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Title: Chicago to the Sea - Eastern Excursionist
Author: Gage, William C.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Chicago to the Sea - Eastern Excursionist" ***

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  TRANSCRIBER’S NOTES

  Texts printed in italics, in bold face or underlined have been
  transcribed _between underscores_, =between equal signs= and ~between
  tildes~, respectively. Small capitals have been transcribed as ALL
  CAPITALS. More Transcriber’s Notes may be found at the end of this
  text.



  [Illustration: CHICAGO

  TO THE

  SEA]



  “_CHICAGO TO THE SEA._”

  EASTERN
  EXCURSIONIST

  A COMPLETE GUIDE
  TO THE
  Principal Eastern Summer Resorts.

  INCLUDING

  _Niagara Falls, The White Mountains, Saint Lawrence
  and Saguenay Rivers, Montreal and Quebec,
  the New England Sea Beaches, etc.,_

  AND

  HOW AND WHEN TO ENJOY THEM.

  BY WILLIAM C. GAGE,
  AUTHOR OF “THE SWITZERLAND OF AMERICA,” “HAND-BOOK OF TRAVEL,”
  “PLEASURE RESORTS OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST,” “GOOD BEHAVIOR AT HOME AND
  ABROAD,” ETC.


  BATTLE CREEK, MICH.
  REVIEW & HERALD STEAM PRINTING WORKS.
  NEW YORK: UNION NEWS COMPANY.
  1883.


  [Illustration: COPYRIGHTED
  1883,
  BY WM. C. GAGE.]



[Illustration: NOTES--INTRODUCTORY.]


I.--EASTWARD HO!

While it is true that the great tide of travel, like the “star of
empire,” is ever westward, and the iron-bound highways leading toward
the setting sun are the channels through which this current surges with
ever-increasing volume, yet like those of the ocean, this tide has its
ebb as well as flow. The business relations which exist between the East
and the West render necessary a constant intercommunication, which of
itself is sufficient to account for much of the returning travel. In
addition to this, the social relations also exert their influence. The
man who “went West” to make his fortune desires to revisit the home of
his youth on the Eastern hillside. Perhaps his children, who have grown
up on the prairies, wish to see the hills and valleys so often described
by their parents, and contrast the almost boundless expanses of the
“great West” with the rugged mountain scenery and the rocky farms, where
unceasing toil, coupled, perhaps, with honest poverty, laid the
foundation for sterling integrity, which the ease and freedom of Western
life have not served to obliterate.

The attractions of the natural scenery of the East are of themselves
sufficient to call to them annually thousands of tourists, who,
independently of the causes already mentioned, occupy their “summer
vacations” with an Eastern tour simply for the enjoyment of the
attractions presented in the way of pleasant routes of travel, and the
scenery to be enjoyed on the way or at the objective point of the
journey.

With a view of meeting the wants of this great and constantly increasing
class of excursionists, this work has been written. It is designed to
point out the most desirable routes between Chicago and the Eastern
seaboard, and to serve as a book of ready reference by the way. The
lines of travel chosen are such as will give the tourist the most
favorable opportunities for visiting the celebrated summer resorts _en
route_, and secure the advantages of palace coaches, dining cars, quick
transit, and sure connections,--considerations which combine to make a
journey enjoyable, and by means of which a trip becomes a luxury as a
means as well as an end.

The descriptions are made simple and practical, and with no effort to
impart a roseate hue to the scenes described, but with a view to aid the
tourist in “seeing with his own eyes” the beauties of landscape or other
scenery from the most favorable points of observation, and discover for
himself the things too often seen only through the medium of the guide
book.


II.--SUMMER TRAVEL.

The benefits arising from a summer jaunt, with its release from the
cares of business, are of inestimable value. “Work and worry” are
killing hundreds who might be saved to long life and happiness could
they but break away from their toil for a trip to the mountains or
seaside, or some other place where business could for the time be
forgotten. Though the respite be only a brief one, a break in the
monotony of a busy life will sometimes relieve the tension which if too
long continued snaps asunder the strings which need relaxation to
preserve their strength.

The man who esteems his life work too important to admit of vacations
sometimes learns, when too late for remedy, that unremitting application
to his task has totally disqualified him for its continuance, and long
before the period when he ought to be in his prime, he is compelled to
relinquish to others the work he so fondly hoped to finish himself. A
little relaxation now and then might have saved him from a collapse, but
“he couldn’t afford the time.”

Happily for the American business world, the infection of “summer
travel” grows more and more contagious as its benefits become better
understood. Year by year the tide increases in volume, and the
facilities of travel are multiplied to meet the demand. If these pages
shall serve to assist the tourist in the choice of his route, or, the
choice being made, in rendering his journey more enjoyable, their
purpose will be fully met.



[Illustration: CHICAGO TO THE SEA.]


THE STARTING POINT.

Chicago, the great metropolis of the Northwest, with its multitude of
railroad lines, and its enormous commercial interests, is most naturally
the point of departure for east-bound tourists. Travelers from
localities west of Chicago will desire to tarry in the city for a brief
period, to visit its water-works, the grand exposition building, and the
variety of other objects of interest which render the place attractive
to strangers. In carrying out this purpose, they will find the hotel
accommodations of the city to be second to none in America. The Grand
Pacific, Palmer, Clifton, Briggs, Sherman, Merchants, and a host of
others of good repute, invite the tourist to share their hospitalities,
with the assurance of regal fare and sumptuous accommodations. For full
information in regard to Chicago hotels and their terms, the reader is
referred to the _Daily National Hotel Reporter_, which gives reliable
and complete advices on this subject.

The limits of this work forbid even a mention of the many objects of
interest to be seen in Chicago; and having to do with the city only as
the starting point for our tourist, we next settle the question as to
the route by which our Eastern journey is to be performed. Keeping in
view the important points of speed, safety and comfort, together with
the attractiveness of the scenery _en route_, we find the claims of


THE MICHIGAN CENTRAL RAILROAD

To be of a character to meet all the requirements of the most exacting
traveler. It has long been known as the NIAGARA FALLS ROUTE, and its
recent acquirement of the Canada Southern Railway, making now a
continuous line from Chicago to the very verge of the famous cataract,
more fully than ever entitles it to that appellation. Its through
sleeping-car connections, its superior equipment, its famous
dining-cars, together with the attractive country which it traverses,
and the many interesting points reached by it, all combine to decide the
question of superiority, and influence the tourist in his choice of
routes.

The traveler arriving in Chicago by other roads, and not desiring to
tarry in the city, can be immediately transferred by Parmelee’s omnibus
line to the depot of the Michigan Central, at the foot of Lake street,
and taking his seat in a Wagner drawing-room car, commence his journey
with baggage checked through to destination, and with the assurance that
his comfort will be carefully considered on the part of the train
employés from the beginning of his trip to the end of the road.


THE CELEBRATED FAST EXPRESS

Of this road leaves Chicago in the afternoon, and as all first-class
tickets are accepted on this train without extra charge, it is a
favorite with the traveling public. In the season of summer travel, it
is a popular tourists’ train, on account of its timely arrival at
Niagara, allowing the excursionist to spend the entire day at the Falls,
and take the evening train for the St. Lawrence River, which is reached
at Clayton the next morning. From this point, the elegant day boats of
the ST. LAWRENCE STEAMBOAT COMPANY make the trip down the river to
Montreal, _via_ Round Island Park, the celebrated Thousand Islands, the
famous Rapids, and past the most lovely scenery of this beautiful river,
which stoutly contests with the Hudson the claim to the title of the
“Rhine of America.” The entire journey is by daylight, the boats
reaching Montreal at 6 P. M. This trip, which will be more fully
described in its proper place, constitutes one of the delightful
features of the excursion “to the sea,” and has been immensely
popularized by the efforts of the ST. LAWRENCE STEAMBOAT COMPANY, which
is the only line down the St. Lawrence running boats exclusively for
passenger service. It has won its way to the favor of the traveling
public in the two past years of successful operation, being popularly
known as the NEW AMERICAN LINE.

But to return to the point of digression. Leaving Chicago by any of the
express trains of the Michigan Central, the tourist has at his service
all the facilities which make pleasant a journey by rail. The celebrated
Wagner drawing-room and sleeping cars are run through to New York and
Boston without change, dining cars are attached to the trains at
convenient hours for meals, and courteous and attentive conductors,
train men, porters, etc., contribute to the comfort and pleasure of the
traveler as occasion presents for their services.

The ride out of the city and through the suburbs for a considerable
distance is along the shores of Lake Michigan, presenting views of the
lake craft, with their white sails, or clouds of smoke and vapor from
their stacks, as far as the eye can reach. The government pier, with its
protecting wall, stretches along the shore, and in the distance may be
seen the “crib” of the water-works.

On the other hand, the Douglas monument and park present themselves to
view, together with numerous interesting objects peculiar to the suburbs
of a great city, until, increasing its speed, the train passes fairly
into the open country, which is here and there dotted with a suburban
residence, or the buildings of some thrifty farmer, or perchance a
pretty village, whose inhabitants have their business interests in
Chicago, but their homes in the quiet suburbs of the bustling city.

Fifteen miles out, we pass the charming town of PULLMAN, a model
settlement, sometimes called the “magic city,” with its elegant
buildings, all of brick, in the most approved styles of architecture.
Its important industrial enterprises are largely connected with the
interests of travel, comprising the Allen paper car-wheel shops, the
Pullman car manufactory, and various other establishments which
contribute to the prosperity of this flourishing town.

At about this stage of the journey, if on board the Fast Express, or the
later train known as the Atlantic, the tourist is greeted with the
welcome announcement, from a man in white cap and apron, looking as
though he had just stepped in from the Palmer House café,

[Illustration]


“DINNER NOW READY IN THE DINING CAR.”

Among the modern comforts of railway traveling, the dining-car system
takes a prominent place. The hasty scramble for refreshments at a
wayside restaurant, with the constant fear of “getting left,” and a
consequent bolting of half-masticated food, with dyspepsia in its train,
now gives place to a leisurely eaten meal, served in elegant style, with
all the appointments and conveniences that can be suggested by the most
refined taste. The Michigan Central was among the first to adopt this
innovation, and so popular has it become as an adjunct to their already
long list of popular features, that they have recently constructed four
of these elegant hotels upon wheels, and placed them upon their line
between Chicago and Niagara Falls. These dining cars are models of
taste, elegance and convenience, with spacious kitchens, store rooms and
lavatories, large plate-glass windows, folding or opera chairs, and in
fact every convenience that taste and experience could suggest for the
comfort of their patrons.

A glance at the _menu_, which is as complete as that of a first-class
hotel attests the fact that the gratification of its patrons, and not
profit to its treasury, is the first great aim of the company in
operating the dining-car system. Indeed, it may well be questioned how
such elegant meals can be furnished for the sum of seventy-five cents,
when a similar repast at many a hotel in the land would cost from one to
two dollars. Perhaps a solution of the problem may be found in the
remark of a shrewd Yankee, who once sat opposite the writer at table in
one of these cars. He had evidently fasted for many hours previous, as
his voracious appetite clearly indicated. On rising from the table, he
soliloquized thus: “Well, I guess this concern han’t made much out o’ me
this time, but I shall _allus come by this route hereafter_.”

The dining-car system is also in successful operation on the Canada
division of the Michigan Central, the equipments and appointments being
of the same character and completeness. Indeed, so popular has this
feature become, that several other cars are in course of construction to
extend the system in a manner to meet every demand of the public for
accommodation in this direction.

But while we have been thus indulging in reflections on this subject,
the train has been speeding onward, and here we are at MICHIGAN CITY, on
the extreme southern shore of Lake Michigan, and the great lumber port
of Northern Indiana. It is a railroad center of some importance, the
Indianapolis, Peru & Chicago, and Louisville, New Albany & Chicago
Railroads occupying the union depot with the Michigan Central. The
population is about eight thousand, and its principal business interests
are manufacturing and lumber. The view of the city from the car windows
gives a less favorable impression of the place than a closer inspection
entitles it to, the immense sand bluffs and unpretending buildings on
the lake shore being the most conspicuous objects near the track. The
city proper is quite an attractive and pleasant locality. Its chief
hotels are the St. Nicholas, Union and Jewell.

Ten miles further eastward, we reach NEW BUFFALO, the southern terminus
of the Chicago & West Michigan Railroad, which from this point skirts
the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, forming the shore line to Pentwater.
It is a pretty little town of about one thousand inhabitants.

Passing several stations at which the express trains make no stop,
twenty miles further on we reach NILES, a flourishing city of nearly
five thousand inhabitants.

The Michigan Central has a branch road running from this point to South
Bend, and it is also the western terminus of its “Air Line” division,
the other being Jackson. Much of the freight business of the road is
done over this division, relieving the main line for the better
accommodation of its immense passenger traffic. Mercantile and
manufacturing interests occupy the attention of the thriving people of
Niles, a superior water power furnishing excellent facilities for flour
and paper mills and other enterprises, which combine to make this an
important business center. Its leading hotels are the Bond, Pike and
Farler.

At LAWTON, thirty-one miles from Niles, connection is made with the Paw
Paw Railroad for Hartford, Lawrence and Paw Paw. The express trains do
not stop, however, but, hurrying onward, the next important station is
that so well known as the “Big Village.”

KALAMAZOO, with a population of about twelve thousand, and no city
charter, prides itself on being one of the largest villages in America.
Except in its municipality, however, it is, to all intents and purposes,
a city, with its extensive public works, its thriving manufacturing
establishments, and its important railroad interests. The South Haven
division of the Michigan Central extends westward from here to the shore
of Lake Michigan. Intersection is also made with the Grand Rapids &
Indiana Railroad and the Kalamazoo division of the Lake Shore Railway.
The manufacturing and mercantile interests of Kalamazoo are quite
extensive, and it has also acquired no little celebrity as a market for
superior agricultural products. Its leading hotels are the Burdick
House, Kalamazoo House and American House.

BATTLE CREEK, twenty-three miles east of Kalamazoo, is the next
important city on the route, and is one of the most thriving and
enterprising towns in the State. Many of its business interests are on
an extensive scale, notably the manufacture of threshing machinery and
engines, three large establishments being devoted to this industry. On
approaching the city the buildings of the _Review & Herald_ Publishing
establishment are among the first to attract attention, and just before
the train comes to a halt, it passes the shops of the BATTLE CREEK
MACHINERY COMPANY, which are on the left of the track, while the factory
of the UNION SCHOOL FURNITURE COMPANY is nearly opposite, on the right.
The products of the former company are shipped to all parts of the
world, while the “Automatic” school-seat is acquiring a national
reputation as one of the most convenient and unique articles of
furniture ever put in use in a school-room.

The intersection of the Michigan Central, the Chicago & Grand Trunk, and
the Toledo & Milwaukee Railroads, the latter just completed, renders
Battle Creek an important railroad center, and accounts for the rapid
and prosperous growth of the city. This is also the location of the


CELEBRATED MEDICAL AND SURGICAL SANITARIUM,

Which has gained an enviable reputation as an invalid’s home. Although
not originally designed as a summer resort, its facilities in that
direction have made it a favorite summer home for many who would hardly
call themselves invalids. Here may be found a remedy for one great
drawback to the success of summer vacations in general, which are often
robbed of much of their sanitary benefit by poor food and inattention to
the laws of health. While the _cuisine_ of this establishment is of the
most bounteous character, it is especially ordered with reference to
healthfulness, and is in itself one important element of the great
success of the institution in curing the sick.

[Illustration: MEDICAL AND SURGICAL SANITARIUM.--MAIN BUILDING.]

The facilities of the SANITARIUM for the treatment of disease are the
best known to modern medical science. In addition to baths of every
description, including Turkish, Russian, vapor, electro-vapor, thermal,
etc., the employment of massage, Swedish movements, and the various
forms of electrical treatment, are provided for by costly appliances,
some of which were designed expressly for this institution. When we add
that the medical superintendent, Dr. J. H. Kellogg, is a member of the
State Board of Health, and occupies a position of great prominence as a
writer and lecturer on sanitary matters, and that a staff of educated
and intelligent gentlemen and lady physicians are constantly caring for
patients and visitors, we have indicated some of the reasons for the
marvelous prosperity of the institution. Our illustration gives a view
of the main building. A large number of cottages and other buildings
make up the facilities of the SANITARIUM for taking care of its guests.

The leading hotels of Battle Creek are the Lewis House and the Williams
House, the Sanitarium being also a favorite transient home with many
travelers.

Shortly after leaving the station at Battle Creek, the train comes to a
halt at the crossing of the Chicago & Grand Trunk Railway, at the
station named Nichols, the location of the extensive works where are
manufactured the celebrated Nichols, Shepard & Co.’s “Vibrator”
threshing machinery, engines, etc. This is one of the most important
industries of the city, giving employment to a large number of skilled
mechanics. Just beyond are the railroad shops of the C. & G. T. Company,
which also furnish employment to a goodly number of men.

MARSHALL, the next important station, is a pleasant little town, the
county seat of Calhoun county, with some manufacturing interests, and
considerable wealth, being the center of a large and prosperous
agricultural district. It is widely known among travelers as the dining
station of the Michigan Central Railroad. The day trains still make
their stops here for dinner, and the hours of midday are among the
liveliest the people of this quiet place witness. It is the boast of the
managers of the dining-rooms that a failure to provide chicken pie for
their guests has occurred but once in seventeen years, although fabulous
prices often have to be paid for the feathered bipeds to perpetuate the
time-honored custom.

The Tontine, Forbes and Tremont Houses are the principal hotels.

ALBION is the next town of much importance in our journey, and is really
a thriving place, some of its manufactures being widely known. It is
also the seat of Albion College, a flourishing denominational school,
under the management of the Methodists. Our road here intersects the
Lansing division of the Lake Shore Railway. The principal hotels of
Albion are the Commercial and the Albion House.

Our next important station is JACKSON, the largest city in the interior
of the State. As the central point of heavy railroad interests,
important manufactures, and extensive commercial enterprises, the city
is well known. The State prison is located here, and is of itself a
manufacturing establishment of no little importance. The railroad shops
of the Michigan Central give employment to nearly a thousand men, and
thus contribute largely to the city’s prosperity. The mineral resources
of the vicinity are of no small magnitude, comprising coal, salt, fire
clay, etc.

It is the terminus of the Grand River Valley, Air Line, and Saginaw
divisions of the Michigan Central Railroad and the Fort Wayne and
Jackson branches of the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway.
Passengers change here for the pleasure resorts of northern Michigan,
_via_ the Mackinaw Division of the Central, with which connection is
made at Bay City.

The Hibbard House, the Hurd House, the Commercial, and several smaller
hotels, take good care of travelers who have occasion to tarry in
Jackson.

Thirty-eight miles west of Detroit, the train halts at ANN ARBOR, the
county seat of Washtenaw county, which has a resident population of
about ten thousand, not including the students of the State University,
which number nearly fifteen hundred. The city is pleasantly situated on
both sides of the Huron River, its streets being wide, finely laid out,
and adorned with shade trees. The Toledo, Ann Arbor & Grand Trunk
Railway gives the place a north and south business outlet, while the
Central takes care of the east and west business. The Huron River
furnishes excellent water power, and the flourishing industries of the
city show how well it is improved.

[Illustration: UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN.]

In addition to all these, its reputation as an educational center places
it among the most important of Michigan cities. Its local public schools
are of a high order of excellence, especially its High School, which
occupies an elegant building costing $50,000. But its chief importance
in this respect is from the fact of its being the seat of the University
of Michigan, with its departments of literature, science and arts, law,
medicine, pharmacy, dental surgery, and engineering. This institution
has almost a world-wide reputation as one of the foremost schools in
the land, and indeed many of its students are from abroad, attracted by
its fame, and the excellent facilities at their command.

The St. James, Cook, and Leonard Houses, are the principal hotels.

YPSILANTI, eight miles distant from Ann Arbor, is the next stopping
place, and is a pleasant town of some five thousand inhabitants. The
fine water power of Huron River is here utilized by several
manufactories, among which that of paper-making is brought to a high
state of excellence. In addition to the railroad facilities afforded by
the Michigan Central, it has southerly communication by means of a
branch of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway. It is the seat of
the State Normal School, which occupies an elegant building, and
beautiful grounds, the latter donated to the State for the purpose.
There are many fine residences here, some of them the homes of business
men of Detroit.

[Illustration: STATE NORMAL SCHOOL.]

The Roberts, Lewis, and Hawkins Houses, the European, and several
others, furnish adequate hotel accommodations.

From Ypsilanti, the train speeds swiftly over the smoothest of tracks,
past pleasant villages, through verdant fields, and in view of snug
farm-houses, the next important stopping places being WAYNE JUNCTION,
where connection is made with the Flint & Pere Marquette Railroad, and
SPRINGWELLS, formerly Grand Trunk Junction, three miles beyond which is


DETROIT, THE CITY OF THE STRAIT.

The largest city in Michigan, and its commercial metropolis, it is
beautifully situated on the Detroit River, 18 miles from Lake Erie, and
7 from Lake St. Clair. It is one of the prettiest, pleasantest cities in
all the West, and the oldest, as well. Its rapid growth during the past
twenty years is a marked feature in connection with its history. The
many lines of railroad centering here, and its extensive commercial
interests, together with the rich agricultural region which here finds
an outlet for its products, all contribute to the prosperity of the
city.

The excursionist will find much to interest in a visit to Detroit. Its
location upon the river, which is here about half a mile wide, suggests
excursions by water, which constitute a considerable share of the
recreation of its people, by the numerous lines of steamers which ply
between the city and various points on the river and the lakes. The
public parks of the city afford pleasant “breathing places” for those
who choose to avail themselves of their advantages. In addition to the
older resorts of this class, the city has recently purchased Belle Isle,
with an area of about 800 acres, and a park commission are engaged in
the work of improvement, the result of which will be the providing of a
place of recreation for citizens and visitors, comparing favorably with
the parks of any of the large cities. Boats leave at frequent intervals
for the Island, from the foot of Woodward Avenue.

To notice the many attractions which tempt the tourist to prolong his
stay in the beautiful City of the Strait would require too much of our
space. We can only add that the resources of the vicinity in the way of
entertainment and recreation are ample, and of sufficient variety to
render a visit to the city an occasion of much enjoyment. The hotel
facilities are unexcelled, comprising fifty or more, including the
Antisdel, Brunswick, Griswold, Madison, Michigan Exchange, Rice’s
Temperance, St. Charles, Russell, and a variety of lesser houses, at all
prices. At those above mentioned, the terms range from $1 to $3.50 per
day.


CROSSING THE FERRY.

Continuing our eastward journey from Detroit, the river is crossed to
the Canada shore by means of the ferry, and the transhipment of the
train is an operation of much interest to one who observes it for the
first time. The mammoth transfer boat, capable of holding, in several
sections, the long passenger train, is securely fastened to the dock,
and the cars are run on, with their load of passengers and baggage. The
powerful machinery of the boat is set in motion, and in a few moments
the train is again made up at Windsor, on the Canada side, ready to
proceed on its way.

WINDSOR, the western terminus of the Canada division of the Michigan
Central Railroad, is a flourishing town of about eight thousand
inhabitants directly across the river from Detroit. The town of
Sandwich, two miles below, has some celebrity as a summer resort on
account of its mineral springs.

The chief interest of the American tourist in regard to Canada, however,
is in getting through it. While there are many things worthy of note in
connection with the homes of our cousins over the border, they are best
appreciated by a longer tarry than can be afforded by the excursionist
who makes a flying trip between the West and the East. The prejudice of
the native American, so frequently manifested against everything
Canadian, is often as unfounded as it is unreasonable. To be sure, the
difference between Canada and the States in habits and customs is
sometimes quite marked, but frequently not more so than that existing
between different sections of our own country. The railroad is doing
much toward the annihilation of all these differences, by facilitating
intercourse and the comingling of the people of all sections.

