Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Dictionary of Explosives
Author: Marshall, Archibald
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Dictionary of Explosives" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



produced from images generously made available by The
Internet Archive)



  Transcriber's Notes:

  Underscores "_" before and after a word or phrase indicate _italics_
    in the original text.
  Equal signs "=" before and after a word or phrase indicate =bold=
    in the original text.
  Small capitals have been converted to SOLID capitals.
  Hyphenation in  the original is inconsistent, this has been retained.
  Subscripts are represented as _N and superscripts are represented
    as ^N where “N” is an integer.



DICTIONARY OF EXPLOSIVES



             DICTIONARY OF EXPLOSIVES

     BY ARTHUR MARSHALL A.C.G.I., F.I.C., F.C.S.
    CHEMICAL INSPECTOR INDIAN ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT


                  PHILADELPHIA
             P. BLAKISTON’S SON & CO.
                1012 WALNUT STREET

                     1920


            _Printed in Great Britain_



INTRODUCTION


It is a generation since a dictionary of explosives has been
published, and, in the meantime, many new explosives have been
introduced. It is hoped, therefore, that this small volume, giving
concise information about these special materials, may prove useful
to those who have to deal with them. In Cundill and Thomson’s
“Dictionary of Explosives,” issued in 1895, there are many entries of
the names of inventors and of mixtures which had been proposed but
have never been used commercially, nor are likely to be. As modern
explosives were then in their infancy, it was no doubt wise to insert
all the available information whether it appeared to be important
or not; but now it seems to me better to restrict the scope of the
dictionary so as to keep its size within moderate limits. Practically
only explosives with special or proprietary names are therefore dealt
with here. For information concerning chemical substances, such as
the nitro-toluenes and other nitro-compounds, reference should be
made to the textbooks on explosives and chemistry.

A few words may, however, be said here about the nitrocelluloses.
These are made by treating cellulose with a mixture of nitric
and sulphuric acids, and then purifying the product by washing
it thoroughly with hot water. The variety of cellulose most used
for this purpose is cotton, and the product obtained from it is
frequently called nitrocotton, three special varieties of which are
collodion cotton, pyrocollodion and guncotton (_q. v._). The only
other form of cellulose which is nitrated on a commercial scale is
“chemical cellulose” obtained by the treatment of wood or straw.
Nitrated wood cellulose has long been used for the manufacture of
smokeless powders for shot-guns, and during the War the Germans made
powders for rifled fire-arms from it.

No trouble has been spared to make the dictionary complete and
accurate, but there must inevitably be omissions and errors in it,
especially as regards the explosives of foreign countries. The author
will be grateful for any additional information that may be sent him.

Explosives may be classified in various ways, according to the
purpose of the classification, but the great majority of them fall
naturally into two main divisions: propellants and high explosives.
Propellants explode comparatively slowly, and are used to propel
projectiles from fire-arms. High explosives are much more rapid in
their action, and are used for bursting and shattering. Propellants
are of two sorts, according as they are intended for use in shot-guns
or rifled fire-arms. Those for shot-guns burn more rapidly than those
for the latter, but both practically always contain a considerable
proportion of nitrocellulose, gelatinised by means of such solvents
as acetone or ether-alcohol, according as it is of high or low
nitration. Some contain also nitroglycerine, and are then called
nitroglycerine powders, whereas those that do not contain this
substance are termed nitrocellulose powders. Many powders also
contain other ingredients, as may be seen from the compositions given
in this dictionary.

Of high explosives an important class is used for charging shells
and bombs. As a rule, but not necessarily, these are not the same
as the explosives used for mining operations and other general
blasting purposes. Another important class is that of the coal-mine
explosives, which are designed to give only a short and comparatively
cool flame so as to diminish the danger of igniting fire-damp
and coal-dust. Nearly half the explosives in this dictionary are
coal-mine explosives. The reason for this large number is that no
finality has yet been reached as to the best and safest explosives
to use in coal mines. When more experience has been gained it is
probable that the number of these explosives on the market will
be reduced. In England the Permitted List has recently been cut down
considerably.

In Great Britain these coal-mine explosives have to be submitted
to the Inspectors of Explosives, and are subjected to tests for
safety and strength. If they pass they are placed on the list of
“Permitted Explosives,” and the compositions are published in the
Explosives in Coal Mines Orders. In these Orders the upper and lower
limits of the percentage of each constituent are given, but in this
dictionary intermediate percentages are given so that the sum for any
explosive amounts to 100. In the Explosives in Coal Mines Orders the
percentage of such a substance as wood, meal or starch, is given in
the dried condition, but here it is given in the air-dry state on the
assumption that it then contains about 10 per cent. of moisture.

In France and Belgium also the compositions of the coal-mine
explosives are published, but in Germany, as a rule, only a list of
the constituents is given, and sometimes an upper or lower limit for
one or more of the principal constituents. Moreover, it is not stated
explicitly whether the explosives are intended for use in coal mines
or for general blasting purposes. In the United States of America,
explosives intended for use in coal mines are examined by the Bureau
of Mines, which, however, has no power to prevent the use of others
because regulations on this matter are made by the individual states.
If they pass they are placed on the list of “Permissible Explosives.”
The compositions are not published, but the class of composition is
stated.

Until the second half of the nineteenth century, gunpowder was
practically the only explosive used on a considerable scale, and it
was employed for all purposes. Consequently it does not fall into any
of the classes mentioned, or rather it could be placed in several of
them.

Another class of explosives that has not yet been mentioned is that
of the primary igniters, of which fulminate of mercury may be taken
as typical. The characteristic of these is that they can be exploded
or ignited by a spark or moderate friction, and consequently they
can be employed to fire other, less sensitive explosives. There
are, however, practically no explosives of this class which possess
special or proprietary names, and consequently they are not dealt
with in this dictionary.

  _Naini Tal, India._
          1920.



  CLASSIFICATION


  COAL-MINE EXPLOSIVES

  _American Permissible Explosives._

  Aetna Coal Mine Powder.
  Bental Coal Powder.
  Bituminite.
  Black Diamond.
  Cameron Mine Powder.
  Carbonite.
  Coalite.
  Coal Special.
  Collier Powder.
  Cronite.
  Detonite.
  Du Pont Permissible.
  Eureka.
  Fort Pitt Mine Powder.
  Fuel-ite.
  Giant Coal Mine Powder.
  Guardian.
  Hecla No. 2.
  Hygrade Coal Powder.
  Kanite.
  Lomite.
  Lowinite.
  Meteor.
  Miners’ Friend.
  Min-ite.
  Monobel.
  Nitro Low-Flame.
  Red H.
  Trojan Coal Powder.
  Tunnelite.
  Vigorite.
  Xpdite.

  _Austrian and Hungarian._

  Chloratit.
  Dynammon.
  Progressit.
  Titanit.

  _Belgian Explosifs S.G.P._

  Alsilite.
  Antigel de Sûreté.
  Baelenite.
  Colinite antigrisouteuse.
  Cornil.
  Densite.
  Dynamite antigrisouteuse.
  Favier Explosives.
  Flammivore.
  Forcite antigrisouteuse.
  Fractorite.
  Grisoutine II.
  Grisoutite.
  Ingélite.
  Minerite.
  Minite.
  Minolite.
  Pulvérite.
  Sabulite antigrisouteuse.
  Securophore.
  Wallonite.
  Yonckite.
  (There were also several explosives
  made in Germany.)

  _British._

  *Abbcite.
  *Abelite.
  *Ajax Powder.
  *Albionite.
  *Amasite.
  *Ammonal.
   Ammonite.
  *Amvis.
  *Anchorite.
  *Aphosite.
  *Arkite.
  *Barking Powder.
   Bellite.
   Bobbinite.
  *Britonite.
  *Bull Dog.
   Cambrite.
  *Carbonite.
  *Celtite.
  *Cliffite.
   Cliffite (Super-).
  *Clydite.
  *Cornish Powder.
  *Coronite.
  *Curtisite.
  *Curtisite (Super-).
   Denaby Powder.
  *Dominite.
  *Dragonite.
  *Dreadnought Powder.
   Du Pont Permissible.
  *Duxite.
   Dynobel.
  *Electronite.
   Essex Powder.
  *Excellite.
   Excellite (Super-).
   Expedite.
  *Faversham Powder.
   Fortex (New).
  *Fracturite.
  *Gathurst Powder.
  *Good Luck.
   Haylite.
  *Herculite.
  *Kent Powder.
   Kentite.
  *Kolax.
  *Kolax (Super-).
  *Kynarkite.
  *Kynite.
  *Melling Powder.
  *Mersey Powder.
  *Minite.
   Monarkite.
   Monobel.
  *Monobel Powder.
  *Nationalite.
   Negro Powder.
  *Neonal.
  *Nitro-Densite.
  *Nobel Ammonia Powder.
  *Normanite.
  *Oaklite.
  *Odite.
  *Permon Powder.
  *Permonite.
  *Phœnix Powder.
  *Pit-ite.
  *Pitsea Powder.
   Rex Powder.
  *Rexite.
  *Rippite.
   Rippite (Super-).
   Roburite.
  *Russelite.
   Samsonite.
  *Saxonite.
   Seamex.
  *Sheppey Powder.
  *Stanford Powder.
  *Steelite (Colliery).
  *St. Helen’s Powder.
   Stomonal.
  *Stow-ite.
  *Sunderite.
  *Superite.
  *Swale Powder.
  *Swalite.
  *Syndite.
   Thames Powder.
  *Tutol.
  *Uplees Powder.
  *Victor Powder.
  *Victorite.
   Viking Powder.
  *Virite.
  *Westfalite.
  *Withnell Powder.

     (Those marked * are not now on the Permitted List.)

  _French._

  Favier explosives.
  Grisounite.
  Grisoutine.
  N.
  Naphthalite (Grisou-).

  _German._

  Albit (Wetter-).
  Astralit (Wetter-).
  Bautzener Sicherheits-pulver.
  Bavarit.
  Cahuecit (Ammon-).
  Carbonite.
  Chloratzit.
  Chromamonit.
  Cosilit.
  Dahmenit.
  Detonit.
  Donarit.
  Dorfit.
  Dynamit (Wettersicheres).
  Elsagit (Ammon-).
  Foerder Sicherheitssprengstoff.
  Foerdit.
  Fulmenit (Wetter-).
  Gehlingerit.
  Gesilit.
  Glueckauf.
  Kohlenkarbonit.
  Koronit (Kohlen-).
  Lenit (Neu-).
  Lignosit.
  Monachit.
  Naphthalit.
  Nobelit.
  Orkanit.
  Pastanit.
  Permonit.
  Perrumpit.
  Persalit (Wetter-).
  Plastomenit.
  Rhenanit (Wetter-).
  Roburite.
  Romperit (Wetter-).
  Salit.
  Schlesit.
  Securite.
  Siegenit.
  Teutonit.
  Tremonit.
  Tunnelit.
  Walsrode (Wetter-).
  Westfalit.
  Wetter-Dynamit.

  BLASTING EXPLOSIVES

  Aerolit.
  Aetna.
  Albit.
  Alkalsit.
  Amasite.
  Ammonal.
  Ammoniakkrut.
  Anagon.
  Anilit.
  Astralit.
  Atlas Powder.
  Barbarit.
  Blastine.
  Blasting Gelatine.
  Bomlit.
  C.
  Cahuecit.
  Carbite d’Ablon.
  Carbo-Dynamite.
  Carlsonite.
  Cheddite.
  Chloratzite.
  Cugnite.
  Dahmenite.
  Denaby Powder.
  Densite.
  Dominit.
  Donarit.
  Dynamite.
  Electronite.
  Ergite.
  Erin Gelignite.
  Extra Dynamite.
  Forcite.
  Fumenit.
  Gehlingerit.
  Gelatinée a l’Ammoniaque.
  Gelatine Dynamite.
  Gelignite.
  Giant Powder.
  Halalite.
  Hammonit.
  Helagon.
  Helit.
  Hercules Powder.
  Imperialite.
  Judson Powder.
  Kausolit.
  Kinetit.
  Kiwit.
  Koronit.
  L.C. Pulver.
  Leonit.
  Ligdyn.
  Lignosit.
  Lithofracteur.
  Loewenpulver.
  Luxit.
  M.B. Powder.
  Marsit.
  Meganit.
  Melanite.
  Mercurit.
  Miedziankit.
  Minolite.
  Mitchellite.
  Monachit.
  Naphthalit.
  Nitrolit.
  O.
  Oakley Quarry Powder.
  Oxyliquit.
  Pastanil.
  Peragon.
  Perchlorit.
  Perdit.
  Perilit.
  Persalit.
  Petroklastit.
  Petrolit.
  Pfalzit.
  Pierrite.
  Plastammon.
  Plessit.
  Pniowit.
  Polarite.
  Praeposit.
  Prométhée.
  Prosperit.
  Rack-a-Rock.
  Raschit.
  Red Cross.
  Rendrock.
  Rexol.
  Rhenanit.
  Rhexit.
  Rivalit.
  Rockite.
  Romperit.
  Roslin Giant Blasting Powder.
  Sabulite.
  Saxonite.
  Sebomite.
  Sengite.
  Siegenit.
  Silesia.
  Sprengel Explosives.
  Sprengsalpeter.
  Steelite.
  Stonax.
  Telsit.
  Territ.
  Teutonit.
  Thornit.
  Titanite.
  Tonite.
  Tremonit.
  Velox Gelatine.
  Vender.
  Vigorite.
  Vulcan Powder.
  Wilhelmit.
  Yonckite.

  HIGH EXPLOSIVES

  (_For Shells and Bombs._)

  Alumatol.
  Amatol.
  Amatoxol.
  Anilite.
  Astralit.
  Baratol.
  Cilferite.
  Crésylite.
  Dunnite.
  Echo.
  Ecrasite.
  Fuellpulver.
  Fumyl.
  Granatfuellung.
  H.E.
  Hellhofite.
  Himalayite.
  Hudson’s Explosive.
  Lyddite.
  Macarite.
  Mélinite.
  Nitrolit.
  Panclastite.
  Perdit.
  Plastrotyl.
  Schneiderite.
  Shellite.
  Stabilite.
  T.N.T.
  Toxol.
  Triplastit.

  MISCELLANEOUS EXPLOSIVES

  Black Powder.
  C.P.
  Centralite.
  Cheesa Sticks.
  Collodion Cotton.
  Flobert Ammunition.
  Glonoine.
  Halakite.
  Ophorite.
  Pulvérin.
  Pyrocollodion.
  Pyroxyline.
  Stabilite.
  Tetryl.
  White Gunpowder.

  PROPELLANTS

  (_For Shot-guns._)

  Amberite.
  Cannonite.
  Clermonite.
  Cooppal’s Powder.
  Crystal.
  Du Pont Smokeless Powder.
  E.C. Powder.
  Economic.
  Eley Smokeless Powder.
  Empire.
  Felixite.
  Fulmen Powder.
  Henrite.
  Ideal Powder.
  J.
  K.S.
  M.
  Mischpulver.
  Mullerite.
  Neonite.
  New Explosives Co.’s Smokeless Powder.
  Normal Powder.
  Plastomenit.
  Primrose Smokeless.
  Red Star.
  Rifleite (Shot Gun).
  Rottweil Smokeless Powder.
  Ruby Powder.
  S.
  S.S.
  Schultze Powder.
  Smokeless Diamond.
  Stowmarket Smokeless.
  T.
  Troisdorf Smokeless Powder.
  Walsrode Shot Gun Powder.

  (_For Rifled Fire-arms._)

  Amide Powder.
  Ammonpulver.
  Apyrite.
  Axite.
  B.
  Ballistite.
  Brugère’s Powder.
  Cocao Powder.
  Cordite.
  C.S.P.
  Filite.
  Hebler Powder.
  Indurite.
  Lafflin and Rand.
  Moddite.
  N.C.T.
  Neonite.
  Nitrokol.
  Normal Powder.
  P.C./88.
  R.F.G.
  R.L.G.
  Rifleite.
  Rottweil Smokeless Powder.
  S.K.
  S.R.
  S.V.
  Solenite.
  Troisdorf Smokeless Powder.
  Wetteren.



      DICTIONARY OF EXPLOSIVES


=ABBCITE.=--A coal-mine explosive made by Kynoch,
Ltd. The original composition which passed the Woolwich
Test was--

  Ammonium nitrate          80
  Nitroglycerine            10
  Wood meal                 10

To enable it to pass the Rotherham Test sodium chloride
was added, and a little dinitro-toluene was also introduced--

              ABBCITE NO. 2.
  _Date of Permit_                     3-7-15

  Ammonium nitrate                       58
  Nitroglycerine                          8·5
  Wood meal                               9
  Dinitro-toluene                         1·5
  Sodium chloride                        23

  Limit charge                           18 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)     2·54”

The permit has now been repealed.

=ABELITE.=--A coal-mine explosive made by the Lancashire
Explosives Co. Two formulas were approved--

                              No. 1.    No. 4.
  _Date of Permit_           7-4-14    15-1-15

  Ammonium nitrate            68·5       67
  Dinitro-benzene              7          --
  Trinitro-toluene             7         14·5
  Sodium chloride             17·5        7
  Starch                       --        11·5

  Limit charge                14 oz.     18 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic
    pendulum)                  2·85”     2·79”

The permits have now been repealed.

Abelite (without distinguishing number) is simply a
mixture of ammonium nitrate and trinitro-toluene--

  Ammonium nitrate      83
  Trinitro-toluene      17

It is therefore a variety of Bellite in which the dinitro-benzene has
been replaced by trinitro-toluene. It is used for filling grenades
and general blasting purposes, but is not permitted in dangerous coal
mines.

=AEROLIT= is a Danish ammonium nitrate explosive, _e.g._--

  Ammonium nitrate      78·125
  Potassium nitrate      7·5
  Sulphur                8·75
  Fat                    2·5
  Sago meal              1·25
  Manganese dioxide      1·25
  Resin                  0·625

=AETNA COAL POWDER= is an American coal-mine powder on the
Permissible List. Brands A, B and C are nitroglycerine explosives.
AA and No. 2 are ammonium nitrate explosives.

=AETNA POWDER.=--A variety of American dynamite containing 15
to 65 per cent. of nitroglycerine mixed with wood pulp and sodium
nitrate. Roasted flour has sometimes been substituted for wood pulp.

=AJAX POWDER.=--A coal-mine explosive made by
Nobel’s Explosives Co.

    _Date of Permit_                    1-9-13
  Nitroglycerine                          22·3
  Nitrocotton                              0·7
  Di- and trinitro-toluenes                3·5
  Potassium perchlorate                   37
  Wood meal                               11·5
  Ammonium oxalate                        25
  Limit charge                            12 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)      2·69”

In 1914, 329,000 lbs. were used in coal mines, but the permit
has now been repealed.

=ALBIONITE.=--A mixture of gelignite and ammonium
oxalate. It was formerly on the Permitted List.

=ALBIT.=--A German chlorate explosive introduced in 1915 in
consequence of the scarcity of nitrates due to the War. It is defined
as consisting of not more than 80 per cent. sodium or potassium
chlorate, not more than 4 per cent. nitroglycerine, and mono- or
dinitro-hydrocarbons. It may also contain inorganic salts and carbon
carriers such as vegetable meal, oils, soaps or carbohydrates.
A variety made for use in coal mines is called Wetter-Albit or
Kohlen-Albit.

=ALDORFIT.= See =DORFIT=.

=ALKALSIT.=--A German chlorate or perchlorate explosive made by
the Dynamit A.-G. of Hamburg. It contains not more than 80 per cent.
sodium or potassium chlorate, or not more than 80 per cent. sodium,
potassium or ammonium perchlorate, and 19 per cent. of aromatic
nitro-hydrocarbons and nitrocotton, also coal, hydrocarbons or
carbohydrates, and nitrates. The chlorate mixtures must not contain
ammonium salts. Alkalsit I contains not more than 27 per cent. of
potassium perchlorate, ammonium nitrate, not more than 24 per cent.
of sodium nitrate, not more than 8 per cent. of trinitro-toluene,
also wood meal, flour and nitro-naphthalene. Alkalsit A contains not
more than 55 per cent. of potassium perchlorate, ammonium nitrate,
not more than 31 per cent. trinitro-toluene, and not more than 5 per
cent. of a neutral liquid mixture of nitrated toluenes. Alkalsit B is
similar except that it contains also ammonium nitrate.

=ALSILITE S.G.P.=--A Belgian coal-mine explosive on the list of
Explosifs S.G.P. It is of the Ammonal type--

  Ammonium nitrate            62
  Trinitro-toluene            11
  Ferro-silicon-aluminium      5
  Sodium chloride             22

  Charge limite              900 g.

=ALUMATOL.=--A mixture of ammonium nitrate, trinitro-toluene and
a little aluminium powder, used for charging trench-mortar bombs, etc.

=AMASITE.=--A coal-mine explosive formerly on the Permitted
List--

  Ammonium perchlorate      34
  Sodium nitrate            31
  Myrobolans                34·7
  Agar agar                  0·3

It was made by the Société Anonyme de Vilvorde in Belgium, and was
originally called Ugolite.

Rock Amasite and S.T. Amasite are non-permitted explosives of
composition somewhat similar to the above.

=AMATOL.=--A mixture of ammonium nitrate and trinitro-toluene.
The composition is shown by the figures placed after the name;
thus Amatol 40/60 contains 40 per cent. ammonium nitrate and 60
per cent. trinitro-toluene, and Amatol 80/20 consists of 80 parts
ammonium nitrate and 20 parts trinitro-toluene. These explosives are
used very extensively for filling shell and other projectiles. The
mixtures rich in trinitro-toluene can be cast after being heated to
temperature above the melting-point of this constituent, but those
rich in ammonium nitrate are stemmed into the projectile hot or
pressed. Similar mixtures are used by the Germans and other powers
under various names. In Germany it is called Füllpulver (q. v.).

=AMATOXOL.=--A mixture of ammonium nitrate and Toxol, which
consists of trinitro-toluene and trinitro-xylene.

*=AMBERITE.=--A smokeless shot-gun powder made by Curtis’s and
Harvey at Tonbridge. Amberite No. 1 contained nitroglycerine as well
as nitrocotton and various other substances. According to “Arms
and Explosives,” 1917, p. 78, a sample of Amberite No. 2 had the
composition--

  Insoluble nitrocotton                 18·6
  Soluble        ”                      46·0
  Nitrates of potassium and barium      28·0
  Vaseline                               6·0
  Volatile matter                        1·4

This is still on the market. It is a fibrous 42-grain bulk
powder.

*=AMIDE POWDER= or Chilworth Special Powder was an early attempt
at a smokeless powder. Under the name of Amidpulver it was used by
the German artillery for some years in the ’eighties of the last
century. Its composition was--

  Ammonium nitrate      35-38
  Potassium nitrate     40-46
  Charcoal              14-22

See also Ammonpulver and Hebler Powder.

=AMMONAL= is a blasting explosive containing ammonium nitrate,
aluminium powder, charcoal, and generally trinitro-toluene. It was
patented in 1900 by G. Roth of Vienna, and the following are some of
the compositions made by his firm at Felixdorf in Austria--

                         _a_    _b_   _c_   _d_
  Ammonium nitrate      80·75    90    88    80
  Aluminium             15        4     8    18
  Charcoal               4·25     6     4     2

More violent mixtures made by the same firm are--

                         I   II
  Ammonium nitrate      46   32
  Trinitro-toluene      30   50
  Aluminium             22   16
  Charcoal               2    2

and modifications of this have been used largely in the British
service. It is not suitable for use in underground workings as it
forms on explosion the poisonous gas carbon monoxide, unless the
proportion of ammonium nitrate be large. It has been used for
charging grenades, and by the Austrians for trench howitzer bombs.

When the explosive is detonated, the aluminium is converted into the
oxide, evolving no gas, but a considerable amount of heat, which
increases the power of the explosive. The aluminium powder also
renders the explosive easier to detonate.

Three explosives of this type passed the Woolwich Test, and were on
the old Permitted List for coal mines, namely, Ammonal B, Ripping
Ammonal and Saint Helen’s Powder (q. v.).

                                        Ripping
                          Ammonal B.    Ammonal.
  Ammonium nitrate          94·5          86
  Aluminium                  3             8
  Charcoal                   2·5           2·5
  Potassium bichromate       --            3·5

No explosives containing aluminium are on the present Permitted List.

=AMMONCAHUECIT=}       =CAHUECIT=.
               }  See
=AMMONCARBONIT=}       =CARBONIT=.

=AMMONIAKKRUT= was the first ammonium nitrate explosive. It
was invented by J. Ohlsson and J. H. Norrbin, two Swedes, and was
protected by English Patent 2766 of 1869. It consisted of ammonium
nitrate together with 5 or 10 per cent. of charcoal, coal dust, etc.,
to which mixture was added 10 to 30 per cent. of nitroglycerine to
make it less difficult to detonate.

=AMMONITE= is a coal-mine explosive of the Favier type, made by
the Miners’ Safety Explosives Co. The original composition, which
passed the Woolwich Test was--

  Ammonium nitrate       88
  Dinitro-naphthalene    12

To pass the more severe Rotherham Test a number of compositions have
been made and approved, but some of them have been repealed. Those
now on the Permitted List are--

                           Ammonite  Ammonite.  Ammonite
                            No. 1.               No. 5.
    _Date of Permit_       29-8-14   5-11-17    2-8-18
  Ammonium nitrate          74·5      73·5       74·5
  Dinitro-naphthalene        --        5·5        --
  Trinitro-naphthalene       --        --         5
  Trinitro-toluene           5         --         --
  Sodium chloride           20·5      21         20·5

  Limit charge              24        18         26 oz.
  Power (swing of
    ballistic pendulum)      2·42      2·44       2·41”

Ammonite No. 1 is used on a considerable scale in coal mines. A
non-permitted explosive called Ripping Ammonite is also made.

*=AMMONPULVER= is a propellant which was used by the Austrians
from 1890 to 1896 in guns of various calibres--

  Ammonium nitrate  80-90
  Charcoal          10-20

It was superseded by a powder of the ballistite type, but has been
reintroduced recently by the Germans to replace a part of the charge
of nitrocellulose powder in their field gun. The advantages claimed
for it are small erosion of the gun, absence of muzzle flame,
chemical stability, and cheapness. On the other hand, it gives high
pressures, and if used by itself requires a gun with a specially
large chamber; but the most serious objection to it is that on
keeping, physical changes take place in the pellets, leading to the
production of very high pressures. It is said that moisture promotes
these changes. See also Amide Powder.

=AMVIS.=--A coal-mine explosive formerly on the Permitted List--

  Ammonium nitrate           90
  Wood meal                   5
  Dinitro-benzene         }
  Chlorinated naphthalene }   5

=Neu ANAGON.=--A German blasting explosive containing not more
than 70 per cent. of ammonium nitrate, zinc-aluminium alloy and
charcoal.

