Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: The Americans in the Great War; v. 2 The Battle of Saint Mihiel
Author: Cie, Michelin &
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Americans in the Great War; v. 2 The Battle of Saint Mihiel" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



                      MICHELIN ILLUSTRATED GUIDES
                    TO THE BATTLEFIELDS (1914-1918)

                             THE AMERICANS

                                IN THE

                               GREAT WAR

                              VOLUME II.

                      THE BATTLE OF SAINT MIHIEL

                 (ST. MIHIEL, PONT-à-MOUSSON, METZ)

                   MICHELIN & Cie., CLERMONT=FERRAND

         MICHELIN TYRE Co. Ltd., 81 Fulham Road, LONDON, S. W.

             MICHELIN TIRE Co., MILLTOWN, N. J., U. S. A.

                 [Illustration: You don’t know what a

                             Good Road Map

                      is, if you haven’t used the

                             Michelin Map

              SCALE: 1: 200.000 (3.15 Miles to the inch.)

             On Sale at Michelin Stockists and Booksellers

 The tourist finds his way about easily _in a town_, if he has a plan
                   giving the names of the streets.

He gets about with the same ease and certainty _on the road_, if he has
   a =Michelin Map=, because it gives the numbers of all the roads.]



                          The Michelin Wheel

                    BEST of all detachable wheels
                    because the least complicated

[Illustration]

     _Elegant_

     It embellishes even the finest coachwork.

     _Simple_

     It is detachable at the hub and fixed by six bolts only.

     _Strong_

     The only wheel which held out on all fronts during the war.

     _Practical_

     Can be replaced in 3 minutes by _anybody_ and cleaned still
     quicker.

     It prolongs the life of tires by cooling them.

                           AND THE CHEAPEST

                     THE “TOURING CLUB DE FRANCE”

                    WHAT IS IT? WHAT ARE ITS USES?


The “Touring Club de France” (founded in 1890), is at the present time
the largest Touring Association in the whole world. Its principal aim is
to introduce France--admirable country and one of the loveliest on
earth--to French people themselves and to foreigners.

It seeks to develop travel in all its forms--on foot, on horseback, on
bicycle, in carriage, motor, yacht or railway, and soon in aeroplane.

Every member of the Association receives a badge and an identity ticket
free of charge, also the “Revue Mensuelle” every month.

Members have also the benefit of special prices in a certain number of
affiliated hotels; and this holds good for the purchase of guide-books
and Staff (Etat-major) maps, as well as those of the “Ministère de
l’Interieur,” the T. C. F., etc. They may insert notices regarding the
sale or purchase of traveling requisites in the “Revue” (1 fr. per
line). The “Comité des Contentieux” is ready to give them counsel with
regard to travelling, and 3,000 delegates in all the principal towns are
able to give them advice and information about the curiosities of art or
of nature in the neighborhood, as well as concerning the roads, hotels,
motor-agents, garages, etc.

Members are accorded free passage across the frontier for a bicycle or
motor-bicycle. For a motor-car the Association gives a “Triptyque”
ensuring free passage through the “douane,” etc.


ONE TRAVELS BEST IN FRANCE WHEN A MEMBER OF THE “TOURING CLUB DE
FRANCE”



              +===========================================+
              |               IN MEMORY                   |
              | OF THE MICHELIN WORKMEN AND EMPLOYEES WHO |
              |   DIED GLORIOUSLY FOR THEIR COUNTRY       |
              +===========================================+



                             THE AMERICANS

                                IN THE

                               GREAT WAR

                              VOLUME II.

                       THE BATTLE OF ST. MIHIEL

                  (ST. MIHIEL, PONT-À-MOUSSON, METZ.)

       _Published by_ Michelin & Cie, Clermont-Ferrand, (France)

                  Copyright, 1920, by Michelin & Cie

  _All rights of translation, adaptation or reproduction (in part or
                  whole), reserved in all countries._



FOREWORD

THE ST. MIHIEL VICTORY, SEPTEMBER, 1918


The world already knows of the undying glory achieved in the Great War
by the American Soldiers, but perhaps less is known about the historic
ground over which they fought.

The purpose of the present volume is more to describe, for the benefit
of the tourist, that section of France where the battle of Saint-Mihiel
raged, than to dwell on the splendid achievements of the brave troops
from across the seas, who took that ancient stronghold, and thus opened
the way to Metz.

At the same time it is fitting to remind the reader that at Saint-Mihiel
the Americans liberated over 150 square miles of French territory; took
over 15,000 German prisoners, and captured upwards of 200 guns.

President Poincaré, in a message to President Wilson, expressed in the
following words, the feelings of France regarding the glorious
achievements of the American troops: “I congratulate you, Mr. President,
on a victory which has been completed so brilliantly. General Pershing’s
magnificent divisions have just liberated with admirable dash, cities
and villages of Lorraine which have been groaning for years under the
yoke of the enemy. I express the warmest thanks of France to the people
of the United States.”

Marshal Foch, also, expressed the greatest possible admiration for the
way the American troops fought their way to the great victory at
Saint-Mihiel. In describing the battle Marshal Foch said: “This was
where the Americans for the first time showed their worth. This is where
we were able to judge of these admirable soldiers, strong in body and
valiant in soul. In one swoop they reduced the famous salient, which
during so long we did not know how to approach.”

In closing this brief introduction the publisher wishes to say that it
would have been an easy matter to fill the pages following with many
high-sounding phrases and verbose descriptions, but it has been thought
better to adhere to the facts (they speak for themselves), and to
furnish the tourist as briefly as possible with an historically correct
account of the great victory of Saint-Mihiel.



  AMERICAN FORCES ENGAGED

  FIRST ARMY CORPS

  Major-General Hunter Liggett

  comprising the

  _82nd Division        Major-General W. P. Burnham_

  _90th    “              “      “    Henry T. Allen._

  _5th     “              “      “    John McMahon._

  _2nd     “              “      “    John A. Le Jeune._

[Illustration: MAJOR-GENERAL HUNTER LIGGETT

_Commanding the 1st Army Corps._]



  FOURTH ARMY CORPS

  Major-General Joseph T. Dickman

  comprising the

  _89th Division        Brig.-General Frank L. Winn._

  _42nd     “           Major-General C. A. Flagler._

  _1st      “             “      “    E. F. McGlachlin._

  _3rd      “(Res.)       “      “    B. B. Buck._

[Illustration: MAJOR-GENERAL JOSEPH T. DICKMAN

_Commanding the 4th Army Corps._]



  FIFTH ARMY CORPS

  Major-General George H. Cameron

  comprising the

  _26th Division        Major-General Harry C. Hale._

  _4th    “               “      “    Mark L. Hersey._

[Illustration: MAJOR-GENERAL GEORGE H. CAMERON

_Commanding the 5th Army Corps._]

[Illustration:

MAJ.-GEN.
J. A. LE JEUNE,
_2nd Inf. Divn._
]

[Illustration: MAJ.-GEN. E. F. McGLACHLIN, JR. _1st Inf. Divn._]

[Illustration: MAJOR-GENERAL HENRY T. ALLEN

_90th Inf. Divn._]

[Illustration: MAJ.-GEN. C. A. F. FLAGLER

_42nd Inf. Divn._]

[Illustration: MAJ.-GEN. M. L. HERSEY

_4th Inf. Divn._]

[Illustration: THE FRONTIER IN 1914 AND DEFENCES OF THE MEUSE

_In constructing these defences, Gen. Séré de Rivières’ plans provided
for the concentration of the French Armies to the west of the Meuse, the
bridges being within range of the guns of the forts on the Meuse
Heights. The quadrilateral formed by Woëvre Plain was open to the
enemy._]



THE MILITARY OPERATIONS IN THE ST. MIHIEL SALIENT (1914-1918).

The Frontier in 1914

(_See map, p. 8._)


If we look at a map of the Franco-German frontier of 1914, between Nancy
and Verdun, it will be seen that two rivers--the Meuse and the
Moselle--ran parallel with the frontier, forming a double line of
defences. The Moselle is protected by the hills of that name, and the
Meuse by the Heights of Meuse, the eastern side of which, facing
Germany, consists of a series of steep cliffs.

When, in 1875, General Séré de Rivières was instructed to fortify this
frontier, his plans provided for the construction of a line of forts
along the Meuse Heights, capable of holding the bridges across the Meuse
under gunfire, and thus enable the French Armies to concentrate behind
the river near Neufchâteau. The three northern forts, therefore, faced
the Meuse; the southern forts, viz., Gironville and Liouville, commanded
both the Meuse and the Woëvre.

The drawback to this plan was that the vast Woëvre Plain lying between
Stenay, Longwy, Toul and Nancy, would be sacrificed in the event of a
surprise attack. The importance of this possible loss was made all the
greater by the discovery of coalfields in the Briey district. It was
therefore decided that a number of battalions of Chasseurs should be
garrisoned in the Woëvre towns. Moreover, the passing of the Three
Years’ Military Service Bill made it possible to increase considerably
the number of covering troops. In 1914, the Plan of Concentration
provided for the grouping of the French Third Army in the Woëvre Plain.
However, no permanent defences were erected. The fortress of Longwy,
being isolated and of little military value, could not give effective
protection.

The German Government had on several occasions given the French
Government to understand that they would disapprove the erection of
fortifications in Woëvre. On the other hand, the Germans unceasingly
strengthened their own frontier from Metz to Thionville, increasing the
perimeter of the entrenched camp of Metz from 25 to 90 kilometres and
erecting ten new forts. All the attacks against the Meuse Heights
started from this vast entrenched camp, which, for four years, also
furnished the German lines of St. Mihiel with troops.

September 7, 1914, and the following days were particularly anxious ones
for General Sarrail’s army which, resting as it did on Verdun, was to
form the pivot of Joffre’s famous manœuvre (_see the Michelin
Illustrated Guide_: “The Battlefields of the Marne, 1914”).


HOW THE ST. MIHIEL SALIENT WAS FORMED

First Attempt during the Battle of the Marne

(_See map, p. 10._)

A furious frontal attack was made on this army by the ex-Crown Prince of
Germany, while at the same time it was taken in the rear, on the Meuse
Heights, by the Bavarian Crown Prince. Had the latter succeeded in
crossing the Meuse, Verdun would have become untenable; General Sarrail
would have been forced to retreat southwards, and, as in this gigantic
battle of the Marne all the armies were interdependent, such a
withdrawal would have been felt all along the line, and Joffre’s plans
for a strategical recovery would have failed.

On September 8, the Germans bombarded the Fort of Troyon. The Governor
of Verdun telegraphed to the officer in command of the fort that victory
depended upon his resistance, and requested him to hold out
“indefinitely.” As a precautionary measure, General Sarrail ordered
several of the bridges across the Meuse to be destroyed.

On September 9, the fort’s guns were put out of action, but the
defenders repulsed several assaults. Génicourt Fort was next bombarded.

[Illustration: THE FIRST GERMAN ATTACKS AGAINST THE MEUSE HEIGHTS

_While the Battle of the Marne was raging, the Germans attempted in vain
to capture the Meuse Heights, in order to take Gen. Sarrail’s Army--the
pivot of Joffre’s manoeuvre--in the rear._]

On the 10th, the forts were still holding out, although deluged with
shells. Meanwhile the German infantry advanced towards St. Mihiel.

However, the Battle of the Marne had now been won on the left wing, and
the German retreat, which was to extend as far as the Verdun--St. Mihiel
district, had begun.

General de Castelnau despatched the 73rd Reserve and 2nd Cavalry
Divisions of his army to Troyon, and the fort was relieved on September
13. The mobile defence forces of Verdun pursued the retreating Germans
across the Meuse and established themselves to the east of the town,
while General Sarrail’s army advanced towards the north and west.

The German plan had completely failed.

[Illustration: THE FORMATION OF THE ST. MIHIEL SALIENT (_Sept. 20-29,
1914_)]

Their set-back at Troyon did not prevent the Germans reforming, and they
attacked the Meuse Heights again on September 20, in an endeavour to
outflank Verdun from the south. Four army corps under General von
Strantz, starting from Metz, advanced rapidly on the 22nd to the
Combres-Vigneulles-Thiaumont line, and began a methodical bombardment of
the forts on the Meuse Heights. These were soon pounded into shapeless
heaps of _débris_, but the gallant defenders still held on and repulsed
all assaults.

On the 23rd, the enemy advanced to Seicheprey. The mobile defence forces
of the region, greatly outnumbered (two or three to one), formed only a
very thin line, the depth of which steadily decreased as it extended
beyond Verdun to the south.

On September 24, the German attacks were renewed with increased fury. On
the 25th, they succeeded in gaining a footing on the Meuse Heights near
Vigneulles, whence they advanced to St. Mihiel, which they entered
without, however, crossing the Meuse. At this point the river was only
defended by one battalion of Territorials, and the Germans were able to
cross on the 26th, after which they began to advance towards the valley
of the Aire, in the direction of Verdun. The situation was critical. The
16th Corps from Nancy met and defeated the German forces, and obliged
them to fall back in disorder on the suburbs of St. Mihiel, but were
unable to force them back across the river. On September 29, the front
line ran through Combres, Chauvoncourt, Apremont and Seicheprey.

The salient had been made.

[Illustration: THE DESTROYED BRIDGE AT ST. MIHIEL

_In the background_: Temporary foot-bridge built by the Allies in Sept.,
1918.]


THE ST. MIHIEL SALIENT--Oct., 1914, to Sept., 1918

(_See map, p. 13._)

[Illustration: FORTIFIED STREET IN FEY-EN-HAYE (1915)]

From November 17-20 the French endeavoured to drive the Germans from the
bridgehead which the enemy held at Chauvoncourt, opposite St. Mihiel. In
a spirited attack they drove the Germans from the suburb and barracks of
Chauvoncourt. However, the latter had been mined, the Germans, taking
advantage of the confusion caused by the explosion, counter-attacked and
reoccupied Chauvoncourt.

This was the last attack made at the point of the salient. Only local
fighting of extreme violence now took place in Apremont Forest, the
result of which was, the French prevented the Germans extending the
salient.

French offensives were launched against the northern and southern sides
of the salient, at Eparges and Prêtre Wood, in the hope of narrowing the
salient and forcing the Germans to evacuate it. Eparges Crest was
conquered after more than two months of the fiercest possible fighting,
ending on April 9, 1915.

[Illustration: ST. MIHIEL SALIENT, FROM OCT., 1914, to SEPT., 1918]

However, these local actions were insufficient, and little by little the
line became fixed. Both sides entrenched themselves and bombarded each
other unceasingly, while the sappers carried out long and strenuous
mining operations. Attacks were henceforth confined to small local
objectives: a wood, house, bridge or crater, and it required the great
American offensive of September, 1918, to flatten out this salient
which, for four years, had formed a huge “pocket” inside the French
lines.


The Salient during the Battle of Verdun

The German offensive, which began on February 21, 1916, caused a slight
withdrawal along the whole of the French Verdun-Nancy line (_see the
Michelin Illustrated Guide_: “Verdun”). The French line was withdrawn
behind Fresnes, passing thence round Eparges Crest, which formed a
hinge.

After the French counter-offensive of July-September, 1917, which
disengaged Verdun and the immediate vicinity, their positions were
further improved by a series of local operations at Eparges and around
Pont-à-Mousson.

[Illustration: ON BEAUMONT HEIGHTS

_Gen. F. E. Bamford, commanding the American 2nd Brigade, watching the
advance of his troops before Beaumont, Sept. 12, 1918._]


THE AMERICAN OFFENSIVE OF SEPTEMBER, 1918

It has been seen in the _Michelin Illustrated Guide_: “The Americans in
the Great War,” Vol. I., that the 1st and 3rd American Corps, under the
respective commands of Major-Generals Liggett and Bullard, reached the
Vesle at the beginning of August, 1918. General Pershing’s intention at
that time was to use these two army corps to form the American First
Army which, under his personal command, was to relieve the French 6th
Army (General Degoutte). However, the Germans having given proof of
their intention to defend the Vesle line at all cost, Marshal Foch
decided to attack at another point of the front, and entrusted the task
of flattening out the salient to the American Army.

[Illustration: FLIREY VILLAGE (_Sept. 14, 1918_)

_American Sappers pulling down the walls of the ruined houses to fill in
the German trenches across the roads in the salient._]

This operation had already been carefully studied by the American Staff,
for it was in this region that the first American divisions were trained
in active warfare.

The 1st Division was holding the sector extending from Ailly Wood to
Mortmare Wood, when it was relieved by the 26th Division on April 2,
1918, and despatched to the Somme, where it covered itself with glory by
the capture of Cantigny. On April 20, the 26th Division withstood a
powerful surprise attack at Seicheprey, where, after losing part of the
village, it succeeded in fully re-establishing its front. On July 10, it
was sent from the Woëvre district to take part in the Battle of the
Ourcq.

From January, 1918, the 2nd Division held that part of the front lying
between Eparges and Spada Pass, where it received a thorough training,
the effects of which the Germans were destined to feel around
Château-Thierry in June, 1918.

On August 30, General Pershing took over the command of the First Army,
with Headquarters at Ligny-en-Barrois. At that time, the front line of
the salient ran as follows: from Eparges Crest it descended in an almost
straight line to St. Mihiel, along the Meuse Heights; passing thence
round St. Mihiel, the great bend in the Meuse and the Camp des Romains,
it described a vast semicircle; then turning sharply eastwards, it
proceeded towards Pont-à-Mousson, passing through the woods of Apremont,
Ailly, Mortmare and Le Prêtre.

The total length of the salient front was about 65 km., and its width
along the German lines between Eparges and Regniéville (near Prêtre
Wood) about 39 km. It penetrated the French lines to a maximum depth of
22 km.

[Illustration: ST. MIHIEL SALIENT PRIOR TO THE OFFENSIVE OF SEPT., 1918

_It measured 39 km. across its greatest width, 22 km. in depth, and
about 65 km. along its front._]

Since 1916 this important salient had been fairly quiet, and beyond
intermittent bombardments--which showed that the lines on both sides
were defended and that the artillery was on the alert--and a few local
attacks, the communiqués had nothing to report. This salient, however,
greatly hampered the French lines of communication, cutting as it did
the railway between Verdun and Toul. This line, which runs as far as
Epinal and Belfort, linked up these four great eastern fortresses before
the war.


The Defences of the Salient

(_See map below._)

Through aerial observations and prisoners taken during raids, the
American High Command knew that the enemy possessed several lines of
defences, one behind the other, in the salient, and that beyond the
first line of trenches facing the front was a second line known as the
Schroeter Zone, which formed a second salient about 5 km. within the
first. This line began north-east of Eparges, and went southwards across
the Meuse Heights, then descending eastwards near Varvinay as far as
Buxières, afterwards passing behind the deep valley of the Rupt-de-Mad,
and lastly going in a north-easterly direction through Nonsard,
Lamarche, Beney and Xammes, where it joined up with the Michel line. The
latter formed part of the system of defences known as the _Hindenburg
Line or Kriemhilde Position_--considered impregnable by the Germans, and
of which they said to the Allies: “Thus far, and no further”--and it was
there that the final enemy stand in the salient was to be made.

[Illustration: THE GERMAN DEFENCE WORKS IN THE SALIENT

_The German lines of defence extended in échelons over the whole depth
of the salient, and rested on the zone of the advanced forts of Metz._]


The Opposing Forces

(_See map below._)

Lieutenant-General Fuchs, Commander of the German forces in the salient,
had eight divisions in the line and five divisions of reserves.

These divisions formed part of the forces of General von Gallwitz,
commanding the army group, and it was he who really opposed the
Americans.

On this front General Pershing had four army corps disposed as
follows:--

The 1st Corps, comprising the 82nd, 90th, 5th and 2nd Divisions,
commanded by Major-General Hunter Liggett, operated from Clémery, east
of the Moselle, to Limey.

The 4th Corps, consisting of the 89th, 42nd and 1st Divisions, commanded
by Major-General Joseph T. Dickman, operated from Limey to Xivray.

[Illustration: THE OPPOSING FORCES AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 1918
OFFENSIVE]

To these two Corps was assigned the task of carrying out the main
attack, their objective being the Vigneulles-St. Benoit-Xammes line,
which was to be reached in three successive rushes.

