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Title: The Philosophy Which Shows the Physiology of Mesmerism and Explains the Phenomenon of Clairvoyance
Author: Pasley, T. H.
Language: English
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To form a just opinion of a novel mode of philosophising, we should
study the subject, and not condemn without being able to prove it

He is not an Esculapian who is unacquainted with the Philosophy of the
Animal Economy.





The following trite sketch of the Philosophy of Nature, dedicates
itself to the most noble Champions of Mesmerism, Doctor ELLIOTSON
and Doctor ASHBURNER of London, and Doctor ESDAILE of Calcutta, in
compliment and grateful acknowledgment for having rescued from the
fangs of ignorance, envy, and self-conceit, the science of health and
knowledge--the science of Mesmerism, which unfolds the hitherto unknown
wonders of the Animal system; and will unfold the wonders of the entire
universe, when the telescope and microscope are familiarly used by the


It is not the intention of the present work, that what is herein
described should be received as the philosophy of Nature according to
the precision of Nature; but, through exemplification, on principles
deduced from the Natural Inertia of Matter, to point out the mode by
which the philosophy, which should govern all illustration of physical
phenomena, is discoverable,--the Philosophy of Mechanical Nature.

  JERSEY, _July 1, 1848_.


  DEDICATION                                       iii
  ADVERTISEMENT                                      v
  TABLE OF CONTENTS                                vii
  ATTRACTION                                        10
  PHILOSOPHY, EXPERIMENTAL                          13
  MATTER                                            23
  MOTION                                            24
  MEDIUM OF SPACE                                   28
  MINUS-PRESSURE MATTER                             31
  FIRE                                              34
  MEDIUM OF FIRE                                    37
  EXPANSION                                         39
  OXYGEN AIR                                        41
  COMBUSTION                                        43
  WATER                                             47
  SOLVENCY                                          53
    GASTRIC SOLVENCY                                54
    SPLEEN, ITS USE                                 59
    DIAPHRAGM, HOW RAISED                           60
  CORRELATIVE ELEMENTS                              61
  MAGNETISM                                         62
  NATURAL SLEEP                                     65
    COMATOSE FLOW                                   66
    MESMERIC SLEEP                                  68
  VISION                                            70
  TRANSPARENCY                                      77
  OPACITY                                           77
  THE NERVOUS FLUID                                 78
  CLAIRVOYANCE                                      81
    LONG VISION                                     82
    OPAQUE VISION                                   83
  RIGIDITY                                          86
  PAIN                                              86
    MESMERISM, CURATIVE                             87
    ETHERS                                          87
  REPORT                                            88
  VOLUNTARY DE-ELECTRISATION                        91
    WILL, THE NATURE AND POWER OF                   92
  APPLICATION OF MESMERISM                          95
  CONTINUOUS MOTION                                 97
    CENTRIPETAL FLOW                                99
  FORMATION OF A PLANET                            100
    ---- AND USE OF A COMET                        103




Long as clairvoyance has remained the riddle, jest and wonder of the
world, it is questioned by none why the established philosophy of
this superiorly enlightened age is incompetent to account for this
or any other mesmerically produced phenomenon, or afford the least
glimmer of light by which it were possible to arrive at the physiology.
Why the philosophy of Aristotle, Bacon, Newton, Des Cartes, Davy,
Liebig--honoured names, and most justly, as the ancient and modern
fathers in science--can afford no scintillation whereby to lessen the
obscurity in which this most interesting subject is involved, should
appear strange and unaccountable to all lovers of philosophy. By
Professors the question should be answered. To consider it unworthy
of being looked into, would be a tacit confession that Professors are
indifferent to the natural truth; which proves all such to be but half
reasoners, and not philosophers, notwithstanding all their mathematical
learning and experimental experience.

It should have been questioned long since, whether the philosophy be
not untrue which leaves all mankind in the dark, in a mere physical
case, however mysterious the psychological result, the effect of manual
application, and in the power of almost every person to produce. The
mesmerising operation and effect includes nothing of necromancy or
trick; is openly performed, and produced mechanically; and although the
passes make a living being appear as if in a novel state of existence,
the immediate effect, polarisation of the extremities of the body, is
the same precisely as is effected on the iron bar when passed along
the poles of a loadstone. This, and numerous other physical phenomena,
which to the present day remain unexplained, and as if inexplicable,
afford much reason for at least the conjecture, that modern philosophy
is not the philosophy of physical nature; which, if not, it must be
false and misleading, inasmuch as there can be but one philosophy,
by reason of there being but one species of matter throughout all
nature, and but one cause of action,--_the general pressure_. From
which it follows, that as the philosophy of nature is that of matter
universally, there can be no physical phenomenon which it does not
explain. Therefore, the phenomena which modern philosophy has neither
laws nor rules competent to explain, are so many proofs that the
established philosophy of the age is false philosophy; which is
provable throughout all its particulars, however rash and adventurous
may appear the announcement. Besides, at the present day, there are
several different philosophies maintained; every profession has its
own; which is proof of the strongest nature that not one is true,
dissent from the truly natural being impossible, so universally is it
applicable. Eventually it will be admitted that the philosophy of the
nineteenth century is founded on the crude ideas of the imperfectly
learned in the earliest days of science, ever since adopted, and
never investigated, instead of being deduced solely from the INERT
NATURE OF MATTER, the only true basis. On modern philosophy, Davy
makes the shrewd remark, that "it is no better than a mere compilation
of isolated facts and circumstances, differently accounted for, and
leading to no general theory:" such is not the philosophy of nature.

That matter is _inert_, is made manifest in there being nothing
whatever throughout the whole of inanimate nature which can act or
move of itself. Matter does nothing, cannot act; it is the passive
patient of the general pressure, which alone can act; and pressure is
universal, because of matter being _inert_. Matter is not only _inert_,
but _unalterable_; on which principles the constancy of the order
and laws of nature depend. Inert, unalterable matter can suffer no
change but of a local nature--change of place, which implies motion,
for which there is no analogous cause but impulsive pressure. These
unquestionable physical truisms are stated in advance, from being
intimately connected with every physical change, in order to serve as a
standard of comparison from which to form an opinion while canvassing
the principles and laws by which the scientific world has been for
centuries not only governed, but misled.

Newton admits the _principle_ of _inertia_, but considers it an innate
_passive_ power, which _enables_ a body to resist against being moved;
and when in motion, enables it _to resist_ that which would put it
out of motion. _Inertia_, a passive power, is as death, being passive
animation; and _inertia enabling_ a body to _act_ against force, is
nothing short of _active inertia_, or _vis inertiæ_, which means the
force of inability. This monstrous perversion of a natural fundamental
principle, and by such high authority, pervades the whole of the
established philosophy. It makes the planets, which are but clumps of
deadly inert matter, gravitate themselves through space; and makes
_inert_ atoms competent to perform attraction on each other wherever
they exist. A more absurd article of _belief_ has no place in the
Athanasian code of mind-perverting dogmas; yet admitted as true by
the most eminently talented and highly learned of the present age.
While such inconsistent principles of common-place use are gravely
defended, the _known facts_ of mesmerism are obstinately and ignorantly
denied; and only because of not being understood; that, were it not
for the good sense and philanthropic perseverance of the enlightened,
noble-minded Elliotsons, Ashburners, and Esdailes, of the British
empire--honourable, heroic champions and victors in the cause of truth,
humanity and science, in despite of the self-conceit which affects
the knowledge of the limits of possibility; that, were it not for the
magnanimity of those superiors belonging to the learned profession,
this heaven-bestowed boon, carrying healing on the wing to suffering
humanity, would have been contemptuously received, ungratefully
acknowledged, and long since consigned to the rubbish of oblivion. Yet
all have claim to the common apology, _false scientific education_,
excepting those who have assented to what they have seen with wonder,
and afterwards denied their admission.

The established philosophy cannot account for the boy's marble going
farther through the air than the fullest extent of the impelling
thumb. The proposition may appear trifling and insignificant, yet is
it worthy the consideration of the Chair of Knowledge, from which it
has never been explained nor there understood, as involving the cause
of planetary motion; for, _in all nature there are not two causes of
motion_. That the marble "_partakes_" of the _force_, and "partakes" of
the _motion_ of that by which it is impelled, is an absurd idea; the
force and motion of a body were not, and cannot become, the force and
motion of any other body.

The established philosophy cannot account for the splinters of a stone
having motion out of the direction of impulse, nor for having motion
in every direction but that of the stone-breaker's impelling hammer,
which appears at variance with the natural, immutable dynamic law,
which says, that _as a body cannot move itself_, so must it have motion
in the direction only of that by which it is being moved. Neither is
there any philosophy extant, which explains why the stone at Texteth of
one hundred tons should rise, as if of itself, six inches in the air,
under which the quarrymen could have shoved a hand and withdrawn it
safely, before the immense mass fell crushingly on the former bed.

On the other hand, what the established philosophy undertakes to
explain, it explains erroneously. Beside maintaining the transfer of a
local casualty, in accounting for continuous motion, it teaches that
the power of steam consists in heat, and that cold congeals water:
whereas heat and cold have no physical existence; each is a sensation,
anything similar to which it is impossible for either fire or water to
possess. So that to the present day the power of steam, the cause of
combustion and of congelation has in each instance remained unknown.

So simple is nature, so few her laws, that were any one of her
phenomena known throughout all its bearings, it would be found that
the knowledge includes the philosophy of the whole of matter. Of this
Aristotle was aware when announcing, that he who is unacquainted with
motion, is ignorant of all things in true philosophy. Motion being the
_only effect_ producible on _inert, unalterable matter_, the knowledge
of the phenomenon includes that of all effect. The substance of all
things being of the same species, and the power of Nature consisting
in universal pressure, the formations in general nature and in the
laboratory of art can have but the same principles, laws, theory, and
philosophy. Paul may plant and Apollos water; nature germinates, the
weather or climate grows and fructifies. The chymist's fire does
not burn itself; in the absence of air and its pressure there is no
combustion; neither is there growth, respiration, nor life.

According to the philosophy of the astronomer, the earth has projectile
motion, from "impulse once impressed, at the beginning, and not since
renewed;" which is effect six thousand times, at least, greater
than the cause. Then, again, as motion must be in the direction of
impulse and cease out of that direction, the earth, from "impulse
once impressed," goes round the sun without being impelled; or of
its own accord, and should be centripetally attracted to the sun, if
solar attraction were possible. It needs no mathematical calculation
to prove, that, from such philosophy being wholly independent of all
consideration of natural cause, it is untrue, and at variance with
common sense.

The philosophy of the chymist is of every-day make. It assumes
different species of matter; chymical matter and matter not chymical;
attractions innumerable, such as chymical, electric, galvanic,
capillary, and attraction of cohesion; likewise magnetic forces,
chymical affinities, and affections of matter--"while as yet there
is none of them"--matter being _inert_ naturally. To mechanical
nature the entire is useless and foreign, and their value lies solely
in being terms of professional application in the highly important
chymical art; but to the discovery of true philosophy they are an
insurmountable obstacle. How chymical matter differs from the common
matter of the world, no chymist can say or conceive; nor is there any
difference in the substance and nature of inert matter: as well might
it be maintained that motion is not always mechanical, but sometimes
chymical. The true philosophy of chymistry is dynamic, the basis
inertia, the laws those of quantity and relative position.

The philosophy of the anatomist and physiologist is semi-natural,
semi-spiritual, mechanical and vital. Life, throughout all belonging
to the frame, does not suffice; the heart and blood have each an
imputed, distinct, living principle; the nerves are sensitive, the
muscles irritable; the flesh has its susceptibility, according to
the modern physiology. The sainted health-preserver shudders at the
irreligious notion of the economy being philosophised on at all; more
especially according to the laws of hydrostatics; it being "impious
beyond measure" to reason on the work of God's own hand, formed after
his own image and likeness, (malformations excepted,) as on human
mechanism. Yet, where are any of these vitalities and living principles
when respiration is suddenly stopped? Verily, these professionals
endow, most gratuitously, the animal frame with as many vitalities
and living principles as the lives bestowed on the tailor's--so much
the more unfortunate--cat. As every organ of the body is inert; no
organ, of itself, performs the function; every function is mechanically
performed, and every effect analogous to impulsive pressure, whether
consisting in formation, intermixture, or dissolution, all depend
on elementary local change. The contrary is not in the power of the
anatomist and physiologist to prove of inert, unalterable, atomic
substance; nor should more causes be assumed than what are natural,
common, sufficient, and analogous to effects. Spiritual principles for
mechanical purposes are as little requisite for animal organism as for
the steam-engine, or the performances of a watch.

The last on the list of professional philosophies is that of the
Therapeutist; the least misleading, from being the most concise. The
word ACTION includes the whole. There is no inquiry to which the word
_action_ is not the deeply-learned significant reply; being indefinite,
it stands for a dead-stop silencer. The doctor knows best--with much
room for knowing better. The doctor knows, and assures from his own
certain knowledge, that the _action_ of the dose on the stomach
upheaves the sac; but rather than be thought positive, allows that the
effect may be from the _action_ of the stomach on the dose. The good
easy man of M.D. celebrity, or mediocrity, has to learn, that the dose
is as _inert_ as when in the tea-cup, and the stomach as _inert_ as
when it has arrived at the predicted destiny, the dissecting table.
Again, the _action_ of the pain prevents the _action_ of the physic,
otherwise the cure would have been immediate. Such philosophy is
harmless, if so to the patient; from its insignificance it corrupts
neither pathology, osteology, nor dynamics. Not so the learning,
published on high surgical authority, to enlighten ward-walking
noviciates--that "pain may exist in the _flesh_ and bones without
being felt, owing to the _insensible_ sensibility of the part,"
which amounts to an excruciating, painless toothache, and, the being
unconscious of excited consciousness. Pain is not in the diseased or
wounded part, being the consequence of cerebral excitement; pain is one
of the objects of perception belonging to the scenery of the sensorium,
from which it cannot migrate. The disorganised part is but the apparent
place of pain; and wisely such, or else all remedial applications
would be to the brain. As to the dose and stomach _action_, it stands
corrected by the diagnosis; the stomach is lifted in consequence of
the equilibrium of pressure being destroyed by means of the dose,
notwithstanding its additional weight, within the stomach. Chymical
action of the dose and self-lifting muscles are all of Esculapian
surmise. The faculty should cease to identify feeling, pain, sensation,
with organic ailments and disorganization of the flesh.


Attraction is the all-pervading, all-perverting sin of the established
philosophy, the scape-goat, on which the blunders of illustration
are heaped. Newtonians endow every atom of matter with not only an
attracting property, but another, as if to neutralise it--repulsion,
which renders both useless; as if to make matter both active and inert,
naturally, and as if Nature were planned on principles of complexity,
from having double the number of powers the universe is possessed of
atoms. One steam power would suffice for the whole of England, all
appendages being feasible. How is solidity either maintainable or
attainable, while attracting atoms are repelling atoms? The free,
uncombined condition of the atoms of the atmosphere, as well as their
_inertia_, proclaim their inability to attract each other; and the mere
crack in a pane of glass, that between bodies there is no attraction.
While it is left to be conceived by the so-taught rising generation,
that the atoms of a bar of iron are busily employed in attracting
one another, and as busily in repelling each other at the same time;
and that the same atoms are inert, the long-denounced aspersion
stands good, that there is no absurdity, however great, into which
philosophers have not fallen; which is removable only by Philosophers,
Professors and Teachers coalescing to reform the erroneous doctrines
universally promulgated, which cannot stand the test of rational
investigation, and for which, as National Instructors, they are morally

Terrestrial attraction, attenuated on arriving at the moon,
and there sufficiently strong to prevent the satellite having
tangential flight, should be at the surface of the globe at least
two-hundred-and-forty-thousand times stronger; yet here a puff of the
breath drives the dust into the air, and the smallest winged insect
is not restrained by the attraction of the enormous magnet the earth
is considered, from escaping off the surface of the globe. There is
philosophy in mists, as well as "sermons in stones." Rain should come
down from above the clouds, if terrestrial attraction hold fast the
moon: mists and exhalations, by quitting the earth, solve the problem;
but we are ignorant of the philosophy, ways, and expressions of simple
nature; hence, ours is foreign philosophy.