The trip through Canada is _via_ the Canada division, formerly the


CANADA SOUTHERN RAILWAY,

And is the only line through Canada under distinctively American
management. While the Michigan division of the road contributes a large
amount of local business, even to the express trains, the less populous
districts of Canada are sufficiently accommodated by the local trains,
allowing the through expresses to make long and rapid runs, with few
stops. The fast New York express, for instance, is timed to make the run
from Windsor to St. Thomas, a distance of 111 miles, with only a single
stop, about midway. The level country through which the road passes,
with the long stretches of air line, many miles in extent, are conducive
to smooth and rapid running, and in this respect amply compensates for
any lack of beauty in the natural scenery. There are, however, some
quite interesting sections of country on the route.

ST. THOMAS, about midway of the line, is a city of some eight or nine
thousand inhabitants, and of considerable importance as a railroad
center. We here cross the Great Western division of the Grand Trunk, and
connect with the St. Clair division of the Michigan Central, and the
Credit Valley Railway for Toronto. The leading hotels are the
Commercial, Queens, Hutchinson, Wilcox and Lisgar.

At NIAGARA JUNCTION the train divides, and that portion having Buffalo
for its objective point, proceeds, by way of Fort Erie and Black Rock,
to the Union Depot in Buffalo, while the other portion goes to America’s
greatest pleasure resort _via_ the Niagara Falls division of the road.

Should the tourist choose to first visit Buffalo, he may proceed to the
Falls by later trains, which run at frequent intervals during the day
between the two points.


THE CITY OF BUFFALO

Is of interest to the excursionist as one of the most important
commercial centers west of New York City, and the focus of a large
number of railroads. It has a magnificent harbor, one of the best on the
whole chain of lakes, its water front extending about five miles, half
on Lake Erie and half on Niagara River. Its grain elevators, some thirty
in all, have a storage capacity of nearly six millions of bushels, and
are capable of transferring about half that amount every twenty-four
hours. As the western terminus of the Erie Canal, and with its lake
shipping and railroad facilities, it has become the largest grain port
in America, with the single exception of New York City.

The traveler who may wish to prolong his stay in Buffalo will find a
multitude of hotels, of all degrees of excellence.



[Illustration: NIAGARA FALLS.]


Of all the pleasure resorts on the American continent, probably none
receive annually so many visitors as the famous cataract where the
waters of the upper lakes so grandly plunge over the precipice on their
way to Lake Ontario. The reasons for this are, doubtless, first, the
wonderful attractiveness of the Falls as an object of interest, and,
secondly, their ease of access, and the consequent facility with which
they may be visited. Situated upon the main thoroughfare between the
East and the West, over which such a constant tide of travel is surging
throughout the entire year, it requires but little sacrifice of time on
the part of many to pay them a visit. But these are merely the casual
visitors, in addition to whom thousands annually come from all parts of
the land, and from over the ocean, to gaze upon this far-famed cataract.

We design to give in this chapter such facts as shall serve as a
complete guide for the tourist in visiting this resort, not only to all
the points of interest, but such other information as shall render his
visit enjoyable. Before entering into particulars, we present a general
description of Niagara, in a comprehensive view, which will assist the
reader in understanding the several detailed descriptions which follow.

Niagara River is the outlet of Lake Erie, connecting it with Ontario,
the lowest in the great chain of lakes, which unitedly are the largest
inland reservoirs in the world. The river is only 33 miles in length,
and the total descent in that distance is 334 feet, Lake Ontario being
that much lower than Erie, which is 565 feet above sea level. About a
mile above the Falls the waters commence to descend with great velocity,
constituting what is known as the Rapids, second in interest only to the
Falls themselves, and adding to the interest of the latter by giving
such an increased velocity to the water in its plunge over the
precipice. The total descent in this mile is 52 feet, and the waters
come rushing and tumbling along the rocky bed of the stream, which is
here considerably narrower than its general channel above.

Just above the Falls are several small islands, connected by a system of
bridges with one another and the American shore, and affording a
magnificent view of the Rapids. Standing on one of the bridges, or the
upper shore of an island, and looking up the stream, the view presented
is grand and impressive, as the resistless torrent seems ready to
overwhelm all in its course.

These islands, combined with a sharp curve in the course of the stream,
widen the channel to about 4,750 feet, one-fourth of which is occupied
by Goat Island, the largest of the group, which here extends to the
extreme verge of the precipice, and divides the stream and the Falls
into two distinct parts.

The American Fall is about 1,100 feet wide, and the remainder, or Canada
fall, about double the width, although from its curved or horseshoe
shape the line of the brink is considerably longer than the direct
breadth.

Our illustration presents a fine view of the American Fall from below,
looking northward. The waters here make a sheer descent of 164 feet,
while the height of the Canadian Fall is from 12 to 14 feet less, owing
to the lengthening of the Rapids and the curve of the stream.

The volume of water in the Canada Fall is much greater, however, than
that of the American, and the impetus given by the Rapids carries the
water over the precipice with great velocity, and it forms a grand curve
in the descent, falling clear of the rocky wall into the bed of the
river below. The lower strata of this wall being of a loose, shaly
character, the action of the spray has hollowed it out, so that between
the wall of rock and the descending wall of water, a cavernous space
exists, into which the tourist may venture by a rocky and somewhat
perilous path from the Canada side. It is needless to add that a
water-proof suit adds materially to the comfort of those who thus
venture. Similar trips may be made under the American Fall, which will
be duly described in detail.

Below the Falls, on the American side, is a stairway and an
inclined-plane railway, leading to the water’s edge, and connecting with
a ferry which here crosses to the Canada shore by means of small boats,
amid the spray and over the turbulent waters, not yet at rest from their
mighty plunge.

The banks below the Falls are very high and precipitous, and the channel
contracts to less than a thousand feet, varying in the descent to Lake
Ontario, from 200 to 400 yards.

The entire river, from its source to its mouth, is an interesting
geological study. The changes that have taken place in the formation of
its banks, and the topography of the country through which it passes,
furnish much food for conjecture, upon which several theories have been
constructed, one of which seems to be quite universally adopted, viz.,
that the Falls have gradually receded from a point below their present
location, some say as far down as the high bluff at Lewiston, seven
miles from Lake Ontario.

[Illustration: AMERICAN FALL, FROM BELOW.]

This recession is due to the action of the water upon the sections of
the rocky bed which have successively formed the verge of the cataract,
and which have doubtless varied in character along the course of the
river. The action of the spray and the violence of the rebounding
waters, combined perhaps with other causes, wore away the softer, shaly
substratum, until the harder but thinner upper stratum could no longer
support the massive weight and resist the velocity of the waters, and
fell into the channel below. This theory is abundantly supported not
only by the appearance of the Falls and the channel, but by several
occurrences of exactly this character. In 1818, massive fragments fell
from the American fall, and in 1828 a like occurrence took place in the
Horseshoe Fall, in each instance producing a concussion like an
earthquake.

A view of the Falls by Father Hennepin, made in the year 1678, presents
the feature of a distinct fall on the Canada side, somewhat like that on
the American side, or nearly at right angles with the main fall. This
was occasioned by a great rock, which divided the current and turned a
portion of it in that direction, and which has evidently since fallen.
(See engraving on page 36.)

How long a time would be required for the Falls to recede to Lake Erie,
is of course conjectural, as no data of sufficient reliability can be
established from which to make a calculation. Indeed, it is believed by
some geologists that higher up the river the formation of the bed is of
such a character as to successfully resist the further encroachments of
the water in that direction, the hard formation being of greater depth
and firmness.

But to the present generation Niagara Falls will remain an object of
great interest, and will doubtless continue to receive, as in the past,
the visits of great multitudes of tourists, either on account of their
real attractiveness, or because it is the fashion.

With this general view of the Falls, the reader will be prepared for the
details, which, taken together, make up the comprehensive whole, and
which constitute a visit to Niagara an event replete with lasting
memories.

It detracts not a little from the enjoyment of the spectator to find
that at this resort the oriental demand for “backsheesh” prevails in the
modified form of tolls, fees, etc., and that what is here enjoyed in the
line of sight-seeing must be paid for. Yet this is not to be wondered at
when we consider that the parties who own the vantage ground must thus
reap from it a sustaining harvest. What is legitimately demanded of the
visitor in the way of tolls and admission fees may be considered as a
_sine qua non_, and should not in the least mar his pleasure, as he
receives in such cases a full equivalent for his expenditure.


“TRICKS THAT ARE [NOT ALWAYS] VAIN.”

There is one thing, however, which no tourist is prepared to meet with
composure, and which he will need to guard against here, namely,
extortion, or an unexpected or unreasonable demand for money in payment
for services not contracted for nor supposed to be in the market. Much
has been said and written about the extortions of Niagara hackmen, until
their practices have become a byword. In justice to some of these
individuals it should be said that there are among them honorable men,
who will do by you just as they agree, and will make no effort to
defraud. It is always safe, however, to make an agreement with your
driver as to the service he is to render you, and just what you are to
pay him in return. When the terms of your contract are met, _accept no
further service without understanding its cost_.

[Illustration: HORSESHOE FALLS AND RAPIDS.]

The need of this precaution will be apparent from the following facts.
The lawful rate for carrying a passenger from one point to another in
the villages about the Falls is fifty cents, or one dollar from village
to village; yet a driver will frequently offer to carry a passenger for
_ten cents_. Once in the carriage, however, he is urged to see this and
that point of interest, and with the memory of the ten-cent offer as a
basis for prospective expenses, he often yields to the importunities of
the hackman, until he finds to his dismay that he has run up a bill, by
the legal tariff, of from three to five dollars. While the man is
charging him only what the law allows him to collect, the victim is
chagrined at the method by which it is extorted from him, and it rankles
as an unpleasant memory in his otherwise pleasurable recollections of
his visit.

We have been thus explicit in treating upon a subject to which no
Niagara guide book we have ever seen gives more than a passing allusion,
in order that the tourist may know what to expect, and how to meet it in
the very outset. If you choose to accept of a hackman’s “ten-cent”
offer, be sure that you take no more than is “nominated in the bond,”
lest with the “pound of flesh” there come a drop of blood more costly
than all the rest.


THE FIRST VIEW OF THE FALLS.

The approach to Niagara, by the line of the Michigan Central, is by a
route nearly parallel with the river, from above on the Canada shore,
and is beyond question, the best view to be had from any railroad train
conveying its passengers near the place. As the train draws near the
mighty cataract, the foaming rapids above the Falls burst upon the view,
as if to prepare the mind for the exhibition of resistless power to be
revealed in the grand plunge of waters into the abyss below.

In a few moments the train comes to a halt in full view of the Falls,
with the Horseshoe or Canada Fall in the foreground, and Goat Island and
the American Fall directly across the river, with the deep gorge between
through which the river flows, spanned by the new suspension bridge. The
picture thus presented is one of surpassing beauty. While a nearer view
will impress the mind more completely with the sublime majesty of the
cataract, the comprehensive grouping here presented will linger in the
mind of a true lover of the beautiful, prominent among the “pictures
that hang on memory’s wall.”

The through passengers, who make no tarry at the Falls, remain in the
cars until the train arrives at Suspension Bridge, two miles below, this
arrangement continuing for the present season, until the completion of
the new bridge now in process of erection by the Michigan Central
Company. When this structure is completed, the trains will cross the
river in full view of the Falls. This, in addition to the view now
obtained from the train, will prove a strong attraction to through
travelers, inducing them to come by this route.


NIAGARA FALLS, ONTARIO.

This village, formerly known as Clifton, extends along the Canada shore
of Niagara River, from near the Falls to the railroad suspension bridge.
The tourist who wishes to inspect the cataract first from the Canada
side, leaves the train at Niagara Falls station; and should he choose to
find a temporary abiding place on the Canada side, he will find several
well-kept hotels, at prices varying according to accommodations desired.
The largest and most commodious of these is the CLIFTON HOUSE, which has
been open to the public for more than forty years, and has established a
reputation as in all respects a first-class house.

[Illustration: AMERICAN FALL, AS SEEN FROM CANADA SIDE.]

THE PROSPECT HOUSE is almost on the very verge of the Falls, being
located at Table Rock, and commands a fine view. The house has an
excellent reputation, its patrons being among the most celebrated of the
visitors, both from America and abroad.

The BRUNSWICK, located a little farther down the bank than the house
just mentioned,--just far enough, the proprietor claims, to be free from
the annoyance of mist and spray, but sufficiently near to give a
beautiful prospect from its windows and balconies,--furnishes a pleasant
stopping place, less pretentious than some of its larger rivals, but
with all its appointments complete, and well calculated to promote the
comfort of its patrons. It can take good care of large or small parties,
and is indeed a desirable stopping place for those who wish to tarry for
a single day, or for a longer period, the terms being moderate and the
fare excellent.

Other houses there are on this side, of which the limits of this work
forbid even a mention. Indeed, the provisions for the care of tourists
indicate that for a considerable portion of the year at least, that
constitutes by far the largest business of the dwellers in the vicinity.

[Illustration: TABLE ROCK.]

The Canada shore can claim one point over all other localities in the
vicinity of the Falls, in being the only place where a good view of the
cataract can be had without the payment of toll or admittance fees. The
effort now being made to create a public park on the New York shore, and
thus secure similar privileges in the “land of the free,” is attracting
much attention from tourists. Its results are as yet conjectural, but so
much has the value of the property become enhanced by the very practices
which this plan proposes to abolish, it seems now like a great
undertaking to accomplish what a few years ago would have been much more
easily brought about.

There are opportunities, however, to pay fees on the Canada side, and to
receive an equivalent in return. A staircase leading to the foot of the
Horseshoe Fall, permits a fine view from below, and in addition a visit
to the cavernous recess under Table Rock and Horseshoe Fall. For the
latter excursion, water-proof suits and the services of a guide are
necessary, and the experience is one long to be remembered.


TABLE ROCK.

Table Rock itself is an object of much curiosity. It is an overhanging
cliff, extending along the bank to the very junction with the Horseshoe
Fall. Its shape and dimensions have been several times changed within
the memory and observation of the present generation, and “the oldest
inhabitants” remember it as projecting far beyond its present limits. In
July, 1818, a mass some thirty or forty feet wide, and about one hundred
and sixty feet in length, fell into the bed of the river. In December,
1828, three sections, comprising a very large portion of the overhanging
cliff, and extending to the verge of the Horseshoe Fall, broke off and
fell with a terrible crash. In the summer of 1829, another large mass
separated and fell, and in June, 1850, still another, the latter about
60 feet wide by 200 long. The precipice still hangs far out over the
perpendicular, and with these losses in view, the reader can readily
imagine its appearance before the action of the elements had robbed it
of so much that made it celebrated.

Several other objects of interest are to be seen on the Canada side,
which will be mentioned further on in these pages, and we will now
proceed to a description of the principal objects of interest
immediately connected with the Falls. In crossing the river to the
American shore, the visitor has a choice of two methods. He may descend
the bank and cross by the ferry, or may go over the New Suspension
Bridge. If intending to return, he will do well to go over by the bridge
and re-cross by the ferry.


THE NEW SUSPENSION BRIDGE.

This structure, although opened to the public in 1869, is still called
the _new_ bridge, to distinguish it from its elder brother, two miles
below. Previous to the construction of the New York and Brooklyn bridge,
it was the longest suspension bridge in the world, its roadway being
1,300 feet in length, and its cables 1,800 feet long. It is 190 feet
above the river, being suspended from two towers, each 100 feet in
height. Access may be had to the interior of the towers, and very fine
views are obtained from their summits.

From the bridge itself a magnificent view of the Falls may be had, the
finest, in fact, to be secured from any one point, the entire line of
the cataract being embraced in a single glance, and in closer proximity
than is possible elsewhere, except from below. The view down the river
is also a fine one, comprising the deep gorge through which the stream
flows, with its precipitous banks on either hand, and the Railroad
Suspension Bridge in the distance.

The strength of the new bridge is estimated by the engineers as
thirteen times greater than sufficient to bear any weight that can
possibly be placed upon it. The year of its completion it was subjected
to the severest gale it has ever had to withstand, and safely and
successfully “weathered the blast.” All fears, therefore, as to its
security in ordinary weather, are entirely groundless.

[Illustration: VIEW OF THE FALLS FROM THE FERRY.]

Reaching the American shore by this method of crossing, the first point
of interest is


PROSPECT PARK.

Depositing the fee of 25 cents at the toll-gate, we are soon within the
privileged domain. The grounds are what were formerly known as the
“Ferry Grove” and “Point View,” and previous to their improvement were
free to the public. The Company who purchased them, however, have
provided an almost endless variety of artificial adjuncts to render the
place attractive, and the small fee exacted for admission is not,
therefore, an unreasonable one.

At the verge of the American Fall, they have constructed a solid wall at
what is now called “Prospect Point,” extending it all along the brink of
the precipice, thus rendering secure from accident the place where the
finest view of the Fall can be obtained. Looking up the stream, the
foaming rapids, white-crested and tumultuous, greet the vision in a
continuous stretch, until water and sky seem to blend. In the immediate
foreground is the American Fall, its waters almost in reach of the
outstretched hand. Directly across the stream are Luna and Goat Islands,
while sweeping away to the right in a grand curve, is the Horseshoe
Fall. The American Fall is year by year assuming the horseshoe form, by
the wearing away of the cliff in the center, the indentation in the
front line of the Fall being quite prominently visible from Prospect
Point, although less noticeable from a front view.

The visitor who may be disposed to carry away a souvenir of this
locality will find a skillful photographer in readiness to make
pictures, stereoscopic or otherwise, of from one to twenty persons, with
both the American and the Horseshoe Fall as a background.

Near the Point is located a bazaar for the sale of curiosities, in
itself a museum well worthy of a visit, whether to purchase be the
intention, or only to inspect the articles exposed for sale.

The Ferry House is near the center of the Park, and is the upper
terminal station of the


INCLINED PLANE RAILWAY.

A tunnel has been cut from the cliff to the margin of the river, at an
angle of about thirty degrees, and within it is built the railway, by
the side of which is a flight of stairs, numbering 290 steps. The cars
are raised and lowered by machinery, operated by a turbine wheel, and
are so arranged that one ascends while the other descends. This railway
has been in successful operation, without a casualty, for nearly forty
years. The timid, however, to whom the descent appears perilous, have
the choice of the stairway for reaching the river, and many prefer to
trust their own limbs in the climb, but are generally glad to avail
themselves of the car in returning. At the foot of the stairs, a
commodious building has been erected, from which a view of the Falls
from below may be had through windows which protect the visitor from the
spray. A nearer view may be obtained by donning a water-proof suit, for
which facilities are provided in the dressing-rooms, and, with a trusty
guide, taking a promenade upon “Hurricane Bridge,” at the very foot of
the American Fall, completing the trip by going _behind_ the cataract
itself, which may be done in safety, and constitutes a novel experience.
The cavernous recess behind the curtain of falling water extends nearly
to the center of the Fall, and is filled with the dashing spray which
perpetually rises from the cauldron of waters. The roar of the cataract
echoes and re-echoes within this chamber, the effect being heightened by
the compression of the air; and the combined effect upon the senses as
one thus stands as it were within the very grasp of Nature’s most
powerful forces, serves to show the contrast between puny man and his
omnipotent Creator.

Between the foot of the Inclined Plane and the Canada shore, a line of
ferry boats has been established, affording a safe and pleasant method
of transit between those points, and a view of the Falls from the river
level. The best time for this trip is early in the morning or an hour
or two before sunset, and the impressions made upon the mind in
connection with it, will be among the most lasting of all the
recollections of Niagara.

Returning to the Park by the stairway or the car, as the traveler may
elect, we continue our examination of the objects of interest to be
found within its limits. Its shady groves and pleasant walks, remnants
of the natural forest improved by the hand of art, furnish delightful
resting places or promenades; and its Art Gallery, Concert Hall,
Pavilion, and other provisions for entertainment, serve to engage the
attention of the visitor, and make pleasant the hours that pass while
within the Park.


ELECTRIC ILLUMINATION.

One of the most enjoyable features of the visit to Prospect Park is that
provided for the hours of evening. The illumination of the Falls and
fountains by the electric light is a pleasing spectacle, and well worthy
of a tarry to see. The electricity for the purpose is developed by one
of the largest sized dynamo machines, kept in operation by a powerful
turbine wheel, located in the Ferry building, the water-power supplied
by a canal. The brilliant light thus produced is concentrated upon the
Falls and Rapids, both in clear white and with prismatic effects,
rendering them even more beautiful by night than in the full light of
day.

An arrangement of fountains in which the waters are made to assume a
variety of shapes, with revolving wheels and jets of spray, the whole
illuminated with shifting lights of all colors, constitutes an
exhibition amply rewarding a long journey to behold. The observer is
fascinated by the ever-changing colors and gorgeous effects, more
beautiful than any pyrotechnic display, which it very much resembles,
only with intensified brilliancy of coloring, and more enduring in form.


GOAT ISLAND.

Passing out at the gate of Prospect Park, a short walk brings us to the
toll-house of Goat Island, at the end of the bridge leading across to
the group of islands which divide the cataract into its two distinctive
parts. The largest of these bears the above name, which was given to it
from a trivial circumstance, illustrating how easily a nickname or title
becomes fastened “to stay” with a few repetitions, even from an
unauthorized source. More than a century ago, a Mr. John Stedman placed
some goats on the upper end of the Island, and through neglect they were
suffered to remain uncared for during the winter, and died from
exposure. Hence the name, which adheres to it, in preference to its
authorized name of “Iris Island.”

The group comprises, in all, some seventeen islands, large and small,
covering about sixty acres. The property belongs to the estate of the
late Judge Porter, to whom it was ceded by the State of New York in
1818. Its possession at that time was regarded as of little
consequence, and the attempt to put a bridge across was deemed
foolhardiness; but it is said that an offer of a million and a half
dollars has recently been refused for the estate.

[Illustration: GOAT-ISLAND BRIDGE.]

The first bridge was a frail structure, and was soon carried away. It
was replaced by a stronger one, which stood from 1818 to 1856, when it
was removed, and the present elegant structure substituted. The
foundations are heavy oaken cribs, filled with stone and plated with
iron. The bridge itself is of iron, in four arches, each of ninety feet
span, making a total length of three hundred and sixty feet. Its width
is twenty-seven feet, comprising a double carriageway, with footway on
either side. The bridge is a favorite place from which to view the
Rapids, as the waters near the precipice below.

The first island of the group is Bath Island, which is utilized as the
site of manufacturing enterprise, a large paper-mill occupying a
position to command some portion of the splendid water-power so idly
expending itself for naught. Crossing by a bridge of a single span to
Goat Island, we find ourselves in a spot where Nature has been
comparatively undisturbed. The forest remains almost in its primeval
simplicity, which fact renders this a most charming and popular resort.
Indeed, a visit to Niagara would be sadly incomplete were Goat Island
and its attractions to be omitted.

Ascending a slight rise from the bridge, the road leads into a shady
forest, and branches in three directions. The best method of visiting
the points of interest is to first turn to the right, and follow the
road or path to the foot of the Island, emerging from the forest near
the stairway and bridge leading to


LUNA ISLAND.

This small but pleasant little islet divides the American Fall into two
sections, the stream over which we cross from Goat Island constituting
what is known as the Center Fall, beneath which is the Cave of the
Winds. The island lies low, and the visitor may touch the water with the
hand. The verge was formerly unguarded, but an iron railing now prevents
a repetition of the melancholy accident that occurred here on the 21st
of June, 1849, when the family of Mr. Deforest, of Buffalo, in company
with a friend, Mr. Charles Addington, were visiting the scene. The
latter, playfully catching up Annette, the little daughter of Mr.
Deforest, said, “I am going to throw you in.” With a sudden impulse, the
child sprang from his arms into the water. Horrified at the result of
his pleasantry, Mr. Addington sprang after her, and both were
immediately carried over the Falls. The mangled remains of the child
were recovered the same day, in the Cave of the Winds, and the body of
the unfortunate young man a few days later.

