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Title: The Pillar of Fire - or, Israel in Bondage
Author: Ingraham, J. H. (Joseph Holt)
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.

*** Start of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "The Pillar of Fire - or, Israel in Bondage" ***

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Transcriber's Note.

The text comprises a series of letters in three groups. The first
group, the first letter within that group, and the third group,
lack headings. Appropriate headings have been copied from the
Table of Contents and inserted on pages 25 and 468.

Apparent typographical errors have been corrected as has inconsistent

Italics are indicated by _underscores_. Small capitals have been
converted to full capitals.

[Illustration: THE FINDING OF MOSES.--PAGE 388.]

 Israel in Bondage.


 Rector of Christ Church, and of St. Thomas' Hall, Holly Springs, Miss.



 Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by
 in the Clerk's Office of the District Court
 for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

 This Book


The idea of illustrating scenes of that period of the history of Egypt
in which the Israelites were held in bondage by her kings, and
presenting it from a point of view outside of the Mosaic narrative,
yet strictly harmonizing therewith, occurred to the writer some years

In view of his object, he has carefully studied the history and
chronology of Egypt, and endeavored to inform his mind upon the
manners, customs, laws, religion, and polity of the ancient Egyptians,
so far as to aid him in an intelligent and practical execution of his

The difficulties which the question of dynasty, and of _individual_
reigns have presented, will be understood by the Egyptian student.
Whatsoever chronology or theory the author might finally decide upon,
he saw would be open to the objections of adherents to the opposite

After a thorough examination of the subject of the dynasties, the
author has followed, chiefly, the chronology and theory of Nolan and
Seyffarth, whose opinions are sustained by the ablest scholars.

But this work is by no means a "Book on Egypt." It professes to have
nothing more to do with Egyptian antiquities, mythology, chronology,
and history, than these naturally assemble about his subject, which
is, mainly, "The Bondage and Deliverance of the Children of Israel
from the Land of Egypt."

The plan upon which the author has constructed his work is similar to
that of "The Prince of the House of David;" viz., by presenting the
scenes and events he would describe, through a series of letters,
alleged to be written by one who is supposed to witness with his own
eyes what he is made to place before those of the reader.

As in "The Prince of the House of David," a young Jewish maiden is
supposed to witness many of the most remarkable scenes in the human
life of the Lord Jesus, and to write of them to her father in Egypt,
so in the present work a young prince of Phœnicia is made the
medium of communication between the author and his reader.

This prince, SESOSTRIS, the son of the king and queen of Phœnicia,
upon reaching the age of eight-and-twenty, prepares to go into Egypt,
for the purpose of studying the laws and arts, religion and government
of that country, which, at this period, was the most powerful kingdom
of the earth. Mistress of wisdom, learning, and letters, she drew to
her brilliant court youths, nobles, philosophers, and travellers of
all lands; as in later centuries, even in her decadence, Greece sent
her scholars there to be perfected in the sciences and philosophies of
her academies.

Young Sesostris takes leave of his mother, now a widowed queen, and
embarks in the royal galley at the marble pier of the palace of the
Isle of Tyre. He bears letters to Amense, the queen of Egypt,
commending him to her courtesy.

Between Egypt and Phœnicia existed bonds, not only of friendly
alliance, but of relationship. But few centuries had passed since a
king of Phœnicia, at the head of a vast army of Syrians, invaded
Egypt, and taking Memphis, set up a foreign throne in the valley of
the Nile.

Under this dynasty of conquerors, Joseph ruled in Egypt, and Jacob
dwelt; for, being Syrians, these new Pharaohs regarded with partiality
the descendants of Abraham, who was also "a Syrian."

But after the death of Joseph, not many years elapsed ere the Theban
kings of Upper Egypt invaded the Memphitic realm of the Nile, and,
overturning the power of this foreign dynasty, friendly to the sons of
Israel, re-established the native Egyptian monarchy, "which knew not
Joseph," nor recognized the descendants of Abraham dwelling in the
land. On the contrary, looking upon them as of similar lineage with
the expelled Syrian or Assyrian invaders, as they were equally called,
the new monarch and conqueror, AMOSIS, at once placed them in
subjection, and oppressed them with a bitter bondage.

This new Egyptian monarchy, under Pharaoh-Amosis, came into power
again, some years after the death of Joseph, during which period the
children of Israel had increased to a great people. For the space of
seventy years their oppression was continued by successive kings,
until, under Amenophis I. (the father of Amense, "Pharaoh's
daughter"), the alarming increase of the numbers of the Hebrews, led
this monarch to take harsher measures with them, "for the more they
afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew."[1] Fearing for the
stability of his kingdom, if they should rise upon their taskmasters,
and remembering the Syrian shepherd-kings, who had so lately ruled
Egypt, he issued the command for the destruction of all their male
children, as soon as born!

At the time of the promulgation of this sanguinary edict, Amense was a
young princess, to whose feet the little ark, containing the infant
Moses, God-directed, came.

The theory of Egyptian chronology which we have decided to follow,
represents this princess as the Queen of Egypt, at the time when we
present the Prince Sesostris of Tyre to the reader Under her wise
rule, Egypt had attained the culmination of its glory and power. Her
father, having died, after reigning twenty-two years, she began her
brilliant reign when Moses was twelve years of age--B. C. about 1560.
She had been upon the throne twenty-one years, when the Prince
Sesostris prepares to visit her court.

We will not longer delay presenting the reader to the Letters of
Prince Sesostris, trusting that this feeble attempt to illustrate one
of the most interesting periods of human history, as it might have
appeared to a stranger in Egypt, may lead to a study of the Old
Testament by many who are unfamiliar with its pages; and also show
how, in his dealings with Pharaoh, God wielded not merely an arbitrary
power, but that, in all the "mighty works" He did, He was striking at
Egypt's _gods_, and asserting His own Divinity, as the Only Living and
True God, "besides Whom there is none else."


 _Jan. 1, 1859_.

NOTE.--The Egyptian scholar, the critic, and the Biblical student
are referred to the "Concluding Essay by the Author," in the Appendix,
at the close of the volume.

[1] Exodus ii.




On, the City of the Sun--Grandeur of Egypt--Emotions at the sight of
its wonders of art and scenes of beauty--The Queen of the ancient
house of Pharaoh--Her son, Prince Remeses (Moses)--Tyre, and its
traffic with distant lands--Damascus--Voyage from Tyre to
Pelusium--Scene at the departure of the fleet--The Nile--Its
encroachments--First view of Egypt--Meeting with Egyptian
war-ship--Invitation to visit the Court of Queen Amense--Description
of Egyptian war-ship--Banquet on the Admiral's ship--Singular
custom--Panorama of the Nile--pp. 25-38.


Love for native land--Avenue of temples and palaces--Sublime temple of
the Sun--Emblem of Osiris--Artificial canal--Gardens and circular
lake--Gathering of philosophers and scholars--Obelisks--Message from
Queen Amense--Great temple of Osiris--Splendid approach to the City of
the Sun--Row of sphinxes--Osiris and Isis--Colossi--An Arabian
charger--Magnificent scene--Spectacle of architectural grandeur--Beautiful
palace--Religious notions of the Egyptians--Personal appearance of the
Lord-prince Remeses (Moses)--View of the Desert--Hebrew
laborers--Interview with Remeses--pp. 39-52.


Climate of Egypt--Eternal sunshine and crystalline atmosphere--Costume
of the Egyptian prince--Hieroglyphic writing--Legend of the Obelisk of
Mitres--More of the personal appearance of Remeses (Moses)--The Hebrew
prince Abram (the Patriarch)--His personal appearance--His
tomb--Interior of Egyptian palace--Egyptian Mythology--Mnevis, the
sacred ox--Legend of Osiris--Pantheism--Apis, or the sacred
bull--Out-of-door life at midday--Hebrews, under their taskmasters, in
the burning sun--Prospect from the terrace of the palace--Isle of
Rhoda, in the Nile--pp. 53-66.


Palace of Remeses--Invitation to meet the Queen--Costume of a prince
of Tyre--Egyptian chariots and horses--Nubian charioteer--Escort of
the Queen's body-guard--Pleasure chariots--The Queen in her
chariot--Beautiful lake--Sphinxes--Royal palace described--The
throne-room--The throne-chair of ivory--Its footstool and
canopy--Assembly of military princes--Magnificent attire, and splendid
appearance of Remeses (Moses)--Ceremony of presentation to the
Queen--Queen Amense; her appearance and costume--Termination of the
audience--pp. 67-80.


Egyptian magnificence--Egyptian architecture--Osiride pillars--Vastness
of objects--Avenue of Sphinxes--Temple of the god Horus--The emblem of
Hor-hat--Court of Colonnades--Grand hall--Rich colors in
architecture--Sculpture--Bass-reliefs--Splendid temple--Chamber of art
and beauty--Magnificent review of the army of four thousand chariots
of iron--A warrior-prince in his war-chariot--Description of
war-chariot--Ethiopian slaves--Bewildering spectacle--Military and
civil homage to the Queen--The Lord of Uz (Job) described--Ceremonies
preparatory to a royal banquet--The banquet--Costly wine-goblets--Arabian
dancing-girls--Jugglers--Guests overcome by wine--pp. 81-98.


Visit from Prince Remeses (Moses)--Great gate of the city--Phalanx of
dark Libyan soldiers--Varied accomplishments of Remeses--Avenue of
gardens, villas, and lakes--Temples in circular lakes--Egyptian
field-laborers--Hebrew brick-makers--Description of this "mysterious"
race--Account of the mode of their toil--Cruelty of their
taskmasters--Emotions of pity at the sight of their sufferings--The
lash!--Beautiful Hebrew girls--Dwellings of brick-makers--Joseph--Scene
at the "Fountain of Strangers"--Distant view of the City of the
Sun--Of Raamses--Of the pyramids--Of the illimitable desert--Wounded
Hebrew youth at the Fountain of Strangers--Majestic old Hebrew beaten
by taskmasters--Touching scene--pp. 99-114.


Interview with the venerable Ben Isaac at the Well of the
Strangers--Raamses, the Treasure-city--Joseph's granary--Exquisite
temple of Apis--Beautiful young Hebrew girl pursued by the
taskmaster--Her rescue and story--The punishment of the
taskmaster--Intolerable burdens of the Hebrews--Garden of Flowers for
the use of the temple of Apis--Account of the Syrian prince Abram
(Abraham)--Of Melchisedec--Of the Hyksos, or Shepherd-Kings--Their
conquest of Egypt--The Princess Sara (wife of Abraham)--Prince Jacob
(the Patriarch) and his twelve sons--Joseph--Pharaoh's dream--Elevation
of Joseph--Monuments of his power--pp. 115-129.


Eagles of prey--Account of the Hebrews--Imposing funeral of the
Patriarch Jacob--His powerful and able government--Overthrow of the
dynasty of the Shepherd-Kings--Dynasty of the Thebaïd--Flourishing
condition of the Hebrews in the land of Goshen, under the government
of Joseph--Aspirations after the One God--Reduction of the Hebrews to
servitude--Their rapid and miraculous increase--The massacre of their
male infants--Courageous affection of the Hebrew mothers--Egyptian
nurses sympathize with them--Infants hid--Queen Amense's
humanity--Courage and wisdom of many of the Hebrews--Exciting ride
past Joseph's ruined palace--Jacob's Well--The plain of the Hebrew
brick-makers--Death of a Hebrew under his taskmasters--Sculptured
obelisk of Queen Amense--Emotions of Syrian painters at sight of their
prince--pp. 130-144.


Reflections on the degradation of the Hebrews--Hebrew pages and maidens
in the service of Egyptian nobles--Amram, the palace gardener--Contrast
between the physiognomy of the Egyptians and Hebrews--Remarkable
likeness of Prince Remeses to the Israelites--Description of the
Lord-prince Mœris--He seeks a quarrel with Remeses--Illness of
Queen Amense--Filial devotion of Remeses--Magnificent prospect of the
Nile, the Plain of the Pyramids, the City of the Sun, Jizeh and
Memphis--Myriads of human beings at labor--Naval review and
sham-battle--Exciting scene of contending thousands--pp. 145-157.


Recovery of Queen Amense--Gropings after the True God--Pleasure-galley
of the Nile--Voluptuous ease--River chant--Phœnician Mythology and
Learning--Procession of the Dead--Tradition of the universal Deluge
and of Noe-menes (Noah)--Myths of Ammon, and of Belus the Warrior-god
and Founder of Babylon--Nimrod's temple--Baalbec--Worship of the
Sun--Myths of Apis, Horus, Adonis, and Io--Magnificent worship of
Osiris and Isis--Mysteries of the temple of Tyre--Baal-phegor--Pillars
of the West--Marvels of foreign lands, and islands of wonderful
beauty--Men formed like monkeys--The edge of the world--A
sea-storm--Gulf down which the full sea plunges--Legends of the form
of the Earth; of its foundation; of its motion through space--pp.


The beautiful Isle of Rhoda--Prince Mœris and his favorite
lion--Refinement of Egyptians--Polite observances at the reception of
visitors--Parting between Queen Amense and Remeses--Military
emblems--Magnificent display of the Egyptian "tented hosts"--Striking
religious and military display of the army--Columns formed of trophies
taken in battle--The chief priest of Mars--His gorgeous attire and
imposing ceremonies--Gigantic statue of Mars, in full armor--Offerings
of the soldiers--Invocation by the High-priest--Libations for the
army--Clouds of incense--Appearance of the beautiful daughters of the
priest--The musical sistrum--Sacred offices in the temple filled by
women--The Virgins of the Sun--Social position of Egyptian
women--Thrilling martial hymn chaunted by the priests, the army, and
the maiden--Sacrifice--Remeses reviews the army--Ethiopia--Description
of an Egyptian army; its tactics and weapons--The nations composing
it--pp. 173-190.


Immense military force of Egypt--Sublime sunrise--Morning hymn--Gala
of the resurrection of Osiris--Festivals to the gods--Visit to the
Queen--Glimpse of dark-eyed Egyptian girls--Their tasteful
dress--Life, manners, and customs of high-born Egyptian ladies--Their
high social estimation--Egyptians can have but one wife--Occupations
of ladies--Classifications of Egyptian society--The habitations of the
Egyptians--Family customs and gatherings--House of the Admiral
Pathromenes--Home-life of the Egyptians--pp. 191-208.


Ancient worship of the gods on Libanus--Natural temples--Legend of the
weeping for Tammuz--Unsatisfactory nature of the worship of
idols--More aspirations and gropings after the true God--Where is the
Infinite?--There can be but one God!--His nature--Body-guard rowers of
Prince Remeses--Their captain--Nubian slaves--Great quay, or
landing-mart of Memphis--Merchants from all parts of the world--Street
lined with temples--Avenue of statues and columns--Memphis--Gradual
change of the true religion into idolatry--The four deified bulls of
Egypt--Sacred birds, serpents, scorpions, vegetables, and
monsters--pp. 209-225.


Majestic temple of the sacred bull, Apis--Tyrian mariner torn to
pieces by the Egyptians for ignorantly killing a sacred cat--Imposing
worship of the deified bull--Description of the sacred animal--Costly
offerings at his shrine--An omen!--Tasteful palace of the hierarch of
the temple--Transmigration of souls--Brute incarnation of
deity--Tradition concerning Osiris--Foreshadowing of the coming of the
Invisible upon earth in human form--Lamentations upon the death of a
deified bull--His obsequies--Pomp and rejoicings over a new god,
Apis--Mausoleum of the Serapis--Sarcophagi--The Sarapeum--The Lady
Nelisa--Beautiful daughter of the priest of Mars--The Lake of the
Dead--Embalmers and their art--Customs attending death and
embalmment--Funeral procession of Rathmes, "lord of the royal
gardens"--The venerable head-gardener, Amram--The baris, or sacred
boat--pp. 226-244.


Conclusion of funeral ceremonies of the lord of the royal gardens--The
Sacred Way--Processions of mourners--Avenue to the tombs--The
"dead-life" of the Egyptians--Awful ceremony of the judgment of the
dead--Burial of the unworthy dead prohibited--False accusers stoned
away--Myth as to the state of the soul after death--Metempsychosis--The
mystery of the tribunal of Osiris--Reception of the justified soul
into the celestial kingdom--Doom of the reprobate soul--Monkeys,
emblems of the god Thoth--The gate of the pyramids--Colossal
Andro-sphinx, or Watcher before the pyramids--Beautiful temple of
Osiris--The twin pyramids, Cheops and Chephres--pp. 245-261.


Continuation of description of the Pyramids--Colossal monolith of
Horus--Perilous ascent of Cheops--Prospect from a resting-place upon
the pyramid, four hundred feet in air--A prince of Midian falls from
Chephres--Magnificent view from the top of Cheops, six hundred feet in
air--Tombs of kings--The Giants before the Flood founders of the great
pyramids--Ancient appearance of pyramids--Greater duration of human
life--The third pyramid built by Amun, son of Noah--Egyptian tradition
of Noah and his sons--Entombment of Noah in Cheops, and the mourning
of the Nations--Verdant plain of the Nile--The desolation of the
Desert--Jizeh--Raamses and Pythom, the treasure-cities--The smiling
land of Goshen--Prophecy of an Unknown World, in the West--The sacred
papyri--Descent of the pyramid--Luxora, the beautiful daughter of the
high-priest--Her legend of the Emerald Table of Hermes--Osiria--pp.


The lovely Osiria's legend of King Saurid--Stately Hebrew
woman--Tradition of the construction of the larger pyramid--Its
foundations--Its gates--Its covering of silk--Its treasure-chambers and
magical guardians of stone and agate--Miriam, the papyrus-copier--Her
striking resemblance to Prince Remeses--The pyramid penetrated by a
Phœnician conqueror--Discovery of treasures--Mighty sarcophagus of
the dead monarch of two worlds, Noah--Chamber of the precession of the
equinoxes--Hall of the Universe--Pyramids built before the
Deluge--Configuration of the seven planets as at the Creation--Astrology--
Enigma of the Phœnix--The riddle solved--Nelisa--Interview with the
stately Miriam in the Hall of Books--pp. 277-293.


Tidings from Prince Remeses and the army--Antediluvian origin of the
pyramids--The barbaric King of Ethiopia, Occhoris--His body-guard of
Bellardines--His sacrilege in the temple of the sacred bull at
Thebes--Pious vengeance of the people--Visit of Remeses to the tomb of
his father--Remarkable conversation with Miriam, the papyrus-copier--
Description of Miriam--Ben Isaac and the lad Israel--Contempt of the
Egyptians for Israel--Religious and political degradation of the
Hebrews--Miriam declares the mystery of the God of her fathers--Her
denunciation of idol-worship--Miriam's occupation--The winged
asps--Interview with the Prince of Uz, Ra-Iub (Job)--Job speaks of the
ALMIGHTY!--Seems inspired of God--Tradition of a Day's-man, or
mediator--Job convinces Sesostris that there is but one God--pp.


Intelligence from Ethiopia--Remeses a conqueror--Great spoils--He
enters Memphis in triumphal array--His filial piety--The captive
Ethiopian king--Victorious army of one hundred thousand men in
triumphal procession--The Prince of Egypt in his war-chariot--Column
of twelve thousand Ethiopian captives--Description of the bands of
captives, and their treatment--Invocation of the victors in the great
temple of Pthah--Distinction between captives taken in war and the
Hebrews--pp. 314-330.


Delightful climate--Indolence and leisure by day--Spirit of life and
enjoyment reigns at night--Galley of a noble designedly runs down a
small baris--Handsome Hebrew--Another startling resemblance to Prince
Remeses!--The lad Israel again--Miriam, the papyrus-copier, the sister
of the handsome Hebrew--What he saw, in boyhood, beside the Nile--His
infant brother committed to the river--Subterranean chambers for
casting images of the gods--The Hebrew gives an account of his people
and his God--He mourns the oppression of his race--pp. 331-346.


Thirty-fifth birthday of Prince Remeses--Queen Amense proposes to
abdicate in his favor--The Hebrew page, Israel--Melancholy of the
Queen--Prince Mœris--Moving interview between the Queen and
Remeses--He declines the throne of Egypt--A secret!--Prince Mœris
seeks the ruin of Remeses--A bribe!--Suspicion!--Terrible agitation of
the Queen--Attempt of Mœris to poison Amense at a banquet--Another
bribe--A mystery!--Remeses consents to accept the sceptre--pp.


Remeses prepares for his coronation by an initiation into the
mysteries of the temple--Power and influence of Egyptian
priesthood--Daily public duties of the Queen--Her attire--Her bathing
and dressing rooms--Skilful adornment of their hair by Egyptian
ladies--The Queen acts as chief priestess--Her delightful
hospitalities--Beautiful trait of character--Proposed succession of
Remeses--Solemn vigil, and other ceremonies of initiation--Remeses
shut out from the world in the gloom of the mysterious temple--
Israelisis with a message from the Queen--The Celestial Sea--A
courier from Mœris--Great distress and singular manner of the
Queen--A terrible secret--An impatient follower--pp. 364-380.


Revelations--Letter from Mœris--His haughty demand--Is Remeses the
son of Pharaoh's Daughter?--Another letter and another haughty demand
from Mœris--Still another--A doubt!--An investigation--Amense never
a mother!--Her descent to the Nile to bathe--The little ark of
basket-work and beautiful child--The princess adopts it--A
threat!--The Queen unfolds the terrible secret--Her agony of fear--Her
touching story of the discovery of the infant Remeses--She gains
resolution and defies Mœris--Remeses a Hebrew!--pp. 381-397.


Mournful reflections--Sacred poem by Remeses, being scenes in the life
of Job--Remeses discovers all--A sirocco of the soul--He narrates the
mysterious scenes of his initiation--Startling spectacles--Overwhelming
displays of enchantment and magic--Mysterious journey beneath the
pyramids--Labyrinthine catacomb--March of Time through the
heavens--Remeses alone beside the altar--Amense not his mother!--His
vision in the dark chamber of the pyramids--The massacre of the Hebrew
infants--Scene in the Hebrew hut--The mother and child--The babe
committed to the Nile--The little maid--The beautiful lady, Pharaoh's
Daughter--The Hebrew nurse--The image-caster--pp. 398-414.


Continuation of vision of Remeses--Himself the child of his
vision--Mysterious voices in the vaulted chamber of the
pyramid--Mocking eyes--He flees--Tender interview between the Queen
and Remeses--He narrates his vision--The secret fully unveiled--
Discovery of a father, mother, brother, sister--Illness of the
Queen--She assembles the councils of the nation--Remeses renounces the
throne--Amense adopts Mœris--Her death--Amram--The mother of
Remeses--Miriam--Aaron--Egypt in mourning--Remeses assumes his Hebrew
name, Moses--Arts of magicians and sorcerers--pp. 415-431.



Moses beholds the thousands of his countrymen under the lash of the
taskmasters--A prophecy--Visits Tyre and is cordially received by
Queen Epiphia--Tyre--Damascus--He meets the venerable Prince of Uz
(Job)--Nuptials of Sesostris--pp. 432-435.


Defeat of the King of Cyprus by Sesostris--Moses in Syria--He journeys
to sit at the feet of Job--Cruelty of Pharaoh (Mœris)--The Lake
Amense--pp. 436-438.


Moses visits Job--The wisdom of Job--His wealth and power--Moses
writes his life--Job leads Moses to the knowledge of the true God--pp.


Mœris increases the burdens of the Hebrews--Tradition as to the
term of their servitude--Nearly accomplished--Moses, in Syria, yearns
to be with his brethren in Egypt--pp. 442-444.


Moses determines to visit Egypt--Receives from Job the history of the
Creation--Job's piety and his favor with God--Prayer the path to the
throne of God--King Sesostris and Queen Thamonda--Israelisis--pp.


Moses departs for Egypt--The Illimitable Sea--Reflections upon the
infinity of God--A storm--Despair of passengers--Their gods unavailing
to save--Moses invokes the true God--The storm ceases--The crowd offer
divine honors to Moses--His anger at their sacrilege--He arrives in
Egypt--Is in the bosom of his family--Oppression of the Hebrews--Their
miraculous increase--Tradition of God's revelation of Himself to
Abram--A miracle!--God's command to Abraham--His obedience--God's
promise--The fulness of time at hand--Woman of salt--City of
Salem--Moses strives to arouse the Hebrews--He is doubted and
discredited--pp. 449-461.


Moses, in disguise, sees King Mœris amid his chief captains--
Terrible cruelties inflicted upon the Hebrews--Taskmaster
pursues a Hebrew youth, to kill him--Moses slays the taskmaster--Comes
upon two Hebrews in altercation--He rebukes them--They threaten to
expose him to Pharaoh for slaying the Egyptian--Prophetic inspiration
of Amram, the father of Moses--Moses flees from Egypt--pp. 462-467.



The young prince visits Egypt--The acts of the Egyptian kings--The
reign of Mœris--He constructs an immense lake--Inauguration of a
temple--Splendid spectacle of idol-worship--Plain of the
Mummies--Enlargement of Memphis--Discovery of treasures beneath the
Sphinx before Chephres--The captive King Occhoris--Increase of
Hebrews--Character of the reigning Pharaoh--His cruelty to the
Hebrews--Good feeling between Hebrew and Egyptian women--Intelligence
of the long-absent Remeses (Moses)--pp. 468-476.


A caravan from Ezion-geber--Its governor a Midianite--Prince
Jethro--Abram--Moses in Midian--The young prince determines to
accompany the caravan into Midian, and to seek Moses--pp. 477-481.


Moses to his old friend Sesostris--Account of his mode of life--His
meditations upon the oppression of his nation, and upon the character
of their predicted Deliverer--Is inspired to write a narrative of the
Creation of the World--pp. 482-484.


Journey across the desert--Mount Horeb--Moses, standing upon a
mountain-rock--Affecting interview--Grotto of Moses--His wife and
sons--Story of his rescue of the daughters of Jethro at the well--His
sublime teachings--Will he be the Deliverer?--View from Mount
Horeb--Aaron--Miriam--pp. 485-490.


Moses leads his flock to a secluded valley--Wonderful appearance of
the Burning Bush--Astonishment of the shepherds--The Voice in the
midst of the fire--God reveals Himself to Moses, and commissions him
to lead forth the people--The humility of Moses--His staff converted
into a living serpent--The leprous hand--Moses hesitates--The Lord
rebukes him, and the flame in the bush shoots fiery tongues--Aaron to
be the mouth-piece of the Lord--Miraculously advised, Aaron comes to
Moses--Moses converts his staff into a serpent, before Aaron--He
obtains the consent of Jethro to his departure from Midian--Moses in
Egypt--Sends messengers to summon the elders of Israel to meet him at
Jacob's well--Pharaoh's cruel designs against the Hebrews--pp.


Midnight meeting of the elders of Israel--Jacob's well a source of
superstitious dread to the Egyptians--Beautiful moonlight scene--Moses
opens his errand from the Most High--Aaron unfolds the traditional
promises--Unbelieving Hebrews--Terrible means used for their
conviction--Korah persists in unbelief--His punishment and horror--The
assembly dissolves--pp. 504-508.


Moses goes before Pharaoh--Amazement of the Egyptian courtiers--Harshness
of Pharaoh--Moses delivers God's message--Pharaoh defies the Living
God--He is overcome by his emotion, but hardens his heart--New toils
devised for the Hebrews--pp. 509-513.


The rod! the whip! the cry of the sufferers!--The Hebrews reproach
Moses and Aaron--Moses appeals to the Lord--Seeks to comfort his
brethren with the words of the Most High--Hope dies in their
hearts--Pharaoh redoubles his worship of all manner of idols--He
curses God--Sacrifices a living Hebrew child to the Nile--Sacrifices a
Nubian slave to Typhon--Invokes his idol-god against the God of
Moses--A secret dread--Children of Israel groan under oppression--pp.


Moses and Aaron again seek Pharaoh, and demand the freedom of
Israel--He requires a miracle--Miracle of Moses' rod--Jambres and
Jannes, the magicians--They convert their rods into serpents--Moses'
serpent destroys theirs--The brothers confront the King at the river's
side--He defies their God--The Nile runs blood--Goshen, the land of
the Hebrews, sparkles with clear water--Jambres again appealed to--The
plague of the frogs--Jambres and Jannes produce, but cannot remove
them--Pharaoh relents, and the plague is stayed--The plague of
lice--Jambres and Jannes disgraced--God speaks to Moses by the well of
Jacob--The plague of flies--Pharaoh again relents--He hardens his
heart, and God sends a pestilence upon the cattle--God again speaks to
Moses beside the well--The plague of boils--Goshen unharmed--God
threatens further vengeance upon Pharaoh--pp. 523-538.


Moses denounces the plague of thunder and hail against Egypt--Grand
gathering of the storm of God's anger--The storm hangs over Goshen but
harms it not--The purpose of God in these judgments--Terror of
Pharaoh--Agrees to let Israel go--Scene of desolation and
death--Pharaoh seeks to drown his terror in a banquet--In his revels
curses God--Again refuses to let the people go--He vacillates--Orders
Moses and Aaron to be thrust from the palace--The plague of the
locusts--Despair of the Egyptians--Pharaoh acknowledges his sin--The
plague ceases--Character of Pharaoh--The plague of darkness--Description
of the plague--Pharaoh unequal to the combat with God--His rage
against Moses--Moses denounces upon Pharaoh God's last and terrible
judgment--The Egyptians deify him--pp. 539-558.


Moses and Aaron call the elders of Israel together--The Passover
Instituted--The Hebrews cease work--They all flock to Goshen--Moses
deified by priests in the temples--Hopefulness of the Hebrews--The
sprinkling--Egyptians seek refuge with the Hebrews--Silence of
expectation--Awful vision of the Angel of the Lord in the Pillar of
Fire--A cry from Egypt--Messengers from Pharaoh to Moses--Amunophis,
the son of Pharaoh, slain by the Angel of the Lord--Egyptians implore
Moses to depart--Israel marshalled--Guided by the Pillar of Fire, the
Hebrew host leave Egypt--The Lamb of God prefigured--Moses explains
the lessons of God's judgments--pp. 559-575.


The departure--Sarcophagus containing the embalmed body of Joseph--The
Shekinah--Succoth--Etham--Pi-hahiroth--Migdol--Hebrews inclosed
between the mountains and the sea--Calm confidence of Moses--Fulfilment
of prophecy--Pharaoh determines to destroy the entangled
Hebrews--Gathers a mighty host and follows in pursuit--Dismay of the
Hebrews--The Egyptian army comes in sight--The elders reproach
Moses--He calls upon God--The Voice of the Lord--The Pillar of Cloud
and the Pillar of Fire--The sea--Israel in the midst of the sea--The
procession--The pursuit--Frantic terror of Pharaoh and his army--Their
destruction--Israel filled with awe and gratitude--They go into the
wilderness--The bitter waters--Journey abounding in miracles--The rock
in Horeb--God's awful presence on Horeb--Moses disappears in the mount
of God--The people murmur--They demand a god--They sacrifice to a
molten calf--An indignant God!--Terrible vengeance upon the
offenders--Joshua--pp. 576-596.


The author to the scholar and critic--pp. 597-600.





At length, my dear mother, I have reached the "Land of the Seven
Rivers," and do now write to you from her gorgeous capital, ON, The
City of the Sun.

How shall I describe to you the grand and solemn magnificence of this
city of divine temples, and convey to you a just idea of its palaces
that seem rather to have been erected for the abodes of gods than of

Wheresoever I turn my eyes, I realize that I am in mighty Egypt; for
everywhere I behold grandeur and glory, excellency and perfection.
Every object illustrates the power, munificence, and taste of the
imperial princess who now sits on the throne of the Pharaohs, and the
splendor of whose reign has raised Egypt above the mightiest empires
of the earth.

And all that I behold recalls the ancient glory, my dear mother, of
our own land, the once princely Palestina and Phœnicia,--twin
kingdoms which of old gave conquerors, and rulers, and laws to Egypt,
under the short but brilliant dynasty of her Shepherd Kings! But,
though fading with age, Phœnicia still lives in the beauty, pride,
and power of her daughter Egypt.

I will not lament over the waning glory of my own dear land, my royal
mother, while I can see it revived here with increased magnificence.
Phœnicia is not dead while Egypt lives. Every ruin in my own
kingdom is restored with augmented beauty and splendor on the green
plains of this land of the shining River, whose fountain-head is
underneath the throne of Thoth, far in the southern sky.

How shall I describe what I behold? Every new object enchants me, and
moves my soul with a fresh pleasure. I am intoxicated, not with wine,
but with the splendor of art and scenes of beauty, and with
manifestations of human glory and power hitherto inconceivable. I have
heard my royal father describe the glory of Salem in Palestine, under
the princes of the dynasty of Melchisedec, with its gorgeous temples
to the Sun, and its palaces of marble, its hanging gardens, and noble
terraces overlooking its flower-enamelled valleys; but the cities of
Egypt surpass this Syriac magnificence.

In coming hither, across the Levantine seas, from Syria, I seem to
have crossed to the shores of that mystic world where dwell the sacred
divinities, rather than only to another land of the plane of the
earth; for Egypt, compared with the kingdom of Phœnicia seems truly
the land of the blessed. What far-famed warriors! what stately
priests, clothed with power from the gods! what superb princes! what a
majestic queen! what grace and dignity in the virgins of the Sun! what
a stupendous system of worship! what mighty mausoleums, both tomb and
temple, rising like mountains hewn into solid triangles everywhere
over the illimitable plain! What a land of verdure and of
flowers!--land of gardens and palaces, obelisks and fountains, fanes
and altars, sphinxes and gigantic statues!--land, comprising all that
can delight the heart or take captive the sense!

I ask myself--Am I, indeed, in Egypt, the "Land shadowing with wings,"
as those proud Pharaohs, Thothmeses I. and II., termed it, upon their
winged globe-carved shields?--am I in Egypt, the glory of the earth,
the kingdom above all kingdoms, whose queen is above all the monarchs
that reign, and before the elevation of whose golden sceptre all
sceptres fall?

I have not yet, my dearest mother, seen, save at a distance, as she
was ascending the steps of her palace, this mighty queen of the
ancient house of the Pharaohs; but the third day hence I shall be
formally presented to her in the throne-room, where she receives the
ambassadors and princes of the nations who come into Egypt either to
learn arts or arms, or to behold the magnificence of her empire, or to
study the religion, laws, and government of a nation, the fame of
which has filled the earth.

Upon my arrival with my galleys off the mouths of the Nile, I
forwarded to her, by a private messenger in my gilded barge, the
letters written by your loving hand and sealed with the regal signet
of your kingdom, commending me to her personal favor and royal

Although I have not yet been presented to the court, I have seen, and
must describe to you, the royal son of Queen Amense--this proud
daughter of the Pharaohs--Prince Remeses. Never did the gods set their
seal upon a nobler and truer prince. Every movement of his stately and
graceful person, his rich voice, his superb height, his lordly eyes,
his majestic yet winning carriage, all bespeak a youth born to
empire--created for dominion over men.

He is now in his thirty-fourth year, and is in the full glory of
manhood. He is skilled in all the arts of war, and not less celebrated
for his learning in all the wisdom of the Egyptians. Sages and
philosophers listen to his words when he converses, not so much with
the deference that is the homage due to rank, as with the attention
which intelligence lends to superior wisdom.

He received me with kindness and embraced me with affection, inquiring
after the welfare of my royal mother, and welcoming me to his country
with gracious and courteous words. Notwithstanding there is a
difference of six years in our ages, I feel that I shall be regarded
by him on terms of equal friendship, and that to his companionship I
shall owe the happiest hours I may pass in the land of Egypt.

But, dear mother, as I promised to write you an account of my voyage
hither, with the adventures and scenes thereof worthy of your notice,
I will devote the remainder of my letter to this subject.

When I took leave of you on the marble steps of the stately pier which
extends along the front of our palace, and had stepped upon the deck
of my galley, I felt that a twofold cord had parted at my heart,--one
which bound me to thee, O mother, from whom I had never before been
separated, and one which tied me to my native land.

Although for the first time in command of a beautiful fleet, numbering
a score and ten galleys, and about to visit the fairest of all realms
under the sunny skies of Afric, yet the pang of this twofold
separation deeply grieved my soul. It was with tears glittering upon
my eyelids that I gazed upon you, as you waved your adieux and called
on the god of our race to bless me! It was with a voice thick with
emotion that I gave orders to the admiral to spread the purple sails
of my golden galley to the favoring breezes which seemed to be sent in
answer to your prayers.

Long I stood upon the lofty poop of my ship, gazing towards the
receding city, with its noble lines of palaces, its crowning temples,
its familiar groves, and pleasant gardens. (Even now I am moved as I
recall the sweet emotions of that time.) As I surveyed the fleets of
merchantmen from all lands gathered about her piers and anchored in
the haven, I felt my sorrow at parting, yielding gradually to a
feeling of pride that I was the prince of the great city to which
these argosies came bearing the merchants of all the earth. Indeed it
was a noble and stirring sight, dear mother, and calculated to divert
my thoughts, to see these ships, as my galley passed through them,
lower their banners, or elevate their rows of shining oars high in the
air, both in homage and farewell to the departing lord of the port.
There were vessels for bringing the merchandise of gold, and silver,
and precious stones from unknown seas; galleys from Tarsus and the
isles of the West, bearing pearls, and coral, and precious woods, and
thyme-wood; gayly decked barges, that carry fine linen, and purple,
and silk, and scarlet down to Egypt from Syria; painted ships from the
Nile, that receive by caravans from Ind and the East cinnamon, and
odors, and ointments, and frankincense, and ivory, and diamonds; the
low dark galleys from Afric, that bring Ethiopian slaves; and the
broad heavier vessels from the Delta, laden with wheat and fine flour!
There were also the strong craft from Colchis and the North, with
iron, and brass, and marble; and oaken argosies from further
Britannia, bringing tin; tall ships from Græcia with horses and
chariots; while from the south shores of the summery seas were light,
graceful vessels laden with dainty and goodly fruits, and birds of
gorgeous plumes and of ravishing songs! All these annually lay their
treasures at thy feet!

As I moved slowly in my galley through the rich fleet of ships which
filled your haven, I felt my heart beat quicker, and I returned the
salutations of the ship-masters and of the foreign merchants on their
decks, with smiles of gratification at the prosperity still at least
of our port of Tyre; though the half our realm has been lost by
invasion and our interior cities are decaying. So long as Damascus and
Tyre remain, dear mother, those two eyes of your kingdom, your power
and throne will stand. The decadence of our sister city Sidon will not
affect our prosperity, since her ships will flock to Tyre. Yet Sidon
will rise again, if in my power to restore it.

I remained upon the poop of my ship until we had passed, not only the
fleet of merchant galleys, but the fourscore war-ships with their
hundred banks of oars, that ever guard the entrance to the port with
vigilant eyes and arms. The sun was gilding with his setting beams the
battlements of the temple of Hercules; and the columns of the graceful
temple of Io were richly roseate in the blushing glory of his
radiance. The last object on which my eye rested was the gilded gate
of the gorgeous Fane of Nyeth on Lebanon; and I sent from my lips a
prayer to the fair and kind-hearted goddess to guard thee, mother, and
me for thy sake.

We soon passed the bright red Pharos, from the lofty lantern of which,
as the shades of evening rapidly fell around us, streamed forth like a
new-born star its cheering splendor for the haven-bound mariner. Soon
in the heavens over us other lights were kindled by the gods; and the
moon, rising over the lofty mountain-range of Libanus, made far out
upon the sea a path of light, that seemed like a band of silver with
which she would bind me still to the shores I was leaving! But in
Egypt I yet behold the same moon shine down upon me with familiar
radiance; and as I gaze upon her I can feel, that even here she is a
link to bind me to my native land--that upon her winged beams I can
send a thought to my dear mother, on whom also she shines.

My whole fleet got well out of the port before the star Aldebaran
rose; and as the breeze was light, the governors of the rowers
commanded them to ply their oars. Thus with the fall of a thousand
sweeps into the blue sea at one motion, keeping time to the voice of a
singer who stood upon the bridge across the mid-ship, we kept our
course down the coast of Palestine. We would have steered directly for
the Delta of the Nile, but had knowledge, by a vessel that met us, of
a fleet of Rhodian pirates, which lay wait, in that vicinity, for the
Egyptian merchant-ships; and, as my galleys were rather an escort of
honor than a war-fleet, I did not wish to measure my strength with
them, but dispatched one of my ships, the same night, back to Tyre, to
the admiral of your Tyrian fleet, who, no doubt, has gone out ere this
in pursuit of these sea-rovers and enemies of our commerce.

Nevertheless, after we had passed Jaffa, and the next day Ascalon in
lower Philistia, we beheld half a score of ships of doubtful
appearance, and, by my orders, six galleys were detached from the
fleet and gave chase. They proved to be fast-sailing Ionian pirates,
for one of them, being crippled, was overtaken. They had been many
weeks on the sea, and were returning to their own distant and
barbarous islands, richly laden. The captain of the galley took out
her merchandise, and precious stones, and spices, of which she had
robbed other ships, and burned her on the sea, with all the wretches
who appertained to her.

The shores of Egypt were reached by us on the seventh day, without any
accident to my fleet. It was two hours after the sun rose that we came
in view of the low line of land which marks the entrance to the
"Garden of the World," and from which open the seven gates of the Nile
into the great blue sea.

Upon ascending to the castle for bowmen on the highest mast of the
ship, I could discern the tall columns erected by King Menes at the
chief entrance of the river, from the summit of each of which at night
blazes a wonderful flame, said to have been invented by the Magi of
Egypt. As our galley rowed nearer the faint line of coast, I could see
numerous ships coming out and entering the Pelusian branch of the
Nile,--some of them in the interior so far, that only their tops could
be seen above the level land. I was now suddenly surprised with a
change in the color of the sea, which, from an emerald green, became
clouded with an intermixture of tawny water, thick with mud, that
seemed to flow upon the surface of the sea, as if lighter than itself.
I soon perceived that this was the outrush of the river against the
sea, with which it refused wholly to intermingle and lose itself,--as
if the proud Father Nilus reluctantly yielded his power, so long
wielded for a thousand miles, to the sceptre and dominion of the god
of the Mediterranean. Yet the latter--so vast was the volume of the
yellow waves of the former--was forced a league from the shore before
the conquered Nile ceased to resist his fate.

The sun shone upon the battlements of the great city of Pelusium--the
oldest fortified place in Egypt, and called "the Key of Egypt," and
also "the Strength of Egypt"--and lighted up the terraces of its
gardens and temples; but the admiral told me that every year the
deposit of the Nile is covering them, and that ere many centuries no
trace will be left of a city which is older than On or Memphis. We
saw, from the deck, palaces and obelisks and groves in the suburbs,
and further inland a country of wonderful beauty and of the highest
cultivation, but as level as the sea, from which it is elevated but a
few feet. The muddy and wonderful Nile is overflowing annually these
pleasant maritime plains; and as the plane of the Delta is steadily
raised, these ancient cities and palaces and this fair land will
become a fen for the stork and the sea-mew! How different the site of
Tyre, my dear mother! Built upon the firm coast, and defended by
nature, it will stand forever as the key of Syria and of the East; and
to the end of time the commerce of the world will flow into the
palace-like warehouses of its opulent merchants!

As we drew near the port, one of the large fishing eagles which have
their home in the Delta soared above our heads, scanning our deck with
his piercing glances: and snow-white birds with black-tipped wings
skimmed past from wave to wave; while others, resting upon the crest
of a shining billow, rocked gracefully with the motion of its
undulations. An ibis stalked upon the shore, and numerous aquatic
birds, unknown to us, soared about our galleys with sharp and strange

The atmosphere of the morning was slightly hazy, and, suffused by the
sunbeams, cast a soft veil over the land, investing galley, pharos,
and fane with the hues of gold. It was a scene of novel beauty, and I
hailed the very first view of Egypt with delight. It was a happy omen
of the future.

As my galley advanced before the fleet, a large war-ship with a triple
poop-deck, and propelled by three hundred oars, swept like a swift
dark cloud out of the mouth of the river and bore down towards me in
hostile attitude. I displayed the insignia of my kingdom at the top of
the chief mast, and awaited the Egyptian guard-ship. The vessel was
brought to, a bow-shot from my own, and I was asked by the governor
thereof, who I was, whence I came, and my destination? To these
inquiries I gave satisfactory replies through my admiral; whereupon
the Egyptian captain, commanding an elegant barge to be made ready,
came on board, attended by his suite, to pay his respects to me as
Prince of Tyre. I came forth from my state-room to receive him, my
dear mother, attired as became my rank. In the most courteous
language, and with an elegance of manners unsurpassed save in the
polite land of Egypt, he assured me of the pleasure it would give his
royal mistress, Queen Amense, "The Support of Worlds," as he termed
her, to have me visit her court. He said she was just then returning
from a visit to the temple of Isis and Nephthys, at Philæ, with a vast
retinue of state and sacred galleys, and by the time I arrived at
Memphis she would be either there or at her private palace at On.

