomas Hammond
  Charles Winchester
  Moses Fuller
  Samuel Clark
  Joshua Murdock
  Benjamin Dana
  Norman Clark, Junr.
  Moses Craft
  Timothy Jackson
  Solomon Richards
  Amos Stone
  Moses Hide
  Edward Jackson


CAPTAIN AMARIAH FULLER'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT LEXINGTON.

  "A Muster Roll of the Several persons that Marched from Newton to
  head Quarters at Cambridge on the Nineteenth Day of April A.D.
  1775 on the Alarm under the Command of Amariah Fuller Capt (Viz)"

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 57._

  _Captain_ Amariah Fuller
  _First Lieutenant_ Isaac Jackson
  _Second Lieutenant_ Edward Fuller
  _Orderly Sergeant_ Aaron Murdock
  _Sergeant_ Samuel Woodward
  _Sergeant_ Joshua Fuller
  _Sergeant_ Daniel Hide
  _Corporal_ Noah Hide
  _Corporal_ Edmund Trowbridge
  _Corporal_ Daniel White
  Corporal Samuel Murdock
  _Drummer_ Ebenezer Woodward
  Ephraim Burridge
  Daniel Fuller
  Richard Fuller
  Joseph Bullow
  Jonathan Bixby
  Jonathan Shepard
  Aaron Childs
  Robert Bull
  Benjn. Prentice
  Franchis Marghil
  Jonathan Cook
  Amos Hide
  Jonathan Williams
  Elisha Saverns
  William Mackintosh
  Josiah Barker
  Jonathan Bartlett
  Daniel Cheney
  John Greenwood
  Joseph Adams, Junr.
  William Cheney, Junr.
  Richard Parks
  John Shepard
  (?) ah Hide, Junr.
  Roger Adams
  John Parker, Junr.
  Moses Bartlett
  Smith Adams
  Samuel Miller
  (Joseph Jackson), Junr.
  (Above name scratched out. F. W. C.)
  John Hastings
  George Bacon
  Elisha Murdock
  Joshua Greenwood
  Silas Chubb
  Nathel. Jackson
  Jonathan Winchester
  Phinehas Bond, Junr.
  Peter Durall (Jr ?)
  Samuel Trowbridge
  Ebenezer Tolman
  Joseph Davenport
  Moses Child
  Josiah Jackson
  William Park, Junr.
  Thomas Bogale
  Aaron Hastings
  John Savige
  Silas Barbur
  Samuel Parker
  Nathaniey Seger
  Jonathen Howard
  (Daniel Jackson)
  (Robert Dalrimple)
  (Above two names scratched out. F. W. C.)
  Elisha Bartlett
  Francis Blandin, Jun.
  Thos. Jackn. Greenwood
  Jonathan Brown
  Samuel Sege
  (Joseph Hide, Junr.)
  (Above name scratched out. F. W. C.)


  THE ALARM LIST

  Joshua Fuller
  Abrm. Fuller, Esq.
  John Brown
  Norman Clark
  John Woodward
  John Fuller
  Samuel Crafts
  Ephriam Jackson
  Joseph Ward
  William Clark
  Stephen White
  Thomas Miller
  Benjamin Eddy
  Peter Duval
  Joseph Adams
  John Margret
  Alex Shepard
  Henry Seger
  Thomas Beal
  Phineas Bond
  Joshua Murdock
  Isaac Williams
  Nathen Morse
  Jeseph Jackson
  Thomas Tolman
  Francis Blandin
  Josiah Knap
  Jesiah Cook
  John Bogel
  John Murdock
  Gideon Park
  Enoch Hammond
  Benjamin Parker
  Benjm. Adams
  William Hide
  Josiah Child
  Daniel Hammond


CAPTAIN JEREMIAH WISWALL'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT LEXINGTON.

  "A Muster Roll of the Company in the American Service upon the
  Alarm in Newton to Lexington under the Command of Capt. Jeremiah
  Wiswall."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 171._

  _Captain_ Jeremiah Wiswall
  _First Lieutenant_ Joseph Fuller
  _Second Lieutenant_ Sam Richardson
  _Sergeant_ Sam Hide
  _Sergeant_ William Hamond
  _Sergeant_ John Stone
  _Sergeant_ James Stone
  _Corporal_ Benj Eddy
  _Corporal_ Nath Robins
  _Corporal_ Thos Durant
  John Beal
  David Bartlett
  Edw Converse
  Caleb Whitney
  Saml. Coggin
  Abner Whitney
  Jona. Livermore
  Phinehas Robins
  Thad. Whitney
  Sam Draper
  John Rogers
  Timo. Whitney
  John Adams
  Jonas Stone
  Daniel Hastings
  Aaron Richards
  Amos Stone
  John Wood, Jr.
  Phins. Jackson
  Ezra Dana
  Sam Wiswall
  Henry Parker
  Eph Whitney
  Abra. Parker
  John Kendrick
  Eben Greenwood
  Gershom Hide
  Andw. Whitney
  Caleb Wheaton
  Elisha Cheney
  Oliver Fenno
  Elias Fuller
  Asa Fuller
  Allen Durant
  Aaron Fuller
  Caleb Parker
  Nathan Dana
  Aaron Jackson
  Elisha Hide
  Elisha Robins
  John Fillebrown
  David Jackson
  John Wiswall
  Thads. Jackson
  Jonas Jackson
  Simeon Pond
  Saml. Newell
  Mr. Noah Wiswall
  Eben Parker
  Deacon Jonas Stone
  Deacon David Stone
  Deacon Wm. Bowles
  Mr. John Eddy
  Dr. Jno. King
  Joshua Hamond
  Joshua Flagg
  Jona. Mirick
  Thos. Wilson
  John Ward, Jr.
  Jesse Jackson
  Solomon Robins
  Simeon Chamberlain
  John Wilson
  Jona. Jackson
  (Ebenr. ?) Wiswall
  Geo. (Teacham ?)


BROOKLINE.

CAPTAIN THOMAS WHITE'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "1775 A Muster Roll of The Militia Company in Brookline Who
  Marched against the Ministerial Troops on ye 19th April Under ye
  Command of Capn Thos. White in Col. Wm. Heath's Regiment and the
  Time of Servis to ye 12th Day of may."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 176._

  _Captain_ Thos. White
  _First Lieutenant_ Caleb Croft
  _Second Lieutenant_ Daniel White
  _Sergeant_ Moses White
  _Sergeant_ Abijah Child
  _Sergeant_ Samuel Griggs
  _Corporal_ John Harris, Ju.
  _Corporal_ Daniel Dana, Ju.
  _Fifer_ Isaac Gardner
  _Drummer_ Benjn. Larnard
  James Coledge
  Joseph Dana
  Solon. Child
  Daail Child
  Phinehas Child
  Michael Harris
  Royal Wood
  (?)os Hide
  Natha(?) Winchester
  Joshua Boylston
  Samuel White
  Benjn. White, Jur.
  Ebenr. Davis, Jur.
  John Heath
  David Whitcomb
  Elisha Gardner
  Benjn. Gardner
  Saml. Clarke
  Gideon Tower
  Saml. Coburn
  John Coburn
  Thaddeus Dean
  Edward White
  Saml. Croft
  Justis Harrington
  David (? anton)
  Enoch Fish
  Saml. Winchester
  Joshua Winship
  Aaron Child
  John Griggs
  Joseph Griggs
  Robert Sharpe
  Aachabald Wares
  Jacob Sharpe
  James Winchester
  John Baly
  Barnabas Manard
  Moses Johnson
  Thaddeous Hide
  Jona. Marbel
  Phinehas Hammond
  Joel Hagar
  Benja. Cox
  Wilm. Cox
  Jonn. Worner
  Nathal. Meariam
  Nathl. Seaver
  Amos Winship
  Isaac Child
  Abrm. Jackson
  Jona. Jones
  Ebenr. Bartlet
  Thads. Jackson
  Stephen Sharpe
  Josha. Woodward
  David Winchester
  Joseph Brown
  Benjn. Brown
  Benjn. Stratton
  Esq White's Peter
  Esq Gardner's Adam
  Josha. Boylstons' Prince
  John Samson


BROOKLINE. (_Additional._)

PART OF CAPTAIN THOMAS WHITE'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A Muster Roll of Part of the Militia Company in Brookline Who
  marched against ye Ministerial Troops ye 19th of April. Under
  ye Command of Capn. Thos. White in Col Wm Heaths Regiment. They
  Being in the Servis until Properly Inlisted in the Army."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 176._

  _Sergeant_ Timothy Cory
  _Corporal_ Caleb Gardner
  Jonas Johnson
  Ezekiel Crane
  John Blandin
  John Alger
  John Broodrick
  Thos. Champny
  Wm Davis
  Saml Davis
  George Dunlap
  John Feneey
  Abner Hoit
  William King
  John McAlvain
  Elijah Mills
  Saml Merian
  David Nutting
  Ephraim Payson
  John Spear
  Silas Winchester


CAPTAIN THOMAS ASPINWALL'S COMPANY.