=ANCHORITE.=--A coal-mine explosive of the Favier type, formerly
on the Permitted List. It was made by Kynoch-Arklow, Ltd.

    _Date of Permit_                 13-5-14
  Ammonium nitrate                    34·3
  Sodium nitrate                      33·3
  Ammonium chloride                   20·2
  Trinitro-toluene                    12·2

  Limit charge                        14 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)  2·73”

=ANILIT.=--A German explosive containing not less than 70 per
cent. of ammonium nitrate, not more than 5 per cent. of sugar, and
copper sulphate-aniline or copper oxalate-aniline.

=ANILITE.=--A French liquid explosive of the Sprengel class used
for aerial bombs.

=ANTIGEL DE SÛRETÉ.=--A Belgian coal-mine explosive--

  Nitroglycerine     25
  Sodium nitrate     20
  Dinitro-toluene    15
  Ammonium sulphate   5
  Cellulose }
  Wood meal }        35

The Charge limite is 900 grammes, which is equivalent to 524 grammes
of dynamite No. 1. The composition is the same as that of Ingélite.
It is a low-freezing nitroglycerine explosive.

=APHOSITE.=--A coal-mine explosive formerly on the Permitted List--

  Ammonium nitrate   60
  Potassium nitrate  29·5
  Charcoal            4
  Wood meal           4
  Sulphur             2·5

*=APYRITE.=--A nitrocellulose smokeless powder formerly made in
Sweden by the Société Grakrut.

=ARKITE.=--A coal-mine explosive made by Kynoch, Ltd. The
original composition which passed the Woolwich Test was--

  Nitroglycerine      52·5
  Nitrocotton          3·5
  Potassium nitrate   22
  Wood meal            7
  Ammonium oxalate    15

The proportions were modified, and the following passed the
Rotherham Test, and was on the Permitted List--

ARKITE NO. 2.

    _Date of Permit_               7-4-14
  Nitroglycerine                     32
  Nitrocotton                         1
  Potassium nitrate                  27
  Wood meal                          10
  Ammonium oxalate                   30

  Limit charge                       40 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum) 2·41”

It has now been repealed.

=ASTRALIT.=--An ammonium nitrate explosive containing a little
blasting gelatine, made by the Dynamit A. G. Nobel of Hamburg. It has
been used largely in Germany for a variety of purposes.

Astralit I and II are defined as consisting of ammonium nitrate,
charcoal, vegetable meal, not more than 15 per cent. of aromatic
nitro-bodies not more dangerous than trinitro-toluene, not more than
4 per cent. of blasting gelatine; also paraffin oil.

Astralit IV consists of ammonium nitrate, not more than 10 per cent.
of aromatic nitro-bodies not more dangerous than dinitro-naphthalene,
vegetable meal, and not more than 4 per cent. of blasting gelatine.

Astralit V, which has been introduced recently, contains up to
10 per cent. of potassium perchlorate in addition to ammonium
nitrate, also vegetable meal, not more than 16 per cent. of aromatic
nitro-compounds, and not more than 4 per cent. of nitroglycerine.

Gelatine-Astralit is a gelatinised or powdery mixture of the nitrates
of ammonium and sodium (or potassium), not more than 50 per cent. of
dinitro-chlorhydrin, not more than 5 per cent. of nitroglycerine, not
more than 2 per cent. of collodion cotton, vegetable meal, aromatic
nitro-bodies such as nitro-toluenes or nitro-naphthalenes, but not
more than 4 per cent. of trinitro-toluene; also hydrocarbons.

Wetter-Astralit is a coal-mine explosive, and differs from Astralit
in that part of the ammonium nitrate is replaced by sodium chloride.

Wetter-Gelatine-Astralit is also a coal-mine explosive, and differs
from Gelatine-Astralit in that it contains also fatty oils and
neutral salts, such as potassium chloride, sodium chloride or an
oxalate.

The following percentage compositions have been given--

                 Astralit.  Wetter-
                            Astralit.
  Nitroglycerine     4         4
  Ammonium nitrate  84·5      74·5
  Trinitro-toluene   7         7
  Wood meal          1         1
  Charcoal           1         1
  Paraffin oil       2·5       2·5
  Sodium chloride    --       10

                     Gelatine-
                     Wetter-
                     Astralit.
  Nitroglycerine        4
  Dinitro-chlorhydrin  16
  Nitrocotton           0·5
  Ammonium nitrate     40
  Sodium nitrate        7·5
  Dinitro-toluene       4
  Nitro-toluene         1
  Wood meal             0·5
  Potato meal           8
  Rape oil              2
  Ammonium oxalate      2·5
  Sodium chloride      14

Explosives of the Astralit type have also been used extensively
by the Germans for filling trench howitzer shell and similar
projectiles. The following is approximately the composition used for
this purpose--

  Nitroglycerine     3
  Nitrocotton        0·5
  Ammonium nitrate  77
  Trinitro-toluene  16
  Wood meal          3·5

This explosive was authorised in England under the name of Australite.

=ATLAS POWDER.=--A brand of American straight dynamite.

=AUSTRALITE.= See =ASTRALIT=.

*=AXITE.= A smokeless powder made by Kynoch, Ltd., and used for
sporting rifles. It is a sort of Cordite MD, with a little of the
guncotton replaced by potassium nitrate, and is in the form of flat
strips. A sample had the composition--

  Nitroglycerine     29·7
  Guncotton          63·1
  Potassium nitrate   1·9
  Mineral jelly       5·1
  Volatile matter     0·2

*=B.=--Poudre B is the French service propellant. It consists
of nitrocotton gelatinised with ether-alcohol, in which it is partly
soluble. A little diphenylamine is added to increase the stability.
Formerly, various other additions have been made. A letter or letters
are added to show the size of the powder and the purpose for which it
is used--

  Poudre BF for rifles (from _f_usil).
         BNF a later powder for rifles (from _n_ouveau).
         BC for field guns (from _c_ampagne).
         BSP for siege howitzers (from _s_iège et _p_lace).
         BGC for larger military guns (from _g_ros _c_alibre).
         BM for naval ordnance (from _m_arine); a figure is
          added to show the size.

Further letters and figures are added to show other particulars about
the powder; D_2 means 2 per cent. of diphenylamine has been added
as a stabiliser, or AM_8, 8 per cent. of amyl alcohol. The place
and date of manufacture are similarly indicated.

=BAELENITE.=--A Belgian mining explosive--

                     I.  II.
  Ammonium nitrate   85  95
  Trinitro-toluene   15   5

  Charge limite       0  75

It is authorised for manufacture in, or importation into the United
Kingdom.

*=BALLISTITE.=--One of the first military smokeless
powders, invented by Nobel. It consisted of about equal parts of
nitroglycerine and soluble nitrocotton incorporated together under
water, then passed repeatedly through rolls and cut into flakes. It
was adopted by a number of Continental powers, but in consequence
of the severe erosion of the guns which it caused, it has been
modified or abandoned. The percentage of nitroglycerine is reduced,
and consequently it is necessary to use a solvent such as acetone. A
little mineral jelly or other stabiliser is sometimes added.

=BARATOL.=--A mixture of barium nitrate and trinitro-toluene.

=BARBARIT.=--A German chlorate explosive made at the
Sprengstoff-fabriken Kriewald bei Gleinitz.

  Potassium chlorate      90-92
  High-boiling petroleum   8-10

The petroleum has a flash point not below 105° C., and commences
to boil not below 242°.

Gelatine-Barbarit has the composition--

  Potassium chlorate                               80
  Trinitro-toluene                                 10
  Liquid mono- and dinitro-toluenes gelatinised }
    with 5 per cent. collodion cotton           }  10

=BARKING POWDER.=--A mixture of ammonium perchlorate and
nitrated naphthalene, formerly used in coal mines.

=BAUTZENER SICHERHEITSPULVER.=--A German coal-mine explosive
containing not less than 70 per cent. of ammonium nitrate, barium
nitrate, and not more than 15 per cent. of trinitro-toluene.

=BAVARIT.=--A German coal-mine explosive similar to Grisounite.
It contains 90 per cent. of ammonium nitrate together with nitrated
naphthalene; charcoal may be added.

=BELLITE= is essentially a mixture of ammonium nitrate and
metadinitro-benzene. It has been used extensively as a coal-mine
explosive, and was patented by C. Lamm of Stockholm in 1885. Two
varieties passed the Woolwich Test and were on the old Permitted
List--

                    No. 1.  No. 3.
  Ammonium nitrate   83·5    93·5
  Dinitro-benzene    16·5     6·5

No. 1 contains just enough oxygen for complete combustion, and No.
3 contains a large excess of oxygen. To enable the explosive to
pass the Rotherham Test sodium chloride has been added. There were
four varieties on the present Permitted List, but all except the
following, No. 1, have been repealed--

                          No. 1.
   _Date of Permit_       3-2-16
  Ammonium nitrate          63·5
  Dinitro-benzene           15
  Sodium chloride           16·5
  Starch                     5

  Limit charge              20
  Power (swing of ballistic
    pendulum)                2·74

=BENTAL COAL POWDER.=--An American coal-mine explosive on the
Permissible List. It is an ammonium nitrate explosive.

=BITUMINITE.=--There are several coal-mine explosives of this
name on the American Permissible List. Nos. 1, 3, 4 and 8 L.F. are
nitroglycerine explosives. No. 5 is an ammonium nitrate explosive.

=BLACK DIAMOND.=--There are several coal-mine explosives of this
name on the American Permissible List. Nos. 2A, 3A and 6 L.F. are
nitroglycerine explosives, whereas Nos. 5, 7 and 8 are ammonium
nitrate explosives.

=BLACK POWDER= is a name for ordinary gunpowder, a mixture of
potassium nitrate, sulphur and charcoal.

=BLASTINE= is a high explosive having approximately the
composition--

  Ammonium perchlorate  60
  Sodium nitrate        23
  Dinitro-toluene       11
  Paraffin wax           6

As the sodium nitrate in the above is not equivalent to the ammonium
perchlorate, part of the chlorine is given off in the form of the
poisonous gas, hydrogen chloride (hydrochloric acid).

=BLASTING GELATINE.=--Nitroglycerine, stiffened by having
collodion cotton dissolved in it. Discovered by Nobel in 1875. It
contains about--

  Nitroglycerine    93
  Collodion cotton   7

and also often a fraction of a percentage of calcium or magnesium
carbonate to increase its stability. This is the most powerful of all
the explosives in common use.

=BOBBINITE.=--The only explosive of the gunpowder class the
use of which is permitted in coal mines in England. In most foreign
countries explosives of this class are not allowed to be used in them
at all. The permission is only temporary, but has been extended to
the end of 1920, and is restricted to mines that are not gassy or
dangerous from coal dust. There are two definitions, but the second
is the one that is generally manufactured apparently--

                                   First.  Second.
  Potassium nitrate                 63·5     65
  Charcoal                          18·5     20
  Sulphur                            2        2
  Sulphates of ammonium and copper  15       --
  Rice or maize starch              --        9
  Paraffin wax                      --        3
  Moisture                           1        1

More than a million pounds of this explosive are used in coal mines
every year. It shatters the coal less than high explosives do.

=BOMLIT.=--A German potassium perchlorate blasting explosive
made by Wolff et Cie. at Walsrode. It contains also ammonium nitrate,
trinitro-toluene and guncotton. Other ingredients that may be present
are potassium and sodium nitrates, starch meal, vaseline, naphthalene
and other hydrocarbons, charcoal and castor oil.

=BRITONITE.=--A coal-mine explosive of the Carbonite type, made
by the British Explosives Syndicate, Ltd., Pitsea. The original
composition passed the Woolwich Test and was on the list of Permitted
Explosives, but on the introduction of the Rotherham Test it became
necessary to add ammonium oxalate or sodium chloride. Nos. 2 and 3
were on the Permitted List, but have now been repealed.

                                    No. 2.   No. 3.
   _Date of Permit_                1-9-13   28-1-15
  Nitroglycerine              26      24       24·5
  Sodium nitrate              --      --       28
  Potassium nitrate           32·7    30       --
  Wood meal                   41      38       35·5
  Sodium carbonate             0·3    --       --
  Ammonium oxalate            --       8       --
  Sodium chloride             --      --       12

  Limit charge                --      24       24 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic
    pendulum)                 --       2·26     2·17”

=BROWN POWDER.= See =COCOA POWDER=.

=BRUGÈRE’S POWDER= consisted of--

  Ammonium picrate   54
  Potassium nitrate  46

It was stated to give good results in the Chassepôt rifle, but
picrate mixtures are liable to detonate, and are therefore dangerous
to use as propellants.

=BULL DOG= Gunpowder Pellets were used in coal mines. They
contained the same constituents as Bobbinite, which superseded them,
but in different proportions.

Explosifs =C= were mixtures of ammonium cresylate with ammonium
or sodium nitrate. They were made in France at one time, but their
manufacture was dropped, as they were more expensive to make than
Grisounite, and no more powerful.

=CAHUECIT.=--This was invented in the ’seventies of the last
century by R. Cahuc, and was manufactured at Dartford in Kent under
the name of Safety Blasting Powder or Carboazotine. It is still made
in Germany. The ingredients are--

                       English.  German.
  Potassium nitrate      64        70
  Sulphur flowers        12        12
  Lampblack or soot       7         8
  Bark or wood pulp      17        10

to which are added a few per cent. of sulphate of iron. The
incorporation is carried out with the assistance of a considerable
quantity of water, which is afterwards evaporated off. The mixing is
not very thorough. The explosive is a comparatively mild one, but
is used sometimes for blasting basalt. In the German explosive the
potassium nitrate may be replaced by the corresponding sodium salt.

=AMMONCAHUECIT.=--In this explosive the potassium nitrate is
replaced mainly or wholly by ammonium nitrate, and it contains not
more than 15 per cent. of trinitro-toluene or trinitro-naphthalene or
other nitro-body.

The brand labelled “Fram” contains ammonium nitrate, not more than 25
per cent. of trinitro-toluene gelatinised with 4 per cent. collodion
cotton, wood meal or other vegetable meal and neutral stable salts.
The brand “Indra” is similar, except that it contains also not
more than 10 per cent. potassium nitrate, and the percentage of
trinitro-toluene may be raised to 20.

=CAMBRITE= is a coal-mine explosive of the Carbonite type made
by Nobels at Ardeer. It consists practically of Nobel Carbonite, to
which 8 per cent. of a cooling agent has been added. Unlike most of
the explosives on the old Permitted List, it passed the Rotherham
Test with practically no alteration--

                              Cambrite.   No. 2.
  _Date of Permit_             1-9-13     1-4-15

  Nitroglycerine                23         23
  Barium nitrate                 4          4
  Potassium nitrate             27·5       27·5
  Wood meal                     37·2       37
  Calcium carbonate              0·3        0·5
  Ammonium oxalate               8         --
  Potassium chloride             --         8

  Limit charge                  30         24 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic
    pendulum)                    1·98       2·00”

Only No. 2 is now on the Permitted List.

=CAMERON MINE POWDER.=--There are a number of coal-mine explosives
of this name on the American Permissible List. Nos. 1A, 2A and 2A
LF are ammonium nitrate explosives, whereas Nos. 3A and 5A are
nitroglycerine explosives.

=*CANNONITE= was a smokeless powder made by a firm called the
War and Sporting Smokeless Powder Syndicate, Ltd. It consisted
of about 86 per cent. of nitrocellulose mostly insoluble in
ether-alcohol, and a few per cent. of barium nitrate, together
with small quantities of some of the following: potassium nitrate,
charcoal, lampblack, vaseline, rosin, stearine, dinitro-benzene,
trinitro-toluene, potassium ferro-cyanide, graphite. For shot-guns
the powder was of the forty-two grain type, dense and gelatinised.
The rifle powder was colloidal. These powders were made in the
’nineties of the last century.

=CARBITE D’ABLON= is a sort of Carbonite made in France--

  Nitroglycerine        26
  Potassium nitrate     33
  Wood meal or flour    41

=CARBOAZOTINE.= See =CAHUECIT=.

=CARBO-DYNAMITE= was an explosive patented by W. D. Borland.
It differed from ordinary dynamite in that the nitroglycerine was
absorbed in cork charcoal instead of kieselguhr. One part of the
charcoal sufficed to absorb nine parts of nitroglycerine.

=CARBONITE= (or Karbonit) was one of the earliest and one of
the most successful coal-mine explosives. It was first made by
Bichel and Schmidt at Schlebusch in Germany in 1885, and after some
modifications gave satisfactory results at the Neunkirchen testing
station in 1887. It contains about 26 per cent. of nitroglycerine,
33 per cent. of a nitrate, and 40 per cent. of wood meal or starch
flour, and small quantities of other substances. Nobel Carbonite
passed the Woolwich Test and had the composition--

  Nitroglycerine                   26
  Barium nitrate                    4
  Potassium nitrate                29
  Wood meal                        40·5
  “Sulphuretted benzol”             0·25
  Sodium and calcium carbonates     0·25

The Carbonite made at the works of the Carbonite Syndicate at
Schlebusch, and imported into Great Britain, was practically the
same as this, but they also made another explosive which passed
the Woolwich Test, and contained 35 per cent. of nitroglycerine
gelatinised with nitrocotton, and smaller proportions of nitrates
and wood meal than are given above: this was called Extra-Carbonite.
They have also made explosives to numerous modifications of this
formula for use on the Continent. The essential feature of all of
them is that they contain so much of the combustible constituents,
such as wood meal, that most of the carbon appears in the products
of explosion as carbon monoxide, and the temperature of the gases is
consequently low.

Nobels at Ardeer also made a low freezing explosive in
which part of the nitroglycerine was replaced by a nitro-compound.
This was called Arctic Carbonite--

  Nitroglycerine       15·5
  Nitro-hydrocarbon    10·5
  Potassium nitrate    42
  Wood meal            31·7
  Calcium carbonate     0·3

Various manufacturers have made explosives of the type of Carbonite
and placed them on the market under different names, such as Tutol,
Kolax, Kohlen-Carbonite, Minite and Colinite. These, however, do not
pass the Rotherham Test for Permitted Explosives, unless ammonium
oxalate or other cooling agent be added, as in the case of Cambrite,
Super-Kolax and Britonite No. 2.

On the Continent, explosives similar to Arctic Carbonite have been
produced under the names Antigel de Sûreté and Ingélite.

There are several Carbonites on the American Permissible List. Of
these Nos. 1 to 4 are in order of diminishing violence: Nos. 5 and
6 are low freezing varieties. There are also a number of other
explosives of the Carbonite type on the List.

Ammonkarbonit is a German coal-mine explosive, containing about 80
per cent. of ammonium nitrate and 4 per cent. of blasting gelatine,
together with 5 or 10 per cent. of potassium nitrate, and a
combustible such as flour, starch or coal dust. Sodium or potassium
chloride may be added as a cooling agent. It has been used for
blasting clay.

Gelatine-Karbonit is a Carbonite containing ammonium nitrate, and a
considerable proportion of nitroglycerine gelatinised with collodion
cotton.

Halokarbonit is similar to Ammonkarbonit, except that a considerable
proportion of the ammonium nitrate is replaced by other nitrates.

=CARLSONITE= was the first ammonium perchlorate explosive
submitted to H.M. Inspectors of Explosives. It was proposed in 1898
by Carlson of Stockholm, and some of the mixtures were reported on
favourably, but no licence was ever taken out in the United Kingdom
for this explosive.

=C.E.= (Composition Exploding) is the same as Tetryl.

=CELTITE= was a coal-mine explosive made by Dr. R. Nahnsen &
Co., Hamburg, and formerly permitted for use in British coal mines,
having passed the Woolwich Test.

  Nitroglycerine       57
  Nitrocotton           3
  Potassium nitrate    19
  Wood meal             9
  Ammonium oxalate     12

It was also called Zeltit.

=*CENTRALITE= is not an explosive, but is a name given
to a substance which has been used to modify the surface of
smokeless powder, and make it burn progressively. The substance is
dimethyl-diphenyl-urea. (See Brit. Pat. 29,882 of 1909.) It acts also
as a stabiliser.

=CHEDDITE= is a chlorate explosive which has been rendered less
sensitive by having the particles of chlorate coated with castor oil
or paraffin wax. It is manufactured by the French Government at the
Vonges Powder Works, and has also been made in other countries. The
two types that have been most used in France are--

                        O2 or No. 4.    O5 or No. 1.
  Potassium chlorate        79             --
  Sodium chlorate           --             79
  Castor oil                 5              5
  Mononitro-naphthalene      1             --
  Dinitro-toluene           15             16

=*CHEESA STICKS= are sticks of cordite coated with powdered
ammonium oxalate and shellac. They are used in South Africa as
fuses for blasting charges. They are authorised in England only for
manufacture and immediate export.

=*CHILWORTH SMOKELESS POWDER.= See =C.S.P.=

=*CHILWORTH SPECIAL POWDER.= See =AMIDE POWDER=.

=CHLORATIT= is an Austrian explosive, which was permitted for
use in coal mines during the War.

=CHLORATZIT.=--A German explosive containing potassium chlorate or
perchlorate, aromatic nitro-bodies, resins and carbohydrates. For use
in coal mines neutral salts are added as cooling agents, and the name
then has =WETTER= or =KOHLEN= prefixed to it.

=CHROMAMONIT= was a coal-mine explosive formerly made in Germany--

  Ammonium nitrate          63·25
  Potassium nitrate         17·5
  Collodion cotton           9·25
  Chromium ammonium alum     9·5
  Vaseline                   0·5

=*CLERMONITE.=--A Belgian shot-gun powder made by the Cooppal
Co. It is a 40-grain fibrous powder of the bulk type and coloured
green.

=CLIFFITE= was a coal-mine explosive made by Curtis’s and
Harvey, and formerly on the Permitted List--

  Nitroglycerine      47
  Collodion cotton     3
  Starch              50

=SUPER-CLIFFITE= differs considerably from this. There are two
formulæ which have passed the Rotherham Test, but only No. 2 is still
on the Permitted List--

                             No. 1.    No. 2.
  _Date of Permit_           21-9-16   21-9-16

  Nitroglycerine                9·5       9·5
  Collodion cotton              0·5       0·5
  Ammonium nitrate             59        59·5
  Wood meal                     6         6
  Sodium chloride              15        19·5
  Ammonium oxalate             10         5

  Limit charge                 26        30 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic
    pendulum)                   2·53      2·53”

=CLYDITE= was a coal-mine explosive formerly made by Nobels at
Ardeer. It was similar to Nobel Carbonite, but the potassium nitrate
was replaced by the barium salt, and it might contain up to 8 per
cent. of ammonium oxalate.

=COALITE.=--There is a series of coal-mine explosives of this
name on the American Permissible List. Varieties X, 3X, and 3XC
are ammonium nitrate explosives; whereas 1, 2D, 2DL and 2MLF are
nitroglycerine explosives.

=COAL SPECIAL= are American coal-mine explosives on the
Permissible List. They are all nitroglycerine explosives.

=COCOA POWDER= or Brown Powder was a variety of gunpowder made
with a brown charcoal prepared from straw--

  Potassium nitrate    79
  Sulphur               3
  Straw charcoal       18

It was compressed to a density of 1·8 into prisms or grains of
considerable size, and was used in guns of large calibre. E.X.E. and
S.B.C. were special varieties of this.

=COLINIT ANTIGRISOUTEUSE.=--A Belgian coal-mine explosive of the
Carbonite type. The ordinary formula is practically the same as that
of Kohlencarbonite and Minerite. Type B consists of--

  Blasting gelatine          26
  Potassium perchlorate       6
  Ammonium nitrate           20
  Trinitro-toluene           12
  Rye flour and cellulose    29
  Magnesium sulphate          7

=COLLIER POWDER.=--There are a number of coal-mine explosives
of this name on the American Permissible List. Varieties BNF, KN,
X, XLF, 5, 5LF, 5 Special, 9, 11, and 11LF are ammonium nitrate
explosives whereas 2 and 6LF are nitroglycerine explosives.

=COLLODION COTTON= is a variety of nitrocotton of low nitration,
almost completely soluble in a mixture of ether and alcohol. It
contains not more than 12·3 per cent. of nitrogen. It also dissolves
in nitroglycerine and liquid nitro-compounds, rendering them
gelatinous and so preventing their exudation.

=*COOPPAL’S POWDER.=--A Belgian smokeless shot-gun powder.
Formerly it was much the same as Schultze Powder, consisting of
nitrolignin carefully purified, and mixed with nitrates with or
without the addition of starch. The following analyses were published
in “Arms and Explosives” for July 1917--

                               No. 1.     No. 2.
                               1892.      1900.
                               Fibrous    Gelatinised
                               42-grain   30-grain
                               bulk.      dense.

  Nitrocellulose, insoluble    13·0       71·1
       ”          soluble      60·5       20·1
  Metallic nitrates            21·3        2·0
  Shellac                       3·2        --
  Nitro-hydrocarbons            --         5·5
  Moisture                      2·0        1·3

=CORDITE= is the principal smokeless powder of the British
Services. It was originally adopted in 1888, and is made by mixing
nitroglycerine with guncotton and mineral jelly (a sort of crude
vaseline), and incorporating them together with the aid of acetone,
which gelatinises the guncotton. In consequence of the severe erosion
of the guns experienced during the South African War the proportions
were altered, some of the nitroglycerine being replaced by guncotton.
The propellant thus “modified” is called Cordite M.D., whereas that
of the original composition is Cordite Mk.I. Both are still in use,
especially M.D.--

                    Mk. I.   M.D.

  Guncotton           37      65
  Nitroglycerine      58      30
  Mineral jelly        5       5

During the great European War a further variety was introduced to
extend the basis of supply of solvents. This is called Cordite R.D.B.
(Research Department B), and contains a nitrocotton of comparatively
low nitration that can be gelatinised by means of a mixture of ether
and alcohol--

  Nitrocotton       52
  Nitroglycerine    42
  Mineral jelly      6

It is designed to give about the same ballistics as Cordite M.D. A
further letter is sometimes added to show the form of the powder.
Thus Cordite M.D.T. is M.D. pressed into tubes; S. stands for strip.
The size is indicated by a numeral, which shows the diameter in
hundredths of an inch of the die through which it has been pressed.
In the case of tubular powder both the external and internal
diameters are given approximately: _e. g._ Cordite M.D.T. 5-2.

Poudre blanche =CORNIL=.--A Belgian coal-mine explosive
containing ammonium nitrate, potassium or sodium nitrate,
dinitro-naphthalene and lead chromate, with or without the addition
of ammonium chloride.

=CORNISH POWDER.=--A coal-mine explosive which passed the
Woolwich Test and was formerly on the Permitted List, made by the
National Explosives Co., Ltd.--

  Nitroglycerine        55
  Nitrocotton            3
  Potassium nitrate     18
  Wood meal              7
  Magnesium sulphate    17

=CORONITE= was a coal-mine explosive of the Carbonite type,
which was on the Permitted List at one time. It had also been called
Permittite.