In attributing the fall of bodies to the ground to attraction, it is
overlooked that the earth's greater attraction has to be exceeded by
the minor muscular, or explosive force, which caused the ascent. The
foregoing plain facts, although demonstrations to the contrary are on
record in the royalized TRANSACTIONS, but without reference to the
inability of inert matter to attract, are certain proof that attraction
is founded on a guess-work basis. Hence, that all learning is not
knowledge is a moral certainty; and that the nature of cause is not to
be arrived at by demonstrating the properties of lines and angles, time
has sufficiently proved.

Had the fall of Newton's apple been an effect of terrestrial
attraction, there should have been some stronger attraction from
somewhere above the tree, to make the juices of which the apple was
formed ascend from the ground, and capillary cannot be said to be
stronger than terrestrial attraction. There is nothing but puzzle,
contradiction, and inconsistency, in human opinion, where the natural
truth is unknown. Oh! apples, apples, why for discord sent? the first
cut short eternal life on earth; another turned "heaven-born reason" to
inventing dreams;--that heaven-born reason which tells us every day of
its yesterday's mistakes.


The Baconian precept, to "torture Nature out of her secrets," has been,
and ever must be, abortive of the good intended. Nature is performing
freely and openly every hour, without making us wiser, and as little
while she is operating in our own experiments. Her language, of which
_inertia_ and _pressure_ are the alpha and omega, is not studied;
nor does it mislead or flatter like our own. Experiments innumerable
have been performed; the _experimentum crucis_ resorted to; the screw
applied to the utmost pinch, without either confession or concealment
on Nature's part. Hence, the experimenter is left to make his own
philosophy of the case, of which the next operator makes a different;
and all are falsely interpreted that violate the principle of inertia,
which all do. Aristotle, Bacon, Newton, Black, Reid, Davy, Des Cartes,
experimented indefatigably under the most favourable auspices,--exalted
talent, and the institutions of the world at command; but all on
false principles; yet Nature, tortured or not, left them to their own
mis-interpretations. Aristotle, true in his opinion of motion, was
himself ignorant of the cause of continuous motion, or all would not
be so at present. Bacon recommended experiment, without teaching the
natural mode of interpretation. Newton spent his valuable time, to the
world's great loss, in experimenting on light, in ascertaining and
describing its properties, as if there were material light; instead of
which, light is a mere sensible effect; hence, a physical nonentity.
Black and Reid called to their assistance all the powers of numbers,
to ascertain and prove the quantity of heat in the animal system, and
of cold in ice; but could not torture Nature out of the information,
that heat and cold do not belong to matter or bodies, as a knowledge of
the function of the senses could have informed them. Davy travelled to
Skehallean to find from the size of the hill, a ratio of attraction,
whence to calculate the quantity of attraction in the entire globe of
the earth: at home, correctly sought, he would have found, without
numerical assistance and the pendulum, that the amount is zero. The
deflection of the pendulum was caused by the pressure on one side of
the bulb being greater than on the side facing the hill; which, from
varying hourly with the sun's altitude, should have told him that the
deflection is a mere weather-deviating circumstance.

On the other hand, who perceives the natural truths elicited by even
his own experiments! That truly great philosopher, Priestly, remained
ignorant that his own experiments on blood and air brought to light
the principle on which the blood is arterialized, without coming in
contact with the air in the lungs; of which experiments the faculty are
reprehensibly ignorant at present; also the principle of congelation
without cold. It is a general error that men must be philosophers
because they are mathematicians and first-rate experimenters, yet do
not know what keeps the blood in motion, nor how water becomes ice.

What experiment was ever so absurdly illustrated as that of ice formed
in the midst of fire; which is explained by, "evaporation generating
cold in a red-hot crucible," and while maintaining that cold is only
the absence of heat. The _rationale_ is: the oxygen of water is the
hindrance to congelation, which the evaporation carries off, and the
remaining elements of the water are compressed into ice. What are the
elementary constituents of water, has yet to be learned. Misled by
false-directing philosophy, the analysis of a rotten potato, in quest
of the cause of the vegetable epidemic, is as wise as were the same
scientific procedure taken on the contents of a pustule to discover the
cause of the small pox: the result in both cases must be a complete
new formation; and in the former, the result could be no preventive
information whatever to the planter. To convince planters and remove
all timidity, every garden owner should plant an experimental patch
with potato _peelings_, each having an eye; the crop is certain and
good, and supplies the cottager with the next year's seed at no
expense. The _cutting_ for seed may be of exhausted vegetating power,
while the peeling of even the same potato may be as sound as ever. The
badly grown potatoes of the previous crop caused those of the following
to be of imperfect growth and perishable: hence the general potato-rot.


By the popular expression, "Evidence of the Senses," is universally
understood, the perception, or seeing external bodies by the organs of
sense: yet externals are invisible and the senses insentient. This
mistake, common among the fathers of every age, has corrupted the
prevalent false philosophy tenfold.

The eye is not possessed of sight; neither is colour a property
of matter, or it must be indestructible by fire and every other
means. The senses should be considered as but mechanical agents for
exciting the brain; by which means it is we have our knowledge, the
particulars of the whole of which are mental, confined to the brain,
and consist, solely, in the cerebral excited scenery of the sensorium.
We have no other kind or means of acquiring knowledge, that is,
mental information. By the mere organs of sense we know nothing. The
knowledge we have by means of the senses exciting the brain, consists
in sensations or sensible effects, and, _we know nothing but our
knowledge_, whatever may be thought of externals being objects and
immediate objects of our knowledge.

In describing what we know, it is imagined the description is of
external bodies, their appearance, qualities, and properties; which,
however harmless the mistake throughout busy-life affairs,--as all
abide, judge, and are directed by the same kind of evidence,--not so
is it in philosophy, which is a description of nature's own mode of
procedure; and although it is impossible to describe invisible things,
as they are really, they should not be philosophised and reasoned
on, _as they are not_; they are not according to what we know, and
can have no resemblance in any manner to sensations, which are all
we know by means of them. Instead of knowing by the senses what
bodies are, we know only what they _are not_; modern philosophy is
regardless, totally heedless of this most instructive most pointedly
directing information, instead of making the just allowance for mental
appearances, it materializes every sensation, and imputes the whole
to the bodies outside of our own, of which all we can possibly know
is but inferential knowledge: it considers our sensations as being
qualities of bodies or properties of matter, and maintains that some
are physical causes by which certain physical effects are produced.
Such may be considered some of the principal reasons why _clairvoyance_
is unintelligible to all the most learned; and so must it ever remain,
or until a truer philosophy arises and rescues the great subject from
the darkness and errors of a perverting philosophy, the whole of
which has to be abandoned before the mind is fitted for the reception
of natural truths. We must cease to identify sensations with their
unseen, unknown, and but _promoting_, material causes. In proof of the
foregoing, a short review of the senses, their physiology, function,
result of the function and use of the result, must prove satisfactory
and convincing.

The _physiology_ of a sense, consists in an external organ,--as the
eye or ear, its nerves of sensation which spread through the brain,
and, the nervous fluid. To each of the senses there belongs a distinct
cerebral organ, which, if deducted, leaves nothing to constitute the
physiology, but the external organ, the nerves, and nervous fluid;
such may be considered the physiology of all the senses, so far as the
exciting mental perception is concerned.

The _function of a sense_ is, to act on and excite the cerebral organ,
when the nervous fluid is put into an acting state through external

The _result of the function_, is a sensation, of which we have
immediate cognizance, by reason of a sensation being _a recent change
in consciousness_. The nervous fluid, not the tubular nervous _striæ_,
is that by which the brain is excited.

The _use of the sensation_ is manifold. Emanating from the wonderful
Economy, is the law, that, _the sensation which an external body
promotes, shall, to ourself, seem to belong to that body_.

The law is imperative. The sensation being apparently at, and belonging
to, the external object or body, it is imagined the body is visible,
seen by the eyes, and of the colour, flavour, or odour known by the
sensation. The apparent place of the sensation directs to where the
body is situated.

No person thinks, when a rose promotes the sensation of colour, that
the object perceived is within himself: without the sensation there
is no perception of red, and with it, nothing is perceived or seen of
colour or of the flower; so that, were the object coloured or not, it
is to the spectator invisible; and as the sensation would be useless
were the object coloured and seen, it is obvious that the flower is
uncoloured, therefore is not seen: the seeing an uncoloured object is a
physical absurdity. So is it with all sensations; they constitute the
only objects of perception with which we are acquainted; and, such as
they are in any respect, the outward objects are in no respect. Sound
is a sensation; a sense has been provided that we should have knowledge
of sound; there is nothing of sound or noise in the air; the function
of the sense is not to hear, but excite the auditory cerebral organ,
and the sensation, in which alone sound consists, _seems_ to be outside
of us, and _seems_ to come from a bell, but which has nothing of the
kind to part with; yet it is imagined that sound enters the ear. Thus
is it supposed that the sensation externally exists, and is sound heard
by the ear. The philosopher so instructed, calculates the velocity of
the physical nonentity sound.

Luminousness, light, colour, sound, heat, cold, flavour, odour, are
sensations,--each of the entire is traceable from the function of the
senses to the sensorium: deduct these, there is nothing perceived or to
perceive; by means of the senses, respectively, we have knowledge of
each,--and by the senses exciting the brain are the whole produced, as
sensible effects. Outward bodies can have nothing the same or similar
to sensible effects; and therefore nothing of the whole belongs to
matter or bodies, or to physical philosophy. To mechanical nature the
whole would be useless; to sensitive beings only are they useful; to us
they are substitutes for Nature's deficiency in these respects; and the
whole present a convincing proof of the wise, the strict economy of the
Great Architect in his works.

The objection is unfounded, that the external object should be like
the sensation, in order to produce such sensation. But where is
there sound in musical string or in the metal of a bell to promote
the sensation; or yellow in the snowdrop to promote the sensation
of yellow, when the eyes are jaundiced or a stained lens is before
them: the sensation of pain is not the effect of pain; it and pain
are one. That which in health promotes the sensation known as sweet,
promotes that of bitter in sickness; the object is the same, the
sensation changeable. In reason it cannot be said that fire is like
the sensation, or the latter should be burning hot in the brain, where
it is excited; neither is any material thing outside of us like a
sensation of the brain; nor does the sensation inform us of anything
but itself, excepting that it has a remote external cause. The common
show-box exhibits the same landscape picture under the different
aspects of summer, autumn, winter, and spring, according to the stained
lens before the eyes; the picture has not all these colours, nor any,
it is a mere black and white print, in which the stained lenses make no
alteration. Nothing can be like a sensation but a sensation.

That the objects we perceive and their remote cause are distinct
things, is proved by the perception being that of a coin of the
half-crown size, when the eyes are directed to a shilling and a convex
lens before the face; if the lens be red, yellow, or blue, so is the
perceived object, which is not the white shilling. We are invisible to
each other; what is imagined to be a man's appearance, may be described
as, various sensations of different colours symmetrically arranged,
and constituting a single optically-excited mental effect. Neither
is it the likeness of the sitter that the canvass exhibits, but the
excited perception within the sensorium of the limner; for the renewal
of which it is that he directs his eyes so frequently to the sitter's
face, which is invisible to the limner, although he feels certain that
he sees every feature.

Those who imagine the eye-balls look and see, and that externals and
the perceptions they promote are the same, should, upon reflection,
attribute sight to their spectacles; for, as sight is nothing bettered
when the glasses are removed, so should the temporary improvement be
referred to the spectacles having sight as well as the eyes.

In consequence of all mankind being similarly organised, that which
seems coloured, sonorous, hot, acid, or aromatic to one person, is so
to every one else with sane eyes and senses; by which unanimity of
opinion, in these respects, prevails throughout the great family of
man, in the worldly concerns of active life, and the social compact is
maintained indissoluble.

The all-wise, benevolent dispensation of the senses, by which man's
existence is supplied with enjoyments not in all nature otherwise
to bestow; and his intellectual faculties provided with means of
contemplating the attributes of his Maker through his knowledge, such
as it is, of the creation, which makes known to us not only God's
regard for his creatures, but his supreme omniscience in the economy
made manifest throughout all his works. Were bodies coloured as we
imagine, there should be an element of each red, yellow, and blue
atoms; elements of sound, heat, and cold; elements of flavour and
odour innumerable: whereas, by the substitution of sensations, matter
without any such qualities, or any whatever, excepting that of being
everlasting, is made subservient to the formation of a universe of
worlds, teeming with beauty, harmony, and wonders; all contributing to
the comfort, enjoyment, happiness, edification, and future hope of its
sojourning inhabitants.

Now, when from the established philosophy we deduct gravitation,
attraction and repulsion, which are as foreign to inert matter as
vitality to the dead,--the host of chymicals, so repugnant to the
principle of _inertia_,--the imaginary living principles, erroneously
imputed to the mechanical organs of the animal system,--the sensations
of luminousness, light, colour, sound, heat, cold, acidity, and of
flavours and odours,--when the entire of these unphysical, mere
nominals, are deducted from modern philosophy, there remains nothing
whatever to produce action, physical change, or motion, excepting
_pressure_, which has been always looked upon as a mere adjunct to the
imagined numerous powers of nature. When common sense has rejected the
whole, then will the philosophy of the Fathers be valued by the world,
as would be a garment with more holes than threads.


As a general term, _matter_, means substance; with scientific
precision, the term is confined to the elementary state, in
contradistinction to the term _body_, applied to matter consolidated
into solids and fluids.

Matter consists of atoms, which are hard, opaque, _unalterable_, of
homogeneous substance, of the spheric shape, and naturally _inert_,
therefore of inactive essence; being _inert_, various species of
substance would be useless. The spherical shape admits immediate atomic
contact, and leaves interstices uniformly throughout all bodies.
There cannot be either communication or alteration of the essence of
inert matter; and what the essence of unalterable matter may be, is
impossible, and would be useless, to know.

An element is any volume of atoms of the same size. There is no
difference between elements but in the size of their atoms.

Every element is a rarer medium to every other element of larger atoms;
the minor is as a partial vacuum to the major, which involves the
principle of _inequality_, on which motion depends.

Correlative elements are any two, the atoms of one of which are fitted
for the interstices of the other, and for no other interstices. Such
elements will naturally be together. On the correlative principle
magnetism depends.

All bodies consist of several elements; there is nothing simple, but
an element. Bodies are divisible, matter is not.

All bodies include a portion of _elementary_ or _electric_ matter,
which is removed without injury to their general texture.

Matter can suffer no change but change of place.

Weight is an accident of matter, the effect of motion: all _effect_
consists in motion; there is no result until effect has ended in rest.

Rest being natural to inert matter, is no effect, has no cause.

_There is no power but impulsive pressure_; nor is there any effect
whatever attributable to _inertia_.

The fundamental principle of _inertia_ is that only from which the
philosophy of nature is deducible: all philosophy is false which is not
consistent throughout with this universal, all-directing principle.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Note._--The terms _electric_ and _elementary_ are of the same
signification, which is, _highly rare_: quality and power to act are
wholly out of the question with the inert atoms of the elements of
bodies and matter.


Motion admits of no definition, from being but a local casuality of
transitory endurance; motion is the same in all things, from an atom to
a planet, against which all difference in velocity and direction makes
no exception.

Impulsive pressure is the only cause analogous to the mechanical
effect motion; pressure is universal because matter is inert.

Motion is not natural to _inert_ matter: the term is expressive of the
local condition of a body, while the body is prevented remaining where
it is, and while the body is being passed through contiguous portions
of space.


As effect and cause are necessarily equal, so is motion the measure of
impulse, in time. Therefore as long as a body is in motion it is being
impelled, however insensible the impelling cause. Motion must be in the
direction of impulse; for, as a body cannot move itself, and is the
passive patient of impulse, so must its direction be the same as that
of impulse; therefore when the direction of motion is changed, it must
be by a novel impulse in the novel direction.

From all matter being in motion, and all effect consisting in motion,
and because like effects everywhere are attributable to the like
or same cause, so must there be a cause of motion as universal as
matter; rather than that there should be a distinct impelling cause
for every individual motion following after the body, to put and keep
it in motion. In all philosophic research the golden rule of nature
should be held in mind, which prescribes "the shortest mode and fewest
materials:" _to mistake on the side of simplicity is more wise than
censurable in the search after natural physical truths_.