By his advice, I dispatched, in our handsomest galley, my secretary,
Acherres, with a copy of the letter to the queen, which you gave to
me, sealed with my own signet. This done, I entertained the Egyptian
officer with a magnificence becoming my position and his own. He was
much pleased with the elegance of my ship, and the complete
appointment of my fleet. He said he had never seen a Tyrian squadron
before, but had heard much of our luxury and perfection in maritime

His ship was stately in height, and terrible with its warlike aspect.
The poop bristled with armed warriors in polished helms of brass. It
had four short masts, and upon each top thereof a huge castle
containing a score of Libyan bowmen with steel-headed arrows. Upon the
prow was a sort of fortress, on which stood a group of soldiers armed
with long spears and with large oval shields, on which were painted
hieroglyphic devices in brilliant colors. Arranged on the sides above
the rowers were black Ethiopians, gigantic men in steel cuirasses,
with long swords held before them. The captains of these warriors were
stationed at various points, arrayed in rich armor of varied fashion,
according to the class of soldiers that were under them. The prow of
this mighty battle-ship, which carried one thousand fighting men,
besides three hundred rowers, was ornamented with a lion's head and
shoulders of colossal size; while across the stern stretched the
broad, gilded wings of the feathered globe of the Sun, which is the
emblem of the kingdom of Egypt. Besides this gorgeous and majestic
galley, there were many lesser ones near, having but a single mast and
fifty oars. This fleet ever kept guard at the mouth of the Nile, and
thus defended the gates of Egypt on the sea against foes.

When I had sufficiently admired his ship from my own, the admiral,
whose name is Pathromenes, invited me to go on board. After viewing
all the parts of the ship, and especially the noble apartments devoted
to him and his officers, I was entertained with musical instruments by
players of infinite skill. Then I was amused with the performances of
jugglers and the wonderful antics of grotesque deformed dwarfs, who
seemed kept on board only for the entertainment of these Egyptian
nobles. Towards evening, a banquet was offered me. Among other rare
dishes were gazelles. Before the feast, the admiral made a signal to a
priest of Osiris, who presided over the sacred rites on board, and
inaugurated it by a prayer to the god for the welfare of the queen and
the prosperity of the kingdom. This custom recalled our own, of
offering first a libation of wine to the gods. During the banquet,
sweet strains of music floated around us. After we had closed the
feast, and were drinking wine, an attendant entered, bearing a
miniature mummy, elaborately painted and gilded. Holding this emblem
of mortality before me and the admiral, he said solemnly:

"Behold this, and drink and be happy; for such thou shalt be when thou
art dead!"

I was not a little surprised at this unwelcome, and, as it seemed to
me, unseasonable intrusion. Pathromenes, observing my looks, said with
a smile: "This introduction of a memorial of death to our feasts, O
prince, is not unseasonable. It is designed to exhort us to enjoy life
while we possess it, for when we are no more, enjoyment will be past."
Thus saying, he poured out a vase of wine into our golden cups, and
pledged me "Thy health, my mother!" So I drank to thee, and the glory
of thy reign. Nevertheless, I do not agree with the admiral, but
think, rather, that the intention of this exhibition of Death to
guests, is to warn them that, while life is so short, it ought not to
be spent wholly in pleasure and festivities.

At length, night coming on, I returned to my ship, and the next day,
with a light wind and aided by but one bank of rowers, entered the
mighty Nile, and slowly ascended its powerful but sluggish stream. The
courtly Pathromenes escorted me past Pelusium, and then took leave of
me, embracing me more like a father than a friend. I left my fleet at
the Pelusian Delta, to return to Tyre after it shall have received
fresh water on board from the Nile. The only galleys I took with me
are the one I came in, and that on board of which I sent my secretary
to the capital in advance of me. I trust the remainder will safely
reach Syria.

The shores of the Eastern Nile, as we ascended, presented an
unchanging scene of gardens, verdant fields of corn, villages,
temples, and tombs, all united in one unbroken belt for leagues. The
river was dotted with fishers in their slender boats, and we
constantly met vessels descending, bound to the open sea: some for
Afric for gold-dust and ivory; others to Philistia, for copper and
iron; others to Colchis, for silver, or to the Isle of Thasos. The
evening of the day we entered the river, we beheld the sacred
crocodile. It was a vast scaly monster, basking on the shore. I gazed
upon him with wonder and fear. If he be a god, his votaries worship
him rather through terror than from love. But to my senses all the
minor deities of Egypt are gross and revolting. Yet I must not dare to
be impious while in the very land of these gods.

The next day, after sailing for hours between gardens, we drew near
the City of On, on the east bank. Our approach to it was marked by the
increased size and grandeur of the palaces and temples, and the life
and activity on the shores. Before reaching the city, I caught view of
Memphis on the west side of the river, and far beyond towered the apex
of one of those mighty pyramids whose age is lost in the oblivion of
the past.

Farewell, dear mother. In my next letter I will describe my arrival
and debarking at the terrace of the City of the Sun, and my gratifying
reception by the Prince Remeses.

 Your affectionate son,




Think not that the splendors of the Court of "Pharaoh's Daughter," as
the Egyptians still love to call their queen, will lead me to forget
my own royal home and the dear scenes in which I have passed my
life--scenes that memory will ever cherish, as they are associated
with the love and care of a mother, such as a prince was never before
blessed with by the gods. Think not, my queenly mother, that while I
describe with pleasure the magnificence of Queen Amense's realm, I
think less of your own kingdom; but, rather, all I behold only causes
me to love my native land the more; for the glory of Tyre, my home, is
my mother's presence--and my mother is not here! Queen Amense may have
the homage of my intellect, but that of my heart is reserved only for

I have prefaced my letter in this manner, dear mother, lest you should
jealously read the glowing descriptions I give of what I behold, and
may fear that the luxuries and grandeur of Egypt will make me
dissatisfied with the lesser splendor of the Court of Phœnicia.
Fear not. I shall bring back to thee a son's faithful love, and to my
people the loyal affection due to them from their prince.

I closed my letter to you in sight, as I thought, of the City of the
Sun. But what I believed to be the capital of the gods, was but the
colossal gateway leading from the river to the city, which is half an
hour's ride inland. Yet from the Nile to the city there is a
continuous avenue of temples, such as earth has never beheld--not even
Nineveh or Babylon, in all their glory. For a mile fronting the river
extends a row of palaces, which, stupendous as they are, form but
wings to a central temple of vaster dimensions. The palaces that guard
it, as it were, are adorned with sculptured columns of the most
elegant description. They are three hundred in number, covered with
gorgeous paintings in the richest tints, and carved with the most
finished art. The beautiful capitals of these columns are shaped
alternately like a flower-bud, not yet expanded, or like the open
flower of the lotus, and the sides formed of imitations, by the
wonderful artist, of leaves and flowers indigenous to Egypt. The
columns and capitals, thus exquisitely fashioned, are gigantic in
size, and of the grandest altitude.

The central temple is a lofty and wonderful edifice of brilliant red
sandstone, with sixty columns of marble enriching its façades; these,
with the three hundred, representing the three hundred and sixty days
of the ancient Egyptian year. The front of this sublime temple is
pierced by three colossal gateways, broad enough for four chariots to
pass abreast. These gateways are adorned with paintings, in the
brightest tints, representing processions of priests, sacrifices,
offering of incense, and all the imposing religious ceremonies
appertaining to the worship of the Sun.

Above the centre gateway, between the noble wings of the propyla which
flank it, is a representative emblem of Osiris, in the shape of a
splendid shield of the sun, a half-sphere of gold, from which extend
wings for many yards, each feather glittering with precious stones.
Around the globe are entwined two brazen asps emblems of which I have
not yet learned the signification.

Imagine, my dear mother, this stupendous and noble temple, with its
vast wings facing the river, and reflected upon its sunny surface.
Fancy the river itself, flowing laterally through these gateways into
an artificial canal, lined with trees, and bordered by lesser temples,
which recede in long lines of diminishing columns. Behold oranges
swinging in clusters from branches bending over the water, while
scarlet pomegranates, figs, and olives fill trees innumerable that
shade the terraces; and vines, either gorgeous with flowers of
wonderful beauty and form, or pendent with purple grapes, entwine the
columns, and depend from the carved abacus of the capitals.

Into this canal my beautiful galley was received, in the sight of
thousands of admiring gazers standing upon the steps of the terrace
which led down to the entrance, and on which I had landed to pay my
homage to the chief captain at the propylon, who, magnificently
attired, waited, by the queen's command, to receive me and conduct me
to the city.

Returning with me on board my galley, he gave orders for it to be
taken in charge by two royal barges, with prows of silver, and golden
banners waving above the heads of the rowers, who were Nubian slaves
clothed in scarlet tunics. Thus, in state, my dear mother, as became a
prince, was I borne along this avenue of palaces and fanes, and
fragrant gardens. The vanishing line of columns was, at short
intervals, interrupted by gateways, above which were statues of Osiris
and Isis.

I was almost bewildered by the novelty and splendor of these varied
scenes, and was thinking that nothing could surpass in magnificence
this mighty avenue to a city, when all at once the canal expanded into
a circular lake completely inclosed by columns, forming majestic
colonnades on all sides, in which were walking and conversing
innumerable richly dressed persons, while others were grouped around
noble-looking ancient men, listening to their discourses. The chief
captain, who was with me in my galley, informed me that these columned
halls were the favorite resort of the eminent philosophers and
scholars of all lands, who came hither to be taught in the learning
and wisdom of the Egyptians. I then looked a little closer, when he
was pleased to point out to me several great philosophers, who, called
wise men in their own kingdom, yet had come hither to learn at the
feet of these masters of the world's wisdom, the wise men of Egypt. As
we were rowed past and around this majestic circle of columns, I saw
two noble youths from Damascus, who came last year to Tyre, in order
to embark for Memphis. I beheld also Prince Melchor of the City of
Salem, in Syria, the descendant of the great king Melchisedec, whose
wise reign, about three centuries ago, is still remembered with glory
and honor to his name. The prince recognized me, and returned my
salutation, and leaving the group with which he stood, hastened around
the terrace to meet me at the place of debarkation; for this
delightful lake, dear mother, terminated the noble canal which united
it with the river. Beyond it, the galleys and barges did not go.
Instead of water, this mighty avenue to On was now to be continued by
land. At the place opposite the inlet rose two lofty obelisks a
hundred feet in the air, of incomparable elegance and beauty. They
were dedicated to Osiris and Isis. Elevated upon pedestals of
porphyry, they formed the graceful entrance to a semicircular flight
of marble steps which led from the lake to a broad terrace interlaid
with parti-colored marbles, in every variety of device which taste
could conceive, or art execute. Landing upon these steps, I ascended
to the terrace, and was there met and embraced by the Prince of Salem.
Here the chief captain took leave of me, and immediately there
advanced towards me a noble person, wearing a chain of gold about his
neck, and clothed in purple silk, richly embroidered, and who carried
in his right hand a long silver wand, with the head of an ibis, cut
out of a precious stone, upon it. He said that he was an officer of
the court of the queen, and had come to conduct me on my way to the

"Her majesty," he said, with dignity becoming one who served so mighty
a monarch, "has received your letter, royal prince, and has directed
her servants to pay you all honor!"

I acknowledged the grace of the queenly Amense in this courteous
reception of a stranger, and followed him across the terrace, which I
perceived was encircled by statues of all the divinities of the earth;
and I was gratified to see that Io, and Hercules, and the favored
deity of Phœnicia, Athyris, had conspicuous pedestals allotted to
their sacred images, near the Theban god Amun.

Indeed, dear mother, this fact, and the manner of my reception, shows
that the present dynasty has graciously forgotten the conquest of
Egypt by the warlike hosts of Phœnicia. But when we recollect that
the first Amosis of the present house of Pharaohs had for his queen
the beautiful Ephtha, daughter of the last Phœnician Pharaoh,
taking her captive when he expelled the father from the throne of
Memphis, we need not be surprised at the favor shown us by the noble
Queen Amense, for, fourth only in descent from the fair Phœnician,
who was of our own blood, she is our cousin by just hereditary

When I had traversed the "Hall of the Gods," we came to a lofty
two-leaved gate of brass, which stood between two sculptured propyla
of Libyan stone. At a wave of the wand of my escorter, they flew wide
open, and revealed the most magnificent and awe-inspiring spectacle
that it was possible to conceive the world could present.

Before me was revealed an avenue, more than a mile in length to the
eye, leading straight to the City of the Sun, which rose, temple
rising beyond temple, shining like gold in the sunbeams, a mountain of
architecture, fashioned as if by the hands of gods rather than of men.
In the midst stood, elevated above all surrounding edifices, the great
temple of Osiris itself, encircled by a belt of twelve glittering
obelisks, representing the twelve months. In the centre of this
wonderful girdle, upon the apex of a pyramid rising within the walls
of the temple, two hundred feet high, blazed that sacred gold shield
of the sun--the shield of Osiris--the fame of which has filled the
world. It was like the sun itself for glory and splendor! Oh, how can
I describe all this! My pen refuses to find language to record what I
wish to write.

But I will be brief, lest I overpower you with gorgeousness, and blind
you with glory. Verily, the Egyptians seem resolved to rob the heavens
of their celestial architecture, and set up a rival heaven on earth!

From the open gateway of brass I beheld the city thus described, with
its temple, obelisks, pyramid, and countless palaces, while the whole
was encircled by a green belt of gardens, which shut it in from the
desert, like a setting of Indian diamonds in a bed of Assyrian

The avenue itself was paved with red-colored Syene stones from the
isles of the Cataracts, and on each side was a gigantic row of
sphinxes, reposing on broad, elevated dromoi. Some of these
represented lions, leopards, and other beasts of the African and
Nubian deserts. Some of them had the head of a ram, with the body of a
lion, the fore-paws extended upon the terrace, the vast body resting
upon the hind-paws, all presenting aspects of majestic repose. There
were one hundred of these stone effigies, in a double row twenty feet
apart, facing the avenue, and fastening upon the passer-by their stony
eyes in immovable watchfulness. This avenue I walked up, preceded by
the queen's officer, and escorted by a retinue, which fell in behind

Having passed this row of crio-sphinxes we ascended three broad steps,
on each side of which towered a lofty pylon, elaborately adorned with
costly paintings of colossal size, representing sacred scenes. Another
dromo bordered with fourscore andro-sphinxes, having alternate faces
of Osiris and Isis, the one stamped with majesty, the other with
beauty, now began, and passing this solemn and awful range of gigantic
faces we came to another ascent of marble steps, flanked by obelisks:
four lofty pylones, and three spacious courts were at the end of the
dromos of sphinxes, also a vast arena inclosed by palaces. Crossing
this noble square, we came to two colossi of granite, representing
Cheops and Nilus, their shields covered with hieroglyphics wrought
with the highest degree of perfection, each cartouch recording their
titles and deeds.

At this point there met me a superbly caparisoned Arabian charger,
held by two pages; while a young noble, bearing upon his breast the
insignia of a prince of the queen's palace, addressed me, and invited
me to mount the beautiful and fiery animal.

I obeyed, leaping into the saddle with delight at once more being upon
horseback. Scarcely had I pressed the bit with the gilded bridle, ere
a score of horsemen, in splendid armor, issued from the propylon on my
left, in two columns, and, inclosing me between them, escorted me
through several magnificent courts, in which I caught glimpses of
obelisks, monoliths of kings, pylones sixty feet in height with
pyramidal wings, giving entrance to courts each more magnificent than
the last.

At length I saw before me the great and splendid pylon which gives
admission to the city. In front of it, raised upon a throne of crimson
stone, stood, with his ibis head fifty feet in the air, a monolith
statue of Thoth. In his outstretched right hand he held a pair of
scales, and in his left a tablet.

At this gate, the city is entered in its central point. Two obelisks,
ninety feet in height, towered on each side of the entrance. Here I
was received by a venerable noble, who was mounted upon a snow-white
horse, and attended by a brilliant retinue, all superbly mounted. This
personage extended to me the same hospitable and courteous welcome
from his queen, which had been presented to me from the others. He
rode by my side, and we took our way at a rapid trot along an avenue
of alternate obelisks and sphinxes, until we passed through a pylon
which opened into the streets of the city. The splendor around
bewildered me. Palaces, with gorgeous façades and triple stories of
colonnades, composed street after street, while fountains and statues
and propyla, temples, monoliths, andro-sphinxes and crio-sphinxes
presented, as I rode along through this superb "City of the Sun," an
endless spectacle of architectural grandeur and marble magnificence.
The streets were thronged with handsomely attired citizens, either in
the pursuit of pleasure or business, while priestly processions,
festival parties crowned with flowers and attended by musicians, and
bodies of horse, were met by us. Gilded chariots, palanquins, and
vehicles of rare and graceful forms, were numerous. The whole city
wore an air of pleasure and life, and impressed me with the idea that
the Egyptians are not only master-builders in architecture, but know
how to enjoy the splendid cities they erect with such costly care.

My senses sated with luxury, I was not unwilling to alight at the
entrance of a beautiful palace, which the venerable horseman said the
queen had placed at my service. Upon its portico I was met by my
private secretary, Acherres, who, in his joy at beholding me again,
forgot for a moment my rank, and embraced me with tears of delight;
for, in this foreign land, he saw in me alone the link which bound him
to his native country.

I have now been two days in this palace, wherein is furnished me, by
the queen, the attendance of slaves; and every luxury of Egypt is at
my command. As I said to you, dear mother, in my first letter, I have
yet only seen the Queen of Egypt at a distance, as she was ascending
the steps of her palace, but to-morrow I am formally to be presented
to her, for on that day of the week alone she receives princes and
ambassadors. She had returned four days before to Memphis, from Philæ,
with a great retinue of the lords and officers of her realm, and
yesterday, crossing the Nile in her barge of state, she entered this
sacred city, which she visits for three days every month to perform in
the great temple the sacred rites of her gorgeous religion. Of this
worship I will soon write you more fully. It is an error, however, to
suppose that these enlightened Egyptians worship the sun, or any other
objects, as such, of mere matter. Their fundamental doctrine is the
unity of the deity, whose attributes are represented under positive
and material forms. The common people perhaps never go beyond these
forms, and their minds never are admitted to a knowledge of the truth
of the mysteries; but the priests, and the high in rank, look upon the
sun, and moon, and animals, and the fecund Nile, only as so many
attributes of a one infinite deity. The sun--believed to possess much
of the divine influence in its vivifying power and its various other
effects--is regarded as one of the grandest agents of the one deity.
The moon is another direct manifestation of the invisible author, and
as the regulator of time, say their sacred books, is figured in
painting and sculpture as the ibis-headed Thoth, and the deity who
records, as time flies, the actions of men's lives. Osiris, if I
understand their mythology, is this supreme god (symbolized here by
the sun), who is also the judge of the souls of the dead, rewarding or
punishing hereafter the creatures he has created, according to their
lives. But when I learn more fully their system of religion, I will
explain it to you, dear mother.

Although I have not seen, to speak with her, the august lady who
reigns over Egypt, I have been visited by her son, the lord Prince
Remeses. I have already written of him. He is in his thirty-fourth
year, and the noblest appearing man my eyes ever beheld. Upon his brow
the gods have set the seal and impress of command. I will narrate the
manner of our first intercourse.

I was standing by the window of the stately apartment, which overlooks
one of the squares of the city, interested in watching the toils of
several hundred men, coarsely attired in blue aprons or loin-cloths,
and gray breeches reaching only to the knee, the upper part of their
bodies being naked, who were at work constructing a wall which was to
inclose a new lake before the temple of Apis, in the midst of the
square; for On is a city of alternate lakes (all of great beauty and
adorned with trees), temples, squares, and palaces, interspersed with
dromos of sphinxes connecting court after court, through lofty
pylones; while obelisks, statues, and fountains fill up the

My window not only commanded a view of these laborers with their heavy
burdens of bricks, borne on their shoulders to the top of the wall
they were building, but also, beyond the wall and distant temples, a
glimpse of the yellow expanse of the desert. How mighty, and grand,
and solemn it looked in its loneliness and ocean-like vastness! A
faint dark line that I at length perceived in motion, was, doubtless,
a caravan coming from the haven of the Red Sea, where the galleys from
Farther Ind land their precious freights of untold wealth. This
caravan seeks the port of On, six miles below on the Nile, whence sail
ships, laden with the treasures of the caravan, to all parts of the
known earth. Sesostris, Thothmes, Menes, all planned a canal from the
Nile to this sea; but the camels are the only ships, to this day, that
cross this desert waste. Again my eyes rested upon the laborers,
seeing that they were sorely pressed by cruel taskmasters, who, with
long rods, urged them to their ceaseless toil. I perceived, then, that
they were men with Syrian features, arched eagle noses, long black
beards, and narrow but fine eyes, which seemed to have a strange
expression of tears in them. There were among them noble and manly
men, handsome youths, though pale with toil, and bent forms of aged
men. I marvelled to see so fine a race thus in bondage, as slaves
under taskmasters, for in the day of the Phœnician Pharaohs, there
were no such bondmen in the land of Egypt. From their remarkable
likeness to some natives of Mesopotamia I had seen in Tyre, I judged
that they must be captives of that ancient Orient people, taken in the
wars of Amunoph.

While I was regarding them, and especially an interesting youth, whose
dark eyes, as he staggered under a heavy burden of bricks, were turned
up to me as if seeking sympathy, Acherres entered and said:

"My lord Sesostris, the mighty Prince Remeses is alighting from his
chariot upon the steps of your palace!"

Upon hearing this news I hastened to the portico, wondering if I were
to be honored with a personal visit from the lord of Egypt, ere the
queen mother should receive me in state.

Upon reaching the circular peristyle hall within the portico, the
ædile of my palace opened the gilded doors, and there stood before me
the Prince of Egypt. I have already described his noble presence and
personal appearance. Upon seeing me he advanced, waving his attendants
to withdraw, and with mingled dignity and sweetness, that at once won
my heart, said:

"I welcome you, noble Prince of Tyre, to Egypt! I have been engaged in
reviewing the army of the Nile, a day's march hence, and heard but
yesterday of your arrival. I hail you, not as a stranger, but as
cousin, dear Sesostris; for are we not allied by blood?"

"You, my lord prince," I said, "are descended from two lines of
kings--the Syrian and Theban--I from but one. But by that one we are
indeed of the same blood. But what is a prince of Tyre, compared with
the heir to the throne of Egypt?"

"We are to be friends and equals," he said, smiling, as he pressed my
hands. I accepted this pledge of friendship with grateful emotion, my
dear mother; and from that moment we became as brothers,--he the
elder, I the younger, and looking up to him with admiration and pride,
as henceforth my model of what a prince should be.

He remained with me three hours. We discoursed of you, of Tyre, of the
beautiful city of Damascus,--my sword of Damascene steel attracting
his notice (for he is a famous soldier), and leading to the mention of
this city. We talked also of Egypt, and her glory, and her power; of
the queen, his mother, and the manners, religion, and policy of the

But, my dear mother, I will here close this letter, and in another
relate to you what passed at our interview, and the most interesting
portion of his conversation.

 Your devoted son,




The climate of this land of the Sun is so delightful to the senses
that one feels a constant buoyancy of the heart, and experiences in
the consciousness of mere existence, an undefinable and delicious joy;
and herein I discover the key to the cheerful gayety of the Egyptians.
The skies are blue with eternal sunshine. The atmosphere, free from
moisture, is so transparent and crystalline, that distant objects lose
one half their distance to the eye. The sun rises ever with cloudless
splendor, and sets in a sea of golden glory, without a shadow of a
cloud falling upon his fiery disk. The moon sails by night across the
starry ocean of the heavens, with a brilliancy unknown in other lands;
while the stars burn with an increased intensity, and seem enlarged by
means of the purity of the upper air through which we behold them. It
is no marvel that the dwellers in this happy land are wise, and love
art, and delight in forms of beauty, and build palaces for gods! But I
promised in my last letter, dear mother, to describe what particularly
passed in the long and interesting interview which the Prince Remeses
had with me on his first visit to my palace. I have already described
his personal appearance; but, as ladies are always interested in
costume, I will relate to you how he was attired.

The Egyptians, you are aware, always shave the head and beard closely,
save when in mourning. They have nevertheless a plaited lock of hair
on the height of the forehead, which falls down over the ear. Such is
the fashion with which the youthful god Horus is represented in
paintings and statues, though the beautiful locks of this deity are
not so closely removed but that a crest of golden tresses covers the
top of his head like the plume of a helmet. Something in this manner
Prince Remeses wore the lock of jet-black hair which remained. But
upon his head he had a rich cap or kaftan of green silk, the front of
which was shaped like the beak of an eagle, while behind, it fell to
the shoulders in a sort of cape, fashioned like drooping wings--the
whole most becoming and striking. In the eyes of the eagle, blazed
diamonds, and his plumage was studded with precious stones, beryls,
sardine gems, and the onyx-stone. This head-costume, in varied forms,
is worn by all the nobles and men of high rank. With some the ibis or
the vulture, with others the lion or the hawk, form the insignia. I
have seen him since in his chariot, in a close-fitting helmet-cap of
burnished gold, resembling that of the Egyptian god of war, which,
with his martial form and commanding glance, lent to him the aspect of
the god himself!

His vesture was of fine linen, worn in numerous folds about his form;
and a surcoat embroidered with gold in royal devices, left open in
front, displayed a girdle of links of steel and gold, exquisitely and
cunningly woven, to which hung his jewelled sword. About his neck was
fastened, by a pearl of price, a collar of the red-hued gold of Ophir,
massive and large; and upon his manly chest glittered a breastplate,
sparkling with the enamelled _cartouch_ of the god Athothis, the deity
who presided at his birth, and who is the same as our Taut, the
inventor of letters.

And here let me remark, that writing by letters is scarcely yet known
in Egypt, the hieroglyphic form being still in current use; but
Remeses has cultivated the Phœnician art, and writes with a
character of his own construction, with the facility and beauty of one
of our own men of letters. Ere long, through his influence, this form
of writing will supersede wholly the hieroglyph, which is cumbersome
and difficult to be understood, save by a native-born Egyptian; yet I
have commenced the study of it, and can read already the cartouch of
Mitres, on his obelisk over against the portico of my residence. Of
this obelisk, which is ninety-nine feet high, it is said that when it
was about to be elevated to its position, he employed 20,000 workmen,
and apprehensive that the engineer would not raise it with sufficient
care, he bound the prince his son to the apex while it lay on the
ground, and thus effectually guaranteed the safety of his monument.
This was many centuries ago; but, as I gazed to-day upon the towering
apex, I could not but think, with a tremor of the nerves, of the
hapless young prince as he mounted into the sky, on that slow and
perilous journey!

Have I not been digressing, dear mother? But you must not, in familiar
letters, look for artistic continuity of narrative. I shall digress,
or go from subject to subject, as collateral objects suggest
themselves in passing them; but, nevertheless, I shall not leave your
curiosity unsatisfied upon any matter which I have commenced, but in
due time, from every digression, shall return to it. I will,
therefore, this apology once for all, return to the princely Remeses.

He wore upon his right hand a signet-ring of silver, once belonging to
his ancestor, Amosis, the leader of the XVIIIth dynasty; and also a
large ring of pure gold, set with a chrysoprasus, and bearing the
shield of Osirtasen I., or Sesostris--for he has both names in
history--for whom I am named.

In all respects he was attired with magnificence, and yet with
simplicity, as became a man of taste and a prince. The profuse
ornaments of jewelry, with which I perceive the nobles about the court
load themselves, his good sense disdains. He retains only the insignia
belonging to his high rank.

I have said that his hair is raven-black, and may add that his eyes
are large, expressive, heavily-lidded, and with a peculiar expression
of mingled softness and brilliancy. Unlike the Egyptians, his features
are truly Syriac, with the high arched nose and full red lips of the
inhabitants of the city of Damascus. Do you remember when we last year
visited Damascus, seeing, in the painted chamber of the adytum of the
mausoleum of Eliezer, a representation of the Hebrew prince Abram, of
Syria? To that venerable prince, whose virtues and wisdom tradition
would have preserved, even if he had not erected this tomb to his own
and his master's memory, Eliezer was chamberlain or steward for many
years. Returning to Damascus with great wealth, which Abram had
bestowed upon him, he brought with him from Egypt, where he had once
been, a cunning artist in colors, who decorated the tomb he erected
for himself, in that wonderful manner which has excited the admiration
of all beholders. But, dear mother, beautiful as that is, and well
preserved as it has been for four hundred years, it is not to be
compared with art in Egypt at the present day. You remember you were
struck with the majesty and almost celestial sublimity of the old
shepherd prince's face, which the affection of his steward has
preserved. You spoke of the eagle-like nose, the dark, yet
tearful-looking eyes, with the drooping lid just casting into shadow
the depth of its inner light. You remember the nobly shaped head and
commanding brow. Such a head and profile is that of Remeses, the
Prince of Egypt. My first look at his face recalled the portrait in
the tomb, which its founder has so beautifully and modestly inscribed:


After I had received Remeses into my house, I conducted him through a
two-valved door, opened before us by my chief butler, into the superb
apartment allotted for recreation and repose. My mansion consisted of
a court encircled by columns, and from it extended corridors to
various chambers. The court is crossed by avenues of trees, while
fountains and flowering plants refresh the eye in every direction.

The apartment into which Remeses came with me, was divided into tall
panels, upon which were executed, in the most brilliant colors, the
fairest pictures. These panels were intercolumnar, each column adorned
with carvings of leaves and flowers, and terminating in a capital in
imitation of an open lotus. This room was open to the air, but
shielded from the sun by a purple awning that extended to its four
sides, and was a little raised above the walls upon the columns, so
that the breezes, which were wafted over the gardens of flowers, might
freely enter.

This was my reception-room, or _mándara_, as it is termed. A beautiful
cornice surrounds the whole room. The furniture is of the most
tasteful and luxurious description, and of forms and uses unknown to
our severer Syrians. There are tables of Arabian wood, inlaid with
ivory; sofas of ebony and other rare materials, covered with silken
cushions; a chair ornamented with the skin of a leopard; another, of
still more graceful outline, embroidered with silk and threads of
gold; another, the frame of which recedes gradually, terminating at
its summit in a graceful curve, and supported by resting upon the back
of a swan with feathers of ivory. A chair for repose is covered with
gilded leather, and arched by a rich canopy of painted flowers, birds,
and fancy devices. The legs of all these chairs were in imitation of
some wild beast, while the arms represented in ivory or ebony the
beaks of birds,--that of the ibis, sacred as it is, being the
favorite. There are couches, too, which are nothing more nor less than
crouching lions gilded, upon the backs of which the sleeper reposes on
gorgeous housings stuffed with the softest down. The shapes of the
furniture exhaust all forms. There are, in some of my rooms, chairs
shaped like harps, others like leaves of the fig-tree, others like
birds. Tables of ebony are supported on the heads of naked Nubian
slaves two feet high, carved in ebony, while the bronze lamps are
uplifted upon the palm of a dancing girl cast in bronze, who seems to
hold the light for you while you read or write. Carpets and
foot-stools, covered with embroidery, are not wanting; and I have
three round tables--one of metal, one of ivory, one of ebony--polished
like mirrors of steel. These are covered with ornaments of the most
exquisite finish and beauty; and before my window where I write is a
sort of bureau ornamented with hieroglyphics, carved in intaglio,
inlaid with sycamore, tamarisk, and palm woods, and enriched with
bosses of solid gold.

In this apartment I received Remeses. Placing a seat by the window, I
sat near him. For a moment he surveyed me with a close but courteous
scrutiny, such as strangers irresistibly cast upon each other after a
first meeting.

"I hope you are at home here, noble Sesostris," he said. "This is one
of my palaces, but I have more than I can make use of, such is the
bounty and affection of my mother."

"I have every comfort and luxury--more than I desire," I answered. "I
was not prepared to find in Egypt such splendor and magnificence. The
half, my noble prince, has not been told the world."

"And yet you have seen but a small portion of this kingdom," he said,
with a smile of pardonable pride. "Although On is the city of palaces
and temples, for there is a temple to each of the three hundred and
sixty gods of our calendar year, yet Memphis is the true seat of our
empire. We rule Egypt from Memphis: we worship the gods from On."

"But is not the great god Apis the peculiar deity of Memphis?" I
asked; "and is not his worship the most magnificent and imposing on

"Yet here in the City of the Sun is the temple of Mnevis, the sacred
ox of On, honored with a worship as profound and universal as that of

"But do the more polished Egyptians indeed worship the ox, either here
or in Memphis?" I asked with some hesitation, for, as prince, Remeses
is first priest of the realm, next to the high-priest of Osiris.

"Do not fear to ask freely any questions, my dear Sesostris," he said.
"We do not worship these animals. They are but the embodiment of
attributes. Under both of these gods, at On and at Memphis, Osiris the
great Judge of men is veiled. They are but the living images of
Osiris. The origin of their introduction is unknown save to the
priests, whose office it is to keep the records of all things
appertaining to religion."

"What is revealed concerning the history of Osiris?" I asked; "for I
am at a loss to understand the exact relation a deity known over the
world by name, but of whose worship little is understood, holds to
Egypt and to the other gods. At home, in Syria, I have marvelled how
the Egyptian mythology could stand, when made up of such contradictory
elements,--a part directing the worship of an invisible divinity, and
a part directing the adoration of the hosts of heaven and beasts of
the earth. In Phœnicia we worship the Invisible through the sun, as
his representative. We worship nothing earthly. In Palestine, south of
us, Ashteroth, Belus, and images of stone and brass are adored, but
not with us."

"The Egyptians, through all their forms, and by all their gods, adore
the Supreme Infinite, my Sesostris," said the prince. "The history of
our faith is briefly this, according to common tradition: Osiris was
in the beginning the one lord of worlds; the sun of truth and the
glory of his universe. He came upon earth for the benefit of mankind.
Before his coming, the ox and all other animals were wild, and of no
service to man. The Nile was a terror to Egypt. Vegetation had
perished. He came as a 'manifester of good and truth,' as saith the
great golden book in the Hall of Books. He entered into all things,
and infused his life, and good, and uses into all. He bound the Nile
to its banks, by breasting its flood and subduing it. His spirit
passed into the bull, and all cattle. He tempered the heat of the sun,
and drew the poison from the moon. The earth became his bride, under
the name of Isis; and brought forth Horus, and the order of equal
times, and thus man was benefited and the earth made habitable. Upon
this, his brother Sethis, who represented 'evil,' as Osiris did
'good,' sought his destruction, and caused him to be hated and put to
death. He was buried, and rose again, and became the judge of the
dead. And this legend or fable is the foundation, noble Sesostris, of
our mythology. The sun, moon, Nile, animals, and vegetables even, are
regarded as sacred, therefore, because the spirit or soul of Osiris
had been infused into them, to change them from evil to good. Thus one
god is worshipped through visible objects, which he has
consecrated,--objects once his temples and abodes; for, says the
sacred record, he had to enter into every thing which he restored to
the use of man."

"The mythology of Egypt," I said, "is at once relieved, O prince, from
the charge of grossness and superstition which has been attached to
it. I can now understand more clearly your system of religion."

"The mysteries of our religion are still unfathomable," answered
Remeses. "It is doubtful if they are fully comprehended by the
priests. In the multiplicity and diversity of objects of worship I am
often confounded, and it is a relief to me to pass by all material
forms of Osiris, and send my mind upward only to himself!"

"That is a noble conception, great prince," I said, admiring the lofty
and almost divine expression with which this pure sentiment lighted up
his fine countenance.

"But the people of Egypt are not able to comprehend Deity except
through visible forms; and, in order to convey an impression of the
abstract notions men form of the attributes of Deity, it will always
be necessary, perhaps, to distinguish them by some fixed
representation; hence the figures of Osiris under the various forms in
which he is worshipped, of Pthah, of Amun, Neith, and other gods and
goddesses, were invented by the ancient priests as the signs of the
various attributes of the Deity. And as the subtlety of speculation
expanded the simple principles of our mythology, the divine nature was
divided and subdivided, until any thing which seemed to bear any
analogy to it was deified, received a figure or form as a god, and was
admitted into the Pantheon of the kingdom, to a share of the worship
of the people."

"And this nicety of philosophical speculation," I said, "must have
given rise to the several grades of deities in Egypt."

"Yes; the gods of the first, second, and third orders: each with its
system of priesthood and rituals."

"In all this, I see you give no divine honors to departed heroes," I

"No. Our gods are none of them deified men. They are not like Bacchus,
and Hercules, and other of the ancient and Syriac deities, who were
human heroes. Our mythology is a pure spiritualism: its object,
Divinity, worshipped by emblems, symbols, signs, figures, and
representative attributes."

"It is a pantheism, then, rather than a polytheism," I remarked.

"You speak justly, Sesostris," he said. "The figures of our gods,
which you see hewn in marble, painted on temples, standing colossal
monoliths in the entrance of the city, are but vicarious forms, not
intended to be looked upon as real divine personages. Not a child in
Egypt believes that a being exists, with the head of a bird joined to
the human form--as the statue of Thoth, with the ibis head, in front
of the temple; or under the form of a Cynocephalus, having the horns
of the moon upon his head; or as the goddess Justice, without a head;
or a bird with the head of a woman; or a god with a ram-headed
vulture's head, or that of a hawk, like the deity Horus; or Anubis,
with the head of a dog. Why these unnatural forms were chosen as
emblems of these gods, the priests fancifully explain, and perhaps in
many cases truly. They are all, simply personifications of divine

"Abuses," I remarked, when he had thus eloquently spoken, "must
naturally flow from such representations, and these emblems, among the
people, soon assume the importance of the divine personages to which
they appertain. The mass of the population must be idolaters."

"You speak truly. They are. The distinction between the image and the
idea which it represents is too subtle for the ignorant; they lose
sight of the attribute, by filling the whole horizon of their minds
with its image. Thus the Egyptian mind is clearly more and more being
drawn away from its ancient spiritual worship, to a superstitious
veneration for images, which originally were intended only to control
and fix attention, or to represent some religious tradition or idea of

"Are not Apis, the sacred bull, at Memphis, and Mnevis at On, regarded
as gods?" I asked.

"Only as the soul of Osiris. The bull is the most powerful animal in
all Egypt, and hence a type of the Deity. But this subject, my dear
Sesostris," added the prince, with a fine look of friendship, "you
will know more of by and by, as you dwell among us. I will command
that you shall have every facility from the priests, and also from the
philosophers and wise men, in your further studies of our people. I am
happy to have given you your first lesson in Egyptian lore."

"You have done me infinite honor, noble Remeses," I replied, returning
with gratitude his looks of kindness. "I hope ere long so to profit by
your information as to understand your ancient system of religion.
From what you have said, I perceive that it stands above all others on
earth, rightly interpreted; and before its spiritual essence, our
worship in Phœnicia--which is chiefly a union of idolatry and
Sabæanism--is pure materialism."

At this moment we rose, as by one impulse, and walked out upon the
terrace to enjoy the breeze which was waving refreshingly, to our
eyes, the branches of a palm that stood before the door. The day was
intensely hot. In the shade of the columns on the square, many of the
citizens had gathered for shelter from the sun's beams. But still in
its burning heat the bondmen of whom I have spoken, toiled on, with
their burdens of brick. Not far off were a score under one taskmaster,
who stood by with a long staff with which he severely beat an old man,
who had sunk to the earth under the combined heat of the sun and the
weight he was compelled to bear. My heart was touched at once with
pity and indignation.

"What unhappy people are these, O prince," I said, "who endure such
heavy labor?"

"Hebrews!" he answered, haughtily and indifferently. "Hast thou not
heard of these bond-slaves of our land? They have been in Egypt
several generations. They build our cities, our walls, our canals.
They number two millions, and are the hereditary slaves of the

"To what circumstances do they owe their captivity?" I asked.

"If it will interest you, my Sesostris," he said, "I will at another
time relate their history."

"It will gratify me to listen to it," I answered. "I am struck with
the Syriac cast of their features."

"Indeed! They originally came from Syria. Do they preserve still the
lineaments of their country?"

"Strikingly so," I answered.

We now walked the noble terrace together, while he pointed out to me
the prospect from it. In view was one half the city, and the dark
"Lake of the Dead," of which I will speak hereafter; the avenues of
sphinxes; the gigantic gateways or pylones and obelisks on the river;
and the mighty Nile itself, flowing like an ever-lengthening sea amid
the fairest scenery of earth. Reposing upon its bosom, like a gigantic
floating garden, was visible the noble isle of Rhoda, decked with
gorgeous palaces,--one of which, said Remeses, is the favorite home of
his royal mother. Still beyond this lovely island rose from the water
the gardens, villas, palaces, temples, and propyla which lay between
Memphis and the river; while the city of Apis, "the diadem of Egypt,"
in all the glory of architectural majesty and beauty, reposed on the
plain beyond; the mighty pyramids, with their winged temples and
colossal dromos of sphinxes, filling the background of this matchless

 Your affectionate son,




I am still in the City of the Sun, or RE, as I find it is often called
by the Egyptians, and I write to you from the palace of Remeses, not
the abode which was first allotted me, but in apartments in his own
imperial residence, an honored sharer of his table and society.

Here, in a sumptuous chamber, the walls of which are intercolumnar
panels, enriched by paintings on gold and blue grounds, tastefully
bordered by flowers and fruit, I once more resume my pen to write to
you about this wonderful land.

The day after I closed my last letter, dear mother, a high officer
from the Queen Amense alighted from his chariot at my palace, and
placed in my hands the signet of his royal mistress, with a message
that she desired me to be presented to her.

I had already received an intimation from the prince of this intended
honor, and had made myself ready, being attired, when the messenger
came, in the full costume of a prince of Tyre, save the golden crown,
instead of which I wore the helmet-shaped cap of Tyrian gold-thread,
which was presented to me by your own loved hands. Over my shoulders I
clasped the cloak of Tyrian purple, embroidered by the hands of the
fair princess Thamonda; and instead of my sword I held a gold-tipped
wand, as no one is permitted to appear before the queen with arms.
These wands or rods are carried by all Egyptians, of every rank, as
constant companions; but their value and beauty are regulated by the
position and wealth of the person,--those of nobles being tipped with
gold, while ivory, ebony, palm-wood, and common woods, are the
materials of which others are made. The rod borne by me was a present
from Remeses, and near the burnished gold head of it was a massive
ring of great price, bearing his royal cartouch, in which he is called
"Remeses-Moses, Son of Pharaoh's Daughter, and Prince of Re Memphis,
and Thebes, Son of the god Nilus, and Leader of the Sacred Hosts."

There stood in front of my palace three chariots, two of them drawn by
a pair of beautifully spotted horses, while to the third, and most
elegant, were harnessed four snow-white steeds. A burnished shield
rising above the gracefully curved back, showed that it was a royal
chariot. The charioteer was a Nubian, wearing bracelets of gold, as
well as otherwise richly attired. The chariot was gorgeously
ornamented at the sides with ornaments of light open-work. It was
lined with crimson silk, which was visible through the interstices of
the open carvings. These chariots had two wheels; the pole projected
from the middle of the axle, and was bent upwards at a short distance
from the body of the carriage. At the end of the pole the yoke was
fastened, and each horse attached to the car by a single trace,
extending on his inner side from the base of the pole to the saddle. I
noticed, too, that the heads of the spirited horses were borne up
tight by a rein made fast to a hook in front of the saddle, and the
long reins passed through a loop or ring at the side. Also, that the
heads of the horses were adorned with lofty plumes; that the harness
was ornamented with silver and gold, or burnished brass, while upon
their bodies were housings of the most elaborate and beautiful
workmanship, representing royal devices.

One of these superb chariots was that in which the queen's officer
came. In the other sat the grand-chamberlain, behind his charioteer.
The third, I found, was for my use. Drawn up, hard by, there were not
less than threescore footmen of the queen's guard, who, ranging
themselves from the door, paid me the lowest obeisance as I passed to
my chariot, at the side of which stood the venerable and stately
grand-chamberlain, to assist me to enter it.

There was no seat; for the Egyptians stand in their chariots, as a
more dignified and commanding attitude,--a custom probably derived
from the necessity of doing so in their war-chariots, in order to
combat. I have, however, seen three or four very light and elegant
pleasure-chariots, in which ladies of high rank were seated, but one
only in each. But when the queen rides, she stands upon a dais in her
chariot, and, as she is borne at speed by six horses harnessed
abreast, she has the air and port of a flying goddess. The eyes of her
subjects follow her as if she were a meteor, and gaze after her with
admiration and awe.

The day was bright, as it always is in Egypt, with a cloudless sun. It
lighted up the long lines of palaces where dwelt priests and nobles,
illumined the propyla of the temples, burnished the lakes, gilded
the obelisks, and flooded the whole City of the Sun with
magnificence;--for there is a splendor and glory in the sunshine of
Egypt unknown in other lands, the result of the purity of the
crystalline atmosphere.

My charioteer dashed onward as if great speed was a royal pace. Before
me ran footmen with wands clearing the avenue, and behind came the
swift-footed retainers, while on each side of me rolled the two
chariots. Acherres, my secretary, rode near upon an Arabian courser;
and his superb seat in the saddle and his masterly horsemanship drew
the applause of the Egyptians, who are better charioteers than

After a dashing ride of a mile, we entered a vast square which I had
not before seen. It extended two thousand feet each way. In the centre
was a calm lake basking in the sunshine. Around this lake was a border
of palm-trees, then a border of orange-trees filled with singing
birds, while in their shade walked groups of handsomely attired
people, and children enjoyed themselves in play. Upon the lake,
ornamented pleasure galleys were moving in various directions, and a
spirit of enjoyment pervaded the whole scene. Around this grand square
with its central lake were arranged as follows: on the north side a
superb colonnade of sculptured columns, forming the façade of the
Temple of Mnevis, the sacred ox of On, at the gate or propyla of which
crouched two sphinxes, with majestic human heads. On the west side was
a vast paved area, in the centre of which towered the obelisk of
Thothmes the Great. This area is inclosed by the royal armory, an
edifice expressive of strength and grandeur in its massive and warlike
proportions. On the east is a pyramid two hundred feet high, in front
of which two sphinxes with heads of women and bodies of birds repose,
while on each side extends a range of noble pylones opening into
avenues that lead to interior courts. This singular edifice is the
temple of Re, and sometimes gives its name to the city, Re being also
another name for the sun. On the fourth side of this stupendous area
rises a grand palace, which occupies the whole space of the breadth of
the square. I can only describe the front of this royal palace by
representing it as a city of columns, interspaced at regular intervals
by noble propyla, which, in their turn, are sculptured and adorned in
such profusion as to bewilder the eye with forms of beauty. Two
sphinxes of colossal proportions, with the bodies of lions and the
heads of beautiful women wearing double crowns, guard the entrance to
this august palace. Upon the terrace, to which a flight of broad steps
ascended, stood the royal guard of the palace like statues, each of
the one hundred Theban soldiers leaning upon his spear, with his oval
shield resting against his side.