The 5th American Corps, composed of the 26th and 4th Divisions under
Major-General George H. Cameron, and supported by the French 15th
Division, carried out a secondary attack from Mouilly to Watronville,
the objectives being, first the capture of the crests of Eparges and
Combres, then the Combres-Vigneulles line. The Corps was to join hands
in the latter village with the troops engaged in the main attack.

The French 2nd Colonial Corps, first under General Blondlat and
afterwards General Claudel, operated in the centre of the salient, from
Xivray to Mouilly, with orders to protect the flanks of the two American
attacks.

The attacking forces consisted of some 216,000 Americans and 48,000
French, in addition to the American Reserves (190,000 men), who were
ready at a moment’s notice to take part in the battle.

In his official report General Pershing stated that he had mustered a
body of troops three times as large as General Grant’s Army of the
Potomac in 1864-1865.

[Illustration: SHOWING THE AMERICAN-FRENCH ADVANCE FROM SEPT. 12 (12/9)
TO NOV. 11 (11/11), 1918

_Two secondary attacks on Sept. 12 held the enemy at the bottom of the
salient, while the main attacks on the flanks crushed in the latter, as
in the jaws of a vise. On Sept. 13, the Germans, in danger of being cut
off, were forced to evacuate the salient._]


Flattening out the Salient, Sept. 12, 1918

(_See map above._)

Despite all the precautions taken by General Pershing to ensure the
secrecy of his troops’ movements in the St. Mihiel sector, the Germans
expected the attack, and as early as the beginning of September began to
withdraw their heavy guns, and to make active preparations for the total
evacuation of the salient. However, General Pershing did not give them
time to do this, and ordered the attack to be made on September 12, at 5
a.m. for the 1st and 4th Corps, and at 8 a.m. for the 5th Corps.

The attack had been worked out in minute detail, and the time-table of
the advance exactly laid down. Everything took place as arranged. After
an artillery preparation lasting four hours, the American divisions
advanced, supported by a certain number of tanks, half of them driven by
Americans and the other half by Frenchmen. Accompanied by soldiers whose
duty it was to cut the barbed wire, and by men armed with “bangalore
torpedoes,” the Americans advanced in successive waves. They soon
reached the enemy trenches and fell unexpectedly on the demoralized foe
in the middle of a fog.

On September 12 (12/9) the 1st Corps quickly took Thiaucourt, whilst the
4th Corps, operating on the left, advanced beyond Montsec and reached
Nonsard, further north. At the point of the salient, the 2nd French
Colonial Corps gradually attained the objectives assigned to it. The 2nd
Cavalry Division captured more than 2,500 prisoners with a loss of only
fourteen men killed and 116 wounded. At the other end, the 5th American
Corps carried the crests of Eparges and Combres, repulsed a
counter-attack, and quickly joined hands with the patrols of the 4th
Corps at Vigneulles.

On the morning of September 13 (13/9), Generals Pershing and Pétain
entered St. Mihiel. In the evening the new front line ran as follows:
Herbeuville, Thillot-sous-les-Côtes, Hattonville, St. Benoit, Xammes,
Jaulny, Norroy.

It was a fine victory: 16,000 prisoners, 443 guns of all calibres, and
huge quantities of stores and munitions were captured, with a loss of
only 7,000 killed and wounded.

The German retreat continued on September 14 and 15 (14/9 and 15/9) to
the line Fresnes--Hautmont--Rembercourt.

The offensive was finished; the jaws of the vise had closed on the
salient, and the latter had disappeared. From the American advance-posts
the out-works of Metz were now plainly visible, and Wagner Fort,
situated in front of the town, was already under the fire of the
American guns.


German Comments on the Attack

A German report on the American attack of the St. Mihiel salient
contains the following:--“_The Americans made a clever use of their
machine-guns. They are stubborn in defence, and rely greatly upon this
weapon, of which they have large numbers._

“_The artillery preparation, which preceded the attack, was well carried
out. The objectives were efficiently bombarded. The American gunners
were able to change their targets in the minimum of time, and with great
accuracy. The liaison between the infantry and the artillery was
faultless. Whenever the infantry were stopped by a nest of machine-guns,
they immediately fell back, and their artillery promptly shelled the
nest of machine-guns._

“_Numerous tanks were ready, but only a few actually used; the masses of
infantry alone ensured the victory._”

[Illustration: COMRADES IN ARMS

MARSHAL FOCH

GENERAL PERSHING
]


France’s Congratulations

Immediately after the first American successes in the salient, the
President of the French Republic cabled his warmest congratulations to
President Wilson for the victory of “_General Pershing’s magnificent
divisions, fraternally seconded by French troops_.”

The praise was well deserved, as in two days the Americans had liberated
150 square miles of French territory which had been occupied four years
by the enemy.

[Illustration: THE OPPOSING FORCES ON ARMISTICE DAY

_A crushing offensive was on the eve of being launched. The enemy,
incapable of effectual resistance, hauled down their flag and
capitulated._]


St. Mihiel Front from Sept. 15 to Armistice Day

During the great Meuse-Argonne Battle, fought by General Pershing’s
troops after September 26, the operations on the St. Mihiel front were
limited to intermittent bombardments and local attacks.

When the Armistice was signed on November 11, General Pershing was
making dispositions to invest Metz by an offensive towards Longwy with
the 1st Army, and towards Briey with the 2nd Army, while a detachment of
six American divisions was to co-operate on the right bank of the
Moselle with General Mangin’s Army, in an attack on Château-Salins.
Meanwhile, the Germans had already begun to evacuate Metz. The Allies’
advance began on November 10 and 11, but the general capitulation of the
Germans, on terms dictated by the Allies, robbed the Americans of a new
and crushing victory, which would have fittingly crowned their fine
success at St. Mihiel.



A VISIT TO THE BATTLEFIELDS

IN THREE ITINERARIES

[Illustration]


FIRST ITINERARY (_p. 22_)
Distance: 80 km. (_See pp. 23-71_)

=VERDUN to COMMERCY, via Calonne Trench, Eparges, Apremont
Forest, Ailly Wood and St. Mihiel=, including =A VISIT TO ST.
MIHIEL= (_pp. 55-69_)


SECOND ITINERARY (_pp. 72-137_)
Distance: 142 km. (_See pp. 72-137_)

=COMMERCY to METZ, via Pont-à-Mousson=, including
=A VISIT TO PRÊTRE WOOD= (_pp. 102-119_)

=A VISIT TO METZ= (120-137)


THIRD ITINERARY (_pp. 138-145_)
=METZ to VERDUN, via Etain= (_pp. 138-145_)

[Illustration: FIRST DAY--VERDUN TO COMMERCY

_Follow the roads indicated by the continuous black lines, in the
direction of the arrows. See sheets 7 and 12 of the Michelin Touring
Map._]

[Illustration: FAÇADE OF THE HÔTEL-DE-VILLE, OVERLOOKING THE PUBLIC
GARDENS

(_From the Michelin Guide: The Battle of Verdun._)]


FIRST DAY

FROM VERDUN TO COMMERCY

_Leave Verdun by the Rue de l’Hôtel-de-Ville, Rue St. Sauveur, Rue and
Gate of St. Victor (photo below) and N. 3._

_Ten kilometres down this road, Rozellier Fort will be seen on the left.
One kilometre further on, take the strategic I.C. 3, also known as
Calonne Trench, on the right._

[Illustration: VERDUN--ST. VICTOR’S GATE

(_From the Michelin Guide: The Battle of Verdun._)]

[Illustration: CALONNE TRENCH

_French Post of Commandment on the left, about 200 yds. before the fork
in the road to Haudiomont (see sketch map, p. 25)._]


Calonne Trench

This picturesque road enables the tourist to follow the phases of the
struggle which took place in the district of Les Eparges. The road
crosses in an almost straight line the whole forest of Amblonville,
Bouchot Wood, and La Montagne Forest, and comes out about twelve miles
further on at the Hattan-châtel cross-roads. Formerly this road was used
only by poachers, gamekeepers, and shooting-parties, being a well-known
haunt of game.

Calonne Trench will, in future, evoke more tragic memories. The name
“Trench” might lead one to suppose that it dates from the Great War, but
this is not the case. For more than a century the road, cut out of the
crest of the hills, has borne this name. It was made by order of M. de
Calonne, Minister of Finance under Louis XVI., to give access to his
château at the foot of the Meuse hills. This château was destroyed
during the Revolution.

[Illustration: CALONNE TRENCH

_The “Bouée” Post of Commandment, 1 km. after the fork, and 100 yds. in
the wood on the left of the road (see sketch map, p. 25)._]

[Illustration: CALONNE TRENCH

_French Trenches and Observation-Post on the right, before reaching the
road to Eparges (see sketch map, p. 26)._]

It is said that M. de Calonne, hoping some day to entertain the king at
his château, had rose-trees planted the whole length of this road.
However that may be, it is a fact that during the War wild roses were
seen in bloom all along this forest road, at that time really a “trench”
in the military sense of the word.

The battle-front crossed Calonne Trench a little to the south-west of
St. Remy, in Bouchot Wood. Both adversaries bombarded each other and
were kept constantly on the alert by attacks and counter-attacks. In
March, 1915, 5.5-in. naval guns with a range of 13,000 yards were placed
in position, to fire over Les Eparges, behind the enemy lines.

The marines had great difficulty in bringing these heavy guns into
action, owing to the slippery, clayey soil.

Their effective bombardment irritated the Germans so much that on April
20 they bombarded the French lines and, four days later, launched a
massed attack which reached the third line of support.

The marine officers, cut off from their base and unable to communicate
with the infantry--the telephone wires being cut--hastily organised
defences. They swept the ground with the fire of their heavies and some
75’s brought up by hand, which opened at fuse 0.

[Illustration: + _Upper photo, p. 24._

+ + _Lower photo, p. 24._]

[Illustration: CALONNE TRENCH

_On the left: Road to Eparges (impracticable)._]

Meanwhile the Germans continued to advance. On the 25th they were within
a thousand yards of the guns, and only vestiges of the trenches and of
the original barbed wire entanglements lay between them and the guns. On
the 26th, while the marines were preparing a vigorous resistance, two
battalions of French Chasseurs, summoned to reinforce them, crept
through the brushwood and began a counter-attack. On the 27th, the
firing became more distant, but the Germans re-formed and renewed the
attack on May 5. At first they met with some success, but this was
quickly changed by the intervention of the Moroccan Brigade and six
battalions of Chasseurs, who retook in a few hours all the ground lost
on April 24.

Calonne Trench enters the forest almost immediately. On both sides of
the road are numerous engineer and artillery parks, ambulance stations,
shelters, rail-tracks and gun-pits.

_Three kilometres from N. 3 and on the left, 200 yards before reaching
the fork in I.C. 59, which lead to Haudiomont, there is a French Post of
Commandment (photo, p. 24); fifty yards to the right, beyond the fork, a
military cemetery; 1 km. beyond the fork, on the left of the road, a
hundred yards in the wood, the “Bouée” Post of Commandment (photo, p.
24); 2 km. further on, to the left, a French military cemetery._

_Leave the fork of Mont-sous-les-Côtes on the left and follow the road._

[Illustration: + _Photo, p. 25._

++ _Photo, p. 26._]

In the “Taillis de Sauls” the French first lines (trenches, shelters,
dug-outs, barbed wire entanglements and observation-posts) begin; _on
the left_, a military cemetery; _on the right_, a concrete shelter.

[Illustration: ROAD FROM CALONNE TRENCH TO ST. REMY

_German shelters and dug-outs._]

From this point to where the destroyed road to Eparges begins (_photo,
p. 26_) the forest consists of little more than blackened shell-torn
tree-stumps.

_Continue along Calonne Trench which, for 1,500 yards, crosses_ Senoux
Hill. Here the spectacle is appalling, especially on the site of the
German trenches. _Bear to the left and take I.C. 13 towards St. Remy. It
is a bad road, but with care passable._ For 2-1/2 _km. it descends to
the Eparges stream_.

[Illustration: RUINED CHURCH AND VILLAGE OF ST. REMY

_In the background_: Combres Crest (_right_), Eparges Crest (_left_).]

All along this road, cut out of the left side of the hill, are concrete
shelters, dug-outs, underground passages, German posts of commandment,
and a few German graves.

[Illustration: THE CHOIR OF ST. REMY CHURCH

_Note the German stone and concrete Gun Shelter. The Germans bombarded
Eparges from here._]

_In the valley, a cross-road is reached, close to the stream._ _Take the
road to the right to St. Remy_, the ruins of which are seen in the
distance.

_Climb up to the church_ (German graves in the cemetery). Fine extensive
view across the valley towards Combres and Eparges.

In the church, where the altar formerly stood, is a German shelter of
stone and concrete, which concealed a big gun firing on Eparges (_photo
above_).

[Illustration: EPARGES VILLAGE (_coming from St. Remy_)

_On the right_: Montgirmont Hill; _on the left_: Hures Hill.]

_Return to the cross-road and continue along the bottom of the valley_
(_I.C. 54_) _to the village_ of =Eparges.= The road crosses the original
German and French front lines.

[Illustration: EPARGES VILLAGE

_The Cemetery is in front of the last house on the right of the road to
Trésauvaux._]

[Illustration: GENERAL VIEW OF EPARGES HEIGHTS, SEEN FROM MONTGIRMONT
CREST

A, _The Woëvre_; B, _Trench along Montgirmont Crest_ (_the photo was
taken from here_); C, _Eparges Crest_; D, _Death Ravine_; E, _Shelters
in the sides of Eparges Crest_; F, _Trench_.]

[Illustration: TRENCH IN DEATH RAVINE, 1915]

_Go through the village_, of which only a few walls remain standing.
Numerous French defence-works, including some of concrete.

[Illustration: DEATH RAVINE (1915)]

_At the last house the road turns to the right in front of_ a French
cemetery, _and goes towards_ =Trésauvaux=, passing between Montgirmont
Crest _on the right and_ Hures Hill _on the left_ (_photo, p. 28_). All
along the trenches, shelters and numerous graves.

[Illustration]

_At the top of the hill_ the houses of Trésauvaux _come into view_.
_Here leave the car and climb the slopes of Montgirmont_ (trenches,
boyaux, etc.), _from the top of which there is a fine_ panorama of
Eparges on the French side (_photo, p. 29_).

It is a desolate scene. The side of the hill is full of craters and
shell-holes, forming so many grey patches on the reddish earth on which
no vegetation survives. The glorious crest, entirely bare, stands out
against the sky. Death Ravine, where so many brave men fell in the first
assault on Eparges, lies between Montgirmont (_where the tourist
stands_) and Eparges.


Eparges Spur

Eparges Spur, 1,500 yards in length and over a thousand feet high, forms
the end of Woëvre Plain. Its sides are steep and slippery, while
numerous springs and rivulets run down its slopes. It has been rightly
called “a mountain of mud.” Eparges Heights form part of a series of
hills, among which are Hures, Montgirmont, Combres and St. Remy. Of
these, Eparges Crest is the most important. By nature an
observation-post, its possession enabled those who held it to keep all
the surrounding roads under gunfire.

The Germans captured it on September 21, 1914, and immediately made
several lines of trenches between the summit and the valleys. At some
points, five rows of batteries, one above another, were placed, and
nowhere were there less than two.

Facing Eparges Crest, the French held the brow of Montgirmont to the
north, and below, the village of Eparges, only 600 yards from the German
trenches. Between Montgirmont and the northern slopes of Eparges
Heights, an earth track crosses the pass between the two hills. It was
on the western side that, at the end of October, the French began the
attack, sapping step by step, while at the same time they slipped into
the woods on the north-east, which cover the side of the ravine.

From February onward, attacks and counter-attacks took place almost
daily and only came to an end early in April, after the French had
captured the crest. On February 17, the explosion of a mine enabled the
French to enter the west sector of the enemy’s first line. Attacks and
counter-attacks continued for five days, during which Colonel Bacquet
was mortally wounded while leading his troops. The French held the whole
of the western bastion, and began to make progress towards the eastern
bastion. From March 13 to 21 they renewed their attacks and captured the
enemy’s first line.

[Illustration: EPARGES IN 1915. SENTRY IN TRENCH]

On March 27, a battalion of Chasseurs made a fresh advance, and on April
5 began the last great attack which was to continue day and night until
the 9th.

Two regiments attacked in the rain, but the muddy ground greatly impeded
their movements, and it seemed at times as if the attack would fail.

In the evening the French occupied some of the trenches, but the use of
aerial torpedoes, which pulverized whole rows of men, and a massed
counter-attack launched at 4.30 on the morning of the 6th, forced them
to give up part of the ground gained in the first advance. On the
evening of the 6th, and throughout that night, in spite of the incessant
rain, the trenches were retaken and the enemy driven back foot by foot,
with a loss of 100 prisoners, including several officers. The French
replied to the German counter-attacks with bayonet charges or barrage
fire. The communicating trenches were bombarded, levelled, or blocked
up. On the 8th, two regiments of infantry and a battalion of Chasseurs
made a fresh bayonet charge. At 10 o’clock the summit and the western
crest were strongly held, and by midnight, after fifteen hours of
strenuous, uninterrupted fighting, almost the whole of the crest was in
the hands of the French.

During the night of the 8th, the relief of the troops was carried out,
but the ground was so muddy that men sank into it, stumbling and
slipping at every step. Fourteen hours passed in blinding rainstorms
before the fresh troops were established in position. At 3 o’clock in
the afternoon of the 9th the attack was resumed. The ground was full of
deep holes in which men sometimes disappeared. At the moment when the
eastern edge of the plateau was reached a cloud of fog descended over
the crest. Firing was out of the question. The Germans counter-attacked
and forced the French to retreat momentarily, but half an hour later the
French retook the lost ground in a furious charge, and by 10 o’clock at
night held the whole of the Eparges Heights. Only Combres Hill,
threatened by the machine guns of Eparges and St. Remy, remained in the
hands of the Germans.

The enemy had left nothing undone to put the position in a state of
defence. Their cave-shelters contained a narrow-gauge railway, sleeping
quarters, and even an officers’ club. Their relief reinforcements were
concealed from the French, while their cannon and machine-guns were
unceasingly turned on the muddy slopes up which the French laboriously
climbed. Unwounded men were drowned in the mud, while many of the
wounded could not be rescued in time from the quagmires into which they
had fallen.

[Illustration: EPARGES IN 1915. POST OF COMMANDMENT IN THE SIDE OF THE
CREST]

The victory of Eparges has been described as “a work of giants.” But it
was a costly victory. Most of the officers and thousands of men fell.
The German losses were at least as heavy as those of the French.

_Return to the Trésauvaux road._ The village of =Trésauvaux=, the ruins of
which were organised militarily by the French (_photo, p. 34_), _is
reached shortly afterwards_.

[Illustration: EPARGES IN 1915

_Making rings at the entrance to a dug-out during a lull._]

[Illustration: TRÉSAUVAUX VILLAGE]

_Follow I. C. 54 to_ =Fresnes-en-Woëvre=, the houses of which are seen in
the distance. _Go through the ruined village_ (_photos, p. 35_). The
statue of General Margueritte has been severely damaged, while the
church is entirely in ruins.

_Leaving Fresnes, take the Manheulles road (G.C.D. 7) on the left, which
joins N. 3, 2-1/2 kms. further on._

[Illustration: THE SQUARE, TRÉSAUVAUX, IN 1915]

_Continue as far as_ =Manheulles=, _where there are numerous military
works_,

[Illustration: FRESNES-EN-WOËVRE CHURCH, AUG. 11, 1915]

[Illustration: FRESNES-EN-WOËVRE. MUTILATED STATUE OF GEN. MARGUERITTE]

[Illustration: GERMAN POST OF COMMANDMENT AT ENTRANCE TO MANHEULLES
VILLAGE (_see P. 36_)]

including concrete blockhouses and a German post of commandment
_established in the first house on the right at the entrance to the
village_. The ground-floor of this house, which appears to be an
absolute ruin, is lined throughout with concrete (_photo p. 35_).
Several concrete shelters have been added outside, on the front facing
Woëvre Plain.

[Illustration: MANHEULLES. THE MAIN STREET]

_At the cross-roads, in the middle of the village, stands_ a machine-gun
blockhouse, built of concrete (_photo below_).