PROBABLY ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

No claim for service and no muster roll filed with the Commonwealth.
Names and number of men unknown.


MAJOR ISAAC GARDNER'S COMPANY.

PROBABLY ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

No claim for service and no muster roll filed with the Commonwealth.
Names and number of men unknown.


WATERTOWN.

CAPTAIN SAMUEL BARNARD'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "Muster Roll of the Company under the Command of Capt Samuel
  Barnard in the Late Col Thomas Gardners Regiment of Militia which
  Marched on the Alarm April 19 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XI, 214._

  _Captain_ Saml. Barnard
  _Lieutenant_ John Stratton
  _Second Lieutenant_ Phinehas Stearns
  _Ensign_ Edward Harrington
  _Sergeant_ Saml. Sanger
  _Sergeant_ Christopher Grant
  _Sergeant_ Josiah Capen
  _Sergeant_ Stephen Whitney
  _Corporal_ Isaac Saunderson
  _Corporal_ Moses Stone
  _Corporal_ Nathl. Bright
  _Corporal_ Willm. Harrington
  Nathan Coolidge
  Willm. Leathe
  Nathl. Benjamin
  Thos. Learnard
  Stephen Cook
  Daniel Coollidge
  Josiah Saunderson
  Moses Cooidge
  Sith Saunderson
  Francis Brown
  John Sanger
  Isaac Prentice
  Tilley Read
  Thos Hastings
  Abram. Whitney
  Amos Tainter
  John Whitney
  Josiah Norcross
  David Whitney
  Danl. Whitney
  John Villa
  Zechariah Sheed
  Danl. Mason
  Jonathan Whitney
  Spencer Gooding
  David Stone
  Jona. Coolidge Gooding
  Willm. Chenery
  Thos. Stafford
  Richard Everitt
  Edwd. Harrington Sen.
  Thos. Coollidge
  Saml. Sodin
  John Fowle
  David Capen
  Peter Harrington
  Saml. White, Jur.
  Saml. Barnard, Jur.
  Jona. Bright
  Danl. Sawin, Jur.
  Phinehas Childs
  Joshua Stratton
  Jonas Bond, Jur.
  Thos. Clark
  Richard Clark
  Saml. White
  John Remmington
  John Chennery
  Simon Coollidge, Jr.
  Danl. Cook
  Jona. Stone
    (Illegible, may be Phineas Coolidge or Phineas Esel. F. W. C.)
  Benja. Capen
  John Hunt, Jur.
  Bezaleel Larnard
  Amos Bond
  John Bullman
  Elias Tuffts
  Penuel Parks
  James Austin
  Phinehas Jenneson
  Henry Bradshaw
  David Beamis, Jr.
  Elkanah Wales
  Jedediah Learnard
  Benja. Learnard
  Saml. Bond
  Jonas White
  Joel White
  Ebenr. Everitt
  Thos. Prentice
  James Mallard
  Elnathan Whitney
  Zechariah Hicks
  John Cook
  Nathl. Harris, Jur.
  John Randall
  Sam Benjamin, Jur.
  Elisha Tolmon
  Jonas Barnard, Jur.
  John Crane
  Willm. White
  Willm. Jennison
  Leonard Bond
  Danl. Learnard
  Peter Richardson
  Jacob Saunderson
  Oliver Learnard
  Jonas Learnard
  Jona. Benjamin
  Moses Souter
  Samuel Warirn, Jur.
  Willm. Learnard
  Elijah Feizie
  Oliver Munroe
  Willm. McCurtain
  Phinehas Harrington
  Moses Hagar
  Willm. Walton
  Elisha Brewer
  Jonas Coollidge
  Jona. Childs
  Edmond Fowle
  Thos. Hunt
  Stephen Harris
  Simon Hastings
  Henry Gypson
  Danl. Jackson
  Ephraim Jones
  Richard Leathe
  Willm. Parks
  James Tufts
  John Wellington
  Ezekiel Whitney
  Cornelius Stone
  Cornelius Parks
  Jedediah Leathe
  Willm. Sanger
  David Parker
  Thos. Wellington
  Saml. Warrin
  Converse Spring


MEDFORD.

CAPTAIN ISAAC HALL'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A True Return of the Travel and Time of Service of the Company
  at Medford, under the Command of Capt. Isaac Hall in the late
  Colo Thomas Gardners Regiment assembled April ye 19th 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 114._

  _Captain_ Isaac Hall
  _Lieutenant_ Caleb Brooks
  _Ensign_ Stephen Hall 4th
  _Sergeant_ Thomas Pritchard
  _Sergeant_ Isaac Tufts
  _Sergeant_ Moses Hall
  _Corporal_ John Tufts
  _Corporal_ Gershom Teel
  _Corporal_ Jona. Greenleaf
  _Drummer_ Timo. Hall
  _Fifer_ Willm. Farrington
  David Vinton
  John Buckman
  Isaac Watson
  Jona. Lawrance
  Jona. Davis
  Abel Richardson
  James Tufts, Junr.
  Saml. Tufts 3d
  Andrew Floyd
  Benja. Floyd
  Andrew Blanchard
  (?) l Tufts
  (?) hn Francis, Jr.
  (?) ul Dexter
  (?) hn Smith
  (?) Butterfield
  (?) h Cutter
  (?) hn Kemp
  Eleazr. Putnam
  James Buckman, Jr.
  Aaron Crowell
  Jona. Tufts
  (?) Peirce
  (Name torn off)
  Aaron Blanchd, Jr.
  Richd. Cole
  Wm. Binford
  Thos. Bradshaw
  Daniel Tufts
  Peter Tufts, Jr.
  Ebnr. Tufts
  Isaac Cooch
  Danl. Conery
  Richd. Pain
  Wm. Polley
  Peter Conery
  David Hadley
  Jacob Beden
  Joseph Clefton
  Saml. Hadley, Jr.
  Moses Hadley
  John Hadley
  John Callender
  John Clarke
  Andrew Bradshaw
  Thos. Savels
  Francis Hall
  Benja. Savels


MALDEN.

CAPTAIN BENJAMIN BLANEY'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A Role of the Company of the Militia that Went to Watertown By
  order of the Late Colo. Gardner upon the alarm on the 19 Day of
  April 1775 and from there to resist the Ministerial troops under
  the Command of Capt Benja Blaney."

  _Lexington Alarms, XI, 209._

  _Captain_ Benja. Blaney
  _Lieutenant_ Nathan Lyndes
  _Second Lieutenant_ William Wait
  _Sergeant_ Amos Shute
  _Sergeant_ Nehemiah Oakes
  _Sergeant_ Jabez Lyndes
  _Corporal_ Micah Wait
  _Corporal_ Bernard Green
  _Corporal_ Jacob Parker
  _Corporal_ Nathan Eaton
  _Drummer_ Winslow Sargeant
  John Ramsdel
  Joseph Lyndes, Ju.
  Ezra Howard
  John Vinton
  Jacob Sargeant
  William Sprague
  Benja. Lyndes
  John Prett
  Eben Payne
  John Grover ye 3
  John Wait, Ju.
  David Wait
  William Dexter
  Jonathan Gardner
  Stephen Tufts
  Samuel Wait
  Unite Cox
  Benja. Grover
  Ebenr. Wait
  Joseph Barret, Ju.
  David Howard
  Ezra Sargeant
  Ezra Hawks
  James Wade
  Robert Burdit
  Gidion Williams
  Jacob Pratt
  Daniel Chadwick
  Thomas Wait ye 3
  William Upham
  Ezra Upham
  Ezekiel Jenkins, Ju.
  Joseph Floyd
  William Low
  Joseph Hollowell
  John Jenkins
  Frances Phillips
  Barnard Newhall
  Nathan Parker
  Richard Dexter
  Timothy Tufts
  Samuel Hallowell
  Daniel Breeding
  Elnathan Breeding
  Benja. Brown
  Peter Brown
  Charles Hill
  Phinehas Sprague, Ju.
  Edward Newhall
  James Green
  Silas Sargeant
  Ezekiel Jenkins
  John Green, Ju.
  John Gould
  Naler Hatch
  Daniel Waters
  Joseph Jenkins
  Phinehas Sprague
  David Bucknam
  William Gill
  John Grover ye 4
  Stephen Pain, Ju.
  Benja. Sprague, Ju.
  Joseph Lyndes


ROXBURY.

CAPTAIN LEMUEL CHILD'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "Roxbury Decemr 16, 1775. A true and just Roll of the third
  Company in Roxbury commanded by Captn Lemuel Child in Colo. Wm.
  Heath's Regiment the 19th day of April then called to the 3d day
  of May and then dismissed."

