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Title: Exercises upon the Different Parts of Italian Speech, with References to Veneroni's Grammar - to which is added an abridgement of the Roman history
Author: Bottarelli, F.
Language: English
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                               EXERCISES
                          UPON THE DIFFERENT
                        PARTS OF ITALIAN SPEECH

                                 WITH
                              REFERENCES
                                  TO
                         _VENERONI’S GRAMMAR:_

                          TO WHICH IS ADDED,

                  AN ABRIDGMENT OF THE ROMAN HISTORY,
         INTENDED AT ONCE TO MAKE THE LEARNER ACQUAINTED WITH
            HISTORY, AND THE IDIOM OF THE ITALIAN LANGUAGE.

                        By F. BOTTARELLI, A. M.

         The EIGHTH EDITION, carefully revised and corrected.

                           By G. B. ROLANDI.

                               _LONDON:_
           PRINTED FOR J. COLLINGWOOD; LONGMAN, HURST, REES
              WHITTAKER; T. BOOSEY & SONS; AND J. BOOKER.
                                 1822.

   Printed by T. C. Hansard, Peterboro’-court, Fleet-street, London.



_PREFACE._


Amidst the laudable endeavours for the advancement of the Italian
language, it is surprising that an easy and expeditious method
of teaching it has been, in a great measure, neglected; and that
beginners have hitherto been left without proper assistance. Under
this impression, I have composed these EXERCISES upon the Syntax of
VENERONI’S _Italian Grammar_; with what success I have executed the
task, must be submitted to the decision of qualified and impartial
judges.

These Exercises comprehend all the difficulties, and idiomatical
expressions of the Italian language; the rules and exceptions of which
are exemplified after such a method, that a learner cannot fail to
become master of that language who has carefully gone through them once
or twice.

The examples are of three sorts; the first, immediately following
the rule, are short: as nothing farther is designed by them, than to
illustrate that particular rule. The second sort are longer, and in
them, not only the rule to which they refer, is exemplified, but also
the foregoing ones are again brought into practice, the better to
imprint them on the memory: since, were it not for this contrivance,
learners would forget one rule, while they were learning another; the
examples of the third kind, contain all the preceding, and some of
the subsequent rules promiscuously; and for these reasons, are not to
be attempted, until the student has gone twice at least, through the
former part (for I think it advisable they should go through it more
than once).

The radical Italian words are interlined, a thing very useful and
requisite in a work of this nature, as well to save the trouble of
consulting Dictionaries, as to prevent the use of improper terms, and
wrong spelling, otherwise unavoidable; and those who wish to learn
the Italian language, will thereby be enabled to make a much quicker
progress than they could possibly do by the tedious task of searching
a Dictionary for the words they require.

I have frequently omitted such words as had been often mentioned
before, presuming there was no occasion for such repetition; and in
order to excite attention in learners, that they might recollect what
they had learned, and exert both their memory and judgment, or, on
memory failing them, have recourse to a Dictionary, as a last resource.
For these reasons, in the latter part of the Exercises, there are
scarcely any Italian words but _nouns_ and _verbs_, all the other parts
of speech having already been gone through.

There is added, by way of Appendix, an Abridgment of the Roman
History. As history is one of the most easy and entertaining parts of
literature, and as that of the ancient Romans is absolutely necessary
to a proper understanding of the Classics, I hope this addition will
prove highly beneficial to young beginners.

       *       *       *       *       *

_N. B. Great pains have been taken to render this new Edition of
BOTTARELLI’S ITALIAN EXERCISES more perfect than any hitherto
published. In order to facilitate the Italian pronunciation, the words
have been accented according to the plan of VENERONI’S GRAMMAR; the
references to VENERONI have been compared, and carefully corrected,
and many new ones added, together with several Notes and Remarks. All
obsolete and improper phrases have been expunged; and the Chronology
of the Roman History has been improved by the addition of DATES to
each respective chapter: in short, on account of the many additions,
alterations, and improvements, this edition may almost be considered
as a new book, and a worthy companion of the celebrated Grammar of
VENERONI.

⁂ _A new Edition of the KEY to these EXERCISES is just published._



ITALIAN EXERCISES.


ON THE ACCIDENCE OF VERBS.


_Regular Verbs of the First Conjugation._ [See VENERONI’S GRAMMAR, page
88.]

  I love, thou acquirest, he respects, we salute, you speak, ye pass,
  am-áre  acquist-áre     rispett-áre  salut-áre  parl-áre   pass-áre
  they walk.
  spasseggi-áre.

  I did call, thou didst prattle, he did command, we did begin,
  chiam-áre   ciarl-áre           comand-áre      cominci-áre
  you did buy, they did confess.
  compr-áre     confess-áre.

  I confirmed, thou didst deliver, he preserved, we considered,
  conferm-áre  consegn-áre         preserv-áre   consider-áre
  you advised,  they contended.
  consigli-áre  contrast-áre.

  I have declined, thou hast courted, he has cured, we have crowned,
  declin-áre       corteggi-áre       cur-áre       coron-áre
  you have dedicated, they have supped.
  [1]dedic-áre        cen-áre.

  I had wished, thou hadst declared, he had dispensed,
  desider-áre   dichiar-áre          dispens-áre
  we had assembled, you had undeceived, they had wasted.
  radun-áre         disingann-áre       scialacqu-áre.

  I will expect, thou shalt arrive, he will assault, we will assure,
  aspett-áre     arriv-áre          assalt-áre       assicur-áre
  you will wish, they shall increase.
  augur-áre      aument-áre.

  Dance,    let him change, let us walk,  sing ye,  let them certify.
  ball-áre  cambi-áre       passeggi-áre  cant-áre  [2]certific-áre.

  That I may fast, that thou mayest besiege, that he may ride,
  digiun-áre       assedi-áre                [2]cavalc-áre
  that we may punish, that you may pass, that they may cause.
  [2]castig-áre       pass-áre           cagion-áre.

  That I might caress, that thou mightest burn, that he might stoop,
  accarezz-áre         abbruci-áre              [2]abbass-ársi
  that we might accept, that you might embrace, that they might mend.
  accett-áre            abbracci-áre            accomod-áre.

  I should accompany, thou shouldst accuse, he should baptize,
  accompagn-áre       accus-áre             battezz-áre
  we should mistrust, you should venture, they should administer.
  [3]diffid-ársi      [2]arrisic-áre      amministr-áre.

  That I may have lamented, that thou mayest have invented,
  lament-áre                invent-áre
  that he may have governed, that we may have tamed,
  govern-áre                 addimestic-áre
  that you may have asked, that they may have experienced.
  domand-áre               speriment-áre.

  That I might have formed, that thou mightest have taken away,
  form-áre                  lev-áre
  that he might have sent, that we might have prepared,
  mand-áre                 prepar-áre
  that you might have deprived, that they might have resembled.
  priv-áre                      rassomigli-áre.

  I should have prolonged, thou shouldst have tried,
  [2]prolung-áre           prov-áre
  he should have remedied, we should have refused,
  rimedi-áre               rifiut-áre
  you should have carried back again, they should have prayed.
  riport-áre                          [2]preg-áre.

  I shall or will have warmed, thou shalt have transferred,
  riscald-áre                  trasport-áre
  he shall have judged, we shall have fortified,
  [4]giudic-áre         [4]fortific-áre
  you shall have inflamed, they shall have failed.
  infiamm-áre              [4]manc-áre.

[1] Verbs ending in _care_ and _gare_, introduce _h_ before _e_ and
_i_: wherefore, you must here write _certifichino_, not _certificino_.
See _Veneroni’s Grammar_, page 92.

[2] See _Gram._ p. 92.

[3] _Abbassarsi_ is for _abbassare-si_, see _Gram._ p. 148.

[4] See page 92.


_Regular Verbs of the Second Conjugation._ [See GRAMMAR, p. 95.]

  I believe, thou receivest, he sees, we repeat, you beat, they drink.
  créd-ere   ricév-ere       ved-ére  ripét-ere  bátt-ere  bév-ere.

  I did yield up, thou didst owe, he did cleave, we did groan,
  céd-ere         dov-ére         fénd-ere       gém-ere
  you did feed, they did hang up.
  pásc-ere      appénd-ere.

  I enjoyed, thou pressedst, he reaped, we shone, you repeated,
  god-ére      prém-ere      miét-ere   rilúc-ere ripét-ere
  they sat down.
  sed-ére.

  I have sold, thou hast crept along, he has shrieked, we have feared,
  vénd-ere     sérp-ere               stríd-ere        tem-ére
  you have beaten, they have received.
  bátt-ere         ricév-ere.


_The following Verbs of the Second Conjugation are irregular._ [See
GRAM. p. 111.]

  I had fallen, thou hadst pleased, he had held, we had grieved,
  [1]cad-ére    piac-ére            ten-ére      [1][2]dol-érsi
  you had appeared, they had pleased.
  par-ére           piac-ére.

  I shall or will persuade, thou shalt lie down, he shall be able,
  persuad-ére               giac-ére             pot-ére
  we shall remain, you shall know, they shall be accustomed.
  riman-ére        sap-ére         [1][3]sol-ére.

  Be silent, let him see, let us hold, be ye pleased,
  tac-ére    ved-ére      ten-ére      compiac-érsi
  let them fall again.
  ricad-ére.

  That I may have, that thou mayest owe, that he may fall,
  avére            dov-ére               cad-ére
  that we may lie down, that you may be able, that they may grieve.
  giac-ére              pot-ére               dol-érsi.

  That I might appear, that thou mightest lie down, that he might please,
  par-ére              giac-ére                     piac-ére
  that we might persuade, that you might be able, that they might know.
  persuad-ére             pot-ére                 sap-ére.

  I should be silent, thou shouldst be accustomed, he should be worth,
  tac-ére             [4]sol-ére                   val-ére
  we should hold, you should see, they should be willing.
  ten-ére         ved-ére         vol-ére.

For a full conjugation of all the verbs in _ere_, see VENERONI’S
GRAMMAR, p. 95.

[1] Combined with _essere_ and not _avere_, in the compound tenses.

[2] See page 148.

[3] See page 122.

[4] With _essere_.


_Regular Verbs of the Third Conjugation._ [See GRAMMAR, p. 102.]

  I hear,   thou followest, he opens, we boil,  you consent, they convert.
  sent-íre  segu-íre        apr-íre   boll-íre  consent-íre  convert-íre.

  I did cover, thou didst sow, he did sleep, we did fly, you did lie,
  [1]copr-íre  cuc-íre         dorm-íre      fugg-íre    ment-íre
  they did die.
  [1]mor-íre.

  I departed, thou didst suffer, he repented, we ascended, you served,
  part-íre    [1]soffr-íre       pent-írsi    sal-íre      serv-íre
  they went out.
  sort-íre.

  I have dressed, thou hast heard, he has consented, we have slept,
  vest-íre        ud-íre           consent-íre       dorm-íre
  you have covered, they have boiled.
  copr-íre          boll-íre.

[1] _Coprire_, _morire_, and _soffrire_, though regular in every other
respect, make in the participle passive, _coperto_, _morto_, and
_soferto_.


_The following Verbs in ire are irregular._[1] [See VENERONI’S GRAMMAR,
p. 144.]

  I had appeared, thou hadst uttered, he had buried, we had dared,
  compar-íre      profer-íre          seppell-íre    ard-íre
  you had abolished, they had understood.
  abol-íre           cap-íre.

  I shall or will abhor, thou shalt enrich, he shall blush,
  abbor-íre              arricch-íre        arross-íre
  we shall banish, you shall whiten, they shall pity.
  band-íre         bianch-íre        compat-íre.

  Conceive thou, let him digest, let us finish, approve ye,
  concep-íre     diger-íre       fin-íre        grad-íre
  let them bloom.
  fior-íre.

  That I may suffer, that thou mayest grow mad, that he may languish,
  pat-íre            impazz-íre                 langu-íre
  that we may dispatch, that you may unite, that they may obey.
  sped-íre              un-íre              obbed-íre.

  That I might colour, that thou mightest flourish, that he might sharpen,
  color-íre            fior-íre                     inacerb-íre
  that we might animate, that you might harden, that they might bellow.
  anim-áre               indur-íre              mugg-íre.

  I would strike, thou wouldst banish, he would abhor, we would abolish,
  colp-íre        band-íre             abborr-íre      abbol-íre
  you would enrich, they would comprehend.
  arricch-íre       cap-íre.

For the formation of compound tenses, see VENERONI’S GRAMMAR, p. 77,
82, and 88.

[1] They make _isco_ in the present and corresponding tenses; as
_comparisco_, _proferisco_, &c. instead of _comparo_, _profero_, &c.


_Other Verbs of the Second Conjugation that are irregular only in some
Tenses and Persons._ [See GRAMMAR, p. 125, and the following.]

  I belong,    thou kindlest, he takes, we perceive, you kill, they burn.
  apparten-ére accénd-ere     prénd-ere accorg-érsi  uccíd-ere árd-ere.

  I did hide, thou didst oppress, he did sprinkle, we did divide,
  nascónd-ere opprím-ere          aspérg-ere       divíd-ere
  you did absolve, they did absorb.
  assólv-ere       assórb-ere.

  I assumed,   thou offeredst, he demanded, we plucked up, you shut,
  [1]assúm-ere porg-ere        richiéd-ere  divell-ere     chiud-ere
  they engraved.
  incid-ere.

  I have granted, thou hast run, he has decided, we have believed,
  conced-ere      corr-ere       decid-ere       cred-ere
  you have boiled, they have decided.
  cuoc-ere         decid-ere.

  I had deluded, thou hadst oppressed, he had defended, we had expressed,
  delud-ere      opprim-ere            difend-ere       esprim-ere
  you had sprinkled, they had known.
  asperg-ere         sap-ére.

  I shall, or will grieve, thou shalt erect, he shall exclude,
  dol-érsi                 erg-ere           esclud-ere
  we shall require, you shall expel, they shall extinguish.
  esig-ere          espell-ere       estingu-ere.

  Melt thou, let him drive in, let us feign, break ye, let them reflect.
  fond-ere   figg-ere          fing-ere      frang-ere riflett-ere.

  That I may lie down, that thou mayest fry, that he may join,
  giac-ére             frigg-ere             giung-ere
  that she may imprint, that we may hang up, that you may see,
  imprim-ere            append-ere           ved-ére
  that they may include.
  includ-ere.

  That I might soak, that thou mightest intrude, that he might read,
  intrid-ere         intrud-ere                  legg-ere
  that we might put, that you might bite, that they might plunge.
  mett-ere           mord-ere             immerg-ere.

  I would move, thou wouldst milk, he would conceal, we would neglect,
  muov-ere      mung-ere           nascond-ere       neglig-ere
  you would foresee, they would hurt (morally).
  preved-ére         nuoc-ere.

  That I may have offended, that thou mayest have oppressed,
  offend-ere                opprim-ere
  that he may have struck, that we may have lost,
  percuot-ere              perd-ere
  that you may have pleased, that they may have wept.
  piac-ére                   piang-ere.

  That I might have painted, that thou mightest have presented,
  diping-ere                 porg-ere
  that he might have curtailed, that we might have taken,
  precid-ere                    prend-ere
  that you might have presumed, that they might have protected.
  presum-ere                    protegg-ere.

  I should have sat down, thou shouldest have returned,
  sed-ére                 rend-ere
  he should have reduced, we should have laughed,
  ridur-re                rid-ere
  you should have answered, they should have suspended.
  rispond-ere               sospend-ere.

  When I shall have scattered, thou shalt have shaken, he shall have risen,
  sparg-ere                    scuot-ere               sorg-ere
  we shall have killed, you shall have conquered, they shall have lived.
  uccid-ere             vinc-ere                  viv-ere.

[1] Let it be remarked that, in all the following verbs in _ere_,
not accentuated, the accent is on the antepenultima; as _pórgere_,
_richiédere_, &c.


_On the RULES of the ITALIAN SYNTAX, with References to VENERONI’S
Grammar._


_On the ORDER of WORDS._ [See GRAM. p. 196.]

  I write  three hours every day.
  scrívere tre [1]ora  ogni [2]giôrno.

  Thou art too troublesome to my friends.
  éssere   [3]troppo molésto     amíco.

  He speaks like a Roman  orator.
  parláre   come   Románo [4]oratóre.

  We go  out of town     every Spring.
  andáre fuóri [5]città  ogni  primavéra.

  You shew your probity very plainly.
  mostráre      probità molto [6]chiaraménte.

  They think it is very fine weather [7]to walk out.
  pensáre    [8]fare [9]bello tempo  spasseggiáre.

  I was extremely glad         to see him again.
  [10]rallegrársi estremaménte rivedére.

  Thou wert generously    rewarded.
  essere    generosaménte ricompensáre.

  He bought many things to send abroad.
  compráre  molto cosa  mandáre fuóri del paese.

  We encouraged all      arts and trades.
  incoraggire  [11]tutto arte mestiére.

  You baffled their wicked designs.
  sconcertáre       scelleráto diségno.

  They tempted our faithful subjects.
  tentáre          fedéle suddito.

  I have enriched his numerous family.
  avére  arricchíre   [12]numeróso famíglia.

  Thou hast many accounts to settle.
            molto conto   regoláre.

  He has renewed his promises to us.
  rinnováre          proméssa

  We have seen the chief curiosities.
  vedére           principále curiosità.

  You have examined them carefully.
  esamináre              attentaménte.

  They have declared their last will.
  dichiaráre               último volontà.

  I had resolved to get rid of them.
  [13]risólversi disfársi

  Thou hadst determined to say it plainly.
  determináre           dire      schiettaménte.

  He had fixed on that sort of diversion.
  fissáre         quello sorta divertiménto.

  We had sworn to love each other eternally.
  giuráre      amársi             eternaménte.

  You had forsaken his acquaintance.
  abbandonáre          conoscénza.

  They had implored the king’s clemency.
  imploráre             Re     cleménza.

  I shall ever   commend prudent people.
          sempre lodáre  prudente gente.

  Thou shalt publish this news  every where.
  spárgere                nuóva da per tutto.

  He will return from France  next week.
  ritornáre           Fráncia próssimo settimána.

  We shall travel day and night  till we arrive.
  viaggiáre       giórno e notte finchè [14]arriváre.

  You will do yourself immortal honor.
  fare                 immortále onóre.

  They will disgrace their noble family.
  disonoráre               nóbile famíglia.

  Bring me that bottle and a glass.
  [15]portáre   bottiglia    bicchiére.

  Let him gather all his things, and then go.
  radunáre       tutto   roba    poi andáre.

  Let us walk in the garden       before dinner.
  spasseggiáre       [16]giardíno avánti pranzo.

  Go and meet       all our friends on the road.
  andáre incontráre tutto amíco     sulla strada.

  Let them answer all my questions.
  [17]rispóndere         dománda.

[1] Nouns ending in _a_, make the plural in _e_. Ex. _ora_, plur. _ore_.

[2] Those in _o_, make the plural in _i_, _giorno_, _giorni_.

[3] It is a general rule, that all words of two syllables have the
first long (except those whose last syllable takes a grave accent),
therefore such words need not hereafter be accentuated.

[4] Subst. in _e_, make _i_ in the plural, _oratore_, _oratori_.

[5] See _Gram._ p. 44, on words in _tà_ indeclinable.

[6] See _Gram._ p. 158, on the formation of adverbs out of adjectives.

[7] _To_, must be translated by the word _per_.

[8] _Che fa_, as in French, _qu’il fait_.

[9] _Bello_ loses its last syllable, and makes _bel_. See _Gram._ p. 56.

[10] See _Gram._ p. 147, on reciprocal verbs.

[11] See the declension of _tutto_, _Gram._ p. 73.

[12] See _Gram._ p. 53, on adjectives ending in _o_.

[13] _Risólvere_ makes in the part. passive _risolúto_.

[14] Must be the future tense.

[15] See _Gram._ p. 205.

[16] See the rules on the preposition _nello_, _nella_, p. 42.

[17] _Rispondere_ governs the dative case of the thing.


_On the Articles lo, la, li, le, gli._ [See VENERONI’S GRAMMAR, p. 35,
and 200.]

  The study of belles lettres has always been        recommended
  [1]studio    belle léttere  [2]éssere sempre stato raccomandáre
  to the youth of both sexes.
  [3]gioventù     ambedúe sesso.

  Great events and revolutions followed the death of Cæsar.
  grande evénto    rivoluzióne  seguíre     morte    Césare.

  The fear of torments made him fly his country.
  timóre      torménto fare     fuggíre pátria.

  Poland  was    for many years the seat of domestic divisions.
  Polónia éssere per molto anno seggio      doméstico divisióne.
  Portugal is a despotic kingdom. Avarice is despicable.
  Portogállo    despótico regno.  Avarízia   sprezzábile.

  My lord the archbishop, visited all the clergy.
  signór      arcivéscovo visitáre        clero.

  My lord the president, decreed it in his behalf.
  [4]signór   presidénte decretáre         favóre.

  Madam the countess has ordered it.
  signóra   contéssa     comandáre.

  The gentlemen are not yet   come to see us.
  signóri       éssere ancóra veníre  vedére.

  Women are very fair in the   northern countries.
  donna     molto bióndo       settentrionále paése.

[1] _Lo_ before nouns beginning with an _s_, and followed by another
consonant. See _Gram._ p. 36.

[2] _Essere_ instead of _avere_. See p. 84.

[3] Words in _ù_ are indeclinable. See p. 50.

[4] The article _il_ must be put before _signore_: except before
ecclesiastical titles, when we must say _Monsignor_.


_The English particle to, before infinitives, is sometimes rendered in
Italian by the Article il or lo._ [See VENERONI’S GRAMMAR, p. 200.]

  It is  forbidden to do evil.
  éssere proibíre  fare male.

  It is not always convenient to speak the truth.
            sempre convenévole   dire      verità.

  It is permitted to a sick person to complain.
        perméttere     ammaláto    [1]lamentársi.

  It is not polite to interrupt any one who speaks.
            civíle    interrómpere  uno che parláre.

  It is right to correct    boys    while  they are young.
        giústo   corréggere ragázzo mentre éssere   gióvane.

  It is a great satisfaction to people of feeling to hear that their
          grande soddisfazióne  sensíbile gente   sentíre
  friends are in perfect health.
  amico   éssere perfétto salúte.

  It is a great pleasure to see brothers well united together; but it is a
          gran  piacére  vedére fratéllo bene unito insiéme    ma
  great grief       to see them disagree.
  grande dispiacére vedére      discórdia.

  It is not always proper      to correct children for the faults
            sempre convenévole corréggere ragázzo          fallo
  they commit; but it is very  necessary to make them sensible of them.
  comméttere   ma        molto necessário   fare      accórgersi

  It is easy to give advice,   but difficult to execute.
        fácile  dare consíglio ma diffícile eseguíre.

  It is easy to perceive you neglect your business.
                accórgersi   trascuráre   affáre.

  It was ever   commendable to study languages.
         sempre lodévole    studiáre lingua.

[1] See _Veneroni’s Grammar_, p. 147, on reciprocal verbs.


_On the SYNTAX of NOUNS._

[See GRAMMAR, p, 201.]

  A dutiful  child is a great comfort to    his parents.
  obbediénte figliuólo  grande consolazióne suo genitóre.

  A good wife is an inestimable  treasure.
  buóno  moglie     inestimábile tesóro.

  A diligent master  instructs attentive scholars.
  diligénte  maéstro instruíre atténto   scolaro.

  A good action deserves great  praise.
  buóno  azióne meritáre grande lóde.

  A rash counsel          is productive of fatal consequences.
  inconsideráto consíglio è l’origine      fatále conseguénza.

  My father and mother   are    very compassionate.
  padre[1]      madre[1] éssere molto compassionévole.

  Their brother and sister are industrious.
        fratéllo    sorélla    industrióso.

  Your house and garden are excessively beautiful.
       casa      giardíno   eccessivamente bello.

  My exercise and my lesson are difficult.
     tema            lezióne    diffícile.

  Our man-servant and our maid-servant are good, and therefore they
      servitore           serva            buóno     perciò
  shall be rewarded.
  saranno  ricompénsati.

  You, your master, and your mistress, have been    civil[2] to me, and
            padróne          padróna   éssere stato civíle
  merit my    greatest thanks.
  meritáre[3] gránde ringraziaménto.

[1] An adjective with several substantives, must agree in gender with
that which is the most worthy, the masculine being accounted more
worthy than the feminine.

[2] Render it thus; towards me, _verso di me_.

[3] See _Gram._ p. 56, on superlatives.


_On COMPARATIVES._ [See GRAM. p. 53.]

  France is larger and more powerful than Italy.
  Fráncia   grande          poténte       Itália.

  Virgil   wrote    more than any other poet.
  Virgílio scrívere qualúnque altro     poéta[1].

  Horace was much more satirical than Juvenal.
  Orázio éssere        satírico       Giuvenale.

  Your countrymen are much richer than mine.
  vostro compatriótto      [2]ricco    mio.

  This water is much clearer than crystal.
  questo acqua       chiáro       cristállo.

  Your sister’s hands are whiter than alabaster.
       sorélla  [3]mano   [4]biánco   alabástro.

  The English are more studious than their neighbours.
      Inglése          studióso            vicino.

  Milton was much more learned than Dante.
  Milton éssere                dotto Dante.

  The Russians behaved more bravely than the Turks.
      Russo    comportársi  valorosaménte    Turco.

  Cicero was less happy than Diogenes.
  Ciceróne        felíce     Diógene.

  Lewis the Fourteenth was much less admired than Henry the Fourth.
  Luígi     décimo quarto            ammiraré     Enríco    quarto.

  London is far better paved than Paris.
  Londra               lastricáre Parígi.

  Venice is much less populous than Naples.
  Venézia             popoláto      Nápoli.

  Lend me  three thousand pounds for a month.
  prestáre tre[5] mila    lira   per   mese.

  I have inherited five hundred guineas a year.
  avére  ereditáre cinque cento ghinea    anno.

  I have seven brothers and two sisters alive.
         sette fratéllo     due sorélla vivo.

  The tenth of next month    I will pay you.
      diéci    próssimo mese pagáre.

  Judas was one of the twelve apostles.
  Giúda éssere         dódici apóstolo.

  William the  Third was a  great conqueror.
  Gugliélmo[6] terzo éssere grande conquistatóre.

  Henry the Fourth of France was a matchless warrior.
  Enríco    quarto di Francia      incomparábile guerriêro.

  Pope Sixtus the Fifth was a great man.
  Papa Sisto      quinto      grande uómo.

  Your master  has a    fine country-house.
       padróne avere[7] bello villa.

  Your brother has six fine dapple-bay horses.
       fratello    sei bello bajo pomelláto cavállo.

  Your uncle and aunt are my dear friends.
       zio       zia  éssere caro amíco.

  Our general was ever   reputed a gallant man.
      generále    sempre riputáre  valoróso uómo.

  Solomon was a wise king.
  Salomóne      sávio re.

  King George is a religious monarch.
       Giórgio     religióso monárca.

  Nero was a wicked man.
  Neróne     cattívo uómo.

  Crœsus was reckoned a rich prince.
  Creso      stimáre    ricco príncipe.

  The duke of Richmond has six fine grey horses.
      duca    Richmond     sei bello[8] leárdo cavállo.

  Spain is a hot country, but Germany is a very cold one.
  Spagna     caldo paése  ma  Germánia          freddo paése.

  Give me some cold water, and red wine.
  dare         freddo acqua    rosso vino.

  I like cold weather better than hot.
  amáre  freddo tempo            caldo.

  The English ladies are handsomer than the Italian.
      Inglése signóra    bella              Italiána.

  I always thought he was a troublesome man.
  sempre   crédere          [9]incómodo  uómo.

  This poor man      has crooked legs.
  questo póvero uómo avére storto gamba.

  Will you have a round hat        or a cocked one?
           avére  rotóndo cappéllo od a tre pizzi?

  There is a sickly man,        methinks.
             ammalatíccio uómo  mi pare.

  You are a thoughtful philosopher.
            pensieróso filósofo.

  The industrious are praised, but the slothful are despised.
  [10]industrióso     lodáre   ma      pigro        sprezzáre.

  The righteous find peace, but the wicked feel torment.
      giústo    trováre pace        scelleráto sentíre torménto.

  The covetous despise the poor,   but the generous cherish them.
      aváro    sprezzare   póvero  ma      generóso volére bene.

  The merciful shall find mercy, but the cruel shall be punished.
      misericordióso trovare pietà       crudéle        castigáre.

  The wise man seeks   wisdom, but the fool   despises  understanding.
      sávio    cercáre sapiénza        stolto sprezzáre intendiménto.

  Give me some bread,    some wine, some butter, some cheese,
  dare    [11]del pane        vino       butírro      cácio
  some boiled beef, some mutton, some veal, some pork, some pie,
       manzo alésso      castráto     vitéllo    porco      pastíccio
  some fish, some mustard, some salt.
       pesce      mostárda      sale.

  Go and fetch me a bit of the white bread.
  andáre a cercáre  pezzo      biánco pane.

  Send to market to buy me ten pounds of fresh butter.[12]
  mandáre mercáto compráre     libbra    fresco butírro.

  Bring directly six pounds of black cherries.
  portáre súbito sei libbra    nero  cerása.

  Seven hundred of fresh walnuts, and five pounds of hazle nuts.
  sette cento            noce         cinque         nocciuóla.

  Have you been at Paris? No, but I have been at Rouen: it is
  éssere stato[13]        No  ma                 Roáno
  a fine city. Did you see it?
  bello città          vedére

  Did you give your brother the book I lent you?
          dare[14]  fratéllo    libro  prestáre

  No, I gave it to my sister, and she will return it to you when she has
        dare          sorélla              restituíre
  read it.
  léggere.

  Did you tell your father I was in the country?
          dire      padre  éssere       campágna?

  No, sir, but I told my mother, it is all one.
                 dire    madre   è l’istéssa cosa.

  God   demands the pureness of our hearts.
  Iddío richiedere  purità[15]      cuóre.

  We ought to die for the service of our princes.
  dovére   moríre         servízio       príncipe.

[1] See _Gram._ p. 45, on words ending in _a_ of the masc.

[2] Words ending in _cco_, take an _h_ in the plural, p. 49.

[3] _Mano_ is of the fem. gender.

[4] Such words as end in _co_, and _go_, take also an _h_ in the
plural. See _Gram._ p. 49.

[5] Nouns of number ought to be put before the substantive.

[6] Nouns of order must be after the substantive, when we speak of
ecclesiastical, or secular princes.

[7] Adjectives of quality must be put before substantives.

[8] Nouns of colours, elementary qualities, and of nations, must be put
after the substantive.

[9] The adjectives of condition, figure, and quantity, must be put
after substantives.

[10] Adjectives that have no substantives must be of the masculine
gender, because _man_ is always understood.

[11] When you ask for something without specifying the quantity of it,
use the article partitive, _del_, _della_, &c. See _Gram._ p. 210.

[12] You must use the article indefinite _di_, when you specify the
quantity of the thing.

[13] We put the indefinite article _a_ before the names of cities.

[14] Before the names of men and women, we use _al_, _alla_, _allo_,
_a_, &c.

[15] We use _de’_ before pronouns that are joined with substantives.
See _Veneroni’s Grammar_, p. 201.


CONSTRUCTION of ADJECTIVES.


_The Adjectives expressing desire, knowledge, remembrance, ignorance,
forgetting, care, fear, guilt, or any passion of the mind, require the
following Noun to be in the Genitive case._

  Those who are desirous of honour, are studious of learning and of
  quello éssere bramóso     onóre       studióso    sciénza
  good manners.
  buóno costúme.

  He who is not mindful of his own business, cannot be mindful of
                badáre     própio  affáre    non può   badare
  other people’s.
  altro.

  Thou and I are guilty of the same error.
                 colpévole     stesso errore.

  I am ignorant of the fact you mention.
       ignoráre        fatto    mentionáre.


_Adjectives expressing plenty, or want, as poor, destitute, empty,
full, void, require the Genitive case after them._

  He whose purse is empty of money, has a house empty of friends.
           borsa    vuóto    danáro avére casa  vuóto    amíco.

  The court which is full of flatterers, is pernicious to a prince, though
      corte       éssere piéno adulatóre    pernizióso    príncipe
  he be rich in substance and loaded with honours.
        ricco   sostánza      colmáre     onóre.

  A journey of twenty miles  wearies a horse that is very hungry; for
  viággio      venti  míglia stancáre  cavállo            fame    perchè
  while he is wanting food,       he goes slowly.
  mentre      bramare di mangiare andáre lentamente.

  Laziness has need of spurs.
  pigrízia     bisógno speróne.


_The Adjectives worthy, unworthy, adorned, encompassed, content, must
have a Genitive after them._

  Those are unworthy of the glory of Heaven, who do not think virtue
  éssere    indégno         glória   Ciélo   che        crédere virtù
  worthy of love, nor are contented with the pleasure it gives.
  dégno     amóre         conténto           piacére  che dare.

  A son     endowed with excellent qualities rejoices his father, whose
  figliuólo dotáto       eccellénte qualità  rallegráre   padre
  good example he imitates, whose commands he observes; he is never
  buóno esempio   imitáre         comándo     osserváre       mai
  in fear, for he provokes not his father’s anger; he is always mindful
     paura perchè provocáre        padre    cóllera      sempre attento
  of his own duty, and is like a staff to his father’s old age.
  al         dovére è     come   bastóne      padre    vecchiája.

  He who is endowed with fine qualities, and does not behave himself well,
  quello    dotáto       bello qualità                comportársi    bene
  is unworthy of men’s society.[1]
  éssere indégno uómo  società.

  Those who are contented with their own condition, are worthy of the name
         éssere conténto                 condizióne     degno         nome
  of good Christians; but such are very rare.
     buóno Cristiáno  ma                raro.

  If the city of Naples were encompassed with walls, it would be
  se     città   Nápoli      circondáre       muro   éssere[2]
  stronger than it is.
  forte

  England is  adorned with the fairest ladies in the world.
  Inghiltérra ornáre          [3]belle signóra di questo mondo.

  Our country is surrounded with the strongest bulwarks.
      paése      chiúdere            [3]forte  baluárdo.

  Few people are satisfied with the lot that Providence has granted them.
  poco gente     soddisfáre         sorte    Providénza     concédere.

[1] See _Gram._ p. 44, on words ending in _tà_.

[2] See _Veneroni’s Grammar_, p. 53, on comparatives.

[3] Ibid. p. 56, on superlatives.


Adjectives governing a Dative Case.

_Adjectives expressing submission, relation, pleasure, due, resistance,
difficulty, likeness, have the following Noun in the Dative case._

  Virtue is pleasant to the righteous, and profitable to those who
  [1]virtù  piacévole       giústo         profittévole  quello
  love it.
  che amáre.

  Adoration is due to God, the King of all the world.
  L’adorazione dovúto Dio      [2]Re   tutto   mondo.

  Honour is due to kings, because God has   commanded us to be
  onóre     dovúto Re     perchè      avére comandáre    éssere
  obedient to them.
  obbediénte

  It is a lamentable thing to see some men of great abilities prone to
          lamentévole cosa             uómo   gràn  talénto   dédito
  wickedness.
  vízio.

  A man who suffers himself to be led by the corrupted pleasures of
    uómo    lasciársi       allettáre        corrótto  piacére
  this world, is not like a Christian.
  quésto mondo       símile Cristiáno.

  Children are not always like their parents, they are sometimes quite
  figliuólo        sempre símile     genitóre          talvólta  affátto
  different from them.
  differénte

  My father is like my uncle as to his features, and the colour of his
     padre  somigliáre zio   in quanto fattézza          colóre
  hair,      but he is not like him in his manners.
  [3]capéllo ma  éssere                    costúme.

[1] Words in _ù_ are indeclinable. See _Gram._ p. 50.

[2] _Re_ is indeclinable.

[3] _Of his hair_, dei capelli _in plur. and without the possessive
pronoun_.


_On Superlative Degrees._ [See GRAM. p. 56.]

  The most noble of all virtues is charity.
  la più   nóbile   tutto virtù    carità.

  The most ingenious people are not always the most learned.
  [1]più   ingegnóso persone éssere sempre          dotto.

  The most pernicious of all crimes is slander, it ruins      very often
           pernizióso        delítto   calúnnia    rovinare   [2]spesso
  the reputation of the most honest people; it puts discord   between
      riputazióne            onésto gente   méttere discórdia fra
  the most intimate friends; in short, it is the most abominable
           intrínseco amíco  in somma                 abbominévole
  crime in the world.
  delítto      mondo.

  The best quality a man  can    have, is to be civil and obliging.
  [3]buóno qualità   uómo potére avére          civíle    cortése.

  The best friend we can have is money.
           amíco                 danáro.

  The best soldiers in the world are sometimes conquered.
           soldáto                   talvólta  vincere.

  Buy me the best grapes you see in town.
  compráre        uva    vedére     città.

  The greatest men in the kingdom confess it.
    gránde   uómo        regno  confessáre.

  The richest people are not the happiest.
      ricco   gente              felíce.

  The most virtuous women have been    guilty of coquetry.
           virtuóso donna éssere stato colpévole civettería.

  We should pay a most particular attention to the moral conduct of our
            [4]fare    particoláre attenzióne      morale condotta
  children of both sexes.
  figliuólo   ambidúe sesso.

[1] _The most_ is rendered by _il più_, _la più_, _i più_, &c. See
_Gram._ p. 56.

[2] _Very often_ makes _spessissimo_.

[3] The superlative-comparative degree of _buono_ is _il migliore_. See
_Veneroni’s Grammar_, p. 54 and 56.

[4] _Pay_ is often turned by _fare_.


OF PRONOUNS.


_The Personal Pronouns io, tu, egli, essa, noi, voi, eglino, being the
Nominative Case, ought to be put before the Verb; but if there is an
Interrogation, they must be put after._ [See GRAM. p. 67.]

  I entreat you to grant me that favour.
  supplicáre voi   accordáre quello favóre.

  What do you desire of me, madam?
              brama         madama?

  What do you say? I do not understand you.
              dire          capíre.

  Don’t you speak   Italian and French?
            parláre Italiáno    Francése?

  I understand them pretty well, but when you speak so very fast,
    capíre          assái  bene  ma  quando   parláre così presto
  I cannot understand you.
  non posso capíre.

  I ask you if you will do me a favour.
  domándare    volére   fare    favóre.

  With all my heart, if I can  conveniently.
       tutto  cuóre     potére senz’inconveniente.

  Have you an Italian  Dictionary?
  avére       Italiáno Dizionário?

  Yes, I have Baretti’s Dictionary.
              Barétti   Dizionário.

  Will you lend it me for two or three weeks?
           prestáre[1]    due     tre  settimána?

  It is at your service, if you will send for it.
           vostro servízio           mandárlo a prendere.

  Did you see the castle   St. Angelo at Rome?
          vedére  castéllo Sant’ Angelo  Roma?

  Yes, it is very fine, very rich;  in short, I think it is the finest
                  bello      ricco  in somma    crédere         [2]
  castle in Europe.
            Európa.

  Do you think the city of Paris is finer than London?
         crédere   città   Parígi   bello      Londra?

  No, it is not so large, nor so well built as London.
                   gránde        bene fabbricata

  I love you with all my heart, and if you will come to-morrow to see me,
    amáre         tutto  cuóre                  veníre dománi  vedére
  I’ll give you what I promised you.
       dare            prométtere.

  I will not fail, but I am afraid to be too troublesome to you and to
             mancáre        temére di dar troppo incómodo
  your family.
  vóstra famiglia.

  Did Mr. N. give you the book you lent him?
      Signór dare         libro    prestáre?

  Not yet;    but I believe he will give it me soon.
  non ancóra  ma    crédere         dare       presto.

  When you get it back, will you bring it me?
           [3]riavére            portáre

  I will do it willingly to oblige you.
         fare  volentiéri   obbligáre.

  When will you go to  see him at his country seat?
  quando        andáre vedére     sua    villa?

  I think I shall pay him a visit    next month.
  crédere         fare    una visita próssimo mese.

  Bring me your grammar    to-morrow.
  portáre       grammática dománi.

  Here it is, sir, I brought it with me.
  Eccola quà         portáre    meco.

  Shew me what you have written. That is not well, write it over again,
  mostráre quel che avére scrívere           bene  scrívere di nuóvo
  and when you have done,   give it to your brother.
      [4]quando avére fare  dare       vostro fratéllo.

  I think you are very idle.
  crédere éssere       pigro.

  Forgive me, I will be more diligent in future.
  perdonáre   éssere    più diligénte all’avveníre.

  Reach me that pen-knife, and a clean pen.
  recáre quello temperíno        pulíto penna.

  Write an exercise, and then read it to me.
  scrívere tema      e    poi leggétemelo[5].

[1] See _Gram._ p. 203, on pronouns conjunctive.

[2] See _Gram._ p. 56, on superlatives.

[3] This supposes a future, which must be thus expressed: _Quando lo
riávréte_, &c.

[4] Turn, _and when you shall have done it_.

[5] See _Gram._ p. 66.


On PRONOUNS DEMONSTRATIVE and POSSESSIVE.


_The Pronouns Demonstrative, questo, quello, or questi, and the
Pronouns Possessive, mio, mia, tuo, tua, suo, sua, agree with the
Substantive in gender, number, and case._

[See VENERONI’S GRAMMAR, p. 68, 70.]

  This horse     goes better than any of yours.
  questo cavállo andáre           qualúnque vostro.

  This man is more honest than you think.[1]
       uómo        onésto          crédere.

  This woman is not so happy as she deserves.
       donna           felíce       meritáre.

  This house stands in a most pleasant situation.
       casa  stare            améno    situazióne.

  Those gentlemen seem   to be very cold.
  quello signóre  parére avére      freddo.

  Those ladies are very modestly drest.
        signóra         modestaménte vestíre.

  My brother      is gone into the country for a month.
  [2]mio fratéllo andáre           campágna      mese.

  My mother is gone over to France for her health.
     madre                  Fráncia        salute.

  My countrymen are very great politicians.
     compatriótto        grande político.

  My sister  loves public   diversions to excess.
     sorélla amáre púbblico divertiménto  éccesso.

  My action is not so blameable as you say.
     azióne           biasimiévole     dire.

  Your affection for me is false and deceitful.
       affétto             falso     ingannévole.

  Her history has made  a great noise in the world.
      stória  avére fare  grande romóre      mondo.

  Their clock is always out of order.
        orológio sempre in disórdine.

  Our house is finer than yours.
      casa     bello      vostro.

  Their affairs are more perplexed [3]than you imagine.
        affáre      più  imbarrazzáre          immagináre.

[1] You must here add a negation, after a comparison, as in French, and
turn it thus; _than you not think: Che non credéte_.

[2] Pronouns possessive take the article _il_, _la_, &c. in the
nominative. See _Veneroni’s Grammar_, p. 68.

[3] Render it, as in the preceding page; _than you not imagine_.


_The Pronoun Relative che is of all genders, and of all numbers._ [See
GRAM. p. 72.]

  The woman who has a fair face, is loved by all.
      donna che avére bello viso    amáre   tutto.

  The girl who brought me my pen-knife, is lovely.
      ragázza  portáre       temperíno     amábile.

  The man who bought   my house is honest.
      uómo    compráre mio casa    onésto.

  My brother’s hat      begins to be worn.
     fratéllo  cappéllo cominciáre   usársi.

  The man who struck   my father is a butcher.
      uómo    percuótere  padre       macellájo.

  The rewards which are promised shall be given, if the work required,
      ricompénsa    éssere prométtere     dare          lavóro richiésto
  be done the day after to-morrow.
     fare         dopo dománi.

  The horse which my father sold    was very good.
      cavállo        padre  véndere éssere   buóno.

  The comedy which we acted was      pleasant.
      commédia        rappresentáre  piacévole.

  The wood we bargained for was too dry.
      legna   patteggiáre   éssere  secco.

  The wine which you drank yesterday was excellent.
      vino           bere  jeri          eccellente.

  The last lesson you gave me, was very difficult.
      ultimo lezióne  dare         molto diffícile.

  The company you keep is not honest.
      compagnía   praticáre   onésto.

  I have found the book which I had lost.
  avére  trováre   libro            pérdere.


_Note that, he that, and she that, must be turned by quello che, and
quella che._ [See GRAM. p. 72.]

  He who does not fear God, does not deserve to live.
                  temére Dio         meritáre   vívere.

  He who came this morning, has a great regard for you.
         veníre    mattína  avére gran  stima

  He who gave you that counsel, is not your friend.
         dare          consíglio            amíco.

  He who lives honestly, is esteemed by all people.
         vívere onestaménte stimáre         tutti.

  He who told you that, did not tell you the truth.
         dire                                verità.

  He who sold you these boots, did not cheat you.
         véndere        stivále        ingannáre.

  She who is the handsomest, is not always the most virtuous.
                 bello              sempre          virtuóso.

  He who speaks continually,   must be very troublesome.
         parláre continuamente deve éssere  seccante.

  She who told me the news, is your great friend.
          dire        nuóvo         grande amíca.

  She who is married to Mr. N. is the most lively.
             maritáre   signór N.     più viváce.

  She who gave me your letter, speaks  Italian very well.
          dare         léttera parláre Italiáno beníssimo.

  He whom you look for, is gone away this morning.
              cercáre      partire        mattína.

  He whom you hate the most, is my intimate friend.
              odiáre               intímo   amico.

  He whom you have recommended to me, is a great rogue.
              avére raccomandáre                 birbánte.

  He whom you saw yesterday, is my sister’s lover.
              vedére jéri    éssere sorélla amánte.

  He whom God loves, is very happy.
          Dio amáre          felíce.

  She whom you see, is my eldest brother’s     mistress.
               vedére     primogénito fratéllo innamoráta.

  She whom I have recommended to you, is modest.
             avére raccomandáre          modésto.

  She whom I loved most, is married.
             amáre il più   maritáre.

  I saw to-day the gentleman with whom we dined yesterday.
  vedére oggi      signóre         [1]    pranzáre jéri.

  Here is the lady for whom I have great respect.
  Ecco        signóra         avére grande rispétto.

  Let us go and see the lady with whom we played at cards
  andáre [2]    vedere                    giuocáre  carta
  in the country the other day.
         campágna    altro giórno.

  The gentleman with whom we were the other day is very ill.
      signóre             éssere      altro giórno      ammaláto.

  There is the horse for which I offered twenty guineas.
               cavállo           esibire venti  ghinéa.

  Shew me the watch for which you gave forty pounds.
  mostráre    oriuólo             dare quaránta lire.

  There is the sword for which I offered six guineas.
               spada             esibíre sei ghinéa.

[1] We put _quale_ after the prepositions, speaking of reasonable
creatures. See _Gram._ p. 72.

[2] See _Gram._ p. 205, on verbs of motion.


_When between two Verbs there is a Noun, or a Pronoun, we put generally
che after the first Verb._

  I thought you could speak Italian    better than you do.[1]
  crédere             parláre Italiáno méglio

  I fancy     you are not yet twenty years old.
  immaginársi [2]avére ancóra venti anni.

  I hope you will not refuse me the favour to recommend me to
  speráre             ricusáre      favóre    raccomandáre
  your friends in town.
  vostro amíco    città.

  My uncle told me yesterday you were not well, but I am very glad to find
     zio   dire    jéri      [3]stare     bene  ma    rallegrársi  trováre
  you are better to-day.
          méglio oggi.

  You promised to write to me last week,        but I am very sorry
  prométtere   scrívere       passáto settimána ma  rincréscere
  to observe you have forgot me.
  vedére     che vi siete scordato di me.

[1] Render, _than you do not_.

[2] We use the verb _avére_ instead of _éssere_, speaking of age. _Ex._
How old are you? _Quanti anni avete?_

[3] The verb _stare_ must be used instead of _éssere_, in speaking of
health.


_We always put che instead of but in English, with a negation before
the Verb._

  I desired but one favour from you,[1] and you refused it me.
    chiédere        favóre                      ricusáre.

  If you would give me but one guinea at once, you would oblige me
               dare            ghinéa alla volta         obbligáre
  infinitely.
  infinitaménte.

  When one  has but little money, one ought to spend accordingly.
  quando[2] avére   poco danáro       dovére   spéndere in conseguénza.

  I ask you but what others give me.
  domandáre          altro  dare.

  You do nothing but laugh and play.
  fare    [3]        rídere    giuocáre.

  He does nothing but eat and  drink.
                      mangiáre bere.

  When others laugh, you do nothing but cry.
       altro  rídere     fare           piángere.

[1] _Non vi chiési che un favóre._

[2] _When one has but_, &c. must be rendered by _quando non si ha che_,
&c.

[3] _You do nothing but_, &c. render it by, _non fate altro che_.


_On the Particles Relative ci and vi. The Particles Relative ci and vi,
are put instead of there, within and in that._

  I went yesterday to your house to see you, but your man  told me
  venire jéri              casa     vedére   ma  servitore dire
  you were not within.
  éssere

  Indeed I was there almost all the afternoon; at what time did you come?
  in verità          quasi tutto dopo pranzo   che ora          veníre?

  I went there at six o’clock.
                  sei

  He was in the right to tell you that I was not within, for I was gone
  [1]avére               dire            éssere                    andáre
  to visit a few friends in the square.
  visitáre alcúno amíco         piázza.

  My brother and sister are gone into the country.
     fratéllo    sorélla    andáre        campagna.