Picric acid has been called by this name in Sweden.

See also =KORONIT=.

=COSILIT.=--A German coal-mine explosive of the Carbonite type
made by Nahnsen. A published analysis gives its composition as--

  Nitroglycerine    30
  Sodium nitrate    22·3
  Vegetable meal    40·5
  Sodium chloride    7·2

=COTTON POWDER.= See =TONITE=, also =CP=.

=CP_1= and =CP_2= are varieties of nitrocotton (Coton Poudre) made
in France, principally for the manufacture of Poudre B and other
smokeless powders. CP_1 is a guncotton containing about 13 per
cent. of nitrogen, and only about 10 per cent. of matter soluble in
ether-alcohol. CP_2 is almost completely soluble in ether-alcohol,
and contains about 12 per cent. of nitrogen.

=CRÉSYLITE.=--A French high explosive used for filling shell and
other military purposes. Crésylite 60/40 consists of picric acid and
nitrated cresol in about the proportions of 40 of the former to 60
of the latter. It melts below the temperature of boiling water. The
nitrated cresol consists largely of trinitro-metacresol.

Crésylite No. 2 is simply crude trinitro-meta-cresol.

=CRONITE= is an American coal-mine explosive. There are two
varieties on the Permissible List, Nos. 1 and 5, both of which are
ammonium nitrate explosives.

=*CRYSTAL= is a smokeless shot-gun powder made by Curtis’s and
Harvey. It is a non-solvent powder for cheap loading, and the charge
is thirty-three grains.

=C.S.P.^2= (Chilworth Smokeless Powder, No. 2) is a modification
of Cordite, containing a little sodium bicarbonate as a stabiliser.
It is stated to have been adopted by the Brazilian navy (see
“Engineering” for August 18, 1911, p. 237) and other powers.

=CUGNITE.=--A French blasting explosive manufactured by the
Société Française des Explosifs--

  Nitroglycerine      27
  Nitrocotton          0·7
  Ammonium nitrate    30
  Sodium nitrate      30
  Wood meal           11
  Barium sulphate      1·3

=CURTISITE.=--A coal-mine explosive of the Grisounite class made
by Curtis’s and Harvey. It was formerly on the Permitted List--

  Ammonium nitrate         88
  Trinitro-toluene          8
  Mononitro-naphthalene     4

=SUPER-CURTISITE= was a modification of the above to enable it
to pass the Rotherham Test--

  _Date of Permit_        7-4-14

  Ammonium nitrate         38·5
  Potassium nitrate        29·5
  Trinitro-toluene         10
  Ammonium chloride        22

  Limit charge             16 oz.
  Power (swing of
    ballistic pendulum)     2·71”

The permit has been repealed.

=DAHMENITE= is an ammonium nitrate explosive which has been used
to a considerable extent in Germany. One variety known as Dahmenite
A, made by De Gezamenlijke Buskruidmakers van Noord-Holland, was
formerly on the British Permitted List for use in dangerous coal
mines--

  Ammonium nitrate        92·5
  Naphthalene              5·5
  Potassium bichromate     2

Ordinary Dahmenite contains up to 15 per cent. of potassium nitrate
instead of bichromate, and has been used for blasting clay. Some
varieties contain curcuma meal and other constituents. The following
are some examples--

                          Gesteins-
                          Dahmenit.    No. 76.

  Ammonium nitrate         84·5        71·5
  Potassium bichromate      2·5         0·5
  Curcuma meal             12           6·25
  Dinitro-benzene           1           --
  Trinitro-toluene         --          12
  Sodium chloride          --           9·75

                       Gelatine
                       Dahmenit.

  Ammonium nitrate     82
  Sodium nitrate        5·5
  Potassium nitrate     2
  Dinitro-glycerine    27·4
  Nitrocotton           0·6
  Naphthalene           0·5
  Trinitro-toluene      4·5
  Alkali chloride      27·5

                       Neu-Dahmenit.
                            B
  Ammonium nitrate     68    65
  Potassium nitrate     2     2
  Vegetable meal        2·5   0·5
  Coke                  2     7
  Trinitro-toluene     10     8
  Alkali chloride      15·5  17·5

=DENABY POWDER.=--There was formerly a blasting explosive
of this name, consisting of a compressed mixture of Securite and
charcoal--

  Potassium and barium nitrates    73·2
  Dinitro-benzene                  21·5
  Nitrocotton and charcoal          5·1
  Moisture                          0·2

In 1914 a coal-mine explosive was introduced under the
same name and passed the Rotherham Test--

  _Date of Permit_            13-5-14

  Ammonium nitrate             34
  Potassium nitrate            33·5
  Trinitro-toluene             13
  Ammonium chloride            19·5

  Limit charge                 18 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic
    pendulum)                   2·74”

It is made by British Westfalite, Ltd.

=DENSITE.=--A Belgian blasting explosive containing one or more
of the following nitrates: ammonium, strontium, sodium, potassium;
also trinitro-toluene, and sometimes dinitro-toluene and ammonium
chloride. This explosive is practically the same as Nitralite.
Varieties have been made for use in coal mines.

See also Nitro-densite.

=DETONIT V.=--A German coal-mine explosive containing ammonium
nitrate, charcoal, vegetable meal, neutral salts, and not more than 4
per cent. of blasting gelatine.

=DETONITE SPECIAL= is an American coal-mine explosive on the
Permissible List. It contains ammonium nitrate.

=DOMINITE.=--A coal-mine explosive made by the Westphalia Anhalt
Explosives Co. in Germany, and formerly on the British Permitted
List--

  Nitroglycerine        59·3
  Nitrocotton            4
  Paraffin oil           0·7
  Ammonium oxalate       8·5
  Potassium nitrate     18·5
  Potassium chloride     4
  Wood meal              5

=DOMINIT XI.=--A German blasting explosive containing ammonium
nitrate, dinitro-toluene, glycerine, and not more than 4 per cent. of
blasting gelatine.

=DOMINIT XVIII=, which has been introduced recently, contains up
to 10 per cent. of potassium perchlorate, and is practically the same
as Astralit V.

=DONARIT= is a German blasting explosive of the Grisoutine
type made by the Carbonite Co. of Hamburg. As a standard for the
sensitiveness of ammonium nitrate explosives, the Imperial German
Railway Commission use Donarit of the composition--

  Ammonium nitrate    80
  Trinitro-toluene    12
  Rye flour            4
  Nitroglycerine       4
and this may be taken as the usual composition of the explosive, but
the nitroglycerine is sometimes gelatinised with collodion cotton.

=DONARIT A= contains up to 16 per cent. of aluminium powder and
no nitroglycerine.

=DONARIT V=, which has been introduced recently, contains up to
10 per cent. of potassium perchlorate, and is practically the same as
Astralit V.

Wetter-Donarit contains also sodium chloride or other cooling agent.

Gelatine-Donarit contains up to 20 per cent. of dinitro-chlorhydrin
gelatinised with collodion cotton, in addition to the constituents of
Donarit, and may also contain sodium nitrate.

=DORFIT= is a German coal-mine explosive made by the
firm of Allendorf--

                       I.    II.  Gesteins.

  Ammonium nitrate     65     61     66
  Potassium nitrate     5      5      5
  Trinitro-toluene      6     15     15
  Flour                 4      4      4
  Sodium chloride      20     15     10

=ALDORFIT= is a simpler mixture intended for use where
there is no danger of fire-damp--

  Ammonium nitrate    81
  Trinitro-toluene    17
  Flour                2

It is authorised in Great Britain.

=PERDORFIT= contains not more than 52 per cent. of potassium
perchlorate, sodium and ammonium nitrates, not more than 29 per cent.
of trinitro-toluene and vegetable meal or gums.

=DRAGONITE.=--A coal-mine explosive made by Curtis’s and Harvey,
formerly on the Permitted List--

  Nitroglycerine            35·5
  Nitrocotton                2·5
  Potassium nitrate         44·5
  Vaseline                   5·5
  Wood meal and charcoal    12

=DREADNOUGHT POWDER.=--A coal-mine explosive made by Roburite
and Ammonal, Ltd., for a time on the Permitted List--

   _Date of Permit_           1-9-13

  Ammonium nitrate             75·4
  Trinitro-toluene              4
  Ammonium chloride             5
  Sodium chloride              15·5
  Red oil                       0·1

  Limit charge                 32 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic
    pendulum)                   2·05”

There is also Quarry Dreadnought Powder, which is not a permitted
explosive.

=DUNNITE.=--A high explosive used by the United States for
filling shell. It is stated to give dangerous compounds with iron, so
apparently is a compound of picric acid.

=DU PONT PERMISSIBLE.=--An American coal-mine explosive. The
following is on the British Permitted List--

                              No. 1.
   _Date of Permit_          26-4-16

  Nitroglycerine                9·5
  Ammonium nitrate             67·5
  Wood pulp                     8
  Sodium chloride              15

  Limit charge                 18 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic
    pendulum)                   2·82”

=*DU PONT SMOKELESS POWDER.=--An American shot-gun powder of the
fibrous 36-grain bulk type--

  Soluble nitro-cellulose    95·8
  Metallic nitrates           2·2
  Moisture                    2·0

=DUXITE.=--A coal-mine explosive made by the Westphalia Anhalt
Explosives Co. It passed the Rotherham Test, and was for a time on
the British Permitted List--

  Nitroglycerine                       32
  Nitrocotton                           1
  Sodium nitrate                       28
  Wood meal                            10
  Ammonium oxalate                     29

  Limit charge                         12 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)   2·45”

Sicherheits Gallerte-=DYNAMIT=.--A German coal-mine explosive--

  Nitroglycerine       32·25
  Collodion cotton      1·25
  Ammonium nitrate     22·6
  Sodium nitrate       10·8
  Vegetable meal       18
  Potassium chloride    5·5
  Gelatine              1·05
  Dextrin               1·05
  Glycerine             4·3
  Moisture              3·2

  Limit charge         50 g.

Wettersicheres Gelatine-=DYNAMIT=.--A German coal-mine
explosive--

                          I.    I_a_.
  Nitroglycerine          40     38
  Collodion cotton         1      1
  Ammonium nitrate        27     25·5
  Potassium nitrate        4      5
  Ammonium oxalate        --      2·5
  Rye flour               10      4
  Liquid hydrocarbons      3·5   14
  Fatty acid salt         12·5   10
  Wood meal                2     --

  Limit charge            50    100 g.

=DYNAMITE= is a name that has been given to various
nitroglycerine explosives. Dynamite No. 1 consists of--

  Nitroglycerine   75
  Kieselguhr       25

the explosive being held in the pores of the kieselguhr. In other
dynamites the nitroglycerine is absorbed in a material like wood
meal, and a nitrate is added to oxidise the latter on explosion.

In Gelatine Dynamite the nitroglycerine is gelatinised with collodion
cotton. See under Gelatine.

American Dynamites are not generally gelatinised with collodion
cotton. They are made in a number of grades, depending on the
percentage of nitroglycerine.

For further details about various dynamites, see textbooks on
explosives.

=DYNAMITE ANTIGRISOUTEUSE.=--Belgian coal-mine explosive made at
Baelen Wezel--

          IV.                         V.
  Nitroglycerine      24      Nitroglycerine      44
  Collodion cotton     1      Sodium sulphate     44
  Ammonium nitrate    75      Wood meal           12

Of the above, IV. was found only to be safe in very small charges
in the presence of fire-damp. No. V. has a “charge limite” of 700
grammes.

=DYNAMMON.=--The coal-mine explosive provided by the Austrian
State monopoly--

                       Dynammon.   Wetter-Dynammon.
  Ammonium nitrate      87-88           94
  Potassium nitrate       --             2
  Red charcoal          12-13            4
  Density                0·9             0·85

=DYNOBEL.=--A coal-mine explosive made by Nobels. The first
formula to pass the Rotherham Test contained potassium perchlorate--

    _Date of Permit_                 1-9-13
  Nitroglycerine                      33
  Collodion cotton                     0·7
  Potassium perchlorate               27
  Wood meal                           10·3
  Ammonium oxalate                    29

  Limit charge                        22 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)  2·61”

Subsequently other formulæ of somewhat different composition
passed the test--

                                       No. 2.   No. 3.   No. 4.
    _Date of Permit_                 16-8-15  14-4-16  14-4-16
  Nitroglycerine                       19·5     15       15
  Collodion cotton                      0·5      0·5      0·5
  Trinitro-toluene}
  Dinitro-toluene } together            2        1·5      3
  Dinitro-benzene }
  Ammonium nitrate                     42       52       46
  Wood meal                             5·5      5·5      5·5
  Sodium chloride                      30       25       29·5
  Magnesium carbonate                   0·5      0·5      0·5

  Limit charge                         24       18       30 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)   2·46     2·50     2·35”

Of these only Nos. 3 and 4 are still permitted.

=*E.C. POWDER= was one of the first smokeless shot-gun powders,
and is still one of the most successful. The composition has
been varied somewhat from time to time, but it has always been a
fibrous bulk powder. The following analyses were given in “Arms and
Explosives,” 1917, p. 76--

                               No. 1.     No. 2.     No. 3.
    _Date of Introduction_     1882       1890       1897
    _Class_                   42-grain   42-grain   33-grain
  Nitrocotton, insoluble       30·0       15·9       44·0
    ”          soluble         28·2       41·0       30·4
  Metallic nitrates            37·8       38·3       14·0
  Resin                         2·1        2·0       --
  Vaseline                     --         --          6·0
  Camphor                      --          1·0        4·0
  Moisture                      1·9        1·8        1·6
The powder is manufactured at Green Street Green, near Dartford in
Kent. The name is derived from “Explosives Company.”

=ECHO= or =EKKO= is a blasting explosive made at
Nitedal in Norway, consisting of ammonium nitrate, nitrocotton,
trinitro-toluene, aluminium powder, and sometimes ferro-silicon. It
has been used on the Continent for filling hand-grenades.

*=ECONOMIC SMOKELESS SPORTING POWDER= is a 42-grain bulk powder
for shot-guns, made by the E.C. Powder Company.

=ECRASITE= or =EKRASIT= is a high explosive used in Austria
for filling shell and other military purposes. It is the ammonium
salt of trinitro-cresol.

=ELECTRONITE.=--There have been several explosives of this name,
but none of them have been used extensively, and all are dead now.
There was a coal-mine explosive formerly on the Permitted List--

  Ammonium nitrate                       73
  Barium nitrate                         19
  Starch and slightly-charred wood meal   8

It was made by Curtis’s and Harvey.

=ELEY SMOKELESS SPORTING POWDER= is a shot-gun powder similar to
=E.C.=

Ammon-=ELSAGIT= is a German coal-mine explosive. It contains
ammonium nitrate, vegetable meal, not more than 6 per cent. of
trinitro-toluene or other nitro-body, not more than 4 per cent. of
blasting gelatine, and may also contain fatty oils, alkali chlorides
or oxalate, and sodium or potassium nitrate.

Gesteins-=ELSAGIT= has much the same composition, but the
percentage of trinitro-toluene may be raised to 12, and it contains
no sodium or potassium nitrate.

*=EMPIRE POWDER= is a smokeless shot-gun powder introduced
in 1902 by Nobel’s Explosives Company. It is a fibrous 33-grain
bulk powder, and, according to an analysis published in “Arms and
Explosives,” 1917, p. 77, its composition is--

  Nitrocotton, insoluble    48·0
    ”          soluble      34·0
  Metallic nitrates          9·0
  Vaseline                   7·0
  Moisture                   2·0

=ERGITE.=--A blasting explosive which was made for a few years
in a factory in North Wales. Other explosives were also made under
the names of Granergite, Shattergite, etc.

=ERIN GELIGNITE.=--A Gelignite containing a small percentage of
dinitro-toluene to prevent the nitroglycerine freezing.

=ESSEX POWDER.=--A coal-mine explosive made by the Explosives
and Chemical Products, Ltd. It is on the Permitted List--

    _Date of Permit_                1-9-13
  Nitroglycerine                      23
  Nitrocotton                          1
  Potassium nitrate                   34
  Wheat flour                         36
  Ammonium chloride                    6

  Limit charge                        38 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)  2·17”

=EUREKA No. 2= is an American coal-mine explosive on the
Permissible List. It contains nitroglycerine and a hydrated salt.

=EXCELLITE.=--A coal-mine explosive formerly on the Permitted
List--

  Nitroglycerine     8
  Ammonium nitrate  82·5
  Collodion cotton   1
  Dinitro-toluene    3
  Wood meal          4·5
  Castor oil         1

=SUPER-EXCELLITE= is a modification of this, containing salts as
cooling agents. Three formulæ passed the Rotherham Test--

                                              No. 2.   No. 3.
    _Date of Permit_                 1-9-13  7-4-14  22-6-14
  Nitroglycerine                        4       5       9·5
  Collodion cotton                     --      --       0·5
  Ammonium nitrate                     75·5    50      59
  Potassium nitrate                     7      20      --
  Starch                                3·5     5       4·5
  Castor oil                           --      --       1
  Ammonium chloride                    --       5      --
  Sodium chloride                      --      --      15
  Ammonium oxalate                     10      15      10·5

  Limit charge                         10      14      36 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)   2·74    2·72    2·73”

It will be seen that all three are about equal as regards power, but
that No. 3, which contains the largest proportion of cooling agents
and more nitroglycerine, can be used safely in much greater charges.
In 1916 807,000 lbs. of No. 3 were used in mines and quarries,
principally in coal mines. It is recommended by the makers, Curtis’s
and Harvey, for hard coal and colliery work generally. The permits of
the others have been repealed.

=EXPEDITE= is a coal-mine explosive on the Permitted List made
by Explosives and Chemical Products, Ltd.--

    _Date of Permit_                25-11-13
  Ammonium nitrate                    35
  Potassium nitrate                   33
  Trinitro-toluene                    12
  Ammonium chloride                   20

  Limit charge more than              32 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)  2·62”

See also =XPDITE=.

=EXPLOSIFS N=, =O=, etc. See under respective letters.

=EXTRA DYNAMITE= is a variety of American dynamite containing
ammonium nitrate.


=FAVERSHAM POWDER= is a coal-mine explosive of the Grisounite
type made by the Cotton Powder Co. The mixture, which was on the old
Permitted List, had the composition--

  Ammonium nitrate        90
  Trinitro-toluene        10

To make it pass the Rotherham Test, part of the ammonium nitrate was
replaced by potassium nitrate, and ammonium chloride was added--

  No. 2.
    _Date of Permit_                10-2-14

  Ammonium nitrate                    47·5
  Potassium nitrate                   24
  Ammonium chloride                   18·5
  Trinitro-toluene                    10

  Limit charge                        24 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)  2·61”

but this also has now been repealed.

=FAVIER= explosives consist essentially of ammonium nitrate
mixed with nitro-compounds. Favier took out patents in 1884 and
1885 for mixtures of ammonium nitrate with mononitro-naphthalene,
paraffin and resin. Their manufacture was undertaken soon afterwards
by the French Government, and is still continued under the names of
Explosifs N, or Explosifs Favier or Grisounites. Their composition
has been varied from time to time, but the following are those now
authorised--

                   Grisou-naphtalite-       Grisou-naphtalite-.
                          couche.                  roche.
                        N_1 a.   N_4.         N_1 b.

  Ammonium nitrate      95       90           91·5       86·5
  Potassium nitrate     --        5           --          5
  Dinitro-naphthane     --       --            8·5        8·5
  Trinitro-naphthalene   5        5            --         --
  Tetryl                --       --            --         --

                                                 For mines free from
                     Grisou-tetrylite-couche.      fire-damp, etc.
                                                        N_1 c.

  Ammonium nitrate          88                         87·4
  Potassium nitrate          5                         --
  Dinitro-naphthane         --                         12·6
  Trinitro-naphthalene      --                         --
  Tetryl                     7                         --

The Grisounites-couche are used in the coal seams as they have
theoretical temperatures of explosion of 1500° or less, but N_1 a
has been replaced to a considerable extent by N_4, because the
presence of a proportion of potassium nitrate is found to increase
the safety; these are both coloured green. The Grisounites-roche have
theoretical temperatures of explosion of 1900° or less, and are used
in the rocks in coal mines. N_1 b is dyed rose colour, and N_1 c
pale yellow.

Many explosives of this type are in use in different countries. On
the old British Permitted List were Ammonite, Westfalite, Bellite
and Roburite amongst others. Those now on the List contain ammonium
or sodium chloride to enable them to pass the Rotherham Test, _e.g._
the later Ammonites, Bellite Nos. 2 and 4, Faversham Powder and Negro
Powder.

On the Belgian list of Explosifs S.G.P. is Favier II bis--

  Ammonium nitrate                77·6
  Dinitro-naphthalene              2·4
  Ammonium chloride               20

  Charge limite          More than 293 grammes.

=FAVORIT.= See =KORONIT.=

=*FELIXITE= is a smokeless shot-gun powder introduced in 1906
by the New Explosives Company. It is a fibrous 42-grain bulk powder,
and, according to an analysis published in “Arms and Explosives,”
1917, p. 76, has the composition--

  Nitrocellulose, insoluble        40·5
  ”   soluble                      20·5
  Metallic nitrates                30·0
  Nitro-compound                    5·0
  Vaseline                          2·7
  Moisture                          1·3

=*FILITE= was a smokeless powder formerly used in the Italian
services. It was a Ballistite consisting generally of equal parts of
nitroglycerine and collodion cotton, to which 0·5 to 1 per cent. of
aniline or diphenylamine was added as a stabiliser. It was
gelatinised with a solvent and drawn out into cords.

=FLAMMIVORE.=--A Belgian coal-mine explosive made
at Arendonck--

          O.
  Ammonium nitrate   70
  Barium nitrate     15
  Cellulose           5
  Dinitro-toluene    10

  Charge limite     100g.

          I.
  Blasting gelatine   4
  Ammonium nitrate   82
  Potassium nitrate  10
  Rye flour           4

  Charge limite     500g.

         III.
  Nitroglycerine      6
  Ammonium nitrate   70
  Ammonium sulphate   9
  Barium sulphate     7
  Dextrin             8

  Charge limite     650g.

In the United Kingdom this is “authorised” but not “permitted” for
use in dangerous mines.

=FLOBERT= ammunition consists of small cartridges, like
detonators, charged with a small quantity of mercury fulminate, and
some antimony sulphide and potassium chlorate. It is used for target
practice and shooting small birds.

=FOERDER SICHERHEITSSPRENGSTOFF.=--A German coal-mine explosive
containing ammonium nitrate, not more than 4 per cent. of blasting
gelatine, mono- and di-nitro-aromatic compounds, vegetable meal and
neutral salts.

=FOERDIT.=--A German coal-mine explosive containing
nitroglycerine gelatinised or ungelatinised, carbohydrates,
glycerine, nitro-compounds, inorganic nitrates and sodium or
potassium chloride.

Ammon-Foerdit is a similar mixture, except that it contains a larger
percentage of ammonium nitrate and no other inorganic nitrates. The
nitroglycerine is gelatinised, and there is a little diphenylamine.
The following are examples of these two explosives--


                          Foerdit.      Ammon-Foerdit.
  Nitroglycerine            25·5             3·8
  Collodion cotton           1·5             0·2
  Ammonium nitrate          37              85
  Nitro-toluene              5              --
  Dextrine or flour          4               4
  Glycerine                  3               2
  Diphenylamine             --               1
  Potassium chloride        24               4

Ammon-Foerdit F, which has been introduced recently, contains up to
10 per cent. of potassium perchlorate and is similar to Astralit V.

=FORCITE.=--A variety of gelatine dynamite or gelignite made in
Belgium. It contains blasting gelatine 36 to 64 per cent., sodium or
ammonium nitrate, wood meal, magnesia and sometimes bran.

An American explosive of the same name is a dynamite containing wood
tar--

  Nitroglycerine        49
  Collodion cotton       1
  Sodium nitrate        38
  Sulphur                1·5
  Wood tar              10
  Wood pulp              0·5

=FORCITE ANTIGRISOUTEUSE 3.=--A Belgian coal-mine
explosive of the Carbonite type--

  Nitroglycerine        26
  Potassium nitrate     33
  Barium nitrate         1
  Rye flour             38·5
  Bran                   1
  Sodium carbonate       0·5

  Charge limite        750g.

=FORTEX.=--A coal-mine explosive made by Explosives and Chemical
Products, Ltd. The mixture, which was on the old Permitted List, was--

  Ammonium nitrate    78·5
  Tetryl              21·5

=NEW FORTEX.=--A modification of the above to pass
the Rotherham Test--

  _Date of Permit_                 25-11-13

  Ammonium nitrate                    35
  Potassium nitrate                   33
  Tetryl                              12
  Ammonium chloride                   20

  Limit charge                        10 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)  2·61”

=FORT PITT MINE POWDER NO.= 1 is an American coal-mine powder on
the Permissible List. It is a nitroglycerine explosive.

=FRACTORITE.=--A Belgian coal-mine explosive--

           B.                                   D.

  Ammonium nitrate      75              Ammonium nitrate    75
  Dinitro-naphthalene    2·8            Sodium nitrate      10
  Ammonium oxalate       2·2            Nitroglycerine       4
  Ammonium chloride     20              Ammonium oxalate     7
                                        Flour                4

  Charge limite         450 g.          Charge limite      700 g.

=FRACTURITE.=--A coal-mine explosive formerly on the Permitted
List, made by the British Explosives Syndicate, Ltd.--

  Nitroglycerine      52·5
  Collodion cotton     3·5
  Potassium nitrate   23
  Wood meal            6
  Ammonium oxalate    15

=FUEL-ITE.=--There is a series of coal-mine explosives of
this name on the American Permissible List. Nos. 1 and 2 are
nitroglycerine explosives of the Carbonite type. No. 3 is an ammonium
nitrate explosive.

=FUELLPULVER= (or =FP.=) is the name given by the
Germans to mixtures of trinitro-toluene and ammonium nitrate used
for filling shell. Fp. 60/40, for instance, is a mixture of 60
parts trinitro-toluene and 40 parts of ammonium nitrate, and is
consequently the same as Amatol 40/60. Fp. without figures stands for
trinitro-toluene.

=*FULMEN POWDER= is a 33-grain smokeless powder for shot-guns
made by the Schultze Gunpowder Co.

=FULMENIT.=--A blasting explosive made by the German Nobel Co.,
containing ammonium nitrate, vegetable meal or charcoal, paraffin
oil, trinitro-toluene and guncotton.

=WETTER-FULMENIT= is a coal-mine explosive which has been
much used. It differs from the above in containing also sodium or
potassium chloride--

                          Fulmenit.   Wetter-Fulmenit.