A universal cause of motion, it would seem, can be no other than a
universal medium, a medium of pressure, one occupying the regions of
planetary space, competent to keep the planets in interminable motion
and effect all terrestrial minor motion: only by such means is it
conceivable how the earth can be under endless, ever-varying impulse,
productive of ever-changing direction. When impulsively pressed into
motion by such a medium, the direction of a planet must be orbicular,
on account of the pressure on the solar side being always less than
on the opposite, by which the projectile direction is diverted from
rectilinear to curvilinear.

Newton imagined that a medium, and however rare, occupying the regions
of space, must retard, in time destroy, and eventually require the hand
of Deity to restore the primeval order of planetary motion: no very
bright idea of the great mathematician, considering the Omniscience of
the Projector of a _self-going_, _self-regulating_ Universe. Whereas
a medium as dense as molten gold, could produce no such disorder as
long as impulse is greater than resistance; which the long-continuance
and order of planetary motion strongly seem to indicate is the case.
Were there no medium in space, the planets must be at rest; one could
not possibly affect another but by its shadow: Uranus being agitated
by the greatly remote presence of Neptune, is proof of there being a
connecting medium between. Gravitation is supposed to move the body
possessed of the property, forwards,--why not every way?--to the sun or
towards some neighbouring planet, but not to send that body or planet
an agitating warning of its presence. How is gravitation within one
planet to keep another in a state of agitation; which agitation being
motion--a mechanical effect--is proof of there being a medium by which
mediate connection is maintained between the two, Uranus and Neptune.
Without a planetary medium there could be no _system_ of planets.
Suppose the existence of such a medium, then its sudden removal,--must
not every subordinate system, which makes part of the universal system,
become disjointed the same instant? Besides, from the laws of vision,
rather of optics, there is equal proof that space contains a medium.
There is no light to come from a star to the eye; there is nothing of
sight belonging to the eye-balls; and there must be something between
a star and the sense to connect the star with the sense; or how is the
sense or brain to be so affected by the star, as that the perception
or sensation shall be always the same when the eye-ball lenses are
directed to the same star; and only by a universal medium can all the
stars of the hemisphere be in connection with the eye at the same
time, or the time of a few winks of the eye. Therefore until it is
proved that constant planetary motion can be without constant and equal
corresponding impulse, as to direction; and that a star can affect
the sense of itself, immediately or with nothing between, all denial
of planetary space being occupied by a medium of pressure, is utterly


Pressure being obviously the cause of planetary motion, so is it of all
terrestrial motion. To produce atomic motion and transfer generally, it
is necessary, only, that the atoms of the medium of space should be of
less size than the minutest interstices in bodies.

A universal medium must be of universal service, (as would be
conceived, were the universe involved in a medium of water,) to be
in accordance with nature's economy: to keep the planets and matter
in motion, to retain atoms together, and effect their separation
occasionally, include the whole of action required by its service; more
in this respect it cannot effect; nor is the common general procedure
otherwise effected. Therefore in pressure, by the medium of space,
consists the PRIMUM MOBILE: the beginning and end of all physical cause
of action and of all physical effect.

Pressure is nothing assumed, hypothetic, or unproven, like attraction
and gravitation,--the justly dethroned imbecile usurpers of the
imperial chair of philosophy for ages past.

On barometric evidence alone, that pressure exists all round the globe
is fully proved; and that it is indispensable to the maintenance of
the existing general order, all must readily grant who reflect for an
instant on the fatal consequences which the cessation of the general
pressure, for only a few minutes, must cause. Hence it is no immediate
question how the general pressure originated, how maintained, what
the confining boundaries or _point d'appui_. Most likely it is the
consequence of the motion of the planets themselves, surging through
the ocean of space. As every performance of nature has some ulterior
object in view, it is probable that the effect of the motion of a
planet on the medium of space is tributary to the motion of another
planet, and that the motion of the whole is a means of preventing
the cessation of motion of any of the parts. Most likely the medium
of space was not in a state of pressure at first; that planetary
motion, however commenced, effected the state of pressure necessary
for its continuance, and which would be useless beyond the precincts
of planetary evolution: where pressure is not needed, of a certainty
there is none. Hence the conclusion is warrantable, that the general
pressure, however commenced, is maintained by not only the motion of
the planets individually but in systems, through the ocean of space.

The earth may be said to swim through the medium of space, and to be
soaked with it as a submerged sponge is with water, and the portion
within the globe of the earth, is continuous with the like medium in
space generally. By which all parts of the interior of the globe are
under the general pressure equally as the surface, and all terrestrial
bodies subject to its vicissitudes.

By such means, only, is the great earthquake to be accounted for on
dynamic principles. Far as the subterraneous grumbling extends, the
physical cause must be present, and in a state of force equal to the
awful result. No pent-up air suddenly set free, or suddenly exploded
gas,--both naturally forceless,--subject to attenuation and obstruction
in the passage from the source--is competent to burst the globe and
hurl whole cities into the engulfing chasm: nor is fire any assistant,
judging from the absence of flame, smoke, cinders, and ashes. Dreadful
as is the catastrophe, it is but a natural casuality and in perfect
accordance with the laws of matter. An extraordinary rushing into the
body of the earth of medium of space, preceded by an equal efflux of
elementary matter atmospherically induced, are the cause and promoting
means of the extraordinary, terrific phenomenon.

All things being under the general pressure, and elementary atoms
of all sizes everywhere present, the interstices of bodies cannot
remain empty. From all interstices being formed by spherical atoms,
and the atoms of the medium of space the smallest, there are always
interstitial spaces for medium of space to enter, pass through or
remain within, and which _is not insulated_, but continuous with the
outward source. Thus, has the medium of space access to every atom, and
by the pressure from without, is enabled to act _centrifugally_ within
the body, as a kind of back-spring against each and the whole of its
constituent atoms, to produce expansion, dissolution, and elementary
dispersion according to the medium or circumstances in which the body
may be placed. These general principles admit of repetition, in order,
that, by repeated showing, to prove their validity, against others
more generally known and adopted, although unfounded in nature, sense,
or reason.


Taking the maximum of pressure as a fixed quantity, or, as not being
subject to increase, and assuming the degree to be not less than
equal to the tenacity of steel, there must of necessity be means of
mitigating the maximum, so that in the scale of descent every degree
of force should be attainable; and more, to keep the equilibrium in
a state of disturbance, without which all things must be, and remain
in the rest of death. Were there no minus-pressure means, the solid,
or perhaps aëriform state of matter would exist everywhere, and of
motion there could be none. Such means for promoting motion are amply
supplied, and without any addition of matter to the measured quantity
sufficient for the formation of bodies and service of nature generally,
in the elements themselves, of matter.

As the body which is involved in a medium of air is under less pressure
than in a medium of water, and still less within a medium of elementary
matter, so is elementary matter, and the elements generally, the
natural means of mitigating the maximum of pressure on and within
bodies. All bodies within and on the surface of the earth, possess
removable elementary matter, which prevents superficial contact, and
excludes medium of space proportionally from their interior; and
because the medium of space is the cause of pressure, in being thus
rendered discontinuous, so is its force, as it were, intercepted
or lessened. For instance, a polished needle floats on water, but
when wetted or smoked is precipitated, from having its electric or
minus-pressure atmosphere removed; from which it is obvious that with
the minus-pressure atmosphere, the needle is under less pressure than
when without it; and the same atmosphere it is which makes the bed in
the water so much larger every way than the needle.

The minus-pressure principle is well exemplified in the rise of water
within a tube over which fire is situated. When the fire is removed,
the water falls. The fire must be in the state of combustion--mere
ignition does not answer. The elements forced out of the combustible,
as combustion proceeds, cover the orifice of the tube, and intercept
the general pressure, notwithstanding they are under the general
pressure. By such minus-pressure means is the equilibrium destroyed,
and by the unaltered pressure on the water outside the lower orifice
of the tube, the water is forced upwards. So is it that the water of
the sea is raised to the minus-pressure, elementary matter descending
from a cloud in the shape of an inverted cone, and known as the
water-spout. Astronomers can best say whether the sun and moon be not
minus-pressure means in promoting the rise of the ocean, productive of
the tides; a miniature representation of which is effected by holding
a charged jar over a surface of water, to which the water rises in a
small cone,--which cone follows every motion of the jar, and falls when
the jar is discharged. Capillary ascent is promoted by the interposed
minus-pressure electric matter which fills the caliber of the tube: the
same matter prevents the horizontal flow of water through such tubes;
but when the tubes are de-electrised, the flow is free and constant:
boiling water, or fire de-electrises all such tubes. The electric
matter on a bar of iron is a hinderance to water running down, but
when removed by means of fire, the water runs down the bar freely. The
atmosphere is a minus-pressure medium to the earth, and on the general
principle that _interposed elementary matter renders discontinuous_ the
medium of pressure, which is the medium of space.

Minus-pressure means exist in other than the elementary form,
as in blotting-paper, candle-wick, pledgets of lint. Within the
cupping-glass, which is empty of air only, it is the minus-pressure
matter obtained from flame which promotes the rise of blister.
Within the vessels of the vascular system, as mucilaginous lining,
minus-pressure matter assists the circulation of fluids, on the
foregoing capillary principle. The slime on deep-water fish, seems
provided to lessen the pressure of the water on the inhabitants of
those seas. Minus-pressure matter on one side only of a body, destroys
the equilibrium, and promotes the motion of the body; and generally,
the partial action, implied by motion, of the medium of space on bodies
or their parts, is promoted by interposed minus-pressure matter in
every instance of physical change. Only in minus-pressure means, which
serve as a partial vacuum in some cases, to disturb the equilibrium
of pressure, is motion, or change of place of the elements of bodies,
or of bodies themselves promoted: without such means there is nothing
to promote the blowing of a wind, or to put the medium of space into
action. Cause being given, the _General Pressure_ in the production
of every physical effect, the sole province of philosophy consists in
tracing out the minus-pressure means which promote the occasional and
partial action of the medium of pressure.


Fire is not hot, although it burns the flesh and promotes pain.
Matter, which is unalterable, cannot be made hot or cold, neither
is there anything to make it so. If a limb be made rigid, or the
nerves of sensation be removed, or the function of the nervous fluid
be obstructed, the limb may be burned off unconsciously. Heat is a
sensation effected through excitement of the brain; out of the brain
there is neither excitement nor heat. The fire does not excite the
brain, but the nervous fluid; and although the sensation is not hot, it
is imagined that the cause must be hot, which is false reasoning. The
chymist finds heat creviced in all things, even those which he admits
are destroyed by heat--gunpowder and ice. How can flame be hot, when
just obtained from the gases of decomposed ice water? or, if hot, _sui
generis_, it must have been hot frozen flame in the original ice.

Modern philosophy adopts different kinds of heat,--_animal, culinary,
and latent heat_. The first is our own feeling excited by means of
fire in the sensitive centre, the brain; also by exercise and disease,
in the absence of fire. How is the spark from the flint or from the
steel to saturate a bushel of coal with heat? How, again, does "heat
come to an equilibrium in all surrounding bodies," when some portion
of the coal may be black cold, and others red hot--using the popular
terms--in the fire-place, at the same time, and while the air in the
chamber is indexing zero? _Latent heat_ is of the philosopher's own
peculiar making; and on the "_great discovery_" the most unbounded
praise is still bestowed. Latent heat, "which all bodies possess
without being heated," which, "heats nothing," and is not hot, is
cold heat, and should be nomenclatured such, or, absurd heat. Are not
Instructors less than half-reasoners and unnatural philosophers, who
abide by and teach such consummate nonsense: on a par with which is
the discovery of "latent dark light"--"of black being formed by the
intermixture of two luminous rays at the point of intersection in
the spectrum," which is the same as feelable darkness; after which,
there only remains for "_new discovery_," latent sound, for inking
on, thence vibrating from, a sheet of music-paper; and latent motion,
to keep a stone at rest, the quantity of motion in the world having
been already ascertained arithmetically to a fraction; the last-day
discovery, the quantity of right reason, is the small remaining trifle
to be discovered. Radiation of heat and cold by fire and ice, being
inconsistent with the _inertia_ of _matter_, is an erroneous and
greatly-misleading assumption, although proved through the nicest
experiments, according to the experimenter's ideas.

Instead of fire communicating anything to bodies, _fire promotes loss
to everything_ in its neighbourhood. The bars of stoves, iron pokers,
steam-boilers; all culinary vessels; coal, wood, candles, paper, linen,
all suffer loss by means of fire; cinders, charcoal, tinder, are but
remains: to which it is no exception that some bodies acquire substance
and weight in becoming oxydes; because, previous to acquiring oxygen
from the air, they must have lost elementary matter to the fire to make
spaces for the oxygen to enter, otherwise the open air should oxydize
equally, in the absence of fire.

The loss, or matter of loss which fire promotes to fluids, appears as
air-beads on the sides and bottom within the vessel on the fire, before
the water comes to ebullition: these beads cannot be made to rise in
the water by any manner of agitation, which is proof they have not
come from the fire, and through the rigid bottom, or ascent and escape
are inevitable. When the bottom has been sufficiently de-electrised by
the fire, they are pressed through it to the fire; or if the vessel be
removed and placed on the ground, they become dispersed through the
water insensibly. The like spherules collect on an egg while boiling,
which cannot be anything issued from the fire to the surface of the
water, then precipitated on the egg. On the bottom of a glass-retort
suspended over a lamp, the like spherules collect, from which it is
supposed that water never touches the bottom of any containing vessel;
it must touch that which it wets.

That air suffers loss to fire, is made evident by the air being
deprived of, or losing its oxygen during combustion; and from both fire
and flame becoming extinguished in a limited quantity of respirable
air, in consequence of having lost its oxygen to the combustible, while
in the state of fire.

Solids, as polished metals and glass, when they experience no change
of weight, lose to the fire imponderable elementary matter only. So is
it when the hand is presented to the fire, it loses electric matter,
and the loss it suffers promotes the sensation of heat: when the hand
afterwards touches a body, supposed to be cold, it acquires elementary
matter from that which is touched. In every instance the body, solid or
fluid, supposed to be _heating_, is losing elementary matter; and that
which is said to be _cooling_, is acquiring the like matter; the hand
_loses_ to the former and _receives_ from the latter electric matter.


A peculiar medium is formed within a fire, towards the composition of
which the fuel contributes more or less of its elements; which is made
manifest in a piece of wood or paper when held within the fire, being
brought to the state of combustion, and without touching the fuel,
(heat, be it remembered, is no more physical than shadow.) The like
medium is formed from the elements contributed by flame, and whatever
of elementary matter the atmosphere may contribute beside. High above
the flame of a lamp combustion and fusion are effected the same as
within, or in contact with the flame. Between the cupped hands this
medium is receivable, and may be carried from the flame of a candle to
the wick of a different candle just blown out, which it re-illumines.
There being little or none of the medium of fire attendant on a
detached ignited body, favours the conjecture that the fuel during
combustion contributes somewhat of its elements towards the formation
of the medium of fire. Hence, although not included in the nomenclature
of chymistry or any other, the medium of fire should have place on the
list of realities.

As all bodies include more or less of free elementary matter, which
excludes its equal in volume of the medium of space, so to admit medium
of space in order to cause change in the constitution of a body, the
body must undergo previous de-electrisation: the law is general.

The medium of space being the expanding and decomposing cause, by
means of its centrifugal pressure within bodies, to prevent its being
in excess and effecting such changes spontaneously, productive of the
decomposition of all things, all bodies are protected or retained in
their present condition by the electric matter within them, which
excludes the decomposing cause.

Within the medium of fire all kinds of bodies become de-electrised;
all suffer loss of electric matter, which is succeeded by influent
medium of space, the centrifugal pressure of which affects the several
changes to which bodies are liable previous to ultimate dissolution
into the elementary state. In promoting the de-electrisation of every
kind of body, and to the extreme, which no other individual medium or
menstruum can effect, consists the universal utility of the medium of


The theory of expansion is of easy comprehension; it consists in
previous de-electrisation, succeeded by influent medium of space,
which, by acting with centrifugal pressure, produces the phenomenon of
expansion. The general pressure is the expanding cause, by reason of
the portion of medium of space within all bodies being continuous with
the medium of pressure in general space.