  When did they go, I wish to know?
  quando            vorréi sapére?

  They went yesterday morning.
  andáre    jéri      mattína.

  Is it long since you saw our regiment?
      [2]          vedére      reggiménto?

  It is two months, if I remember well.
        due mese    se ricordáre bene.

  How long is it since you left France?
           éssere          lasciáre Fráncia?

  It is five and twenty years, or thereabouts.
        cinque   venti  anno      incírca.

[1] To be in the right, is, _avere ragione_.

[2] Long, _molto tempo_, or _un pezzo_.


_How to express some of it, or some of them._ [See GRAMMAR p. 215.]

  You have  three horses, lend me one of them.
      avére tre cavállo   prestátemene uno.

  I have but two, one for myself, and the other for my man.
  avére      due          me                        servitore.

  I thought you had three (of them).
  crédere   avére   tre.

  To shew you that I have but two (of them), come with me into the stable,
  far vedére         avére    due            veníre meco           stalla
  and you will not see any more (of them).
                   vedére più.

  I do not doubt it at all, I believe you.
           dubitáre[1]        crédere.

  I see very fine flowers in your garden,   give me some.
  vedére     bello fióre          giardíno  dare

  I have not many, but what there are, are at your service.
  avére      molto ma  quel  [2]                   servízio.

  I have but fifteen or sixteen, as you see.
             quindici   sedici      vedére.

  You may take    a dozen, if you please.
  potére pigliáre dozzina  piacére.

  What will you have me do with them?
       volére           fare

  You may give some to your daughters.
          dare         vostro figlia.

  Do they talk of the war in your town?
  [3]parláre      guerra          città?

  They talk of it all over the island.
               tutto           ísola.

  And what do they think of our neighbours’ intentions?
              crédere           vicíno      intenzióne?

  They know very little about them here.
  sapére         poco              quì.

[1] _Non ne dubito punto._

[2] See _Gram._ p. 151, on the conjugation of _there is_, &c.

[3] See _Gram._ p. 215, on _it is_, _they_, &c.


EXERCISES on the TENSES of the VERBS.


_The Present Tense is when the Action of which one speaks, is present._

  Sir,    I come to have the honour to see you.
  Signóre veníre avére       onóre  vedére.

  I am   infinitely obliged to you for this favour.
  éssere infinitaménte obbligáre       questo favóre.

  How does the lady your mother do?
  [1]stare signóra       madre

  She is very well, sir, and presents her compliments to you.
  stáre beníssimo            presentáre   compliménto

  I am her most humble servant, and am very glad to hear she is well.
  éssere        úmile  servo        rallegrársi  sentíre     stare bene.

  Will you come and walk with me in the garden?
  volére   veníre   spasseggiáre        giardíno?

  Pray    excuse me, I cannot stay any longer.
  pregáre scusáre    potére   restáre

  You are always in great haste when you come to see me.
  éssere  sempre    grande fretta        veníre vedére.

  I beg your pardon, sir, I have been here above an hour, and my sister
  mi perdoni                          quì  circa    ora          sorélla
  is all alone at home.
  tutto solo      casa.

  I am sorry you will not stay: I entreat you to present my most
  [2]dispiacére volére rimanére supplicáre    presentáre
  humble respects to the lady your mother.
  úmile  rispétto    signóra       madre.

[1] When we inquire after any body’s health, we make use of the verb
_stare_, instead of _fare_, or _éssere_.

[2] An impersonal verb; _mi dispiáce che non vogliáte rimanére_.


_The Imperfect Tense is when the Action of which one speaks, is going
on, or is interrupted._

  Sir, we were speaking of you, when you came in.
  Signóre       parláre         quando   entrare.

  What were you saying of me, ladies?
  che           dire          signóra?

  We were saying that when you were in France, among the ladies, you were
          dire        quando   éssere  Fráncia  fra      dame    éssere
  the most gallant, the most courteous, and the most complaisant gentleman
           galánte           cortése                 compiacente signóre
  in the world.
         mondo.

  I did not think,  ladies,  I was so happy as to be the subject of
            pensáre signora  avere la fortuna  éssere    soggétto
  your conversation; and what do you think I am now?
       conversazióne                 crédere

  We believe that you are still very civil, and very complaisant;
  crédere         éssere ancóra      civíle          compiacénte
  but not so gallant as you were then.
  ma         galánte        éssere.

  Louis the XIVth was one of the greatest kings in the world; he was
  Luígi          [1]             grande   Re           mondo
  a lover of fine sciences, he did not love flatterers, neither did he
    amatóre  bello léttera             amáre adulatóre
  always follow his own inclinations; and if he could not get
  sempre seguíre        inclinazióne   e  se              guadagnáre
  the victory over his enemies by the force of his arms, he would get it
      vittória         nemíco         forza        arma           ottenére
  by the number of his louis d’ors; in a word, he was a great politician.
         número        luígi d’oro  in somma            grande politíco.

[1] We also make use of the imperfect tense, when we speak in time past
of the habitual qualities and actions of any person alive or dead.


_The Perfect Definite is a Tense perfectly past, and often determined
by an Adverb of time past._

  Where did you go yesterday, that you were not at home, when   I went
  dove      andáre jéri            éssere                quando veníre
  to see you?
  vedére?

  I went to see Mr.       N. who is not well.
  andáre vedére il signór        stare

  Did you meet with any company there?
      trováre           compagnía

  Yes, sir, I met with his uncle and three of his sisters.
                           zio       tre          sorélla.

  What was the subject of your conversation?
  quale éssere soggetto        conversazíone?

  We spoke of many  different  things.
  parláre     molto differénte cosa.

  Did you speak Italian with them?
                Italiáno

  Yes, all our conversation was in Italian.
  TRANSCRIBER’S NOTE: No Italian translation was provided for this line.

  Did they say you speak it well?
           dire             bene?

  They said nothing about it.
            niente

  Did they not ask you   of whom you learn?
               domandáre chi     imparáre?

  Yes, I told them I was learning of you.
  TRANSCRIBER’S NOTE: No Italian translation was provided for this line.

  The emperor, Julius Cæsar, after he had conquered   Britain,
  imperatóre   Giúlio Césare dopo         conquistáre Brettágna
  built        a tower at London, but he continued not there; he appointed
  [1]edificáre torre      Londra         restáre              constituíre
  rulers      in his stead, and returned from London to Rome.
  governatóre vece              ritornáre     Londra    Roma.

  Henry the VIIIth, king of England, regarded not the bulls and
  Enrico    ottávo  Re     Inghilterra badáre         bolla
  threatenings which came from Italy; he violently shook off
  mináccia           veníre    Italia    violenteménte scuótere
  the papal power, though he retained the Roman religion.
      papále potére          ritenére     Románo religióne.

[1] We also make use of the perfect definite, when we speak of the
transactions of persons who are dead.


_The Preterpluperfect is a Tense so perfectly past, that it cannot be
interrupted._

  I am very glad to see you, for your brother
  rallegrársi    vedére               fratello
  told me you were gone to France.
  dire

  ’Tis true I was resolved   to go there, if my father had given me
       vero       risólvere  andáre       [1]   padre  avére dare
  money enough to make that journey.
  danáro          fare      viággio.

  Had he given you leave    to go there?
  avére dáre       licénza  andáre?

  Yes, and he gave me fifty guineas    to make my journey.
  si          dare    cinquánta ghinéa fare       viággio.

  If he had given me thirty more, I should have gone to Paris
  [2] avére dare     trenta       essere andáre         Parígi
  to pass the summer.
  passáre     estáte.

  If you had come to see me, I would have lent you some.
           veníre vedére             avére prestáre

  I am   much obliged to you for it.
  éssere molto obbligáto

  When you had a mind to go to France, were you resolved
  quando   pensare    andáre   Fráncia          risólvere
  to set out without taking leave of your friends?
  partíre    senza   licenziársi          amíco?

  No, sir,     I had already taken leave of several.
  no  signóre  essere digià  licenziársi da molto.

  Very well, but you had forgotten me.
  beníssimo  ma          scordársi.

  I am sorry you have so bad an opinion of me.
  dispiacére          cattívo opinióne

[1] _Gram._ p. 206, on _if_ before that tense.

[2] See _Gram._ p. 206, on the particle _if_ before the imperfect
indicative.


_On the Future, or time to come._

  When will you go into the country?
  quando    andáre          campágna?

  I believe I shall go there to-morrow.
  crédere   andáre           dománi.

  Will you stay long there?
       restáre un pezzo?

  No, sir, I shall stay but two or three weeks.
                            due o  tre   settimána.

  How will you spend your time  when      you are there?
                passáre   tempo quando[1] éssere

  I’ll go and see my friends, and I will divert myself with
  andáre      vedére amíco               divertíre
  those who receive me kindly.
         [2]ricévere   corteseménte.

  Will you not carry some books with you?
               portáre    libro

  No, for I am sure   while I am there, I shall have no time to read.
      perchè   sicúro mentre[3]                 avére   tempo   léggere.

  You will forget all your Italian.
  scordársi       tutto    Italiano.

  I am certain I shall not, for I will not stay long there.
       certo   di no                       restáre molto

  When once you are there, your friends will not permit you to leave them
       una volta[4] éssere      amíco            permettere    lasciáre
  so soon.
  così presto.

  You shall see that I’ll be here next Sunday, and that my friends
  vedére             éssere quì   próssimo Doménica        amíco
  will not have so much power over me as you think.
           avére   tanto potére             pensáre.

  What will you bring me from the country?
            portáre               campágna?

  I’ll bring you some partridges, a hare, and some pheasants.
  portáre             perníce       lepre          fagiáno.

  I shall be obliged to you for them.
  éssere     obbligáto

[1] _When you are there_, render, _when you shall be there_.

[2] _Ricevere_, must be in the future, third person plural.

[3] Render, _while I shall be there_, mentre starò là.

[4] Render, _when once you shall be there_, quando una volta ci saréte.


_On the Imperative, or Mood that commands._

  Go from me to my lady; present my respects to her: give her this
  andáre        signóra  presentáre rispétto         dare     questo
  letter, and bring me an answer; should she not be at home, stay
  léttera     portáre     rispósta             éssere  casa  restáre
  till she comes back.
           ritornáre.

  Speak Italian    with me, pronounce well, begin again, read softly,
  parláre Italiáno meco     pronunziáre     ricominciáre leggere adágio
  repeat your lesson, go.
  ripétere    lezióne coraggio.


On the Construction of VERBS.


_The Auxiliary Verb avére, requires an accusative Case._

  You have a son who has the finest qualities in the world; he has
  avére      figlio          bello  qualità          mondo   avére
  a sweet countenance, a great deal of civility, and very obliging
  piacévole fisonomia    molto         civiltà            cortése
  manners; in short, he has the love of every body, and
  maniera                       affetto tutto
  you are happy in having such a son.
  éssere fortunato

  A man is very happy who has the fear of God and the love of his
  uómo  molto felíce            timóre  Dio         amóre
  neighbours, though he should not have the riches of fortune.
  prossimo [1]benchè                        richézza  fortúna.

  Those who have wealth, and have no charity for the poor, shall not
          avére [2]richézza          carità          povero
  share God’s mercy.
  partecipáre Dio misericordia.

  A man that has wit, and no behaviour, is despicable.
    uómo         spírito     condótta      sprezzábile.

  I have scholars who have sense, and are diligent; but I have others who
         scoláro           giudizio   éssere diligénte         altro  che
  are dull, and very idle.
      ottusi         pigro.

  If you have good manners, civility and complaisance, you will be loved
     avére    buóno maniera civiltà      compiacénza      éssere   amáto
  by every body.
     tutto.

[1] _Benchè_ governs the subjunctive mood.

[2] See _Gram._ p. 211, on the articles _del_, _dello_, _della_, &c.


_Sometimes the Verb avére is used instead of éssere, especially when we
speak of cold, heat, hunger, thirst, or of the age of any one._

  I was very cold when I came, but am very warm now.
  avére      freddo    veníre      avére caldo adesso.

  You eat  as if you were not hungry.
  mangiáre come  se avére     fame.

  I beg your pardon, I eat heartily;        for I was very hungry.
  domandáre perdóno  mangiáre di buón gusto avére molto appetito.

  Are you not thirsty yet?
  avére       sete ancóra?

  Yes, sir, I am very thirsty, but I won’t drink yet; for if I drink
  si, signóre avére gran sete  ma  volére  bere ancóra    se  bevére
  when I am hungry, it prevents me from eating.
  quando avére fame    impedíre         mangiáre.

  How old is your uncle?
  quanto anno avére zio?

  He is not yet seventy years old.
  avére  ancóra settánta anno.

  You surprise me, I thought he was eighty.
  sorpréndere      crédere   avére  ottánta.

  And you, sir,    how old are you?
  e        signóre anno avére?

  I am not twenty yet.
  avére    venti ancóra.


On the Verb Substantive _éssere_.


_The Verb Substantive éssere requires the following noun in the
Nominative Case._

  Our master     is diligent; but I have been  hitherto very idle;
  nostro maestro éssere diligénte éssere stato sinóra   pigro
  I have done as the drones.
  avére fatto come   cacchióne.

  I have lost my parents’ love,   who always provided all
  avére  pérdere genitóre affetto che mi hanno sempre forníre
  things necessary for me: I have been unworthy of their care; but I will
  tutto necessário          éssere stato indégno         cura  ma   volére
  deserve to be called the most diligent of all our scholars
  meritáre éssere chiamáre      diligénte   tutto   scoláro
  for the time to come.
  all’avveníre.

  The lion is accounted the most generous of animals, because he is more
  leóne       passáre   per      generóso    animale  perchè
  placable than the others.
  placábile         altro.

  The sanguinary minds of some men are more barbarous than wild beasts.
      sanguinário animo        uómo éssere  barbaro        fíera
  Man is a creature of upright body: when he is old, his body  bends
  Uómo     creatúra    dritto  corpo quando     vécchio  corpo inchinársi
  towards the earth; and his soul ascends to heaven, which is his
  verso terra                ánima ascéndere  ciélo
  habitation for ever.
             dimóra.

  How are you this morning? I am very well, thank you.
  come stare       mattína? stare beníssimo grazie.

  How do your father and mother do?
  [1]stare    padre      madre

  I hope my father is well. He was well the last time I saw him, but
  speráre padre    stare           bene     último volta vedére  ma
  my mother has not been well these two or three days.
     madre  éssere  stato bene [2]  due    tre   giórno
  And how are you, sir?
      stare        signóre?

  I should be well enough, if I had money.
  stare   ene abbastanza [3]se avére danáro.

  I hope your lady is well.
  speráre signóra stare bene.

  She is perfectly well, at your service.
  stare perfettaménte bene       servízio.

  I am very glad to hear she is so well.
  rallegrársi    sentíre stare così bene.

  What weather is it to-day, I wish to know?
  [4]  tempo   fare  oggi    [5]volére sapére?

  It is the finest weather in the world.
            bello                 mondo.

  Is it hotter in Spain than in Italy?
  fare caldo      Spagna        Itália?

  It is hotter there in summer, but it is very cold in winter.
  fare                  estáte  ma  fare       freddo  inverno.

  If it is fine weather to-morrow, we will go in the country.
  fare     bello tempo  dománi     andáre            campágna.

  I believe it will not be fine weather, for it is very dark
  crédere   fare           bello tempo   perchè         oscúro
  to-night.
  questa séra.

[1] When we inquire after any one’s health, we make use of the verb
_stare_, instead of _fare_.

[2] These two or three days, _i. e. da due o tre giorni in quà_.

[3] If I had money, _Se avessi danari_, and not _avevo_.

[4] When we speak of the weather, we use the third person singular of
the verb _fare_, instead of the verb _éssere_.

[5] Use the optative mood, and say, _vorrei_.


Personal Verbs governing a Genitive Case.


_The Verb aver pietà governs the Genitive._

  I have no pity on the misery of those, who being  young and strong,
    avére   pietà della miséria              éssere gióvine  forte
  love better to beg from door to door, than to work for their bread;
  amáre       accattáre   porta      in che  lavoráre per guadagnarsi pane
  but I pity much the blind, and old people, who are    incapable of doing
  ma  avére pietà     ciéco      i vecchi        éssere incapáce     fare
  any thing for their living.
  alcuna cosa         vitto.

  I pity my   brother, I pity his folly, for he has wasted     all
  avére pietà fratéllo            pazzia perchè     dilapidáre tutto
  the fortune my father left him.
  patrimonio     padre  lasciáre.


_The verb burlarsi governs the Genitive._

  Men  are    often  inclined to laugh    at others’ misfortunes,
  uómo éssere spesso inclináto   burlársi di altri disgrázia
  instead of having pity on them.
  in vece di avére  pietà.

  Those who  call themselves Christians, and do not live   according to
  quello che chiamársi       Cristiáno          non vívere secóndo
  their religion, mock     God and his doctrine.
        religióne burlársi Iddío       dottrína.

  Do not jeer at   others’ poverty, for you do not know how long
         burlársi  altro   povertà          non sapére  quanto tempo
  fortune will be favourable to you; and if you should become poor,
  fortúna éssere  favorévole         e  se             diventáre póvero
  every one would laugh at you.
  ognúno          rídersi di.

  It is a great mark of folly to laugh at every thing.
  éssere  grande segno  pazzía   ridére di tutto.


_The verb pentirsi governs the Genitive._

  If you repent sincerely for the fault you have committed, God will
  se     pentírsi sinceraménte    colpa     avére commésso  Iddío
  forgive you; for he does not love the death of a sinner, but he
  perdonáre    perchè          amáre    morte      peccátore
  will have him to repent of his sins.
  volére           pentírsi      peccáto.

  It is not enough to say, I repent of my ill conduct, and of my bad life,
        non bastáre   dire   pentírsi     cattívo condótta       mala vita
  if you do not shew the effects of your repentance by a new and
  se            mostráre effétto         pentiménto      nuóvo
  better life.
  migliór vita.


_The verb rallegrarsi governs the Genitive._

  A good Christian ought never to rejoice at others’ misfortunes.
  buóno  Cristiáno dovére mai  rallegrársi   altro   disgrázia.

  I rejoice at the good success you had in your business.
  rallegrársi      buóno riuscíta   avére       affare.

  Come and rejoice with me at the good news I received to-day.
  veníre           meco           buóno nuóva ricévere oggi.

  How will you have me rejoice at a thing I do not know?
  come volére          rallegrársi  cosa       non sapére?

  Tell me first of all what news I must rejoice at.
  dire   avanti ogni   cosa nuóva  dovére rallegrársi.


_The verb ricordársi governs the Genitive._

  Do you remember the promise you made me yesterday?
         ricordársi   proméssa    fare    jéri?

  I do not remember it at all. Do you not remember the sum of money
       non ricordársi  affatto                        somma  danáro
  you said you would lend me?
      dire           prestáre?

  I assure you I had forgotten it, I remember it very well now.
  assicuráre   avére scordáto        ricordársi  beníssimo adésso.


_The verb languíre requires a Genitive case._

  He who languishes with thirst, gives greater thanks to the man who
  quello languíre   di   sete    réndere grande grázia
  offers him water, than if a prince   gave him a crown.
  offeríre   acqua  che  se   príncipe dare       coróna.

  The man who languishes for love  ought to be pitied.
      uómo    languíre       amóre dovére      compiánto.


_The verbs obbedíre and disobbedíre require a Dative._

  We ought not only to obey our parents, but also our superiors,
  dovére   non solo    obbedíre genitori ma  anche    superióre
  if we would obey God’s commands.
  se volére   obbedíre   comandaménto.

  One sees very seldom a child   prosper in this world, who does not
  si vedére raraménte  figliuólo prosperáre      mondo
  obey his father and mother.
  obbedíre padre      madre.

  When God     commanded Abraham to sacrifice Isaac, his only son, he
  quando Iddío comandáre Abramo     sacrificáre Isácco   único figlio
  immediately obeyed the Lord’s voice; but the angel of the Lord did not
  súbito      obbedíre   Signóre voce  ma      ángelo       Signóre
  permit him to slay the child, and told him his obedience
  perméttere    uccídere fanciullo  dire         obbediénza
  had been agreeable to God.
  éssere stato grato    Dio.


_The verb parláre will have a Dative Case of the Person._

  God   speaks to sinners   sometimes most gently, that he may draw them
  Iddío parláre   peccatóre qualche  volta benignamente affine di trárre
  to obedience; he speaks to them of the blessed life which he has
  obbediénza       parláre               beáta   vita       avére
  prepared for his servants; sometimes he speaks to them of the abyss
  preparáto        servo     qualche volta parláre              abísso
  which shall be the reward of sin;     yet his promises and threatenings
        éssere       mercéde   peccáto  pure    proméssa     mináccia
  move not stubborn minds.
  muóvere  ostináto mente.


_The verbs preténdere and aspiráre govern the Dative Case._

  All those who call themselves Christians pretend to everlasting life;
  tutto     quello chiamársi    Cristiáno  preténdere etérno      vita
  but few are they that would suffer the least thing to deserve it; but
  ma  pochi        sono       soffríre   minimo cosa    meritáre
  if it is a point to aspire to some employment, or dignity,
  se si      tratta   aspiráre  qualche impiégo     dignità
  there is none but would suffer a  great deal of fatigue, labour, and
  non vi è nissúno che non sopporti molto         fatíca   lavóro
  pain to obtain it.
  pena


_The verb giuocáre (when one speaks of all sorts of games) governs the
Dative Case._

  I do not love to play at games of chances, as at cards, or at dice, but
           amáre   giuocáre giuóco  azzardo  come  carta        dadi  ma
  I love to play     sometimes at  bowls, at billiards, at tennis, or
    amáre   giuocáre qualche volta bocce     bigliárdo     pallacórda o
  at nine-pins.
     birilli.

  Do you never play at cards, at chess, or draughts?
         mai   giuocáre carte    scacchi   dama?

  I play sometimes at piquet    to please the company.
    giuocáre          picchétto far piacére compagnía.


Verbs governing an Accusative Case of the Person, and a Genitive of the
Thing.



_The verbs accusáre, biasimáre, avvertíre, and assólvere, will have the
Accusative of the Person, and the Genitive of the Thing._

  One boy     accuses another of idleness; the master hears their tales,
      ragázzo accusáre altro     pigrízia      maéstro sentíre    stória
  but punishes him only  whom he thinks  guilty, and deserving of
  ma  puníre   solaménte quello  crédere colpévole   degno
  punishment.
  castígo.

  Every one blames you for your negligence and ignorance.
  tutti     biasimáre           negligénza     ignoránza.

  I often  admonished you of your duty;    if you do not improve
    spesso avvertíre         vostro dovére se            profittáre
  as well as others, it is not my fault.
  come       altro         non è  colpa.

  When a judge   acquits a man of a crime he is guilty of, if he
  quando giúdice assólvere uno    delítto       reo        se
  commits    again    the same fault, he deserves a double punishment.
  comméttere di nuovo     stesso fallo   merita     dóppio castígo.


_The verb condannáre governs the Accusative of the Person, and the
Genitive of the Thing; but when it signifies to condemn to death, the
name of the punishment ought to be put in the Dative Case._

  Every one condemns you very much for the action you committed
  ogn’ uno  condannáre   molto             azióne     comméttere
  the other day.
  altro giórno.

  During the persecution in France, many brave gentlemen were condemned,
  nel tempo della persecuzióne Fráncia molto bravo cavaliére condannáre
  some to the gallows, and some to the galleys, for the defence of their
              forca[1]                 galéra           difésa
  religion.
  religióne.

[1] Nouns ending in _ca_ and _ga_, make _che_ and _ghe_ in the plural,
as _forca_, _forche_; _pága_, _paghe_.


_The verb ottenére will have an Accusative of the Thing, and an
Ablative of the Person._

  A scholar who obtains his master’s favour is more happy than he who is
    scoláro     ottenére    maéstro  favóre    più  felíce
  idle, who loses his honour, wastes his time, and continues
  pigro     pérdere   onóre   consumáre  tempo  continuáre
  a blockhead,      though play   be pleasant to him for a little while.
  ad éssere sciocco benchè giuóco éssere piacévole         poco.


Verbs governing an Accusative Case of the Dative.


_The verbs invitáre, esortáre, will have an Accusative of the Person,
and a Dative of the Thing._

  God invites sinners to eternal happiness, he calls them to repentance,
  Iddio invitáre peccatóre etérno felicità     chiamáre      pentiménto
  he speaks most graciously to them.
     parláre     benignaménte

  He has prepared for penitent sinners    all that belongs to blessedness,
         preparáre    peniténte peccatóre tutto appartenére   felicità
  all that they can desire.
  tutto         potére bramáre.

  Remember your master’s words; he exhorts you to industry, which is
  ricordársi    maéstro  paróla    esortáre       indústria       éssere
  beneficial to yourselves; your pains shall produce a great advantage;
  vantaggióso                    lavóro      prodúrre  grande vantággio
  he uses his best endeavours for your benefit; be not your own
     fare ogni suo   sforzo             utile   éssere di voi stessi
  enemies.
  nemíco.


_Paragonáre requires an Accusative of the first Noun, (either of the
Person or of the Thing) and the other in the Dative._

  If we compare the longest life to eternity, it is very short.
  se    paragonáre  lungo   vita    eternità             corto.

  If we compare the happiest condition of this world to everlasting life,
        comparáre   felíce   condizióne        mondo      etérno    vita
  it is miserable, and not worthy our desire. If we compare the number of
        miserábile         indegno    desidério     paragonáre  número
  good men to the multitude of wicked, it is small.
  buóno           moltitúdine  malvágio      píccolo.


_Dare and restituíre will have an Accusative of the Thing, and a Dative
of the Person._

  I will soon give  my mother the money she entrusted me with.
         presto dare   madre      danáro    confidáre

  God will give a reward to those men who please him, and to those whom
  Iddío    dare   mercéde   quello        piacére            quello che
  he has set up    governors of the world.
  avére costituíto governatóre      mondo.

  I returned my master the book which I borrowed; he   lent it to me,
    restituíre  maéstro    libro prender ad impréstito prestáre
  and it was my duty to read it, and not to keep it; though books
      éssere    dovére  léggere             tenére   benchè[1] libro
  delight me very much, I ought to restore them to those whom
  piacére    moltíssimo   dovére   restituíre      quello cui
  they belong to.
       appartenére.

[1] _Benchè_ governs the subjunctive mood. See _Gram._ p. 209.


_These verbs dovére, prométtere, and pagáre, will have an Accusative of
the Thing, and a Dative of the Person._

  I owe him money, because I promised to pay him another man’s debt;
    dovére  danáro perchè    prométtere  pagáre  altro         débito
  but at present I have myself need of money, that I may pay what
  ma     adésso  avére io stesso bisógno danáro          pagáre
  I owe to my creditors.
    dovére    creditóre.

  When will you pay me what you owe me?
  quando volére pagáre          dovére?

  I promise you I will pay it to you next week.
    prométtere         pagáre        próssimo settimána.


_Insegnáre requires an Accusative of the Thing, and a Dative of the
Person._

  I have been twelve years in this country, during which time I have had
  [1]éssere stato dódici anno      paése    nel   quale tempo  avére avúto
  the honour of teaching several ladies and gentlemen the Italian language.
      onóre     insegnáre molta  signóra    signóre       Italiáno
  Masters ought to teach children    not only the things which concern
  maéstro dovére   insegnáre ragázzo non solaménte cosa        risguardáre
  science; but they ought also to teach them things which concern their
  sciénza  ma       dovére anche  insegnáre   cosa        risguardáre
  soul and their salvation: for science without religion is an
  ánima          salvazióne perchè scienza
  unprofitable thing.
  inutile.

[1] I have been twelve years in this country; render, _Sono dódici anni
che sto in questo paése_.


Of the construction of the Infinitive, with the preposition _di_.


_When after the verbs astenérsi, consideráre, and avvertíre, there
follows an Infinitive, it ought to be put with the Preposition di._

  Rash men often propose to do things which are above their capacity.
  temerário uómo spesso propórsi fare cosa éssere superióre capacità
  A man that abstains from eating and drinking to excess, from swearing,
  uómo       astenérsi     mangiáre     bere   all’eccésso     bestemmiáre
  and keeping bad company,  may be called an honest man.
      frequentáre compagnía potere chiamáre  onésto uómo.

  I thought of going  this morning   to see Mr. ----       but a friend
  pensáre      andáre questa mattina vedére il Signór ---- ma amíco
  of mine advised me not to go there.
          consigliáre    andáre.

  I had a mind to advise you not to keep company with that man who brought
    avére voglia  consigliáre       andáre compagnía       uómo    causáre
  this trouble upon you; but I since resolved to say nothing about it,
       disturbo          ma    poi   risolvérsi  dire niente
  for fear of disobliging you.
  per timóre  dispiacére.


_The verbs supplicáre, consigliáre, incaricársi, and costríngere, will
have an Infinitive with the Preposition di._

  I have a mind to compel      Mr. ----    to pay me the money he owes me;
  avére vóglia     costríngere il Signor ---- pagáre     danáro dovére
  nevertheless I should be very glad not to put him to trouble, because
  nulladimeno         avére a   caro non    dare        briga   perchè
  he has always been my friend: what do you advise me to do in this case?
  éssere sempre stato   amíco               consigliáre fare        caso?

  I beg of you to have a little patience; I take the charge
    pregáre       avére         paziénza    incaricársi
  to get you your money.
  ricuperáre      danáro.


_The verbs proibíre, desideráre, differíre, procuráre, impedíre,
speráre, fíngere, affrettársi, require also an Infinitive with the
Preposition di._

  God forbids us to sin, nevertheless we never desist from offending him,
  Iddío proibíre peccáre nulladiméno    mai   desístere   offéndere
  we always defer obeying his voice; we seem to strive to disobey him
     sempre differíre obbedíre  voce     parére procuráre  disobbedíre
  in every thing. If we hope to share in the merits of our blessed
     ogni  cosa      speráre avére parte     mérito        beáto
  Saviour’s sufferings, let nothing hinder us from beginning this day
  Salvatóre patimenti       niénte  impedíre       principiáre oggi
  to use all our endeavours to deserve it; let us make haste to begin
     fare tutto   sforzo        meritáre        affrettársi   principiáre
  the great work of our salvation; let us not feign to be converted,
      grande ópera      salvazióne            fíngere  éssere convertíto
  but let us convert ourselves in good earnest, for nobody
             convertíre        da davvéro           nessúno
  can deceive      God.
  potére ingannáre


_The verbs meditáre, parláre, perméttere, prométtere, propórre,
presúmere, preténdere, protestáre, rifiutáre, risólvere, auguráre, will
also have an Infinitive with the Preposition di, after them._

  Never meditate to do any wrong to your neighbour. When you speak
  mai   meditáre    fare   torto         próssimo  quando   parláre
  of undertaking some great thing, permit me to tell you, that you ought
     intrapréndere    grande cosa  perméttere   dire               dovére
  to consult your friends before you begin it.
                  amíco   prima      cominciáre.

  Never promise to do any thing, unless you are sure to do it.
  mai   prométtere fare   cosa   se non    éssere sicúro fáre.

  Never presume to have more understanding than those who have the care
        presúmere  avére     intendiménto  che  quello             cura
  of your conduct.
          condótta.

  Do not pretend ever to prosper in this world, if you have not the
         preténdere mai  prosperáre      mondo  se     avére
  fear of God.
  timóre  Dio.

  If you protest to God with an humble and sincere heart to amend your
         protestáre             úmile      sincéro cuóre    emendáre
  life, he will receive you among his children.
  vita          ricévere    fra       figliuólo.

  Never refuse to do a good office to your friends, when it is in your
        rifiutáre réndere   servízio       amíco
  power.
  potére.

  Do you desire to pass for an honest man? Endeavour to do all you can
         desideráre passáre    galántuómo  procuráre    fare tutto potére
  to oblige every body.
     obbligáre chicchessia.


_When there follows after the Verb avére either of these substantives
permissióne, desidério, vóglia, cura, costúme, bisógno, motivo,
ragióne, torto, dritto, occasióne, the following Verb must be put in
the Infinitive with the Preposition di._

  I believe you have a mind to play; but I will not give you leave
    crédere     avére  vóglia  giuocáre ma volére   dare     permissióne
  to go out till you have done your exercise. You are in the right, sir,
     uscíre [1]finchè avére fare    esercízio    [2]       ragióne signóre
  to forbid me to go out, and I am in the wrong to desire it--I have no
     proibirmi d’andar fuori       [3]    torto    desideráre
  cause to be angry with you, for it is not your custom to be idle.
  motivo éssere cóllera           éssere         costúme      pigro.

[1] _Finchè_ governs the subjunctive mood.

[2] You are in the right, sir, _Ella ha ragióne_.

[3] I am in the wrong, sir, _ho torto_.


_When a Verb is followed by l’opportunità, l’occasione, il tempo, il
mezzo, la volontà, il cuóre, il potére, l’autorità, that Verb ought to
be put in the Infinitive with the Preposition di._

  When I have an opportunity to see your father, I will tell him how much
  quando [1]avére occasione     vedére   padre          dire     quanto
  you deserve to be praised for your uncommon diligence.
      meritáre éssere lodáto         straordinário diligénza.

  Whilst we have it in our power to acquire knowledge, let us improve
  mentre    [2]avére       potére   acquistáre cognizióne     profittáre
  such precious opportunity.
  tale prezióso opportunità.

  I wonder how  men  have the heart to hate    one another.
  maravigliársi uómo avére    cuóre    odiársi gli uni gli altri.

  God has given to kings power to command, and to judges  authority
  Iddio   dáre     Re    potére   comandáre       giúdice autorità
  to judge.
  giudicáre.

[1] _I have_, put it in the future, and say, _avrò_.

[2] _We have it_, is changed into _it is_ for the Italian idiom.


_When after the Verb substantive éssere there follows either of these
nouns conténto, obbligáto, in pena, sul punto, in perícolo, the
following Verb is to be put in the Infinitive with the Preposition di._

  I am very glad to hear that you overcame your enemies, and I
  éssere conténto sentíre         víncere       nemíco
  should have been sorry to have heard the contrary.
  [1]rincréscere                 sentire   contrário.

  I return you many thanks for your friendship, for I was in danger of
  réndere    molto grázia         amicízia  perchè éssere in perícolo
  losing my suit.
  pérdere   lite.

  I was anxious to know what had happened to you; and if you had not come,
        ansióso    sapére        succédere            se    éssere veníre
  I was on the point of going to see you.
  éssere sul punto      venire   vedére.

[1] I should have been sorry; _mi sarébbe rincresciúto_.


_The Verbs avvezzársi, impiegáre, incoraggíre, eccitáre, invitáre,
esibírsi, dilettársi, tenérsi pronto, lavoráre, will have after them an
Infinitive with the Preposition a, or ad before a vowel._

  We ought to employ the days of our life in preparing ourselves for
     dovere   impiegáre  giórno      vita    preparársi
  the other world.
      altro mondo.

  Masters who use mildness in teaching their scholars, encourage them more
  maéstro    usáre dolcézza  insegnáre      scoláro   incoraggíre
  to learn well than those who use too much severity. An honest man
     imparáre bene             usáre troppo severità     onésto uómo
  takes always pleasure in obliging his friends.
  dilettársi sempre        favorire     amíco.

  The love of God invites us to love one another.
      amóre   Dío invitáre      amáre

  Let us keep ourselves in readiness to appear before the living God.
         tenérsi           pronto       comparíre innánzi vivénte Dío.

  Let us labour   continually to obtain   eternal life.
         lavoráre continuaménte  ottenére etérna vita.


_When vi è, or v’è, precedes the Adverb niénte, the next Verb must be
in the Infinitive with the Preposition da, or a._

  There is nothing to fear in serving God.
  non vi è niénte     temére [1]servíre Iddío.

  There is nothing to say to what you have done.
  non v’è niénte      dire            avére fatto.

  There is nothing to do in that at present.
           niénte     fare          adésso.

  There is nothing so easy to learn as the Italian language.
           niénte così fácile imparáre     Italiáno lingua.

[1] In serving God, _nel servíre Iddío_.


_When an Adverb of quantity follows v’è, it requires an Infinitive with
the Preposition a, or da._

  There is a great deal of satisfaction in teaching diligent boys, but
  v’è        gran       [1]soddisfazióne   insegnáre diligénte ragázzo
  there is a great deal of trouble in instructing idle scholars.
             gran          incomodo   istruíre    pigro scoláro.

  There is a great deal to say against the conduct of wicked people; but
  v’è       molto         dire contro     condótta   malvágio gente
  there is nothing to say against the conduct of honest people.
  non v’è niénte      dire contro     condótta   onésto gente.

[1] See _Gram._ p. 210, _a great deal of_.


On the ENGLISH PARTICIPLE in ING.

_When the English Participle in ing comes after a Verb of motion with
the Preposition a before it, we use the corresponding substantive,
instead of the Verb, though sometimes the latter._

  He who goes a hunting or visiting his friends, when business requires
  quello che andáre caccia [1] visitáre amíco quando affáre richiédere
  his care and time, shows by his conduct that he prefers his diversion
      cura     tempo mostráre     condótta     [2]preferíre   divertiménto
  before his profit, the company of his friends before the advantage
             profítto    compagnía      amíco              vantággio
  of his family.
         famíglia.

  The boy who goes a playing with his school-fellows, when he ought
      ragázzo andáre giuocáre         condiscepolo    quando  dovére
  to be diligently employed at the task his master gave him, evinces,
  éssere diligéntemente intórno a  lavoro   maéstro assegnare prováre
  by his neglect, that he prefers play to his master’s love, and his own
         negligénza       preferíre giuóco    maéstro  affétto
  profit.
  profítto.

[1] Ibid. p. 201, on _verbs of motion_.

[2] _Preferisce il divertimento al profitto, la compagnia degli amici
al, &c._


_The English Participle in ing, after from, must be put in Italian in
the Infinitive with the Preposition di._

  The providence of God keeps us from perishing; the power of God hinders
      provvidenza   Dio impedíre      períre         poténza  Dio impedíre
  us from doing those things which displease him; the grace of God
          fare        cosa         dispiacére         grazia   Dio
  prevents us from sinning; the goodness of God preserves us from
  impedíre         peccáre      bontà           preserváre
  suffering afflictions.
  soffríre  afflizióne.


_The English Participle in ing after a Verb importing to cease, to
leave, or to go over, must be rendered in Italian by the Infinitive
mood with the Preposition di._

  He who     leaves off doing praise-worthy actions, and plunges into
  quello che cessáre fare     lodévole    azióne         immergérsi
  vice, was    never truly good.
  vízio éssere mai   veraménte buono.

  A wise man never leaves off learning whilst he lives; for he who has
    sávio uómo mai tralasciáre imparáre finchè   vivere perchè è dotato
  great wisdom, has still need of more knowledge.
  di grande sapere ancora bisógno maggiore conoscènza.


_When the Participle in ing follows the auxiliary Verb to be, this verb
must be left out, and the Italian Verb that represents the Participle,
must be put in the same tense, number, and person as the auxiliary is._

  A diligent boy is always learning, not only while the master
  diligénte ragázzo sempre studiare non solaménte mentre maéstro
  is instructing, but also while other boys are playing.
     istruíre     ma anche       altro ragázzo  giuocáre.

  Apelles was daily drawing some excellent pictures with wonderful art;
  Apélle ogni giórno dipingere   eccellénte pittúra      maraviglióso arte
  no day         passed without a line.
  nessúno giórno passáre senza linéa.

  Those who do not employ their time well in the beginning of their lives,
                   impiegáre    bene tempo [1]   princípio          vita
  will be perpetually lamenting their folly; they will be incessantly
          perpetuamente piangere      pazzia              ad ogni moménto
  condemning themselves, and saying, Ah! at what a price would not I
  condannársi                díre    Ah!           prezzo
  purchase the time past!
  compráre     tempo passato!

[1] In the beginning of their lives; _i. e._ _nella loro gioventù_.


Of the PARTICIPLE past.


_When one of these Pronouns che, il, lo, la, &c. meets before the
compound tenses, the Pronoun ought to agree with the Participle in
gender and number._

  I received the books which my brother sent me; I read them all,
    ricévere     libro          fratéllo mandáre   léggere   tutto
  they are very good, and well written.
       éssere   buóno     bene scrítto.

  The letter which my father wrote to me is very severe; I showed it to
      léttera         padre  scrivere    éssere  sevéro    mostráre
  my mother, and she is very sorry for it.
     madre       [1]         dispiacére.

[1] She is very sorry for it; _glíene dispiáce moltíssimo_.


_When these Pronouns, mio, me, te, noi, voi, &c. are the case of the
Verb, they must agree with the Participle in gender and in number._

  My dear friends, I have always loved you like my children, I have often
     caro amíco      avére sempre amáto    come    figlio    avére spesso
  admonished you for your own good; I have several times exhorted you to
  ammoníre                proprio bene     spesse  volte esortáre
  practise virtue; if you are not truly virtuous, it is not my fault.
  praticáre virtù  se             veraménte virtuóso éssere    colpa.

  I met your brother this morning, we embraced one another like good
  incontráre fratéllo     mattína     abbracciársi          da  buóno
  friends, and I rejoice that we are reconciled.
  amíco          rallegrársi         riconciliársi.

  The books which I have seen you reading are not good.
      libro         avére vedére  léggere         buóno.

  These are all the copies which you have given me to write.
  ecco      tutto   cópia            avére dare       scrívere.

  Your brothers have done quite the contrary of what I had advised
       fratéllo      fare tutto     contrário    avére consigliáre
  them to do.
          fare.


On ADVERBS. [See GRAM. p. 209.]


_Adverbs are generally put after the Verb, and in compound tenses
between the Verb and the Participle._

  It is a lamentable thing to see youths with much wit, and a good
          doloroso   cosa  vedére gióvane di  molto spirito   buóno
  disposition to learn, take but little pains to answer the expectations
  disposizióne imparáre pigliáre poco   pena [1] rispóndere aspettazióne
  of their parents.
           genitori.

[1] _Rispondere_ governs the dative case of the thing.


_Adverbs of Interrogation must always be put before the Verb._

  Where did you come from? Why did you not stay for me?
  da dove       veníre     perchè          aspettáre?

  When will you have done laughing at your friends?
  quando        cessáre   burláre          amíco?

  Why did you say, I had promised you to go in the country?
  perchè      dire       promettere      andáre    campágna?

  Where is your father? Is he in town?
  dove          padre   éssere   città?

  Where did you buy this fine horse?
                compráre bello cavállo?

  I bought it at the last country fair.
    compráre         último campágna fiéra.

  Where are the ladies your sisters?
        éssere  signóra     sorélla?

  I believe they are gone out to take an airing.
    crédere      éssere uscíto   pigliar aria.

  Whither are you going so fast? You are in great haste.
                 andáre così         avére  gran fretta.

  I go to Mr. Clement’s house,   for I  heard my brother is there, and
  andáre dal signóre Cleménte[1] perchè sentíre  fratéllo
  I have some business with him.
  avére qualche cosa da fare con lui.

  You are mistaken, he is not there; for I met him    just now, and he
          ingannársi   éssere là           incontráre un momento fa
  told me he was going to his sister’s house.
  dire           andáre       sorélla.

  I was going to your house; but since I met you, we will go to my house,
        andáre               ma  giacchè incontráre       andáre
  where we shall dine.
  dove           pranzáre.

  I beg you will excuse me, indeed    I cannot; for I must    go to
    pregáre      scusáre    in verità non potére      bisógno andáre
  my lady Arabella’s, to pay a visit to her children.
  signóra Arabélla       fare vísita        figlio.

  They are not at home, for I  saw them going into the park.
       éssere     casa  perchè vedere   andáre         parco.

  Let us go     then and see if your brothers are at home.
         andáre dunque   vedére se   fratéllo        casa.

  They are not, I know they are    gone a hunting.
       éssere     sapére    éssere andáto cáccia.

  What is the matter with you, sir? You seem   to be  grieved.
       cosa ha                 signóre  parére essere afflítto.

  O no, sir, I am not,         but I come from Mr. Vincent’s, who is very
             non sono afflítto       veníre        Vincenzo
  ill.
  ammaláto.

  You surprise me, for as I was coming from my house, I met his brother,
      sorprendere  perchè       veníre         casa     incontráre fratéllo
  who did not mention it to me.
              parlare

  Do you know from whence he was coming, when you met him?
         sapére di dove          veníre  quando   incontráre?

  I believe he was coming from his own house.
    crédere        veníre              casa.

  Can you tell me where he is gone?
  potére  dire    dove  éssere andáto?

  I was assured that he is set out for his uncle’s country-house.
  éssere assicuráto  éssere partito        zio     casa di campágna.

  Which way did you pass, in your way to Italy?
  per dove          passáre quando andáre Itália?

  I passed by Rouen, Paris, Orleans and Lyons.
    passáre   Roano  Parígi Orleáno     Lióne.

  Which way did you come back to England?
  per dove          tornáre      Inghilterra?

  I returned by Germany and Holland.
    ritornáre   Germánia    Olánda.

[1] _At_, or _to_, before _house_ or _home_, must be rendered by _da_,
_dal_, or _in casa_. See _Gram._ p. 209.


On PREPOSITIONS. [See GRAM. p. 209.]

_These Prepositions di diétro, vicíno, intórno, dirimpétto, infíno,
will have a Dative after them._

  Sir, if I knew where you live,
  signóre [1]se sapére dove stare di casa
  I would take the liberty to go and pay you a visit.
          pigliáre libertà [2]veníre fare vísita.

  Sir, you would give yourself too much trouble; however, if you do me
                 dare          troppo   incómodo però     se     fare
  that favour, you shall be very welcome; I live near the Temple,
       favóre            éssere il benvenúto stare vicíno Témpio
  opposite Chancery-lane.
  dirimpétto

  I believe my best way           to go to your house
    crédere che la miglior strada che possa fare per veníre da voi
  is to pass by London-bridge. You are in the right, sir, since
  sia di passáre Londra ponte      avére ragióne          giacchè
  you live behind the Tower.
      stare di diétro Torre.

  A poor labourer that works from morning till night (when he is
    póvero lavoránte   travaglíare mattína infíno sera quando éssere
  well paid for his labour) lives more content and satisfied, than those
  bene pagáto       lavóro  vívere     conténto    sodisfátto
  who have great riches.
      avére gran richézza.

  He who shall be constant even to death, shall have the crown of glory.
               éssere costánte infíno morte     avére    coróna   glória.

[1] See _Gram._ p. 202, on _se_ before a preterimperfect.

[2] Ibid. p. 203, when we use _veníre_ instead of _andare_.


On CONJUNCTIONS which require the SUBJUNCTIVE after them. [See GRAM. p.
204.]


_The following Conjunctions prima che, acciocchè, finchè, per paura
che, sin che, benchè, purchè, a meno che, Iddío voglia che, require the
Subjunctive after them._

  You will speak Italian well,   provided you take pains; I tell you so,
           parláre Italiáno bene purchè       darsi pena    dire
  that you may take courage, and learn well.
  acciochè     pigliáre corággio imparáre bene.

  I remember I told you several times that you will never write Italian
    ricordársi dire     parécchie volte             mai scrívere Italiáno
  correctly,    unless you study the rules.
  correttaménte a meno che studiáre regola.

  I will take so much pains, that I hope I shall write it well before
         darsi        pena          sperare      scrívere      prima
  next summer.
  próssimo state.

  You will soon perceive the effects of it, provided you follow my
           présto accorgérsi  effétto       purchè       seguíre
  directions, though you think the Italian tongue is very difficult.
  suggerimento benchè    sembrare  Italiáno lingua éssere diffícile.

  Please God it may be as you say;   for it would be a great
  piáccia Iddío     éssere come dire perchè       éssere grande
  satisfaction to me.
  soddisfazióne

  I esteem a man very unhappy that has not the fear of God, though he
    stimáre  uno molto infelíce    avére       timóre Iddío benchè
  should possess all the treasures in the world, even though he should
         possédere tutto tesóro           mondo       benchè
  have all the other fine qualities that can make a man perfect.
  avére        altro bello qualità       potére réndere úno perfetto.

  I always praised you very much before you became so idle; and I told you
    sempre lodáre      molto     prima  che diveníre pigro        dire
  several times that you would lose the good opinion every one had of you,
  più     volte                pérdere  buóno opinióne tutto avére
  unless you should be as diligent and careful as you were before.
  a meno che        éssere diligénte   premuróso      éssere prima.

  When I corrected you for your faults, it was not because I did not love
  quando corréggere             colpa      éssere  perchè            amáre
  you; on the contrary, it was to the end that you should employ your
       al contrário        éssere         acciocchè       impiegáre
  time well, and that you should be more diligent than you are now.
  témpo                          éssere più diligénte          adesso.

  Though you began to learn Italian before me, I hope I shall speak it
  benchè principiáre imparáre Italiáno prima di me speráre parláre
  soon as well as you.
  presto  bene quanto voi.

  I do not believe so, unless you have learned all the rules of the
           crédere     a meno che avére        tutto   régola
  grammar.
  grammática.

  Though I did not learn them, yet I will take so much pains, that what
  benchè           imparáre         pure pigliáre tanto pena
  I told you will prove true.
    dire     éssere     vero.

  It will be some time before you have read them.
  vi vorrà   del tempo prima  che      léggere.