We drove up in front, and between the heads of the sphinxes I
alighted. The moment I did so, the Theban guard stood to their arms,
and their captain, with a glittering helmet upon his head and holding
his sword in his hand reversed, descended to receive me. Escorted by
him, and followed by the grand-chamberlain, I ascended to the terrace
saluted by the guard with the honors paid to royalty. The terrace was
surrounded with the statues of the kings of this dynasty, and of the
Theban Pharaohs; but the Phœnician Pharaohs are not now numbered
among the kings of Egypt. The terrace led into a circular hall which
was richly carved, gilded, and painted with historic scenes,
battle-pieces and naval combats. Conspicuous upon a panel, directly in
front of the entrance, was the representation of the expulsion of the
Shepherd Kings from Memphis. In the faces of the monarchs Amosis and
Amunophis, the immediate ancestors of Prince Remeses, I see no
resemblance to him. His style of face is wholly different from the
heroes of the dynasty to which he belongs. His features have a nobler
cast, and seem to belong to a man of a higher intellectual
development, and no doubt he is superior to all other Egyptians; for,
young as he is, his name is already associated with all that is wise,
and great, and true.

The entablature of the next hall we entered was a wonderful sculpture.
It represented a circle of beautiful girls chained together by wreaths
of flowers, and with interlaced arms, bending over and smiling down
upon those in the hall, each extending a hand holding a vase. There
was a unity of design in the whole of the interior of this adytum or
presence-chamber, with the distribution of light and the groups of
figures shown by it on the walls, that surpassed any apartment I had
yet seen. As I entered this enchanted hall, the martial music which
had hailed me as I came into the outer vestibule ceased, and was
succeeded by the most ravishing sounds of instrumental music from an
unseen source. I would have lingered, but there advanced a beautiful
youth, all clad in gold and purple, it seemed to me, so richly was he
attired, who said:

"The queen desires me to conduct the noble Prince of Tyre to her

I followed, and before him opened, as if by their own volition, a pair
of two-leaved doors of ivory, inlaid with emeralds. The throne-room
stood before me--if an apartment a thousand feet across may be termed
a room. I stood at the threshold of a chamber surrounded by columns
ninety feet high. A guard of soldiers, in silver cuirasses and helmets
covered with silken scarfs, inclosed the space. An avenue of statues
of the gods, in the centre, led for eight hundred feet to the throne.
Along this avenue was arranged a brilliant array of officers, in armor
and uniforms of the most dazzling description, to which every color
and every precious metal contributed, while helm and cuirass, of those
highest in rank, blazed with jewels. I advanced, led by the beautiful
page, in whose fine black eyes and long lashes, arched brow and
aquiline nose, I recognized the now well-known lineaments of the
Hebrew race. He moved with his eyes cast down. I experienced, my dear
mother, at a public reception so august, not a little embarrassment;
but I repressed it, and endeavored to receive these honors, at the
greatest court on earth, with the ease and self-command that became my
rank. As I drew near the throne the scene increased in magnificence.
At length two statues of Osiris and Isis terminated the vista I had
traversed; and I saw before me the throne of Egypt, one hundred feet
in front, in the centre of a space one half a stadium in diameter, and
elevated upon a dais or platform of variegated marble, twelve feet
from the floor. This noble platform was square, and at each of the
four corners crouched a lion, respectively with the head of an eagle,
a sea-dragon (no doubt, a fabulous monster), a bull, and a man--all,
figures representing the four kingdoms of the air, the sea, the earth,
and the intellect or soul. These four colossal beasts faced inward,
towards the throne, to signify that they beheld in its occupant their
mistress and sovereign. Upon their heads were crowns, namely, of
Thebes, Memphis, Re, and Ethiopia.

The platform, upon the angles of which crouched these majestic
figures, was ascended by four flights of steps of red Syene stone,
inlaid with precious stones. There were seven steps to each ascent,
representing the seven mouths of the Nile by which the land of Egypt
is approached. These symbols were subsequently explained to me by
Remeses; but I describe them now, as I may not again have an
opportunity of so doing in the varied scenes and subjects that
challenge my attention.

In the midst of this elevation, rising island-like in the centre of
the "Hall of the Pharaohs," stood the throne itself. It was separated
from every object in solitary splendor, a space of many yards being
left on all sides of the polished floor, in the brilliancy of which
not only the throne itself, but the heads of the four sphinxes, were
reflected. How shall I give you, dear mother, a just conception of the
throne-chair? It was of the purest ivory, carved with wonderful
beauty. The simple grandeur of its form and material was more
impressive than the most gorgeous display of gilding and precious
stones. Its shape was not unlike that of a chariot, the back curving
gracefully over the head of the occupant, and terminating in an
expanded canopy of feathers, all of ivory, yet so thin and delicately
executed that they waved in the south breeze that stirred through the
hall. This chariot-shaped throne rested upon the bodies of two
Nigritian lion-leopards of Rhodian marble, between which three steps
ascended to the seat of the chair. The seat was a single pearl, a gift
from the Queen of Ind to Amunophis the Great, the father of Amense.

The footstool of this beautiful throne was a single onyx stone in a
border of gold, standing upon does' feet, each of which was a ruby.
The carpet before the throne was woven of the plumage of the
bird-of-paradise intermingled with that of birds of India and Arabia,
of divers colors. Skins of lions and leopards, fringed with
gold-thread, lay upon the mirror-like floor of the dais, from the
footstool to the steps which descended from the platform, or no
footstep could have crossed it, so high was the polish of the marble

High above the throne was a canopy of blue silk extending over the
whole dais, and representing the signs of the heavens when Amense was
born, with the presiding constellation delineated in its vertical
position. Imagine this court of the throne, a peristyle of aquamarine
and white columns, with capitals carved in imitation of flowers, and
the shafts enriched by painting and sculpture; surround it with
gorgeously attired courtiers, their eyes fixed upon the queen; behold
at the steps of the dais the highest officers of her court, awaiting
with looks of homage. On each side of the throne itself stand the two
military princes of her realm, one who commands her armies, the other
her navies. They are in the full costume of their high rank, and
glitter with jewels. Behind the throne, near two stately figures
representing Truth and Justice, is a brilliant guard of honor, called
"pages of the throne-room," who are sons of nobles, and whose place in
public is always near the person of the queen. Their hands are so
laden with rings that they appear rather like a chain of gold and
jewels held therein. They wear orange-colored jewelled bonnets and
necklaces, and carry blue wands tipped with pearls.

I have now described, dear mother, all the externals of the scene into
which I was presented, in order that you may form some idea of the
glory and majesty of this court, and the style of its magnificent
monarchs. I will now come to the central person, around whom is
gathered all this courtly splendor and architectural grandeur.

As I advanced towards the steps of the dais, two chief officers in
flowing linen robes, and wearing chains of gold about their necks,
drew near, when my Hebrew page fell back, giving them place.

One of these dignified personages said to me in pure Syriac, for the
Egyptians are learned in all polite tongues--

"We are sent to lead you to the foot of the stairs of the four

They placed themselves one on each side of me, and as I came to the
seven steps, to my great joy I beheld prince Remeses descending them
to welcome and receive me; for the majesty, and glory, and
magnificence, and novelty of the whole scene had nearly overwhelmed me
with awe: indeed, I felt as if verily advancing into the presence of
the enthroned OSIRIS himself.

The prince looked more strikingly noble than in my first interview. He
was attired with the utmost richness, and looked the personification
of kingly dignity. He was now distinguished by the amplitude of his
robes, and their fineness, and a girdle ornamented with the _uræus_ or
royal serpent. All his garments were of the lightest and finest
material, instead of the heavy and costly stuffs which form the robes
of state in Phœnicia and Assyria; for, as my own embroidered and
heavy mantle showed me, such material would be out of place in this
clime of perennial summer. He wore a gorgeous vesture embroidered with
leaves, and a silken sash wound about his body, after the fashion of
ancient Egyptian princes, which sash was divided into three different
folds, over which fell his upper garment of fine Persian cloth, with
long sleeves, also embroidered. The distinguishing mark of his rank,
as a prince and "son," and which hung down the side of his face, was
the badge of the god Horus, terminating in a fringe of gold, of a
fashion worn only by this dynasty. With this badge was entwined his
braided lock of hair, of which I have before spoken. This costume is
arbitrary, and may not be changed, as the laws regulate it for king,
priest, and people; therefore do I so particularly describe it.

With grace and dignity he saluted me before the whole court, saying,
"Noble prince, with pleasure I present you to my mother the queen. She
is already prepossessed in your favor, and welcomes you to her court
with distinctions becoming the heir to the throne of Phœnicia, and
our royal cousin."

I bowed in recognition of this courtesy, and Remeses, taking my hand,
led me up the steps of the dais. The Queen Amense, seated upon her
ivory throne, awaited my approach. Remeses, leading me to within three
paces of her footstool, said, with a low obeisance of mingled filial
reverence and princely homage,--

"Mother and queen! I introduce to your court, Sesostris, Prince of

I also did profound obeisance to the majesty of the presence near
which I stood, and then fixed my eyes upon the mighty potentate about
to address me, and presented to her your original letter.

As she opened it, I observed her face. I beheld before me a woman of
noble aspect, with rich brown hair, slightly silvered, worn with
severe plainness across her temples. Her face was still beautiful,
though fifty-three years had passed over her head, but it was marked
with lines of thought and care. What her fine features had lost in
beauty, they had gained in majesty. They recalled those of the statue
of Astarte, in the temple of the Moon at Sidon; and, in truth, her air
and port would have become a goddess. Her eyes were the color of her
hair--a rich sunny brown, like that of the Syrian women of Damascus;
and is she not, by descent through Ephtha, the daughter of the last
Phœnician Pharaoh, allied to the royal line of Syro-Phœnicia? I
never beheld a countenance so dignified, yet so benign. Her eyes are
piercing, and imperial in their glance; and she carries her superb
head with a consciousness of dominion. I did not marvel longer at her
vast power over her subjects, and their submission, as well as that of
the kingdoms around her, to the rule of her will.

Upon her head she wore the double diadem of the Thebaïd and Memphis,
symbol that the sovereignty of Upper and Lower Egypt is vested in her
person. The inner crown was a graceful conical bonnet of white silk,
sown with pearls and lined with cloth of silver, terminating in a
knob, like a pomegranate bud, which is the emblem, I believe, of Upper
Egypt. The outer crown, which is similar to that worn by the
Phœnician Pharaohs, is a rich band of gold, faced with cloth of
gold and lined with red silk, red being the special color of Lower
Egypt as white is of Upper. This crown is open at the top, and is put
on over the other; and the two worn together form a diadem of beauty
and glory.

About her neck the queen wore a necklace of precious stones, the clasp
of which was a vulture, his neck encircled by an asp, on which he was
trampling--emblem of the goddess Maut, mother of Isis. She was dressed
in a vestment of Persian gauze of silk, of the purest whiteness and of
the fineness of mist, and a green vesture enriched with gold and blue
needle-work, reaching below the waist and secured by a girdle blazing
with diamonds. Long robes descended to her feet, of those most
beautiful patterns and rare colors which the looms of Damascus produce
only for royal wearers, and in the manufacture of which years are
consumed. Carelessly over one shoulder was thrown a Persian shawl, one
like which is only made in a lifetime, and would buy a king's ransom.
The monarchs of Egypt thus can command with their wealth, dear mother,
what other kings can only sigh for and envy.

She did not rise to receive me, but when I would have kneeled at her
footstool, she bended forward and touched my hand with her jewelled
right hand, which I reverently raised to my lips and forehead. She
would not suffer me to kneel, but made me stand on one side of her,
while Remeses stood on her right, and proceeded to ask me a variety of
questions. She uttered her interrogatories with grace and benignity.
She expressed her gratification at seeing me at her court--trusted I
would find Egypt so agreeable that I should remain a long time her
guest--asked after your health and welfare, and desired me to convey
to you the expression of her esteem for you, and her desire that the
friendly relations now existing between the two courts may be
strengthened by my visit. She was also pleased to say, that every
opportunity should be afforded me for seeing Egypt, and that if I
desired to visit Karnac and Luxor, and the temples and cities of the
Thebaïd, she would furnish me with galleys.

To all this exceeding kindness and courtesy, my dear mother, I
returned, as you may be sure, appropriate acknowledgments; and after
some further conversation, in which Prince Remeses took part, the
audience terminated: but only to introduce a spectacle, such as I had
no conception was in reserve--the review of her army of chariots and
horsemen, on the parade of the palace.

But I must reserve my description of this scene to a subsequent
letter. Till then, I remain,

 Royal and dear mother,
 Your faithful




In my last letter I described to you, as well as the feebleness of
language would admit, my presentation to the Queen Amense, and the
splendors of her court and palace. In Syria we have no approach to
this Egyptian magnificence, unless it is to be found in Tadmor, the
city of the Euphrates country, which travellers call a single temple
the size of a city! The peculiarity of Egyptian architecture is very
striking. It has an air of ponderous majesty--being, in all its
proportions, colossal. Yet this massive aspect is relieved by shaping
the stone and marble in the most graceful lines, and enriching with
sculpture, either in relief or intaglio, the immense surfaces of their
gigantic columns and enormous propyla. In all the temples and palaces
I have yet seen here, two species of column chiefly prevail--one of
which, this being the most ancient style, is fluted and composed of a
single shaft, with a capital in the shape of an opening pomegranate,
the reflexed edge being an imitation of the opened flower of the
lotus, and presenting a graceful object to the eye. The other column,
introduced by the present dynasty, is always colossal; but its
massiveness is relieved by being striated, which gives the mass the
appearance of being composed of united stems, and increased by
horizontal belts or bands cut in the stone, which seem to tie them
together under the capital and in the middle. Just above the square or
round plinth, the base of the shaft itself is rounded and adorned with
leaves, which gives it the appearance of growing up from the plinth.
You can judge of the combined grandeur and grace of such columns, dear
mother, by imagining several buds of the rose of Palestine set like
cups, one upon the other, and upon the top of all a lotus-flower, and
the whole magnified to ninety or a hundred feet in height, and
converted into Syene stone.

On the abacus of the columns, which form so prominent and universal a
feature in Egyptian architecture, rests a broad but simple architrave,
usually sculptured with hieroglyphics illustrating subjects connected
with the deity of the temple, or the occupant of the palace which they
adorn. The upper edge of it is often occupied by a row of the sacred
serpent, _uræus_. The boldness and breadth of the cornice supplies the
want of a pediment--flat roofs being used in this country, when used
at all, where rain is scarcely known, and where snow was never seen.

The porticos and façades present double and triple rows of columns,
but seldom are they found on the sides or around the temples, as at
Damascus and Tadmor. The circular arenas in the city, which I have
described in a former letter, were not temples but colonnades, and
these column-inclosed squares are the introduction of Queen Amense,
and are only found at On. Usually the great lines of Egyptian edifices
are straight, and their temples are quadrangles, with avenues of
mighty columns extending from pylon to pylon in a succession of inner
courts--these series of vast and magnificent vestibules sometimes
extending half a mile, their avenues bordered by sphinxes and columns
alternately, until the great fane of the temple, to which they are the
approach, is reached.

For columns, I have seen in the temple of the sacred ox--MNEVIS,
colossal figures of Osiris, or of sovereigns with the attributes of
Osiris. These Osiride pillars are often thirty feet in height. Upon my
mind they produce an unpleasing effect. The impression is as if the
god was brought into the service of man as a slave, to uphold his
temples, though I believe they do not bear any portion of the
superincumbent weight. But one cannot behold a row of these mighty men
of stone without an emotion of awe. The general tone of the temples
and palaces betrays the pyramid as their type. The walls sloping on
the outside as if the lower section of a pyramid, give to the edifices
of Egypt that expression of self-reposing and immovable stability
which belongs to the pyramidal form. The whole effect is in the
highest degree sublime, and at once subdues and elevates my mind as I
gaze. The scale of architecture is so vast, that even the innumerable
sculptured objects by which walls, columns, and entablatures are
covered, do not interfere with the grandeur of the whole effect.
Moreover, the heaviness which would adhere to such massive edifices in
Syria, disappears when they are seen through the crystalline medium of
this Egyptian atmosphere.

There is another peculiarity, my dear mother, of Egyptian
architecture, which no one can contemplate without an increasing
impression of awe. I allude to the dromos, or double row of
sphinxes--figures of which I have already spoken, and of which we have
no idea in Syria, though an Assyrian noble whom I met in Sidon,
described to me reposing colossi with majestic heads of kings and
bodies of lions, as guarding the approach to the temples of the gods
of his country. Such mysterious compounds of the human form with a
lion or a ram, denoting the union of intellect with strength, are to
be encountered here before every temple. These avenues of sphinxes, in
profound repose and with a grave and serious aspect, are usually
entered through a lofty gateway or pylon, before which are seated
gigantic figures of gods, or stand obelisks of granite, placed in
pairs, and richly and elaborately sculptured with hieroglyphics.
Through such a gateway and avenue, I approached the city of On. A day
or two ago I was in a temple dedicated to the god Horus, son of Osiris
and Isis. Upon the pylon was inscribed a sun, supported by two asps
with outspread wings--the emblem of Hor-hat, the good genius of
Egypt--and hence to be found everywhere represented. It is this which
is erroneously called, by some travellers, a winged globe. In the
entrance, this god was pictured with the head of a hawk (at once his
symbol and a type of the sun, from the piercing brightness of its
eye), as an actor in various scenes, both celestial and terrestrial,
such as hunting, sailing, and engaged in war against Typhon, and

Passing these, I entered a spacious court, open to the sky and
surrounded by sculptured colonnades. Crossing this court, which
inferior priests were traversing or idly lounging in, I came to a
second propylon, the magnificent wings of which were divided into
numerous compartments, and sculptured ten stories high, with the most
exquisite art. This pylon, in the wings of which the priests lodge,
led into an open court one hundred paces long, through the centre of
which extended an avenue of twenty-four columns, sixty-six feet high
and twelve in diameter, and on each side of these were seven rows of
lesser columns, forty feet in height and nine in diameter. All these
presented sculptured surfaces, and the richest description of
capitals. A still more magnificent gateway, at the extremity of this
street of columns, conducted me into a vast hall with covered
cloisters on the sides, and a double row of colossal pillars running
down the centre. All the rest of the space was paved and adorned with
fountains, statues, and fruit and flower trees, growing from large
alabaster vases. Priests and worshippers moved in all directions
through this and the other courts. The walls of this grand hall were
decorated with battle-pieces--the triumphs of the Pharaohs in the
conquest of neighboring kingdoms--representations of offerings to the
gods, and of captive princes led at the wheels of chariots. I advanced
to another pylon, still loftier and more noble than the rest, and as I
looked back to the remote outer entrance, two thousand feet off, I
discovered that an artifice of architecture had been employed to
increase the apparent distance by diminishing the gateways in height,
as if by the effect of a lengthened perspective. The effect was all
that the architect could have desired.

The Egyptians apply colors freely to their architecture. This
peculiarity increases in a wonderful degree the richness and harmony
of the general effect. The cloudless sky of Egypt gives brilliancy to
all the colors of nature, and these imitated on the walls of temples
and palaces, have a beauty and splendor that must be seen to be
appreciated. Granite, serpentine stone, breccia, or basalt, whatever
be the material, its appearance, however elaborately polished, is by
the Egyptians enriched, as they believe, and as I begin to think, by
the pencil. The profusion with which they employ colors and sculpture
in their temples, palaces, and tombs, has no parallel on earth. In
Syria they are subsidiary to architecture. Here they are a part of it.
The sloping outer walls, the external surfaces,--ceiling, column, and
pylon,--are all covered with sculpture. Their sculptured bass-reliefs
unite the qualities of a cameo and an intaglio, the figure itself
rising from the broadly cut and deep outline of the design. Thus,
though the design is in relief, the figure does not project, and is
protected from injury. The colors which are laid on these are softened
by their retiring below the surface. Real bass-reliefs, however, exist
on the monuments of the age of Sesortasen I.

The adytum of the temple which I am describing so minutely, with
descriptions of the peculiarities of the architecture of the Egyptians
(knowing your architectural taste and curiosity about all such
subjects, my dear mother), was, unlike any of the halls I had
traversed, much smaller, and yet far more beautiful than any of them.
It was a square chamber, the ceiling of which was painted blue and
studded with stars, while the moon shone down, a shield of polished
silver, from the zenith point. Figures of vultures, hawks, and other
emblems, were placed upon columns around the hall, and separated only
by the winged asp-encircled sun. These figures were richly colored,
and the eyes of the birds glittered with diamonds set in them. Upon
the entablature around the hall were sculptured the twelve months. All
these, and the walls, were beautifully painted, with a harmony of
distribution and combination of their gorgeous colors singularly
pleasing to the eye. Hieroglyphics, traced in gold on blue panels,
recorded the virtues and deeds of Horus. The floor of this sumptuous
chamber represented the great circle of the sun through the twelve
constellations, and also the images of the seven planetary gods,
executed in the pavement with almost every variety of colored stone,
such as the emerald, amethyst, agate, lapis lazuli, root of emerald,
cornelian, greenstone, hæmatite, all interset with gold, silver, and
bronze. Nothing could be richer. A sun of pure gold was placed in the
centre of this wonderful zodiac, if I may so term it, for I do not
know whether it is a true planetary configuration which is represented
with a fixed date, or simply arbitrary, and executed as an ornament.
The Egyptians are, however, skilful astronomers, and have the skill
and learning to interpret and thus record the ages of the past by the
procession of the heavens.

On one side of this chamber of art and beauty, stood the monolith
which contained the shrine of the god. It was a rock of solid granite,
in which a recess was hollowed out, wherein sat the deity. Nothing
could be more majestic and simple. The Egyptians seem to delight in
contrasts. All the magnificence and architectural glory I have
described, directed the footsteps of the votary to a plain block of
stone, containing a statue of Syenite marble the size of a man. The
face is calm and majestic, and the eyes are fixed upon the worshipper
with a supernatural expression which awes him. The genius which had
erected the superb edifice of the god, had concentrated its power in
the face of the divinity. Though stone, it seemed above humanity; and
the soul of the god seemed dwelling in it, and giving its countenance
a divine energy.

But, my dear mother, I will not longer occupy your time with temples
and architecture. I have written of them sufficiently to give you an
idea of the land I sojourn in. But my descriptions will enable you to
form a more correct idea of such events as I may hereafter write
about, and enable you, when I relate scenes and actions, to conceive,
in a measure, the surrounding features and aspect of places. If I were
writing a volume "on Egypt," I would then visit and describe all her
magnificent temples, pyramids, obelisks, palaces, canals, lakes,
cities, and tombs, from Pelusium to the tower of Syene. But I know
that these would not interest you, after what I have written, and that
what is personal to myself and descriptive of the people, that is,
life and action, will be more agreeable for you to read (and for me to
write) than gorgeous pictures of architectural results. I shall,
therefore, for the future, only incidentally describe edifices
(unless, indeed, I give you a letter upon the mighty pyramids), and
devote my pen to scenes passing around me.

And in pursuance of this purpose, my dear mother, I will describe to
you the review of the army of chariots of iron, which followed my
presentation to the queen. I will not be so vain as to suffer you to
think that this superb spectacle was arranged purposely in honor of
your son; though had it been so, it could hardly have added to the
honors which that august and courteous lady has showered upon me; but
I feel that the distinction is due rather to the friendship which
Remeses entertains for me, than to any merit or claim of my own beyond
my simple rank.

The review in question was prepared for this day; and, in order that I
might witness it, the queen had graciously appointed the occasion for
my presentation to her. Although, in my account of that interview, I
spoke only of myself, yet there had been presented, just before I
entered the palace, several ambassadors, princes, and philosophers,
from various countries, including Arabia, Persia, Sheba, Javan,
Iberia, Abyssinia, and the isles of the sea. These had come to Egypt,
either to enter the schools of philosophy, to negotiate terms of
tribute or alliance, or to study the science of war, for which Egypt
has become eminent, even rivalling the mighty Philistine armies in
discipline, effect, and valor.

From the throne-room we passed out through a gateway, from which
descended steps to the parade, which was a vast square, capable of
holding one hundred thousand men; while the colonnades around it would
accommodate as many more spectators.

The queen did not descend the steps, but took her seat by a statue of
the god of war, upon a sort of throne beneath a canopy, supported by
six bearers, to shield her from the sun. But Remeses, leaving me by
the side of his royal mother, who was also surrounded by her guard,
and near whom stood the ambassadors and princes and philosophers,
received from an attendant a helmet of gold, which he put over his
silken bonnet, and from another a corselet of steel inlaid, mounted a
war-chariot in waiting, and, casting a glance around upon the field,
looked all at once the warrior-prince, which the heightened color of
his cheek and proud carriage of his head showed he felt himself to be.
Thus, whether a soldier at the head of the hosts of Egypt, a
counsellor by the throne of his mother, a courtier among the nobles, a
philosopher in the Academies, he is perfect in all things. As a son,
he sets an example of devotion and filial respect to the young men of
the kingdom; as a man, his private character is pure from every vice
or folly--a worthy heir to the throne of the dominant kingdom of the
earth. The sight which the square presented surpasses my ability to
convey to your mind a just conception of. The vast area was one third
occupied by a division of chariots. The chariot corps constitutes a
very large and effective portion of the Egyptian army. Each car
contained two soldiers--for, from the position I occupied, my eyes
could take in the whole splendid scene--besides the charioteer. The
car on which Remeses stood was drawn by two horses, but without any
charioteer, the reins being fastened to an upright spear. His chariot
was inlaid with silver and gold. The sides and back were open, and the
base or floor of the car curved upward in front, serving as a
safeguard to the charioteer when one was required; but it now
supported his quiver of silver and bow-case of gilded leather, richly
ornamented with figures of lions. The spear-case, which was of bronze,
and fastened by chains of gold, pointed over his shoulder. Close to it
was an additional quiver containing Parthian arrows, while a mace of
iron and heavy sword, that reflected the sunlight, hung by thongs from
the rings of the spear-case. All the other chariots, which were
constructed of wood and iron handsomely painted, were similarly
accoutred, though less elegant in form and finish, and provided only
with a single quiver, bow, and spear. The housings upon the horses
were cuirasses of woven links of the finest steel, while gorgeous
feathers decked their heads.

No sooner had the prince leaped upon his chariot, than the Ethiopian
slaves, who held his two fiery steeds, sprung aside, releasing them in
the act, when they bounded into the air and dashed forward over the
plain. Remeses, immovable as a statue, let them fly before him until
he came in front of the drawn-up phalanx of chariots, when, at a
slight signal with his hands, the horses, whose eyes are wholly free
from shields or blinders, stopped full. These proved to be his
favorite chariot-horses, and had been trained to render perfect

Now commenced a grand movement of the whole battalion. While Remeses
stood in his chariot, the van of the four thousand chariots, which
constituted the host, moved forward. In a few moments the whole body
was in motion. Dashing forward across the field, they swept round at
its extremity in vast curves, and came thundering on, to pass the
point where the queen sat. The ground shook with the roll of eight
thousand wheels and the fall of twice as many horse hoofs! It was a
magnificent sight, as, one hundred abreast, the column came on. The
head of it, led by the chief captains, passed our position like a
mighty river, the surface of which tossed with helmets, glittering
spears, bows, plumed heads of steeds, and gorgeous housings--a
dazzling, bewildering spectacle, full of sublimity and terrible power.
The splendor of the head-dresses and trappings of the steeds, mingling
with the shining cuirasses and steel weapons of the armed charioteers,
presented a scene I shall never cease to remember.

In the centre of the field of review stood Remeses, his eagle glance
reviewing their movements, with a few of his generals about him, each
in his own chariot. When this grand and imposing army had compassed
the square, they resumed their former position with a precision and
order marvellous to witness. Then followed evolutions by detachments
of chariots. Five hundred of them, divided into two equal bodies, took
position, one at each end of the parade, and, at a signal, charged
upon each other at a speed which, at first slow, increased each
moment. My heart leaped with excitement. I looked to see a very
battle, and to behold horses and charioteers overturned in tumultuous
confusion from the inevitable shock. But so well-drilled were they,
that the two lines, deploying as they drew nearer, passed through each
other in spaces measured by the eyes of the charioteers so nicely,
that in a moment they were rattling away, each to occupy the other's
vacated position. There was a general shout of applause from the tens
of thousands of spectators at this brilliant manœuvre. Other
displays of battle-charioteering took place, during which was
exhibited every evolution that war demands on the veritable field of

This magnificent review occupied three hours, when it terminated by
all the generals, and chief captains, and leaders of cohorts and
legions, simultaneously detaching themselves from their several
commands, and one after another galloping at full speed, first around
the prince, saluting him, and then wheeling and turning in front of
the queen's pavilion, paying her military homage as they passed her,
by placing the left hand upon the breast, lowering the point of the
spear, and then raising it above their glittering helmets. The queen
rose, smiled, and returned the salute by a graceful wave of her hand.
This company of warrior chiefs excelled, in richness of armor and
apparel, and housings and head-dresses for their steeds, and in the
beauty of their war-chariots, all that had gone before. Returning to
their post, the trumpets of the whole army sounded, and this martial
array of chariots and horsemen moved all together across the parade,
at a rapid trot, and, defiling by fifties through a colossal pylon,
soon disappeared outside of the walls on their way to their camp.
Their retiring trumpets could be still heard dying away beyond the
gates, as Remeses rejoined us, alighting from his chariot after
loosing the reins of his steeds from about his body, to which he had
bound them during one part of the evolutions, in which he took the
lead of a charging legion in his own chariot, as ever without a

We now retired into the palace, it being past noon, and were conducted
towards the reception-rooms of the royal banquet-hall by the
grand-chamberlain. At the door we were received by the chief butler,
while the other officers of the royal household stood in a line,
bending low as the queen and her guests passed in. We consisted,
besides her majesty, the prince and myself, of the ambassador from
Chaldea, the king's messenger from the Court of Chederlaomer III., in
whose country, three hundred years and more ago, the famous battle of
Sodom was fought; the ambassador from the kingdom of Assyria; the
young Prince of Tarshish; the Duke Chilmed of Sheba, and the Dukes
Javan and Tubal; the Lord of Mesech, and the Prince of Midian. Besides
these was a great and wise prince from the land of Uz, near the
country of Prince Abram, the Mesopotamian. He was accompanied by two
friends, philosophers and men of note, Zophar of Naamath, and Lord
Eliphaz of Teman. This lord of Uz came into Egypt with a great retinue
and train of servants, for he is a man of vast possessions. He had
heard of the wisdom and power of Amense, and had come with his own
merchants to visit her court. He is also an eminently wise man, a
worshipper of the one Deity, as was the ancient king Abram. He is of
venerable and majestic aspect, is learned in all the wisdom of Chaldea
and Arabia, and seeks to add thereto the lore of Egypt. Besides this
distinguished prince, there are other philosophers of note and name.
In such noble company, dear mother, was it my fortunate lot to fall.
Truly, to come into Egypt is to see the whole world!

The queen, after entering the ante-room, retired to the right, where
her ladies-in-waiting received her and escorted her to her own
apartments to prepare for the banquet, which had been delayed by the
review. Remeses leading the way, with me by his side, we came to the
outer room, where handsomely dressed pages offered us scented water in
ewers of gold, to lave our fingers, removed our sandals, and in
foot-pans of gold washed our feet, beginning with Remeses. They then
dried them with perfumed napkins of the softest linen fringed with
threads of gold, and placed upon them sandals of crimson cloth,
embroidered with flowers. Our upper garments were removed by Nubian
servants, and replaced by a banquet-vesture, more or less rich
according to our rank. Thus refreshed, we entered a beautiful
reception-room containing the most elegant articles of furniture. Here
every one of us was presented by the chief gardener of the palace with
a lotus-flower, to be held in the hand during the entertainment. As we
moved about, admiring the beauty of the rooms and the furniture, and
such objects of luxury and art as were intended to gratify the tastes
of guests, there were several arrivals of generals, and officers of
the chariot legion, and other divisions of the army of Lower Egypt,
who had been summoned to the banquet. Among these I recognized some of
the superbly uniformed officers who had lined the avenue of the grand
approach to the throne--for you will recollect that I said it was an
army of officers, soldiers of this rank alone being permitted to do
the honors of the palace on the reception of princes or foreign

There were, also, nobles, and distinguished citizens, Egyptian
gentlemen of worth and condition, that entitled them to the honor of
dining at the palace. From a window I witnessed the arrival of these.
They came in elegant pleasure-chariots, attended by a number of
servants. One of these footmen came forward to announce to the chief
porter his master's name; others took the reins, for the Egyptian lord
prefers to drive himself in the streets; another, who held above his
head, standing behind him, a large parasol of gorgeous plumes,
alighted, carried it still above him as he crossed to the portico of
the palace.

Several aged persons arrived in palanquins exquisitely carved and
painted, and borne by slaves. Two or three arrived on foot, an
attendant holding a shield or large fan above them. Water was brought
also for their feet, but not in golden foot-bowls, and robes and
sandals were distributed according to rank.

At length, for these polite Egyptians (as well as ourselves) regard it
as a want of good-breeding to sit down to table immediately on
arriving, the music, which had played all the while the guests were
arriving, ceased, and the chief butler announced the moment of the
banquet. At the same instant the queen entered the apartment, and,
after receiving the salutations of us all, was escorted by Remeses to
the banquet-hall. As we entered, a company of musicians, stationed
near the door, struck up one of the favorite airs of the country,
playing upon tambourines, cymbals, double-pipes, flutes which rested
on the floor, guitars, lyres, and instruments unknown to me. The music
was full of harmony, and, to my ear, novel, from the number of strange
instruments. This continued until we had been seated according to
rank, my place being to the left of the queen, Remeses sitting at her
right. There were four ladies of rank also near the queen, along the
table, which I may mention was of polished silver.

When we had taken our places the loud music ceased, and seven
minstrels, who stood by as many harps behind the queen, commenced
playing a beautiful air, accompanying it by their voices. The melody
was full of richness and sweetness. While this was performing,
servants approached, and from exquisite porcelain vases poured
sweet-scented ointment upon our heads. Then entered from the gardens,
into which the banquet-room opened on two sides, as many beautiful
maidens, bearing necklaces of fresh flowers which they had just
gathered, and cast them over our shoulders.

Having received these tokens of welcome, a train of servants presented
us wine in one-handled goblets. That of Remeses, and mine own, was of
gold and jewelled. The others were of silver or agate. The queen's was
presented to her in a single crystal, and that of the ladies in small,
delicate vases of some precious metal. The health of the queen, and of
the prince, and others present, was drunk, while music regaled our
senses. Remeses, who acted as ruler of the feast, pledged me to drink
thy health, my dear mother, which was responded to by all the company;
the Prince of Uz remarking, that the fame of your virtues and the
wisdom of your reign had reached his country. You may judge how my
heart swelled with pride and joy at this testimony to your
excellencies, O my noble and royal mother, from so dignified a source,
in the presence of such a company of witnesses! Until the dinner was
served up, various songs and performances were introduced, and at the
close of the banquet there were the wonderful dances of Arabian girls,
exhibitions of buffoonery, games, and feats of agility by jugglers. I
regret to say, that some of the guests retired overcome with wine, and
had to be borne on the shoulders of their servants to their homes;
while two of the ladies were freer with their little crystal goblets
than was seeming for their sex. The queen scarce touched the wine to
her lips, while Remeses preserved the severest temperance. After the
banquet, Remeses accompanied me to apartments in the palace, which he
said were for the future to be my abode. Here, taking leave of him, I
commenced this letter, which I now close, assuring you of my filial
love and reverence.





This morning, as I was about leaving the palace, in order to spend
several hours in traversing the city on foot, that I might see the
citizens at their pursuits, and observe the manners and customs of
this people, the Prince Remeses rode up in his silver-embossed
chariot, himself his own charioteer, two footmen, carrying their
sandals in their left hand, running by the side of his superb horses.
With that absence of form and ceremony which belongs to true
friendship, he did not wait for me to order my grand-chamberlain and
other chief officers of my retinue to receive him, but came straight
to the room "of the alabastron," so called from its alabaster columns,
which was my reception-room, and in the window of which he had seen me
from the street. I met him at the door of the ante-room, and when I
would have saluted him by laying his hand against my heart and then
raising it to my lips, he embraced me with affection.

"Nay, noble Sesostris, said I not we are friends and cousins, and
therefore equals? I have come for you to go with me to Raamses, the
treasure-city, built by Amunophis, my grandfather. I am planning a new
palace, to be erected there for the governor of the treasures of the
kingdom, and am to meet, to-day, the chief architect. Will you
accompany me?"

"With pleasure, my prince," I said; "though I had just proposed to
walk about the city among the people, and see them in their homes and
domestic pursuits."

"You will find time for this always--come with me. You can stand with
me in my chariot, or I will give you one to yourself, with a

I replied that I would go with him, as I should wish to ask him many
questions on the way. In a few moments we were moving rapidly through
the superb streets of the city, and, passing through three grand
pylones uniting as many courts, we came to the great gate of the city
to the south. The towers on each side of it were ninety-nine feet
high, and the pylon between them a wonder of beauty, for the elegance
of its intaglio adornments.

At this gate stood a phalanx of dark Libyan soldiers, who form,
everywhere, the guards of the gates, being noted both for faithfulness
and for their gigantic size. They were armed with lances and swords,
and as we passed through the gate paid to us the military salutation
due to royalty; for though Remeses is not the ruler of Egypt, yet he
wields an influence and power, both from his personal popularity and
the confidence reposed in him by his queen mother, which is almost
equal to the supreme dignity. And when he comes to the throne he will
rule wisely, and, if possible, raise Egypt to still greater glory. I
have already spoken of the remarkable air of dignity about him,
combined with an infinite gracefulness. He has an excellent
understanding, and the distinguished Egyptians with whom I have
conversed, tell me that "no man ever more perfectly united in his own
person the virtues of a philosopher with the talents of a general."
Gentle in his manner, he is in temper rather reserved; in his morals
irreproachable, and never known (a rare virtue in princes of Egypt) to
exceed the bounds of the most rigid temperance. Candor, sincerity,
affability, and simplicity, seem to be the striking features of his
character; and when occasion offers, he displays, say the officers of
his army, the most determined bravery and masterly soldiership.

Having passed the gate, the prince drew rein a little, to relieve the
footmen, six of whom ran before and as many behind the chariot,
besides the two "pages of the horse," who kept close to the heads of
the horses. Once outside of the city, we were in a beautiful avenue,
which led through groves and gardens, past villas and ornamental
lakes, for half a mile,--the city, for this breadth, being inclosed by
such a belt of verdure and rural luxury.

"Here," said Remeses, "dwell the nobles, in the intense heats of
summer. The summer palace of my mother is on the island of Rhoda,
between On and Memphis, in the Nile. I am yet to conduct you thither,
and also to the pyramids. You see pavilions on small islets in these
circular lakes. They are temples, or rather shrines for the private
devotions of the families."

We left this lovely suburb, and entered upon a broad road, which,
after crossing a plain on which stood the ruins of a palace of
Osirtasen I., wound through a region of wheat-fields, which extended
along the Nile as far as the eye could see. The laborers were chiefly
Egyptian, and wore the loin-cloth, and short trowsers reaching
half-way to the knee, which I have before described. They sang
cheerful songs as they worked, and stopped to gaze after the rolling
chariot which was passing across their lands like a meteor, its silver
panels flashing in the sun.

About twenty stadia, or nearly four miles, from the city, we came
suddenly upon a vast desolate field, upon which thousands of men
seemed to be engaged in the occupation of making brick. As we drew
near, for the royal road we were traversing passed directly through
this busy multitude, I saw by their faces that the toilers were of
that mysterious race, the Hebrew people.

I say "mysterious," dear mother; for though I have now been six weeks
in Egypt, I have not yet found any of the Egyptians who can tell me
whence came this nation, now in bondage to the Pharaohs! Either those
whom I questioned were ignorant of their rise, or purposely refrained
from talking with a foreigner upon the subject.

You will remember that I once inquired of Remeses as to their origin
and present degradation, and he said he would at some other time reply
to my question. Since then I have had no opportunity of introducing
the subject again to him, other objects wholly absorbing our attention
when we met. Yet in the interim I was forced irresistibly to notice
these people and their hard tasks; for, though they were never seen in
the streets mingling with the citizens (save only in palaces, where
handsome Hebrew youths often serve as pages), yet where temples, and
granaries, and walls, and arsenals, and treasure-houses were being
erected, they were to be found in vast numbers. Old and young men,
women, and children, without distinction, were engaged in the plain
across which we moved.

"Pardon me, noble prince," I said; "permit me to linger a moment to
survey this novel scene."

Remeses drew up his horses, and from the chariot I cast my eyes over
the vast level which embraced half a square league.

"These fields, Sesostris," said the prince, "are where the brick are
made which are to erect the walls of the treasure-city, one of the
towers of which you behold two miles distant. The city itself will
take the years of a generation of this people to complete, if the
grand design is carried out. On the left of the tower you see the old
palace, for this is not a new city we are building so much as an
extension of the old on a new site, and with greater magnificence. It
is my mother's pride to fill Egypt with monuments of architecture that
will mark her reign as an era."

The scene that I beheld from the height of the chariot I will attempt
to describe, my dear mother. As far as I could see, the earth was dark
with people, some stooping down and with wooden mattocks digging up
the clay; others were piling it into heaps; others were chopping straw
to mix with the clay; others were treading it with their feet to
soften it. Some with moulds were shaping the clay into bricks. Another
stood by with the queen's mark, and stamped each brick therewith, or
the one which was to be the head of a course when laid. There were
also the strongest men employed in raising upon the shoulders of
others a load of these bricks, which they bore to a flat open space to
be dried in the sun; and a procession of many hundreds was constantly
moving, performing this task. Some of the slaves carried yokes, which
had cords at each end, to which bricks were fastened; and many of the
young men conveyed masses of clay upon their heads to the moulders.
Those who carried the brick to the smoothly swept ground where they
were to be dried, delivered them to women, who, many hundreds in
number, placed them side by side on the earth in rows--a lighter task
than that of the men. The borders of this busy plain, where it touched
the fields of stubble wheat, were thronged with women and children
gathering straw for the men who mixed the clay. It was an active and
busy spectacle. Yet throughout the vast arena not a voice was heard
from the thousands of toilers; only the sharp authoritative tones of
their taskmasters broke the stillness, or the creaking of carts with
wooden wheels, as, laden with straw from distant fields, they moved
slowly over the plain.

The laborers were divided into companies or parties of from a score to
one hundred persons, over whom stood, or was seated, an Egyptian
officer. These taskmasters were not only distinguishable from the
laborers by their linen bonnet or cap with a cape descending to the
neck, but by a scarlet or striped tunic, and a rod or whip of a single
thong or of small cords. These men watched closely the workmen, who,
naked above the waist, with only a loin-cloth upon many of them,
worked each moment in fear of the lash. The taskmasters showed no
mercy; but if the laborer sunk under his burden, he was punished on
the spot, and left to perish, if he were dying, and his burden
transferred to the shoulders of another. So vast was the multitude of
these people, that the death of a score a day would not have been
regarded. Indeed, their increase already alarms the Egyptians, and
their lives, therefore, are held in little estimation.

The vast revenue, however, accruing to the crown from this enslaved
nation of brick-makers, leads to regulations which in a great measure
check the destructive rigor of the taskmasters; for not only are
thousands building cities, but tens of thousands are dispersed all
over Lower Egypt, who make brick to sell to nobles and citizens, the
crown having the monopoly of this branch of labor. Interest alone has
not prompted the queen to make laws regulating their treatment, and
lessening the rigor of their lot; but also humanity, which is,
however, an attribute, in its form of pity, little cultivated in
Egypt. Under the preceding Pharaohs, for seventy years, the condition
of these Hebrews was far more severe than it has been under the milder
reign of the queen. I am assured that she severely punishes all
unnecessary cruelty, and has lightened the tasks of the women, who
also may not be punished with blows.