  _Lexington Alarms, XI, 253._

  _Captain_ Lem Child
  _Lieutenant_ Lemuel May
  _Lieutenant_ Isaac Williams
  _Ensign_ Sam White _as a Serjant_
  _Sergeant_, Eben Weld
  _Sergeant_, Step. Payson
  _Sergeant_, Ezra Davis
  _Sergeant_, Isaac Sturtevant
  _Corporal_, Payson Williams
  _Corporal_, John Lowder
  _Corporal_, Jos. Weld
  _Corporal_, Joseph Brewer
  William Wood
  Aaron Draper
  Ichd. Draper
  Jason Wench
  Sam Star
  Elijah Weld
  Eben Goodenough
  Abra Clarke
  Eben Pond
  John Adams
  Elijah Child
  Peter Everet
  John Foster
  Peter Walker
  David White
  Wm. Gould
  Asa Morse
  John Child
  Tho Parker
  Tho Dudley
  Paul Dudley
  John Foster
  Job Weld


CAPTAIN WILLIAM DRAPER'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "Roxbury 7th Decem 1775. A true and just roll of the Second
  Company in Roxbury by Captn. William Draper in Colo William
  Heaths Regiment the 19th day of April then called to the 3d day
  of May and then dismissed."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 50._

  _Captain_, Wm. Draper
  _Lieutenant_, Thomas Mayo
  _Lieutenant_, John Davis
  _Sergeant_, Noah Davis
  _Sergeant_, Paul Draper
  _Sergeant_, Davd. Richards
  _Corporal_, Danl. Lyon
  _Corporal_, Davd. Baker
  _Drummer_, William Warren
  Nat Davis
  Sam French
  Timo. Crehore
  Thad Hide
  Steph Whitney
  Sam Mayo
  Jere Bacon
  Ezra Kimball
  James Keith
  Wm. Weld
  Eben Talbot
  Vam Lauchlin, jr.
  Nat Perry
  Thos. Gates
  Benj. Corey
  Moses Griggs
  Benj. Weld
  Rufus Whiting
  Josiah Kenny
  Roland Clark
  Jno. Kneeland
  Timo. Lewis
  Lewis Jones
  Jona. Bird
  (?) Fuller
  Isaac Whitney
  Sam Gay
  Jona. Draper
  Nat Draper
  Jere McIntosh
  Steph McIntosh
  Joshua Pond
  Sam Richards
  John Dinsdell
  Wm. Dinsdell
  Moses Blackman
  Sam Lewis
  Jacob Whitney
  Moses Wilson
  Jacob Parker
  Eph Wilson


CAPTAIN MOSES WHITING'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A Muster Roll of the Company under the Command of Capt. Moses
  Whiting, in Colo. John Greaton's Minuts Regiment."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 198._

  _Captain_, Moses Whiting
  _First Lieutenant_, Jacob Davis
  _Second Lieutenant_, Moses Draper
  _Sergeant_, James Herring
  _Sergeant_, Joseph Smith
  _Sergeant_, Samuel Foster
  _Sergeant_, John Chiley Jones
  _Corporal_, Gershom Jackson
  _Corporal_, Jacob Whitemore
  _Corporal_, Noah Parker
  _Fifer_, William Dorr
  _Drummer_, John Gore
  Soloman Munroe
  John Eayres
  Nathaniel Scott
  Jedediah Munroe
  Joseph Gore
  Stephen Mills
  Ebenezer Whitney
  Frances Wood
  Samuel Bowman
  John Dowse, Jr.
  Benjamin Knower
  Moses Richardson
  James Griggs, Jr.
  Joseph Baley
  John Parker
  William Bosson, Jr.
  Lemuel Tucker
  Joseph Richards, Jr.
  Ebenezer Casey, Jr.
  Jeames Coggen
  John Mather
  Thomas Williams
  Benjamin West
  Joseph Hunt
  Nathaniel Talbut
  James Lewis
  Jonathan Brintnell
  John Henshaw
  James (Burreb?), Jr.
  Jeremiah Masher, Jr.
  Moses Davis
  Jonathan Dorr
  Michal Smith
  Thomas Weld
  Stephen Clapp
  Jacob Weld
  John Kneeland
  Nehemiah Davis
  Ebenezer Webb
  George Geyer
  David How
  Joshua Lewis
  David Richard


DEDHAM.

CAPTAIN EBEN BATTLE'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "In the province of the Massachusetts bay County of Suffolk A
  Roll made up by Capt Ebenezer Battle of Dedham fourth parish from
  19 April 1775 to the 20th of Decemr 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 241._

  _Captain_, Eben Battle
  _First Lieutenant_, Daniel Whiting
  _Second Lieutenant_, John Battle
  _Sergeant_, Sam Cheney
  Joseph Fisher
  John Knap
  Jabez Baker
  Theodore Newell, _Corp_
  John Chickering
  Eben Richards
  Moses Richards
  Hez Baute (or Bank?), _Fifer_
  Samuel Richards, jun.
  David Cleveland
  Thomas Gardner
  Henry (Tiodal?)
  Nathan Metcalf
  Aaron Fairbanks
  Jeremiah Bacon
  Asa Mason
  Wm. Fisher
  James Man
  Eben Haven
  Eben Battle, Jr.
  John Cheney
  Jabez Whiting
  Luke Dean
  Joseph Chickering
  Daniel Chickering, jr.
  Elias Thomson, jr.
  Moses Bacon
  Frank Battle
  (?) he Ellis
  Josiah Bacon, Junr.
  Seth Wright, Junr.
  Ephm. Bacon, Junr.
  Moses Mason
  John Mason
  Wm. Mansfield
  Sam Fisher
  (?) Richards
  Tho Burridge
  Joseph Draper, Jr.
  Timo. Allen
  Bariah Smith
  Thos. Ferret
  Davd. (Farmer?)
  Eph Wilson
  Sam Wilson
  Joseph Parker
  Peter Taft
  Oliver Kendrick
  Moses Draper
  Aaron Whiting
  Eleazer Allen
  Tho Morse
  Hezk. Allen
  Nat. Chickering
  James Draper
  John Fisher
  Asa Richards
  Sola Richards
  Ralph Day
  David Chickering
  John Draper
  Eben Smith


CAPTAIN WILLIAM BULLARD'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "Dedham Decem the 15 1775. A true list of the Soldiers names
  in the militia company in the south parish in Dedham under the
  Command of Captn. William Bullard and of the days they have Spent
  in the public Service upon the Alarm on the 19th of April, said
  Company belonging to Col^o Heaths Regt."

  _Lexington Alarms, XI, 246._

  _Captain_, Wm. Bullard
  _First Lieutenant_, John Morse
  _Second Lieutenant_, Nat Lewis
  _Ensign_, Eben Everet
  _Sergeant_, Asa (?) eret
  _Sergeant_, J (?) bery
  _Sergeant_, Icha. Gay
  _Sergeant_, John Andrews
  _Corporal_, David Andrews
  _Corporal_, Ben Dean
  _Fifer_, Elip Reade
  Ben Fisher
  Nath Bean
  Jnoa. Dean
  Jacob Jeniman
  Seth Fuller
  Robert Little
  Josiah Everet
  Sam Farington
  Philip Cobbet
  Wm. Pavet
  Eleaz Roads, Jr.
  Silas Man
  Jesse Gay
  Wm. Coney
  Daved Colburn
  Luther Bullard
  Jos Turner
  Jabez Holmes
  Moses Guild, Jr.
  (Uep?) Fuller
  Ebel Everet
  Abner Fisher
  Jason Fuller
  Nat Sumner, Jr.
  Davd. Fairbanks
  Nathan Clarke
  Seth Morse
  Enoch Talbot
  Seth Farington, Jr.
  Wm. Everett
  Moses Fisher
  Benj Herring
  Wm. Kendall
  Jacob Cleveland
  John Dean, Jr.
  Timo. Lewis
  Jere Kingsbery, Jr.
  Thos. White
  Benj Lewis
  Auhelaus Clarke
  John Smith
  Benj Felt
  Jam Clarke
  Ithamar Farington
  Wm. Everett, Jr.
  Robert Little, jr.
  Edw Bullard, jr.
  Jacob Smith


CAPTAIN DANIEL DRAPER'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A list of a company that marched from the third parish in Dedham
  in the Alarms occasioned by the Lexington battle on April 19,
  1775, under the command of Capt Daniel Draper in Colo. Davis
  Regiment."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 33._

  _Captain_, Daniel Draper
  _Sergeant_, Nathan Ellis
  _Sergeant_, Timo. Draper
  Job Buckminster
  David Ellis
  Amasa Farington
  Ezra Gay
  Jerem Baker
  Enoch Kinsbury
  Jona. Omon
  Aaron Ellis
  Saml. Colburn, Jr.
  William Gay
  Jona. Whiting
  Simion Colburn
  John Colburn
  Joseph Dean
  Andw. Lewis
  Fisher Whiting
  Daniel Guy
  Seth Gay
  Jona. Ellis
  Isaac Whiting
  Nath Colburn


CAPTAIN WILLIAM ELLIS'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A Muster Roll of the Company under the command of Cap William
  Ellis of Col^o Heaths Regiment 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 91._