  Ammonium nitrate          86·5       76       76·5
  Guncotton                  4          0·5      4
  Trinitro-toluene           5·5       11·8      5·5
  Charcoal                   1·5        1·5      1·5
  Paraffin oil               2·5        0·2      2·5
  Sodium chloride           --         10       10

=FUMYL.=--A smoke-producing explosive containing trinitro-toluene and
ammonium chloride, used for opening poison-gas shell, etc.


=GATHURST POWDER.=--An explosive of the Grisounite class.
According to an analysis given in Cundill and Thomson’s Dictionary it
consisted of--

  Ammonium nitrate    83·4
  Dinitro-benzene     16·5
  Moisture             0·1

=GEHLINGERIT.=--A German blasting explosive. Gesteins-Gehlingerit
III. contains--

  Ammonium nitrate    80
  Trinitro-toluene    15
  Flour                5

Wetter-Gehlingerit, which is a coal-mine explosive, contains also
sodium or potassium chloride, and may contain up to 4 per cent. of
nitroglycerine to increase its sensitiveness.

=GELATINÉ À L’AMMONIAQUE.=--A Belgian explosive, a mixture of
blasting gelatine and ammonium nitrate.

=GELATINE DYNAMITE= is a mixture of blasting gelatine, potassium
nitrate and a little wood meal. That made in Britain must contain
between 70 and 77 per cent. of nitroglycerine; it may contain up
to 2 per cent. of calcium or magnesium carbonate, or 1/2 per cent.
of mineral jelly as a stabiliser. The following may be taken as an
example of its composition--

  Nitroglycerine      74·5
  Collodion cotton     5·5
  Wood meal            4
  Potassium nitrate   15·5
  Calcium carbonate    0·2
  Moisture             0·3

In America brands are made of 35 to 80 per cent. strength.

=GELIGNITE= is similar to Gelatine Dynamite except that it
contains a smaller proportion of blasting gelatine; in Britain the
percentage of nitroglycerine must be between 56 and 63, _e. g._--

  Nitroglycerine      61
  Collodion cotton     4·5
  Wood meal            7
  Potassium nitrate   27
  Calcium carbonate    0·2
  Moisture             0·3

There are also a number of modified Gelignites, which either contain
sodium or barium nitrate in partial or entire replacement of the
potassium nitrate, or else contain some substance to reduce the
freezing point of the nitroglycerine and so diminish the danger of
freezing, such as dinitro- or trinitro-toluene or dinitro-glycol.

=GESILIT.=--A German coal-mine explosive made by Nahnsen. It
contains blasting gelatine, inorganic nitrates, sodium chloride,
carbohydrates and dinitro-toluene--

                          I.      II.    III.

  Blasting gelatine      30·75   30·75    32·5
  Ammonium nitrate       --      22      22
  Sodium nitrate         18      --       --
  Dinitro-toluene         5·25    5·25    5·25
  Dextrin                39      21      --
  Pea flour              --      --      20
  Sodium chloride         7      21      20·25

When tested in a gallery with an explosive gas mixture I. proved to
be safer than the other two.

=GIANT COAL-MINE POWDERS= are American coal-mine explosives on
the Permissible List. No. 5 is an ammonium nitrate explosive, whereas
Nos. 6, 7 and 8 are low-grade dynamites mixed with hydrated salts.

=GIANT POWDER= is a name given in America to dynamite. No.
1 is a kieselguhr dynamite containing about 75 per cent. of
nitroglycerine. Many varieties, however, do not contain kieselguhr,
but consist of nitroglycerine mixed with wood pulp, sodium or
potassium nitrate, resin, sulphur or other combustible matter. The
nitroglycerine is sometimes gelatinised with collodion cotton, or in
the “Extra” varieties is partially replaced by ammonium nitrate.

=GLONOINE= was an early name for nitroglycerine.

=GLUECKAUF.=--A German explosive of the Grisounite type
consisting of ammonium nitrate and vegetable meal, to which might
be added any of the following: sugar, resin, fatty oil, potassium
nitrate, sodium nitrate, dinitro-benzene, ammonium oxalate, copper
oxalate, copper nitrate ammonia, or sodium chloride. It was used for
a time by several potash mines; was given up again by most of them.

=GOOD LUCK= was an explosive made by the Sprengstoffwerke
Glueckauf A.-G., and was on the old British Permitted List for
coal-mine explosives. It had the composition--

  Ammonium nitrate    82·5
  Dinitro-benzene      1
  Turmeric            10·5
  Copper oxalate       6

=GRANATFUELLUNG= (_i. e._ Shell-filling) is a name given by
the Germans to certain high explosives used for filling shell.
Granatfuellung C/88 is picric acid, and C/02 is trinitro-toluene.
See Fuellpulver. Other substances used in German shell and bombs
are trinitro-anisole, dinitro-benzene, hexanitro-diphenylamine and
hexanitro-diphenyl sulphide, otherwise picryl sulphide.

=GRISOUNITE.=--A French coal-mine explosive. See =FAVIER=
Explosives.

=GRISOUTINE= or =GRISOU-DYNAMINE= is the only explosive
except Grisounite allowed in the more dangerous French coal mines.
It consists of ammonium nitrate mixed with blasting gelatine.
As the State monopoly does not extend to explosives containing
nitroglycerine, it is made by private firms, but the compositions are
regulated by the “Commission des Substances Explosives,” which in
1911 resolved that they should be uniformly as follows--

                              Couche au             Roche au
                    Couche.    Salpêtre.   Roche.   Salpêtre.

  Nitroglycerine       12        12         29        29
  Collodion cotton      0·5       0·5        1         1
  Ammonium nitrate     87·5      82·5       70        65
  Potassium nitrate    --         5         --         5

The calculated temperatures of explosion of the Grisoutines couches
are below 1500°, and those of the Grisoutines roches below 1900°. The
addition of 5 per cent. of potassium nitrate is found to increase the
safety.

There are a number of explosives of this type made in other
countries also, but they usually contain small proportions of
combustible substances such as wood meal, and nitro-bodies such as
trinitro-toluene. Of British explosives of this type, mention may be
made of Monobel, Super-Excellite and Monarkite. German explosives
of this sort include Salit, Tremonit, Donarit, Ammon-Karbonit and
Astralit.

On the Belgian list of Explosifs S.G.P. is Grisoutine II., which is
identical in composition with Dynamite anti-grisouteuse V.

=GRISOUTITE.=--A Belgian coal-mine explosive--

  Nitroglycerine      44
  Magnesium sulphate  44
  Cellulose           12

  Charge limite      300 g.

=GUARDIAN.=--American coal-mine explosives. Nos. 2, 2X, 3 and 3X
are ammonium nitrate explosives, whereas Guardian A and Guardian Coal
Powder B are nitroglycerine explosives.

=GUNCOTTON.=--A highly nitrated cotton containing about 13 per
cent. of nitrogen and only slightly soluble in ether-alcohol.

=GUNPOWDER.= See =BLACK POWDER=.


=*HALAKITE= attracted public attention out of all proportion
to its merits, of which it possessed none, in consequence of the
extravagant claims made on its behalf by its “inventors” and their
dupes. Early in 1917 the British Government caused an inquiry to be
held, and the case for the explosive collapsed in a ludicrous manner.
According to patent specification, No. 685 of 1915, the basis of
the explosive was an admixture of lead nitrate with glycerine and
other substances, and under the working conditions the glycerine was
said to react with the nitrate to form a nitro-compound, which, of
course, is not true. The substance actually submitted to the British
and French authorities consisted of cordite mixed with lead nitrate,
barium nitrate and lead chromate. This was stated by the promoters
to be equally effective as a high explosive and a propellant! See
“Interim and Final Reports of the Army Council (Halakite) Inquiry,”
Cd. 8446.

=HALALIT.=--A German blasting explosive made by Nahnsen,
containing not more than 65 per cent. of potassium perchlorate,
ammonium nitrate, and not more than 32 per cent. of nitrated toluene,
of which not more than 20 per cent. must be trinitro-toluene. It may
also contain collodion cotton to gelatinise the liquid nitro-toluene,
and sodium nitrate and wood meal or other vegetable meal.

Ammon-Halalit A, which has been introduced recently, is similar to
Astralit V.

=HALOKLASTIT.= See =PETROKLASTIT=.

=HAMMONIT.=--A German blasting explosive containing not more
than 40 per cent. of potassium or sodium perchlorate, not more than 4
per cent. of nitroglycerine, aromatic nitro-bodies, ammonium nitrate,
sodium or potassium nitrate, neutral salts and vegetable meal or
other combustible matter.

=HASSIA-CHLORAT= is an explosive that was introduced in Germany
during the War. It consists of 65 per cent. potassium chlorate and 35
per cent. combustible, and it is claimed that the large proportion of
the latter not only makes it a mild explosive, but also renders it
comparatively insensitive. It is also called Spreng-chlorat.

=HAYLITE.=--A coal-mine explosive made by the National
Explosives Co. There were three varieties on the Permitted List: No. 1
was also on the old Permitted List, but has now been repealed.

                           No. 1.   No. 2.   No. 3.
  _Date of Permit_         1-9-13  21-11-16  30-5-18

  Nitroglycerine             26      15·5      9·5
  Collodion cotton            1       0·3     --
  Ammonium nitrate           --      --       60·5
  Potassium nitrate          20      --       --
  Sodium nitrate             --      59·5     --
  Barium nitrate             20      --       --
  Trinitro-toluene           --       5       --
  Mineral jelly               7      --       --
  Wood meal                  15       7·7      5·5
  Sodium chloride            --      --       19·5
  Ammonium oxalate           11      --        5
  Borax                      --      12       --

  Limit charge               10      18       16 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic
      pendulum)              2·18    1·96     2·44”

=H.E.= stands for High Explosive, used for charging shell or
other military purpose.

=*HEBLER POWDER= was a so-called smokeless powder which was
manufactured at one time in Switzerland. According to an analysis
published by Cundill and Thomson, it was ordinary gunpowder in which
about a fifth of the saltpetre had been replaced by ammonium nitrate.
It did not appear to have a greater tendency to absorb moisture than
ordinary powder. It was also called Wellite. See also Ammonpulver.

=HECLA NO. 2= is an American coal-mine explosive on the
Permissible List. It is an ammonium nitrate explosive made by the Du
Pont Co.

=HECLA POWDER= is a brand of American dynamite.

=HELAGON= is a German perchlorate explosive made by the
Köln-Rottweil Pulverfabriken. It contains not more than 10 per cent.
of potassium perchlorate, not more than 5 per cent. of zinc-aluminium
alloy, aromatic nitro-bodies and neutral nitrates, excepting those of
potassium and barium. It may also contain flour or potato meal and
neutral substances.

=HELIT= is a similar explosive to Helagon, except that it
contains dinitro-chlorhydrin, not more than 6 per cent., in the place
of the zinc-aluminium alloy.

=HELLHOFITE=}
=HELLITE=} are different names for what is practically the same
explosive of the Sprengel type. It consists of a mixture of strong
nitric acid and various nitro-compounds, _e.g._--

  Dinitro-benzene    1       Nitro-benzene     1
  Nitric acid        1·5     Nitric acid       2·5

A form of this explosive was tried by Gruson as a charge
for shell many years ago. See also Panclastite.

=*HENRITE= is a smokeless shot-gun powder of the fibrous 33-grain
bulk type. A sample examined in 1902 had the composition--

  Nitrocellulose, insoluble    71·0
        ”         soluble       7·1
  Metallic nitrates             7·5
  Nitro-compounds               7·6
  Paraffin                      5·5
  Moisture                      1·3

=HERCULES POWDER.=--The name of a brand of American dynamite.

=HERCULITE.=--This name has been given to several explosives.
One was a mixture of sawdust, camphor, potassium nitrate and other
substances, which was used for blasting. There was a coal-mine
explosive of this name on the Permitted List, made by the British
Explosives Syndicate, Ltd.--

  _Date of Permit_       22-6-14

  Nitroglycerine           33
  Collodion cotton          1
  Potassium perchlorate    27
  Wood meal                10
  Ammonium oxalate         29

  Limit charge             16 oz.
  Power (swing of
     ballistic pendulum)    2·72”

but the permit has been repealed.

=HIMALAYITE.=--A high explosive made from potassium chlorate,
potato starch and a drying oil. The chlorate and starch are first
heated together with water, and when dry the oil is mixed in. The
explosive is said to have been adopted by the Portuguese for filling
shell. It passed the chemical tests in England, but no licence was
taken out for its manufacture.

=HUDSON’S EXPLOSIVE.=--A stiff blasting gelatine made by
incorporating nitroglycerine and collodion cotton together with the
aid of acetone. It was tried in America in 1889 for filling shell,
but is not used now for this purpose.

=HYGRADE COAL POWDER NO. 2= is an American coal-mine explosive
on the Permissible List. It is a nitroglycerine explosive.

=*IDEAL POWDER= is a shot-gun powder made by Nobels.

=IMPERIALITE= is of no practical importance, but is interesting, as
its history is that of the explosive one meets in the comic papers.
The Marquis R. Imperiali had large private means and some knowledge
of chemistry. He took out patents for a number of explosive mixtures
and built a small factory in N. Italy, which started work in 1911.
An explosion occurred the first day and killed five of the fifteen
workers. Imperiali escaped and re-erected his factory. The day after
it was restarted it blew up again and Imperiali was killed. The
composition of the explosive that was being made is not known, but
several of the mixtures for which Imperiali had taken out patents were
decidedly dangerous.

=*INDURITE= was a smokeless powder patented by C. E. Munroe in
1893. It was made by incorporating guncotton with nitro-benzene to
a hard mass. It was used for a time in the American Navy. Samples
made in 1891 were still stable apparently in 1914, but some cases of
instability occurred and it was given up.

=INGÉLITE= is the same in composition as =ANTIGEL DE
SÛRETÉ=.

*Poudre =J.=--A French smokeless powder used for
shot-guns and revolvers. Its composition is--

  Nitrocotton                 83
  Ammonium bichromate         14
  Potassium bichromate         3
  Moisture               about 3

It is incorporated with the aid of ether-alcohol and pressed into
strips, which are cut into cubes and then converted into grains of
irregular shape. The fine siftings are used for revolver and practice
ammunition.


=JUDSON POWDER.=--A mild blasting explosive used in America. It
is a sort of crude gunpowder coated with nitroglycerine to increase
the violence of the explosion. The percentage of nitroglycerine may
vary from 5 to 20, but is generally near the lower limit. Judson
Powder R.R.P. has the composition--

  Nitroglycerine    5      Nitroglycerine           5
  Sodium nitrate   64  or  Sulphur, coal and resin 35
  Sulphur          16      Sodium nitrate          60
  Cannel coal      15

The sodium nitrate is mixed with the combustibles and the mixture is
heated beyond the melting-point of the sulphur and resin. The
slightly porous mass thus formed is then coated with nitroglycerine.
The explosive is fired with a priming cartridge of dynamite. The
following four grades are made by the Du Pont Co.--

  FFF    20 % nitroglycerine
  FF     15        ”
  F      10        ”
  RRP     5        ”

=KANITE A= is an American coal-mine explosive on the Permissible
List. It is an ammonium nitrate explosive.

=KARBONIT.= See =CARBONITE=.

=KAUSOLIT.=--An ammonium perchlorate explosive, introduced about
1915 by the Stockholm Superphosphaten-fabriks A.-b.

=KENT POWDER= was a coal-mine explosive made by the Cotton
Powder Co. It was of the Carbonite type and was on the Permitted
List. It is now no longer “permitted.”

    _Date of Permit_       10-2-14

  Nitroglycerine             24
  Potassium nitrate          32·5
  Wood meal                  33·5
  Ammonium oxalate           10

  Limit charge          over 32 oz.

  Power (swing
    of ballistic pendulum)    2·01”

=KENTITE= is a coal-mine explosive made by British Westfalite,
Ltd. It was on the old Permitted List and also passed the Rotherham
Test, and so is still “permitted”--

  Ammonium nitrate         34
  Potassium nitrate        34
  Trinitro-toluene         17
  Ammonium chloride        15

  Limit charge             18 oz.
  Power (swing of
    ballistic pendulum)     2·64”

=KIESELBACHER CHLORATSPRENGSTOFF.= See =MIEDZIANKIT=.

=KINETIT.=--A German explosive made by gelatinising
nitro-cellulose with nitro-benzene, and incorporating it with
potassium nitrate and chlorate. It is somewhat sensitive to blows,
etc. Early samples contained also antimony sulphide which rendered
them decidedly dangerous.

=KIWIT.=--A German chlorate explosive introduced during
the War. It contains not more than 77 per cent. of sodium or
potassium chlorate, carbon carriers such as paraffin, naphthalene,
vaseline, meal or oil, also not more than 15 per cent. of
liquid trinitro-toluene, and may contain dinitro-toluene,
dinitro-naphthalene, sodium chloride and not more than 4 per cent. of
guncotton.

=KOHLENKARBONIT.= See =CARBONITE=.

=KOLAX.=--A coal-mine explosive of the Carbonite type formerly
on the Permitted List, made by Curtis’s and Harvey--

  Nitroglycerine       25
  Potassium nitrate    26
  Barium nitrate        5
  Wood meal            34
  Starch               10

=SUPER-KOLAX= was a modification of this to meet the
requirements of the Rotherham Test--

                                                  No. 2.
  _Date of Permit_                   1-9-13       7-4-14
  Nitroglycerine                      25·5          28·5
  Collodion cotton                    --             1
  Potassium nitrate                   25·5         16·5
  Barium nitrate                       5            5
  Wood meal                           29·5         30·5
  Starch                               7·5          9
  Ammonium oxalate                     7            9·5

  Limit charge                        30      over 32 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)  2·10         2·21”

The permits of both have been repealed.

=KORONIT=, also known as =FAVORIT=, is a German chlorate
blasting explosive introduced during the War. See also Coronite.

Gesteins-Koronit (or -Favorit) contains not more than 85 per cent.
of potassium or sodium chlorate, not more than 15 per cent. of
nitro-bodies (but no trinitro-compounds), paraffin or fatty oils,
naphthalene, vegetable meal, powdered coal, inert substances, and not
more than 4 per cent. of blasting gelatine.

Kohlen-Koronit (or -Favorit) contains not more than 68 per cent.
of potassium or sodium chlorate, aromatic hydrocarbons and
nitro-hydrocarbons (but not more than 12 per cent. of aromatic
nitro-bodies and no trinitro-compounds), sodium chloride or similar
salts, paraffin or fatty oils, vegetable meal or other organic
substance; not more than 4 per cent. of blasting gelatine and not
more than 4 per cent. of powdered coal.

=PERKORONIT= is similar to Koronit except that it contains
potassium or sodium perchlorate instead of chlorate. Part of the
perchlorate may be replaced by nitrate.

=*K.S.=, =K.S.G.=--Kynoch’s Smokeless Powder. It is a
fibrous bulk powder for shot-guns made by Kynochs, Ltd. The following
analyses were given in “Arms and Explosives,” 1917, p. 78---

                                 Kynoch’s
                                 Smokeless.  K.S.    K.S.G.

  _Date of Introduction_          1901       1913     1912
  _Class_                        42-grain  42-grain  33-grain

  Nitrocellulose, insoluble       49·5      40·4      41·5
          ”       soluble          5·5      27·0      36·5
  Metallic nitrates               25·0      28·0      12·0
  Nitro-compound                  19·0      --         5·0
  Vaseline                        --         3·0       3·0
  Moisture                         1·0       1·6       2·0

=KYNARKITE= is a coal-mine explosive of the Carbonite type made
by Kynoch, Ltd. It is no longer on the Permitted List--

                                      No. 2.
  _Date of Permit_                     1-9-13    15-1-15
  Nitroglycerine                         25         26
  Potassium nitrate                      28         29·5
  Barium nitrate                          3         --
  Dinitro-toluene                        --          2·5
  Wood meal                              39         34
  Ammonium oxalate                        5          8

  Limit charge                           20         28 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)     2·21       2·06”

=KYNITE= was a coal-mine explosive on the old Permitted List,
but has been superseded by Kynarkite--

                                 Kynite
                    Kynite.    Condensed.

  Nitroglycerine      26          25
  Barium nitrate      33          33·5
  Wood meal           40·7         6·5
  Starch              --          34·7
  Calcium carbonate    0·3         0·3

=*LAFFLIN AND RAND W.A.= was a tubular smokeless powder tried in
America for small arms. It consisted of--

  Guncotton        67·25
  Nitroglycerine   30
  Metallic salts    2·75

gelatinised by means of 40 parts of acetone. A gelatinised dense
shot-gun powder of similar composition was also made.

=L.C. PULVER= is a German Cheddite.

Gesteins-=LEONIT= is a German perchlorate explosive for blasting
rock--

  Alkali perchlorate    about 60%
  Ammonium nitrate            10
  Nitro-compounds             15
  Meal                        10
  Blasting gelatine            4

It is practically the same as Permonit A.

Neu-=LEONIT= is a modification of this for use in coal

                           I.   II.
  Potassium perchlorate    35   35
  Ammonium nitrate         20   10
  Sodium nitrate           --    3
  Trinitro-toluene          5}  11
  Dinitro-toluene           5}
  Wood meal                 3   2
  Vegetable meal            4    5
  Blasting gelatine         4    4
  Sodium chloride          24   30

It is practically the same as Wetter-Persalit.

=LIGDYN= is a nitroglycerine explosive similar to American
dynamite made in South Africa. 40 per cent. Ligdyn consists
of--

  Nitroglycerine    40
  Sodium nitrate    45
  Wood meal         13
  Wheat flour        2

=*LIGHTNING.=--A 33-grain smokeless shot-gun powder made by the
Schultze Gunpowder Co. See Schultze Powder.

=LIGNOSIT= is a German blasting explosive containing a
considerable percentage of ammonium nitrate. Lignosit I. contains
also aromatic nitro-compounds, of which not more than 15 per cent.
must be trinitro-compounds or wood meal, and not more than 6 per
cent. of potassium nitrate, not more than I per cent. of collodion
cotton and bauxite or salts, such as sodium chloride or carbonate.

Lignosit II. may contain up to 10 per cent. of collodion cotton, but
no wood meal or nitro-compounds. It is somewhat sensitive.

Lignosit III. differs from I. in that it may contain up to 4 per
cent. of blasting gelatine and contains no bauxite.

The object of adding the neutral salts is evidently to make the
explosive safer in coal mines. When intended for this purpose it is
called Wetter-Lignosit I. or III.

Lignosit IV. consists of ammonium nitrate, not more than 13 per cent.
of trinitro-toluene, not more than 13 per cent. of aluminium powder,
and wood meal.

=LITHOFRACTEUR= is a name that has been given to more than one
explosive. One introduced about 1873 by Krebs and Co. of Deutz, near
Cologne, consisted of nitroglycerine absorbed in kieselguhr mixed
with nitrates, charcoal or coal and sulphur. Some of it was imported
into England at one time.

=LOEWENPULVER= or Castroper Sprengpulver is a German blasting
powder consisting of a compressed or granulated mixture of sodium
nitrate, manganese dioxide, sulphur and carbonaceous substances such
as briquette powder or coal. It may also contain potassium nitrate,
wood meal or tar.

=LOMITE NO. 1= is an American coal-mine explosive on the
Permissible List. It is a low-grade dynamite containing hydrated
salts.

=LOWINITE NO. 2-B= is an American coal-mine explosive on the
Permissible List. It is an ammonium nitrate explosive.

=LUXIT I.= is a German blasting explosive consisting of ammonium
nitrate, not more than 17 per cent. of trinitro-toluene, and not
more than 5 per cent. of wood meal.

=LYDDITE.=--A high explosive used in the British Services for
filling shell. It consists simply of picric acid, which is melted
under proper precautions and poured into the shell.

*Poudre =M= is a shot-gun powder made by the French Government,
and is the one that is most used in France. Its composition is--

  Nitrocotton       71
  Barium nitrate    20
  Potassium nitrate  5
  Camphor.           3
  Binding material   1

The nitrocotton has a solubility of only 15 or 20 per cent., and is
partially gelatinised with ether-alcohol aided by the camphor. It is
granulated under edge runners, granulated and drummed.


=MACARIT.=--A Belgian high explosive for filling shell--

  Trinitro-toluene    30
  Lead nitrate        70

It has a high density and is not deliquescent. For equal weights its
power is less than that of trinitro-toluene or picric acid, but for
equal volumes it is somewhat greater.

=MARKANIT.= See =SILESIA=.

=MARSIT.=--A sort of Oxyliquit. Liquid oxygen is passed into a
linen bag containing soot.

=M.B. POWDER= (Modernised Black) is a black powder mixture in
which part of the potassium nitrate has been replaced by potassium
or ammonium perchlorate, generally the potassium salt. It is
manufactured at Bonnybridge, Stirling, at the works originally
erected for making Mitchellite. During manufacture the composition is
heated in steam boilers. (See “Arms and Explosives,” 1911, p. 7.)

=M.D.= See =CORDITE=.

=MEGANIT= is a Hungarian nitroglycerine explosive similar to
American dynamite, except that it contains a small percentage of
nitrated vegetable ivory.

=MELANITE.=--A Belgian blasting explosive consisting of--

  Nitroglycerine    78
  Collodion cotton   4
  Sodium nitrate    18

It contains, therefore, a considerable excess of oxygen.

=MÉLINITE= is a high explosive used by the French for filling
shell and other military purposes. It consists essentially of picric
acid, to which other substances are sometimes added. Paraffin wax has
been added to diminish the sensitiveness. Mélinite D is simply picric
acid, but Mélinite O contains also a little Crésilite 2 (q. v.).

=MELLING POWDER= was a coal-mine explosive on the Permitted
List, made by the Cotton Powder Co. The permit has been repealed.

  _Date of Permit_         1-9-13

  Nitroglycerine             5
  Ammonium nitrate          53·5
  Sodium nitrate            12
  Trinitro-toluene           6
  Wood meal                  4·5
  Ammonium oxalate           19

  Limit charge               12 oz.
  Power (swing of
    ballistic pendulum)       2·62”

=MERCURIT= is a blasting explosive that has been introduced
recently in Germany. It consists of 88 per cent. of potassium
chlorate and 12 per cent. of high boiling neutral tar oil. In
Mercurit II. up to 20 per cent. of the chlorate may be replaced by
perchlorate.

=MERSEY POWDER= was a coal-mine explosive on the Permitted List,
made by the Cotton Powder Co. The permit has been repealed.

  _Date of Permit_        3-7-15

  Nitroglycerine            5·5
  Ammonium nitrate         51
  Sodium nitrate           11
  Trinitro-toluene          6
  Wood meal                 3·5
  Ammonium chloride        23

  Limit charge             18 oz.
  Power (swing of
    ballistic pendulum)     2·60”

=METEOR AXXO= is an American coal-mine explosive on the
Permissible List. It is a low-grade dynamite containing a hydrated
salt.