Returning to Goat Island, a short walk brings us to the building used as
the dressing-room in which to prepare for a visit to the


“CAVE OF THE WINDS.”

This trip is made by ladies as well as gentlemen, water-proof suits
being provided for any who wish to explore the famous cavern, and
experienced guides are in readiness to accompany the visitor. The
descent to the foot of the cliff is here made without the aid of
machinery, by means of a spiral staircase known as


“BIDDLE’S STAIRS.”

This structure takes its name from the Hon. Nicholas Biddle, the
well-known president of the United States Bank, at whose expense the
enterprise of building it was carried out in 1829. The bank at this
place is 185 feet high. Part of this descent is accomplished by an open
stairway, of ordinary inclination, and the remainder by the
perpendicular shaft or tower, which is 80 feet high, the whole
comprising 147 steps.

From the foot of the tower, a pathway to the right, under the shadow of
the overhanging cliff, leads to the Center Fall, which constitutes the
aqueous curtain of “Æolus’ Cavern.” A secure stairway leads to the
entrance of the Cave, and the visitor passes under the Fall, into the
stormy recess made in the solid rock. The Cavern derives its name from
the peculiar atmospheric effects produced by the action of the falling
water, the compression of the air establishing a perpetual tempest, like
that in which Æolus, the god of the wind, is said to dwell.

The Cave is 100 feet high by 100 deep and 160 long, and its existence is
due to the action of the waters upon the shale, leaving the more solid
limestone rock overhanging.

[Illustration: UNDER THE CATARACT.]

As one of the many novel experiences to be met in a visit to Niagara,
the trip through this Cave will leave a lasting impression upon the
memory. The sensations which wind and storm will always produce are here
intensified by the novelty of the surroundings, and the realization of
the fact that the forces of Nature are perpetually accomplishing here
what they occasionally produce in the outer world. Add to this the spice
of personal risk, really less than it seems to be, and the recollections
of the occasion will be vivid and enduring.

From the foot of the stairway, another path leads to the river in front,
and still another toward the Canadian or Horseshoe Fall. The latter is
but little used, and is not kept in good condition. From a scaffolding
100 feet high, erected near the stairway in 1829, Sam Patch made his
famous leap into the river, successfully accomplishing a feat, the
repetition of which at Genessee Falls, shortly after, cost him his life.

Returning to the bank above, and continuing the walk along the brink,
the next interesting point of observation is


TERRAPIN BRIDGE AND ROCK.

A stairway leads down to the Bridge, which crosses over to the Rock
where for forty years the well-known Terrapin Tower constituted a
landmark to be seen from all directions, standing as it did at the very
verge of the Falls. The rock itself furnishes a favorable outlook,
affording a near view of the Horseshoe Fall. The bridge is liable to be
slippery from the action of the spray, and care should be exercised to
avoid accident. In the winter of 1852, a gentleman while in the act of
crossing fell into the stream, and was carried to the very verge of the
Fall. By a remarkably fortunate circumstance, he lodged between two
rocks, when he was discovered by some of the citizens, who rescued him
by life lines, which he succeeded in fastening around his body. He was
carried to a hotel, and remained speechless for several hours, so great
was the shock to his nervous system.


THE CANADIAN OR HORSESHOE FALL,

Which is here seen to the best advantage, is about 144 rods wide, and
158 feet high. The depth of the water in the center is estimated at 20
feet. An experiment to demonstrate the depth was made in 1827. An
unseaworthy vessel, drawing 18 feet of water, increased by leakage to
more than 20 feet, was sent over the Falls, and cleared the ledge
without touching.

The name “Horseshoe” is hardly true to the present shape, which is now
more nearly rectangular. The horseshoe curve has been marred by the
falling of portions of the cliff at various times, until its original
symmetry has nearly departed. The precipice near the Terrapin Tower has
suffered loss from this cause, until it was regarded as unsafe to
continue the use of the Tower, and it was removed in 1873.

[Illustration: TERRAPIN TOWER.--REMOVED IN 1873.]

Along the south shore of the island, the walk or drive toward the east
keeps in view the rapids, and leads us next to the group known as the


THREE SISTER ISLANDS.

These are connected with Goat Island and with one another by three
handsome bridges, affording a magnificent view of the Rapids, the best,
in fact, to be had from any point of observation. The scene presented
from the outer island, as you gaze up the river, upon the vast expanse
of foaming, turbulent water, seemingly threatening to overwhelm you and
the ground on which you stand, and yet dividing as it passes you, or
abating its fury as it reaches the shore at your feet, is one to fill
the soul with admiration and awe, as, perhaps, no other view can do. The
outlook from the bridges also awakens peculiar emotions. Standing only a
few feet above the rapidly coursing torrent as it passes beneath you,
the thought comes to the mind that here at least, “there is but a step
betwixt time and eternity.” The fascination increases as the gaze is
prolonged, and the mind which cannot be impressed with the sublimity of
the scene, must be, like the soul devoid of music, “fit for treason,
stratagem, and spoils.”

At the head of Goat Island, a little farther up the river, the view is
quite expansive, commanding both banks of the stream, and the islands in
the channel. Beginning at the right, the site of Fort Schlosser is seen
about a mile away, marked by a small white building and a very large
chimney. The name is associated with border history, the fort having
been built by the French, afterward ceded to the English, and occupied
as a military station by Captain Schlosser, from whom its later name was
derived, the French having given it the title of Little Fort.


NAVY ISLAND,

Lying in the channel which sweeps around Grand Island on the Canada
side, has an area of over three hundred acres, and is associated with
Fort Schlosser in the annals of border history, having been made the
_rendezvous_ of the “Patriots” in the “Rebellion” of 1837, under the
leadership of McKenzie, who, with about twenty-five or thirty followers,
became disaffected with the Canadian authorities, and planted their
standard here as a rallying-point. The American steamer Caroline, a
small boat supposed to be in the service of the “Rebels,” was chartered
to run between the islands and the American shore. Friday, Dec. 29,
1837, she entered upon her work of “ferriage,” and after a profitable
day’s work was moved to the wharf at Schlosser’s Landing. The same
night, a detachment of British soldiers, under command of Capt. Drew,
seized her, set her on fire, and the little steamer went down the stream
in flames, and plunged over the Canadian Fall. The crew, and some of the
“patriots” who were on board, escaped to the shore, with the exception
of one man, Durfee, who was killed by a pistol shot in attempting to
escape.


GRAND ISLAND,

The largest in the River Niagara, is twelve miles in length, its breadth
varying from two to seven miles. Its soil, unlike that of the islands
nearer the cataract, is very fertile, and much of it is under
cultivation. Its historic annals are less interesting than those just
mentioned, although one enterprise has a monumental reminder, still in a
good state of preservation. A gentleman who in the current vernacular of
to-day would doubtless be entitled a “crank,” conceived the project of
making this island a place of refuge for the scattered tribes of Israel.
In 1825 he laid the corner-stone of the “City of Ararat,” and erected a
monument with imposing ceremonies. The latter still serves to remind the
visitor that “cranks” are not original with the present generation.

At the foot of Grand Island is a smaller one, of about three hundred
acres, called Buckhorn Island. The channel between them is called “Burnt
Ship Bay,” from the destruction of two armed supply vessels by the
French garrison at Schlosser, near the close of the French war of 1759,
to prevent their acquisition by the English. They were brought to this
bay, and set on fire, and the circumstance is thus commemorated by the
name of the bay.

Corner’s Island, Gill Creek Island and Grass Island, all of them small,
lie near the American shore, and are important, commercially or
historically.

[Illustration: FATHER HENNEPIN’S SKETCH OF THE FALLS.]

The first white man who saw the Falls, of whom we have any account, was
Father Hennepin, the noted explorer. We present above a _fac-simile_ of
the sketch made by him, representing the Falls as they were 200 years
ago. We also give his extravagant description, preserving the
orthography and the quaint style in which it was written:--

  “Betwixt the Lake _Ontario_ and _Erie_, there is a vast and prodigious
  Cadence of Water which falls down after a surprizing and astonishing
  manner, insomuch that the Universe does not afford its Parallel. ’Tis
  true, _Italy_ and _Suedeland_ boast of some such Things; but we may
  well say they are but sorry Patterns, when compar’d to this of which
  we now speak. At the foot of this horrible Precipice, we meet with the
  River _Niagara_, which is not above a quarter of a League broad, but
  is wonderfully deep in some places. It is so rapid above this Descent,
  that it violently hurries down the wild Beasts while endeavoring to
  pass it to feed on the other side, they not being able to withstand
  the force of its Current, which inevitably casts them headlong above
  Six hundred foot high.

  “This wonderful Downfal is compounded of two great Cross-streams of
  Water, and two Falls, with an Isle sloping along the middle of it. The
  Waters which fall from this horrible Precipice, do foam and boyl after
  the most hideous manner imaginable, making an outrageous Noise, more
  terrible than that of Thunder; for when the Wind blows out of the
  South, their dismal roaring may be heard more than Fifteen Leagues
  off.

  “The River _Niagara_ having thrown it self down this incredible
  Precepice, continues its impetuous course for two Leagues together, to
  the great Rock above-mention’d, with an inexpressible rapidity: But
  having past that, its impetuosity relents, gliding along more gently
  for other two Leagues, till it arrive at the Lake _Ontario_ or
  _Frontenac_.

  “Any Bark or greater Vessel may pass from the Fort to the foot of this
  huge Rock above-mention’d. This Rock lies to the Westward, and is cut
  off from the Land by the River _Niagara_, about two Leagues farther
  down than the great Fall; for which two Leagues the People are oblig’d
  to transport their Goods over-land; but the way is very good; and the
  Trees are but few, chiefly Firrs and Oaks.

  “From the great Fall unto this Rock which is to the West of the River,
  the two Brinks of it are so prodigious high, that it would make one
  tremble to look steadily upon the Water, rolling along with a rapidity
  not to be imagin’d. Were it not for this vast Cataract, which
  interrupts Navigation, they might fail with Barks or greater Vessels,
  more than Four hundred and fifty Leagues, crossing the Lake of
  _Hurons_, and reaching even to the farther end of the Lake _Illinois_;
  which two Lakes we may easily say are little Seas of fresh Water.”


RETROCESSION OF THE FALLS.

The following extracts from an article written by Prof. Tyndall will be
of interest in this connection:--

  “The fact that in historic times, even within the memory of man, the
  Fall has sensibly receded, prompts the question, How far has this
  recession gone? At what point did the ledge which thus continually
  creeps backward begin its retrograde course? To minds disciplined in
  such researches the answer has been and will be, At the precipitous
  declivity which crosses the Niagara from Lewiston on the American to
  Queenston on the Canadian side. Over this traverse barrier the
  affluents of all upper lakes once poured their waters, and here the
  work of erosion began. The dam, moreover, was demonstrably of
  sufficient height to cause the river above it to submerge Goat Island,
  and this would perfectly account for the finding by Mr. Hall, Sir
  Charles Lyell, and others, in the sand and gravel of the island, the
  same fluviatile shells as are now found in the Niagara River higher
  up. It would also account for those deposits along the sides of the
  river, the discovery of which enabled Lyell, Hall, and Ramsay to
  reduce to demonstration the popular belief that the Niagara once
  flowed through a shallow valley.

  “The physics of the problem of excavation, which I made clear to my
  mind before quitting Niagara, are revealed by a close inspection of
  the present Horseshoe Fall. Here we see evidently that the greatest
  weight of water bends over the very apex of the Horseshoe. In a
  passage in his excellent chapter on Niagara Falls, Mr. Hall alludes to
  this fact. Here we have the most copious and the most violent whirling
  of the shattered liquid; here the most powerful eddies recoil against
  the shale. From this portion of the Fall, indeed, the spray sometimes
  rises without solution of continuity to the region of clouds, becoming
  gradually more attenuated, and passing finally through the condition
  of true cloud into invisible vapor, which is sometimes re-precipitated
  higher up. All the phenomena point distinctly to the center of the
  river as the place of the greatest mechanical energy, and from the
  center the vigor of the Fall gradually dies away toward the sides. The
  horseshoe form, with the concavity facing downward, is an obvious and
  necessary consequence of this action. Right along the middle of the
  river the apex of the curve pushes its way backward, cutting along the
  center a deep and comparatively narrow groove, and draining the sides
  as it passes them. Hence the remarkable discrepancy between the widths
  of the Niagara above and below the Horseshoe. All along its course,
  from Lewiston Heights to the present position, the form of the Fall
  was probably that of a horseshoe; for this is merely the expression of
  the greater depth, and consequently greater excavating power, of the
  center of the river. The gorge, moreover, varies in width as the
  depth, of the center of the ancient river varied, being narrowest
  where that depth was greatest.

  “The vast comparative erosive energy of the Horseshoe Fall comes
  strikingly into view when it and the American Fall are compared
  together. The American branch of the upper river is cut at a right
  angle by the gorge of the Niagara. Here the Horseshoe Fall was the
  real excavator. It cut the rock, and formed the precipice over which
  the American Fall tumbles. But since its formation the erosive action
  of the American Fall has been almost _nil_, while the Horseshoe has
  cut its way for five hundred yards across the end of Goat Island, and
  is now doubling back to excavate a channel parallel to the length of
  the island. This point, I have just learned, has not escaped the acute
  observation of Prof. Ramsay. The river bends; the Horseshoe
  immediately accommodates itself to the bending, and will follow
  implicitly the direction of the deepest water in the upper stream. The
  flexibility of the gorge, if I may use the term, is determined by the
  flexibility of the river channel above it. Were the Niagara above the
  Fall sinuous, the gorge would immediately follow its sinuosities. Once
  suggested, no doubt geographers will be able to point out many
  examples of this action. The Zambesi is thought to present a great
  difficulty to the erosion theory, because of the sinuosity of the
  chasm below the Victoria Falls. But assuming the basalt to be of
  tolerably uniform texture, had the river been examined before the
  formation of this sinuous channel, the present zigzag course of the
  gorge below the Fall could, I am persuaded, have been predicted, while
  the sounding of the present river would enable us to predict the
  course to be pursued by the erosion in the future.

  “But not only has the Niagara River cut the gorge--it has carried away
  the chips of its own workshop. The shale being probably crumbled, is
  easily carried away. But at the base of the Fall we find the huge
  boulders already described, and by some means or other these are
  removed down the river. The ice which tills the gorge in winter, and
  which grapples with the boulders, has been regarded as the
  transporting agent. Probably it is so to some extent. But erosion acts
  without ceasing on the abutting points of the boulder, thus
  withdrawing their support, and urging them down the river. Solution
  also does its portion of the work. That solid matter is carried down
  is proved by the difference of depth between the Niagara River and
  Lake Ontario, where the river enters it. The depth falls from
  seventy-two feet to twenty feet, in consequence of the deposition of
  solid matter caused by the diminished motion of the river. Near the
  mouth of the gorge at Queenston, the depth, according to the Admiralty
  Chart, is 180 feet; well within the gorge, it is 132 feet.”


SUSPENSION BRIDGE.

Two miles below the Falls, the river is spanned by the structure so
widely known by the above name. The banks are here very precipitous, and
the river deep and rapid, and the erection of piers in the stream being
an impossibility, the structure is suspended from cables passing over
towers of solid masonry. The following statistics will be of interest to
those of our readers who revel in figures:--

  Length of span from center to center of towers         822 feet.
  Height of tower above rock on the American side         88   „
    „         „     „    „     „    Canada side           78   „
    „         „     „   floor of railway                  60   „
    „       track above water                            258   „
  Number of wire cables                                    4
  Diameter of each cable                                  10½ in.
  Number of No. 9 wires in each cable                  3,659
  Ultimate aggregate strength of cables               12,400 tons.
  Weight of superstructure                               800   „
    „             „        and maximum loads           1,250   „
  Maximum weight the cable and stays will support      7,309   „

The bridge is a “two-story” affair, the upper part being used for the
railway, and the lower for carriages and foot passengers.

[Illustration: RAILWAY SUSPENSION BRIDGE, NIAGARA RIVER.]


WHIRLPOOL RAPIDS.

The narrowing of the channel in the vicinity of the Suspension Bridge
greatly accelerates the current, and the tremendous force with which it
rushes through the gorge from this point to the “Whirlpool,” throws the
water into violent commotion. When it is considered that the calculated
weight of the water that passes over the Falls every hour is 100,000,000
tons, and that this volume of water must find its way through a channel
only about 300 feet wide, the terrific force with which it rushes along
may be at least partially understood. Although the depth of the stream
is here estimated at 250 feet, the force of the current is such as to
_elevate_ the water from ten to forty feet above its natural level.

[Illustration: WHIRLPOOL AND RAPIDS.]

At the Whirlpool, the river takes a sharp turn almost at a right angle,
circling around in the cauldron which it seems to have excavated for
itself, and finally making its exit through a narrow gorge, the vast
body of water no doubt passing out far below the surface, in a channel
of immense depth.

The Whirlpool may be seen to advantage from either the Canadian or the
American side. At the latter, the approach is through the grounds of De
Veaux College, the fee for admission going to the funds of the
institution. On the Canada side, extensive preparations have been made
for the accommodation of visitors by the WHIRLPOOL RAPIDS PARK COMPANY.

A river-side walk has been constructed, partially by excavation from the
side of the cliff, and a delightful park on the bank of the river, with
plenty of trees and shrubbery, renders a promenade on this shore very
attractive. An inclined railway, to facilitate the journey between the
upper and lower levels, has been constructed, and equipped with cars,
operating in a novel and ingenious manner. The cars have tanks below the
seats; these tanks are filled with water from a spring at the back of
the entrance building, by means of a pipe leading into the tank. 50 lbs.
weight of water is sufficient to overcome the balance of the cars, and
to carry the loaded car to the foot of the railway, the light one being
simultaneously drawn to the top by the same power. Formerly these cars
were operated by steam-power, but the present is by far the safest and
most economical plan, there being no machinery to get out of order, no
danger of damage from bursting of boiler, etc., the entire apparatus
necessary being the check or governor, by which the person in charge can
regulate or stop the speed of the car with perfect ease. These cars take
12 passengers each; the tanks are capable of containing 2,800 lbs. of
water. As they reach the foot of the incline, a bolt or pin removes the
fastening to the discharge pipe and discharges the water, thus leaving
the car in readiness for its next ascent, which is made in about one and
a half minutes. The total length of the railroad is 285 feet.

At the water’s edge, a photographic studio is located, thus giving to
all an opportunity of being portrayed with the Whirlpool Rapids in the
backgrounds.

Returning again to the Falls, we find on the Canada side several points
of interest, not yet considered in these pages. At Table Rock an
opportunity is afforded of visiting the MUSEUM, a collection of natural
curiosities, works of art, etc., well worthy of a visit. A zoological
garden is kept in connection, and an observatory affords a good outlook
from a lofty stand-point.


THE BURNING SPRING.

About a mile above the Falls, reached by a pleasant drive or walk,
across Cedar Island, in view of the Rapids, is the natural curiosity
known as the Burning Spring, the waters of which are highly charged with
sulphuretted hydrogen, which burns with a pale blue flame when ignited.
This is supposed to have its origin in a coal formation, believed by
some to be extensive, and worthy of mining. The proprietor, however, has
not sufficient faith in the feasibility of the scheme to undertake it.
Clark Hill Islands, a group of five, which are crossed in the approach
to the burning spring, are in the midst of the rapids, and a fine
carriage drive extends along their outer shores, affording a good view
of the current, which is here very rapid. These islands are connected
with the main land by two suspension bridges, which have been named
“Castor” and “Pollux.”

On Cedar Island, near the Horseshoe Falls, a Pagoda has been erected,
over 80 feet in height, from which a magnificent view can be had. It is
a noticeable landmark from all points in the vicinity of the Falls.


LUNDY’S LANE BATTLE FIELD.

As a spot, of no little historical interest, the scene of the decisive
battle between the English and American forces, July 25, 1814, receives
many visitors, of all nationalities. The ground is about a mile and a
half due west from the Falls, near the village of Drummondville, named
in honor of Gen. Drummond, who commanded the British forces in the
engagement. Two towers have been erected to mark the spot, and from
their summits a good view is had of the surrounding country. It was the
writer’s good fortune, on the occasion of his first visit to the scene,
some years ago, to listen to a description of the battle from the lips
of a surviving participant, who wore the British uniform on the
occasion, but who gave the American forces great credit for gallantry in
the fight. The total loss, in killed and wounded, was about eighteen
hundred men.


DEVIL’S HOLE.

About half a mile below the Whirlpool, on the American side, a gloomy
cavern in the bank has received the above title. It is about one hundred
feet in depth, and from its forbidding aspect might well be regarded as
the property of his Satanic majesty. Tradition makes this locality the
scene of the massacre of the English supply train and escort in 1763, by
the Seneca Indians, instigated by the French traders. The train was on
its way from Fort Niagara to Fort Schlosser, and only three of its
number escaped alive, while of the escort only eight returned to Fort
Niagara.

[Illustration: NIAGARA RIVER BELOW THE WHIRLPOOL.]

Much that would be of interest to the reader might be written concerning
the Falls and the surroundings, but we have already devoted a large
amount of space to the subject, and must close with a few necessary
particulars. For the convenience of those who may need the facts, we
tabulate the rates of toll, carriage hire, etc., the latter being the
rate fixed by law as permissible. It may be well to add, however, that
most of the drivers are willing to make a special rate, considerably
lower than those given, and, as previously remarked, this should be
expressly agreed upon before starting out, including an understanding as
to the payment of the tolls and gate fees.


RATES OF TOLL

  Goat Island                         $ .50
  Cave of the Winds                    1.00
  Prospect Park                         .25
  Inclined Railway                      .25
  Shadow of the Rock                   1.00
  New Suspension Bridge                 .25
  Ferry                                 .25
  Behind Sheet of Water (Table Rock)   1.00
  Burning Spring                        .50
  Railway Bridge, over and back         .50
  Whirlpool Rapids                      .50
  Whirlpool                             .50


RATES OF FARE ALLOWED BY LAW,

FOR CARRIAGE HIRE WHERE NO EXPRESS CONTRACT IS MADE THEREFOR.

  For carrying one passenger and ordinary baggage from one place to
  another in the village, 50 cents.

  Each additional passenger and ordinary baggage, 25 cents.

  For carrying one passenger and ordinary baggage from any point in this
  village to any point in the village of Suspension Bridge, 1 dollar.

  Each additional passenger and ordinary baggage, 50 cents.

  Each additional piece of baggage other than ordinary baggage, 12
  cents.

  Children under 3 years of age, free.

  Over 3 years and under 14 years, half price.

  Ordinary baggage is defined to be 1 trunk and 1 bag, hat or band-box,
  or other small parcel.

  For carrying one or more passengers, in the same carriage, from any
  point in this village to any point within 5 miles of the limits of the
  village, at the rate of $1.50 for each hour occupied, except that in
  every instance where such carriage shall be drawn by a single horse,
  the fare therefor shall be at the rate of 1 dollar for each hour
  occupied.

  HOTELS.--Although a little out of its natural connection, this subject
  seems to demand at least a paragraph. The constant influx of visitors,
  especially during the summer months has created a demand for hotel
  accommodations at Niagara, which has been met in the erection of such
  houses as the Cataract, International, Spencer, Niagara, Kaltenbach,
  Goat Island, and a multitude of others, of various grades of
  excellence, both at the Falls and Suspension Bridge.



[Illustration: THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER.]


The route to the sea _via_ the St. Lawrence River having become a great
favorite with summer tourists, we give in this connection a description
of some of its principal attractions. The majestic river, whose channel
is the outlet for all the waters of the great chain of inland seas, runs
in a general northeasterly direction, from Lake Ontario to the Gulf of
St. Lawrence, through a country full of objects of interest to the
traveler and sight-seer, and by its navigability becomes the medium by
which they may be reached.