  _Captain_, William Ellis
  _Lieutenant_, Jona. Colborne
  _Sergeant_, Joseph Ellis
  _Sergeant_, Benj Fairbanks
  _Sergeant_, Eben Fisher
  _Corporal_, Eliph Baker
  _Corporal_, Oliver Ottis
  _Corporal_, William Gay
  Timo. Baker
  Timo. Smith
  David Smith
  Abner Smith
  Iona. Whiting
  Eben (?) ing
  Ichd. Colburn
  Simeon Colbon
  Abel Richards
  John Richards
  Nath Gay
  Saml. Baker
  Ezra Gay
  John Farington
  Nat Whiting
  Fisher Whiting
  Isaac Everet
  Sam Pettee
  Saml. Gay
  David Dean
  Nat Baker
  Jona. Omon
  Isaac Comecher


CAPTAIN DAVID FAIRBANKS'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A List of a Party of Soldiers in a Militia Company in Dedham
  under the Command of David Fairbanks, and in Colo Heaths Regt.
  that was in the Service on ye Alarm ye 19th April 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 35._

  _Captain_, David Fairbanks
  _Lieutenant_, Jona. Colburn
  _Sergeant_, Joseph Draper
  _Corporal_, Joseph Dean
  _Corporal_, Oliver Ellis
  Abel Richards
  Danl. Smith
  Ezray Gay
  Saml. Colburn
  John Farrington
  Timo. Baker
  Saml. Baker
  Abner Smith
  Lemuel Herring


CAPTAIN AARON FULLER'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A List of the Officers and Men who march'd from Dedham first
  Parish on the 19th day of April 1775, on the Alarm then made,
  with the No. of Miles and days in Service."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 71._

  _Captain_, Aaron Fuller
  _Lieutenant_, Joseph Lewis
  _Ensign_, (?)a Avery
  _Sergeant_, John Gay
  (?) lipha Fuller
  Willm. Whiting
  Nathl. Kingsbury
  Saml. Fales
  William Richards
  Nehemiah Fales
  John Wilson
  Ebenr. Hunting
  Benjn. Davenport
  Joseph Billing
  Thomas Eaton
  (?) ne Lewis
  John Dean
  John Crowser
  (?) Whiting, jun.
  Ebenezer Paul
  Benj Farrington
  Moses Davis
  (?) na. Star, jun.
  (?) obert Man, Junr.
  (?) seph Onion
  (?) on Whiting
  (?) zekiah Metcalf
  (?) b Earle
  (?) n Avery
  (?) han Man
  (?) hl. Bill
  (?) oses Whiting
  (?) benr Gay
  (?) nja. Haws
  (?) m. Flears
  (?) l Everet, Junr.
  (?) a Sheperd
  Calven Dana
  Willm. Gay, Junr.
  John Metcalf
  Joshua (Fales?)
  David Bracket
  Boswill Woodard
  Joshua Kingsbury, Jr.
  Timothy Gay
  Abiathar Richards, Jr.
  Henry Wight
  Joseph Wight
  Ebenr. Farbanks, Jr.
  Joseph Dean, Junr.
  Timothy Richards, Jr.
  Jona. D (?)
  David Smith
  Isaac Eaton
  Josiah Fisher
  Daniel Baker
  Jesse Brown
  Timo. Whiting, Junr.
  Nathl. Gay
  Nathl. Weatherbe
  Saml. Dogget, Junr.
  Nathl. Everett
  Richd. Woodard, Jur.
  Israel Farbanks, Jr.
  Saml. Adams
  Saml. Lyon
  Thomas Perry


CAPTAIN GEORGE GOULD'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A List of the men that Marched From Dedham at the Allarum on the
  Nineteenth of Last April under the Command of Capt George Gould."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 108._

  _Captain_, George Gould
  _Lieutenant_, Richard Woodward
  _Sergeant_, Israel Everet
  _Sergeant_, Joseph Whiting
  _Sergeant_, William Gay
  _Corporal_, Israel Fairbanks
  Abel Ellis
  Samuel Whiting
  Stephen Whiting
  Oliver Smith
  Daniel Gay, Jur.
  Jonas Humphrey
  Joseph Metcalf
  Benjamin Wetherbey
  Samuel Bill
  Isaac Stowel
  Nathaniel Gay


CAPTAIN JOSEPH GUILD'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A true Return of the travel and time of Service of the Minute
  Company and the Command of Capt. Joseph Guild of Dedham in Col
  Greatons Regt. Assembled on the 19th of April 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 105._

  _Captain_, Joseph Guild
  _Lieutenant_, John Ellis
  _Lieutenant_, Ebenr. Newel
  _Lieutenant_, John Gay
  _Sergeant_, Isaac Bullard
  _Sergeant_, Lews Colburn
  _Sergeant_, Nathle. Chickering
  _Sergeant_, Elipht. Thorp
  _Corporal_, Amasa Farrington
  _Corporal_, Asa Richards
  _Corporal_, Ambrose Davenport
  _Corporal_, Ebenr. Sumner
  _Drummer_, John Colburn
  Saml. Adams
  Thomas Akley
  Joseph Baker
  Joseph Bullard
  Richard Belcher
  Nathan Cook
  Saml. Chickering
  Oliver Chickering
  John Carbee
  Thomas Colburn
  John Cardey
  Nathan Colburn
  Willm. Dean
  Jeremiah Dean
  Andrew Everet
  Seth Fuller
  Benjan. Fisher
  Saml. Fales
  Daniel Fishar
  Hezekiah Farrington
  David Fairbank
  James Gay
  Ebenr. Gay
  Aaron Guild
  Nathl. Gay
  Oliver Guild
  Jonas Humfry
  David Humfry
  Andrew Lewis
  Jonathan Metcalf
  John Morse
  Abner Pittee
  Danll. Pittee
  Joseah Richards
  Thadeus Richards
  John Rugglis
  Ebenr. Smith
  Thomas Shepard
  Elijah Scabury
  James Stevens
  Lemuel Stowel
  Timothy Stow
  Adam Thorp
  Thomas Wight
  Samuel Wight
  Nathl. Wight


NEEDHAM.


CAPTAIN AARON SMITH'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A Rool of Capt Aaron Smith's Company of Militia who marched in
  Consequence of the Alarum Made on the 19th of April last in the
  Regiment where of William Heath Esqr was the Col. as Follows viz."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 98._

  _Captain_, Aaron Smith
  _Lieutenant_, Moses Bullard
  _Ensign_, Josiah Upham
  _Sergeant_, John Bacon
  _Sergeant_, William Fuller
  _Sergeant_, Samuel Kilton
  _Sergeant_, Joseph Daniell
  _Corporal_, Enock Kingsbery
  _Corporal_, Jonathan Smith
  _Corporal_, Joseph Drury
  _Corporal_, Jeremiah Daniell
  _Drummer_, Joseph Mudy
  Jonathan Whittemore, Junr.
  Stephen Bacon, Junr.
  Isaac Bacon
  Moses Fuller
  David Trull
  Samuel Bracket
  Lemuel Bracket
  Zebadiah Pratt
  John Slack
  Samuel Baley
  John Smith, Junr.
  Daniel Huntting, Junr.
  Joseph Haws
  Moses Daggett
  William Kingsbery
  Daniel Ware
  Timothy Huntting
  Samuel Daggett, Junr.
  Seth Broad
  Benjamin Mills, Junr.
  Jonathan Kingsbery
  Samuel Pratt
  Joseph Kingsbery, Junr.
  Samuel Woodcock
  Jonathan Dunn
  Jeremiah Smith
  Issachar Pratt
  Abner Felt
  Philip Floyd
  Timothy Bacon
  Samuel McIntire
  Solomon Flagg
  Peter Jenison
  Joseph Kingsbery, Jun.
  John Bullard
  Jeremiah Gay
  Eliphelet Kingsbery, Junr.
  Jonathan Huntting
  Joseph Haws, Jun.
  Aaron Smith, Junr.
  Ebenezer Huntting
  Amos Edes
  Jeremiah Edes
  Samuel Smith
  Moses Huntting
  Collins Edes
  John Smith the 3d
  Ithamar Smith, Junr.
  John Fuller
  Luke Mills
  Uriah Coller, Junr.
  Seth Pratt
  Moses Bacon
  Israel Huntting
  William Huntting
  Samuel Ward
  Noah Millard, Resident in Needham
  Abel Smith, Natick


CAPTAIN ROBERT SMITH'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A Muster Roll of The Company under the Command of Capt Robert
  Smith in Colonel William Heaths Regiment Needham January 2 1776."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 92._