  Would to God I had known you sooner, I should speak Italian well now:
  volésse Iddío      conóscere                 parláre Italiáno bene ora
  and although I had learned when I was young, yet I knew but very little
      benchè         imparáre       éssere gióvine   sapére   pochíssimo
  of it, when I began with you.
         quando principiáre.

  Perhaps it was not your master’s fault; for before I composed my
  forse      éssere       maéstro  colpa      prima che compórre
  grammar, I found but few that would learn grammatically.
  grammática trováre   poco           imparáre grammaticalménte.

  It is true I had a very good master, and if I had believed him, I should
        vero  avére       buóno maéstro    se   avére crédere
  have learned by rules,      but I found them too tedious; and would to
  avére imparáto per principj ma   trováre     troppo nojóso    volésse
  Heaven I had followed his advice,   for I have a great desire
  Cielo    avére seguito    consíglio perchè avére gran voglia
  to speak Italian.
     parláre Italiáno.


_Some Verbs signifying will, desire, leave, or fear, will have the
Conjunction che after them, and the following Verb in the Subjunctive._

  I will leave you to do that.
         lasciáre     fare.

  I wish you may be as honest as your father.
    desideráre   éssere onésto        padre.

  I ordered dinner to be ready immediately.
    ordináre pranzo éssere pronto subito.

  That must be done quickly.
       bisógna fare presto.

  God permitted it should happen.
  Iddío perméttere        succédere.

  I am afraid you were mistaken.
  avére paura         ingannársi.


_We express the two Anglicisms this day se’nnight, this day fortnight,
by d’oggi a otto, d’oggi a quindici._

  I believe I shall go into the country this day se’nnight, but I hope
    crédere         andáre      campágna d’oggi a otto            speráre
  I shall come back this day fortnight.
          ritornáre d’oggi a quíndici.

  I am sure that when once you are there, you will not return
  éssere sicúro  quando una volta éssere               tornáre
  so soon to town.
  così présto città.

  I give you my word that this day fortnight I will come to see you.
    dare        paróla    d’oggi a quíndici         veníre  vedére.

  When will your brother go to Germany?
  quando         fratéllo andáre Germánia?

  He expects to go this day se’nnight, if it is fine weather.
     contare    andáre d’oggi a otto   se fare bel tempo.


_The word people, when taken generally for the people of a whole
country, is expressed in Italian by the word gente._

  The French had the name of being the most civil people in the world.
      Francése avére riputazióne éssere     civíle gente        mondo.

  I should not like to live among the Spaniards, for they are very jealous
               amáre   vívere fra     Spagnuólo  perchè   éssere   gelóso
  people; but I should never be tired of living among the English, for I
  gente   ma    éssere mai      stanco   vívere fra       Inglése  perchè
  believe they are the most civil, the most courteous, and the most
   crédere     éssere       civíle          cortése
  obliging people in the world.
  obbligánte gente       mondo.


_When the word people signifies subjects, it is expressed in Italian by
the word pópolo._

  A good prince should prefer the happiness of his people to his own.
    buóno príncipe     preferíre  felicità         pópolo
  Happy are the people who have a good prince to govern them.
  felíce        pópolo     avére  buón           governáre.


On the PARTICLE _si_, _it is_, _they_, _one_, &c. [See GRAM. p. 211.]


_The Particle si is always put before a Verb, and the Verb must be
impersonal._

  I was told that you speak Italian very well.
        dire          parláre Italiáno benissimo.

  They do me more honour than I deserve; I wish it were true.
       fare       onóre         meritáre   volére       vero.

  They say you are going to be married.
       dire    stare per       maritársi.

  They say so, indeed;   but they are much mistaken.
  dire così    in verità ma           molto ingannársi.

  I was assured that the lady’s father and your’s had concluded the
        assicuráre   [1]signóra padre                 conchiúdere
  articles of marriage.
  articólo    matrimónio.

  If they say so, it is without any foundation.
  se      dire così     senza alcúno fondaménto.

  I am very glad to see you, for I was told you were gone to France.
  rallegrársi       vedére   perchè    dire                  Fráncia.

  Pray who told you such a falsehood? No matter; and we were also told,
  di grazia dire    tale   falsità    non impórta       éssere    detto
  you were to go to Italy.
              andáre Itália.

[1] The lady’s father and your’s, _vostro padre e quello della signora_.


_The Verb to use in English, signifies in Italian servírsi, assuefársi,
accostumársi; when it signifies servírsi, it is commonly followed by a
Noun, but otherwise it is followed by a Verb._

  He who forgets those things which he desires to remember, must
         dimenticare    cosa          desideráre ricordársi dovére
  use helps to cultivate his memory, or use the greatest diligence and
  servírsi ajúto coltiváre memória    o          grande   diligénza
  attention when he is reading, that he may retain profitable
  attenzióne quando    léggere              ritenére profittévole
  instructions; for when they have once slipt out of the memory,
  istruzióne    perchè quando éssere una volta uscíto    memória
  there is need of fresh reading to recall them.
           bisognáre nuóva lettúra  richiamáre.

  All men desire riches, but all do not use riches rightly;
  tutto uómo desideráre ricchézze ma tutto non ne usano bene
  when they are come to honours and wealth, they are still greedy
  quando avére acquistato onóre     opulénza         ancóra avído
  to heap up more. He who desires nothing, wants nothing: it is a
     accumuláre           desideráre niente avér bisógno
  wise man’s part to restrain his desires.
  sávio uómo dovére  moderáre     desidério.


_The Impersonal Verb impórta, requires a Dative Case._

  It much concerns young people to avoid bad company, as they would
     molto impórta gioventù        schiváre cattívo compagnía  come
  beware of the plague; it is more hurtful to the mind, than the most
  guardársi     peste              nuocévole      spirito
  contagious disease to the body.
  contagióso malattía       corpo.

  It concerns me, and all men to look to ourselves; the world is full of
     impórta          tutto      badáre                 mondo    piéno
  knaves and knavery. It is hard to be known, and he is hard to be found,
  furbo      furbéria       diffícile  sapére                      trováre
  who is fit to be trusted.
                   fidársi.

  The greatest caution is to be used in the presence of children;
      grande   cautéla       adopráre       presénza    ragázzo
  masters must behave themselves very warily,  lest           scholars
  maéstro dovére comportársi     prudentémente per timóre che scoláro
  learn evil of them; and it greatly concerns boys to imitate their
  imparáre del male molto            impórta  gióvane imitáre
  master’s virtues.
  maéstro  virtù.


_When the word to speak, is joined with truth, it is expressed in
Italian by dire._

  You promised me several times you would be diligent, and that you would
      prométtere  spesse  volta     éssere   diligénte
  never keep bad company;       I perceive that you do not speak always
  mai praticáre cattívo compagnia accorgérsi               dire  sempre
  the truth, for I met you to-day with a man whose company I forbade you.
      verità       incontráre oggi con   uómo      compagnía proibíre
  A man who does not delight in speaking always the truth, is unworthy of
  uno                amáre      dire     sempre     verità    indégno
  enjoying the society of honest people.
  godére       società    onésto gente.


_When in English a period begins by these words, I wish, I would, we
express them thus in Italian, vorréi potér, with the following Verb in
the Infinitive Mood._

  I wish I could serve you, I would do it with all my heart.
           potére servire           fare       tutto  cuóre.

  I wish I could see your sister, I would give her something that
                vedére    sorélla         dare     qualche cosa
  was sent to me for her.
  éssere mandáto

  I wish I could speak Italian as well as you do, it would be a great
                 parláre Italiáno                          éssere grande
  satisfaction to me.
  soddisfazióne

  I wish I could do what you desire of me, I would not refuse it you.
              fare         desideráre                ricusáre.

  I wish I could be reconciled with your brother, for he is an honest man.
              éssere riconciliáto      fratéllo perchè       galantuómo.

  I wish I could go into the country with you, I would not return
                 andáre      campágna                      ritornáre
  soon to town, for I would visit all my friends who are there.
  presto città      andar a visitáre tutto amíco

  I wish I could follow your example, I would live better than I do.
                 seguíre     esémpio               meglio.


_Ought and must are to be rendered in Italian by the Present of the
Indicative of the Verb dovere, and are not Impersonal._

  At church people ought to sit still, and not to talk.
     chiésa gente  dovére   stare quieto          parláre.

  At saying lessons, none ought to speak but he who is appointed by the
     ripétere lezióne     dovére   parláre             destináto
  master, whose leave ought to be asked,  before the scholars betake
  maéstro       permésso dovére domandáre prima      scoláre  darsi
  themselves to play.
                giuóco.

  The boy who is chastised on account of his slothfulness, has no cause
      ragázzo    castigáto a cagióne         infingardággine avére motivo
  to accuse his master of severity; he ought to blame himself, and
     accusáre   maéstro   severità     dovére   biasimársi
  resolve to shake off idleness for the future.
  risólvere  scuotersi dalla sua pigrízia all’avveníre.

  The soldier must fight valiantly,    that has a mind enflamed with a
      soldáto dovére battérsi valorosaménte avére ánima accéso
  desire to conquer the enemy; his arm must procure him the honour which
  desidério víncere     nemíco     braccio dovére procuráre onóre
  his heart wishes for; but sometimes    secret stratagems and subtle
      cuóre desideráre  ma qualche volta segréto stratagémma   astúto
  policy   defeat the most valiant warriors.
  política sconfíggere     valoróso guerriéro.

  Children must be obedient to their parents; those that grieve them,
  figlio   dovére  obbedíre          genitóre            affliggere
  purchase to themselves a curse; they provoke God to deny them that
  attirarsi                maledizióne         Iddío  ricusáre
  length of life which he has promised to the dutiful.
  lunghézza vita          avére promésso      obbediénte.


_To be like, when followed by a Noun, is to be rendered in Italian by
rassomigliáre, and will have a Dative Case._

  Children are not always like their parents; they are sometimes
  figliuólo   rassomigliáre sempre   genitori      éssere qualche volta
  quite different from them.
       differénte

  My brother is not like my father, who is of a mild disposition, and
     fratéllo rassomigliáre padre               benigno índole
  rich in the endowments that adorn the mind, though poor in estate.
  ricco       dote            ornáre    ánimo benchè póvero  stato.

  Every man loves those who like him, and hates those who are hurtful to
  ognúno    amáre            amáre        odiáre              nuocévole
  him: nature teaches us to love our friends, but religion teaches us
       natúra insegnáre     amáre    amíco    ma  religióne insegnáre
  to love our enemies.
     amáre    nemíco.


_To be so kind, must be rendered in Italian by avére la bontà, and the
following Verb is put in the Infinitive Mood, with the Preposition di._

  I intreat you to be so kind as to tell me how you call that in Italian.
    supplicáre  avére la bontà      dire    come    chiamáre     Italiáno.

  If you will be so kind as to grant me that favour, there is nothing
  se ella volére avér la bontà accordáre    favóre            niénte
  but I will do to acknowledge it.
  fare per mostrartene la mia riconoscenza.

  If your brother will be so kind as to lend me a horse for two or three
          fratéllo                      prestáre  cavállo   due    tre
  days, he would oblige me infinitely.
  giórno         obbligáre infinitaménte.

  I was this morning with your friend Mr. ---- and he was so kind as to
    éssere   mattína con       amíco                  avére
  offer me his purse.
  esibíre      borsa.

  I hope you will be so kind as to recommend me to your friends.
    speráre       avére            raccomandáre         amíco.

  Be so kind as to tell me when your sister will return from the country,
  avére            dire    quando    sorélla     ritornáre       campágna
  for I make no doubt but she will bring me news from my uncle.
                dubitáre           portáre   nuóva         zio.


_The English phrase, there is nothing but, ought to be rendered in
Italian by non v’è niénte che non, and it requires the following Verb
to be in the Subjunctive Mood._

  There is nothing but I would do to deserve the honour of your
  non v’è niénte               fare  meritáre    onóre
  friendship.
  amicízia.

  There is nothing but what I would undertake to oblige my friends.
  non v’è niénte   che non          intrapréndere obbligáre amíco.

  There is nothing but what I would suffer willingly, if I were so
  non v’è niénte                    soffríre volontiéri    éssere
  unfortunate as to have disobliged you.
  sfortunáto        avére dispiacére.

  There is nothing but what an honest man ought to do, to deserve
  non v’è niénte               galantuomo dovére          meritáre
  every body’s esteem.
  tutto        stima.

  There is nothing but what a good prince ought to do, to make
           niénte             buóno príncipe dovére fare  réndere
  his subjects happy.
      suddito  felíce.


_This phrase, to be as good as one’s word, must be rendered in Italian
by mantenére la sua paróla._

  You often promised me to do me service,  but I will never believe you;
      spesso prométtere    réndere servízio ma        mai   crédere
  it is a very dishonest thing not to be as good as one’s word; for
     éssere    disonésto              mantenere la sua paróla   perchè
  nobody will credit you afterwards.
  nissúno     prestare   fede dopo.

  You have often promised me to amend your manners, but you are seldom
      avére sovente prométtere  ammendáre  costúme  ma          raramente
  as good as your word.  I confess I have not been as good as my word,
  mantenére la sua paróla  confessáre avére mantenúto la mia paróla
  but I promise that, for the future, I will behave better
  ma    prométtere    all’avveníre           comportársi méglio
  than I have hitherto done.
         fare fin adésso.


_So much as, ought to be rendered in Italian by tanto, or quanto._

  Your brother seems to have had a better education than you, though I am
       fratéllo parére  avére             educazióne          benchè
  sure your father did not spend    so much money upon him as he did
  sicúro     padre         spéndere tanto
  upon you.

  If we would love God as much as He loves us, we should not offend him
              amáre Iddío quanto     amáre                   offéndere
  so often.
  così spesso.

  If we would love our neighbour as much as we love ourselves, there would
              amáre    prossímo  quanto
  not be so much enmity in the world.
      éssere tanto nemicízia   mondo.


_As long as, must be rendered in Italian by finchè, or mentre che._

  As _or_ so long as you are not obedient to your parents, God
           mentre che    éssere  obbediénte       genitori Iddío
  will not bless you.
           benedíre.

  As long as you are idle, you will never learn any thing, and you will
  finchè     éssere pigro           mai   imparáre niénte
  be ignorant      while you live.
  éssere ignoránte finchè vívere.

  As long as you are rich, you will not want friends.
                 éssere ricco           mancáre amíco.

  As long as it is in your power to oblige your friends, do not refuse
                éssere     potére   obbligáre   amíco           ricusáre
  to do them service.
  réndere servízio.


_I had rather, is expressed in Italian by ameréi méglio, or ameréi
piuttósto._

  I had rather lose some small thing, than go to law with a
  amáre meglio pérdere   piccólo cosa      andáre legge
  litigious man.
  litigióso uómo.

  I had rather    die than disoblige you.
  amáre piuttósto moríre   dispiacére.

  I had rather live all my life-time with you, than stay one day with
  amáre méglio vívere      vita tempo               stare    giórno
  your brother.
       fratéllo.

  I had rather endure a slight injury from a friend, than to fight with
               soffríre piccóla ingiúria     amíco           battérsi
  him, though I would sooner die than pass for a coward.
       benchè                moríre   passáre    codardo.


_When we inquire for some person’s name, we make use of the Verb
chiamársi._

  Pray, friend, what is your name?
  di grazia amíco come chiamársi?

  My name is John Baptist.
              Giambattísta.

  What is your brother’s name?
  come         fratéllo?

  His name is George Frederic Augustus.
              Giórgio Fedérico Augústo.

  What was the late king of France’s name?
  come         defúnto re   Fráncia?

  He was called Lewis the Sixteenth.
  chiamársi     Luígi     décimo sesto.

  What was the queen of France’s name?
  come         regína   Fráncia?

  Her name was Mary Antoinette.
  chiamársi    Maria Antónina.

  What was the late regent’s name?
  come         defúnto reggénte?

  He was called the duke of Orleans.
  chiamársi         duca    Orleans.


_To entertain, must be rendered by trattáre._

  If you will come with me into the country, I will entertain you
              veníre                 campágna       trattáre
  very well.
  beníssimo.

  You see I do not entertain you like a stranger, but I treat you
      vedére       trattáre       da forestiére   ma    trattáre
  like a friend.
  da amíco.

  I am sure, if we were lords, you could not entertain us better.
  éssere sicúro         gran signóre         trattáre     méglio.


_Dipénde da voi, signifies in English, it lies in your power, it has
all its tenses; and is Impersonal._

  It lies in your power to be a good scholar, for you have as much wit
  depéndere                éssere    sapiénte perchè  avére tanto spírito
  as any of your school-fellows.
  che qualúnque condiscépolo.

  It is in our power to be for ever happy.
  dipéndere             éssere sempre félice.

  It is in his power to do me that service.
  dipéndere          réndere       servízio.

  It is in your power to go abroad; for your father told me several times
  dipéndere           andár a viaggiáre       padre dire    molte volte
  he would be very glad to see you go on your travels.
           avére caro              andáre a viaggiáre.

  It lies in their power to recommend me to their friends.
  dipéndere              da raccomandáre          amíco.


_Andáre ad incóntrar uno, signifies to go and meet somebody._

  Sir, I come to beg a favour of you, which I hope you will not refuse
  Signóre veníre domandáre favóre             speráre           ricusáre
  me. I heard your uncle will come to-morrow to town; you will oblige me
        intendere  zio        veníre dománi     città          obbligáre
  infinitely, if you will lend me your horse to go and meet him, and I
  moltíssimo              prestáre     cavállo andáre ad incóntrar
  assure you that I will take great care of it.
  assicuráre             avére grande cura

  Sir, I am very sorry I cannot oblige you, for I must go myself
        rincrescere    non potere servire   perchè bisógna andáre
  to meet my wife, who is coming from the country; but any other time
  ad incóntrar moglie     veníre          campágna ma      altro volta
  it will be at your service.
          éssere     servízio.


_We often make use of the Impersonal Verb rincréscere, when we speak of
the misfortunes of others, which signifies in English, to be sorry, to
be concerned; and then the following word must be in the Genitive Case._

  I am sorry for the misfortune that has befallen you.
    rincréscere      disgrázia           accadére

  We ought to be concerned at our friend’s misfortunes.
     dovére      rincréscere      amíco    sciagúre.

  I was very much concerned at your loss.
        moltíssimo rincréscere      pérdita.


_Mi pare mill’ anni is an Italian expression which signifies to long;
we make use of it only in the present of the Indicative, and the
following verb must be in the Infinitive with the Preposition di._

  I long to see your father to tell him how much you deserve to be
            vedére   padre     dire         quanto   meritáre   éssere
  praised for your diligence.
  lodáto           diligenza.

  I long to go into the country, to settle a dispute that arose amongst my
            andáre      campagna    aggiustáre dispúta    náscere  fra
  farmers.
  fattóre.

  I long to pay what I owe you, for I do not love
            pagáre     dovére   perchè       amáre
  to be in any body’s debt.
     dovére a nessúno.

  I long to know the Italian language perfectly well.
            sapére   Italiáno lingua  perfettaménte bene.


_We often make use of avér gran voglia, for to long, and it requires
the following Verb to be in the Infinitive mood._

  I long to go and see Mr. George, to ask him for the money he owes me,
           andáre vedére   Giórgio    domandáre       danáro   dovére
  but I will put it off till next week, that you may go with me.
  ma         differíre fíno próssimo settimána   potére venire.

  I long to go to Italy, for I do not love to live in England.
            andáre Italia             piacére vívere  Inghiltérra.

  I long to tell you something,   though I do not know how to tell it you,
            dire     qualche cosa benchè          sapére      dire
  for fear of disobliging you.
  per paúra   dispiacere.

  I long to learn Italian, and for all that I do not know what hinders me
            imparáre Italiáno  con tutto ciò         sapére    impedíre
  from beginning.
       principiáre.


_Degnársi is often used for to be so kind as, and requires the
following verb in the Infinitive Mood._

  Be so kind as to hear me a moment, and you will see that what they told
  degnáre          sentíre   moménto              vedére             dire
  you of me is a false report.
            éssere falso rappórto.

  Be so kind as to grant me that favour, and I will not
  degnáre          accordáre     favóre
  trouble you any more.
  incomodáre


_Posso appéna, I can hardly, requires the following verb to be in the
Infinitive Mood._

  I can hardly believe what you tell me of Mr. Gregory,     for I always
  posso appéna crédere          dire       signóre Gregório perchè sempre
  took him for a very sober honest man.
   crédere            sobrio onésto uómo.

  I could hardly believe my eyes   when I saw you, for I thought you
  potere appéna  crédere    ócchio quando vedére   perchè pensáre
  were in America.
  éssere  América.

  I have got such a cold, and my head is so heavy, that I can hardly
  éssere talmente infreddáto     testa      pesánte     potere appéna
  read a word.
  leggere paróla.


_Scarce, or hardly must likewise be expressed by appéna._

  Scarce were you gone out last night, when your friend, sir William
  appéna éssere        uscíto jéri sera che      amíco cavaliére Guglielmo
  Henry, came to see me, and was very sorry you did not stay
  Enrico veníre vedere       dispiacere                 restáre
  a little longer.
  poco più.

  There are men in the world who are so much used to do mischief, that they
        éssere uómo    mondo     éssere tanto avvézzo fare male
  are hardly out of one trouble, but they immediately fall into another.
  éssere appéna uscíto  impáccio che      súbito      cadére    altro.

  Scarce have you done a good action, but you seem to repent it; for
  appéna avére    fatto buóno azióne         parére  pentírsi    perchè
  were it not so, you would not so soon again fall into your former
  éssere      così              così presto   ricadére       primiéra
  ill courses.
  cattiva vita.


_To have much ado, must be rendered in Italian by stentáre, and
requires the following verb in the Infinitive with the Preposition a._

  I had much ado yesterday to persuade your brother to stay with me; he
    stentáre     jéri         persuadére    fratéllo   restáre
  would go and sup with Mr. Horace, who came to town last night.
        andáre cenáre   Signór Orázio   veníre  città jeri sera.

  I had much ado to make peace with your mother, she was fully
    stentáre        fare  pace           madre       éssere affátto
  resolved not to forgive you, therefore take care for the future not to
  risolúto        perdonáre    perciò    badáre    all’avveníre
  offend her any more.
  offéndere

  I had much ado to engage your uncle to pass his word for a hundred
    stentáre        impegnáre   zio      passáre  paróla     cento
  pounds I owe Mr. Clement.
  lira     dovére  Cleménte.


_To be quiet must be rendered in Italian by, star fermo, saldo, or
chetársi._

  You will not be quiet    till you have done some mischief.
               stare fermo finchè   avér fatto     male.

  Be quiet, or else I will make you repent it.
  chetársi  altriménte     fare     pentíre.

  You would not be quiet    when I bid you, you see now
                stare saldo quando ordinare     vedere adésso
  what you suffer for it.
           soffríre


_Abbassár gli occhj, signifies to look down._

  When you speak to a person of great quality, you ought not to stare
  quando   parláre    persóna   alto  qualità      dovere       fissáre
  at him, but you ought sometimes      to look down
          ma      dovére qualche volta abbassare gli occhj
  to show him the respect you have for him.
     mostráre     rispétto avére


Upon INTERROGATIONS. [See GRAM. p. 70.]

  From whence had America its name? From Amerigo Vesputio, a Florentine,
              avére América   nome       Amerigo Vespúzio    Fiorentíno
  in 1497; though Columbus was the first discoverer of it in 1492
        [1]benchè Colómbo  éssere  primo scopritóre

  How large is that country? How is that empire divided? What are the
      grande        paése                impéro divíso
  productions of it? What is there worthy of notice in that country? Are
  prodótto                         degno     notízia        paése
  there any European colonies in that part of the world?
            Européa  colónia          parte       mondo?

  Who subdued the greatest part of the world in twelve years time?
      soggiogáre  grande   parte       mondo    dódici anno
  Alexander, king of Macedonia.
  Alessándro Re      Macedónia.

  To whom do the Canary Islands belong, how many are there of them, and
                 Canárie Ísola  appartenére quante [2]éssere
  how do they lie?
  éssere situáto?

[1] See _Gram._ p. 205, upon the conjunction _though_.

[2] See _Gram._ p. 147, upon the conjugation of the verb impersonal
_there is_.


Upon the Irregular Construction of Personal and Possessive PRONOUNS.
[See GRAM. p. 61, and 66.]

  Most men              worship love, to it they sacrifice their finest
  la maggior parte uómo adoráre amóre            sagrificáre     bello
  days, and from it they expect their greatest happiness.
  giórno                 aspettáre    grande   felicità.

  Glory makes the whole ambition of heroes; they thirst after nothing,
  glória fare     tutto ambizióne   eróe         respirare    altro
  they seek nothing else; they apply to it alone, it is to it alone they
       cercáre      altro      indirizzársi solo              solo
  make vows.
  fare  voto.

  Self-love is our primum mobile; it is that which rules our passions, and
  amáre próprio    primo  móbile                   regoláre  passióne
  to it are men indebted for most of the services which they
        éssere uómo debitóre maggior parte servízio
  reciprocally render one another.
  reciprocaménte réndere

  Is that the tree you were speaking of? Yes, that is it.
  éssere      albéro        parláre

  It looks very fine, but its fruit is good for nothing.
     parére     bello ma      frutto   non vale níente.

  This, on the contrary, has no appearance; it is a peach-tree, and the
               contrário avére  apparénza           pérsico
  peaches are delicious.
  pésca éssere delizióso.

  When general G. saw himself pursued so close, he,  reaching the river,
  quando generále G. vedére  seguitáto così da vicíno arriváre    fiúme
  threw himself in it (on horseback), with a design to cross it over,
  gettársi             a cavállo             intenzióne tráversáre
  rapid as it was; when he came to the stream, for all he did to resist
  [1] rápido  éssere quando veníre     corrénte   tutto   fare   resístere
  it, he could not get the better of it; he then resolved to go down with
         potére    superare                 allóra risólvere seguíre
  it, and let himself be carried away; but his horse was too
          lasciarsi      portáre via   ma      cavállo éssere troppo
  tired to be able to swim long; and as he endeavoured to quit the
  stanco potére nuotáre molto come sforzársi              lasciáre
  stream, the animal, which had now lost all his strength, sunk under him;
  corrénte    bestia        avére   pérdere tutto forza    sommergérsi
  he expected it, therefore resigned himself to his fate; he still
     aspettársi   perciò    rassegnársi             destíno  ancóra
  swam (for a while) with the stream, but not being able to get out of it,
  nuotáre (per un pezzo)     corrénte ma      potére        sortire
  he was drowned.
  éssere annegato.

  The water which you have recommended him to drink is not fit for him; I
      acqua           avére raccomandáto      bere  essere próprio
  know all its qualities, and will never recommend it in such a case. Of
  conóscere tutto qualità          mai   raccomandáre    tale   caso
  these two rivers, one has its spring in the Alps, and the other in the
  questo due fiúme      avére   sorgénte      Alpi          altro
  Pyrenees.
  Pirenéi.

  I have bought a new sword, the hilt of it is silver,    but I do not
    avére compráre nuóvo spada   guárdia éssere d’argénto ma
  like its shell; I will not part with the old one; it has done me much
  amáre    cóccia            disfársi della vécchio    avére reso  molto
  service; I have twice owed my life to it; only I will get it cleaned,
  servízio   avére due volta dovuto vita    solo        fare   ripulire
  and get a new hilt to it, and it will still be of service to me
      méttere nuóvo guárdia             ancóra      servíre
  by night.
  nottetempo.

  Keep from the wall, do not lean upon it.
  allontanársi muro          appogiársi

  If you sit in that arm-chair take care you do not hurt yourself,
         sedére    sédia d’appoggio badáre          farsi male
  for the back and elbows are broken.
  perchè  spalliera bracciuólo éssere rotto.

  His house is fine, I like its situation, but the rooms are not
      casa     bello   amáre    situazióne ma      stánza éssere
  well contrived: he has spent a great deal of money upon it; he
  bene regoláto       avére fátto gran spesa
  has altered the roof, and made a stately stair-case; it costs him much,
  avére fatto cambiar tetto fatto  supérbo   scala        costáre   molto
  but (upon the whole) he owes his health to it; he lives there the whole
  ma   per altro          dovere   salúte           vívere          tutto
  year. The gardens are very fine; he has added groves and water spouts
  anno      giardíno éssere  bello   aver aggiúnto boschétto getto d’acqua
  to them; there are fine meadows all around: he designs to make still
                 éssere bello prato all’intorno  contáre    fare
  greater alterations.
  maggióre cambiaménto.

[1] See _Gram._ p. 205, upon the conjunction _though_.


_On the verb to play, with the Particles at, and on._

  Do you never play at cards? I play sometimes at  piquet, and at
         mai giuocáre  carta         qualche volta picchetto
  quadrille, to oblige the company.
  quartíglio    obbligáre  compagnía.

  Let us play for a crown. I never play so high; I do not like to play for
        giuocáre    scudo    fare mai grosso giuóco   non piacére
  so much money: I do not love to play at games of chance, as at dice, or
  tanto danáro            amáre           giuóco di sorte  come  dado
  even at cards; but I like to play sometimes at bowls, at billiards,
  anche   carta        piacére      qualche volta bocce    bigliárdo
  at tennis, or nine pins. We play at chess every night, my cousin and I.
     pallacórda birillo               scácchi ogni sera     cugíno
  Can you play on any instrument?
  sapére suonáre qualche struménto?

  I can play a little on the flute. I thought you could also play on the
  potére suonáre poco        flauto   crédere           anche suonáre
  fiddle. No: but I know that you play very well on the bass-viol: if you
  violíno     ma    sapere        suonáre               viola d’amore
  please to come to our house, we will make a little concert: my sister
  piacére   veníre da noi              fare   píccolo concerto   sorélla
  will play on the piano-forte, you on your bass, and I will sing.
       suonáre     piano-forte              basso            cantare.


_We use the Verb avére, instead of éssere, in speaking of being hungry,
dry, cold, hot, or old._

  You eat as if you were not hungry. Excuse me, I eat well enough, but
      mangiáre      avére    fame    scusáre          assai bene
  I am not very hungry; I am more dry than hungry. I have been thirsty
    avére  grande fame    avére   sete     fame      avere avúto sete
  the whole day.
      tutto giórno.

  I am very cold, and very hungry. Are you cold?  On the contrary
    avére   freddo         fame    avére   freddo al contrário
  I am very warm,    but I am tired.
    avére gran caldo ma       stanco.

  My hands are so cold that I cannot write.
     mano  avére  freddo      potére scrivére.

  [1]I believe your head is always cold, for you seldom pull off your
       crédere      testa   sempre freddo perchè raraménte leváre
  hat.
  cappéllo.

  How old is your sister?    She is not fifteen yet. I thought she
  quanto anno avere sorélla      avére quíndici anno   crédere
  was twenty;      and you, sir, how old are you?
  avére venti anno ed ella               avére?

  I was very cold this morning when I came: but I am very warm now.
    avére    freddo    mattína quando veníre ma           caldo adésso
  You do not look so. You eat as if you were not hungry. I am more cold
             parére       mangiáre      avére    fame              freddo
  than hungry. I have been thirsty all the day.
       fame      ho avuto sete             giórno.

[1] I believe, &c. _Credo che voi abbiate sempre freddo alla testa_.


_The Impersonal Verb must, is sometimes rendered by dovere, and
sometimes by bisognáre._

  To make war    plenty of money must be had.
     fare guerra molto danáro    bisógna avére.

  Men must love virtue to be happy. One must be mad to think that men
  si dovére amáre virtù      felíce     bisognáre pazzo crédere   uómo
  can be happy without loving virtue.
  potére       senza[1] amáre virtù.

  Men should learn first the duties belonging to human nature.
      dovére imparáre prima  dovére appartenénte umáno natúra.

  A woman must have a good deal of circumspection not to speak of herself.
    donna bisógna avére            circospezióne         parláre
  One must not hope to see men cured of the ill-habit they have of
      bisognáre speráre    uómo guarírsi    cattivo abitúdine avére
  speaking always of themselves, their adventures, and wealth; for
  parláre sempre                       avventúra       opulénza
  nothing is more tiresome. One should impose upon one’s-self a law
  niénte          nojoso        dovére farsi                    legge
  never to speak of one’s-self, neither one way, nor another.
  mái      parláre              [2]

  We must not easily believe those who flatter us: neither must we
    dovére   facilménte crédere        adulare
  reject entirely the compliments that are paid to us, when
  rigettáre           compliménto          fare        quando
  we think we deserve them; that mistaken modesty is hardly less
     crédere  meritáre           malintesa modéstia  poco   meno
  displeasing, than a foolish vanity. Much art and nicety are requisite
  spiacévole          sciócco vanità       arte    delicatézza necessário
  to season praises well: but there is also a way of receiving them,
     condire lode         ma           anche  modo   ricévere
  when they are merited, that does not displease modesty. Praises are like
  quando        meritare               offendere modéstia lode        come
  a sort of tribute paid to true merit: we must neither reject them
    spécie  tribúto réndere vero mérito    dovére nè    rigettáre
  through affectation, nor hanker after them too eagerly.
  per     affettazióne nè  ambíre       con troppa premúra.

[1] _Senza_ governs the infinitive mood.

[2] _Neither one way, nor another_, i. e. _nè in bene, nè in male_.


_On the negative Particles and Adverbs._

  No one knows the sufferings of lovers, unless he himself has loved.
  nissúno sapére   sofferénza    amánte  se non

  I have always loved her very much.
         sempre amáto          molto.

  To court with respect and attention, is the best means of being
  far la corte  rispétto    attenzióne             mezzo
  loved again. I have found nobody of your opinion.
  riamáto        avére trovare nessúno     opinione.

  I by no means believe what he says; nor I neither.
  in nessún modo credere        dire  nemméno io.

  She always comes unseasonably, as well as her sister.
      sempre veníre fuór di tempo   come  anche sorélla.

  He has not yet received an answer.
  avére  ancóra  ricevúto    rispósta.

  Is there any thing more wonderful, than the virtue of the loadstone?
           niente         ammirábile          virtù         calamíta?

  Did he ever mention it?
         mai  mentováre?

  We have done nothing that ought to make you angry.
     avére fatto niénte     dovére   andar in colera.

  I am going there, lest he should come.
       andáre       per timor      veníre.

  I tell you, that, if henceforth I perceive that you attempt to play
    dire            se da quì innánzi accorgérsi      tentáre    fare
  any trick to hinder me from marrying my son, I will complain to the
      tiro  a  impedíre       maritáre    figlio      lagnarsi
  magistrate, and get you punished severely.--I promise you I will
  magistrato      fare    punire severamente    prométtere
  never do it.
  mai   fare.

  She is indifferent to me; and I neither love, nor hate her.
         indifferénte                     amáre     odiáre.

  Now that they are under my care, they behave very prudently.
  ora           éssere sotto cura       comportársi prudentémente.

  She has neither relations, nor friends.
      avére nè    parénte    nè  amíco.

  I will never forgive you, unless you promise to see her: she is so ill
         mai   perdonáre    se non     prométtere vedere       stare male
  that she can take nothing, neither can she have any rest.
               potére pigliáre nè    potére  avére    ripóso.

  I will not take any physic before the winter is quite out.
             pigliáre medicína prima    invérno   affátto passáto.

  Why does not he boldly tell her his reasons?
  perchè          liberaménte dire    ragióne?

  He knows not where to meet her now.
     sapére    dove     incontráre adésso.

  I ask nothing but what is just; I cannot pay others, if I am not paid
    domandáre   che         giústo  non potére pagáre altro        pagáre
  what is due to me.
  éssere dovúto.


On the CONJUNCTIONS.

  Although I have no money, I cannot resolve to borrow any
  benchè     avére   danáro non potére risólvere prenderne ad imprestito
  of my friends. Obey, or else you shall be whipped.
  da    amico    obbedíre altrimente [1]staffiláte.

  When I punish you for your faults, you think I hate you; whereas
  quando puníre              fallo       crédere odiáre    in vece
  it is only because I love you, I take that trouble.
        che  perchè    amáre       préndere  incómodo.

  Your brother came to see me yesterday as soon as you were gone. If he
       fratello veníre vedére jéri      súbito che          partíre
  come again, be so good as to tell him that I have waited for him
  ritornáre   avére bontà      dire            avére aspettáto
  till now.
  fin’ora.

  Though I used my utmost endeavours, and neglected nothing to please him,
  benchè   fare    tutto i miei sforzi    trascuráre niénte    piacere
  yet he was constantly scolding me.
  nientediméno continuaménte sgridáre.

  That Adriana, whether she is Pamphilus’s wife, or whether she is but his
       Adriána  che            Pamfílo     moglie o   che
  mistress, she is always with him.
  amorósa          sempre con  lui.

  Either through reason, or caprice, she has married him.
  sia    per     ragióne    capríccio        sposáre.

  Wars are not so bloody since the invention of gunpowder.
  guerra          sanguinóso dopo  invenzióne   pólvere da schioppo.

  Unless a book be instructive or entertaining, I do not wish to read it.
  a meno che libro istruttívo     piacévole

  Whether she is writing, or reading, she will have her parrot with her.
  che            scrívere    léggere      volére avére  pappágallo

  Since you have forbidden him, he does it no more.
  dacchè    avére proibíto

  If he should call at my house, while I am out, my
               passáre da me     mentre éssere fuóri
  people would tell him where I am.
  gente        dire     dove

  Whether he wins,   or loses, he is always the same.
  sia        guadagnáre pérdere      sempre l’istesso.

  I will not go there, unless you go along with me.
             andáre    a meno                   meco.

  You must not play before you can say your lesson.
      dovére   giuocáre prima      sapére   lezióne.

  Why do you not learn it then, instead of losing your time? He is
  perchè         imparáre dunque in vece   pérdere     tempo
  so far from being forward, that he knows nothing at all.  Far from
  in vece     éssere avanzáto        sapére niénte affátto  lungi
  following my advice, he does not mind what I say to him.
  seguíre      consíglio           badáre      dire

  I will rather consent to lose all, than give up my right.
    piuttósto   consentíre pérdere        rinunziáre.

  Though you were a king, I would not marry you.
  se         éssere Re                sposáre.

  Would to God I still were under his tuition, and my father had never
  volére               éssere sotto   condótta        padre  avére mai
  removed me from his school.
  ritiráto            scuóla.

  It avails nothing to a girl to be young, without being handsome, nor
     servíre niénte      ragázza    gióvine senza        bello     nè
  to be handsome without being wise.
     éssere      senza         saggio.

  After you have done your exercise, you must read it over two or three
  dopo           fare      tema          dovére ripassare  due    tre
  times, to correct the faults you may have made in it.
  volta     corréggere  erróre     potére   fare.

  Remember what I told you several times, that you will never be able
  ricordársi      dire     parrécchie volte             mai   potére
  to speak, or write Italian, unless you are master of the rules.
     parláre   scrívere Italiáno a meno      possédere     régola.

  I will take so much pains that I hope I shall speak it
         darsi tanto pena          speráre
  before it is long; though I am convinced it is very difficult
  fra poco           benchè      convínto             diffícile
  to learn the Italian tongue perfectly well.
     imparáre  Italiáno lingua perfettaménte.

  You will not find it so hard, if you learn the rules well.
               trováre    diffícile              régola bene.

  The narrowness of the mind, ignorance and presumption produce
      picolezza         ánimo ignoránza     presunzióne
  stubbornness; because obstinate people will believe nothing but what
  ostinazióne   perchè  ostináto              crédere         che quel
  they understand, and they understand but very few things.
       compréndere                     ben      poco cosa.

[1] Render, _avréte le staffiláte_.


On most PREPOSITIONS.

  I rather choose to live in the country than in town, especially
    amáre meglio     vívere      campágna        città  sopra tutto
  at Florence: therefore I intend to set out to-morrow for my
     Firénze   perciò      fare conto partire dománi
  country-house, and then I will send my eldest son to Sicily for
  casa di campagna e poi         mandáre maggiore figlio Sicília
  the summer.
      state.

  Where will you go to-night? To the play.
  dove           andáre staséra      commédia.

  When shall I dance, sir? You shall dance in your turn, and not before.
  quando       balláre               quando vi toccáre           prima.

  Where do you live, sir? I live in St. James’s street, near
        star di casa                San Giácomo strada  vicíno
  a fruiterer’s, opposite a taylor’s. The best way to go to my house, is
    fruttajuólo  dirimpétto sartóre            via    venir da me
  to pass through the Park, since you live in Westminster.
     passáre attravérso Parco  giacchè stare in Westminster
  I intend to travel first all over England, and France, and then to
    far conto viaggiáre    tutto    Inghilterra  Fráncia     poi
  Germany, and Italy; from Italy to Spain, where I shall embark
  Germánia     Itália               Spagna dove          imbarcársi
  to return to England.
     ritornáre Inghilterra.

  I shall go to Scotland in six months, or thereabouts.
          andáre Scózia  fra sei mesi      incírca.

  I will call upon your partners within twelve days; and I will
         passáre        socio    fra    dódici giórno
  wait upon them as far as their seat, which is magnificent; were you ever
  accompagnáre   infíno          villa          manífico     éssere   mai
  there? Yes. The walls are inlaid with marble; the stair-case is painted
         si       paréte    lamináre    marmo       scala         dipínto
  in oil; all the furniture is worked with the needle; in short, nothing
  a ólio  tutto   tapezzeria   fatto  ad       ago     in somma
  richer can be seen.
  ricco  potére vedére.

  I should be very glad to spend a few days at that wonderful seat.
           avére ben caro  passáre alcuno giórno    maraviglióso villa
  How far is it?
      lontáno?

  It is a great way: it is about a hundred and twenty miles off.
        molto lontáno di qui incírca                  miglio.

  The most uneasy situation is to be between fear and hope.
      spiacevole situazióne lo stare fra     timóre   speránza
  Heroes formerly sacrificed themselves for their country and their
  eróe anticaménte sacrificársi                   patria
  mistress; now-a-days nothing is done but for fortune and pleasure.
  bella     oggidì     niénte     farsi        fortúna    piacére.

  A woman can please without beauty, but she can hardly do it without
    donna potére piacére senza bellezza          difficilmente
  sense and amiability.
  sénso     amabilità.

  There is no less eloquence in the tone of the voice, the eyes, and
              meno eloquenza        tuóno       voce       ócchio
  the countenance, than in the choice of words.
      aspétto                  scelta    paróla.

  Europe, in relation to the other parts of the world, lies
  Európa    rispetto         altro parte        mondo  éssere situáto
  northward; it is bounded on the east by Asia, and the Black Sea, which
  settentrióne     confináto      oriente Ásia          Nero Mare
  communicates with the Mediterranean by the Straits of Constantinople;
  comunicáre            Mediterranéo         Stretto    Costantinópoli
  on the south by Africa, from which it is separated by the Mediterranean
         mezzogiórno Áffrica   quale       separáre
  Sea; on the west by the Atlantic ocean; and on the north by the
  mare        occidénte   Atlantíco oceáno           settentrióne
  Frozen Sea: its extent taken from Cape St. Vincent to the frontiers of
  Mar Glaciále    estensione prendere Capo San Vincénzio    frontiera
  Asia, is about 3,600 English miles: and from Cape North to Greece
  Ásia     incírca     Inglése miglio          Capo Norte    Grécia
  is about 2,200 miles.

  France has Spain towards the south, from which it is divided by the
  Fráncia    Spagna verso      mezzogiórno             divíso
  Pyrenean mountains, which are of a surprising height, and extend from
  Pirenéo                            stupéndo   altézza     stendérsi
  the ocean to the Mediterranean; a tract of about 220 miles.
      oceano       Mediterraneo     tratto   incirca   miglia.



_Lately Published_,

A KEY TO BOTTARELLI’S EXERCISES, with a few Extracts in Prose and
Verse, with English Translations, for the use of Beginners, by P. R.
ROTA; a new edition, revised and corrected. 12mo. 2_s._ 6_d._ bound.

THE COMPLETE ITALIAN MASTER; containing the best and easiest Rules for
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THE NEW ITALIAN, ENGLISH, and FRENCH POCKET DICTIONARY, carefully
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Speech properly distinguished, and each Word accented according to its
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AN ABRIDGEMENT OF THE ROMAN HISTORY.



CHAP. I.

Of the ORIGIN of the ROMANS.

_(Year of the World, 2800--Before Christ, 1184.)_


All [1]nations [2]seem [3]willing to [4]derive [5]merit from the
[6]splendor of their [7]origin, and [8]where [9]history [10]is silent,
they [11]generally [12]supply the [13]defect with [14]fable. The
[15]Romans were [16]particularly [17]desirous of being [18]thought
[19]descended from the [20]Gods, [21]as if they would [22]hide the
[23]meanness of their [24]real [25]ancestry. [26]Æneas, the [27]son of
[28]Venus and [29]Anchises, having [30]escaped from the [31]destruction
of [32]Troy, [33]after [34]many [35]adventures and [36]dangers
[37]arrived in [38]Italy, [39]where he was [40]kindly [41]received
by [42]Latinus, [43]king of the [44]Latins, who [45]gave him his
[46]daughter [47]Lavinia in [48]marriage. Italy was [49]then [50]as
it is [51]now, [52]divided into a [53]number of [54]small [55]states,
[56]independent of [57]each other, and, [58]consequently, [59]subject
to [60]frequent [61]contentions [62]among themselves. [63]Turnus,
[64]king of the [65]Rutuli, was the [66]first who [67]opposed Æneas,
he having [68]long [69]made pretensions to Lavinia himself. A [70]war
[71]ensued, in which the [72]Trojan [73]hero was [74]victorious, and
[75]Turnus [76]slain. In [77]consequence of this, Æneas [78]built a
[79]city, which was [80]called [81]Lavinium, in [82]honour of his
[83]wife; and [84]some time after [85]engaging in another [86]war
[87]against [88]Mezentius, one of the [89]petty kings of the
[90]country, he was [91]conquered in his [92]turn, and [93]died in
[94]battle, after a [95]reign of four [96]years.

[97]Ascanius, his [98]son, [99]succeeded to the [100]kingdom, and to
him, Silvius, a [101]second son, [102]whom he had by Lavinia. It would
be [103]tedious to [104]recite a [105]dry [106]catalogue of the kings
that [107]followed, and of whom we [108]know [109]little more than
their [110]names; it will be [111]sufficient to [112]say, that the
[113]succession [114]continued for [115]near [116]four [117]hundred
[118]years in the [119]family, and that [120]Numitor was the [121]last
king of Alba.


FOOTNOTES

[1] _nazióne_

[2] _parére_

[3] _desideróso_

[4] _trarre_

[5] _mérito_

[6] _splendóre_

[7] _origine_

[8] _dove_

[9] _istória_

[10] _tacére_

[11] _generalménte_

[12] _sovveníre al_

[13] _difétto_

[14] _favóla_

[15] _Románo_

[16] _particolarménte_

[17] _ambíre_

[18] _credúto_

[19] _discéso_

[20] _dio_ pl. _dei_

[21] _come se_

[22] _nascóndere_

[23] _bassézza_

[24] _vero_

[25] _antenáti_

[26] _Enéa_

[27] _figlio_

[28] _Vénere_

[29] _Anchíse_

[30] _scampáre_

[31] _distruzióne_

[32] _Troja_

[33] _dopo_

[34] _molto_

[35] _avventúra_

[36] _perícolo_

[37] _arriváre_

[38] _Itália_

[39] _dove_

[40] _corteseménte_

[41] _ricevúto_

[42] _Latíno_

[43] _re_

[44] _Latíno_

[45] _dare_

[46] _figliuóla_

[47] _Lavínia_

[48] _matrimónio_

[49] _allóra_

[50] _come_

[51] _ora_

[52] _diviso_

[53] _número_

[54] _píccolo_

[55] _stato_

[56] _independénte_

[57] _l’uno dall’altro_

[58] _conseguentemente_

[59] _soggétto_

[60] _frequénte_

[61] _contésa_

[62] _fra_

[63] _Turno_

[64] _re_

[65] _Rútuli_

[66] _primo_

[67] _oppórsi_

[68] _molto tempo_

[69] _esséndo che pretendeva egli pure a_

[70] _guerra_

[71] _náscere_

[72] _Trojáno_

[73] _eróe_

[74] _vittorióso_

[75] _Turno_

[76] _uccíso_

[77] _conseguénza_

[78] _edíficáre_

[79] _città_

[80] _chiamáto_

[81] _Lavínio_

[82] _onóre_

[83] _moglie_

[84] _qualche tempo dopo_

[85] _attaccáre_

[86] _guerra_

[87] _contro_

[88] _Mésenzio_

[89] _régolo_

[90] _paése_

[91] _vinto_

[92] _volta_

[93] _moríre_

[94] _battáglia_

[95] _regno_

[96] _anno_

[97] _Ascanio_

[98] _figlio_

[99] _succédere_

[100] _regno_

[101] _secondo genito_

[102] _nátogli da_

[103] _nojóso_

[104] _recitáre_

[105] _insípido_

[106] _catálogo_

[107] _seguíre_

[108] _sapére_

[109] _poco_

[110] _nome_

[111] _bastáre_

[112] _dire_

[113] _successióne_

[114] _continuáre_

[115] _vicíno_

[116] _quattro_

[117] _cento_

[118] _anno_

[119] _famíglia_

[120] _Numitóre_

[121] _último_



CHAP. II.