A bar of iron placed within the medium of fire suffers
de-electrisation; then acquires medium of space, by which the bar is
expanded. When taken from the fire, it acquires electric matter similar
to that of which it had suffered loss, which displaces the expanding
medium, and now becomes contracted by external pressure. The olden
philosophy has no contracting cause, the imputed attraction having
been destroyed by the imputed heat of the fire, as the same philosophy
states of the imputed attraction of magnets being destroyed by the heat
of fire, which leaves the bar to contract itself.

A piece of lead on the fire becomes de-electrised and expanded. The
portion of medium of space it has acquired separates the atoms of
the lead by which the state of solidity is subverted; it remains as
one of the constituents of the lead, and is as a menstruum to the
metal, and the atoms of the metal may be said to swim in it as the
globules of blood in the serum. Further de-electrisation and additional
increments of medium of space are productive of complete dispersion of
the atoms of the metal, and of a kind of efflorescent result, which
is a subsequent formation. The air in a corked bottle before the
fire loses electric matter to the medium of fire; and by the medium
of space which enters the vacated interstices, the cork is exploded.
In the partially exhausted air-pump receiver, that decrease in the
quantity of air should increase the expansive power of the remainder,
and that the atoms should fly asunder with exploding force, is most
unreasonable and impossible. The physical fact is, the more the air
is reduced, the greater is the quantity of influent medium of space,
consequently of expanding and exploding force. In the condensing of
air, as is the expression, by the piston of the syringe, the quantity
is reduced from being forced out through the pores of the syringe; and
pressure on the bottom of the piston springs it up when the depressing
power is removed. Under the general pressure the atoms of air must
be in contact; and the volume being reduced, implies reduction of
quantity: hard unalterable atoms are incompressible beyond contact;
and as to their being elastic, it is physically impossible; medium
of space being forced out and re-entering, is what makes the air be
considered elastic. Let the syringe be worked under water, and the
matter displaced appears escaping as air-bubbles, and as air-beads on
the outside of the syringe.


All airs are compounds. Medium of space is the most voluminous
constituent of every aëriform body, which accounts for an air or gas
and steam being of so much greater volume than that from which it had
been obtained; steam has fifteen hundred times the volume of the water
it was produced from.

Oxygen air is decomposed in converting it with hydrogen to water:
there is no oxygen or hydrogen air in water; their _elements_ are
the constituents of water. Oxygen is decomposed by respiration; when
inspired, it is not expired, but nitrogen, which must have been one
of its constituents, and from there being nothing to constitute the
expiration but the previous inspiration the proposition is proved.

The constituents of oxygen are--nitrogen, _a highly rare imponderable
element_ and medium of space. The first is the most ponderable element
of nitrogen air; its atoms are the largest of all others of the
elements of matter, and, it may be said, they constitute the substance
of the framework of all ponderable or gross formations. Davy says,
"the properties of nitrogen are altogether negative;" the same applies
to every other kind of air, all being constituted of _inert_ atomic
substance, consequently of inactive essence; and all being alike in
every respect but in the size of their atoms. The imponderable element
being highly evanescent, is never found alone, and is always connected
with nitrogen; hence simple nitrogen is obtainable only from bodies, or
by deoxygenating atmospheric air. Atmospheric air is nitrogen, plus the
imponderable element; and when the nitrogen is saturated with the same
element, the air is oxygen: hence, whichever is inspired, nitrogen is

From nitrogen being evolved copiously from water in vacuo, and from
ice being convertible to nitrogen, according to Priestley, so is
nitrogen a constituent of water, also of the gases into which water is
decomposable; but as it cannot belong to the hydrogen, owing to its
superior levity, it must to the oxygen; which is confirmation of the
above, that nitrogen is a constituent of oxygen air or gas.


How oxygen supports combustion no Elementary Treatise explains; but
leaves it to be imagined, that oxygen is somewhat of a burnable nature,
or that it generates heat when blown into a fire. The fact is, it
supports combustion only mechanically. The centrifugal pressure, by
the medium of space, decomposes the fuel; electric matter, entering
the ignited fuel, displaces medium of space, and the fire goes out;
oxygen prevents the entrance of electric matter, and permits the medium
of space to enter the fuel freely, the pressure from without gives
centrifugal force. In this twofold manner of service oxygen promotes
the continuance of the kind of decomposition known as combustion. A
live coal is greatly _deficient_ of electric matter; when just fallen
from the fire it is said to be red and hot, after a few minutes black
and cold; all of which are but mental effects. On the hearth the coal
acquires electric matter from the air, which displaces medium of space,
and becomes extinguished; so would the fire were there no oxygen in the
surrounding air. Hence it would seem, that the interstices of oxygen
are too diminutive for electric matter to enter, but are sufficiently
large for those of the medium of space to pass through, thence into
the fuel. Should the utility of the nitrogen of oxygen in combustion
be questioned, because nitrogen alone puts an end to the combustion
of a candle; it may be answered, that, as the imponderable element of
oxygen air, from being highly evanescent, is not obtainable without
the nitrogen, and as by the service of both together combustion is
increased, so may both be considered supporters of combustion; the
grosser element serving as a carrier to the minor, and, as it were,
giving it momentum sufficient to penetrate beyond the surface of the
half-decomposed, or previously ignited fuel.


A piece of wood, like everything else when placed within the medium
of fire, suffers de-electrisation and acquires medium of space: this
twofold procedure continuing, the wood becomes split or burst asunder,
and its elements gradually forced out by the centrifugal pressure;
some of which are precipitated, some contribute to the medium of fire,
others are recombined differently and exist for a short space of time
as flame, and others, with matter from the air, form soot. Such is the
most rational theory of combustion, consistent with the _inertia_ of
matter and the absence of heat.

Friction rubs away electric matter, percussion forces it out,
combustion and ignition follow, and without being promoted by either
heat or fire. The kindling matter of a coal-laid fire requires
the de-electrising spark at first, and the de-electrised kindling
de-electrises the coal; the wood fire, effected by means of friction,
is independent of even the spark of fire for its commencement, from
having been otherwise de-electrised at first. Within the fire, one part
de-electrises another, and the centrifugal pressure decomposes the

Animal combustion is consequent on the internal organs and flesh being
de-electrised, the stomach first, by means of spirituous liquors,
which, like fire in so doing, promote the sensation of heat. The
stomach and adjacent organs, from being thus de-electrised, are
prepared to receive the decomposing medium; and from oxygen, to exclude
electric matter, being absent, the flesh is brought to the state of
smothered combustion and charred: it may now be considered in the light
of a _mortuum caput_.

The spontaneous combustion of greasy clothes, damp hay and other
things, is promoted by the limited quantity of air in which such
articles are confined. To the hand the air seems warm before
combustion has commenced, which indicates deficiency of electric
matter, but which, in time, the air acquires from greasy clothes, and
from damp hay, the removal of which is succeeded by the destroying
medium, by which the elements of the combustible become separated, set
free, and dispersed.

In summer, when the atmosphere is greatly deficient of what may
be termed winter electric matter, all woodwork is in a desiccated
condition; and the slight friction of limb against limb is sufficient
to make space for medium of space to enter in excess, and convert to
fire, tree after tree, the whole of a forest.

The combustion of a candle is well worthy the philosopher's attention.
The candle while burning, comprises a series of the simplest
operations, and far beyond the powers of art to effect or otherwise
imitate; yet from indifference to the familiar, and the paucity of
skill required in the construction, there is nothing less noticed
with philosophic acumen. The mechanism and materials to be wrought
are the same; which consist in a slender, compact, portable cylinder
of tallow, within which is included an equal length of wick. The
various operations of de-electrising, fluidifying, and gas-making,
are performed in silent, regular succession, unretarded by friction
and unincumbered with containing vessels, Nature furnishes the power.
The wick answers the purpose of service-pipes, through which the
half-wrought materials are conveyed in a gaseous form to the refining
fire, within which they remain as in a gasometer of supply, to be
gradually diffused through the surrounding flame, and there receive
the finishing lustrous polish. The new formation is now a refinery to
the work in progress, and is curiously situated over the materials
where only it could serve the numerous requisite purposes. Nor does the
gradual consumption of the machinery derange the order of operation,
work and wear being carried on simultaneously to the end. The
many-coloured tissue wrought, of starlight shine and of expanded base,
is tastefully tapered as if to please in appearance, as well as lighten
our darkness. Thus by natural means, operating on almost uncostly
materials, mankind are supplied with that by which darkness is turned
to day--the candle flame.

All combustion is on the same principle, previous de-electrisation
the commencement, and, by the same cause continued, the centrifugal
pressure, which is on the increase from being derived from the general
pressure. Flame, or the electric spark, de-electrises the gases, oxygen
and hydrogen, before their conversion to water takes place; compression
effects the same. The inflammable air in mines becomes exploded from
the de-electrising consequence of flame, when inadvertently exposed;
and at times the de-electrisation is effected by the atmosphere, as in
spontaneous combustion. The mine explosion, promoted by the atmosphere,
is a case of spontaneous detonation, if not combustion, which, from sad
experience taught, should be anticipated by the application of a rocket
fired by a train. The foul air should be got rid of timely, not left
to accumulate, and the weather dictates when. "The Davy" may be said
to insulate the flame of the lamp from the electric matter of the air
within the mine. The flame, when exposed, de-electrises the foul air,
and in fluent medium of space causes the explosion.


Water is the most compound of fluids, although when pure it promotes
little or no sensation, which is owing to the certain proportion of its
elements to each other. It seems to have, as constituents, a portion
of each of the general elements; of which, when any are in excess or
deficiency, the fluid differs from common pure water, but still is
an aqueous fluid. All aqueous fluids which differ from pure water,
do so from elementary disproportion in their constitution. Ancient
philosophers considered water the parent of all things, because it
contributes matter of substance and increase, they said, to all kinds
of bodies, and because there is nothing elementary belonging to bodies
which is not obtainable, by one means or other, from water or its
productions. It contributes increase to the whole of the vegetable
kingdom, and through vegetable matter to the increase of animal flesh.
From the vegetable world are obtainable, by means of art, earths,
metals, salts, acids, alkalies, even flame; the primitives of which
are of the same kind as the initials of water; also of the atmosphere,
which is convertible to water, but is not water, by reason of not only
elementary disproportion, but the enormous excess of medium of space
in which its elements are involved.

The constitution of water being unknown, and supposed to consist of
only the gases, hydropathy is condemned, like mesmerism, through the
ignorance and intolerance of professionals, themselves falsely educated
at best. As alimentary, water is the most wholesome drink under
heaven; as medicinal, far beyond comparison with extracts from metals
and minerals, from which deduct the water, the remainder kills. The
hydropathic perspiration cleanses the flesh from head to foot; physic,
the intestines and stomach only. Water is the elixir of both body and
mind; witness the persons who are teetotallers. A patient declared to
the present writer, he would rather have run naked into the street,
were he not bound up by the wet sheets, than endure the fog and stench
from his body by the cold water perspiration. Yet doctors insist that
hydropathy is not medicinal or curative, or why not adopt the practice?

Water is formed by detonating the gases, oxygen and hydrogen, by which
their _elements_ become combined in the form of water; which is the
only formative mode pursued in the laboratory of art; whereas, in that
of nature, it is variously formed: the number of elements determines
the number of modes. Suppose six the number of the natural elements,
then any five and the remaining one, any four and the remaining two,
or any three and the other three, met and compressed within the
atmosphere, the product is water. On the meeting of certain clouds,
where _the gases_ could not have equal elevation, water is formed;
and on walls and wainscots, under cover, in humid weather, it is
formed from the electric matter on their surface and the complement of
elements contributed by the atmosphere: the same walls, in the same
weather, would have no water, if kept de-electrised by stoves. It is
formed similarly on furs, woollens, and the spider's web, all of which
are retainers of electric matter; and on the leaves of plants as _dew_,
but on the side only which is covered with the like electric matter.
Dew-water is neither a precipitation nor exhalation, but a formation on
that where it is found.

Water is formed on glass and metallic vessels, however closely covered,
as long and no longer than the included water gives out electric matter
through the pores of the vessel. In the air of the tropics, the dew or
water running down the outside of covered and uncovered vessels, cannot
be considered humidity of the air condensed by cold. In proof of the
foregoing, the hitherto unexplained experiment is opportune.

A plate of glass, covered on one side with tin foil, has much dew on
the naked side when uppermost, and none, when the covered side is
uppermost, of equal dewy nights. The foil acquires electric matter from
the ground, which the glass or naked upper side receives and retains;
but when the naked side is next the ground, the portion of electric
matter it acquires is conducted off by the foil at top; and as where
there is no electric matter there is no dew, the upper coated side
is dry, and under circumstances which would have left much dew on the
glass side if uppermost.

Within the animal system various aqueous fluids and humidities are
formed, and, as in the former instances, without oxygen and hydrogen
being present; namely, hydrocephalus, the stomach juices, liquor
pericardium, water of blister, milk, tears: to these add the juices
of fruit, the chymists' aqueous fluids, together with the variety
of formative modes, and the complex constitution of water remains
unquestionable. Lavoisier's experiments proved the same, by the endless
variety in the residue and product, from decomposing and recomposing
the same water several times. Davy states, that, when experimenting on
different substances, water frequently appeared, when there was nothing
sensibly present to which it could be attributed, if not to nitrogen,
which disappeared simultaneously with the water appearing: electric
matter is everywhere present, although not sensibly discoverable.

From which it is obvious that the alchymists of old mistook the road
to _El Dorado_. Instead of aiming at turning the grosser metals into
gold, they should have alchymised on water, taking its elements as the
money-changer does those of the numeration table, and by the rules of
transposition made the valueless stand in the place of most value.

Water in the boiler loses electric matter to the fire beneath, and is
expanded by influent medium of space; the excess of the latter throws
out the elements of the superior stratum, which, with an enormous
influx of medium of space, are the constituents of steam and the power
of steam. The so-acquired medium of space, by the pressure from without
which it is under, is the cause of the elasticity and force of steam.
Steam is not water, nor is it ever condensed by "cold." It consists
in the elements of water, less that which the water lost to the fire:
both, with a reduced or proportional quantity of medium of space, make
the original stratum of water. What but electric matter can steam
receive from the pipes it may be passed through, and is discharged from
as water? Insulated, "centrifugally repellant heat," without fulcrum,
is a most inconsiderable substitute for _the pressure of nature_ by
the all-pervading medium of space, and but a shadowy substitute in
accounting for the powerful effects of steam. There is no repellant
force in the flame of a candle; and what but influent medium of space
can make a pint of water fill and overflow a quart vessel.

Water loses its fluidity and is made solid or congealed, upon losing
the imponderable oxygenating element. Priestley through his experiments
made the discovery, that, "air, purer than atmospheric, is given out
by water at the instant of congelation,"--which must be oxygen air.
From which we learn, that oxygen is the natural hinderance against the
waters of the globe being solid; with which experimental practice and
experience agree, it being well known that oxygen added to a freezing
solution, retards congelation; and that, to facilitate the freezing
of water, a smart tap is given to the side of the vessel, hitherto
unknown why, but seems as if to shake out the oxygen. The following
observed circumstances exhibit the congelation of water throughout all
its stages. The air in a chamber being favourable for the reception of
oxygen from water, the water in a cylindrical earthen pitcher became
frozen; a plate of ice was formed, which equalled the area of the
vessel, and firmly fixed to the sides one full inch higher than the
water had been at first. The bottom of the vessel was blown out, the
sides remained whole, and the ice not broken or moved.

The circumstances of the case admits of the following illustration.
Medium of space, by its pressure, forced out the oxygen; additional
increments of the same medium entered, collapsed the elements of the
deoxydated stratum of water, and so forcibly expanded the rest of the
water as to make it explode the bottom of the vessel, all at the same
instant. As all excess of medium of space retired from the water, the
latter sunk to the original height; and had not the water escaped, it
would have been an inch separate from the plate of ice. A river thus
frozen, flows freely beneath the ice from the same circumstances. The
bomb-shell at Hudson Bay was exploded by the expanded water, not by
the newly-formed ice; or else the sides, not the bottom of the earthen
vessel, would have been exploded.