Leaving Niagara Falls in the evening, sleeping cars are run, _via_ New
York Central, Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg, and Utica & Black River
Railroads, to Clayton, arriving next morning in time to connect with the
palace day steamers of the ST. LAWRENCE STEAMBOAT COMPANY. Should the
tourist prefer to make the trip by daylight, he will find the scenery
pleasant and attractive. He will thus reach Clayton in the evening, and
remain until morning, proceeding as above.

The pleasures of a trip down the St. Lawrence, among the celebrated
Thousand Islands, through the foaming rapids, and past the charming
villages which lie along the shore, have been the theme of extravagant
praise from many a summer tourist, and the constantly increasing
popularity of this route is ample evidence that they do not soon grow
old. You may usually find among the passengers many who have made the
trip several seasons in succession, and the summer resorts of the St.
Lawrence are visited by the same tourists year after year, so many and
varied are the charms presented.

[Illustration: STEAMER ROTHESAY, “AMERICAN LINE.”]


LAKE OF THE THOUSAND ISLANDS.

CLAYTON, the steamboat landing of the AMERICAN LINE, is upon the shore
of the river where it broadens out among the group of islands of nearly
double the number indicated by the name. The trip therefore commences
in the midst of beautiful scenery, to continue in a succession of
delights and surprises, until its close at the wharf in Montreal. One
and a half miles from Clayton is ROUND ISLAND PARK, occupying the island
from which it takes its name. A lovelier spot is not to be found. An
elegant hotel, numerous cottages, pleasant groves, splendid drives, and
a beautiful water-front, are among the features that contribute to its
attractiveness, and give promise of making it the resort _par
excellence_ among the island gems of this beautiful river. The
association controlling the Park, while supposed to be denominational,
is by no means sectarian, and the largest freedom is allowed the
occupants, untrammeled by the claims or caprices of fashion, such as
sometimes destroy all liberty at fashionable resorts.

[Illustration]


THE LUXURY OF CAMP-LIFE

Is here enjoyed to its fullest extent. The beautiful groves along the
shores of the island, reached by boat or the inland paths and drives,
afford delightful camping-places, while the ready communication with the
“haunts of civilization” places the conveniences, and even luxuries for
those who desire them, within easy reach. Round Island is about a mile
in length, and eight hundred to twelve hundred feet wide. Its shape is
not correctly indicated by its name, it being more nearly oval than
round.

[Illustration: ROUND ISLAND HOUSE.]

In summing up the attractions of the island, we can do no better than to
employ the language of one of its summer residents, who writes as
follows:--

What Round Island has NOT: Marshes, mosquitoes, malaria, drinking
saloons, accumulated refuse, impure air, impure water.

What Round Island has: The purest and most invigorating air, the
clearest and most delicious water, the pleasantest drives, inviting
walks, beautiful views, unparalleled scenery, facilities for amusement,
accommodations for rest, cleanliness, healthfulness, between thirty and
forty cottages, an elegant hotel, fifty-five acres of lawn, a two-mile
driving track, bathing houses, and every convenience to make cottage or
hotel life charming.


THOUSAND ISLAND PARK.

More widely known, perhaps, than any of the other St. Lawrence resorts,
is the great camp-meeting park of the Methodist denomination bearing the
above title. It is located at the upper end of Wells Island, and has
rapidly grown to large proportions, combining, as it does, the
religious, social and pleasure-seeking elements, often united in the
same individuals. It has a large village of permanent cottages, which
is greatly increased in the summer by the “cotton houses” of those who
come for a brief stay, either in attendance upon the religious services
or for a short respite from business in camp life. It has a post-office,
public buildings, stores, and the conveniences of town life, together
with boat houses, landings, dock room, etc., and being in the main
channel of the river, it is readily accessible to visitors, as the boats
make it one of their important landings.


WESTMINSTER PARK.

The lower portion of Wells Island is also under the control of a
religious association, being owned by a regularly chartered society
called the Westminster Park Association. With the usual conservatism of
people of the “orthodox” faith, there is nothing of the camp-meeting
order here, although services are held in Bethune chapel every Sunday
during the season. The Park comprises about five hundred acres,
occupying an irregular neck of upland, rising in some places to a
commanding height, overlooking the scene for miles in extent. Tasteful
cottages occupy the building lots into which a large portion of the Park
has been divided. An elegant hotel, called the WESTMINSTER, under
excellent management, is kept in first-class style, at from two to three
dollars per day. Directly opposite from this park, on the New York
shore, is


ALEXANDRIA BAY,

Sometimes called the “Saratoga of the St. Lawrence.” As a summer resort,
it is fairly entitled to the name, being one of the most popular
watering places in America. Its summer hotels are among the most
commodious and attractive to be found anywhere, while private cottages
and villas have sprung up on every available site, both on the shore,
and on all the islands near. The facilities for fishing and boating,
combined with the pure and invigorating atmosphere, and the beautiful
scenery, attract to the place a tide of summer visitors, ever increasing
in volume with each succeeding year. Alexandria Bay is only twelve miles
from Clayton, and the approach, by boat, is charming, as the pretty
cottages come in view all along the shore, succeeded by the imposing
hotel fronts as the harbor is neared. Among the handsome villas, that of
the late Dr. J. G. Holland. “Bonnie Castle,” is a conspicuous object,
occupying a promontory which projects just below the landing.


THE THOUSAND ISLAND HOUSE,

A view of which we herewith present, is one of the finest hotels, both
in point of its general arrangements and the natural advantages afforded
by its location, to be found at any pleasure resort on the river. It is
built on the solid rock, near the steamboat landing, and its windows
command an extensive prospect, both up and down the river and across the
Bay to Westminster Park. The view is still further expanded by
ascending the lofty tower which adorns the center of the structure,
rising 160 feet above the foundation, and surmounted with a balcony,
affording an outlook of surpassing loveliness and grandeur. The hotel is
the largest on the river, and will accommodate 700 guests.

[Illustration: THOUSAND ISLAND HOUSE, ALEXANDRIA BAY.]

Leaving Alexandria Bay, we are now in the midst of the most fashionable
part of the Thousand Island group. The residences are elegant in style
of architecture and general appointments, some of them being very
costly, their wealthy proprietors having lavished expenditure upon them
with unstinted hand. The captain will call many of them by name, the
islands having received their titles mostly from their present owners
and occupants, and are somewhat fanciful and often appropriate. For
instance “Fairy Land” seems a fitting abode for elfin sprites, although
equally attractive to humanity. Arcadia, Sport Island, Summerland,
Manhattan, Imperial, Welcome, Cozy, Nobby, and a host of other
cognomens, have been bestowed upon the charming spots where taste,
elegance, and refinement are exhibited, as art has united with nature in
making them veritable summer paradises, where, let us hope, no serpent’s
trail may mar the happiness of their possessors.

The last of the Thousand Islands are called the Three Sisters, from
their resemblance and proximity to each other. They are nearly opposite
Brockville on the Canada shore and Morristown on the New York side, the
two towns being directly opposite each other, the former the terminus of
the Canadian Pacific Railway, and the latter of the Utica & Black River
Railroad, needing only a bridge, with these islands as resting places
for the abutments, to unite the two roads in one continuous line.
Brockville, named in honor of General Brock, is called the “Queen City
of the St. Lawrence,” and there is something regal in its appearance to
warrant the bestowment of the title. Its glittering towers and church
spires give an appearance of splendor, which the tourist will observe as
a peculiarity of the Canadian cities to be seen in his trip, the metal
with which they are covered retaining its brightness in a remarkable
degree, owing to the purity and dryness of the atmosphere.


OGDENSBURG AND PRESCOTT.

These two cities, like those last mentioned, are opposite each other,
and are both important points. Ogdensburg is the terminus of the Rome,
Watertown & Ogdensburg, the Utica & Black River, and Ogdensburg & Lake
Champlain Railroads, the two former coming from the West and the latter
from the East. The city lies on both sides of the Oswegatchie River, at
its junction with the St. Lawrence. On account of its beautiful foliage,
it has been appropriately entitled Maple City. Its extensive river
front, with its railroad facilities, gives it a decided advantage as a
grain port. Large elevators and warehouses for the transhipment of grain
and other freight from the lake steamers are among the important
enterprises of the place.

The direct route to the Adirondacks from Ogdensburg is _via_ the
Ogdensburg & Lake Champlain Railroad, on the line of which is also
located the recently discovered but already famous CHATEAUGAY CHASM. As
the western section of the all-rail line from Ogdensburg to Portland,
this railroad is also assuming considerable importance as a tourist
route to the White Mountains and other resorts, and will receive due
notice in a separate chapter.

Prescott, on the opposite bank of the St. Lawrence, is connected with
Ogdensburg by ferry, the boats being of sufficient capacity to transfer
cars, and making regular trips. The railroad interests of this place are
concentrated in the Grand Trunk and the St. Lawrence & Ottawa division
of the Canadian Pacific.

[Illustration: RUNNING THE RAPIDS.]

Massena Landing, where passengers destined for Massena Springs go
ashore, is soon passed, and now a perceptible increase is noticeable
in the velocity of the current. The interest among the passengers, if it
has anywhere been allowed to flag, now becomes re-awakened, as the word
goes along the line that the famous


RAPIDS OF THE ST. LAWRENCE

Will soon add zest to the journey. There are several courses of these
rapids, those we are now entering being the Gallopes, which, compared
with some of the others, are of but little interest, except as a
foretaste of what is to come. Next we enter and pass the Rapid de Plau,
and the excitement deepens as the foaming, seething waters just ahead
proclaim the approach to the famous Long Sault (pronounced _Soo_). This
is the longest of the series, being a continuous descent for nine miles,
with the current running at a speed of twenty miles an hour. A canal,
eleven miles in length, extends around this rapid, with seven locks,
facilitating the descent of such crafts as are unable to cope with the
rapids, and also permitting the return of the steamers. Four similar
canals are to be met at various places along the river.

At Dickenson’s Landing, just before entering the Long Sault, the
passengers are transferred to the “Prince Arthur,” a boat constructed
expressly for “shooting the rapids,” which steams out from the landing,
with its bow headed toward the angry waters, as if in defiance of their
power. The increasing speed, and especially the perceptible descent,
soon awaken the interest of the dullest among the passengers, and as the
boat lurches to the right or left (or, in nautical phrase, to the
starboard, or port), to escape destruction from some ledge which the
trusty pilot knows how to avoid, the excitement deepens and increases,
and the half hour required for the passage of the Long Sault is crowded
full of alternating delight, fear and exhilaration, quickening the pulse
and giving zest to the journey, not to be appreciated except by those
who experience it.

At the foot of this Rapid, the placid waters of Lake St. Francis are
entered, and the contrast between the tranquil surroundings and the
tumult and excitement just passed through brings a grateful sense of
relief, and the lovely scenery among which the boat now glides for
twenty-five miles, is all the more keenly appreciated. The call to
dinner, which is served during the passage of this lake, is a welcome
one, and the passengers are now ready to descend to the level of things
material and substantial, which they find spread in abundance in the
dining saloon.

[Illustration: “DOWN” VS. “UP”--RAPIDS AND CANAL.]

After dinner, and a quiet stroll on deck, a little more experience with
rapids is in order. Passing Coteau du Lac, we enter the Coteau Rapids,
descending quickly to the Cedars, Split Rock and Cascade Rapids. In
passing the Cedars, a peculiar sensation is experienced, as the boat
appears to settle down occasionally with great suddenness, as though
about to be submerged. This is supposed to be owing to a strong
undercurrent which exerts this influence on the boat as she passes from
one ledge of rock to another, although they are at a safe distance
below her keel. The passage of the Split Rock Rapids seems dangerous, as
indeed it would be were the pilot to forget for a moment the grave
responsibility of his trust, and fail to swerve the boat at just the
right moment to avoid some rock or ledge that threatens destruction to
the craft.

Occasionally a raft may be seen in conflict with the rushing waters,
apparently at the mercy of the current. The venturesome lumbermen
generally manage, however, to “put in an oar” to good advantage in
steering clear of the rocks, although not always successful in guiding
their frail crafts into quiet waters. An occasional wreck is the result
of these ventures, as the scattering logs in the channel attest.

[Illustration: RAFTS IN THE RAPIDS.]

The Cascades are so called from their resemblance to a series of short,
leaping falls. Passing the Cascades, we enter upon another broad expanse
of water, the river here widening into Lake St. Louis, receiving also
the waters of the Ottawa River. This lake is twelve miles long by about
six in breadth, and the ride across its quiet waters just precedes the
culminating excitement of the trip,--the daring passage of the


FAMOUS LACHINE RAPIDS.

At the head of these Rapids is the pretty little Indian village of
Lachine, and here comes aboard our Indian pilot, Baptiste by name, who
has piloted the boats through the Lachine Rapids for forty years. These
Rapids are the most perilous in all the river’s extent, on account of
the devious nature of the channel, and the dangerous rocks which lie
just enough below the surface to deceive any but the skillful navigator.
The swarthy giant who takes the wheel at this point pays little
attention to anything but the duty in hand, and that seems to demand all
his energies. Casting alternate glances at him and at the rushing waters
ahead of us, we involuntarily breathe the words of the hymn,

    “Steady, O pilot, stand firm at the wheel.”

Right in our path lies a ragged rock, which threatens us with instant
destruction; but a turn of the wheel at just the right moment sends our
good craft a little to the left of it, and the apparent danger is past.
With bated breath we watch for the next peril that looms ahead of us, to
find it, like its predecessor, vanquished by the strong arm and steady
nerve of the man to whom every inch of the channel is as familiar as a
beaten path.

Entering once more into quiet waters, we steam on our way toward
Montreal, and soon the horizon is marked with the long line of the
famous VICTORIA BRIDGE, which rises higher and higher as we approach it,
until we glide under it and are soon at the wharf of the American Line,
at the close of a day that has been filled with a succession of delights
unapproachable in a day’s experience in travel elsewhere on the American
Continent.

[Illustration: CANADIAN CARRYALL.]



[Illustration: MONTREAL AND QUEBEC.]


A tour from the West to the East which did not include a visit to the
chief cities of Canada would be indeed incomplete. Hence, in the
arrangement of summer excursions, the River St. Lawrence comprising a
part of the trip, it is both easy and natural to embrace these points of
interest.

MONTREAL is the metropolis of British North America. Its situation, both
from a scenic and commercial point of view, renders it attractive to the
tourist and prosperous as a business center. Its location is on an
island in the St. Lawrence, at the base of Mt. Royal, which gives the
city its name. The view of the city from the river, with the mountain in
the background is beautiful and impressive, and when this is
supplemented by the grand picture exhibited from the summit of the
mountain, with the river and the Victoria Bridge in the distance, the
observer is ready to exclaim, “Beautiful for situation!”

On arriving in Montreal, whether by boat or rail, the traveler is
impressed with the idea that the entire population must indulge in
riding, so numerous are the hackmen, or carters, as they are called, to
be seen at every hotel, depot and landing. Their easy one or two-horse
carriages are at your service for long or short trips, and their prices
are very reasonable, being regulated by law. The fare from point to
point within the city is twenty-five cents for one or two passengers,
and fifty cents for three or four, although the usual custom of the
driver is to charge twenty-five cents for each passenger, and collect it
if he can. If you go outside the city limits, make a bargain in advance.
In fact, there is safety in giving this rule a general application
wherever you need the services of a hackman, and thereby always avoiding
contention in settlement.

[Illustration: CITY OF MONTREAL, FROM THE RIVER.]


THE HOTELS

Of Montreal are excellent, comprising, among the most elegant, the
Ottawa, Windsor, and St. Lawrence Hall. The Albion Hotel has for many
years been a great favorite with American tourists, both from the
_personnel_ of its management and the reasonableness of its charges. The
Montreal House, the American, the Richelieu, and a host of other
claimants for patronage, all have their special merits, and are
well-spoken of by their visitors.

Sight-seeing, in the city and vicinity, is best accomplished by the
employment of a “carter,” who is usually well posted on all the points
of interest, and can often entertain his party with sundry legends in
connection with them. The most delightful drive, for a single trip, is
the


RIDE AROUND MOUNT ROYAL,

Which is about nine miles in extent, over splendid macadamized roads,
through a section of country, in the suburbs, devoted to gardening, and
under a high state of cultivation. The entire island, about thirty miles
long by ten wide, is noted for its fertility, and is called the Garden
of Canada. The trip should also include a drive to the summit of the
mountain, which is reached by a carriage road of easy ascent, and which
is being converted into a magnificent park, from which an extensive view
of the city and surrounding country can be obtained. The Mount Royal
Cemetery, the Grey Nunnery, and the Hotel Dieu are also to be seen in
this drive, the latter being the largest building in the Dominion, used
for a convent, hospital, and asylum for poor children.

The Water Works, the reservoir of which is on the side of the mountain,
with the pumping station on the banks of the St. Lawrence, above the
city, are well worthy of a visit. The reservoir was excavated out of the
solid rock, and is 206 feet above the level of the river. The cost of
the works, with the machinery, was over $2,000,000. The immense pressure
obtained from such an elevated reservoir, enables the fire department to
dispense entirely with engines, using hose carriages, and a large
conflagration in the city is almost an impossibility.

The public buildings of the city are substantial and elegant, many of
them conspicuous for their superior architectural design, and the
completeness of their appointments. The Court House, Post Office,
Merchants’ Exchange, several bank buildings, the Custom House, McGill
College, Bonsecours Market, and a list that might be indefinitely
extended, comprise the notable structures that will attract attention as
you ride through the business thoroughfares of the city.

[Illustration: MONTREAL, FROM MOUNT ROYAL PARK.]

The churches are among the finest to be found in America. Notre Dame,
with its twin towers, conspicuous from every point of view, is the most
capacious of any of the finished structures, although the Cathedral, now
in process of erection, and modeled after St. Peter’s at Rome, is to
be second only to this famous edifice in point of size and elegance. The
towers are massive and lofty, being 220 feet in height. The right-hand
tower may be ascended, and the view to be had well rewards the effort of
climbing. It contains the big bell, weighing nearly 30,000 pounds. The
other tower contains a chime of bells. The Church of the Gesu is noted
for the beauty of its frescoes and paintings. The English Cathedral, and
several Protestant churches, are also fine edifices.

Lachine Canal, leading from above the rapids of that name, is a fine
specimen of engineering, and not only serves to facilitate navigation,
but furnishes almost unlimited water power for the extensive
manufacturing enterprises along its banks.

Victoria Bridge, which crosses the river from the Southern shore, is a
massive and costly structure. One of the best views of it is that to be
had in coming down the river, the boat passing under the central span.
It is tubular in shape, built of iron, and rests upon twenty-four piers
of solid masonry, the central span being 330 feet, and the remaining
ones 242 feet. It cost $6,300,000, is the property of the Grand Trunk
Railway Company, and is used exclusively for railway purposes.

The shipping interests of Montreal are among the most important sources
of the city’s prosperity. At the head of ocean navigation, it is the
American terminus of a number of trans-Atlantic steamship lines, and the
railway and river and lake connections from the West, combined with its
facilities for ocean commerce, render it very prominent as a port for
transhipment. Its wharves are not excelled in America, being constructed
of solid limestone; and its harbor is deep and capacious.

The Champ de Mars, a spacious parade ground, where three thousand troops
may be reviewed at once; Viger Square, near by, with gardens,
conservatories, fountains, etc.; Victoria Square, Jacques Cartier
Square, and several other smaller squares, constitute the parks of the
city, in addition to the Mount Royal Park. Improve his time as he may,
the visitor will not soon exhaust the attractions of this beautiful
city, and will find many more, which we have not space even to mention,
as we regretfully leave the pleasant spot, and resume our journey, to
the


ANCIENT CITY OF QUEBEC.

The route from Montreal may be chosen from three: The North Shore
Railway, the Grand Trunk Railway, and the Richelieu & Ontario Steamship
Line _via_ the St. Lawrence. The latter is a favorite, and unless the
tourist is surfeited with steamboat riding, will be the one generally
chosen. It is a night trip, and therefore less wearisome than a ride by
rail, as the comfortable state rooms of the boat are preferable to the
berths of a sleeping-car.

Leaving Montreal at early evening, passing the fort on the island
directly against the city, and onward past the mouth of the Ottawa River
below the city, the first stop is at the town of Sorel, or William
Henry, at the confluence of Sorel or Richelieu River, forty-five miles
from Montreal. Five miles farther on, the river expands into a lake
about twenty-five miles in length by nine in width, and known as Lake
St. Peter. Next we come to the ancient city of Three Rivers, taking its
name from the fact that the St. Maurice River, which here flows into the
St. Lawrence, is divided by islands into three channels.

[Illustration: CITY OF QUEBEC, FROM THE RIVER.]

The view of Quebec, as approached from the river, is singularly
impressive. Unlike any other city on the American continent, its
situation and surroundings make it an object of striking interest. The
fortifications, with their towers and battlements, frown upon you from
the Plains of Abraham and from the lower town, and there surrounds the
place an air of mediævalism at once novel and attractive.

It is one of the oldest cities in America, as well as one of the most
interesting. It was founded in 1608, and its history is replete with
events of tremendous importance. The scene of many a battle and of
untold carnage, the crowning event of all was the memorable engagement
which transferred half a continent from France to Britain, and
immortalized the names of both commanders, the victor and the
vanquished.

[Illustration: CITY AND HARBOR -OF- QUEBEC, FROM THE CITADEL.]

The city consists of two divisions, known as the upper and the lower
town. The upper town includes within its limits the Citadel of Cape
Diamond, which covers the entire summit of the promontory, embracing an
area of more than forty acres. It rises to the height of 345 feet above
the river, and from its commanding position and the strength of the
fortification, has been not inaptly entitled the “Gibraltar of America.”

The shape of the city is triangular, the St. Lawrence and St. Charles
rivers forming the two sides, with the Plains of Abraham for the base.
The river fronts are defended by a continuous wall on the very brow of
the cliff, with flanking towers and bastions, loopholed for musketry and
pierced for cannon. On the west side, a heavy triple wall, with trenches
between, formerly guarded that approach, but much of it is now
demolished. Between the old town and the outside world, the wall was
formerly pierced with frowning gateways, five in number; but these have
been gradually demolished, in response to the increasing demand for more
free communication, and on the occasion of the writer’s last visit to
the city, the old Saint John’s gate was being entirely removed. We
present views of these gateways, from which the fortified aspect of the
town before their demolition may be readily inferred.

[Illustration: CAPE DIAMOND.]

The nationality of the inhabitants is strongly French, and the visitor
from the States can easily fancy himself in a city in France, so
decidedly un-American are all his surroundings. The quaint houses, the
steep and tortuous streets, especially of the oldest portions of the
city, and the almost universal use of the French language in the
ordinary channels of trade, require no stretch of the imagination to
practically transport one to the old world, and give a glimpse, as it
were, of a foreign country.

[Illustration: WOLFE’S OLD MONUMENT.]

[Illustration: WOLFE’S NEW MONUMENT.]

The view from the Citadel, on account of its elevation, is surpassingly
grand and comprehensive. The majestic St. Lawrence, alive with sailing
craft of every size and kind, stretches before the vision in both
directions, seeming like a band of glistening metal, beautifying the
scene and giving animation to the picture. Directly below lie the
crooked streets of the lower town, teeming with animation, while its
busy population so far beneath, seem like pigmies, and you look upon the
glistening roofs of the houses and down the very throats of the
chimneys, into which it would seem an easy matter to toss a pebble.