_(Of the World, 3301--Before Christ, 753.)_


The [1]twelfth [2]king of the [3]Latins after [4]Æneas, was [5]Amulius,
who [6]circumvented his [7]brother [8]Numitor, to whom the [9]right of
[10]succession [11]appertained, upon the [12]account of his [13]age.
Numitor had an [14]only [15]daughter [16]called Sylvia, and [17]Romulus
and [18]Remus, [19]twin brothers, and founders of Rome, were, as it
is said in fable and history, the [20]sons of [21]Mars and Sylvia.
The children being [22]exposed by the [23]king’s [24]order, were
[25]privately [26]educated by one [27]Faustulus, a [28]shepherd. When
they were [29]grown up, they [30]slew Amulius, [31]restored their
[32]grandfather, to his [33]kingdom, and [34]built [35]Rome 753 years
before [36]Christ was [37]born.

Romulus, having [38]put his [39]rival brother to [40]death, [41]was
[42]proclaimed king by his [43]followers; and having [44]settled the
[45]state [46]affairs, and [47]being in want of females, he [48]seized
upon all the [49]young women that [50]came to [51]see the [52]public
[53]games at Rome; upon which a [54]terrible and long [55]war with the
[56]Sabines [57]ensued.

The [58]Cæninenses, [59]Antemnates, and [60]Crustumini were
[61]conquered; and [62]at last the [63]Sabines, under the
[64]conduct of [65]Tatius, [66]bearing hard upon the Romans, by the
[67]interposition of the [68]Sabine women who had been [69]detained at
Rome, it was [70]agreed upon [71]betwixt both [72]parties, [73]that
they should [74]jointly [75]inhabit Rome, and Romulus and Tatius should
[76]reign [77]together. Tatius being [78]slain six [79]years after,
Romulus reigned [80]alone, and [81]completed the [82]term of 38 years,
having conquered the [83]neighbouring cities. At last, [84]a great
[85]tempest [86]arising as he [87]held an [88]assembly at the [89]lake
of Caprea, [90]he was no where to be found, being [91]torn in pieces
by the [92]senators (as it was [93]generally [94]thought) to whom he
was [95]now [96]grown [97]odious on [98]account of his [99]cruelty.
He [100]first [101]divided the city into [102]thirty [103]curiæ, and
[104]three [105]tribes. The [106]poor he [107]put [108]under the
[109]protection of the [110]great, whom he [111]named [112]patricii.
He [113]triumphed [114]three times [115]over his [116]vanquished
[117]enemies; [118]first, over the Cæninenses, and Antemnates, in which
[119]war having [120]killed their [121]king [122]Acron [123]with his
own hand, he [124]consecrated his first [125]spoils to [126]Jupiter
Feretrius; [127]secondly, over the [128]Camerini; [129]thirdly, over
the [130]Fidenates, and [131]Veientes.

[132]After an [133]interregnum of a [134]year’s continuance, [135]Numa
Pompilius, a Sabine, [136]born at [137]Cures, was [138]chosen king
by the Romans, 714 years before [139]Christ was [140]born; [141]who
[142]applying himself to the [143]preservation of the public
[144]quiet, [145]instituted all the [146]religious [147]rites of
the Romans. He [148]made an [149]addition of two [150]months to the
year, which [151]till that time had [152]consisted of [153]ten, and
[154]reigned forty-three years.

[155]The third king of the Romans was [156]Tullus Hostilius, a [157]man
of a [158]restless temper, and [159]fit for nothing but war. He
[160]conquered the Albans, and [161]destroyed their city, after he had
first [162]removed the [163]inhabitants, and all their [164]substance
to Rome; and [165]torn to pieces, [166]tied [167]betwixt two
[168]chariots, [169]Metius Fusetius, [170]dictator of the [171]Albans,
[172]convicted of [173]treachery. He [174]triumphed [175]three times
over the Albans, the [176]Fidenates, and the Sabines. He [177]reigned
[178]thirty-two years, and [179]perished with his [180]wife, and
[181]whole family, by [182]a thunderbolt [183]from heaven.

The [184]fourth king that reigned at Rome was [185]Ancus Martius,
[186]grandson to Numa Pompilius, by whom the [187]Latins were
[188]subdued, and most of them [189]taken into the city, and
[190]settled in the [191]Aventine mount; [192]the Janiculum was
[193]fortified by him, a [194]bridge made over the [195]Tiber, and
Ostia [196]built. He reigned 24 years.

The [197]fifth king of Rome was [198]Tarquinius Priscus, the
[199]son of [200]Demaratus, a [201]Corinthian. He [202]came to Rome
from [203]Tarquinii, a [204]town of Etruria, [205]from whence he
was [206]called [207]Lucius Tarquinius. After he [208]came to the
[209]government, he [210]augmented the [211]senate, [212]subdued the
[213]twelve [214]nations of Etruria, and [215]borrowed from them
the [216]ensigns of [217]supreme [218]power, the [219]fasces; the
[220]trabea; the [221]curule chair; the [222]prætexta; and other
[223]things of that [224]kind. He was slain by the sons of [225]Ancus,
after he had reigned 38 years.

His [226]son-in-law Servius Tullius, the [227]sixth in [228]order,
[229]began his [230]reign in the year 577 before Christ. He was for
his [231]rare [232]endowments [233]preferred before those of the royal
[234]blood. He first [235]instituted the [236]census, and [237]ordered
it to be [238]kept [239]every five years; [240]divided the [241]people
into [242]classes, and [243]centuries, and [244]enlarged the city: and
after he had [245]governed the [246]kingdom with great [247]applause 44
years, he was [248]murdered through the [249]horrid [250]wickedness of
his own [251]daughter, and Tarquin his [252]son-in-law.

The [253]seventh and [254]last king that reigned at Rome was Tarquin,
[255]surnamed [256]the Proud, whom [257]most of the [258]old Roman
[259]authors [260]affirm to be the son of [261]Priscus; [262]but
[263]Dionysius [264]will have him to be his grandson. He [265]governed
the [266]kingdom he had [267]procured by his [268]wickedness [269]no
better than he got it, being [270]cruel to the [271]senators, and
his [272]other [273]subjects. He [274]conquered the [275]Volsci, the
Sabines, and Gabii; and having [276]built the [277]Capitol with the
[278]spoils of the cities he had [279]taken, he was [280]at last
[281]turned out of the city, and of his kingdom, for a [282]violence
[283]committed by his [284]son upon [285]Lucretia.


FOOTNOTES

[1] _duodécimo_

[2] _re_

[3] _Latíno_

[4] _Enéa_

[5] _Amúlio_

[6] _ingannáre_

[7] _fratéllo_

[8] _Numitóre_

[9] _drítto_

[10] _successióne_

[11] _appartenére_

[12] _cagióne_

[13] _età_

[14] _único_

[15] _figlia_

[16] _chiamáre_

[17] _Rómolo_

[18] _Remo_

[19] _geméllo_

[20] _figlio_

[21] _Marte_

[22] _espórre_

[23] _re_

[24] _órdine_

[25] _segretaménte_

[26] _educáre_

[27] _Faústulo_

[28] _pastóre_

[29] _créscere_

[30] _uccídere_

[31] _restituíre_

[32] _avo_

[33] _regno_

[34] _edificáre_

[35] _Roma_

[36] _Cristo_

[37] _náscere_

[38] _méttere_

[39] _émolo_

[40] _morte_

[41] _éssere_

[42] _proclamáre_

[43] _seguáce_

[44] _regoláre_

[45] _stato_

[46] _affáre_

[47] _avéndo bisógno_

[48] _pigliáre per forza_

[49] _gióvane_

[50] _veníre_

[51] _vedére_

[52] _púbblico_

[53] _giuóco_

[54] _terríbile_

[55] _guerra_

[56] _Sabíni_

[57] _seguíre_

[58] _Ceninénsi_

[59] _Antemnáti_

[60] _Crustumíni_

[61] _conquistáre_

[62] _alla fine_

[63] _Sabíni_

[64] _comándo_

[65] _Tázio_

[66] _malmenando i Románi fieramente_

[67] _interposizióne_

[68] _donne Sabíne_

[69] _ritenére_

[70] _conveníre_

[71] _fra_

[72] _partíto_

[73] _che_

[74] _unitaménte_

[75] _abitáre_

[76] _regnáre_

[77] _insiéme_

[78] _uccídere_

[79] _anno_

[80] _solo_

[81] _compíre_

[82] _términe_

[83] _vicíno_

[84] _grande_

[85] _borrásca_

[86] _soppravenire_

[87] _tenére_

[88] _assembléa_

[89] _lago_

[90] _non si potétte trováre in nissun luógo_

[91] _messo a brani_

[92] _senatóre_

[93] _generalménte_

[94] _crédere_

[95] _ormai_

[96] _diveníre_

[97] _odióso_

[98] _cagióne_

[99] _crudeltà_

[100] _da princípio_

[101] _divídere_

[102] _trenta_

[103] _cúrie_

[104] _tre_

[105] _tribù_

[106] _i póveri_

[107] _méttere_

[108] _sotto_

[109] _protezióne_

[110] _grande_

[111] _chiamáre_

[112] _patrízio_

[113] _trionfáre_

[114] _tre volte_

[115] _dei_

[116] _vinto_

[117] _nemíco_

[118] _prima_

[119] _guerra_

[120] _uccídere_

[121] _re_

[122] _Acróne_

[123] _di propria mano_

[124] _consacráre_

[125] _spóglia_

[126] _Gióve Ferétrio_

[127] _secóndo_

[128] _Cameríni_

[129] _terzo_

[130] _Fidenáti_

[131] _Vejénti_

[132] _dopo_

[133] _interrégno_

[134] _anno_

[135] _Numa Pompílio_

[136] _nato_

[137] _Cure_

[138] _scelto_

[139] _Cristo_

[140] _nascesse_

[141] _il quale_

[142] _applicársi_

[143] _preservazióne_

[144] _pace_

[145] _istituíre_

[146] _religióso_

[147] _rito_

[148] _fare_

[149] _addizióne_

[150] _mese_

[151] _fin allóra_

[152] _consístere_

[153] _diéci_

[154] _regnáre_

[155] _il terzo_

[156] _Túllio Ostílio_

[157] _uómo_

[158] _inquiéto natúra_

[159] _proprio_

[160] _conquistáre_

[161] _distrúggere_

[162] _trasportáre_

[163] _abitánte_

[164] _sostánza_

[165] _fatto in pezzi_

[166] _attaccáre_

[167] _fra_

[168] _carro_

[169] _Mezio Fusézio_

[170] _dittatóre_

[171] _Albani_

[172] _convínto_

[173] _tradiménto_

[174] _trionfáre_

[175] _tre volte_

[176] _Fidénáti_

[177] _regnáre_

[178] _trentadue anni_

[179] _períre_

[180] _moglie_

[181] _tutta la sua famíglia_

[182] _per un fúlmine_

[183] _caduto dal cielo_

[184] _quarto_

[185] _Anco Márzio_

[186] _nipote_

[187] _Latíni_

[188] _soggiogáto_

[189] _posto_

[190] _stabilírsi_

[191] _monte Aventíno_

[192] _il Gianícolo_

[193] _fortificáto_

[194] _ponte_

[195] _Tevére_

[196] _edificáto_

[197] _quinto_

[198] _Tarquínio Prisco_

[199] _figlio_

[200] _Demaráto_

[201] _Corintéo_

[202] _veníre_

[203] _Tarquínio_

[204] _cíttà_

[205] _dal quale_

[206] _chiamáto_

[207] _Lúcio Tarquínio_

[208] _perveníre_

[209] _govérno_

[210] _aumentáre_

[211] _senáto_

[212] _soggiogáre_

[213] _dódici_

[214] _nazióne_

[215] _imprestáre_

[216] _insegnáre_

[217] _suprémo_

[218] _autorità_

[219] _fasce_

[220] _trabéa_

[221] _sédia curúle_

[222] _pretésta_

[223] _cosa_

[224] _sorta_

[225] _Anco_

[226] _genero Sérvio Túllio_

[227] _sesto_

[228] _órdine_

[229] _principiáre_

[230] _regno_

[231] _raro_

[232] _qualità_

[233] _preferíto_

[234] _sangue reale_

[235] _istituíre_

[236] _censo_

[237] _comando che fosse_

[238] _rifatto_

[239] _una volta ogni cinque anni_

[240] _divídere_

[241] _pópolo_

[242] _classe_

[243] _centúria_

[244] _estendere_

[245] _governáre_

[246] _regno_

[247] _appláuso_

[248] _assassináto_

[249] _orríbile_

[250] _scelleratézza_

[251] _figlia_

[252] _genero_

[253] _séttimo_

[254] _último_

[255] _cognomináto_

[256] _il supérbo_

[257] _la maggior parte_

[258] _antíco_

[259] _autóre_

[260] _affermáre_

[261] _Prísco_

[262] _ma_

[263] _Dionísio_

[264] _vuól che sia suo nipotíno_

[265] _governáre_

[266] _regno_

[267] _procuráre_

[268] _malvagità_

[269] _in un modo non migliore di quello con cui l’aveva ottenuto_

[270] _crudele_

[271] _senatóre_

[272] _altro_

[273] _suddito_

[274] _debelláre_

[275] _Volsci_

[276] _edificáre_

[277] _Campidóglio_

[278] _spóglie_

[279] _préndere_

[280] _alla fine_

[281] _scacciáre_

[282] _violenza_

[283] _commésso_

[284] _fíglio_

[285] _Lucrézia_



CHAP. III

(_Of the World, 3545--Of Rome, 245._)


[1]King Tarquin, with his [2]family, being [3]banished, [4]L. Junius
Brutus, and [5]L. Tarquinius Collatinus were [6]made [7]consuls.
[8]The former was so [9]severe, that he [10]scourged and [11]beheaded
his own sons for [12]favouring [13]the banished kings, being a
[14]greater [15]friend to the [16]public [17]liberty than to his
own family. A [18]field of the Tarquins, which [19]lay [20]between
the city and [21]the Tiber, was [22]consecrated to [23]Mars, and
[24]from thence [25]called [26]Campus Martius. [27]Brutus [28]died
in the [29]war [30]against the Tarquins, who [31]prevailed upon some
of the [32]neighbouring [33]nations to [34]assist them; [35]amongst
the [36]rest, Porsena, king of Etruria, [37]made war upon the
Romans, in [38]favour of the Tarquins: in which war the [39]bravery
of [40]Horatius Coccles was very [41]remarkable, who [42]maintained
the [43]fight [44]against the [45]victorious [46]enemy [47]till the
[48]bridge on the Tiber was [49]cut down, [50]when he [51]swam and
crossed the [52]river. Nor [53]must we [54]pass over in silence
the [55]noble [56]attempt of [57]Mutius Scævola, who [58]secretly
[59]entered the [60]enemy’s [61]camp with a [62]resolution to [63]kill
the king; [64]but having by [65]mistake [66]slain one of his nobles, he
[67]thrust his [68]hand into the [69]fire that was upon the [70]altar;
which so [71]terrified the king, that he [72]made [73]peace with the
Romans, and [74]returned [75]home. [76]After this, the [77]Latins made
[78]war upon the Romans, [79]under the [80]conduct of [81]Octavius
Mamilius, Tarquin’s [82]son-in-law; [83]against whom [84]Posthumius
being made [85]dictator, [86]vanquished them in a [87]memorable
[88]battle at the [89]lake Regillus.

[90]Afterwards a war was [91]proclaimed [92]against the [93]Volsci, who
had [94]raised some [95]troops, to [96]send to the [97]assistance of
the [98]Latins in the [99]former war. The [100]fortune of [101]Caius
Marcius Coriolanus was [102]remarkable in that war, who being
[103]condemned in his [104]absence, [105]retired amongst the Volsci,
and [106]advised them to [107]renew the war; for the [108]management
of which, being [109]chosen [110]general with [111]Tullius Accius,
after he had [112]routed the Romans in [113]several [114]engagements,
and [115]advanced up [116]to the very walls of the city, he was
[117]moved by the [118]prayers of his [119]mother, and he [120]raised
the [121]siege. After the [122]death of [123]Coriolanus, the Volsci
[124]continued the war, and [125]were [126]together with the [127]Æqui,
[128]and Hernici, [129]soundly [130]beaten by [131]Spurius Cassius,
who had been [132]thrice [133]consul. [134]He being elevated by
his [135]success, [136]aspired to the [137]throne, [138]but was
[139]prevented in his [140]design, and [141]thrown headlong from the
[142]Tarpeian rock.

In the year 261 from the [143]building of the city, the [144]common
people being very [145]much in [146]debt, and [147]provoked by the
[148]cruelty of their [149]creditors, [150]retired [151]beyond the
[152]Anien into the [153]sacred mount, but were [154]reconciled by
the [155]pacific [156]persuasions of [157]Menenius Agrippa; having
[158]first [159]obtained from the [160]fathers, that [161]officers
should be [162]appointed to [163]screen them from the [164]violence
of the [165]patricii, who were [166] called [167]tribunes of the
[168]people.

After this, the Romans had a war with the [169]Veientes, which the
[170]family of the [171]Fabii [172]undertook to [173]carry on by
themselves; and having [174]pitched their camp by the [175]river
[176]Cremera, were [177]trepanned by the [178]enemy, and [179]cut off
in one [180]day, to the [181]number of 306.

The war with the [182]Volsci [183]continued. They were [184]often
[185]vanquished, [186]especially by T. [187]Quintius Cincinnatus,
who took [188]Antium, the [189]metropolis of their [190]nation.
Cincinnatus being [191]afterwards [192]taken from the [193]plough, and
[194]made [195]dictator [196]against the [197]Æqui, he [198]delivered
the [199]consul [200]Minucius, who was [201]besieged by them, and
[202]obliged the [203]enemy to [204]pass under the [205]yoke.

In the year 303, [206]after the [207]foundation of the city, and 451
years [208]before [209]Christ, the [210]form of the [211]government
was [212]changed. [213]For [214]instead of [215]consuls, the
[216]decemviri were [217]set up, with [218]supreme [219]power to
[220]make [221]laws for the Roman [222]people, [223]from those which
their ambassadors had the year before [224]brought from [225]Greece.
But [226]abusing their [227]power, they were [228]obliged to [229]lay
down their [230]authority; and the [231]consuls and [232]tribunes were
[233]restored.

In the 315th year of the city, Sp. Melius, in the [234]time of a
[235]famine, [236]endeavouring to [237]make his way to a [238]throne,
by [239]sharing [240]corn [241]amongst the [242]people, was [243]slain
by [244]order of [245]Quintius Cincinnatus the [246]dictator, by
[247]C. Servilius Ahala [248]master of the horse. In the [249]following
year the [250]Fidenates [251]revolted to [252]Lars Tolumnius, king of
the [253]Veientes, and [254]put the Roman ambassadors to [255]death,
who had their [256]statues [257]erected in the [258]forum. The
[259]Veientes [260]in the next year were [261]subdued by [262]Mamercus
Æmilius, [263]dictator. [264]Tolumnius was [265]slain by [266]Cornelius
Cossus, who was the [267]second from [268]Romulus that [269]dedicated
the [270]spoils [271]called [272]Opima to Jupiter [273]Feretrius.

[274]Censors were [275]set up at Rome in the 311th year of the city,
who [276]held their [277]office [278]at first for [279]five [280]years,
[281]but were [282]afterwards, in the year 320, [283]reduced by
[284]Mamercus Æmilius, [285]dictator, to a year and a [286]half. In the
year 323, the [287]dictator [288]A. Posthumius was very [289]successful
[290]against the [291]Æqui and the [292]Volsci; but [293]stained
the [294]victory with the [295]blood of his own [296]son, whom he
[297]beheaded for having [298]fought [299]contrary to his [300]orders.

In the year of the city 358, the [301]town of [302]Veii was [303]taken
by [304]Camillus, dictator, [305]after a [306]siege of [307]ten years.
He [308]likewise [309]reduced the [310]Falisci, [311]not so much by his
[312]arms, as the [313]opinion they had of his [314]justice.

But after these [315]great [316]successes, the Romans were [317]nearly
[318]ruined by the [319]Galli Senones, who having [320]laid [321]siege
to [322]Clusium in Etruria, the Romans [323]sent three of the
[324]Fabian family ambassadors to them. These, [325]contrary to the
[326]law of [327]nations, [328]marched out into the [329]field with the
[330]Clusini against the [331]Gauls, which proceeding so [332]incensed
the latter, that [333]leaving [334]Clusium, they marched to Rome.
The Romans were [335]routed, and [336]put to [337]flight in the very
[338]first [339]attack at Allia. After which the city was [340]taken
and [341]burnt; the [342]Capitol, [343]whither the [344]flower of
the Roman [345]youth [346]retreated, was [347]besieged, and had it
not been for Manlius, who was afterwards surnamed [348]Capitolinus,
would have been [349]taken by the [350]barbarians in the [351]night
time; but he, being [352]awakened by the [353]cackling of [354]geese,
and [355]others [356]with him, [357]pushed the [358]Gauls [359]as
they [360]came up, [361]headlong down the precipice. [362]In the mean
time [363]Camillus, who was [364]then in [365]exile at Ardea, being
[366]recalled and [367]made [368]dictator, [369]raised an [370]army,
[371]came to Rome, [372]drove them out, and at [373]about [374]eight
[375]miles [376]distance from the city [377]utterly [378]destroyed
their [379]whole [380]army.


FOOTNOTES

[1] _Il re Tarquínio_

[2] _famíglia_

[3] _bandíto_

[4] _L. Giúnio Bruto_

[5] _L. Tarquínio Collatíno_

[6] _fatto_

[7] _consóle_

[8] _il primo_

[9] _sevéro_

[10] _flagelláre_

[11] _decapitáre_

[12] _favoríre_

[13] _i re bandíti_

[14] _grande_

[15] _amíco_

[16] _púbblico_

[17] _libertà_

[18] _campo_

[19] _situato_

[20] _fra_

[21] _Tévere_

[22] _consacráto_

[23] _Marte_

[24] _indi_

[25] _chiamáto_

[26] _Campo Marzio_

[27] _Bruto_

[28] _moríre_

[29] _guerra_

[30] _contro_

[31] _riuscirono a persuadére_

[32] _vicíno_

[33] _nazióne_

[34] _assístere_

[35] _fra_

[36] _gli altri_

[37] _fare_

[38] _favóre_

[39] _bravúra_

[40] _Orázio Coclide_

[41] _rimarchevole_

[42] _mantenére_

[43] _conflítto_

[44] _contro_

[45] _vittorióso_

[46] _nemico_

[47] _infinchè_

[48] _ponte_

[49] _tagliáto_

[50] _allóra_

[51] _nuotáre e traversáre_

[52] _fiúme_

[53] _dovére_

[54] _passáre in silenzio_

[55] _nóbile_

[56] _intraprèsa_

[57] _Muzio Scévola_

[58] _segretaménte_

[59] _entráre_

[60] _nemíco_

[61] _campo_

[62] _risoluzióne_

[63] _uccídere_

[64] _ma_

[65] _isbáglio_

[66] _ammazzáre_

[67] _méttere_

[68] _mano_

[69] _fuóco_

[70] _altáre_

[71] _spaventáre_

[72] _fare_

[73] _pace_

[74] _ritornáre_

[75] _casa_

[76] _dopo_

[77] _Latíno_

[78] _guerra_

[79] _sotto_

[80] _condótta_

[81] _Ottávio Mamílio_

[82] _genero_

[83] _contro_

[84] _Postúmio_

[85] _dittatóre_

[86] _víncere_

[87] _memorábile_

[88] _battáglia_

[89] _Lago Regíllo_

[90] _dopo_

[91] _proclamáre_

[92] _contro_

[93] _Volsci_

[94] _leváre_

[95] _truppe_

[96] _mandáre_

[97] _soccórso_

[98] _Latíno_

[99] _precedente_

[100] _fortúna_

[101] _Caio Marzio Corioláno_

[102] _segnaláto_

[103] _condannáto_

[104] _assénza_

[105] _ritirársi_

[106] _consigliáre_

[107] _ricominciáre_

[108] _condótta_

[109] _scelto_

[110] _generále_

[111] _Tullio Accio_

[112] _sconfítto_

[113] _parécchie_

[114] _battáglia_

[115] _avanzáre_

[116] _infíno alle mura_

[117] _commósso_

[118] _preghiéra_

[119] _madre_

[120] _leváre_

[121] _assédio_

[122] _morte_

[123] _Corioláno_

[124] _continuáre_

[125] _confederatisi_

[126] _con gli_

[127] _Equi_

[128] _Erníci_

[129] _furono insieme potentemente_

[130] _battúto_

[131] _Spúrio Cássio_

[132] _tre volte_

[133] _consóle_

[134] _questi esaltáto_

[135] _succésso_

[136] _aspiráre_

[137] _trono_

[138] _ma_

[139] _impedíto_

[140] _diségno_

[141] _precipitáto_

[142] _rupe Tarpéa_

[143] _fondazióne_

[144] _plebe_

[145] _molto_

[146] _indebitáto_

[147] _irritáto_

[148] _crudeltà_

[149] _creditóre_

[150] _ritirársi_

[151] _di là_

[152] _Aniéno_

[153] _sacro monte_

[154] _riconciliáto_

[155] _pacifico_

[156] _persuasióne_

[157] _Menénio Agríppa_

[158] _prima_

[159] _ottenúto_

[160] _padre_

[161] _ufficiále_

[162] _costituíto_

[163] _protéggere_

[164] _violénza_

[165] _patrízj_

[166] _chiamáto_

[167] _tribúni_

[168] _popolo_

[169] _Vejénti_

[170] _famíglia_

[171] _Fabj_

[172] _intrapréndere_

[173] _maneggiáre_

[174] _accampáre_

[175] _fiúme_

[176] _Cremera_

[177] _acchiappáre_

[178] _nemíco_

[179] _uccíso_

[180] _giórno_

[181] _número_

[182] _Volsci_

[183] _continuáre_

[184] _spesso_

[185] _vinto_

[186] _specialménte_

[187] _Quínzio Cincinnáto_

[188] _Anzio_

[189] _metrópoli_

[190] _nazióne_

[191] _dopo_

[192] _preso_

[193] _áratro_

[194] _fatto_

[195] _dittatóre_

[196] _contro_

[197] _Equi_

[198] _liberáre_

[199] _consóle_

[200] _Minúcio_

[201] _assediáto_

[202] _forzáre_

[203] _nemico_

[204] _passáre sotto il_

[205] _giógo_

[206] _dopo_

[207] _fondazióne_

[208] _prima_

[209] _Cristo_

[210] _forma_

[211] _govérno_

[212] _cambiáto_

[213] _perchè_

[214] _invéce di_

[215] _consóle_

[216] _decemvíri_

[217] _creáto_

[218] _suprémo_

[219] _autorità_

[220] _fare_

[221] _legge_

[222] _pópolo_

[223] _sul modello di quello_

[224] _portáto_

[225] _Grécia_

[226] _abusáre_

[227] _potére_

[228] _obbligáto_

[229] _dimettere_

[230] _autorità_

[231] _cónsole_

[232] _tribúno_

[233] _ristabilíto_

[234] _tempo_

[235] _carestía_

[236] _procuráre_

[237] _arriváre_

[238] _trono_

[239] _distribuíre_

[240] _grano_

[241] _fra_

[242] _popolo_

[243] _ammazzáto_

[244] _órdine_

[245] _Quínzio Cincinnáto_

[246] _dittatóre_

[247] _C. Servílio Ahala_

[248] _maestro della cavalleria_

[249] _seguénte_

[250] _Fidenáti_

[251] _rivoltársi_

[252] _Larte Tolúnnio_

[253] _Vejénti_

[254] _méttere_

[255] _morte_

[256] _státua_

[257] _errétto_

[258] _fóro_

[259] _Vejénti_

[260] _l’anno dopo_

[261] _soggiogáto_

[262] _Mamérco Emílio_

[263] _dittatóre_

[264] _Tolúnnio_

[265] _ammazzáto_

[266] _Cornélio Cosso_

[267] _secóndo_

[268] _Romolo_

[269] _dedicáre_

[270] _spóglia_

[271] _chiamáto_

[272] _Opíme_

[273] _Gióve Feretrio_

[274] _censóre_

[275] _stabilíre_

[276] _tenére_

[277] _uffício_

[278] _al princípio_

[279] _cinque_

[280] _anno_

[281] _ma_

[282] _dopo_

[283] _ridótto_

[284] _Mamérco Emílio_

[285] _dittatóre_

[286] _mezzo_

[287] _dittatóre_

[288] _A. Postúmio_

[289] _fortunáto_

[290] _contro_

[291] _Equi_

[292] _Volsci_

[293] _macchiáre_

[294] _vittória_

[295] _sangue_

[296] _figlio_

[297] _decapitáre_

[298] _combáttere_

[299] _contro_

[300] _órdine_

[301] _città_

[302] _Vej_

[303] _preso_

[304] _Camíllo_

[305] _dopo_

[306] _assédio_

[307] _diéci_

[308] _pariménte_

[309] _ridúrre_

[310] _Falísci_

[311] _non tanto_

[312] _arme_

[313] _opinióne_

[314] _giustízia_

[315] _grande_

[316] _riuscita_

[317] _quasi_

[318] _rovináto_

[319] _Galli Sénoni_

[320] _méttere_

[321] _assédio_

[322] _Clusio_

[323] _mandáre_

[324] _famíglia de’ Fabj_

[325] _contro_

[326] _dirítto_

[327] _gente_

[328] _marciáre_

[329] _campo_

[330] _Clusíni_

[331] _Galli_

[332] _irritáre_

[333] _lasciáre_

[334] _Clusio_

[335] _sconfítto_

[336] _messo_

[337] _fuga_

[338] _primo_

[339] _attácco_

[340] _preso_

[341] _abbruciáto_

[342] _Campidóglio_

[343] _dove_

[344] _fiore_

[345] _gioventù_

[346] _ritirársi_

[347] _assediáto_

[348] _Capitolíno_

[349] _preso_

[350] _bárbaro_

[351] _notte tempo_

[352] _svegliáto_

[353] _il gracchiáre_

[354] _oca_

[355] _altro_

[356] _con_

[357] _buttáre_

[358] _Galli_

[359] _a misura che_

[360] _presentarsi_

[361] _a capo in giù nel precipízio_

[362] _nell’istésso tempo_

[363] _Camíllo_

[364] _allóra_

[365] _esílio_

[366] _richiamáto_

[367] _fatto_

[368] _dittatóre_

[369] _leváre_

[370] _armáta_

[371] _veníre_

[372] _scacciáre_

[373] _incírca_

[374] _otto_

[375] _míglia_

[376] _distánza_

[377] _completamente_

[378] _distrúggere_

[379] _tutto_

[380] _armáta_



CHAP. IV.

_(Of the World, 3670--Of Rome, 370.)_


The city being [1]destroyed by the Gauls, the Romans had [2]thoughts
of [3]leaving it, and [4]removing to [5]Veii; but were [6]dissuaded
from that [7]design by [8]Camillus; [9]whilst [10]Marcus Manlius (who
[11]obtained the [12]surname of [13]Capitolinus for his [14]noble
[15]defence of the [16]Capitol) [17]endeavoured by [18]ambition and
[19]popular [20]favour [21]to possess himself of the [22]supreme
[23]power, he was [24]thrown from the [25]Tarpeian rock, which he had
[26]defended, in the year 370.

In the year 377, there was a [27]strong [28]contest [29]between the
[30]nobility and the [31]people. [32]C. Licinius Stolo and [33]L.
Sextius, [34]tribunes of [35]the people, [36]proposed a [37]law
for [38]choosing [39]one of the consuls out [40]of the people.
They [41]carried their point at last, in the year 387, and in the
[42]following year [43]L. Sextius was elected consul.

[44]After this, the Romans had [45]war with the [46]Tiburtes, the
[47]Tarquinenses, and [48]Falisci; and again with the [49]Gauls, who
being [50]drawn up [51]in order of [52]battle, one of them [53]sent a
[54]challenge to the Romans, and was [55]slain by [56]one M. Valerius,
a [57]tribune of the [58]soldiers, by the [59]assistance of a [60]crow,
who [61]from thence had the [62]surname of [63]Corvinus.

[64]But of all their [65]wars, none was more [66]troublesome and
[67]lasting than that [68]against the [69]Samnites; which the Romans
[70]undertook the year of the city 411, at the [71]request of the
[72]Campani. It [73]lasted [74]seventy years; [75]though they were
[76]several times [77]beaten, as in the year 413, in which the
[78]Latins [79]rose up in arms [80]against the Romans, but were the
year after [81]conquered by the [82]consuls Torquatus and Decius;
the [83]former of whom [84]beheaded his own [85]son for [86]fighting
[87]without his [88]order; the [89]other [90]devoted himself to
[91]destruction for the [92]army; after which the [93]enemies
[94]submitted, but [95]soon after [96]rebelling again, they were [97]at
last [98]entirely [99]reduced in the year 416.

[100]About this time the [101]Gauls [102]made a [103]peace with the
Romans, which they [104]kept [105]thirty years. But in 450, the
[106]Cisalpine, [107]together with the [108]Transalpine [109]Gauls,
and the [110]Tuscans, [111]laid waste the [112]Roman [113]territories.
The Cisalpine [114]returning [115]home [116]loaded with [117]spoils,
[118]fell out together about them. [119]Four years after that, having
[120]joined the [121]Samnites and [122]Tuscans, they fell [123]upon the
Roman [124]army [125]commanded by [126]L. Scipio, the [127]proprætor,
in which [128]battle, [129]P. Decius [130]the consul [131]devoted
himself.

[132]Ten years after this, the [133]Galli Senones being [134]invited
by the [135]Lucani, [136]Brutii, Samnites, and Tuscans, [137]besieged
[138]Aretium, and having [139]vanquished [140]L. Cæcilius the
[141]prætor, [142]killed 13,000 Romans; which [143]overthrow the
consul Dolobella [144]revenged upon them [145]soon after; for having
[146]routed the [147]Gauls, and [148]taken their city of Sena,
[149]he sent a [150]colony there. The [151]Boii being [152]moved at
the [153]hard [154]fate of the [155]Senones, [156]entered into an
[157]alliance with the [158]Tuscans, and [159]engaged the Romans
at the [160]lake of [161]Vadimon; in which [162]battle [163]almost
[164]all the Tuscans were [165]slain, and very [166]few of the Boii
[167]escaped. This [168]happened in the year of the city 471; but in
the [169]following year the Boii were [170]entirely [171]reduced, which
was [172]about three years [173]before [174]Pyrrhus, [175]came into
[176]Italy.

The [177]Palæpolitani [178]likewise, [179]where [180]now [181]Naples
is, [182]venturing to make war upon the Romans, were [183]subdued the
third year [184]after, [185]that is to say, in the year of the city
428, by [186]Publius the proconsul.

The [187]twelve [188]nations of the Tuscans, [189]rising for the
[190]utter ruin [191]of the Roman name in the year of the city 442,
were [192]routed in a great [193]battle by Fabius the [194]consul,
in the [195]year 444, in which were [196]slain, or [197]taken of the
[198]enemy, to the [199]number of 60,000.

In the year 472, the [200]Tarentines, [201]brought the [202]Romans
against them [203]by plundering their [204]fleet, and [205]assailing
their [206]ambassadors, who [207]came to [208]complain of the
[209]injury. They, [210]together with the [211]Samnites, and
[212]Salentines, were [213]defeated by L. [214]Æmilius Barbula.
[215]Terrified at this [216]ill fortune, they [217]sent for
[218]Pyrrhus to their [219]assistance; who, in the year of the
city 474, having [220]brought over an [221]army into [222]Italy,
[223]waged against the Romans [224]a war which [225]lasted six
years. In the [226]first [227]encounter the Romans, [228]headed by
[229]Lævinus, being [230]conquered, not so much by the [231]strength
of the [232]enemy, as by the [233]strange [234]shape of the
[235]elephants, [236]yielded up the [237]day: Pyrrhus [238]dismissed
all the [239]prisoners [240]without [241]ransom. [242]Soon after,
having [243]made some [244]fruitless [245]overtures of [246]peace
by his [247]ambassador [248]Cyneas ([249]for [250]Appius Claudius
[251]obstructed it), he [252]engaged the Romans [253]twice: the
[254]victory [255]both times being [256]dubious. He was [257]then
[258]invited by the [259]Syracusans [260]into Sicily against
[261]the Carthaginians; [262]where [263]matters [264]not succeeding
[265]according to his [266]desires, he [267]returned into [268]Italy
in the year 479; and being [269]defeated, [270]forced out of his
[271]camp, and [272]beaten from [273]Tarentum, he returned into
[274]Epirus.


FOOTNOTES

[1] _distrúggere_

[2] _idea_

[3] _abbandonáre_

[4] _traslocarsi_

[5] _Vej_

[6] _dissuáso_

[7] _diségno_

[8] _Camíllo_

[9] _mentre_

[10] _Marco Mánlio_

[11] _ottenere_

[12] _cognóme_

[13] _Capitolíno_

[14] _nóbile_

[15] _difésa_

[16] _campidóglio_

[17] _cercáre_

[18] _ambizione_

[19] _popoláre_

[20] _favóre_

[21] _impadronírsi_

[22] _suprémo_

[23] _potére_

[24] _precipitáto_

[25] _rocca Tarpéa_

[26] _diféndere_

[27] _grande_

[28] _contésa_

[29] _fra_

[30] _nobiltà_

[31] _popolo_

[32] _C. Licínio Stolone_

[33] _L. Séstio_

[34] _tribúno_

[35] _popolo_

[36] _propórre_

[37] _legge_

[38] _scegliere_

[39] _cónsole_

[40] _d’infra’l popolo_

[41] _riuscíre_

[42] _seguénte_

[43] _L. Séstio fu eletto cónsole_

[44] _dopo_

[45] _guerra_

[46] _Tibúrti_

[47] _Tarquiniési_

[48] _Falísci_

[49] _Gálli_

[50] _méttersi_

[51] _órdine_

[52] _battáglia_

[53] _mandáre_

[54] _disfída_

[55] _uccídere_

[56] _certo M. Valério_

[57] _tribúno_

[58] _soldato_

[59] _assisténza_

[60] _corvo_

[61] _da ció_

[62] _cognóme_

[63] _Corvíno_

[64] _ma_

[65] _guerra_

[66] _gravóso_

[67] _lunga_

[68] _contro_

[69] _Sanníti_

[70] _intrapréndere_

[71] _richiésta_

[72] _Campáni_

[73] _duráre_

[74] _settánta_

[75] _benchè_

[76] _spesse volte_

[77] _battúto_

[78] _Latíno_

[79] _préndere l’armi_

[80] _contro_

[81] _vincere_

[82] _cónsoli Torquáto e Decio_

[83] _primo_

[84] _decapitáre_

[85] _figliuólo_

[86] _aver combáttuto_

[87] _senza_

[88] _órdine_

[89] _altro_

[90] _consacrársi_

[91] _morte_

[92] _armáta_

[93] _nemíco_

[94] _sottomettérsi_

[95] _poco dopo_

[96] _ribelláre_

[97] _alla fine_

[98] _affátto_

[99] _ridótto_

[100] _incírca_

[101] _Galli_

[102] _fare_

[103] _pace_

[104] _mantenere_

[105] _trenta_

[106] _Cisalpíno_

[107] _assieme con_

[108] _Transalpíno_

[109] _Galli_

[110] _Toscáni_

[111] _dare il guasto a_

[112] _Románo_

[113] _território_

[114] _ritornáre_

[115] _casa_

[116] _carico_

[117] _spóglia_

[118] _contendere_

[119] _quattro_

[120] _unírsi_

[121] _Sanníti_

[122] _Toscáni_

[123] _assalíre_

[124] _armáta_

[125] _comandáre_

[126] _L. Scipióne_

[127] _propretóre_

[128] _battáglia_

[129] _P. Decio_

[130] _cónsole_

[131] _sacrificò se stesso_

[132] _diéci_

[133] _Galli Senoni_

[134] _invitáto_

[135] _Lucáni_

[136] _Bruzi_

[137] _assediáre_

[138] _Arezzo_

[139] _víncere_

[140] _L. Cecílio_

[141] _pretore_

[142] _ammazzáre_

[143] _sconfítta_

[144] _vendicáre_

[145] _poco dopo_

[146] _sconfíggere_

[147] _Galli_

[148] _preso_

[149] _mandáre_

[150] _colónia_

[151] _Boj_

[152] _commósso_

[153] _duro_

[154] _condizione_

[155] _Senoni_

[156] _entráre_

[157] _alleánza_

[158] _Toscáni_

[159] _veníre a giornáta con_

[160] _lago_

[161] _Vadimóne_

[162] _battáglia_

[163] _quasi_

[164] _tutto_

[165] _uccíso_

[166] _poco_

[167] _scampáre_

[168] _succédere_

[169] _seguente_

[170] _affátto_

[171] _sottomesso_

[172] _incírca_

[173] _primachè_

[174] _Pirro_

[175] _veníre_

[176] _Itália_

[177] _Palepolitáni_

[178] _pariménte_

[179] _dove_

[180] _adésso_

[181] _Napóli_

[182] _avventuráre_

[183] _soggiogáto_

[184] _dopo_

[185] _cioè a dire_

[186] _próconsole Públio_

[187] _dódici_

[188] _nazióne_

[189] _essendosi levate in armi_

[190] _totale_

[191] _sterminio_

[192] _sconfíggere_

[193] _battáglia_

[194] _cónsole_

[195] _anno_

[196] _uccíso_

[197] _preso_

[198] _nemíco_

[199] _numero_

[200] _Tarentíni_

[201] _tirársi addósso_

[202] _Románo_

[203] _saccheggiáre_

[204] _flotta_

[205] _maltrattáre_

[206] _ambasciadóre_

[207] _veníre_

[208] _lamentársi_

[209] _ingiúria_

[210] _insiéme_

[211] _Sanníti_

[212] _Salentíni_

[213] _sconfítto_

[214] _Emílio Bárbula_

[215] _spaventáto_

[216] _sventúra_

[217] _mandár a cercáre_

[218] _Pirro_

[219] _ajúto_

[220] _trasportáre_

[221] _armáta_

[222] _Itália_

[223] _fare_

[224] _guerra_

[225] _duráre_

[226] _prima_

[227] _zuffa_

[228] _comandáto_

[229] _Lavínio_

[230] _superato_

[231] _sforza_

[232] _nemíco_

[233] _strano_

[234] _forma_

[235] _elefánte_

[236] _cédere_

[237] _vittoria_

[238] _rimandáre_

[239] _prigioniéro_

[240] _senza_

[241] _taglia_

[242] _poco dopo_

[243] _fatto_

[244] _inútile_

[245] _trattative_

[246] _pace_

[247] _ambasciadóre_

[248] _Cinéa_

[249] _perchè_

[250] _Áppio Cláudio_

[251] _impedíre_

[252] _attaccáre_

[253] _due volte_

[254] _vittória_

[255] _due_

[256] _dubbio_

[257] _allóra_

[258] _invitáto_

[259] _Siracuséi_

[260] _ad andáre in_

[261] _Cartaginése_

[262] _dove_

[263] _cosa_

[264] _riuscíre_

[265] _secóndo_

[266] _desiderio_

[267] _ritornáre_

[268] _Itália_

[269] _sconfítto_

[270] _forzato di sloggiáre_

[271] _accampamento_

[272] _scacciato_

[273] _Táranto_

[274] _Epíro_



CHAP. V.

_(Of the World, 3790--Of Rome, 490.)_


[1]After this, a [2]war [3]broke out [4]between the Romans and the
[5]Carthaginians, in the year of the city 490, [6]occasioned by the
[7]ambition and [8]formidable [9]power of each of them. [10]Hiero,
king of Syracuse, and [11]ally of the Carthaginians, [12]made war
against the [13]Mamertini, who had [14]seized upon Messana. They
[15]applied to the Romans for [16]help, who [17]carrying over an
[18]army into [19]Sicily, [20]fell upon Hiero, and the Carthaginians.
The [21]fortune of the war was for a [22]long time very [23]doubtful;
the Carthaginians [24]being successful by [25]sea, and the Romans
by [26]land. The most [27]memorable [28]person in all this war was
[29]Attilius Regulus, who having [30]brought the Carthaginians [31]very
low by two [32]victories [33]obtained over them at sea and land; and
[34]refusing to [35]grant them [36]peace but upon [37]hard terms, he
was [38]vanquished by [39]Xantippus the [40]Lacedæmonian [41]general,
and [42]taken [43]prisoner with 15,000 [44]men, 30,000 being
[45]slain, in the year 498. Being [46]afterwards [47]sent to [48]Rome
by the [49]Carthaginians, to [50]treat with the [51]senate upon an
[52]exchange of [53]prisoners, he [54]interposed to [55]prevent it, and
[56]returning to [57]Carthage, was [58]put to [59]death in the most
[60]cruel [61]manner [62]imaginable, as [63]many [64]authors [65]tell
us. The [66]first among the Romans that [67]obtained a [68]victory
by sea, was C. [69]Duilius, in the first year of this [70]war. C.
[71]Lutatius [72]gained [73]another in the 23rd and [74]last year; in
which he [75]made an end of the war with the Carthaginians, [76]near
the [77]island of the [78]Ægates. A [79]peace was [80]concluded upon
these [81]terms, that they should [82]quit all the islands which
[83]lie between Italy and Africa, and should [84]pay [85]yearly 2,200
[86]talents for [87]twenty years [88]together. This [89]happened in the
year of the city 513, and 241 before [90]Christ.

In the year 519, the [91]temple of [92]Janus was [93]shut, which very
rarely [94]happened in Rome; but upon the [95]breaking out of new
wars, it was [96]soon [97]open again. The [98]Ligures, the Sardi, and
Corsi were [99]subdued; after which the Romans [100]had war with the
[101]Illyrians, and their [102]queen Teuta, which war was [103]ended in
[104]three years time. There [105]happened [106]about this [107]time a
[108]dreadful [109]irruption of the [110]Gauls. The [111]Insubres and
[112]Boii, having [113]first [114]sent for some [115]transalpine Gauls,
[116]fell upon the Romans, [117]on account of the [118]land in Picene,
that had been [119]taken from the Galli [120]Senones, and [121]disposed
of by [122]Flaminius, [123]tribune of the [124]people, by virtue of
the [125]Agrarian law, [126]made in the year of the city 452. They
were [127]several times [128]worsted, and the Insubres [129]entirely
[130]subdued, and king [131]Virdumarus [132]slain by C. [133]Marcellus,
the [134]consul, who was the only person after [135]Romulus that
[136]consecrated [137]Opima Spolia to [138]Jupiter Feretrius. In this
war Hiero, king of Sicily, [139]sent the Romans a [140]vast quantity of
[141]corn, the [142]price of which he [143]received after the war was
[144]ended.

After this, [145]followed a [146]second war with the Carthaginians,
four and twenty years after the [147]end of the [148]former; which
[149]indeed did not [150]last [151]so long, but was [152]so much
more [153]terrible for the [154]dreadful [155]slaughter that was
made in it ([156]says Florus) that if [157]any one [158]compared
the [159]losses on [160]each side, the [161]people that [162]proved
[163]victorious [164]seemed more [165]likely to be [166]conquered. The
first cause of this war was the [167]same with that of the former,
[168]ambition and the [169]impatience of the Carthaginians [170]under
their [171]servitude. The first cause of this [172]combustion was
[173]Hannibal, the son of [174]Hamilcar, who was [175]general of the
[176]Carthaginians in the [177]former [178]war, and had [179]accepted
the [180]conditions of peace [181]with a heavy heart. For after
[182]affairs were [183]settled in Africa, being [184]sent into
[185]Spain, in the year of the city 517, he [186]carried along with
him Hannibal, who [187]was then nine years old, having [188]first
[189]brought him before an [190]altar, and [191]made him [192]swear
that he [193]never would be a [194]friend to the Romans. Hamilcar
being [195]slain about nine years after, Asdrubal, his son-in-law,
was [196]put in his [197]place. He [198]sent for Hannibal, and
being slain himself eight years after, was [199]succeeded by him,
[200]being in the 27th year of his age. [201]As soon as he was made
[202]general, he [203]conquered all Spain within the river [204]Iberus.
After that he [205]fell upon the [206]town of [207]Saguntum with
all his [208]forces, and [209]took it, after a [210]siege of seven
[211]months. The [212]Saguntines having [213]in vain [214]waited for
[215]assistance from the Romans, [216]were all destroyed [217]partly by
the [218]enemy’s [219]sword, and [220]partly by their own [221]hands.
This war [222]broke out in the year of the city 536; and [223]lasted
seventeen years.

Upon the first [224]coming of Hannibal into Italy, both the
[225]consuls were [226]defeated, P. [227]Cornelius at [228]Ticinum, and
[229]Sempronius at Trebia. They [230]received a greater [231]overthrow
the [232]following year near the [233]Thrasymene [234]lake. [235]In
the mean time, Q. [236]Fabius Maximus being made [237]dictator by
the [238]people, [239]recovered in some [240]measure the Roman
[241]affairs. But the most [242]fatal [243]stroke was that of Cannæ, in
the year of the city 538, [244]occasioned by the [245]rashness of one
of the [246]consuls, [247]Terentius Varro. [248]Forty thousand Romans
were [249]killed in that [250]battle: [251]however, their [252]courage
was not [253]cast down by this [254]overthrow; [255]for they would
not [256]redeem those that had been [257]taken [258]prisoners, in
the battle of Cannæ. In the year 540, the [259]consul [260]Marcellus
[261]besieged [262]Syracuse, which had [263]declared for the
Carthaginians; it was [264]wonderfully [265]defended a long time by
the [266]contrivance of [267]Archimedes, who was an [268]excellent
[269]astronomer, but more [270]famous for the [271]invention of
[272]military [273]engines. It was [274]taken [275]at last with
[276]much [277]difficulty, after a [278]siege of three years. We are
[279]told that Archimedes being very [280]intent upon his [281]study
at that time, and not [282]minding the [283]hurry, and [284]noise of
the [285]army, when they [286]broke into the [287]town, was [288]killed
by a [289]soldier; that Marcellus was much [290]concerned for his
[291]death, having [292]given [293]strict [294]charge to his [295]men
to [296]spare his [297]life.