_From Manheulles return to Fresnes-en-Woëvre._

_Take G.C.D. 10, which passes through the villages of_ Champlon and
Hannonville (severely damaged), Thillot, St. Maurice and Billy. _Leave
the village of Viéville on the right and, 500 yards further on, take the
road which leads up a steep slope to_ =Hattonchâtel.=

[Illustration: MANHEULLES

_German Machine-Gun Blockhouse of concrete, in the middle of the
village, on left of the road._]

[Illustration: HATTONCHÂTEL CHURCH AND CLOISTER]


Hattonchâtel

Hattonchâtel stands on one of the promontories of the chain of hills
which stretches from Verdun to Toul and which separates the Valley of
the Meuse from the Plains of the Woëvre. It derives its name from a
castle built in the 9th century by Hatton, Bishop of Verdun. The
fortress has long been demolished. The church, erected as a collegiate
in 1328, but united with the Collegiate Church of Apremont in 1707,
remained standing until 1914. Since then it has been damaged by
bombardments, especially the apse and north aisle. The little 15th
century cloister, crossed by a public road, has suffered relatively
little damage.

[Illustration]

The church contained the tomb of G. de Haraucourt, Bishop of Verdun
(16th century), and a remarkable altar piece. They were carried off by
the Germans, but it is hoped that they will be returned.

[Illustration: HATTONCHÂTEL CLOISTER]

The altar-screen, dating from 1523, is the earliest work attributed to
Ligier Richier (_see p. 57_). It rested on a marble altar shaped like an
antique tomb.

[Illustration: CELEBRATED ALTAR-SCREEN, BY LIGIER RICHIER, STOLEN BY THE
GERMANS FROM THE CHURCH OF HATTONCHÂTEL]

This altar-screen, the projecting parts of which were of gold on a blue
background, is divided into three sections, separated by pilasters with
finely moulded bases.

On the central keystone, in the shape of a shield, are the arms of Duke
Antoine of Lorraine. Two medallions between the archivolt and the first
projection of the coping represent St. Peter and St. Paul.

The subjects of the three groups are: on the left, the =Carrying of the
Cross=; Christ, in a long flowing robe, is in the centre, while behind
Him stands Simon the Cyrenian wearing a pointed cap with turned-up
edges; around stands a group of three women, two of whom are easily
recognized--Mary Magdalene with long hair falling over her shoulders,
and Veronica holding the Cloth of the Holy Face. Two executioners
complete the scene.

In the centre of the altar-screen is =The Crucifixion.= In the foreground
is the swooning Virgin supported by St. John. Kneeling at the foot of
the Cross is Mary Magdalene, and opposite her, Stephaton holding the
long reed with a sponge dipped in vinegar. Lastly come the three
soldiers of Pilate, one of whom carries the spear which pierced Christ’s
side. On a pennant held by the second soldier are inscribed the words
which affirm the divinity of Christ: “_Vere hic homo filius Dei erat_.”

The third section of the altar-screen represents the =Burial Scene.= In
the background is a bishop wearing a mitre, and kneeling at his feet a
priest in a surplice. According to custom, the sculptor has here
represented the donor, doubtless Gaucher or Gauthier Richeret, Dean of
the Collegiate Church, whose initials, “G. R.,” frame the blazoned
shield. The bishop is St. Maur, Bishop of Verdun, whose relics belonged
to the Collegiate Church.

[Illustration: THE OLD GUARD HOUSE OF HATTONCHÂTEL (_before the War_)]

Unfortunate restorations were carried out in 1764 by Cellier Delatour,
whose name appears on the background of the third picture. The date of
the work (“A.D. 1.000.500.23.”) is inscribed on each of the curtains of
the four pilasters which surround it.

The 18th century pulpit is almost intact.

Behind the church there is a fine view over the Heights of the Meuse
towards Apremont.

In the village square is the old guard-house with an arcade, and some
old houses, most of which are uninhabitable.

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO A TUNNEL IN THE OLD CHÂTEAU (_since destroyed
by fire_)]

At the end of the village, in the direction of Hattonville, are the
ruins of the old château. The cellars served as bomb-proof shelters,
the walls being several yards thick.

From the terrace of the château is seen the immense Plain of
Woëvre--partly occupied by the Germans from September, 1914.


The Woëvre Plain

The Woëvre forms a district by itself, geologically rather than
geographically, and corresponds approximately to the “_pays vabrensis_”
of the Merovingians. It lies between the Heights of the Meuse and
Moselle. The soil of marl and clay becomes a slough after rain, and
numerous pools and hidden sheets of water, known locally as
“_gorittis_,” “_noues_,” or “_crachettes_,” make the ground slippery and
treacherous.

Here may be followed step by step the stages of the Franco-American
offensive of September, 1918 (_see pp. 18-20_), which reduced the whole
salient of St. Mihiel, and advanced the lines several kilometres to the
outworks of the Forts of Metz, thus placing the Allied forces in strong
positions in readiness for the new offensive planned for November 16,
which the signing of the Armistice on November 11 prevented from being
carried out to overwhelming victory.

[Illustration: VIGNEULLES

_Entrance to concrete shelter near the Church, at the side of the
road_.]

_After visiting Hattonchâtel, proceed to_ =Vigneulles= _by a road which
describes a large loop_.

_Leaving Hattonchâtel_, a German cemetery _will be seen on the left,
beside the village cemetery_.

Vigneulles is a country town of considerable importance, built on the
western fringe of the Woëvre Plain, at the foot of the chain of hills
which separates the latter from the Valley of the Meuse. In the original
plan of mobilisation it was to be the main French Headquarters.

Numerous houses have been destroyed.

_From Vigneulles to St. Mihiel there is a choice of two roads_: one,
direct, via Chaillon (_Itinerary A, p. 41_); the other, less direct,
passes through Apremont, Brûlé Wood and Ailly Wood, and is much more
interesting (_Itinerary B, p. 42_).


A.--From Vigneulles to St. Mihiel, via Chaillon

_At Vigneulles take G.C.D. 10 on the left, 100 yards from the church,
and follow it for about 500 yards, then take G.C. 9 on the right, which
passes through the village of_ Creüe.

The woods which rise above the village form a kind of curtain, and the
Germans, well aware of its importance (the Grand French Manœuvres of
1891 had taken place in this district), seized it at the end of
September, 1914, and later built a light railway which formed their main
line of communication with St. Mihiel. Hidden in this recess, the
railway escaped observation and was worked, with but little damage,
throughout the war.

_Leaving Creüe, the road follows the valley through which runs the Creüe
Brook._

_Before entering Chaillon, the tourist passes a_ German cemetery _on the
right_. Many of the houses in this village, as well as the church, were
destroyed.

[Illustration: GERMAN CEMETERY

_This cemetery is in Mouton Wood, between Chaillon and St. Mihiel, on
the left of the road when going towards St. Mihiel. One of the monuments
represents a lion on a pedestal._]

_After Chaillon the road turns to the right and continues to follow the
valley as far as the crossing of I.C. 62. It there climbs to the
plateau, leaving the valley, which continues to the right in the
direction of_ Spada. This valley is the only one which crosses the
Heights of the Meuse in their entire width, uniting the Plain of Woëvre
with the river. It is the “Spada Pass,” of immense strategical
importance.

_At the top of the slope the wood is entered just beyond a_ military
cemetery, _200 yards to the left of the road. Cross_ Mouton Wood, dotted
with German graves, shelters, cantonments, etc.

_Leaving the Varvinay road on the left, a 100 yards further on the
tourist comes to a_ German cemetery _by the roadside_, with several
monuments, one of which represents a lion on a large pedestal.

_Follow the road as far as_ =St. Mihiel.=

[Illustration: GERMAN SHELTER ON THE ROAD FROM VIGNEULLES TO HEUDICOURT
_4 km. from the latter._]


B.--From Vigneulles to St. Mihiel, via Apremont, Brûlé Wood and Ailly
Wood

_At Vigneulles, 100 yards from the church, take G.C.D. 10 to the left,
in the direction of_ Heudicourt.

_One kilometre from Vigneulles are_ several large concrete shelters _to
the right and left of the road_. Creüe Wood, _seen on the left of the
road, 2 km. further on_, is full of German defence works.

The greatly damaged village of =Heudicourt= is next reached. Numerous
houses were destroyed by fire. Beside the cemetery is a German cemetery.
_On leaving the village_ there is a stone and concrete blockhouse.

[Illustration: WOINVILLE _German monument at entrance to village, on the
right, coming from Heudicourt._]

_Beyond Heudicourt, the road passes through_ =Buxières= (ruined houses);
=Buxèrulles= (slightly damaged), containing German cemetery; =Woinville=
(German cemetery with a monument in the middle (_see photo below_), _on
the right, before entering the village_, and a roofless church);
=Varnéville=, entirely in ruins. _Leaving the village, the tourist passes_
several concrete shelters and blockhouses.

[Illustration: APREMONT. RUINS OF VILLAGE AND CHURCH]


_One and a half kilometres from Varnéville, G.C.D. 10, crosses G.C.D. 1
bis. Take the latter to the right towards_ Apremont. _800 yards from the
fork, after crossing a bridge over the stream, the village of_
_Apremont_ _is reached_.

_Immediately after the bridge there is a_ very comfortable shelter of
stone, cement and logs _in a garden, behind a house on the right (the
least damaged in the village)_.

[Illustration: APREMONT _Shelter, on the left before crossing stream,
going towards Bouconville._]

Apremont is entirely in ruins. Of the church, only a few broken walls
remain. _In the Rue de l’Eglise, fifty yards from the church, to the
left, near the end of the village_, is a large concrete shelter, on the
wall of which a German machine-gun has been carved (_see photo above_).

[Illustration: APREMONT

_German shelter with drawing of machine-gun on the wall._]

Apremont was a very important place during the war. At this point the
road from St. Mihiel to Flirey and Pont-à-Mousson crosses the Vigneulles
road, along which the tourist has just come, and which, beyond Apremont,
goes down to Fort Gironville after skirting Fort Liouville on the right.

_G.C.D. 1 bis, turns to the right in the village, then mounts a steep
slope towards_ =Brûlé Wood.=

[Illustration: END OF APREMONT VILLAGE, GOING TOWARDS ST. MIHIEL

_On the right_: a Michelin sign; _in the background_: Hill and Fort of
Gironville, Reine Forest and Vignot Wood.]

[Illustration: APREMONT

_The road to St. Mihiel._]

_One kilometre beyond Apremont, in a quarry on the left of the road_,
the Germans built a veritable village in concrete and cement, with deep
shelters under the rocks. Terraces and flowering plants ornament the
houses. The rooms are decorated with carved woodwork and tapestry. The
furniture was either taken from the surrounding villages or made in
rustic style (_see photo below_). _At the top of this camp, beyond the
terrace of the_ Officers’ Mess, a cement staircase leads to a concrete
trench which dominates the position in Brûlé Wood. The latter is
furrowed with numerous German defence works.

[Illustration: ON THE ROAD TO ST. MIHIEL, 1 KM. FROM APREMONT

_German village built in the side of the quarries and occupied by the
General commanding the sector. Above: Brûlé Wood._]

[Illustration: IN THE GERMAN VILLAGE OF BRÛLÉ WOOD _American soldier
looking at Insignia of the 28th Engineers._]


Brûlé Wood

Lying almost on the edge of the Forest of Apremont, Brûlé Wood commanded
the cross-roads on which the village of Apremont stands.

[Illustration: AMERICAN SOLDIERS IN GERMAN VILLAGE OF BRÛLÉ WOOD]

The German trenches were only fifty yards from the French lines at this
point. For months, bombs, grenades and rockets made an inferno of the
place. The proximity of the respective lines required the utmost
precautions, constant watching and listening, with finger on the
trigger of the rifle, absolute silence, no sleep and no smoking (smoking
might give an objective to the bombers). The nervous tension was so
great that the average stay of a battalion was only eight days.

[Illustration]

Brûlé Wood was the scene of the sublime rallying call “_Debout les
Morts_” (Stand up, ye Dead!)--_see below_.

While early in April, 1915, important attacks were taking place in Ailly
Wood, the 95th Infantry Regiment was ordered to create a diversion in
Brûlé Wood. On April 5, 6 and 8 bloody fights took place for the
possession of a trench. On the morning of the 8th the captured trench
was consolidated, and the attacking troops relieved and sent in reserve
to the second line.

[Illustration: GERMAN BLOCKHOUSE AT TÊTE-À-VACHE]

Suddenly a strong German counter-attack was launched. The new occupants
were thrown into confusion and, seized with panic, retreated through
the trenches, when _Adjutant Jacques Péricard_, who had taken part in
the action the day before but was now in reserve, called for volunteers
from his company to face the enemy. The trench was retaken after a
prolonged and terrible struggle, in the course of which Péricard,
feeling his men wavering and seeing only dead and wounded around, cried
“_Debouts les Morts_.”

[Illustration: FRENCH FIRST LINES AT TÊTE-À-VACHE]

_Continue up the road._ _Near the crest on the left, in a quarry, are_
several concrete defence works which communicate with one another.

[Illustration: GERMAN POST OF COMMANDMENT ON THE ROAD TO ST. MIHIEL, AT
THE FOOT OF HILL 362.]

_The crossing of Strategic I.C. 3 is next reached. Here leave the car
and take the road to the left towards_ =Marbotte.= _400 yards further on_
the German first-line trenches, built entirely in concrete with
numerous shelters and blockhouses, _are reached_. _This is the crest of
the_ “=Tête-à-Vache=” position, which for so long formed a salient in the
French lines. All the soldiers knew it because, when passing through the
trenches on a level with this salient, it was necessary to stoop to
avoid being seen by an observer at his loop-hole. Woe to the curious or
the careless who risked walking upright past this point! The ever-ready
automatic spoke at once.

[Illustration: GERMAN BLOCKHOUSE ON THE ROAD TO ST. MIHIEL, _about 300
yds. from Hill 362_.]

_A 100 yards beyond are the_ French first-line trenches (equipments and
soldiers’ graves). All the ground here is torn up, and the woods are
completely destroyed.

_Return to G.C.D. 1 bis, and follow it in the direction of St. Mihiel.
All along the road are_ numerous military works of all kinds,
_especially across Ailly Wood_.

[Illustration: MILITARY KITCHEN IN AILLY WOOD, 1915]

[Illustration]


Ailly Wood

Ailly Wood covers the brow of the hill, the southern slopes of which
descend steeply towards a ravine.

[Illustration: GERMAN TRENCH UNDER THE APREMONT-ST. MIHIEL ROAD]

Here the attacks took place which, between April 5 and 13, 1915, gave
the French definite mastery of the position. The Germans held one corner
of the wood and the outskirts at the foot of the slopes. The French
trenches followed the ravine, mounted half-way up the unwooded part of
the hill, and ran alongside the wood. The entrenchment, known as the
“_Le Fortin_,” was in the corner. In the wood the German trenches rose
in three tiers, linked together by narrow trenches. At certain points
the Germans had constructed “_chevaux-de-frise_,” twelve yards deep by
two yards high.

The bombardment began on the morning of the 5th. The 75’s opened
breaches in the defences, and the observers, who were only 130 yards
from the enemy line, gave accurate directions to the gunners. In their
turn, 6-in. shells crushed the machine-gun emplacements, and at mid-day
the explosion of five mine-fields annihilated the garrison and threw the
enemy into a panic. A bayonet-attack was launched at once, without the
firing of a single shot.

[Illustration: IN AILLY WOOD

_German Post of Commandment at the side of the road, 4 km. from St.
Mihiel._]

Two companies attacked on the western side of the wood, two others on
the southern side.

The attack on the west was successful and, going beyond the third German
line, reached the northern fringe of the wood. The machine-gunners, who
followed the advance, at once took up their positions.

The attack on the south, after the first rush forward, was forced to
withdraw slightly before an enfilading fire. At three o’clock in the
afternoon the German artillery thundered; at four o’clock a
counter-attack was launched but failed; and at 5.30 the Germans tried
to retake the lost ground by a terrific bombardment. In an hour and a
half, on a front of 360 yards, twenty thousand shells of all sizes
(4-in., 5.5-in., 6-in. and 8-in.) cut the French lines of communication,
but failed to force a retreat. The attack was resumed next day, but in
the evening, after fierce hand-to-hand fighting, the French still held
the three lines of German trenches. On the 7th and 8th they repulsed
eight counter-attacks, which left the shell-leveled ground in their
hands.

[Illustration: IN AILLY WOOD SECTOR

_German Defence-Works in quarry by roadside, 3 km. from St. Mihiel._]

On the 10th, after an artillery preparation lasting all day, a fresh
attack was launched at seven o’clock in the evening. The whole of the
wood was quickly occupied and immediately consolidated, in view of
counter-attack. Five machine-guns, five trench-mortars, thousands of
grenades and large quantities of equipment and stores, were left in the
hands of the French.

From that time scarcely a month passed without some communiqué stating
that the Germans had bombarded or counter-attacked Ailly Wood.

_St. Mihiel is entered via the Faubourg de Nancy, in which are the_
burnt ruins of the Sénarmont Barracks.

_Follow the Rue Porte-à-Nancy, then the Rue Grande, as far as the Rue de
l’Eglise, into which turn to the left to reach the Church of St.
Etienne._


St. Mihiel during the War

On September 24, 1914, St. Mihiel was taken by the Germans, who held it
until September 12, 1918.

Up to the latter date only one attempt was made to retake the town--the
attack of November 17-20, 1914, during which a French unit succeeded in
occupying the suburb of Chauvoncourt, but was forced to retire as the
Germans had mined this section.

The Franco-American offensive of September, 1918, finally cleared St.
Mihiel.

[Illustration: PANORAMIC SKETCH OF THE ST. MIHIEL REGION, SHOWING THE
FRONT-LINE UNTIL SEPT. 12, 1918]

General Pershing, in the disposition of his forces, generously arranged
that a French regiment, the 25th Colonial, should have the honour of
being the first to enter St. Mihiel. The Prime Minister’s son, Captain
Michel Clémenceau, was among those who marched into the town.

On the whole the town had suffered little. The bridges had been blown
up, trenches cut up the streets, and a German narrow-gauge railway ran
through the town. The monument of 1870, “_Aux Morts pour la Patrie_,”
was damaged. As everywhere else, all copper had been removed, the
machinery had disappeared or had been broken, while the optical-glass
factory and the copper foundry had ceased to exist.

On Friday, September 13, General Pershing, accompanied by General Pétain
and Mr. Baker, American Secretary of State for War, visited St. Mihiel.
The next day President Poincaré, in his turn, paid homage to the valiant
city.

Little by little, when the first excitement was over, the inhabitants
told the story of the occupation; of the war levies imposed by the
Germans, as in every town which they had occupied; first a million
francs in 1914, when the commandeering without payment or vouchers; the
fines (20 francs for omitting to salute an officer); children forced to
work in the trenches; people sent to prison, and even to the convict
prison on the slightest pretext; an abbé deported as a hostage because
he had said in a sermon, “_After the thorns will come the roses_;” a
whole family placed in solitary confinement for forty days because they
were suspected of having telephoned to the French, etc., not to mention
the systematic looting and removal of objects of art, pictures and
silver.

[Illustration: ST. MIHIEL DELIVERED

_Group of children in French Officers’ Car on Sept. 13, 1918._]

On Tuesday, the 10th, the Germans, knowing the attack was imminent, made
their final preparations for departure. On the 11th they ordered the
inhabitants, on pain of death, to remain indoors until noon on the
following day.

During the night of the 11th they blew up the bridges and removed their
guns. On the morning of the 12th the French entered the town.

Several days later the American Headquarters which, until then, had been
at Souilly, on the road from Verdun to Bar-le-Duc, moved into St.
Mihiel.



A VISIT TO ST. MIHIEL


ITINERARY

_Enter the town via the_ Faubourg de Nancy _and the_ Rue Porte-à-Nancy
(1). St. Etienne Church (A); Place Ligier-Richier (4); Hôtel-de-Ville
(H); Rue Porte-à-Metz (6); Promenade des Capucins; Les Sept-Roches.

_Cross the Meuse by the_ temporary bridge (14), Chauvoncourt, _and_
Paroches Fort.