Looking to the westward, the Plains of Abraham are spread out before
you, together with the bluffs scaled by Wolfe and his brave soldiers in
the preparation for the assault that ended in a victory, but cost the
lives of both commanders. The spot where Wolfe fell is marked by a
handsome monument. It was erected in 1849, but is still called the “new
monument” in distinction from the simple monolith which previously
occupied its site, an illustration of which is given on the preceding
page. The new monument bears the simple but eloquent inscription, “Here
died Wolfe, victorious.” Directly across the river is the settlement of
Point Levi, and down the stream the beautiful Isle of Orleans may be
seen. This pleasant resort may be reached by ferry from the city, and it
affords delightful drives, giving views of the Falls of Montmorenci, the
Laurentian Mountains, and other objects of interest.

Chaudiere Falls, nine miles above Quebec, on the river of the same name,
are 130 feet high and 400 feet wide. The Falls and Indian village of
Lorette, seven miles from Quebec, are points to which excursions may be
profitably made, either by carriage or the North Shore Railway.

Other points of interest in and about Quebec demand at least a brief
mention. The Dufferin Terrace, which will be included in the visit to
the Plains of Abraham, as will also the Governor’s Garden, where the
monument to Wolfe and Montcalm will be seen; the French Cathedral; the
Laval Seminary, in the chapel of which are some very fine paintings; the
English Cathedral, near by; the Ursuline Convent; the public buildings
in the lower town, and others which the driver will point out to you,
are of sufficient interest to enliven a visit of several days duration,
or they may be hurriedly inspected in a “flying trip.”

[Illustration: PALACE GATE, QUEBEC.]

[Illustration: ST. LOUIS GATE, QUEBEC.]

[Illustration: FRENCH CANADIAN HOME.]


THE FALLS OF MONTMORENCI

Are among the most interesting of the objects which secure the visits of
tourists to Quebec, both on account of their own attractiveness and the
pleasant drive by which they are reached. The “carters” of Quebec are as
numerous as those of Montreal, and the roads around the city and in the
country adjacent are among the finest to be found anywhere. Securing
your driver, you leave the city by one of the gates, and, crossing the
St. Charles River, are soon in the suburbs, passing here and there a
house or villa of modern style, but speedily coming to the realm of the
ancient; the road leading through quaint old hamlets, the cottages with
their picturesque dormer windows, the thatched-roofed outbuildings, and
the peasant-like appearance of the people, combined with the universal
employment of the French language, strengthen the fancy for the time
being that America must be far away, and that the rural districts of
France or Switzerland are the scenes through which your trip is made.
Children run beside the carriage, asking alms or offering flowers, while
the women and older girls are at work in the fields, or spinning with
their rude wheels in the open doorways or on the porches of the little
houses. The antiquated implements of agriculture, the rude carts by the
roadside, and the rustic crosses by the way, at which some devout
pilgrim, perchance, is tarrying to breathe a _Pater Noster_, all tend
to complete the illusion of a remoter age or more distant clime than the
few hours’ ride from bustling, modern, Yankee civilization.

[Illustration: FALLS OF MONTMORENCI.]

The ride of eight miles all too quickly brings you to the River
Montmorenci, and here you gaze upon historic ground, it being the scene
of the battle of Montmorenci which immediately preceded Wolfe’s final
victory at Quebec. Leaving your carriage, and paying a small fee for the
privilege of crossing private grounds, you descend the bank of the river
to look up at the fall from below. The river here pours over the cliff
into the St. Lawrence, broadening at the edge to about 50 feet, and
falling 250, in a sheeny vail, half water, half spray, not sublime, nor
even grand, but exquisitely beautiful.

The towers on either side of the river still mark the spot where,
several years ago, a suspension bridge was erected, but which, through
some defect, gave way as a laborer and his family were crossing in a
cart, precipitating them into the gulf below.

Returning to Quebec, the views of the city are enlivened by the peculiar
feature of glistening towers and roofs, so noticeable in connection with
many Canadian cities. The sunlight, glancing from the metal-covered
roofs, spires, and dormer windows, which, owing to the tortuous windings
of the streets, are set at every conceivable angle, produces a brilliant
and sparkling effect.

If you are ever tempted to indulge in sentiment, the words of the poet,
used to describe the Celestial city, may come into mind:--

    “There is the city in splendor sublime;
    See how its towers and battlements shine.”


THE SAGUENAY RIVER.

This is the largest affluent of the St. Lawrence, which it joins about
120 miles below Quebec. The scenery of the Saguenay is strikingly grand
and romantic, and unlike anything else east of the Rocky Mountains. It
is usually visited by boat, and the trip down the St. Lawrence to
Tadousac, at the junction of the two streams, and up the Saguenay among
its bold, wild scenery, should not be omitted, even at the expense of
slighting some other point of interest lying in the highways of
fashionable travel.

Leaving Quebec by steamer, you pass through some remarkably fine
scenery, in which the majestic St. Lawrence abounds, the river being in
some places thirty miles in width, and dotted with a multitude of
islands, abounding in game. The Falls of St. Anne are on the river of
that name, which enters the St. Lawrence off the lower end of Orleans
Island through a bold ravine. The quarantine station on Grosse Isle is
passed, and is associated with sad memories of the famine in Ireland. It
received twenty thousand plague-stricken emigrants, of whom six thousand
now lie in a single grave, marked by a stone monument.

Ninety miles below Quebec is the fashionable watering place known as
Murray Bay. The river is here twenty miles wide, and the tides have a
range of twenty feet in height. On the south shore of the river, still
further down, is Riviere du Loup, a place of some importance, and six
miles below it is Cacouna, already quite famous as a pleasure resort,
and yearly increasing in popularity. Across the river from Cacouna is
Tadousac, at the mouth of the far-famed Saguenay, formerly a place of
some commercial importance as a post of the Hudson Bay Company, and one
of the first towns on the St. Lawrence fortified by the French. It has a
good hotel, near which is a little church over 250 years old.

[Illustration: TADOUSAC, AT MOUTH OF SAGUENAY RIVER.]

The Saguenay River is remarkable, not only for its great depth, but also
for the marvelous height of its banks. It seems to flow through a rift
in the Laurentian Mountains, which appear to be cleft, as it were, to
the very foundations, the height of the cliffs rising from the edge of
the river being equaled only by the depth to which they descend below
the surface. The source of the river is 130 miles from its junction with
the St. Lawrence, in Lake St. John, which is fed by eleven rivers,
draining an immense watershed, the great volume resultant pouring
through this remarkable gorge, in many places unfathomable. At St.
John’s Bay, 27 miles above Tadousac, the water is one mile and a half in
depth, and but little less at Eternity Bay, six miles beyond. At the
latter place, the wonderful capes, Trinity and Eternity, like giant
sentinels guard the entrance, rising 1,500 and 1,900 feet, respectively,
above the water.

Ha-Ha Bay is sixty miles above Tadousac, and is nine miles long by six
wide. It has also been named Grand Bay. The first-named title is said to
have come from the exclamations of delight which sprung from the lips of
the navigators of the river on its discovery; and in contrast with the
gloomy and forbidding aspect of the lower portions of the river, it
would seem that such an outburst might be perfectly natural. The
mountains around Ha-Ha Bay abound in whortleberries, or blueberries, as
they are here called, and a very important industry with the natives is
the gathering and shipment to market of the bountiful harvest thus
kindly furnished by nature, the picking season extending from the middle
of July until the falling of the snow, and the supply being
inexhaustible.

[Illustration: HA-HA BAY, SAGUENAY RIVER.]

[Illustration: CAPES ETERNITY AND TRINITY.]

[Illustration: INDIAN CURIOSITY SELLER.]

Chicoutimi, a few miles beyond, is at the head of navigation, the river
being obstructed above this point by rapids and falls. Lumbering is one
of its important industries, the immense forests of the vicinity being
as yet almost in their virgin state, and the harbor accessible to the
largest vessels, thus giving it natural facilities of great value.

The fishing in the Saguenay River and its tributaries is one of the
chief attractions to the sportsman. Salmon abound, and the quality of
the fish taken from such deep, cold water can readily be inferred by the
disciples of Walton. Game also abounds in the forests, some specimens
being well worthy of the skill and nerve of the trained hunter.

A student of character will find an interesting subject in the person of
the Canadian Indian, to be met in various localities in Canada.
Combining with his native craft the shrewdness of a Connecticut Yankee,
he will often appear in the role of a vender of curiosities, in which
“taking” attitude our artist presents him.

In closing our notes on the Saguenay, we feel that but faint justice can
be done to its wonderful attractions. It has been tersely described by a
writer as a “region of primeval grandeur, where art has done nothing and
nature everything; where, at a single bound, civilization is left behind
and nature stands in unadorned majesty; where Alps on Alps arise; where,
over unfathomable depths, through mountain gorges, the steamer ploughs
the dark flood on which no sign of animal life appears.” A better
summing up of its peculiar features, in so few words, could not be
written, and the tourist who visits the scenes we have briefly described
will indulge in no regrets, unless it be that want of time to do justice
to the trip gives only hurried glances where hours and days might be
enjoyed in realizing the sublime grandeur of the surroundings.



_Ogdensburg to Portland._


The route by the “all-rail” line from the St. Lawrence at Ogdensburg to
the ocean at Portland, presents many attractions to the pleasure
tourist, which we deem worthy of special mention in this connection. As
an avenue of approach to the Adirondacks, Chateaugay Chasm, the Green
Mountains of Vermont, and the White Mountains of New Hampshire, it
offers a combination of desirable routes for summer travel. Indeed, the
entire line extends through a succession of lake, river, and mountain
scenery, of charming beauty and variety.

THE ADIRONDACKS are best reached by way of MALONE, a station on the
Ogdensburg & Lake Champlain Railroad, about sixty miles from Ogdensburg.
From here an excellent stage line takes the tourist to the Adirondack
Wilderness, by way of Ayer’s, Loon Lake, Meacham Lake, and St. Regis,
the latter being the location of “Paul Smith’s” famous hostelry.
CHATEAUGAY, a station twelve miles east of Malone, is another gateway to
the famous resort, the stages going _via_ the Chateaugay Lakes.

The “Adirondack District” is a term applied to a tract of country having
for its general boundaries the St. Lawrence River on the north, Lakes
Champlain and George on the east, the Mohawk River on the south, and the
Black River on the west. The encroachments of civilization have so
trenched upon these boundaries, that the “Wilderness,” so called,
comprises only the central, unsettled and uncultivated portion of this
tract, almost in its primeval state, with a border of settled country on
all sides. The limits of this work forbid an extended description of
this region, which as yet is only partially explored. Indeed, one of its
chief delights consists in the new discoveries that the venturesome
tourist may make in his search for the game which abounds in its
forests, or the fish which teem in its waters.

The following, from the report of the Superintendent of the Adirondack
Survey, gives a good idea of the character of some portions of this
wilderness:--

“In these remote sections, tilled with rugged mountains, where unnamed
waterfalls pour in snowy tresses from the dark, overhanging cliffs, the
horse can find no footing, and the adventurous trapper or explorer must
carry upon his back his blankets and a heavy stock of food. His rifle,
which affords protection against wild beasts, at times replenishes his
well-husbanded provisions, and his axe aids him in constructing from
bark or bough, some temporary shelter from storm, or hews into logs the
huge trees which form the fierce, roaring, comfortable fire of the camp.
Yet, though the woodman may pass his lifetime in some section of the
wilderness, it is still a mystery to him. * * It is a peculiar region;
for though the geographical center of the wilderness may be readily and
easily reached in the light, canoe-like boats of the guides, by lakes
and rivers, which form a labyrinth of passages for boats, the core, or
rather cores of this wilderness extend on either hand from these broad
avenues of water, and, in their interior, spots remain to-day as
untrodden by man, and as unknown and wild, as when the Indian paddled
his birchen boat upon those streams and lakes. Amid these mountain
solitudes are places where, in all probability, the foot of man never
trod; and here the panther has his den among the rocks, and rears his
savage kittens undisturbed, save by the growl of bear or screech of
lynx, or the hoarse croak of raven taking its share of the carcass of
slain deer.”

[Illustration: CASCADE AND BUTTRESS.]

[Illustration: GIANT GORGE--PULPIT ROCK.]

A mile and a half north of Chateaugay is the wonderful CHATEAUGAY CHASM,
a newly discovered rival of the far-famed Ausable. The waters of the
Chateaugay Lakes here find a passage on their way to the St. Lawrence,
through a narrow gorge, walled in by sandstone cliffs, the river in one
place making a descent of fifty feet in a beautiful cascade. Several of
the more noticeable features of this wonderful chasm are presented in
our illustrations. The “Cascade and Buttress” exhibits an appearance of
constructive design, as layer upon layer of sandstone rock forms a
terraced buttress, resembling some ancient ruin. “Giant Gorge” is a
narrow defile, with frowning walls, having the romantic and interesting
feature of a cavern, called “Vulcan’s Cave,” with an entrance in the
side of the rock, sixty feet above the river, and one hundred and twenty
feet below the top of the cliff. It was first explored by means of
spliced ladders, but is now reached by an enclosed stairway. It is about
thirty feet square, and presents an interesting study for the
geologist. The cave was doubtless hollowed out of the sandstone by the
action of water which trickled down through the ledge above in tiny
streams, wearing away the softer stone by slow degrees, and leaving the
masses of harder deposit in a variety of singular and grotesque shapes.
A series of architectural pillars, supporting gothic arches or miniature
dormer windows, may be seen on the one hand, and at certain angles, odd
and fantastic figures, some of them half human in appearance, present
themselves, while here and there a block of stone appears like the
unfinished work of the sculptor.

[Illustration: SPARTAN PASS--RAINBOW FALLS.]

“Spartan Pass” and “Rainbow Basin and Falls” are peculiarly interesting,
the water descending to the basin over a succession of rocky steps,
nearly a hundred in number, coming to a rest in the “basin,” only to
dash on again, in ever-changing forms and merry cadence, in their race
through the gorge, to the St. Lawrence. “Pioneer Crossing” receives its
name from the fact that in early times a bridge spanned the chasm, on
what was then the great highway of the wilderness. On the north side of
this crossing a huge rock affords an extensive view of the gorge, from
which fact it has been named Point Lookout. In other parts of the Chasm,
grottoes, arches, columns, etc., afford subjects of study for the
curious, and of admiration for the lovers of the odd and fantastic in
nature. A fine hotel has been erected near the entrance to the chasm,
from the cupola of which splendid views may be had of the scenery.
Coaches connect with trains at Chateaugay.

[Illustration: PIONEER CROSSING--POINT LOOKOUT.]

At Rouse’s Point, the terminus of the O. & L. C. R. R., connection is
made with the Delaware & Hudson Canal Co. Railroad for Lake George,
Saratoga, Troy, Albany, and New York, and with the Central Vermont for
St. Albans, Worcester, Providence and Boston. Continuing our journey
toward Portland, we here traverse a small portion of the Central Vermont
Railroad to Swanton, where connection is made with the


ST. JOHNSBURY & LAKE CHAMPLAIN RAILROAD,

The next link in the line under consideration. The route from Rouse’s
Point, _via_ Lake Champlain, is exceedingly pleasant, the scenery being
that of the lovely lake, and the Green Mountains of Vermont. SHELDON
SPRINGS are on the line of this road, and it is also a direct route to
MOUNT MANSFIELD. Both these localities have acquired no little celebrity
as summer resorts.

At Morrisville, connection is made for Mount Mansfield by stage line,
and such as wish to visit the locality will find an excellent stopping
place at Mt. Mansfield House. The mountain is in the town of Stowe,
about twenty miles northeast of Montpelier, and its height is 4,359 feet
above the level of the sea.

The Green Mountains of Vermont are a portion of the great Appalachian
range, extending almost continuously from near the St. Lawrence River,
in Canada, through the entire length of Vermont, across the western part
of Massachusetts and the middle Atlantic States, to the northern part of
Alabama. The White Mountains of New Hampshire, and the Adirondacks and
Catskills of New York are regarded as outlying spurs of this chain. This
range is remarkable for the uniformity of outline which characterizes
the different peaks, particularly of their summits, the ridges extending
in the same general direction, sometimes hardly diverging from a
straight line for a distance of fifty or sixty miles. Where the mountain
chains are parallel, the ridges are also in parallel lines, preserving
their general direction, and, to a wonderful extent, a uniformity of
distance between them. When one curves round in a new direction, all
curve with it.

These general peculiarities are less marked in the mountains of Vermont
than in the more southerly portions of the same chain. In fact, the
peculiar characteristics of the range, as a whole, are less marked at
both its northern and southern extremities, the termination at either
end not being well defined, as the mountains sink away and are lost in
the hilly country that succeeds to them.

The Green Mountain peaks are also less bold and abrupt than those of the
White Mountains, being covered mostly with verdure to their very
summits, and presenting less of sharp or ragged outline in their general
conformation. To many visitors, this feature is pleasing and agreeable,
and a large class of summer tourists spend a portion or all of the
season in the vicinity of the “beautiful hills” of the “Green Mountain
State.”

At St. Johnsbury the line intersects the Passumpsic Railroad, and a
description of the route from this point will be given in the following
chapter, in connection with the trip from Quebec and Montreal.



[Illustration: The White Mountains.]


The route from the West to the seaboard _via_ Montreal and Quebec, as
arranged over recently completed lines of travel, naturally extends
through the charming region of the celebrated White Hills of New
Hampshire. From Montreal, or any point beyond, this popular resort is
easy of access by several routes, all of them possessing some special
attraction to invite the tourist to give them a trial. From Quebec, the
tourist may return to Montreal, by boat or rail, or may proceed directly
to the mountains by the QUEBEC CENTRAL RAILWAY to Sherbrooke, thence
_via_ the Passumpsic Railroad to St. Johnsbury, Bethlehem and Fabyans,
in the very heart of the White Mountain region.

If the trip be made by way of Montreal, the mountains may be reached
_via_ the Grand Trunk, the Southeastern, or the Central Vermont. The
route by the Grand Trunk, is by way of Gorham, and the eastern side of
the mountains. By the Southeastern, the line is to Newport and St.
Johnsbury. The Central Vermont line offers two routes; one to
Montpelier, there connecting with the Montpelier & Wells River Railroad,
or by way of Swanton, thence by the Portland and Ogdensburg line to St.
Johnsbury, which thus seems to be made the focus of all the various
lines having the same general direction, and leading to the mountain
region.

At NEWPORT, reached by the Southeastern from Montreal, or the Quebec
Central from Quebec, the celebrated Lake Memphremagog is the chief
attraction, and the dining station is at the splendid hotel bearing the
same name as the lake. It is a popular summer resort, and the steamer on
the lake makes frequent trips for the accommodation of tourists. Several
mountains, comprising Jay Peak, Owl’s Head, Mount Oxford, Mount
Elephantis and the Willoughby Mountains are among the attractions of the
vicinity.

[Illustration: WHITE MOUNTAIN RANGE.]

ST. JOHNSBURY is situated on the Passumpsic River, at the intersection
of the Passumpsic and St. Johnsbury & Lake Champlain Railroads; and in
addition to the attractiveness of its location from a scenic point of
view, it has attained much prominence as a manufacturing town, the
heaviest enterprise in that direction being the production of the
celebrated Fairbanks scales, known the world over for their excellence
and correctness. The St. Johnsbury House and Avenue Hotel are good
places of entertainment.

Eastward from St. Johnsbury the route lies over the St. Johnsbury & Lake
Champlain Railroad to Lunenburg, the western terminus of the Portland
division of the P. & O. line. From this point, a ride of an hour brings
us into the very midst of the glorious White Hills, and in full view of
the grand


PRESIDENTIAL RANGE,

Stretching before the vision in a glorious and beautiful panorama, with
the peerless WASHINGTON above them all. This approach to the mountains
affords the most comprehensive view of the principal range; and the
Westerner, who has always been accustomed to broad expanses of prairie,
with no greater elevations, perhaps, than the height of an ordinary
church steeple, will be peculiarly impressed with the grandeur of the
scene before him.

The first important station is BETHLEHEM JUNCTION, three miles from
Bethlehem village, the “paradise of hay-fever sufferers.” This lovely
hamlet enjoys the distinction of having the highest location of any town
in the United States east of the Rockies and north of the Carolinas; and
the remarkable purity of its atmosphere not only secures exemption from
the peculiar malady which drives so many to its protection, but
heightens the effect of the views to be had of the surrounding country.
Owing to its commanding position, and the remarkable clearness of the
atmosphere, the view of the mountains from “Bethlehem Street” is
confessedly the best to be had anywhere.

The village is rendered accessible to the traveler by means of a
recently constructed narrow-gauge railroad, from Bethlehem Junction to
the end of the “street.” About midway on the line of this road is the
magnificent hotel known as MAPLEWOOD, kept in superb style, and at its
terminus is the well-known SINCLAIR HOUSE, Durgin & Fox proprietors. In
addition to these palace hotels, a host of smaller ones, and a long list
of boarding-houses, furnish abiding places for the multitudes who “tarry
for a night,” or make this place their summer home.

Bethlehem is also the railroad connection for the famous FRANCONIA
NOTCH, by means of a narrow-gauge railroad, extending into the valley
and terminating near the Profile House. The attractions of this locality
are sufficiently important to demand special notice by themselves; and
we therefore keep straight on in our course, the next stop being at the
TWIN MOUNTAIN HOUSE, so named from its proximity to the “Twin
Mountains,” one of which is visible from the hotel. This house has for
many years been the summer home of Henry Ward Beecher, who addresses
large congregations of Sunday excursionists during the season.

[Illustration: SINCLAIR HOUSE, BETHLEHEM.]

Four miles further, and we stop at the WHITE MOUNTAIN HOUSE, one of the
oldest of the mountain hotels, a veritable “tavern” of the earlier days,
with less of style than its more pretentious neighbors, but with a
large stock of good cheer and hospitable care for its guests, at
moderate prices. Only a mile from the Fabyan House, the would-be guests
of the latter are sometimes compelled, from an over-taxation of its
immense capacities, to fall back on the resources of mine host
Rounsevel, who gives them the best his house affords, and bids them “be
therewith content.”


THE FABYAN HOUSE,

Six miles from the base of Mount Washington, is one of the most complete
establishments of its kind in all the mountain region, having
accommodations for five hundred guests. It is situated on a beautiful
intervale, at an elevation of more than fifteen hundred feet above sea
level, and its piazzas afford a fine view of the White Mountain range.
It is also a central point from which excursions are made to the various
resorts within easy reach by rail or carriage. The traveler may find, in
this vicinity, an opportunity to enjoy a relic of the “good old days” of
stage-coaching, which the railway has not succeeded in entirely
abolishing, although it has largely superseded the conveyance once so
popular in the mountain region.


THE ASCENT OF MOUNT WASHINGTON.

From the Fabyan House, the railroad has been extended to the base of
Mount Washington, there connecting with the wonderful elevated railway
to the summit, thus forming a continuous all-rail line to the realm
above the clouds. The six miles of road to the base of the mountain
compasses some of the steepest grades known to railroad engineering. A
powerful engine, of the six-drive-wheel construction, is required to
propel a very moderate load of passengers, and as it laboriously puffs
along the grades, the forests echo and re-echo with the sound, while the
traveler feels thankful that the iron horse, instead of flesh and blood,
is being employed in his service.

Mt. Pleasant Hotel is passed a short distance from Fabyan’s, and a short
distance from here are the WILD AMMONOOSUC FALLS, a natural curiosity
well worthy of a visit. The river descends “about fifty feet, in a
broken, irregular way, and in some places has worn curious channels in
the rocks, resembling a cauldron, in which the water seethes and boils
in its downward course, and issues laughing, singing and leaping in its
wild and merry race for the intervales below.”

[Illustration: FABYAN HOUSE, WHITE MOUNTAINS.]