  _Captain_, Robert Smith
  _Lieutenant_, Oliver Mills
  _Ensign_, Silas Alden
  _Sergeant_, Elisha Mills, killed
  _Sergeant_, Jona. Gay
  _Sergeant_, Tho Fuller
  _Sergeant_, Elias Fuller
  _Corporal_, Sam Alden
  _Corporal_, Sam Fisher
  _Corporal_, Euahim Cooke
  _Corporal_, Eben Day
  _Drummer_, Eben Clark
  _Fifer_, Josiah Fisher
  John McIntosh
  Jona. Parker, killed
  Isaac Shepard
  Josiah Eaton, Jun.
  Sam Ware, Jun.
  Nath Willson
  Richard Blincome
  Moses Bacon
  Jeum Eaton
  Elmon Tolmon
  Eben Wilkenson
  Sam Edes
  Timo. Dewing
  Benj Ware
  Amos Fuller, Jr.
  Benjamin Mills, Jun.
  Joseph Stowell
  Aaron Paine
  Josiah Lyon, Jun.
  Daniel Wright
  Joseph Ware
  Eben Richardson
  Thomas Fisher
  David Nowell
  Simeon Fisher
  Elijah Fuller
  John Tolman
  Jonathan Ware
  Jona. Kingsbery
  Sam Paine
  Theop Richardson, Jr.
  Solomon Fuller
  Nath Fisher, Jr.
  Ezra Mills
  Aaron Ayers
  Philip Mills
  William Eaton
  Lem Eaton
  Aaron Fisher
  Lemu. Mills
  Timo. Fisher
  Robt. Fuller, Jr.
  Joseph Colburn
  Jos Colburn, Jr.
  Jou Woodcock
  Nathan Newell
  John Bird
  Wm. Smith
  Eben Clark
  Sam Wight
  Timo. Broad
  Josiah Newell, Jr.
  Josiah Dewing
  Aaron Smith, Jr.
  David Mills
  Uriah Cotter
  Phinehas Cotter
  John Clark
  Theop Richardson
  Richd. Obrian
  John Kelley
  Richd. Richardson


CAPTAIN CALEB KINGSBERY'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A Muster Roll of the Travel & Service of a Company of Alarm Men
  in Needham under the Command of Caleb Kingsbery in Colon Aaron
  Davis's Regiment That March'd in Consequence of the Alarum Made
  on the 19th of April 1775, Which is as Followeth Vizt."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 164._

  _Captain_, Caleb Kingsbery
  _First Lieutenant_, John Bacon, killed
  _Second Lieutenant_, Eleazer Kingsbery
  _Sergeant_, Daniel Gould
  _Sergeant_, Samuel Daggett
  _Sergeant_, Isaac Underwood
  _Sergeant_, Ephraim Stevens
  _Corporal_, Samuel Brown
  _Corporal_, Samuel Daniell
  _Corporal_, Thomas Hall
  _Drummer_, Ephraim Bullard
  John Fuller
  Ezekiel Richardson
  Jesse Kingsberry
  Joseph Mudy
  Henry Dewing
  Josiah Ware
  Stephen Huntting
  David Hall
  Jonathan Smith
  Jacob Parker
  Moses Felt
  David Smith
  Thomas Discomb
  Isaac Goodenow, Jr.
  Abijah Mills
  Samuel Greenwood
  Josiah Lyon
  Theodore Broad
  John Edes, Junr.
  Nathan Kingsbery
  Nathanl. Chamberlain, killed
  Amos Mills, killed
  Seth Willson
  Ithamar Smith
  Henry Gale
  Nehemiah Mills, Jur.
  David Hogas
  Jonas Mills
  Elijah Houghton


LYNN.


CAPTAIN NATHANIEL BANCROFT'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "Lynn, Muster roll of Capt Nath. Bancroft's Compy on defence of
  this Colony upon April 19th 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XI, 243._

  _Captain_, Nathl. Bancroft
  _Lieutenant_, Jos. Gowing
  _Lieutenant_, Nathl. Sherman
  _Sergeant_, Thos. Townsend
  (?) Timo. Munroe
  _Drummer_, Benja. Adams
  James Bancroft
  Timo. Wolton
  Jas. Gowing, by order went to Ipswich Goal wth a number of
          Prisoners, 67 miles
  John Berry
  Jesse Wellman
  Ezekiel Newhall
  Jona. Wellman
  Jos Brown
  Wm. Mansfield
  Andrew Mansfield
  John Swone
  Jos. Jeffery, Junr.
  Nathan Wotton
  Onisimus Newhall
  David Norhood
  Wm. Norhood
  Saml. Mansfield
  Danl. Townsend
  John Upton
  John Harte
  Drubbabel Hart
  Thaddeus Perry
  Ephraim Sheldin, Jr.
  Josiah Braze
  John Peloue
  Jas. Brown
  Abra. Upton
  Aaron Aborn
  Thos Wellman
  Andrew Foster
  Francis Shelden
  Amos Smith


CAPTAIN WILLIAM FARRINGTON'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "Roll of the Second Foot company of Militia in Lynn who Marched
  toward Concord April 19, 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 77._

  _Captain_, Willm. Farrington
  _First Lieutenant_, Benj Tohmon
  _Sergeant_, John Burrell
  _Sergeant_, John Mansfield
  _Sergeant_, Jacob Ingalls, Jun.
  _Sergeant_, William Newhall
  Edward Johnson
  Nehem Ramsdell
  Wm. Richards
  Phinehas Sweetser
  Richd. Hill
  Abner Alley
  Aaron Newhall
  Benja. Parrott
  William Whitemore
  Abednego Ramsdell, who was killed, and lost his arms and
        accoutrements and left a poor widow.
  Eben Burrell
  Jedidiah Newhall
  Theops. Hollowell
  Benj Burrell
  Robert Mansfield, Jr.
  Joseph Richards
  James Richards
  Edm Lewis, Jr.
  Edward Treson
  Amos Breed
  Enoch Mudge
  Stephen Larrabee
  James Bachelor
  John Coats
  John Farrington, Jr.
  Jacob Ingalls
  Sam Ingalls
  John Treson
  Daniel Ingalls
  Daniel Parrott
  Wm. Richards, Jr.
  Benj B. Burchsted
  Jacob C. Graves
  Nath Ingalls
  John Richards
  Eleaz Collins Ingalls
  Theop. Burrell
  Neh Ramsdell, Jr.
  John Flagg
  Fred Breed
  Joseph Ingalls
  Thos. Chittenden
  Edw. Johnson, Jur.
  John Baker
  Marston Parrot
  Ambrose Talbut
    Errors excepted


CAPTAIN RUFUS MANSFIELD'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A Roll of the fourth foot Company of Militia in Lynn who marched
  to Concord on the 19th April 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 190._

  _Captain_, Rufus Mansfield
  _First Lieutenant_, Joseph Ballard
  _Second Lieutenant_, Dan Newhall
  _Sergeant_, Joseph Hart
  _Sergeant_, Edmund Clark
  _Sergeant_, Henry Burchsted
  _Sergeant_, Nathan Atwell
  _Corporal_, Ebenr. Newhall
  _Corporal_, Charles Newhall
  _Corporal_, Joel Newhall
  _Corporal_, John Burrill
  John Burrage
  Richard Mansfield
  John Roads
  Thos. Roads
  Meshec Ramsdell
  Joel Breed
  Ephraim Breed
  Wm. Roads
  Nathan Newall
  Zacha. Atwell
  Benja. Hudson
  John Newhall
  Daniel Tarbox
  John Farrington
  Isaac Meachem
  Nat Ramsdell
  Joseph Williams
  Thomas Newhall
  John Burrill
  Andw. Newhall
  Wm. Newhall
  James Green
  Edw. Turner
  Ezekiel Molton
  James Newhall
  Allen Newhall
  (illegible)
  Solomon Newhall
  Jona. Fuller
  James Newhall
  Nat Tarbox
  Nat Tarbox, Jr.
  James Robinson
  Silas Randall
  Josiah Breed, taken prisoner, confined 33 days, lost his arms &
        equipments wh. we refer to the honble Court


CAPTAIN EZRA NEWHALL'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "a muster Roll of the minit Company commanded by Ezra Newhall of
  the Town of Lynn Aprel the 19th 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 27._

  _Captain_ Ezra Newhall
  _Lieutenant_ Thomas Cocks
  _Ensign_ John Upton
  _Sergeant_ John Botts
  _Sergeant_ Grimes Tufts
  _Sergeant_ John Watts
  _Sergeant_ John Gowen
  _Corporal_ James Edmonds
  _Corporal_ Ebenezer Mansfield
  _Corporal_ Increase Newhall
  _Corporal_ Ebenezer Stocker
  _Fifer_ Samuel Berry
  _Drummer_ William Newhall
  Joseph Alley
  Rufus Brown
  John Bancroft
  Ezra Waitt
  Jonathan Briant
  Timothy Burnham
  Ralph Lynsdie
  Joshua Burnham
  Stephen Coats
  William Coats
  Ebenezer Laith
  Israel Cheever
  John Cutler
  Daniel Lynsdie
  Joshua Danforth
  Joseph Farington
  Thomas Florance
  John Farington
  Thomas Hall
  James Bancraft
  Timothy Johnston
  William Johnston
  Daniel Lewis
  Benja. Meads
  John Meads
  Jonathan Newhall
  Nathaniel Newhall
  Martin Parrot
  Hatharn Ramsdiel
  Jacob Ramsdiel
  Elezar Richardson
  Nehemiah Ramsdiel
  Joseph Stocker
  Epheraim Stocker
  Andrew Foster
  Jonathan Fuller