=MIEDZIANKIT= (also called Egelit or Kieselbacher Chloratsprengstoff)
is a German chlorate explosive of the Sprengel class. It consists
of porous potassium chlorate impregnated with not more than 10 per
cent. of kerosene, having a flash point not below 30° C. It has met
with some unfavourable reports, as it is found that results are not
uniform unless the impregnation be carried out in special factories,
the original idea having been that it was to be done shortly before
use.

During the War a modification of the explosive was introduced for use
in coal mines. This contains up to 30 per cent. of sodium chloride.

=MINERITE.=--A coal-mine explosive made by the Forcite
Co. of Baelen Wezel in Belgium, identical in composition with
Kohlen-carbonite and Colinite antigrisouteuse.

=MINER’S FRIEND, NOS. 1 to 6.= American coal-mine explosives on
the Permissible List. They are ammonium nitrate explosives.

=MINITE.=--A coal-mine explosive of the Grisounite type which
was on the old Permitted List--

  Ammonium nitrate    89
  Trinitro-toluene    10
  Ammonium oxalate     1

There was also an explosive of the Carbonite type of this name made
at Arendonck in Belgium--

  Nitroglycerine      25
  Potassium nitrate   35
  Flour               39·5
  Soda                 0·5

  Charge limite      750 g.

=MIN-ITE.=--American coal-mine explosive on the Permissible
List. Brands A, A-2, B, and B-2 are nitroglycerine explosives,
whereas Nos. 5-D and 6-D are ammonium nitrate mixtures.

=MINOLITE.=--A Belgian blasting explosive, which is also
approved for transport over the German railways. It contains ammonium
nitrate, dinitro- or trinitro-naphthalene with other substances added
in some cases. A variety for use in coal mines is called Minolite
antigrisouteuse.

                          Minolite          Minolite
                       antigrisouteuse.     nouvelle.

  Ammonium nitrate           72               87
  Sodium nitrate             23                3
  Trinitro-toluene            3               --
  Trinitro-naphthalene        2                5
  Dinitro-naphthalene        --                3
  Quebracho                  --                2

  Charge limite             400 g.

There was also a variety containing lead nitrate, but this could not
be used in mines because of the poisonous smoke it evolved.

=*MISCHPULVER= is a name given in German to ungelatinised
smokeless nitro-cellulose powders.

=MITCHELLITE= was an explosive that was formerly licensed for
manufacture in Great Britain, and was made at Bonnybridge, Stirling,
but the factory and the licence were transferred to the M.B. Powder
Co. in 1910. It was apparently a chlorate or perchlorate explosive.
It is said to be manufactured at Monticello, Indiana, U.S.A.

=*MODDITE.=--A sporting rifle powder made by Eley Bros. Analysis
of a sample showed--

  Nitroglycerine    38·7
  Nitrocellulose    56·8
  Mineral jelly      4·3
  Volatile matter    0·2

Of the nitrocellulose about one-third was soluble in ether-alcohol.
It was made in the form of strip.

=MONACHIT= is a German blasting explosive which was known at one
time as Vigorit. It is distinguished by containing nitro-compounds
derived from naphtha, mostly nitro-xylenes and nitro-mesitylenes.

Monachit I. contains ammonium nitrate, not more than 15 per cent.
of nitro-compounds, of which not more than 60 per cent. must be
trinitro-bodies, also vegetable meal and potassium nitrate.

Monachit II. contains in addition not more than 1 per cent. of
collodion cotton, not more than 1 per cent. of charcoal, also
hydrocarbons and ammonium oxalate or other salts to act as cooling
agents, and render the explosive suitable for use in coal mines,
_e. g._--

  Ammonium nitrate       81   64
  Potassium nitrate       5    3
  Nitro-compounds        13   14
  Collodion cotton       --    1
  Flour                   1   --
  Charcoal               --    1
  Potassium chloride     --   17

The collodion cotton is to gelatinise the nitro-compounds when they
are liquid.

=MONARKITE= is a coal-mine explosive made by Kynoch, Ltd., and
is on the Permitted List--

  _Date of Permit_         10-2-14
  _Revised_                20-9-19

  Ammonium nitrate           49[1]
  Sodium nitrate              9
  Nitroglycerine             11·5
  Collodion cotton            0·3
  Starch                      3·5
  Mineral jelly               2
  Sodium chloride            24·7

  Limit charge               18 oz.
  Power (swing of
    ballistic pendulum)       2·30”

[1] Including not more than 2 per cent. of magnesium carbonate.

=MONOBEL= is a coal-mine explosive made by Nobel’s Explosives
Co. There are three formulæ which have passed the Rotherham Test, but
A1 is no longer on the Permitted List--

                                      Monobel     A1      A2
                                       No. 1.  Monobel. Monobel.
  _Date of Permit_                    10-2-14  13-5-14  15-1-15

  Ammonium nitrate                      68        60       59
  Nitroglycerine                         8·5      10       10
  Wood meal                              8·5      10       10
  Sodium chloride                       15        --       --
  Potassium chloride                    --        20       20
  Magnesium carbonate                   --        --        1

  Limit charge                          10        28       22 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)    2·81      2·78     2·44”

There is also Quarry Monobel which is not permitted for use in
dangerous coal mines, and presumably contains no alkali chloride.

See also Viking Powder and Victor Powder.

=MONOBEL, NOS. 1= to =7= are on the American Permissible
List. Of these, Nos. 4 and 5 are low-freezing explosives, containing
a small percentage of nitro-toluene or similar substance; Nos. 3 and
5 are less violent than the others.

=MONOBEL POWDER= was the predecessor of the above and was on the
old Permitted List. It is now no longer “permitted.”

  Ammonium nitrate   80
  Nitroglycerine     10
  Wood meal          10

=*MULLERITE.=--A shot-gun powder made by the Muller Co. in
Belgium. It is a gelatinised dense powder in the form of green
leaflets, and the charge for a 12-bore cartridge was 33 grains. It
contains no inorganic salts.


=EXPLOSIFS N.= See Favier Explosives.

=NAPHTHALIT.=--A German chlorate explosive introduced during the
War. It contains not more than 80 per cent. of potassium chlorate,
and aromatic hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, and not more than
12 per cent. of nitro-hydrocarbons, but no trinitro-compounds; also
paraffins, fatty oils, flour or other organic substance. It may
contain also alkali chlorides, and not more than 4 per cent. of
blasting gelatine.

The prefixes Gesteins- and Wetter- are applied according as the
explosive is intended for rock or coal mines.

Grisou-=NAPHTALITE=. See =FAVIER= Explosives.

=NATIONALITE.=--A coal-mine explosive of the Grisounite class
made by the National Explosives Co., Ltd. The composition, which was
on the old Permitted List, was--

  Ammonium nitrate           92
  Di- and Trinitro-toluene    8

But to pass the Rotherham Test it was necessary to add alkali
chlorides. There were two formulæ formerly on the Permitted List--

                               No. 1.   No. 2.
  _Date of Permit_            22-6-14  28-1-15
  Ammonium nitrate              65·5      64
  Trinitro-toluene              15        15
  Sodium chloride               19·5      --
  Potassium chloride            --        21

  Limit charge                  12        20 oz.
  Power (swing of
    ballistic pendulum)          2·92      2·63”

The permits have been repealed.

=*N.C.T.= is the name given in the British service to the
Nitro-Cellulose Tubular smokeless powder, made in the same way as the
American service powder. It consists of nitro-cellulose completely
soluble in ether-alcohol, but of comparatively high nitration. It is
gelatinised with ether-alcohol and pressed into cords with either
one or seven perforations running down them length-ways. These are
cut into short cylinders and dried. The powder contains a little
diphenylamine as a stabiliser.

=N.E.= See New Explosives Company’s Smokeless Powder.

=NEGRO POWDER.=--A coal-mine explosive of the Grisounite class
made by Roburite and Ammonal, Ltd. The composition, which was on the
old Permitted List, was--

  Ammonium nitrate   88
  Trinitro-toluene   10
  Graphite            2
    and a small quantity of colouring matter.

To enable it to pass the Rotherham Test, sodium chloride has been
added, and Negro Powder No. 2 is now on the Permitted List--

  _Date of Permit_                  25-11-13
  Ammonium nitrate                     57
  Trinitro-toluene                     15
  Graphite                              0·7
  Sodium chloride                      27·3
  Colouring matter           small quantity
  Limit charge                         20 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)   2·21”

=NEONAL.=--A coal-mine explosive made by the New Explosives
Company. Two formulæ were at one time on the Permitted List--

                                               No. 1.
  _Date of Permit_                   1-9-13  22-6-14

  Nitroglycerine                       21       40
  Collodion cotton                      1        2
  Di- and Trinitro-toluene              0·2     --
  Wood meal                            15·8      5
  Potassium perchlorate                37       14
  Ammonium oxalate                     25       39
  Limit charge                         16       30 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)   2·56     2·51”

Both have now been repealed.

=*NEONITE.=--A 30-grain bulk gelatinised smokeless shot-gun
powder introduced by the New Explosives Co. in 1907. According to an
analysis given in “Arms and Explosives,” 1917, p. 76, its composition
is--

  Nitrocellulose, insoluble    73·0
           ”  soluble           9·0
  Metallic nitrates            10·5
  Vaseline                      5·9
  Moisture                      1·6

Neonites are also made for various types of rifled small arms,
including military rifles, cadet rifles, revolvers and rim-fire
rifles. These are all nitrocellulose powders with or without
moderants.

=*NEW EXPLOSIVES COMPANY’S SMOKELESS POWDER= or =N.E.=--A
36-grain fibrous bulk powder for shot-guns introduced in 1912.
According to an analysis given in “Arms and Explosives,” 1917, p. 76,
its composition is--

  Nitrocellulose, insoluble    50·0
           ”      soluble      25·8
  Metallic nitrates            12·0
  Nitro-hydrocarbons            7·0
  Vaseline                      3·5
  Moisture                      1·7

=NEW FORTEX.= See =FORTEX=.

=NITRALITE.= See =DENSITE=.

=NITRO-DENSITE.=--A coal-mine explosive made by Kynoch, Ltd. It
was of the Carbonite type, and was at one time on the Permitted List--

  _Date of Permit_                   1-9-13
  Nitroglycerine                       18
  Barium nitrate                       25
  Wood meal                             5·5
  Starch                               28·5
  French chalk                         23

  Limit charge                         28 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)   1·47”

=*NITROKOL.=--A gelatinised nitrocellulose powder intended for
use in rifles. It consists of a nitrocellulose, mostly soluble in
ether-alcohol, and gelatinised with that solvent. It is made up in
the form of small square flakes which are graphited.

=NITROLIT.=--A high explosive used by the Germans for filling
shell. It is a mixture of ammonium nitrate and trinitro-anisol.

The name was formerly given by C. Lamm of Stockholm to a blasting
explosive containing blasting gelatine, ammonium nitrate and other
substances.

=NITRO LOW-FLAME, NOS. 1= and =2= are American coal-mine
explosives on the Permissible List. They are nitroglycerine mixtures.

=NOBEL AMMONIA POWDER.=--A coal-mine explosive which was on the
old Permitted List--

  Ammonium nitrate      84
  Nitroglycerine         8
  Wood meal              8

=NOBEL GELATINE DYNAMITE.=}

=NOBEL GELIGNITE.=} Under these names explosives were
introduced during the War with modified compositions, the potassium
nitrate being replaced by sodium nitrate, and the percentage of
nitroglycerine being reduced.

=NOBELIT= is a German blasting explosive containing blasting
gelatine, carbonaceous substances, inorganic nitrates and sodium or
potassium chloride.

=AMMON-NOBELIT= contains ammonium nitrate, and the proportion of
blasting gelatine is limited to 4 per cent. It may contain sodium or
potassium oxalate, and various other substances that are not present
in Nobelit.

=*NORMAL POWDER.=--A smokeless powder which was said to have
been adopted by the Governments of Switzerland, Sweden, Norway,
Denmark and Finland. The following analyses were given in “Arms and
Explosives,” 1917, p. 91--

                                            Rifle.   Shot-gun Powders.
  _Date of Sample_                          1895      1913    1902
  Nitrocellulose, insoluble                  93·0       8·8    40·8
          ”       soluble                     3·5      89·4    56·1
  Resin                                       2·0       --      --
  Moisture                                    1·5       1·8     2·0

=NORMANITE.=--A coal-mine explosive which was made by the Cotton
Powder Co., and was on the old Permitted List--

  Nitroglycerine       33·5
  Collodion cotton      1·5
  Potassium nitrate    44·5
  Wood meal             8
  Charcoal              1·5
  Ammonium oxalate     11

Explosifs =O= are the chlorate explosives made in the French
State factories. O1, O2, O4 and O5 are Cheddites (q. v.). O3 is a
Sprengel explosive, and is dealt with under the heading of Prométhée.


=OAKLEY QUARRY POWDER= is a blasting explosive consisting of
ammonium nitrate and tetryl.

=OAKLITE.=--A coal-mine explosive made by the Explosives and
Chemical Products, Ltd., which was on the old Permitted List--

                                 No. 1.   No. 2.
  Nitroglycerine                  25·5     10
  Collodion cotton                 1        0·5
  Potassium nitrate               34·5     --
  Ammonium nitrate                --       79·3
  Wood meal                       38·7     10
  Magnesium carbonate              0·3      0·2

=ODITE.=--A coal-mine explosive which was made by the New
Explosives Co., and was on the old Permitted List--

  Ammonium nitrate        88
  Dinitro-benzene         12

=OPHORITE.=--A mild but hot explosive consisting of--

  Potassium perchlorate   60
  Magnesium powder        40

It is used as a bursting charge for incendiary shell, smoke bombs,
etc.

=ORKANIT= is the same as Alkalsit, but may contain sodium
chloride and similar salts.

=OXYLIQUIT= is a blasting explosive consisting of liquid oxygen
absorbed in some porous combustile material, such as absorbent cork,
soot or kieselguhr mixed with petroleum. It was discovered in 1895
by Prof. F. C. Linde, and was tried on a large scale in 1899 in the
construction of the Simplon tunnel. It is very cheap, and is safe in
the case of a missfire, because in about half-an-hour the oxygen has
all evaporated off and the charge becomes inexplosive. On the other
hand, it is necessary to have the air liquefying plant near the scene
of operations, and the charge must be fired soon after charging.
These disadvantages prevented the adoption of the explosive, but
during the War fresh trials were made in Germany in consequence of
the scarcity of nitrates.

Liquid oxygen explosives are now used on a considerable scale by
the Germans for military, as well as civil blasting operations. The
name Oxyliquit, however, seems only to be applied to them when the
explosive is made in the manner and with the plant of the Linde
Company. See also Marsit.

=PANCLASTITE.=--A Sprengel explosive made by mixing liquid
nitrogen peroxide with carbon bisulphide, nitro-benzene or
nitro-toluene. It was proposed in 1881 by Turpin, and was tried by
Germany for filling shell, the two constituents being contained
in separate glass containers, which were broken by the shock of
discharge. It was not adopted there on account of the inconvenience
of dealing with a liquid which gives off poisonous fumes. It is a
powerful and violent explosive, and is probably the same as the
“Turpinite” about which sensational statements were made in the press
early in the War.

=PANNONIT.=--A blasting explosive made by the A. G. Dynamit
Nobel of Austria. It has replaced Progressit in Austria as a
coal-mine explosive. Its composition is--

  Nitroglycerine                    25·5
  Collodion cotton                   1·5
  Ammonium nitrate                  37
  Dextrin                            4
  Glycerine                          3
  Nitro-toluene                      5
  Sodium or potassium chloride      24

=PASTANIL.=--A German ammonium nitrate blasting explosive
similar to Plastammon.

=*P.C./88.=--A Swiss smokeless powder for small-arms
consisting of--

  Nitrocellulose        82
  Trinitro-toluene      18

=PERAGON.=--A German blasting explosive containing potassium
perchlorate, zinc-aluminium alloy, aromatic nitrocompounds and some
other constituents.

=PERCHLORIT= is a German blasting explosive introduced
recently. It contains ammonium nitrate, a perchlorate, mono- and
dinitro-compounds, meal, charcoal, and not more than 4 per cent. of
nitroglycerine.

=PERDIT.=--An explosive used by the Germans for mining and
demolitions and rifle grenades. It consists of--

  Ammonium nitrate          76
  Potassium perchlorate      6
  Wood meal                  2
  Dinitro-toluene           16

=PERILIT.=--A German perchlorate blasting explosive made by the
Koeln-Rottweil Pulverfabriken. It contains not more than 65 per cent.
of potassium perchlorate, aromatic nitro-compounds, not more than
6 per cent. of dinitro-chlorhydrin, flour, etc., and nitrates (but
not more than 10 per cent. of potassium nitrate).

=PERKORONIT.= See Koronit.

=PERMON POWDER.=--A coal-mine explosive which was on the
Permitted List. It was made by the Carbonite Syndicate in Germany,
and imported into Great Britain--

  _Date of Permit_                    25-11-13

  Nitroglycerine                         12
  Collodion cotton                        0·4
  Ammonium nitrate                       55
  Sodium nitrate                          1
  Glycerine                               4
  Potato flour                           10·6
  Sodium chloride                        17

  Limit charge                           18 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)     2·57”

The permit was repealed on 21-11-16.

=PERMONITE.=--A potassium perchlorate explosive made by the
Carbonite Syndicate at Schlebusch in Germany. A number of mixtures
have been placed on the market, but they do not differ from one
another very much. One which was on the old British Permitted List
was--

  Potassium perchlorate      32·2
  Ammonium nitrate           41
  Nitroglycerine              3·5
  Collodion cotton            0·3
  Trinitro-toluene           12
  Starch                      8
  Wood meal                   3

See also Gesteins Leonit.

=PERRUMPIT.=--A German coal-mine explosive containing ammonium
nitrate, sodium nitrate, vegetable meal, fatty oils, graphite
and aluminium, cooling agents such as ammonium oxalate or sodium
chloride, and not more than 15 per cent. of trinitro-toluene.

=PERSALIT= is a German perchlorate explosive made by the
Westfälisch-Anhaltische Sprengstoff A.-G. It contains not more than
77 per cent. of an alkali or alkali earth perchlorate, organic matter
such as hydrocarbons, resins, meal or nitrated hydrocarbons (with the
proviso that if the percentage of perchlorate exceed 70, there must
not be more than 10 per cent. of trinitro-toluene). There must also
be not less than 4 per cent. of ammonium nitrate, and there may be an
addition of sodium nitrate or other salt that does not increase the
sensitiveness.

=WETTER-PERSALIT= is a similar explosive, but has been modified
to make it more suitable for use in coal mines. It contains not more
than 35 per cent. of potassium perchlorate, not more than 25 per
cent. of ammonium nitrate, aromatic nitro-compounds of which not
more than 20 per cent. must be trinitro-toluene, vegetable meal, not
more than 6 per cent. of nitroglycerine, sodium nitrate, and neutral
salts. It is similar to Neu-Leonit.

=PETROKLASTIT= or =HALOKLASTIT= is a modified gunpowder
mixture used in Germany in potash mines and stone quarries. It
contains sodium nitrate, sulphur, coal-tar pitch, potassium nitrate,
not more than 1 per cent. of potassium bichromate, and may have up to
10 per cent. of charcoal, as, for instance--

  Sodium nitrate              69
  Potassium nitrate            5
  Sulphur                     10
  Coal-tar pitch              15
  Potassium bichromate         1

It is more powerful than ordinary blasting powder, and somewhat less
sensitive to blows. This explosive is also made in Switzerland.

=PETROLIT= is a German chlorate explosive introduced during the
War. It contains not more than 88 per cent. of potassium chlorate,
nitro-compounds, kerosene, and neutral salts. (This is rather a
dangerous mixture.--A.M.)

=PFALZIT.=--A German blasting explosive containing
ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, not more than 13 per cent. of
trinitro-toluene, not more than 1 per cent. of collodion cotton,
meal, sodium chloride, etc.

=PHŒNIX POWDER.=--A German coal-mine explosive made by Dr. R.
Nahnsen and Co., of Hamburg. It passed the Woolwich Test and was on
the old Permitted List.

  Nitroglycerine          29·5
  Collodion cotton         0·5
  Potassium nitrate       32
  Wood meal               38

=PICROL.=--See Shellite.

=PIERRITE.=--A form of Cheddite which was made at Gamsee, near
Brig, for excavating the Simplon tunnel--

  Potassium chlorate       80
  Nitro-naphthalene        11·5
  Picric acid               2
  Castor oil                6·5

=PIT-ITE= was a coal-mine explosive of the Carbonite type, made
by the New Explosives Co., Ltd. The composition, which was on the old
Permitted List, was--

  Nitroglycerine                                           26
  Barium nitrate                                           33
  Wood meal                                                41
    and a little sodium or calcium carbonate.

In order to pass the Rotherham Test, the composition was modified to
the following, No. 2, which was formerly on the Permitted List--

  _Date of Permit_                       1-9-13
  Nitroglycerine                           24
  Potassium nitrate                        30
  Wood meal                                38
  Ammonium oxalate                          8

  Limit charge                        over 32 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)       2·15”

=PITSEA POWDER NO. 2= was a coal-mine explosive on the Permitted
List, made by the British Explosives Syndicate, Ltd.--

  _Date of Permit_                     25-11-13
  Nitroglycerine                          6·5
  Ammonium nitrate                       55
  Potassium nitrate                      10
  Wood meal                              10
  Ammonium oxalate                       18·5

  Limit charge                            8 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)     2·64”

The permit has been repealed.

Gesteins-=PLASTAMMON=.--A German blasting explosive containing
not less than 70 per cent. of ammonium nitrate, glycerine, not more
than 15 per cent. of nitro-toluene or other nitro-compounds, and not
more than 4 per cent. of nitro-semicellulose.

Steinkohlen-=PLASTAMMON= is a variation of this, containing not
more than 25 per cent. of potassium nitrate, and intended for use in
coal mines.

=*PLASTOMENIT= was an early German shot-gun powder which
possessed no great merits. The following was the composition of a
sample examined in 1893, and given in “Arms and Explosives,” 1917, p.
90--

  Nitrocellulose, insoluble      32·7
         ”        soluble        19·3
  Metallic nitrates              21·0
  Dinitro-toluene (solvent)      26·0
  Moisture                        1·0

=PLASTROTYL.=--A German high explosive for filling shell.
It consists of a partially liquid mixture of trinitro- and
dinitro-toluene gelatinised by means of not more than 0·5 per cent.
of collodion cotton, and mixed with a small quantity of turpentine or
soft resin. It does not appear to be in use now.

=PLESSIT= is a blasting explosive that was introduced in Germany
during the War. It consists of potassium chlorate, not more than 9·5
per cent. of kerosene and 0·5 per cent. of albumen. Wetter-Plessit
III. contains sodium chloride as well.

=PNIOWIT.=--A German blasting explosive containing ammonium
nitrate, trinitro-toluene, wood meal and a small percentage of
potassium perchlorate.

Nobel =POLARITE= is a blasting explosive made by Nobel’s
Explosives Co., Ltd. It consists of potassium perchlorate, and
nitroglycerine mixed with a nitro-compound and gelatinised with
collodion cotton, and absorbed in wood meal.

Poudres =B=, =J=, =M=, =S=, =T=. See under
respective letters.

=PRAEPOSIT= is a modified gunpowder--

  Potassium (or sodium) nitrate   70
  Sulphur                         18
  Charcoal                         6
  Hipposin                         6

the last constituent being a fine powdery substance obtained from
dried horse dung. It is slower than ordinary blasting powder and more
expensive. It has a tendency to blow out, and opinions as to its
value vary. Formerly it was supplied in the form of a fine powder,
but it is now granulated or made into compressed cartridges.

=*PRIMROSE SMOKELESS= is an inexpensive 42-grain bulk powder for
shot-guns made by the New Explosives Co.

=PROGRESSIT= was an explosive formerly used in Austrian coal
mines--

  Ammonium nitrate          94    89
  Aniline hydrochloride      6     5
  Ammonium sulphate         --     6

It was superseded in 1913 by Pannonit.

=PROMÉTHÉE= or =PROMETHEUS= is a Sprengel explosive made
by the French Government, by whom it is also called Explosif O3. It
consists of a porous oxygen carrier and a liquid combustible, which
are supplied separately, and the one is dipped in the other shortly
before use--

                         _a_    _b_    _c_
  Potassium chlorate     95     90     80 }
  Manganese dioxide       5     10     20 } Oxygen carrier, 92 to 87%

                             1    2
  Nitro-benzene             50   60 }
  Turpentine                20   15 } Combustible,  8 to 13%
  Naphtha                   30   25 }

Any combination of _a_, _b_ or _c_ with 1 or 2 may be
used. The amount of liquid combustible taken up may vary from 8 to 13
per cent.: this irregularity is a serious defect, and may cause
incomplete detonation. This explosive is also made in Italy.

=PROSPERIT= is a German ammonium nitrate explosive, containing
also vegetable meal, nitro-compounds and other constituents. It may
contain up to 4 per cent. of blasting gelatine.

Gelatine-Prosperit contains also up to 20 per cent. of
dinitro-chlorhydrin gelatinised with collodion cotton.

=PULVÉRIN.=--An ungranulated black powder made in France for use
in fireworks, etc.

=PULVÉRITE.=--A Belgian coal-mine explosive containing
perchlorate--

  Ammonium nitrate           30·5
  Potassium perchlorate      24
  Nitroglycerine              6
  Collodion cotton            0·5
  Trinitro-toluene            7
  Flour                       5
  Sodium chloride            18
  Ammonium sulphate           7
  Barium sulphate             2

The “charge limite” is 850 grammes, equivalent to 504 grammes of
Dynamite No. 1.

=PYROCOLLODION= is a nitrocotton almost entirely soluble in
ether-alcohol, and of comparatively high nitration. It contains
about 12·5 to 12·7 per cent. of nitrogen, and consequently has about
enough oxygen to oxidise all its hydrogen to water, and its carbon
to the monoxide. It was first prepared by Mendeléeff for the Russian
smokeless powder, and was afterwards adopted by the United States for
their present powder.

=PYROXILINE= was a name formerly given to nitro-cellulose.

=RACK-A-ROCK= is a Sprengel explosive which has been used
extensively in America, and also in Siberia and China. It consists
of cartridges of potassium chlorate mixed sometimes with oxide of
iron, which are dipped shortly before use into a liquid. The latter
is nitro-benzene or “dead oil,” a heavy hydrocarbon oil obtained
from coal-tar, or a mixture of the two. The chlorate cartridges
are enclosed in small cotton bags, and are placed in a wire basket
suspended from a spring balance. They are dipped into a vessel
containing the liquid until a quarter or a third of the weight of the
chlorate has been taken up.

=RASCHIT= is a blasting explosive consisting entirely of salts
readily soluble in water, invented by F. Raschig. The incorporation
is carried out by dissolving the constituents in water, and
evaporating the solution rapidly on a rotating steam-heated drum.
The oxidising substance is ammonium or sodium nitrate, and the
combustible is the sodium salt of an organic sulphonate or the
residue obtained from the manufacture of wood cellulose.