THE MOUNT WASHINGTON RAILWAY is one of the wonders of modern engineering
skill. It was chartered by the Legislature of New Hampshire, in 1858,
the passage of the bill being regarded as the huge joke of the session,
one member offering to amend it by “extending it to the moon,” either
terminal being regarded as equally liable to become a fact. In spite of
obstacles, however, its construction was successfully accomplished, by
the combined ingenuity of the projector and inventor, Sylvester Marsh,
the mechanical skill of Walter Aiken, who built the engine and cars, and
the financial aid and “push” of friendly individuals and interested
railway companies. It was completed in 1869, and has carried thousands
up and down the mountain without the slightest injury to any, so
complete is the system of safety appliances in use, each independent of
the other, and any one sufficient in itself to insure complete safety.
The writer was once an eye-witness to the severest test to which it has
ever yet been subjected, caused by the breakage of one of the gear
driving wheels of the locomotive. The resultant disarrangement of the
machinery set in operation the automatic safeguards, producing the
effect of instantly holding the train to the track as firmly as though
it had been bolted to the solid rock. Indeed, it was with no little
difficulty that it was liberated, and enabled to proceed.

[Illustration: MT. WASHINGTON RAILWAY.]

The accompanying illustration gives a good idea of the operation of the
road. In addition to the ordinary rails of the common railroad, there is
a toothed rail midway between, in which there “meshes” the geared wheel
attached to the axle of the locomotive, which thus steadily _climbs_ up
the mountain by the revolution of the machinery. All the axles, both of
the engine and passenger coach, are provided with geared wheels, by
means of which the train could be instantly anchored to the track, as in
the case above cited. Each car has its own locomotive, and will carry
about fifty passengers. The seats are inclined backward, so as to be in
a good position on ascending the mountain. The car is always above the
engine, both in the ascent and descent. The latter is accomplished by
gravitation alone, the brakes being kept in requisition to hold the
train in check.

The ride up the mountain constitutes an experience never to be
forgotten. Leaving Ammonoosuc Station, as the starting point at the base
is called, the train immediately surmounts a considerable elevation
before emerging from the forest, which is soon left behind as we rise
above the “tree-line,” and reach the region of stunted shrubs, which in
turn give place to moss and lichens, and finally to rocks, bare of
vegetation, and as cheerless as it is possible to imagine. Above the
trees, the prospect broadens, as the landscape spreads out in a grand
panorama, almost illimitable, and of wonderful grandeur and beauty.
Several stops are made for water, which is taken from large tanks fed by
mountain springs, far above, and conducted down in pipes. These stopping
places have been appropriately named, according to their location, such
as Waumbek Station, Gulf Station, etc., the latter being near the
yawning chasm in the mountain-side, named the GULF OF MEXICO. Banks of
snow may frequently be seen in its recesses, even in midsummer, and a
game of snowballing is not an uncommon August recreation.

[Illustration: “GULF OF MEXICO,” MT. WASHINGTON.]

JACOB’S LADDER is a long section of trestle work, with a considerable
elevation and steep inclination, after passing which the grade
diminishes somewhat, as the road winds around the crown of the mountain.

Near the summit is a pile of rocks surmounted by a tablet, known as the
“Lizzie Bourne Monument,” marking the spot where the young lady perished
from exposure, in September, 1855; having undertaken the ascent of the
mountain in company with two male relatives, without a guide, and
becoming chilled and bewildered, she lost her way, and despairingly sank
down to die almost in sight of the summit.

Nearing the summit, the view changes, as the scenery of the eastern side
comes in view. The highlands of Maine are now the background of the
picture, with intervening valleys, lakes and rivers, while far below,
the white buildings of the Glen House dot the landscape as a mere speck
in the lovely valley in which they nestle.

The trip from base to summit occupies about an hour and a quarter, the
distance being three miles, with an average grade of 1,300 feet to the
mile, the most abrupt ascent being in the proportion of one foot in
three. An approximate idea of this grade may be had by placing a
yard-stick upon a level surface, as a table, and raising one end of it a
foot, with the other end upon the table. Then imagine a train of cars
climbing such an ascent, and you have a fair conception of the grade;
but the most vivid imagination would fail to take in the sensations
actually experienced in the journey.

[Illustration: LIZZIE BOURNE MONUMENT.]


THE MOUNT WASHINGTON SUMMIT HOUSE.

The provisions for the entertainment of guests at the summit were
formerly very limited, a few rude stone structures furnishing shelter
for such as dared brave the hardships of a night in the clouds. But now
all is changed. The capacious and comfortable building which serves the
double purpose of depot and hotel, not only provides comfortable
shelter, but a first-class table and excellent fare for about one
hundred and fifty guests. The house was opened to the public in 1873,
and has been in successful operation since, sometimes being taxed to its
utmost capacity.

[Illustration: MOUNT WASHINGTON SUMMIT HOUSE.]

The view from the summit is indescribably grand. At an altitude of 6,193
feet, or more than a mile and one-fifth above sea-level, the line of
vision bounds a circle nearly a thousand miles in circumference; and
within that circle are lakes, rivers, mountains, valleys, dark forests,
smiling villages, and in fact a variety of scenery, ever changing as the
gaze is directed to the different points of the compass. In a clear
day, the distant glimmer of the Atlantic may be seen, away to the
southeast. A little more to the south a brighter gleam reveals the
location of Lake Winnipesaukee, while the Saco valley and Chocorua
Mountain are in the nearer foreground. Turning still to the right, you
see other mountains of the range on whose highest summit you are
standing, Mount Monroe, the Twin Ponds, Mount Pleasant, Mount Franklin,
Mount Willey, the scene of the famous “slide,” and lesser elevations
beyond.

[Illustration: MOUNTS ADAMS AND MADISON.]

Westward, away in the dim distance, the horizon is broken by the Green
Mountains of Vermont, with an occasional view of the remote Adirondacks
in New York; while nearer, you see the valley of the Ammonoosuc, the
Fabyan House, Bethlehem, Mount Lafayette, and the expanse of forest
which fills the picture. To the northwest, the villages of Littleton,
Jefferson and Lancaster appear, while in the distance, to the north, the
table lands of Canada unite with the sky in bounding the horizon. To the
northeast, the eye reaches to the unbroken forests of Maine. Mount
Katahdin throws its dim outline against the sky, while in the foreground
Mounts Jefferson, Adams and Madison tower grandly up before you as a
grim body-guard to Washington. Nestled in the glen, the white hotel
buildings of the Glen House establishment are visible; while near at
hand, toward the southeast, Mount Jackson appears, and in the distance,
the Pequaket or Kiarsarge may be seen, together with Sebago Lake in
Maine.

[Illustration: WHITE MOUNTAINS, FROM JEFFERSON.]

[Illustration: CLIMBING MOUNT JEFFERSON.]


SUNRISE ON MOUNT WASHINGTON.

[Illustration: DISTANT VIEW OF MOUNT WASHINGTON.]

The grand, culminating view from this lofty point of observation is to
be had at the rising of the sun. For this incomparable prospect you must
spend a night among the clouds, and perchance more than one night, as
nature is fickle at that altitude as well as in the valleys below, and
not unfrequently “old Sol” has half a forenoon’s work before him to
dispel “the mists of the morning” before his face is visible to the
watchers on the summit. Should you be favored, however, with both a
clear sunrise and sunset in one day, as was the writer on the occasion
of his first visit, you will cherish in the chambers of memory the most
enchanting pictures of a lifetime. Sunset at sea has awakened the lyre
of many a poet, and inspired the pencil of many a painter; but neither
pen nor pencil can give an adequate picture of the beauties of a sunrise
as viewed from the summit of Mount Washington.

[Illustration: WATCHING FOR SUNRISE.]

At early dawn the inmates of the house are roused, and such as choose
arise and dress, and take their position on the platform east of the
building, to watch for the first appearance of the “golden orb of day.”
Beneath you the valleys are still in slumber, and a deep gloom is spread
over all, in sharp contrast with the light of dawn which already
illumines the mountain peaks around you. Banks of mist here and there
indicate the location of bodies of water, and possibly overhanging
clouds may partially hide some of the mountain summits from view.

[Illustration: TIP-TOP HOUSE IN WINTER.]

All eyes are turned expectantly towards the east, which is beginning to
show a faint rosy tinge, deepening every moment till it reaches a
crimson or perhaps a golden hue, a fitting couch from which the
brilliant day king is about to spring forth to enter upon his glorious
reign. Suddenly one point in the eastern horizon grows more intensely
bright than all the rest, and the disc of the sun is then discernible,
quickly increasing in proportions until the broad face of the great
luminary so dazzles the eye as to compel a withdrawal of the gaze.

Looking then into the valleys below, the effect is transcendently
beautiful. While the spectator is bathed in the full golden sunshine,
the somber shadows are just beginning to flit away, presenting in the
strongest possible manner the contrasts of light and shade; and not
until some minutes have elapsed, does the new-born day reach down into
the deepest valleys to drive forth the lingering remnants of night.

The view of the mountain peaks around, as, one after another, according
to their height, they are touched by the rays of the rising sun, is very
beautiful; and even the dullest mind can scarcely resist the
enthusiastic inspiration awakened by the scene. And then, as the sun
mounts steadily upward, giving heat as well as light with his cheering
rays, the mists below are slowly dispelled, and nature puts on her most
bewitching countenance, with her gloomy frowns banished, supplanted by
the sweetest smiles.

Such is but a faint description of a sunrise witnessed by the writer.
The picture will vary with the changing circumstances, and that which it
may be the reader’s fortune to behold, though entirely unlike it, may be
none the less beautiful and enchanting.

[Illustration: MOUNT GARFIELD.]

The old Tip-Top and Summit Houses still stand, together with the
buildings of the U. S. Signal Service, the ticket-office and station of
the Glen House stage line, with its stables, and the engine house of the
railway. The office of _Among the Clouds_, a daily paper, occupies the
old Tip-Top House; and in the Signal Service building a band of resolute
men brave the rigors of winter in the interests of science, recording
the temperature, the velocity of the wind, etc. With the thermometer at
fifty degrees below zero, and the wind blowing with a velocity of one
hundred and fifty miles an hour, it must require nerves of steel and a
hardy constitution to survive the ordeal.

The old bridle path from the Crawford House to the summit is still
employed by those who wish to make the ascent, as in the “good old
days,” but the favorite method, next to the railroad trip, is by the


GLEN HOUSE STAGE LINE.

The road is eight miles in length, and by skillful engineering has been
so built as to rise, on an average, only about one foot in eight, the
steepest place being one foot in six, and that for a short distance
only, rendering the ascent easy and comfortable. Passengers by way of
Gorham, on the Grand Trunk, reach the summit by this method, and then
have the privilege of descending by rail on the other side.

[Illustration: MOUNT WASHINGTON CARRIAGE ROAD.]

TUCKERMAN’S RAVINE, an immense seam in the side of Mount Washington, may
be explored from the summit, or by following up the stream which takes
its rise in this gorge. The chasm is filled to a great depth by the
snows of winter, which, in the process of melting, form beautiful
arches, sometimes visible till late in the summer.

Returning to the base, we are again at the Fabyan House, from which
point we may make excursions in various directions, the excellent livery
in connection furnishing carriages and trusty drivers, who will act as
guides, and give interesting information to those in their charge.

Before proceeding in our onward journey toward the sea, let us retrace
our steps for a visit to the famous FRANCONIA VALLEY.

[Illustration: PROFILE HOUSE AND ECHO LAKE. FRANCONIA NOTCH, WHITE
MOUNTAINS, N.H.]



_Franconia Notch._


From Bethlehem station, as previously mentioned, the Profile & Franconia
Notch Railroad extends to this resort, which is one of the most popular
in the White Mountain region. Its crowning attraction is the celebrated
Profile, so widely known as “THE OLD MAN OF THE MOUNTAIN.” This colossal
copy of the human face is to be seen on the southern side of Profile
Mountain, with bold and high forehead, straight nose, slightly parted
mouth, and prominent chin. From forehead to chin, the face measures some
eighty feet, and the elevation is some fifteen hundred feet above
Profile Lake, which, from its location, is sometimes called “The Old
Man’s Mirror,” and “The Old Man’s Washbowl.”

[Illustration: OLD MAN OF THE MOUNTAIN.--DISTANT VIEW.]

PROFILE HOUSE, an elegant and roomy hotel, with accommodations for five
hundred guests, is not the least attractive feature of the neighborhood,
its great popularity often filling it to overflowing, even before the
railroad made it so easy of access. Messrs. Taft & Greenleaf, the
proprietors, are among the most successful hotel managers in all the
region.

MOUNT LAFAYETTE, the highest peak of the Franconian range, has an
altitude of 5,259 feet, and the view from the summit is regarded as
second only to that from Mount Washington. The ascent is made by bridle
path from the Profile House, where horses, guides, etc., are to be found
at the service of the tourist. A building at the summit affords shelter
from inclement weather, or the severe winds which sometimes prevail at
such an elevation.

[Illustration: EAGLE CLIFF.]

EAGLE CLIFF, a huge crag, with precipitous front, towers up to the
height of fifteen hundred feet, directly in front of the hotel. A pair
of eagles made it their home for some years, until driven away by the
curiosity of explorers. A fine view of the Cliff is to be had from ECHO
LAKE, which nestles at its base, and is one of the most charming little
bodies of water to be found. The blast of a horn, or the report of a
small cannon, fired at intervals to “wake the echoes,” reverberates
against the sides of the Cliff and the rocky walls which environ the
lake, with a succession of sharp and distinct repetitions, growing
fainter and fainter, and finally dying away among the far-off cliffs,
with an effect as beautiful as it is surprising.

The Profile House stands at the gateway of the Notch, the approach being
from the north. On either side of the gorge, the Franconia range extends
in a southerly direction. Lafayette, Lincoln and Liberty on the east,
Profile. Kinsman and Pemigewasset on the west, with several lesser peaks
and spurs, the valley gradually descending to the south, and widening in
the descent, until it expands into the Valley of the Pemigewasset.

Three miles from the Profile House, a path diverges from the road near a
small brook, and a walk of half a mile brings to view a succession of
picturesque waterfalls, which have received the name of WALKER’S FALLS.
A half mile further south is the BASIN, a curious granite reservoir,
about forty feet across, and twenty-eight feet deep, in which the waters
make a gyratory turn, after the whirlpool order.

[Illustration: NEAR VIEW OF THE PROFILE.]

[Illustration: FRANCONIA MOUNTAINS, FROM PEMIGEWASSET VALLEY.]

[Illustration: MOUNT LAFAYETTE.]

Five miles from the Profile House, near the lower gateway of the
Notch, is the FLUME HOUSE, so named from its proximity to the rocky
ravine, between whose walls the Great Boulder is suspended, as though
ready to fall at the slightest provocation. As these pages are being
printed, the telegraph brings the news that the ravine has been choked
by an avalanche, and the fall of the boulder is reported. When the book
is in the hands of its readers, the correctness of the report will have
been determined, but at this writing it cannot be verified.

[Illustration: FLUME AND BOULDER.]

The Pool, the Cascades, Georgianna Falls, Mount Pemigewasset, and other
objects of interest, are to be visited from the Flume House. A stage
route extends from the Profile House to Plymouth, _via_ the
Pemigewasset, and before the completion of the railroad from Bethlehem,
was the principal method of conveyance to this locality.

It is still a favorite with many travelers, being, as above indicated, a
direct route to PLYMOUTH, a favorite resort on the Boston, Concord, &
Montreal Railroad. Those wishing to reach Boston by this route may
connect by stage with the trains at Plymouth, or, returning to
Bethlehem, may take the trains of this road, which run _via_ Wing Road,
Littleton, Warren, Wells River, Plymouth and Lake Winnipesaukee, to
Concord, thence by Concord, Lowell & Boston Railroad, to the metropolis
of New England. This is a popular route between Boston and the
mountains, and is very largely patronized in the summer.

[Illustration: WEIRS STATION AND STEAMBOAT LANDING, LAKE
WINNIPESAUKEE.]

Near Warren, on this line, is MOOSILAUKE, a mountain peak of some
celebrity, which from its comparatively isolated position, affords a
very fine view from its summit. The town boasts of _fifty miles_ of
trout streams, and several excellent hotels provide good accommodations
for such as desire to “drop the line,” or spend a season in recreation.

[Illustration: OWL’S HEAD AND MOOSILAUKE MOUNTAIN.]

THE PEMIGEWASSET HOUSE, at Plymouth, is the dining station of the B. C.
& M. R. R., and has an almost national reputation for the excellence of
its cuisine. It is also a favorite summer resort hotel.

The beautiful LAKE WINNIPESAUKEE is reached at Weirs Station and
Steamboat Landing. This sheet of water, irregular in its boundaries,
studded with hundreds of islands, and bordered by some of the finest
scenery in the world, has obtained almost a world-wide fame, being
visited by thousands of tourists every season. Weirs Station is on the
western shore; and within a few years has become celebrated as the
location of a permanent camp-ground, occupied in turns by the
Methodists, the Unitarians, and the Grand Army of the Republic. Several
hotels and summer boarding houses have been built to accommodate the
increasing demands of tourists who wish to tarry by the margin of the
lake, and enjoy its lovely scenery, and bathe and fish in its waters, or
ride over its surface among its myriad islands. Center Harbor, on its
north shore, Wolfboro on the east, and Alton Bay on the south, are all
well-known summer resorts, and the ride between these points by steamer
constitutes a delightful trip. Two boats of considerable size, the “Lady
of the Lake,” owned by the Boston, Concord & Montreal Railroad, and the
“Mount Washington,” the property of the Boston & Maine Railroad,
together with several smaller craft, constitute the flotilla; and their
frequent trips among the islands and between the principal ports just
mentioned afford opportunity to enjoy the attractions of Winnipesaukee,
and to realize the significance of its Indian title, which is translated
“Smile of the Great Spirit.”

[Illustration: PEMIGEWASSET HOUSE, PLYMOUTH, N. H.]

The “Weirs” takes its name from having formerly been the location of the
fish-weirs of the aborigines, whence an unlimited supply of food was
drawn, in the days before the shriek of the locomotive, or even the
crack of the stage-driver’s whip, broke the stillness of the adjacent
forests.

From Weirs Station the route to Boston is _via_ Concord, Manchester,
Nashua, and Lowell.

[Illustration: LAKE WINNIPESAUKEE.--STEAMER “LADY OF THE LAKE.”]



_White Mountain Notch._


The route from Fabyan House to Portland extends through this famous
pass, over the PORTLAND & OGDENSBURG RAILROAD; and the ride is one of
the most delightful trips by rail to be afforded east of the Rocky
Mountains, and with the exception of the ascent to the summit of Mount
Washington, is the grandest and most impressive. The railway itself is a
wonder, overcoming, in its construction, obstacles that might appall the
stoutest-hearted engineer. Running here upon a lofty trestle, clinging
now to the side of a mountain, winding around the base of some
overhanging cliff, again bridging some mountain stream far above its
bed, it threads its devious way through the pass, abolishing the fatigue
and hardship incident to mountain visiting, and affording a panoramic
view of scenery unsurpassed for variety, novelty and grandeur.

The trip through the Notch is made in OBSERVATION CARS, which are
attached to all trains. These are open at the sides, and provided with
revolving arm chairs, thus affording an outlook in all directions,
adding materially to the pleasure of the journey. The first five miles
accomplished, and we are at


THE CRAWFORD HOUSE,

Almost in the very gates of the Notch, near its upper entrance. Either
in going or returning, this will be found a desirable stopping place, as
there are many points of interest in this vicinity. The hotel itself is
spacious and elegant, accommodating 500 guests. In the days of
mountain-climbing by “brute force,” it was the starting point of the
bridle path to the summit of Mount Washington; but the hardy mountain
ponies, trusty and sure-footed, have given way to the “iron horse,” no
less trusty, but vastly less romantic.

Saco Lake, near the house, is the source of Saco River, here a
diminutive stream, but increasing in volume on its way to the sea, as it
absorbs the brooklets and rivulets, until it is utilized in turning the
busy wheels of industrious machinery in many a factory before it is lost
in the Atlantic.

GIBBS’ FALLS, also near the hotel, are forty feet in height, divided by
a rocky cliff into two parts. They were named in honor of a former
landlord of the house.

BEECHER’S CASCADE, a half mile distant, may have had some other name,
but it is now lost in the distinction given it by a baptism experienced
by the eminent divine, not according to the method of Plymouth Church,
but more after the Roger Williams standard, and wholly involuntary.

[Illustration: CRAWFORD HOUSE, WHITE MOUNTAIN NOTCH.]

MOUNT WILLARD, sometimes called Mount Tom, or Tom Willard, although not
of great altitude, furnishes an excellent point of observation from its
summit, which is reached by a comfortable carriage ride. The view is
highly praised by good judges, Anthony Trollope declaring it unequaled
in all the classic Rhineland. Standing at the very gate of the Notch, it
commands an excellent view of the chasm, and the different mountains
which encompass it, together with a splendid prospect to the west and
north.

[Illustration: HERMIT’S POOL, FRANCONIA NOTCH.]

SILVER CASCADE and the FLUME CASCADE are two of the attractions of the
locality, which leap down the sides of Mount Webster in glorious
disorder, now spreading out over a rocky bed in a thin sheet of silver,
gathering again in some pool for a plunge over a precipice, breaking
into spray in the descent, then running swiftly in a narrow channel as
if gathering momentum for another grand leap, and so laughing, singing
and dancing on its way, to join the Saco in its noisy pilgrimage to the
sea.

THE WILLEY HOUSE, memorable as the scene of the disaster known in
history as the “Willey Slide,” is located under the steep acclivity of
Mount Willey, which rises some 2,000 feet above the house. Opposite are
the frowning cliffs of Mount Webster, with the Saco River flowing near.
The story of the fearful calamity is familiar, but its repetition may be
of interest to our readers. On the night of August 28, 1826, a terrible
storm occurred, swelling the brooklets into angry torrents, and
loosening the soil from its hold on the rocky acclivity of Mount Willey,
sending it down the mountain side with a fearful roar, threatening
destruction to everything in its path. Mr. Willey, his wife, five
children, and two hired men, comprised the inmates of the house; and it
is supposed that they became frightened and fled from the house to
escape the peril, and rushed into the very jaws of death, being
overwhelmed in the avalanche, not one escaping to tell the tale. The
faithful house-dog, however, appeared at Conway, and endeavored to give
intelligence of what had happened by all the resources of his power of
communication. The bodies of six of the victims were recovered, but
three of the children found permanent burial in the _debris_. The
saddest feature of the calamity is the fact that had they remained in
the house no harm would have befallen them, as a large rock at the back
of the house divided the slide, and sent it by on either side, leaving
the building untouched. The scarred side of the mountain still shows the
track of the avalanche, only enough soil being left to support a growth
of white birches.

AVALANCHE BROOK, so called from being regarded as the cause of the
disaster, has on it a beautiful cataract, called the SYLVAN GLADE
CATARACT, and higher up, another called SPARKLING CASCADE.

Such of the forgoing objects of interest as are visible from the train
are pointed out by the conductor and trainmen, and an occasional halt is
made to permit of a longer view of some point of special importance. If
time will permit, it is well to stop off at one or more of the stations,
and proceed by following trains. But whether this be your privilege or
not, the ride will be one not soon forgotten, and its repetition desired
and longed for.

Below Willey Mountain the valley opens out into a wider expanse, and the
scenery becomes less wild and romantic, but none the less beautiful with
the change. The Willey-Brook Bridge is a fine specimen of engineering
skill, and is crossed by the train, giving the courageous passengers a
chance to peer into the deep gulf which it spans, and the timid ones
occasion to “hold their breath” at the thought of a possible tumble,
should “anything happen.” The bridge, however, gives no occasion for
fear, as it is of enormous strength, although not ponderous in
appearance.

[Illustration: SCENES IN THE WHITE MOUNTAIN NOTCH.--P. & O. RAILROAD.]