_Return to St. Mihiel by the temporary bridge._ Place des Halles (17);
Place du Collège (20); Church of St. Michel (B); _and_ Hôtel de la
Division.

_Leave St. Mihiel by the Commercy road._

[Illustration: THE STREETS TO BE FOLLOWED ARE SHOWN BY THICK BLACK LINES

=Plan of St. Mihiel=

_Arbitrary Signs_

A.--St. Etienne Church.
B.--St. Michel Church.
C.--Cavalry Barracks.
CC.--Chauvoncourt Barracks.
CS.--Sénarmont Barracks.
H.--Hôtel-de-Ville.
J.--Palais de Justice.
O.--Octrois.

1.--Rue Porte-à-Nancy.
2.--Rue Grande.
3.--Rue de l’Eglise.
4.--Place Ligier-Richier.
5.--Rue de la Vaux.
6.--Rue Porte-à-Metz.
7.--Rue Carnot.
8.--Rue du Général Blaise.
9.--Rue Haute des Fossés.
10.--Rue des Annonciades.
11.--Avenue des Roches.
12.--Place du Marché.
13.--Place du Manège.
14.--Temporary Bridge.
15.--Destroyed Bridge.
16.--Rue du Saulcy.
17.--Place des Halles.
18.--Rue du Pont.
19.--Rue Notre-Dame.
20.--Place du Collège.
21.--Place aux Moines.
]

[Illustration: THE “SEPULCHRE,” _by Ligier Richier_, IN ST. ETIENNE’S
CHURCH]

Starting point: The Church of St. Etienne.

The Church of St. Etienne, often called the “Eglise du Bourg,” contains
several remarkable Renaissance sculptures, chief among which are a
=bas-relief= in St. Joseph’s Chapel (_photo, p. 58_), a large =reredos=
behind the high altar (_photo, p. 58_), and above all, in the central
bay of the south aisle, behind a railing (_photo, p. 57_) in a sort of
grotto or crypt, the _chef-d’oeuvre_ of Ligier Richier, commonly known
by the incorrect title of the “=Sepulchre of St. Mihiel.=”


The “Sepulchre,” by Ligier Richier

This comprises a group of thirteen figures, rather more than life size,
executed between 1554 and 1564, and placed after Richier’s death in the
church, where it stands to-day (_photo above_).

The figures are arranged as follows: _on the left_, Salome lays in the
coffin, the shroud which is to enwrap Christ, while two disciples,
Joseph and Nicodemus, carrying the body of their Divine Master, stand in
the foreground. Nicodemus carries the body by the shoulders, while the
unsupported head rests against his arm. Joseph of Arimathæa, one knee on
the ground, supports the legs of Our Lord. Near him Mary Magdalene helps
to carry the feet, which she touches with her lips. In the background
the Virgin, leaning on St. John, and Mary, the wife of Cleophas, turn a
last look on Christ.

Between Mary, the wife of Cleophas, and Salome, stands an angel bearing
the Cross--an unfounded tradition says that this is a portrait of the
artist.

_On the right of the central group, and next to Nicodemus, a woman_,
often called Veronica, carries the crown of thorns. Behind her, in the
background, two men-at-arms are casting lots for the seamless coat. _At
the other end, on the right_, a Roman officer, often, without
justification, called the Centurion, is seated on a shield with a sword
in his left hand. He is the captain of the guard in charge of the tomb.

This is a strong, touching work by a French master-sculptor, who had not
yet come under Italian influence and methods.

[Illustration: THE RAILING OF LIGIER RICHIER’S “SEPULCHRE”]


Ligier Richier

Numerous legends surround the life of the “Master of St. Mihiel.” The
only son of Jean Richier, a master-sculptor, he was born at St. Mihiel
about 1500. Brought up as a Catholic, he was converted to Calvinism
about 1560. There is a legend that Michael Angelo came to St. Mihiel,
admired the work of the boy Ligier Richier, and took him to Rome; but it
is known that Michael Angelo never visited Lorraine.

Ligier Richier, not being able to carry out his commissions
single-handed, gathered around him apprentices and companions, who have
been called his brothers. It is true that he had a son (Gerald) in 1534,
and that the latter worked in his father’s studio, and had in his turn
five sons, also sculptors, who settled in Nancy, Metz, Lyons and
Grenoble. In 1764, in consequence of the persecution of the Protestants,
he settled in Geneva, where he died about 1567.

Numerous groups of sacred figures, scattered over this district, attest
the happy skill of Ligier Richier: a =reredos= of many-coloured stone in
the church at Hattonchâtel (p. 38); =Christ Crucified= between the Virgin
and St. John, in the church at Génicourt, on the road from Verdun to St.
Mihiel; =Group of Notre Dame-de-Pitié=, in the Sacré-Cœur Chapel of the
church at Etain; a =Calvary= (six statues of wood variously coloured) in
the chapel of the new cemetery at Briey; a large =Christ carrying the
Cross= in the Chapel of Notre-Dame-de-Pitié in the Church of St. Laurent,
at Pont-à-Mousson (p. 92); and lastly, in St. Mihiel itself, two of his
masterpieces: “=The Swooning Virgin=,” in the church of St. Mihiel (p. 67)
and the important group, “=The Sepulchre=” in the Church of St. Etienne
(p. 56).

[Illustration: ST. ETIENNE’S CHURCH

_Renaissance Bas-relief in St. Joseph’s Chapel._]

[Illustration: ST. ETIENNE’S CHURCH

_Renaissance Reredos in the Choir._]

[Illustration: ST. MIHIEL. LIGIER-RICHIER SQUARE]

_After visiting the Church of St. Etienne take on the right the Rue de
l’Eglise, at No. 3, of which there is_ a curious old house.

_Follow the continuation of the Rue de l’Eglise (Rue du Général
Audéoud), which leads to the_ =Place Ligier-Richier.=

The statue of Ligier Richier used to stand in the centre of this Place.
It was removed by the Germans during the occupation.

[Illustration: ST. MIHIEL TOWN HALL]

_At the left-hand corner of the Place take the Rue de la Vaux. On the
right of the street is the_ =17th century Hôtel-de-Ville=, _at the corner
of the Rue Porte-à-Metz. On the left of the Rue Porte-à-Metz, stairs
lead to the_ public garden called “La Promenade des Capucins,” which
overlooks the town and the valley of the Meuse (_fine panorama_).

[Illustration: MONUMENT IN GERMAN CEMETERY (_See below_)]

_If the tourist enters St. Mihiel by the Rue Porte-à-Metz, he will see_
a large cemetery containing more than two thousand granite monuments,
opposite the first houses of the town. Over six thousand Germans were
buried there, killed for the most part during 1915, and a few in 1916.

No Frenchman, soldier or civilian, has been buried in this cemetery.

_The cemetery can also be reached by returning along the Rue
Porte-à-Metz as far as the last houses._

[Illustration: GERMAN CEMETERY AT THE PORTE-À-METZ ENTRANCE TO ST.
MIHIEL (_see above_)]

[Illustration: THE “MAISON AUX BOEUFS”

(_No. 3, Rue de la Vaux._)]

_Return to the Rue de la Vaux, which take on the right._

_At No. 3, on the right, is an_ old Renaissance house with curious
gargoyles; _and at No. 2, opposite_, a curious old house.

_At the beginning of Rue Carnot, which is a continuation of Rue de la
Vaux, see the_ 16th century house called “Du Narrateur,” _at No. 36_.

_Opposite this house, take the terraced Rue du Général Blaise_ (old
house at No. 30).

_Follow its continuation (Rue Haute des Fossés), at No. 7 of which is_
Ligier Richier’s house.

_Take the Rue des Annonciades as far as the Avenue des Roches, which
leads to the_ “Seven Rocks,” situated at the gates of the town (_see p.
62_).

[Illustration: RENAISSANCE HOUSE

(_No. 36, Rue Carnot._)]


The Seven Rocks

On the edge of the Verdun road, which is an extension of the Avenue des
Roches, and overhanging the Meuse just beyond the town, rise seven
rocks, known as the “Cliffs of St. Mihiel.”

In the first, surmounted by a stone cross, a grotto has been hollowed
out containing a tomb in which lies a great stone Christ. A staircase in
the rock gives easy access to it.

This calvary is a place of pilgrimage on Good Friday. The sixth rock,
worn away by water, resembles a gigantic mushroom and is called the
“Devil’s Table.”

These rocks are represented in the St. Mihiel coat of arms, which is:
“Three rocks argent on an azure field, two in chief and one in pile.”

[Illustration: THE COAT OF ARMS OF ST. MIHIEL

_Three rocks argent on an azure field, two in chief, and one in pile._]

Across the intervening wooded slopes are seen the large buildings of the
old Benedictine Abbey of St. Michel, of which the name St. Mihiel is a
corruption.

Founded in 709 on a site known to-day as St. Christopher’s Farm, in
Vieux-Moutier Wood, it was transferred in 819 to the village of
Godinécourt, which then took the name of St. Michel or St. Mihiel. It
was closed in 1791.

A romanesque tower, dating from about 1060, dominates the abbey.

[Illustration: DESTROYED BRIDGE OVER THE MEUSE]

_Return by the Avenue des Roches to the market; behind the latter_, take
the Place du Manège, which leads to the temporary bridge across the
Meuse.

Cross the bridge and take G.C.D. 1, which passes through the suburb of
Chauvoncourt.


Chauvoncourt

Chauvoncourt, occupied by the Germans from the beginning of their
advance in September, 1914, was an important bridgehead which the French
had an interest in retaking. Its capture and subsequent evacuation
(November 16-18) are famous.

In the evening of November 16, French heavy batteries took up their
position at Fresnes-au-Mont, on the left bank of the Meuse, five miles
from St. Mihiel; but before attacking, the German howitzers on the
Paroches position had been destroyed.

The bombardment began at dead of night. Four hundred shells fell on the
enemy, causing the Bavarian ammunition dump to explode. At dawn, French
infantry, massed in the peninsula of Les Romains, crossed the Meuse on a
pontoon bridge, whilst the cavalry on the Fresnes road threatened
Chauvoncourt from the west. By ten o’clock the infantry were in sight of
the village. The Bavarians advanced by successive rushes--at each of
which they fired a salvo--then halted behind a little glen. The fight
became a fusilade, and would have continued indefinitely but for the
arrival of the French dragoons, who, with lances fixed, charged
furiously. The enemy, afraid of being cut off, retreated, followed by
the cavalry, who began the siege of the houses. Every window, door and
roof sheltered a Bavarian marksman. All day on the 17th the fighting
continued in favour of the French, who by night occupied the western
part of Chauvoncourt and slept in a French barracks. On the left bank of
the Meuse the Germans, two hundred of whom had surrendered, now occupied
only a few ruined houses.

But at five o’clock on the morning of the 18th an explosion was heard.
At the end of the main street three houses, luckily unoccupied, had been
wrecked. Orders were at once given to evacuate the occupied portion of
the town, which proved to be a wise precaution, for at eight o’clock the
whole south-west portion blew up, over an area of four acres. No
soldiers were killed, but civilians, who stayed on in spite of orders to
the contrary, were victims of their own imprudence.

Trenches and shelters are to be seen all along the road.

[Illustration: RUINS OF CHAUVONCOURT BARRACKS]

[Illustration: PANORAMIC VIEW OF ST. MIHIEL AND THE VALLEY OF THE MEUSE
SEEN FROM THE TOP OF PAROCHES FORT]

_Leaving Chauvoncourt, take to the right G.C. 34, which leads to_
=Paroches.=

The village of =Paroches= is an absolute ruin. The 14th century church,
with the exception of part of the belfry, has been almost entirely
destroyed (_photo opposite_).

_At the end of the village, on the right, near the Calvary and skirting
the wall of the last house, there is a military cemetery. Take, on the
left, the narrow road to_ =Fort Paroches.= Around the fort are numerous
defence works and the graves of French soldiers.

=Paroches Fort=, built to protect the approaches to Spada Pass, which
Troyon Fort defended on the north, is an old masonry fort. Visit the
shelters, inner works in concrete.

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO PAROCHES FORT]

From the summit there is a fine sweeping view (_panorama above_) over
the

[Illustration: THE PLACE DES HALLES, ST. MIHIEL]

battlefield, the Valley of the Meuse, St. Mihiel, the “Camp des Romains”
Fort (p. 65), Versel Wood and Spada Pass.


_Return to St. Mihiel by the same road as far as the temporary bridge
over the Meuse and the Place du Manège._

_From the Place du Manège, take, on the right, the Rue du Sauley, which
leads to the Place des Halles._

_To the right, on reaching the “Place,” is the Rue du Pont, which leads
to the_ ruined bridge. _Turn to the left, cross the “Place,” and take
the Rue Notre-Dame on the right._

_At No. 1 of this street is a 15th century house with a polygonal
turret._ Opposite at No. 2 is a 14th-15th century house, known locally
as the “Maison du Roi.”

[Illustration: THE MAISON DU ROI]

[Illustration: THE PLACE DU COLLÈGE AND CHURCH OF ST. MICHEL]

_Follow the Rue des Carmes, which is a continuation of the Rue
Notre-Dame, then the Place des Regrets to the Place du Collège._

_On the left stands the_ =Church of St. Michel.=

This 17th century church is recognisable by its old Romanesque tower,
which forms a vestibule in front of the building. It has three naves
with side-chapels divided into five bays by fluted columns.

Note the =fine organ= (_photo, p. 68_), the pipes of which were removed by
the Germans. In the Chapel of the Baptismal Fonts is a stone Cupid
holding skulls.

[Illustration: THE SACRISTY, CHURCH OF ST. MICHEL

_As the Germans left it._]

The Church of St. Michel contains one of the finest of Ligier Richier’s
works, known as “_The Swoon_,” or “_The Fainting Virgin_.” It stands to
the right of the choir in a chapel with a door.

[Illustration: THE ORGAN, CHURCH OF ST. MICHEL]

In the Middle Ages it was customary to represent the Virgin standing in
contemplation of the wounds of her Divine Son, as described in the
famous chant, _Stabat Mater Dolorosa_. In the 15th century, on the
contrary, the Virgin was generally represented as described in the
Gospel of Nicodemus. In Richier’s group we see the Virgin, supported by
St. John, fainting at the foot of the Cross. The extreme simplicity of
the work renders it most pathetic.

[Illustration: THE HÔTEL DE LA DIVISION AND CHEVET OF ST. MICHEL CHURCH]

This work is only a fragment of a much larger group which comprised a
large Crucifix, and on either side of the Virgin, St. Longin, Mary
Magdalene and four angels, each holding a chalice to catch the
Saviour’s blood. The work was in painted walnut, as had been the custom
from the Middle Ages, but the worm-eaten wood gradually crumbled away.
In 1720 the Benedictines managed to save the crucifix and the group of
“The Swoon.” The crucifix is supposed to have been burnt during the
Revolution (1792). Now all that remains is a moulding of Christ’s head.

[Illustration: “CAMP-DES-ROMAINS” FORT]

_Leaving the Church, skirt the front of the adjoining Collège, and pass
under the arch of the Palais-de-Justice, thus reaching the_ =Place des
Moines.= In this square is the fine façade of the old abbey, restored in
the 17th and 18th centuries, the buildings of which have been
transformed into the Hôtel de la Division, Palais-de-Justice and prison.
Above the latter is the famous monastic library containing 13,000
volumes and valuable manuscripts.

_Besides the Hôtel de la Division is the_ chevet of St. Michel Church,
_looking on to the square of that name. By turning to the left in the
latter, the tourist comes back to the Place du Collège, which cross to
take the Commercy road (N. 64)._

_On leaving St. Mihiel, N. 64 climbs up a steep slope. A mile from the
town, on the left, is a_ concrete blockhouse _at the corner of the
Commercy road and that leading to_ Fort Camp-des-Romains. _Take the
latter to the fort._


Fort of the Camp-des-Romains

This is one of the two forts which protect St. Mihiel. Standing on the
end of a narrow peninsula formed by a loop in the Meuse, it dominates
the town from a height of 450 feet above the valley. (The hill itself is
1,200 feet high.) It owes its name to the remains of Roman
entrenchments, still existing when the fort was built.

When the German Army of Metz occupied St. Mihiel on September 24, 1914,
and crossed the Meuse, the Fort of the Camp des Romains remained
isolated, without troops in the plain to defend it, and absolutely
dependent on its own guns. The Germans left it alone for the time being,
confident of being able to take it whenever they wished. The 16th Corps
hastened to the rescue, but stopped in front of St. Mihiel. The Germans
finally dug themselves in and were able, from a position near the town,
to begin the bombardment of the fort with the aid of Austrian heavy
guns.

[Illustration: POST OF CARRIER PIGEONS AT FORT CAMP-DES-ROMAINS]

The guns were very quickly placed in position, and in a few days they
silenced those of the French fort, the turrets and bastions of which
were destroyed. In the end the heroic garrison were smoked out by the
enemy, who had reached the base of the fort. When the surviving
defenders, half suffocated, were able to leave the ruins, the Germans
presented arms as a tribute of admiration for their valour, and
permitted the captured officers to retain their swords.

All this sector, with a few slight changes, was to remain in the hands
of the Germans until September, 1918.

In spite of the terrific gunfire to which it was subjected, the fort was
not completely destroyed. In the moats and on the bastions are numerous
concrete blockhouses built by the Germans. Near the entrance is the
grave of Captain of Artillery Cordebard, killed in 1914.

From the fort there is a fine view on all sides over the valley of the
Meuse and the Forest of Apremont.

_Return to N. 64 which descends in a long zig-zag to the Meuse, which it
crosses._

_The road passes through_ Sampigny--considerably battered--where
President Poincaré’s country house was completely ruined by the German
bombardments.

_It next crosses the railway before entering Vadonville and again on
leaving_ that village.

Lerouville, then Commercy, are _soon reached_. The night should be spent
at the latter (_see information on the fly-leaf inside cover_).

Commercy is of no particular interest from a picturesque or artistic
point of view, but its “Madeleine” cakes enjoy a world-wide reputation.

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO THE FORT]

[Illustration: PRESIDENT POINCAIRÉ’S HOUSE AT SAMPIGNY]

[Illustration: Plan of Commercy

_Arbitrary Signs_

A.--Old Château, now a Barracks.
C.--Barracks.
H.--Hôtel-de-Ville.
O.--Octrois.
P.--Sous-Préfecture.
T.--Theatre.

1.--Place de l’Hôtel-de-Ville.
2.--Rue du Pont des Religieuses.
3.--Road to Metz.
4.--Rue des Capucins.
5.--Road to Nancy.
6.--Rue Levée-de-Breuil.
7.--Road to Bar-le-Duc.
8.--Rue Carnot.
9.--Rue de Lisle.
10.--Road to Verdun.
11.--Rue du Four.
12.--Rue de l’Eglise.
13.--Rue de la Gare.
]

[Illustration]



SECOND DAY

COMMERCY--PONT-À-MOUSSON--METZ


=A.--Commercy to Pont-à-Mousson= (_See above._)

=B.--Pont-à-Mousson to Metz= (_See p. 109._)

_Leave Commercy (Place de l’Hôtel de Ville) by the Rue du
Pont-des-Religieuses which, after crossing the Meuse, joins N. 58. Take
the latter._

_Pass through_ =Vignot= (_2 km._) _and enter_ =Vignot Wood= (_French gun
emplacements_).

_After crossing the wood the tourist approaches_ =Gironville.= _Before
entering the village, on the crest to the right, is_ =Gironville Fort.=

_In the village immediately beyond the church, N. 58 turns to the left.
Continue along it for 500 yards beyond the church, then leave it where
it turns to the right, and take G.C.D. 10 towards_ =Apremont.=

_The road crosses the_ old French and German lines (shelters and
blockhouses), _then rejoins, 200 yards east of Apremont, G.D.C. 1 bis,
which take to the right towards_ =Bouconville.=

[Illustration: BOUCONVILLE VILLAGE]

_Before going to Bouconville, visit Apremont, Brûlé Wood and Ailly Wood,
if this was not done on the first day (see pp. 42-52)._

_Notice, in succession, on the left, the ruins of_ =Loupmont Village=,
_1,500 yards from the road_; =Montsec=, _further north_, dominating the
whole district; and =Vargévaux Pond=, _near the road_.