Ice is deoxygenated water, and abounds with electric matter, hence it
floats; and ice-water is at the minimum of density from being deficient
of oxygen. Ice, in a Florence flask, hung over a lamp, yields
abundance of electric matter, towards the formation of lamp-black
on the outside of the bottom of the flask, which, to the miniature
painter may be preferable, from being the freest of grit. In all cases
of combustion, the elements of lamp-black are present; so that, in
combustion of the diamond, the same kind of soot being formed, affords
no information of the constituents of this highly-prized crystal.
With more reason than that of pure carbon, (which is but another name
for the electric matter which is the principal constituent of ice,
and lamp-black) being the base of diamond, it may be assumed, that,
diamond is a crystalized oxyde of water. The electrician's opposite
characteristics of the two, diamond and ice, accord with the suggestion.


The menstruum is supposed to _act_ by "chymical attraction," from
having "chymical affinity" on the involved "chymical solid," which
enables it to draw out the elementary atoms of the solid: whereas the
_inert_ menstruum does nothing; it is but an interstitial recipient for
the atoms to be forced into, as they become centrifugally forced out
of the solid. And because the atoms of a body are of different sizes,
some make novel interstices, and thus expedite the dissolution. Only by
increasing the number and kind of interstices, can diluting a menstruum
with water increase what is imagined to be its solvency. Neither
chymical properties, nor chymical strength of a fluid, if it had any
such, could be increased by dilution, and the stronger should dissolve
that which the weaker is said to dissolve. The contrary supposes that
the force which breaks a stone is too strong to break a nutshell.
Mechanical dissolution by the centrifugal pressure is independent of

_Gastric solution_ is effected similarly: the juice has none of the
chymical properties of Liebig, nor does ingestion stand in need of the
living principle of Coombe; the former are imaginary, the latter is
denied from gastric solution taking place in a tea-cup. The gastric
juice is an interstitial receiver of the elements of the pulp, when
forced out by the centrifugal pressure into the gastric menstruum,
as those of soap into water. The pulp and its _striæ_ are disunited,
mechanically decomposed, not abraded: some of its elements escape
into the air within the stomach, which, by disturbing the equilibrium
within, promote irregularity of pressure on the outside of the sac,
which causes the _pliæ_ to be in the peristaltic motion, supposed to be
caused by the stomach stimulating itself. The same circumstances take
place within and without the intestines. The whole process of digestion
is dynamic, in which the only stimulant is pressure.

Of the various conjectures on the origin of the gastric juice, there
cannot be any more unreasonable than that which considers it a fluid
_sui generis_, and as having origin out of the stomach. All fluids are
compounds; and those belonging to the body may be said to be formed
out of, or by commixture with others. To suppose for an instant, that
a fluid, which is _destructive of all flesh_, should have existence
out of the stomach, and remain harmless in some _fleshy_ vessel as
long as the stomach is empty of food, or until food is required to
"stimulate" its flow from without through the _papillæ_ of the villous
lining into the stomach, is a most strange physiologic oversight. Why
not rather conclude at once, that the flesh-destroying juice exists
only where it is required and for immediate service, and where only
there are preventive means, the peristaltic motion, against it proving
injurious to the flesh of the stomach; and to the vessels of secretion
it would be injurious, hence, not as the juice but chyme it is passed
out of the stomach into the system. Under such circumstances, the
suggestion is nothing unreasonable, that, _there is no gastric juice
out of the stomach, nor within, but while there is food present to
contribute one or more of its elements to the other juices, including
the saliva, towards effecting its completion as a fit interstitial
gastric menstruum, for receiving the elementary constituents of the
pulp under mechanical decomposition by the centripetally disuniting
pressure of the medium of space_. Like the all de-electrising medium
of fire, which exists only where and while it is being formed, the
gastric juice should be looked upon as if _designed to be of difficult
formation_; made more so by depending on the food for its completion,
which is not a matter of "observation" within the stomach, or in the
tea-cup: neither is the perfect juice, which may be sponged or syringed
from the bottom of the stomach, any proof that as such precisely it
came from the _papillæ_, as some suppose. As to the papillary flow
being _stimulated_ by the food, with as bad philosophy it might be
said, charmed; or that clockwork is _stimulated_ by the weights. The
flow is promoted by the pulp, as were the latter a piece of sponge. And
that the papillary flow is but a constituent, not the flesh-destroying
juice, in promoting ingestion, is evident from the hunger pain it
promotes while harmlessly accumulating out of the stomach, indicating
the stomach being empty; and the relief experienced at its source when
discharged into the stomach, it is, which has given rise to the idea,
that certain organs _sympathise_ with the stomach.

Such metaphorical expressions may pass for the poetry of pathology, but
hitherto have stood in the way of deep research. Ingestion is expedited
by sleep, in consequence of the accumulation of minus-pressure matter
in the gastric region and stomach at the time; and sleep is promoted
by imperfect mastication causing a deficiency of saliva in the stomach
which is compensated by minus-pressure matter of the thus provoked
comatose flow. The pollparrot masticates but little, if at all, and
sleeps regularly after breakfast.


There is none of the inspired oxygen returned to the lungs by the
circulation. What becomes of it, or what its use within the system, has
not been written for our learning. It is not retained in the blood,
nor is it animalised; nothing yields less oxygen than animal matter.
To convey "carbon" out of the system, and somehow purify the blood, is
the supposed service; but if so, should it not be included in every
expiration and of the inspiration quantity? but which is not the case.

Harvey proved that the blood circulates, but left undiscovered what
keeps in motion the _inert_ fluid, except the systole, which the
_inert_ heart cannot effect on itself. No organ can do anything of
itself, the whole being composed of inert substance, and nothing else;
even the life of the body, whatever it may be, leaves the function of
every organ, not excepting that of the brain, dependent on the general

By the general pressure the air is forced into, but not through or
beyond the lungs which it inflates, and inflates nothing else. Within
the blood-vessels it would prove fatal; and although from it the blood
derives that by which it becomes arterialised, yet the blood and air do
not come in contact, extravasation and pulmonary rupture must happen,
did the lungs permit the blood and air coming together, or in immediate
contact. Of the air of an inspiration, the oxygenating imponderable
element only can permeate the pulmonary tissue. This element it
is which imponderably arterialises the blood; the nitrogen of the
inspiration constitutes the immediate succeeding exspiration.

The oxygenating element promotes the circulation on the same principle
that it promotes combustion; its diminutive interstices exclude
electric matter, which coagulates, and admits the propelling force,
medium of space, which is the only cause of motion, to enter the blood.
The oxygenated blood being propelled, or pressed, by the medium of
space it includes, from the lungs into the ventricle, the collapse, or
systole, takes place, and the blood is forced out of the ventricle,
through the auricle, into the aorta, thence through the several
branches of the arterial system, to and through the capillaries, into
the veins. Thus, from the medium of space within the blood being
continuous with the medium of space generally, it is manifest that the
blood is circulated not by the systole, but by the general pressure. To
produce the systole, there is nothing but the normal pressure on the
outside surface of the heart; nor, to lessen the normal pressure on the
parietes of the ventricle, is there anything but the arterialising,
minus-pressure, imponderable element of the blood just received into
the ventricle.

Throughout the entire of the arterial flow, the blood is losing the
arterialising minus-pressure matter to the different organs, as the
means by which the functional action of each is promoted. Without
such means, there is nothing to disturb the equilibrium of pressure
on an organ to produce organic motion, action, or function. Hence, it
appears, that the use of the inspired oxygen consists in promoting the
circulation of the blood and the functional motion or action of the
different organs within the frame.

Before entering the veins the blood is fully deoxygenated; within
them it acquires gradually electric matter, productive of the livid
or coagulating appearance; at the same time the blood-propelling
medium is lessening in quantity; but which is compensated in the
mucilaginous lining of the veins, which assists the venous flow on the
minus-pressure capillary principle; capillary attraction would collapse
the vessels. The electric matter collected by the venous blood is got
rid of in the lungs, and expired with the nitrogen and a remnant of the
oxygenating element of the last inspiration; hence the small portion of
carbonic acid gas obtained from the expiration.

After all organic service, the arterialising minus-pressure matter
is insensibly transpired, which is inferable from the supply being
continued through respiration; which, although constant, yet, from
being intermitting, might, perhaps, cause corresponding stoppings in
the round of organic action; hence it would seem that, against such
intervals or interruptions taking place, the liver has been designed to
collect for casual distribution a portion of the same minus-pressure
matter. The great surface of the liver may stand comparison with the
plate, or cylinder, of the electrifying machine, and the organs as jars
which receive electric matter from it, as each stands in need.

_Use of the Spleen._--The SPLEEN, from being an organ common to
the human frame, must have an allotted service to supply; although
considered useless by some, to all of unknown utility, it may be _a
lateral channel of arterial blood direct from the heart, to supply the
vessels lying in a portion of the body not traversed by the arteries
belonging to the great arterial system_; those of the diaphragm
first; thence through the umbilical cord to the fetus, in which the
circulation is indispensable, from being the only means of conveying
and dispersing throughout the body, in the absence of respiration,
the minus-pressure matter which the organism of the fetus requires
to promote the several functions, without which life would become
extinct if commenced. In this supply of motion promoting elementary
matter, consists all that can be considered _aeration_ of the blood,
and all that the blood of both the fetus and the _adult_ requires,
or can possibly receive. In the chirping chick, while within the yet
unbroken shell, aeration is _prevented_ by incubation of the mother
bird; but the arterialising elementary matter is amply provided within
the larger, apparently empty, end of the shell. To keep out electric
matter, which would exclude the blood-moving medium, is the object of
the hen sitting on the eggs, and oven-hatching is effected on the same

_How the Diaphragm Is Raised._--The _diaphragm_ cannot rise of itself,
and has no self-acting, self-lifting nerves or muscles, all flesh being
composed of _inert_ atoms. The rise is proof positive that pressure is
greater on the posterior than anterior surface of the membrane, and the
unchanged normal pressure beneath indicates reduced pressure above; the
latter is promoted by minus-pressure matter imparted by the splenic
blood to the diaphragm, while passing through the vessels of the
diaphragm. This arterialising matter being highly evanescent, escapes
from the diaphragm and upwards, and during the escape mitigates the
pressure, intercepts it in some degree from the superior surface; then,
by the normal pressure beneath, the rise of the diaphragm is effected.
As the escape, or separation, is becoming complete, the equilibrium is
being restored, and the diaphragm depressed to the normal level. If
this be not the rationale of diaphragmatic motion, it will be little
improved by the substitution of muscular energy, leverage, or muscular
vitality, while leaving out _muscular inertia_, which should not be
omitted, but included, in accounting for every muscular action and


Any pair of the general elements, the interstices of one of which are
the only interstices for receiving and retaining the atoms of the
other, or that can be occupied by the atoms of any other of the general
elements, such elements are correlatives.

Elementary co-relation is conspicuous in the opposite polarities
of the loadstone, magnet, and crystals, and all bodies subject to
polarization, which includes the animal frame. Similar co-relation is
evinced between the galvanic fluids, those of the pile, and those named
electricity; likewise between oxygen and hydrogen, the oxygenating
element and nitrogen, acids and alkalies and all mutually neutralizing
substances. Still it is not meant that all the general elements are so
paired; doubtless, there are several ratios of size between the atoms
of the different elements, for the purpose of multiplying variety among
formations, the substance of which is of the same species throughout.
Possibly the correlative principle gave rise to the ideal scale of
_chymical affinities_, subsequently refined to _affections of matter_.
Naturally, correlative elements will be found together, as are nitrogen
and the imponderable element; also the magnetic fluids common to iron.


Were attraction a property of the atomic substance of the loadstone, it
could be neither transferable, receivable, nor liable to be destroyed
by fire. A magnet is a work of art, the substance is inert, it can
no more attract than think. Magnetism is an accident of matter; it
consists in the correlatives of an iron bar having become separated,
and drawn one to each end of the bar: separation and transition to
the extremities of the bar, are what the rubbing on the poles of the
loadstone effects.

Two paving-stones hanging a short distance asunder and touched by
nothing but the tranquil air, remain at rest; but should attract
each other had "every atom in creation" the property. Were a vacuum,
partial vacuum or air much rarer than atmospheric, now placed between
the suspended stones, each would be in motion towards the other the
same instant. Here both _causes_, the general pressure, and the
minus-pressure, or motion _promoting_ means, are given; the latter are
sensibly present, and the absence of attraction is as evident as the
inutility of anything of the kind to effect the mutual approach of the
two bodies. Not so is the approach of two magnets understood, because
the intermediate minus-pressure means _present_ are not sensible. That
iron magnets do not move together by attraction, or that attraction is
not the cause of the phenomena imputed to it, is proved in the case of
iron-filings dropping from a bar, when the connection of the bar with
the galvanic battery is broken; and it will not be contended that the
galvanic current is attraction.

In order to arrive at a knowledge of wherein consists the means which
subvert the equilibrium between two suspended magnets, reference
has to be made to the artizan's mode of operating in converting the
unmagnetised bar to a magnet. He holds the bar in the middle, and
draws one half along the pole of a loadstone; then draws the other
half along the other pole, and after a few such alternate _rubbings_
against the poles, the bar is a polarized magnet. From which it was
formerly supposed, that iron contains a magnetic fluid which the
loadstone rubbings divide, and draw half to each end of the bar. But
were such the fact, the ends or poles should be _equals_, whereas they
are magnetic opposites. Now, with more reason, it is considered that
iron includes two different, removable elements, (correlatives,) which,
by the manipulation on the loadstone, are drawn one to each end of the
bar, and there remain as polar atmospheres, and constitute what are
termed the polarities, or opposite polarities of the bar; the latter
opinion is somewhat confirmed by the corresponding manner in which iron
filings, while being scattered on a sheet of paper, become arranged
round the poles of a magnet lying under the paper.

The magnetic relation, which the polar atmospheres of any iron magnet
bear to those of every iron magnet, being the same as exists between
the polar atmospheres of every individual magnet, makes manifest, that
a certain pair of correlative elements is common to all magnetisable
iron; but without concluding that, by the same kind of correlatives,
the polarities are produced in bodies not ferruginous, which, if the
physical fact, so may the animal correlatives be different in some
instances. From which it follows, that no one mesmeriser can affect
mesmerically every person, nor any one person be so affected by all
mesmerisers. Neither are all persons "nervous" alike, which should
moderate the war cry against mesmerism generally because of failure in
some cases; and should awaken the philosophic mesmeriser, willing to
make perfect the science, to investigate the cause of exceptions and

Now, as respects the interposed minus-pressure means or matter, which,
by destroying the equilibrium, promote the approaching motion of two
suspended magnets; there is nothing whatever to refer to, but the
magnets themselves, that is, their polar atmospheres, which, together
or facing one another, make a rare or minus-pressure medium between
the proximate ends, into which both magnets are moved by the greater
pressure on their remotest ends. It lies with the previously-instructed
patient, while clairvoyant, through questioning by the mesmeriser,
to make close observation, and report all circumstances respecting
the magnetic lights; also, those attached to and proceeding from
the mesmeriser, towards elucidating this most of all recondite
subjects--magnetism, in the philosophy of physics. The mesmeriser
should hold in mind, that, probably the air between the facing ends of
two magnets is magnetically affected, that is, made a magnet in the
series by the other two; which seems to be the case when the patient is
magnetised at a distance from the mesmeriser by means of the pointed
finger, and by the _effect_ of will at a much greater distance.


That sleep is not at the command of will is certain, or why undergo
the tedium of a restless night? Before the state of sleep can obtain,
the body has to experience an _electro-physico_ change, by which
the extremities are left polarised and the body an animal or living
magnet. That the extremities are polarised during sleep, is admitted
by all physiologists; for the effecting of which there must be a pair
of correlative elements concerned. While the elementary transfer,
productive of the polarities, is taking place, so is drowsiness; when
sleep has obtained, the natural magnetising procedure has terminated;
hence from the degree of polarity, the mesmeriser can determine the
stage to which the patient has been brought between the comatose and
clairvoyant states, and know the capability of his patient for being
made clairvoyant or not; this polar index should be well noticed.

_Comatose Flow._--It must have been observed by many persons while
dozing and the body in a sitting or leaning posture, that an agreeable
warm glow arises in the chest, which increases while passing sensibly
through the pectoral towards the gastric region, and which terminates,
insensibly, in the consummation of sleep; from the feet upwards a
similar, but less perceptible, flow takes place. Of this twofold
_comatose flow_, the immediate consequence is polarisation of the
extremities; sleep is a remote, but not the remotest consequence,
when effects similar to those by the flow are mesmerically effected.
Thus it appears that the theory of sleep and magnetism is the same.
The magnetising procedure, however, has this difference; the magnetic
correlatives are drawn from the middle to and out of the extremities of
the bar; those of the body of the patient recede from the extremities
to the central region, leaving one, the correlative of the other, at
each extremity, in both cases.