                                      II.   III.  IV.  V.   VI.
  Ammonium nitrate                    --    84    87   60   85
  Sodium nitrate                      70    --    --   --   --
  Ammonium nitro-cresol sulphonate    --    16    --   --   --
  Sodium cresol sulphonate            30    --    13   10   --
  Cellulose residue                   --    --    --   --   15
  Sodium sulphate                     --    --    --   30   --

No. II. is the only one made at present.

=R.D.B.= (Research Department B). See =CORDITE=.

=RED CROSS= explosives are American dynamites containing
some nitro-toluene or other substance to make the nitroglycerine
low-freezing.

=RED H=, Nos. 1 to 7 are American coal-mine explosives on the
Permissible List. They are ammonium nitrate mixtures.

=*RED STAR= is a 33-grain bulk smokeless powder for shot-guns,
introduced in 1906 by the New Explosives Co. According to an analysis
given in “Arms and Explosives,” 1917, p. 76, its composition is--

  Nitrocellulose, insoluble      52·2
         ”        soluble        25·5
  Metallic nitrates              10·5
  Nitro-compounds                 7·0
  Vaseline                        3·0
  Moisture                        1·8

=RENDROCK.=--A brand of American dynamite.

=REX POWDER= is a coal-mine explosive made by the Cotton Powder
Co. It is on the Permitted List, and is used to a considerable
extent--

  _Date of Permit_                     16-8-15
  Nitroglycerine                          12
  Ammonium nitrate                        60
  Wood meal                                8·5
  Sodium chloride                         19·5

  Limit charge                            20 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)      2·61”

=REXITE.=--A coal-mine explosive made by the New Explosives Co.,
which was on the old Permitted List. It is no longer “permitted.”

  Nitroglycerine         7·5
  Ammonium nitrate      66
  Sodium nitrate        14·5
  Trinitro-toluene       7·5
  Wood meal              4·5

=REXOL.=--A high explosive containing ammonium perchlorate,
zinc dust, resin and mineral oil.

=R.F.G.= (Rifled Fine Grain)} black powders made for

=R.L.G.= (Rifled Large Grain)} rifles and rifled ordnance
respectively.

=RHENANIT.=--A German blasting explosive containing ammonium
nitrate, not more than 4 per cent. of blasting gelatine, and
combustibles such as charcoal and naphthalene.

Wetter-Rhenanit is for use in coal mines, and contains also sodium
chloride.

Rhenanit V., which has been introduced recently, contains up to 10
per cent. of potassium perchlorate, and is similar to Astralit V.

=RHEXIT.=--An Austrian dynamite.

                     II.   III.    IV.     V.
  Nitroglycerine     50     35     24     15
  Sodium nitrate     32·6   37     56·2   62·9
  Wood meal          17     27·5   19     21·2
  Sodium carbonate    0·4    0·5    0·8    0·9

=*RIFLEITE= was a completely gelatinised smokeless powder which
was made by the Smokeless Powder Co.; it was in the form of flakes.
A variety was also introduced for use in shot-guns and was called
Shot-Gun Rifleite; this was a 37-grain gelatinised dense powder.

                              Shot-gun   For ·303
                              Rifleite.   Rifle.
  _Date of Introduction_        1894      1890

  Nitrocellulose, insoluble     76·0       1·7
          ”       soluble       18·9      82·5
  Nitro-compound                 3·5      14·8
  Moisture                       1·6       1·0

The nitrocellulose was made from lignin. These analyses were given in
“Arms and Explosives,” 1917, p. 77.

=RIPPING AMMONAL.= See =AMMONAL=.

=RIPPITE= is an explosive made by Curtis’s and Harvey, which was
on the old Permitted List--

  Nitroglycerine        61
  Collodion cotton       4
  Potassium nitrate     19
  Castor oil             1
  Wood meal              5
  Ammonium oxalate      10

It is no longer “permitted” for use in dangerous coal mines, but is
still used for general purposes.

=SUPER-RIPPITE= is a modification of this, which has passed the
Rotherham Test and is on the Permitted List--

  _Date of Permit_                   29-8-14
  Nitroglycerine                       52
  Collodion cotton                      3
  Potassium nitrate                    14·5
  Borax                                22·5
  Potassium chloride                    8

  Limit charge                         18 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)   2·53”

=RIVALIT= is a German blasting explosive containing ammonium
nitrate, vegetable meal, nitro-compounds, and may also contain up to
3 per cent. of blasting gelatine.

Rivalit P, which has been introduced recently, contains up to 10
per cent. of potassium perchlorate, and is practically the same as
Astralit V.

Chlorat-Rivalit is an explosive of the Cheddite type, introduced in
Germany during the War--

  Potassium chlorate     88·5
  Paraffin               11·5

=ROBURITE= is a coal-mine explosive of the Grisounite class. In
Germany many different mixtures have been made, but in general they
are within the following limits--

  Ammonium nitrate        70   to  80
  Potassium nitrate        5    ”  10
  Trinitro-toluene        12    ”  15
  Flour                         6
  Sodium chloride          5   to  6
  Potassium permanganate   0·1  ”  0·5

but some are outside them.

The explosive has also been made in England by the Roburite
Explosives Co., Ltd., now incorporated in Roburite and Ammonal,
Ltd., who had the following on the old Permitted List--

                           No. 3
  Ammonium nitrate           88
  Dinitro-benzene            11
  Chlor-naphthalene           1

The following has passed the Rotherham Test and is now
on the Permitted List--

                                     No. 4
  _Date of Permit_                  13-5-14
  Ammonium nitrate                     61
  Trinitro-toluene                     16
  Sodium chloride                      23

  Limit charge                         18 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)   2·86”

=ROCKITE= is an explosive made by Curtis’s and Harvey for quarry
work, etc.

=ROMPERIT.=--A German blasting explosive containing ammonium
nitrate, potassium nitrate, trinitro-toluene, flour and resin. It may
also contain up to 4 per cent. of blasting gelatine.

Wetter-Romperit contains also sodium chloride, ammonium chloride or
magnesite, and is used in coal mines.

Gelatine-Romperit contains gelatinised nitroglycerine, glycerine,
potato meal, etc., and nitrates, and may also contain aromatic
nitro-compounds and alkali nitrates.

Romperit G, which has been introduced recently, contains up to 10 per
cent. of potassium perchlorate, and is similar to Astralit V.

=ROSLIN GIANT BLASTING POWDER= is a perchlorate explosive made
by Curtis’s and Harvey.

=*ROTTWEIL SMOKELESS POWDERS.=--These were pushed energetically
in England in 1913. They comprised a gelatinised rifle powder, and a
37-grain gelatinised dense shot-gun powder. Analyses were given in
“Arms and Explosives,” 1917, p. 90--

                             Shot-gun.  Rifle.
  Nitrocellulose, insoluble    72·3      72·8
          ”       soluble      24·5      25·0
  Metallic nitrates             0·7       --
  Camphor and diphenylamine     1·0       1·0
  Moisture                      1·5       1·2

=*RUBY POWDER.=--- A 42-grain bulk smokeless powder, for
shot-guns, introduced in 1899 by Curtis’s and Harvey. The following
analysis was given in “Arms and Explosives,” 1917--

  Nitrocellulose, insoluble    46·6
          ”         soluble     4·0
  Metallic nitrates            34·0
  Nitro-compound                8·2
  Starch                        5·5
  Moisture                      1·7

It is an inexpensive powder made without solvents.

=RUSSELITE.=--A coal-mine explosive which was made by the
Forcite Co. in Belgium. It was on the old British Permitted List--

  Nitroglycerine               40·5
  Collodion cotton              2·3
  Potassium nitrate            24·5
  Trinitro-toluene              5·5
  Wood meal                     4
  Ammonium oxalate             23
  Calcium carbonate             0·2


*Poudre =S= is a shot-gun powder made by the French Government.
It consists of--

  Guncotton                    37
  Soluble nitrocotton          28
  Potassium nitrate             6
  Barium nitrate               29
  Moisture                      2

The ingredients are incorporated together under light edge runners,
dried and partially gelatinised with 35 per cent. of ether-alcohol.
The dough, which is not very coherent, is formed into grains by
simply passing it through a sieve. The grains are dried, sifted,
hardened if necessary with ether-alcohol, and again dried and sifted.

=SABULITE= is a blasting explosive containing ammonium nitrate,
trinitro-toluene and calcium silicide. The last constituent increases
the heat of explosion and renders the mixture more sensitive both
to detonation and to blows; it plays the same part as the aluminium
powder in Ammonal.

  Ammonium nitrate            78
  Trinitro-toluene             8
  Calcium silicide            14

This composition was modified by the Belgian Sabulite Co. to render
it suitable for use in coal mines: by introducing some potassium
nitrate and ammonium chloride it was able to pass the tests, and
obtain a place on the list of “explosifs S.G.P.”--

                            Sabulite
                            antigri-
                           souteuse A.

  Ammonium nitrate            54
  Potassium nitrate           22
  Ammonium chloride           13
  Trinitro-toluene             6
  Calcium silicide             5

Sabulite has been used as a military high explosive.

=SAFETY BLASTING POWDER.= See =CAHUECIT=.

=SALIT= or Wittenberger Wetterdynamit is a German
coal-mine explosive. The following is an analysis--

  Ammonium nitrate            53·6
  Nitroglycerine              11·8
  Collodion cotton             0·5
  Dinitro-toluene              8·5
  Dextrin                      2·5
  Sodium chloride             23·1

=SAMSONITE.=--A coal-mine explosive made by Nobel’s Explosives
Co., Ltd. It was on the old Permitted List. It is now no longer
permitted for use in dangerous coal mines but is still used for
general purposes.

  Nitroglycerine        58·5
  Collodion cotton       3·5
  Potassium nitrate     18
  Wood meal              6·5
  Ammonium oxalate      13·5

During the War potassium nitrate was replaced by sodium nitrate, and
the nitroglycerine was reduced to 50 per cent.

Nos. 2 and 3 have passed the Rotherham Test and are on the Permitted
List--

                                      No. 2.   No. 3.
  _Date of Permit_                   25-1-19  25-1-19
  Nitroglycerine                       51·5    51·5
  Collodion cotton                      3       3
  Amide compound                        0·2     0·3
  Potassium perchlorate                11      --
  Sodium nitrate                       --      10
  Borax                                23·3    25·2
  Potassium chloride                   10      --
  Sodium chloride                      --      10
  Moisture                              1      --
  Limit charge                         26      24 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)   2·49    2·42”

=SAXONITE= was the predecessor of Samsonite on the old Permitted
List. It has practically the same composition, but wide limits
are allowed. It also is used for general purposes. During the War
potassium nitrate was replaced by sodium nitrate.

Ammon-=SCHLESIT= or Kohlen-=SCHLESIT= is a German
coal-mine explosive containing ammonium nitrate and other nitrates,
nitro-compounds, starch, neutral salts, not more than 4 per cent.
of blasting gelatine, and not more than 2 per cent. of potassium
perchlorate.

=SCHNEIDERITE= is a high explosive used by the French for
filling shell. Its composition is the same as the Favier explosive
N_1 c.

=*SCHULTZE POWDER= was the first successful smokeless powder
made. It was invented by Capt. E. Schultze of the Prussian Artillery,
who appears at first simply to have impregnated little grains of
wood with saltpetre (Eng. Pat. 900 of 1864). But later the wood
cellulose was purified and nitrated, and then mixed with nitrates.
The powder has remained the same as this until the present day,
although the methods of manufacture have been developed and, indeed,
revolutionised more than once. In “Arms and Explosives,” 1917, p. 75,
the following analyses of different brands were given--

                     Sawdust. Schultze. Imperial.     Cube.   Lightning.
  _Date introduced_ 1869      1883       1902      1908      1913
  _Charge for_       42        42         33        30        33
  _12-bore grns._
                    Fibrous.  Fibrous.   Fibrous.  Gelatinised. Fibrous.
  Nitrocellulose,
           insoluble}            25·0       63·7         62·1       55·0
       ”     soluble}   64·8     40·0       18·9         27·0       27·0
  Metallic nitrates     33·0     29·0        8·0          5·0       11·2
  Vaseline              --        4·0        7·6          4·0        5·0
  Moisture               2·2      2·0        1·8          1·9        1·8

The nitrocellulose in all cases has been made from wood
cellulose. All the powders are of the bulk type.

Schultze powder is also made in America as a 36-grain
fibrous bulk powder--

  Nitrocellulose, insoluble    4·9
         ”          soluble   78·5
  Metallic nitrates           10·5
  Vaseline                     3·7
  Moisture                     2·4

=SEAMEX= is a coal-mine explosive on the Permitted List made by
Explosives and Chemical Products, Ltd.--

  Nitroglycerine                        10
  Ammonium nitrate                      58
  Wheat flour                           20
  Sodium chloride                       12

  Limit charge                          36 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)    2.54”

=SEBOMITE= is a French chlorate explosive resembling Cheddite,
but containing tallow instead of castor oil.

=SECURITE= was one of the first coal-mine explosives. It
contained ammonium nitrate and dinitro-benzene, and was therefore
similar to Bellite and Roburite.

=SECUROPHORE.=--A Belgian coal-mine explosive containing
nitroglycerine, nitrates, flour and other constituents.

=SENGITE= is a variety of Tonite introduced in South Africa
as a substitute for Gelignite in consequence of the scarcity of
glycerine due to the War. It contains guncotton and sodium nitrate,
and sufficient moisture to render it safe to handle without
diminishing its strength. The first four letters of its name stand
for _s_ubstitute _e_xplosive _n_o _g_lycerine. It requires a priming
cartridge of gelignite or similar explosive. It is more expensive
than gelignite, and consequently is not likely to be used when the
scarcity of glycerine has been relieved.

=SHELLITE.=--A high explosive consisting of picric acid and
dinitro-phenol, used for filling shells. The mixture possesses
the advantage over straight picric acid that it melts at a lower
temperature. It was for a time called Picrol.

=SHEPPEY POWDER.=--A coal-mine explosive made by the Cotton
Powder Co. which was on the Permitted List for a short time, but was
removed in 1914--

  _Date of Permit_                  25-11-13

  Nitroglycerine                       27
  Potassium nitrate                    31
  Wood meal                            36
  Ammonium oxalate                      6

  Limit charge                         10 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)   2·10”

=SIEGENIT.=--A German blasting explosive containing ammonium
nitrate, flour, and not more than 15 per cent. of dinitro-toluene.
For use in coal mines, sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate are
added as diluents, and nitroglycerine to increase the sensitiveness.

=SILESIA= is a German blasting explosive consisting of potassium
chlorate, the particles of which are coated with resin or oxidised
resin. The latter is made by treating ground colophony, mixed with 10
per cent. of starch, with nitric acid. After washing and drying this
is incorporated with the chlorate with the aid of alcohol, in which
it is soluble. For use in coal mines sodium chloride is sometimes
added. The following are examples--

                        4.   4_a_.  IV. 22.
  Potassium chlorate    80    80      70
  Resin                 20    16 }     8
    ” oxidised          --     4 }
  Sodium chloride       --    --      22

It is practically the same as Steelite.

=*S.K., S.R., S.S., S.V.= were partially gelatinised fibrous
smokeless powders, introduced by the Smokeless Powder Co. about 1889.
They are no longer made. The following analyses were given in “Arms
and Explosives,” 1917, p. 77--

                                  S.R.   S.S.
  Nitrocellulose, insoluble      45·2    53·0
          ”         soluble      25·5    13·0
  Metallic nitrates.             18·5    18·0
  Nitro-compound                  --     10·0
  Vaseline                        --      4·6
  Starch                         8·0     --
  Moisture                       2·8     1·4

The nitrocellulose was made from lignin. S.S. was a 38-grain bulk
powder; S.R. was a fibrous powder for rifles; S.K. a similar powder
for small rifles, and S.V. for revolvers.

=*SMOKELESS DIAMOND= is a 33-grain bulk smokeless powder for
shot-guns, introduced in 1903 by Curtis’s and Harvey. According to an
analysis in “Arms and Explosives,” 1917, p. 78, its composition is--

  Nitrocellulose, insoluble    69·0
         ”        soluble       6·6
  Metallic nitrates            15·0
  Vaseline                      2·5
  Charcoal                      5·6
  Moisture                      1·3

=*SOLENITE.=--A smokeless powder introduced in Italy in 1896 for
use in rifles--

  Nitroglycerine               34
  Nitrocotton, soluble         63
  Mineral jelly                 3

It is gelatinised with the aid of acetone, and is made in the form of
translucent short tubes of a light brown colour.

=SPRENGCHLORAT.= See Hassia-Chlorat.

=SPRENGEL EXPLOSIVES= were patented in 1871 by Dr. Hermann
Sprengel, F.R.S., the inventor of the mercury vacuum pump. They are
made by mixing an oxidising substance with a combustible one, the
essential features being that one or both of the substances must be
liquid, and the mixing takes place shortly before the explosive is
required. The mixture is exploded by means of a fulminate detonator.
As oxidising agents, Sprengel mentioned amongst others nitric acid
and potassium chlorate; nitrogen peroxide has also been used; as
combustibles, a large number of substances including nitro-benzene,
nitro-naphthalene, carbon bisulphide, petroleum and picric acid. For
most purposes nitric acid is an inconvenient material to use. Porous
cartridges of potassium chlorate constitute the oxidiser generally
employed, the combustibles being hydrocarbon oils and nitro-benzene.
This possesses considerable advantages, as there is no danger of
a premature explosion until the constituents have been mixed.
Under the British Explosives Act, however, this mixing constitutes
“manufacture,” and can only be carried out in a properly licensed
factory. Consequently Sprengel explosives have not been used in Great
Britain, but they have been employed on a considerable scale in the
United States, France, Italy and other countries.

For examples of Sprengel explosives _see_ Panclastite, Prométhée,
Rack-a-Rock.

=SPRENGGELATINE= is the German for Blasting Gelatine.

=SPRENGSALPETER= is a cheap German blasting powder made from
sodium nitrate, sulphur and brown coal. It is used in the potash
mines.

=STABILITE= is a name that has been given to trinitro-anisole.
It has been tried as a constituent of a smokeless powder, but it
belies its title as it is readily hydrolysed with the formation of
picric acid. It has also been used by the Germans as a filling for
bombs.

=STANFORD POWDER.=--A coal-mine explosive of the Favier class
which was on the Permitted List for a short time in 1913.

=STEELITE= was practically the same as Silesia. Colliery
Steelite was a coal-mine explosive on the old Permitted List, and
made by Steelite Explosives, Ltd. It contained--

  Potassium chlorate   74
  Oxidised resin       25
  Castor oil            1

Steelite is no longer authorised for manufacture or import
into the United Kingdom.

=ST. HELEN’S POWDER.=--A coal-mine explosive of the Ammonal type
made by the Roburite Explosives Co., which was on the old Permitted
List--

  Ammonium nitrate    93·5
  Aluminium powder     2·5
  Trinitro-toluene     4

=STOMONAL= is a coal-mine explosive made by the New Explosives
Co., Ltd. It was on the old Permitted List. In order to pass the
Rotherham Test and obtain places on the new Permitted List, No. 1 and
No. 2 have had salts added as cooling agents--

                                             No. 1.   No. 2.
  _Date of Permit_                          22-6-14   9-5-17

  Nitroglycerine                        8      10      10
  Ammonium nitrate                     84·5    56[2]   60·5
  Sodium nitrate                        --      6       --
  Wood meal                             7·5     --      6·5
  Wheat flour                           --      8·5     --
  Sodium chloride                       --     19·5    17
  Ammonium oxalate                      --      --      6

  Limit charge                          --     20      30 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)   --      2·68    2·57”

[2] Including not more than 2 per cent. magnesium carbonate.

=STONAX= is a low-freezing Gelignite containing a small
percentage of a nitro-compound.

=STOW-ITE.=--A coal-mine explosive made by the New Explosives
Co., Ltd. It was on the old Permitted List--

  Nitroglycerine       59
  Collodion cotton      4·7
  Potassium nitrate    18·3
  Wood meal             6
  Ammonium oxalate     12

=*STOWMARKET SMOKELESS= is a 33-grain bulk powder for shot-guns
made by the New Explosives Co. It is a comparatively inexpensive
powder.

=SUNDERITE= was a coal-mine explosive made by Nobel’s Explosives
Co., Ltd., at one time on the Permitted List--

  _Date of Permit_                  25-11-13

  Nitroglycerine                        9
  Ammonium nitrate                     53·2
  Potassium perchlorate                 9
  Wood meal                             8·8
  Ammonium oxalate                     20

  Limit charge                         16 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)   2·66”

=SUPER-CLIFFITE.= See =CLIFFITE=.

=SUPER-CURTISITE.= See =CURTISITE=.

=SUPER-EXCELLITE.= See =EXCELLITE=.

=SUPERITE.=--A coal-mine explosive which was made by the
Carbonite Company in Germany, and formerly on the Permitted List--

  _Date of Permit_                   1-9-13
  Nitroglycerine                        4
  Ammonium nitrate                     82
  Potassium nitrate                    10
  Starch                                4

  Limit charge                         10 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)   2·53”

The Permit was repealed on 21-11-16.

=SUPER-KOLAX.= See =KOLAX.=

=SUPER-RIPPITE.= See =RIPPITE=.

=SWALE POWDER= was a coal-mine explosive on the
Permitted List made by the Cotton Powder Co., Ltd.--

  _Date of Permit_                  10-2-14
  Nitroglycerine                       19
  Collodion cotton                      1
  Trinitro-toluene                      4
  Potassium perchlorate                38
  Wood meal                            10
  Ammonium oxalate                     28

  Limit charge                         20 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)   2·50”

The permit has been repealed.

=SWALITE.=--A coal-mine explosive made by the Cotton
Powder Co., Ltd. It was on the old Permitted List--

  Nitroglycerine        59·5
  Collodion cotton       4
  Potassium nitrate     17
  Wood meal              6
  Ammonium oxalate      13·5

=SYNDITE.=--A coal-mine explosive formerly on the Permitted
List. It was made by the Carbonite Syndicate in Germany--

  Nitroglycerine                             11
  Collodion cotton                            0·2
  Ammonium nitrate                           46·3
  Sodium nitrate                              8
  Glycerine                                   3·5
  Starch                                      4
  Sodium chloride                            27

  Limit charge                          over 40 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)         2·22”

The permit was repealed on 21-9-16.

*Poudre =T= is a condensed smokeless shot-gun powder
manufactured by the French Government. It is made from guncotton,
CP_1, to which 2 per cent. of saltpetre is added, gelatinised with
acetone. The dough is pressed into strips which are rolled down to a
thickness of 0·15 mm. and cut into small squares of 1·5 mm. side. The
powder is then steeped in water to dissolve out the greater part of
the potassium nitrate, dried, and finally drummed with a little gum
and graphite to make it more progressive. This powder is superior to
the other French sporting-powders, but is more expensive. The charge
for a 16-bore cartridge is 1·9 grammes.


=TELSIT A= is a blasting explosive made at the Nobel Works in
Switzerland. It consists of ammonium nitrate, nitrated toluene and
aluminium powder.

Gelatine-Telsit contains ammonium nitrate, blasting gelatine and
liquid trinitro-toluene, also gelatinised with collodion cotton.

Special-Gelatine-Telsit differs from this in having part of the
ammonium nitrate replaced by sodium nitrate.

=TERRIT= is a plastic blasting explosive made in Sweden, and
consisting of ammonium perchlorate, sodium nitrate and liquid
dinitro-toluene, gelatinised with collodion cotton--

  Ammonium perchlorate         43
  Sodium nitrate               28
  Dinitro-toluene (liquid)     27·8
  Collodion cotton              1·2

It is difficult to detonate.

=TETRYL= is the name usually given to tetranitro-methyl-aniline,
the strictly scientific designation of which is trinitro-phenyl-
methyl-nitramine--

      CH_3   NO_2
         \   /
          \ /
           N
         /   \
   NO_2 |     | NO_2
        |     |
         \   /
           NO_2

It is used extensively as an intermediate detonating agent for
high-explosive shell, as it is somewhat more sensitive than most of
the explosives used, and can consequently be detonated by a small
charge of fulminate. It is also called C. E.

Grisou-=TETRILITE=. See Favier Powder.

=TEUTONIT= is a German Favier explosive containing not less than
70 per cent. of ammonium nitrate, not more than 5 per cent. of flour
or potato meal, and not more than 15 per cent. of aromatic nitro- and
dinitro-compounds. It may also contain neutral salts.

=TEUTONITE= was a name given occasionally to White Gunpowder
(q. v.).

=THAMES POWDER= is a coal-mine explosive on the Permitted List
made by the British Explosives Syndicate, Ltd.--

                                               No. 2.
  _Date of Permit_                   22-6-14  28-1-15

  Nitroglycerine                        6·5     10
  Ammonium nitrate                     55       59[3]
  Potassium nitrate                    10       --
  Wood meal                             4·5     10
  Starch                                5       --
  Ammonium oxalate                     19       --
  Sodium chloride                      --       21

  Limit charge                         32       22
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)   2·78     2·59”

[3] Including not more than 2 per cent. of magnesium carbonate.

=THERMIT= is not an explosive, although in some respects it
resembles one. It generally consists of a mixture of about three
parts oxide of iron with one part of aluminium powder, but other
oxides and other metals are sometimes used. When initiated by strong
heat in one place a reaction sets in with great evolution of heat
and the formation of a white-hot mass of molten iron and slag. It
differs from an explosive in that no gas is formed and the reaction
is comparatively slow. It is used for filling incendiary bombs and
for many industrial purposes.

=THORNIT.=--A German blasting explosive consisting of ammonium
nitrate and vegetable meal. It may also contain animal or vegetable
fats.

=TITANITE.=--A coal-mine explosive manufactured in Hungary.
A variety of it was on the old British Permitted List--

  Ammonium nitrate       87
  Trinitro-toluene        7
  Curcuma charcoal        6

Other varieties containing a smaller percentage of ammonium
nitrate have been used for general blasting.

=T.N.T.= stands for trinitro-toluene or trotyl.

=TOLITE= stands for trinitro-toluene.

=TONITE=, or Cotton Powder, is a blasting explosive which was
much used at one time. It consists of guncotton mixed with a nitrate
and compressed into blocks or cylinders, but a small percentage of
a nitro-compound has sometimes been added. A Belgian Tonite had the
composition--

  Guncotton          53·0
  Barium nitrate     37·6
  Sodium nitrate      9·4

That made by the Cotton Powder Co. consists of--

  Guncotton          50
  Barium nitrate     50

=TOXOL= is a high explosive, a mixture of trinitro-xylene
and trinitro-toluene.