I surveyed this interesting and striking scene with emotions of wonder
and commiseration. I could not behold, without the deepest pity,
venerable and august looking old men, with gray heads and flowing
white beards, smeared with clay, stooping over the wooden moulds,
coarsely clad in the blue and gray loin-cloth, which scarcely
concealed their nakedness: or fine youths, bareheaded and burned red
with the sun, toiling like cattle under heavy burdens, here and there
upon a naked shoulder visible a fresh crimson line where the lash or
the rod of an angered officer had left its mark! There were young
girls, too, whose beautiful faces, though sun-burned and neglected,
would have been the envy of fair ladies in any court. These, as well
as the others of their sex, wore a sort of tight gown of coarse
material tied at the neck, with short close sleeves reaching to the
elbow. Their black or brown hair was tied in a knot behind, or cut
short. And occasionally I saw a plain silver or other metallic ring
upon a small hand, showing that even bondage has not destroyed in
woman the love of jewels.

As we rode along, those Egyptians who were near the road bowed the
knee to the prince, and remained stationary until he passed. We rode
for a mile and a half through this brick-field, when at its extremity
we came upon a large mean town of huts composed of reeds and covered
with straw.

"There," said Remeses, "are the dwellings of the laborers you have

These huts formed long streets or lanes which intersected each other
in all directions. There was not a tree to shade them. The streets and
doors were crowded with children, and old Hebrew women who were left
to watch them while their parents were in the field. There seemed to
be a dozen children to every house, and some of five and six years
were playing at brick-making, one of their number acting as a
taskmaster, holding a whip which he used with a willingness and
frequency that showed how well the Egyptian officers had taught the
lesson of severity and cruelty to the children of their victims. In
these huts dwelt forty thousand Hebrews, who were engaged either in
making brick, or conveying them to Raamses, close at hand, or in
placing them in mortar upon the walls.

We passed through the very midst of this wretched village of bondmen,
whose only food in their habitations is garlic, and leeks, and fish or
flesh, their drink the turbid water of the Nile, unfiltered from its
impurities by means of porous stone and paste of almonds--a process of
art so well known to the Egyptians. On the skirts of the village was a
vast burial-place, without a tomb or stone; for these Hebrews are too
poor and miserable to embalm their dead, even if customs of their own
did not lead them to place them in the earth. The aspect of this
melancholy place of sepulture was gloomy enough. It had the look of a
vast ploughed plain; but infinitely desolate and hideous when the
imagination pictured the corruption that lay beneath each narrow
mound. I felt a sensation of relief when we left this spot behind, and
drove upon a green plateau which lay between it and the treasure-city
of the king. The place we were crossing had once been the garden of
Hermes or Iosepf, the celebrated prince who about one hundred and
thirty years ago saved the inhabitants of Egypt from perishing by
famine, having received from the god Osiris knowledge of a seven
years' famine to befall the kingdom, after seven years of plenty. This
Prince Iosepf or Joseph was also called Hermes, though he wrote not
all the books attributed to Hermes, as we in Phœnicia understand of
that personage.

"Was this Joseph an Egyptian?" I asked of the Prince Remeses, as we
dashed past the ruins of a palace in the midst of the gardens.

"No, a Hebrew," he answered. "He was the favorite of the Phœnician
Pharaoh who commenced the palaces of this City of Treasure."

"A Hebrew!" I exclaimed. "Not one of the race I behold about me
toiling towards the city with sun-dried bricks upon their heads, and
whom I have seen at work on the plain of bricks?"

"Of the same," he answered.

"Your reply reminds me, O Remeses, that you have promised to relate to
me the history of this remarkable people, who evidently, from their
noble physiognomies, belong to a superior race."

"I will redeem my promise, my dear Sesostris," he said, smiling, "as
soon as I have left the chariot by yonder ruined well, where I see the
architect and his people, whom I have come hither to meet, await me
with their drawings and rules."

We soon drove up to the spot, having passed several fallen columns,
which had once adorned the baths of the house of this Hebrew prince,
who had once been such a benefactor to Egypt; but, as he was the
favorite of a Phœnician king, the present dynasty neglect his
monuments, as well as deface all those which the Shepherd Kings
erected to perpetuate their conquest. Hence, it is, dear mother, I
find scarcely a trace of the dominion in Lower Egypt of this race of

The ruined well was a massive quadrangle of stone; and was called the
"Fountain of the Strangers." It was in ruins, yet the well itself
sparkled with clear water as in its ancient days. Grouped upon a stone
platform, beneath the shade of three palms, stood the party of artists
who awaited the prince. Their horses, and the cars in which they came,
or brought their instruments, stood near, held by slaves, who were
watering the animals from the fountain.

Upon the approach of the prince these persons, the chief of whom was
attired handsomely, as a man of rank (for architects in Egypt are
nobles, and are in high place at court), bowed the knee reverently
before him. He alighted from his chariot, and at once began to examine
their drawings. Leaving him engaged in a business which I perceived
would occupy him some time, I walked about, looking at the ancient
fountain. In order to obtain a view of the country, I ascended a tower
at one of its angles, which elevated me sixty feet above the plain.
From this height I beheld the glorious City of the Sun, a league and a
half to the north, rising above its girdle of gardens in all its
splendor. In the mid-distance lay the plain of brick-workers, covered
with its tens of thousands of busy workers in clay. Then, nearer
still, stretched their squalid city of huts, and the gloomy
burial-place, bordering on the desert at the farther boundary.

Turning to the south, the treasure-city of Raamses lay before me, the
one half ancient and ruinous, but the other rising in grand outlines
and vast dimensions, stretching even to the Nile, which, shining and
majestic, flowed to the west of it. Further still the pyramids of
Memphis, the city itself of Apis, and the walls and temples of Jisah
towered in noble perspective. The Nile was lively with galleys
ascending and descending, and upon the road that followed its banks
many people were moving, either on foot, in palanquins, chariots, or
upon horseback. Over the whole scene the bright sun shone, giving life
and brightness to all I beheld.

To the east the illimitable desert stretched far away, and I could
trace the brown line of road along which the caravans travel between
the Nile cities and the port of Suez, on the sea of Ezion-Geber, in
order to unlade there for ships from Farther Ind that are awaiting

Almost beneath the crumbling tower, on which I stood taking in this
wide view of a part of the populous valley of the Nile, wound a broad
path, well trodden by thousands of naked feet. It was now crowded with
Hebrew slaves, some going to the city with burdens of brick slung at
the extremities of wooden yokes laid across the shoulder, or borne
upon their heads, and others returning to the plain after having
deposited their burdens. It was a broad path of tears and sighs, and
no loitering step was permitted by the overseers; for even if one
would stop to quench his thirst at the fountain, he was beaten
forward, and the blows accompanied with execrations. Alas, mother,
this cruel bondage of the Hebrews is the only dark spot which I have
seen in Egypt,--the only shadow of evil upon the brilliant reign of
Queen Amense!

I took one more survey of the wide landscape, which embraces the
abodes of one million of souls; for in the valley of Egypt are
fourteen thousand villages, towns and cities, and a population of
nearly seven millions. Yet the valley of the Nile is a belt of verdure
only a few miles wide, bounded by the Libyan and Arabian hills. Every
foot of soil seems occupied, and every acre teems with population. In
the streets, in the gardens, in the public squares, in temples, and
courts of palaces, in the field, or on the river, one can never be
alone, for he sees human beings all about him, thronging every place,
and engaged either in business or pleasure, or the enjoyment of the
luxury of idleness in the shade of a column or a tree.

Descending the tower, and seeing the prince still engaged with his
builders, pointing to the unfinished towers of Raamses, and the site
of the new palace he proposed erecting near by, I went down the steps
to the fountain, to quaff its cool waters. Here I beheld an old and
majestic-looking man bending over a youth, a wound in whose temple he
was bathing tenderly with water from the well. I perceived at a
glance, by the aquiline nose and lash-shaded dark, bright eye, that
they were Hebrews.

The old man had one of those Abrahamic faces I have described as
extant on the tomb of Eliezer of Damascus: a broad, extensive, and
high forehead; a boldly-shaped eagle nose; full lips; and a flowing
beard, which would have been white as wool but that it was stained
yellow by the sun and soil. He wore the coarse, short trowsers, and
body cloth of the bond-slave, and old sandals bound upon his feet with
ropes. The young man was similarly dressed. He was pale and nearly
lifeless. His beautiful head lay upon the edge of the fountain, and as
the old man poured, from the palm of his hand, water upon his face he
repeated a name, perhaps the youth's. I stood fixed with interest by
the scene. At this moment an Egyptian taskmaster entered, and with his
rod struck the venerable man several sharp blows and ordered him to
rise and go to his task. He made no reply--regarded not the shower of
blows--but bending his eyes tearfully upon the marble face before him,
with his fingers softly removed the warm drops of blood that stained
the temples.

"Nay," I said, quickly, to the Egyptian, "do not beat him! See, he is
old, and is caring for this poor youth!"

The Egyptian looked at me with an angry glance, as if he would also
chastise the speaker for interfering; when seeing from my appearance
that I was a man of rank, and perceiving, also, the prince through a
passage in the ruined wall, he bent his forehead low and said:

"My lord, I did not see you, or I would have taken the idle graybeard
out and beaten him."

"But why beat him?" I asked.

"His load awaits him on the road where he dropped it, when my second
officer struck down this young fellow, who stopped to gaze at a

"What relation do they bear to each other?" said I.

"This is the old man's youngest son. He is a weak fool, my lord, about
him, and though, as you see, he can hardly carry a full load for
himself, he will try and add to his own, a part of the bricks the boy
should bear. Come, old man, leave the boy and on to your work!"

The aged Hebrew raised to my face a look of despair trembling with
mute appeal, as if he expected no interposition, yet had no other hope

"Leave them here," I said. "I will be responsible for the act."

"But I am under a chief captain who will make me account to him for
every brick not delivered. The tale of bricks that leaves the plain
and that which is received are taken and compared. I have a certain
number of men and boys under me, and they have to make up in their
loads a given tale of bricks between sun and sun. If they fail, I lose
my wages!" This was spoken sullenly.

"What is thy day's wages?" I demanded.

"A quarter of a scarabæus," he answered. This is the common cheap
coin, bearing the sacred beetle cut in stone, copper, lead, and even
wood. Higher values are represented by silver, bronze, brass, and gold
rings. Money in disk-form I have not yet heard of in Egypt. An
Egyptian's purse is a necklace of gold rings of greater or less value.
The scarabæus is often broken in four pieces, each fraction containing
a hieroglyphic. The value is about equal to a Syrian neffir.

I placed in his hand a copper scarabæus, and said: "Go thy way! This
shall justify thee to thy conscience. These Hebrews are too helpless
to be of further service to thee this day."

The taskmaster took the money with a smile of gratification, and at
once left the court of the fountain. The old Hebrew looked at me with
grateful surprise, caught my hand, pressed it to his heart, and then
covered it with kisses. I smiled upon him with friendly sympathy, and,
stooping down, raised the head of the young man upon my knee. By our
united aid he was soon restored to sensibility.

But, my dear mother, I will, with your permission, continue my
narrative in another letter. The trumpets, which from the temple of
Osiris proclaim that the last rays of the setting sun are disappearing
from its summit, also warn me to draw my letter to a close. The
incense of the altar rises into the blue and golden sky, and typifies
prayer. I will receive the lesson it teaches, and retire to my oratory
and pray, O mother, for thy health and happiness and the prosperity of
thy reign.

 Your affectionate son,




I will now continue the narrative of my interview with the venerable
bond-servant at the fountain or "well of strangers," near the
treasure-city Raamses.

After the youth had recovered his senses, I was for a few moments an
object of profound surprise to him. He surveyed me with mingled fear
and wonder.

"My lord is good, fear him not, Israel," said the old man. The youth
looked incredulous, and, had his strength permitted, would have fled
away from me. I said--

"I am not thy taskmaster! Dread not my presence!" The tone of my voice
reassured him. He smiled gently, and an expression of gladness lighted
up his eyes. A drop of blood trickled down his forehead and increased
the paleness of his skin.

"What is thy name?" I asked the old man, speaking in Syriac, for in
that tongue I had heard him murmur the name of his son; and I have
since found that all Hebrews of the older class speak this language,
or rather Syro-Chaldaic. They also understand and speak the Egyptian

"Ben Isaac, my lord!" he answered.

"Art thou in bondage?"

"I and my children, as my fathers were!"

"What brought thee and thy people into this servitude?"

"It is a sad history, my lord! Art thou then a stranger in Egypt, that
thou art ignorant of the story of the Hebrew?"

"I am a Phœnician. I have been but a few weeks in Egypt."

"Phœnicia! That is beyond Edom; nay, beyond Philistia," he said
musingly. "Our fathers came farther, even from Palestine."

"Who were your fathers?"

"Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob."

"I have heard of them, three princes of Syria, many generations past!"

"Yes, my lord of Phœnicia," said the venerable man, his eyes
lighting up; "they were princes in their land! But, lo! this day
behold their children in bondage! And _such_ a servitude!" he cried,
raising his withered hands heavenward. "Death, my lord, is preferable
to it! How long must we groan in slavery? How long our little ones
bear the yoke of Egypt?"

At this moment one of the footmen of Prince Remeses found me and said:

"My lord prince seeks for thee!"

I put money in the hands of the venerable Hebrew and his son, and left
them amid their expressions of grateful surprise. When I rejoined
Remeses, he was already in his chariot. Having placed myself by his
side, he said that he would now drive me around the walls of the new
city, and show me its general plan. He had explained all particulars
with his builders, and they were to commence the erection of the
palace of the governor the following week.

The wide circuit we made along the plain afforded me a commanding view
of the treasure-city in its progress. The walls at one part were
literally black with slaves, who like ants traversed them, carrying
their burdens of bricks to those who laid the courses. A vast pile,
built more for strength than beauty, attracted my notice. "That is one
of the twelve great granaries of the Prince Joseph, which he built one
hundred and fourscore years ago, in the twelve districts of Egypt. It
is still in use as such." As we passed the gateway, I perceived that
the cartouch was defaced. Remeses said that this was the act of
Amunophis, when he came to the throne, whose policy was to remove not
only every trace of the rule of the Palestinian kings, but all the
memorials which brought their dynasty to remembrance; and these
granaries of Pharaoh's prime minister, Iosepf or Joseph, were among
the noblest monuments of the reign of the last of the foreign rulers,
the father of the Princess Ephtha, from whom Remeses is descended, in
the fourth generation only, I believe.

At length we stopped at a beautiful gate of a small temple dedicated
to Apis. Every part of it was minutely and exquisitely sculptured. It
contained a single shrine, within which was the effigy of the sacred
bull, a cubit in length, of solid gold. Boys dressed in the finest
white linen were the officiating priests. While I was admiring this
miniature edifice and the richness of all its appointments, Remeses

"This is an affectionate tribute of a mother's love On my twelfth
birthday she had this sacred fane dedicated in honor of the event.
Here she consecrated me as a boy to the youthful god Horus. I remember
perfectly, the solemn impression the whole scene made upon my heart
and imagination. Once a year I come hither and pass a night watching
before its altar and in prayer, rather in filial acquiescence with her
wishes, which to me are laws, than from reverence for the god!"

We had already alighted, and were standing on the portico of the
temple, which was of crescent shape, and bordered by a row of
elegantly veined alabaster columns from Alabastron, rich quarries of
the Pharaohs near the Cataracts. After examining the temple, and
expressing the admiration which it merited, we were going out, when I
saw a young Hebrew girl flying from the pursuit of one of the
taskmasters. Just as we were entering the temple, I had seen her
passing with many other females, some laden with straw, others with
bunches of leeks and garlic, which they were taking to the fields for
the dinner of the laborers, who were not permitted to go to their huts
until dark, having left them at the first blush of dawn to commence
their ceaseless toils. Those women who worked not in the brick-fields
were the providers of food for the rest. This young girl I had noticed
was bending painfully under an intolerable load of garlic and leeks,
which she bore upon her head, and yet assisting a tottering woman, who
was walking by her side with an equally heavy burden of provisions, in
a coarse wicker-basket. I was struck with the elegance of her figure
and with the beauty of her face, as well as with her kindness to her
companion, when she herself needed aid. We were leaving the temple, as
I have said, when I beheld her flying. As she came near, she saw the
prince, and cast herself at his feet, embracing them, and exclaiming--

"O my lord--O great and mighty god! mercy!--save me!"

Remeses regarded her with surprise, and said, sternly yet not

"What dost thou wish? Why dost thou fly from thy taskmaster?"

"When I cast down my load and took up my mother's, who was ready to
die, he struck me because I could not take both together. I would have
done it, O lord prince, but had not the strength."

"Go back to thy task, young woman. Thou shalt not be punished for a
kind act to thy mother. The gods forbid we should destroy all filial
ties, even among our slaves." This last sentence was spoken rather
with his own mind than addressed to any one. "What is this I hear?" he
continued, speaking to the sub-officer, who, seeing his slave seek the
protection of Remeses, had stopped, a short distance off, expecting to
have her sent back to him. "Didst thou strike this Hebrew girl?"

"She is wilful and intractable, your highness," answered the man
humbly, "and--"

"Is there not a law forbidding blows to be given to the females of
this people? You will deliver your rod of office to my chief servant
here, and are no longer a taskmaster. It shall be known, that it is
the will of the queen that women shall have light tasks, that they be
treated leniently, and not made to suffer the punishment of blows."

The man, with a downcast face, came forward, and placed his rod in the
hands of the chief servant, who was the captain of the twelve footmen
of the prince's chariot, and who, at a glance from his master, broke
it, and cast the pieces upon the ground. "Now go, and bring hither the
basket. I will see what are the burdens you place upon the weak, and,
henceforth, they shall be proportioned to the strength of the bearer."

The man returned several hundred yards along the road, and after
several strenuous efforts, with great difficulty lifted the basket,
and placed it at the prince's feet. To the amazement of all about him
he stooped to raise the wicker-basket of leeks from the ground.
Putting forth his strength he lifted it, for he is a man of great
vigor, but immediately setting it down again, he said, with
indignation flashing from his eyes, as he addressed the disgraced

"Seest thou what thou wouldst compel this frail child to bear upon her
head? Thou art cruel and barbarous! Bind him! He shall go to prison."

"My lord, I am not alone--"

"So much the worse. If the abuse is wide-spread, it is time to correct
it, and see that the law of the realm is observed. Take him away!"

Two of the servants seized him, and, tying his hands behind him with
the thong of one of his own sandals, led him away into the citadel of
Raamses. The Hebrew girl still kneeled, trembling and wondering.
Remeses spoke to her kindly, no doubt moved by her tears and
extraordinary beauty, and said--

"Go in peace, child. Return to thy mother. Fear no more the rod of thy
taskmasters. The hand of the first that is laid on a Hebrew woman
shall be cut off with a sword."

The young girl kissed the sandaled feet of the prince, and hastened to
the spot where she had left her mother seated on the ground. Remeses,
with his eyes, followed her, and sighed. Who can tell what heavy
thoughts were passing in his mind! When he comes to the throne, I know
him not, my mother, if the condition of the Hebrews will not be
greatly ameliorated, and their lot rendered far happier. I saw the
girl embrace and raise her mother from the earth, and then supporting
her affectionately, lead her away towards a group of huts, not far
off, in one of which, probably, was their abode.

"My Sesostris," said the prince, "walk with me along this terrace. I
have yet to see the governor of the queen's granaries, and will
converse with thee until he arrives."

The terrace ran along the south side of the low pyramidal area on
which the temple was elevated. From it there was a lovely view of
fields, and gardens, and groves of palm and orange trees, extending
over the land of Goshen, which is the most fertile and highly-cultivated
portion of Egypt that I have seen. From the terrace, steps of polished
porphyry led to a garden fragrant with flowers, which were cultivated
alongside of the temple, in order to make of them offerings of
chaplets to the god, who was crowned with them every morning by the
"flower priest." The office of this dignitary was as sacred as his who
offered incense, which indeed is but the fragrance of flowers in
another form, purified by fire. In this garden I saw the myrobalanum,
with its rich fruit, out of which a rare ointment is extracted for
anointing the priests; the phœnicobalanus, which bears an
intoxicating fruit, and gives to the priests who eat of it divining
powers; the graceful palma, or sheath for the palm-flowers; the
almond-tree, brilliant with its flowering branches; the wine-giving
myxa; the ivory-palm fruit, of which censers are made; the mimosa
Nilotica, and the golden olive of Arsinoë. All these grew on one path,
which traversed the garden close to the terrace, and I enumerate them,
dear mother, as I know your horticultural taste, and that any thing
about the plants of Egypt will gratify you. I have already selected
several of the most beautiful, and intend, by the first ship that
sails for Tyre from the Nile, to forward them to you. That they may be
cared for, and rightly managed when you receive them, I shall send
with them an Egyptian gardener. I have seen no oaks in Egypt, nor does
our majestic Libanian cedar grow here. It is a land rather of flowers
than of trees. The myrtle is everywhere seen as an ornamental tree,
and is highly odoriferous in this climate. Here, I saw also the
endive, and the Amaracus, from the latter of which the celebrated
Amaracine ointment, used to anoint the Pharaohs, is expressed. One bed
of variegated flowers, at the end of the terrace, attracted my
attention from their combined splendor. There were the edthbah, with
its proud purple flower; the ivy-shaped-leaved dulcamara, used by the
priests for sacred chaplets; also the acinos, of which wreaths are
made by maidens, to wear intermingled with their braided tresses.
Above all towered the heliochrysum, with which the gods are crowned,
and by it grew its rival, the sacred palm, the branches of which are
borne at the feasts of Isis.

There were many other rare and beautiful plants, but I have enumerated
these to show you what a land of flowers is this sunny land of Osiris
and Isis.

The prince, after we had once traversed the terrace in silence, turned
his thoughtful face towards me and said, betraying what was upon his

"Prince, this is the problem of Egypt. Its solution calls for greater
wisdom than belongs to man!"

"You mean the bondage of the Hebrew people?" I answered, at once
perceiving the meaning of his words.

"Yes," he replied, with a sigh and a grave brow. "I have promised to
acquaint you with their history. Listen, and as far as I know it you
shall have it given to you. Our records, kept and preserved by the
priests in the Hall of Books in the Temple of the Sun, give the
following account of the origin of this race, which, allowing for the
errors that are interwoven in all mere tradition, is, no doubt, worthy
of credit.

"About four hundred years ago," says the History of the Priests,
"there arrived in the land of Palestine a Syrian prince from
Mesopotamia or Assyria, with large flocks and herds; having formed an
alliance with Melchisedec, king of Salem, the two dwelt near one
another in peace and friendship,--for not only was the Assyrian wise
and upright, but the gods were with him, and blessed and prospered him
in all that he did."

"This Melchisedec the king," I said, "was also favored of his god; and
his virtues have come down to us fragrant with the beauty of piety and
good deeds."

"Tradition has been faithful to him," answered Remeses. "Among the
Arabian priests of Petra he is held as a god, who came down on earth
to show kings how to reign and benefit mankind. With him the Prince of
Assyria, Abram, was on terms of the closest friendship. At length a
famine arising in the land where he dwelt, he came down into Egypt
just after the invading hosts of Phœnicia and Palestine had
inundated our kingdom, and conquering On and Memphis, had subdued
Lower Egypt, and set up their foreign dynasty, known as that of the
Hyksos or Shepherd Kings."

"This history is well known to our archives kept in the temple of
Astarte at Tyre," I answered; "and therein we learn that the hero
SAITES, who had a warlike spirit which could not find field in Lower
Syria, was threatened by famine, and hearing of the abundance in Egypt
and the splendor of its cities, combined with the enervating habits
which grow out of luxury and unbroken peace, he conceived the idea of
its invasion; and at the head of an undisciplined but brave army of
one hundred and seventy thousand men, horsemen and footmen, with three
hundred chariots of iron, he descended through Arabia Deserta, and
entered Egypt by the desert of the sea, capturing and fortifying
Ezion-Geber on his march."

"These particulars are not so fully given by our historians," answered
Remeses. "This ambitious warrior having entered the Sethroite country,
encamped and founded a city which he made his arsenal of war; and from
it he sent out his armies and conquered Memphis and the whole of Lower
Egypt. The kings of Egypt, abandoning to him Lower Egypt, retired with
their court and army to the Thebaïd, and were content to reign there
over half the kingdom, while the haughty conquerors established their
foreign throne at Memphis.

"It was," continued Remeses, "during the reign of Bnon, the first
Phœnician Pharaoh after the death of the conqueror, that Abram came
into Egypt. He had known this prince in Palestine when he was in his
youth, and the king gladly welcomed so powerful a lord and warrior,
who had in battle overthrown Chedorlaomer, the mighty King of Elam,
and whose language was nearly similar to his own. This Prince Abram
dwelt in Egypt during the continuance of the famine in Syria and near
the court of the king, who not only took him into his counsels, but
lavished upon him great riches. 'But the king,' says the history,
'becoming enamored of the beautiful Princess Sara, the wife of the
Lord of Palestine, Abram removed from his court; and with great riches
of gold, silver, cattle, and servants, marched out of Egypt into
Arabia of the South, and so to his own city.'"

"It is probably," I said, "from this fact of Prince Abram's coming
into Egypt about the time that the Phœnicians came, that some
traditions have made him its conqueror and the founder of the dynasty
of the Shepherd Kings."

"Yes; for this Abram was not only eminent as a warlike prince, but his
usual retinue was an army, wherever he moved; and no doubt Bnon, the
king, willingly let him depart when he had offended him, rather than
meet the valor of the arm which had already slain five kings of the
East, and taken their spoil. At length Prince Abram died and left a
son, who succeeded him not only in his riches but his wisdom. After a
time he also died and left a son, Prince Jacob, who had twelve sons,
all princes of valor--but who, like the Arabians of to-day, lived a
nomadic life. One of these brothers was beloved of his father more
than the others; and, moved by envy, they seized upon him and sold him
to a caravan of the bands of Ishmael, the robber king of Idumea, as it
was on its way to Egypt. These barbarians sold the young Prince Joseph
to an officer of the king's palace, Potipharis, captain of the guard,
whose descendant, Potiphar-Meses, is the general of cavalry you met at
the queen's banquet. This officer became the friend of the young
Syrian, and raised him to a place of honor in his household. In the
course of time the king, who was the eminent Pharaoh-Apophis, dreamed
a dream which greatly troubled his mind, and which neither his
soothsayers, magicians, nor the priests could interpret. Joseph, who
was eminent for his piety, love of truth, and devotion to his God,
being in prison--to which, on some false charge of seeking the love of
his master's wife, he had been committed--had interpreted the dreams
of two prisoners, one of whom, being released and hearing of the
king's dream, sent him word that while in prison the Hebrew captive
had truly interpreted a dream, which both he and his companion had
dreamed. Thereupon Pharaoh sent for the Hebrew, who interpreted his
dream, which prophesied seven years of great plenty, such as was never
known in Egypt, and seven years to follow them of such scarcity as no
kingdom on earth had ever suffered from. And when the Hebrew had
recommended the king to appoint an officer to gather in the corn
during the years of plenty, and to husband it in treasure-houses
against the seven years of scarcity, Apophis at once elevated him to
that high position. Removing from his hand his own signet ring, he
placed it upon the finger of Joseph; and, having arrayed him in
vestures of fine linen and placed a gold chain about his neck,
presented him with the second state-chariot to ride in, and made him
ruler over all his realm, commanding all men to bow the knee before
him as to a prince of the blood, and second in power only to himself."

"And these," I said, glancing at a group of Hebrew laborers not far
off, who were seated upon a ruin eating garlic and coarse bread for
their noon-day meal--"and these are of the same blood?"

"Yes, Sesostris! But you shall hear their history. This Joseph reigned
in Egypt above threescore years, holding in his hand the supreme
power, save only that he wore not the crown of Apophis, who, given up
to pleasure or to war, gladly relieved himself of the active cares of
state. But while he was early in power, and yet a young man, his
father and brothers were driven into Egypt by the seven years' famine,
which followed the seven years of plenty."

"Then," I interrupted, "the dream of Pharaoh was rightly read by the
Hebrew youth?"

"In all particulars he interpreted it with the wisdom of a god, who
sees into the future as into the past! But, to resume my narrative--he
recognized his father, Jacob, and his brethren."

"Did he make use of his power to punish the latter for their cruelty
in selling him into bondage?"

"On the contrary, he forgave them! At first they did not recognize
their shepherd brother in the powerful and splendid prince of Egypt,
before whom they came under his name of Hermes-Osiris, which Pharaoh
had conferred upon him."

"It must have been both a wonderful surprise and a source of terror to
them when they at length found in whose presence they bowed," I said,
picturing in my mind the scene when they perceived who he was. I
imagined not only the trembling fear of the men, but the joy of the
venerable father.

"Doubtless a most touching and interesting interview," answered
Remeses. "Instead of avenging their cruelty he entertained them in his
palace with a banquet, and afterwards solicited of Pharaoh, who
refused him no request, that his father and brethren might dwell in
the land."

At this moment a tall Hebrew young man passed, returning with a proud,
free step, having carried his burden and placed it by a well, which
some workmen were repairing. I gazed upon him with interest, fancying
I beheld in his face the lineaments of the prince of whom Remeses was
talking. I thought, too, the eyes of my companion followed the
youthful bondman, as he went away, with something like a kindred
sentiment; for, as he discoursed of the glory and virtues of Prince
Joseph, it was impossible that we should not be drawn nearer, as it
were, to these hapless captives of his race.

"It was in this part of Egypt where the Syrian patriarch dwelt. This
very temple is erected upon the site of his habitation, and from here,
as far as you can see, stretched the rich fields and fertile plains
occupied by him, his sons, and their descendants. Here they erected
cities, most of which were destroyed by the subsequent dynasty, with
all the monuments of Joseph's power; and here they dwelt for seventy
years in peace and plenty, increasing in numbers, wealth, and
intelligence--their best-educated men holding offices in the state,
and commanding the respect and confidence not only of the king, but of
the Egyptians."

But, my dear mother, it is time I close this letter. Until I again
take up my pen to write you, remain assured, I pray you, of my filial
reverence and love.

 Your affectionate




My last letter closed with the narration of a history of the Hebrews,
from the lips of Prince Remeses, to which I listened as we walked to
and fro on the terrace of the temple. I will in this letter continue,
or rather conclude, the subject, feeling that it will have interested
you quite as deeply as it has engaged my attention.

The governor of the queen's granaries having arrived, mounted upon a
handsomely caparisoned horse, and attended by runners, the prince at
once gave him the orders for which he came, and then, dismissing him
with a wave of his hand, turned to me, as I was watching the majestic
flight of several eagles of prey, which, circling above my head at a
great height, with seemingly immovable wings, through cutting the air
so swiftly, gradually diminished the circles of their flight, and
descended upon some object not far distant, on the road leading to
another treasure-city, called Pithom, many leagues up the Nile, which
the Hebrews had built for Amunophis I., threescore years and more ago.

"I will now resume my history of the Hebrews, my dear Sesostris," said
the prince, "and will be brief, as we must return to On. The Prince
Joseph, as I have said, obtained for his father and brethren all this
fair plain, the heart and beauty of Egypt. Here they dwelt when the
old man died, after seventeen years' residence in Egypt; and the
Hebrew prime minister of the king made for his father a funeral such
as few kings receive. It is said to have been more magnificent than
that of Osirtasen I., of which our poets have sung. By Pharaoh's
command, as his favorite wished to bury his father in Palestine, a
vast army went up with the body,--chariots, horsemen, and footmen,--so
that to this day the splendor and pomp of the funeral is a tradition
throughout the lands they traversed. Joseph then returned to Egypt,
and ruled sixty-one years, until both he and Apophis the king were
waxed in years. At length he died, and was embalmed, and his body
placed in the second pyramid, which you behold a little to the right
of Memphis. There his body does not now rest, for, after the expulsion
of the Phœnician dynasty, the Hebrews secretly removed it, and its
place of concealment is known only to themselves. There is a saying
among them that the bones of this prince shall rise again, and that he
shall go with them forth from Egypt to a new and fair country beyond

"Then they have a hope of being one day delivered from their present
condition?" I asked.

"It is a part of their faith, and inborn, if I may so speak. It is
this hope, I think, which makes them bear up so patiently under their

"And how, noble Remeses, were they reduced to bondage in the fair land
wherein they once dwelt so peacefully, under the benign sway of their
mighty brother?"

"The answer to this question, my Sesostris," said the prince, "will
involve a history of the overthrow of the dynasty of the Phœnician
conquerors, which lasted over two hundred years, with a succession of
six kings. Upon the death of the Prince Joseph in his one hundred and
tenth year, Apophis the king, being also of great age, became
incapable of managing his kingdom, which he had for sixty years
intrusted to the hands of his Hebrew prime minister. Ignorant of the
true condition of his government--known to but few of his
subjects--aged and imbecile, he was incapable of holding the reins of
state, left by the Hebrew in his hands. The ever-jealous and watchful
king of the Thebaïd, in Upper Egypt, did not delay to take advantage
of an opportunity like this to attempt the restoration, in Lower
Egypt, of the ancient throne of the native Pharaohs, by the expulsion
of the usurping dynasty. But, my Sesostris, you know well the
subsequent history--how Pharaoh Amosis, with his Theban hosts, drove
them from city to city, and finally pursued them into Arabia, whence
they settled in the land of the Philistines, and, capturing Salem,
made it their capital city--at least such is one of the traditions."

"They held it for a time," I answered, "but, being driven from it by
the King of Elam, they subsequently fortified Askelon. They are still
a powerful people, under the name of Philistines; and, what is
singular, retain scarcely a custom derived from the two hundred and
twenty-five years' residence and reign in Egypt."

"It is not more remarkable than the fact that their domination here
made no impression upon the people of Egypt; they left no words of
their own in our language, and no customs of theirs were adopted by
the Egyptians They simply held military possession of the kingdom,
living in fortified cities and levying tribute upon the people for
their support. The few monuments they erected were defaced or
overthrown by the victorious Theban king and restorer, Amosis, my
great ancestor, or by his successor, Amunophis I.

"When these invaders were expelled from Lower Egypt, then the two
crowns of the Thebaïd and Memphitic kingdoms became united in the
person of Amunophis, the son of 'the Restorer,' and it is this Thebaïd
dynasty which now holds the sceptre of the two kingdoms, and which is
represented in the person of my mother, the daughter of Amunophis, who
died when she was a young girl. She has ever since reigned with the
title of 'the Daughter of Pharaoh,' being so called by the people when
she ascended the throne of Memphis and Thebes. But my dear prince,"
said Remeses, with a smile, "I have been giving you the history of the
dynasty of my race, rather than of the Hebrew people."

"I am not the less interested, dear Remeses," I said, "and perceive
that the two histories are naturally united."

"Yes. The new king, Amosis, called 'Restorer,' upon the obelisk at
Memphis which bears his name, and upon which the scenes of the
expulsion of these Philistine soldier-monarchs are depicted with great
spirit and fidelity--the new king, I say, upon driving out the
invaders, keeping the Phœnician king's fair daughter, Ephtha, as
his wife, turned his attention to the other class of strangers, who
had the fairest portion of Egypt for their possession. He accordingly
visited, in state, the city of Succoth, in the province of Goshen,
which they had built and beautified during the seventy years they had
dwelt there under Prince Joseph's mild and partial rule. It was
without walls, wholly unfortified, and had not even a temple--for the
Hebrews of the better class worship only with the intellect, a
spiritual Deity in his unity."

"Which, if I dare speak so boldly to you, O Remeses," I said, "appears
to me to be the noblest species of worship, and the purest sort of
religion for an intellectual being."

"Sayest thou?" quickly demanded the prince, surveying my face with his
full bright gaze. "Thou art in advance of the rest of mankind, my
Sesostris! The same feeling exists in my own bosom; but I believed
myself alone in experiencing it. Some day we will hold discourse
together on this high mystery. There seems to come up from my
childhood a voice which I can never silence, and which I hear loudest
when I am most solemnly engaged in the sacred rites of the altars of
our gods, saying--

"'Son of earth, there is but one GOD, invisible, eternal, uncreated,
and whose glory He will not share with another; worship Him with the
spirit and with the understanding.'"

"This is remarkable," I said, "for such also is the mystery taught by
the priests of Chaldea, of whom Melchisedec was the first high-priest.
I have read their sacred books in Damascus."

"I have never seen them; yet this voice forces itself upon me
everywhere, my Sesostris. All is dark and inscrutable to us mortals.
We hang our faith upon a tradition, and our hopes upon a myth. We feel
ourselves equal or superior to the deities we worship, and find no
repose in the observances our religion demands. Would that I had the
power to penetrate the blue heavens above us and find out God, and
know what life means, and whence we came and whither we go."

"Once across the Lake of the Dead," I answered, "and all will be
revealed. Osiris in his vast judgment-hall will give each soul the key
of the past and the future."

"So say the priests, and so we believe. But to return to the Hebrews.
Another time we will discourse on these themes. The new king hearing
that two hundred thousand and more foreigners dwelt here, called all
the elders and chief men before him; and when he had questioned them
and heard their history, and had learned that the Prince Joseph, who
had done so much to uphold and consolidate the Phœnician rule, was
one of their ancestors, his wrath was presently kindled against them.
He saw in them the friends and adherents of the overthrown dynasty;
both as allied by blood to the great Hebrew prime-minister, and as
originating from the same country with the expelled Phœnician king.
He, therefore, perceiving they were not a warlike people, and could
not be dreaded as an army, instead of declaring war against them and
driving them out of Egypt, as he had done the Syrian kings, resolved
to reduce them to servitude like captives taken in war. Having come to
this resolution, he held as prisoners the chief men before him, and
placed the whole people under the yoke of bondage, enrolling them
under task-officers, and putting them to work upon the cities,
temples, palaces, and canals, which the Phœnicians had either
destroyed, or suffered to fall into ruin. This was the beginning, my
Sesostris, of the subjugation to perpetual labor of these Syrians or
Hebrews in the very land where one of their family had ruled next to
the throne. They have been engaged since in building cities, and
walls, and in cultivating and irrigating the royal wheat-fields;
aiding in hewing stone in the quarries, and in all other works of
servitude: but as the making of bricks requires no intelligence, and
as it was not the policy of Amunophis-Pharaoh to elevate their
intellects, but the contrary, lest they should prove troublesome, they
have chiefly been kept to this, the most degrading of all labor."

"How long is it that they have been in this condition?" I asked.

"About one hundred and five or six years have elapsed since the death
of Prince Joseph. But they were gradually reduced to their present
state. During the latter years only of Amunophis were their tasks
increased. They, nevertheless, multiplied in such numbers that the
king began to apprehend danger to his crown from their multitude."

"Were there men among them who sought to free their fellows?" I

"Always, and to this hour. They are a proud, haughty, resolute, and
stubborn race. They bend to the yoke, indeed, but with hatred of the
oppressor, not with the willing submission of the Libyan or Nubian
captive. The king had reason to fear from the increase of their
numbers, when he found the census of this people gave more than a
million of souls, while the number of his own subjects in both
provinces did not exceed six millions; his own Thebans not amounting
to as many as the Hebrews numbered. Upon this he became alarmed, for
he was about entering into a war with the kings of Syro-Arabia, and
apprehended that being of the same Syrian stock they might join
themselves to his enemies. He, therefore, increased their burdens and
taskmasters in order to keep them in closer subjugation; but the more
he oppressed them the more they multiplied. In relating these facts, O
prince, do not think I approve of cruelty even in my royal ancestor.
It was, no doubt, a great wrong in the beginning inflicted upon them,
in making them servants, and the subsequent series of oppressions were
but the natural results of the first act. It was one unmixed evil
throughout. Having committed the manifest error in the outset, of
enslaving them to the crown, it now became a necessary policy to
prevent their dangerous increase. He would not send them with his army
into Arabia lest they should join his enemies. He, therefore, to keep
down their numbers, ordered all the male infants as soon as born to be
put to death by the Egyptian women."

"A dreadful alternative!" I exclaimed.

"Yes, and one not to be defended," answered Remeses, in a decided
tone. "But Amunophis, having caught the lion by the jaws, was
compelled either to destroy him, or be destroyed himself. The result
of the edict was, that many perished. The Nile, it is said, was
constantly bearing down upon its bosom corpses of new-born Hebrew

"Dreadful!" I ejaculated.

"It became so to the king. But he felt that one or the other must
perish, and that these innocent infants must die for the future safety
of the kingdom. There were sad and tragic scenes! Many a Hebrew mother
fought to save her infant, or perished with it clasped to her heart!
Many a desperate father resisted the soldiers who sought his hut for
his concealed child, and died on the threshold, in the ineffectual
effort to save his son! You perceive, Sesostris, that I speak with
emotion. I have heard the scenes of that era described by those who
witnessed them. I was an infant at the time, and do not speak of my
own knowledge; but many live who then saw tragedies of horror such as
few lands have witnessed. Had I been Amunophis I think I should have
devised some other way to ward off the anticipated danger from my
kingdom. But this sanguinary edict was unsuccessful. The Egyptian
nurses were tenderer of heart than the king, and saved many to the
tears and entreaties of mothers. Thousands of mothers, stifling every
cry of nature, gave birth secretly, and in silence, to their babes,
and the fathers or friends stood ready to fly with it to some prepared
concealment. Thousands were thus saved, as the innumerable multitudes
of men you have beheld this day toiling in the fields, making brick to
build up Raamses, bear witness. The edict continued in force for two
years, when Amunophis died. After the seventy days of mourning were
ended, his daughter Amense, who had been married to the prince of the
Thebaïd, a nephew of Amunophis, but had been left a widow about the
time of her father's death, came to the throne as the next in
succession to the double crown. With the sceptre was bequeathed to her
the iron chain that bound the Hebrews. Young, inexperienced in rule,
without advisers, my mother knew not how to solve the problem these
enslaved Syrians presented to her. As a woman, she felt that she could
originate no new policy. But prompted by humanity, the first act of
her power was to repeal the edict commanding the death of the infants.
This act alone kindled in the hearts of the whole of the oppressed
people a sentiment of gratitude. On the contrary, her lords, generals,
chief princes of the nomes, and dukes of cities, with one voice
assured her that this act of clemency would destroy her throne. But
you see, my Sesostris, that it still stands. For thirty-four years she
has reigned over the empire of Egypt, and it has never before reached
so high a degree of prosperity, power, and strength. Her armies of the
east, and of the south, and of Libya, are superior to those of all

"Yet is the problem more intricate, and farther from solution than
ever," I said to the prince. "The Hebrew is still in the land, still
increasing in numbers, and now far more formidable than in the reign
of your grandsire, Amunophis."

"This is true. My mother and I have talked for hours together upon the
theme. She, with her woman's gentler nature, would not oppress them,
yet has she been compelled by necessity to hold them in strict
subjugation, lest they become a formidable element of insurrection in
the kingdom. So far as is consistent with safety to her two crowns,
she mitigates the severity of their condition; and as you have
understood, has forbidden the women to be struck with blows, or put to
heavy toil. Still it is not easy, among so many thousand taskmasters,
and so many myriads of bondmen, to oversee all individual acts of
oppression; but when brought to our notice they are severely punished.
The condition of the Hebrew is an incubus upon the soul of my noble
mother, and if it were in her power, with safety to her subjects, to
release them to-morrow from their bondage, she would do so. But state
policy demands imperatively, rigid supervision, severe discipline, and
constant labor, lest being idle, and at liberty to go where they
choose, they conspire against us. Several times agents from the King
of Ethiopia, our natural and hereditary foe, with whom we are almost
always at war, have been discovered among them; and arms have been
placed in their possession by the spies of the Queen of Arabia. They
have, moreover, among them men of courage and talent, who, like their
ancestor, Prince Abraham, possess warlike fire, and, like the Prime
Minister Joseph, have wisdom in council, to advise and rule. Such
persons, among slaves, are to be feared, and there is necessary a
certain severity, you would call it oppression, to keep down all such

"The burdens of these Hebrews still seem very heavy, O Remeses," I

"They doubtless are; but their condition is far lighter than it has
been. They are allotted certain tasks, according to their strength,
and if these are done early they have the rest of the day to

"And if late?"

"They must complete their tale of bricks, unless disabled by sickness.
Blows are not given to men unless they are wilful and insubordinate.
Once a year the queen visits all the Hebrews in the country of Avaris,
of which Goshen forms but a part, and regulates abuses. The Hebrew
always has the right of appealing to the governor of the province,
against his taskmaster, if cruelly treated. All that the queen can do
is to execute with severity the laws against oppressing them."

"This Hebrew people, O Remeses," I said, as he ceased speaking, "are
the cloud which overshadows Egypt. I foresee danger to the dynasty
from it."

"I have in vain tried to settle upon some policy, to be pursued--when
I come to the throne, if it please Heaven that my mother depart this
life before me, (I pray the god to keep her to a good old age)--in
reference to them. But my wisdom is at fault. When I take the sceptre
I shall feel that the bondage of the Hebrew, which I inherit with it,
will make it lead in my hand."

While he was speaking, the impatient pawing of his spirited
chariot-horses, restrained with difficulty by three footmen, reminded
him that we were delaying at Raamses when we ought to be on our way
back to On.

"Come, Sesostris, let us get upon the chariot and return, for I
promised to dine with my mother and the Lord Prince Mœris to-day;
and it is already past noon by the shadow of that obelisk."