The foregoing theory of sleep is described from immediate personal
observation. While leaning over a table, the doze heavy, the comatose
flow distinctly felt in its agreeable downward progress through
the chest, when, just at the instant of forgetfulness, the violent
slam of a door drove away all chance of sleep under the following
circumstances: a sensible and sudden revulsion upwards, a few seconds
of giddiness, and a smart painful stroke on the stomach took place,
all in quick succession; which may be accounted for thus: the slam
prevented the correlative fluids from the opposite extremities meeting
centrally; each gushed irregularly back, and depolarized its extremity,
the suddenness of which caused the giddiness. The stroke is the true
electric shock, inflicted by the medium of space suddenly rushing
or falling on the stomach, from which the matter of the comatose
flow had been as suddenly displaced. Taking all circumstances into
consideration, it is manifest that the state of sleep is the result of
a natural magnetizing operation.

Before the fire, while reading, the superior extremity loses electric
matter to the fire, which leaves it polarized and promotes the
comatose flow. The lower extremity becomes polarized simultaneously
with the upper as a correlative consequence. Sleep is supposed to be
expedited by heat; hence the afternoon's nap is seconded by a silk
handkerchief thrown over the head, but which is only a hindrance to
electric matter, similar to that of the comatose flow entering from
the air and depolarizing the extremity. The handkerchief, from being a
non-conductor, only prevents the coming sleep being retarded; it could
neither generate nor multiply heat.

Naturally it might be questioned, why the body should become somnolent
daily; and, by what means the comatose flow is naturally effected;--of
itself it could not take place. The languor removed, and renovation
of muscular strength through sleep, may satisfy in the first instance.
Next, it would seem, that, as the functions of the several organs
depend on the presence of minus-pressure matter for unequalising
the pressure on each organ, so must there be waste, loss, and daily
deficit of minus-pressure matter; which, from being made good by means
of sleep, leaves it inferable, that the daily quantity derived from
respiration may be little more than sufficient for the continuance
of animation under the minimum of bodily exercise; but as man is
necessitated to follow laborious avocations, so is it designed,
that the loss by service and waste shall be the means whereby the
necessary re-supply is to be furnished. The loss leaves the extremities
polarized; and as greater waste towards total exhaustion approaches,
the matter of the comatose flow becomes needed and is employed in
prolonging the functions of the different organs, and before exhaustion
is complete the body is in the state of sleep; during which, from
every inspiration being far more lengthy than ordinary, the body is
resupplied to repletion with the respirable minus-pressure matter,
by which the extremities are depolarized, and the sleeper is awake,
refreshed and invigorated. From which it may be said, that a man toils
himself to sleep, and sleeps himself awake; and that, not "balmy
sleep," but respiration, is "tired Nature's sweet restorer."

_Mesmeric sleep_ may be considered forced sleep. It is effected
with little or no comatose flow, which renders replenishing by
long breathing unnecessary; and the patient, on being awakened by
demagnetising the extremities, is rather debilitated than refreshed.

Every finger of the mesmeriser is a magnet to the magnetic correlatives
within the extremities of the patient; and the passes polarize after
the manner of the comatose flow in the case of natural sleep. From
there being no mesmerically-effected comatose flow, there is reason to
infer, that _the contents of the nerves of sensation only are what the
passes polarize_ and what only are polarized in natural sleep, although
expressed by the word, _extremities_.

Repetition of the passes separates, or de-electrises more completely
the nerves of the extremities, than for the production of natural sleep
is requisite. Hence it may be said, that the body of the _mesmerised_
patient is in magnetic advance, and hence the series of surprising
consequences which bring to light more and more the wonders of the

The passes should be conducted on magnetising principles; that is, from
the extremities to the gastric region to bring on somnolency, and from
the same region to the head and feet or extremes to awaken; from head
to foot is unscientific, and might be prejudicial; the central region
of the body should be considered _the mesmeric insuperable line_. Cross
passes having been found efficient are not anomalous, by reason of the
nerves and branches lying in all directions.


According to the popular opinion, which governs the philosopher,
and with which the established philosophy agrees, vision is an act
performed by the eye, which is said to be endowed with the faculty of
sight, by which it is enabled to look into, through space, and see
external bodies made visible when covered with solar or day light;
nothing of which is true. The eyeball is not possessed of sight; to
see is not the function of the sense; externals are not visible; there
is no material light; light is a sensible or mental effect consequent
on the chromatic organ of the brain being excited by the fluid of the
optic nerve. All we know by means of the optic sense, consists in the
sensation of light or coloured light, accompanied with the idea of
form. The object which promotes the sensation being, seemingly, the
place of the sensation, all imagine the sensation is the colour of the
object to which the eye is directed, and hence, that the object or
body is seen by the eyes. These general mistakes are made evident and
stand corrected by reference to the sense itself, its physiology and
function, as previously stated and advised.

The medium of space is the visual medium; not, however, for looking
through, as is supposed, but by reason of it forming the link or
intermediate means by which the object is connected with the sense.
Now, as the medium of space is present everywhere, and as it promotes
visual or optic perception, the question naturally arises, why do we
not see in the night as well as day, in all places and at all times; in
a word, why do we not see in the dark? The clairvoyant does "see" in
the dark.

The nervous fluid excites the sensation of colour; the medium of space
connects mediately the object with the nervous fluid, which fluid
acts on the optic cerebral organ by pressure and degrees of pressure.
The nervous fluid, nor anything else, acts essentially, that is, by
means of properties and qualities; and its acting on the brain is
caused by external agency, the fluid itself being _inert_. It may
well be supposed that the exquisite construction of the brain, from
being competent to produce psychologic effects, although excited by
material agency, requires but the most simple means, such as a simple
impulse or impression, to be actuated into excitement; and as the
portion or line of the medium of space which is continuous from the
external object, through the pupil, to the nervous fluid within the
retina, is that which puts the nervous fluid into functional action on
the brain, it is fairly assumable that only by pressure, degrees, and
changes of pressure, the nervous fluid can by possibility act on and
excite the brain; which equally applies to the nervous fluid of all
the senses. Taking, then, the maximum of optic pressure as productive
of no sensation; so, from there being no object to perceive, it is
imagined we are surrounded with darkness; and taking the minimum as
exciting the sensation recognised as luminous, light, or white, to
intermediate degrees of cerebral pressure are to be attributed the
sensations of red, yellow, blue and of colours generally. According to
these terms of the colorific scale, all optically-excited perceptions
are consequent on the cerebral pressure being in degrees on the scale
of descent from the maximum.

For the reduction of optic pressure, there are different minus-pressure
means, namely, the sun, flame, electricity, phosphoric substances;
and the daily electric matter, which is constant in the atmosphere at
the eastern hemisphere of the globe, and which keeps pace with the
sun; because the rarest elements of the atmosphere will be in greater
quantity on the side facing the sun. As this daily electric matter
emerges before the sun is above the horizon, the general optic pressure
excites the sensation supposed to be the light of day-break; and while
following, after sunset, the sensation is known as twilight. Any such
minus-pressure matter lying in the visual direction, shortens the
visual line, and intercepts the continuity of that line of the medium
of space which makes one with the axis of the eye, and thus effects the
reduction of optic pressure.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Note._--The terms here made use of, from being unknown in the olden
philosophy, need explanation.--_Axis line_: that line of the medium
of space which is as the axis of the eye produced to, and terminated
by the external object. _Visual line_, the same. _Visual continuity_;
the line which is continuous _angularly_ with the termination of the
axis line. From the termination of this _continuous_ line, there may
be another angular continuity or _line_, as from mirror to mirror.
All lines continuous from the axis line and terminated by _the
object_ supposed to be seen, and however irregular, are _lines_ of
_vision_: the angular point, _the point of_ (first, second, or third)
_continuity_. The reader should make a diagram for each case as he

       *       *       *       *       *

Within the window-closed room, a lighted candle is supposed to fill
the entire space with light radiated from the flame: the perception is
named light, and is thus wise excited. When the axis line is terminated
by the flame, the pressure on the nervous fluid is lessened to the
degree which promotes the sensation of luminousness, which seems to be
the physical appearance of the flame itself. Again; when, in the same
room, the eye is directed to a mirror the like perception is excited,
because the visual line is continuous from the point of continuity, or
termination of the axis line, to the flame as before. When the axis
line is terminated by a piece of furniture, the point of continuity
being imperfect and the visual continuity thence to the flame irregular
or indirect, the optic pressure on the brain by the axis line excites
the sensation of colour, which is imputed to the object, chair, or

In the celebrated OPTICS, the visual lines are mistaken for rays of
light radiated from the flame, and reflected from the other objects;
which rays are supposed to enter the eye, and (as if possessed of
intelligence) arrange themselves on the back of the eye or on the
retina, in the precise form, but of a different size, of the object
to which the eyes are directed, as the means by which externals are
seen before the face. In cases wherein the visual line is indirect,
as when lying through media of unequal density, the supposed rays are
said to be refracted: and, because the curtained iris excludes the
visual medium, except through the pinhole pupil, thence along the axis
through the lenses of the eyeball, the _optics_ inculcate, that the
eye has been formed to see only in straight lines. Finally, by Dr.
Reed it is taught, that the use of the sensation and of the image on
the _back_ of the eye, is to make the external object _opposite the
face_ be seen; all which has to be rejected and forgotten in being
guided by the natural, real function of the sense, against which there
is no appeal. There are no rays concerned; the medium of vision is
quiescent; there can be neither radiation, reflection, nor refraction
effected by passive inert bodies; there is no image on any part of the
eye or retina; and externals could not be made visible, or seen by
their images. Such absurdities, all of which are maintained in modern
philosophy, have prevented, more than any thing else, the science and
phenomena of Mesmerism being understood.

According to the interstitial composition of the surface of a body,
so is the point of visual continuity at or beneath the surface; which
determines the degree of pressure on the axis line; which determines
what shall be the resulting sensation, or apparent colour of the
surface of the object to which the pupil of the eyeball is directed.
Through a pane of glass, or through the clear atmosphere, the axis line
may be said to be uninterruptedly continuous, and the perception is as
if the glass were away. Through an ignited sheet of iron the visual
continuity is imperfect, and may be said to be continuous only halfway
through the sheet. An ignited bar, at first, is said to be brown, then
ignited to redness: colours are sensations. Within the bar the axis
line is continuous in zig-zag order, which causes the optic pressure
to excite the sensation of red: it is a prismatic case. The _spectra_,
by means of the prism, are only in the sensorium; the skreen itself is
unseen. When the direct axis line terminates at the apparent red on the
skreen, the continuity thence is maintained through some particular
part of the prism; when terminated by the yellow, through a different
part; when by the blue, through another different part; and through
each part the continuity is somewhat curvilinear, hence the pressures
and perceptions are different. Through the air, when the perception is
of the many-coloured rainbow, the visual continuity is as through the
prism: there is no coloured bow out of the sensorium.

Where there are no minus-pressure means for lessening the optic
pressure, as in mines, caves, and window-closed rooms, there can be no
perceptions of light and colour. From the sensation ceasing the same
instant the last window-shutter is closed, it would seem, that, the
_daily_ minus-pressure matter is in constant flow eastward through the
globe. The rheumatic sufferer fears sun-down, as if the daily matter
enters and protects the nerves from the nightly. The meteorologist has
to resolve the problem for the philosopher in tracing the magnetic

The objection is unfounded against pressure being the cerebral exciting
cause. It is objected, that, from two stars equally distant, one
considered red, the other blue, the pressure cannot be changed along
the visual lines in the small space of time the eye takes to direct
itself from one to the other star. There is no changing of pressure on
either line. The existing pressure on the sense by each is different,
and what it is, depends on the constitution of the external object, as
in every other instance, and just as on that of the ignited bar already
stated. The imputed colours of the stars being different, so is the
continuity of axis line beneath the surface of the atmosphere of each
star, also the degree of pressure and the sensitive result.

Neither is it maintainable that the medium of space cannot be the
medium of vision, because "from being all-pervading, it should excite
vision through all kinds of bodies, as through a block of rock crystal,
but does not through so thin a substance as a leaf of blotting-paper."
By clairvoyance it is proved that the visual continuity is maintained
through stone walls; and by reason of the _visual and auditory_ medium
being the same, that is, medium of space, the "hearing" through
stone walls, makes the "seeing" possible. The bell must be connected
mediately with the auditory sense, as is the object with the visual
sense; and through stone walls there is nothing continuous but the
medium of space. Sound is no more a transmissible object than colour;
neither belongs to the external object. In all such cases of sensations
which are different, although the promoting means are the same for all
the senses, that the organs of sense may not be equally susceptible,
or capable of being put into functional service by the same degree of
cerebral pressure, should be held in mind, or else it might be asked
why all the senses are not excited at the same time.


A transparent body, is one through which the visual line is
uninterruptedly continuous from an object to the sense. The materials
for glass-making are opaque, and the natural opacity of their
elementary atoms is unalterable. Hence in some novel arrangement of
the atoms towards promoting the direct continuity of the medium of
space through them, consists the object of vitrifying and principle of


The principal obstacle to transparency is interposed electric matter.
In the earliest stages of glass-making an immense volume of electric
matter is got rid of by means of the furnace fire, which becomes sooty
smoke while ascending and passing through the furnace funnel; and to
prevent all return of the like, it is, that solid oxygen is added to
the materials when fused, the interstices of which, in the vitrified
mass, secure the direct continuity of the visual medium. Priestley
made black wax and brass filings transparent, by only removing all
interposed electric matter. The body of a living man, by being
de-electrised, has been made transparent. In these instances the
transparency is of short continuance, and the opacity is restored by
returning electric matter. Fire, in de-electrising gems and crystals,
destroys all partial opacity. The clearest water is made cloudy on
receiving the charge from the electrifying jar; by uncustomary electric
matter, the atmosphere is made foggy, and is transparent again when the
electric matter becomes a constituent of rain-water. These instances
show, that, electric matter lying in the way of the medium of space
and vision, interrupts its regular continuity, consequently, its
direct pressure; yet not wholly,--clairvoyance and sound make manifest
that the continuity is maintained through the most opaque bodies. The
principle bears strongly on the physiology of clairvoyance.


Were there a distinct fluid belonging to the nerves of sensation, and
insulated, it could not be affected by external circumstances, nor
its cerebral excitement be productive in the least of any knowledge,
relative or inferential of external bodies. Were the fluid not
insulated, it should be subject to waste like the lachrymal fluid, and
must excite the brain differently at different times, even under equal
circumstances; which must make it impossible to identify the same body
after its removal out of the axis-of-vision direction.

A distinct fluid, not insulated, has to be in contact with the line of
medium of space which the external object terminates, which adds to the
difficulty of waste, in the possibility of the nerves becoming flooded
with an abnormal fluid, medium of space. Much more likely is it,
that, _the cerebral exciting fluid, of the nerves generally, consists
in medium of space_, received from without through the cuticular
insertions and orifices of the nerves as streamlets from the great
ocean of space, subject to neither ebb nor flow, and liable to change
of pressure occasioned by external agency. According to this idea, the
object and brain are the terms of the visual line; and medium of space,
continuous from the object through the nerves to the brain, is the
connecting link.

Further; although medium of space is the nervous fluid and immediate
cerebral exciting cause, (which entitles it to be named the TRUE
_nervous fluid_,) there are strong grounds for concluding that, with
the true fluid, the nerves include a pair of correlative elements.
Because of the mesmeric effected polarities being without the comatose
flow, which leaves nothing to look to for the polarizing means but the
contents of the nerves. Next, as clairvoyance is a cerebral effect,
something connected with the nervous fluid must be concerned in its
production, or why not clairvoyance take place without the magnetic
passes. Finally, the true fluid, or any single fluid, is incapable
of being polarized; and the true fluid might be rendered immovable
at times, were there no electric or minus-pressure matter within
the nerves, also to prevent its increase, and to retain the normal
quantity of the true fluid. All extremes being prevented, and the
polarities of the extremities productive of increased lucidity, are
consistent with idea of the nerves including magnetising correlatives,
which, beside, serve as an elastic break against the fluid exciting the
brain indistinctly, irregularly, or exquisitely; and only, as it were,
muffled, to prevent the sensibility of the cerebral organs being worn
out prematurely.