CAPTAIN DAVID PARKER'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A Muster roll of the first Company in ye Town of Lynn, that
  marched to Concord."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 45._

  _Captain_ David Parker
  _Lieutenant_ John Poole
  _Ensign_ Nathan Hawks
  _Sergeant_ Thomas Hawks
  _Sergeant_ Lemuel Allen
  _Sergeant_ Benja. B. Redden
  _Sergeant_ Nathl. Hutchinson
  _Corporal_ Jabez Newhall
  _Corporal_ Abner Cheever, Jr.
  _Corporal_ Saml. Mansfield
  _Corporal_ Amos Leeds
  _Fifer_ Willm. Hill
  _Drummer_ Thos. Barrey
  Ephm. Brown
  Danl. Hitchings
  Jos. Edmund
  Willm. Bordman
  Aaron Bordman
  David Fuller
  Saml. Bordman
  John Bordman
  Francis Smith
  Francis Smith, Jr.
  Abijah Hitchings
  Amos Pratt
  Benja. Wilson
  Saml. Wilson, Jr.
  Jona. Brown
  Adam Hawke
  Amos Bordman
  Ezra Brown
  James Marble
  Joseph Eaton
  Thos. Hutchinson
  Jacob Newhall
  Willm. Hitchings
  John Hitchings
  John Burrell
  Amos Porter
  (Tesreel?) Burrell
  Benja. Twist
  Thomas Mansfield
  Benja. Mansfield
  Peter Fuller
  Nathan Newhall
  Nathan Hitchings
  Nathl. Byanton
  Calven Newhall
  Saml. Sweetser
  James Lelax
  John Symes
  Ebenr. Stoker
  David Newman
  Alehony Hawks
  Saml. Rhoads
  Benja. Goldthwaite
  Ebenr. Stacey
  Iveney Bordman
  Thos. Stoker
  Elijah Stoker
  Joshua Felt, wounded
  Thos. Hadley, killed
  Willm. Flint, killed


BEVERLY.

CAPTAIN DAVID DODGE'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  _Captain_ Caleb Dodge
  _First Lieutenant_ Jona. Batchelder
  _Second Lieutenant_ Nathan Smith
  _Ensign_ Benja. Shaw
  _Sergeant_ Jona. Batchelder
  _Sergeant_ Saml. Woodbury
  _Sergeant_ Peter Woodbury
  _Sergeant_ Benja. Jones
  _Sergeant_ Jona. Perkins
  Jacob Dodge
  Benja. Cressy, Jr.
  Nathl. Cressy
  Wm. Cammel
  Jos. Raymond
  Elisha Woodbery
  Stephen Felton
  D. Wm. Dodge
  Wm. Woodbery 3d
  Ebenr. Trask
  Mark Dodge. Jr.
  Charles Dodge
  Joshua Dodge
  Saml. Conant
  Israel Green
  Bartho. Trask
  John Creesy
  Nathan Creesy
  Aaron Salley
  Robt. Dodge
  Joshua Cleaver
  Jona. Dodge
  Nathan Wyman

No general heading for this Roll, but the following descriptive
matter at the end:

  "These may certify that this list above is a true list of the
  Commission officers, non Commission Officers & Privates in ye
  alarm list under my Command in ye second Parish in Beverly wch
  went to assist at ye alarm at Lexington & Concord on ye 19th &
  20th day of April last. Beverly Dec ye 16th 1775 Caleb Dodge
  Capt.

  "A True Copy. G Tailer."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 34._


CAPTAIN LARKIN THORNDIKE'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

No introductory heading over this muster roll.

  _Various Service Muster Rolls, XX, 199._

  _Captain_ Larkin Thorndike
  _First Lieutenant_ Joseph Wood
  _Second Lieutenant_ John Dyson
  _Ensign_ Theophelus Herrick
  _Sergeant_ Moses Brown
  _Sergeant_ Henry Herrick
  _Sergeant_ Benjamin Leech
  _Sergeant_ John Low
  _Corporal_ Sewal Tack
  Robert Roundy
  Benjamin Lovett
  Solomon Loufkin
  Benjamin Corning
  Joseph Larken
  Henry Standly
  William Herrick
  Benjamin Parsons
  Andrew Smith
  Elisha Woodberry
  Josiah Woodberry, Jr.
  Josiah Oleear
  Joseph Lovett, 2d
  Joseph Herrick
  Stephen Cabott
  William Tayler
  Joseph Boker
  Nathaniel Lamson
  Ezra Trask Foster
  Joseph Goodridge
  Robert Stone
  James Smith
  Timothy Leech
  John Picket
  Henry Thorndike
  Benja. Briant
  John Low, 2nd
  Samuel Dane
  Richard Olear, 2d
  John Morgan, 2d
  Benja. Beckford
  Benja. Adams
  William Trask
  Henry Herrick, 3d
  Joseph Myer
  Benj. Balch Lovet
  Hasadiah Smith
  Benjamin Beckford, Jr.
  George Stephens


CAPTAIN PETER SHAW'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

No introductory heading over this muster roll.

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 128._

  Men's Names
  _Lieutenant_ Peter Shaw
  _Second Lieutenant_ Caleb Balch
  _Clerk_ Jona. Conant
  _Sergeant_ Saml. Dodge
  Joshua Corning
  Simeon Dodge
  Jos. Poland
  Israel Woodbury
  James Dodge
  John Creesy
  Abner Smith
  Phineas Hovey
  Benja. Woodbury
  John Conant
  Gideon Rea
  Jona. Leach
  Saml. Conant, Jr.
  Ebenr. Worldorn
  Nathl. Raymond
  Barnabas Trask
  Nathan Raymond
  Robert Baker
  Robert Cambel
  Aaron Putnam
  ask, Jr.
  (?) Conant
  Wm. Trask, 2d
  (?) Dodge
  Cornelius Dodge
  Andrew Eliot
  Israel Perkins
  Ebenr. Raymond
  Benja. Raymond, 2d
  Wm. Syms
  Joseph Serbs
  Timo Batchelor
  Sam Nun
  Neheh Dodge
  Benja. Shaw, Jr.
  Edwd. Dodge
  Joseph Foster
  Wm. Pearce


DANVERS.

CAPTAIN SAMUEL EPES'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A Muster Roll of the officers & Soldiers which marched on the
  19th [part of a line illegible] Samuel Epes Coln Pickering's
  Regiment."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 82._

  _Captain_ Samuel Epes
  _First Lieutenant_ Benja. Jacobs
  _Second Lieutenant_ Gideon Foster
  _Second Lieutenant_ Iras Symonds
  _Sergeant_ James Osborn
  _Sergeant_ Jona. Tarbel, Jun.
  _Sergeant_ Benj. Doughty
  _Corporal_ Aaron Osborn
  _Corporal_ John Epes
  _Corporal_ Andrew Curtis
  _Corporal_ Isaac Twiss
  _Drummer_ Wm. Tarbel
  _Drummer_ Abra Reddington
  Israel Osborn
  Nathan Upton
  Rob Stone, Junr.
  Abel McIntier, Jr.
  Richd. Phililps
  Joseph Whitemore
  John Wilson, Junr.
  Saml. Small
  Benja. Epes
  Joseph Epes
  James Epes
  Wm. Southwick
  John Southwick, 3d
  George Twiss
  John Southwick, 4
  John Curtis
  Job Willson
  Robert Willson, 3d
  Isaac Willson, 3d
  Joshua Motton
  Nat Goldthwait
  Daniel Motton
  John Reed
  Daniel Marsh, Jr.
  Wm Goldthwait
  Marble Osborn
  Joseph Osborn, 3d
  John Jacobs
  Thomas Gardner, Jr.
  Sylvester Osborn
  Amos King
  Jonathan Nurse
  Jona. Felton
  Jona. Proctor
  Timo. Felton
  Ebenr. Felton
  Asa Felton
  Thos. Andrew
  Joseph Osborn, 4th
  Daniel Reed
  Jona. Southwick
  Thomas Day
  James Goldthwait
  Joseph Ingles
  David Newhall
  Nath Fitts
  Wm. Frost
  Newhall Wilson
  Jona. Wilson, 3d
  Bartho. Motton
  Hab Lynse
  Eben Motton
  Jona. Ridney
  John Collins
  Jacob Reed
  Abijah Reed
  Thos. Bond
  John Setchel
  Solomon Wyman
  Saml. Stone
  James Stone
  Joseph Twist
  Heph Twist
  Wm. Perkins
  Benj Dealand, Jr.
  Henry Jacob, Jr.
  Geo. Southwick, Jr.
  Saml. Cook, Jr.
  Eben Goldthwait