[298]In the mean time, [299]Lævinus the [300]prætor [301]stopt
[302]Philip king of [303]Macedon, who having made an [304]alliance
with Hannibal, was [305]ready to [306]come into Italy, and [307]forced
him to [308]burn his [309]fleet, and [310]retreat into Macedon,
in the year of the city 542. But in Spain, the two [311]brothers
P. and C. [312]Scipio, who had [313]till then [314]prevented
Hasdrubal’s [315]passage into Italy to his brother Hannibal, and had
[316]performed a great many [317]gallant actions, were both slain,
and their [318]armies [319]destroyed. L. Marcus, a Roman knight,
being [320]chosen general, by the [321]votes of the [322]soldiers,
[323]upheld their [324]tottering [325]cause; by whose [326]conduct
in one [327]day, and a [328]night, two [329]camps of the [330]enemy
were [331]taken by [332]assault, and about [333]thirty-seven thousand
[334]men [335]slain. The [336]same year [337]Tarentum, [338]except
the [339]citadel, was taken by Hannibal; and Capua [340]besieged
by the Romans; and Hannibal [341]marched to Rome to [342]draw them
from it. But a [343]sudden [344]storm [345]arising, [346]forced
him from the [347]walls, and the [348]sight of it. Capua was after
that [349]surrendered to the Romans, the [350]grandees of which
[351]poisoned themselves; the [352]senators were [353]beheaded, and the
city [354]deprived of its [355]liberty.

There was a [356]son of that P. Scipio, who, as we have said was
[357]killed in [358]Spain, [359]named [360]likewise P. Scipio, who
after the [361]death of his [362]father and [363]uncle, was [364]sent
into Spain, [365]being but twenty-four years old. There having
[366]performed very great [367]things, and [368]vanquished Hasdrubal,
the son of [369]Gisco and [370]Mago, [371]he drove the Carthaginians
out of Spain, in five years after he [372]came there; from thence
[373]passing over into Africa, he [374]made an [375]alliance with
[376]Syphax, king of the [377]Masylians, and after that with Masanissa,
king of the [378]Masasulians. These things [379]were done in the
year 548, and the [380]third from the [381]death of [382]Marcellus;
who having been [383]successful in [384]several [385]battles with
Hannibal, was [386]at last, [387]trepanned by an [388]ambuscade, and
slain. In the [389]following year, Hasdrubal was [390]cut off, with his
[391]army [392]before he could [393]join his [394]brother, by the two
[395]consuls, [396]Claudius Nero and [397]Livius Salinator. Hannibal
was [398]then in Apulia, [399]opposed by Nero the consul. [400]Livy
was [401]encamped in [402]Cisalpine Gaul [403]against Hasdrubal, Nero
[404]marched [405]through Italy [406]privately, in six [407]days time,
[408]came to the [409]camp of his [410]colleague with a [411]part of
his [412]army, and having [413]conquered the [414]enemy, [415]returned
to his camp before Hannibal [416]perceived that he was [417]gone.
There are [418]said to have been 56,000 of the [419]enemy [420]slain
in the [421]battle, and 5,400 [422]taken [423]prisoners. The head
[424]of Hasdrubal was [425]thrown before the [426]advanced guard of the
Carthaginians by Nero.

P. Scipio [427]resolved to [428]carry the [429]war into Africa, that
he might [430]draw Hannibal out of Italy; but [431]at first that being
[432]looked upon as a [433]rash [434]design, he had neither [435]money
nor [436]men from the [437]government. [438]Wherefore, having
[439]raised none but [440]volunteers, and [441]borrowed money, he first
[442]went to [443]Sicily, and [444]from thence to Africa, in the year
550; [445]when the [446]image of the [447]Idæan mother was [448]brought
from [449]Pessinus in [450]Phrygia, to Rome, [451]according to the
[452]advice of [453]the oracle.

The general [454]employed [455]against him by the [456]Carthaginians
was Hasdrubal, the son of Gisco, who had [457]contracted his daughter
[458]Sophonisba to Masanissa. But the Carthaginians had [459]given
her to [460]Syphax, (who being [461]in love with the [462]young
lady, [463]laid waste their [464]country in the [465]absence of her
[466]father and [467]husband) to [468]take him off from the Roman
[469]alliance: at which [470]usage Masanissa being [471]incensed, he
[472]gave himself up [473]entirely to the Roman [474]interest, and was
very [475]serviceable to them in [476]reducing the Carthaginians.

[477]After a great many [478]overthrows, the Carthaginians [479]found
themselves [480]obliged to [481]recall Hannibal out of Italy, to
the [482]defence of their country, where, after a [483]fruitless
[484]overture of [485]peace, he was [486]vanquished by Scipio, and an
[487]end was put to the [488]war, after it had [489]lasted seven years.

The second [490]Punic war was [491]followed by the [492]Macedonian,
[493]against king Philip. That which put the Romans upon it was the
[494]former injuries [495]Philip had done them, [496]as likewise the
late [497]vexation he had given their [498]allies, [499]especially
the Athenians, who being [500]harassed by the king, [501]fled to the
Romans. [502]At length [503]Titus Quinctius Flaminius [504]put an end
to the war, four years after it [505]began, by the [506]conquest of
Philip at [507]Cynoscephalæ, in [508]Thessaly.

After this [509]followed the war with [510]Antiochus, king of Asia, who
having [511]recovered Syria, and [512]conquered Scopas, the general
of [513]Ptolemæus Epiphanes, [514]began now to be [515]formidable to
the Romans, [516]against whom Hannibal did not a little [517]inflame
him; who, for [518]fear of the same [519]enemy, had [520]fled to
the king. The [521]ambassadors of the [522]Ætolians too, who were
now [523]averse to the Roman [524]alliance, [525]contributed not a
[526]little towards it. Antiochus [527]therefore having [528]clapped up
a peace with [529]Ptolemy, to whom he [530]gave his daughter Cleopatra
in [531]marriage, and [532]granted [533]Cœlo Syria, and [534]Judea by
way of [535]portion, [536]made war upon the Romans, which being begun
in the year of the city 562, [537]lasted three years in all. For in
the year 565, L. [538]Cornelius Scipio the [539]consul, [540]going
over into Asia, with his brother P. Scipio [541]Africanus, as his
[542]lieutenant, did, by the [543]assistance, [544]chiefly of his
[545]counsel, [546]conquer Antiochus. Livy [547]tells us, there were
50,000 [548]foot [549]slain in one [550]battle, and 4,000 [551]horse.
A peace was [552]granted Antiochus [553]upon the following condition
[554]among others, that he should [555]recede [556]from all the
countries [557]on this side [558]mount Taurus.

After Antiochus was [559]conquered, the Ætolians were [560]reduced by
Fulvius the consul; and the same year the Gallo-Greci were [561]subdued
by the other [562]consul, Cneius Manlius.

In the 149th [563]Olympiad [564]died three [565]famous generals, P.
Scipio, Hannibal, and [566]Philopæmen. Scipio was [567]impeached for
[568]taking [569]money of Antiochus for the peace [570]he granted
him; after which he [571]retired to [572]Liturnum in Campania, and
[573]died there in the year of the city 570. Hannibal a year or two
after (for [574]historians are not [575]agreed upon the [576]matter)
being [577]demanded of Drusias, king of Bythynia, by the Roman
[578]ambassadors, [579]in order to be [580]put to [581]death,
[582]poisoned himself. [583]About the [584]same time Philopæmen,
general of the [585]Achæans, was [586]taken by the [587]Messenians,
and [588]slain, after he had [589]forced to a [590]submission the
Lacedæmonians, who had [591]thrown off the Achæan [592]alliance.

In the mean time Philip, being [593]checked [594]rather than
[595]conquered in the [596]former war, was [597]very busy in
[598]making [599]preparations for [600]another; but before [601]matters
were [602]ripe [603]enough [604]for that purpose, he died, and
was [605]succeeded by his son [606]Perseus, who [607]went on with
the [608]preparations of war [609]against the Romans; which was
[610]finished in four years after its [611]beginning with the [612]ruin
of him and the [613]kingdom of Macedon [614]together, in the year of
the city 586. The general [615]employed by the Romans in that war, was
[616]Paulus Æmilius, who in one [617]battle, [618]wherein were slain
20,000 [619]men, and 11,000 [620]taken [621]prisoners, [622]put a
[623]final period to the [624]Macedonian [625]empire in the [626]11th
year of king Perseus. About the same time, [627]Gentius, king of the
[628]Illyrians, being [629]trepanned into an [630]alliance by Perseus,
was [631]conquered by [632]Amicius the [633]prætor.

After the [634]conquest of Antiochus, the Macedonians [635]rebelled
again, but were [636]subdued, and Macedon [637]reduced to the [638]rank
of a [639]province.

Some time after a war [640]broke out with the [641]Achæans, who having
[642]pulled down all the [643]walls of [644]Lacedæmon, and [645]taken
away their [646]ancient [647]laws, had [648]obliged them to [649]unite
with them; which the Lacedæmonians [650]complained of to the Romans,
who [651]sent [652]against the Achæans Metellus the prætor, by whom
they were [653]defeated in two [654]engagements at [655]Thermopylæ, and
in [656]Phocis; and [657]presently after [658]entirely reduced by the
consul [659]L. Nummius, and [660]Corinth, the [661]metropolis of their
[662]nation, [663]burnt.

The same year Carthage was [664]taken and [665]destroyed. The
[666]occasion of this war was a [667]difference [668]between Masanissa
and the Carthaginians [669]about their [670]territories; which
[671]controversy being [672]referred to the Romans, they obliged the
Carthaginians to [673]give up the [674]country in [675]dispute, and
[676]money, also, to Masanissa. But the Romans had [677]before-hand
[678]resolved [679]utterly to [680]raze Carthage, [681]right or wrong,
[682]chiefly at the [683]instigation of [684]Marcus Cato the censor,
who, whenever he [685]gave his [686]opinion upon any [687]debate in the
[688]senate, [689]used [690]finally to [691]add, Carthage [692]must be
[693]destroyed. [694]Wherefore in the year of the city 605, Carthage
was [695]besieged by the consuls [696]Manilius and [697]Censorinus.
They soon after [698]surrendered to the Romans; but being [699]ordered
to [700]demolish their city, and [701]fix themselves at ten [702]miles
[703]distance from the [704]sea, they were so [705]inflamed with
[706]fury and [707]despair, that they [708]held out even [709]beyond
their [710]strength, [711]till in the fourth year, the [712]same
in which [713]Corinth was destroyed, it was [714]taken by [715]P.
Cornelius Scipio, the [716]proconsul, who was [717]Paulus Æmilius’s
son, and had been [718]adopted by the son of Scipio Africanus. At
the [719]beginning of the war Masanissa, king of the [720]Numidians,
[721]died, in the 97th year of his [722]age, having [723]left behind
him forty-four sons, and [724]continued [725]an ally of the Romans near
60 years.


FOOTNOTES

[1] _dopo_

[2] _guerra_

[3] _destarsi_

[4] _tra_

[5] _Cartaginése_

[6] _causáre_

[7] _ambizióne_

[8] _formidábile_

[9] _potére_

[10] _Gerone_

[11] _alleáto_

[12] _guerreggiáre_

[13] _Mamertíni_

[14] _usurpáto_

[15] _ricorrere_

[16] _ajúto_

[17] _trasportáre_

[18] _armáta_

[19] _Sicília_

[20] _attaccáre_

[21] _sorte_

[22] _lungo tempo_

[23] _incérto_

[24] _prosperando_

[25] _mare_

[26] _terra_

[27] _memorábile_

[28] _persóna_

[29] _Attílio Régolo_

[30] _abbattúto_

[31] _fortemente_

[32] _vittória_

[33] _riportáto_

[34] _rifiutáre_

[35] _accordáre_

[36] _pace_

[37] _dure condizioni_

[38] _vinto_

[39] _Santíppo_

[40] _Lacedémone_

[41] _generále_

[42] _fatto_

[43] _prigióne_

[44] _uómo_

[45] _uccíso_

[46] _indi_

[47] _mandáto_

[48] _Roma_

[49] _Cartaginési_

[50] _trattáre_

[51] _senáto_

[52] _cámbio_

[53] _prigioniéro_

[54] _interpórre_

[55] _impedíre_

[56] _tornáre_

[57] _Cartágine_

[58] _messo_

[59] _morte_

[60] _crudéle_

[61] _maniéra_

[62] _immaginábile_

[63] _molto_

[64] _autóre_

[65] _rapportáre_

[66] _primo_

[67] _riportáre_

[68] _vittória_

[69] _Duílio_

[70] _guerra_

[71] _Lutázio_

[72] _guadagnare_

[73] _altro_

[74] _último_

[75] _termináre_

[76] _vicíno_

[77] _ísola_

[78] _Egáte_

[79] _pace_

[80] _conclúso_

[81] _condizióne_

[82] _abbandonáre_

[83] _situáto_

[84] _pagáre_

[85] _annualménte_

[86] _talénto_

[87] _venti_

[88] _di séguito_

[89] _succédere_

[90] _Cristo_

[91] _témpio_

[92] _Giáno_

[93] _chiúso_

[94] _raraménte_

[95] _scopiáre_

[96] _presto_

[97] _apérto_

[98] _Líguri_

[99] _vinto_

[100] _guerreggiáre_

[101] _Illírici_

[102] _regína_

[103] _termináre_

[104] _tre anni_

[105] _avveníre_

[106] _incírca_

[107] _tempo_

[108] _terríbile_

[109] _incursióne_

[110] _Galli_

[111] _Insúbri_

[112] _Boj_

[113] _prima_

[114] _mandáre_

[115] _transalpíno_

[116] _attaccáre_

[117] _a cagióne_

[118] _terra_

[119] _tolto_

[120] _Sénoni_

[121] _distribuíre_

[122] _Flaminio_

[123] _tribuno_

[124] _pópolo_

[125] _legge Agrária_

[126] _fatto_

[127] _parécchie volte_

[128] _malmenato_

[129] _affátto_

[130] _soggiogato_

[131] _Virdumáro_

[132] _uccíso_

[133] _Marcéllo_

[134] _cónsole_

[135] _Rómolo_

[136] _consacráre_

[137] _Opíma spóglia_

[138] _Gióve Ferétrio_

[139] _mandáre_

[140] _imménsa quantità_

[141] _grano_

[142] _prezzo_

[143] _ricévere_

[144] _termináto_

[145] _seguíre_

[146] _secóndo_

[147] _fine_

[148] _precedénte_

[149] _alla verità_

[150] _duráre_

[151] _cotánto_

[152] _tanto_

[153] _più_

[154] _terríbile_

[155] _orréndo_

[156] _macéllo_

[157] _al dire di Floro_

[158] _paragonáre_

[159] _pérdita_

[160] _da ambe le parti_

[161] _nazione_

[162] _sortíre_

[163] _vittorióso_

[164] _parére_

[165] _più presto_

[166] _vinto_

[167] _stesso_

[168] _ambizióne_

[169] _impaziénza_

[170] _sotto_

[171] _servitù_

[172] _incéndio_

[173] _Anníbale_

[174] _Amílcare_

[175] _generále_

[176] _Cartaginési_

[177] _antecedénte_

[178] _guerra_

[179] _accettáto_

[180] _condizióne_

[181] _di mal animo_

[182] _affáre_

[183] _stabilíto_

[184] _mandáto_

[185] _Spagna_

[186] _condurre seco_

[187] _avére allóra nove anni_

[188] _primieraménte_

[189] _presentáto_

[190] _altáre_

[191] _fatto_

[192] _giuráre_

[193] _mai_

[194] _amíco_

[195] _uccíso_

[196] _messo_

[197] _posto_

[198] _mandár a cercáre_

[199] _succédere_

[200] _in età di venti sette anni_

[201] _súbito che_

[202] _fatto_

[203] _conquistáre_

[204] _fiúme Ibéro_

[205] _investíre_

[206] _città_

[207] _Sagúnto_

[208] _forza_

[209] _préndere_

[210] _assédio_

[211] _mese_

[212] _Saguntíni_

[213] _indárno_

[214] _aspettáto_

[215] _assisténza_

[216] _períre tutti_

[217] _parte_

[218] _nemíco_

[219] _spada_

[220] _parte_

[221] _mano_

[222] _principiáre_

[223] _duráre_

[224] _venúta_

[225] _cónsole_

[226] _sconfítto_

[227] _Cornélio_

[228] _Ticíno_

[229] _Semprónio_

[230] _ricévere_

[231] _rotta_

[232] _seguénte_

[233] _Trasiméne_

[234] _lago_

[235] _nell’ istésso témpo_

[236] _Fábio Mássimo_

[237] _dittatóre_

[238] _pópolo_

[239] _rimettere_

[240] _modo_

[241] _affáre_

[242] _fatále_

[243] _colpo_

[244] _cagionáto_

[245] _temerità_

[246] _cónsole_

[247] _Terénzio Varróne_

[248] _quaránta mila_

[249] _uccíso_

[250] _battáglia_

[251] _con tutto ciò_

[252] _corággio_

[253] _abbattuto_

[254] _rotta_

[255] _così che_

[256] _riscattáre_

[257] _preso_

[258] _prigioniéro_

[259] _cónsole_

[260] _Marcéllo_

[261] _assediáre_

[262] _Siracúsa_

[263] _dichiaráto_

[264] _maravigliosaménte_

[265] _diféso_

[266] _ingégno_

[267] _Archímede_

[268] _eccellénte_

[269] _astrónomo_

[270] _famóso_

[271] _invenzióne_

[272] _militáre_

[273] _mácchina_

[274] _preso_

[275] _alla fine_

[276] _molto_

[277] _difficoltà_

[278] _assédio_

[279] _dire_

[280] _fisso_

[281] _stúdio_

[282] _badáre_

[283] _confusióne_

[284] _strépito_

[285] _armáta_

[286] _avventársi_

[287] _città_

[288] _uccíso_

[289] _soldáto_

[290] _afflítto_

[291] _morte_

[292] _dato_

[293] _precíso_

[294] _órdine_

[295] _génte_

[296] _salváre_

[297] _vita_

[298] _nell’ istésso tempo_

[299] _Lavínio_

[300] _pretóre_

[301] _fermáre_

[302] _Filíppo_

[303] _Macedónia_

[304] _alleánza_

[305] _stava per_

[306] _veníre_

[307] _forzáre_

[308] _abbruciáre_

[309] _flotta_

[310] _ritirársi_

[311] _fratéllo_

[312] _Scipióne_

[313] _fin allóra_

[314] _impedíto_

[315] _passággio_

[316] _fare_

[317] _azioni valorose_

[318] _armáta_

[319] _distrútta_

[320] _elétto_

[321] _voto_

[322] _soldáto_

[323] _sostenére_

[324] _vacillánte_

[325] _causa_

[326] _condótta_

[327] _giórno_

[328] _notte_

[329] _campo_

[330] _nemíco_

[331] _preso_

[332] _assálto_

[333] _trenta sette mila_

[334] _uómo_

[335] _uccíso_

[336] _stesso_

[337] _Táranto_

[338] _eccettuáto_

[339] _cittadella_

[340] _assediáto_

[341] _marciáre_

[342] _trarre_

[343] _repentíno_

[344] _tempésta_

[345] _sollevársi_

[346] _lo costrínse d’allontanarsi_

[347] _muro_

[348] _vista_

[349] _reso_

[350] _grande_

[351] _avvelenársi_

[352] _senatóre_

[353] _decapitáto_

[354] _priváto_

[355] _libertà_

[356] _figlio_

[357] _ammazzáto_

[358] _Spagna_

[359] _nomináto_

[360] _pariménte_

[361] _morte_

[362] _padre_

[363] _zio_

[364] _mandáto_

[365] _non avéndo che 24 anni_

[366] _fatto_

[367] _cosa_

[368] _vinto_

[369] _Giscóne_

[370] _Magóne_

[371] _scacciáre_

[372] _veníre_

[373] _passáre_

[374] _fare_

[375] _alleánza_

[376] _Sifáce_

[377] _Masiliáni_

[378] _Masasuliáni_

[379] _succédere_

[380] _terzo_

[381] _morte_

[382] _Marcéllo_

[383] _fortunáto_

[384] _molto_

[385] _battáglia_

[386] _alla fine_

[387] _tiráto_

[388] _imboscata_

[389] _seguente_

[390] _tagliáto a pezzi_

[391] _armáta_

[392] _prima che_

[393] _unírsi_

[394] _fratéllo_

[395] _cónsole_

[396] _Claudio Neróne_

[397] _Lívio Salinatóre_

[398] _allóra_

[399] _oppósto_

[400] _Lívio_

[401] _accampáto_

[402] _Gállia Cisalpína_

[403] _contro_

[404] _marciáre_

[405] _attravérso_

[406] _segretaménte_

[407] _giórno_

[408] _veníre_

[409] _campo_

[410] _colléga_

[411] _parte_

[412] _armáta_

[413] _vinto_

[414] _nemíco_

[415] _tornáre_

[416] _accórgersi_

[417] _andáto_

[418] _dire_

[419] _nemíco_

[420] _uccíso_

[421] _battáglia_

[422] _preso_

[423] _prigioniéro_

[424] _testa_

[425] _gettáta_

[426] _la guárdia avanzáta_

[427] _risólvere_

[428] _portáre_

[429] _guerra_

[430] _trarre_

[431] _alla prima_

[432] _consideráto_

[433] _temerário_

[434] _diségno_

[435] _danáro_

[436] _gente_

[437] _govérno_

[438] _perciò_

[439] _leváre_

[440] _voluntário_

[441] _pigliar ad imprestito_

[442] _andáre_

[443] _Sicília_

[444] _di là_

[445] _quando_

[446] _simulácro_

[447] _madre Idéa_

[448] _portáto_

[449] _Pessínno_

[450] _Frígia_

[451] _secóndo_

[452] _consíglio_

[453] _orácolo_

[454] _impiegáto_

[455] _contro_

[456] _Cartaginési_

[457] _promésso_

[458] _Sofonísba_

[459] _dato_

[460] _Sifáce_

[461] _innamoráto_

[462] _gióvane_

[463] _devastáre_

[464] _paése_

[465] _assénza_

[466] _padre_

[467] _consórte_

[468] _distrárre_

[469] _alleánza_

[470] _tratto_

[471] _irritáto_

[472] _dedicarsi_

[473] _affátto_

[474] _interésse_

[475] _utile_

[476] _debelláre_

[477] _dopo_

[478] _sconfítta_

[479] _trovársi_

[480] _obbligáto_

[481] _richiamáre_

[482] _difesa_

[483] _vano_

[484] _trattativa_

[485] _pace_

[486] _vinto_

[487] _termináto_

[488] _guerra_

[489] _duráto_

[490] _Púnico_

[491] _seguíto_

[492] _Macédonico_

[493] _contro_

[494] _precedénte_

[495] _ingiúria_

[496] _come anche_

[497] _fastídio_

[498] _confederáto_

[499] _specialménte_

[500] _molestáre_

[501] _volgersi_

[502] _alla fine_

[503] _Tito Quínzio Flamínio_

[504] _termináre_

[505] _principiáre_

[506] _col vincere_

[507] _Cinoscefále_

[508] _Tesságlia_

[509] _seguíre_

[510] _Antíoco_

[511] _ricuperáto_

[512] _conquistato_

[513] _Toloméo Epífane_

[514] _principiáre_

[515] _formidábile_

[516] _contro_

[517] _infiammáre_

[518] _paúra_

[519] _nemíco_

[520] _fuggíto_

[521] _ambasciadóre_

[522] _Etoliáni_

[523] _contrário_

[524] _alleánza_

[525] _contribuíre_

[526] _poco_

[527] _perciò_

[528] _fatto una pace finta_

[529] _Toloméo_

[530] _dare_

[531] _matrimónio_

[532] _concédere_

[533] _Celo Síria_

[534] _Giudéa_

[535] _dote_

[536] _impréndere guerra_

[537] _duráre_

[538] _Cornélio Scipióne_

[539] _cónsole_

[540] _passáre_

[541] _l’Africáno_

[542] _luogotenénte_

[543] _ajúto_

[544] _sopra tutto_

[545] _consíglio_

[546] _vincere_

[547] _dire_

[548] _soldati d’infantería_

[549] _uccíso_

[550] _battáglia_

[551] _cavalleria_

[552] _concésso a_

[553] _con questo patto_

[554] _fra_

[555] _ritirarsi_

[556] _da tutto il paese_

[557] _di quà dal_

[558] _monte Tauro_

[559] _vinto_

[560] _debelláto_

[561] _soggiogáto_

[562] _cónsole Gneo Mánlio_

[563] _Olimpíade_

[564] _moríre_

[565] _famóso_

[566] _Filopeméno_

[567] _accusato_

[568] _d’aver ricevuto_

[569] _danáro_

[570] _accordáre_

[571] _ritirársi_

[572] _Litúrno_

[573] _moríre_

[574] _istórico_

[575] _d’accórdo_

[576] _cosa_

[577] _richiésto_

[578] _ambasciadóre_

[579] _acciò_

[580] _messo_

[581] _morte_

[582] _avvelenársi_

[583] _incírca_

[584] _stesso tempo_

[585] _Achei_

[586] _preso_

[587] _Messenj_

[588] _uccíso_

[589] _costrétto_

[590] _sommettersi_

[591] _rinunziato_

[592] _alleánza_

[593] _sbattuto_

[594] _piuttósto_

[595] _debelláto_

[596] _precedénte_

[597] _affaccendáto_

[598] _fare_

[599] _preparatívo_

[600] _altro_

[601] _cosa_

[602] _matúro_

[603] _abbastánza_

[604] _a questo effetto_

[605] _gli successe_

[606] _Perséo_

[607] _continuáre_

[608] _preparatívo_

[609] _contro_

[610] _termináto_

[611] _princípio_

[612] _rovína_

[613] _regno_

[614] _ancóra_

[615] _impiegáto_

[616] _Páolo Emílio_

[617] _battáglia_

[618] _nella quále_

[619] _uómo_

[620] _fatto_

[621] _prigioniéro_

[622] _méttere_

[623] _termine_

[624] _Macedonico_

[625] _império_

[626] _undécimo_

[627] _Génzio_

[628] _Illírj_

[629] _trascinato_

[630] _alleánza_

[631] _vinto_

[632] _Amício_

[633] _pretóre_

[634] _sconfitta_

[635] _ribellársi_

[636] _soggiogáto_

[637] _ridótto_

[638] _forma_

[639] _província_

[640] _accendersi_

[641] _Achei_

[642] _demolíto_

[643] _mura_

[644] _Lacedemónia_

[645] _leváre via_

[646] _antíco_

[647] _legge_

[648] _obbligáre_

[649] _unírsi_

[650] _lamentársi_

[651] _mandáre_

[652] _contro_

[653] _sconfítto_

[654] _battáglia_

[655] _Termópile_

[656] _Focíde_

[657] _poco dopo_

[658] _affátto_

[659] _L. Númmio_

[660] _Corínti_

[661] _metrópoli_

[662] _nazióne_

[663] _bruciáto_

[664] _preso_

[665] _distrútto_

[666] _cagióne_

[667] _disputa_

[668] _tra_

[669] _rispétto a_

[670] _território_

[671] _controvérsia_

[672] _referito_

[673] _abbandonáre_

[674] _paése_

[675] _dispúta_

[676] _danáro_

[677] _anticipataménte_

[678] _risólvere_

[679] _intieraménte_

[680] _spianáre_

[681] _a diritto o a torto_

[682] _sopra tutto_

[683] _istigazióne_

[684] _Marco Catóne censóre_

[685] _dare_

[686] _opinióne_

[687] _discussióne_

[688] _senáto_

[689] _solére_

[690] _per conclusione_

[691] _aggiúngere_

[692] _bisógna_

[693] _distrútto_

[694] _perciò_

[695] _assediáto_

[696] _Manílio_

[697] _Censoríno_

[698] _arréndersi_

[699] _comandáto_

[700] _demolíre_

[701] _stabilírsi_

[702] _miglia_

[703] _di distánza_

[704] _mare_

[705] _infiammáto_

[706] _collera_

[707] _disperazióne_

[708] _sostenérsi_

[709] _oltre_

[710] _forza_

[711] _infíno_

[712] _stesso_

[713] _Corínto_

[714] _preso_

[715] _P. Cornélio Scipióne_

[716] _procónsole_

[717] _Páolo Emílio_

[718] _adottáto_

[719] _princípio_

[720] _Numídi_

[721] _moríre_

[722] _età_

[723] _lasciáto_

[724] _continuáto_

[725] _nell’alleanza_



CHAP. VI.

(_Of the World, 3908--Of Rome, 608._)


[1]About the same time the [2]Lusitanians in [3]Spain [4]beat the
Romans most [5]shamefully [6]under the [7]conduct of [8]Viriathus; who
from a [9]huntsman [10]became a [11]highwayman; and from a highwayman,
a general, and [12]defeated the Roman [13]armies [14]several times. But
that [15]overthrow was most [16]memorable of all [17]others, in which,
in the year 608, having [18]routed the [19]forces of [20]Vetilius
the [21]prætor, [22]he took him prisoner, and [23]put him [24]to
death, according to [25]Appian. Nor was he the [26]only one that was
[27]conquered by Viriathus, but several others [28]underwent the
same [29]fate. The first that was [30]successful [31]against him was
[32]C. Lælius the prætor, in the year 609. After which the proconsul
[33]Quintius Fabius Maximus [34]defeated him. In the year 614, [35]Q.
Servilius Cæpio [36]basely [37]procured him to be [38]assassinated
by some of his own [39]officers, whom he had [40]bribed [41]for that
purpose, to the great [42]dishonour of the Roman [43]name.

After this a much more [44]dangerous war [45]broke out in Celtiberia.
The Numantini having [46]received the [47]Segidenses their [48]allies,
that had [49]escaped the [50]hands of the Romans, were [51]commanded
by Metellus the proconsul, [52]to deliver up the [53]refugees, and
[54]lay down their [55]arms, but they [56]refused both: and [57]though
they were so much [58]inferior to the Romans, in [59]number and
[60]strength, they [61]made a [62]gallant [63]resistance for some
[64]years. The [65]army of [66]M. Popilius the proconsul, was [67]cut
off by them, and the year [68]following, [69]thirty [70]thousand
Romans, under the consul Mancinus, were [71]routed by four thousand
of the Numantini; which [72]disgrace was [73]followed by a most
[74]shameful [75]peace; but the senate [76]refused to [77]ratify
it; [78]wherefore Mancinus was [79]delivered up into their hands,
but the Numantini would not [80]receive him. [81]At last they were
[82]vanquished in the [83]field by Scipio, who had [84]destroyed
Carthage; and being [85]shut up within their own [86]walls, were
[87]reduced to [88]so desperate a condition, that they all [89]laid
violent hands upon themselves; and Numantia was [90]levelled with the
ground, in the ninth year after their [91]revolt from the Romans, and
from the [92]foundation of the city 621.

[93]Whilst the Romans were [94]still at war with the [95]Achæans and
Carthaginians, Macedon was [96]conquered a third time. [97]Andriscus,
a [98]man of [99]mean birth, who [100]pretended to be [101]Philip the
son of [102]Perseus, had [103]possessed himself of it. He was conquered
by [104]Q. Cæcilius Metellus, with the [105]slaughter of 25,000
[106]of his men. Metellus had [107]from thence [108]the surname of
[109]Macedonicus.

At the time that the Romans were [110]engaged in the [111]Numantine
war, there was a [112]rising of the [113]slaves in Sicily. A
[114]Syrian, [115]by name Eunus, [116]pretending to a [117]divine
[118]inspiration, [119]called the slaves to [120]arms and [121]liberty,
[122]as it were by the [123]order of the [124]gods; and having
[125]raised a [126]vast [127]army, [128]consisting of no less than
70,000 men, he [129]vanquished four Roman prætors, and was [130]at last
[131]routed himself, by P. Rupilius the consul, in the year of the city
622.

Attalus, son of [132]Eumenes, king of [133]Phrygia, when his [134]uncle
Attalus was [135]dead (who after Eumenes’ death had [136]managed the
[137]kingdom as his [138]guardian), [139]reigned five years, and dying
about the year of the city 621, made the Roman people his [140]heir:
which [141]Aristonicus, a son of Eumenes by one of his [142]mistresses,
[143]taking amiss, he [144]seized upon Asia, and [145]cut off the army
of Crassus the prætor. Afterwards he was [146]vanquished by the consul
Peperna, and an [147]end was put to the war the year [148]following,
625, by M. Aquilius the consul. This was a [149]melancholy year for
the [150]death of Scipio Africanus, who was [151]found dead in his
[152]bed, not without the [153]suspicion of having been [154]poisoned
by his [155]wife.

The year in which Attalus [156]made the Roman people his [157]heir,
there was a [158]formidable [159]sedition at Rome. For T. Gracchus,
[160]tribune of the [161]people, having made the [162]Agrarian
law, that [163]nobody should [164]possess above 500 [165]acres of
[166]land, and [167]proposing to have the [168]money of king Attalus
[169]divided amongst the people, and [170]likewise [171]suing for the
[172]tribuneship against the year following, the senators being very
much [173]disturbed at the [174]matter, he was, by the [175]order of
P. Corn. Nasica, [176]slain in the [177]Capitol, [178]whither he had
[179]fled for [180]refuge.

After the death of Tiberius, his [181]brother Caius [182]pursuing
the same [183]design, was [184]taken off by Opimius, the consul, and
[185]together with him, Fulvius Flaccus, who had been consul.

In the year of the city 629, the Romans first made war upon the
[186]Gauls [187]beyond the Alps. They [188]began with the Salii,
and [189]Allobroges, whom Fulvius Flaccus [190]subdued. In the year
633, Fabius the consul made an end of the war with the Allobroges.
He [191]conquered Bituitus, king of the Arverni, in [192]battle.
The king himself [193]coming to Rome to [194]satisfy the senate,
was [195]confined at Alba. Then Gallia Narbonensis was made a
[196]province, and a [197]colony [198]sent to Narbon in the year 636.

The Romans were after this [199]almost [200]perpetually at war with
the Gauls, by whom they were [201]oftentimes [202]soundly beaten; but,
above all others, the Cimbri and Teutones were [203]terrible to them.
They [204]marching for Italy, and not [205]being able to [206]prevail
with the senate for [207]room to [208]settle in, they [209]routed M.
Silanus the consul; the year following Scaurus was [210]defeated by the
Cimbri, and L. Cassius by the Helvetii Tigurini the year after that.
But the [211]overthrow of Q. Cæpio was more [212]memorable than all the
[213]rest. He had [214]plundered [215]Tholouse in the [216]country of
the Tectosagæ, and had [217]carried off an hundred thousand [218]pounds
of [219]gold, and fifteen hundred thousand pounds of [220]silver. This
was done in the year of the city 648. But the following, he, with C.
Manilius, [221]paid for this [222]sacrilege, with the [223]utter,
[224]destruction of the Roman army. It is certain there were [225]slain
in this [226]battle of the Romans and their [227]allies, [228]fourscore
thousand, and of [229]servants that [230]followed the [231]camp
[232]threescore thousand.

At length the Teutones and the [233]Ambrones were almost all
[234]destroyed, two hundred thousand being slain, and seventy thousand
[235]taken [236]prisoners, by C. Marius the consul, in the year 652;
and the following year, the same Marius, [237]in conjunction with
Catulus, defeated the Cimbri, that were [238]making their way through
[239]Noricum, [240]slew an hundred and twenty thousand, and took sixty
thousand prisoners.

With so many [241]victories did Marius [242]consummate the [243]glory
he had [244]got in the war with Jugurtha. For in the year of the city
643, a war was [245]undertaken against Jugurtha, king of Numidia,
because he had [246]deprived his [247]cousins Hiempsal and Adherbal,
the sons of Micipsa, and [248]grandsons of Masanissa, of their
[249]lives and [250]kingdom. He [251]prevailed against the Romans
for some years, more by his gold than by his arms; but was at last
[252]brought low by Metellus the consul, and [253]finally [254]entirely
[255]subdued by Marius, and [256]delivered up by Bocchus, king of
Mauritania, to whom he had [257]fled for refuge; after which he was
[258]carried to Rome, to [259]grace the [260]triumph of Marius, and
[261]put to death in [262]prison.

This [263]happy [264]progress of the [265]empire [266]abroad, was
[267]interrupted by [268]frequent and [269]shameful [270]disorders
at [271]home, which were [272]occasioned by the tribunes. Saturninus
having [273]had the Agrarian law [274]passed, to [275]divide among the
people the land which Marius had got, by [276]driving the Cimbri out of
Gaul, [277]banished Metellus Numidicus, who [278]opposed him; but at
last was [279]slain himself by Marius, then consul for the sixth time,
in the year 654; and the following year Metellus was [280]recalled from
[281]banishment.

After Saturninus, Livius Drusus, tribune of the people, but
[282]favouring the senate, being [283]desirous to [284]restore them to
their [285]ancient [286]splendor, and to [287]put the [288]execution of
their laws into their [289]hands, which C. Gracchus had [290]divided
[291]between them and the [292]knights, he passed the same Agrarian
laws, and put the [293]allies in [294]hopes of the [295]freedom of the
city; which [296]being not able to [297]bring about, he [298]fell under
an universal [299]odium, and was [300]stabbed, nobody [301]knew how, in
the year 663.

After this, the Romans were [302]engaged in two most [303]difficult and
terrible wars, almost at the same time; one in Italy, and the other
without. That was [304]called the [305]Social or [306]Marsic war,
because the Marsi had been the first [307]beginners of it; for all the
[308]Latins, and most of the people of Italy, being [309]disgusted,
that they who were [310]sharers in all the [311]hardships and
[312]dangers of the war, should be [313]excluded from the [314]honours
and [315]dignities of the [316]state; and being [317]frustrated in
the hopes of [318]obtaining the [319]freedom of the city by Drusus,
[320]endeavoured to [321]compass that by [322]force of arms, which
they could not obtain [323]by fair means. They first [324]attempted
in the Latin [325]Feriæ, to [326]assassinate both the consuls,
Philip and Cæsar; but the [327]matter being [328]discovered, they
[329]openly [330]revolted, [331]massacred Q. Servilius the proconsul,
[332]Fonteius and all the Romans at [333]Asculum. After this the war
was [334]carried on with [335]various [336]success. Cn. [337]Pompey
Strabo, father of Pompey the [338]Great, [339]distinguished himself
upon this [340]occasion. He [341]forced the Vestini and Peligni
to [342]submission, and [343]triumphed upon that [344]account.
[345]Likewise L. Sylla Cæsar, the consul’s [346]lieutenant, did, by his
great successes against the enemy, [347]obtain the [348]consulship, in
which he [349]made an end of the war.

Soon after [350]broke out a war between the Romans and
[351]Mithridates, who having [352]taken off Ariarthes, king of
Cappadocia, his [353]sister’s [354]husband, together with his son
of the same [355]name, had [356]seized upon the kingdom; but being
forced to [357]forego what he had [358]unjustly got, Ariobarzanes was
[359]nominated king of Cappadocia by the senate, but forced out of his
[360]dominions by Mithridates, and [361]restored by Sylla. After this
he was once more [362]driven out of Cappadocia by Mithridates, [363]as
was likewise Nicomedes out of Bithynia. But both [364]recovered their
dominions again by a [365]decree of the senate; which Mithridates being
[366]offended at, he [367]invaded Cappadocia and Bithynia, [368]routed
the Roman armies, [369]massacred all the Italians, [370]throughout
Asia in one day; and [371]reduced Macedon, [372]Thrace, [373]Greece,
and [374]Athens. The consul Sylla [375]marching against him, [376]took
Athens, and having [377]defeated his generals, forced him to a peace
upon the [378]conditions of his [379]quitting Asia, Bithynia, and
Cappadocia.


FOOTNOTES

[1] _incirca_

[2] _Lusitáni_

[3] _Spagna_

[4] _báttere_

[5] _ignominiosaménte_

[6] _sotto_

[7] _condótta_

[8] _Viriato_

[9] _cacciatóre_

[10] _diventáre_

[11] _ladro di strada_

[12] _sconfíggere_

[13] _armáta_

[14] _più volte_

[15] _sconfítta_

[16] _memorábile_

[17] _altro_

[18] _rotto_

[19] _truppa_

[20] _Vetílio_

[21] _pretóre_

[22] _fare_

[23] _méttere_

[24] _morte_

[25] _Appiáno_

[26] _solo_

[27] _vinto_

[28] _soffríre_

[29] _fato_

[30] _fortunáto_

[31] _contro_

[32] _C. Lelio_

[33] _Quinto Fabio Mássimo_

[34] _sconfíggere_

[35] _Q. Servílio Cepióne_

[36] _vilménte_

[37] _fare_

[38] _assassináre_

[39] _uffiziále_

[40] _corrótto_

[41] _a questo effétto_

[42] _disonóre_

[43] _nome_

[44] _pericolóso_

[45] _accendérsi_

[46] _ricevúto_

[47] _Segidénsi_

[48] _alleáto_

[49] _scampáto_

[50] _mano_

[51] _comandáto_

[52] _consegnáre_

[53] _rifuggiáto_

[54] _cédere_

[55] _arma_

[56] _ricusáre_

[57] _benchè_

[58] _inferióre_

[59] _número_

[60] _forza_

[61] _fare_

[62] _valente_

[63] _resisténza_

[64] _anno_

[65] _armáta_

[66] _M. Popílio_

[67] _tagliata fuori_

[68] _seguénte_

[69] _trenta_

[70] _mila_

[71] _sconfitto_

[72] _disastro_

[73] _seguíto_

[74] _vergognóso_

[75] _pace_

[76] _ricusáre_

[77] _ratificáre_

[78] _perciò_

[79] _consegnáto_

[80] _ricévere_

[81] _alla fine_

[82] _vinto_

[83] _battáglia campále_

[84] _distrútto_

[85] _rinchiúso_

[86] _muro_

[87] _ridótto_

[88] _estréma disperazióne_

[89] _uccidérsi_

[90] _spianáto_

[91] _sollevazióne_

[92] _fondaziòne_

[93] _mentre_

[94] _ancóra_

[95] _Achei_

[96] _conquistáto_

[97] _Andrísco_

[98] _uómo_

[99] _bassa nascita_

[100] _preténdere_

[101] _Filíppo_

[102] _Perséo_

[103] _impadroníto_

[104] _Q. Cecílio Metéllo_

[105] _macéllo_

[106] _de’ suoí_

[107] _quindi_

[108] _cognóme_

[109] _Macedónico_

[110] _impegnáto_

[111] _Numantíno_

[112] _ribellióne_

[113] _schiávo_

[114] _Sirio_

[115] _che si chiamáva Euno_

[116] _fingere_

[117] _divíno_

[118] _ispirazióne_

[119] _invitáre_

[120] _arma_

[121] _libertà_

[122] _come se fosse_

[123] _órdine_

[124] _nume_

[125] _leváto_

[126] _poderóso_

[127] _armáta_

[128] _compósto_

[129] _vincere_

[130] _alla fine_

[131] _sconfítto_

[132] _Euméne_

[133] _Frígia_

[134] _zio_

[135] _morto_

[136] _governáto_

[137] _regno_

[138] _curatóre_

[139] _regnáre_

[140] _erede_

[141] _Aristónico_

[142] _cortigiana_

[143] _avendo a male_

[144] _impadronírsi_

[145] _tagliáre a pezzi_

[146] _vìnto_

[147] _termináto_

[148] _seguénte_

[149] _malincónico_

[150] _morte_

[151] _trováto_

[152] _letto_

[153] _sospétto_

[154] _avvelenáto_

[155] _moglie_

[156] _fare_

[157] _erede_

[158] _formidabile_

[159] _sedizióne_

[160] _tribúno_

[161] _popolo_

[162] _legge Agrária_

[163] _nissúno_

[164] _possédere_

[165] _júgero_

[166] _terra_

[167] _propórre_

[168] _danáro_

[169] _spartíre_

[170] _pariménte_

[171] _sollecitáre_

[172] _tribunáto_

[173] _inquietáto_

[174] _cosa_

[175] _órdine_

[176] _uccíso_

[177] _Campidóglio_

[178] _dove_

[179] _fuggíto_

[180] _salvézza_

[181] _fratéllo_

[182] _proseguíre_

[183] _diségno_

[184] _uccíso_

[185] _insiéme_

[186] _Galli_

[187] _di là dall’Alpi_

[188] _principiáre_

[189] _Allobrógi_

[190] _soggiogáre_

[191] _víncere_

[192] _battáglia_

[193] _veníre_

[194] _soddisfáre_

[195] _rilegáto_

[196] _província_

[197] _colónia_

[198] _mandáto_

[199] _quasi_

[200] _perpetuamente_

[201] _spesso_

[202] _fieramente percosso_

[203] _terríbile_

[204] _marciáre_

[205] _potére_

[206] _ottenére_

[207] _sito_

[208] _stabilírsi_

[209] _méttere in rotta_

[210] _sconfítto_

[211] _rotta_

[212] _memorábile_

[213] _altro_

[214] _saccheggiáre_

[215] _Tolósa_

[216] _paése_

[217] _portáre via_

[218] _libbra_

[219] _oro_

[220] _argénto_

[221] _pagáre_

[222] _sacrilégio_

[223] _totále_

[224] _distruzióne_

[225] _uccíso_

[226] _battáglia_

[227] _alleáto_

[228] _ottánta_

[229] _servitóre_

[230] _seguíre_

[231] _campo_

[232] _sessánta_

[233] _Ambróni_

[234] _distrutto_

[235] _fatto_

[236] _prigioniéro_

[237] _unitaménte_

[238] _facéndosi strada tra_

[239] _Nórico_

[240] _uccídere_

[241] _vittória_

[242] _coronare_

[243] _glória_

[244] _acquistáre_

[245] _intrapréso_

[246] _priváto_

[247] _cugíno_

[248] _nipotíno_

[249] _vita_

[250] _regno_

[251] _sostenere_

[252] _abbassáto_

[253] _finalménte_

[254] _affátto_

[255] _soggiogáto_

[256] _consegnato_

[257] _fuggíto per scampo_

[258] _condótto_

[259] _adornáre_

[260] _triónfo_

[261] _messo_

[262] _prigióne_

[263] _felíce_

[264] _progrésso_

[265] _império_

[266] _al di fuóri_

[267] _interrótto_

[268] _frequénte_

[269] _vergognóso_

[270] _disórdine_

[271] _nel paése_

[272] _cagionáto_

[273] _fatto_

[274] _passáre_

[275] _spartíre_

[276] _scacciáre_

[277] _esiliáre_

[278] _oppórre_

[279] _uccíso_

[280] _richiamáto_

[281] _esílio_

[282] _favoreggiáre_

[283] _desideróso_

[284] _restituíre_

[285] _antíco_

[286] _splendóre_

[287] _méttere_

[288] _esecuzióne_

[289] _mano_

[290] _spartíto_

[291] _fra_

[292] _cavaliére_

[293] _alleáto_

[294] _speránza_

[295] _cittadinanza romana_

[296] _non potére_

[297] _effettuáre_

[298] _incórrere_

[299] _ódio_

[300] _pugnaláto_

[301] _sapére_

[302] _impegnáto_

[303] _faticóso_

[304] _chiamáto_

[305] _Sociále_

[306] _Mársico_

[307] _autóre_

[308] _Latíno_

[309] _disgustáto_

[310] _dividere_

[311] _fatíca_

[312] _perícolo_

[313] _esclúso_

[314] _onóre_

[315] _dignità_

[316] _stato_

[317] _deluso_

[318] _ottenére_

[319] _libertà_

[320] _procuráre_

[321] _spuntáre_

[322] _forza_

[323] _colle buóne_

[324] _tentáre_

[325] _Férie_

[326] _assassináre_

[327] _cosa_

[328] _scopérto_

[329] _apertaménte_

[330] _rivoltársi_

[331] _uccídere_

[332] _Fontéjo_

[333] _Ascolo_

[334] _continuáto_

[335] _vario_

[336] _succésso_

[337] _Pompeo Strabóne_

[338] _magno_

[339] _distínguersi_

[340] _occasióne_

[341] _forzáre_

[342] _obbediénza_

[343] _trionfáre_

[344] _cagióne_

[345] _pariménte_

[346] _luogotenénte_

[347] _ottenére_

[348] _consoláto_

[349] _termináre_

[350] _accendérsi_

[351] _Mitridáte_

[352] _uccíso_

[353] _sorélla_

[354] _maríto_

[355] _nome_

[356] _impossessáto_

[357] _abbandonáre_

[358] _ingiustaménte_

[359] _nomináto_

[360] _domínio_

[361] _ristabilíto_

[362] _scacciáto_

[363] _come pure lo fu_

[364] _ricuperáre_

[365] _decréto_

[366] _offéso_

[367] _invádere_

[368] _sconfíggere_

[369] _uccídere_

[370] _per tutta_

[371] _sottoporre_

[372] _Trácia_

[373] _Grécia_

[374] _Aténe_

[375] _marciáre_

[376] _pigliáre_

[377] _sconfíggere_

[378] _patto_

[379] _abbandonáre_



CHAP. VII.