Another object may be attained by the included electric correlatives,
namely, restricting the exciting pressure to certain degrees, so that
the sensation shall be defined and directing, but otherwise useless
and misleading. Another may be, that of regulating the degrees of
pressure on such a scale, as that, by the same senses, sensations shall
be excited as different from each other as those of red, yellow, and
blue by the optic sense, heat and cold by the feeling sense, sweet and
bitter by the gustory sense. To which the conjecture may be added, for
the purpose of anatomic and physiologic inquiry, that, as not even an
elementary interstice is without design, so may the orifices of the
retina be of regulated diameters, to ensure such definite degrees of
pressure on the brain as shall excite the sensations recognised as
primitive colours.

On the principle that the nervous fluid is derived from without, the
question is decided as to the cuticular termination of the nerves,
which is objected to by some, in consequence of a few of the nerves
being observed to have "inward bending." And is it not a matter of
common observation, that "feeling is most sensible at the tips of the
fingers" or apparent place of the sensation.


All mesmerically-produced phenomena are the consequence of the passes.
The immediate effect of the passes is de-electrisation of the nerves,
that is, of their contents, which leaves them polarised (as is the
case in natural sleep), but more intensely than is effected by the
comatose flow. In the ordinary condition, the contents of the nerves
may be likened to milky water in a barometer tube; in natural sleep, to
the same, with a less degree of milkiness--the latter subsiding from
the ends to the middle portion of the water; and in the clairvoyant
condition of the nerves, to the milkiness having so completely
subsided as to leave the water above and below the middle of the tube
transparent. In the ordinary condition, the nervous fluid is clogged,
as it were, with intermixed electric matter, which, by marring the
regular continuity of the fluid from without to the brain, reduces in
some degree the exciting pressure on the brain, which prevents the
function of the fluid being employed to its utmost. In this encumbered
state, the fluid may be said to act on the brain, as the clapper when
muffled on a bell. Still the excited pressure is sufficiently strong,
and the mental result sufficiently distinct for all human purposes.
When to the clairvoyant degree the nerves have been denuded of impeding
electric matter, the nervous fluid is enabled to act on the brain as
if unmuffled; and as its continuity from the orifices of the retina
through space is not in any manner altered, so, to the altered electric
condition, mesmerically effected, on the contents of the nerves between
their orifices and the brain, we must attribute all mesmerically
produced phenomena; and without supposing that the brain is quickened
into a higher degree of sensibility, or that any one of its various
organs has acquired some exalted degree of psychologic ability.

That _long vision_ and _opaque vision_ should be consequences of
cleansing, as it were, the nerves of intercepting minus-pressure
matter, is nothing surprising, it is as removing dust from the window
to better our vision: the physiology is traceable, and the psychology
not more incomprehensible than its hourly occurrence in a minor degree,
to which, as sensible effects, we are indebted for all we know, and by
which we abide, without inquiry into their nature or origin; so perfect
is the design of Nature in our make for supplying all that is requisite
to the comfort and enjoyment of man in his present state of existence.

_Long vision_, during the clairvoyant state, or the recognition of
objects greatly remote by the sensation each promotes, has its wonder
much more in the _nature of the medium of space_ than in the familiar
mental effect. The optically promoted sensation is proof that the
external object, were it at the antipodes, is in mediate connection
with not only the nervous fluid of the retina, but the brain. Long
and ordinary vision have the same theory: in both states the same
chromatic cerebral organ is excited by the nervous fluid; in both the
nervous fluid is continuous from the brain to the external body; and in
both the object perceived is the sensation of colour. That the eye-ball
lenses are concerned in long and opaque, as in short vision, however
in the two former, the eyes may be bandaged (to satisfy the desire of
spectators, otherwise useless, if not worse,) is obvious, from the
knowledge of form being connected with the sensation, as in every
instance of optically-excited perception.

By the passes, the nervous fluid is freed from the visual intercepting
electric matter; which matter, like the colouring matter in stained
glass, renders the continuity of the visual medium or fluid within the
optic nerve impaired.

To account for the phenomenon of much longer than ordinary vision,
there is nothing in the mesmeric case to effect the difference, or
refer to, but the de-electrised condition of the nervous fluid. From
which it would seem that the visual line from the most remote object,
is always as continuous to the brain as from one within arm's length
before the face; and that the degree of cerebral exciting pressure
on the longer line is rendered equally efficacious, _now_, that the
electric impediment has been removed from the nervous fluid; hence,
that the normal intermixed quantity of electric matter with the nervous
fluid prevents us being clairvoyant at all times, is reasonable to

_Opaque vision_, or the "seeing through opaque bodies," is not the
absurdity so generally imagined when judged and reasoned on according
to the true principles of visual perception: the facts of clairvoyance
place the absurdity on the denier.

As the medium of space furnishes all the nerves with the true and only
cerebral exciting fluid, which is necessarily all-pervading, and proved
to be so by the auditory sense, or "hearing through stone walls,"
the possibility of seeing through such bodies is made manifest, and
_clairvoyantly_, has been proved. Misled by the idea that the eye-balls
look through solid glass, yet cannot look through a stone, to doubt and
deny is pardonable; yet nothing else is requisite, than that the visual
medium shall be continuous from the object to the brain, no matter how
many opaque objects lie between, for the perception being excited, and
promoted by the remote object: the object perceived is the sensation
of this or that colour, as in transparent vision. It is no ordinary
circumstance, that of "seeing through opaque bodies;" neither is it
an ordinary circumstance, the extreme de-electrised condition of the
nervous fluid, _on which the extra-ordinary of the phenomenon depends_.
In removing the partial opacity of a crystal by means of fire, the
hindrance to the visual continuity, electric matter, is displaced;
but as no such electric displacement from a stone wall is effected or
practicable, while to the clairvoyant the continuity is as were there
no electric impediment in the wall, is proof additional that the medium
of space, the common cerebral exciting cause, pervades all things, the
human body included, and hence the being in _Report_.

Now that mesmeric practice and proof have stifled all open opposition,
by the influential ignorant, to the surprising truths of the science,
that all persons cannot be mesmerised to the clairvoyant stage, is in
nowise prejudicial to mesmerism, or to the SCIENCE OF THE ECONOMY being
intimately connected with medical practice; neither are occasional
failures by the clairvoyant, especially in trial tests, some of which
exhibit samples of complicated confusion, as if for the purpose of
suppression, instead of laudably exalting the all-important science of
mesmerism. Had the very liberal offer of a hundred pounds been under
less complicated conditions, the bank-note most certainly would have
been deciphered and changed hands. Had the note been spread open,
while enclosed between two plates of sheet-iron, and then read by the
clairvoyant, the test would have been sufficient to convince the most
steady, sturdy, staunch unbeliever, and the _dénouement_ affirmative
to every dispassionate observer. But from being folded line upon line,
letter on letter, at least three deep, the misarrangement destroyed
most effectually all reading order. A Newtonian would say, that,
"the commixed rays proceeding from the several overlaid typographic
characters, and from the lines placed tier over tier, could never
form the image of even a single letter on the retina, with anything
resembling legible clearness;" therefore the trial must fail most


None deny that rigidity of the limbs can be effected mesmerically;
but all mistake who impute the phenomenon to muscular ability,
irritability, or energy. All flesh is _inert_; all muscular fibrine is
flexible, bends from its own weight when held horizontally, and over
it the will has neither power nor influence. Then, how is a muscle or
nerve to stiffen itself, and where is the mechanical arrangement within
for such purpose? The power is derived from without, and consists in
medium of space. The de-electrising passes make entrance-room for
influent medium of space, which is the cause of the limbs becoming
rigid. As in Bramah's pump, water serves the purpose of an iron piston,
so, within the nerves and muscles, medium of space in excess and under
the general pressure, is an equally rigid piston, and the cause of all
muscular strength and of rigidity. The depolarizing passes bring back
electric matter, which displaces all excess of medium of space, and
with it the physical cause of rigidity.


Pain is not removed but prevented by means of the passes. It is not
excited in the mesmerised patient during severe surgical operations,
because the movements of the brain, as is said of a watch with the
finger on a wheel, are stopped.

General insensibility being effected by pressure of the surgeon's
finger on the brain of a fractured skull, so is it mesmerically
effected by the nervous fluid, which has suffered increase as the
nerves have been de-electrised by the passes.

_Curative Mesmerism._--The curative principle of mesmerism seems to
consist in correcting occasional irregularities in the _electric
circulation_. By the passes, electric matter in excess is removed,
which, from being noxious to the part, might contribute to the
formation of mucus to become concrete, or otherwise injurious to the
flesh: or, the passes may transfer the excess to supply deficiency
elsewhere,--as in the case of gout, a disease of the sufferer's own
making, from excess of de-electrising food and drink, which uncoats
and unlines the nerves, and thus leaves the nervous fluid, from casual
circumstances, to almost lacerate the brain. Stomach coating aliment,
not denuding physic, is the cure: as electric matter may become a
constituent of the humidities of the different organs, so may it of the
serous fluid, which is indispensable to wholesome flesh. In all such
cases mesmerism is curative.

_Ethers._--From inhaled _ethers_, producing insensibility without
rigidity, it would seem that they contribute a kind of electric matter
to the interior of the nerves, but which, from being uncongenial,
is happily soon displaced. All excess being the more prejudicial,
the quicker the displacement the better. Any ether imparted to the
fluids of the nerves, may effect reduction in the quantity of the true
fluid through the cuticle orifices; or make breaks in what is left,
so as to leave the nervous fluid incompetent to produce excitement
of the brain; hence the insensibility of the patient, if that can be
considered insensibility, when there is nothing of pain of which to be

Etherising by external application, but which may not amount to
mesmerizing, is nothing new. A Dublin apothecary, sixty years since,
cured the poor daily of nervous complaints, headaches especially, by
pressing a folded handkerchief on the forehead, taken from a wide-mouth
jar, concealed with professional delicacy, behind the counter, but
long since discontinued; the learned in the laws of life and living,
considering that short-hand work is a forbidden practice,--that
something newest in the last _Pharmacopoeia_ is better than the best,
for all parties. Tobacco-smoking brings on a degree of insensibility,
and mesmerically conduces to sleep, which exertion frustrates. The
smoke of the fire in London stayed the plague in the year 1666. The
subject is worthy of consideration by the mesmerizing physician, in
case of epidemics especially.


The being in report one with another, the mesmerised with the
mesmeriser, is proved possible, and from being effected by the passes
is proved also to be natural,--not satanic or supernatural, the weakest
of all ideas. Within Nature there can be nothing supernatural; nor out
of Nature, or of the other worlds, anything in the power of living man
or poor human nature to command or imitate. However, as believers
are not reasoners, except in the arithmetic of funds, to the reformer
_Time_, must be left the conversion to Reason.

Throughout the whole of Nature there is nothing insulated, not even
an atom. Involved in a universal medium of pressure, all things must
be in contact, mediate or immediate. The atmosphere is a universal
connecting link. As by the sea the most distantly-situated islands are
in mediate connection, so are all mankind by means of the atmosphere.
Still this atmospheric connection is limited to margin with margin,
surface with surface. By the all-pervading medium of space, the
interior of all living beings is in mediate connection, equally as the
interior of submerged sponges by the water. As "light" would pervade
and connect our bodies were they glass, so does the medium of space.
But were mankind so left, it is difficult to conceive how the organic
functions could possibly take place, and impossible to say how personal
individuality could be, as at present, an independent animal privilege.

Although the medium of space is continuous through all bodies, the
regular continuity is impaired by the elements of the atmosphere
between each. The atmosphere not only protects all living bodies
against the maximum and all excess of pressure, but in some
considerable degree insulates the bodies of persons from each other,
just as fog and small snow intercept the visual continuity and would
render "rays of light" interruptedly continuous; so do the intermixed
atoms of the atmosphere the regular continuity of the medium of space
between person and person, as respects surfaces. Within the body,
insulation is still more complete: here, electric matter and air
abound to the exclusion of all excess of medium of space; by which the
different organs remain, in a manner disconnected, or so far, as that
the functional action of each organ has its distinct period, instead of
the action of the whole being simultaneously performed. Beside these
means and degrees of insulation, the non-conducting coating and lining
of the nerves insulate more completely their elementary contents, by
which the nerves are not only tubes of separation but insulation, and
are direct conducting channels of the nervous fluid through the body
from its external source to the brain.

Although man is thus isolated from man, the isolating means do not
prevent the medium of space being continuous through all, and from one
to another; which is manifested by the clairvoyant, who has the like
of the sensation excited in the brain of the mesmeriser repeated or
excited in his own brain; as when the mesmeriser masticates and the
sensation of the same flavour is known by the mesmerised. The sensation
is nothing transferable; taste is not by the tongue; hence, by the
sensation being excited in succession in the brain of each person,
is the only conceivable mode, in reason, why the second should know
what the first is masticating. The nervous fluid of the two may be
supposed to be derived from the medium of space between them; then,
by the medium of space lying between, the nervous fluids of the two
are rendered continuous one with the other, and is so at all times,
but only when the nervous fluid is mesmerically de-electrised is it
productive of clairvoyant perceptions. Community of sensation, or
the _same_ sensation being perceived by different persons, is an
impossibility. The first sensation is only where it has been excited,
in the brain of the mesmeriser; and supposing the matter of the nervous
fluid continuous direct from his brain to that of the patient, in
it, what has the latter to perceive?--nothing; neither is perception
separable in idea from the result of cerebral excitement. It is to
be hoped that the desultory ideas here advanced may tend to a better
knowledge on this singular mesmeric discovery. Even the foregoing may
be objected to with apparent reason, on consideration of what is termed
"community of thought," wherein there is no previous sensation to be
repeated. To account for which requires more cerebral information than
has as yet been brought to light; when satisfactorily known it may
show, whether or not community in dreaming may be effected. Report
would be impossible were there not intimate connection of brain with


Every motion of the limbs being effected by pressure, to promote the
local change minus-pressure matter has to be displaced. That the assent
of will is indispensable is evident, inasmuch as there is no _ordinary_
limb motion, if not previously assented to by the will. Yet will is no
mechanical power, nor anything having a distinct existence. Will seems
to be, the mutual accordance of the cerebral organs to act together
so as to effect, or rather assist, the accomplishing of a present
intention. The act may be likened to that of suction, voluntarily
performed by the brain to de-electrise itself, in order to make room
for and receive that which lies in the way of the desired object being
effected. The voluntary act by the brain cannot be on anything far
away, or not in contact with the brain, and that which is acted on
must be continuous to the place of the removable impediment. If, then,
the brain does de-electrise itself, and that by so doing it receives
electric matter from the nerves which are continuous from the limb
to the brain, such removal of electric matter is effected within the
nerves of the limb, as makes space for medium of space to enter in the
requisite quantity to move the limb according to the required velocity.
It is not to be overlooked, that, previous to the self de-electrisation
of the brain, thought may be concerned in promoting the cerebral
de-electrising act. So far as the foregoing may be true, the like
circumstances take place when the mesmeriser wills into report with
himself the far-off patient, the electric matter in the space between
being affected with as much facility, as the transfer of similar matter
from the trough to the utmost extent of the galvanic wire, which may be
considered instantaneous, considering the hundreds of miles distance

_The Nature and Power of Will._--The power of effecting, voluntarily,
the transfer of electric matter from one part of the interior of the
body to a different, seems to belong, in some necessary degree, to
all bodies possessed of life. The object is to make space for medium
of space to enter, and by its pressure to put the animal in a state
of locomotion. The snake, worm, and snail do so to be pressed onward
along the ground; the oyster, to have the shells firmly collapsed; the
limpit, to be pressed against the rock; and each, cerebrally wills
the replacement of electric matter to displace the cause of pressure,
medium of space, for the grovelling reptile to be at rest--the oyster,
that the shells may be opened; the limpit, when willing to fall into
the water. The fly, lizard, and walrus, so de-electrise the body, as to
reverse the direction of what is supposed to be their natural weight,
by which means each becomes pressed upwards, and walks with the back
downwards--which, to be consistent with the established philosophy,
should be considered _repellent gravitation_. The goat voluntarily
de-electrises his body to have it pressed with double force against
the slippery rock; the lynx, to have mesmeric long vision; the cat, to
have opaque vision, or "see through the dark;" the fire-fly, to effect
reduction of the optic pressure productive of sensations of colour. The
carrier-pigeon effects self de-electrisation to the clairvoyant degree,
by which the external object, the turret at Constantinople, promotes
the sensation which indicates at once the shortest direction of flight
from London to the birth-place of the bird. The eagle de-electrises
itself inwardly, the same as if by the mesmeric passes, to promote
olfactory lucidity, by which to ascertain the presence of carrion on
the ground. Fishes effect internal de-electrisation, somehow by means
of the contents of the swim, for influent medium of space to propel
the body with a velocity superior to the power of the short, flexible
fins. The flight of birds is not effected by wing motion, or wing
powers. The crow, eagle, and kite sail in all directions on extended
motionless wing, and the odd wing-flap now and then given, is only
to assist in keeping the body in the necessary electric condition.
The swallow is darted most rapidly through the air with closed
wing, and changes acutely, without way, the direction of flight, by
changing instantaneously the direction of impulse. With the greatest
wing-agitation the hawk remains at times stationary in the air. The
fish, bird, and bullet are impelled by the same cause, pressure, by the
medium of space on the de-electrised rear.