_Follow G.C.D. 1 bis, to_ =Bouconville.= _Enter the village, leaving the
fine_ =Girondel Pond= _on the right_.

[Illustration: NO-MAN’S LAND, NEAR RAMBUCOURT]

[Illustration: BEAUMONT CHURCH]

The 13th-14th century Church of Bouconville with its three naves is very
curious.

In the cemetery are numerous French graves.

The front line, after passing south of Apremont, continued first to the
right of the Bouconville road, then crossed the road to the west of
Vargévaux Pond, making a bend to include the latter within the French
lines, as also the village of Xivray, which was the junction of the
French armies with the American divisions. It then passed through the
hamlet of Seicheprey, and at Flirey rejoined the main road leading to
Pont-à-Mousson.

_Keep along the road towards_ =Rambucourt.=

_A little before this village, N. 58 is picked up again._ All the way
the road is camouflaged and bordered by numerous trenches. =Rambucourt=
was badly damaged. Numerous shelters were made along the road against
the houses, the basements of which were occupied.

[Illustration: AMERICAN AMMUNITION CONVOY ENTERING SEICHEPREY]

_After passing through Rambucourt, N. 58 leads to_ =Beaumont= (in ruins).

Notice the shelters in the houses. The curious church suffered badly
(_photo, p. 74_).

[Illustration: ROMANESQUE CHURCH OF SEICHEPREY]

_Four hundred yards beyond Beaumont, leave the National road and take
the Seicheprey road on the left._

Trenches, shelters and gun-emplacements are met with, especially in a
hollow on the left. =Seicheprey= _is next reached_.

This village was the scene of one of the first successes of the American
Army. The Germans had taken it by surprise in April, 1918, and had kept
it for some time, when it was retaken by the 26th (New England)
Division.

Part of the belfry of the 12th century church is still standing (_photo
above_).

[Illustration: SEICHEPREY. THE MAIN STREET ON SEPT. 12, 1918]

_Near the church the road bends to the right and goes towards_ =St.
Baussant.= _Half a mile further on_ the French and German first line
trenches _are crossed_. _On entering St. Baussant_, notice in a house on
the right in front of the stream a large machine-gun blockhouse in
concrete. The loopholes are on a level with the roof.

[Illustration: ST. BAUSSANT VILLAGE, ON ENTERING

_The house on the left was transformed into a concrete Blockhouse. Above
the ruined wall: Loop-holes for the machine-guns. In the background:
Ruins of old Castle._]

=St. Baussant= is almost entirely in ruins. _To the right, on the hill,
stood the_ old château, of which only a few broken walls are left.

This village, being an important road junction, had been strongly
fortified by the Germans. It is one of the places where the American
tanks performed wonders, taking the position in less than half an hour.

The last house of the village, at the _I.C. 13_ crossing, on the right,
bears the inscription “_Café Hocquard_.” Here are three large concrete
shelters, the walls of which are five feet thick. _At the fork in the
road is_ a machine-gun blockhouse in concrete.

[Illustration: ST. BAUSSANT VILLAGE AND RUINS OF THE OLD CASTLE]

[Illustration: RICHECOURT VILLAGE AND THE RUPT-DE-MAD STREAM

_In the foreground: The bridge over which I.C. 19 passes. In the
background: Montsec Hill._]

_Take I.C. 13 to the left, which follows the Rupt-de-Mad stream and
becomes G.C. 33 on reaching_ =Lahayville.= _1,600 yards beyond this
village_ (greatly damaged), _leave G.C. 33 and take I.C. 19 to the
right. After crossing the bridge over the Rupt-de-Mad_, =Richecourt=,
razed to the ground, _is reached_ (_photo above_).

_Near a house on the left, at the end of the village, is_ a German
concrete shelter with the inscription “Pommernburg.” Other shelters of
less importance are to be seen among the ruins.

[Illustration: GERMAN SHELTER IN RICHECOURT VILLAGE

_This concrete shelter is seen on leaving the village by the road to
Montsec. Over the door is the word_ “Pommernburg.” _The village is a
heap of ruins._]

[Illustration: MONTSEC

_German Telephone Exchange on the road to Woinville._]

_Follow I.C. 19 as far as_ =Montsec= (_3 km._).

The village of Montsec is at the foot of the hill; it was badly damaged.

=Montsec Ridge=, or Hill 380, made a first-class observation-post for the
Germans, as it dominates the whole district from Apremont to Flirey.

Montsec was the scene of the fiercest fighting on June 17, 1916. The
French were unable to take it on account of its formidable defences.
From that time no surprise-attacks took place in this district.

[Illustration: MONTSEC. RUINS OF CHURCH AND VILLAGE]

On the crest, the Germans had constructed a system of tunnels, the
entries of which overlooked the region of Heudicourt-Buxières, and at
the end of which chimneys over 30 feet in height opened in the summit of
the hill. The observers climbed up the chimneys by means of ladders and
directed the firing of the artillery, which was massed in the
surrounding woods.

[Illustration: MONTSEC

_German Signalling Post._]

The system of trenches and shelters was remarkable. In some places the
shelters were furnished with electric light.

_To visit the military works of Montsec, go beyond the village along
I.C. 19 and stop at the last houses on the left, where there is_ an
enormous concrete shelter, which served as an artillery telephone
exchange, (_photo, p. 78_). _A narrow road leads from this shelter to
the entrances of the tunnels on the crest._ (_Time required to visit:
one hour._)

[Illustration: AMERICAN COLUMNS MARCHING TOWARDS MONTSEC (SEPT. 13,
1918)]

[Illustration: ESSEY CHURCH]

_After visiting Montsec return to St. Baussant by the same roads (I.C.
19 to Richecourt, then G.C. 33 and I.C. 13)._

_Follow I.C. 13 beyond St. Baussant to_ =Maizerais= (completely ruined),
_seen on the left of the road, and_ =Essey= _on the Rupt-de-Mad stream_.

From December, 1916, the village of Essey was close to the front, and
occupied by the Germans. The inhabitants and mayor remained during the
occupation, but were forbidden, on pain of death, to go more than a
short distance from their homes.

_In the village, at the corner of the Rue Béquille and the Grand Rue,
is_ a concrete blockhouse.

The church was partly destroyed. On its north front, protected by the
church belfry, were the Kommandantur’s quarters--an important concrete
construction with walls five feet thick.

_After visiting Essey, take D. 3, which passes in front of the church,
and follow it towards_ =Flirey.=

[Illustration: SONNARD WOOD

_American Cemetery. In the background, at the foot of the larger trees,
is the road D. 3._]

_To the right and left are_ numerous shelters. _Turn to the right
alongside Sonnard Wood, beside which, 50 yards from the road, are_ an
American cemetery _and, on the left, Mort-Mare Wood_.

=Mort-Mare Wood= is famous for the terrible struggles that took place for
its possession.

It was while reconnoitring over this wood in an aeroplane that _Senator
Reymond_ was killed on October 22, 1914. He was returning from a flight
over Mars-la-Tour, Chambley and Thiaucourt, with Pilot Adjutant
Clamadieu, and the machine was turning to the right of the southern edge
of the wood, when it was seen descending, apparently normally, between
the French and German lines. Machine-guns at once opened fire; the
Adjutant was killed and Senator Reymond wounded. The French came out of
their trenches and a fierce struggle, which lasted until night, took
place round the machine. Only then was Reymond able to crawl into the
lines, while the French carried back the body of the Adjutant.

Reymond was taken to the hospital at Toul, and was able, before he died,
to give an exact account of the mission in the fulfilment of which he
had met such a glorious end.

_On reaching the crest, the road crosses the_ old German first-lines
(concrete blockhouses). =Flirey= _next comes into sight_.

This village, which formed part of the first French lines from 1914, is
almost completely in ruins, while the whole country around is laid
waste.

_On the right are seen_ the ruins of Toul-Thiaucourt railway bridge.

_Half a mile from the village, keep along D. 3, to visit the_ famous
=Flirey Quarry=, where there are numerous shelters and French graves. The
surrounding woods contain the emplacements of several batteries.

_Return to Flirey and take, on the right, N. 58 towards_ =Pont-à-Mousson.=

[Illustration: RUINS OF FLIREY VILLAGE

_N. 58, seen in the photo, passes through the village._]

[Illustration: FLIREY QUARRY

_In the background: D. 3 and Sonnard Wood._]

_One kilometre from Flirey, at the top of the crest, on the right, is_ a
military cemetery. _The road runs parallel with the_ old French
first-lines, which followed the crest on the left.

_At the entrance to_ =Limey=, _through which N. 58 runs, there is_ a large
French cemetery _on the left_.

The village of Limey, famous for the hard and bloody battles fought
there in September, 1914, is in ruins. The west front of the church was
torn open. Numerous shelters are seen, two of them, in cement, being
very large; the first, _in the middle of the village on the right of the
main road_; the other, a machine-gun blockhouse, _in the last house on
the right_.

_Beyond Limey the road crosses a vast wooded district, known as_ =La
Haye=, which covers the whole plateau.

_Two and a half kilometres from Limey, on the left side of the road_, a
place called =Fond-des-Vaux= contains numerous French shelters (several in
concrete), and also a military cemetery. This is =Lampe Camp.=

[Illustration: LIMEY VILLAGE

_Concrete shelter on the right of N. 58, when coming from Flirey in the
middle of the village._]

[Illustration: LAMPE CAMP

_At the back, on the left: N. 58._]

Three hundred yards further along the road there are American graves _to
the right_.

_The_ =Inn of St. Pierre= _is next reached, from which D. 15 leaves to the
left towards_ =Thiaucourt.= _Take this road._

[Illustration: ST. PIERRE INN DRESSING STATION

_Arrival of wounded soldier._]

Throughout the war St. Pierre Inn, which is at the entrance to =Prêtre
Wood=, was the nearest dressing-station to the front. The buildings
suffered little, thanks to the sheltering forest. _Prêtre Wood will be
visited on leaving Pont-à-Mousson._

[Illustration: FEY-EN-HAYE CHURCH AND CEMETERY IN 1915]

_Eight hundred yards from the inn, to the right of D. 15, the_
=Fey-en-Haye= _road debouches. This road is not available for motors._ A
visit to the village is interesting, as it was in the first French lines
(_distance there and back, 3 km._).

[Illustration: MAP]

=Fey-en-Haye= _is about 100 yards from the western edge of_ =Prêtre Wood.=
At the end of September, 1914, a bloody engagement took place there. Up
to the end of March, 1915, this unfortunate village was continuously
bombarded, and it was entirely demolished when, on April 2, 1915, it was
taken by a French battalion (169th Infantry). Its capture was the
prelude to the last series of attacks which, after seven months of
terrific fighting, ended on May 31, in the capture of =Prêtre Wood.=

Fey-en-Haye is now merely a heap of ruins. A number of trenches run
through it, and a few shelters still exist.

_After coming back to D. 15, continue along it as far as_ =Regniéville=, a
village of which nothing remains but part of the belfry of the church
(_photo, p. 85_).

[Illustration: FEY-EN-HAYE. PLACE DE L’EGLISE IN 1915]

[Illustration: REGNIÉVILLE VILLAGE AND THE RUINED BELFRY OF THE CHURCH]

For a long time Regniéville was the advance-post of the French line
between Mort-Mare Wood, _on the left_, and Prêtre Wood, _on the right_.
At the beginning of April, 1915, the French advance was especially
dangerous for the enemy, whose counter-attacks became more frequent. It
was evident that the slightest advance in the direction of Thiaucourt
would hamper the German communications between Metz and St. Mihiel, and
would hinder the revictualling of the troops as well as the steady
supply of reinforcements and munitions. That is why, on April 9, the
Germans made fifteen successive attacks to drive the French from their
trenches and the edge of Mort-Mare Wood.

[Illustration: AMERICAN GRAVES AT REGNIÉVILLE]

_Keep on towards_ =Thiaucourt.= _To the left of D. 15 there is an_
American cemetery (_photo below_), _500 yards from Regniéville. 1 km.
further on, fifty yards from the road, and before entering_ =Four Wood=,
lies a derelict Renault tank (_photo above_), _and beside it_ the graves
of its drivers. _In the Wood are_ numerous German gun emplacements.

[Illustration: FOUR WOOD

_Smashed Renault Tank at the edge of the wood_.]

_On reaching the crest_ (Hill 340), _on the right, alongside Saules
Wood, are_ two German gun shelters.

_Further on, at the “milestone” 4 km. from Thiaucourt, is a_ concrete
blockhouse (_photo below_).

_From I.C. 13, D. 15 descends in a large bend across_ =Heiche Wood.=

_One kilometre from Thiaucourt, in a ravine on the right of D. 15, there
stood_ a large railway station and an important German military depot.
_On the other side of the road there is a_ German cemetery containing
600 graves.

=Thiaucourt=, altitude 750 feet, stands in an amphitheatre, in the centre
of a loop described by the Rupt-de-Mad stream.

A large number of its houses are in ruins, especially on the banks of
the Rupt.

Thiaucourt was a rest-camp behind the German lines. Numerous huts were
erected on the banks of the stream, many vestiges of which still remain.

_After crossing the Rupt-de-Mad in_ Thiaucourt, _keep along the street
which continues the bridge and rises to the end of the town. On the
right, towards the last of the houses, is I.C. 13, leading to_ =Jaulny.=

[Illustration: THIAUCOURT ROAD (D. 15). MACHINE-GUN BLOCKHOUSE]

_Recross the Rupt-de-Mad at the entrance to Jaulny. Take to the left,
along the river, the road running through the village_, many of whose
houses were damaged by shells.

[Illustration: THIAUCOURT. BRIDGE OVER THE RUPT-DE-MAD]

_On leaving Jaulny there is_ a large German cemetery _on the right_.

_I.C. 13 runs through a pretty valley, alongside the Rupt-de-Mad and
passes near the railway station._ The old road having been destroyed by
the explosion of a German ammunition train, _a new road enables the
tourist, by crossing the river, to reach the village of_ =Rembercourt= _on
the left bank_. The bridge was blown up and many of the houses are in
ruins.

_I.C. 13, which continues alongside the Rupt-de-Mad as far as the
Moselle, is next reached_. This road is extremely picturesque.

[Illustration: AMERICAN CEMETERY AT THIAUCOURT, AT THE SIDE OF D. 15,
HALF A MILE FROM THE VILLAGE]

_Leaving Villecey-sur-Mad, slightly damaged, on the right, go towards_
=Onville.= _Three hundred yards this side of the village, to the left of
I.C. 13, is_ a large German cemetery. The village, on which a few shells
fell, contains a fine church.

=Vandelainville=, _which is the continuation of Onville_, contains several
houses damaged by the bombardments.

_Passing through the villages of_ =Bayonville= _and_ =Arnaville=, _N. 52
bis, which runs along the left bank of the Moselle, and which take to
the right in the direction of_ =Pagny-sur-Moselle.=

This village, also called Pagny-sous-Prény, from the name of the hamlet
and château which dominates the surrounding country, was for forty-eight
years the Custom House, being the last French railway station before the
frontier.

=Prény Château=, the ruins of which are visible from here, was one of the
most famous castles of the Middle Ages. Built by the Dukes of Lorraine,
it was dismantled by Richelieu. It formed a square flanked by high,
strong towers connected with one another by walls and subterranean
passages hollowed out of the rock. At one end there was a second
building, also surrounded by moats and flanked by towers, in one of
which was the famous “_Mande-Guerre_” bell. The keep with the chapel and
living-rooms stood there.

Pagny suffered severely, most of the houses being in ruins.

_The road turns to the left into the valley, then to the right beyond
the church, which is left on the right._

_Just outside Pagny-sur-Moselle_ the Germans built a concrete barrier
across the road to stop the tanks.

_About 500 yards from Pagny, near the bridge over Mouton stream, is a_
machine-gun blockhouse in concrete _on the right_.

_N. 52 bis next passes through_ =Vandières=, which was burnt down by the
Germans during their retreat of September 16. All the houses along the
road, especially those on the left, are in ruins.

_Five kilometres further on, after crossing the railway_, =Pont-à-Mousson=
_is entered by the Rue du Port, Place Colombe and Rue St. Laurent; the
latter brings the tourist to the Grand Place or Place Duroc_.

[Illustration: VILLAGE OF PAGNY-SUR-MOSELLE, NEAR THE CHURCH]

[Illustration: PONT-À-MOUSSON. THE BANKS OF THE MOSELLE]



PONT-À-MOUSSON

Origin and Chief Historical Events


Pont-à-Mousson is an old town, in whose archives are found deeds dating
back to 896 and 905. At that time it was called “_Villa Pontus sub
castro Montionis_” (The Town of the Bridge under the Castle of Monçon).

In the 16th century there was a long controversy between the professors
of the University and those of the Jesuit College as to whether the town
(“Pont”) or the castle (“Monçon” or “Mousson”) should have precedence,
_i.e_. if one should say “_Ponti Mussum_” or “_Mussi Pontum_.” The
dispute was settled and the name “_Ponti Mussum_” (Pont-à-Mousson)
decreed by Duke Charles III. Nevertheless, the inhabitants still insist
on calling themselves “_Mussipontins_.”

Renaud I., Count of Bar, living a retired life in his château of
Mousson, founded near the town in 1106 a priory dedicated to St. Michel,
which he gave to the Abbey of St. Mihiel. In 1239 the “_Messins_”
(inhabitants of Metz) broke down the bridge to prevent the Count of Bar
communicating with his castle, but three years later they joined the
Count of Bar against Duke Mathieu who, in revenge, burned down the
little town of Pont.

Enfranchised in 1263 by Count Thiébaut II., Pont-à-Mousson was raised to
a marquisate in 1355 by Emperor Charles IV., and, in 1356, was granted
the rights and privileges of an imperial town.

Charles-the-Bold took possession of it in 1476, but it was retaken later
by Duke René. However, the defection of his Swiss troops forced him to
surrender it again to the Duke of Burgundy.

What made the glory and prosperity of the town was the foundation of a
University in 1572. The influx of students and the renown of the
professors made Pont-à-Mousson famous until 1763, when the University
was transferred to Nancy.

The University encouraged the establishment of printing works, and
volumes printed by Marchand and Melchior Bernard are still justly
prized.

Although an open town, Pont-à-Mousson was violently bombarded by the
Germans as early as August 11, 1914. After a short occupation the town
was liberated by the French on September 13, 1914. The bombardments were
resumed and lasted till the end of the war.

As to the part played by Pont-à-Mousson in the =Battle for the Grand
Couronné Heights=, see the Michelin Guide, “=Nancy and the Grand
Couronné.=”

[Illustration: PLAN OF PONT-À-MOUSSON

_Arbitrary Signs_

A.--Church of St. Laurent.
B.--Church of St. Martin.
C.--Lesser Seminary.
H.--Hôtel-de-Ville.

1.--Rue du Port.
2.--Rue St. Laurent.
3.--Place Duroc.
4.--Rue de l’Union.
5.--Rue Gambetta.
6.--Rue St. Martin.
7.--Rue Victor Hugo.
8.--Place Thiers.
9.--Avenue Carnot.
]


A VISIT TO PONT-À-MOUSSON.

=Starting-point=: _Place Duroc (or Grand Place), in which stands the
Hôtel-de-Ville_.

Place Duroc, with its irregular arcades and Renaissance houses, presents
a very characteristic appearance.

[Illustration: PLACE DUROC, WITH ITS ARCADED HOUSES

Maison Leguy: _the 3 first arcades, beginning at the turret. The 4th and
5th arcades belong to the_ House of the Seven Capital Sins.]

_Visit first the_ “=House of the Seven Capital Sins=,” decorated with
caryatids. _At the bottom of a court there is_ a fine bas-relief
_representing The Conversion of St. Paul_.

[Illustration: THE HOUSE OF THE SEVEN CAPITAL SINS]

_A little further on is the_ =Maison Leguy=, recognisable by its hexagonal
turret, which rests on one of the corner pillars of the arcades.
Tradition attributes its construction to the Templars, and says that a
subterranean passage led from it across the Moselle and up to Mousson.