A short distance below this point, the train crosses the famous
FRANKENSTEIN TRESTLE, an iron structure five hundred feet long and
eighty feet high. Near this are the GIANT’S STAIRS, MOUNT RESOLUTION and
MOUNT CRAWFORD, the latter nearly opposite Bemis Station. Near here is
the old Mount Crawford House, now closed, where Abel Crawford, the
pioneer for whom the Mountain and Notch were named, “kept tavern” for
many years, and told stories and legends of the mountains to his guests,
and, on occasion, piloted them to the haunts of the shy trout, or to
mountain summits, by paths long forgotten. His son, Ethan Allen
Crawford, cut the first bridle path to Mount Washington, in 1821.

[Illustration: VALLEY OF THE SACO RIVER.]

NANCY’S BROOK is soon reached and crossed, so named from a sad incident
involving the old story of a deserted maiden, and a recreant lover who
fled on the eve of the appointed wedding day, pursued by the poor girl,
who perished from exposure, and was found in the snow at the foot of a
tree, near the margin of the stream which now bears the name her mother
gave her, a kindly way of commemorating the event without involving the
family name.

SAWYER’S RIVER is crossed, as the road turns sharply to the eastward,
and at Upper Bartlett the interesting landmark known as SAWYER’S ROCK
commemorates the discovery of this pass, or rather the accomplishment
of an event which attested its discovery, viz., getting a horse through
the Notch, for which feat, as an evidence of the existence of the pass,
Nash, the discoverer, and a brother hunter, received from Governor
Wentworth a grant of land known as Nash & Sawyer’s Location. The last
obstacle being this rock, the poor beast was let down over it by means
of ropes, and Sawyer exultingly dashed his rum bottle against it, which
sufficed to christen it by the name it now bears.

At GLEN STATION, connection is made with the stage line for the Glen
House up the valley of Ellis River and through Pinkham Notch. Should the
traveler feel disposed to make this trip, he will find much to reward
him in the way of picturesque scenery, pleasant drives, etc. At a short
distance from the road where it crosses Ellis River, a fine waterfall,
known as GOODRICH FALLS may be seen. Passing the little village of
“Jackson City,” the road soon enters the pass known as PINKHAM NOTCH,
named from a family of early settlers, who constructed the Notch road.

[Illustration: GLEN-ELLIS FALL.]

GLEN-ELLIS FALL may be reached by a path diverging from the stage road.
The Ellis River here descends a precipice seventy feet high. From its
configuration it was formerly called “Pitcher Fall,” but the more poetic
but less descriptive title seems to cling to it.


THE GLEN HOUSE,

Previously mentioned as a fine hostelry, is the terminus of the stage
line. Here you will meet guests who have come by stage from Gorham,
eight miles distant, on the Grand Trunk Railway, or from the summit of
Mount Washington, by the carriage road already described. This location
is more than sixteen hundred feet above sea-level, and the clear,
bracing atmosphere, the magnificent scenery, and the delightful drives
in several directions, together with the excellent manner in which the
hotel is kept, are sufficient to account for its popularity and success.
In the matter of stage-line management, it probably has no superior in
the world, that which conveys the passengers up the carriage road to the
summit of Mount Washington being notably superior in point of equipment,
and the well-known skill of its drivers.

Excursions may be made from here to the Carter Notch, Osgood’s Cascades,
Summit of Mount Madison, Garnet Pools, Emerald Pool, Thompson’s Falls,
Glen-Ellis Falls, Crystal Cascade, Tuckerman’s Ravine, and many other
places of more than ordinary interest.

[Illustration: APPROACH TO NORTH CONWAY.--P. & O. R. R.]

But again taking up our line of travel at Glen Station, the train soon
emerges upon the beautiful CONWAY INTERVALES, Intervale Station being
the next stopping place. The Intervale House, near by, is a pleasant
abode for those who choose to tarry. A short distance beyond is NORTH
CONWAY, a village of multitudinous attractions, and with a popularity as
a summer resort that is surprising to the casual visitor, who, although
seeing much to admire, fails to comprehend the peculiar combinations
which bring people year after year to spend their summers in the
vicinity. Superficially, the most attractive objects conspicuously
visible are the hotels. The spacious KIARSARGE HOUSE seems a veritable
paradise for the traveler, and its tables are unexcelled. The views
from its verandahs are superior, comprising the mountain ranges, the
famous Pequaket or Kiarsarge Mountain, and the lovely Intervales, upon
which the village is situated. The mountain from which the hotel
receives its name is about three miles from the village, and the ascent
may be made in the saddle or on foot. The altitude is 3,367 feet, and
the view from the summit comprises the entire White Mountain Range,
together with Mote Mountain, Rattlesnake Ridge, Sebago Lake with other
bodies of water of less magnitude, and a stretch of landscape in every
direction most pleasing to the eye, less grand and rugged, to be sure,
than that we have been describing, but on that account more restful to
the senses.

[Illustration: KIARSARGE HOUSE AND MOUNTAIN.--DISTANT VIEW.]

The other attractions at North Conway consist of Artist’s Falls, Echo
Lake, the Cathedral and Ledges, Diana’s Baths, the Devil’s Den, and a
host of lovely drives in various directions, with sylvan paths for
pedestrianism _ad libitum_.

CONWAY CENTER, five miles southeast of North Conway, is the next
station, and has many charms as a summer resort. Mount Chocorua, with a
sharp pinnacle, towering up 3,540 feet above sea-level, is reached from
here to good advantage, as is also Walker Pond, a short distance south
of the town.

We are now in the “smiling valley” of the Saco River, in the midst of
cultivated farms and peaceful villages, in striking contrast with the
scenery just left behind. Crossing the boundary line between New
Hampshire and Maine, our next station is FRYEBURG, which some poetic
writer has called the “Queen of the Saco Valley.” It is indeed a lovely
town, embowered in deep foliage, and affording the visitor most
delightful drives. Jockey Cap, a huge granite pile, is near the village;
and close by is Lovewell’s Pond, the scene of an Indian battle in 1725.
Mount Pleasant is only seven miles distant, and has upon its summit a
fine hotel.

[Illustration: MOUNT KIARSARGE, OR PEQUAKET.]

Passing in quick succession the stations of Brownfield, Hiram, the three
Baldwins, and Steep Falls, we reach


SEBAGO LAKE,

Seventeen miles from Portland, and forty-three from North Conway. For a
short distance before reaching the lake, the run is devoid of interest
and exceedingly tame; but as the road skirts the shores of this
beautiful sheet of water, and its broad expanse stretches away in the
distance, bounded by wooded shores and sandy beaches, the change is
magical, and the contrast a most pleasing one. Sebago itself is twelve
miles long and nine miles wide, and is connected with Long Pond by means
of Songo River and the “Bay of Naples,” formerly “Brandy Pond,”--before
the days of the “Maine law.” The entire chain of lakes, river and bay
affords a steamboat ride of sixty-eight miles in the round trip.
Bridgton, one of the steamer-landings on Long Pond, is the birth-place
of the genial humorist “Artemus Ward.” From Portland, a pleasant and
popular trip consists of a ride to Sebago by the morning train, a trip
over the lake to Bridgton, returning in time for the evening train to
Portland.

[Illustration: CITY AND HARBOR OF PORTLAND, FROM CAPE ELIZABETH.]

And thither, in the continuation of our excursion, we too must go. Only
seventeen miles more of our long and delightful journey “from Chicago to
the Sea” remain to be traversed. Almost regretfully we linger over the
few last leagues of the trip, but remembering that either way from
Portland our excursion may be lengthened indefinitely, we resume our
seats in the train, and in fifty minutes are in


THE METROPOLIS OF MAINE.

PORTLAND is pleasantly situated on a narrow peninsula projecting from
the west shore of Casco Bay. This peninsula is about three miles in
length from east to west, with considerable elevations at each end,
giving the city a beautiful appearance as approached from the sea. Its
harbor is one of the best on the Atlantic coast, being deep and
capacious, and protected by land on all sides. The city is beautifully
laid out, its public buildings are fine, and many of its private
residences elegant.

The commercial and business interests of the city are extensive and
important, the value of the shipping owned in the district being very
great, and its manufactures employing a large amount of capital. The
railroads centering here are the Portland & Ogdensburg, Portland &
Rochester, Boston & Maine, Eastern, Maine Central, and Grand Trunk.

The leading hotels of Portland are the Falmouth, United States, Preble,
City, Kirkland, and Merchants.

The climate of Portland is remarkably salubrious, the city being
peculiarly exempt from epidemics, or climatic diseases of any kind. The
source of water supply (Sebago Lake), and the excellent facilities for
drainage, undoubtedly contribute much to the healthfulness of the
locality. These circumstances, together with the proximity of beaches
and other resorts, render Portland a desirable place for summer
sojourning, a fact of which no little advantage is taken in the season
of travel. The steamship lines running from Portland to eastern ports
along the coast of Maine and the maritime provinces, afford the tourist
opportunities to extend his trip “away down East,” as far as time and
inclination will permit. One resort of special interest deserves mention
while this subject is under consideration, on account of its remarkable
attractiveness, and its increasing popularity.


MOUNT DESERT ISLAND,

One hundred and ten miles northeast from Portland, is reached by the
PORTLAND, BANGOR AND MACHIAS STEAMBOAT LINE, whose boats make connection
with the trains from Boston and the White Mountains. They are staunch
and seaworthy, and finely equipped; and the trip along the shore, past
the thrifty villages, and among the picturesque scenery, is full of
delights.

The island of Mount Desert lies quite near the mainland, with which
communication is had by means of a bridge which crosses at Trenton. In
shape, the island is quite irregular, and is about eighteen miles long
by twelve wide. It is nearly divided in two by Somes Sound, and its
shores on all sides are indented by picturesque bays and inlets. The
greater part of its surface is covered with mountain peaks, some
thirteen in number, the highest, Mt. Green, rising fully two thousand
feet above the sea. High up among these peaks are several beautiful
lakes, which, with the streams that flow from them, abound in trout.

[Illustration: BAR HARBOR, MOUNT DESERT ISLAND.]

The first landing point, approaching from Portland, is SOUTHWEST HARBOR.
Here are several excellent hotels, and the scenery in the vicinity, and
accessible by pleasant carriage drives, is beautiful and picturesque.
Green Mountain is reached from this point to good advantage by the
westerly slope, a carriage road leading to the summit, where a hotel is
located.

BAR HARBOR, fifteen miles beyond Southwest Harbor, is even more
picturesque and romantic in its location than the latter. The scenery
along the coast is bold and impressive, stupendous cliffs rising
abruptly to the height of several hundred feet. Bar Harbor is
plentifully supplied with hotels, and their facilities are often
utilized by the throngs of artists and pleasure-seekers who make summer
pilgrimages in search of the beautiful, the art galleries and studios of
the country testifying to the success of the former in transferring to
canvas the gems of scenery which have formed the basis of so many
studies and afforded so much delight.

In addition to the many “down-east” trips that may be made from
Portland, its nearness to some of the fine beaches of the Atlantic coast
is another of its attractions as an objective point for the tourist. Two
great railway lines connect Portland with Boston, and one or both of
them reach all the principal intervening seaside resorts.

One of the most noted of these is


OLD ORCHARD BEACH.

This celebrated seaside camp-ground,--for as a place for temperance and
religious camp-meetings it is best known,--is reached by the BOSTON &
MAINE RAILROAD, extensively advertised by its managers as the “shore
route” between Boston and Portland. And it may not be amiss to say, in
this connection, that it is really one of the finest equipped and best
managed railroads in the country. Its general superintendent, Mr. J. T.
Furber, is one of the successful railroad managers of New England, a
tireless worker, looking after every detail of the road and its
operation, with a degree of energy and “push” that marks the successful
business man wherever you meet him in Yankeedom.

Old Orchard not only has a vast expanse of beautiful beach, but
possesses the additional charm of woodland parks and groves, hundreds of
acres in extent, stretching away from the shore, enclosing cool retreats
and shady paths, where the forest has been left almost in its primeval
state. This happy combination of “woods and seashore” in one locality,
affording a pleasing variety and gratifying the tastes of all, is one
secret of the great popularity of this resort. The splendid hotel, so
conspicuous in the background of our illustration, is kept in a style to
please the most fastidious, it being the leading hotel of this vicinity.
The less pretentious house in the foreground is a great favorite with
many visitors, not only for its home-like air, but for the beautiful
views to be had from its verandahs and the charming walks and drives
in the vicinity. Its patrons speak of it in terms of the highest
commendation.

[Illustration: OLD ORCHARD BEACH.]

WELLS BEACH and KENNEBUNKPORT are also reached by the Boston & Maine
Railroad, and are among the long list of popular resorts on the eastern
coast. The latter has an elegant hotel, the “Ocean Bluff,” which
commands a beautiful view of ocean and landscape combined.

At Dover, on the main line to Boston, connection is made with the
Winnipesaukee division to ALTON BAY, a celebrated summer and camp-ground
resort, at the head of the bay, which is an arm of the beautiful Lake
Winnipesaukee, extending in a southerly direction. The steamer MOUNT
WASHINGTON makes frequent trips from this point to Wolfboro and Center
Harbor, from either of which places connection is made for the Weirs, on
the Boston, Concord & Montreal Railroad, by steamer “Lady of the Lake.”

The EASTERN RAILROAD, the other through line between Portland and
Boston, reaches several of the beaches already mentioned, and is the
direct route to HAMPTON and RYE BEACHES, BOAR’S HEAD, and and REVERE
BEACH, the latter sustaining the same relation to Boston as does Coney
Island to New York.

THE ISLES OF SHOALS, nine miles off Portsmouth harbor, are also reached
by the Eastern Railroad to Portsmouth, thence by steamer to Appledore
and Star Islands, where two palace hotels, the APPLEDORE, on the island
of the same name, and the OCEANIC on Star Island, are kept in regal
style by Laighton Brothers & Co. The group comprises nine islands, the
largest of which is Appledore. It is also the best known, having been
for many years the favorite summer home of many of the prominent
literary people of New England. It is the residence of Mrs. Celia
(Laighton) Thaxter, whose pleasing poems have gratified so many readers;
and her childhood was spent in this lovely spot, the very air of which
is full of poetic inspiration.

White Island is the location of a light-house which the readers of the
_Atlantic Monthly_ will remember as the scene of many of the pleasing
incidents in Mrs. Thaxter’s “Child Life at the Isles of Shoals.”


IN RETURNING FROM THE SEA,

The excursionist may traverse again the route through the
mountains,--and some portions of it are well worthy of a second visit,
or by a different route may reach the St. Lawrence River, and find new
objects and scenes to claim his attention. Should the latter be his
choice, he may take the train of the Concord & Portsmouth Railroad, at
Portsmouth, and go _via_ Manchester, Concord, White River Junction and
St. Albans to Ogdensburg or Montreal, thence homeward by the St.
Lawrence River, or the rail route, as preferred.

Many, however, will wish to see Boston or New York; and a pleasant trip,
comprising a visit to these two cities, may be made by boat or rail from
Portland to Boston, thence by Long Island Sound to New York. The Sound
Steamer Lines are four in number, all of them having an initial stage
by rail to some point on the Sound where connection is made with the
boats.

THE FALL RIVER LINE comprises a trip by rail from Boston to Fall River,
forty-nine miles, there transferring to one of the floating palaces, the
“Bristol,” the “Providence,” or the new and elegant “Pilgrim,” the
latter being conceded to be the finest boat on the Sound. J. R.
Kendrick, Esq., is the general manager of this line, with headquarters
at Boston, and Geo. L. Connor is the general passenger agent, located in
New York.

THE STONINGTON LINE has for its inception the rail route to Stonington,
Connecticut, _via_ Providence, where connection is made with the elegant
steamers, “Massachusetts” and “Rhode Island.” This route has more of
rail and less of water than the preceding, and avoids the “outside”
passage around Point Judith, a consideration that has its weight with
the timid and sensitive.

THE PROVIDENCE LINE is under the same management as that of the
foregoing, and comprises a rail trip to Providence, and boat from there
to New York, the steamers “Stonington” and “Narragansett” being employed
on this line.

THE NORWICH LINE has for its beginning a rail trip to New London, thence
by steamer to New York.

The start from Boston is in the early evening, the arrival at the
various boat landings being in ample season for “bed-time,” and the trip
through the Sound is a night ride, arriving in New York in season to
connect with morning trains if desired. The passengers who arise in
moderately good season will enjoy the latter portion of the ride, as the
boat enters the famous passage known as “Hell Gate,” passes down the
East River in view of the islands on which are located the various
reformatory, penal, and charitable institutions of New York City,
continuing between the cities of New York and Brooklyn, under the famous
suspension bridge, and around the Battery and Castle Garden into the
North River. The shipping in the harbor, the sprightly tugs steaming
here and there, the ferry boats plying between Long Island and New York,
and the ceaseless activity and bustle of all things animate, all combine
to give to the scene an air of life and vigor so characteristic of all
that pertains to the great metropolis of America.

The sights and scenes of the city itself are so numerous and varied that
the pen falters at the thought of even attempting to mention them. If
the reader has a desire to “do” the city in a systematic and thorough
manner, he should secure the company of some one familiar with its
customs and its places of interest, or consult the pages of some city
guide book.


FROM NEW YORK TO THE WEST.

The return to the West from New York City may be made by several
different routes, at the option of the tourist. THE NEW YORK CENTRAL AND
HUDSON RIVER RAILROAD affords a pleasant ride up the Hudson River,
among its beautiful scenery to Albany, thence across the State to
Suspension Bridge or Buffalo. The new WEST SHORE line, by a nearly
parallel route, traverses the other side of the Hudson, and will soon be
completed for through travel. The trip up the Hudson by boat is also a
favorite in the summer season, as affording the finest views of the
points of interest that have given to this river the title of the “Rhine
of America.”

For picturesque scenery, no route can be regarded as equal to the NEW
YORK, LAKE ERIE AND WESTERN, familiarly known as the “Erie Line.”
Crossing the ferry to Jersey City, the passenger by this line finds the
trains of this road awaiting at the station, with through cars attached
for Buffalo, Rochester, and the principal Western points. Leaving Jersey
City by the morning train, the tourist will find that the day’s ride
among the picturesque mountain, river, and lake scenery all along the
line will be one of great interest and enjoyment. The courtesy and
urbanity of the trainmen and conductors are especially noticeable, and
the eating houses, at which ample time is given for meals, are among the
best railroad restaurants it is the privilege of the traveler to visit.

Connection is made at Buffalo with the Canada Southern division of the
Michigan Central, from which point the return may be made _via_ Detroit,
to the starting point of the journey.


BOSTON TO THE WEST.

The return trip from Boston, omitting the visit to New York, may be made
very direct, should the tourist so elect. The short line from Boston,
and on many accounts a very pleasant one, is _via_ the celebrated HOOSAC
TUNNEL, comprising the Fitchburg Railroad to North Adams, and the Troy &
Boston Railroad to Troy, thence _via_ the New York Central to Suspension
Bridge or Buffalo. This route presents the advantages of through
sleeping coaches from Boston to Chicago, without change, a most
desirable feature for families or for ladies traveling alone.

The line takes its name from the wonderful tunnel through Hoosac
Mountain, which opens a roadway for the locomotive directly across the
State of Massachusetts. This immense engineering enterprise was begun in
1862, on the supposition that the internal structure of the mountain
would be found of a character to admit of easy excavation. The
undertaking proved, however, that its projectors had been misled by the
geologists, and solid rock was the substance to be removed for the
greater part of nearly five miles. At an immense cost, the excavation
was carried on, and in 1875 was open for the passage of trains, and
later was perfected by arches of masonry where strengthening was
necessary.

The equipment of the “Tunnel Line” is complete and in all respects first
class. The starting point in Boston is from the depot of the Fitchburg
Railroad, of which John Adams, Esq., is the genial and popular
superintendent. The Western office of the line is in Chicago, at 135
Randolph Street, in charge of C. E. Lambert, Esq., the general Western
passenger agent.

The return from Boston may also be made by way of Springfield and
Albany, by the Boston & Albany Railroad, thence by the New York Central
to Buffalo or Suspension Bridge.

And now, having taken the reader, in imagination, from his home in the
West to the Atlantic seaboard, through some of the most delightful
scenery on the American Continent, and indicated a variety of routes by
which he may return, with a few closing words the duty of the writer
will be done. Possibly no one traveler or party will traverse all the
routes described in this work. In some cases we have indicated that
choice may be made of several methods of reaching a given point, and the
taste or preference of the tourist, or the convenience of a party
traveling in company, will often decide the route. We have endeavored to
give fair and impartial description of the attractions offered by the
various lines of travel,--often too painfully conscious of the
inadequacy of words to do justice to the subject considered,--and leave
the reader to choose for himself a route from among the variety set
forth.

Before closing, we will add that a large variety of excursion tickets
will be found on sale at the principal ticket offices of the Michigan
Central Railroad, from which a selection can be made in accordance with
your taste or preferences. If the perusal of this work has assisted in
deciding your route, you will probably be able to secure a ticket
through to the sea to accommodate your wishes. By a very convenient
arrangement, your choice of a portion of the route may be left until
arriving at the St. Lawrence River, when the purser of the steamer will
exchange your ticket, giving opportunity to select from a variety of
excursions, with added side trips to various points of interest.

And now, with a consciousness of its many imperfections, we bring this
work to a close, and take a regretful leave of the reader, with the hope
that the pages of the book may prove serviceable in making enjoyable the
journey of many a tourist


_=From Chicago to the Sea.=_



CONTENTS.