_(Of the World, 3966--Of Rome, 666.)_


Marius, [1]though now [2]broken with [3]age and years, yet being very
[4]ambitious of getting [5]employed against Mithridates, could not
[6]bear with patience the [7]bestowing that [8]province upon Sylla.
[9]Wherefore he [10]prevailed by the [11]means of C. Sulpicius, the
tribune of the people, to have it [12]taken from Sylla, and bestowed
upon himself. At which Sylla being [13]enraged, [14]seized upon the
city, and having [15]slain Sulpicius, [16]obliged Marius to [17]fly.
In his [18]absence, Cinna the consul, making a [19]disturbance, was
[20]driven out of the city, and being [21]joined by Marius, Carbo, and
Sertorius, [22]assaulted Rome; which, having [23]taken, [24]he put a
great many of the Romans [25]to the sword. Marius [26]died a natural
death the year following.

Sylla having made peace with Mithridates, [27]returned into Italy, and
[28]made an end of the civil war in two years time, by the [29]defeat
of Carbo, Norbanus, young Marius, and others; and being [30]declared
[31]dictator, [32]took off a great many of Marius’s party by means of a
[33]proscription. Q. Sertorius [34]retired into Farther Spain, where he
[35]held out for some years very [36]valiantly.

Sylla having in the year 675 [37]laid down the [38]dictatorship,
died the year following of the [39]lousy [40]disease, in the
sixtieth year of his [41]age. After his death, Lepidus the consul,
[42]endeavouring to [43]annul the [44]acts of Sylla, was [45]forced
out of the city by his [46]colleague Catulus. And the year following
[47]advancing up to the city with an [48]army, he was defeated by the
same Catulus and Cn. Pompey, and [49]fled into [50]Sardinia, where
he [51]fell ill and died. The same Pompey being [52]sent into Spain
against Sertorius, [53]performed no important things; but the latter
being [54]treacherously [55]slain by his own people, he [56]easily
[57]recovered that province in the year 681.

In the mean time the war with Mithridates [58]broke out again, while
Sylla was yet living; and after Sylla’s death, Mithridates having
[59]entered into an [60]alliance with Sertorius, [61]seized by force of
arms upon Bithynia, which Nicomedes at his death in 679, had [62]left
to the Roman people. L. Lucullus consul, in 680, [63]went against
him, and being very [64]successful both by [65]sea and [66]land, he
[67]obliged him to fly, first into [68]Pontus, and soon after to
[69]Tigranes in Armenia. Lucullus [70]conquered Pontus, and defeated
both the kings who [71]engaged him with an army of two hundred thousand
[72]foot and sixty thousand [73]horse, in the year of the city 685.
After this, Tigranocerta, the capital of Armenia, and [74]Nisibis, two
very great cities, were [75]taken. But this excellent general being
[76]forsaken by his men, was [77]obliged to [78]leave the [79]fruit
of his [80]toil and [81]victories to Cn. Pompey, in the year 688.
He having [82]forced Tigranes to [83]surrender, obliged him to be
[84]satisfied with Armenia; and whilst he [85]pursued Mithridates,
he [86]added the [87]Iberians and [88]Albanians to the Roman empire,
in the year 689. [89]Finally, Mithridates, in the year 691, being
[90]every where [91]beaten, [92]thought of [93]flying into [94]Gaul,
but being [95]discouraged by the [96]revolt of his son [97]Pharnaces
and the army, he [98]slew himself.

Whilst the war with Mithridates was [99]warmly [100]carried on,
there [101]broke out another with the [102]slaves, in the year
of the city 681. One [103]Spartacus Ænomanus, and [104]Crixus,
[105]gladiators, having [106]broken up a [107]school of gladiators
at Capua, [108]belonging to Lentulus, and [109]assembled an army of
[110]desperadoes, [111]routed the Roman armies several times, but at
last were [112]vanquished by Crassus the prætor, and Pompey, in the
year 685.

Pompey [113]likewise [114]subdued the [115]pirates, who, at the
[116]instigation of Mithridates, [117]infested the seas, having
an [118]extraordinary [119]commission [120]for that purpose by
the [121]Gabinian law. Whilst Pompey was [122]enlarging the Roman
empire [123]abroad, the [124]head of the empire was in no small
[125]danger from a [126]conspiracy which [127]Cataline, [128]Lentulus
the prætor, [129]Cethegus, and other senators, had [130]entered
into, to [131]murder the consul [132]Cicero, and to [133]burn and
[134]plunder the city. But their [135]designs were [136]prevented by
the [137]vigilance of the consul. Catiline being [138]forced out of the
city, [139]repaired to the army, which some of his [140]accomplices
had [141]collected. Lentulus, and the rest of the [142]ringleaders of
the [143]plot were put to death. This [144]happened in the year 691,
and the following year Cataline was [145]defeated by [146]Petreius
[147]Antony the proconsul’s [148]lieutenant, and [149]slain in the
[150]fight.

The whole [151]world being now almost [152]subdued, the Roman empire
was [153]arrived to that [154]grandeur, that it could [155]hardly
[156]extend itself farther. No [157]outward [158]force was
[159]sufficient to [160]ruin it; it [161]fell by its own [162]power,
which was [163]occasioned by the [164]ambition of the [165]leading men,
and the civil [166]contests that [167]arose from thence.

C. Cæsar, after the time of his [168]prætorship in the city was
[169]expired, [170]obtained the province of Lusitania; and by the
great feats he [171]performed there, [172]deserved well the honor
of a [173]triumph; but [174]postponed the [175]hopes of that to
the [176]consular [177]dignity; for which, [178]while he made all
[179]possible [180]interest, Pompey [181]united with Cæsar and Crassus,
while Lucullus and some others of the [182]grandees, [183]opposing his
[184]acts, which he [185]desired might be [186]ratified by the senate.
Thus Cæsar [187]gained the [188]consulship in the year 695, in which
he [189]established the acts of Pompey by the senate, and [190]divided
the [191]public [192]lands in Campania amongst the [193]citizens. He
[194]married his daughter Julia to Pompey, and [195]took Calphurnia,
the daughter of [196]Piso [197]as a wife. Having by these [198]arts,
and a [199]boundless [200]generosity, [201]gained the [202]favor
of all [203]ranks and [204]degrees of men, he [205]procured the
province of Gaul, which he [206]governed for nine years; during
which time he [207]reduced all Gaul, that is [208]comprehended
within the [209]Pyrenean mountains, the [210]Alps, the Rhone, and
the [211]Rhine, in the [212]form of a province, and [213]imposed a
[214]yearly [215]tribute upon it. He was the first of all the Romans
that [216]attacked the [217]Germans [218]beyond the Rhine. He likewise
[219]visited the [220]Britons, where [221]none before him had ever
[222]come. In this [223]interval, in the year 698, he [224]entered into
an [225]association with Pompey and Crassus; by [226]virtue of which he
was to have Gaul [227]continued to him. Pompey was to have [228]Spain,
and Crassus Syria, in order to a war against the [229]Parthians; to
which he [230]accordingly [231]went in the year 699, and the third year
after, [232]perished most [233]miserably, with the greater [234]part of
his army; after which the Parthians made an [235]irruption into Syria,
but were [236]bravely [237]repulsed by Cassius.

After the death of Crassus, Pompey not being able to [238]endure
an [239]equal, nor Cæsar a [240]superior, the civil war broke out.
Pompey’s [241]party [242]endeavouring to [243]take away from Cæsar
both his army and province, as soon as the time of his [244]government
should [245]expire; whilst Cæsar’s on the other [246]hand were for
[247]treating Pompey [248]in like manner. At last in the year 705,
in the [249]consulship of C. Claudius Marcellus, and L. Cornelius
Lentulus, the senate, by a [250]vote, obliged Cæsar to [251]disband his
army by a certain day. Antonius and Cassius, tribunes of the people,
[252]interposing their [253]authority in vain, [254]left the town, and
[255]repaired to Cæsar, who [256]advancing his army towards the city,
[257]struck such a [258]consternation into Pompey and the rest, that
[259]leaving the city [260]without much ado, and [261]shortly after
Italy, they [262]passed over into [263]Greece. Cæsar went to Spain,
where he [264]vanquished Petreius and Afranius, and [265]forced their
armies to [266]surrender [267]prisoners of war. In his [268]return
he [269]took [270]Marseilles, and after that was made dictator, to
which [271]office he was [272]chosen four times, and at last had it
[273]given him for [274]life.

In the year 706, Pompey being [275]defeated by Cæsar in the
[276]fields of [277]Pharsalia, went to [278]Egypt, where he was
slain by the [279]order of [280]Ptolemy, in the 59th year of his
[281]age. Hither Cæsar [282]likewise [283]came the following year, and
after a very [284]dangerous [285]rencounter, which he [286]happily
[287]accomplished, [288]delivered the [289]kingdom of Egypt to
Cleopatra and her brother. In the year following he vanquished Scipio
and Cato, with king Juba, in Africa. Cato [290]laid violent hands upon
himself at Utica. The year that [291]followed was [292]remarkable
for the [293]correction of the [294]calendar and the year. The same
year likewise he [295]conquered Pompey’s sons; and the year after was
[296]stabbed in the [297]senate house, by a [298]conspiracy of Brutus
and Cassius, and some others, in the 56th year of his age.

Besides these [299]convulsions, with which the whole [300]world was
[301]shattered, there were some less [302]disturbances [303]happened
a little before. [304]Clodius Pulcher being [305]made tribune of
the people, [306]banished Cicero, for having [307]condemned the
[308]associates of Cataline to death without a [309]trial; which
[310]calamity he [311]bore too [312]meanly, and [313]by no means
[314]agreeable to the [315]dignity of his past life. But he was
[316]recalled the year after by the [317]interposition of Pompey, and
Lentulus the consul, and [318]received with the greatest [319]honor.
The same Clodius [320]declared [321]Cyprus to [322]belong to the
Roman people, and Cato being [323]sent to [324]take possession of
it, Ptolemy, king of the [325]island, after first [326]throwing all
his [327]money into the sea, [328]prevented his [329]disgrace by a
[330]voluntary death. The senate [331]bestowed the [332]prætorship
upon Cato at his [333]return, by a [334]vote of the house, without
any [335]election; which honor he [336]refused, being [337]desirous
to [338]obtain it rather by the [339]free [340]votes of the people.
But he was [341]disappointed in his [342]hopes, and Vatinius was
[343]preferred to him.

[344]Bribery [345]ruling in [346]all [347]elections, and the
[348]candidates making a most [349]dismal [350]confusion, after a long
[351]interregnum, Pompey was made consul, without a [352]colleague,
a thing [353]wholly new, and never heard of before; in which office
he made a [354]severe [355]inquiry into all other [356]misdemeanors,
as likewise into the death of Clodius, whom Milo [357]killed the same
year, and for which he was [358]banished.

After the death of Cæsar, Antony the consul so [359]inflamed the
people by [360]a seditious [361]harangue, that they [362]burnt his
[363]body [364]publicly, and [365]threatened to set fire, and [366]pull
down the houses of the [367]assassins. Octavius Cæsar, the son of
Accia [368]Julius’s sister, was his [369]adopted son by [370]will. He
being [371]slighted by M. Antony, [372]raised an army of [373]veteran
soldiers, and [374]opposed his [375]tyrannical [376]proceedings.
Antonius [377]extorted from the people by force the province of Gaul,
but his [378]passage there was opposed by D. Brutus at Modena, where he
was [379]besieged by Antony.

In the [380]consulship of [381]Hirtius and Pansa, in the year of the
city 711, at the [382]instigation of Cicero Antony was [383]declared
[384]enemy, and a war [385]undertaken against him; when Octavius
[386]joined in [387]commission with the consuls, with the [388]power
of proconsul, being then about the 20th year of his age. There was a
[389]dreadful and [390]bloody [391]battle [392]fought near Modena, in
which all Cæsar’s [393]life-guards were slain; but Antony was routed,
and the [394]siege [395]raised, yet both the consuls were killed.

In Macedon, Brutus [396]took off C. Antonius, M. Antony’s brother,
who was [397]intriguing against him, and [398]got together a
[399]formidable army. Upon which the senate [400]resolved by
[401]degrees to [402]take down Octavius, [403]for fear of his
[404]growing too [405]powerful; which he being [406]apprehensive of,
[407]he entered into an [408]association with Antony and Lepidus;
and [409]consequently they were all three made [410]commissioners
[411]for settling the [412]republic. They having [413]divided the whole
[414]empire into three parts, [415]proscribed a great many of the
Romans, and amongst the rest M. [416]Tully Cicero, who, whilst he was
[417]endeavouring to [418]make his escape into Greece, was killed by
Pompilius, a [419]captain, whose [420]cause he had [421]pleaded in a
capital [422]action. There was a [423]dreadful [424]havoc made in this
[425]proscription. The [426]Epitome of Livy speaks of no less than an
hundred and thirty senators; the same year, [427]gave [428]beginning to
one of the finest cities of France, [429]Lyons.

The year following, Octavius and Antony [430]fought a battle with M.
Brutus and the [431]principal of the [432]conspirators, near the city
of Philippi. The [433]right [434]wings were [435]victorious on both
[436]sides, and on both sides the [437]camps were [438]plundered.
But Cassius, who was in the wing that was [439]routed, [440]giving
up all for lost, [441]slew himself. Brutus, being [442]defeated in
another [443]engagement, likewise put an end to his own life, being
then thirty-seven years of age, and none of Cæsar’s [444]assassins
[445]lived above three years after, being all [446]taken off by a
[447]violent death, as [448]Suetonius says; some too [449]killed
themselves with the same [450]dagger with which they had slain Cæsar.

After the [451]victory, Antony [452]went to Asia, and Octavius to
Italy; where he [453]was engaged in a war with L. Antony, the brother
of the [454]triumvir, and his [455]wife Fulvia, a [456]woman of a
[457]manly [458]spirit. He forced Lucius from the town; after which,
being [459]declared an enemy, he [460]besieged him in Perusia, and
obliged him to [461]surrender. In the mean time, the Parthians being
[462]invited by Labienus, one of Pompey’s party, made an [463]irruption
into Syria, whom Ventidius, after a very [464]signal [465]overthrow,
in which the king was slain, [466]drove out again, and [467]recovered
Syria.

S. Pompey, Cneius’s son, having a [468]fleet at his [469]command,
[470]infested the seas. Cæsar made with him a peace, which was
[471]soon [472]broken. [473]An engagement [474]followed, wherein
Pompey was [475]worsted, and [476]forced to [477]fly. He was soon
after [478]put to death by [479]order of M. Antony, under whose
[480]protection he had put himself. About this time Antony made an
[481]attempt upon the Parthians, by whom he was most [482]shamefully
[483]beaten. At last Antony being [484]entirely [485]devoted to his
Cleopatra, [486]divorced Octavia, Cæsar’s sister, and [487]declared war
against him, in which he was at last defeated by sea near [488]Actium,
a [489]promontory of [490]Epirus. Cæsar had upwards of 400 [491]ships,
and Antony about 200, but so [492]prodigiously [493]large, that they
[494]looked like [495]castles and cities [496]moving through the
sea. The [497]flight of Cleopatra [498]turned the [499]fate of a
[500]dubious [501]engagement into the [502]ruin of Antony; he followed
her into Egypt, and being [503]besieged in Alexandria, he [504]slew
himself, and Cleopatra soon [505]followed his [506]example.


FOOTNOTES

[1] _benchè_

[2] _affievolito_

[3] _vecchiája_

[4] _ambizióne_

[5] _impiegáto_

[6] _tolleráre_

[7] _affidare_

[8] _província_

[9] _perciò_

[10] _ottenére_

[11] _mezzo_

[12] _leváre_

[13] _sdegnáto_

[14] _impossessársi_

[15] _uccíso_

[16] _forzáre_

[17] _fuggíre_

[18] _assénza_

[19] _distúrbo_

[20] _scacciàto_

[21] _unito_

[22] _assaltáre_

[23] _preso_

[24] _méttere_

[25] _a fil di spada_

[26] _moríre_

[27] _tornáre_

[28] _conclúdere_

[29] _rotta_

[30] _dichiaráto_

[31] _dittatore_

[32] _si disfece di_

[33] _proscrizióne_

[34] _ritirársi_

[35] _sostenere_

[36] _coraggiosaménte_

[37] _rassegnáto_

[38] _dettatúra_

[39] _pediculare_

[40] _morbo_

[41] _età_

[42] _procuráre_

[43] _annulláre_

[44] _atto_

[45] _scacciáto_

[46] _colléga_

[47] _accostársi_

[48] _armáta_

[49] _fuggíre_

[50] _Sardégna_

[51] _ammalársi_

[52] _mandáto_

[53] _eseguíre_

[54] _proditoriaménte_

[55] _uccíso_

[56] _facilménte_

[57] _ricuperáre_

[58] _accendérsi_

[59] _entráto_

[60] _alleánza_

[61] _impadroníto_

[62] _lasciáto_

[63] _andáre_

[64] _fortunáto_

[65] _mare_

[66] _terra_

[67] _forzare_

[68] _Ponto_

[69] _Tigràne_

[70] _conquistáre_

[71] _attaccáre_

[72] _infantéria_

[73] _cavallería_

[74] _Nísibi_

[75] _preso_

[76] _abbandonáto_

[77] _obbligáto_

[78] _lasciáre_

[79] _frutto_

[80] _fatíca_

[81] _vittória_

[82] _forzáto_

[83] _arrendérsi_

[84] _contentarsi_

[85] _incalzáre_

[86] _aggiúngere_

[87] _Ibérj_

[88] _Albanési_

[89] _finalménte_

[90] _dappertútto_

[91] _battúto_

[92] _pensáre_

[93] _fuggíre_

[94] _Gállia_

[95] _scoraggíto_

[96] _rivólta_

[97] _Farnáce_

[98] _ammazzársi_

[99] _vigorosaménte_

[100] _continuáto_

[101] _accéndersi_

[102] _schiávo_

[103] _Spartáco Enománo_

[104] _Crisso_

[105] _gladiatóre_

[106] _disfatto_

[107] _scuóla_

[108] _appartenére_

[109] _radunáto_

[110] _disperáto_

[111] _sconfíggere_

[112] _vinto_

[113] _pariménte_

[114] _soggiogáre_

[115] _corsáro_

[116] _istigazióne_

[117] _infestáre_

[118] _straordinário_

[119] _commissióne_

[120] _a questo effétto_

[121] _Gabiáno_

[122] _aggrandíre_

[123] _fuóri_

[124] _capitale_

[125] _perícolo_

[126] _cospirazióne_

[127] _Catilína_

[128] _Léntulo_

[129] _Cetégo_

[130] _fare_

[131] _uccídere_

[132] _Ciceróne_

[133] _abbruciáre_

[134] _saccheggiáre_

[135] _diségno_

[136] _impedíto_

[137] _vigilánza_

[138] _scacciáto_

[139] _trasferírsi_

[140] _cómplice_

[141] _radunáto_

[142] _capo_

[143] _congiúra_

[144] _succédere_

[145] _sconfítto_

[146] _Petrejo_

[147] _António_

[148] _luogotenénte_

[149] _uccíso_

[150] _battáglia_

[151] _mondo_

[152] _soggiogáto_

[153] _arriváto_

[154] _grandézza_

[155] _appéna_

[156] _estendérsi_

[157] _estérno_

[158] _forza_

[159] _bastánte_

[160] _rovináre_

[161] _cadére_

[162] _potére_

[163] _cagionáto_

[164] _ambizióne_

[165] _principále_

[166] _contésa_

[167] _deriváre_

[168] _pretura_

[169] _spiráto_

[170] _ottenére_

[171] _eseguíre_

[172] _meritáre_

[173] _triónfo_

[174] _pospórre_

[175] _aspettativa_

[176] _consoláre_

[177] _dignità_

[178] _mentre_

[179] _possíbile_

[180] _diligenza_

[181] _unírsi_

[182] _grande_

[183] _oppórsi_

[184] _atto_

[185] _desideráre_

[186] _ratificáto_

[187] _ottenére_

[188] _consoláto_

[189] _fece ratificáre dal senato_

[190] _divídere_

[191] _terre della_

[192] _repubblica_

[193] _cittadíno_

[194] _maritáre_

[195] _préndere_

[196] _Pisóne_

[197] _in qualità di móglie_

[198] _arte_

[199] _imménso_

[200] _generosità_

[201] _guadagnáre_

[202] _favóre_

[203] _degli uomini di qualunque rango_

[204] _grado_

[205] _procuráre_

[206] _governáre_

[207] _debelláre_

[208] _compréso_

[209] _Pirenéi_

[210] _Alpi_

[211] _Reno_

[212] _forma_

[213] _impórre_

[214] _annuále_

[215] _tribúto_

[216] _attaccáre_

[217] _Tedeschi_

[218] _di là_

[219] _visitáre_

[220] _Británno_

[221] _niúno_

[222] _venúto_

[223] _intervállo_

[224] _entráre_

[225] _confederazióne_

[226] _virtù_

[227] _continuáre_

[228] _Spagna_

[229] _Parti_

[230] _in conseguénza_

[231] _andáre_

[232] _períre_

[233] _miseraménte_

[234] _parte_

[235] _incursióne_

[236] _valorosaménte_

[237] _rispinto_

[238] _tolleráre_

[239] _eguále_

[240] _superióre_

[241] _partíto_

[242] _cercáre_

[243] _leváre_

[244] _govérno_

[245] _spiráre_

[246] _canto_

[247] _trattáre_

[248] _nell’ istésso modo_

[249] _consoláto_

[250] _decreto_

[251] _licenziáre_

[252] _interpórre_

[253] _autorità_

[254] _lasciáre_

[255] _trasferírsi_

[256] _accostáre_

[257] _riempíre_

[258] _costernazióne_

[259] _abbandonáre_

[260] _senz’ altro_

[261] _poco dopo_

[262] _passáre_

[263] _Grécia_

[264] _víncere_

[265] _forzáre_

[266] _arrendérsi_

[267] _prigioniéro_

[268] _ritórno_

[269] _préndere_

[270] _Marsíglia_

[271] _uffízio_

[272] _scelto_

[273] _dato_

[274] _vita_

[275] _sconfítto_

[276] _campo_

[277] _Farságli_

[278] _Egítto_

[279] _ordine_

[280] _Toloméo_

[281] _età_

[282] _pure_

[283] _veníre_

[284] _pericolóso_

[285] _fatto d’armi_

[286] _fortunataménte_

[287] _fu vittorioso_

[288] _consegnáre_

[289] _regno_

[290] _uccidérsi_

[291] _seguíre_

[292] _segnalato_

[293] _correzióne_

[294] _calendário_

[295] _vincere_

[296] _pugnaláto_

[297] _senáto_

[298] _cospirazióne_

[299] _convulsióne_

[300] _mondo_

[301] _conturbato_

[302] _distúrbo_

[303] _succédere_

[304] _Clódio Pulcro_

[305] _fatto_

[306] _esiliáre_

[307] _condannáto_

[308] _complice_

[309] _procésso_

[310] _calamità_

[311] _soffríre_

[312] _vilménte_

[313] _in nissún conto_

[314] _come si conveniva_

[315] _dignità_

[316] _richiamáto_

[317] _interposizióne_

[318] _ricévere_

[319] _onóre_

[320] _dichiaráre_

[321] _Cipro_

[322] _appartenére_

[323] _mandáto_

[324] _impossessársi_

[325] _ísola_

[326] _gettáto_

[327] _danaro_

[328] _prevenire_

[329] _disgrázia_

[330] _volontária_

[331] _accordáre_

[332] _dignità di pretóre_

[333] _ritórno_

[334] _per votazione dell’assemblea_

[335] _elezióne_

[336] _rifiutáre_

[337] _desideróso_

[338] _ottenére_

[339] _libero_

[340] _suffragio_

[341] _frustráto_

[342] _speránza_

[343] _preferíto_

[344] _corruzióne_

[345] _domináre_

[346] _tutto_

[347] _elezióne_

[348] _candidáto_

[349] _rattristante_

[350] _confusióne_

[351] _interregno_

[352] _colléga_

[353] _affátto_

[354] _sevéro_

[355] _perquisizióne_

[356] _delítto_

[357] _uccídere_

[358] _bandíto_

[359] _accéndere_

[360] _sedizióso_

[361] _arrínga_

[362] _incendiáre_

[363] _corpo_

[364] _pubblicaménte_

[365] _minacciáre_

[366] _demolíre_

[367] _assassíno_

[368] _Giúlio_

[369] _adottáto_

[370] _testaménto_

[371] _sprezzáto_

[372] _leváre_

[373] _veteráno_

[374] _oppórre_

[375] _tiránnico_

[376] _portaménto_

[377] _strappáre_

[378] _passággio_

[379] _assediáto_

[380] _consoláto_

[381] _Írzio_

[382] _istigazióne_

[383] _dichiaráto_

[384] _nemíco_

[385] _intrapréso_

[386] _unírsi_

[387] _commissióne_

[388] _potére_

[389] _terribile_

[390] _sanguinóso_

[391] _battáglia_

[392] _dato_

[393] _soldáto della guárdia_

[394] _assedio_

[395] _leváto_

[396] _uccídere_

[397] _cabalizzare_

[398] _radunáre_

[399] _formidábile_

[400] _risólvere_

[401] _a poco a poco_

[402] _abbassáre_

[403] _per timóre che_

[404] _diventáre_

[405] _poténte_

[406] _timoróso_

[407] _entráre_

[408] _lega_

[409] _conseguenteménte_

[410] _commissionário_

[411] _regolare_

[412] _repúbblica_

[413] _divíso_

[414] _império_

[415] _proscrívere_

[416] _Túllio Ciceróne_

[417] _procuráre_

[418] _scampáre_

[419] _capitáno_

[420] _causa_

[421] _diféndere_

[422] _procésso_

[423] _orréndo_

[424] _strage_

[425] _proscrizióne_

[426] _sommário_

[427] _dare_

[428] _princípio_

[429] _Lióne_

[430] _dare_

[431] _principále_

[432] _congiuráto_

[433] _ala_

[434] _dritto_

[435] _vittorióso_

[436] _parte_

[437] _campo_

[438] _saccheggiáto_

[439] _sconfítto_

[440] _crédere_

[441] _uccidérsi_

[442] _rotto_

[443] _conflítto_

[444] _assassino_

[445] _vívere_

[446] _perire_

[447] _violénto_

[448] _Suetónio_

[449] _uccidérsi_

[450] _stilétto_

[451] _vittória_

[452] _partíre_

[453] _veníre alle armi_

[454] _triumvíro_

[455] _moglie_

[456] _donna_

[457] _virile_

[458] _spírito_

[459] _dichiaráto_

[460] _assediáre_

[461] _arrendérsi_

[462] _invitáto_

[463] _scorrería_

[464] _segnaláto_

[465] _sconfítta_

[466] _scacciáre_

[467] _ricuperáre_

[468] _flotta_

[469] _comándo_

[470] _infestáre_

[471] _présto_

[472] _rotto_

[473] _combattiménto_

[474] _seguíre_

[475] _malmenato_

[476] _forzáto_

[477] _fuggíre_

[478] _messo_

[479] _cenno_

[480] _protezióne_

[481] _intraprésa_

[482] _ignominiosamente_

[483] _battúto_

[484] _affátto_

[485] _dedicáto_

[486] _ripudiáre_

[487] _dichiaráre_

[488] _Azio_

[489] _promontório_

[490] _Epíro_

[491] _vascéllo_

[492] _prodigiosaménte_

[493] _grande_

[494] _rassomigliáre_

[495] _castéllo_

[496] _muóvere_

[497] _fuga_

[498] _cambiáre_

[499] _sorte_

[500] _dubbióso_

[501] _battáglia_

[502] _rovína_

[503] _assediáto_

[504] _ammazzársi_

[505] _seguíre_

[506] _esémpio_



CHAP. VIII.

_(Of Rome, 725--Of Christ, 11.)_


After the death of Antony and Cleopatra, [1]Egypt was [2]reduced to the
[3]form of a [4]province. Cæsar, in the year 725, [5]triumphed three
times, for the [6]conquest of [7]Dalmatia, the victory at Actium, and
the [8]reducing of Egypt. After which he [9]advised with Agrippa and
Mecænas, either [10]seriously, or [11]pretendedly, about the [12]laying
down of his [13]authority; Agrippa was for it, Mecænas against it; this
last [14]advice he [15]resolved to follow, but [16]brought a [17]bill
[18]nevertheless into the senate [19]to divest himself of his power,
and by that [20]stratagem got it [21]secured to him both by the senate
and the people, in the year 726.

[22]Cornelius Gallus, a [23]Roman [24]knight, [25]governor of Egypt,
being [26]banished for his [27]insolence, slew himself. Augustus
[28]carried on a war against the Cantabri and Austus for some years, by
his [29]lieutenants: that is to say, from the year 729 to 735, in which
they were entirely [30]reduced by Agrippa; who, upon his [31]return
[32]refused a [33]triumph which was [34]offered him. [35]Phraates, king
of the Parthians, about this time [36]restored the Roman [37]standards
that had been [38]taken from Crassus.

For two of his [39]friends, Mecænas and M. Vipsanius Agrippa, he had
a [40]particular [41]esteem above all others; the [42]former was a
great [43]patron of [44]learning and [45]learned men. Augustus made
Agrippa his [46]son-in-law, by [47]marrying his daughter Julia to him,
whom he had by Scribonia. She had children, C. and L. Cæsars, Agrippa
Posthumus, Agrippina married to Germanicus, Drusus’s son, Livia’s
[48]grandson, and Julia, whom Æmilius married. He took Livia, when she
was [49]big with child, by her former [50]husband Tiberius Nero, by
whom he had no [51]issue, though she had by Nero, Tiberius, who was
emperor afterwards, and Drusus who [52]died in Germany.

Tiberius having gotten the [53]tribunitial [54]power for five years,
was [55]sent to [56]settle the [57]affairs of Armenia. Soon after
he [58]retired to Rhodes, where, for fear of [59]falling under the
[60]displeasure of his [61]step-sons, he [62]continued seven years. But
the [63]occasion of his [64]retirement was his [65]aversion for his
wife Julia, who [66]spent her time in all [67]manner of [68]debauchery.
Augustus, upon a [69]discovery of her [70]pranks, [71]banished her.

The [72]age of this emperor [73]produced several great [74]men:
amongst the [75]Greeks [76]Dionysius Halicarnassensis and [77]Nicholas
Damascenus were [78]famous for their [79]talents in writing
[80]history; and amongst the [81]Latins [82]Cornelius Nepos, Atticus’s
[83]son-in-law, and Sallust, who died four years before the [84]battle
of Actium. In this age lived likewise those [85]celebrated [86]poets,
[87]Virgil, [88]Horace, [89]Ovid, [90]Tibullus, and [91]Propertius.

Augustus died at Nola, in Campania, in the 14th year of [92]Christ,
and the 76th year of his age, having [93]held the empire by himself,
from the death of M. Antony, forty-three years; he was an [94]excellent
[95]prince, and [96]necessary for those times.

He was [97]succeeded by Tiberius, a prince of a [98]savage
[99]disposition, and [100]given up to all manner of debauchery; he
was the son of Livia by Nero. He [101]dissembled his [102]vices at
the [103]beginning of his reign with [104]wonderful [105]art, through
fear of Germanicus, his brother’s son, whom he had [106]adopted at
the [107]command of his [108]father-in-law. For, as he [109]gained a
great [110]reputation by his [111]virtues and [112]exploits in war,
he was [113]looked upon with a [114]jealous eye, as [115]fitter for
the empire than himself. He [116]removed him from Germany where he had
[117]wonderful [118]success against the enemy, into the [119]East,
to [120]fight against the Parthians, in the year 769, having sent
at the same time Cn. Piso into Syria, between whom and Germanicus
was a [121]mortal enmity. Wherefore Germanicus died, not without the
[122]suspicion of having been [123]poisoned by him, for which being
[124]prosecuted at Rome by Agrippina, the wife of Germanicus, he
[125]prevented his [126]sentence by a [127]voluntary death.

[128]Ælius Sejanus, a Roman [129]knight, was afterwards [130]raised by
Tiberius, who after a great many [131]wicked [132]actions, [133]aiming
now at no less than the empire itself, was, by a [134]letter of
Tiberius to the senate, [135]thrown from the [136]top of all his
[137]grandeur, and died by the [138]hand of an [139]executioner, with
all his [140]family, in the 18th year of Tiberius.

About the 18th year of his [141]reign, he [142]retired to Caprea, an
[143]island on the [144]coast of Campania, with a [145]design of never
returning to the town, where he [146]privately [147]wallowed in all
manner of [148]debauchery, and died in the 23rd year of his reign, to
the great [149]joy of every one, being then in the 78th year of his age.

[150]_Jesus Christ_, the son of God, was [151]born of the [152]Virgin
Mary, in the reign of Augustus, and [153]crucified in that of Tiberius,
being then thirty-three years of age.

Caius Cæsar Caligula, so [154]called from a [155]shoe [156]worn by
the [157]soldiery, which, when a boy, he [158]wore in the camp,
[159]succeeded Tiberius, being the son of Germanicus and Agrippina,
the daughter of M. Agrippa and Julia. He was [160]entered into the
five and twentieth year of his age. Great was the joy of the people
upon his first [161]accession to the [162]throne, and no less were
their [163]hopes that he would be [164]like Germanicus his father, who
is said to have been [165]possessed of all the good [166]qualities of
[167]body and [168]mind. And indeed as the worst of princes frequently
[169]begin well, he gave many [170]signs of his [171]moderation and
[172]regard to the good of the public. But soon after, as if he had
[173]put off all [174]humanity, he [175]outstripped the most savage
[176]creatures in [177]cruelty; and having made sad [178]havoc among
all [179]ranks and [180]degrees of men, he [181]killed likewise Macro,
[182]commander of the [183]prætorian [184]bands, by whose [185]means
he had been made emperor. He also [186]committed [187]crimes with
his sisters. Having in a year’s time [188]exhausted [189]immense
[190]treasures that had been [191]left by Tiberius, he [192]fell
to [193]proscribing and [194]plundering. Among other proofs of his
cruelty, he was [195]heard to say, I [196]wish the Roman people had
but one [197]neck. In all his [198]buildings, or public [199]works,
he [200]effected what was [201]looked upon to be impossible. He
[202]ordered himself to be [203]worshipped as a god throughout the
[204]world, and [205]temples to be [206]erected to him. At last, he
was slain by Chærea Cassius, [207]tribune of a [208]cohort of his
[209]guards, and some others, who had [210]entered into a [211]plot
against him, after he had [212]reigned three years, ten months, and
eight days, and [213]lived twenty-nine years.

Claudius Nero, Caligula’s uncle, and the son of Drusius [214]reigned
after him, [215]naturally no bad man, but [216]senseless and foolish.
He was not naturally [217]cruel, but only so when [218]instigated
by others, [219]especially by his [220]freedmen and his [221]wives,
into whose hands he [222]gave up himself and his [223]affairs. His
first lady was Messalina, whose [224]depravity and [225]dissoluteness
every body [226]knew but himself; till at last [227]venturing to
[228]marry one Silius, a knight, she was by her [229]husband’s order
slain, together with her [230]paramour, at the [231]instigation of
[232]Narcissus, who with [233]Pallas, another of his [234]freedmen,
[235]ruled him entirely.

Another [236]instance of his [237]folly is, that after Messalina
was [238]put to death, by whom he had his son [239]Britannicus, and
Octavia, he married Agrippina Germanicus his brother’s daughter, the
mother of Nero by [240]Domitius, in the ninth year of his reign, by
the [241]advice of Pallas: at whose and Agrippina’s [242]request, he
[243]adopted Nero, and [244]passing by Britannicus, [245]designed him
for his [246]successor. He [247]banished the [248]Jews from Rome,
and the [249]mathematicians out of Italy: and [250]undertaking an
[251]expedition into [252]Britain, he [253]subdued it all in sixteen
days time, as Dio says, in the third year of his reign. He died in
the year of Christ 54, by [254]poison [255]put in a [256]mushroom by
Agrippina. He reigned thirteen years eight months and twenty days, and
lived sixty-four years.

Domitius Nero, [257]mounted the throne after the death of his
[258]step-father, being then seventeen years of age. He at first,
[259]behaved himself in such a manner, that he might be [260]reckoned
among the best of [261]princes; that is, as long as he [262]listened
to the [263]precepts of his [264]master Seneca. Afterwards, being
[265]corrupted with [266]luxury and [267]flattery, he [268]became more
like a [269]monster than a man. He [270]stopped the progress of the
Parthians, who had [271]over-run Armenia, by Corbulo, a [272]gallant
[273]commander, and a person of great [274]virtue and [275]authority,
who [276]recovered Armenia, in the ninth year of Nero, and [277]obliged
[278]Tiridates, Volegesis king of the Parthians brother, to [279]come
to Rome, and to [280]beg his [281]crown of Nero, in the thirteenth
year of Nero’s reign; in which year he [282]recalled Corbulo, and put
him to death. He [283]destroyed Britannicus by [284]poison in the
very [285]beginning of his reign. He likewise [286]ordered his mother
Agrippina to be put to death, after having first [287]disgraced and
[288]banished her from the [289]court, which [290]parricide, that
nothing might be [291]wanting to [292]complete the [293]unhappiness
of the times, the Senate [294]approved of. Afterwards having married
Poppæa, whom he [295]took from Otho, he [296]banished Octavia, and at
last put her to death. Upon the [297]discovery of a [298]plot, which
Piso, and some others had [299]laid against him; he put to death the
[300]poet Lucan, and Seneca the philosopher, with several others,
in the year of Christ 65, and the same year he [301]kicked his wife
Poppæa, when [302]pregnant, [303]to death. He had the [304]impudence
to [305]appear upon the [306]stage, and [307]act amongst the
[308]players and [309]harpers, and [310]ride [311]chariot-races at the
[312]Circensian games; and to [313]represent for his [314]diversion
the [315]appearance of [316]Troy in [317]flames, he [318]set fire to
the city, and [319]imputed it to the [320]Christians. He [321]became
so odious and [322]contemptible by his [323]villanies, that he was
[324]forsaken by all, and being [325]sought for in order to be
[326]punished, he [327]performed the [328]executioner’s [329]office
upon himself, in the 14th year of his [330]reign, and 68th of our Lord.

A little before Nero’s death, [331]C. Julius Vindex, who was
[332]proprætor of Gaul, [333]openly [334]rebelled, and [335]persuaded
Sergius Galba, [336]governor of Spain, to [337]set up for emperor,
which he accordingly did, and [338]put Vindex to death presently after.
He reigned about seven months, being very [339]old. He was slain
together with Piso, whom he had [340]adopted, after M. Silvius Otho was
[341]proclaimed emperor; he reigned only about three months.

In the mean time, Vitellius [342]trusting to the [343]legions of
Germany, which he [344]commanded in [345]quality of a [346]consular
[347]lieutenant-general, [348]took upon him the [349]name of emperor,
and [350]defeated Otho’s army in a [351]rencounter near [352]Bebriacum,
who being [353]weary of a civil war, killed himself.

Vitellius reigned eight months after Otho, and was [354]succeeded by
Vespasian, who had been [355]sent by Nero to [356]quell the [357]Jews.
He reigned ten years with the greatest [358]justice and [359]clemency.
He was a great [360]encourager of [361]learning and [362]learned men.
The only thing that was [363]blamed in him, was his [364]covetousness,
which he used to [365]excuse, by [366]alleging the [367]emptiness of
the [368]Exchequer.

The war in [369]Judea was [370]finished in his time, to which he was
sent by Nero, as we have [371]already [372]said. It was [373]begun by
some [374]seditious [375]people that were [376]headed by Eleazar, the
son of Ananias, the [377]high-priest, who [378]took up arms against
the Romans, under the [379]pretence of [380]religion. Cestius Gallus,
[381]lieutenant of Syria, [382]laid siege to [383]Jerusalem, but was
[384]beaten off with great [385]slaughter in the 12th year of Nero. The
[386]victorious Jews upon their [387]return to Jerusalem, amongst other
generals, [388]made choice of [389]Josephus, the son of [390]Matthias
for one. In the year of Christ 67, Vespasian, [391]carrying his arms
through Galilee and Judea, [392]took, besides most of their towns,
Josephus their [393]commander, who [394]foretold his [395]rise.
At last, he [396]fell upon Jerusalem, the [397]metropolis of the
[398]nation, which was taken by his son Titus, in the second year of
his reign.

This [399]proved the [400]ruin of the nation, and of the very name
of the Jews. The [401]calamity was indeed so [402]violent, and
the [403]miseries they [404]suffered so [405]various, that it was
[406]visible they were [407]punished for the [408]horrid [409]murder
of the [410]only begotten son of God; for a [411]dreadful [412]famine
[413]forced the [414]besieged to [415]live on human [416]flesh;
mothers to [417]eat their own children; and eleven hundred thousand
[418]persons (a thing hardly ever [419]heard of before), [420]perished
in that [421]siege. The city was [422]finally [423]razed to the ground.
Vespasian, in the third year of his reign [424]triumphed, with his
son Titus, over the Jews; upon which he [425]shut up the [426]temple
of [427]Janus. He [428]died in his ninth [429]consulship whilst he
was [430]giving [431]audience to some [432]ambassadors, having lived
sixty-nine years, one month and seven days, and reigned eight years.

Titus, who [433]succeeded his father, is [434]deservedly [435]ranked
among the best [436]emperors, although before he [437]came to the
[438]empire, he was [439]thought a man of a cruel [440]temper,
[441]covetous, and [442]depraved. But upon his [443]advancement, he
was so much [444]altered for the better, that he [445]deserved the
[446]title of the [447]delight of [448]mankind. He was [449]remarkable
for great [450]mildness, and [451]easy temper, and never [452]sent any
one away [453]dissatisfied; and [454]remembering once at [455]supper
that he had [456]done nobody any [457]kindness that day, he told all
those who were about him that he had [458]lost a day. In his reign,
in the year of Christ 80, there was a [459]dreadful [460]eruption of
[461]flames and [462]ashes out of [463]mount Vesuvius, which [464]flew
as far as Africa, Syria, and Egypt; and the two towns of Pompeii and
[465]Herculaneum[A] were [466]utterly [467]ruined by it. This good
emperor died in the year of Christ 81, two years and three months
after he had [468]succeeded his father, and in the one and fortieth
year of his [469]age, not without the [470]suspicion of having been
[471]poisoned by his [472]brother Domitian.

    [A] The Manuscripts, Vases, &c. &c. which within the last few
    years have been found among the ruins of these places, are in
    the present day objects of great curiosity and interest.

Titus was very much [473]lamented both by the senate and people: and
their [474]concern for his death was very much [475]increased by his
brother and [476]successor Domitian, the worst prince of all that
[477]came before, or [478]followed after him. At first he made some
[479]show of [480]clemency and [481]justice, but soon [482]discovered
his [483]temper, and [484]imitated Nero in [485]cruelty, [486]rapine,
and [487]debauchery. He [488]ordered himself to be [489]called God,
and was at last [490]destroyed by means of a [491]plot, in the year of
Christ 96, after he had reigned fifteen years.