_The turret is at the corner of Rue Victor-Hugo, which take to see, in
the Rue de l’Union (first street on the left), two curious doors at Nos.
6 and 8._

_Return to Place Duroc, turn to the left into Rue St. Laurent and see,
in the court of No. 9_, a fine gallery delicately carved in Renaissance
style (slightly damaged by the bombardment); _at No. 11_, a handsome
façade with a charming court, an old well, the railing of the old
terrace, a spiral staircase and timbered ceilings; _at No. 19_, the
façade, door and entrance.

[Illustration: OLD RENAISSANCE BALCONY AT NO. 7, RUE ST. LAURENT]

[Illustration: CHURCH OF ST. LAURENT]

_Opposite No. 19 is the_ =Church of St. Laurent=; it was slightly damaged,
the roof being pierced by shells in several places.

This church, frequently restored, offers no particular interest.

Inside there is a =reredos= in the form of a tryptich, which came from the
neighbouring Convent of the Poor Claires at Pont-à-Mousson. This work is
by “_Georgin le painctre_,” and dates from the 16th century.

It represents: the _Baptism of Christ_, the _Resurrection of Lazarus_,
_the Healing of the Blind at the Pool_, and the _Burial of Christ_.

The Chapel of Our Lady of Pity contains a celebrated “Christ carrying
the Cross” by _Ligier Richier_. (_See note, p. 56, regarding this famous
sculptor’s works._)

[Illustration: TEMPORARY BRIDGE OVER THE MOSELLE (_left bank_)]

[Illustration: DESTROYED STONE BRIDGE OVER THE MOSELLE, WITH TEMPORARY
WOODEN FOOT-BRIDGE]

[Illustration: CHURCH OF ST. MARTIN. WEST FRONT]

[Illustration: CHURCH OF ST.-MARTIN

_14th century tomb of a knight and his wife._]

_Return to the Place Duroc, take the street leading to the bridge, which
comes out opposite the “House of the Seven Capital Sins.”_ The fine
stone bridge was partly destroyed. A temporary footway, however, makes
it possible to _cross the Moselle here and reach the Rue Gambetta_.

_On the left, at the corner of Rue St. Martin, stands_ the greatly
damaged =Church of St. Martin.= All the stained-glass windows were
destroyed. Several shells pierced the walls and roof.

The Church of St. Martin (_Hist. Mon._) is the old church of the
Antonists, and was built in 1474.

[Illustration: THE SEPULCHRE (16TH CENTURY) IN THE CHURCH OF ST.
MARTIN]

[Illustration: CHURCH OF THE PETIT SÉMINAIRE

_Façade facing the Rue St. Martin._]

The very narrow façade is in florid pointed style. The interior of the
church has undergone numerous unfortunate restorations. In the aisles
are: _on the left_, the funeral statues of a 14th century knight and his
wife; _on the right_, the tomb of Esther of Apremont, with her
coat-of-arms (1592), and a particularly interesting late 16th century
sepulchre (_see photos, p. 94_).

A triforium runs round the nave, and the tribune is closed by a fine
open-work gallery dating from the end of the 16th century.
Unfortunately, the choir is disfigured by a facing of marble which
conceals the frescoes that decorated the walls.

[Illustration: THE LIBRARY OF THE PETIT SÉMINAIRE]

[Illustration: SPIRAL STAIRCASE OF THE PETIT SÉMINAIRE]

_Beside the church, in the Rue St. Martin, is the_ =Petit Séminaire=,
housed in the sumptuous Abbey of the Premonstrants, dating from the
early part of the 18th century.

[Illustration: REFECTORY OF THE PETIT SÉMINAIRE]

It was very seriously damaged by the bombardments. The chapel and its
façade, the parlour, in very outlined rock-work style, splendid
staircases, large cloisters and, above all, the famous wood-carvings in
the library, were especially noteworthy.

[Illustration: NARROW RISING ROAD TO MOUSSON, WITH SHELTER IN THE
FOREGROUND]


Mousson

_To reach Mousson, proceed to the end of the Rue Gambetta, in the
opposite direction to the Moselle._

[Illustration: CEMETERY OF PONT-À-MOUSSON

_At the side of the above road (continuation of Rue Gambetta)._]

_Leave the car at the entrance to the Avenue de Metz (on the left) and
walk up the hollow road (opposite the Rue Gambetta), which skirts the
cemetery. (Time required: half an hour.)_

[Illustration: RUINS OF TOMBS IN THE CEMETERY AT PONT-À-MOUSSON]

Along this road artillery batteries were posted, the emplacements of
which may still be seen.

_Take a glance at_ the cemetery, where a number of graves have been
destroyed.

The village of Mousson is at the top of a hill where there have been
successively: a Roman camp, an Austrasian fortress and, in the 10th
century, the château of the Countess Sophie de Bar, reduced to ruins by
_Richelieu_.

The fortifications consist of a first-line covering the village, and a
second surrounding the château. The houses thus form a semicircle
between the two ramparts.

The village was greatly damaged during the war. Most of the houses are
in ruins. Some of them had tricusped windows and curious 15th and 16th
century doors.

_Skirt the_ ancient Chapel of the Templars _to reach the_ terrace of the
old château.

[Illustration: A CORNER OF MOUSSON VILLAGE

_In the background_: JOAN-OF-ARC TOWER AND STATUE]

All that remains of the château is the central chapel (11th-12th
century) (_Hist. Mon._), which was unhappily enlarged about 1895, and
to which a battlemented tower surmounted by a gilt statue of Joan-of-Arc
was added.

[Illustration: PONT-À-MOUSSON AND PRÊTRE WOOD, SEEN FROM MOUSSON]

The chapel (_Hist. Mon._), with a semicircular vaulted roof on curious
pillars, contains fine baptismal fonts (1085) decorated with sculptures.

These fonts, resembling the curb-stone of a well, are decorated with
bas-reliefs representing: _John the Baptist preaching repentance to
publicans and soldiers who came to him in the wilderness; John baptizing
two naked Jews immersed in a cistern; John baptizing Jesus Christ,
plunged up to the waist in the waters of Jordan._

On the terrace are numerous trenches, in addition to shafts dug by the
engineers to reach the underground passages which communicate with
concrete shelters. One of these shelters may still be seen along the
southern ramparts of the old château. All these military works are very
interesting to visit.

There is a =splendid panorama= from this terrace: _on one side_ (_photo,
pp._ 100 and 101) the town of Pont-à-Mousson and the valley of the
Moselle with, behind Pont-à-Mousson, Puvenelle Forest and Prêtre Wood;
_on the other side_, the valley of the Seille, with Metz Cathedral in
the distance. _To the south-east is seen_ the Grand Couronné.

Mousson was a first-rate observation-post for the French gunners, which
explains the fortifications that were erected there during the war.

[Illustration: PANORAMIC VIEW OF PONT-À-MOUSSON AND THE VALLEY OF THE
MOSELLE, SEEN FROM MOUSSON]

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE OLD FORTIFIED CASTLE OF MOUSSON

_On the right_: JOAN-OF-ARC TOWER AND STATUE]

[Illustration: MOUSSON CEMETERY

_In the background_: WALLS OF THE OLD FORTIFIED CASTLE]



A VISIT TO PRÊTRE WOOD

=A.=--_From_ =Pont-à-Mousson= _to the_ =Croix des Carmes=, _via_ =Montauville=,
_returning to_ =Pont-à-Mousson=


The Fighting in Prêtre Wood

Prêtre Wood dominates all the southern part of the Plain of Woëvre
(altitude: 1,200 feet).

From October, 1914, to May, 1915, it was the scene of a continual
struggle, at the end of which the wood remained in the hands of the
French.

It was in September, 1914, that the Germans installed themselves in
Prêtre Wood, which they at once fortified with barbed wire,
chevaux-de-frise, etc.

On September 30, 1914, the French obtained a footing in the
south-western edges of the forest. A month later (October 29) they
captured a German post in the south-eastern salient. Their efforts were
next concentrated on Père Hilarion Ravine, which they gradually occupied
after many fights in the rain and snow of November and December.

Their troops advanced by short rushes as far as the principal line,
which had to be taken by a direct attack. First, artillery was brought
up by night to prepare the attack. Sappers, by long and patient sapping,
blew up the minor defences and penetrated the blockhouses. The
adversaries were at times less than a hundred yards apart.

[Illustration: PRÊTRE WOOD. SHELTERS IN CARRIÈRES RAVINE]

From January, 1915, the French operations were directed against the
western portion, towards Quart-en-Réserve and Croix des Carmes Hill.
Four lines of trenches bristling with machine-guns and defences held up
the attack. The ground had to be taken bit by bit, and often a
counter-attack would win back in the evening the gains of several days’
hard fighting. The first line was carried on January 17, and the second
on February 16. At this point aerial torpedoes and hand grenades caused
progress to slow down. The third line was captured on March 30. Attacks
and counter-attacks followed. Fighting with hand grenades took place in
the communicating trenches, behind barrages, and the artillery on both
sides covered this narrow strip of ground with projectiles, breaking
down the parapets and destroying the communicating trenches. The
Germans, who lost heavily, brought up endless reinforcements--in all
about sixteen battalions--thus showing the importance which they
attached to this position.

[Illustration: CEMETERY IN PRÊTRE WOOD]

The final attack was launched on May 12. The French carried the
blockhouses and the northern slopes beyond the crest, but the enemy
still clung to the eastern and western slopes. However, the wood was
won, and the splendid observation-post which the hill afforded was
thenceforth in the hands of the French.

In the little cemetery on the hillside hundreds of heroes sleep their
last sleep.

The slopes near the road throughout this district are one vast cemetery,
while the wood proper hides beneath its soil hundreds of dead entombed
by the explosion of mines or the falling-in of trenches.

This wood of tragic memories was called by the Germans “_The Wood of
Death_,” or “_The Widows’ Wood_.”

[Illustration]

_Leave_ =Pont-à-Mousson= _by Avenue Carnot, cross the railway (l.c.),
leaving N.57 on the left (which follows the railway towards Nancy) and
continue along N.58 to_ =Montauville=, _2 km. from Pont-à-Mousson_.

This village did not suffer much. _On entering, there are_ several large
concrete machine-gun blockhouses _on the right_.

The nearest dressing station was at Montauville, in the cellar of a
ruined house. First aid was given in the trenches or in the little hut
near the big oak tree. From Montauville the wounded were taken in motors
to Pont-à-Mousson. There was a constant procession of ambulances,
stretcher-bearers and hospital attendants on the road.

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO PRÊTRE WOOD

_Motors stop at the fork. The road to the left leads to Fey-en-Haye,
Tourists should take the one to the right leading to the Père Hilarion
Fountain and the Croix des Carmes._]

_Beyond a knoll opposite the church of Montauville, take on the right a
downhill road which turns sharply and leads to the village cemetery.
Here the road forks. Take the road on the left, which first dips and
then a little further on rises in the direction of_ =Prêtre Wood.= This
road is in bad condition, but in dry weather motors can go as far as the
entrance to the wood.

[Illustration: FRENCH AND AMERICAN GRAVES ON THE ROAD TO THE PÈRE
HILARION FOUNTAIN]

_About 800 yards from the cemetery the road branches, that on the left
going to_ Fey-en-Haye. _Take the road on the right, which soon leads to_
=Prêtre Wood.=

_On the right, at the roadside, about 1,200 yards from the fork, are two
graves_: one of an American, the other of a French soldier.

_Three hundred yards further on, in a ravine to the right of the road,
are the_ =fountain= _and_ =house= _of_ =Father Hilarion.= All around are
numerous trenches, shelters and military works of all kinds.

Père Hilarion fountain remained for some time between the opposing
lines. Germans and French alike came there every day to draw water, and
by a tacit understanding each side came at the definite hour. During
this respite no shot was fired from the trenches.

[Illustration: THE PÈRE HILARION FOUNTAIN AND HOUSE]

_Follow the road_ (leaving on the right a steep uphill road, 150 yards
from the fountain) _which for 800 yards, down a gentle slope, crosses
the_ part of the wood called the “=Mouchoir=” and =“Croix des Carmes”
Sector.= This formed the first Franco-German lines.

[Illustration: THE HOUSE OF FATHER HILARION IN PRÊTRE WOOD]

The sight is a moving one: destroyed trees, the ground torn up by
shells, trenches fallen in and battered shelters.

_When the road reaches the crest, look back._ The sight is more tragic
still. In the distance is seen Mousson Crest, which stands out above the
trees of Prêtre Wood and, _to the right, on a small hill, 100 yards from
the road_, the site of the famous “=Croix des Carmes.=”

[Illustration: GERMAN TRENCHES IN “MOUCHOIR” SECTOR, PRÊTRE WOOD, NEAR
PÈRE HILARION FOUNTAIN]

[Illustration: PRÊTRE WOOD, THE “PELLEMENT” TRENCHES IN “MOUCHOIR”
SECTOR]

When the position was taken by the French, sappers of the Engineers
Corps piously removed the cross from its place and carried it to the
cemetery in the valley where the heroes of these battles lie buried.
There they erected it, and surrounded it with some of the barbed wire
from the late German trenches.

_Return to Montauville, then to Pont-à-Mousson by the same road._

[Illustration: PRÊTRE WOOD. “MOUCHOIR” SECTOR _Gen. Le Bocq in a Trench,
twenty yards from the enemy lines._]

[Illustration: Road Through the forest to Montauville

Road to Norroy

Mousson Crest

PRÊTRE WOOD. CROIX-DES-CARMES SECTOR]

[Illustration: Hill 372

Mousson Crest

Père Hilarion Fountain

Site of the Croix des Carmes

PRÊTRE WOOD. BETWEEN THE FRENCH AND GERMAN LINES

_Seen from near the Croix-des-Carmes, on the road to Montauville (in the
foreground)._]

[Illustration: SECOND DAY (_continued_)

B.--_From_ Pont-à-Mousson _to_ Metz]

[Illustration: BARRICADE ON THE ROAD FROM PONT-À-MOUSSON TO NORROY]

SECOND DAY (_continued_)

B.--PONT-À-MOUSSON TO METZ

From Pont-à-Mousson to Norroy and Hill 372

_At Pont-à-Mousson, on returning from Montauville, cross the railway
(l.c.), take Avenue Carnot, then Rue Victor Hugo to Place Duroc. Turn to
the left into Rue St. Laurent, which leads to N. 52 bis._

[Illustration: NORROY AND THE MOSELLE VALLEY, SEEN FROM HILL 372 TO THE
S. W. OF NORROY, ON THE NORROY-FEY ROAD

Road from
Norroy
to Fey

Hill 324

Road
from
Norroy
Champey
to Villers
Heights

Norroy
]

_Follow the latter 3 km. to a narrow road on the left leading to_
=Norroy.= _Cross the village to the Place de l’Eglise. Leave the church
on the right and keep along the road which rises sharply towards the
crest of_ =Hill 372.= The entrance to Prêtre Wood, on the German side, is
here.

On this crest several fortified quarries served as shelters for the
guns. In the wood are a number of concrete shelters, trenches and
observation-posts, one of which, cupola-shaped, is well worth a visit.

_Return to Norroy, then, in front of the church, take on the left the
road towards_ =Villers-sous-Prény=, _which winds round Hill 372_.

[Illustration: GERMAN OBSERVATION-POST ON THE TOP OF HILL 372. ENTRANCE
TO PRÊTRE WOOD (_coming from Norroy_)]

_On leaving Norroy, the road rises sharply, then zigzags down the side
of Hill 372. One kilometre from Norroy, and 100 yards to the left of the
road, is_ a veritable village of concrete and stone, built in a quarry
by the Germans, with shelters in the rock more than thirty feet deep. It
served as a Post of Commandment, and was fitted with a telephone
exchange which directed the artillery-fire in the Prêtre Wood sector.

_The road continues to descend to Villers-sous-Prény (2 km.). There is_
a German cemetery _on the left, before entering the village_, many
houses of which are in ruins.

_At_ =Villers= _take I. C. 13 on the right to_ =Vandières= (_3 km._), _where
N. 52 bis is joined. Take same on the left to_ =Metz.=

This road, which runs alongside the Moselle, is picturesque, but in bad
condition, especially between Arnaville and Metz. (_N. 57 from
Pont-à-Mousson to Metz, on the right bank of the Moselle, is in much
better condition, but less picturesque._)

_The road passes through_ =Pagny-sur-Moselle= (_see_ p. 109).

The valley of the Moselle becomes prettier and prettier; varied scenery,
picturesque landscapes and villages nestling in the sides of the hills.
_The road turns to the left and crosses the Rupt-de-Mad stream at_
=Arnaville=--the last village on the frontier since 1870, and the boundary
of the old “_département_” of the Meuse.

It next passes through Novéant, where for a long time the German
customhouse was installed. The village contains a château; in the church
there is a carved ivory figure of Christ.

[Illustration: GERMAN POST OF COMMANDMENT BELOW HILL 372

(_1 km. from Norroy on the left of Norroy-Villers road._)]

_After passing through_ =Dornot= _and_ =Ancy=, _the tourist soon reaches_
=Ars-sur-Moselle.=

The name “_Ars_” (_Arches_) is derived from the arcades of the Roman
aqueduct, the imposing remains of which are still to be seen. Known
locally as the “_Devil’s Bridge_,” it extended as far as the village of
Jouy on the right bank of the Moselle, and served to bring water to the
baths and swimming-pool of the amphitheatre of the ancient _Divodurum_
(Metz). It was 3,240 feet long, and 50 feet high. The church, burned
down in 1807, was rebuilt in 1816 on the site of an ancient Roman
fortress. _Ars_ contains important ironworks and a paper factory.

=Moulins= _and_ =Longville= _are next passed, after which_ =Metz= _is entered
by France Gate. Take the Rue de Paris, Ponts des Morts, Rue du Pont des
Morts, Pont Moyen, Rue St. Marie, Rue du Faisan, Place de Chambre, then
Rue d’Estrées on the right, to Place d’Armes, in which stands the_
=Cathedral.=

[Illustration: METZ SEEN FROM THE FORT OF ST. QUENTIN]



METZ

ORIGIN AND CHIEF HISTORICAL FACTS


The origin of Metz dates back to the Celtic epoch, when it was the
capital of the _Mediomatrici_. The Romans fortified it, to defend the
frontiers of the empire against the barbarians. Metz then became the
centre of six great Roman roads leading to distant provinces: two from
Metz to Rheims, two from Metz to Trèves (one on the right, the other on
the left bank of the Moselle), one from Metz to Strasburg, and one from
Metz to Mainz.

A very rich and populous town, it was embellished by numerous Roman
buildings, of which excavations have laid bare important remains: an
=amphitheatre=, near Porte Mazelle, and above all =Gorze Aqueduct= (4th
century), more than thirteen miles in length, which brought water from
Gorze to Metz. Some fine remains of the aqueduct may still be seen at
Jouy-aux-Arches.

The Roman Emperors who visited Metz stayed at the Governors’ Palace,
which stood in Place St. Croix.

Metz was taken and laid waste by the Huns in 451.

Half a century later it was rebuilt and, on the death of Clovis (511),
became the capital of Austrasia and the cradle of the Carolingian
dynasty. Louis-le-Débonnaire was buried in the Abbey of St. Arnoul. The
Treaty of Verdun (843) gave it to Lothaire, who made it the capital of
his kingdom Lotharingia (afterwards Lorraine). Thirty years later the
Treaty of Mersen (870) handed it over to Louis the Germanic.

It was governed, in the name of the emperor, first by the counts and
later by the bishops. In 1220, on the death of Count Thiébault, the town
became a sort of republic under the title of “Free Imperial Town,” and
was governed by the sheriffs until 1552.

Under Henri II. the French, led by Montmorency, occupied the town, after
a treaty concluded with Maurice of Saxony. The Duke of Guise, appointed
Governor, energetically defended Metz, besieged by Emperor Charles-Quint
(October 19, 1552). On January 1, 1553, Charles-Quint raised the siege,
after having lost 30,000 men. For a long time the kings of France bore
the title of “Protector.” Henri III. was the first to call himself
“Sovereign Ruler.” The Parliament of Metz, created in 1633, completed
the ruin of its municipal independence, and the Treaty of Westphalia
(1648) definitely incorporated it with France. It was the capital of the
“Three Bishoprics” formed by the union of Metz, Toul and Verdun.