We stood upon the silver-chased chariot, and taking the leopard-skin
reins in his left hand, he made a sign to his footmen, who, springing
away from the heads of the fretting and frothing horses, let them fly.
Away, like the wind, we swept the plain in front of the treasure-city;
along the plateau where had stood the palace and gardens of Joseph,
the lord of Egypt; past the ruined strangers' fountain, where I had
talked with the venerable Ben Isaac and his handsome son; past a well
beside which Jacob had his great house, during the seventeen years he
lived in Goshen, the ruins of which were visible a little ways off to
the east. On we rolled, preceded and followed by the fleet-footed
runners, across the plain of the Hebrew brick-makers, who still bent
to their labors. Women and children, with dark fine eyes and raven
hair, gathering straw by the wayside or in the stubble-fields, were
passed in vast numbers. Crossing an open space, I saw before me a
black mass on the ground, which, as we advanced, proved to be a crowd
of vultures or carrion eagles, that slowly and reluctantly moved aside
at our coming; and the next moment our horses shied at the dead body
of a man, around which they had been gathered feasting upon the flesh.
The long beard and dark hair, the coarse blue loin-cloth, and the pile
of bricks at his side, told the whole tale. It was an emaciated
Hebrew, who had perished on the road-side under his burden.

I did not look at Remeses. I knew that he saw and felt. He reined up,
and sternly commanded two of his footmen to remain and bury the body.

"Sesostris," he said, as we went forward again, "what can be done?
Humanity, piety, and every element of the soul call for the deepest
commiseration of this unhappy people. I sometimes feel that it would
be better to send them in a mass out of Egypt into Arabia, and follow
them with an army to see that they went beyond our boundaries, and
then establish a cordon of military posts from Ezion-Geber, on the
Arabian Sea, to the shores of the Great Sea, north. But how could we
provide food for such a host, now amounting to two and a half millions
of people? Thousands would perish in the wilderness for want of water
and food. Only a miracle of the gods could preserve them, their women
and children, from a lingering death. And would not this be more cruel
than the edict of Amunophis; only executing it in an indirect way, and
on a gigantic scale? I would, were I Pharaoh to-day, give the half of
my kingdom to the wise man who could devise a practicable way of
freeing Egypt from the Hebrews, without destroying them or suffering
them to die in the wilderness. If men are ever deified, such a
benefactor would deserve the honor."

These words, my dear mother, were spoken with deep feeling, and showed
me that the heart of Remeses is manly and tender, that his sentiments
are always elevated and noble, and that the oppression of the Hebrew
is not so much the fault of himself or of the queen mother, as it is
the irresistible sequence of causes which were in action before they
were born; and to the effects of which they must yield, until the gods
in their wisdom and power make known to them the way to remove from
the land so great an evil: for none but the Deity Supreme is wise
enough to solve this intricate problem of Egypt. Certain it is, that
if the Hebrews go on multiplying and growing as they now do, in
another generation they will outnumber the Egyptians, and will need
only a great leader like their warlike ancestor Prince Abram, or the
hero king of Philistia, who established the Phœnician dynasty, to
enable them to subvert the kingdom, and upon its ruins establish
another Syro-Hebraic dynasty. One of their ancestors has already ruled
Egypt, and another may yet sit in the very seat of the Pharaohs.

As we re-entered the City of the Sun, we passed by the base of an
obelisk which Queen Amense is erecting to mark the era and acts of her
long reign. Upon it were sculptured representations of her battles
with the Ethiopians, her wars with Libya, and her conquest of Arabia.
The work was executed by Phœnician and Egyptian artists; and I am
rejoiced to see that the painters of Tyre and the sculptors of Sidon
are greatly esteemed for the delicacy and perfection of their work.
When these persons saw me, they dropped their pencils and chisels, and
with their hands upon their bosoms, manifested every sign of delight.
You may suppose I responded with more than usual gratification to the
homage thus paid me; for in a foreign land the sight of the humblest
of one's own countrymen, refreshes the eye and warms the heart.

But I have too long occupied your time, dearest mother, with one

 Your devoted son,




My preceding letters, dearest mother, have enabled you to form some
idea of the Hebrew vassalage, which is one of the peculiarities of
Egypt. This subject has deeply interested me. In that oppressed people
I behold Syrians and men of my own race, as it were, reduced to such a
pitiable and miserable condition. My sympathies are therefore
naturally with them. Was not Prince Abram, of Palestine, who conquered
the enemy of our ancestor's throne in those days, Chedorlaomer, King
of Elam and Tidal, and sovereign of the nations east of the inland
sea, the founder of their family; and was not the same Abram the
friend of Neathor, the founder or restorer of Tyre upon the Isle? When
I recall these facts of past history, and how ably the wise Prince
Joseph ruled here, I am deeply moved at their present degradation and

Since writing to you, I have conversed with the queen upon the
subject. I find her ready and willing, with mind and heart and hand,
to take any safe steps for putting an end to this bondage. But, as she
feelingly says:--

"It is an evil which descended to me with the crown and sceptre of my
father; and I know not how to remove it, and yet protect that crown
which I am bound to transmit to Remeses!"

Such then, dear mother, is the present condition of Hebrew servitude.
When it will terminate, whether by some bold act of Remeses, when he
comes to the throne, or by their own act, or by the intervention of
the gods, are questions the solution of which lies hidden in the womb
of the future.

Not all the Hebrews are employed in the field. It has of late years
been a fashion with the nobles, governors, and chief captains of Egypt
to have the young captives of both sexes as servants near their
persons; their beauty, activity, and trustfulness rendering these
Syrian youths particularly fitted for this domestic employment. Thus,
I have seen Hebrew pages attending on lords and ladies in their
palaces, and Hebrew maidens acting as personal attendants upon the
mistress of the family. These young foreigners soon become favorites,
and are rewarded for their devotion and usefulness by rich dresses and
jewels, which last they all especially delight in, and wear in great
quantities. The Egyptians, also, lavishly display them on their
fingers, in their ears, and upon their necks. Every lord wears a large
signet, on which is carved his _cartouch_, or shield of arms. To
present this to any friend is a mark of the highest confidence and
honor. Such an expression of regard, you will remember, the Prince
Remeses bestowed upon me. With it I shall seal this letter, that you
may see its designs in the hieroglyph representation.

The queen has three Hebrew pages, noble and princely-looking boys,
with fine, sparkling, black eyes, and intelligent faces; but there is
a fixed air of pensiveness about them all, which is perhaps the result
of hereditary oppression. This pensive look I have remarked in Prince
Remeses, whose style of face is very strongly Syriac or Hebraic.
Indeed, I have seen an old Hebrew bondman, a gardener in the palace
garden, by the name of Amram, who is so strikingly like the prince
that I can easily see by him, how Remeses himself will look at eighty
years of age. But this Syriac countenance of Remeses comes from his
grandmother, Ephtha, the daughter of the last Phœnician Pharaoh;
yet it is marvellous he has about him nothing of the Egyptian type.
The Egyptian or Nilotic race, have a sharp and prominent face, in
which a long and straight, or gently aquiline nose forms a principal
part. The eye is sometimes oblique; the chin short and retracted; the
lips rather full and tumid, so to speak; and the hair, when it is
suffered to escape the razor in times of mourning, long and flowing.
The head is elongated upward, with a receding forehead. The profile is
delicate, rather than strong. This style of features and head is
strictly Egyptian, and pertains to every class, from Amense on the
throne to the priests and people. I see it sculptured on all the tombs
and monuments, and carved on the most ancient sarcophagi. The head of
Horus is but a sublimer modification of this type.

On the contrary, the head of the Hebrew is large and round, with full
brows, a forehead low in front, and high temples. The nose is strongly
eagle-like; the eyes set even, but of an almond-shape--yet large,
full, and exceedingly black, and soft in expression. The chin is full;
the face oval; the hair short, and inclined to curl in the neck and
over the brow. The profile is strong and bold--not unlike the Arabian.
The Egyptian is slender and light; the Hebrew usually below the medium
height, with broad shoulders and full chest. The Egyptian has a pale
reddish-copper complexion--save the women, who are bright
olive-colored--while the Hebrew face is a ruddy and finely toned
brown. The Egyptian females, when not exposed to the sun and outer
door labor, are exceedingly fair. The children of the race are all
beautiful. Prince Remeses does not share a single characteristic of
this Egyptian national head and face; on the contrary, he resembles
the highest type of the Hebrew. Is not this remarkable? That is, is it
not wonderful that the Syriac blood, derived from the Queen Ephtha,
should descend pure to the third generation, unmingled with the
Thebaïd characteristics of Amunophis, his grandfather?

I am not aware whether the prince is conscious of his great likeness
to this oppressed people, nor would I be so rude as to speak to him of
it; for though he has sympathy for them, and tries to improve their
condition, yet he possesses that haughty sense of superiority which is
natural, in a prince and an Egyptian educated to despise them both as
foreigners and slaves of the crown.

The father of Remeses, as I have before said, was the Vicegerent or
Prince of Upper Egypt, and one of the royal line of the powerful
Theban kings. He had been married but a few months to Pharaoh's
daughter, when, being called to repulse an invasion of the warlike
Ethiopians, he was slain in battle. Remeses was born not long
afterwards, and is, therefore in a twofold degree the heir of the
silver crown of the Thebaïd. Had he been willing to leave his mother,
she would, when he became thirty years old (which is the age of
maturity by the laws of Egypt), have sent him with a splendid retinue
to Upper Egypt, and made him Prince of Thebes, as his father had been
before him. But he chose to remain with the queen, to whom he appears
as much attached as I am to you, my dear mother; and Amense
substituted a nephew of her deceased husband, Prince Mœris, and
placed him, four years since, on the vicegerent throne of the kingdom
of the Upper Nile.

It was this Prince Mœris, with whom Remeses was to dine in the
palace on the day we drove to the treasure-city of Raamses. I was also
present, dear mother, at the dinner. The Lord Mœris is about the
age of Remeses, but altogether a very different person. He is
thoroughly Egyptian, both in looks and lineage as well as by prejudice
and feeling.

He has a slender, elegant person; delicate straight features; a high,
retreating forehead; and a nose slightly aquiline. His mouth is
full-lipped and sensual. His retreating chin betrays deficiency of
firmness, and an undue proportion of obstinacy. The expression of his
oblique, Nubian-looking eye, I did not like. It was sinister and
restlessly observant. He was reserved, and while he asked questions
from time to time, he never replied to any. His complexion is a bright
olive, and he is a handsome man; his rich dress increasing the fine
effect of his personal appearance. The uniform he wore was that of
Admiral of the Nile; the queen having appointed him commander of the
great fleet of war-galleys she has collected near Memphis for the
subjugation of Ethiopia. He has, therefore, come down within a few
days to take charge of his ships. The character of this man for
courage is undoubted, but he has the reputation of great cruelty. He
tarries long at the wine-cup, and in his private life is a gross
sensualist. He professes great piety to the gods, and sacrifices
often, with pomp and display. In Memphis yesterday he burned incense
with his own hands to Apis, and to-day he worshipped Mnevis, the
sacred ox of On.

He was more communicative with me at the dinner than with Remeses. He
expressed the greatest admiration of Phœnicia, praised the
brilliancy of your reign, and the rich commerce of the Isle of Tyre.
He said he had a great reverence for our deities, Astarte, Hercules,
Io, and Isis; for, he asserted that Isis was quite as much a
Phœnician as an Egyptian goddess. "Had he not in Thebes," said he,
"instituted a procession and a rite in honor of the return of Isis
from Phœnicia! We are one in religion, one in commerce, one in
glory," he continued, with fulsome enthusiasm. "Are not our kingdoms
both ruled by queens? Let us draw closer the bonds of alliance, and
together rule the world! You are a free city, your Tyre! never been
conquered! Amunophis would have exacted tribute, but your king
replied: 'Since the foundation of the earth, and the great Deluge
retired from Libanus, Tyre has been free, and will remain free to the
end of days.'"

I answered, that I trusted the words of my noble grandsire would
remain prophetic forever. He then gave as a toast:--

"Phœnicia and Egypt, twin sisters of Isis, and health to their fair

This was well received. Mœris was, however, evidently deep in his
cups, and soon became quarrelsome towards Remeses, to whom he said,
with a sneer--

"You and I, prince, when the queen, my aunt, has departed to the
shades of the realm of Osiris, will divide Egypt between us. I will be
content with the Thebaïd country, and will defend your borders on that
side. Two crowns are too much for one man's head, albeit you have a
large one upon your shoulders!"

"Prince Mœris," said Remeses, with a look of indignation, "forget
not yourself in my mother's palace!"

Thus speaking, the son of Amense rose from the table, and I followed
him to the portico which overlooked the gardens.

"That man, Sesostris," said he to me, after a moment's silence, "would
not hesitate to conspire to the whole throne and both crowns of Egypt,
if he were hopeful of success."

"He is a man of an evil eye," I said.

"And heart! But he must not be incensed. He is powerful, and as wicked
as powerful. In a few days he will be on his way to Upper Egypt; and
in this war with Ethiopia, will find an outlet for his restless

"Suppose (the gods guarding your gracious mother, the queen) you
should come to the throne; what, Remeses, would you do with or for
your cousin, your father's nephew? Would you suffer so dangerous a man
to hold the viceroyalty of Upper Nile?"

"I should wear both crowns, Sesostris," answered Remeses, quietly and

While we were thus conversing, a Hebrew page came, and said:

"My lord prince, her majesty is taken ill, and desires to have you
come to her."

"My mother ill!" he exclaimed, with deadly pallor covering his face.
"Pardon me, prince, I must leave you and go to her." And in a moment
he hastened to the wing of the palace occupied by his mother and the
ladies of her retinue.

The queen had left the table some time before Prince Mœris began to
converse with me, excusing herself on the plea of slight fatigue and
indisposition; for she had passed an hour that day in giving
directions to the chief architect, to whom was intrusted the erection
of her obelisk, outside of the gate of the Temple of the Sun. Remeses
had been gone but a few moments, when I beheld Prince Mœris borne
across the terrace by his servants to his chariot, in a state of
helpless intoxication.

The illness of the queen was not of an alarming nature, and the next
day she appeared in the saloon, but was very pale. The result is, the
court physicians have advised her to go to her palace on the isle of
Rhoda, in the Nile, as a more salubrious spot than the interior of a
vast city. Remeses accompanied her thither, and the date of my letter,
my dear mother, shows you that I am also still one of the queen's
favored household. Her health continues doubtful, but she is much
improved in appearance by the change. Remeses, with beautiful filial
devotion, passes with her every hour he can spare from the various
pressing duties which demand his personal attention; and preparations
for the Ethiopian war call for all his time as general of the armies.

Opposite the palace in which I write to you, the plain between the
river and the pyramids is covered with a vast army assembled there
within three days, preparatory to their southern march; while the
bosom of the Nile, for half a league above this palace-covered island,
is almost concealed by war-galleys, which, to the number of one
thousand and upward, are at anchor ready to ascend the river.

From the lofty west wing of the propylon of the gate of this
island-palace of the Pharaohs, I command not only a prospect of the
fleet, but of the plain of the pyramids outside of Memphis. I have but
to turn slowly round from that elevation, to see On with its three
hundred and sixty temples--its gardens and towers; and Raamses, the
treasure-city, to the east: to the south, the Nile, studded with
barges and gay vessels having silken and colored sails, filled with
citizens, come to look at the fleet of war-ships; the immense squadron
itself, gay with the variegated flags of its different divisions and
captains; with towers, temples, obelisks, and propyla on the two
shores terminating the perspective: and on the west, Jizeh, with its
sphinxes and colossi, its terraced gardens and amphitheatre of the
gods; and still farther off, Memphis united to the Nile by a
magnificent aqueduct; and the pyramids of Cheops and of his daughter.
Between the city and these mysterious mausolea, stands alone, amid
gardens, the red granite temple of Pthah and Athor, the two chief
divinities of Memphis: for Apis, the sacred bull of Memphis, is not a
divinity, properly, but only a visible incarnation of Osiris, the
emblem and type of the power and strength of the Supreme Creator
Imagine this vast and varied scene of architectural and naval glory,
interspersed with verdure of the brightest green, with palm, orange,
and fig trees, garden linked to garden, grove to grove, and villas
half seen through the foliage; and lastly, the mighty river flowing
with shining waves amid the inimitable landscape, and you have before
you a scene of grandeur and beauty such as Egypt alone can produce.
Add the myriads of human beings, the crowded galleys, the thronged
shores, the eighty thousand soldiers encamped on the west plain, the
army of chariots drawn up on the east bank, and farther up, opposite
the aqueduct of Pharaoh Apophis, a battalion of twelve thousand
cavalry manœuvering, and the scene which I, an hour since, beheld
from the top of the gateway, is before you.

Since I wrote the last sentence, I have witnessed a naval review, with
a sham battle. The Prince Mœris, in a gorgeous galley decorated
with all the emblems of the cities and nomes of Egypt, after
displaying the skill of his one hundred oarsmen, and the swiftness of
his vessel in front of the palace, before the eyes of the queen, moved
among his ships, and gave orders for their division into lines of
battle. The greater number of these galleys had only a single mast
with a long swallow-winged sail; and were propelled by forty rowers.
But the ships of the captains were larger and more imposing. All the
galleys were handsomely painted, and the whole fleet together made a
splendid moving spectacle, which was heightened by the thousand
bannerets fluttering in the wind, and the ten thousand shields and
spears gleaming in the sun, as they were held in the hands of the
soldiers upon their decks.

When the signal was given for the two parties to combat, the air was
filled by a loud shout, and a hundred galleys charged each other, just
as did the battalions of chariots in the review I have already
described. The vessels, set in motion by the rowers, were driven
towards each other with terrific velocity. The Abyssinian soldiers
upon the bows, and the bowmen in the tops, shot off flights of arrows,
which sounded like a storm of wind, as they hurtled through the air.
The Libyan spearmen, on the lofty poops, brandished their spears with
wild cries; while the Nubians, amidships, struck their triangular
shields with battle-axes of iron, producing a sound like crashing
thunders. The war bugles and hollow drums beaten on board each vessel
increased the loud confusion, and added to the terror of the scene.
The fall of thousands of oars, the rush of waters from the cleaving
bows, the shouts of the captains, the warlike spirit and
battle-fierceness of the whole, presented a spectacle of sublimity
unequalled. Nor was it without an element of terror. Such was the
excited manner of the simulating combatants, I believed that no
earthly power could prevent a real collision and hand-to-hand conflict
in hot blood, when, at a signal from the Prince Mœris, the rowers
of the leading galleys turned suddenly, as they came within touch of
each other's sweeps, and so, one after another wheeling in line, both
divisions passed down the river, until they moved in parallel columns.
The whole manœuvre was one of the most wonderful exhibitions of
naval discipline and generalship. Ere the shouts of the people on the
shores and in the numerous pleasure barges had died away, the two
columns, at a signal from the mast of the ship of their admiral, came
side by side, and a battle between the soldiers on opposite decks
commenced--one party attempting to board, the other repelling them.
Not less than six thousand combatants were engaged at once, above the
heads of the banks of rowers. The clash of swords and spears and
battle-axes, and other offensive and defensive weapons, produced a
noise so terrible and grand that I believe there is no other sound on
earth, as well calculated to quicken the pulse and bring out all the
enthusiasm of the soul of a man. I can compare these metallic and iron
tones, only to what might be the sound of the brazen voice of Mars
himself rolling his war-cry along the battle-ranks of his foes.
Suddenly the iron din of war ceased, and separating, one of the
divisions commenced a flight, and the other a pursuit. This scene was
the most exciting of all. The chase was in a direction down the east
side of the island, opposite the queen's window; for all these
exhibitions were given in her honor, and, though by no means well, she
remained upon the terrace during the whole; and it was, perhaps, the
consciousness of their monarch's eye being upon them, that caused
these demi-barbaric soldiers, gathered from all the provinces and
tributary countries of Egypt, to surpass themselves, being ready even,
at her nod, to convert the mock battle into a real one.

The two fleets, flying and pursuing, moved past the island like a
sirocco. Their lion or eagle-headed prows tossed high in the air
clouds of white spray. The roar of the waters as the vessels ploughed
through them, the dash of the banks of oars, the cries of pursuit, the
whizzing and shrieks of arrows cleaving the air, the shouts of the
contending thousands, and the velocity with which they moved, brought
color to the queen's cheek, and the light of interest to her eyes. It
was now an actual and real trial for mastery in speed; and the contest
partook of all the realities of a war-chase. The two divisions,
rounding the lower end of the island, were hidden by the Temple of
Isis, which crowns it, but soon reappeared on the west arm of the
river, ascending. When they came opposite to the queen, having passed
entirely round the island, they resumed their former line, two or
three with broken banks of oars, and shattered poops or prows from

Prince Mœris came on shore to receive the compliments of the queen,
and dined with us. Remeses was not present, being with the cohorts of
cavalry; for he is visiting and inspecting every arm of the service,
as it is intended this shall be the most formidable host that has ever
been sent into Ethiopia.

 Adieu, dearest mother, and believe me
 Your truly devoted son,




It is with heartfelt pleasure I assure you of the recovery of the
queen. The heart of the noble and devoted Remeses is lightened of a
heavy weight of solicitude. Smiles once more revisit his features, and
cheerfulness replaces his late depression.

"Sesostris," said he to me this morning, as we were returning in his
galley from a visit to the pyramids and vast city of tombs that
stretch between Memphis and the Libyan hills, "if my excellent and
dear mother had died, I should have been made one of the most unhappy
of men. I shall to-morrow, in testimony of my gratitude, offer in the
Temple of Osiris a libation and incense to the God of Health and Life,
wherever in his illimitable universe such a Being may dwell."

"Then you would not, my dear Remeses, offer it to Osiris himself?" I

"You have heard, my friend," he replied, "my views of these mysteries
of faith: that I look, through all material and vicarious
representatives, onward and upward to the Infinite and Supreme Essence
of Life--the Generator, Upholder, and Guide of the worlds and all that
dwell upon them. From a child I have never entered, as my dear mother
does, into the heart and spirit of our worship. There is something
within me which tells me that we consist of a twofold being--a soul
within a body. The soul must have had a Soul as its creator;
therefore, O Sesostris, do I believe in a Supreme Soul of the
universe--the Fountain of all souls; a Being of thought, invisibility,
intelligence, and reason, each supreme and eternal; for I can conceive
no creator of a SOUL, nor end of its existence. Before all things that
actually exist, and before all beings, there is One Being whom I would
designate, for want of another term, God of gods, prior to the first
god or king of earth, remaining unmoved and unapproachable in the
singleness of His own unity. He is greater than, as He was prior to,
all material things, of which He is the sole fountain; and He is also
the foundation of things conceived by the intellect, and from His
intellect spring the spirits of the gods and the souls of men."

"Then," said I to the prince, to whom I had listened with surprise and
pleasure--for, mother, similar to these are the deep mysteries taught
by our most sacred priests of Io, into which I was initiated when I
became twenty-five years of age--"then you believe that God is
Intellect conceiving itself, and that the creation of man was but the
beginning of an infinite series of resistless conceptions of Himself?"

"Not resistless, but voluntary. Finding Himself existing, He
multiplied Himself, for His own glory and delight primarily; and
secondly, for the happiness of the offspring of His Intellect."

"We are then His offspring, that is, our souls?"

"Without doubt, if my theories be founded in truth," he answered
contemplatively. We were then in mid-river, and the forty-four rowers
of our gilded barge were slowly dipping their brazen-mounted oars into
the glassy water, while with gentle motion we were borne towards the
isle of palaces and terraces. Our heads were shaded from the sun by a
silken pavilion stretched above the stern of the galley, under which
we reclined upon sumptuous cushions as we conversed. Remeses, however,
is by no means a voluntary seeker of luxurious ease; but in Egypt,
where splendor and voluptuous furniture everywhere invite to
indulgence, one must either deprive himself of all comforts, for the
sake of enduring hardship, or yield unchallenging to the countless
seductive forms of couches, lounges, chairs, and sofas, which
everywhere, on the galleys and in houses, offer themselves to his use.

The air was balmy and soft, and fanned our faces; while the beautiful
shores, lined with villas of the chief men of the court, afforded a
grateful picture to the eye. Our rowers let their sweeps fall and rise
to the low and harmonious time of a river chant, which, while it
inspired conversation between the prince and myself, did not disturb,
but rather veiled our subdued voices.

"Do you believe there are lesser gods?" I asked.

"Do you mean, Sesostris, beings higher in rank than men, and so
created, to whom the Supreme Intellect of the Universe delegates a
part of His authority and power over man and nature? Such, in its
purity, is our Egyptian idea of gods."

"Such is not the Phœnician," I answered, hesitatingly; for I felt
how far in advance of the hero demigods of our Assyrio-Median
mythology was the Egyptian theological conception of a god, while the
still sublimer idea held by Remeses, that they are celestial princes
under the Supreme Prince, created as his servants, yet so far above
men as to be as gods to us, took fast hold of my imagination, and
commended itself to my intellect.

"What, my dear Sesostris, is the mythology of your country?" he asked,
with a look of deep interest. "I have read some of your sacred books,
and from them I perceive we obtain our myths of Isis, Mars, Hercules,
Vulcan, and even Venus, who is your Astarte and our Athor. We owe much
of our religion and learning to you Tyrians, my Sesostris."

"The recipient has become mightier than the giver," I replied.
"Without doubt you have received from us the great invention of the
phonetic alphabet, which your scholars are already making use of,
though I learn the priests oppose it as an invasion upon the sacred
writing of the hieroglyphic representations. I have seen here many
rolls of papyrus written in our Phœnician letter, in the vernacular
Koptic words, and executed with taste and beauty."

"It is not pictorial, and therefore the priests, who are all artists
and lovers of colors, reject it. It will be slowly introduced. Upon
obelisks and tombs the brilliant and varied hieroglyphic writing will
continue, even though the records and rolls may by and by be written
with the Tyrian alphabet. You have seen my Chaldaic letter, which I
have formed partly on the model of your great Kadmus, and partly on
the sacred characters, reducing forms of things to outlines and
strokes of the stylus. This I invented, hoping to introduce it into
Egypt, if the Tyrian letter is opposed by our priests, on the score of
being foreign cabalistic signs; for such do they see fit to regard
them, and speak of them. But, my Sesostris, let me learn of you
something of your mythology."

I was about to reply, when my attention was attracted to a "procession
of the dead" crossing the river just above us, the body being placed
in a gorgeous car which stood in a richly painted and gilded _baris_,
with a curved prow carved with the head of Osiris. It was tied to a
barge, with twenty rowers, which moved to a slow and solemn strain of
music that came wildly floating across the waters to our ears, mingled
with the wails of mourners who crowded the deck of the galley; chiefly
women with long dishevelled hair and naked breasts, which they beat
frantically at times, with piercing cries. Through a small window in
the ark or car I could see the painted visage upon the head of the
mummy case.

It soon landed, and we resumed our conversation.

"You are aware, O prince," I said, turning to him, "that Phœnicia
was settled among the first of the nations, after Typhon sent the
flood of waters to destroy Osiris upon earth. Of course you Egyptians
believe in the universal inundation of the earth?"

"The tradition is well-founded," he answered. "We believe that mighty
nations existed aforetime, beyond the history of any kingdom, and that
for their evils the Divine Creator of men brought upon them as
punishment a mighty unknown sea, which drowned the world: that Menes,
a great and good king, also called Noe-Menes, was spared by the gods,
he with all his family being saved in a ship of the old world, which
sailed to the mountains of Arabia Deserta, where, guided by a dove,
they landed and sacrificed to the gods. This Menes, descending from
the mountain, founded Egypt, first building This, or Thebis, and then
Memphthis, dividing Egypt into the Thinite and Memphite provinces; and
so from Egypt all the world was repeopled.

"Such is our tradition, O Remeses," I said, smiling, "only instead of
a mountain in Arabia, it was Libanus, in Syria, to which his galley
was guided, not by a dove, but by a raven; and that his name was
Ammon, or Hammun; and that the first city built was Sidon, and the
next the city of the Island of Tyre."

Remeses returned my smile and said, "No doubt there was a disposition
in all our forefathers to give the honor of being the oldest nation to
their own. Hammun is also a person in our Egyptian tradition, but is
called the son of Menes; who, rebelling against his father, was driven
from This or Thebis into Africa, where he founded Libya, and erected
to himself, as a god, the ancient temple and worship of Ammon. From
him come the Nubians and Ethiopians."

"Then I will claim no traditionary alliance with him," I answered
good-humoredly. "_Our_ Ammon was called also Hercules, and the first
temple of the earth was built to him on the rocky isle of ancient
Tyre. Then Belus, the hero and warrior-god, and founder of Babylon,
became the patron of Tyre; and a noble temple was also erected to
Nimrod, who slew the wild beasts that swarmed in ancient Syria, and
who became the protector of shepherds and agriculture. Thus came our
first gods, being men deified; while yours are but attributes, or
created celestial powers, high above men; or animated forms
representing the Deity incarnate and comprehensible to the senses.
Baalbec was a city built to Bel or Belus, who, like your Osiris, is
the symbol of the sun, which, of burnished gold, he displayed upon his
shield in battle. In Phœnicia we call him 'the Lord of the Sun,'
and the 'Sun-God.' We pay him divine honors by sacrifices, libations,
and offerings of incense. And this recalls a discovery I recently made
in On, that the true meaning of Re and of On is not 'the City of the
Sun,' but the 'Lord of the Sun's' city; that is, the city of Osiris,
who is the lord of the sun. This meaning of the name at once removes
from On the impression which was at first made upon my mind, that you,
and the queen, and your whole court, worshipped the sun as the Persic
and Parthian nations do; whereas it is Osiris, the Lord of the Sun,
that is the Supreme god, generator, producer, and creator of the sun
and all things that are. No sooner had I made this discovery, which I
did by conversing with the high-priest of On, than I perceived that
whatsoever grossness may be found in the religion of the lower castes
of the people, who seldom see beyond the symbol, the theology of the
wise and great is free from idolatry."

"I am glad you justify us in this matter, dear Sesostris," answered
the prince. "We are not idolaters like the Persian and Barbara kings.
Our sacred books teach an intellectual and spiritual theology. But, as
I have before said to you, the Invisible is so veiled from the people,
by the visible forms under which he is offered to them by the
priesthood, that while _we_ adore the God of power and strength in
Apis, _they_ worship the bull himself: while _we_ in the form of
Horus, with his uræus and disk, adore Him who made him a benefactor to
men and a pursuer of evil, _they_ bow down to the hawk-headed statue
of porphyry and worship the sculptured colossus of stone. But I
interrupt you. Proceed, if you please, with the account of the origin
of your country's religion."

"I have not much more to add of interest," I answered, "save of Adonis
and Astarte."

"Are not these your Osiris and Isis?" asked the prince readily.

"I will first explain," said I, not immediately answering his
question, "what we in Phœnicia think of Isis. The priests teach
that the identity of the goddess Io, who is worshipped with rites
unusually imposing at Byblos, is one with Isis."

"What is your opinion, Sesostris?"

"There is," I answered, "a close resemblance between the rites which
relate to the death and revival of Adonis at Byblos, and of your
divinity Osiris in Egypt. Indeed the priests at Byblos claim to have
the sepulchre of Osiris among them, and maintain that all the rites
which are commonly referred to Adonis properly relate to Osiris."

"Then Egypt derives Osiris from Phœnicia?" remarked Remeses, with a
slight movement of the brows, and a smile.

"Without doubt," I replied. "In Tyre we call Egypt the daughter of

"The daughter has out-grown the mother, dear Sesostris. We are proud
of our parentage. We bow to Phœnicia as the mistress of letters and
queen of the merchants of the earth. But what think the priests of
Baalbec of Osiris and Isis?"

"It is the tradition of those haughty priests that they are distinct
persons," I replied. "The ceremonies and rites with which they worship
these deities are truly magnificent, and are invested with every form
of the beautiful and gorgeous. Ours, as I have said, in some points
resemble your Egyptian rites in honoring Osiris and Isis; but while
you Egyptians, Remeses, adore only an abstract attribute of the deity,
_we_ adore the hero and the heroic woman--Adonis and Astarte. We rise
not beyond them. We elevate them to the heavens and to the moon, and
call them our gods. Truly, in the presence of the sublimer, purer myth
which is the element of your faith, O Remeses, I feel that I am not
far above the Barbara kings of Southern Africa, who deify each his
predecessor. The priests of Isis, when they were in Phœnicia,
attempted to elevate our worship; but we are still idolaters, that is,
mere men-worshippers. Or, where we do not pay them divine honors, we
offer them to the sun, and moon, and stars. I must be initiated, O
Remeses, into the profounder intellectual mysteries of your spiritual
myth, now that I am in Egypt."

"You shall have your wish gratified. The high priest of On shall
receive orders to open to you (what is closed to all strangers) the
sacred and mystic rites of our faith."

"I have alluded to the mysteries of the temple at Tyre," I added.
"Initiated thereinto, I was taught that religion had a higher object
than human heroes, and that in Astarte is worshipped the daughter of
Heaven and Light, who is LIFE, and that Adonis, her son by the Earth,
signifies Truth. Thus, from heaven spring Light, Life, and Truth.
These three, say the mystic books which I studied, constitute the
Trinity of God, who consists and subsists only in this undivided
Trinity as a unit; not Light alone, not Life alone, nor Truth alone;
but One in Three. That these three are not three deities, just as in
geometry the three sides and three angles are not three triangles, but
one triangle. That in order to bring this mystery to a level with the
minds of men, light was symbolized by the sun, life by Astarte, truth
by Adonis. In the temple of Bel-Pheor, in Cœle-Syria, the sun
itself is worshipped as light, life, and truth in one; his rays
representing light, his heat life, his material disk or body truth."

"This is interesting to me, Sesostris," said Remeses. "It explains to
me what I did not before understand, why the Syrians worship the sun.
To them it is the majestic symbol of the trinity of deity. But I fear
that in Egypt he is worshipped as an idol; for he, doubtless, is
worshipped by many, and in many cities are temples to him. But this
material worship, which separates the symbol from the truth behind it,
was introduced by the Palestinian dynasty, and it is almost the only
trace it has left in Egypt of its presence. The worship of Osiris,
rightly understood, is the worship of the deity, as revealed in our
sacred books. But the mystery of his trinity is unknown to our
theology. Have you many temples of the sun in Tyre?"

"One only," was my answer, "but worthy, if I may so say, from its
splendor, to stand in your city of 'the Lord of the Sun,' as I must
call it."

"Is there not a city of your kingdom called Baal-phegor, in which is a
famous sun-temple?"

"You mean Baalbec, the same words, only changed slightly. This city
deserves its great fame, so grand are its fanes, so noble its palaces,
so imposing the worship of the sun before its altars, so gorgeous the
interiors of its temples, so rich the apparel of its priests, so
sublime its choral worship. It is in Syrio-Euphrates, and is so shaded
by palms that it has the aspect, in approaching it across the desert,
of being an oasis filled with temples."

"Is not Phœnicia a lovely land, Sesostris?" he asked, at the same
time returning the salutation of the admiral, Pathromenes, who passed
in his war-galley, on his way to join the Prince Mœris, whose fleet
sails to-morrow on its expedition. I was glad, also, to behold again
my courteous friend of the Pelusian coast, and cordially received and
answered his polite and pleased recognition of my person.

"It is indeed a lovely land, with its verdant plains, majestic
mountains clothed with cedar, and beautiful but narrow rivers. It is
covered with fair cities from the peninsula of Tyre to the further
limits of Cœle-Syria, and is a rich and lovely kingdom, populous
and happy. Its two great cities, Tyre and Sidon, are called the eyes
of the world."

"I have so heard," he answered, "and when this Ethiopian war ends, and
I find time to be absent, I hope to cross the sea to your kingdom and
see 'the mother of Egypt,' as she also calls herself; 'the merchant of
the seas,' whose galleys have discovered in unknown oceans, beyond the
Pillars of the West, the isles of the blessed."

"So report our bold and venturous mariners," I answered.

"We who stay at home, know not, Sesostris, what marvels lie beyond the
seas at the extremity of the plane of the earth's vast area. It is
possible that islands and lands of wonderful beauty may exist where
the sun wheels over the West to return to his rising in the Orient;
and if we credit mariners who follow the shores of the Arabian and
Indian seas, there are fair shores from whence come off to them
breezes laden with fragrance of unknown flowers, while birds of rare
melody fill the air with their songs by day; but at night the odorant
forests echo with the dread roar of fierce monsters, that guard the
shores from the invasion of man!"

"I have sailed along those shores, if I may be so bold as to speak in
such a presence, my lord prince," interrupted the captain of the
galley, who had stood by listening to our discourse.

"Say on, Rathos," answered the prince courteously. "What have you to
tell of marvels on foreign seas?"

"The lands at the earth's end, your excellency, are not like ours of
Egypt. I have seen isles where the men are like larger monkeys, and
have a language no one understands, and build their houses in the
trees. Evil demons I doubt not, or else souls sent back to earth from
Amenthe, by Osiris, to atone for crimes in monstrous forms, neither
human nor beast!"

"I have heard of these creatures," said I. "How far hast thou sailed,
O Rathos?"

"To the very edge of the world, my lord of Tyre," he answered quietly.
"I was in a ship going to Farther Ind. In sailing round the end of the
earth we lost the shore in a dark storm; and when day came we saw only
sky and water. All were in consternation to be thus between heaven and
sea, and no land to guide our course. To add to our terror, I
perceived that we were borne swiftly upon an ocean-current eastward.
It increased in velocity, and I soon saw that we must be approaching
the verge of the vast and horrid gulf, over which the full ocean
plunges, a thousand leagues in breadth, prone into chaos and the
regions of the lost spirits of the unburied souls of men! But by the
interposition of the god of winds, to whom I vowed a libation and a
bale of the richest spices of Bengal, a great storm swept over the sea
against us, and before it we fled as with wings, until we came to a
great island, under the shelter of which we anchored, rejoicing in our

"Verily, brave Rathos, thou wert in a great peril," I said. "Thinkest
thou it was at the world's end?"

"So said the king of the island, and he congratulated us on our
escape; saying that few ships, when once upon that downward tide, ever
returned again to the top of the earth."

"Thinkest thou the earth is square, Rathos, from what voyages thou
hast made?" I asked of the gray-haired captain, whose silvery locks
were braided around his head, and covered by a green embroidered
bonnet, with a fringed cape falling to his neck.

"Or a triangle, my lord prince; but some say four square, with a
burning mountain at each angle."

"Which is thine own opinion, Rathos?" asked the prince, who had been
listening to our conversation.

"That it is irregular and jagged, my lord of Egypt, in shape not
unlike this fair Isle of Rhoda, at which we are about to land."

"And what thinkest thou, Rathos, is its foundation?" continued the

"The Indian wise men say it is held up on the back of a huge tortoise;
and our priests of Egypt that it floats in a vast ocean; while in
Jaffa they teach that it floats on a boundless sea of fire. I know
not, my lord prince. I leave knowledge of such wisdom to the great
philosophers; and for my part am content to live upon our fair earth
as long as the gods will, be it fire, or tortoise, or even though it
stand on nothing, as the people in Persia hold that it does. But we
are at the terrace-steps, my lord of Memphis!"

Here he bowed low, holding his hand to his heart, and left us to
superintend the landing of the galley, at the porphyry staircase of
the propylæum of the palace.

"Sesostris," said the prince to me, "has the idea occurred to you that
this world may be a globe, suspended in subtle ether, and in diurnal
revolution around the _fixed_ sun?"

"Never, Remeses!" I cried, with a look of amazement at this bold and
original thought. "It is impossible it should be so!"

"Nothing is impossible with the Author of creation!" said Remeses,
with great solemnity. And, then, after an instant's pause, he added
pleasantly--"On what does the sea of fire or the tortoise rest, my
dear prince? Which theory is the most difficult to receive? But I have
given astrology considerable attention, and if you will examine with
me some observations and calculations that I have made, I think you
will be with me in my novel opinion, that this earth _may prove_ to be
a sphere and in orbitual motion, with its seven planets, about the
sun; its annual progress in its circuit giving us seasons, its diurnal
motion night and day! But I see you stand perplexed and amazed. By and
by you shall be initiated into the mysteries of my studies. Let us

Farewell, dear mother. The great length of this letter renders it
necessary that I should close it abruptly, but believe me ever

 Your dutiful son,




In my last letter I narrated a conversation between Prince Remeses and
myself, upon the myths of Egypt and Phœnicia, and other subjects,
while being borne in his galley from the Memphis bank of the river
down to the Island of Rhoda. I have already described this beautiful
isle, and spoken of it as the favorite residence of the queen. It is
situated nearly midway between her two chief cities, On and Memphis,
both of which--one on the west and the other on the east--are in sight
from the top of the central pylon of her palace, that divides the
"court of fountains and statues" from her gardens.

Also from this point the queen commands, at one view, the noble
spectacle of her navy anchored in the river, and her armies encamped,
the one on the plain of Memphis, and the other upon that of Raamses.

I wrote you a letter day before yesterday, my dear mother, after my
return from a very interesting visit to the plain of Memphis, whither
the prince went in his state barge to review the 80,000 soldiers
encamped there. I will devote this letter to an account of a second
visit, and a description of the scenes I witnessed, and a narration of
the events which transpired.

Early this morning, when the queen and Remeses and I were about to be
seated at our repast; and, as the pious custom of the Egyptians of all
ranks is, Remeses having just asked the blessing of the gods before
partaking, lo! Prince Mœris, lord of the Thebaïd, came in
unannounced, accompanied by his favorite lion, which always follows
his steps or stalks by his side, and said, with bluntness unsuited to
the presence--

"Your majesty, I have come to say to you that I am ready to weigh
anchor and commence my voyage to the Cataracts! I await your orders
and pleasure!"

Thus speaking, he stood with his head-admiral and half a dozen of his
chief officers behind him in the entrance, his sword at his side, and
his gold helm with its nodding plumes towering proudly. His whole
appearance was singularly splendid and martial, and he seemed to be
conscious of the effect the striking elegance and brilliancy of his
costume produced upon me; for, though brave as Osirtasen the
Conqueror, he is as vain as ever was the fair Princess Nitocris.

Queen Amense, who enjoined the strictest etiquette in her court,
frowned at this discourteous intrusion; for the nobles of Lower Egypt
are remarkable by the grace and refinement of their manners, and the
court of the Pharaohs has for ages been distinguished for the high
tone of its polite observances. From portico to saloon, from saloon to
ante-room, from ante-room to reception-room, and so onward to the
deepest recesses of the palace or house, the guest is ushered by
successive pages, until the chief steward or grand-chamberlain admits
him into the presence of the lord of the mansion, who already, by a
swift page, has been informed of the advance of the visitor. In no
case are these formalities dispensed with by persons of high breeding.
Breaking through all such ancient and social ceremonies, the rude
Theban viceroy came before her as I have described. The brow of
Remeses darkened, but he preserved silence.

"I am glad, prince, that you have been so diligent," said Amense,
coldly. "When will you depart?"

"Within the hour, my royal aunt. If Remeses, my warlike cousin, wishes
to co-operate with me at Thebes, he will not long delay marching his
army forward. I hear, by a swift galley just arrived, that the fierce
Ethiopian king, Occhoris, with half his mighty host, has already dared
to enter the Thinite province, and menaces Thebes!"

"There is no time for delay, then," cried Remeses, rising from the
table, leaving the grapes, figs, and wheaten rolls untouched.
"Farewell, my mother!" he said, embracing her. "In a few weeks I shall
return to you with tidings that the scourge of your kingdom has
perished with his armies!"

I will not describe the tenderness of the parting between the queen
and Remeses, whom she would have held, refusing to release him, if he
had not gently disengaged himself, taken up his sword and helmet, and
hastened from the apartment. Prince Mœris, with a haughty bow to
the queen, for whom he seems to entertain bitter dislike, had already
taken his departure with his captains at his heels. I followed
Remeses, and together we crossed to the shore on the side of On, and
there meeting chariots, we were in a short time in the midst of the
war-camp of his chariot legions. They were encamped several stadia
south of On, on the plain beyond Raamses. Here, in the little Temple
of Horus, on the terrace of which we held our conversation about the
Hebrews as we paced its long pavement (and which I have already
repeated to you), the prince with his chief captains offered libations
and burned incense, invoking the favor and aid of Heaven on the
expedition. He then gave his orders to his generals of division,
chiefs of legions, and captains; and the whole host, forming in column
of march, moved forward towards the south, with trumpets sounding and
the rumbling thunder of thousands of wheels of iron. Seeing that they
were all in motion--each battalion under its own head-captain--the
prince took boat to cross the Nile to the plain of Memphis, in order
to put in motion the army of horse and foot there encamped. On our way
over, we saw the van of the fleet of the Prince of Thebes coming up
the broad river in stately style, fifty abreast, propelled by
innumerable oars. It was a brave and battle-like front, and what with
pennons flying, spears and shields gleaming from their poop-decks and
mast-towers, and the brazen or gilt insignia of hawks', eagles',
lions', or ibis' heads rising upon a thousand topmasts, and all
catching the sunbeams, the spectacle was singularly impressive.

"There comes a prince, my Sesostris," said Remeses to me, as he
surveyed the advancing front of war, "who, if I should fall in this
Ethiopian expedition, will be Pharaoh of Egypt when my mother dies."

"The gods forbid!" I exclaimed with warmth.

"He is the next of blood. It is true, my mother could, by will,
alienate her crown and confer her sceptre upon any one she chose to
adopt. Indeed, I now remember that, by our laws, it would be necessary
for her publicly and ceremoniously adopt him as her son before he
could reign--since a nephew, by the ancient Memphitic law regulating
succession, cannot inherit. Mœris would, therefore, have to be

"Then he would never reign," I said.