FOOTNOTES

[1] _Egítto_

[2] _ridótto_

[3] _forma_

[4] _província_

[5] _trionfáre_

[6] _conquísta_

[7] _Dalmázia_

[8] _sommíssione_

[9] _consigliársi_

[10] _seriaménte_

[11] _fintaménte_

[12] _depórsi_

[13] _autorità_

[14] _consíglio_

[15] _risólvere_

[16] _presentáre_

[17] _dimanda_

[18] _nonostánte_

[19] _per rassegnare_

[20] _stratagémma_

[21] _assicurársi_

[22] _Cornélio Gallo_

[23] _Románo_

[24] _cavaliére_

[25] _governatóre_

[26] _esiliáto_

[27] _insolenza_

[28] _fare_

[29] _luogotenénte_

[30] _sottomessi_

[31] _ritórno_

[32] _ricusáre_

[33] _triónfo_

[34] _esibíto_

[35] _Fraate_

[36] _restituíre_

[37] _stendárdo_

[38] _preso_

[39] _amíco_

[40] _particoláre_

[41] _stima_

[42] _primo_

[43] _protettóre_

[44] _sciénza_

[45] _sapiénte_

[46] _género_

[47] _dare per moglíe_

[48] _nipóte_

[49] _grávida_

[50] _maríto_

[51] _progénie_

[52] _moríre_

[53] _tribunízio_

[54] _potére_

[55] _mandáto_

[56] _regoláre_

[57] _affáre_

[58] _ritirársi_

[59] _cadere_

[60] _dispiacére_

[61] _figliástro_

[62] _continuáre_

[63] _cagióne_

[64] _ritiratézza_

[65] _avversióne_

[66] _passáre_

[67] _sorta_

[68] _dissolutézza_

[69] _scopérta_

[70] _stravagánza_

[71] _bandíre_

[72] _sécolo_

[73] _prodúrre_

[74] _uomo_

[75] _Greco_

[76] _Dionísio Alicarnasséno_

[77] _Nicóla Damascéno_

[78] _célebre_

[79] _talénto_

[80] _istória_

[81] _Latino_

[82] _Cornélio Nepóte_

[83] _género_

[84] _battáglia_

[85] _célebre_

[86] _poéta_

[87] _Virgilio_

[88] _Orázio_

[89] _Ovídio_

[90] _Tibúllo_

[91] _Propérzio_

[92] _Cristo_

[93] _tenúto_

[94] _eccellénte_

[95] _príncipe_

[96] _necessário_

[97] _succédere_

[98] _salvático_

[99] _indole_

[100] _abbandonáto_

[101] _nascóndere_

[102] _vizio_

[103] _princípio_

[104] _maraviglióso_

[105] _arte_

[106] _adottáto_

[107] _comándo_

[108] _suócero_

[109] _acquistáre_

[110] _riputazióne_

[111] _virtù_

[112] _fatto d’arme_

[113] _risguardáto_

[114] _gelóso_

[115] _próprio_

[116] _rimuóvere_

[117] _maraviglióso_

[118] _succésso_

[119] _Levánte_

[120] _battersi_

[121] _rancóre mortále_

[122] _sospétto_

[123] _avvelenáto_

[124] _proseguíto_

[125] _preveníre_

[126] _senténza_

[127] _volontário_

[128] _Elio Sejáno_

[129] _cavaliére_

[130] _innalzáto_

[131] _malvaggio_

[132] _azióne_

[133] _aspiráre_

[134] _léttera_

[135] _precipitáto_

[136] _colmo_

[137] _grandézza_

[138] _mano_

[139] _carnéfice_

[140] _famiglia_

[141] _regno_

[142] _ritirársi_

[143] _ísola_

[144] _costa_

[145] _intenzióne_

[146] _segretamente_

[147] _voltoláre_

[148] _dissolutézza_

[149] _allegrézza_

[150] _Gesù Cristo_

[151] _nato_

[152] _Vergine Mária_

[153] _crocefísso_

[154] _chiamáto_

[155] _scarpa_

[156] _portáto_

[157] _soldatésca_

[158] _portáre_

[159] _succédere_

[160] _entráto_

[161] _avveniménto_

[162] _trono_

[163] _speránza_

[164] _rassomigliáre_

[165] _dotáto_

[166] _qualità_

[167] _corpo_

[168] _mente_

[169] _principiáre_

[170] _segno_

[171] _moderazióne_

[172] _risguárdo_

[173] _spogliáto_

[174] _umanità_

[175] _superáre_

[176] _animále_

[177] _crudeltà_

[178] _strage_

[179] _rango_

[180] _grado_

[181] _uccídere_

[182] _capitáno_

[183] _pretóriano_

[184] _guardia_

[185] _mezzo_

[186] _comméttere_

[187] _delitto_

[188] _dato fondo all’_

[189] _imménso_

[190] _tesóro_

[191] _lasciáto_

[192] _cominciáre_

[193] _proscrívere_

[194] _sacchegiáre_

[195] _sentíto_

[196] _vorréi_

[197] _collo_

[198] _edifízio_

[199] _lavóro_

[200] _effettuáre_

[201] _stimáto_

[202] _farsi_

[203] _adoráre_

[204] _mondo_

[205] _témpio_

[206] _edificáre_

[207] _tribuno_

[208] _coorte_

[209] _guárdia_

[210] _fatto_

[211] _cospirazióne_

[212] _regnáto_

[213] _vissúto_

[214] _regnáre_

[215] _naturalménte_

[216] _insensáto_

[217] _crudéle_

[218] _istigáto_

[219] _sopratútto_

[220] _liberto_

[221] _moglie_

[222] _abbandonársi_

[223] _affáre_

[224] _sfrenatezza_

[225] _dissolutézza_

[226] _essere noto_

[227] _arrischiáre_

[228] _sposáre_

[229] _maríto_

[230] _drudo_

[231] _istigazióne_

[232] _Narcísso_

[233] _Pállade_

[234] _libérto_

[235] _governáre_

[236] _argoménto_

[237] _pazzía_

[238] _messo_

[239] _Británnico_

[240] _Domízio_

[241] _consíglio_

[242] _richiésta_

[243] _adottáre_

[244] _dimenticáre_

[245] _destináre_

[246] _successóre_

[247] _bandíre_

[248] _Giudéo_

[249] _matemático_

[250] _intrapréndere_

[251] _spedizióne_

[252] _Brettágna_

[253] _soggiogáre_

[254] _veléno_

[255] _messo_

[256] _fungo_

[257] _ascéndere_

[258] _patrígno_

[259] _comportársi_

[260] _annoveráto_

[261] _príncipe_

[262] _ascoltáre_

[263] _precétto_

[264] _maéstro_

[265] _corrótto_

[266] _lussúria_

[267] _adulazióne_

[268] _diventáre_

[269] _mostro_

[270] _arrestáre_

[271] _trascórrere_

[272] _valoróso_

[273] _capitáno_

[274] _virtù_

[275] _autorità_

[276] _ricuperáre_

[277] _obbligáre_

[278] _Tiridáte Vologéso_

[279] _veníre_

[280] _domandáre_

[281] _coróna_

[282] _richiamáre_

[283] _far moríre_

[284] _veléno_

[285] _princípio_

[286] _ordináre_

[287] _privatala degli onori_

[288] _bandíto_

[289] _corte_

[290] _parricídio_

[291] _mancáre_

[292] _compíre_

[293] _miséria_

[294] _approváre_

[295] _leváre_

[296] _esiliáre_

[297] _scopérta_

[298] _trama_

[299] _macchináto_

[300] _poéta Lucáno_

[301] _dare dei calci_

[302] _grávida_

[303] _in modo da farla morire_

[304] _sfacciatággine_

[305] _comparíre_

[306] _teátro_

[307] _recitáre_

[308] _commediánte_

[309] _suonatóre d’arpa_

[310] _fare_

[311] _corse di carro_

[312] _giuóchi Circénsi_

[313] _rappresentáre_

[314] _spasso_

[315] _apparénza_

[316] _Troja_

[317] _fiámma_

[318] _incendiáre_

[319] _imputáre_

[320] _Cristiáno_

[321] _diventáre_

[322] _sprezzábile_

[323] _scelleratézza_

[324] _abbandonáto_

[325] _cercáto_

[326] _castigáto_

[327] _eseguíre_

[328] _carnéfice_

[329] _uffício_

[330] _regno_

[331] _C. Giúlio Vindíce_

[332] _propretóre_

[333] _apertaménte_

[334] _ribellársi_

[335] _persuadére_

[336] _governatóre_

[337] _farsi_

[338] _méttere_

[339] _vécchio_

[340] _adottáto_

[341] _proclamáto_

[342] _confidársi_

[343] _legióne_

[344] _comandáre_

[345] _qualità_

[346] _consoláre_

[347] _luogotenénte_

[348] _préndere_

[349] _nome_

[350] _sconfíggere_

[351] _combattiménto_

[352] _Bebríaco_

[353] _stanco_

[354] _succedúto_

[355] _mandáto_

[356] _reprímere_

[357] _Giudéo_

[358] _giustízia_

[359] _cleménza_

[360] _promotóre_

[361] _sciénza_

[362] _sapiénte_

[363] _biasimáto_

[364] _cupidígia_

[365] _scusáre_

[366] _allegáre_

[367] _povertà_

[368] _erário_

[369] _Giudéa_

[370] _termináto_

[371] _già_

[372] _detto_

[373] _principiáto_

[374] _sedizióso_

[375] _gente_

[376] _comandáto_

[377] _gran sacerdóte_

[378] _prendere_

[379] _pretésto_

[380] _religióne_

[381] _luogotenénte_

[382] _assediáre_

[383] _Gierusalémme_

[384] _rispínto_

[385] _stráge_

[386] _vincitóre_

[387] _ritórno_

[388] _scégliere_

[389] _Giuséppe_

[390] _Máttia_

[391] _portáre_

[392] _pigliáre_

[393] _comandánte_

[394] _prédire_

[395] _elevazióne_

[396] _gettársi_

[397] _metrópoli_

[398] _nazióne_

[399] _cagionáre_

[400] _rovína_

[401] _calamità_

[402] _violento_

[403] _miséria_

[404] _soffríre_

[405] _differénte_

[406] _visíbile_

[407] _puníto_

[408] _orréndo_

[409] _omicídio_

[410] _unigénito_

[411] _terríbile_

[412] _fame_

[413] _forzáre_

[414] _assediáto_

[415] _vívere_

[416] _carne_

[417] _mangiáre_

[418] _persóna_

[419] _sentíto_

[420] _períre_

[421] _assédio_

[422] _finalménte_

[423] _spianáto_

[424] _trionfáre_

[425] _chiúdere_

[426] _témpio_

[427] _Giáno_

[428] _moríre_

[429] _consoláto_

[430] _dare_

[431] _udiénza_

[432] _ambasciadóre_

[433] _succédere_

[434] _meritaménte_

[435] _annoveráto_

[436] _imperatóre_

[437] _arriváre_

[438] _império_

[439] _credúto_

[440] _natúra_

[441] _aváro_

[442] _sensuále_

[443] _avanzaménto_

[444] _cambiáto_

[445] _meritáre_

[446] _títolo_

[447] _delízia_

[448] _génere umáno_

[449] _notábile_

[450] _benignità_

[451] _piacevolézza_

[452] _rimandare_

[453] _malconténto_

[454] _ricordársi_

[455] _cena_

[456] _fatto_

[457] _benefício_

[458] _perdúto_

[459] _spaventévole_

[460] _eruzione_

[461] _fiámma_

[462] _cénere_

[463] _Monte Vesúvio_

[464] _spargersi_

[465] _Ercoláno_

[466] _affátto_

[467] _distrútto_

[468] _succedúto_

[469] _età_

[470] _sospétto_

[471] _avvelenáto_

[472] _fratéllo_

[473] _compianto_

[474] _afflizióne_

[475] _accresciúto_

[476] _successóre_

[477] _precedere_

[478] _seguíre_

[479] _mostra_

[480] _cleménza_

[481] _giustízia_

[482] _scopríre_

[483] _natúra_

[484] _imitáre_

[485] _crudeltà_

[486] _rapína_

[487] _lussúria_

[488] _farsi_

[489] _chiamáre_

[490] _uccíso_

[491] _cospirazióne_



CHAP. IX.

_(Of Rome, 836--Of Christ, 96.)_


[1]Cocceius Nerva succeeded Domitian in the empire. He reigned but
one year, four months, and eleven days; an [2]excellent prince, but
[3]despised for his age. He [4]annulled all the [5]acts of Domitian,
and [6]restored what had been [7]taken from the people by [8]violence
and [9]injustice: but he [10]wanted [11]authority to [12]keep the
soldiers within [13]due bounds; wherefore those who were [14]concerned
in the death of Domitian, from whom he had [15]received the empire,
were [16]killed by the [17]guards, [18]in spite of all he could do
to [19]prevent it. He made Trajan, [20]lieutenant of Germany, his
[21]adopted son, with whom he lived three months.

Trajan [22]took upon him the [23]government of the empire at
[24]Cologn, being then in the 42nd year of his age; and a man
[25]excellently [26]skilled in the [27]military art. He was likewise
a person of great prudence, [28]moderation, and [29]meekness of
[30]temper; so that he was thought by all to [31]deserve the
[32]surname of [33]Optimus. He [34]added Dacia to the empire, and,
[35]marching into the [36]East, [37]subdued the [38]Armenians,
the [39]Iberians, the [40]Colchians, the [41]Sarmatians, the
[42]Osrhoenians, the [43]Arabians, and the [44]Bosphoranians. He
likewise [45]fell upon the Parthians, and [46]took the cities Seleucia,
[47]Ctesiphon, and [48]Babylon, with several others. But upon his
[49]taking a voyage in the [50]Red Sea, almost all those nations
[51]rose in rebellion. He, however, [52]quickly [53]reduced them
either in person or by his [54]lieutenants. There was in his time
a great [55]earthquake, which [56]ruined the city of [57]Antioch:
it [58]happened in the year of Christ 115, in the [59]consulship of
Messala and Pedo, the latter of whom was [60]buried in the [61]ruins
of the [62]place, and Trajan was [63]drawn through a [64]window, and
had [65]much ado to [66]escape. The Jews of [67]Syrene [68]took up
arms, and [69]exercised all manner of [70]cruelty upon the Romans and
Greeks throughout [71]Egypt and [72]Cyprus. Trajan [73]suppressed this
rebellion with infinite [74]slaughter, by his lieutenant Martius Turbo.
[75]Whilst he was [76]preparing to march against the Parthians, who
were up in arms, having [77]forced from amongst them the king that
had been [78]given them by the Roman emperor; this excellent prince
[79]fell ill, and [80]died at [81]Selinus in Cilicia. He reigned
nineteen years, six months, and fifteen days.

[82]Ælius Hadrianus, Trajan’s [83]cousin and [84]countryman,
[85]obtained the empire after him, by the [86]favour of Plotina,
Trajan’s wife; a man very [87]fickle in his [88]temper and [89]genius,
[90]equally [91]formed for virtue and [92]vice. He [93]went through all
the [94]provinces of the empire, so that nobody had ever [95]travelled
over so much of the [96]world as he. After the death of Trajan, he
[97]abandoned Armenia, Syria, and Mesopotamia, to the Parthians,
and [98]intended likewise to [99]leave Dacia, had he not been
[100]apprehensive of [101]ruining the many thousands of Romans that
were there.

He [102]rebuilt Jerusalem, which he [103]called Ælia Capitolina,
and [104]settled a colony there; and in the same place where the
[105]temple had [106]stood, [107]built another in [108]honour of
[109]Jupiter; which so [110]provoked the Jews, that, [111]taking up
arms, they [112]carried on the war with more [113]fury than ever,
under the [114]conduct of Barchochebas; against whom, amongst other
[115]skilful generals that he [116]employed, Hadrian [117]sent
for Julius Severus out of [118]Britain, by whom the Jews were by
[119]degrees [120]suppressed and utterly [121]destroyed; there being
no less than 50,000 slain in that war, besides an [122]innumerable
[123]multitude that were [124]consumed by [125]famine, [126]pestilence,
and [127]fire; so that [128]Palestine became almost a [129]wilderness.
After that time, the Jews were [130]forbidden, [131]under pain of
death, to come to Jerusalem, unless one day in a year to [132]lament
their [133]misery.

At last Hadrian [134]growing old and [135]infirm, having no
[136]children of his own, [137]adopted [138]Arrius Antoninus, who was
afterwards [139]surnamed [140]Pius, [141]upon condition that he should
adopt Annius Verus, son of Ælius Verus, and [142]M. Aurelius Antoninus.
After which he died at Baiæ, in the year of Christ 138, having lived
sixty-two years, and reigned twenty-one and eleven months.

Antoninus Pius, adopted by Hadrian, [143]governed the Roman empire
with so much virtue and [144]goodness, that he [145]surpassed all
[146]example; for he [147]managed the [148]commonwealth rather with the
[149]affection of a father, than with the authority of a prince, and
[150]kept the world in [151]peace during his whole reign, for which
[152]reason he was [153]compared to Numa. [154]Foreign and [155]remote
princes and [156]nations [157]feared him to that degree, that they
[158]referred the [159]decision of their [160]controversies to him.
He [161]forbade any [162]scrutiny to be made after those, who had
[163]entered into a [164]plot against his [165]life. He died in the
seventieth year of his age, and twenty-fourth of his reign.

After him reigned M. Antonius Verus, [166]son-in-law of Pius; for he
had married his daughter Valeria Faustina. He had from [167]his youth
been [168]educated as well in the [169]knowledge of other [170]arts as
the [171]studies of [172]wisdom, which he [173]made appear no less in
his life and [174]conduct, than his [175]words and [176]professions.
In the [177]beginning of his reign, he made L. Ælius Verus his
[178]partner of the empire, to whom he married his daughter Lucilla.
They reigned together eleven years, being of very [179]different
[180]inclinations; for Verus was of a [181]listless, [182]luxurious,
and [183]morose temper, but was [184]kept within [185]bounds through
the [186]respect he had for his father-in-law; by whom he was [187]sent
against the Parthians, and [188]carried on the war [189]successfully
for four years, by his lieutenants; wherefore they both [190]triumphed
over the Parthians. Afterwards they [191]undertook an [192]expedition
against the Marcomanni, but upon their [193]march, Verus was
[194]seized with an [195]apoplexy, between Concordia and [196]Altinum,
and died. M. Aurelius carried on the war for three years against
the Marcomanni, to whom the Quadi, [197]Vandals, [198]Sarmatians,
and Suevi, [199]joined themselves. His army in [200]want [201]of
water, was [202]relieved by a [203]legion of [204]Christians that
was in it, who, by their [205]prayers [206]procured [207]rain from
[208]heaven, according to [209]Eusebius. The [210]exchequer being
quite [211]exhausted by the great [212]expense of the war, that he
might not [213]burthen the people with [214]taxes, he [215]produced
all the imperial [216]furniture and [217]sold it; and after the
victory [218]restored the [219]price to those [220]purchasers who
[221]were willing to [222]part with what they had [223]bought. Avidius
Cassius, upon [224]false advice that he was [225]dead, [226]seized the
[227]government, and was slain three months after. M. Aurelius died at
Vienna, after a reign of nineteen years, and eleven months.

He was [228]succeeded by his [229]wicked son Aurelius Commodus
Antoninus, who [230]resembled Nero for [231]cruelty, [232]lust,
[233]avarice, and such practices as are [234]scandalous in an emperor.
Having [235]settled his affairs with the [236]Germans, he triumphed
at Rome. He put to death his sister Lucilla, who, with [237]several
others, had [238]conspired against his life. He [239]used to [240]fight
among the [241]gladiators in the [242]public games. He was at last,
after an [243]infamous life, [244]slain by the [245]contrivance of a
[246]mistress, and the captain-general of his [247]life-guards, whom he
had [248]determined to [249]put to death. He reigned twelve years, nine
months, and fourteen days.

After Commodus was [250]killed in the year of Christ 193, P.
[251]Helvius Pertinax, was [252]declared emperor, by those who had
[253]dispatched Commodus, who [254]endeavouring to [255]reduce the
[256]commonwealth into better [257]order, and to [258]curb the
[259]licentiousness of the [260]soldiery, was, within eighty days after
his coming to the empire, [261]murdered by his own guards. The empire
after this, was by the soldiers [262]exposed to [263]sale, and Didius
Julianus [264]coming up to their [265]terms, was [266]accepted of,
and [267]proclaimed emperor accordingly. But [268]not being able to
[269]make up the [270]promised donative, he was [271]forsaken by them,
and slain by [272]order of Septimius Severus, after he had reigned two
months and five days.

This Severus, a [273]native of Africa, was at that time lieutenant
of Pannonia, and [274]took upon him the government, under the
[275]pretence of [276]revenging Pertinax’s death. He first of all
[277]disbanded the guards for that [278]abominable [279]murder. Then
he [280]fell upon Pescennius Niger, lieutenant of Syria, and Clodius
Albinus of [281]Britain, his [282]competitor for the empire. Niger was
[283]conquered, and Antioch, into which he [284]threw himself, was
taken; after which, [285]flying towards the [286]river Euphrates, he
was [287]taken and slain. After the [288]taking off of Niger, Severus
[289]took [290]Byzantium, which had [291]declared for him, after a
[292]siege of three years.

[293]Matters being [294]brought to a [295]peaceable [296]settlement in
the [297]East, he [298]turned his arms [299]westward against Clodius
Albinus, and [300]engaged him at [301]Lyons in [302]France; where
many being slain on both [303]sides, and amongst others, Albinus,
he was [304]left sole [305]possessor of the empire. The city was
[306]plundered and [307]burnt, Albinus’s [308]head [309]sent to Rome,
and a [310]dreadful [311]havoc made among those who had been his
[312]favourers and [313]friends.

After this, he [314]marched [315]eastward again, and [316]conquered the
Parthians, the [317]Adiabenians, and Arabians, whilst Plotianus, in the
mean time, [318]governed all at Rome. Plotilla, this man’s daughter,
was [319]contracted to Antoninus, Severus’s son, and the [320]nuptials
were [321]celebrated in the tenth year of Severus’s reign. But not long
after, Plotianus being [322]engaged in a [323]plot against the emperor,
was slain by his [324]son-in-law, and a great many that had been in his
[325]interest, killed after him.

Severus [326]undertook an [327]expedition into Britain, with his two
sons, in the 15th year of his reign, where he [328]continued three
years; being very [329]successful, he [330]drew a [331]wall [332]across
the [333]island for its [334]security. He died at York, after he had
reigned seventeen years eight months and three days.

[335]Antoninus Caracalla and Geta, the two sons of Severus, were
after him [336]advanced to the empire, in the year of Christ 211.
But the [337]difference of their [338]humour and [339]manners was
such, that they were [340]perpetually at [341]variance. Geta was
of a [342]mild and civil [343]temper, the other [344]cruel and
[345]boisterous, who, in the second year of his reign, [346]slew his
brother in his [347]mother’s [348]bosom. After him, a great many
of his friends and [349]favourers were [350]put to death, amongst
whom the [351]famous [352]lawyer [353]Papinian, because he would not
[354]justify his [355]parricide. After this, he [356]marched into the
[357]East. At Alexandria he made a [358]shocking [359]massacre of the
[360]inhabitants, for having some time before made some [361]jests
upon him. He then [362]invaded [363]Artabanus, king of the Parthians,
and [364]laid waste his [365]dominions. He was [366]killed by the
[367]contrivance of Opilius Macrinus after he had reigned six years and
two months.

Macrinus [368]enjoyed the empire but a short time; for he and his sons
were slain by the [369]soldiers within a year and two months after he
obtained it: and was [370]succeeded by [371]Antoninus Heliogabalus,
[372]supposed, but [373]falsely, to be the son of Caracalla. He was the
[374]vilest [375]wretch that ever lived, [376]given up to all manner of
[377]vice. Wherefore, after a reign of three years, and nine months, he
was slain by the [378]soldiery, with his mother Julia, or Semiamira.

After this, [379]M. Aurelius Alexander [380]mounted the throne,
having been [381]created Cæsar the year before; an [382]extraordinary
prince, and well [383]instructed in all the [384]arts of [385]peace
and war. He [386]carried a strict hand over the [387]judges, and was
very [388]severe upon all those that by [389]favour or [390]bribery
[391]transgressed the [392]bounds of [393]justice. He [394]banished
from his [395]person all [396]flatterers, [397]buffoons, and such as
are a [398]scandal to the [399]court. He [400]forbade the [401]sale
of [402]offices, saying, that what was [403]bought would be [404]sold
again. He [405]allowed the [406]deputies of the [407]provinces all
their [408]furniture out of the [409]exchequer, that they might not
be [410]burdensome to the people. He was [411]successful against the
Persians, but at last slain in a [412]sedition of his army.

In the fifth year of his reign, [413]Artaxerxes, [414]the Persian,
having [415]defeated the Parthians in three [416]battles, and
slain their king Artabanus, [417]raised again the empire of the
Persians in the East. He also made an [418]excursion into the Roman
[419]territories, but was defeated by Alexander. After this, he
[420]undertook an [421]expedition against the Germans, in which he was
slain by Maximinus, together with his mother, after a reign of thirteen
years.

Maximinus was made emperor after the [422]murder of Alexander, and
[423]put a happy end to the German war. In the mean time he made a
[424]dreadful [425]havoc at Rome, by his governor there, and killed a
great many of the [426]nobility. During this, the two [427]Gordians,
father and son, while at [428]Carthage, [429]laid claim to the empire.
The Romans, being [430]headed by the senate, [431]declared against
Maximinus; and [432]persons were [433]dispatched away to [434]secure
the provinces for the senate. At home, twenty [435]commissioners were
[436]nominated for the [437]management of public [438]affairs. The
Gordians being [439]killed in Africa, after a year and a few days, by
[440]Capelian, Maximinus’s general, [441]Balbinus and [442]Maximus
Pupienus, two of the [443]twenty [444]commissioners, were [445]advanced
to the empire by the senate in the year of Christ 237; in which
Maximinus, as he was [446]besieging Aquileia, was slain by the
[447]soldiers with his son, who was but a [448]boy, after a reign of
two years and ten months.

Balbinus and Pupienus, with Gordian ([449]a boy, who, as will be seen
[450]hereafter, [451]perished in Africa), reigned together for a year.
But afterwards being [452]desirous to [453]get rid of Gordian, who was
more in [454]favour than themselves, they were slain by the soldiers
in the year of Christ 238; from which time Gordian [455]enjoyed the
empire by himself, a [456]youth of an [457]extraordinary [458]genius,
and [459]prone to all manner of virtue; which was [460]improved by
the [461]prudence of Misitheus, a very [462]learned and [463]eloquent
man, whose daughter he [464]married; with whom he [465]marched at the
[466]head of the great army against the Persians, and [467]recovered
from them [468]Carræ, [469]Nisibis, and other towns, and [470]forced
them back into their own [471]country. The year [472]following,
Misitheus being [473]murdered by the [474]contrivance of [475]Philip
the Arabian, Gordian himself was soon after slain in a [476]tumult,
which the same Philip [477]raised by the [478]help of some soldiers he
had [479]corrupted, after he had reigned six years, in whose [480]place
the [481]parricide [482]succeeded.

In the fourth year of Philip’s reign, the [483]Secular games were
[484]celebrated at Rome, in the [485]thousandth year of the city. He
was [486]at last [487]slain at Verona, by the soldiers, in the sixth
year of his [488]reign.

Decius, [489]born in [490]Lower Pannonia, a man of great [491]courage
and [492]experience in war, [493]succeeded him. He [494]perished in a
[495]morass in a battle against the [496]Barbarians. This [497]defeat
was [498]occasioned by the [499]treachery of Gallus, who [500]secretly
[501]caballed with the enemy after he had reigned thirty months. This
Gallus being made emperor by the [502]choice of the [503]soldiery, and
having [504]taken his son as a [505]partner in the [506]government,
was slain together with him by the soldiers, two years and four months
after at Interamna, as he was [507]marching against Æmilian, who was
[508]raising a [509]rebellion in Mœtia.

Æmilian did not reign long, being slain three months after his
[510]advancement, and was [511]succeeded by Valerian, with his son
Gallienus, who reigned six years together; during which time the
Roman empire was [512]miserably [513]rent by the Barbarians. Thirty
[514]tyrants [515]started up in several [516]places, according to
[517]Trebellius Pollio. Wherefore Valerian [518]marching against the
[519]Scythians, who had [520]taken [521]Chalcedon, [522]burnt Nice,
and the [523]temple of the [524]Ephesian Diana, and from thence
[525]advancing against Sapores, who [526]was very troublesome to
the [527]Eastern [528]borders, he [529]took him [530]prisoner, and
[531]treated him like a vile [532]slave; for when he [533]mounted
his [534]horse, he [535]set his [536]foot upon his [537]neck, who
[538]bowed down [539]for that purpose. At last he [540]ordered him
to be [541]flayed and [542]salted. This [543]victory over the Romans
[544]happened in the year of Christ 260. After which Odenatus, a
senator of the [545]Palmyrenians, whom Zenobia had [546]married,
[547]bravely [548]repulsed the Persians that still [549]harassed the
[550]borders.

[551]In the mean time Gallienus, wholly [552]given up to [553]luxury
and [554]debauchery, [555]suffered the empire to be [556]torn to pieces
by the Barbarians, and [557]tyrants. Odenatus, after the [558]taking
of Nisibis and Carræ, and the [559]recovery of Mesopotamia, [560]upon
routing of the king of the Persians, having [561]sent the great
[562]lords of the Persians to him in [563]chains, he was [564]not
ashamed to [565]triumph, as if he had [566]conquered them himself.
Odenatus was [567]murdered by his [568]cousin, together with his son
Herod, whose [569]wife Zenobia, being a [570]woman of a [571]masculine
spirit, [572]undertook the government. Gallienus was slain with his
brother Valerian at [573]Milan, as he was marching against Aureolus the
tyrant. He reigned almost seven years with his father, and eight alone.

Claudius [574]succeeded him; a [575]frugal and [576]moderate prince,
and very [577]serviceable to the public, who having [578]taken off
the tyrant Aureolus, was very [579]successful against the [580]Goths,
of whom he [581]slew 320,000, and [582]sunk 200 of their [583]ships.
The rest of the Barbarians were [584]consumed at [585]Hæmimontium by
[586]famine and [587]pestilence; and soon after Claudius [588]died of
the same [589]plague, after a reign of one year and nine months.

His brother Quintilius [590]usurping the empire, was slain by the
soldiers ten days after, who had now [591]made choice of Aurelian,
a person of [592]mean birth, but [593]reckoned amongst the most
[594]glorious princes, only rather too [595]cruel. He [596]subdued
the Alemanni and Marcomanni, from whom the Romans had before
[597]received a [598]signal [599]overthrow. After that victory he
[600]came to Rome, [601]put several of the [602]senators to death, and
[603]enlarged the [604]walls of the city. Then marching [605]eastward,
he conquered Zenobia, whom with the tyrant [606]Tetrichus, he [607]led
in [608]triumph. [609]Aurelius Victor tells us, he was the first of
the Roman emperors who [610]wore a [611]diadem on his [612]head, or
[613]used [614]jewels and [615]cloth of [616]gold. He was [617]taken
off by [618]Mnestheus, a [619]notary to the [620]secretaries at
[621]Cænophrurium, [622]betwixt [623]Byzantium and Heraclea. After
his [624]death, there was an [625]interregnum of about seven months,
[626]occasioned by a [627]dispute between the senate and the army,
about the [628]choice of an emperor; at length Tacitus was [629]chosen
by the senate, a person of [630]excellent [631]morals, and very
[632]fit for the [633]government, he was [634]descended from Tacitus
the [635]historian; and he [636]died of a [637]fever six months after
at Tarsus. His brother Florianus [638]succeeded him: but Probus being
[639]set up by a [640]majority of the army, Florianus [641]bled himself
to death, two months after his brother died, in the year of Christ 276.

This Probus was [642]born in Pannonia Sirmiensis, a very fine man,
and an excellent [643]soldier, of [644]unspotted morals. [645]As
soon as he was [646]made emperor, he [647]punished all those who
[648]had a hand in the death of Aurelian. After that, he [649]marched
to [650]Gaul, [651]recovered several towns out of the [652]hands
of the [653]Barbarians, and [654]slew nearly 70,000 of them. After
[655]reducing [656]Gaul, he recovered [657]Illyricum, and [658]subdued
the people [659]called the [660]Getæ; then going into the [661]East,
he [662]fell upon the [663]Persians; when having [664]defeated them,
and [665]taken several towns, he was [666]slain on his [667]return to
Italy, by the soldiers, at [668]Sirmium, who [669]hated him for his
great [670]severity. This [671]happened in the seventh year of his
[672]reign, and the 282nd of Christ.

Probus was [673]succeeded by M. Aurelius Carus, [674]born at
[675]Narbon in France, who [676]immediately [677]made his sons
Carinus, and Numerianus, [678]Cæsars; and having [679]sent Carinus
to [680]take the care of Gaul, he [681]marched into the [682]East
against the Persians with Numerianus; where, after he had [683]reduced
Mesopotamia, and marched as far as [684]Ctesiphon, he was [685]struck
dead by [686]lightning, having [687]reigned about a year. Numerianus
being much [688]concerned for his father’s death, [689]contracted a
[690]weakness in his [691]eyes with [692]weeping, and was [693]slain by
the [694]contrivance of Aper his [695]father-in-law.

Carinus was nothing [696]like his father and brother, being [697]guilty
of all [698]manner of [699]wickedness; [700]wherefore he was
[701]odious to all [702]ranks of [703]people. He was [704]betrayed
by his own army at [705]Margum in Mœsia, and [706]killed by the
soldiers of Dioclesian, who, as soon as Numerianus was [707]dead,
[708]accepted of the [709]purple [710]offered him by the army, being
born of [711]mean parents in [712]Dalmatia (for [713]he is said
to have been the [714]slave of [715]Anulinus the senator), but a
[716]gallant soldier. He [717]took his [718]oath in an [719]assembly
of the soldiers, that he [720]had no hand in the death of Numerianus,
and upon that [721]slew Aper with his own [722]hand; and so
[723]fulfilled the [724]prophecy of him, that he should be emperor,
when he had killed a [725]boar with his own hand; for which reason
[726]as often as he [727]met with a boar, he [728]used to kill him.
After he had killed Aper, he said he had [729]found the fatal boar.
He [730]suppressed the [731]boors who made an [732]insurrection in
Gaul, and [733]called themselves Bacaudæ, by means of [734]Maximianus
Herculius, whom he [735]sent thither [736]for that purpose in the
year 285, in which this Herculius was first made Cæsar, and the year
[737]following he was made Augustus. About the same time Carausius
having [738]seized upon [739]Britain, and Achilleus in [740]Egypt,
[741]pretended to the empire; and in the [742]East, Narses king of
Persia, being [743]ready to [744]fall upon the Romans, and Africa being
[745]wasted by the [746]Quinquegentians, the better to [747]conduct
all these wars at once, he [748]created Constantius Chlorus, and
Galerius Maximianus, Cæsars. The latter was [749]born in Dacia, not
far from Sardica, and was [750]surnamed [751]Armentarius, because
he had been a [752]herdsman. Dioclesian [753]gave his daughter
Valeria to Armentarius, and Maximianus Herculius [754]disposed of
his step-daughter Theodora to Constantius. After this, Dioclesian
[755]went to Egypt, Herculius into Africa, Armentarius into the East,
and Constantius into Britain. Alexandria was [756]taken by Dioclesian,
after a [757]siege of eight months, in the twelfth year of his reign.
Ceransius was [758]killed by his friend [759]Alectus, eight years after
his [760]revolt. At the same time the Quinquegentians were [761]reduced
by Maximianus Herculius: and Galerius Armentarius [762]defeated by
Narsus, being [763]haughtily [764]received by Dioclesian, he the year
following 297, [765]revenged this [766]disgrace, by [767]routing
the Persian army, and [768]taking the [769]wives, [770]sisters, and
[771]children of Narsus prisoners; upon which Dioclesian received him
[772]honourably in Mesopotamia.

At length, after a [773]splendid [774]triumph, Dioclesian and Herculius
[775]laid down their [776]authority; the former did it [777]by
choice, and [778]retired to Salonæ; the other was [779]prevailed
upon more by the [780]authority of his [781]colleague, than from any
[782]inclination for it. This [783]happened in the 20th of Dioclesian,
and 304th year of Christ; upon which [784]Constantius Chlorus, and
[785]Galerius Maximianus Armentarius, were [786]proclaimed emperors;
Severus, and Galerius Maximianus, the [787]nephew of Armentarius by a
sister, were [788]declared Cæsars. Constantius [789]divided the Roman
empire with Maximian, [790]keeping to himself Gaul, Italy, and Africa;
but the two [791]last he afterwards [792]left to his colleague, who
had besides [793]Illyricum, Asia, and the [794]East. Of this he made
Maximianus [795]governor, and [796]placed Severus in Italy.


FOOTNOTES

[1] _Coccéjo Nerva_

[2] _eccellénte_

[3] _sprezzáto_

[4] _annulláre_

[5] _atto_

[6] _restituíre_

[7] _preso_

[8] _violénza_

[9] _ingiustízia_

[10] _mancáre_

[11] _autorità_

[12] _tenére_

[13] _dovére_

[14] _avér parte_

[15] _ricevúto_

[16] _uccíso_

[17] _guárdia_

[18] _ad onta di_

[19] _impedíre_

[20] _luogotenénte_

[21] _adottáto_

[22] _pigliáre_

[23] _govérno_

[24] _Cológna_

[25] _ottimaménte_

[26] _versáto_

[27] _arte militáre_

[28] _moderazióne_

[29] _dolce_

[30] _temperamento_

[31] _meritáre_

[32] _sopranome_

[33] _Óttimo_

[34] _aggiúngere_

[35] _marciáre_

[36] _Levánte_

[37] _soggiogáre_

[38] _Armeni_

[39] _Ibérj_

[40] _Colchi_

[41] _Sármati_

[42] _Osroéni_

[43] _Árabi_

[44] _Bosforáni_

[45] _attaccáre_

[46] _préndere_

[47] _Tesifóne_

[48] _Babilónia_

[49] _fare un viággio_

[50] _per il mar rosso_

[51] _ribellársi_

[52] _presto_

[53] _ridúrre_

[54] _luogotenénte_

[55] _terremóto_

[56] _rovináre_

[57] _Ántíochia_

[58] _succédere_

[59] _consoláto_

[60] _seppellíto_

[61] _rovína_

[62] _piázza_

[63] _tiráto_

[64] _finéstra_

[65] _molta difficoltà_

[66] _scappáre_

[67] _Siréne_

[68] _prénder le armi_

[69] _esercitáre_

[70] _crudeltà_

[71] _Egítto_

[72] _Cipro_

[73] _sopprímere_

[74] _strage_

[75] _mentre_

[76] _preparársi_

[77] _scacciato_

[78] _dato_

[79] _ammalársi_

[80] _moríre_

[81] _Selíno_

[82] _Elio Adriáno_

[83] _cugíno_

[84] _compatriótto_

[85] _ottenére_

[86] _favóre_

[87] _mutábile_

[88] _natúra_

[89] _génio_

[90] _ugualménte_

[91] _formato_

[92] _vízio_

[93] _andáre_

[94] _província_

[95] _viaggiáre_

[96] _mondo_

[97] _cédere_

[98] _disegnáre_

[99] _lasciáre_

[100] _temúto_

[101] _rovináre_

[102] _riedificáre_

[103] _chiamáre_

[104] _stabilíre_

[105] _témpio_

[106] _situáto_

[107] _edificáre_

[108] _onóre_

[109] _Gióve_

[110] _irritáre_

[111] _pigliár l’armi_

[112] _fare_

[113] _fúria_

[114] _condótta_

[115] _sperimentáto_

[116] _impiegáre_

[117] _far veníre_

[118] _Brettágna_

[119] _gradualménte_

[120] _sopprésso_

[121] _distrútto_

[122] _innumerábile_

[123] _moltitúdine_

[124] _consumáto_

[125] _fame_

[126] _peste_

[127] _fuóco_

[128] _Palestína_

[129] _desérto_

[130] _proibíto_

[131] _sotto pena di morte_

[132] _compiángere_

[133] _miséria_

[134] _diveníre vécchio_

[135] _inférmo_

[136] _figliuólo_

[137] _adottáre_

[138] _Árrio Antoníno_

[139] _cognominato_

[140] _Pio_

[141] _con patto_

[142] _M. Aurélio Antonino_

[143] _governáre_

[144] _benignità_

[145] _sorpassáre_

[146] _esémpio_

[147] _maneggiáre_

[148] _repúbblica_

[149] _affezióne_

[150] _tenére_

[151] _pace_

[152] _ragióne_

[153] _comparáto_

[154] _straniéro_

[155] _remóto_

[156] _nazióne_

[157] _temére_

[158] _riméttere_

[159] _decisióne_

[160] _controvérsia_

[161] _proibíre_

[162] _scrutinio_

[163] _entráre_

[164] _cospirazióne_

[165] _vita_

[166] _género_

[167] _gioventù_

[168] _educáto_

[169] _conoscénza_

[170] _arte_

[171] _stúdio_

[172] _sapiénza_

[173] _mostrare_

[174] _condótta_

[175] _paróla_

[176] _professióne_

[177] _princípio_

[178] _compágno_

[179] _differénte_

[180] _inclinazióne_

[181] _pigro_

[182] _lussurióso_

[183] _fastidióso_

[184] _tenúto_

[185] _moderazióne_

[186] _rispétto_

[187] _mandáto_

[188] _fare_

[189] _con buon successo_

[190] _trionfáre_

[191] _intrapréndere_

[192] _spedizióne_

[193] _márcia_

[194] _assalíto_

[195] _apopléssia_

[196] _Altíno_

[197] _Vándali_

[198] _Sarmáti_

[199] _unírsi_

[200] _necessità_

[201] _acqua_

[202] _soccorsa_

[203] _legióne_

[204] _Cristiáno_

[205] _preghiéra_

[206] _procuráre_

[207] _pióggia_

[208] _ciélo_

[209] _Eusébio_

[210] _erário_

[211] _vuoto_

[212] _spesa_

[213] _caricáre_

[214] _dazio_

[215] _mise fuori_

[216] _forniménto_

[217] _véndere_

[218] _restituíre_

[219] _prezzo_

[220] _compratóre_

[221] _volére_

[222] _disfársi_

[223] _compráto_

[224] _falso avvíso_

[225] _morto_

[226] _usurpáre_

[227] _govérno_

[228] _succedúto_

[229] _malvágio_

[230] _rassomigliáre_

[231] _crudeltà_

[232] _sensualità_

[233] _avarízia_

[234] _scandalóso_

[235] _regoláto_

[236] _Germáni_

[237] _parécchi_

[238] _cospiráto_

[239] _solére_

[240] _battérsi_

[241] _gladiatóre_

[242] _giuóchi púbblici_

[243] _infáme_

[244] _uccíso_

[245] _arte_

[246] _amorósa_

[247] _guárdie del corpo_

[248] _risolúto_

[249] _méttere_

[250] _ammazzáto_

[251] _Elvio Pertináce_

[252] _dichiaráto_

[253] _spacciáto_

[254] _procuráre_

[255] _ridúrre_

[256] _repúbblica_

[257] _órdine_

[258] _reprímere_

[259] _licénza_

[260] _soldatésca_

[261] _assassináto_

[262] _espórre_

[263] _vendita_

[264] _componendosi colle_

[265] _condizioni_

[266] _accettáto_

[267] _proclamáto_

[268] _potere_

[269] _fornire_

[270] _donatívo premésso_

[271] _abbandonáto_

[272] _órdine_

[273] _natívo_

[274] _préndere_

[275] _pretésto_

[276] _vendicáre_

[277] _licenziáre_

[278] _abbominevole_

[279] _assassínio_

[280] _attaccáre_

[281] _Brettagna_

[282] _competitóre_

[283] _vinto_

[284] _ritirarsi_

[285] _fuggíre_

[286] _fiúme Eufráte_

[287] _preso_

[288] _presa_

[289] _prendere_

[290] _Bisánzio_

[291] _dichiaráto_

[292] _assédio_

[293] _le cose_

[294] _condótto_

[295] _pacifico_

[296] _accomodaménto_

[297] _Levánte_

[298] _voltáre_

[299] _verso l’occidénte_

[300] _attaccáre_

[301] _Lióne_

[302] _Fráncia_

[303] _canto_

[304] _lasciáto_

[305] _possessóre_

[306] _saccheggiáto_

[307] _abbrucciáto_

[308] _testa_

[309] _mandáto_

[310] _orríbile_

[311] _strage_

[312] _fautóre_

[313] _amíco_

[314] _marciáre_

[315] _verso il levánte_

[316] _conquistáre_

[317] _Adiabeniáni_

[318] _governáre_

[319] _fidanzáto_

[320] _nozze_

[321] _celebráto_

[322] _impegnáto_

[323] _cospirazióne_

[324] _género_

[325] _partito_

[326] _intrapréndere_

[327] _spedizióne_

[328] _continuáre_

[329] _fortunáto_

[330] _tiráre_

[331] _muro_

[332] _attravérso_

[333] _ísola_

[334] _sicurézza_

[335] _Antoníno Caracálla_

[336] _alzáto_

[337] _differénza_

[338] _umóre_

[339] _costúme_

[340] _perpetuaménte_

[341] _in lite_

[342] _benígno_

[343] _naturale_

[344] _crudéle_

[345] _impetuóso_

[346] _uccídere_

[347] _madre_

[348] _seno_

[349] _partitánte_

[350] _messo_

[351] _célebre_

[352] _giuriconsulto_

[353] _Papiniáno_

[354] _giustificáre_

[355] _parricídio_

[356] _marciáre_

[357] _levánte_

[358] _orríbile_

[359] _strage_

[360] _abitánte_

[361] _burla_

[362] _attaccare_

[363] _Artabáno_

[364] _desoláre_

[365] _domínio_

[366] _ucciso_

[367] _arte_

[368] _godére_

[369] _soldáto_

[370] _succedúto_

[371] _Antonino Eliogábalo_

[372] _suppósto_

[373] _falsaménte_

[374] _vile_

[375] _scelleráto_

[376] _abbandonáto_

[377] _vizio_

[378] _soldatésca_

[379] _M. Aurélio Alessándro_

[380] _ascéndere_

[381] _creáto_

[382] _straordinário_

[383] _istrútto_

[384] _arte_

[385] _pace_

[386] _comportársi rigorosaménte_

[387] _giúdice_

[388] _sevéro_

[389] _favóre_

[390] _corruzióne_

[391] _uscíre_

[392] _términe_

[393] _giustízia_

[394] _bandíre_

[395] _persóna_

[396] _adulatóre_

[397] _buffóne_

[398] _disdoro_

[399] _corte_

[400] _proibíre_

[401] _véndita_

[402] _uffízio_

[403] _compráto_

[404] _rivendúto_

[405] _concédere_

[406] _deputáto_

[407] _província_

[408] _móbili_

[409] _erário_

[410] _a carico al_

[411] _fortunáto_

[412] _sedizióne_

[413] _Artasérse_

[414] _il Persiáno_

[415] _sconfítto_

[416] _battáglia_

[417] _rialzáre_

[418] _scorrería_

[419] _território_

[420] _intrapréndere_

[421] _spedizióne_

[422] _assassínio_

[423] _termináre feliceménte_

[424] _spaventévole_

[425] _strage_

[426] _nobilità_

[427] _Gordiáni_

[428] _Cartágine_

[429] _pretendere_

[430] _comandáto_

[431] _dichiarársi_

[432] _persóna_

[433] _spedíto_

[434] _assicurársi_

[435] _commissário_

[436] _nomináto_

[437] _governo_

[438] _affáre_

[439] _ucciso_

[440] _Capeliáno Massimíno_

[441] _Balbíno_

[442] _Mássimo Pupiéno_

[443] _venti_

[444] _commissário_

[445] _alzáto_

[446] _assediáre_

[447] _soldáto_

[448] _ragázzo_

[449] _ràgazzo_

[450] _poi_

[451] _períre_

[452] _desideróso_

[453] _disfársi_

[454] _grázia_

[455] _godére_

[456] _gióvine_

[457] _straordinário_

[458] _génio_

[459] _inclináto_

[460] _coltiváto_

[461] _prudenza_

[462] _sapiente_

[463] _eloquénte_

[464] _sposáre_

[465] _marciáre_

[466] _testa_

[467] _ricuperáre_

[468] _Carréa_

[469] _Nísibi_

[470] _rispígnere_

[471] _paese_

[472] _seguénte_

[473] _uccíso_

[474] _insidia_

[475] _Filíppo l’Árabo_

[476] _tumúlto_

[477] _suscitáre_

[478] _assisténza_

[479] _corrótto_

[480] _luógo_

[481] _parricída_

[482] _succédere_

[483] _giuochi secolári_

[484] _celebráto_

[485] _millésimo_

[486] _finalménte_

[487] _ammazzáto_

[488] _regno_

[489] _nato_

[490] _basso_

[491] _corággio_

[492] _speriénza_

[493] _succédere_

[494] _períre_

[495] _palúde_

[496] _bárbaro_

[497] _sconfítta_

[498] _cagionáto_

[499] _perfídia_

[500] _nascostaménte_

[501] _congiuráre_

[502] _scelta_

[503] _soldatésca_

[504] _preso_

[505] _compágno_

[506] _govérno_

[507] _marciáre_

[508] _suscitáre_

[509] _ribellióne_

[510] _avanzaménto_

[511] _succedúto_

[512] _miserabilménte_

[513] _laceráto_

[514] _tiránno_

[515] _sollevársi_

[516] _luógo_

[517] _Trebéllio Pollióne_

[518] _marciáre_

[519] _Sciti_

[520] _preso_

[521] _Calcedónia_

[522] _abbruciáto_

[523] _témpio_

[524] _Efesino_

[525] _avanzáre_

[526] _inquietava assai_

[527] _orientále_

[528] _frontiere_

[529] _fare_

[530] _prigioniéro_

[531] _trattáre_

[532] _schiávo_

[533] _montáre_

[534] _cavállo_

[535] _porre_

[536] _piéde_

[537] _collo_

[538] _abbassársi_

[539] _a questo effétto_

[540] _fare_

[541] _scorticáre_

[542] _saláre_

[543] _vittória_

[544] _succédere_

[545] _Palmiriáni_

[546] _sposáto_

[547] _coraggiosaménte_

[548] _rispígnere_

[549] _dare il guasto_

[550] _confíne_

[551] _Intanto_

[552] _abbandonáto_

[553] _lussúria_

[554] _dissolutézza_

[555] _lasciáre_

[556] _laceráre in pezzi_

[557] _tiránno_

[558] _presa_

[559] _recuperaménto_

[560] _dopo la sconfítta_

[561] _mandáto_

[562] _signóre_

[563] _caténa_

[564] _vergógna_

[565] _trionfare_

[566] _vincere_

[567] _assassináto_

[568] _cugíno_

[569] _moglie_

[570] _donna_

[571] _ánimo virile_

[572] _intrapréndere_

[573] _Miláno_

[574] _succédere_

[575] _frugale_

[576] _moderáto_

[577] _serviziévole_

[578] _uccíso_

[579] _fortunáto_

[580] _Goti_

[581] _uccídere_

[582] _affondáre_

[583] _nave_

[584] _distrútto_

[585] _Emimónzio_

[586] _fame_

[587] _pestilénza_

[588] _moríre_

[589] _peste_

[590] _usurpáre_

[591] _scegliere_

[592] _bassa náscita_

[593] _annoveráto_

[594] _glorióso_

[595] _crudéle_

[596] _soggiogáre_

[597] _ricevúto_

[598] _segnaláto_

[599] _sconfítta_

[600] _veníre_

[601] _méttere_

[602] _senatóre_

[603] _ampliáre_

[604] _muro_

[605] _verso l’oriénte_

[606] _Tétrico_

[607] _condúrre_

[608] _triónfo_

[609] _Aurélio Vittóre_

[610] _portáre_

[611] _diadéma_

[612] _capo_

[613] _servírsi_

[614] _giója_

[615] _panno_

[616] _oro_

[617] _tolto di vita_

[618] _Nestéo_

[619] _notáro_

[620] _secretário_

[621] _Cenofrúrio_

[622] _tra_

[623] _Bisánzio_

[624] _morte_

[625] _interrégno_

[626] _cagionáto_

[627] _dispúta_

[628] _scelta_

[629] _scelto_

[630] _eccellénte_

[631] _costúme_

[632] _capáce_

[633] _govérno_

[634] _discéso_

[635] _istórico_

[636] _moríre_

[637] _febbre_

[638] _succédere_

[639] _innalzáto_

[640] _pluralità_

[641] _si apri le vene a morte_

[642] _nato_

[643] _soldáto_

[644] _intátta probitá_

[645] _súbito che_

[646] _fatto_

[647] _puníre_

[648] _éssere complíce_

[649] _marciare_

[650] _Gállia_

[651] _ricuperáre_

[652] _potére_

[653] _barbáro_

[654] _ammazzáre_

[655] _riduzióne_

[656] _Gállia_

[657] _Illírico_

[658] _soggiogáre_

[659] _chiamáto_

[660] _Geti_

[661] _Levánte_

[662] _attaccáre_

[663] _Persiáno_

[664] _sconfítto_

[665] _preso_

[666] _uccíso_

[667] _ritórna_

[668] _Sírmio_

[669] _odiáre_

[670] _severità_

[671] _succédere_

[672] _regno_

[673] _successo_

[674] _nato_

[675] _Narbóna_

[676] _súbito_

[677] _fare_

[678] _Césare_

[679] _mandáto_

[680] _aver cura_

[681] _marciáre_

[682] _Levánte_

[683] _ridótto_

[684] _Tesifóne_

[685] _ammazzato_

[686] _fúlmine_

[687] _regnáto_

[688] _afflítto_

[689] _contrarre_

[690] _debolezza_

[691] _ócchio_

[692] _piangere_

[693] _ucciso_

[694] _arte_

[695] _suócero_

[696] _rassomigliáre_

[697] _colpévole_

[698] _sorta_

[699] _scelleratezza_

[700] _perciò_

[701] _odióso_

[702] _stato_

[703] _gente_

[704] _tradíto_

[705] _Margo_

[706] _ammazzáto_

[707] _morto_

[708] _accettáre_

[709] _pórpora_

[710] _offérto_

[711] _bassi parenti_

[712] _Dalmázia_

[713] _si dice che_

[714] _schiávo_

[715] _Anulino_

[716] _bravo_

[717] _pigliáre_

[718] _giuraménto_

[719] _Assembléa_

[720] _éssere cómplíce_

[721] _uccídere_

[722] _mano_

[723] _adempíre_

[724] _profezía_

[725] _cignále_

[726] _ogni volta che_

[727] _incontráre_

[728] _solére_

[729] _trováto_

[730] _sopprímere_

[731] _Villano_

[732] _rivólta_

[733] _chiamársi_

[734] _Massimiáno Erculío_

[735] _mandáre_

[736] _a questo effétto_

[737] _seguénte_

[738] _impadroníto_

[739] _Brettágna_

[740] _Egítto_

[741] _preténdere_

[742] _Levánte_

[743] _pronto_

[744] _attaccáre_

[745] _desoláto_

[746] _Quinquegenziáni_

[747] _spingere_

[748] _creáre_

[749] _nato_

[750] _cognomináto_

[751] _Armentário_

[752] _pastóre_

[753] _dare_

[754] _accordáre_

[755] _andáre_

[756] _preso_

[757] _assédio_

[758] _ammazzáto_

[759] _Alétto_

[760] _rivólta_

[761] _ridótto_

[762] _sconfitto_

[763] _alteraménte_

[764] _ricevúto_

[765] _emendáre_

[766] _disgrázia_

[767] _sconfiggere_

[768] _fare_

[769] _moglie_

[770] _sorélla_

[771] _figliuólo_

[772] _onorataménte_

[773] _spléndido_

[774] _triónfo_

[775] _rinunziáre_

[776] _autorità_

[777] _spontaneaménte_

[778] _ritirársi_

[779] _dispósto_

[780] _autorità_

[781] _collega_

[782] _inclinazióne_

[783] _succédere_

[784] _Costánzo Cloro_

[785] _Galério Massimiáno Armentário_

[786] _proclamáto_

[787] _nipóte_

[788] _dichiaráto_

[789] _spartíre_

[790] _tenérsi_

[791] _último_

[792] _lasciáre_

[793] _Illírico_

[794] _Levánte_

[795] _governatóre_

[796] _collocáre_



CHAP. X.