Until the Revolution (1789) Metz, while escaping the horrors of war,
constantly felt its effects. Troops were continually passing through it,
and its barracks became a mustering-ground. Turenne, Villars, the
Marquis de Créquy, and Marshal de Villeroy camped within its walls, and
it was at Metz that in August, 1744, Louis XV. was taken seriously ill,
on which occasion the whole of France prayed and fasted for their
“well-beloved” King.

In 1790, Metz became the chief town of the new “Département” of Moselle.
Two sieges, in 1814 and 1815, were victoriously resisted.

1870 was a black year in the annals of the town--till then known as
“_Virgin Metz_.”[A] The battles of Borny (August 14), Rézonville (August
15), St. Privat (August 18), forced _Marshal Bazaine_ to retire under
the walls of the town. He resisted feebly, contenting himself with
awaiting events, and did not even attempt to cut his way through, which
would have saved the honour of the armies under his command. On October
28 he signed the capitulation, and on the following day surrendered with
173,000 men, 60 generals, 6,000 officers, 58 standards, 622 field-guns,
876 siege-guns, 72 machine-guns, 260,000 rifles and huge quantities of
stores and munitions. Six months later (May 10, 1871), by the Treaty of
Frankfort, Metz and part of the “_département_” of Moselle were ceded to
Germany. Metz thus became the capital of German Lorraine.

 [A] Its coat-of-arms consists of an escutcheon argent and sable
 surmounted by a maiden crowned by towers and holding a palm in her
 left hand. It was, in fact, the proudest claim of Metz, until 1870,
 that it had never been taken since it had become a fortified city.
 In 1815 the armies of the “Holy Alliance” were refused permission to
 march through, when they evacuated French territory, and were obliged
 to cross the Moselle over a bridge which the people of Metz erected at
 the very foot of the ramparts, just outside the town.

It was from Metz that =La Fayette= set out in 1775 on his immortal
expedition to help America win her freedom and independence. In grateful
remembrance of that glorious event the “=Knights of Columbus=” recently
decided to erect a statue of La Fayette in Metz (_to be inaugurated in
1920_).

[Illustration: GENERAL POST-OFFICE AND RAILWAY STATION]


The Fortifications

From its position Metz was destined to become a stronghold of the first
importance. The Romans fortified the town built by the Gauls, and
erected the first citadel. The walls were preserved for a long time, and
Bishop Robert, in the 10th century, utilised their remains. It was only
in the 12th century that the new ramparts included the island formed by
the two arms of the Moselle. They consisted of a high wall protected by
sixty-eight towers. In 1552 the Duke of Guise commissioned an engineer,
_Pierre Strozzi_, to restore these fortifications, which had withstood
two sieges (1444 and 1552), and were in a dilapidated condition. Four
years later (1556) Marshal de Vieilleville erected a citadel flanked by
four bastions, on the site of the old convents. This citadel (which
remained standing until 1802) stood on the site of the present
Esplanade.

About a century later _Vauban_, fully aware of the strategic value of
Metz, conceived a great scheme, which was carried out in the 18th
century by an engineer, _M. Cormontaigne_. Vauban, for his part, added
eleven new bastions to those which already guarded the citadel, but it
was _Cormontaigne_ who perfected the plans for inundating the valley of
the Seille by utilising the waters of Lindre Pond.

Metz became finally one of the most formidable fortresses of Europe.

Under Louis-Philippe the fortifications were entirely restored, and in
1866 preparations were made to rebuild them on a new plan, better
adapted to the exigencies of modern armaments and technique. Of the four
detached forts of St. Quentin, Plappeville, Queuleu and St. Julien, only
the first two were completed in 1870.

The Germans considerably strengthened the fortifications by means of
nineteen bastions surrounded by moats, the latter being protected by
thirteen out-works. The length of the line of forts was increased to
eighteen miles, and eleven new forts were added.

[Illustration: METZ. ST. QUENTIN FORT (_seen from the Esplanade_)]

[Illustration: METZ. AFTER THE ARMISTICE. ENTRY OF FRENCH TROOPS

_November_ 19, 1918.]

[Illustration: THE FIRST FRENCH NEWSPAPERS TO ARRIVE

_November_ 19, 1918.]


METZ AFTER THE SIGNING OF THE ARMISTICE

When the Armistice was signed on November 11, the forts of Metz were
within range of the American artillery, which had already bombarded them
several times, while the troops had taken up the positions from which
the offensive, arranged for the 16th, was to have been launched. The
terms of

[Illustration: METZ. FRENCH TROOPS DEFILING BEFORE MARSHAL PÉTAIN

_November 19, 1918_]

[Illustration: PLACE D’ARMES, NOVEMBER 19, 1918

_In the background_: Statue of Marshal Fabert.]

the Armistice called for the evacuation of the invaded territory,
including Alsace and Lorraine, before the 26th. It was into Metz, freed
of German soldiers, that the French troops made a solemn entry on
Tuesday, November 19, 1918, amid scenes of indescribable enthusiasm.

[Illustration: METZ. GENERAL PÉTAIN MADE MARSHAL OF FRANCE

_After the ceremony_: President Poincaré embraces Prime Minister
Clémenceau.]

The march past took place on the Esplanade, before General Pétain, made
Marshal that morning. Mounted on a white horse and wearing his large
blue coat, he had taken his stand in front of the statue of Marshal Ney.
He was assisted by General Fayolle, commanding a group of armies, and by
Major-General Buat. General Mangin, commanding the 10th Army, had met
with an accident while riding, and his place was taken by General
Leconte. On the same day M. Mirman, who had been appointed Commissioner
of the Republic, was received by General de Maud’huy, Governor of Metz.
Salvos of cannon and the ringing of the famous “Mutte” bell in the
Cathedral celebrated this joyful day.

On the following Sunday, November 24, the leading men of Metz elected
the new Town Council, and decided to restore the names of the streets in
use prior to 1870, and to name new streets after generals and prominent
men who had distinguished themselves in the Great War. The list was
published in a decree dated December 7.

On Sunday, December 8, President Poincaré, accompanied by the French
Prime Minister, M. Clémenceau, the Presidents of the Chambers,
Ministers, Marshals, and French and Allied Generals, proclaimed the
definite return to France of the lost provinces. It was a day never to
be forgotten by those who witnessed it. Young girls in the national
costume of Lorraine--birthplace of the French President--marched through
the streets, and flowers were showered from the windows on the
procession.

In the morning there was a review on the Esplanade, and a
Field-Marshal’s _bâton_ was presented to General Pétain. The President
of the Republic opened the proceedings with an address, after which an
unforeseen and touching incident occurred; overcome with emotion, M.
Poincaré and M. Clémenceau embraced each other.

[Illustration: METZ. LORRAINE GIRLS GROUPED AROUND THE FRENCH FLAG

_November_ 19, 1918.]

In the afternoon there was a reception in the Hôtel-de-Ville, at which
President Poincaré summed up in a stirring speech the whole history of
Metz, and concluded with the following words:--

     “Years have gone by, but Metz has not changed. The protests
     formerly made to the ‘Reichstag’ in the name of the people of Metz,
     in the name of all the people of Lorraine, by that great Bishop,
     Mgr. Dupont des Loges, continued calmly and firmly after his death.
     Citizens of Metz, you renewed them, year after year, by pilgrimages
     to Mars-la-Tour, by visits to the cemeteries, and by fostering
     French memories.... Beloved town of Metz, your nightmare is
     over--France returns and opens her arms to you!”

The procession was then received with great ceremony by Mgr. Felt at the
Cathedral, and finally went to the cemetery of Chambière, to pay homage
to the dead of 1870.

[Illustration: PLAN OF METZ

METZ

 1. Place d’Armes.
 2. Prefecture Bridge.
 3. Prefecture Square.
 4. Rue Pont-Moreau.
 5. Rue Belle-Isle.
 6. Thionville Bridge.
 7. Rue de l’Hôpital Militaire.
 8. Route de Thionville.
 9. Rue Fabert.
10. Rue de la Tête-d’Or.
11. Rue de la Grande Armée.
12. Rue des Allemands.
13. Rue de St. Julien.
14. Rue de Sarrebruck.
15. Rue Haute-Seille.
16. Rue de Strasbourg.
17. Avenue du Maréchal Foch.
18. Rue Vauban.
19. Rue de Magny.
20. Rue des Clercs.
21. Avenue de la Citadelle.
22. Rue de Nancy.
23. Rue de Pont-à-Mousson.
24. Chambre Square.
25. Rue de la Paix.
26. Rue Pont-des-Morts.
27. Rue de Paris.
28. Avenue Serpenoise.
29. Rue Harelle.
30. Rue de la Gare.
31. Rue de Thionville.
32. Rue du Haut-Poirier.
33. Rue Serpenoise.
34. Rue de President Wilson.
35. Rue de Verdun.
36. Avenue de Maréchal Joffre.
37. King George Square.
38. Bd. Georges Clémenceau.
39. Bd. President Poincaré.
40. Place de la République.
41. Rue Fournirue.
 A. Cathedral.
 B. German Gate.
 C. Barracks.
 D. St. Eucairés Church.
 E. St. Vincent’s Church.
 H. Hôtel-de-Ville.
 J. Palais-de-Justice.
 M. Museum.
 P. Prefecture.
P.S. Serpenoise Gate.
 T. Theatre.
]


A VISIT TO METZ

=Starting-point=: the Place d’Armes.

The Place d’Armes, in which the Cathedral and the Hôtel-de-Ville stand,
is a handsome square embellished with noble buildings. On its site
formerly stood the Cathedral cloister, the musicians’ quarters, several
chapels and private houses.

In 1753 the Governor, _Marshal de Belle-Isle_, decided that a square
should be laid out there and a portal erected giving access to the
Cathedral.

The plans of the architect (_Blondel_) for the portal made it necessary
to lower the level of the ground. For months and years, canons and
sheriffs alike stopped or impeded the work. During the night of August
9, 1755, M. de Belle-Isle called out the garrison, and had the work
finished by torchlight. By morning the excavation was complete.

[Illustration: STATUE OF MARSHAL FABERT, PLACE D’ARMES, METZ]

In the Place d’Armes stands a _statue of Marshal Fabert_ (_by Etex_,
1840). The only inscription on the statue of the great Metz general
(1599-1662), who was governor of Sedan, is one of his own sayings: “_If,
to prevent the enemy taking a place entrusted to my care by the king, it
were necessary, I should not hesitate for an instant to sacrifice
myself, my family, and all my belongings._”

[Illustration: METZ CATHEDRAL]


The Cathedral

The whole of one side of the Place d’Armes is occupied by the Cathedral
of St. Etienne, a masterpiece of Gothic architecture. The body of the
church reminds one of Amiens and Beauvais. If, on the outside, it
appears somewhat narrow, the interior (393 feet long, 71 feet wide, 139
feet high), with its magnificent stained-glass, is imposing and of
exceeding beauty.

The oldest portions of the Cathedral date from the 13th century.

The nave, completed in the 14th century, has eight bays. At the fourth
bay it is flanked by two square towers.

The northern tower, called the “Mutte” Tower, contains the town-bell. It
is surmounted by a fine spire, from which there is an extensive view of
the surrounding country. It was there that the city watchman was
installed, whose duty it was to give the alarm in case of fire. On the
other side of the nave stands the Chapter Tower, which was finished in
1839. There is a fine doorway at the foot of each tower.

Another, smaller polygonal tower, called the Clock Tower, is built over
the southern aisle.

On each side of the choir, where it meets the arms of the transept, are
the two small “Charlemagne” towers, so called in memory of those which
existed in the romanesque building. They give access by spiral stairways
to the outside terraces over the Cathedral.

While the nave is 13th century the transept dates from the 15th, and the
choir, built over a great sepulchral crypt, is contemporary with the
last Gothic period.

Although completed in 1546 the Cathedral later underwent many
alterations. Fires necessitated repairs, and in 1753, by order of the
Governor (Marshal de Belle-Isle), the laying out of a square in front of
the Cathedral necessitated the demolition of the outbuildings of the
bishop’s house and the erection of a portal.

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF METZ CATHEDRAL]

The ground was excavated to a depth of some eight or nine feet, and the
architect (_J. B. Blondel_) was instructed to prepare plans on a grand
scale.

This was done between 1761 and 1764, after which the work was at once
put in hand, and completed in 1771. While endeavouring to respect the
old building, Blondel sought, not so much to build the portal in the
style of the Cathedral, as to erect an independent portal in front of
the church. Its irregular lines contrast with the general style of the
Cathedral.

In 1791, the rood-loft, old altars and vaults were removed, in
accordance with the plans of _Gardeur Lebrun_. The roof, destroyed by
fire on the night of May 6, 1877--the day Emperor Wilhelm I. entered
Metz--was replaced in 1880-1882 by a copper roof several yards higher
than the original.

Lastly, the Doric projection of the main front was pulled down in 1903
to make room for a portal planned in the style of the rest of the
church. Statues of the prophets were carved at the corners, one of
which--that of the prophet Daniel--is a _likeness of the ex-Emperor of
Germany, Wilhelm II_. The people of Metz would not have the
ex-Kaiser-prophet take part in the entry of the French, and during the
night bound his hands with a chain attached to which was a board
bearing the inscription, “_Sic transit Gloria Mundi_” (thus passes away
man’s glory) (_photo above_).

[Illustration: THE EX-KAISER WILLIAM II. AS DANIEL

_Statue on Metz Cathedral._]

The offending statue is to be replaced by a work of the Metz sculptor
_Hannaux_, who designed the French monument at Noisseville.

In no other church is there so large an area of window space. It is
calculated that in the transept and choir there are 4,071 square metres
of glass and it is no exaggeration to say that the whole building seems
to be one immense window.

[Illustration: METZ CATHEDRAL. WEST FRONT]

[Illustration: METZ CATHEDRAL. SOUTH FRONT AND PORTAL]

Among the windows are several dating from the 13th century. The large
rose-window at the end of the nave, which dates from the 14th century,
is the work of the master-glassworker Hermann. The windows of the north
transept and the Chapel of Our Lady date from the 15th century.

Those of the south transept, Chapel of St. Nicholas, choir and apse are
16th century.

The bell called “La Mutte,” which hangs in the tower of the same name,
did not belong to the church, but to the town. The present bell, which
is rung on all special occasions, was cast in 1505. It weighs thirteen
tons and, when set in motion, causes the large and small spires to rock
perceptibly. It bears the following inscription:

    “Dame Mutte suis baptisée,
     De par la Cité ci-posée,
     Pour servir à la Cité
     Aux jours de grandes solennités:
     Et aussi pour crier justice,
     Prendre ban de bonne police;
     Les contredire quand bon me semble
     Et pour convoquer gens ensemble.”

The best view of Metz and the surrounding country is to be obtained from
the top of the Cathedral tower. Here one realizes the immense importance
of the forts, of which the Moselle is a kind of natural moat. On the
left bank the steeply rising hills form natural defences, while the
lower hills on the right bank are reinforced by the line of forts. From
their gleam in the distance one gets a better idea of the number of
waterways which surround and run through Metz--the River Seille, the
streams of St. Pierre, Noisseville, and Châtel-St.-Germain, the River
Moselle (which divides), and the canal running parallel to it. Before
Metz lies the large island of St. Symphorion; then, near the Wadrineau
dyke, the smaller island of Saulcy. At the foot of old Metz there is yet
another arm of the Moselle, which divides, forming an island, on which
stand the Prefecture and Theatre. Beyond lies the large island of
Chambière, recognisable by its parade-ground and cemeteries.

[Illustration: METZ. PLACE D’ARMES AND HÔTEL-DE-VILLE]


The Hôtel-de-Ville

On leaving the Cathedral the tourist should next visit the Town Hall,
also in the Place d’Armes (1766-1771). The architecture is simple:
façade embellished with two pediments and handsome railings. A portico
leads to a fine staircase. Opposite the balustrade is a bas-relief in
white marble on which are engraved the famous lines of Ausonius: “_Salve
magna parens frugumque virumque Mosella_....” (“Hail, O Moselle!
illustrious mother of fruits and of men.”)

In the interior are large reception-rooms, in which the public meetings
of the Academy are held. The =Academy of Metz= was founded in 1760 by
Marshal de Belle-Isle under the title of “The Royal Society of
Literature, Science and Art,” and endowed with the sum of sixty thousand
“livres.” Suppressed at the Revolution, then restored on March 14, 1819,
with the motto “Useful,” it obtained the title of “Royal Academy” from
Charles X. on September 5, 1828. It consists of thirty-six titular
members, eighteen resident members, and four honorary corresponding and
associate members. The Academy largely contributed to maintain French
culture in Lorraine during the German annexation.

In the grand staircase there are three windows, erected in 1852, _in the
middle_, the Duke of Guise after the siege of Metz; _on the right_,
Bishop Bertram of Metz; _on the left_, Sheriff Pierre Baudoche
(1464-1489).

The flag which now flies over the building is the one which was there
in 1870, and which was carefully preserved in the Carnavalet Museum in
Paris. It was restored to the Mayor of Metz by the Vice-President of the
Town Council of Paris on December 25, 1918.

[Illustration: PLAN OF ESPLANADE]

_Leaving the Town Hall take Rue Fabert on the left of the Place d’Armes,
then its continuation (Rue des Clercs). At the end of the latter, on the
left, is the Place de la République, and on the right the Esplanade._

[Illustration: GROUP OF LORRAINE GIRLS AT FOOT OF MARSHAL NEY’S STATUE]

The fine =Promenade de l’Esplanade= served as a parade-ground for the
garrison troops, who defiled along the first row of plane-trees, past
the statue of Marshal Ney (_by Pètre_, 1855). Ney, Duke of Elchingen and
Prince of Moskowa, was born at Sarrelouis. He is represented, rifle in
hand, ready to fire.

[Illustration: STATUE OF EMPEROR WILHELM I. TAKEN DOWN BY HIS “GRATEFUL
SUBJECTS” OF METZ. IT WAS REPLACED BY A STATUE OF “LE POILU”]

Moskowa, was born at Sarrelouis. He is represented, rifle in hand, ready
to fire.

_Go to the end of the Esplanade, beyond the bandstand on the terrace_;
magnificent view of the Hill and Fort of St. Quentin, Fort Plappeville
and the Moselle. The island of Saulcy, on which stands the
powder-factory, is just opposite.

[Illustration: THE “POILU” STATUE, WHICH REPLACES THAT OF WILHELM I.]

It was on this terrace that the bronze equestrian statue of _Kaiser
Wilhelm I_. (1892) used to stand. According to the inscription on the
pedestal the statue was erected by the Emperor’s “grateful people.” The
conqueror was represented pointing to the Moselle and the powerful forts
of Plappeville and St. Quentin which protect the town.

[Illustration: THE “PROMENADE DE LA MOSELLE”]

The “grateful people” dragged this statue off its pedestal into the mud
a few days before the French entered the town, and on the night of
January 6 replaced it with a statue _“To the Victorious Poilu,” bearing
the inscription “On les a”_ (variation of the famous rallying cry “_On
les aura_”) as a pleasant surprise for Marshal Pétain who, next day, was
to decorate sixteen regiments with the “fourragère” cord and bestow
decorations on various officers and soldiers. This statue was made in
seven days by the local sculptor Bouchard (_photos, p. 128_).

_In the Esplanade stands the Palais-de-Justice (1776), on the site of
the former_ Hôtel de la Haute-Pierre, the property of the Duke of
Suffolk, lover of Mary Tudor, Queen of England. He had this mansion
pulled down and the fine Hôtel de Suffolk built, which, for a long time,
served as the Government House. Finally, in 1776, _Clairisseaux_ built
the present palace. The =iron railings= of the grand staircase and, _in
the inner court_, =two bas-reliefs=--one recalling the humanity of the
Duke of Guise in succouring the soldiers of the Duke of Albe after the
raising of the siege; the other glorifying the peace concluded in 1783
between England, France, Spain, the United States of America and
Holland, are especially noteworthy.