Remeses remained silent a moment. Resuming, he said, with a tone of
indignant emotion--

"Sesostris, my mother fears that evil young prince. He possesses over
her an inexplicable power. To this influence he owes his elevation,
from being a mere governor of Saïs, to the viceroyalty of Upper Egypt.
He would not fail, should I fall, to exert his mysterious power over
her mind, and his ambition would prompt him to aim at even the throne
of all Egypt. But let us mount!" he added, as we touched the shore.

A score of horsemen, armed with long spears, were in waiting. Remeses
and I mounted horses already provided; and, at a wave of his hand, the
whole party dashed off along the avenue of the aqueduct, a magnificent
thoroughfare, two miles in length, bordered by palm-trees, with, at
intervals, a monolith statue of red Syenite granite, or an obelisk,
casting its needle-like shadow across the wide, paved road. At the end
of this avenue, which leads straight from the river to the pyramids,
we turned south, and before us beheld, spread out as far as the eye
could reach, the tented field of the vast Egyptian host, cavalry and
footmen of all arms, languages, and costumes, belonging to the nations
tributary to Egypt. I had visited this vast camp the preceding day. It
covered a league of ground, presenting a sea of tents, banners,
plumes, spears, and shining helms. As we came in sight, a trumpeter
sounded a few loud notes to proclaim the presence of the
prince-general. We dashed up to the central pavilion, on the summit of
which the winged sun of burnished gold showed that the army was to
march under the particular guardianship of the god. From the summit of
the staff of other handsome tents, the emblems of generals and chiefs
of battalions were displayed in the form of silver hawks' heads, the
brazen head of a lion or wolf, or the heads of the ibis, crocodile,
and vulture. Each phalanx thus marched under and knew its peculiar
emblem, following its lead in the column of advance on the march, and
rallying around it in the midst of battle.

Prince Remeses was in a few moments surrounded by his generals and
chief warriors, to whom he made known the advance of the Ethiopian
king, Occhoris, upon Thebes,--intelligence of which he and the queen
had received by a mounted messenger, while Prince Mœris, who had
come to announce it also, was in her apartment. In a few words he made
known his orders to each general in succession, who, making a low
military obeisance, by bowing the head and turning the sword-point to
the earth, instantly departed to their divisions. The general-in-chief
in immediate command he retained by his side, with his gorgeous staff
of officers. In a few minutes all was life and movement throughout the
tented field. In four hours the whole army--their tents struck and
conveyed to barges, together with all other military impediments not
necessary for the soldiers on their march--was formed into a hollow
square on the plain, twenty thousand men on each side facing inward to
a temple of their war-god, Ranpo-re, which stood on the plain. This
was a small but beautiful temple, or marble pavilion, in the form of a
peristyle, with brazen columns, dedicated to the Egyptian Mars. It was
erected in this martial plain by Amunophis I., for the purpose of
sacrifices and oblations, and of offering libations and incense for
armies assembled about it before marching on warlike expeditions. The
circle of columns was cast from the shields and weapons which he had
taken in his Arabian and Asiatic wars.

The chief priest of Mars, who is a prince in rank, and allied to the
throne, attended by more than one hundred inferior priests, advanced
from the inner shrine upon a marble terrace, in the centre of which
stood the iron-columned pavilion that inclosed the shrine of the god.
He was attired in a grand and imposing costume, having a tiara,
adorned by a winged sun sparkling with jewels, and the sacred uræus,
encircling his brows. He wore a flowing robe of the whitest linen,
descending to his feet. A loose upper cape of crimson, embroidered
with gold, and having flowing sleeves, was put on over the robe. Still
above this was a breastplate of precious stones, in the form of a
corselet, while the tiara partook also of the martial form, being
shaped like a helmet, with the sacred asp of gold projecting in front
as a visor. Above all this, hanging from his left shoulder, was a
splendid leopard's skin, heavy with a border of closely woven rings of
gold. As he advanced, he extended in his right hand a short sword, the
hilt of which was a crux, or the sacred cross-shaped Tau, surmounted
by a ball, the whole being an emblem of life; while in his helmet
towered, as symbols of truth and order, two ostrich feathers--the
evenness and symmetry with which the feathery filaments grow on each
side of their stem having suggested to the Egyptians the adoption of
this emblem; for order and truth, according to Egyptian philosophy,
are the foundation and preservation of the universe.

Having reached the front of the lofty terrace, upon which was an altar
of brass, he raised his left arm by throwing back the superb
leopard-skin mantle; and, elevating his commanding form to its full
grandeur, he turned slowly round, pointing heavenward with his left
hand, and holding his sword, as it were, over the army as he turned,
until with it he had swept the circle of the horizon. This was an
invocation to all the gods for a blessing upon the assembled hosts.
During the act, every general bowed his head as if to receive it,
every soldier lowered his weapon, and at its conclusion, all the music
bands in the army before him simultaneously burst into an overwhelming
sound--drums, trumpets, cornets, cymbals, filling the air with their
mingled roll! Silence deep as night then succeeded; and the
high-priest, facing the shrine, stood while a company of priests
rolled out from the door of the temple the statue of the god, clad in
full armor of steel, inlaid with gold, a jewelled helmet upon his
head, and a spear in his right hand. It was of gigantic size, and
standing in an attitude of battle, upon a lofty chariot of burnished
brass, with wheels of iron. It was an imposing and splendid figure,
and a just image of war. The priests, who wheeled the car out of the
temple, having drawn it once all around the terrace, so that the whole
army could behold the mailed and helmeted god (whose presence they
hailed by striking their swords upon their shields, or swords against
swords), stopped in front of the prince-priest. He then prostrated
himself before it, the profoundest silence and awe prevailing during
the few moments he remained upon his face at the feet of the deity.

When he rose and turned to the west, the Prince Remeses and all his
captains advanced to the steps of the pyramidal base on which the
temple was elevated. Each captain was followed by a Nubian slave,
bearing in a sacred vase the offering of his own phalanx of soldiers.
Remeses bore in his hand a costly necklace, dazzling with precious
stones, the offering of his mother. The generals and captains came
with flowers, chains of gold the lotus-leaf made of ivory, and
sparkling with jewels scattered upon it in imitation of dewdrops. Some
bore swords, and spears, and plumes.

Remeses, at the head of his officers, ascended the steps and presented
to the priest his mother's offering, which he placed over the head of
the god. He then laid a sword, brought for the purpose, at the feet of
the statue; but, as he afterwards explained to me, and as I
understood, not as an offering to a mythical Mars, but to the Infinite
God of armies, whom the statue symbolized; yet I could see that the
greater part of his officers paid their homage and made their
offerings to the mere material statue. Such is the twofold idea
attached, either by one or another class of devotees, dear mother, to
all worship in Egypt. They do one thing and mean another; of course I
speak of the priests, princes, and philosophers. As for the people,
they mean what they do when they offer a libation or an invocation to
a statue.

When the chief captains had presented their offerings, and the
high-priest had either decorated the god with them, or laid them upon
the altar of brass, then came the Nubian slaves, laden with the gifts
of the soldiers. There were sixty of these offering-bearers, and in
procession they ascended the terrace, each with a painted earthen vase
upon his shoulder. One after another they deposited them around the
over-burdened altar and descended to the plain, not daring to lift
their eyes to the god, so near to whose presence they came. It was my
privilege to stand always by the side of Remeses, who desired me to
witness the scene.

The vases contained every imaginable article that, at the moment, a
common soldier might have about his person. There were rings of
silver, of copper, of wood, of glass; dried figs, tamarinds, dates,
and raisins; garlics, leeks, onions, bits of inscribed papyrus,
palm-leaves, flowers innumerable, scarabæi of burnt clay, pebbles, and
metal; seeds of the melon and radish, and incense-gum; little clay
images of Mars, of various weapons, and of Osiris. There were also
myrrh, resin, and small pots of ointment; pieces of iron, fragments of
weapons, locks of hair, shreds of linen, and bits of ostrich feathers;
beans, sandal-clasps, charms, amulets, and even tiny bottles of wine.
Indeed, to enumerate what met my eyes in the vases, which the common
soldiers in their piety voted to the god, praying for a successful
campaign, would fill the page on which I write, and give you the name
of nearly every thing to be found in Egypt.

When all these offerings had been received by the high-priest, and
while the prince and his officers stood some paces to one side, he
stood before the altar: and one article from each vase being brought
to him, he laid it upon the altar, and then, in a solemn manner,
invoked the god, asking him to accept the offerings of this great
army, and of its prince and captains, and to grant them victories over
their foes, and a return to their queen crowned with conquest and

In his prayer I could see that he elevated his noble countenance to
the heavens, as if, in his mind, mentally overlooking the inanimate
statue before him, and directing his thoughts to the Invisible and
Supreme Dweller in the secret places of His universe beyond the sun!
Remeses stood in a devotional attitude, but with his thoughtful brow
bent to the ground. I could perceive, now that we had conversed so
much together upon these divine things, that he was worshipping, in
the depths of his heart, the God of gods, wherever that Dread and
Mighty Power is enthroned on the height of His universe, or the wings
of the imagination can go out to Him and find Him.

The great invocatory prayer ended, the high-priest received from
Remeses a votive crystal box of the fragrant Ameracine ointment--a
gift so costly and precious that only the princes and the priests are
permitted to possess it--and broke it upon the breast of the god,
anointing him in the name of the people of Egypt. The odor filled all
the air. A priest then handed to him a golden cup richly chased with
sacred symbols, and another, filling it from a vase of wine, the
offering of the chief Archencherses, who is next in military rank to
Remeses, he elevated it a moment, and poured it out at the feet of the
god as a libation for the hosts. Some other interesting ceremonies
followed, such as consecrating and presenting a sword to the prince,
and the touching of the altar by all the chiefs with the points of
their weapons as they passed it in descending to the field, the
high-priest sprinkling each one of them with sacred water from the
Nile. The last act of sacrifice--for, though bloodless, the Egyptians
term the whole rite a sacrifice to the god--was by Remeses. The
high-priest placed in his hands a censer--for the prince, by virtue of
his rank, is a royal priest; and Remeses, accepting it with reverence,
cast upon the live coals of palm-wood a quantity of incense. Then
approaching the altar, he waved it before it until clouds of smoke
rose into the air and enveloped his head.

At this moment, the most sacred one of the whole scene, there appeared
advancing from the pavilion-temple a beautiful maiden, the daughter of
the high-priest. She was arrayed in a pure white robe, which floated
about her in the wind like a cloud. Over her shoulders was thrown a
crimson scarf, on which was embroidered the cartouch of the god. Her
rich, flowing hair was bound about her stately brow by a crown of
flowers, above which rose a silver helm with a crest of emeralds
and sapphires, in imitation of the feathery coronet of the
bird-of-paradise. Her face was wonderfully beautiful, her dark eyes
beamed with love and joy, and her form was the impersonation of grace.

As she advanced, the priests on either side drew back with their hands
crossed upon their foreheads, and their heads bent lowly before her
presence. Coming forward between the two rows of officials, she shook
in the air above her head a small temple bell called the _sistrum_,
which emitted the sweetest and clearest melody. This little musical
instrument is sacred to the services of the temples, and the sound of
it is the signal for the beginning or ending of every rite. That which
was now borne by the high-priest's daughter consisted of a cylindrical
handle of pearl, surmounted by a double-faced head of ivory, one side
being that of Isis, the other of Nephthys. From this twofold head rose
a silver almond-shaped bow about five inches high, inlaid with gold
and precious stones. In this bended loop of metal were inserted four
metallic bars in the shape of asps, upon the body of which were
loosely strung several silver rings, As the maiden held this beautiful
instrument in the air, and shook it, the rings, moving to and fro upon
the bars, produced the clear bell-like sounds I have mentioned. In
ancient times so great was the privilege of holding the sacred sistrum
in the temple, it was given to the queens; and on great occasions
Amense has performed this high office. On an obelisk, now old, the
daughter of Cheops is represented holding the sistrum while the king
is sacrificing to Thoth. Though I have said little about the Egyptian
females, as in truth I have seen but little of them, yet I ought not
to omit to tell you that some of the most sacred offices are intrusted
to distinguished women, in the services of temples. I have seen not
only priests' daughters, but ladies of rank and eminent beauty,
holding these places; and in On there is a band of noble young ladies
having the distinguished title of "Virgins of the Sun," who devote
their lives until they are thirty years of age, to certain principal
services of the temples of Osiris and Isis. Indeed, my dear mother, in
Egypt woman is singularly free, and regarded as man's companion and
equal. She is respected and honored, both as wife and mother, and her
social relations are of the most unrestrained and agreeable kind. In
all houses, she is prepared gracefully to do honor to her lord's
guests; and while she is devoted to domestic duties, prides herself
upon her skill and taste at home; abroad, at banquets and evening
festivals, which are frequent, and where there is music and dancing,
she shines with all the charms she can borrow from splendor of attire,
or derive from inherent loveliness of person; while a profusion of
jewels upon her hands and neck reveal her wealth and rank.

When the prince saw her advancing, he approached the statue with his
censer, and waving it once in the sight of the army, hung it upon the
spear of the god. The sistrum sounded as the incense rose, and every
man of that vast host bent his knee for a moment! Then the high-priest
commenced a verse of a loud chant in a sonorous voice. The one hundred
priests marching, in procession around the god, answered antiphonally
with one voice in a part; and, the whole army catching up the hymn,
the very pyramids seemed to tremble at the thunder of eighty thousand
deep voices of men rolling along the air. Then Remeses chanted a few
stirring words of this national and sacred war-hymn, the high-priest
answered, the maiden's clear voice rose in a melodious solo, the
hundred priests caught up the ravishing strain as it melted from her
lips in the skies, and again the great army uttered its voice! My
heart was oppressed by the sublimity. Tears of emotion filled my eyes.
I never was more deeply impressed with the majesty of the human voice,
united in a vast multitude, uttered as the voice of one man. The
combined voice of the human race--if such a thing could be--must be
like the voice of God when He speaks!

The invocation and sacrifice were over. Remeses embraced the priest,
and receiving his blessing, in a few minutes every chief captain had
joined his battalion, and at the cry of trumpets and cornets, sounded
all over the plain, and echoed back from Cheops, the whole host formed
in columns of march. Remeses, I being in his company, galloped forward
and took a position on an elevation, from which he reviewed the whole
army as it tramped by. The fleet was in parallel motion at the same
time, and I saw the splendid galley of the Prince Mœris, with its
colored silken sails, and golden beak, gallantly ascending the river.
He stood upon the poop; a tame lion crouched by his side, on the tawny
shoulders of which he rested one foot as he gazed at us. The division
of cavalry was the last in moving, and trotted past us in splendid
array. This arm of the service is not large, nor much relied on in
Egypt. The chariots of iron, to the hubs of which terrible scythes are
sometimes fastened on the eve of battle, and the bowmen and spearmen,
have always been the main dependence of the kings in their wars.

Ethiopia, against which this great army is moving by water and land,
is in a state of civilization and political power not greatly inferior
to Egypt. It has vast cities, noble temples, extensive cultivated
regions, adorned with palaces and villas; it has a gorgeous but
semi-barbaric court, a well-disciplined army, and skilful generals. It
is a race allied by blood and lineage to that of Egypt, and is not to
be confounded with Nubia and the pure Africanic kingdoms. In religion
it is idolatrous, and hostile to the worship of Egypt. A supposed
title, by a former conquest, to the crown of Thebes, has made Ethiopia
for three centuries the hereditary foe of Egypt.

The Egyptian army is divided into sections, formed and distinguished
according to the arms they bear. They consist, like ours, of bowmen,
spearmen, swordsmen, macemen, slingers, and other corps. There are
captains of thousands, captains of hundreds, fifties, and tens. When
in battle-array, the heavy foot-soldiers, or infantry armed with
spears, and a falchion, or other similar weapon, are drawn up in the
form of an impenetrable phalanx; and once this massive wall of ten
thousand men formed, it is fixed and unchangeable; and such is its
strength, one hundred men on each front, and one hundred deep, no
efforts of any of the enemies of Egypt have been able to break it.
Presenting a wall of huge shields lapping and interlocked, resting on
the ground, and reaching to their heads, the missiles of the foe
rattle against it as against the steel-sheathed side of one of their
battle-ships. The bowmen, slingers, javelin-men, and lighter troops
act in line, or dispose themselves according to the nature of the
ground, or the exigency of the moment. There is a corps armed with
battle-axes and pole-axes, having bronze blades ornamented with heads
of animals. These wear quilted helmets, without crests, which
effectually protect the head. The chariot battalions are drawn up to
charge and rout the enemy's line, and the cavalry follow to slay the
resisting, and pursue the flying. Each battalion has its particular
standard, which represents a sacred subject--either a king's name on
his cartouch or painted shield, a sacred baris, a hawk, or a feather.
The chief standard-bearer is a man of approved valor, and an officer
of the greatest dignity, and stands next to the chief in rank. He is
distinguished by a gold necklace collar, on which are represented two
lions and an eagle--emblems of courage. The troops are summoned to all
movements by the sound of the trumpet and the long drum, with other

The offensive weapons of the army are the bow, spear, javelin, sling,
a short, straight sword, a dagger, broad knife, falchion, battle-axe,
spear-axe, iron-headed mace, and a curved club adopted from the
Ethiopians. Their defensive arms consist of the helmet, either of
iron, bronze, brass, silver, or plaited gold, according to the rank of
the wearer; usually without a crest, and extending to the shoulders,
in a collar or hood of chain-mail, protecting the neck; they wear also
a cuirass of metal plates, or quilted with bands of polished iron, and
an ample shield, of various forms, but usually that of a funeral
tablet, or a long and narrow horseshoe. This piece of armor is the
chief defence. It is a frame covered with bull's or lion's hide, bound
with a rim of metal, and studded with iron pins. The archers wear no
bucklers, but corselets of scale-armor.

I will now end this long letter, my dear mother, and my description of
Egyptian armies, by naming the nations of which it was made up. As I
sat upon my horse by the side of the prince, surveying the marching
columns as they moved southward, I distinguished the tall,
Asiatic-looking Sharetanian by his helmet ornamented with bull's
horns, and a red ball for a crest, his round shield, and large
ear-rings--a fierce race, once the foes but now the allies of Egypt;
the bearded Tokkari from beyond the horns of the Arabian Sea, armed
with a pointed knife, and short, straight sword, with arched noses and
eagle eyes,--also once enemies of the queen, but now added to her
armies; an unknown people, with tall caps, short kilt and knife-girdle
of lion's hide, an amulet of agate on the neck of every
man--strangers, with wild, restless eyes, and fierce looks; the
swarthy Rebos, with his naked breast and shoulders, and long
two-headed javelin; the Pouonti, with faces painted with vermilion,
and cross-bows with iron-headed arrows, archers that never miss their
mark. There marched by, also, the relentless Shari, who neither ask
nor give quarter to their enemies, their masses of black hair bound up
in fillets of leather, and skull-caps of bull's hide on their heads,
whose weapons are clubs and short daggers. Other bands, differing in
costume and appearance, continued to pass, until it seemed that the
queen's army had in it representatives of all nations tributary to

Continuing with Remeses a day's march, I then parted from him to
return to the palace, promising, as soon as I had seen Lower Egypt, I
would ascend the Nile and meet him at Thebes.

Farewell, dearest mother; may the gods of our country preserve you in

 Your devoted son,




In my last letter I was particular in describing to you the armies of
Egypt, as I have not forgotten the interest you take in the discipline
of your own, nor that once you led in your chariot a battle-charge
when your kingdom was invaded by the king of the Elamites. In Egypt,
which is truly a warlike country, one cannot but be inspired by the
military spirit. Not only is she the school to all the world of
astronomy, sculpture, physic, astrology, and magic, but also of arms.

In the army, recently departed for Ethiopia, I saw many young lords
and princes and heroes, strangers, who accompany the expedition to
learn the art of war. The Egyptians are eminent in planning and
executing sieges, and few fortified towns can resist their

From my description in the last letter, you would suppose that Egypt
is now emptied of its soldiers. On the contrary, there is a garrison
in every city, and a fortress filled with troops in every one of the
thirty or more nomes. Besides, there are all over the country, where
the Hebrews are congregated, lesser detachments, who keep vigilant
guard over this toiling nation in bondage. The queen is also at war
with a prince of Arabia Deserta, and an army of twelve thousand men,
four hundred chariots, and a thousand horsemen, have recently marched
against him. Egypt is powerful enough to combat the combined world.
Her forces are not less than four hundred thousand trained warriors of
all arms, besides sixteen thousand chariots of iron. Power, thrift,
activity, and energy characterize Egypt. The wise, courageous, firm
rule of the queen has contributed to this. What she has brought to
such glory and perfection, Remeses, when he comes to the throne, will
preserve and perpetuate.

The mention of my noble friend reminds me that he is no longer near
me. The army has been in motion southward eight days, and he has
written to the queen, and also to me, speaking of the prosperity
attending their advance. The fleet had not kept up with the army of
foot, while the chariot legion on the east bank has gone far in
advance and encamped. Every day, incense is burned, and intervention
made in all the temples, for the success of the expedition.

In the mean while, my dear mother, I will devote my letters to daily
scenes around me.

The queen's health is now firmly established, and she extends to me
the kindness and, I may say, affection, which she would to a son; but
I am conscious that I am so honored as the friend of her absent son,
who, at parting from me a stadium above Memphis, said:

"My Sesostris, be near my mother, and in the pleasure of your society,
let her regrets at my absence find compensation. When you have seen
all of Lower Egypt, come to the Thebaïd, and go with me and my army
into Ethiopia."

I promised that I would follow him by and by; but now I am engaged in
seeing the wonders of Memphis, and those marvels of ages--those
"temples of the gods"--the mighty pyramids. I will soon devote a
letter to an account of my first visit to Memphis and the pyramids. It
was made a day or two after we came to reside in the palace at Rhoda.
Remeses, though hourly occupied, had kindly promised he would
accompany me to the city of Apis, and there place me in charge of a
son of the priest of the temple. I arose the following morning a few
minutes before sunrise, in order to be prepared to go early. My window
looked forth upon On, a league and a half distant, with its grand
avenue of columns, sphinxes, obelisks, and towering propyla clasping
it to the shining river. The splendor of that morning, my dear mother,
I shall never cease to remember. The atmosphere of Egypt is so
crystalline, that light lends to it a peculiar glow. As I looked
eastward, the skies had the appearance of sapphire blended with dust
of gold; and from the as yet invisible sun, a gorgeous fan of radiant
beams, of a pale orange-color, spread itself over the sky to the
zenith. Not a cloud was visible; nor, indeed, have I seen one since I
have been in Egypt. This magnificent glory of the Orient steadily grew
more and more wonderful for beauty and richness of colored light,
when, all at once, the disk of the bright god of day himself
majestically rolled up into sight, filling heaven and earth with his
dazzling and overpowering light, while the golden shield on the temple
of the sun caught and reflected his rays with almost undiminished

As I regarded with delight this sublime sunrise, there came borne to
my ears, from the direction of the temple of Osiris, in Memphis, the
sound of music. Walking round the terrace to that side, I heard the
voices of a thousand priests chanting the morning hymn to the god of
light, the dazzling "Eye of Osiris." Then I recollected that this was
the day of the celebration of the revival or resurrection of Osiris,
one of the most important days in the sacred calendar. The whole city
seemed to be in motion, and boats garlanded with flowers, and filled
with gayly attired people, were crossing to the city and temple at
every point. Music from a hundred instruments filled the air, which
seemed to vibrate with joy and delight. The city of Apis had on its
gala apparel, and all the world was abroad to welcome the sun-rising
and join in the processions.

Remeses joined me while I was watching the scene, and listening to the
grand waves of harmony as they rolled away from the temple and sounded
along the air in majestic volumes of sound.

"I see you are interested, my Sesostris, in this enlivening scene. It
is a day of rejoicing to the worshippers of Osiris."

"It seems, my dear prince," I replied, "as if every day I have passed
in Egypt has been a festival to some of its deities."

"Our year is more than two thirds of it consecrated to the gods; that
is, supposing a day given to each, the most of the year is religious.
We are a people given to piety, so far as we understand. All our works
are consecrated by prayer or sacrifice; and whether we go to war, or
engage in merchandise, build a palace or a tomb, prayer and oblation
precede all. Are you ready to go to the city and pyramids as soon as
we break our fast? My mother has invited us to breakfast with her."

I expressed my readiness, and we left to seek the presence of the
queen. As we entered, she was superintending a piece of embroidery of
the richest colors, which three maidens were at work upon at one end
of the apartment. They remained a few minutes after our entrance,
glancing at us timidly, yet curiously and archly. When their royal
mistress had received us, she made a slight gesture with her hand, and
the dark-eyed girls, disappearing behind a screen, left the apartment.
I had time to see that they were very young, of an olive, brunette
complexion, with braided and tastefully arranged dark-brown hair,
their slender persons habited in neat vestures of mingled colors,
fitting the form, but open in front, displaying a soft, fine linen
robe, with loose, fringed sleeves. They had ear-rings, and numerous
finger-rings, and gilt, red, gazelle-leather sandals, laced with gay
ribbons across the small, naked foot. These, as the queen informed me,
belonged to families of officers of the palace. One of them, the
tallest, and who was most striking in her appearance, had eyes of
wonderful beauty, the effect of the expression of which was deepened
by painting the lids with a delicate shade of cohol. She was the
daughter of the royal scribe, Venephis, and her own name is Venephe;
and here, my dear mother, since you asked me in your last letter why I
am so silent upon the subject of Egyptian ladies, I will devote a
little space to them. But you know that my heart so wholly belongs to
the lovely Princess Thamonda, the daughter of the Prince of Chaldea,
that it is entirely insensible to any impressions which the high-born
Egyptian maids might otherwise make upon it. I will, however, learn
more of them by seeking their society, my dear mother, and
henceforward will give them all the attention they merit in my

I have seen many ladies of great elegance and ease of manner. The
court of Egypt is composed of an immense number of nobles and high
officers, whose palaces crowd the cities of On and Memphis, and whose
tasteful, garden-environed villas extend far beyond their limits. Some
of these nobles have the title of princes, when they govern one of the
thirty-six _nomes_, or command armies. They are opulent, fond of
display in apparel and architecture, great lovers of flowers and
paintings, and their dwellings are profusely decorated with the one
and adorned with the other. These men of rank are educated, polished
in bearing, courteous and affable. Their wives are their superiors in
refinement, being daughters of men of the same rank and social
distinction. Nobles and noble ladies by hereditary title there are
none in Egypt; for it is the boast of the Egyptians, and it is often
inscribed on their monuments, that Egyptians, being all equally "sons
of Misr," are all born equal. It is official elevation and position at
court, as the reward of talent or services, which create noble rank.
Yet there are families here who speak with pride of the glory and fame
of ancestors; and I know young Egyptian nobles whose forefathers were
lords in the court of the old Pharaohs, of the XVth and XVIth
dynasties. I have already alluded to the brave young officer of the
chariot battalion, Potipharis, whose ancestor, a lord of the court of
Apophis, purchased of the Idumeans the youthful Hebrew who
subsequently ruled Egypt as prime minister; and whose family, now
grown to a great nation, are held here in hopeless bondage.

The women of Egypt owe their high social rank to the respect shown
them by the men, who give them precedence everywhere. The fact that
Egypt is ruled by a queen, is testimony that woman is honored here by
the laws of the realm, as well as by the customs of the people, or she
would not have succeeded to the throne. It is not a mere influence
derived from their personal attractions that women possess here; but
their claims to honor and respect are acknowledged by law, in private
as well as in public. Said Remeses to me, a day or two since, when I
was remarking upon the universal deference paid to the sex, "We know,
unless women are treated with respect and made to exercise an
influence over the social state, that the standard of private virtue
and of public opinion would soon be lowered, and the manners and
morals of men would suffer." How differently situated is woman with
us! Respected she undoubtedly is, but instead of the liberty she
enjoys here, behold her confined to certain apartments, not permitted
to go abroad unveiled, and leading a life of indolent repose.

In acknowledging this, dear mother, the laws point out to the favored
women of Egypt the very responsible duties they have to perform. The
elevation of woman to be the friend and companion of man, is due to
the wisdom of the priesthood. These men have wives whom they love and
respect, and I have seen the priest of On seated in his summer parlor,
which overlooks the street, by the side of his noble-looking wife
(who, it is said, is a descendant of a priest of On, whose daughter
was married to Prince Joseph, the Hebrew), surrounded by their
children, and manifesting their mutual affection by numberless
domestic graces; and I was charmed with the expressions of endearment
I heard them use to each other and to their children. What a contrast
all this to the priests of Tyre, who regard celibacy as the highest
act of piety!

The hand of your sex, my dear mother, is apparent in all the household
arrangements, and in the furniture and style of the dwellings. In her
contract of marriage it is written, that the lady shall have the whole
regulation of domestic affairs and the management of the house, and
that the husband shall, in all such matters, defer to the judgment and
wishes of the wife. Neither king, priest, nor subject can have more
than one wife, a custom differing from our own, and far superior to
it. It is owing to this universal honor paid to the sex, that queens
have repeatedly, since the ancient reign of Binothris, held the royal
authority and had the supreme direction of affairs intrusted to them.
It is proper to say, that although the Egyptians have but one wife,
they are not forbidden by the laws to have favorites, who are usually
slaves, and owe their elevation to talents or beauty. They do not,
however, hold any social relation; and the wife, to whom alone is
given the title "lady of the house," enjoys an acknowledged
superiority over them. But concubinage, though tolerated, is not
regarded with favor, and is practised by few.

The Egyptian ladies employ much of their time with the needle; and
either with their own hands, or by the agency of their maidens, they
embroider, weave, spin, and do needle-work--the last in the most
skilful and beautiful manner. They embroider chairs with thread of
gold or silver, adorn sofas with embroidery, and ornament coverings
for their couches with needle-work of divers colors, so artfully
executed as to appear, on both sides, of equal beauty and finish. At
the banquets or social festivals, which are very frequent, for the
Egyptians are fond of society, the ladies sit at the same table with
the men, and no rigid mistrust closes their doors on such occasions to
strangers, towards whom they are ever courteous and hospitable; save
only in religious ceremonies, from which, and "the mysteries of their
theology," they are jealously excluded.

I have already spoken of the services of women in the temples. These
do not marry. Although females may make offerings to Isis, they cannot
be invested with any sacerdotal office; and a priest must preside at
the oblation. They are rarely seen reading, their leisure being
occupied chiefly in talking together in social companies. They vie
with each other in the display of silver jewels, and jewels set in
gold; in the texture of their raiment, the neatness and elegance of
the form of their sandals, and the arrangement or beauty of their
plaited hair.

If two ladies meet at a banquet or festival, it is considered an
amiable courtesy to exchange flowers from the bouquet that Egyptian
ladies always carry in the hand when in full costume. They are
passionately devoted to dancing, and frequently both ladies and
gentlemen dance together; but I think when the former dance in
separate parties, their movements are marked by superior grace and
elegance. Their dances consist usually of a succession of figures more
or less involved; yet I have seen two daughters of the captain of the
guard, at a private entertainment given by the queen, perform a dance
to a slow air played upon the flute and lyre, with a grace of attitude
and harmony of motion delightful to follow with the eye. Grace in
posture, elegance of attitude, and ease of movement are their chief
objects in the dance.

It is not, however, customary for the nobles and their families to
indulge in this amusement in public, where usually the dancing is
performed by those who gain a livelihood by attending festive
meetings. They look upon it, however, as a recreation in which all
classes may partake; and all castes engage in it, either in private
festivities or in public. The lower orders delight in exhibiting great
spirit in their dances, which often partake of the nature of
pantomime; and they aim rather at ludicrous and extravagant dexterity,
than displays of elegance and grace. At evening, under the trees of an
avenue; at noon, in the shade of a temple, by public fountains, and
before the doors of their dwellings, I often see the men and women
amusing themselves, dancing to the sound of music, which is
indispensable. At the houses of the higher classes, they dance to the
harp, pipe, guitar, lyre, and tambourine; but in the streets and other
places, the people perform their part to the music of the shrill
double-pipe, the crotala or wooden clappers, held in the fingers, and
even to the sound of the drum; indeed, I have seen a man dancing a
solo on the deck of a galley at anchor in the river, to the sound of
the clapping of hands by his companions. Certain wanton dances,
consisting of voluptuous and passionate movements, by Arabian and
Theban girls, whose profession it was, from the impure tendency of
their songs and gestures, have been very properly forbidden by the
queen in her dominions. There are certain religious processions in
which women take part; they attend the funerals of their deceased
relatives, and hired women appear as mourners.

I have devoted, my dear mother, so much of this letter to a
description of the ladies of Egypt, in compliance with your expressed
wish, and I will appropriate the residue of my papyrus, if the ink
fail not, to an account of their homes, that you may see how they
live; since, from their private life, great insight is obtained into
their manners and customs. The household arrangements, the style of
the dwellings, as well as the amusements and occupations of a people,
explain their habits.

The style of domestic architecture, in this warm climate, is modified
to suit the heat of the weather. The poorer classes (for though all
Egyptians are born equal, yet there are poor classes), as well as
_castes_, live a great part of their time out of doors, seeking rather
the shade of trees than the warmth of habitations. And now that I have
alluded to "castes," I will briefly explain the degrees of society in

Though a marked line of distinction is maintained between the
different ranks of society, they appear to be divided rather into
"classes" than "castes," as no man is bound by law to follow the
occupation of his father. Sons, indeed, do usually follow the trade of
their father, and the rank of each man depends on his occupation. But
there are occasional exceptions, as, for instance, the sons of a
distinguished priest are in the army with Remeses, and a son of the
admiral of the fleet of the Delta is high-priest in Memphis.

Below the crown and royal family, the first class consists of the
priests; the second, of soldiers; the third, of husbandmen, gardeners,
huntsmen, and boatmen; the fourth, of tradesmen, shop-keepers,
artificers in stone and metals, carpenters, boat-builders,
stone-masons, and public weighers; the fifth, of shepherds, poulterers
fowlers, fishermen, laborers, and the common people at large. Many of
these, says the record from which I have obtained my information, are
again subdivided, as chief shepherds into ox-herds, goat-herds, and
swine-herds; which last is the lowest grade of the whole community,
since no one of the others will marry their daughters, or establish
any family connection with them; for so degrading is the occupation of
tending swine held by the Egyptians, that they are looked upon as
impure, and are even forbidden to enter a temple without previously
undergoing purification.

Thus you perceive, my mother, that Egypt practically acknowledges many
degrees of rank, although she boasts that "every son of Misr is born

These classes keep singularly distinct, and yet live harmoniously and
sociably with each other. Out of them the queen's workmen are taken,
and the lowest supplies the common laborers on the public
works,--thousands of whom, clad only in an apron and short trowsers of
coarsely woven grass-cloth, are to be found at work all over Egypt,
and even mingled with the Hebrews in some parts of their tasks. "And
the Hebrews?" you may ask; for I perceive by your letter that you are
interested in the fate and history of this captive nation; "what rank
do they hold among all these castes?"

They remain a distinct and separate people, neither regarded as a
class or _caste_. They pursue but one occupation, brick-making, with
its kindred work of digging the loam, gathering the straw, kneading
the clay, and carrying the bricks to the place where the masons need
them. They neither associate nor intermarry with any of the Egyptian
classes. They are the crown slaves, born in bondage, below the lowest
free-born Egyptian in the land of Misraim. Even the swine-herd belongs
to a _class_, and is equal by birth, at least, with the Pharaoh who
rules; but the Hebrew is a bond-servant, a stranger, despised and
oppressed. Yet among them have I seen men worthy to be kings, if
dignity of aspect and nobleness of bearing entitle men to that

I will now return, and describe to you the habitations of the
Egyptians, my dear mother. Houses slightly removed beyond the degree
of mere barbarous huts, built of crude brick, and very small, are the
habitations of the lower orders. Others, of more pretension, are
stuccoed, and have a court; others, still superior, have the stuccoed
surface painted, either vermilion and orange, in stripes, or of a
pale-brown color, with green or blue ornaments, fanciful rather than
tasteful. Those of merchants and persons of that grade, are more
imposing;--corridors, supported on columns, give access to the
different apartments, through a succession of shady avenues and
courts, having one side open to the breezes; while currents of fresh
air are made to circulate freely through the rooms and halls, by a
peculiar arrangement of the passages and courts; for, to have a cool
house in this ardent latitude is the aim of all who erect habitations.
Even small detached dwellings of artificers and tradesmen, consisting
of four walls, with a flat roof of palm-branches, laid on split
date-trees as a beam, covered with mats, and plastered with mud of the
Nile, having but one door, and wooden shutters,--even such humble
habitations have in the centre an open court, however limited, with
rooms opening to the air on one side; while around the small court are
planted one or more palms, for shade, besides adorning it with plants
of their favorite flowers. I have seen some such neat little abodes,
not much larger than cages, with a cheerful family in it, who lived
out of doors all day, dining under the shade of their tree, and
dancing in their open court by moonlight, to the music of clapping
hands or the castanets, until bedtime, using their houses only to
sleep in; and such is the happy life of half the Egyptians of their

The grander mansions, less than palaces, are not only stuccoed within
and without, but painted with artistic and tasteful combinations of
brilliant tints. They have numerous paved courts, with fountains and
decorated walls, and are adorned with beautiful architectural devices,
copied from the sacred emblems and symbols in the temples, and
arranged and combined in forms or groups in the most attractive style.
Over the doors of many houses are handsome shields or tablets, charged
with the hieroglyph of the master, inscribed with some sentence. Over
that of the house of the chief weigher of metals, opposite my palace
window in On, was written "The House of the Just Balance." Over
another "The good house;" and over a third, "The friend of Rathoth,
the royal scribe, liveth here." Any distinction, or long journey, or
merit, or attribute, gives occasion for an inscription over the

The beauty of a house depends on the taste, caprice, or wealth of its
builders. The priests and lords of Egypt live in luxurious abodes, and
a display of wealth is found to be useful in maintaining their power,
and securing the respect and obedience of the under classes.

"The worldly possessions of the priest," said an Egyptian scribe of
the temple of Apis, "are very great, and as a compensation for
imposing upon themselves at times abstemiousness, and occasionally
limiting their food to certain things, they are repaid by improved
health, and by the influence they acquire thereby. Their superior
intelligence enables them," he continued, ironically, "to put their
own construction on regulations and injunctions emanating from their
sacred body, with the convenient argument, that what suits them does
not suit others." The windows of the houses are not large, and freely
admit the cool breezes, but are closed at night by shutters. The
apartments are usually on the ground-floor, and few houses, except
perhaps in Thebes, exceed two stories in height. They are accessible
by an entrance court, often having a columnar portico decked with
banners or ribbons, while larger porticos have double rows of columns,
with statues between them. When there is an additional story, a
terrace surmounts it, covered by an awning, or by a light roof
supported upon graceful columns. Here the ladies often sit by day: and
here all the family gather at the close of the afternoon to enjoy the
breeze, and the sight of the thronged streets and surrounding
scene,--for it is open on all sides to the air. In the trades' streets
the shops are on the ground-floor, and the apartments for families are
above. As it scarcely ever rains, the tops of the houses, terraced,
and covered with a handsomely fringed awning, are occupied at all
hours, and even at night as sleeping-places by the "lord of the
house," if the apartments below are sultry and close. Some noble
edifices have flights of steps of porphyry or marble leading to a
raised platform of Elephantine or Arabic stone, with a doorway between
two columns as massive as towers--ambitious imitations of the propyla
of the temples. These gateways have three entrances, a smaller one on
each side of the principal entrance for servants, who are very
numerous in an Egyptian house of the first class. Such is the house of
my friend, the Admiral Pathromenes, whom I visited the day I saw him
in his galley, and just before he sailed with the fleet for Ethiopia.

On entering the portal, I passed into an open court, on the right side
of which was the mándara or receiving-room for visitors, where
servants took my sandals, and offered water for my hands in silver
ewers, at the same time giving me bouquets of flowers. This room,
surrounded by gilt columns, and decorated with banners, was covered by
an awning supported by the columns, and was on all sides open to
within four feet of the floor, which lower space was closed by
intercolumnar panels, exquisitely painted with marine subjects. Above
the paneling a stream of cool air was admitted, while the awning
afforded protection from the rays of the sun. This elegant
reception-hall had two doors--that by which I had entered from the
street, and another opposite to it which communicated with the inner
apartments. Upon my announcement by the chief usher, the admiral came
through the latter door to receive me; hence the title of
"reception-room" given to this column-adorned and paneled hall. He
embraced me, and entered with me by his side into a corridor which led
into a court of large dimensions, ornamented in the centre with an
avenue of trees--palm, olive, orange, and fig trees, the latter being
an emblem of the land of Egypt. Here numerous birds filled their leafy
coverts with melody. Six apartments faced as many more on two sides of
this court--the corridor, or piazza, of pictured columns extending
along their entire front; and before the corridor was a double row of
acacia-trees. We did not turn to these rooms, but, advancing along the
charming avenue between them, passed around a brazen fountain-statue
of Eothos or Neptune, who was pouring water out of a shell upon a
marble lotus-leaf, from which it fell into a vase of granite. Passing
this figure, we kept the avenue till we came to a beautiful door
facing the great court. It was of palm-wood, carved with devices of
branches and flowers, and inlaid with ivory and colored woods, all
finely polished. At this door a servant, in neat apparel, met us, and
opening it ushered us into the sitting-room of "the lady of the
house," who had already received notice of our approach, and who,
presenting me with flowers, welcomed me graciously, and with a
cordiality that gave me a favorable estimation of the goodness of her
heart, and the amiability of her disposition.

Thus, dear mother, have I given you some insight into Egyptian
home-life, and introduced you into the inmost private room of one of
their houses. I will close my description by saying, that the ceiling
of the reception-room was richly and tastefully adorned with the
pencil; that gracefully shaped chairs, covered with needle-work;
sofas, inlaid tables, couches with crimson and gold embroidery, and
elegant vases of flowers, were charmingly disposed about it; and that
a lute and two sistra were placed near a window, and a harp stood
between two of the columns that inclosed a pictured panel representing
the finding of Osiris.

Farewell, dearest mother. You will see that I have now acquitted
myself of the charge of indifference to so interesting a subject as
the mode of life of the ladies of Egypt, and by hastening to describe
it to you in this letter, have evinced my profound filial reverence
for your slightest wish.

 Your faithful and affectionate son,




I thank you for your long and very welcome letter, written from your
palace, at Sidon, whither you went to celebrate the rites of Adonis.
It assures me of your continued health, which may the gods guard with
jealous care, for not only the stability of your kingdom, but my whole
happiness depends on your life, beloved mother and queen. You also
allude to your visits to the temples of Astarte and of Tammuz, on
Lebanon. What a noble worship was that of our fathers, who, amid its
gigantic cedars, old as the earth itself, there first worshipped the
gods! How majestic must have appeared their simple rites, with no
altar but the mountain rock, no columns but the vast trunks of mighty
trees, no roof but the blue heavens by day, and the starry dome by
night; while at morning and evening went up the smoke of the sacrifice
of bullocks to the gods. These were the first temples of men, not
builded by art, but made by the gods themselves as meet places for
their own worship. I question, dear mother, if the subsequent descent
of religion from its solemn shrines, in the dark forests of Libanus,
into the valleys and cities, to be enshrined in temples of marble,
however beautiful, has elevated it. Though the Phœnicians built the
first temples on the peninsula of Tyre, before any others existed,
save in groves; yet in Egypt (which claims also this honor), the
"houses of the gods," in their vast and pyramidal aspects, their
pillars like palm-trees, their columns like cedars, approach more
nearly to the dignity, sublimity, and majesty of the primeval forests
and eternal mountains where religion first offered prayer to heaven.

Your visit to the temple of Tammuz, at Sareptha, recalls a legend
which, singularly enough, I first heard in Egypt, of the origin of the
rites to that deity.

The books of the priests here, relating to Phœnician, Sabæan,
Persian, and Chaldean ceremonies (for the learning of the Egyptians
seems to embrace a knowledge of books of all countries), relate
that Tammuz was a "certain idolatrous prophet of the Sabæan
Fire-worshippers, who called upon King Ossynœces, our remote
ancestor, and commanded him to worship the Seven Planets and the
Twelve Signs of the constellations. The king, in reply, ordered him to
be put to death. On the same night on which he was slain," continues
the book from which I write, "a great gathering of all the images of
the gods of the whole earth was held at the palace, where the huge
golden image of the sun was suspended; whereupon this image of the sun
related what had happened to his prophet, weeping and mourning as he
spoke to them. Then all the lesser gods present likewise commenced
weeping and mourning, which they continued until daylight, when they
all departed through the air, returning to their respective temples in
the most distant regions of the earth." Such, dear mother, is the
tradition here of the origin of the weeping for Tammuz, the observance
of which now forms so important a feature in our Phœnician worship,
although introduced, as it was, from the Sabæans themselves.