=TREMONIT= is a German coal-mine explosive containing
gelatinised dinitro-glycerine, _e.g._--

                Tremonit S II.
  Dinitro-glycerine            33
  Collodion cotton              1
  Trinitro-toluene              2·5
  Ammonium nitrate             26·5
  Pea flour                    12
  Sodium chloride              25

Ammon-Tremonit or Gesteins-Tremonit contains a considerable
proportion of ammonium nitrate.

Gesteins-Tremonit V. contains also up to 10 per cent. of potassium
perchlorate, and is similar to Astralit V.

=TRINOL.=--A name for trinitro-toluene.

=TRIPLASTIT= was a plastic high explosive obtained by
gelatinising a liquid or semi-liquid mixture of nitro-toluenes
with collodion cotton and mixing it with lead nitrates, _e.g._--

  Nitro-toluenes       70
  Collodion cotton      1·2
  Lead nitrate         28·8

It was intended for filling shell, etc.

*=TROISDORF SMOKELESS POWDER= became prominent in England
in 1897 in connection with Mannlicher cartridges for the Bisley
long-range competitions. It was occasionally recorded as Pigou Wilkes
Powder, as that firm were agents for it. The following are analyses
of samples taken in 1898 (“Arms and Explosives,” 1917, p. 90)--

                               Shot-gun    Rifle
                               Powder.     Powder.

  Nitrocellulose, insoluble      24·9       1·5
        ”           soluble      61·7       96·5
  Starch, agar and dye           11·5        --
  Moisture                        1·9        2·0

The shot-gun powder was a fibrous bulk powder, and the charge for a
12-bore cartridge was 33 grains. The rifle powder was gelatinised.

=TROJAN COAL POWDER= is an American coal-mine explosive on the
Permissible List. It contains nitro-starch.

=TROTYL= is a name for trinitro-toluene.

=TUNNELIT= is a German safety explosive containing
ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, not more than 10 per cent. of
trinitro-toluene (or not more than 6 per cent. together with not more
than 2 per cent. of neutral liquid trinitro-toluene), not more than
20 per cent. of dinitro-chlorhydrin, not more than 5 per cent. of
nitroglycerine, not more than 1 per cent. of collodion cotton, and
carbohydrates.

=TUNNELITE= is an American coal-mine explosive on the
Permissible List. Brands AA, B and C are ammonium nitrate explosives,
whereas numbers 3 to 8, 6LF and 8LF are nitroglycerine explosives.

=TURPINITE.= See =PANCLASTITE=.

=TUTOL.=--A coal-mine explosive made by the Westphalia Anhalt
Explosives Co. in Germany. It was on the old Permitted List. A
variation of it, No. 2, was for a time on the new List, but it was
repealed in Nov. 1916.

                                                   No. 2.
  Nitroglycerine                           25       25
  Potassium nitrate                        33       --
  Barium nitrate                            2       --
  Sodium nitrate                           --       29
  Wood meal                                39·8     36·3
  Sodium chloride                          --        9·5
  Sodium bicarbonate                        0·2      0·2

  Limit charge                             --       22 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)      --        2·11”

=UPLEES POWDER.=--A coal-mine explosive of the Grisounite type
made by the Cotton Powder Co. It was for a time on the Permitted List
but was repealed in 1914.


=VELOX GELATINE.=--A blasting explosive for hard rock made
by the British South African Explosives Co. It contains less
nitroglycerine than blasting gelatine, and is intended to husband
stocks of glycerine (“Arms and Explosives,” 1916, p. 81).

Gelatine =VENDER= is a Swiss explosive consisting of
dinitro-acetin gelatinised with a little collodion cotton and mixed
with ammonium nitrate.

=VICTOR POWDER= was a coal-mine explosive made by Nobel’s
Explosives Co. There were two varieties at one time on the Permitted
List--

                                                  No. 2.
  _Date of Permit_                      13-5-14  15-1-15
  Ammonium nitrate                        68       67
  Potassium chloride                      14·5     --
  Sodium chloride                         --       15
  Nitroglycerine                           8·5      9
  Wood meal                                9        9

  Limit charge                            18       16
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)      2·96”    2·63”

=VICTORITE.=--A coal-mine explosive of the Carbonite type made
by Nobel’s Explosives Co. It was on the old Permitted List.

=VIEILLE POWDER.= See Poudre =B=.

=VIGORIT.= See =MONACHIT=.

=VIGORITE= is a name that has been given to several explosives
in the past. One of these, manufactured in California in the
’seventies of the last century, contained potassium chlorate and
nitroglycerine, and consequently was decidedly dangerous. It gave
rise to a serious accident on the Grand Trunk Railway.

The Atlas Powder Co. in America manufacture a series of coal-mine
explosives under this name. They are nitroglycerine explosives.

=VIKING POWDER= is a coal-mine explosive made by Nobel’s
Explosives Co. There are two varieties on the Permitted List--

                                         No. 1.    No. 2.
  _Date of Permit_                     15-1-15    15-1-15
  Ammonium nitrate                        59        67
  Nitroglycerine                          10         8·5
  Wood meal                               10         8·5
  Sodium chloride                         20        15
  Magnesium carbonate                      1         1

  Limit charge                            26        18 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)      2·44”    2·59”

This explosive is used extensively.

=VIRITE.=--A coal-mine explosive made by the Nitrate Explosives
Co. which was on the old Permitted List--

  Ammonium nitrate       38
  Potassium nitrate      35·5
  Sulphur                 4·5
  Charcoal               11·5
  Ammonium oxalate       10·5

There have been other explosives of the same name.

=VULCAN POWDER= is a brand of American dynamite.


=W.A.= See Lafflin and Rand.

=WALLONITE.=--A Belgian blasting and coal-mine explosive--

                                  II.  III.

  Ammonium nitrate           90   70    70
  Sodium nitrate             --   20    25
  Nitrated resin             10   10     5

  Charge limite              50  125   600 g.

=*WALSRODE SHOT-GUN POWDER= was a gelatinised 28-grain dense
powder, which the German makers endeavoured to introduce into England
in the ’nineties, but it gave high pressures. A powder of this name
is still used in Germany, however, but it is a 35-grain powder in the
form of small grains, greyish white and greyish green in colour.

=WALSRODE SICHERHEITS-SPRENGSTOFF= is a German coal-mine
explosive containing ammonium nitrate, trinitro-toluene, flour, and a
little guncotton and sometimes sodium chloride.

Wetter-Walsrode is also an ammonium nitrate explosive. It contains
no guncotton but may contain potassium nitrate, sodium chloride,
naphthalene, and various other substances.

=WESTFALITE= is a coal-mine explosive which is made in Germany
and England. The German explosives vary much in composition, and some
of them are intended for ordinary blasting. Some of those recently
introduced contain up to 10 per cent. of potassium perchlorate.
Originally Westfalite was made by milling ammonium nitrate with an
alcoholic solution of gum lac, but later the use of the gum was
abandoned.

British Westfalite, Ltd., had two mixtures on the old Permitted List--

                                    No. 1.   No. 2.
  Ammonium nitrate                   95       91
  Potassium nitrate                  --        4
  Resin                               5        5

That formerly on the Permitted List differed considerably from the
above--

                                         Westfalite No. 3.
    _Date of Permit_                       1-9-13
  Ammonium nitrate                           60
  Potassium nitrate                          14
  Trinitro-toluene                            5
  Ammonium chloride                          21

  Limit charge                               12 oz.
  Power (swing of ballistic pendulum)         2·55”

=WETTERDYNAMIT= is a name that has been given in Germany to
various coal-mine explosives containing nitroglycerine.

=WETTER-DYNAMMON.= See =DYNAMMON=.

=*WETTEREN.=--A gelatinised rifle smokeless powder made by the
Cooppal Co. of Belgium. The following analyses were given in “Arms
and Explosives,” 1917, p. 91--

      _Date of Sample_        1892        1893
  Nitrocellulose, insoluble   16·0        57·3
         ”          soluble   46·2        37·6
  Nitroglycerine              27·3        --
  Shellac                     --           3·5
  Charcoal                     9·0        --
  Moisture                     1·5         1·6

=WHITE GUNPOWDER= is a mixture of--

  Potassium chlorate        50
  Potassium ferrocyanide    25
  Sugar                     25

It is not produced commercially, and, indeed, is too sensitive, but
it is sometimes made in the laboratory. It has also been called
Angendre’s powder, White German powder, American powder, and Baron
and Cauvet’s powder.

=WILHELMIT= is a German blasting explosive of the Cheddite type.
It consists of sodium or potassium chlorate hydrocarbon oil with a
flash point not below 30° C., and carbohydrates. For use in coal
mines neutral salts are added. It was introduced during the War.

=WITHNELL POWDER.=--A coal-mine explosive of the Grisounite type
made by the Lancashire Explosives Co., which was on the old Permitted
List--

  Ammonium nitrate      89·5
  Trinitro-toluene       5
  Flour                  5·5

=WITTENBERGER WETTERDYNAMIT.= See =SALIT=.

=XPDITE= is an American coal-mine explosive on the Permissible
List. It is made by the Hercules Powder Co., and contains
nitroglycerine.

=YONCKITE.=--A Belgian ammonium perchlorate explosive. The
composition has been varied somewhat, and one formula, No. 10, is on
the list of Explosifs S.G.P., and consequently is permitted for use
in Belgian coal mines. No. 1 is a more powerful explosive used for
general blasting.

                                            No. 10.    I.
  Ammonium perchlorate                       25        20
  Ammonium nitrate                           30        27
  Sodium nitrate                             15        27
  Barium nitrate                             --         6
  Trinitro-toluene                           10        20
  Sodium chloride                            20        --

  Charge limite                             900 g.

=ZELTIT.= See Celtite.



INDEX OF CONSTITUENTS


  Acid, Nitric.
    Hellhofite.
    Sprengel Explosives.

  Acid, Picric. _See_ Picric Acid.

  Agar.
    Amasite.
    Troisdorf Smokeless Powder.

  Albumen.
    Plessit.

  Alcohol, Amyl.
    B.

  Alum, Chromium Ammonium.
    Chromamonit.

  Aluminium.
    Alsilite.
    Alumatol.
    Ammonal.
    Donarit A.
    Echo.
    Lignosit.
    Perrumpit.
    St. Helen’s Powder.
    Telsit.
    Thermit.

  Ammonium Nitrate, Chloride, etc. _See_ Nitrate, Chloride, etc.

  Ammonium Nitrocresol-sulphonate.
    Raschit.

  Amyl Alcohol.
    B.

  Aniline.
    Filite.

  Aniline Hydrochloride.
    Progressit.

  Antimony Sulphide.
    Flobert Ammunition.

  Aromatic Nitro-compounds. _See_ Nitro-compounds.


  Barium Nitrate, etc. _See_ Nitrate, etc.

  Bark.
    Cahuecit.

  Bauxite.
    Lignosit.

  Bicarbonate, Sodium.
    C. S. P.
    Tutol.

  Bichromate, Ammonium.
    J.

  Bichromate, Potassium.
    Ammonal.
    Dahmenite.
    J.
    Petroklastit.

  Bisulphide, Carbon.
    Panclastite.
    Sprengel Explosives.

  Borax.
    Haylite.
    Rippite.
    Samsonite.

  Bran.
    Forcite.

  Briquette Powder.
    Loewenpulver.


  Calcium Silicide
    Sabulite.

  Camphor.
    E. C. Powder.
    Herculite.
    M.
    Rottweil Smokeless Powder.

  Carbohydrates. _See also_ Cellulose, Flour, Starch,
                                 Vegetable Meal, Wood Meal.
    Albit.
    Alkalsit.
    Chloratzite.
    Foerdit.
    Gesilit.
    Tunnelit.
    Wilhelmit.

  Carbon Bisulphide.
    Panclastite.
    Sprengel Explosives.

  Carbonaceous Substances.
    Nobelit.

  Carbonate, Calcium.
    Blasting Gelatine.
    Cambrite.
    Carbonite.
    Clydite.
    Dynamite.
    Gelatine Dynamite.
    Gelignite.
    Kynite.
    Pit-ite.
    Russelite.

  Carbonate, Magnesium. _See also_ Magnesite.
    Blasting Gelatine.
    Dynobel.
    Gelatine Dynamite.
    Monobel.
    Oaklite.
    Stomonal.
    Thames Powder.
    Viking Powder.

  Carbonate, Sodium.
    Britonite.
    Carbonite.
    Clydite.
    Forcite Antigrisouteuse.
    Lignosit.
    Minite.
    Pit-ite.
    Rhexit.

  Cellulose.
    Antigel.
    Colinit.
    Flammivore.
    Grisoutite.

  Cellulose Residue.
    Raschit.

  Chalk, French.
    Nitro-Densite.

  Charcoal.
    Amide Powder.
    Ammonal.
    Ammoniakkrut.
    Ammonpulver.
    Neu Anagon.
    Aphosite.
    Astralit.
    Bavarit.
    Black Powder.
    Bobbinite.
    Bomlit.
    Cannonite.
    Denaby Powder.
    Detonit.
    Dragonite.
    Fulmenit.
    Hebler Powder.
    Lithofracteur.
    M.B. Powder.
    Monachit.
    Normanite.
    Perchlorit.
    Praeposit.
    Pulvérin.
    Rhenanit.
    Smokeless Diamond.
    Virite.
    Wetteren.

  Charcoal, Cork.
    Carbo-Dynamite.
    Oxyliquit.

  Charcoal, Curcuma.
    Titanite.

  Charcoal, Red.
    Dynammon.

  Charcoal, Straw.
    Cocoa Powder.

  Chlorate, Potassium.
    Albit.
    Alkalsit.
    Barbarit.
    Cheddite.
    Chloratzite.
    Flobert Ammunition.
    Hassia-Chlorat.
    Himalayite.
    Kinetit.
    Kiwit.
    Koronit.
    L. C. Pulver.
    Mercurit.
    Miedziankit.
    Mitchellite.
    Naphthalit.
    O.
    Petrolit.
    Pierrite.
    Plessit.
    Prométhée.
    Rack-a-Rock.
    Rivalit (Chlorat-).
    Sebomite.
    Silesia.
    Sprengel Explosives.
    Steelite.
    Vigorite.
    White Gunpowder.
    Wilhelmit.

  Chlorate, Sodium.
    Albit.
    Alkalsit.
    Cheddite.
    Kiwit.
    Koronit.
    O.
    Wilhelmit.

  Chloride, Ammonium.
    Anchorite.
    Cornil.
    Curtisite (Super-).
    Denaby Powder.
    Densite.
    Dreadnought Powder.
    Essex Powder.
    Excellite (Super-).
    Expedite.
    Faversham Powder.
    Favier Explosive.
    Fortex (New).
    Fractorite.
    Fumyl.
    Kentite.
    Mersey Powder.
    Romperit.
    Sabulite.
    Westfalite.

  Chloride, Potassium.
    Ammonite.
    Astralit.
    Cambrite.
    Carbonite (Ammon-).
    Dahmenite.
    Dominite.
    Dynamit (Gallerte-).
    Elsagit.
    Foerdit.
    Gehlingerit (Wetter-).
    Monachit.
    Monobel.
    Naphthalit.
    Nationalite.
    Nobelit.
    Pannonit.
    Rippite.
    Samsonite.
    Victor Powder.

  Chloride, Sodium.
    Abbcite.
    Abelite.
    Alsilite.
    Ammonite.
    Astralit.
    Bellite.
    Britonite.
    Carbonite (Ammon-).
    Cliffite (Super-).
    Cosilit.
    Dahmenite.
    Donarit (Wetter-).
    Dorfit.
    Dreadnought Powder.
    Du Pont Permissible.
    Dynobel.
    Elsagit.
    Excellite (Super-).
    Favier Explosives.
    Foerdit.
    Fulmenit.
    Gehlingerit (Wetter-).
    Gesilit.
    Glueckauf.
    Haylite.
    Kiwit.
    Koronit.
    Leonit.
    Lignosit.
    Miedziankit.
    Monarkite.
    Monobel.
    Naphthalit.
    Nationalite.
    Negro Powder.
    Nobelit.
    Orkanit.
    Pannonit.
    Permon Powder.
    Perrumpit.
    Pfalzit.
    Plessit.
    Pulvérite.
    Rex Powder.
    Rhenanit.
    Roburite.
    Romperit.
    Salit.
    Samsonite.
    Seamex.
    Siegenit.
    Silesia.
    Stomonal.
    Syndite.
    Thames Powder.
    Tremonit.
    Tutol.
    Victor Powder.
    Viking Powder.
    Walsrode Sicherheits-Sprengstoff.
    Yonckite.

  Chlor-Naphthalenes.
    Amvis.
    Roburite.

  Chromate, Lead.
    Cornil.
    Halakite.

  Chromium Ammonium Alum.
    Chromamonit.

  Coal.
    Alkalsit.
    Ammoniakkrut.
    Carbonite (Ammon-).
    Judson Powder.
    Koronit.
    Lithofracteur.
    Loewenpulver.
    Sprengsalpeter.

  Coke.
    Dahmenit.

  Collodion Cotton. _See_ Nitro-cotton.

  Copper Nitrate Ammonia.
    Glueckauf.

  Copper Nitrate Aniline.
    Anilit.

  Copper Sulphate Aniline.
    Anilit.

  Cork Charcoal. _See_ Charcoal.

  Cresylate, Ammonium.
    C.
    Ecrasite.

  Curcuma Meal.
    Dahmenit.

  Curcuma Charcoal.
    Titanite.


  Dextrin.
    Dynamit (Sicherheits-).
    Flammivore.
    Foerdit.
    Gesilit.
    Pannonit.
    Salit.

  Dimethyl-diphenyl-urea.
    Centralite.

  Dinitro-acetin.
    Vender.

  Dinitro-benzene.
    Abelite.
    Amvis.
    Bellite.
    Cannonite.
    Dahmenit.
    Denaby Powder.
    Dynobel.
    Gathurst Powder.
    Glueckauf.
    Good Luck.
    Granatfuellung.
    Hellhofite.
    Odite.
    Roburite.
    Securite.

  Dinitro-chlorhydrin.
    Astralit.
    Donarit.
    Helit.
    Perilit.
    Prosperit.
    Tunnelit.

  Dinitro-glycerine.
    Dahmenite.
    Tremonit.

  Dinitro-glycol.
    Gelignite.

  Dinitro-naphthalene.
    Ammonite.
    Astralit.
    Cornil.
    Favier Explosives.
    Fractorite.
    Kiwit.
    Minolite.
    Schneiderite.

  Dinitro-phenol.
    Shellite.

  Dinitro-toluene.
    Abbcite.
    Ajax Powder.
    Antigel.
    Astralit.
    Blastine.
    Cheddite.
    Densite.
    Dominit.
    Dynobel.
    Erin Gelignite.
    Excellite.
    Flammivore.
    Gelignite.
    Gesilit.
    Halalite.
    Kiwit.
    Kynarkite.
    Leonit.
    Nationalite.
    Neonal.
    Perdit.
    Salit.
    Siegenit.

  Diphenylamine.
    B.
    Filite.
    Foerdit (Ammon-).
    N. C. T.
    Rottweil Smokeless Powder.


  Fat. _See also_ Tallow.
    Aerolit.
    Thornit.

  Fat, Vegetable.
    Thornit.

  Fatty Acid Salt.
    Dynamit (Wettersicheres-).

  Ferrocyanide, Potassium.
    Cannonite.
    White Gunpowder.

  Ferro-Silicon.
    Echo.

  Ferro-Silicon-Aluminium.
    Alsilite.

  Flour. _See also_ Meal.
    Alkalsit.
    Carbonite (Ammon-).
    Colinit.
    Dorfit.
    Dynamit (Wettersicheres-).
    Foerdit.
    Fractorite.
    Gehlingerit.
    Helagon.
    Helit.
    Minite.
    Monachit.
    Naphthalit.
    Perilit.
    Pulvérite.
    Roburite.
    Romperit.
    Securophore.
    Siegenit.
    Teutonit.
    Walsrode Sicherheits-Sf.
    Withnell Powder.

  Flour, Pea.
    Gesilit.

  Flour, Roasted.
    Aetna Powder.

  Flour, Rye.
    Donarit.
    Flammivore.
    Forcite Antigrisouteuse.
    Tremonit.

  Flour, Wheat.
    Essex Powder.
    Ligdyn.
    Seamex.
    Stomonal.

  French Chalk.
    Nitro-Densite.

  Fulminate, Mercury.
    Flobert Ammunition.


  Gelatine.
    Dynamit (Wettersicheres-).

  Glycerine.
    Dominit.
    Dynamit (Sicherheits-).
    Foerdit.
    Halakite.
    Pannonit.
    Permon Powder.
    Plastammon.
    Romperit.
    Syndite.

  Graphite.
    Negro Powder.
    Nitrokol.
    Perrumpit.
    T.

  Gum.
    Dorfit (Per-).
    T.

  Gum Lac.
    Westfalite.

  Guncotton.
    Axite.
    Bomlit.
    Cordite.
    C. P.
    C. S. P.
    Fulmenit.
    Indurite.
    Kiwit.
    Lafflin and Rand.
    S.
    Sengite.
    T.
    Tonite.
    Walsrode Sicherheits-Sprengstoff.


  Hexanitro-diphenylamine.

  Hexanitro-diphenyl Sulphide.
    Granatfuellung.

  Hipposin.
    Praeposit.

  Hydrocarbons. _See also_ Mineral Jelly, Vaseline, Naphthalene,
                                Oils, Paraffin Wax and Turpentine.
    Alkalsit.
    Astralit.
    Bomlit.
    Dynamit (Wettersicheres-).
    Koronit.
    Naphthalit.
    Persalit.
    Prométhée.
    Rack-a-Rock.
    Rexol.
    Sprengel Explosives.
    Wilhelmit.


  Inert Substances.  _See also_ Chlorides, Neutral Substances,
    Oxalates, etc.
    Koronit.

  Iron Oxide.
    Rack-a-Rock.
    Thermit.

  Ivory, Vegetable.
    Meganit.


  Kerosine. _See_ Oil, Kerosine.

  Kieselguhr.
    Dynamite.
    Giant Powder.
    Lithofracteur.
    Oxyliquit.


  Lac. _See_ Gum Lac, Shellac.

  Lampblack.
    Cahuecit.
    Cannonite.

  Lead Nitrate, Chromate. _See_ Nitrate, Chromate.


  Magnesia.
    Forcite.

  Magnesite.
    Romperit.

  Magnesium.
    Ophorite.

  Magnesium Carbonate. _See_ Carbonate.

  Manganese Dioxide. _See_ Oxide.

  Meal, Curcuma.
    Dahmenite.

  Meal, Potato.
    Astralit.
    Helagon.
    Helit.
    Permon Powder.
    Romperit.
    Teutonit.

  Meal, Sago.
    Aerolit.

  Meal, Vegetable. _See also_ Flour, Starch, Wood Meal, etc.
    Albit.
    Astralit.
    Cahuecit (Ammon-).
    Cosilit.
    Dahmenite.
    Detonit.
    Dominit.
    Donarit.
    Dorfit.
    Dynamit (Sicherheits-).
    Elsagit.
    Foerder Sicherheits-Sprengstoff.
    Foerdit.
    Fulmenit.
    Glueckauf.
    Halalite.
    Hammonit.
    Kiwit.
    Koronit.
    Leonit.
    Monachit.
    Perchlorit.
    Perrumpit.
    Persalit.
    Pfalzit.
    Prosperit.
    Rhenanit.
    Rivalit.
    Thornit.
    Tremonit.

  Mercury Fulminate.
    Flobert Ammunition.

  Mineral Jelly. _See also_ Vaseline.
    Axite.
    Ballistite.
    C. S. P.
    Cordite.
    Gelatine Dynamite.
    Haylite.
    Moddite.
    Monarkite.
    Solenite.

  Myrobalans.
    Amasite.


  Naphthalene.
    Bomlit.
    Dahmenite.
    Kiwit.
    Koronit.
    Naphthalit.
    Rhenanit.
    Walsrode Sicherheits-Sprengstoff.

  Neutral Substances. _See also_ Inert Substances and Salts.
    Helagon.
    Helit.

  Nitrate, Ammonium.
    Abbcite.
    Abelite.
    Aerolit.
    Aetna Coal Powder.
    Alkalsit.
    Alsilite.
    Alumatol.
    Amatol.
    Amatoxol.
    Amide Powder.
    Ammonal.
    Ammoniakkrut.
    Ammonite.
    Ammonpulver.
    Amvis.
    Neu Anagon.
    Anchorite.
    Anilit.
    Aphosite.
    Astralit.
    Baelenite.
    Bautzener Sicherheits-pulver.
    Bavarit.
    Bellite.
    Bental Coal Powder.
    Bituminite.
    Black Diamond.
    Bomlit.
    C.
    Cahuecit.
    Cameron Mine Powder.
    Carbonite (Ammon-).
    Chromamonit.
    Cilferite.
    Cliffite (Super-).
    Coalite.
    Colinit.
    Collier Powder.
    Cornil.
    Cronite.
    Cugnite.
    Curtisite.
    Dahmenite.
    Denaby Powder.
    Densite.
    Detonit.
    Detonite Special.
    Dominit.
    Donarite.
    Dorfit.
    Dreadnought Powder.
    Du Pont Permissible.
    Dynamite.
    Dynammon.
    Dynobel.
    Echo.
    Electronite.
    Elsagit.
    Excellite.
    Expedite.
    Extra Dynamite.
    Faversham Powder.
    Favier Explosives.
    Flammivore.
    Foerder Sicherheitssprengstoff.
    Foerdit.
    Forcite.
    Fortex.
    Fractorite.
    Fuel-ite.
    Fuellpulver.
    Fulmenit.
    Gathurst Powder.
    Gehlingerit.
    Gelatiné a l’Ammoniaque.
    Gesilit.
    Giant Coal Mine Powder.
    Giant Powder (Extra).
    Glueckauf.
    Good Luck.
    Grisoutine.
    Guardian.
    Halalite.
    Hammonit.
    Haylite.
    Hebler Powder.
    Hecla No. 2.
    Kanite.
    Kentite.
    Leonit.
    Lignosit.
    Lowinite.
    Luxit.
    Melling Powder.
    Mersey Powder.
    Miner’s Friend.
    Minite.
    Min-ite.
    Minolite.
    Monachit.
    Monarkite.
    Monobel.
    Monobel Powder.
    Nationalite.
    Negro Powder.
    Nitrolit.
    Nobel Ammonia Powder.
    Nobelit.
    Oakley Quarry Powder.
    Oaklite.
    Odite.
    Pannonit.
    Pastanil.
    Perchlorit.
    Perdit.
    Permon Powder.
    Permonite.
    Perrumpit.
    Persalit.
    Pfalzit.
    Picramite.
    Pitsea Powder.
    Pniowit.
    Progressit.
    Prosperit.
    Pulvérite.
    Raschit.
    Red H.
    Rex Powder.
    Rexite.
    Rhenanit.
    Rivalit.
    Roburite.
    Romperit.
    Sabulite.
    St. Helen’s Powder.
    Salit.
    Schlesit.
    Schneiderite.
    Seamex.
    Securite.
    Siegenit.
    Stanford Powder.
    Stomonal.
    Sunderite.
    Superite.
    Syndite.
    Telsit.
    Teutonit.
    Thames Powder.
    Thornit.
    Titanite.
    Tremonit.
    Tunnelit.
    Tunnelite.
    Uplees Powder.
    Vender.
    Victor Powder.
    Viking Powder.
    Virite.
    Wallonite.
    Walsrode Sicherheits-Sprengstoff.
    Westfalite.
    Withnell Powder.
    Yonckite.