  Adirondacks,                                   73
  Alexandria Bay,                                49
  American Fall, Niagara,                    20, 24
  Approach to North Conway, P. & O. R. R.,      113
  Ascent of Mount Washington,                    83
  Bar Harbor, Mt. Desert,                       118
  Bethlehem, N. H.,                              81
  Biddle’s Stairs, Niagara,                      31
  Burning Spring, Niagara,                       42
  Canada Southern Railway,                       17
  Canadian Carryall,                             56
  Canadian Fall,                                 33
  Cape Diamond, Quebec,                          64
  Capes Eternity and Trinity,                    71
  Cave of the Winds, Niagara,                    31
  Chateaugay Chasm, O. & L. C. R. R.,            74
  City of Buffalo,                               17
  City of Portland, Maine,                      116
  Climbing Mount Jefferson,                      90
  Conway Center, N. H.,                         114
  Crawford House,                               106
  Crossing the Ferry, Detroit,                   16
  Detroit, the City of the Strait,               15
  Devil’s Hole, Niagara,                         43
  Dining Car System,                              9
  Distant view of Mt. Washington,                91
  “Down” vs. “Up,”--Rapids and Canal,            54
  Eagle Cliff,                                   98
  Eastward Ho!                                    5
  Electric Illumination, Niagara,                29
  Fabyan House, White Mountains,                 83
  Fail River Line, Boston and New York,         122
  Falls of Montmorenci,                          67
  Falls of Niagara,                              18
  Fast New York Express,                          8
  Father Hennepin’s Sketch of Niagara,           36
  Flume and Boulder, Franconia Notch,           101
  First View of Niagara Falls,                   23
  Franconia Mountains,                          100
  Franconia Notch,                               97
  French Canadian Home,                          67
  Gates of Quebec, two views,                    66
  Glen-Ellis Fall,                              112
  Glen House Stage Line,                         95
  Glen House, White Mountains,                  113
  Goat Island, Niagara,                          29
  Goat Island Bridge,                            30
  Grand Island, Niagara,                         35
  “Gulf of Mexico,”                              86
  Ha-Ha Bay,                                     71
  Hermit’s Pool,                                108
  Hoosac Tunnel Line,                           123
  Horseshoe Falls and Rapids,                    22
  Inclined Plane Railway, Niagara,               28
  Indian Curiosity Seller,                       72
  Isles of Shoals,                              121
  Kiarsarge House,                              114
  Kiarsarge Mountain,                           115
  Lachine Rapids,                                55
  Lake of the Thousand Islands,                  45
  Lake Winnipesaukee,                      103, 105
  Lizzie Bourne Monument,                        87
  Luna Island, Niagara,                          31
  Lundy’s Lane Battle Field,                     43
  Luxury of Camp Life,                           47
  Medical and Surgical Sanitarium,               11
  Michigan Central Railroad,                      7
  Michigan State Normal School,                  15
  Michigan State University,                     14
  Montreal and Quebec,                           57
  Montreal from Mount Royal Park,                59
  Montreal from the River,                       58
  Mount Desert Island,                          117
  Mount Garfield,                                94
  Mount Lafayette,                          97, 100
  Mount Moosilauke,                             103
  Mount Washington Carriage Road,                95
  Mount Washington Railway,                      85
  Mount Washington Summit House,                 87
  Mount Willard,                                106
  Mounts Adams and Madison,                      89
  Navy Island, Niagara,                          35
  New Suspension Bridge,                         26
  New York to the West,                         122
  Niagara Falls,                                 18
  Niagara Falls from the Ferry,                  27
  Niagara Falls, Ontario,                        24
  Ogdensburg and Prescott,                       51
  Ogdensburg to Portland,                        73
  Ogdensburg & Lake Champlain Railroad,          73
  Old Man of the Mountain,                   97, 99
  Old Orchard Beach,                            119
  Pemigewasset House, B. C. & M. R. R.,         104
  Presidential Range, White Mountains,           81
  Profile House, Franconia Notch,                96
  Prospect Park,                                 27
  Quebec,                                     61-63
  Rafts in the St. Lawrence Rapids,              55
  Rates of Toll, etc., Niagara,                  44
  Retrocession of the Falls, Niagara,            37
  Returning from the Seashore,                  121
  Ride Around Mount Royal,                       59
  Round Island House,                            48
  Round Island Park,                             47
  Saguenay River,                                69
  Scenes on the P. & O. Railroad,               110
  Sebago Lake,                                  115
  Silver Cascade,                               108
  Sinclair House, Bethlehem,                     82
  Steamer Rothesay, American Line,               46
  St. Johnsbury & Lake Champlain Railroad,       78
  St. Lawrence River,                            45
  Summer Travel,                                  6
  Sunrise on Mount Washington,                   91
  Suspension Bridge,                             39
  Table Rock, Niagara,                           25
  Tadousac,                                      70
  Terrapin Bridge and Rock,                      33
  Terrapin Tower,                                34
  Thousand Island House,                         49
  Thousand Island Park,                          48
  Three Sister Islands, Niagara,                 34
  Tip-Top House in Winter,                       93
  “Tricks that are Vain,”                        22
  Tuckerman’s Ravine, Mount Washington,          95
  Under the Cataract,                            32
  Valley of the Saco River,                     111
  Watching for Sunrise,                          92
  Weirs Station and Steamboat Landing,          102
  Westminster Park,                              49
  Whirlpool Rapids, Niagara,                     41
  White Mountain Notch,                         106
  White Mountains,                               79
  White Mountains, from Jefferson,               90
  Willey House,                                 109
  Wolfe’s New Monument,                          65
  Wolfe’s Old Monument,                          64



  Only All Rail Route to the Thousand Islands.

  THE

  Utica & Black River Railroad,

  POPULARLY KNOWN AS THE THE

  _Elegant Line to the Islands_.

This Line runs _via_ Utica, Trenton Falls, the Sunset Slope of the
Adirondack Mountains, Black River, Sugar River, and Indian River to the
Thousand Islands of the River St. Lawrence. It is the only scenic route.

  NEW FAST TRAINS, MAKE VERY FEW STOPS,

  and carry elegant Through Cars from Utica to the River St. Lawrence.

  _THOUSAND ISLAND FAST LINE_

  Leaves Chicago 9.00 a. m., arrives at Utica 11.25 a. m. (dinner),
  leaves Utica 12.10 p. m., arrives Trenton Falls 12.45 p. m., Clayton,
  4.05 p. m. Immediate connection with Steamboat for Round Island,
  Thousand Island Park, and Westminster Park, arrives Alexandria Bay
  5.10 p. m.

  =Wagner Cars from Chicago to Utica and Utica to Clayton.=

  _EVENING FAST LINE_

  Leaves Chicago 3.30 p. m., arrives Utica 2.00 p. m. (dinner), leaves
  Utica 4.50 p. m., arrives at Trenton Falls 5.25 p. m., Lowville 7.00
  p. m. (supper), Clayton 9.05 p. m., Alexandria Bay 10.10 p. m.

  =Wagner Cars from Chicago to Utica: New Springfield Coaches
  from Utica to Clayton. A Quick, Cool, and Pleasant
  Journey. Union Depot at Utica. No Transfers.
  A First Class Steel Rail Line.=

The Illustrated Book of Routes and Rates for Summer Tours, 100 pages
with Illustrations, Maps, and Cost of 300 different tours _via_ Thousand
Islands and Rapids, Montreal, etc., etc. Send two postage stamps for a
copy, before deciding on your summer trip. Through Tickets _via_ Utica
are on sale at all Ticket offices of the Michigan Central Railroad and
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway. If you are unable to get Through
Tickets _via_ this route, buy to Utica only.


  J. F. MAYNARD,               THEO. BUTTERFIELD,
  General Superintendent.      Gen’l Pas. Agent, UTICA, N. Y.


  The Best Equipped Railroad in the World.

  Without exaggerating, and keeping close within the narrow limits of
  fact, it may be asserted without fear of truthful contradiction, that
  the

CHICAGO & NORTH-WESTERN RAILWAY

  Is not only the best and most perfectly equipped railroad in the
  world, but it is also the most important as to the territory it
  traverses, the numerous business centers and pleasure resorts that it
  reaches, and the facilities it offers for pleasant, speedy, safe and
  comfortable transit for all classes of passengers. It caters alike to
  the needs, tastes and abilities of the millionaire merchant prince; to
  the farmer, with his plain and simple wants; and to the economical and
  necessitous; and gives to each the full value of all he pays for. Its
  luxuriantly finished and furnished palace sleeping cars, and its more
  than luxurious drawing-room coaches are marvels of beauty and comfort.
  Its coaches are new and of the most perfect models that have been
  adopted by any company, and they are always kept sweet, clean and
  pure. Its dining cars are superb, and the meals and service provided
  in them are equal to that given by any first-class hotel in the
  country.

WHERE IS IT?

  Starting from Chicago and having various main lines running west,
  north-west, and north, it covers about all that is desirable in
  Northern Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, the upper Michigan peninsula,
  Minnesota and Central and South-eastern Dakota and North-eastern
  Nebraska.

  It is eminently _the_ railroad of the north-west; and from its
  commanding location, it controls the traffic of all of the territory
  it traverses.

WHAT IS IT?

  Over 5,000 miles of the best built and best maintained railroad there
  is in the country. It is equal in every respect to any road in the
  world, and is believed to be better than any of its competitors. Its
  lines are built of heavy steel rail; its bridges are of steel, iron,
  and stone, and all its appointments are as good as money can buy.

COLORADO & CALIFORNIA.

This Company’s line between Chicago and Council Bluffs (Omaha) is
shorter than any other between these points, and was the pioneer in
forming connection with the Trans-Continental Union and Central Pacific
Railroads. Nearly all experienced overland travelers seek this line,
because it is known to be the best, shortest, most comfortable, and in
every way the most desirable. To seek other more circuitous and inferior
routes is accepted as an evidence of inexperience or want of
information.

If you are destined to or from Colorado, Nebraska, Utah, Wyoming,
Montana, Idaho, Nevada, California, Oregon, Washington Territory, China,
Japan, the Sandwich Islands, New Zealand or Australia, you should, in
making the trip between Chicago and Council Bluffs (Omaha), in either
direction, see that your tickets read over this great road.

ST. PAUL, MINNEAPOLIS & WINNIPEG.

This road, “St. Paul Line,” is the short and desirable route between
Chicago and Madison, St. Paul and Minneapolis, and the best to travel
over if you are destined to or from Chicago and any point north or
north-west of St. Paul, Winona and Mankato, Minn.: Frankfort, Huron,
Pierre, Aberdeen, Columbia and Watertown, Dakota; Milwaukee, Fond du
Lac, Oshkosh, Watertown and Sheboygan, Wis.; Freeport, Elgin, Dixon and
Fulton, Ill.; Clinton, Cedar Rapids, Des Moines, Webster City, Algona,
Tama and Council Bluffs, Iowa, are a few of its hundreds of prominent
local stations. It reaches most of the pleasant summer resorts of
Wisconsin and Minnesota, and is the road to take for the health and
scenic resorts of the Rocky Mountains, the National Yellowstone Park,
and nearly all of the notable western and north-west resorts that are
accessible by rail.

It connects in Union Depots with the Union Pacific Railway at Council
Bluffs, and at St. Paul with all roads diverging from that point.

Yon can procure tickets over this route from nearly every coupon ticket
agent in the country. When buying your tickets, read them carefully, and
be sure that at least one coupon reads over the CHICAGO & NORTH-WESTERN
RY. Ask your nearest coupon ticket agent for one of its large maps; they
are FREE, and will show you all of this Company’s lines as they are.


  FOR COMFORT, SAFETY AND SCENERY,

  CHOOSE, IN TRAVELING EAST OR WEST, THE

  Central Vermont Railroad,

  Which forms, in connection with the GRAND TRUNK RAILWAY, the

  Old and Favorite New England Route

  TO AND FROM ALL POINTS WEST.

  The Rolling Stock and Equipment of the Central Vermont Railroad is
  second to no Road in this country. It is the only line running

  PULLMAN SLEEPING CARS

  Between Chicago and Boston without Change,

  AND SOLID TRAINS OF ELEGANT COACHES AND BAGGAGE CARS

  Without Change between Montreal and Boston.

Steel Rails, Iron Bridges, with Westinghouse Air Brake, Miller Platform,
Coupler and Buffer on every train, assure safety while passing swiftly
through Mountain, Lake and River Scenery of the most beautiful and
varied description.

The Train Service of this Road is so arranged that sure connections are
made with the Grand Trunk Railway, and with Railroads in New England to
and from all the principal cities, villages and towns in

  Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and Vermont.

  Pullman Cars Montreal to Springfield, and Wagner Cars Montreal to New
  York, Without Change.

  First-Class Restaurants, with reasonable charges, and ample time given
  for meals.

  BAGGAGE CHECKED THROUGH CANADA IN BOND,

  Avoiding all trouble of customs.

  During the Summer, Excursion Tickets are Sold over this Line at
  Greatly Reduced Rates.

  Ask for rates via this Line before buying, and note that your tickets
  read via

  CENTRAL VERMONT RAILROAD.

  For sale at all Stations and responsible Ticket Offices East and West.

COMPANY’S OFFICES.--260 Washington Street, Boston; 271 Broadway, New
York; 136 James Street, Montreal.

  J. W. HOBART, General Supt.      S. W. CUMMINGS, Gen. Pass’r Agent.

General Offices--St. Albans, Vt.


  SUMMER TOURS
  ON THE
  GREAT LAKES.

[Illustration: STEAMER PASSING PICTURED ROCKS.]

The attention of Summer Tourists, contemplating a trip for health and
recreation, is invited to the attractions of a Tour _via_ the Great
Lakes on one of the following PALACE STEAMERS:--

  India, China, Japan, Winslow, Nyack, Arctic, Empire State, Badger
  State, and St. Louis,

  OF

  _The Lake Superior Transit Co._,

  Leaving Detroit, Cleveland, Erie, and Buffalo, for Duluth, at the head
  of Lake Superior, and between the ports above named. To those who have
  not the leisure to travel the entire chain of lakes, we offer a
  =Series of Short Excursions=, on Lakes Erie, Huron, or Superior.
  Steamers leave Detroit, from foot of Woodward Avenue, as follows: For
  Sault Ste. Marie, Marquette, Hancock, Houghton, Ashland, Bayfield, and
  Duluth, Mondays, Tuesdays. Thursdays, Fridays and Saturdays, at 11
  o’clock, P.M. For Cleveland. Erie, and Buffalo Sundays, Mondays,
  Wednesdays, and Saturdays, at 5 o’clock, P.M. A Guide Book,
  descriptive of the routes, entitled “Summer Tours via the Great
  Lakes,” will be sent free on receipt of stamp, by addressing J. T.
  WHITING, General Agent L. S. T. Co., Detroit, Mich., or the
  undersigned

  T. P. CARPENTER, Gen. Pass. Agt. Lake Superior Transit Co.,

  BUFFALO, N. Y.


  SMITH’S DIAGRAM
  OF
  PARLIAMENTARY RULES,
  SHOWING
  The Relation of Any Motion to Every Other Motion,
  AND
  _Answering at a Glance over 500 Questions in Parliamentary Practice;
  together with a Key containing Concise Hints and Directions for
  Conducting the Business of Deliberative Assemblies._

  ☞ It is to the Study of Parliamentary Practice what a Map is to the
  Study of Geography.

TESTIMONIALS.

From the New York Independent, March 9, 1882.

“Smith’s Diagram of Parliamentary Rules” is an admirably ingenious
simplification of the confused matter of parliamentary practice. By a
very simple arrangement, motions of all kinds, in the order of their
precedence, are placed in the center, printed in large type, and their
relation to every possible rule is indicated by connecting lines. The
diagram is accompanied by a key, which, in explaining itself, clears up
the subject as well, and gives concise hints and directions for the
conduct of deliberative assemblies. Mr. Uriah Smith has put more of the
essence of parliamentary practice into small space and lucid order than
we find in any other manual.

From J. Warren Keifer, Speaker of the House of Representatives,
Washington.

I have carefully examined the volume, and take pleasure in saying that I
regard the work as a very valuable one, and arranged so as to indicate
to either the casual reader or even an expert the special as well as
general rules controlling a particular motion. Your work seems to have
been thoroughly done, and I cheerfully commend it as a _vade mecum_ for
parliamentarians.

From Hon. David H. Jerome, Ex-Governor of Michigan.

Can be utilized by a presiding officer at a glance, and without the
embarrassing delay necessary to consult ordinary authorities.

From Benj. L. Hewitt, Speaker of the House of Representatives,
Harrisburg, Pa.

After a careful examination of your “Diagram of Parliamentary Rules,” I
find it a most exhaustive and complete compendium of parliamentary law,
affording, at a glance, solutions of almost every question in
parliamentary practice. It cannot fail to meet with public favor.

From Prof. I. L. Stone, formerly Superintendent of the City Schools of
Battle Creek.

For practical use it is worth all the massive treatises in the world. By
a happy device you have brought the whole perplexing code of
parliamentary laws into such brief space and simple shape that any point
of order can be determined at a glance, and _without turning a page_. Of
the flood of new “aids to instruction,” this is one of the very few
which really meets and satisfies “a long felt want.”

  Price, by mail, postpaid: cloth binding, 50 cents; in morocco, $1.00.

  Address REVIEW & HERALD PUB. CO., Battle Creek, Mich.


  NICHOLS, SHEPARD & CO.
  BATTLE CREEK, MICHIGAN.
  [Works at intersection of Michigan Central and Grand Trunk Railways.]

[Illustration]

  “VIBRATOR”
  Threshing Machinery,
  TRACTION AND PORTABLE ENGINES.

[Illustration]

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  Marvelous Durability: Wonderful Power:
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Send for circulars and price lists. (Sent free.)


  TRANSATLANTIC STEAMSHIP AGENCY.

  This Agency represents the leading and most patronized Steamship Lines
  plying between

  AMERICA AND EUROPE.

  First and
  Second Cabin

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  At Greatly
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[Illustration]

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  sold always as low as
  at Headquarters, and
  berths promptly secured
  (by telegraph,
  when necessary.)

Prepaid Tickets for those wishing to send for friends in England,
Scotland, Ireland, Germany, or any other European country, at
astonishingly low rates.

Circulars, or any information about tickets furnished promptly on
application to

  Box 2277. A. SWEDBERG, Battle Creek. Mich.


[Illustration]

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  SANITARIUM
  Battle Creek, Mich.

  The Largest and Most Complete Health Institution in the West.

  Unrivaled facilities for the treatment of chronic and surgical cases.
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  treatment.

  Send for circular. Address

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  Battle Creek, Mich.


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  _Musical Instruments and Merchandise._

  Manufacturers of the

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  Also, the “PETERS” PATENT VIOLIN PAD,
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  TESTIMONIALS FROM HUNDREDS OF VIOLINISTS

  VALUABLE CATALOGUE, showing how and where strings are made, modes of
  testing, gauging, selecting, stringing instruments, etc., sent Free!
  Address

  W. I. PETERS & CO.,
  Box 2126, Battle Creek, Mich.


  Union School Furniture Company
  BATTLE CREEK, MICH., Sole Manufacturers of the
  CELEBRATED
  “AUTOMATIC” SCHOOL DESKS.

  SEND FOR CATALOGUE.

[Illustration]

  SEND FOR CATALOGUE.

  A New Principle, Universally Approved!
  Simple. Strong. Convenient. Beautiful!
  The Most Popular School Seat in Use!

  _This Seat is a DECIDED ADVANCE upon all the Old Styles. Do not use
  the Old when the New is better!_

The attention of school officers is invited to the above Seats. The
“AUTOMATIC” is now in use in most of the prominent schools in the West,
and very generally throughout the United States. Its superior merits
have been fully demonstrated. No other seat can compare with it in the
essential features of =Healthfulness, Comfort, and Durability=.

Send for our fully illustrated descriptive catalogue, which will give
you a correct idea of the Seat, and will show you what leading educators
think of it. This catalogue also contains information respecting all
kinds of School Supplies, together with elaborate

  _Plans and Specifications of School Buildings_,

  Which are of great value. It will be sent you gratis, on application.

=HEATERS.=--We are now able to offer you the best School Room Heater in
the market. Better and more economical than either stoves or furnaces.
See catalogue.

  Teachers’, Principals’ and Office Desks in Large Variety.

If you want anything for the school room--Maps, Globes, Slate
Blackboards, Slating, Crayons, Erasers, Bells, Reading Charts,
Physiological Charts, Window Shades, Dictionaries, etc.,--write to

_UNION SCHOOL FURNITURE CO._,

  CHICAGO OFFICE: 180 Wabash Avenue.
  Battle Creek, Michigan.


  BOULT’S
  MOULDING AND DOVETAILING MACHINE

[Illustration]

  CUTS PANELS OF ANY DESIGN OR STYLE
  _Of Mould, in the Solid Wood, with Neatness and Dispatch._

  IT IS A FIRST-CLASS
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  Also, does beautiful Dovetailing on THICK or THIN Stuffs.

  MARSH PATENT
  _Cylinder Bed Lathe_,
  With Circular and Scroll Saw, Moulding and Metal Turning Attachments.

  BUSINESS
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[Illustration]

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  “THERE IS MONEY IN IT!”


  Send for Circulars and Prices to
  BATTLE CREEK MACHINERY CO., Battle Creek, Mich.,
  SOLE MANUFACTURERS.


[Illustration: EASTERN EXCURSIONIST

CHICAGO TO THE SEA

ILLUSTRATED.

Mountains Rivers Lakes Cataracts and the Sea Shore.]


  _Sportsmen and Tourists, Attention All!_

  OSGOOD’S
  Portable Folding Canvas Boat.

[Illustration: Patented Feb. 26, 1878.]

The above represents our 12-foot Boat, extended, ready for use.

Weight, with Paddle, for Trout Fishing, Exploring, Duck Hunting, etc.,
25 pounds. Weight, with Bottom-Board, Oars, etc., everything complete,
50 pounds.

[Illustration]

  View of the Boat in its compact form, showing Boat folded,
  Bottom-Board, Camp-stools, Gunwale, Stretcher, and Packing-Chest. All
  but Oars and Paddle go in Chest.

SIZE OF CHESTS.

  For 15-foot Boat, 40 inches long, 20 inches wide, 20 inches deep.

  For 12-foot Boat, 38 inches long, 17 inches wide, 17 inches deep.


FIVE SIZES ARE MANUFACTURED.

  No. 1, 15  feet long, 36 inches wide, weight, 75 lbs. Price, $50.
   „  2, 12   „     „   33   „     „      „     50  „     „     40.
   „  3, 12   „     „   27   „     „      „     40  „     „     40.
   „  4,  9½  „     „   27   „     „      „     30  „     „     35.
   „  6,  8   „     „   33   „     „      „     30  „     „     35.

Each size makes up four different WEIGHTS or STYLES. You have the same
as FOUR BOATS COMBINED IN ONE.

Boat is put in sack made of ducking, only little larger than ordinary
grain bag, and then all packed in chest for shipping. The sack is a
sufficient protection to the boat in carrying it in wagon or carriage.
The chest is used only for transporting it on cars, or on a load of
camping goods.

Boats shipped C. O. D. on receipt of $10, subject to examination before
paying the balance to the express agent. If not satisfactory, the boat
can be returned by freight, and we will return balance of money, after
paying freight charges both ways.

Parties ordering, that know the boat, may send draft for full amount,
and we will ship by freight or express: or send good reference and we
will forward at once. If you want a Portable Boat, we can please you.
=Send for Illustrated Testimonial Circular.=

Manufactured by N. A. OSGOOD, Battle Creek, Mich.


  FROM THE ST. LAWRENCE TO THE SEA
  (Ogdensburg to Portland)

  --VIA--

  Ogdensburg & Lake Champlain,
  St. Johnsbury & Lake Champlain,
  _and_ Portland & Ogdensburg R. R.’s,

  REACHING THE
  ADIRONDACK WILDERNESS,

  CHATEAUGAY CHASM,

  WHITE MOUNTAINS, PORTLAND, OLD ORCHARD,
  MOUNT DESERT, AND ALL SEA-SIDE
  RESORTS OF THE EAST.


  _All Trains Furnished with the Latest Improvements
  for the Safety and Comfort of Passengers.
  Special Attention given to Tourist Travel._

  Tickets on Sale at all Principal Ticket Offices throughout the Country.

  ☞ Be sure your tickets read _via_ this POPULAR and OLD ESTABLISHED
  ROUTE. For further information apply to

  F. L. POMEROY,
  Gen. Pas. Agt. O. & L.C.R.R.,
  Ogdensburg, N.Y.

  C. H. STEVENS,
  Gen. Pas. Agt. St. J. & L.C.R.R.,
  St. Johnsbury, Vt.

  C. H. FOYE,
  Gen. Pas. Agt. P. & O.R.R.,
  Portland, Me.


[Illustration]

  THE STATE HIGHWAY

  ITS LINES EXTEND:

  =Chicago to Buffalo and Niagara Falls=, via Detroit,
  =Mackinaw City to Toledo=, via Detroit,
  =Bay City and Saginaw to Jackson,
  Grand Rapids to Detroit=, via Jackson,
  =Jackson to Niles=, Air Line.

  ~MICHIGAN
  CENTRAL~
  AND OTHER SMALLER LINES.

  THROUGH PALACE CARS
  _TO AND FROM MICHIGAN AND_
  New York, Boston, Buffalo,
  Chicago, Detroit, and Toledo.

  NEW DINING CARS
  Between Chicago, Buffalo, and Niagara Falls, on Principal Trains.

  EXCURSION TICKETS DURING THE SUMMER MONTHS
  Via Niagara Falls, St. Lawrence River, Thousand Islands, &c.,
  To all the PLEASURE RESORTS of the EAST.

  H. B. LEDYARD,
  _General Manager_.

  F. I. WHITNEY,
  _Ass’t Gen’l Pas. & Tick. Agt._

  O. W. RUGGLES,
  _Gen’l Pas. & Tick. Agt._



  TRANSCRIBER’S NOTES

  Inconsistent spelling, hyphenation, etc. have been retained.

  Accents missing from French words have not been added.

  Page 100, As these pages are being printed ...: the boulder was,
  indeed, swept away by a landslide in 1883.

  Changes made to the text:

  Obvious minor typographical and punctuation errors have been corrected
  silently.

  Illustrations have been moved outside text paragraphs.

  p. 115: “sandy beeches” has been changed to “sandy beaches”





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