But the more I have conversed with the wise and virtuous Prince
Remeses, the more I feel the gross nature of our mythology, O mother,
and that images and myths, such as form the ground and expression of
our national worship, and that rest wholly in the material figure
itself, are unworthy the reverence of an intelligent mind. It is true,
we can look at them, and honor that which they represent,--as I daily
look at your picture, which I wear over my heart, and kissing it from
love for thee, do not worship and adore the ivory, and the colors that
mark upon its surface a sweet reflection of your beloved and beautiful
countenance. Oh, no! It is you far away I think of, kiss, love, and in
a manner adore. Yet an Egyptian of the lowest order, seeing me almost
worshipping your picture, would believe I was adoring an effigy of my
tutelar goddess. And he would be right, so far as my heart and
thought, and you are concerned, my mother. In this representative way,
I am now sure that Remeses regards all images, looking through and
beyond them up to the Supreme Infinite. I also have imbibed his lofty
spirit of worship, and have come to adore the statues as I worship
your picture. But _where_, O mother, is the Infinite? When I think of
you, I can send my soul towards you, on wings that bear me to your
feet, either in your private chamber at needle-work, or with your
royal scribe as you are dictating laws for the realm, or upon your
throne giving judgment. In memory and imagination, I can instantly
send my thoughts out to you, and behold you as you are. But the
Infinite, whom Remeses calls GOD, in contradistinction to lesser gods,
where does He hide Himself? Why, if He _is_, does He not reveal
Himself? Why does He suffer us to grope after Him, and not find Him?
If He be good, and loving, and gracious in His nature, He will desire
to make known to His creatures these attributes. But how silent--how
impenetrable the mystery that environs Him in the habitation of His
throne! Will He forever remain wrapped up in the dark clouds of space?
Will He never reveal Himself in His moral nature to man? Will He never
of Himself proclaim to the creation His unity--that there is no God
but One, and besides Him there is none else? How can He demand
obedience and virtue of men when they know not His laws? Yet,
consciousness within, visible nature, reason, all demonstrate that
there is but one Supreme God, a single First Cause, how numerous
soever the inferior deities He may have created to aid in the
government of His vast universe; and that to Him an intellectual and
spiritual worship should be paid. This is the theory of Remeses, who
seems to be infinitely above his people and country in piety and
wisdom. Sometimes I fancy that he draws inspiration from this Infinite
God whom he worships in his heart, and recognizes through his
intellect; for his utterances on these themes are often like the words
of a god, so wonderful are the mysteries treated of by him, so
elevating to the heart and mind.

But I will repeat part of a conversation we had together, after he had
offered in the temple of Apis his sacrifice for the restoration of the
queen's health. He said, as we walked away together, along a beautiful
and sacred avenue of acacia and delicate, fringe-like ittel or
tamarisk trees, alternating with the pomegranate and mimosa:

"Sesostris, doubtless, after all my conversations with you, I seemed
an idolater to-day, quite as material and gross, in the offerings and
prayers I made, as the galley-rower we saw offering a coarse garland
of papyrus-leaves and poppies to the god."

"No, my noble prince," I answered; "I saw in you an intellectual
sacrificer, whose bodily eyes indeed beheld the sacred bull, but whose
spirit saw the Great Osiris, who once dwelt in the bull when on earth.
You honored the house where anciently a god abode."

"No, Sesostris, the bull is nothing to me in any sense, but as the
prince of a realm whose laws ordain the worship of Apis in Memphis, of
the ram-headed Ammon at Thebes, or the sacred ox at On, I outwardly
conform to customs which I dare not and cannot change. Or if I would,
what shall I give the people if I take away their gods? My own
religion is spiritual, as I believe yours is becoming; but how shall I
present a spiritual faith to the Egyptians? In what form--what visible
shape, can I offer it to them? for the priests will demand a visible
religion--one tangible and material. The people cannot worship an
intellectual abstraction, as we can, Sesostris, and as the more
intelligent priests pretend they do and can. Yet if, when I come to
the throne, by an imperial edict I remodel the theology of the
priesthood and the worship of the people--remove the golden sun from
the temple in On, slay the sacred bull Apis, and banish the idols from
all the thousand temples of the two Egypts, with _what_ shall I
replace the religion I depose?"

"With an intellectual and spiritual worship of the Supreme Infinite,"
I answered.

"But who will enlighten my own ignorance of Him, Sesostris?" he
inquired sadly. "What do I know of Him save from an awakened
consciousness within my bosom? How can I make others possess that
consciousness which is only intuitive, and so incommunicable? I must
first know _where_ God is, before I can direct the people whither to
look for Him when they pray. I must first cultivate their minds and
imaginations, in order to enable them to embrace a purely mental
religion, and to worship the Infinite independently of figures,
images, and visible mementos or symbols; for, so long as they have
these at all, they will rest their faith in them, and will look upon
them as their gods. But what do I know of the God I would reveal to
them? Absolutely nothing! That there can be but one Supreme God,
reason demonstrates; for if there were two equal gods, they would have
equal power, equal agency in the creation and upholding of all things,
in the government of the world, and in the worship of men! Two equal
gods, who in no case differ one from the other, but are in all things
one and the same, are virtually but one God. Therefore, as neither
two, nor any number of _equal_ gods, can exist without acting as a
unit (for _otherwise_ they cannot act), there can be only one God!"

I at once assented to the conclusiveness of the prince's reasoning.

"God, then, existing as One, all beings in his universe are below Him,
even His creatures the 'gods,' if there be such made by Him. It
becomes, therefore, all men to worship, not these gods, but the God of
gods. That he should be worshipped spiritually is evident, for he must
be a spiritual essence; and as we are certainly composed of spirits
and material bodies, and as our spirits are no less certainly our
superior part, so He who made the spirit of man must be superior to
all bodies or forms of matter; that is, he must be that by reason of
which he is superior, namely, a SPIRIT."

I then said to this learned and great prince, "Thinkest thou, Remeses,
that this Infinite God, whom we believe exists, will ever make a
revelation of Himself, so that He may be worshipped as becomes His
perfections? Do you think the veil of ignorance which hangs between
Him and us will ever be lifted?"

"Without question, my Sesostris," he answered, with animation, the
light of hope kindling in his noble eyes, "the Creator of this world
must be a benevolent, good, and wise Being."

"Of that there can be no doubt," was my reply.

"Benevolence, goodness, and wisdom, then, will seek the happiness and
elevation of man. A knowledge of the true God, whom we are now feeling
and groping after in darkness, with only the faint light of our reason
to illumine its mysterious gloom,--this knowledge would elevate and
render happy the race of men. It would dissipate ignorance, overthrow
idolatry, place man near God, and, consequently, lift him higher in
the scale of the universe. A God of wisdom, benevolence, and justice,
will seek to produce this result. The world, therefore, _will_ have a
revelation from Him, in the fulness of time,--when men are ready to
receive it. It may not be while I live, Sesostris, but the time will
come when the knowledge of the Infinite God will be revealed by
Himself to man, who will then worship Him, and Him alone, with the
pure worship due to His majesty, glory, and dominion."

As Remeses concluded, his face seemed to shine with a supernatural
inspiration, as if he had talked with the Infinite and Spiritual God
of whom he spoke, and had learned from Him the mighty mysteries of His
being. Then there passed a shadow over his face, and he said,

"How can I lead the people of Egypt to the true God, when He hath not
taught me any thing of Himself? No, no, Sesostris, Egypt must wait, I
must wait, the world must wait the day of revelation. And that day
will come, or there is _no_ God! For an ever-silent God--a God who
forever hideth Himself from His creatures--is as if there were no God!
But that there is a God the heavens declare in their glory, the ocean
hoarsely murmurs His name, the thunders proclaim His power, the lilies
of the field speak of His goodness, and we ourselves are living
manifestations of His benevolence and love. Let us, therefore, amid
all the splendor of the idolatry which fills the earth, lift up _our_
hearts, O Sesostris, to the One God! and in secret worship Him,
wheresoever our souls can find Him, until He reveals Himself openly to
the inhabitants of the earth."

In relating this conversation, my dear mother, I not only am preparing
you to see my views of our mythology materially changed, but I unfold
to you more of the sublime character of Remeses, and give you some
insight into his deep philosophy and wonderful wisdom.

I will, in connection with this subject, describe to you a religious
scene I witnessed in the Temple of Apis on the occasion of an
excursion made by me in company with Remeses, from the Island of

I have already spoken of his courtesy in offering to accompany me to
Memphis, at which city he left me, immediately after his oblation and
thanksgiving, and proceeded to attend to some urgent affairs connected
with the proposed movement of the army; with which, since then, he has
taken his departure.

The barge in which I left the palace at Rhoda, was rowed by forty-four
men, swarthy and muscular to a noticeable degree, who belong to a
maritime people, once possessing the Pelusian Delta, but who are now
reduced to a servitude to the crown. They have a sort of chief, called
Fellac, whom they regard partly as a priest, partly as a patriarch.
Under him, by permission of the crown, they are held in discipline.
They have a mysterious worship of their own, and are reputed to deal
in magic, and to sacrifice to Typhon, the principle of evil.

They were attired in scarlet sashes, bound about the waist, and
holding together loose white linen drawers, which terminated at the
knee in a fringe. Their shoulders were naked, but upon their heads
each wore a sort of turban of green cloth, having one end falling over
the ear, and terminating in a silver knob. These were the favorite
body-guard rowers of the prince. Their captain was a young man, with
glittering teeth, and large oval black eyes. He was mild and serene of
aspect, richly attired in a vesture of silver tissue, and had his
black hair perfumed with jasmine oil. His baton of office was a long
stick--not the long, slender, acacia cane which all Egyptian gentlemen
carry, but a staff short and heavy, ornamented with an alligator's
head, which, with that of the pelican, seem to be favorite decorations
of this singular people.

As we were on the water, moving swiftly towards the quay of the city,
amid countless vessels of all nations, a slave-barge passed down from
Upper Egypt, laden with Nubian boys and girls, destined to be sold as
slaves in the market. Borne with velocity along, we soon landed at the
grand terrace-steps of the quay. They were thronged with pilots,
shipmen, those who hold the helm and the oar, mariners, and
stranger-merchants innumerable. A majestic gateway, at the top of the
flight of porphyry stairs, led to an avenue of palm-trees, on each
side of which was a vast open colonnade covered with a wide awning,
and filled with merchants, buyers, captains, and officers of the
customs, dispersed amid bales of goods from all lands of the earth. I
lingered here, for a short time, gazing upon these representatives of
the wealth and commerce of the world. This is the great landing-mart
of Memphis, for the products of the other lands; while Jizeh, lower
down, is the point from whence all that goes out of the country is
shipped. The strange cry of the foreign seamen, as they hoisted heavy
bales, and the wild song of the Egyptian laborers, as they bore away
the goods, the confused voices of the owners of the merchandise, the
variety and strange fashion of their costumes, the numerous languages
which fell upon my ear, produced an effect as novel as it was

The riches and beauty of what I saw surprised me, familiar as I am
with the commerce of Tyre. There were merchants from Sheba, bearded
and long-robed men, with gold-dust, spices of all kinds, and precious
stones of price; and others from the markets of Javan, with cassia,
iron, and calamus; there were wines from the vine-country of Helbona,
and honey, oil, and balm from Philistia; merchants of Dedan, with
embroidered linings and rich cloths for chariots, and costly housings
for horses, of lynx and leopard-skins; tall, grave-looking merchants
from our own Damascus, with elegant wares, cutlery, and damascened
sword-blades of wonderful beauty, and which bring great price here;
shrewd-visaged merchants of Tyre, with purple and broidered work and
fine linen; and merchants of Sidon, with emeralds, coral, and agate,
and the valuable calmine-stone out of which, in combination with
copper, brass is molten by the Egyptians.

There were also merchants, in an attire rich and picturesque, from
many isles of the sea, with vessels of bronze, vases, and other
exquisitely painted wares, and boxes inlaid with ivory, jewels, and
ebony. I saw the dark, handsome men of Tarshish and far Gades, with
all kinds of riches of silver, iron, tin, lead, and scales of gold.
Shields from Arvad, beautifully embossed and inlaid; helmets and
shawls from Persia; ivory from Ind, and boxes of precious stones--the
jasper, the sapphire, the sardiüs, the onyx, the beryl, the topaz, the
carbuncle, and the diamond--from the south seas, and those lands under
the sun, where he casts no shadow. There were, also, wild-looking
merchant horsemen from Arabia, with horses and mules to be traded for
the fine linen, and gilt wares, and dyes of Egypt; and proud-looking
shepherd chiefs of Kedar, with flocks of lambs, rams, and goats; while
beyond these, some merchants of Saïs, men of stern aspects, bad bands
of slaves, whose shining black skins and glittering teeth showed them
to be Nubians from Farther Africa, who had been brought from the Upper
Nile to be sold in the mart.

Thus does all the earth lay its riches at the feet of Egypt, even as
she pours them into the lap of Tyre. Meet it is that two nations, so
equal in commerce, should be allied in friendship. May this friendly
alliance, more closely cemented by my visit to this court, never be
broken! I am willing to surrender to Egypt the title, "Mistress of the
World," which I have seen inscribed on the obelisk that Amense is now
erecting, so long as she makes no attempt upon our cherished freedom,
nor asks of us other tribute to her greatness than the jewelled
necklace it was my pleasure to present to her queen, from your hand.

Having crossed this wonderful mart of the world, we issued upon a
broad street, which diverging to the right led towards Jizeh, not far
distant, and to the left towards Memphis, the noble pylon of which was
in full sight. The street was lined with small temples, six on each
side, dedicated to the twelve gods of the months, statues of each of
whom stood upon pedestals before its gateway.

This avenue, which was but a succession of columns and statues, and in
which we met several pleasure-chariots, terminated at an obelisk one
hundred feet in height--a majestic and richly elaborated monument,
erected by Amunophis I., whose name it bears upon a cartouch, to the
honor of his Syrian queen, Ephtha. Upon its surface is recounted, in
exquisitely colored intaglio hieroglyphs, her virtues and the deeds of
his own reign. At each of its four corners crouches a sphinx, with a
dog's head, symbolic of ceaseless vigilance. A noble square surrounds
the obelisk, and on its west side is the propylon of Memphis. The
great wings that inclose the pylon are ninety feet in height, and are
resplendent with colored pictorial designs, done in the most brilliant
style of Egyptian art.

Here we found a guard of soldiers, whose captain received the prince
with marks of the profoundest military respect. We passed in, through
ranks of soldiers, who bent one knee to the ground, and entered the
chief street of Memphis--the second city in Egypt in architectural
magnificence, and the first in religious importance, as the city of
the sacred bull Apis.

A description of this city would be almost a repetition of that of On,
slightly varying the avenues, squares, and forms of temples. You have,
therefore, to imagine, or rather recall, the splendor of the "City of
the _Lord of the Sun_" (for this is its true Egyptian designation),
and apply to Memphis the picture hitherto given of that gorgeous
metropolis of Osiris.

After we had passed a few squares through the thronged and handsome
street, which was exclusively filled with beautiful and tasteful
abodes of priests, adorned with gardens and corridors, we came to a
large open space in the city, where was a great fountain, surrounded
by lions sculptured in gray porphyry stone. On one side of this square
was a lake, bordered with trees; on another, a grove sacred to certain
mysteries; on a third, a temple dedicated to all the sacred animals of
Egypt,--images of which surrounded a vast portico in front. An
enumeration of them will exhibit to you, how the first departure, in
ancient days, from the worship of the One Deity, by personating His
attributes in animal forms, has converted religion into a gross and
sensual superstition. It is not enough that they have fanciful emblems
in all their temples, and on all their sculptured monuments, of Life,
Goodness, Power, Purity, Majesty, and Dominion (as in the crook and
flail of Osiris), of Authority, of Royalty, of Stability; but they
elevate into representatives of the gods, the ape, sacred to Thoth;
the monkey; the fox, dog, wolf, and jackal, all four sacred to Anubis;
the ichneumon and cat, which last is superstitiously reverenced, and
when dead embalmed with divine rites. The ibex, which I once believed
to be sacred, is regarded only as an emblem; and so with the horse,
ass, panther, and leopard, which are not sacred, but merely used in
sculptures as emblems. The hippopotamus is sacred, and also an emblem
of Typhon, dedicated to the god of war. The cow is held eminently
sacred by the Egyptians, and is dedicated to the deity Athor.

There are four sacred bulls in Egypt,--not only sacred, but deified.
In Middle Egypt, Onuphis and Basis are worshipped in superb temples;
and at On, Mnevis, sacred to the Sun. Here in Memphis is Apis, not
only sacred but a god, and type of Osiris, who, in his turn, is the
type of the Sun, which is the type of the Infinite Invisible; at least
this is the formula, so far as I have learned its mysteries. How much
purer the religion, dear mother, which, passing by or overleaping all
these intermediate types and incarnations, prostrates the soul before
the footstool of the Lord of the Sun Himself, the One Spiritual God of

Of all the sacred animals above named, I beheld images in stone upon
the dromos which bordered the portico. There were also figures of the
sacred birds,--as the ibis, sacred to the god Thoth; the vulture, the
falcon-hawk, sacred to Re, and honored in the city of On, and the
egret, sacred to Osiris. Besides these sacred figures which decorated
this pantheonic portico, at each of the four gates was one of the four
deified bulls in stone, larger than life-size. There are also to be
found, all over Egypt, sculptured sphinxes,--a sort of fabulous
monster, represented either with the head of a man, a hawk, or a ram;
to these may be added a vulture with a serpent's head, and a
tortoise-headed god.

The phœnix, sacred to Osiris, I shall by and by speak of, and the
white and saffron-colored cock, sacred to, and sacrificed in, the
Temple of Anubis. Certain fishes are also held sacred by this
extraordinary people, who convert every thing into gods. The
oxyrhincus, the eel, the lepidotus, and others are sacred, and at
Thebes are embalmed by the priests. The scorpion is an emblem of the
goddess Selk, the frog of Pthah, and the unwieldy crocodile sacred to
the god Savak--a barbarous deity. Serpents having human heads, and
also hawk's and lion's heads, were sculptured along the frieze of this
pantheon, intermingled with figures of nearly all the above sacred
animals. On the abacus of each column was sculptured the
scarabæus--the sacred beetle--consecrated to Pthah, and adopted as an
emblem of the world; also the type of the god Hor-hat, the Good Genius
of Egypt, whose emblem is a sun supported by two winged asps
encircling it. Flies, ichneumons, and bees, with many other insects
and animals, are represented in the sculptures, but are not sacred.

Even vegetables do not escape the service of their religion. The
persea is sacred to Athor; the ivy to Osiris, and much made use of at
his festivals; the feathery tamarisk is also sacred to this deity; and
the peach and papyrus are supposed to be sacred, or at least used, for
religious purposes. Contrary to the opinion I formed when I first came
into Egypt, the onion, leek, and garlic are not sacred. The
pomegranate, vine, and acanthus are used for sacred rites, and the
sycamore-fig is sacred to Netpe. The lotus, the favorite object of
imitation in all temple-sculpture, is sacred to, and the emblem of,
the most ancient god of Egypt, whom the priests call Nofiratmoosis--a
name wholly new to me among the deities;--but it is also clearly a
favorite emblem of Osiris, being found profusely sculptured on all his
temples. Lastly, the palm-branch is a symbol of astrology and type of
the year, and conspicuous among the offerings made to the gods.

Now, my dear mother, can you wonder at Prince Remeses--that a man of
his learning, intellect, sensibility, and sound judgment, should turn
away from these thousand contemptible gods of Egypt, to seek a purer
faith and worship, and that he should wish to give his people a more
elevating and spiritual religion? Divisions and subdivisions have here
reached their climax, and the Egyptians who worship God in every thing
may be said to have ceased to worship him at all!

What was on the fourth side of the great square, of which the lake,
the grove, and the pantheon composed three, was the central and great
Temple of Apis in Lower Egypt. In my next letter I will describe my
visit to it. I am at present a guest of the high-priest of the temple,
and hence the date of my letter at Memphis.

 Your affectionate son,




I will now describe to you my visit, with the prince, to the most
remarkable shrine in Egypt. While the worship of Osiris, at On, is a
series of splendid pageantries, but little differing from the gorgeous
sun-worship which you witnessed some years ago at Baalbec, the rites
of Apis are as solemn and severe as the temple in which they are
celebrated is grand and majestic.

The temple itself is a massive and imposing edifice, of reddish
Elephantine stone. It is of vast proportions, and the effect produced
is that of a mountain of rock hewn into a temple, as travellers say
temples are cut out of the face of cliffs in Idumea-Arabia. Its
expression is majesty and grandeur. It occupies the whole of one side
of the vast square described by me in my last letter.

As we were about to ascend to the gate, I was startled by a loud and
menacing cry from many voices, and, looking around, perceived a Tyrian
mariner, recognized by me as such by his dress, who was flying across
the square with wings of fear. A crowd, which momentarily increased,
pursued him swiftly with execrations and cries of vengeance! As he
drew near, I noticed that he was as pale as a corpse. Seeing that he
was a Phœnician, I felt interested in him, and by a gesture drew
him towards me. He fell at my feet, crying--"Save me, O my prince!"

"What hast thou done?" I demanded.

"Only killed one of their cats, my lord!"

The throng came rushing on, like a stormy wave, uttering fearful

"May I try and protect him, O Remeses," I asked, for I knew that, if
taken, he would be slain for destroying one of their sacred animals.

"I will see if I can; but I fear my interposition will not be heeded
in a case like this," he replied. At the same time he deprecatingly
waved his hand to the infuriated populace, which had in a few moments
increased to a thousand people.

"No, not even for the prince! He has killed a sacred animal. By our
laws he also must die. We will sacrifice him to the gods!"

In vain I entreated, and Remeses interposed. The wretched man was torn
from our presence by as many hands as could seize him, thrown down the
steps of the temple, and trampled upon by the furious crowd, until
nothing like a human shape remained. The formless mass was then
divided into pieces, and carried to a temple where numerous sacred
cats are kept, in order to be given to them to devour. Such is the
terrible death they inflict upon one who by accident kills a cat or an

"The power of the State is weak when contending with the mad strength
of superstition," remarked Remeses, as we entered the temple between
two statues of brazen bulls. Entering through a majestic doorway, we
came into an avenue of vast columns, the size of which impressed me
with awe. The temple was originally erected to Pthah, anciently the
chief deity of Memphis, and dedicated in the present reign to the
sacred bull, whose apartment is the original adytum of the temple.

The worship of Apis and Mnevis, the bulls consecrated to Osiris,
exhibits the highest point to which the worship of animals in Egypt
has reached, and it was with no little interest I felt myself
advancing into the presence of this deified animal. We were met, at
the entrance of the avenue of columns, by two priests in white linen
robes, over which was a crimson scarf, the sacred color of Apis. They
had tall caps on their heads, and each carried a sort of crook. They
received the prince with prostrations. Going one before and one behind
us, they escorted us along the gloomy and solemn avenue of sculptured
columns, until we came to a brazen door. A priest opened it, and we
entered a magnificent peristyle court supported by caryatides twelve
cubits in height, representing the forms of Egyptian women. We
remained in this grand hall a few moments, when a door on the opposite
side opened and the sacred bull appeared. He was conducted by a
priest, who led him by a gold chain fastened to his horns, which were
garlanded with flowers. The animal was large, noble-looking, and
jet-black in color, with the exception of a square spot of white upon
his forehead. Upon his shoulder was the resemblance of a vulture, and
the hairs were double in his tail! These being the sacred marks of
Apis, I observed them particularly: there should be also the mark of a
scarabæeus on his tongue.

The deity stalked proudly forth, slowly heaving up and down his huge
head and thick neck,--a look of barbaric power and grandeur glancing
from his eye.

The curator of the sacred animal led him once around the hall, the
Egyptians prostrating themselves as he passed them, and even Remeses,
instinctively, from custom, bending his head. When he stopped, the
prince advanced to him, and taking a jewelled collar from a casket
which he brought with him, he said to the high-priest--who, with a
censer of incense, prepared to invoke the god--

"My lord priest of Apis: I, Remeses the prince, as a token of my
gratitude to the god, of whom the sacred bull is the emblem, for the
restoration of my mother, the queen, do make to the temple an offering
of this jewelled collar for the sacred bull."

"His sacred majesty, my lord prince, accepts, with condescension and
grace, your offering," answered the gorgeously attired high-priest. He
then passed the necklace through the cloud of incense thrice, and
going up to the bull, fastened the costly gift about his neck, already
decorated with the price of a kingdom, while his forehead glittered
like a mass of diamonds. A cool draft of wind passing through the open
hall, a priest (at least two hundred attendant priests were assembled
there to witness the prince's offering) brought a covering or housing
of silver and gold tissue, magnificently embroidered, and threw it
over the god.

The prince now, at the request of the queen, proceeded to obtain an
omen as to the success of his army. He therefore approached and
offered the bull a peculiar cake, of which he is very fond, which the
animal took from his palm and ate. At this good omen there was a
murmur of satisfaction; for a refusal to eat is accounted a bad omen.
Remeses smiled as if gratified. Could it be that he had faith in the
omen? I know not. Much must be allowed to the customs of a lifetime!
Trained to all these rituals from a child, had the philosophy of his
later years wholly destroyed in him _all_ faith and confidence in the
gods of his mother and his country? The priest now asked a question
aloud, addressed to the god:

"Will the Prince of Egypt, O sacred Apis, be a successful king, when
he shall come to the throne?"

The reply to the question was to be found in the first words Remeses
should hear spoken by any one when he left the temple. He immediately
departed from the peristyle, and we returned through the solemn avenue
to the portico. As we descended the steps, a seller of small images of
the bull called out, in reply to something said by another--

"He will never get there!"

"Mark those words, Sesostris!" he said, not unimpressed by them; "my
mother is to outlive me, or Mœris will seize the throne from me!"

"Do you put faith in this omen?"

"I know not what to answer you, my Sesostris. You have, no doubt," he
added, "after all I have said, marvelled at my offering to Apis. But
it is hard to destroy early impressions, even with philosophy,
especially if the mind has no certain revelation to cling to, when it
casts off its superstitions. But here I must leave you, at the door of
the hierarch's palace. This noble priest is head of the priesthood of
Pthah, a part of whose temple, as you have seen, is devoted to
Apis,--or rather the two temples subsist side by side. You saw him
last week at our palace. He has asked you to be his guest while here.
Honor his invitation, and he will not only teach you much that you
desire to know, but will visit with you the great pyramidal temple of

Having entered the palace, and placed me under the hospitality of the
noble Egyptian hierarch therein, the prince took leave of me. I would
like to describe to you the taste and elegance of this abode, my dear
mother; its gardens, fountains, flower-courts, paintings, and rich
furniture. But I must first say a little more about the god Apis, who
holds so prominent a place in the mythology of Egypt. In the
hieroglyphic legends he is called Hapi, and his figurative sign on the
monuments is a bull with a globe of the sun upon his head, and the
hieroglyphic cruciform emblem of Life drawn near it. Numerous bronze
figures of this bull are cast, whereupon they are consecrated,
distributed over Egypt, and placed in the tombs of the priests. The
time to which the sacred books limit the life of Apis is twenty-five
years, which is a mystic number here; and if his representative does
not die a natural death by that time, he is driven to the great
fountain of the temple, where the priests were accustomed to bathe him
(for he is fed and tended with the greatest delicacy, luxury, and
servility by his priestly curators), and there, with hymns chanted and
incense burning, they drown him amid many rites and ceremonies, all of
which are written in the forty-two books of papyrus kept in the sacred
archives of the oldest temple.

No sooner does the god expire, than certain priests, who are selected
for the purpose, go in search of some other bull; for they believe
that the soul of Osiris has migrated into another body of one of these
animals, or "Lords of Egypt," as I have heard them called. This belief
of the constant transfer of himself by Osiris from the body of one
bull to another, is but the expression of a popular notion here, that
souls of men transmigrate from body to body; and my opinion is
confirmed by a scene depicted in the judgment-hall of Osiris, where
the god is represented as sending a soul, whose evil deeds outweighed
his good ones, back to earth, and condemning it to enter the body of a
hog, and so begin anew, from the lowest animal condition, to rise by
successive transmigrations through other beasts, higher and higher;
until he became man again, when, if he had acquired virtue in his
probation, he was admitted to the houses of the gods and became

The prince assures me that the belief in the transmigration of souls
is almost universal in the Thebaïd, as well as among the lower orders
in the northern nomes; and that the universal reverence for animals
is, without doubt, in a great measure to be traced to this sentiment.
A monstrous doctrine of the perpetual incarnation of deity in the
form, not of man, but of the brute, seems to be the groundwork of all
religious faith in Egypt. This idea is the key to the mysteries,
inconsistencies, and grossness of their outward worship; the
interpreter of their animal Pantheon.

"There is a tradition," said to me, to-day, the prince-priest Misrai,
with whom I am now remaining, "that when Osiris came down to earth, in
order to benefit the human race by teaching them the wisdom of the
gods, evil men, the sons of Typhon, pursued to destroy him, when he
took refuge in the body of a bull, who protected and concealed him.
After his return to the heavens, he ordained that divine honors should
be paid to the bull forever."

This account, my dear mother, is a more satisfactory myth than any
other, if any can be so; and recognizes incarnation as the principle
of the worship of Apis. This universal idea in the minds of men, that
the Creator once dwelt in the body of a creature, would lead one to
believe, that in ages past the Infinite had descended from heaven for
the good of men, and dwelt in a body; or that, responding to this
universal idea, he may yet do it. Perhaps, dear mother, the worship of
Osiris under the form of Apis, may be the foreshadowing and type of
what is yet really to come--a dispensation, preparing men for the
actual coming of the Invisible in a visible form. What a day of glory
and splendor for earth, should this prove true! The conception, dear
mother, is not my own; it is a thought of the great, and wise, and
good Remeses, who, if ever men are deified, deserves a place, after
death, among the gods. His vast and earnest mind, enriched with all
the stores of knowledge that man can compass, seems as if it derived
inspiration from the heavens. His conversation is deeper than the
sacred books; the ideas of his soul more wonderful than the mysteries
of the temple!

The priests who seek another bull, discover him by certain signs
mentioned in their sacred books. These I have already described. In
the mean while, a public lamentation is performed, as if Osiris, that
is, "the Lord of Heaven," had died, and the mourning lasts until the
new Apis is found. This information is proclaimed by swift messengers
in all the cities, and is hailed with the wildest rejoicings. The
scribes who have found the young calf which is to be the new god, keep
it with its mother in a small temple facing the rising sun, and feed
it with milk for four months. When that term is expired, a grand
procession of priests, scribes, prophets, and interpreters of omens,
headed by the high-priest, and often by the king, as hereditary priest
of his realm, proceed to the temple or house of the sacred calf, at
the time of the new moon--the slender and delicate horns of which
symbolize those of the juvenile Apis. With chants and musical
instruments playing, they escort him to a gorgeously decorated _baris_
or barge, rowed by twelve oars, and place him in a gilded cabin on
costly mats. They then convey him in great pomp and with loud
rejoicings to Memphis. Here the whole city receives him with trumpets
blowing and shouts of welcome; garlands are cast upon his neck by
young girls, and flowers strewed before him by the virgins of the

Thus escorted, the "Living Soul of Osiris" is conducted to the temple
provided for him, which is now, as I have before observed, an
appendage to the Temple of Pthah or Vulcan, an edifice remarkable for
its architectural beauty, its extent, and the richness of its
decorations; indeed, the most magnificent temple in the city. A
festival of many days succeeds, and the young deity is then led in
solemn procession throughout the city, that all the people may see
him. These come out of their houses to welcome him, with gifts, as he
passes. Mothers press their children forward towards the sacred animal
that they may receive his breath which, they believe, conveys the
power to them of predicting future events. Returned to his sacred
adytum, he henceforth reigns as a god, daintily fed, and reverently
served. Pleasure-gardens and rooms for recreation are provided for him
when he would exercise.

At the death of Apis, all the priests are immediately excluded from
the temple, which is given up to profound solitude and silence, as if
it also mourned, in solemn desolation, the loss of its god. His
obsequies are celebrated on a scale of grandeur and expenditure hardly
conceivable. Sometimes the rich treasury of the temple, though filled
with the accumulated gold of a quarter of a century, is exhausted.
Upon the death of the last Apis, the priests expended one hundred
talents of gold in his obsequies, and Prince Mœris, who seeks every
opportunity to make a show of piety, and to please the Egyptians, gave
them fifty talents more, to enable them to defray the enormous costs
of the funeral of the god.

The burial-place of the Serapis, as the name is on the mausoleum
(formed by pronouncing together Osiris-Apis), is outside of the
western pylon of the city. We approached it through a paved avenue,
with lions ranged on each side of it. It consists of a vast gallery,
hewn in a rocky spur of the Libyan cliff, twenty feet in height, and
two thousand long. I visited this tomb yesterday, accompanied by the
high-priest. He showed me the series of chambers on the sides of this
sepulchral hall, where each embalmed Apis was deposited in a
sarcophagus of granite fifteen feet in length. There were sixty of
these sarcophagi, showing the permanency and age of this system of
worship. They were adorned with royal ovals, inscribed, or with
tablets containing dedications, to Apis. One of these bore the
inscription, "To the god Osiris-Apis, the Lord of the Soul of Osiris,
and emblem of the Sun, by Amense, Queen and upholder of the two

In front of the sculptured entrance of this hall of the dead god is
the Sarapeum, a funeral temple for perpetual obsequies. It has a
vestibule of noble proportions, its columns being of the delicately
blue-veined alabaster from the quarries in the south. On each side of
the doorway is a crouching lion, with a tablet above one, upon which a
king is represented making an offering. Within the vestibule stand, in
half circle, twelve statues of ancient kings. In a circle above these
sit, with altars before each, as many gods. Upon a pedestal in the
centre stands the statue of the Pharaoh who erected this beautiful

Thus, my dear mother, have I endeavored, as you requested, to present
before your mind a clear view of the system of theology, and the forms
of worship of the Egyptians. To evolve from the contradictory and
vague traditions a reasonable faith; to select from the countless
myths a dominating idea; to separate the true from the false, to bring
harmony out of what, regarded as a whole, is confusion; to know what
is local, what national in rites, and to reconcile all the theories of
Osiris with one another, is a task far from easy to perform. At first,
I believed I should never be able to arrive at any system in these
multifarious traditions and usages, but I think that my researches
have given me an insight into the difficulties of their religion, and
enabled me, in a great measure, to unravel the tangled thread of their

I will now resume my pen, which, since writing the above, I laid down
to partake of a banquet with the priest, my princely host, at which I
met many of the great lords of Memphis, namely--the lord-keeper of the
royal signet, the lord of the wardrobe and rings of the queen's
palace, and the lord of the treasury. These men of rank I well knew,
having met them before at the table of the queen. There were also
strangers whom I had not met before--men of elegant address, and in
rich apparel, each with the signet of his office on his left hand;
among others, the lord of the nilometer, who reports the progress of
the elevation of the river in the annual overflows, and by which all
Lower Egypt is governed in its agricultural work; the president of the
engravers on hard stones, an officer of trust and high honor; the
governors of several nomes, in their gold collars and chains; the lord
of the house of silver; the president of architects; the lord of
sculptors; the president of the school of art and color; with other
men of dignity. There were also high-priests of several fanes, of
Athor, of Pthah, of Horus, of Maut, and of Amun. Besides these
gentlemen, there was a large company of noble ladies, their wives and
daughters, who came to the banquet by invitation of the Princess
Nelisa, the superb and dark-eyed wife of the Prince Hierarch, and one
of the most magnificent and queenly women (next to the queen herself)
I have seen in this land of beautiful women.

It was a splendid banquet. The Lady Nelisa presided with matchless
dignity and grace. But I have already described a banquet to you. This
was similar in display and the mode of entertaining the guests.

I was seated opposite the daughter of the Priest of Mars, of whose
beauty I have before spoken. She asked many questions, in the most
captivating way, about Tyre, and yourself, and the Phœnician ladies
generally. She smiled, and looked surprised, when I informed her that
I was betrothed to the fair Princess Thamonda, and asked me if she
were as fair as the women of Egypt. She inquired if Damascus had
always been a part of Phœnicia, and how large your kingdom was.
When I told her that your kingdom was composed of several lesser
kingdoms, once independent, but now united far east of Libanus, under
your crown, she inquired if you were a warlike queen to make such
conquests. I replied that this union of the free cities of
Phœnicia, and of the cities of Cœle-Syria under your sceptre,
was a voluntary one, partly for union against the kings of Philistia,
partly from a desire to be under so powerful and wise a queen. She
said that if the danger were passed, or you were no more, the kings of
these independent cities might dissolve the bonds, and so diminish the
splendor of the crown which I was to wear. To this I replied, that to
be king of Tyre and its peninsula was a glory that would meet my
ambition. "Yes," said she, "for Tyre is the key of the riches of the

I repeat this conversation, dear mother, in order to show you that the
high-born daughters of Egypt are not only affable and sensible, but
that they possess no little knowledge of other lands, and take an
interest in countries friendly to their own. The grace and beauty of
this maiden, as well as her modesty, rendered her conversation
attractive and pleasing. She is to become the wife of a brave young
captain of the chariot battalion, when he returns from the Ethiopian

My visit to the pyramids I will now describe, dear mother, although in
a letter to the Princess Thamonda I have given a very full account of
it. Accompanied by the hierarch and a few young lords--his friends and
mine--we rode in chariots out of the gate of the city, passed the
guards, who made obeisance to the high-priest, and entered upon an
avenue (what noble avenues are everywhere!) of trees growing upon a
raised and terraced mound which bounded each side of it. The mound was
emerald-green with verdancy, and the color of the foliage of the
palms, acacias, and tamarisk trees was enriched by the bright sunshine
as seen through the pure atmosphere. At intervals we passed a pair of
obelisks, or through a grand pylon of granite. Then we came to a
beautiful lake--the Lake of the Dead--where we passed a procession of
shrines. Every nome and all large cities have such a lake. I will here
state its use, which, like every thing in Egypt, is a religious one.
It is connected with the passage of the dead from this world to the
next; for the Egyptians not only believe in a future state, but that
rewards or punishments await the soul. When a person of distinction
dies, after the second or third day his body is taken charge of by
embalmers, a class of persons whose occupation it is to embalm the
dead. They have houses in a quarter of the city set apart for this
purpose. Here the friends of the dead are shown three models of as
many different modes of embalmment, of which they choose one,
according to the expense they are willing to incur. "The most
honorable and most costly," said the high-priest to me, as we were
surveying the Lake of the Dead, towards which a procession was moving
from the city, when we came before it, "is that in which the body is
made to resemble Osiris. And a custom prevails among us, that the
operator who first wounds the body with the sharp embalming flint,
preparatory to embalming, is odious by the act, and is compelled to
take to flight, pursued with execrations and pelted with stones. No
doubt the man we saw flying out of a house this morning, as we passed,
was one of these incisors."

The body remains seventy days, if that of a person of rank, at the
embalmers. It is then either taken to the house, to be detained a
longer or shorter time--according to the attachment of relatives, and
their reluctance to part with it--or is prepared for entombment.
During the interval of seventy days, the mourners continue their signs
of lamentation, which often are excessive in degree, such as tearing
off raiment, beating the breast, and pouring dust upon the head. The
pomp of the burial of the Pharaohs, I am informed, is inconceivably
grand and imposing. The whole realm joins in the rites and
processions, and every temple is crowded with sacrificers and

We stopped our chariots to witness the funeral procession advance to
the shore of the lake, from the wide street leading from Memphis.

First came seven musicians, playing a solemn dirge upon lyres, flutes,
and harps with four chords. Then servants carrying vases of flowers;
and others followed, bearing baskets containing gilded cakes, fruit,
and crystal goblets of wine. Two boys led a red calf for sacrifice in
behalf of the dead, and two others carried in a basket three
snow-white geese, also for sacrifice. Others bore beautiful chairs,
tablets, napkins, and numerous articles of a household description;
while others still, held little shrines, containing the household gods
or effigies of their ancestors. Seven men carrying daggers, fans,
sandals, and bows, each having a napkin on his shoulder, followed.
Next I saw eight men appear, supporting a table; and lying upon it, as
offerings, were embroidered couches and lounges, richly inlaid boxes,
and an ivory chariot with silver panels, which, with the foregoing
articles, the high priest informed me had belonged to the deceased,
who, from the cartouch on the chariot, was Rathmes, "lord of the royal

Behind this chariot came the charioteer, with a pair of horses
caparisoned with harness for driving, but which he led on foot out of
respect to his late master.

Then came a venerable man, with the features and beard of the Hebrew
race. Surprised to see one of these people anywhere, save with an
implement of toil in his hand, or bowed down to the earth under a
burden, I looked more closely, and recognized the face of the head
gardener, Amrami, or Amram, whom I had often seen in the queen's
garden, and whom Remeses had taken, as it were, into his service, as
he was his foster-father: for it is no uncommon thing with the nobles
to have Hebrew nurses for their infants; on the contrary, they are
preferred. When Remeses was an infant, it seems, therefore, that the
wife of this fine-looking old Hebrew was his foster-mother, or nurse.
I have before spoken of the striking resemblance he bears to Remeses.
Were he his father (if I may so speak of a prince in connection with a
slave), there could not be a much greater likeness.

This venerable man, who must be full seventy years of age, bore in his
hand a bunch of flowers, inverted and trailing, in token that his lord
was no more. He was followed by not less than fifty under-gardeners,
four or five of whom had Hebrew lineaments, but the rest were
Egyptians and Persians,--the latter celebrated for the culture of
flowers, which are so lavishly used here in all the ceremonies of
society and rites of religion.

After them followed four men, each bearing aloft a vase of gold, upon
a sort of canopy, with other offerings; then came a large bronze
chest, borne by priests, containing the money left to their temple by
the deceased. Then, in succession, one who bore his arms; another, a
pruning-hook of silver; another, his fans; a fourth, his signets,
jewelled collars, and necklaces, displayed upon a cushion of blue
silk, adorned with needle-work; and a fifth, the other insignia
peculiar to a noble who had been intrusted with the supervision of all
the royal gardens in the Memphite kingdom.

Now came four trumpeters and a cymbal-player, performing a martial
air, in which voices of men mingled, called "The Hymn of Heroes."

Next appeared a decorated barge or _baris_,--a small, sacred boat,
carried by six men, whom I saw elevate to view the mysterious "Eye of
Osiris;" while others carried a tray of blue images, representing the
deceased under the form of that god, also of the sacred bird
emblematic of the soul. Following these were twelve men, bearing, upon
yokes balanced across the shoulders, baskets and cases filled with
flowers and crystal bottles for libation. Next were a large company of
hired females, with fillets upon their brows, beating their bared
breasts, and throwing dust upon their heads,--now lamenting the dead,
now praising his virtues.

Then came the officiating priest, his sacred leopard-skin cast over
his shoulders, bearing in his hand the censer and vase of libation,
and accompanied by his attendants holding the various implements
required for the occasion. Behind this priest came a car, without
wheels, drawn by four white oxen and seven men, yoked to it, while
beside them walked a chief officer, who regulated the movements of the
procession. Upon this car was the consecrated boat, containing the ark
or hearse. The pontiff of the Temple of Horus walked by the
sarcophagus, which was decked with flowers, and richly painted with
various emblems. A panel, left open on one side, exposed to view the
head of the mummy.

Finally came the male relatives of the dead, and his friends. In his
honor the queen's grand-chamberlain and the master of horse marched
together in silence, and with solemn steps, leaning on their long
sticks. Other men followed, whose rich dresses, and long
walking-canes, which are the peculiar mark of an Egyptian gentleman,
showed them to be persons of distinction. A little in the rear of
these walked a young man, who dropped a lotus-flower from a basket at
every few steps, and closed the long procession.

In no country but this, where rain seldom falls, and it is always
pleasant in the open air, could such a procession safely appear
bearing wares so delicate and frail. The only danger to be apprehended
is from storms of sand from the desert beyond the pyramids, of the
approach of which, however, the atmosphere gives a sufficient warning.

This letter is quite long enough, dear mother, and I close it, with
wishes for your happiness, and assurances of the filial devotion of

 Your son,




Your last letter, assuring me of your health, and that of the Princess
Thamonda, I received by the chief pilot, Onothis, who, in his new and
handsome galley, reached the head of the Delta two days ago. Thence he
came here in his boat, his ship being too large, in the present depth
of water, to come up to Memphis.

I will now continue the description of the funeral of "the lord of the
royal gardens." When the procession reached the steps leading down to
the sacred lake, the hearse was borne upon a gilded and carved baris,
the consecrated boat for the dead. This was secured to a decorated
galley with sails and oars and a spacious cabin, richly painted with
funeral emblems. The friends and relatives of the deceased embarked in
other barges in waiting, and to the strains of wailing music, the
procession, reverently joined by the boats of several gentlemen, in
gay apparel, who were fishing on the lake, crossed to the other side.
Reaching the opposite shore, it formed again, as before, and moved
down "the Street of the Tombs," crossed a narrow plain, and entered
the gate of the great burial-place of Memphis. We slowly followed the
procession; and, alighting from the chariot, I saw them take the mummy
from the sarcophagus on the car, and place it upright in a chamber of
the tomb. An assistant priest then sprinkled all who were present with
sacred water, and the chief-priest burnt incense before an altar of
the tomb, and poured libations upon it, with other ceremonies. To
close the scene, the mummy was embraced by weeping friends, and a
funeral dirge played by the musicians without, which was wildly
answered by the mourning wail of woe from within.

Driving around the Acherusis Lake, under the shade of its solemn
groves, the priest directed his charioteer to take me in again at the
gate of the tombs. Reseating myself by his side--for the chariots of
the priests, as well as those of ladies, are provided with a movable
curved chair which holds two persons--we proceeded in a direct line
towards the greatest of the three pyramids that stand near Memphis. We
were upon what is called "The Sacred Way." It commenced at the gate of
a temple to the god of the winds, beneath the pylon of which we
passed, and extended nearly a league in length over a vast plain
crowded with funeral temples, monuments, mausolean porticos, statues,
and fountains. All the architectural magnificence which is found in
other avenues, seemed to be combined here to form a royal road which
has no parallel on earth; not even the long column-lined approach to
the Temple of the Sun, at the end of the straight street in Damascus,
can be compared with it.