(_Of Rome_, 1044--_Of Christ_, 304.)


Constantius Chlorus having [1]enjoyed his [2]dignity one year, or
as most [3]will have it, two years, [4]died at York. He was [5]mild
and [6]civil in his [7]disposition; he would [8]suffer no [9]enquiry
to be made after the [10]Christians, and [11]preferred such of his
[12]servants as he [13]knew to be of that [14]profession before the
[15]rest.

Constantine, his son, [16]began his [17]reign in the year of Christ
306, being 32 or 33 years of age, [18]born of [19]Helen of Bithynia,
whom, most [20]authors say, was not, but some, that she was, the
[21]lawful [22]wife of Constantius, though of [23]mean [24]birth.

At Rome, [25]Maxentius, the son of [26]Herculius, was [27]proclaimed
emperor, by the [28]prætorian [29]bands: he, at first, to [30]gain
the [31]people, [32]seemed to [33]favour the [34]Christians; but
[35]presently after [36]wallowed in all [37]manner of [38]wickedness
and [39]cruelty. Galerius Maximianus [40]sent Severus against
him, who, being [41]forsaken by his men, [42]fled to Ravenna;
Galerius, upon this, [43]marching for Rome, with his [44]army, was
[45]likewise forsaken by his men, and went into [46]Illyricum, where
he [47]made Licinius Cæsar. Upon which Herculius [48]being now in
hopes of [49]recovering the empire which he had [50]quitted against
his [51]will, [52]returned from Lucania to Rome, and [53]advised
[54]Dioclesian, [55]living at Carnus in Pannonia, by his [56]letters
to him, to [57]do the like, which he [58]refused. He [59]trepanned
Severus by [60]perjury, and [61]slew him. Then [62]laying a plot
for his son, he was [63]forced to [64]fly from Rome to Constantine
in Gaul, to whom he [65]gave his daughter Faustina in [66]marriage.
But some time after, having [67]entered into a [68]wicked [69]design
against his [70]son-in-law, Constantine, (which was [71]discovered by
his daughter), he [72]fled to [73]Marseilles, and there [74]suffered
the [75]punishment of his [76]treachery. About this time, Galerius
Maximianus [77]died and was by his son-in-law Maxentius [78]enrolled
amongst the [79]gods.

In the year 312, [80]Constantine [81]marched against [82]Maxentius, and
was [83]encouraged to it by the [84]prodigy of a [85]cross he [86]saw
in the [87]heavens. Having [88]passed the [89]Alps, and [90]defeated
his generals near Verona, he [91]routed Maxentius himself not far
from Rome, who [92]flying over a [93]bridge he had [94]laid upon the
[95]Tyber, it [96]broke under him, and he was [97]drowned.

[98]Affairs being [99]settled in the city, Constantine in his
[100]way to Germany, at Milan [101]married his sister [102]Constantia
to Licinius, who had now been [103]made emperor. The same year
Galericus Maximinus, a cruel [104]enemy of the [105]Christians,
[106]undertaking a war against both the emperors, was [107]beaten
by Licinius in [108]Illyricum, and [109]fled into Asia, where he
[110]died a [111]horrible death at Tarsus in Cilicia. Nor did the
[112]agreement betwixt the two [113]princes [114]last long; their first
[115]rencounter was at Cibalis, a town in Pannonia; after which they
had another [116]battle in the [117]plains of Mardia; in both which the
[118]Licinians were [119]entirely defeated. At last a [120]peace was
[121]made, and the empire again [122]divided.

In the year 324, Licinius [123]taking up arms against Constantine,
[124]upon a pretence that he [125]went beyond his [126]bounds,
and had [127]broken into his [128]dominions, received a great
[129]overthrow near Hadrianople. [130]From thence flying into
[131]Byzantium, he was again [132]defeated by [133]sea; and being
[134]routed in another [135]battle near [136]Chalcedon, he was
[137]taken prisoner by Constantine, from whom he [138]procured his
life by the [139]interposition of his sister, and was [140]banished
to [141]Thessalonica, where, [142]endeavouring to make a new
[143]insurrection, he was [144]put to death.

After this, [145]Crispus Cæsar, his son, by a former [146]wife
Minervina, a [147]youth of an [148]extraordinary [149]genius, was put
to death upon [150]suspicion of [151]attempting to [152]seduce his
[153]step-mother; and the year [154]following, Fausta, being [155]found
[156]guilty of [157]falsely [158]accusing him, was [159]suffocated in a
hot [160]bath, by [161]order of her [162]husband Constantine.

In this emperor’s time, Byzantium was [163]rebuilt, and [164]enriched
with the [165]spoils of almost the whole [166]world; so that it
[167]equalled Rome, and [168]took its [169]name from its [170]restorer,
being [171]called [172]Constantinople.

After this, having [173]subdued the [174]Sarmatians, and [175]disposed
of them in several [176]places of the Roman [177]empire; Constantine
died in the [178]suburbs of Nicomedia, where most [179]authors say he
was [180]baptised a little before his [181]death.

He [182]left by Fausta, the daughter of Maximianus, three children,
[183]heirs of the empire, who [184]divided it amongst them. Constantine
the [185]eldest had [186]Gaul, and all [187]beyond the [188]Alps.
[189]Constans the [190]youngest had Rome, Italy, Africa, Sicily, and
the [191]rest of the [192]islands, Illyricum, [193]Thracia, Macedonia,
and [194]Greece. Constantius, the [195]second son, Asia, and the
[196]East, with [197]Egypt.

But the brothers did not long [198]agree; four years after his father’s
[199]death, Constantine making war upon his brother Constans, and
[200]invading his [201]territories, was [202]slain near Aquileia.
Constans himself was slain ten years after by [203]Magnentius’s
general, Gaison, near the [204]Pyrænean mountains. Constantius was
[205]engaged in a [206]dangerous war with this Magnentius. In the
[207]battle [208]fought at Morsa in Pannonia, Constantius’s army was
[209]worsted in the first [210]attack, but at last [211]came off
[212]victorious. Two years after this, Magnentius slew himself at Lyons
in [213]despair.

Gallus was [214]declared Cæsar, and [215]governor of the East;
but [216]abusing his [217]authority, he was [218]sent for by
Constantius, and [219]put to death in Illyricum. [220]Julian, his
brother, was [221]saved by the [222]interposition of Eusebia,
Constantius’s [223]wife, and sent to Athens to [224]study. He was
afterwards [225]advanced to the [226]dignity of Cæsar, [227]married
to the emperor’s sister [228]Helen, and was [229]made governor of
[230]Gaul, where he was very [231]successful against the [232]Germans,
[233]Franks, and [234]Alemans; he [235]sent the [236]king of the
Alemans a [237]prisoner to Constantius at Rome, who [238]envying his
[239]success, [240]endeavoured to [241]draw his soldiers from him,
and [242]send them into the [243]East against the Persians. But they
[244]proclaimed Julian emperor at [245]Paris, [246]whilst Constantius
was [247]preparing for a war against the Persians. [248]As soon as he
[249]understood this, he [250]marched against Julian, but died on the
[251]road near Tarsus.

Julian, after the death of Constantius, was sole [252]master of the
empire. He [253]killed, or [254]banished all the [255]friends of
Constantius; [256]opened the [257]temples of the [258]idols, and
[259]abjuring the [260]Christian [261]faith, was [262]consecrated
[263]high-priest, [264]according to the [265]rites of the [266]pagan
[267]religion. He made war against the Persians, and was [268]slain
in it. They say that, when he [269]perceived his [270]wound to be
[271]mortal, he [272]received the [273]blood in his [274]hand, and
[275]threw it up [276]towards [277]heaven, with these [278]words: “Thou
hast [279]conquered me, O [280]Galilæan!” [281]meaning [282]Christ,
whose religion he had [283]abjured, and hence was called Julian the
Apostate.

After the death of Julian, [284]Jovian, a [285]native of Pannonia,
was [286]proclaimed emperor by the [287]soldiers. He [288]ordered the
temples of the idols to be [289]shut up, and their [290]sacrifices to
be [291]abolished. He made an [292]inglorious peace with Sapor, king of
the Persians, for thirty years, by which he [293]yielded up Nisibis,
and the greatest [294]part of Mesopotamia. He died in his [295]return
to Constantinople, in the [296]confines of Galatea and Bithynia.

In the year of Christ 364, [297]Valentinian was [298]chosen emperor at
Nice, and not long after [299]gave the [300]title of [301]Augustus to
his brother [302]Valens; and [303]leaving him in the East, [304]came
into the [305]West himself. He had a great many good [306]qualities,
but was [307]particularly [308]famed for his [309]love of [310]justice.
He made war against the Alemanni, [311]Saxons, Quadri, and other
[312]nations. He [313]died in Pannonia, of an [314]apoplexy, in the
55th year of his [315]age, and the 12th of his [316]reign.

His brother Valens [317]suppressed Procopius, a [318]relation of
[319]Julian, who had [320]assumed the [321]purple at Constantinople.
After which he made war with the [322]Goths; but upon the [323]suit
of their king [324]Athanaricus, [325]granted them a [326]peace, in
the year 369. Ten years after this, Athanaricus with Fritigernes,
were [327]driven out of their [328]country by the [329]Huns, and were
[330]kindly [331]received by Valens, and [332]settled with their Goths
in [333]Thrace. They afterwards excited an [334]insurrection against
the Romans, and Valens being [335]wounded in a [336]battle with them,
near [337]Hadrianople, was [338]burnt [339]alive by the barbarians,
in a [340]cottage he [341]fled to. He reigned fourteen years and four
months.

The emperor Valentinian had two sons, [342]Gratian and Valentinian.
The former he [343]declared Augustus in Gaul, in the year 367; and
his other son was [344]immediately after the death of his father
[345]advanced to the same [346]dignity by the soldiers, in the year
375, and the 10th year of his age. Gratian had an [347]aversion to
[348]public [349]business. After the death of Valens, the Goths
[350]over-running Thrace, and other [351]provinces of the Roman empire,
not [352]being able alone to [353]bear the [354]burthen, he [355]sent
for [356]Theodosius out of [357]Spain, and made him his [358]associate,
who was then in the 33rd year of his age.

Theodosius having [359]conquered the barbarians, [360]restored the
public [361]peace. At last the whole [362]nation of the Goths, with
their king, [363]delivered themselves up to the Romans, to whom
the emperor [364]assigned [365]lands. After these things, Maximus
[366]seized the [367]government in [368]Britain, in the year 382;
and having [369]fixed his imperial [370]seat at Triers, [371]basely
killed Gratian at Lyons, after he had been [372]forsaken by his
army; but Theodosius [373]revenged his death, and [374]likewise
[375]re-established Valentinian the [376]younger, who had been
[377]obliged to [378]quit Italy. This [379]happened in the year 388, in
which he [380]overthrew and killed Maximus near Aquileia. Theodosius
had all the [381]accomplishments [382]becoming a Christian emperor:
[383]inferior to none of the [384]foregoing or [385]following princes;
a [386]consummate general, never [387]undertaking any war but such as
was [388]necessary; of [389]singular [390]clemency and [391]humanity,
yet a little [392]inclined to [393]passion.

In the year 391, Eugenius, [394]supported by the [395]power of
Arbogastes, [396]set up for emperor, and in the following year,
Valentinian was slain at Vienne in Gaul, by the same Arbogastes. Two
years after, [397]Eugenius was [398]routed, [399]taken prisoner,
and put to [400]death by Theodosius. Arbogastes was his own
[401]executioner. The year following, 395, this excellent emperor died
at Milan, after a reign of sixteen years.

Theodosius [402]left two sons, [403]Arcadius and [404]Honorius; to
the [405]former he [406]gave the [407]East, to the [408]latter the
[409]West. Arcadius, [410]immediately after his father’s death,
[411]married Eudoxia, which [412]match was [413]brought about by
Eutropius, [414]for fear of his [415]taking to wife Ruffinus’s
daughter. This Ruffinus in the East, and Stilicho in the West, were
at that time two men of the greatest [416]eminence and [417]power
in the empire. Stilicho, after the death of Theodosius, [418]laying
claim to the [419]management of both the Eastern and Western empires,
and [420]marching [421]Eastward, Ruffinus [422]endeavoured [423]to
hinder him, by [424]posting his [425]troops in all the [426]passages
into [427]Greece, and [428]sent for Alaricus, king of the Goths, who
[429]over-ran Greece, but was [430]defeated by Stilicho. At last,
Ruffinus was [431]slain by the [432]soldiers, the same year in which
Theodosius died. After his death, Eutropius [433]became very intimate
with Arcadius, but was at last [434]disgraced and slain, in the very
year in which he was [435]consul. In 403, died Arcadius, a prince
of a [436]peaceable, but [437]indolent [438]temper, and too much
[439]governed by his [440]wife. He left the [441]guardianship of his
son, by [442]will, to Jezdegirdes, king of the [443]Persians, who
[444]faithfully [445]executed that [446]trust, and [447]committed the
[448]care of his [449]ward to Antiochus, a very [450]learned man,
who [451]threatened to make war upon any that should [452]offer to
[453]disturb him.

In the West, the [454]frequent [455]invasions of the barbarians were
almost [456]fatal to the Roman [457]state. Radagisus, king of the
Goths, with four, or as [458]others [459]say, two hundred thousand
men, [460]invaded Italy, who were very [461]happily [462]cut off by
Stilicho, the general himself being [463]taken and [464]slain. After
Alaricus, a king of the [465]Goths, having [466]laid [467]Greece waste,
and [468]continued a long time in [469]Epirus, at the [470]instigation
of Stilicho, who was [471]desirous to [472]take [473]Illyricum
from Arcadius, in order to [474]annex it to the [475]dominions of
Honorius, afterwards [476]penetrated into Italy. To [477]get rid of
him, Honorius [478]gave him [479]Spain and Gaul to [480]live in,
himself not being in a condition to [481]keep those [482]provinces. As
Alaricus was [483]marching thither, Saul, a [484]pagan general, whom
Stilicho had [485]placed at the [486]head of an army, [487]falling
upon the Barbarians, was [488]defeated by them. This [489]success so
[490]elevated Alaricus, that [491]quitting his [492]former [493]design,
he [494]over-ran Italy, and [495]took Rome: but before this, Stilicho
was [496]put to death by the [497]order of Honorius. For, after the
death of Theodosius, [498]designing to get the empire to himself and
to make his son [499]Eucherius, who was a [500]pagan, and an enemy
to the [501]Christians, emperor; the better to [502]accomplish his
[503]design, he [504]resolved to [505]throw all into [506]confusion.
[507]Wherefore he sent for the Barbarians to [508]ravage the
empire, and [509]let the Alans, the Vandals, the Suevi, and the
Burgundians, loose upon France and Spain. His [510]relation to the
emperor [511]encouraged him in it; for he had Serena, the daughter of
Theodosius’s brother, in [512]marriage, and had [513]disposed of the
two daughters he had by her, first, [514]Mary, and after her death,
[515]Termantia, in marriage to Honorius. But these [516]intrigues
being [517]discovered by [518]Olympius, in the year of Christ 408, he
was slain by the [519]hands of [520]Heraclius. The year following,
Eucherius was [521]put to death, with his mother Serena. After Stilicho
was [522]taken off, Alaricus was [523]desirous to [524]come to an
[525]accommodation with Honorius, but was [526]foolishly [527]rejected.
Wherefore, with a [528]body of [529]Goths, and [530]Huns, in
[531]conjunction with his wife’s brother [532]Athaulfus, he [533]laid
siege to Rome, and [534]carried it in the year 410. The [535]plunder
of it he [536]gave to his soldiers, but with orders that all such as
[537]fled to the [538]churches, [539]especially those of [540]Peter and
[541]Paul, should have [542]quarter given them. He then [543]went to
[544]Rhegium, in order to [545]pass over into Sicily and Africa, but
there [546]died. He was [547]succeeded by Athaulfus, who [548]plundered
Rome again, [549]carried off Placidia the emperor’s sister, and
[550]married her.

During this [551]storm in Italy, the same [552]calamity [553]fell
upon Gaul and Spain. The Alans, Vandals, Suevans, [554]laid waste
Gaul, passed the [555]Pyrenæan mountains, and [556]made themselves
[557]masters of Spain in the year 409. The Vandals and Suevans
[558]seized upon Galæcia; the Alans, Lusitania and the [559]province of
[560]Carthage; the [561]Silingans, which was another [562]branch of the
Vandals, Bœtica.

After the [563]breaking in of the Goths in 410, [564]divers
[565]pretenders to the empire [566]started up in [567]several
[568]places. First Attalus was [569]made emperor, by the [570]senate,
at the [571]command of Alaricus. He [572]proudly [573]rejected
Honorius, who [574]offered by his [575]ambassadors to [576]receive him
as his [577]partner in the empire, but was [578]obliged by Alaricus
to [579]return to a [580]private [581]condition, and was afterwards
[582]put up and [583]down again several times. At length, [584]renewing
his [585]pretensions in Gaul, but not being [586]supported by the
[587]Goths, he was [588]taken [589]prisoner, and [590]put into the
[591]hands of Honorius, who [592]spared his [593]life, but [594]cut off
one of his hands.

[595]Martius Gratianus, and Constantine in [596]Britain, [597]usurped
the [598]supreme [599]power, and were [600]taken off. [601]Jovin and
[602]Sebastian, two brothers, then [603]pretended to the empire; but
were [604]taken and [605]slain by [606]Athaulfus, king of the Goths.
[607]Heraclianus was set up in Africa, and [608]venturing over into
Italy against Honorius, was [609]routed by Marinus at [610]Utriculum;
and [611]returning into Africa, was slain at [612]Carthage.

In the year 415, Athaulfus was slain by a Goth, and [613]succeeded
by Sigericus, who was destroyed seven days after; and succeeded by
Vuallia, who [614]made peace with the Romans, and [615]restored
Placidia to Honorius; after which he made war against the Alans,
Vandals, Suevi, and other [616]nations, who had [617]settled in
Spain. Honorius [618]married Placidia against her [619]will to
[620]Constantius Comes, who [621]confirmed the peace with Vuallia,
[622]sent for him back into Gaul, and [623]gave him that part of
[624]Aquitain which [625]lies betwixt Thoulouse and the [626]sea,
to [627]live in. Upon this, Thoulouse [628]became the [629]capital
of the [630]Gothic, or [631]Visigothic [632]kingdom in Gaul. This
[633]happened in the year 419. In the year following, Honorius, against
his [634]will, made Constantius his [635]companion in the empire, who
died seven months after, as did Honorius himself in the year 428.

He was [636]succeeded by Valentinian his sister’s son. In his reign the
Vandals, whom Boniface had hitherto [637]repulsed from the [638]shores
of Africa, [639]entered it from Spain, under the [640]command of
Geisericus. For Boniface being [641]impeached by [642]Ætius of
[643]high-treason, and [644]Sigisvulphus being [645]sent against him,
[646]finding himself not a [647]match for the Romans, [648]fled to
the Vandals for [649]assistance, with whom he had [650]contracted an
[651]alliance before. Wherefore in the year 427, Geisericus, with
80,000 Vandals and Alans, [652]passed over into Africa, and [653]made
himself master of it. In the mean time, Boniface being [654]reconciled
to Placidia, and not [655]being able to [656]persuade the Barbarians,
to [657]return home, [658]endeavoured to [659]oblige them, by
[660]force of arms, and was [661]routed. He then [662]went to Rome, and
died there soon after.

Ætius in Gaul [663]sustained his part very well for the Romans,
against the Franks, Goths, Burgundians, Huns, and other Barbarians.
Ætius had [664]sent for the Huns to his assistance against the
Goths. In the year 434, Honoria, the sister of Valentinian, being
[665]banished the [666]court for [667]improper conduct with her
[668]steward, and sent to Theodosius, emperor of the [669]East,
[670]engaged Attila, king of the Huns, to make war upon the [671]West.
[672]Litorius, a Roman general, having the [673]command of them, whilst
he [674]endeavoured to [675]eclipse the [676]glory of Ætius, was so
[677]foolish as to [678]regard the [679]answers of [680]soothsayers and
[681]fortune-tellers, and [682]rashly [683]engaged [684]Theodoricus,
king of the Goths, who by the most [685]abject [686]submission
[687]declined the war, and after a great [688]overthrow was
[689]taken and [690]slain in the year 439, in which [691]Carthage was
[692]surprised by the Vandals. At last, in the year 442, Valentinian
[693]renewed the peace with Geisericus, and Africa was [694]divided
between them.

In the year 450, Attila [695]marched into Gaul, which at that time
the [696]Visigoths, Franks, Burgundians, Alans, and other Barbarians,
were in [697]possession of. Part of the Romans [698]reluctantly
[699]remained under the [700]command of Ætius, who alone at that time
[701]kept the [702]western [703]empire from [704]falling [705]to utter
[706]ruin. Attila [707]laid siege to Aurelia, but Ætius [708]coming
upon him, [709]obliged him to [710]raise the [711]siege, and
[712]pursued him into Gallia, and Belgium then [713]overthrew him, in
a great [714]battle [715]fought on the [716]plains of Catalonia. There
were [717]slain on both [718]sides at least 170,000, and amongst them
Theodoricus king of the Goths. It is [719]certain the Huns might have
been [720]utterly [721]destroyed, if Ætius had not [722]been afraid,
that in the event of the Huns being [723]entirely [724]cut off, the
Goths would be [725]insupportable in Gaul.

Attila having [726]unexpectedly [727]escaped, [728]poured his
[729]troops into Italy, where he laid siege to Aquileia, and
[730]levelled it with the ground. He afterwards [731]laid waste
[732]Milan, [733]Ticinum, and other [734]towns; and [735]marching for
Rome, was so [736]wrought upon by an [737]embassy from [738]Leo, who
[739]met him at the [740]river Mincius, that he [741]went into his
own [742]country; afterwards [743]returning into Gaul against the
Alans, who had [744]posted themselves beyond the Loire, he was again
[745]defeated by [746]Thorismundus, as he had been in the [747]plains
of Catalonia; and in the year 454, after an [748]excess of [749]wine,
died of [750]vomiting [751]blood.

It is [752]said the city of [753]Venice [754]owes its [755]origin
to that [756]inroad of the Barbarians, most of the Italians,
[757]especially those of [758]Patavium, [759]flying from the [760]fire
and [761]ruins of their cities to some [762]rocks and [763]desert
[764]islands in the [765]sea for [766]refuge.

Valentinian, upon the death of his mother Placidia, [767]let loose
the [768]reins of [769]power and [770]abused his [771]authority, for
the [772]gratification of his [773]baseness and [774]cruelty. He
[775]seduced the [776]wife of Maximus the senator, [777]put Ætius
to death, after Maximus had by his [778]crafty [779]contrivances
[780]rendered him [781]suspected, in the year 454; and the year
following, by the contrivance of the same Maximus, he was [782]stabbed
by Ætius’s [783]life-guard in the [784]field of [785]Mars, being
thirty-six years of age, and in the 31st of his reign. [786]Eudoxia,
the [787]consort of Valentinian, to [788]revenge the death of her
[789]husband, [790]sent for Gensericus out of Africa, into Italy.
Maximus, upon his [791]arrival, [792]endeavoured to [793]save himself
by [794]flight, but was [795]torn in pieces by his own men, and
[796]thrown into the [797]Tiber, after a [798]reign of [799]hardly
two [800]months. Gensericus, after he had [801]taken the city, was
so [802]affected by an [803]address of [804]Pope Leo’s, that he did
not [805]set it on fire, or [806]put any to the sword; but [807]made
plunder of all the [808]wealth of the [809]place, both [810]sacred
and [811]profane, for fourteen days together; and [812]carried off
Eudoxia, with her two daughters, Eudocia and Placidia, into Africa: the
[813]former of which he [814]married to his son [815]Hunericus.

In the mean time, [816]Avitus Gallus being proclaimed emperor by the
[817]Gallic [818]army at Thoulouse, made peace with the Goths; at whose
[819]persuasion, Theodoric [820]entering Spain, [821]conquered the
Suevi, and [822]killed their king [823]Richiarius in the year 456.

After him, [824]Majorianus [825]took the [826]government upon him
at Ravenna; a [827]prince of a [828]great [829]soul, who being
[830]desirous to [831]recover Africa, was going to Gensericus, under
the [832]title of [833]ambassador; but being [834]seized by Ricimer at
Dertona, and [835]obliged to [836]resign, was [837]put to death in the
year 461, after a reign of four years and four months.

Ricimer [838]raised Severus for emperor, [839]according to an
[840]agreement between them, and [841]poisoned him in the fourth year
of his reign.

After this, there was an [842]interregnum of a year, and some
months, till Anthemius was [843]sent into the West by [844]Leo,
emperor of the [845]East, between whom and [846]Ricimer, it had been
[847]agreed he should be [848]declared emperor, and his daughter should
[849]marry Ricimer. Thus the barbarian being [850]made Anthemius’s
[851]son-in-law, with his [852]wonted [853]treachery, first [854]raised
a civil war against him, and then [855]put him to death at Rome, after
he had [856]reigned five years and some months.

[857]Olybrius was then [858]put up in the [859]room of Anthemius by
Ricimer, who [860]died forty days after Anthemius’s death: nor [861]was
he long survived by Olybrius, for he died the same year, about seven
months after his [862]promotion.

[863]He was followed by [864]Glycerius, who [865]took the
[866]government upon himself at Ravenna, in the year 473, and reigned a
year and four months. He was [867]succeeded by [868]Julius Nepos, who
was [869]killed about five years after his [870]advancement.

[871]Momyllus, who was [872]likewise [873]called [874]Augustulus,
was [875]set up by his father [876]Orestes, being the [877]last
of all the emperors in the [878]West; for [879]Odouacer, king of
the [880]Turcilingans, with the [881]Scyrans, and [882]Herulans,
[883]seized Italy, and after having [884]slain Orestes and his brother
[885]Paul, [886]banished Augustus into Campania. Thus [887]ended the
[888]empire of the West. In the year of [889]Christ 476.


FOOTNOTES

[1] _godúto_

[2] _dignità_

[3] _pretendere_

[4] _moríre_

[5] _affábile_

[6] _civíle_

[7] _natura_

[8] _permettere_

[9] _ricerche_

[10] _Cristiáno_

[11] _preferíre_

[12] _servitóre_

[13] _sapére_

[14] _professióne_

[15] _altro_

[16] _principiáre_

[17] _regno_

[18] _nato_

[19] _Élena_

[20] _autóre_

[21] _legíttimo_

[22] _moglie_

[23] _basso_

[24] _nascita_

[25] _Massénzio_

[26] _Ercúlio_

[27] _proclamáto_

[28] _pretoriáno_

[29] _guardia_

[30] _guadagnáre_

[31] _pópolo_

[32] _parére_

[33] _favoreggiáre_

[34] _Cristiáno_

[35] _poco dopo_

[36] _voltolársi_

[37] _sorte_

[38] _dissolutézza_

[39] _crudeltà_

[40] _mandáre_

[41] _abbandonáto_

[42] _fuggire_

[43] _marciáre_

[44] _armáta_

[45] _pariménte_

[46] _Illírico_

[47] _fare_

[48] _speráre_

[49] _ricuperáre_

[50] _lasciáto_

[51] _voglia_

[52] _ritornáre_

[53] _consigliáre_

[54] _Diocleziáno_

[55] _dimoráre_

[56] _léttera_

[57] _fare_

[58] _ricusáre_

[59] _adescáre_

[60] _spergiúro_

[61] _uccídere_

[62] _fare una congiúra_

[63] _forzáto_

[64] _fuggíre_

[65] _dare_

[66] _matrimónio_

[67] _entráto_

[68] _cattivo_

[69] _diségno_

[70] _género_

[71] _scopérto_

[72] _rifugiársi_

[73] _Marsíglia_

[74] _soffríre_

[75] _castígo_

[76] _tradiménto_

[77] _moríre_

[78] _annoveráre_

[79] _nume_

[80] _Costantíno_

[81] _marciáre_

[82] _Massénzio_

[83] _incorraggíto_

[84] _prodígio_

[85] _croce_

[86] _vedére_

[87] _ciélo_

[88] _traversáto_

[89] _Alpi_

[90] _sconfítto_

[91] _méttere in rotta_

[92] _fuggíre_

[93] _ponte_

[94] _messo_

[95] _Tévere_

[96] _rompérsi_

[97] _annegáto_

[98] _affáre_

[99] _regoláto_

[100] _gita_

[101] _maritáre_

[102] _Costánza_

[103] _fatto_

[104] _nemíco_

[105] _Cristiáno_

[106] _intrapréndere_

[107] _battúto_

[108] _Illírico_

[109] _fuggíre_

[110] _moríre_

[111] _orríbile_

[112] _patto_

[113] _príncipe_

[114] _duráre_

[115] _combattiménto_

[116] _battáglia_

[117] _pianúre_

[118] _Liciniáni_

[119] _affátto_

[120] _pace_

[121] _fatto_

[122] _divíso_

[123] _préndere_

[124] _sotto pretésto_

[125] _passáre_

[126] _límite_

[127] _sforzáto_

[128] _stato_

[129] _sconfítta vicino Adrianopoli_

[130] _di là fuggíre_

[131] _Bisánzio_

[132] _sconfítto_

[133] _mare_

[134] _messo in rotta_

[135] _battáglia_

[136] _Calcedónia_

[137] _fatto prigioniéro_

[138] _ottenére_

[139] _interposizióne_

[140] _bandíto_

[141] _Tessalónica_

[142] _cercáre_

[143] _sollevazióne_

[144] _messo_

[145] _Crispo Césare_

[146] _moglie_

[147] _gióvine_

[148] _straordinário_

[149] _génio_

[150] _sospétto_

[151] _tentáre_

[152] _sedúrre_

[153] _matrígna_

[154] _seguénte_

[155] _trováto_

[156] _colpévole_

[157] _falsaménte_

[158] _accusáre_

[159] _soffogáto_

[160] _bagno_

[161] _órdine_

[162] _maríto_

[163] _rifabbricáto_

[164] _arricchíto_

[165] _spóglia_

[166] _mondo_

[167] _uguagliáre_

[168] _préndere_

[169] _nome_

[170] _ristauratore_

[171] _chiamáta_

[172] _Costantinópoli_

[173] _soggiogáto_

[174] _Sarmáti_

[175] _mandáto_

[176] _luógo_

[177] _império_

[178] _sobbórgo_

[179] _autóre_

[180] _battezzáto_

[181] _morte_

[182] _lasciáre_

[183] _erede_

[184] _divídere_

[185] _primogénito_

[186] _Gállia_

[187] _di là dell’_

[188] _Alpi_

[189] _Costánte_

[190] _gióvine_

[191] _resto_

[192] _ísola_

[193] _Trácia_

[194] _Grécia_

[195] _secóndogénito_

[196] _Levánte_

[197] _Egítto_

[198] _accordársi_

[199] _morte_

[200] _invádere_

[201] _território_

[202] _uccíso_

[203] _Magnénzio_

[204] _Pirenéi_

[205] _impegnáto_

[206] _pericolóso_

[207] _battáglia_

[208] _dato_

[209] _soprafátto_

[210] _assálto_

[211] _sortire_

[212] _vittorióso_

[213] _disperazióne_

[214] _dichiaráto_

[215] _governatóre_

[216] _abusáre_

[217] _autorità_

[218] _mandáto a cercáre_

[219] _messo_

[220] _Giuliáno_

[221] _salváto_

[222] _interposizióne_

[223] _consórte_

[224] _studiáre_

[225] _promosso_

[226] _dignità_

[227] _maritáto_

[228] _Élena_

[229] _fatto_

[230] _Gállia_

[231] _fortunáto_

[232] _Alemanni_

[233] _Franchi_

[234] _Alemánni_

[235] _mandáre_

[236] _Re_

[237] _prigioniéro_

[238] _invidiáre_

[239] _succésso_

[240] _procuráre_

[241] _levare_

[242] _mandáre_

[243] _Levánte_

[244] _proclamáre_

[245] _Parígi_

[246] _mentre_

[247] _preparársi_

[248] _súbito che_

[249] _inténdere_

[250] _marciáre_

[251] _in viaggio_

[252] _padróne_

[253] _uccídere_

[254] _bandíre_

[255] _amíco_

[256] _apríre_

[257] _témpio_

[258] _ídolo_

[259] _abjuráre_

[260] _Cristiáno_

[261] _fede_

[262] _consacráto_

[263] _gran prete_

[264] _secóndo_

[265] _rito_

[266] _pagáno_

[267] _religióne_

[268] _uccíso_

[269] _accórgersi_

[270] _ferita_

[271] _mortále_

[272] _raccogliere_

[273] _sangue_

[274] _mano_

[275] _gettáre_

[276] _verso_

[277] _ciélo_

[278] _paróla_

[279] _vinto_

[280] _Galiléo_

[281] _voler dire_

[282] _Cristo_

[283] _abjuráre_

[284] _Gioviáno_

[285] _natívo_

[286] _proclamáto_

[287] _soldáto_

[288] _fare_

[289] _chiúdere_

[290] _sacrifízio_

[291] _abbolíre_

[292] _disonorevole_

[293] _cédere_

[294] _parte_

[295] _ritorno_

[296] _confíni_

[297] _Valentiniáno_

[298] _elétto_

[299] _dare_

[300] _títolo_

[301] _Augústo_

[302] _Valénte_

[303] _lasciáre_

[304] _veníre_

[305] _Occidénte_

[306] _qualità_

[307] _particolarménte_

[308] _distinto_

[309] _amóre_

[310] _giustízia_

[311] _Sássoni_

[312] _nazióne_

[313] _moríre_

[314] _apopléssia_

[315] _età_

[316] _regno_

[317] _reprímere_

[318] _parénte_

[319] _Giuliáno_

[320] _assúmere_

[321] _pórpora_

[322] _Goti_

[323] _sollecitazióne_

[324] _Atanárico_

[325] _accordáre_

[326] _pace_

[327] _scacciáto_

[328] _pátria_

[329] _Unni_

[330] _corteseménte_

[331] _ricevúto_

[332] _stabilírsi_

[333] _Trácia_

[334] _rivólta_

[335] _feríto_

[336] _battáglia_

[337] _Adrianópoli_

[338] _bruciáto_

[339] _vivo_

[340] _capánna_

[341] _rifugiársi_

[342] _Graziáno_

[343] _dichiaráre_

[344] _súbito_

[345] _promósso_

[346] _dignità_

[347] _avversióne_

[348] _púbblico_

[349] _affáre_

[350] _inondáre_

[351] _província_

[352] _non potére_

[353] _sopportáre_

[354] _peso_

[355] _far veníre_

[356] _Teodósio_

[357] _Spagna_

[358] _compágno_

[359] _battuto_

[360] _ristabilíre_

[361] _pace_

[362] _nazióne_

[363] _arrendérsi_

[364] _assegnáre_

[365] _terra_

[366] _usurpáre_

[367] _govérno_

[368] _Brettágna_

[369] _fissáto_

[370] _séggio_

[371] _in modo viliacco_

[372] _abbandonáto_

[373] _vendicársi_

[374] _pariménte_

[375] _ristabilíre_

[376] _gióvine_

[377] _obbligáto_

[378] _lasciáre_

[379] _succédere_

[380] _sconfíggere_

[381] _qualità_

[382] _convenévole_

[383] _inferióre_

[384] _precedénte_

[385] _seguénte_

[386] _consumáto_

[387] _intrapréndere_

[388] _necessário_

[389] _singoláre_

[390] _cleménza_

[391] _umanità_

[392] _inclináto_

[393] _cóllera_

[394] _sostenúto_

[395] _poténza_

[396] _farsi_

[397] _Eugénio_

[398] _sconfítto_

[399] _fatto_

[400] _morte_

[401] _carnéfice_

[402] _lasciáre_

[403] _Arcádio_

[404] _Onório_

[405] _primo_

[406] _dare_

[407] _Levánte_

[408] _último_

[409] _occidénte_

[410] _súbito_

[411] _sposáre_

[412] _matrimónio_

[413] _procurato_

[414] _di paura che_

[415] _pigliáre_

[416] _elevazione_

[417] _potére_

[418] _preténdere_

[419] _governo_

[420] _marciáre_

[421] _verso il levánte_

[422] _cercáre_

[423] _impedíre_

[424] _collocáre_

[425] _truppa_

[426] _passággio_

[427] _Grécia_

[428] _fare veníre_

[429] _trascórrere_

[430] _sconfítto_

[431] _uccíso_

[432] _soldáto_

[433] _diventáre_

[434] _disgraziáto_

[435] _consóle_

[436] _pacífico_

[437] _indolénte_

[438] _natúra_

[439] _governáto_

[440] _moglie_

[441] _tutéla_

[442] _testaménto_

[443] _Persiáno_

[444] _fedelménte_

[445] _eseguíre_

[446] _incombénza_

[447] _riméttere_

[448] _cura_

[449] _pupíllo_

[450] _sapiénte_

[451] _minacciáre_

[452] _tentáre_

[453] _molestáre_

[454] _frequénte_

[455] _invasióne_

[456] _fatále_

[457] _stato_

[458] _altro_

[459] _dire_

[460] _invádere_

[461] _fortunataménte_

[462] _tagliáto a pezzi_

[463] _preso_

[464] _uccíso_

[465] _Goti_

[466] _desoláto_

[467] _Grécia_

[468] _continuáto_

[469] _Epíro_

[470] _istigazióne_

[471] _desideráre_

[472] _préndere_

[473] _Illírico_

[474] _aggiúngere_

[475] _stato_

[476] _penetráre_

[477] _disfársi_

[478] _dare_

[479] _Spágna_

[480] _per suo státo_

[481] _mantenére_

[482] _província_

[483] _marciáre_

[484] _pagáno_

[485] _messo_

[486] _tésta_

[487] _attaccáre_

[488] _sconfítto_

[489] _succésso_

[490] _gonfiáre_

[491] _desístere_

[492] _primo_

[493] _diségno_

[494] _trascórrere_

[495] _préndere_

[496] _messo_

[497] _órdine_

[498] _propórsi_

[499] _Euchério_

[500] _pagáno_

[501] _Cristiáno_

[502] _compíre_

[503] _diségno_

[504] _risólvere_

[505] _méttere_

[506] _confusióne_

[507] _perciò_

[508] _saccheggiáre_

[509] _scatenáre_

[510] _affinità_

[511] _incorragíre_

[512] _matrimónio_

[513] _dare_

[514] _Maria_

[515] _Termánzia_

[516] _manéggio_

[517] _scopérto_

[518] _Olímpio_

[519] _mano_

[520] _Eráclio_

[521] _messo_

[522] _uccíso_

[523] _desideróso_

[524] _veníre_

[525] _accommodaménto_

[526] _scioccaménte_

[527] _rigettáto_

[528] _corpo_

[529] _Goti_

[530] _Unni_

[531] _congiúnzione_

[532] _Ataúlfo_

[533] _assediáre_

[534] _víncere_

[535] _bottíno_

[536] _dare_

[537] _rifugiársi_

[538] _chiésa_

[539] _specialmente_

[540] _Piétro_

[541] _Páolo_

[542] _fossero salve_

[543] _andáre_

[544] _Réggio_

[545] _passáre_

[546] _moríre_

[547] _succédere_

[548] _sacchegíáre_

[549] _portár via_

[550] _sposáre_

[551] _tempésta_

[552] _calamità_

[553] _attaccáre_

[554] _desoláre_

[555] _Pirenéi_

[556] _rendérsi_

[557] _padróne_

[558] _impossessársi_

[559] _província_

[560] _Cartágine_

[561] _Silingáni_

[562] _distaccamento_

[563] _incursióne_

[564] _divérso_

[565] _pretendénte_

[566] _levársi_

[567] _divérso_

[568] _luógo_

[569] _fato_

[570] _senáto_

[571] _comándo_

[572] _superbaménte_

[573] _rigettáre_

[574] _offeríre_

[575] _ambasciadóre_

[576] _ricévere_

[577] _compágno_

[578] _obbligáto_

[579] _ritornáre_

[580] _priváto_

[581] _stato_

[582] _esaltáto_

[583] _depósto_

[584] _rinnováre_

[585] _pretensióne_

[586] _sopportáto_

[587] _Goti_

[588] _fatto_

[589] _prigioniéro_

[590] _messo_

[591] _mano_

[592] _risparmiáre_

[593] _vita_

[594] _tagliáre_

[595] _Marco Graziáno_

[596] _Brettágna_

[597] _usurpáre_

[598] _suprémo_

[599] _potére_

[600] _uccíso_

[601] _Giovíno_

[602] _Sebastiáno_

[603] _preténdere_

[604] _preso_

[605] _uccíso_

[606] _Ataúlfo_

[607] _Eracliáno_

[608] _avventuráre di passáre_

[609] _sconfítto_

[610] _Otrículo_

[611] _ritornáre_

[612] _Cartágine_

[613] _succédere_

[614] _far pace_

[615] _restituíre_

[616] _nazióne_

[617] _stabilíto_

[618] _maritáre_

[619] _volontà_

[620] _Costánzo Cométe_

[621] _confermáre_

[622] _far ritornáre_

[623] _dare_

[624] _Aquitánia_

[625] _giáce_

[626] _mare_

[627] _dimoráre_

[628] _diveníre_

[629] _capitále_

[630] _Gótico_

[631] _Visigótico_

[632] _regno_

[633] _succédere_

[634] _volontà_

[635] _compágno_

[636] _succéssegli_

[637] _rispinto_

[638] _costa_

[639] _entráre_

[640] _comándo_

[641] _accusáto_

[642] _Ézio_

[643] _delítto di lesa maestà_

[644] _Sigisvúlfo_

[645] _mandáto_

[646] _trovársi_

[647] _uguále_

[648] _ricórrere_

[649] _assisténza_

[650] _contrattáto_

[651] _lega_

[652] _passáre_

[653] _impadronírsi_

[654] _riconciliáto_

[655] _potére_

[656] _persuadére_

[657] _ritornáre nel loro paese_

[658] _procuráre_

[659] _obbligáre_

[660] _forza delle armi_

[661] _sconfítto_

[662] _andáre_

[663] _sostenére_

[664] _mandáto a cercáre_

[665] _bandíto_

[666] _corte_

[667] _disonestà_

[668] _maggiordómo_

[669] _Levánte_

[670] _impegnáre_

[671] _Occidénte_

[672] _Litório_

[673] _comándo_

[674] _procuráre_

[675] _eclissáre_

[676] _glória_

[677] _stolto_

[678] _badáre_

[679] _rispósta_

[680] _astrólogo_

[681] _indovíno_

[682] _temerariaménte_

[683] _attaccáre_

[684] _Teodoríco_

[685] _abbietto_

[686] _sommissióne_

[687] _sfuggíre_

[688] _sconfítta_

[689] _preso_

[690] _uccíso_

[691] _Cartágine_

[692] _sorpréso_

[693] _rinnováre_

[694] _spartíto_

[695] _marciáre_

[696] _Visigóti_

[697] _possésso_

[698] _malvolontiéri_

[699] _rimanére_

[700] _comándo_

[701] _impedíre_

[702] _occidentále_

[703] _império_

[704] _cascáre_

[705] _totále_

[706] _rovína_

[707] _assediáre_

[708] _veníre addósso_

[709] _forzáre_

[710] _leváre_

[711] _assédio_

[712] _incalzáre_

[713] _rómpere_

[714] _battáglia_

[715] _dato_

[716] _pianúra_

[717] _uccíso_

[718] _banda_

[719] _certo_

[720] _affátto_

[721] _distrútto_

[722] _aver paúra_

[723] _interaménte_

[724] _sconfítto_

[725] _insoportábile_

[726] _impensataménte_

[727] _scappáto_

[728] _inondáre colle sue_

[729] _truppe_

[730] _spianáre_

[731] _devastáre_

[732] _Miláno_

[733] _Ticíno_

[734] _città_

[735] _marciáre_

[736] _commosso_

[737] _ambasciáta_

[738] _Leóne_

[739] _incontráre_

[740] _fiúme Míncio_

[741] _ritirársi_

[742] _paése_

[743] _tornáre_

[744] _messo_

[745] _sconfítto_

[746] _Torrismóndo_

[747] _pianúra_

[748] _stravízzo_

[749] _vino_

[750] _vómito_

[751] _sangue_

[752] _dire_

[753] _Venézia_

[754] _dovére_

[755] _orígine_

[756] _incursióne_

[757] _specialménte_

[758] _Padova_

[759] _fuggíre_

[760] _fuóco_

[761] _rovína_

[762] _scóglio_

[763] _disabitáto_

[764] _ísola_

[765] _mare_

[766] _a rifúgiarsi_

[767] _rilasciáre_

[768] _freno_

[769] _dissolutézza_

[770] _abusáre_

[771] _autorità_

[772] _soddisfazióne_

[773] _sensualità_

[774] _crudeltà_

[775] _sedúrre_

[776] _móglie_

[777] _méttere_

[778] _maligno_

[779] _invenzióne_

[780] _reso_

[781] _sospétto_

[782] _pugnaláto_

[783] _guárdia di corpo_

[784] _campo_

[785] _Marte_

[786] _Eudóssia_

[787] _consórte_

[788] _vendicáre_

[789] _maríto_

[790] _far veníre_

[791] _arriváre_

[792] _procuráre_

[793] _salvársi_

[794] _fuga_

[795] _fatto a pezzi_

[796] _gettáto_

[797] _Tévere_

[798] _regno_

[799] _appéna_

[800] _mese_

[801] _preso_

[802] _commosso_

[803] _súpplica_

[804] _papa Leóne_

[805] _méttere il fuóco_

[806] _méttere a fil di spada_

[807] _predáre_

[808] _ricchézza_

[809] _piázza_

[810] _sacro_

[811] _profáno_

[812] _portár via_

[813] _primo_

[814] _maritáre_

[815] _Uneríco_

[816] _Avíto Gallo_

[817] _Gállico_

[818] _armáto_

[819] _persuasióne_

[820] _entráre_

[821] _conquistáre_

[822] _uccídere_

[823] _Ricciário_

[824] _Maggioriáno_

[825] _préndere_

[826] _govérno_

[827] _príncipe_

[828] _gran_

[829] _mente_

[830] _bramóso_

[831] _ricuperáre_

[832] _títolo_

[833] _ambasciadóre_

[834] _arrestáto_

[835] _obbligáto_

[836] _rassegnáre_

[837] _messo_

[838] _innalzáre all’impero_

[839] _secóndo_

[840] _patto_

[841] _avvelenáre_

[842] _interrégno_

[843] _mandáto_

[844] _Leóne_

[845] _Oriente_

[846] _Ricímero_

[847] _convenúto_

[848] _dichiaráto_

[849] _sposáre_

[850] _divenuto_

[851] _género_

[852] _sólito_

[853] _perfídia_

[854] _suscitáre_

[855] _méttere_

[856] _regnáto_

[857] _Olíbrio_

[858] _messo_

[859] _luógo_

[860] _moríre_

[861] _sopravisse a questi lungo tempo_

[862] _promozióne_

[863] _venne dopo lui_

[864] _Glicério_

[865] _préndere_

[866] _govérno_

[867] _succédere_

[868] _Giúlio Nepóte_

[869] _uccíso_

[870] _elevazióne_

[871] _Momíllo_

[872] _pariménte_

[873] _chiamáto_

[874] _Augústolo_

[875] _innalzáto_

[876] _Oréste_

[877] _último_

[878] _Occidénte_

[879] _Odouácro_

[880] _Turcilingáni_

[881] _Sciráni_

[882] _Éruli_

[883] _usurpáre_

[884] _uccíso_

[885] _Páolo_

[886] _bandíre_

[887] _finíre_

[888] _império_

[889] _Cristo_



FINE.

Printed by T. C. Hansard, Peterborough-court, Fleet-street, London.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Exercises upon the Different Parts of Italian Speech, with References to Veneroni's Grammar - to which is added an abridgement of the Roman history" ***

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About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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