CAPTAIN SAMUEL FLINT'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A muster roll of Capt. Saml. Flints of ye Militia in the
  Regiment whereof Timothy Pick'ring Junr Esqr was Colo. and who
  marched on the Nineteenth Day April last past, in Consequence of
  the Alarm made on said day, dated at Danvers Decr 20th 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 7._

  _Captain_ Samuel Flint
  _Lieutenant_ Danl. Putnam
  _Second Lieutenant_ Joseph Putnam, Jr.
  _Ensign_ Israel Putnam
  _Sergeant_ Asa Upton
  _Sergeant_ Abel Nichols
  _Sergeant_ Thomas Andsaw
  _Sergeant_ Amos Tapley
  _Corporal_ Wm. Putnam, Jr.
  Joseph Dwinel
  Joshua Dodge
  Jona. Shelden
  William Goodell
  Benja. Russell ye 3d
  Matthew Putnam
  John Hutchinson, Jr.
  Aaron Tapley
  Lea Preston
  Aaron Gilbert
  Nathl. Smith, w.t to Iph. wth. pris. 60 m.
  Jonathan Russell
  Danl. Russell
  John Hutchinson
  Jethro Russell
  Stephen Russell
  George Small, Junr.
  Nathl. Pope, Junr.
  Joseph Tapley
  Simon Mudge
  Willm. Whittredge
  Ebenr. McIntyer
  Josiah Whittredge
  John Kittle
  Benjamin Nurs
  Eleazer Goodall
  Amos Buxton, Junr.
  Peter Putnam
  Reuben Barthirck
  John Preston
  James Burch
  Daniel Lakman
  Michael Cross
  Israel Cheevers
  Israel Smith
  Eleazer Pope, Junr.


CAPTAIN ISRAEL HUTCHINSON'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A Muster Roll of a Minute Company under the Command of Captn
  Israel Hutchinson."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 118._

  _Captain_ Israel Hutchinson
  _Lieutenant_ Eben Francis, Beverly
  _Second Lieutenant_ Enoch Putnam
  _Ensign_ John Woodbury, Bev.
  _Sergeant_ Aaron Cheever
  _Sergeant_ Job Whipple
  _Sergeant_ Asa Brown, Bev.
  _Sergeant_ Thomas Francis, do
  _Corporal_ James French, do
  _Corporal_ Sam Goodridge
  _Corporal_ Eliph Perley
  _Corporal_ Francis Smith, Bev.
  _Clerk_ Nath Oliver
  Eben Andrews
  James Barley
  Sam Chase
  Nat Dunton
  Henry Dunnett
  John Francis
  Wm. Freetoe
  Nathan Putnam
  James Porter
  (?) Putnam, Jr.
  Thomas White, Jr.
  Sam Baker
  Sam Fairfield
  Benj. Porter 3d.
  Jona. Sawyer
  Wm. Towns
  Wm. Warner
  Perley Putnam
  Benj Shaw
  Wm. Batchelor, Jr.
  Jotham Webb
  Elisha Dodge      Beverly
  John Dodge          do
  Asa Herrick         do
  John Jones          do
  Jona Perkins        do
  Sam Woodbury, Jr.   do
  Wm. Dodge, Jun.     do
  John Bachellor, Jr  do
  Reuben Keneston     do
  Benj Shalo, Jr.     do
  Gideon Woodbury     do
  Gideon Batchelor    do
  Nath. Dodge         do
  John Smith        Beverly
  W Woodbury          do
  Nathan Cleves       do
  Joseph Raymond      do
  Daniel Twist        do
  Andw. Eliot         do


CAPTAIN DAVID LOWE'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A roll of Captn Caleb Lowes Company belonging to Danvers who
  marched on the 19th of April last against the British troops."

  _Lexington Alarms, XII, 171._

  _Captain_ Caleb Lowe
  _Lieutenant_ Ezekiel Marsh, Jr.
  _Second Lieutenant_ John Dodge
  Thomas Gardner
  Stephen Needham
  Benja. Needham
  Hezek Dunklee
  Ezra Trask
  Benja. Morton
  Abel McIntier
  John Brown
  John Upton
  John Marsh
  Jona. King
  Jona. Trask
  Ebenr. Sprague
  Doctr. Jos Osgood
  Joseph Stacey
  Ezekr. Marsh
  Robert Shillaber
  John Motton
  Thomas Whiterage
  Zacha. King


CAPTAIN JEREMIAH PAGE'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

No introductory heading but endorsed on back.

  "Danvers
  "Capt Jeremiah Pages
  "Muster-roll
  "Militia-Men"

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 49._

  _Captain_ Jerh. Page
  _First Lieutenant_ Jos. Porter
  _Sergeant_ Henry Putnam
  _Sergeant_ Richd. Skidmore
  _Corporal_ Saml. Stickney
  James Putnam
  Benja. Putnam, Junr.
  Daniel Bootman
  David Bootman
  John Nichols, Junr.
  John Brown
  Jethro Putnam
  Jerh. Putnam
  Willm. Fenno
  John Wood
  Michael Webb
  Benja. Kimball
  Elisha Hutchinson
  Asa Stickney
  Mathew Whipple
  Enoch Thurston
  Phillip Nurs
  Rob Endacott
  David Felton
  Daniel Verry
  David Verry
  Archl. Rea, Junr.
  James Goddy
  Nathan Porter
  Saml. Whittemore
  Nathl. Putnam
  Peter Putnam
  Saml. Fowler
  Saml. Dutch
  Benja. Kent
  Ebenr. Jacobs, Junr.
  Saml. Page
  Stephen Putnam
  Joseph Smith


CAPTAIN ASA PRINCE'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A Muster roll of the Men who march'd under the Command of Capt
  Asa Prince on ye 19th April 1775 in defence of ye Country."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 50._

  _Captain_ Asa Prince
  _Lieutenant_ Ezra Putnam
  _Ensign_ Jerh. Hutchinson
  _Sergeant_ Benja. Gardner
  _Sergeant_ Archa. Bachelor
  _Sergeant_ Ezekl. Cooper
  _Sergeant_ (? P ja P b dy)
  _Corporal_ Elijah Wilkins
  _Corporal_ Moses Prince
  _Corporal_ Jas. Putnam
  _Corporal_ Aguilla Wilkins
  Benja. Gilford
  Israel Putnam
  Saml. Whipple
  Wm. Berry
  Saml. Wiot
  Amos Dwinell
  Jas. Johnson
  Peter Porter
  Abra. Dempsey
  Phinea. Putnam
  Andrew Gray
  Jas. Buxton
  Levi Howard
  John White
  Joshua Wiot
  Asa Brown
  Jos. Brown
  Israel Curtis, Jr.
  Stephn. Nickols, Jr.
  Enos Wilkins
  Arche. Kinney
  Richd. Thomas
  John Flint, Jr.
  John Fuller
  Francis Peabody, Jr.
  John Wright


CAPTAIN EDMUND PUTNAM'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A Muster Roll of alarm Company in Danvers command by Captn
  Edmund Putnam who marched in defence of the Country on the 19th
  April 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 48._

  _Captain_ Edm. Putnam
  _Lieutenant_ Benj. Balch
  _Ensign_ Tarrant Putnam
  _Sergeant_ Benj. Putnam
  _Sergeant_ Benj. Porter
  _Sergeant_ Sam Clarke
  _Sergeant_ Joseph Jackson
  John Nichols
  Archelaus Date
  Archelaus R(?)
  John Shelden
  Sam Andrews
  Patrick Canell
  Aaron Putnam
  Nath. Webb
  Benj. Porter, Jr.
  Wm. Hibbord


CAPTAIN JOHN PUTNAM'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON.

  "A Muster roll of Alarm Company in Danvers commanded by Captn
  John Putnam who marched in defence of the Country on the 19th
  April 1775."

  _Lexington Alarms, XIII, 46._

  _Captain_ John Putnam
  _Lieutenant_ Gilbert Tapley
  _Ensign_ George Small
  _Sergeant_ Francis Nurss
  _Sergeant_ Cornelius Tarbet
  _Sergeant_ Shelton Sheldon
  _Corporal_ John Walcut
  _Clerk_ Asi Putnam
  Sam Cheever
  Caleb Clarke
  Peter Cross
  Jona Cutler
  Saml Marble
  Nathl Pope
  Eleazer Pope
  (? nos) Putnam
  Phinehas Putnam
  James Prince, Jr.
  Daniel Prince
  Jona. Russell
  John Russell
  John Rea
  John Swinerton
  George Wiat
  Sam White
  Job Holt
  George Kelly
  (?) Buxton
  Israel Cheever
  James Swinerton
  Benj. Russell, Jr.
  (Eros, or) Enos Putnam
  James Phelps Putnam
  John Oaks
  Joseph Putnam


ARLINGTON,

THEN MENOTOMY PRECINCT OF CAMBRIDGE.

CAPTAIN BENJAMIN LOCKE'S COMPANY.