  Nitrate, Barium.
    Amberite.
    Baratol.
    Bautzener Sicherheits-Sprengstoff.
    Cambrite.
    Cannonite.
    Carbonite.
    Clydite.
    Denaby Powder.
    Electronite.
    Flammivore.
    Forcite.
    Gelignite.
    Halakite.
    Haylite.
    Kolax.
    Kynarkite.
    Kynite.
    M.
    Nitro-Densite.
    Pit-ite.
    S.
    Tonite.
    Tutol.
    Yonckite.

  Nitrate, Lead.
    Halakite.
    Macarite.
    Minolite.
    Triplastit.

  Nitrate, Potassium.
    Aerolit.
    Albionite.
    Amberite.
    Amide Powder.
    Aphosite.
    Arkite.
    Astralit.
    Axite.
    Black Powder.
    Bobbinite.
    Bomlit.
    Britonite.
    Brugère’s Powder.
    Cahuecit.
    Cambrite.
    Cannonite.
    Carbite d’Ablon.
    Carbonite.
    Celtite.
    Chromamonite.
    Cocoa Powder.
    Cornil.
    Cornish Powder.
    Curtisite (Super-).
    Dahmenite.
    Denaby Powder.
    Densite.
    Dominit.
    Dorfit.
    Dragonite.
    Dynamite.
    Dynammon.
    Elsagit.
    Essex Powder.
    Excellite (Super-).
    Expedite.
    Faversham Powder.
    Favier Explosives.
    Flammivore.
    Forcite.
    Fortex (New).
    Fracturite.
    Gelatine Dynamite.
    Gelignite.
    Giant Powder.
    Glueckauf.
    Grisoutine.
    Hammonit.
    Haylite.
    Hebler Powder.
    Herculite.
    Kent Powder.
    Kentite.
    Kinetit.
    Kolax.
    Kynarkite.
    Lignosit.
    Loewenpulver.
    M.
    M.B.
    Minite.
    Monachit.
    Normanite.
    Oaklite.
    Perilit.
    Petroklastit.
    Phœnix Powder.
    Pit-ite.
    Pitsea Powder.
    Plastammon.
    Praeposit.
    Pulvérin.
    Rippite.
    Roburite.
    Romperit.
    Russelite.
    S.
    Sabulite.
    Samsonite.
    Saxonite.
    Sheppey Powder.
    Stonax.
    Stow-ite.
    Superite.
    Swalite.
    T.
    Thames Powder.
    Tutol.
    Virite.
    Walsrode Sicherheits-Sprengstoff.
    Westfalite.

  Nitrate, Sodium.
    Aetna Powder.
    Alkalsit.
    Amasite.
    Ammonite.
    Anchorite.
    Antigel.
    Astralit.
    Blastine.
    Bomlit.
    Britonite.
    C.
    Cahuecit.
    Cornil.
    Cosilit.
    Cugnite.
    Dahmenit.
    Densite.
    Donarit.
    Dorfit (Per-).
    Duxite.
    Elsagit.
    Forcite.
    Fractorite.
    Gelignite.
    Gesilit.
    Giant Powder.
    Glueckauf.
    Halalite.
    Hammonit.
    Haylite.
    Judson Powder.
    Leonit.
    Ligdyn.
    Loewenpulver.
    Meganit.
    Melanite.
    Melling Powder.
    Mersey Powder.
    Minolite.
    Monarkite.
    Nobel Gelignite.
    Permon Powder.
    Perrumpit.
    Persalit.
    Petroklastit.
    Pfalzit.
    Praeposit.
    Raschit.
    Rexite.
    Rhexit.
    Samsonite.
    Sengite.
    Sprengsalpeter.
    Stomonal.
    Syndite.
    Telsit.
    Terris.
    Tonite.
    Tunnelit.
    Tutol.
    Wallonite.
    Yonckite.

  Nitrate, Strontium.
    Densite.

  Nitrates.
    Alkalsit.
    Cooppal’s Powder.
    Du Pont Smokeless Powder.
    Dynamite.
    E. C. Powder.
    Eley Smokeless Powder.
    Empire Powder.
    Felixite.
    Foerdit.
    Gesilit.
    Helagon.
    Helit.
    Henrite.
    Koronit.
    K. S.
    Lithofracteur.
    Neonite.
    New Explosives Company’s Smokeless Powder.
    Nobelit.
    Perilit.
    Plastomenit.
    Red Star.
    Romperit.
    Rottweil Smokeless Powder.
    Ruby Powder.
    Schlesit.
    Schultze Powder.
    Securophore.
    Smokeless Diamond.
    S. R., S. S.

  Nitric Acid. _See_ Acid, Nitric.

  Nitric Oxide.
    Panclastite.
    Sprengel Explosives.

  Nitrobenzene.
    Hellhofite.
    Indurite.
    Kinetit.
    Panclastite.
    Prométhée.
    Rack-a-Rock.
    Sprengel Explosives.

  Nitro-bodies. _See_ Nitro-compounds.

  Nitro-cellulose. _See also_ also Nitro-cotton.
    Apyrite.
    Cannonite.
    Cooppal’s Powder.
    Crystal.
    Du Pont Smokeless Powder.
    Eley Smokeless Powder.
    Fulmen Powder.
    Henrite.
    Ideal Powder.
    Kinetit.
    K. S.
    Mischpulver.
    Mullerite.
    Neonite.
    New Explosives Company’s Smokeless Powder.
    Nitrokol.
    Normal Powder.
    P.C. /88.
    Plastomenit.
    Primrose Smokeless.
    Pyroxyline.
    Red Star.
    Rifleite.
    Rottweil Smokeless Powder.
    Ruby Powder.
    Schultze Powder.
    S. K., S. S., S. V.
    Smokeless Diamond.
    Troisdorf Smokeless Powder.
    Walsrode Shot-Gun Powder.
    Wetteren Powder.

  Nitro-compounds. _See also_ Di-, Tri-, Tetra-, Hexa-nitro-.
    Alkalsit.
    Astralit.
    Cahuecit (Ammon-).
    Chloratzite.
    Dominit.
    Donarit.
    Elsagit.
    Felixite.
    Foerder Sicherheits-Sprengstoff.
    Foerdit.
    Halalit.
    Hammonit.
    Helagon.
    Helit.
    Henrite.
    Koronit.
    K. S.
    Leonit.
    Lignosit.
    Peragon.
    Perchlorit.
    Perilit.
    Persalit.
    Petrolit.
    Plastammon.
    Polarite.
    Prosperit.
    Red Star.
    Rhenanit.
    Rifleite.
    Rivalit.
    Romperit.
    Ruby Powder.
    Schlesit.
    Sebomite.
    S. S.
    Stanford Powder.
    Stonax.
    Teutonit.
    Tonite.
    Tremonit.
    Uplees Powder.

  Nitro-cotton (including Collodion Cotton).
              _See also_ Guncotton and Nitro-cellulose.
    Ajax Powder.
    Albionite.
    Alkalsit.
    Amberite.
    Arkite.
    Astralit.
    B.
    Ballistite.
    Blasting Gelatine.
    Bomlit.
    Cahuecit (Ammon-).
    Carbonite.
    Celtite.
    Chromamonit.
    Clermonite.
    Cliffite.
    Colinit.
    Cornish Powder.
    C. P.
    Cugnite.
    Dahmenite.
    Denaby Powder.
    Detonit.
    Dominite.
    Donarit.
    Dragonite.
    Duxite.
    Dynamite (Gelatine).
    Dynobel.
    E. C. Powder.
    Echo.
    Elsagit.
    Empire Powder.
    Essex Powder.
    Excellite.
    Felixite.
    Filite.
    Flammivore.
    Foerder Sicherheitssprengstoff.
    Foerdit.
    Forcite.
    Fracturite.
    Gelatiné a l’Ammoniaque.
    Gelatine Dynamite.
    Gelignite.
    Gesilit.
    Giant Powder.
    Grisoutine.
    Halalite.
    Haylite.
    Herculite.
    Hudson’s Explosive.
    J.
    Kolax (Super-).
    Koronit.
    Leonit.
    Lignosit.
    M.
    Melanite.
    Moddite.
    Monachit.
    Monarkite.
    Mullerite.
    Naphthalit.
    N. C. T.
    Neonal.
    Nitrolit.
    Nobelit.
    Normanite.
    Oaklite.
    Pannonit.
    Permon Powder.
    Permonite.
    Pfalzit.
    Phœnix Powder.
    Plastrotyl.
    Polarite.
    Prosperit.
    Pulverite.
    Pyrocollodion.
    Rhenanit.
    Rippite.
    Rivalit.
    Romperit.
    Russelite.
    S.
    Salit.
    Samsonite.
    Saxonite.
    Schlesit.
    Solenite.
    Stonax.
    Stowite.
    Swale Powder.
    Swalite.
    Syndite.
    Telsit.
    Territ.
    Tremonit.
    Triplastit.
    Tunnelit.
    Vender.

  Nitroglycerine.
    Abbcite.
    Aetna Powder.
    Aetna Coal Powder.
    Ajax Powder.
    Albionite.
    Albit.
    Amberite.
    Ammoniakkrut.
    Antigel.
    Arkite.
    Astralit.
    Axite.
    Ballistite.
    Bituminite.
    Black Diamond.
    Blasting Gelatine.
    Britonite.
    Cambrite.
    Cameron Mine Powder.
    Carbite d’Ablon.
    Carbo-dynamite.
    Carbonite.
    Celtite.
    Cliffite.
    Clydite.
    Coalite.
    Coal Special.
    Colinit.
    Collier Powder.
    Cordite.
    Cornish Powder.
    Cosilit.
    C. S. P.
    Cugnite.
    Detonit.
    Dominite.
    Donarit.
    Dragonite.
    Du Pont Permissible.
    Duxite.
    Dynamite.
    Dynobel.
    Elsagit.
    Erin Gelignite.
    Essex Powder.
    Eureka.
    Excellite.
    Filite.
    Flammivore.
    Foerder Sicherheitssprengstoff.
    Foerdit.
    Forcite.
    Fort Pitt Mine Powder.
    Fractorite.
    Fracturite.
    Fuel-ite.
    Gehlingerit (Wetter-).
    Gelatiné à l’Ammoniaque.
    Gelatine Dynamite.
    Gelignite.
    Gesilit.
    Giant Coal-Mine Powder.
    Giant Powder.
    Glonoine.
    Grisoutine.
    Grisoutite.
    Guardian.
    Halalit.
    Hammonit.
    Haylite.
    Hecla Powder.
    Herculite.
    Hudson’s Explosive.
    Hygrade Coal Powder.
    Judson Powder.
    Kent Powder.
    Kolax.
    Koronit.
    Kynarkite.
    Kynite.
    Lafflin and Rand.
    Ligdyn.
    Lignosit.
    Lithofracteur.
    Lomite.
    Meganit.
    Melanite.
    Melling Powder.
    Mersey Powder.
    Meteor.
    Minite.
    Min-ite.
    Moddite.
    Monarkite.
    Monobel.
    Monobel Powder.
    Naphthalit.
    Neonal.
    Nitro-densite.
    Nitrolit.
    Nitro Low-Flame.
    Nobel Ammonia Powder.
    Nobelit.
    Normanite.
    Oaklite.
    Pannonit.
    Perchlorit.
    Permon Powder.
    Permonite.
    Persalit (Wetter-).
    Phœnix Powder.
    Pit-ite.
    Pitsea Powder.
    Polarite.
    Prosperit.
    Pulvérite.
    Rex Powder.
    Rexite.
    Rhenanit.
    Rhexit.
    Rippite.
    Rivalit.
    Romperit.
    Russelite.
    Salit.
    Samsonite.
    Saxonite.
    Schlesit.
    Seamex.
    Securophore.
    Sheppey Powder.
    Siegenit.
    Solenite.
    Stomonal.
    Stonax.
    Stow-ite.
    Sunderite.
    Superite.
    Swale Powder.
    Swalite.
    Syndite.
    Telsit.
    Thames Powder.
    Tremonit.
    Tunnelit.
    Tunnelite.
    Tutol.
    Velox Gelatine.
    Victor Powder.
    Vigorite.
    Viking Powder.
    Wetter-dynamit.
    Wetteren.
    Xpdite.

  Nitro-hydrocarbons. _See also_ Nitrobenzene,
                                      Tinitro-toluene, etc.
    Albit.
    Alkalsit.
    Carbonite.
    Cooppal’s Powder.
    Monachit.
    Naphthalit.
    New Explosives Company’s Smokeless Powder.
    Persalit.

  Nitro-mesytilenes.
    Monachit.

  Nitro-naphthalene.
    Alkalsit.
    Astralit.
    Barking Powder.
    Bavarit.
    Cheddite.
    Curtisite.
    Favier Explosives.
    Pierrite.
    Sprengel Explosives.

  Nitro-semi-cellulose.
    Plastammon.

  Nitro-starch.
    Silesia.
    Trojan Coal Powder.

  Nitro-toluene.
    Astralit.
    Erin Gelignite.
    Foerdit.
    Monobel.
    Panclastite.
    Pannonit.
    Plastammon.
    Red Cross.
    Telsit.

  Nitro-toluenes, Liquid.
    Alkalsit.
    Barbarit.
    Bomlit.
    Halalite.
    Kiwit.
    Plastomenit.
    Plastrotyl.
    Telsit.
    Territ.
    Triplastit.
    Tunnelit.

  Nitroxylene.
    Monachit.


  Oil.
    Albit.
    Kiwit.

  Oil, Castor.
    Bomlit.
    Cheddite.
    Excellite.
    Pierrite.
    Rippite.
    Steelite.

  Oil, Dead.
    Rack-a-Rock.

  Oil, Drying.
    Himalayite.

  Oil, Fatty.
    Astralit.
    Elsagit.
    Glueckauf.
    Koronit.
    Naphthalit.
    Perrumpit.

  Oil, Hydrocarbon. _See also_ Paraffins, etc.
    Mercurit.
    Sprengel Explosives.
    Wilhelmit.

  Oil, Kerosine.
    Miedziankit.
    Petrolit.
    Plessit.

  Oil, Mineral.
    Rexol.

  Oil, Paraffin.
    Astralit.
    Dominite.
    Fulmenit.
    Koronit.

  Oil, Petroleum.
    Barbarit.
    Oxyliquit.
    Sprengel Explosives.

  Oil, Rape.
    Astralit.

  Oil, Red.
    Dreadnought Powder.

  Oxalate, Ammonium.
    Ajax Powder.
    Albionite.
    Arkite.
    Astralit.
    Britonite.
    Cambrite.
    Celtite.
    Cheesa Sticks.
    Cliffite (Super-).
    Clydite.
    Dominite.
    Duxite.
    Dynamit (Wetter-).
    Dynobel.
    Excellite (Super-).
    Fractorite.
    Fracturite.
    Glueckauf.
    Haylite.
    Herculite.
    Kent Powder.
    Kolax (Super-).
    Kynarkite.
    Melling Powder.
    Minite.
    Monachit.
    Neonal.
    Normanite.
    Perrumpit.
    Pit-ite.
    Pitsea Powder.
    Rippite.
    Russelite.
    Samsonite.
    Saxonite.
    Sheppey Powder.
    Stomonal.
    Stow-ite.
    Sunderite.
    Swale Powder.
    Swalite.
    Thames Powder.
    Virite.

  Oxalate, Copper.
    Glueckauf.
    Good Luck.

  Oxalate, Potassium.
    Nobelit.

  Oxalates.
    Astralit.
    Elsagit.
    Nobelit.

  Oxide, Iron.
    Rack-a-Rock.
    Thermit.

  Oxide, Manganese.
    Aerolit.
    Loewenpulver.
    Prométhée.

  Oxygen (Liquid).
    Marsit.
    Oxyliquit.


  Paraffin. _See also_ Oil, Paraffin and Hydrocarbons.
    Favier Explosives.
    Henrite.
    Kiwit.
    Naphthalit.
    Rivalit (Chlorat-).

  Paraffin Wax. _See_ Wax.

  Perchlorate, Ammonium.
    Alkalsit.
    Amasite.
    Barking Powder.
    Blastine.
    Carlsonite.
    Kausolit.
    M. B. Powder.
    Rexol.
    Territ.
    Yonckite.

  Perchlorate, Potassium.
    Ajax Powder.
    Alkalsit.
    Bomlit.
    Chloratzite.
    Colinit.
    Dominit.
    Donarit.
    Dorfit (Per-).
    Dynobel.
    Halalite.
    Hammonit.
    Helagon.
    Helit.
    Herculite.
    Koronit.
    Leonit.
    M. B. Powder.
    Mercurit.
    Neonal.
    Ophorite.
    Peragon.
    Perchlorit.
    Perdit.
    Perilit.
    Permonite.
    Persalit.
    Pniowit.
    Polarite.
    Pulvérite.
    Rhenanit.
    Rivalit.
    Romperit.
    Samsonite.
    Schlesit.
    Sonnit.
    Sunderite.
    Swale Powder.
    Tremonit.
    Westfalite.

  Perchlorate, Sodium.
    Alkalsit.
    Hammonit.
    Koronit.
    Leonit.

  Perchlorates.
    Mitchellite.
    Persalit.
    Roslin Giant Blasting Powder.

  Permanganate, Potassium.
    Roburite.

  Picrate, Ammonium.
    Brugère’s Powder.
    Picramite.

  Picric Acid.
    Crésylite.
    Dunnite.
    Granatfuellung.
    Lyddite.
    Mélinite.
    Picrol.
    Pierrite.
    Shellite.
    Sprengel Explosives.

  Picryl Sulphide.
    Granatfuellung.

  Pitch, Coal Tar.
    Petroklastit.

  Potassium Chloride, Nitrate, etc. _See_ Chloride, Nitrate, etc.

  Potato Meal. _See_ Meal, Potato.


  Quebracho.
    Minolite.


  Resin.
    Aerolit.
    Cannonite.
    Chloratzite.
    E.C. Powder.
    Favier Explosives.
    Giant Powder.
    Glueckauf.
    Judson Powder.
    Normal Powder.
    Persalit.
    Plastrotyl.
    Rexol.
    Romperit.
    Silesia.
    Westfalite.

  Resin, Oxidised.
    Siegenit.
    Steelite.
    Wallonite.


  Salts, Hydrated.
    Eureka.
    Giant Coal-Mine Powder.
    Lomite.
    Meteor.

  Salts, Inorganic. _See also_ Chlorides, Sulphates, etc.
    Albit.
    Koronit.
    Lafflin and Rand.
    Monachit.
    Persalit.

  Salts, Neutral.
    Cahuecit (Ammon-).
    Chloratzit.
    Detonit.
    Foerder Sicherheitssprengstoff.
    H.
    Hammonit.
    Petrolit.
    Schlesit.
    Teutonit.
    Wilhelmit.

  Sawdust.
    Herculite.

  Shellac. _See also_ Gum Lac.
    Cheesa Sticks.
    Cooppal’s Powder.
    Wetteren.

  Silicide, Calcium.
    Sabulite.

  Soap.
    Albit.

  Sodium Chloride, Nitrate, etc. _See_ Chloride, Nitrate.

  Soot.
    Marsit.

  Starch.
    Abelite.
    Bellite.
    Bobbinite.
    Bomlit.
    Carbonite.
    Cliffite.
    Cooppal’s Powder.
    Electronite.
    Excellite (Super-).
    Himalayite.
    Kolax.
    Kynite.
    Monarkite.
    Nitro-Densite.
    Permonite.
    Ruby Powder.
    Schlesit.
    S.R.
    Superite.
    Syndite.
    Thames Powder.
    Troisdorf Smokeless Powder.

  Stearine.
    Cannonite.

  Straw Charcoal.
    Cocoa Powder.

  Strontium Nitrate.
    Densite.

  Sugar.
    Anilit.
    Glueckauf.
    White Gunpowder.

  Sulphate, Ammonium.
    Antigel.
    Bobbinite.
    Flammivore.
    Progressit.
    Pulvérite.

  Sulphate, Barium.
    Cugnite.
    Flammivore.
    Pulvérite.

  Sulphate, Copper.
    Bobbinite.

  Sulphate, Iron.
    Cahuecit.

  Sulphate, Magnesium.
    Colinit.
    Cornish Powder.
    Grisoutine.
    Siegenit.

  Sulphate, Sodium.
    Grisoutine.
    Raschit.

  Sulphide, Antimony.
    Flobert Ammunition.
    Kinetit.

  Sulphonate, Ammonium Nitro-cresol-.

  Sulphonate, Sodium Cresol-.
    Raschit.

  Sulphur.
    Aerolit.
    Aphosite.
    Black Powder.
    Bobbinite.
    Cahuecit.
    Cocoa Powder.
    Dynamite (American).
    Forcite.
    Giant Powder.
    Hebler Powder.
    Judson Powder.
    Lithofracteur.
    Loewenpulver.
    M. B. Powder.
    Petroklastit.
    Praeposit.
    Pulvérin.
    Sprengsalpeter.
    Virite.

  Sulphuretted Benzol.
    Carbonite.


  Tallow. _See also_ Fat.
    Sebomite.

  Tar.
    Forcite.
    Loewenpulver.

  Tetranitro-methyl-aniline.

  Tetryl.
    Favier Explosives.
    Fortex.
    Oakley Quarry Powder.

  Trinitro-anisole.
    Granatfuellung.
    Nitrolit.
    Stabilite.

  Trinitro-cresol.
    Crésilite.
    Mélinite.

  Trinitro-cresylate, Ammonium.
    Ecrasit.

  Trinitro-naphthalene.
    Ammonite.
    Cahuecit.
    Favier Explosives.
    Minolite.

  Trinitro-phenol. _See_ Picric Acid.

  Trinitro-phenyl-methyl-nitramine. _See_ Tetryl.

  Trinitro-toluene.
    Abelite.
    Ajax Powder.
    Alkalsist.
    Alsilite.
    Alumatol.
    Amatol.
    Amatoxol.
    Ammonal.
    Ammonite.
    Anchorite.
    Astralit.
    Azurite.
    Baelenite.
    Baratol.
    Barbarit.
    Bautzener Sicherheits-pulver.
    Bellite.
    Bomlit.
    Cahuecit.
    Cannonite.
    Colinit.
    Curtisite.
    Dahmenite.
    Denaby Powder.
    Densite.
    Donarit.
    Dorfit.
    Dreadnought Powder.
    Dynobel.
    Echo.
    Elsagit.
    Expedite.
    Faversham Powder.
    Fuellpulver.
    Fulmenit.
    Fumyl.
    Gehlingerit.
    Gelignite.
    Granatfuellung.
    Grisoutine.
    Halalite.
    Haylite.
    Kentite.
    Leonit.
    Lignosit.
    Luxit.
    Macarite.
    Melling Powder.
    Mersey Powder.
    Minite.
    Minolite.
    Nationalite.
    Negro Powder.
    Neonal.
    P. C. /88.
    Permonite.
    Perrumpit.
    Persalit.
    Pfalzit.
    Pniowit.
    Pulvérite.
    Rexite.
    Roburite.
    Romperit.
    Russelite.
    Sabulite.
    St. Helen’s Powder.
    Swale Powder.
    Titanite.
    T. N. T.
    Tolite.
    Toxol.
    Tremonit.
    Trinol.
    Trotyl.
    Tunnelit.
    Walsrode Sicherheits-Sprengstoff.
    Westfalite.
    Withnell Powder.
    Yonckite.

  Trinitro-xylene.
    Amatoxol.
    Toxol.

  Turmeric.
    Good Luck.

  Turpentine.
    Plastrotyl.
    Prométhée.


  Vaseline. _See also_ Mineral Jelly.
    Amberite.
    Bomlit.
    Cannonite.
    Chromamonit.
    Dragonite.
    E. C. Powder.
    Empire Powder.
    Felixite.
    Kiwit.
    K. S.
    Neonite.
    New Explosives Co.
    Red Star.
    Schultze Powder.
    Smokeless Diamond.
    S. S.

  Vegetable Meal. _See_ Meal, Vegetable.

  Vegetable Ivory.
    Meganit.


  Wax, Paraffin. _See also_ Paraffin.
    Blastine.
    Bobbinite.
    Cheddite.
    Mélinite.

  Wood Meal and Wood Pulp.
    Abbcite.
    Aetna Powder.
    Ajax Powder.
    Albionite.
    Alkalsit.
    Amvis.
    Antigel.
    Aphosite.
    Arkite.
    Astralit.
    Britonite.
    Cahuecit.
    Cambrite.
    Carbite d’Ablon.
    Carbonite.
    Celtite.
    Cilferite.
    Cliffite (Super-).
    Clydite.
    Cornish Powder.
    Cugnite.
    Dominite.
    Dragonite.
    Du Pont Permissible.
    Duxite.
    Dynamite.
    Dynobel.
    Electronite.
    Excellite.
    Forcite.
    Fracturite.
    Gelatine Dynamite.
    Gelignite.
    Giant Powder.
    Grisoutine.
    Halalite.
    Haylite.
    Herculite.
    Kent Powder.
    Kolax.
    Kynarkite.
    Kynite.
    Leonit.
    Ligdyn.
    Lignosit.
    Loewenpulver.
    Luxit.
    Meganit.
    Melling Powder.
    Mersey Powder.
    Monobel.
    Monobel Powder.
    Neonal.
    Nitro-Densite.
    Nobel Ammonia Powder.
    Normanite.
    Oaklite.
    Perdit.
    Permonite.
    Phœnix Powder.
    Pit-ite.
    Pitsea Powder.
    Pniowit.
    Polarite.
    Rex Powder.
    Rexite.
    Rhexit.
    Rippite.
    Russelite.
    Samsonite.
    Saxonite.
    Sheppey Powder.
    Stomonal.
    Stonax.
    Stowite.
    Sunderite.
    Swale Powder.
    Swalite.
    Thames Powder.
    Tutol.
    Victor Powder.
    Viking Powder.


  Zinc.
    Rexol.

  Zinc Aluminium Alloy.
    Neu Anagon.
    Helagon.
    Peragon.


          PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY
         RICHARD CLAY & SONS, LIMITED,
       BRUNSWICK ST., STAMFORD ST., S.E. 1,
             AND BUNGAY, SUFFOLK.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Dictionary of Explosives" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home