[Illustration: STATUE OF KAISER FREDERICK CHARLES DRAGGED DOWN FROM ITS
PEDESTAL BY THE PEOPLE OF METZ]

_Return to the Place de la République and take on the right the Avenue
de la Citadelle, which separates the Esplanade from the Place de la
République. Follow this avenue, which soon skirts on the left the
Engineers’ Barracks, and a garden._

_Beyond the garden, turn to the left into the Avenue du Maréchal Joffre,
which leads to the Place du Roi-George (in front of the old railway
station)._ It was here that the statue of _Kaiser Frederick III. was_
pulled down by the people. _Not far from this square may be seen_ a
round tower--a relic of the ramparts of the Middle Ages.

_Turning his back on the old railway station, the tourist next takes
Avenue Serpenoise (beside the gardens), along which run the tram lines._
_On the left is_ the Serpenoise Gate (1852).

_Continue along the Avenue, which skirts, on the left, first the
Engineers’ Barracks, then Place de la République._

_Beyond the latter the Avenue is continued by Rue Serpenoise_--the
busiest street in Metz--_which take. Rue Ladoucette, which continues it,
leads to Rue Fournirue._

_Take the latter on the right, then Rue du Change (which continues it to
the right) to_ =Place St. Louis.=

[Illustration: SERPENOISE GATE, _leading to the Place de la
République_.]

[Illustration: PLACE ST. LOUIS AND THE ARCADES]

In former times, Place St. Louis (or Place du Change) was occupied by
sixty moneychangers’ stalls. Several of the houses in the square have
retained their battlements, pointed or semicircular arches, tricusped
windows and Renaissance balconies. The name of St. Louis comes from a
statue of Louis XIII., found among the ruins of the citadel and which
the Curé of St. Simplice took for one of Louis IX. Mystery plays used to
be acted in the square, which later was used for the execution of
criminals. Finally, it became the corn market.

_At the end of the square take Rue Royale, then turn to the left into
Rue Coislin, which skirts the Coislin Barracks._

_At the end of Rue Coislin take Rue Pont-à-Seille to Place des Charrons,
then, at the end of this square, Rue du Grand-Wad, to the Rempart des
Allemands. Follow the latter to the left as far as the_ =German Gate.=

[Illustration: PLAN OF PLACE ST. LOUIS]

[Illustration: PORTE DES ALLEMANDS (GERMAN GATE) _Seen from the Quai des
Allemands._]

The =German Gate=, on the banks of the Seille, is a remarkable structure.

Mention of it occurs as early as 1324. In the 15th century it was
completely restored by the architect _Henri de Banceval_.

_Opposite the Gate take the Rue des Allemands; on the right is_ the
interesting Church of St. Rucaire. _Continue to Place des Paraiges._

[Illustration: THE GERMAN GATE]

[Illustration: THE GERMAN GATE _Seen from the right bank of the
Seille._]

[Illustration: THE TAN-YARDS]

[Illustration]

_At the end of the square, take Rue Saulnerie to the right (continued on
the left by Rue du Paradis), which leads to Rue des Capucins. At the end
of the latter is Place des Maréchaux, in which stands the_ Church of St.
Ségolène, built on the site of an oratory founded by St. Ségolène in the
8th century. The present church, built at two different periods (the
choirs, nave and portal are earlier than the aisles), dates from about
the 13th century. Long, narrow windows, mostly double, end in
stanchions. The two side chapels contain fine stained-glass. Note the
curious open-work gallery of the organ loft, and several interesting
paintings.

_Turn to the left and take the Rue des Trinitaires. Skirt an old
building with a square turret, beside a doorway_--“Hostel St.
Ligier”--_then turn to the right into Rue de la Bibliothèque_.

_In this street, at the corner of Rue Chèvremont, there is_ a large
building (formerly the Church of the Petits-Carmes), _the work of
Sébastian Leclerc_, in which are housed both the library (80,000 volumes
and 1,987 manuscripts) and the Museum (local archæology, natural
history, objects of art and three rooms of pictures).

_Besides the museum, take Rue Chèvremont, which runs into Rue de la
Boucherie, in which turn to the left to St. Georges Bridge over the
Moselle._

_Cross this bridge, from which there is a lovely view, and take the Rue
du Pont St. Georges. Rue Chambière opens at once on the right, and leads
to_ =Chambière Cemetery=, in which are the graves of the French soldiers
who fell in the siege of 1870.

_The road passes between the large slaughter house and cattle market,
and huts serving as an army stores._ _Cross an_ old cemetery, in the
middle of which are several monumental tombs. _Skirt the Jewish cemetery
and the Moselle, as far as the_ =Military Cemetery=: numerous graves under
the trees. In the centre stands a pyramid thirty-seven feet high, with a
great number of piled up coffins carved on the base. Here lie the
soldiers who died in the Metz hospitals of wounds received in the
battles of Borny, Gravelotte, St. Privat, Servigny, Peltre and
Ladonchamps--7,203 in number.

[Illustration: MOSELLE RIVER _Seen from St. George’s Bridge._]


[Illustration: MOSELLE RIVER AND ST. GEORGE’S BRIDGE]

On the principal façade is a bas-relief in white marble representing
religion, taken from a disused vault belonging to the _de Salse_ family.
On the other side are inscriptions. At the base of the pyramid is the
inscription: “_The Women of Metz to those whom they nursed._”

Beside the pyramid there is a monument to the memory of the fallen
French officers.

For forty-eight years wreaths, tri-colour cockades and ribbons were
piously placed on these graves, and on each anniversary day the women of
Metz covered them with flowers.

_Take Rue du Pont St. Georges to Rue St. Vincent_ (_on the left_), which
follow, _then turn to the right into Rue des Bénédictins_.

_Apply at No. 7 to visit the_ =Church of St. Clément.=

[Illustration]

Founded in 1668, the choir, nave and aisles were begun in 1680 by
_Spinga_, an Italian. The portal was damaged during the Revolution.
To-day the church forms part of the college founded by the Jesuits. A
fine cloister with a well should be visited.

_Return to Rue des Bénédictins and follow it as far as Rue St. Vincent
(on the left), which leads to the square of the same name, where stands
the curious_ =Church of St. Vincent=, founded in 1248.

Partially destroyed by fire in 1711, by an apostate monk, it was used as
a stable during the Revolution, and then as a hospital in 1814. Once
more a church, a portal in composite style was added. The graceful nave
on twelve shafted pillars, the symmetrical choir and the fine chapels in
pointed style are well worth seeing.

_Continue along Rue St. Vincent, on the other side of the square. Its
continuation, Rue St. Marcel, leads to Rue du Pont-à-Mort, into which
turn to the left._

[Illustration: ST. MARCEL BRIDGE AND THE PROTESTANT CHURCH

_Seen from Moyen Bridge._]

_Cross the Moselle by Moyen Bridge_ (lovely view). _Take Rue St. Marie,
which continues the bridge_, then Rue du Faisan on the left, _leading to
the_ pretty little Place de Chambre. This square owes its name to the
Knights of Malta, who in 1323 lived there in a castle called _Petit St.
Jean_.

_From the Place de Chambre return to the Cathedral and to the Place
d’Armes by the narrow Rue d’Estrées._

[Illustration: MOYEN BRIDGE]

[Illustration: MOYEN BRIDGE AND THE CATHEDRAL _Seen from Saulcy
Island._]


THIRD DAY

METZ-ETAIN-VERDUN

(_See Itinerary, pp. 138-139_)

[Illustration]

_Leave Metz (Place d’Armes) by Rue d’Estrées, cross Place de Chambre
(soon reached on the left), take Rue Faisan, then Rue St. Marie, leading
to Moyen Bridge over an arm of the Moselle. Cross the bridge and take
Rue du Pont-à-Mort. Cross the ramparts, then the second arm of the
Moselle. Take Rue de Paris and, follow the tram lines towards Moulins;
after crossing the second belt of ramparts and the railway, the route
turns to the left._

[Illustration: THE PREFECTURE BRIDGE]

_The road hereabouts is bordered with fine trees. After passing through_
=Ban-St.-Martin= (Infantry Barracks _on the right_) and
=Longeville-les-Metz=, _the tourist arrives at_ =Moulins.=

_At the fork, take the Verdun road, on the right, which passes in front
of the barracks._

_Two hundred yards beyond Moulins leave on the right the Briey road, and
at the milestone marked “Metz 7 km.,” turn to the left into the uphill
road to_ =Gravelotte.=

[Illustration]

_Near milestone “Metz 9 km.,” there is_ a fine view of Metz: _in the
foreground_ the village of Rozérieulles is seen in the valley; _in the
background_, the Moselle valley and Metz.

_At the top of Hill 342, the road passes near_ =Joan-of-Arc Fort=,
formerly the German fort “_Kaiserin_.” It stands about 300 yards to the
right of the road. _The latter, a little further on, turns sharply to
the left near a_ =monument= surrounded with trees, which was erected to
the memory of the soldiers who fell in 1870. Several graves bear the
inscription: “Krieger v. 18 8-1870.”

_St. Hubert Farm is soon reached, then the deep_ =Ravine of Mance=,
_along_ which the defeated Germans were forced to retreat in the course
of the great battle of August 16, 1870, fought between the villages of
Gravelotte (_which the tourist soon reaches_), Rézonville and
Mars-la-Tour (_further west_).

In =Gravelotte= (_12 km. 700 from Metz_) _take the road to Doncourt (D.I.)
on the right, in front of the Post Office_. _The road passes close to_
=Mogador Farm=, from which Kaiser Wilhelm I. saw his troops thrown into
confusion and beating a hurried retreat under the cover of night.

_After passing in front of_ =Malmaison Farm=, _the old frontier is
crossed_.

_Eight kilometres 900 beyond Gravelotte_, =Doncourt= _village is reached.
Cross through and keep straight on along D.I. After passing by Jarny
Mines, the road crosses the railway (l.c.) and enters_ =Jarny= _village, 4
km. from Doncourt_. Several houses were destroyed and the church badly
damaged.

_Two kilometres beyond Jarny_, =Conflans-en-Jarnizy= _is reached_. Several
of the houses were destroyed. _Go through the village and at the far end
take the Etain road. 5 km. from Conflans_, =Jeandelize= _is reached_. The
church (_on the right_) was torn open by shells. Note the Renaissance
doors of several of the houses.

_Keep straight on._ =Olley= _village (on the right) is passed, 2 km.
beyond Jeandelize. There is_ a large German cemetery _fifty yards from
the road on the right_.

=St. Jean-lés-Buzy= _and_ =Buzy= (_the latter 11 km. from Conflans_) _are
passed through, after which_ =Hill 198=--on which is a German stronghold
with blockhouse, trenches and barbed-wire entanglements--_is reached_.

The partly-destroyed village of =Warcq= _is next passed through, after
which_ 2 km. further on, =Etain= _is reached_.

[Illustration: NEAR GRAVELOTTE. GRAVES OF FRENCH SOLDIERS WHO FELL ON
AUGUST 18, 1870]

[Illustration: ETAIN. RUINED CHURCH AND HOUSES _Seen from the bridge
over the Orne, on the road to Verdun._]


ETAIN

Etain was looted by the Swedes in 1622, during the reign of Louis XIII.
Later, it was often taken and retaken by the French, Germans, Spaniards
and Lorrains. Its fortifications were destroyed under Louis XIV. By the
Treaty of Vienna (18th century) the town was definitely ceded to France.

In October, 1792, Kellermann’s advance guards, in pursuit of the
Prussians, encamped at Etain.

[Illustration: ETAIN. THE TOWER AND SOUTH FRONT OF THE CHURCH _The tower
was used as an observation-post by the Germans._]

[Illustration: ETAIN. CHEVET AND NORTH FRONT OF CHURCH]

In 1914, the town was bombarded by the Germans on August 24, from 1 p.m.
to 2 a.m. the next day, and again on the 25th at 11 o’clock, with
incendiary shells.

[Illustration: ETAIN CHURCH. CENTRAL NAVE SEEN FROM THE CHOIR]

Many of the inhabitants were killed on the 24th. On the 25th others, who
had taken refuge in the cellars of the Town Hall, perished under the
ruins of that building. 200 fled along the Verdun road. A girl
telephonist remained at her post and kept in touch with Verdun every
quarter of an hour. Her last message (on the 25th) was: “A bomb has just
fallen on the office.”

The same day French troops routed the German XXXIIIrd D.R. in a glorious
battle at Etain. Nevertheless, the enemy occupied the town, which was
systematically looted. Every two days train-loads of furniture, linen,
wines, food, cloth, boots, tools and raw materials were sent to Germany.

In April, 1915, French troops captured Hills 219 and 221, Hôpital Farm
(formerly belonging to Order of St. Jean de Rhodes) and Haut-Bois Farm,
reaching the immediate vicinity of the town, without, however, entering
it.

_In the_ partly destroyed town, _N. 18 is picked up again, which take to
the left_. The greatly damaged church (_photos, pp. 141 and 142_) _is
seen on the right_. Its belfry was torn open by the bombardments,
leaving visible the interior, where the Germans had installed an
observation-post.

[Illustration: ETAIN CHURCH. LIGIER RICHIER’S “DESCENT FROM THE CROSS”]

_Viollet-le-Duc_ considered the Church of Etain, with its three naves,
as one of the five most remarkable churches in the Meuse province. Begun
in the 13th century, it was completed in the 15th. The imposing choir,
with its large, many-mullioned windows, is 15th century. In the right
aisle are a remarkable holy-water basin, and a statue of Our Lady of
Mercy by _Ligier Richier_. The basin is of bell-metal and, like those of
Nevers and Bourges,

[Illustration: PANORAMIC VIEW OF THE MEUSE HEIGHTS]

[Illustration: FIÉVÈTERIE FARM AND VILLAGE OF EIX

_Seen from the Verdun road._]

shaped like a mortar, but the epitaph round it proves its sacred origin.
The _Ligier-Richier_ group (1528) represents the Virgin Mary gazing on
the dead body of Christ. It differs slightly from that of
Clermont-en-Argonne, attributed to the same sculptor.

_Beyond Etain, N. 18 crosses the Orne stream (photo, p. 141) and the
military defences of the town, of which several concrete works remain._

_The road crosses Woëvre Plain. Shortly before reaching the
level-crossing, before arriving at the railway station and village of_
=Abaucourt=, the Meuse Heights can clearly be seen on the horizon, at the
end of Woëvre Plain (_panorama above_).

[Illustration: Abaucourt]

_Go through_ =Abaucourt= (razed to the ground) _to_ =Fiévèterie Farm= (in
ruins), _which lies at the foot of the Meuse Heights (photo, p. 144). A
road starts on the left of the farm and leads to the small ruined
village of_ =Eix=, which was the scene of fierce fighting throughout the
war.

_The road up the_ =Meuse Heights= _is fairly steep and passes between the_
=Forts of Souville= _and_ =Tavannes= (_on the right_) _and_ =Moulainville
Fort= (_on the left_). _It then descends in a gentle slope to Verdun,
which is entered by the Faubourg Pavé and Chaussée Gate._



CONTENTS


                                                                 PAGES

American Forces engaged                                            4-7
Map of Meuse Defences in 1914                                        8
Military Operations in the St. Mihiel Salient, 1914-1918          9-20
American Offensive in the St. Mihiel Salient, 1918               14-19
General Map of the ground covered by the Itineraries                21


FIRST ITINERARY

VERDUN TO COMMERCY                                               22-71
Map                                                                 22
Calonne Trench                                                   24-27
Eparges                                                          28-33
Hattonchâtel                                                     37-39
Vigneulles to St. Mihiel, _via_ Chaillon                            41
Vigneulles to St. Mihiel, _via_ Apremont, Brûlé Wood, and Ailly
   Wood                                                          42-46
Brûlé Wood                                                       46-49
Ailly Wood                                                       50-52
St. Mihiel during the War                                        53-54
Visit to St. Mihiel                                              55-69
The Seven Rocks                                                     62
Chauvoncourt                                                        63
Fort Paroches                                                    64-65
Fort Camp-des-Romains                                            69-70
Plan of Commercy                                                    71


SECOND ITINERARY

(_a_) COMMERCY TO PONT-À-MOUSSON                                72-108
Map                                                                 72
Thiaucourt                                                       87-88
Pont-à-Mousson                                                   89-96
Mousson                                                         97-101
Prêtre Wood                                                    102-108

(_b_) PONT-À-MOUSSON TO METZ                                   109-137
Map                                                                109
Metz                                                           113-137
The Fortifications                                                 115
After the Armistice                                            116-119
Plan of Metz                                                       120
Visit to the Town                                              121-137
The Cathedral                                                  122-125


THIRD ITINERARY

METZ TO VERDUN, _via_ ETAIN                                    138-145
Map                                                            138-139
Etain                                                          141-143



[Illustration: THE AMERICANS IN THE GREAT WAR. VOL. 1.

MICHELIN ILLUSTRATED GUIDES

TO THE BATTLEFIELDS (1914-1918)

THE AMERICANS

IN THE

GREAT WAR

VOLUME 1.

THE SECOND BATTLE OF THE MARNE

(CHÂTEAU THIERRY, SOISSONS, FISMES.)

_A panoramic history and guide_

_Price_ $1


MICHELIN & Cie., CLERMONT-FERRAND

MICHELIN TYRE Co. LTD., 81 Fulham Road, LONDON, S. W.

MICHELIN TIRE Co., MILLTOWN, N. J., U. S. A.]


[Illustration: THE AMERICANS IN THE GREAT WAR. VOL. III.

MICHELIN ILLUSTRATED GUIDES

TO THE BATTLEFIELDS (1914-1918)

THE AMERICANS

IN THE

GREAT WAR

VOLUME III. MEUSE-ARGONNE BATTLE

(MONTFAUCON, ROMAGNE, ST MEMEHOULD)

_A panoramic history and guide_

_Price_ $1

MICHELIN & Cie., CLERMONT-FERRAND

MICHELIN TYRE Co. LTD., 81 Fulham Road, LONDON, S. W.

MICHELIN TIRE Co., MILLTOWN, N. J., U. S. A.]

       *       *       *       *       *

BEAUTIFUL FRANCE

_Paris and its environs_


_PARIS_--home of grandeur, elegance, and wit--plays a part in France
probably unequalled in any other country, and may be considered, in many
respects, as the chief city of Europe, and one of the greatest in the
world. Above all, it possesses eminently national qualities which ten
centuries of refinement and taste have handed down to contemporary
France.

It is impossible, in a few lines, to paint the exceptional charms of
Paris which the whole world admires.

Its vistas of the Champs-Elysées seen from the Tuileries and the Arc de
Triomphe; of Notre-Dame and the point of the City Island seen from La
Concorde Bridge; of the River Seine, the Institute, the Louvre, seen
from the Pont-Neuf embankment; Notre-Dame and its quays, seen from the
end of St. Louis Island; the panorama of the city seen from the top of
Montmartre Hill; the Avenue du Bois de Boulogne and the Bois de Boulogne
itself, etc., etc.,--all are of incomparable beauty.

The city’s historical monuments are of inestimable value, and the most
famous art treasures are to be found in its Museums.

The surroundings of Paris join the charm of their landscapes to the
world-wide fame of their parks and castles: _Versailles_, whose palace
and park recall the splendor of the Louis XIV. period, and where the
“Trianons” have preserved graceful traces of the Court of
Marie-Antoinette; _St. Germain_ with its castle and forest; _St. Cloud_
and its park; _Sèvres_ and its world-renowned art porcelain factory; _La
Malmaison_, home of Bonaparte before he became Napoleon I.;
_Rambouillet_, _Fontainebleau_, _Chartres_ with its marvelous cathedral,
_Maintenon_, _Dreux_, etc.--all these form a girdle round Paris such as
no other metropolis in the world can boast of.

MICHELIN TOURING OFFICES

MICHELIN TYRE CO., Ltd., LONDON

Touring Office:: 81, Fulham Road, S. W.

MICHELIN & Cie, CLERMONT-FERRAND

Touring Office:: 97, Boulevard Péreire, PARIS

[Illustration: _Why ask the Way, when_ ...]

[Illustration: ..._Michelin will tell you free of charge?_]

Drop a line, ring us up, or call at one of our Touring Offices and you
will receive a carefully worked-out description of the route to follow.

[Illustration: Hotels and Motor-Agents]





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Americans in the Great War; v. 2 The Battle of Saint Mihiel" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home