ENTERED THE CONTEST AT ARLINGTON, THOUGH UNDOUBTEDLY SOME OF THE MEN
WERE ENGAGED EARLIER IN THE DAY.

No official roll filed as a claim against the Commonwealth for
service on that day. For these names I am indebted to Lucius R.
Paige's "History of Cambridge," and Samuel A. Smith's "West
Cambridge on the Nineteenth of April, 1775."

  _Captain_ Benjamin Locke
  _Lieutenant_ Solomon Bowman
  _Ensign_ Stephen Frost
  _Sergeant_ John Cutter
  _Sergeant_ Moses Hovey
  _Corporal_ Thomas Cutter, (Jr?)
  _Corporal_ John Tidd
  _Corporal_ James Fowl
  _Corporal_ Seth Stone
  Jonathan Perry
  Joseph Frost
  Daniel Cutter, Charlestown
  Abraham Hill
  Job Potamea, Stoneham
  Josiah Williams
  Miles Greenwood
  Matthew Cox
  Peter Stearns
  Ephraim Mullet, Charlestown
  John Fowle
  John Shelden Senter, Charlestown
  John Locke
  Israel Blackinton, Jr.
  William Dickson, Charlestown
  Andrew Cutter
  Elisha Hastings
  Joseph Cox
  Isaac Fillebrown, Charlestown
  Joseph Trask, Boston
  William Pradax, Boston
  John Stuart
  Samuel Pierce, Jr., Boston
  John Grimes, Boston
  William Hopkins, Charlestown
  Richard Loring, Charlestown
  Ebenezer Cox, Boston
  William Adams
  Zachariah Hill
  Samuel Peirce, Charlestown
  Andrew Mallet, Charlestown
  Israel Blackinton
  William Winship
  David Blodget, Stoneham
  Joseph Robinson, Lexington
  Charles Cutter
  Samuel Seger, Newtown
  Isaiah Berjanah, Stoneham
  Ebenezer Bowman, Lexington
  Richard Ketel, Boston
  Cuff Whittemore, negro
  William Ellery, Charlestown
  Cato Wood, negro, Charlestown
  Jonathan Clarke, Boston



INDEX TO THE MUSTER ROLLS.

==> _For Index to the Narrative, see page 165 of the first part._

  ACTON MEN, 10
    Davis's Company, 11
    Hunt's Company, 11
    Robins's Company, 11

  ARLINGTON MEN, 75
    Locke's Company, 75

  BEDFORD MEN, 11
    Moore's Company, 11
    Willson's Company, 13

  BEVERLY MEN, 67
    Dodge's Company, 67
    Thorndike's Company, 68
    Shaw's Company, 68

  BILLERICA MEN, 14
    Crosby's Company, 14
    Farmer's Company, 15
    Stickney's Company, 16

  BROOKLINE MEN, 45
    White's Company, 45
    Aspinwall's Company, 46
    Gardner's Company, 47

  CAMBRIDGE MEN, 40, 75
    Locke's Company, 75
    Thatcher's Company, 40

  CHELMSFORD MEN, 16
    Barron's Company, 16
    Parker's Company, 18

  CONCORD MEN, 7
    Brown's Company, 8
    Miles's Company, 9
    Minot's Company, 10
    Barrett's Company, 10

  DANVERS MEN, 69
    Epes's Company, 69
    Flint's Company, 70
    Hutchinson's Company, 71
    Lowe's Company, 72
    Page's Company, 73
    Prince's Company, 73
    Edmund Putnam's Company, 74
    John Putnam's Company, 75

  DEDHAM MEN, 53
    Battle's Company, 53
    Bullard's Company, 55
    Draper's Company, 56
    Ellis's Company, 56
    Fairbanks's Company, 57
    Fuller's Company, 57
    Gould's Company, 58
    Guild's Company, 59

  DRACUT MEN, 38
    Coburn's Company, 38
    Russell's Company, 39

  FRAMINGHAM MEN, 18
    Edget's Company, 18
    Emes's Company, 20
    Gleason's Company, 20

  LEXINGTON MEN, 5
    Parker's Company, 5

  LINCOLN MEN, 13
    Smith's Company, 13

  LYNN MEN, 63
    Bancroft's Company, 63
    Farrington's Company, 63
    Mansfield's Company, 64
    Newhall's Company, 65
    Parker's Company, 66

  MALDEN MEN, 50
    Blaney's Company, 50

  MEDFORD MEN, 49
    Hall's Company, 49

  NEEDHAM MEN, 60
    Aaron Smith's Company, 60
    Robert Smith's Company, 61
    Kingsbery's Company, 62

  NEWTON MEN, 42
    Cook's or Marean's Company, 42
    Fuller's Company, 42
    Wiswall's Company, 44

  READING MEN, 21
    Bacheller's Company, 21
    Eaton's Company, 22
    Flint's Company, 23
    Walton's Company, 24

  ROXBURY MEN, 51
    Child's Company, 51
    Draper's Company, 52
    Whiting's Company, 53

  STOW MEN, 34
    Whitcom's Company, 34

  SUDBURY MEN, 25
    Cudworth's Company, 25
    Haynes's Company, 26
    Locker's Company, 27
    Nixon's Company, 27
    Smith's Company, 28
    Stone's Company, 29

  WATERTOWN MEN, 47
    Barnard's Company, 47

  WESTFORD MEN, 36
    Bates's Company, 36
    Minot's Company, 37
    Parker's Company, 38

  WOBURN MEN, 30
    Belknap's Company, 30
    Fox's Company, 31
    Walker's Company, 33



  This book is a preservation facsimile.
  It is made in compliance with copyright law
  and produced on acid-free archival
  60# book weight paper
  which meets the requirements of
  ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (permanence of paper)


  Preservation facsimile printing and binding
  by
  Acme Bookbinding
  Charlestown, Massachusetts

  [Illustration: (Publisher's colophon)]

  2005



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  Superscripts are represented by ^, for example 19^{th}.

  All changes in the Errata, found at the end of the narrative and
  before the main Index, have been applied to the etext.

  Other obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  Several shilling and pence amounts in the form "13 s" or "13 s."
  or "13 s," have been changed to the form "13s." for consistency.

  All instances of 'Lieut. Col.' have been replaced by 'Lieut.-Col.'
  for consistency.

  Except for those changes noted below, all misspelling in the text,
  and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained. For example:
  farmhouse, farm-house, farm house; a while, awhile; today, to-day;
  dismission; bowlder; loth.

  Pg x. 'Americans Killed' replaced by 'American Killed', to match
          TOC with chapter heading.
  Pg 1. 'treasure and bood' replaced by 'treasure and blood'.
  Pg 16. "D'Bernicre" replaced by "De Bernicre".
  Pg 23. 'soliders' replaced by 'soldiers'.
  Pg 35 FN [65]. 'In a article' replaced by 'In an article'.
  Pg 70.  There are two valid anchors for FN [149].
  Pg 111. 'three o'clcok' replaced by 'three o'clock'.
  Pg 128. The currency amount '£1761, 1, 5;' has been replaced by
          '£1761, 1s. 5d.;'.
  Pg 133. 'had be known' replaced by 'had he known'.

  Index:
  Faulkner ... 'Fraucis' replaced by 'Francis'.
  Flour ... entry moved from before Flint to after Flint.
  Mason ... '198' replaced by '128'.
  Prisoners ... 'American' replaced by 'Americans'.
  White ... 'Begjamin' replaced by 'Benjamin'.

  The second part of this book contains the Muster Rolls of the
  companies which participated in the battle. The page numbering
  begins again with Page 1.

  Except for those changes noted below, the spelling of names in the
  Muster Rolls has been left unchanged, including the use of (?) for
  partial or missing names as in the original text. ( ? ) has been
  contracted to (?).

  The inconsistent use of Jr. Jun. Junr. Jur. Jor. Joner. Jnr. as
  abbreviations for Junior, has been left unchanged.  A period has
  been added when missing (Jr to Jr. etc).

  Pg 9.  'Coporal Stephen Barrett' replaced by 'Corporal Stephen
          Barrett'.
  Pg 13. 'Joseph Meeds, June' replaced by 'Joseph Meeds, Jun.'.
  Pg 14. 'Abra Peirec' replaced by 'Abra Peirce'.
  Pg 28. 'Ninteenth' replaced by 'Nineteenth'.
  Pg 39. 'Ar    D.' replaced by 'April A.D.'.
  Pg 43. 'Slias Chubb' replaced by 'Silas Chubb'.
  Pg 46. Due to the printer's insertion of page 46a, the last three
          lines of this page have been moved to the top of page 47.
  Pg 54. '20th th of' replaced by '20th of'.
  Pg 57. "Fuller's Compamy" replaced by "Fuller's Company".
  Pg 72. Ditto, on one line represented by ", replaced by 'do' for
         consistency.

  Index to Muster Rolls:
  Pg 77. The right-pointing hand symbol has been replaced by ==> .





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