The cow and goat voluntarily de-electrise the cud, for medium of space
to enter and press it upwards through the food-passage which the cud
presses against, instead of being raised by nerves or muscles of the
esophagus. In parturition also, and the discharge of the feces, the
same principles are maintained. The "throes of Nature" are consequent
on the natural pressure being made intermitting, by electric matter
returning to and escaping from the birth at intervals. The physiologist
may refer to muscular action; but where are the delivery muscles? The
stage-dancer makes de-electrising efforts to receive medium of space,
by which to be lifted above the boards and supported a few seconds
in the air. Muscles at full stretch in opposite directions, and the
fulcrum, if any, being carried by them, is out of all dynamic rule. All
persons make a de-electrising effort previous to the leap-spring, and
while continuing to stand or run and tiptoe, without being aware of
the reason; and the fatigue is not muscular, but in keeping the body
fittingly de-electrised.

The _gymnotus electricus_ kills the distant prey instantaneously, which
receives nothing whatever of missile from the enemy; nor could the
latter be accessary to the death-stroke, were there nothing between to
connect one with the other: nothing passing and no connecting means,
no outstretched arm or instrument touching that which is to be acted
on, is a mechanical absurdity, and is attributing an effect to that
which, it may be said, is an absent cause. The eel voluntarily performs
the cerebral operation on the electric matter which is continuous from
itself through the air to the marked prey, which effects instantaneous
removal of the same matter from the prey; which permits medium of space
at the same instant to give the de-electrised part the death-blow.


First. A National Asylum, to be named, THE BRITISH MESMERIC
INSTITUTION, should be founded and endowed. England should take the
lead. A Professorship of Magnetism should be founded. All Sanatory
Asylums to be obliged to furnish their experience periodically, and
be under control of the Institution, which should be possessed of
power to undiploma the medical practitioner who refuses to mesmerise.
Self-mesmerising to Clairvoyance, to be taught, which is as teachable
as ventriloquism; the principle is the same of both,--the theory is
that of sound.

Through self-mesmerising, the blind and eyeless would be extricated
occasionally from the shadow leading to the valley of death and
be enabled to follow some useful calling. Some blind, illiterate
clairvoyant, may have superior _connoisseurship_, entitling him to fill
the academic chair. Through mesmerism the resuscitating process can be
brought under rules of science. Through clairvoyance the geography of
the globe may yet be improved; the northern passage discovered; the
astronomer assisted in his stellar speculations beyond the possibility
of mere telescopic discovery. On ship-board, the voluntary clairvoyant
may make discovery of the haze-hidden lighthouse and wave-hidden shoal.
In the hands of the clairvoyant the telescope and microscope, will, in
time, make us acquainted with other worlds, other beings, and other of
the wonderful works of the GREAT GOD OF NATURE!

The Seeker after God from the book of God's own composing, the holy
volume of his own works, through voluntary clairvoyance, will feel
himself in the enjoyment of a second nature, the fit inhabitant of
an intellectual world, in which the powers of thought are without
limits. And who can say what discovery of abstract truths may not be
elicited from the conversation of two or more clairvoyants in mutual
report, all of exalted talent and superior education? Other worlds,
ere this be past, may open to our view, and their inhabitants become
clairvoyantly familiar to human observation. The idea is pregnant
with hope; it presumes that we are not inhabitants of only the earth,
but the universe; which may be considered a natural, _never_-dying
hope. Why, then, should the science be opposed which has already been
so beneficial to our species, and promises to make known the never
yet discovered wonders of the animal economy? Surely they will be
yet ashamed of having done those things, the fruit of which is the
bitterness of remorse.


The motion which continues after the body has ceased to be in contact
with the _sensible_ impelling cause, is named continuous motion. The
body impelled receives neither force nor motion from the impelling
cause: neither force nor motion is anything transferrable or anything
communicable; forcible velocity and change of place are but accidents
of matter, and but local, casual circumstances of bodies. Being
_inert_, the body cannot move itself. Motion, therefore, is but a
physical effect, and must have a cause equal to the duration of the
effect: motion after impulse has ceased, would be effect without
cause--which is an absurdity and impossibility; therefore impulse
is constant as motion, however insensible the impelling cause.
These dynamic principles cannot be too frequently brought to mind,
considering the general erroneous opinion on the subject which
maintains, that "a body continues in motion because it cannot stop
itself;" which is effect without its equal of cause.

A body in motion is under unequal pressure on opposite sides, greater
on the rear than front. The air in front resists, that in the rear
may be said to recede from the body; therefore neither impels the
projectile. Under such circumstances there remains but the alternative,
that of the electric constitution of the body being changed by the
previous impulse, by which medium of space accumulates on one side,
or decreases on the opposite. The phenomenon admits of being thus

The first, previous or sensible impulse, effects de-electrisation of
the body on the rear or side of impulse; influent medium of space
immediately occupies the vacated rear, and by its pressure impels the
body through the air. The velocity of the previous impulse, gives
momentum to the body greater than the included freely-removable
elementary matter can obtain; of consequence the latter is left behind
in the air, and the pressure of the acquired medium of space in the
rear, is the continuous impelling cause. Thus is the mistake of Dugald
Stuart made evident, that "motion is the immediate and only effect of

It is not the air's resistance which makes the motion of a projectile
decline and end. Taking impulse as ten, resistance four, there remains
six degrees of unresisted impulse, which should impel the body for
ever through the atmosphere. The decline and cessation of impulse is
that which brings the projectile to rest.

From the instant the body has ceased to be in contact with the sensible
impelling cause, electric matter is re-entering the rear, which
displaces gradually the impelling medium; and as are the increments of
the former, so are the decrements of the latter, and so is the decline
of motion.

_Ascending and Descending Motion._--The rear of the vertically-impelled
body becomes vacated of minus-pressure matter, and replaced with medium
of space; by the latter, and general pressure, the body is forced
upwards as a cork by water. While ascending, the rear is acquiring
electric matter and losing the impelling medium,--the velocity of
course declines; and when at the highest, the body is at rest in the
air for an instant, then is precipitated to the ground. During the
entire of the descent, electric matter is vacating the rear and medium
of space entering, consequently the fall is accelerated. Now as the
body cannot fall of itself; as descending motion is of increasing
velocity, while motion in every other direction is retarded; and,
because all descent has the same _centripetal_ direction, so should
there be some distinct cause to produce these conspicuous effects,
which, to trace, suggest the following hypothesis:

_Centripetal Flow._--The different motions of the globe affect all
bodies on its surface, so as to appear to the inhabitants as if the
whole were at rest; supposing thence, that the centre of the earth
is the centre of motion, the following may be considered probable
consequences:--The general pressure being less at the centre and axis
than on the surface of the earth, obliges the medium of space to
flow through the atmosphere and entire surface, _centripetally_, to
the centre, thence along the axis, carrying with it electric matter,
and has exit at the poles, which polarizes the globe and produces
the boreales. The centripetal flow retains the atmosphere to the
earth; precipitates bodies from the air in a centripetal direction;
accelerates the descent; and retards all motion not in its own
direction: it prevents vertical ascent being equal to impulse, the
difference being employed in bearing against the flow. The flow makes
bodies ponderate or have weight, causes the dip and direction of the


That cannot be considered a chaotic state from which the eternal order
sprung; nor that a created body, the substance of which previously
existed, which was and is common to all bodies. Hence it may be
concluded that a planet is a natural production, equally as the
instantly-formed ponderous atmospheric aërolite, supposed to have come
from the moon.

From the elementary to the aëriform, thence the aqueous state, seems
the simplest and primeval order of atomic combination. Hence it is
conceivable, that, were an immense volume of the general elements
collected together in the regions of space, and subjected to extreme
pressure, the result would be an aqueous sphere, with an attached
residue of the same elements to serve as a primeval atmosphere to
receive increase from future mists and exhalations. While aqueous
and with one side only of the sphere facing the sun, the elements of
the water cannot avoid being in a state of constant disturbance and
transfer, productive of combinations, formations, and precipitations
until the equilibrium has obtained, leaving ultimately the solid masses
so formed, as they would now appear were the ocean away: the original
water, from having contributed the elements of the newly-formed solids,
being reduced in quantity and changed in quality, is left as the ocean
is at present, saline. During the intermediate plastic state, and as
induration increased, the endowed fertility may have produced _kinds_,
many of which have become extinct.

It may be further assumed, that deep within the planet the elements
abound in neither kind nor quantity as at the surface and in the
atmosphere; and if the imponderable oxygen element be absent, an
immense mass of ice would form the nucleus of the earth, the occasional
melting at the surface of which, in the neighbourhood of sulphurous and
ferruginous masses, may cause those volcanic eruptions from which no
region of the earth is free. Thus it would seem that a planet may be
the natural formation of an instant, requiring time for completion, and
may be an everyday circumstance in space.

The strict inquirer into terrestrial magnetism has to ascertain,
whether the non-conducting central ice be not the means, some how,
of separating the correlative fluids which the centripetal flow
carries with it along the axis through the Poles, and which make the
Poles magnetic opposites; or, whether, of these fluids, one only is
transmissible through ice.

A planet may be subject to wear and the fertility to decrease, thence
to be uninhabitable, as Herschel describes the very probable condition
of the moon, owing to the rapid motion through space, solar effects
and cultivation. The idea is neither gloomy nor a threatened dread.
Man was born to leave this world, and live where GOD has pleased. Some
anticipate the night, when we shall see "our God in terror, and our
world on fire!"--"undoing all, as all had never been," or made in vain.
But He who blessed and never cursed his works, whose mercy and goodness
endureth for ever, and who will "save both man and beast," is not a God
of terror!

Why the planets are moved round the sun, all in the same direction,
excites speculation in the absence of demonstration. Let it be supposed
that the inequalities in a newly-formed planet prevent the body being
at rest under the general pressure; in which case the planet is put
into its primeval motion, and in the direction of the strongest
impulsive pressure. But as the like inequalities precisely, cannot
present in every new planet, neither could the motion of all be in
the same direction, which gives room for conceiving the probability
that the portion of the medium, however extensive, in which the
solar system is involved, revolves round the sun, or round the orbit
of the sun, and that its motion is promoted by the sun in the solar
orbit,--which orbit may probably be promoted by the rarity of the
elements in the solar regions. The medium of space so revolving,
determines the direction of all the planets, which by the hypothesis
must be the same as that of the revolving medium.

By some such means only is it conceivable how solar matter can arrive
at Neptune, the Earth, or even Mercury,--the _inert_ sun being
incapable of radiating anything from itself, and solar atoms requiring
a physical impelling cause, in motion, and acting on the rear of each
from the sun to the extreme of planetary space. A circulating medium of
constantly-increasing radius, appears indispensably necessary for the
purpose of conveying solar matter through the regions of space, and for
the maintaining all planetary motion in the same uniform direction. The
subject is open to all, and worthy of notice: what is now advanced will
be passed over, from having no mathematical appendage, but which, makes
even false causes pass for the demonstrated truth. The mathematical
science has not to this day demonstrated the cause of planetary
motion,--a subject wholly indifferent to modern astronomy, in which the
false, self-gravitation, in connection with _inertia_, satisfies all as
long as the astronomer remains self-satisfied.

_Formation and Use of a Comet._--A _Comet_ may have been a planet by
formation, and impelled, before completion, immeasurably far beyond
the sun. The tail is probably the primitive atmosphere, left behind and
pressed after the body as towards a sheltering wall; the _coma_ may be
electric matter collected on the front, and subject to increase, which,
by lessening pressure on the side facing the direction of motion,
and without increased pressure on the opposite side, may cause the
velocity of the planet to be subject to acceleration, or prevent the
motion being equitable: the reticulated tail may serve to collect all
redundant solar matter in space, after planetary use, for deposit in
the solar regions, or the sun as the heart of the system, for future
circulation. Were the tail to approach the earth sufficiently near,
the waters of the sea would be pressed upwards as towards an immense
water-spout; in which case the rivers must become drained; and as the
Comet recedes from the earth, the fall of the immense column would
produce _another general deluge_ over one hemisphere, at least, of the
globe! The deposits from a comet's tail may occasion those nebulocities
named solar spots.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

Tyler and Reed, Printers, Bolt-court, London.


Archaic, dialectical and unusual spellings and usage have been
maintained. Obvious typos have been fixed as detailed below.

Table of Contents entries with no corresponding centered title in the
original book have been indented and the titles have been inserted

  Page vii:
  DEDICATION      iii
  In the original book:

  In the original book: ----, ITS USE IN COMBUSTION     42

  In the original book: USE OF OXYGEN IN RESPIRATION      56

  Page vii:
  In the original book:
  ----, MESMERIC      68

  Page viii:
  OPACITY      77
  In the original book:

  Page viii:
  ETHERS      87
  In the original book:
  ETHERS      87

  Page viii:            TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE
  In the original book: (inserted)

  Page 10:              an excruciating, painless toothache, and,
  In the original book: an excruciating, painless toothach, and,

  Page 24:              velocity and direction makes no exception.
  In the original book: velocity and direction makes no exeption.

  Page 41:              constituent of every aëriform body
  In the original book: constituent of every acriform body

  Page 42:              In this twofold manner of service
  In the original book: In this two-fold manner of service

  Page 43:              suffers de-electrisation and acquires medium
  In the original book: suffers de-electrisation and acquiries medium

  Page 55:              within the stomach, or in the tea-cup
  In the original book: within the stomach, or in the teacup

  Page 56:              the accumulation of minus-pressure matter in
  In the original book: the accumulation of minus pressure-matter in

  Page 56:              which is compensated by minus-pressure matter
  In the original book: which is compensated by minus pressure-matter

  Page 58:              the arterialising, minus-pressure, imponderable
  In the original book: the arterialising, minus pressure, imponderable

  Page 58:              losing the arterialising minus-pressure matter
  In the original book: losing the arterialising minus pressure matter

  Page 59:              the venous flow on the minus-pressure capillary
  In the original book: the venous flow on the minus pressure capillary

  Page 59:              _Use of the Spleen._--The SPLEEN, from being an
  In the original book: The SPLEEN, from being an

  Page 60:              _How the Diaphragm Is Raised._--The _diaphragm_
  In the original book: The _diaphragm_

  Page 66:              _Comatose Flow._--It must have been observed by
  In the original book: It must have been observed by

  Page 72:              above the horizon, the general optic
  In the original book: above the horiozn, the general optic

  Page 87:              _Curative Mesmerism._--The curative principle of
  In the original book: The curative principle of

  Page 87:              _Ethers._--From inhaled _ethers_, producing
  In the original book: From inhaled _ethers_, producing

  Page 88: Pharmacopoeia
  In the original book the oe ligature was used.

  Page 92:              _The Nature and Power of Will._--The power of
  In the original book: The power of

  Page 103:             _Formation and Use of a Comet._--A _Comet_ may
  In the original book: A _Comet_ may

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operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.