This noble thoroughfare, as we drove slowly along that I might admire
its grandeur and beauty, was thronged with people going to and coming
from the city. There were processions returning from having deposited
their dead in one of the many tombs which covered the vast plain;
processions of the humbler orders, with but few signs of display and
wealth, proceeding, with real mourners, to the tomb. There were groups
of children, their hands filled with garlands, going to place them
upon the sarcophagus of a departed parent; for the custom of
decorating the resting-places of the dead with wreaths often renewed,
belongs to Egypt as well as to Syria.

We overtook a rich lady in a gilded palanquin, borne on the shoulders
of four slaves. She was opulently and handsomely attired, and carried
a blue and green fan, while an attendant walked behind and held over
her head a large parasol.

Two chariots, containing young Egyptian lords, dashed by us at full
speed in the excitement of a race, each driving his own ornamented
car, the charioteers standing a little in the rear.

People selling little images of gods, or of eminent deceased persons,
or fruit, or flowers, or scarabæi, and amulets, were seated all along
the highway, upon pedestals, or in the shade of statues and tombs;
while along the road walked sellers of vegetables, and fowls, and
bread. Indeed, the way was crowded with life and activity. With no
other people would the avenue to its tombs be the most thronged of
any, and the favorite of all in the city; for Memphis, which extends
from and includes Jizeh, past the pyramids south for six miles, has
noble streets, but none like this leading to the pyramids. The
Egyptians say that the house is but the temporary abode of man, but in
the tombs his embalmed body dwells forever. "Let us, therefore,
decorate our tombs with paintings and art, and fill them with flowers,
and adorn the homes which are to be permanent."

Hence the "dead-life" of the sepulchres is not less a reality to the
Egyptian than his life in the city. The poor, however, do not find
tombs. They are buried in graves or pits, like the Hebrew people. On
the other side of the river lies the most ancient burial-place of
Memphis; but since the construction of the Lake of the Dead, it is no
longer necessary to cross the Nile (for the dead _must_ be ferried
across water) for interment.

As we drove on, we came to a stately sepulchre, before which was
gathered a large multitude. The coffin had just been removed from a
gorgeous hearse and set down upon the step of the tomb. It was the
funeral of a lady. I never saw any painting so rich as that which
adorned the mummy-case. It was an Osirian coffin, and covered in every
part with columns of hieroglyphics or emblematical figures, among
which were represented the winged serpent, the ibis, the cynocephalus
or the genii of Amenthe, and the scarabæus.

"The hieroglyphics," said my companion, "contain the name and
qualities of the deceased."

At this moment an official, partly in a priestly dress, advanced in an
imposing manner, touched the coffin with a wand, and said aloud:

"Approved! Let the good be entombed, and may their souls dwell in
Amenthe with Osiris. Judgment is passed in her favor! Let her be

Upon hearing this address, I asked the high-priest what it signified.
He replied, with that courtesy which has always distinguished his
replies to my numerous questions:

"This act has reference to the judgment of Osiris. We did not witness
a similar ceremony at the lake, because the deceased was brought from
On, and had already been judged at the crossing of the Nile. If we had
sooner seen this funeral procession, which came only from the city to
the lake, we should have beheld forty-two just persons, chosen as
judges, seated upon a semicircular stone bench along the shore."

"I noticed the stone seats," I answered, "and intended to have
inquired their use."

"Seated upon them, the forty-two judges await the procession. The
baris, or gilded galley, which is to receive the body, is then drawn
alongside of the steps. Before it the bearers stop, and turning to the
judges, rest their burden on the ground before them. Then, while all
the friends stand anxiously around, and hundreds of spectators line
the shores, one of the judges rises and asks if any one present can
lawfully accuse the deceased of having done wrong to any man. If the
dead has done injustice or evil, his enemy, or the one wronged, or
their relatives, advance and make the charge. The judges weigh the
accusation, and if it be sustained, the rites of sepulchre are
commanded not to proceed."

Such a judgment, dear mother, I afterwards witnessed on our return
from the pyramids. It was the funeral of a woman of respectability.

The accuser said, advancing into the space before the judges--

"I accuse the deceased of suffering her father to perish in want."

"This is a great crime by our laws," said the judge sternly; "for,
though sons are not bound to provide for poor parents, daughters are.
This she knew, and was able to do it. Where are the proofs?"

Three persons came forward and bore testimony to the fact.

"The deceased is not worthy to pass the Lake of the Dead. The burial
is prohibited."

Hereupon there was a great cry of woe on the part of the mortified
relations; and the mummy, without being permitted to enter the sacred
baris, was retaken to the city, where in a shrine in the house it will
remain above-ground for years; until finally, after certain
ceremonies, it is permitted to be ignominiously entombed in "the
sepulchre of the evil."

This accusation and judgment, dear mother, is a striking illustration
of the veneration and respect children are expected to pay to their
parents in Egypt.

If, on the other hand, the accusation is not sustained, the accusers
are stoned away by the friends, who then with great joy unite in a
eulogy of the dead, and joined by all the people present pray the gods
below to receive him to dwell among the pious dead. In the eulogy,
they speak only of virtues--praising his learning, his integrity, his
justice, his piety, his temperance, and truthfulness; but no mention
is made of rank, since all Egyptians are deemed equally noble. Such an
ordeal has no doubt a great influence upon the living Egyptian; for he
is certain that at his death every act of injustice he has committed
will be brought up before the forty-two judges, and if found guilty,
he will be denied sepulture, while infamy will be attached to his

"What," I asked of my companion, the high-priest, "is the state of the
deceased soul after death?"

"That, O prince," said he, "is one of the mysteries. But as you have
been initiated into the knowledge of the mystic books in your own
land, I will explain to you what our books of the dead teach. We
priests of Apis do not believe with those of Osiris at On."

"What is their faith?" I asked.

"That the soul of man is immortal (which we all believe)," he added
positively; "that when the body decays, the soul enters into and is
born in the form of a lower animal; and when it has gone the round of
the bodies of all terrestrial and marine animals, and of all flying
creatures, it enters again into the body of an infant at its birth."

"Possibly in this belief," I remarked, "is found the reason for
preserving the human body as long as possible by embalming it, thus
keeping off the transmigration of its soul into a brute as long as

"Without doubt," he replied, "embalming the dead grew out of the
doctrine of transmigration of souls. The circuit performed by a soul
in this series of inhabitations of the forms of animals, is three
thousand years in duration. Such is the belief of the priests of the
Sun. This transmigration is not connected either with reward or
punishment, but it is a necessity of its creation that the soul should
accomplish the whole circuit of the kingdom of animated nature ere it
again enters a human body. _Our_ doctrine of metempsychosis only so
far embodies this, as to make Osiris send back the transgressing soul
from Amenthe to earth, to dwell in the body of swine as a punishment;
and when its probation is passed, we allow an ultimate return to the
Divine Essence."

"What is this tribunal of Osiris?" I asked.

"The dead carry with them to the tomb a papyrus, on which is written
their address to the gods, and the deeds which entitle them to
admission into Heaven. When the soul leaves the grave, it is received
by Horus son of Osiris, and conducted to the gates of Amenthe, or the
regions of the gods. At the entrance, a dog with four heads--of the
wolf, lion, serpent, and bear--keeps guard. Near the gate, which is
called the Gate of Truth, sits the goddess of Justice, with her
gigantic scales of gold between her and the Gate of Truth. Hard by
sits the god Thoth, with a tablet and stylus. The scales are
superintended by the deity Anubis Through the open gate the throne of
Osiris is visible with the deity upon it.

"As Horus advances with the soul to the Gate of Truth, as if to enter,
the goddess of Justice commands him to stop, that the sum of its
deeds, both good and evil, may be weighed and recorded.

"Anubis then places a vase containing all the human virtues in one
scale, and the heart of the deceased, or sometimes the soul itself, in
the other. Horus repeats the result, which the god Thoth inscribes
upon his iron tablet. The dog watches the issue of the weighing with
eyes red with furious longing to devour the soul. If the sum of its
good deeds predominates, Horus, taking it by one hand, and the tablet
of Thoth in the other, advances into the hall, where his father,
Osiris, is seated upon the throne, holding his crook and flagellum,
and awaiting the report from the hand of his son. They approach the
throne between four genii of Amenthe, and come before three deities
who sit in front of the throne. These ask if he has been weighed, and
Horus exhibits to each the tablet of Thoth. They then permit him to
pass. Horus now stands before Osiris, with the soul by his side, and
presents the tablet, which the deity takes from his son's hand. If
satisfied by an inspection of the tablet, which records not only the
virtues but every error of the soul's life on earth, Osiris presents
him with an ostrich feather, the emblem of truth. One of the three
deities then gives him a vase containing all the virtues, his few sins
being pardoned; a second offers him a jewelled band for the forehead,
on which is inscribed in diamonds the word 'justified;' and the third
presents him with the emblem of life. He is now received by Isis, and
conducted through gates of gold that open with divine music, and
enters into scenes of celestial beauty and splendor; palaces of the
gods become his abode, he reposes by heavenly rivers of crystal
beauty, wanders through fields of delight, and dwells with the Lord of
the Sun, and all the immortal gods, in glory ineffable and endless."

The hierarch said all this with great animation, and like a man who
believes what he utters. I was deeply interested.

"And what, my lord priest, becomes of the soul which cannot meet the
scales of justice with confidence, whose evil deeds outweigh his good

"Such a soul does not see Osiris, nor the farther heavens where he
dwells illumined by the glory of the divine disk of the Lord of the
Sun. The reprobate spirit does not behold the Eye of Osiris, nor
repose in its pure light. It is not manifested to the sacred deities
of the inner heavens, nor does he hear the voice of the great god,
saying, 'Thou art justified, O soul! Enter thou the Gate of Truth.'

"If the soul is all wicked, with no virtues, then Horus releases its
hand with horror, and the dog devours the wretched being in a moment.
But if he has one or two virtues--such as honoring his parents, having
saved a human life, or fed the hungry--then he is not given over to
the monster; but Horus, with a sad aspect, leads him to the throne of
Osiris, who, reading the dark tablet of Thoth, sternly inclines his
sceptre in token of condemnation, and pronounces judgment upon him
according to his sin, when, Horus leaving him, two evil gods from the
realms of Typhon appear and lead him forth."

"What is the punishment ordained?"

"To be led back to the gate of Truth and delivered to Justice, who,
without a head, sits thereat. The goddess seals the sentence of Osiris
upon the forehead of the unclean soul, and instantly it assumes the
form of a pig, or some other base animal. The god Thoth then calls up
two monkeys, who take the condemned soul to a boat and ferry it back
to the world, while the bridge by which it came from the earth is cut
down by Anubis, in the form of a man with an axe."

"As every thing in Egyptian mythology is symbolical, what is the
signification of these monkeys?"

"Monkeys are emblems of Thoth, the god of time," he answered. "The
books of our mysteries teach that the human race began with the
monkey, and progressively advanced to man. Osiris, by his judgment,
condemns the unclean soul to the level of the monkey again, but first
commands it to enter a swine's body, the uncleanest of all beasts, and
make its way through the whole circle of animal creation, back to the
monkey, and up through the black, barbaric races of men, who have arms
like apes, to true man himself. Then, practising virtue and rejecting
his former vices, he may after death finally attain to the mansions of
the blessed, in the presence of Osiris. But I should add, the souls of
bodies unburied can never enter the Gate of Truth."

Here we came in sight of the gigantic pylon that opens to the Temple
of the Pyramid of Cheops, and the hierarch ceased speaking. He had,
however, but little to add, for his explanations covered all the
ground of my inquiries.

Thus, dear mother, have I presented to you the system of worship in
this wonderful land. I will now proceed to a description of my visit
to the pyramids, which, in sublime majesty, occupied the whole horizon
as we advanced beyond the plain of the tombs. At the extremity of the
paved causeway of this stately "Avenue of the Dead," leading from the
Nile to the pyramids, we beheld the three great triangular mountains
of gigantic art obliquely, so that they were grasped by the eye in one
grand view. But the lofty mass of Cheops immediately before us, at the
end of the avenue, challenged the eye and whole attention of the
observer. For a moment, as we dashed onward in our brilliantly painted
chariot, our steeds tossing their plumed heads as if proud of their
housings of gold and needle-work, we lost sight of the pyramid by the
interposition of the gigantic wings of the Gate of the Pyramids. These
wings were towers of Syenite rock, one hundred and twenty feet in
height, looking down from their twelfth painted and sculptured story
upon the tops of the loftiest palms that grew on each side of the
entrance. The gate was guarded by priests, who wore a close silver
helmet, and held in their hands a short sword, the sheath of which
hung to a belt of leopard's skin. They were young men, numbering in
all three hundred and sixty, corresponding to the days of the former
Egyptian year; while their five captains typify five days added by the

"These young men," said the high-priest, "are all sons of warlike
fathers. They desire to become priests, and are now in their
novitiate; but after a year's service as guards to the greatest of
temples, they will be advanced to a higher degree, and exchange the
sword for the shepherd's crook; and thence they rise to be bearers of
libation vases, and assistants in sacrifices."

We passed under the lofty pylon, which was spanned by a bronze winged
sun, saluted by sixty of the guard on duty; this being the number of
each of the six bodies into which they are divided. As soon as we
entered the court of the gate, a sight of inconceivable grandeur burst
upon me. Imagine a double colonnade of the most magnificent pillars
which art could create, extending on each side of an open way a
thousand cubits in length. At the end of the grand vista, behold
crouched at full length, on the eastern edge of the elevated table on
which the pyramids stand, and in an attitude of eternal repose, with
an aspect of majesty and benignity inconceivable in the human
lineaments, an andro-sphinx of colossal size, having the face of a
warrior. Although stretched on the earth, with its fore-paws extended,
the summit of the brow is seventy feet above the earth. This sublime
image is emblematical, like all Egyptian sphinxes, and represents
strength or power combined with intellect. The face I at once
recognized to be that of Chephres, as seen upon his obelisk at Rhoda,
aggrandized by the vastness of its proportions to the aspect of a god.

From my companion, the prince-hierarch, I learned it was begun by an
ancient Pharaoh of the same name, one of the kings of the oldest
dynasty, who conceived the idea of chiselling into these grand
proportions a mass of rock, which, projecting from the Libyan hills,
nearly obstructed the view of the principal pyramid.

We were here forbidden to advance in our chariot, and the footmen, who
had never left the side of the horses, however swiftly our charioteer
might drive, caught them by the head, and we alighted.

I had leisure now to contemplate the scene before me. The personation
of majesty, the sphinx, fills the breadth of the approach between the
massive pillars of the colonnade. Between his fore-paws, which extend
fifty feet, while the body is nearly three times this measure, stands
a beautiful temple faced with oriental alabaster. His head is crowned
with a helmet slightly convex, upon which, like a crest, is affixed
the sacred uræus or serpent, shining with gold. The cape or neck-band
of the helmet is of scales, colored blue, red, green, and orange,
intermingled with gilding. A great and full beard descends over his
breast, immediately under which, and between his feet, is the summit
of the temple where sacrifices are daily offered to the god. Above his
towering brow soars the mighty pyramid before which this colossus
keeps guard.

"The majesty of this image, O prince," said the high-priest, as,
leaning at every step upon his slender acacia rod, he walked by my
side, "impresses you."

"It is the most majestic of all the gods of Egypt," I answered.

"Yes. Its age is nearly coeval with the pyramid."

"On the pyramidion base of the left obelisk in front of the temple of
Osiris, have I not seen reposing four small sphinxes copied from

"Thou hast seen them. That obelisk is many ages old; yet long before
it, was this sphinx-god, as silent, majestic, and immovable in eternal
repose as you behold him now."

At the termination of the avenue of direct approach, we descended an
inclined plane to a platform of marble, on which is an image of Osiris
in stone, and were brought nearly opposite the lower part of its face.
Then another flight of steps, cased with polished porphyry, brought us
on a level with the top of the temple. In the centre of this level
platform stands a statue of Horus, cast in bronze. Thence descending
another flight of thirty broad steps, we stood in the space between
the enormous feet of the sphinx, and directly before the beautiful

Our gradual approach in this descent, during which the sphinx was kept
constantly in view, rising above us as we descended, heightened the
impressions first made upon me by its colossal size; and I beheld,
with new emotions of sublimity, its posture of repose and calm majesty
of aspect.

A priest, in the full costume of his sacred office, stood at the door,
and preceded by him we entered. As it was the hour of oblation, he
held a censer in his hand, and approaching an altar before a granite
tablet at the end of the temple, he invoked the mysterious god. The
temple has no roof, but is exquisitely decorated and painted with
sacred symbols. On each side stands a tablet of limestone. The tablet
over the altar is inscribed with the name of the designer of the
sphinx, Menes, the first mortal king after the general overflow of the
mountains, and also with the destruction of the gigantic gods by the
uprising of unknown oceans upon the globe. The tablet holds his
shield, and on it is pictured the escape of the son of the ancient
gods, in a ship, which is resting upon a mountain peak. In this
tradition, mother, we find repeated our Phœnician history of the
flood, before the days of the first kings. Without doubt all nations
retain a similar tradition. Upon the same tablet is also a
representation of a later king offering incense and libations to the
god to whom the sphinx is consecrated. The tablets on the side also
represent kings offering prayer to the god. The floor is beautifully
tesselated with variegated stones; and on all sides are ivory or
silver tables, covered with beautifully shaped vases, containing
offerings of worshippers. There are, besides, ten shrines before the
altar, upon each of which rests a golden crown, gifts of kings of
other lands. Without question this temple of the sphinx is the richest
in Egypt in gifts, as well as most honored by its Pharaohs. Is it not
the vestibule to the grand pyramidal temple which is the tomb of the
first mortal king?

But, my dear mother, I must not linger at the feet of the sphinx.
Leaving the temple, we ascended one of two broad stair-cases, and
mounting to a succession of terraces, adorned with statues of gods,
the vast bulk of the sphinx being on our right, we reached a noble
stone platform behind the image, upon which stands an ancient figure,
in coarse marble, worn by age, of Chephres the Great. He stamps a
sea-dragon under his feet, and upon his capped head is the beak of a
galley, with the head and wings of a dove. In this symbol, dear
mother, behold again the representation of the deluge, and the dove
that guided the ship which held Chephren, or Chephres, and his father,
the god Noachis, or Noah.

When we had gained this terrace, we beheld before us both pyramids,
and between them the pylon of a vast temple, which, extending its
great arms on each side, embraced the twin pyramids in one godlike
edifice, of grandeur and dimensions immeasurable to the eye, and
overpowering to the imagination. To explain more clearly what I
beheld: Between, but in advance of them, towered a colossal pylon, to
which each pyramid was a wing, united by a wall of brick, ninety feet
high, encased with marble. This central temple, or pylon, was as
massive and solemn in its aspect as the pyramids which formed its
propyla. For a few moments I stood and gazed with awe. Until the
spectator reaches the terrace, the whole effect is not perceived; for,
though the central temple is visible, even from the Lake of the Dead,
it appears as if merely intervening; it is only on the terrace before
which the sphinx, the gigantic watcher before the pyramids, reposes,
that the whole grand design is comprehended. Had I been all at once
brought in sight of the House of Osiris, in the realm of the gods, I
should not have been more overawed and impressed.

This temple, built of brick, with marble casing, has in its outline
the ruinous aspect of great age, and is not in as good preservation as
the pyramids, although subsequently erected, not as an after-thought,
but in keeping with the great design.

But a visitor is announced as in the hall of reception; therefore, at
present, dear mother, farewell,





I have described my chariot ride through the plain of tombs, along the
magnificent causeway, which extends from the Lake of the Dead to the
feet of the sphinx. All that I beheld of the grandeur of the monuments
showed, that the Egyptians of past generations who built them, and lie
buried here, were a populous and powerful nation, in advance of all
others in the arts of life; since not only do the cities for the
living, but the "Homes of the Dead," attest their taste and love for
the beautiful and sublime in nature and art. The culmination of all
Egyptian marvels in architecture is the sphinx-guarded pyramidal

We approached the central pylon along a paved court, across which two
hundred chariots could have driven in a line. This court was entirely
surrounded by a double row of majestic columns, with the lotus-leaf
capitals I have before described. The vastness of their proportions
seemed to be increased by contrast with a group of priests, who looked
like pigmies in size as they stood by their bases. The gigantic
entablature, which united their summits, was covered with sacred
symbols, richly colored, and crowned with statues of kings, hewn out
of the dark-gray granite of Ethiopia. But some of these were mutilated
by Time, which, indeed, had thrown its mantle of decay over the
whole,--pillars, architecture, and sculpture; for this court is coeval
with the sphinx crouched at its entrance, and but a little later than
the two pyramids. In a few centuries, decay will have brought the
mighty fabric to the earth; for, massive as it looks, it is built of
brick, covered with pictured stucco; but the pyramids of stone, which
have withstood the lapse of ages beyond history, will last as long as
the everlasting hills of granite from which their enormous blocks were

Passing beneath the great portal, we found ourselves in the sacred
square of the temple of the Pyramids, and I could now perceive the
mighty design. Connected by stupendous columnar wings, the pyramids
rose in sublime grandeur on either hand. Their summits shone with the
light of the setting sun, which, reflected from the polished casing of
the pictured tiles yet remaining near the top, and that once covered
the whole surface from base to apex, lent a splendor to them
indescribable. On the opposite side of the quadrangle, formed by the
temple in front and the bases of the pyramids on the two sides, is a
dark grove of palms, intermingled with statues and altars; and beyond
rise the dark hills of Libya--a fitting and solemn background to the

About the summits of the Queen's Pyramid, which is a little smaller
than the other, though it appears to be of equal height, from the
superior elevation of the platform of rock on which it stands, soared
flocks of the white ibis, their snow-white wings flashing like pinions
of silver as they wheeled in mid-air. At that immense height they
looked no larger than sparrows.

A statue of Horus, whose name I had also seen inscribed on the tablet
of the temple of the Sphinx, rose a colossal monolith in the centre of
the quadrangle, with one of Thoth upon his right, and another of
Anubis on his left hand. These figures were symbolical of the funereal
use of the pyramids between which they stood.

After walking around the columned avenue of this great mausoleum, we
began the ascent of the larger pyramid, known as that of Cheops; the
other bearing the name of Chephres, as the high-priest informs me; and
the third, which towers in its own unaided grandeur farther to the
south, being that of Pharaoh-Men-Cherines. We found the ascent
extremely difficult--indeed, in ancient times it must have been
impossible, when its polished and beautiful casing remained entire;
but this having been removed by time and accident in many places, and
purposely in others, a path, if it may be so termed, is made to the
summit. We were aided by attendants of the temple, who from long
practice ascend with ease, assisting also those strangers who would
climb the perilous height.

As we reached half-way, a block, which had been removed from its place
either by the irresistible force of a sirocco from the desert, or by
lightning, gave the high-priest and myself a welcome resting-place.

As we stood here a few moments, I looked down upon the prospect below.
The sight at first made me dizzy, for we were elevated four hundred
feet above the base. I seemed to be suspended upon wings above an
abyss, and a dreadful desire to throw myself out into mid-air seized
me; so that to resist it I closed my eyes and clung firmly to the
attendant. It soon passed off, and I gazed down upon the vast
quadrangle, the persons in which looked no bigger than ants, while the
three colossi of the gods, in the centre, were reduced to the natural
size of men.

Opposite, not six hundred cubits distant, stood Chephres. From each
pyramid swept the avenues of columns and the great wall connecting
both with the central temple and its pylon. From the grove of palms,
curled up into the pure orange-colored atmosphere a blue cloud of
incense, where some priest offered at one of its shrines.

Again we mounted upwards, and, after incredible fatigue, gained the
summit--not without peril, for a slip of the foot or the hand, each
block being as high as a man's neck, would prove fatal. Indeed, more
than one life has been lost in falling down the side of the pyramid. A
prince of Midian, a country in Arabia, lost his life last century by
losing his hold and falling from Chephres, which is more difficult of
ascent than Cheops, (or Chuphu), as the priests there call its name.

How shall I describe to you, my dear mother, the scene which burst
upon my vision, as I gazed about me from this mountain-like elevation!
As I ascended, the prospect of the country enlarged at every step, but
now I seemed to behold the earth itself spread out beneath me. The
place where we stood, which looks from below like a sharp apex, is a
platform several cubits across, on which twenty men could stand or
move about with ease.

I can give you no adequate conception of the scene I beheld. First,
the valley of the Nile was visible, extending for many leagues to the
right and left, and resembling a green belt a few miles wide, through
which the river flowed like a silver band--while upon its borders
countless cities were set like precious stones. It was a gorgeous and
magnificent assemblage of cities, temples, palaces, obelisks, villas,
gardens, monuments, avenues of trees and sphinxes, sepulchres,
aqueducts, statue-lined causeways, galleys and pleasure barges,
chariots, horses, and multitudes of people. Nor should I omit what now
became visible in one field of view, to the north and south. I mean
not less than one hundred pyramids, all much smaller than the mighty
triad, but each, had not the others been up-builded, would have been a
marvel of grandeur.

"Those are all tombs of kings, but of a later age than this one," said
the hierarch, looking towards them. "Each monarch, at the commencement
of his reign, laid the foundation of a pyramid. He built first a small
one, containing his sarcophagus and sepulchral chamber. Then every
year he added to the outside a complete layer of stones, which, after
many years, extended its base, and increased its elevation in like
proportions. Therefore the size of the pyramids marks the age to which
the king lived."

"Then," said I, "the kings who built the multitude of lesser pyramids,
which we behold in the distance, must have had much shorter lives than
the builders of these vast piles."

"You are right, O prince," he said. "When the pyramid, on which we now
stand, and its companions were builded, men's lives were of the
duration of a thousand years."

"That was before the traditional deluge?" I replied, with surprise and

"True, O Prince of Tyre!" he answered. "These two great pyramids, say
our sacred books, were the work of the giants who lived in the days
before the flood of Noachis, or Noah. They are the tombs of their
kings, and were centuries in being built according to our years. And
when the gods brought the unknown oceans over the earth, to punish the
nations which living so long became as wise as the gods, but at the
same time grew as wicked as wise, these vast sepulchres withstood,
like the lesser hills, the waters of desolation, and remained in
ruinous grandeur, not only as witnesses of the flood, but monuments of
a past people whose towers, as well as tombs, reached unto the
heavens. You see these pyramids, and how they are now defaced by the
billows that dashed against and over them. Anciently, when they were
completed, their whole surfaces were encased with beautiful tiles of
the brightest blue and purest white, inlaid alternately in perfect
squares. Upon this magnificent encasing was inscribed, in pictorial
signs, the history of man; but no person has ever interpreted them.
You see, my prince, that here, at the top, are a few strata still
remaining of this rich encasement; all the rest having been destroyed
by the deluge--by the abrasion of the waves, and the hurling against
its sides of mighty ships, driven by the huge and angry billows which
rolled like a boiling sea across the earth. Thus you behold these vast
structures, as it were in ruins, yet still retaining fragmentary
portions of their original glory and beauty. When the waters departed,
the gods limited the lives of men to one hundred years; hence the
pyramids that the kings this side the flood have erected are
comparatively small in magnitude."

"But the third, was it not built before the flood?"

"I did not intend you should so understand," he answered. "It was
commenced before the flood by the king who was destroyed thereby. But
the son of the wise and good Prince Noah completed it during the
several hundred years that he lived--as did his father also--after the
flood; for it was only the lives of their descendants that were to be
limited. Thus Amun, says tradition, finished the third pyramid, but
did not encase it, as the art was lost by the deluge which had
destroyed those who were skilled in it. There are other accounts, my
prince, but they either come near this one, or so far differ from it
that they are entitled to no credit."

"It is _your_ opinion, then, O high-priest, that these two pyramids
were built by the giants of the ages before the great deluge?" I

"I have no other one," he replied firmly. "When the age of man was
shortened to one hundred years from one thousand, his stature was also
lessened. Hence the men of the ages since the flood cannot build a
pyramid like one of these. All the power of engines and art cannot
uprear such stones six hundred feet into the air. This is giants'

"Then you believe that there were giants in the earth in the days
before the flood?" I said, doubtingly.

"These pyramids attest the fact," he replied, with an impressive
gesture of his right hand towards the opposite one. "Noah himself,
says tradition, and his sons, Chephres, Chufu, and Amun or
Men-Cherines, were gigantic, and are worshipped as gods, as you know,
not only here and in Syria and Ethiopia, but in the Orient, and beyond
the seas, under various names. In the third pyramid Amun was entombed.
In the second is Chephres, or Chefret, who, when an aged king, was
brought from the place where he died, and placed in a sarcophagus
above the chamber where lay the king who found sepulture there before
the flood. Within the pyramid on which we are, rest the sacred bones
of the Prince-god Noah, who, at the age of nine hundred and fifty
years, came hither to be buried by the side of his eldest son
Chephres. 'Such a mourning of the nations, all of whom sprung from his
loins, the earth never knew, and will never witness more,' say the
sacred scrolls of the temples. All kings, and queens, and princes, and
lords, and nobles, of every realm followed the embalmed body of their
father and deity; and King Menes, his grandson, went up from Egypt
with all the hosts of the land to meet the funeral procession, and to
receive the divine body. Cheops is but another name for Noah. Here
also is entombed Menes."

Such, my dear mother, is the priestly tradition of the pyramids. We,
of Tyre, have a myth that the Father of the Flood is buried in
Damascus; but though Egyptians love to concentrate all history around
their own land, and make Egypt the cradle of the human race, yet as
this tradition seems to be better founded than ours, and as they can
point to the grand tombs of these kings of the flood, I am ready to
concede to her the honor which she claims of being the place of
sepulture of the giants who survived the deluge. And what fitter
tombs, than these eternal mountains of granite, could the progenitors
of the race repose in! Fit sepulchres are these in their grandeur of
proportions, for men whose stature was gigantic, and whose lives
extended through a thousand years!

But I must return to the prospect from the summit of this mausoleum of
giants. The sun was near the horizon, and sent his level and mingled
rose, golden, and purple beams aslant across the valley. The air was
perfectly clear, and our view unimpeded in all directions.

To the south, along the verdant plain of the Nile, the pyramids shone
in the sun as if sheathed with plates of gold. Palms, temples,
obelisks in pairs, and pylones were mingled with them in the richest
confusion; while as far as the eye could penetrate they receded into
the desert, till their size was diminished by distance to shining

Turning my eyes to the west, the yellow plain of Libya, with its rocky
hills inclosing the verdant valley of the Nile in that direction,
rolled away to the edge of the horizon, an arid, undulating,
illimitable expanse, which, under the sun, blazed like a lake of fire
from the burning reflection of its sands. The contrast of this realm
of desolation, and its storm-piled drifts of gray, brown, and dusky
sand, lying so near the groves, and green fields, and blooming gardens
which surrounded the pyramids and extended to the base of the ridge,
was very remarkable. One part looked like the abode of Osiris, full of
beauty, and light, and happiness: the other like that of Typhon, or
the spirit of evil, who strove, ever battling with his storms of sand,
to invade, overwhelm, and desolate these scenes of beauty! And, ere
many centuries, his arid hosts threaten to sweep past the pyramids,
and to overleap the very gates of Memphis! But at present, all the
land within the hills is a region of delight, presenting a pleasing
contrast, with its perennial green, to the desolate and savage realm
of the desert. Luxuriantly covered with verdure; bright with golden
wheat-fields, charming green meadows, foliage of every variety; groups
of trees rising from a thousand courts; countless villages everywhere,
and myriads of brilliant lakes, it was a scene of unmixed beauty.
Jizeh, a little to the east, with its temple-palaces and gardens,
filled the view. Farther east lay, first, the glorious city of Apis,
its squares, avenues, lakes, groves, fanes, and monuments, all open to
the eye like a magnificent picture. Beyond the glittering Nile, the
banks of which were rich with fertility and adorned with villas, I
beheld Raamses, and still farther Pythom, the treasure-cities, in the
fair expanse of the land of Goshen,--alas! beautiful only to the eye,
for upon it rests the dark shadow of Hebrew bondage; and south, a few
miles, after a thousand scenes of rural beauty fill the vision,
towers, like the throne of the kingdom, the city of the Lord of the
Sun, its gorgeous temple and forest of obelisks flinging back the
sunbeams with a splendor that fills the soul with wonder and delight!

"O happy, glorious, mighty Egypt! what a blessed and favored land art
thou! With one foot upon the seven mouths of thy mighty river, another
upon Ethiopia, and thy head in the clouds, all nations bow down to thy
might and greatness! Leader of the kingdoms of the earth! what a
future is thine, if thy kings and rulers are true to thee and to

The hierarch heard me utter these words, for I spake aloud in my
wonder at the glory of this kingdom and the magnificence of her power.

"The future of Egypt, my prince, no man can foresee. But the sacred
books contain a prophecy, that during one cycle of a soul, three
thousand years, she will be a nation despised and ruled by kings of
another race, and all that will remain to her will be her defaced
pyramids and temples; the marvel of which will bring strangers from
the ends of the earth, curious to gaze upon these mute witnesses of
her ancient power and glory."

"The gods forbid!" I said warmly.

"The gods," he answered, "govern the earth, and do what they will with
its kingdoms. These sacred papyri also speak of Tyre and prophesy its
desolation, and say that the empire of commerce shall be removed to an
unknown world beyond the great sea of the West, and that a race yet
unborn shall sway the destinies of the earth, and another religion
shall prevail in the hearts of men."

"What are these papyri?" I asked.

"Books which have been handed down from the first kings, who in their
turn received them from the ancient gods."

I turned away sorrowfully at the thought of this prediction, my dear
mother. The idea that Tyre, which now sits a queen upon the shores of
her sea, will ever be desolate, is not possible for me to conceive.
May her prosperity and peace be prolonged to the ends of the ages!

We now turned to descend this elevation, from whence the heart of
Egypt lay open before us. The sight of the sheer eight hundred feet
along the inclined side of the pyramid was fearful. The projections
which were to receive our feet were not apparent; and we commenced the
descent with the greatest caution, being obliged to lower ourselves
from block to block; and where the encasement of tiles remained, we
were sustained by the iron heads of short spears with which each of us
was provided, a hook being secured at the opposite end.

At length we reached the broad terrace which surrounds the pyramid,
and upon which are statues and small sphinxes facing outward. Between
two of large size, representing Osiris and Isis, we descended a broad
flight of steps to an ancient gate, which, as I was told, led to the
entrance of the pyramid. The passage, however, has not been opened for
many centuries--the piety of the Pharaohs permitting the mighty dead
to rest in their granite tumuli undisturbed by curiosity or cupidity.

When we had crossed the court, the priest ascended with me one of the
towers of the pylon. From thence he showed me a mass of rock lying in
a position which answered, in reference to the main pyramid, to that
which the sphinx occupied.

"Seest thou, O prince," he said, "that isolated rock? The ancients
intended to chisel it also into a sphinx to match this one, for they
used to place them in pairs, like their obelisks. But the grand
conception has never been carried out; and you perceive that our noble
queen, Amense, is erecting the pyramid of her years so near, that it
in part stands upon it. Two such sphinxes crouched in front of Cheops
would have been an entrance to the mausoleum worthy of it, and of him
who reposes therein. Instead of carrying out this original design, the
great temple and colossal wings have been built, and the avenue from
the sphinx so turned aside by a slight angle, as to terminate at the
central pylon; thereby making one sphinx answer the purpose of two,
but at the sacrifice of proportion; for the twofold grandeur of the
combined pyramids lessens the impression of the single sphinx, while
the two reposing before Cheops alone, would have been in keeping with
its majesty."

As it was now sunset, we hastened to our chariot and drove back to the
city, along the magnificent causeway I have before described.

Upon my return to the palace of the high-priest, and after describing
to his beautiful daughter, Luxora, the incidents of my visit, she
said, with an arch smile--

"You ought not, O Sesostris, to have come away without seeing the
emerald table of Hermes!"

"I heard nothing of it, lady," I answered. "I have, moreover, seen
splendor enough for one day. What and where is this table?"

"In the central chamber of the great pyramid. The people of Egypt
believe the tradition, and so also have some of its kings."

"What is the tradition?" I asked. "But first, do you believe it?"

"With all my heart. I never doubted it since I was a child," she
answered, smiling, yet with a tone of sincerity. "My father thinks if
it were true, it would have been removed when the god Noachis was
placed there."

"It is not in the chamber of the sarcophagus, sister," said Osiria,
the sister younger than Luxora--a maiden remarkable for her
sprightliness and intelligence; "it is in a vault of crystal _under_
the pyramid."

"You are right, my dear sister," replied the elder, gracefully. "I
will tell the prince the legend."

"Then I will tell him _mine_," said Osiria, with an arch look. "I know
he will like mine the best."

"Because he likes you the best, is it?" her sister replied, playfully.
"But have a care, Osiria; our guest is betrothed to a great princess
in his own country."

"That need not prevent him from being my good friend in this,"
responded Osiria, pleasantly.

"Your tradition, noble Luxora?" I asked.

"It is this. In the ancient days of the earth, before the deluge of
the gods, the thrice great Hermes, who knew all the secrets of
alchemy, engraved them upon an emerald table and placed it in a cave,
which he sealed up. His motive for doing this was both to preserve
them and to conceal them from men--for the race of man had grown so
wicked, that they made use of what they knew of alchemy to injure one
another and defy the deities, answering back the thunder of heaven
with thunders of their own. Over this cave the first pyramid was
built, and there the emerald table, with all its secrets, so dear to
our sex, has remained to this hour!"

I thanked Luxora for her legend, and assured her that I had quite as
much curiosity to see the wonderful emerald as she had.

"But if it were discovered," said Osiria, "who could read and
understand the writing upon it! Now, O prince, hear _my_ tradition;
for, having visited the pyramids, it will be agreeable to you to hear
all that is said about them."

"I will listen with the greatest pleasure," I answered.

But, dear mother, I will here close this long letter, and reserve, for
the commencement of my next, the singular tradition related to me by

 Your affectionate son,




I have much of interest concerning which to write to you in this
letter; but will first redeem my promise to give you the traditional
story narrated by the lovely Osiria, daughter of the pontiff of
Memphis. Her father came in as she commenced, and smilingly said--

"Daughter, are you about to overthrow the prince's faith in the true
history of the pyramids, by a fanciful legend?"

"No, my dear father," she answered; "I only desire him to know all he
can about these mighty monuments of a former world, and if he does not
believe with me in the legend, it will at least interest him."

I assured the beautiful maiden that it would without doubt interest
me, and possibly upon hearing it I might receive it "as the most
reliable account of the origin of the pyramids."

"Not in opposition," said the high-priest, with a smile, "to the
sacred books."

"Not in opposition," said Luxora, archly, "to my emerald table."

"Let the prince, dear father, and sister, hear and judge," said the
youngest daughter; and commenced as follows:

"A very long time ago--before the time of the vast deluge, when all
the oceans that roll around the world's verge met in the centre and
overflowed the highest mountains--a king, whose name was Saurida
Salhouhis, was informed by his astrologers that seven stars had fallen
into the sea, betokening a great overflow thereof. He answered, 'The
mountains of my kingdom are higher than the ocean, and will defy its

"The next year his astrologers again came to him, and said that the
sun was covered with dark spots, and that a comet was visible with a
crest of fire, and threatened evil to the earth. The same night the
king dreamed that the mountains became plains, and that all the stars
of heaven were extinguished. On awakening he called his one hundred
and forty-four priests, and commanding them to consult the gods,
received for answer, that the earth was to be drowned. Thereupon he
commenced building the two pyramids, and ordered vaults to be made
under them, which he filled with the riches and treasures of his
kingdom. He prepared seven tables or shields of pure gold, on which he
engraved all the sciences of the earth, all the knowledge he had
learned from his wise men, the names of the subtle alkalies, and
alakakirs, and the uses and hurts of them; and all the mysteries of
astrology, physics, geometry, and arithmetic."

"These seven golden tables of my sister's legend," said Luxora,
laughing, "are not near so wonderful as my table of emerald."

"Lest," said Osiria, "you should imagine I am drawing upon my fancy, I
will read to you the remainder of the tradition from the ancient book
in the keeping of the priests of Amun, in the Thebaïd, given me by my
mother, who was the daughter of the priest of the sacred house there."

Having thus spoken the maiden retired, and, after a few minutes
absence, returned, followed by a Hebrew woman carrying a pictured
scroll, such as I had never before seen. Aided by her attendant, she
unrolled it for several cubits, and having found the legend, commenced
to read (a rare art among Egyptian ladies, except daughters of the
learned priests) as follows,--the tall and stately Hebrew supporting
the roll rather with an air of royal condescension than of submission:

"After the king, Saurida Salhouhis, had given orders for the building
of the pyramids, the workmen cut out gigantic columns, vast stones,
and wonderful pillars hewn of single rocks. From the mountains of
Ethiopia they fetched enormous masses of granite, and from Nubia of
gray porphyry, and made with these the foundations of the pyramids,
fastening the stones together by bars of lead and bands of iron. They
built the gates forty cubits under ground, and made the height of them
one hundred royal cubits, each of which is equal to six of ours; and
each side also was made a hundred royal cubits in extent. The
beginning of this undertaking happened under a fortunate horoscope,
and resulted successfully. After he had finished the larger of the
pyramids, the king covered it with blue satin from the top to the
bottom, and appointed a solemn festival, at which were present all the
inhabitants of his kingdom.

"Then in this great pyramid he built thirty treasure-chambers, which
he filled with an immense store of riches,--precious vessels,
signatures of agates, bloodstones, and cornelian, instruments of iron,
earthen vases, arms which rust not, and crystal which might be bended
yet not broken, strange shells, and deadly poisons, with many other
things besides. He made, in the west pyramid, a subterranean hall with
divers spheres and stars in the vaulted roof, placed in their
celestial houses, as they appear in the sky, each in his own aspect;
and he deposited here the perfumes which are burned to them, and the
books that treat of their mysteries. He placed, also, in the colored
pyramid the scrolls of the priests, in chests of black marble, every
chest having upon it a book with leaves of brass, in which were
inscribed the duties and wonders of the priesthood, its nature, and
the mode of worship in his time; and, in a chest of iron, were seven
books which revealed what was, and is, and shall be from the beginning
to the end of time.

"In every pyramid he placed a treasurer: the treasurer of the western
pyramid was a statue of red marble-stone, standing upright by the door
of the treasure-house,--a lance in his hand, and about his head a
wreathed serpent. Whosoever came near the door, and stood still, the
serpent entwined about the throat, and, killing him, returned to its

"The treasurer of the colored pyramid was an idol of black agate,
sitting upon a throne, with a lance in its hand, and its eyes open and
shining. If any mortal looked upon it, he heard a voice so terrible
that his senses fled away from him, and he fell prostrate upon his
face and died.

"The treasurer of his seven tables of gold was a statue of stone,
called Albutis, in a sitting posture: whosoever looked towards it, was
drawn to the statue till he was pressed against it so hard that he
died there. Over the portal of each he caused to be written:

"'I, King Saurid, built the pyramids in six years. He that comes after
me, and says he is equal to me, let him destroy them in six hundred
years. It is easier to pluck down than to build up. I also covered
them, when I had finished them, with satin; and let him cover them
with mats of grass.'

"Here ends the record on the scroll," said the maiden. "Miriam, thou
wilt roll it up, and place it whence I took it, in the sacred shrine
of books."

The Hebrew woman, whose appearance was so remarkable for dignity and a
certain air of command, that I could not but regard her with interest,
then rolled up the book, and moved quietly, but with a stately step,
from the room. As she went out, attracted by my close scrutiny, she
fixed upon me a large pair of splendid eyes, dark and beautiful, and
lighted up by the inward fire of an earnest spirit. Her age was about
eight or nine and forty. I do not know why, in looking at her, I
thought of Remeses, now at Thebes, waiting to assemble his vast army;
perhaps there was a style of face and shape of the eye that recalled

"Who is this Hebrew woman?" I asked; for though I have been several
days a guest of the high-priest, I had not before seen her.

"My assistant and copier of the scrolls and papyrus leaves, in the
Hall of the Sacred Books," answered Osiria; "for know, O prince, that
I am my father's scribe, and have the care of all the rolls of the

"Nor can any temple," interposed the hierarch, "boast so orderly a
chamber of books as mine; neither do I see any copies of prayers and
rites so beautifully done as those by Osiria."

"I do not deserve all the praise, my father," answered the maiden;
"for the rich coloring of the heading cartouches of chapters, as well
as the graceful form of the characters, is due to Miriam."

"What the servant does the master is praised for," answered the
priest, smilingly. "But you have not told the prince the whole of the

"It is true. I must now state how the pyramid was opened by one of the
Phœnician conqueror kings. This Philistine warrior, whose barbaric
name I have forgotten, and do not wish to remember, on seeing the
pyramids, demanded to know what was within them. He was answered by
the priest of the sphinx, who is the guardian of the two pyramids,
that 'they contained the embalmed bodies of the ancient gods, and
first kings of men, the emerald and golden tablets, and all the
treasures of gold, silver, and works of art, and every thing which
appertained to the world before the deluge,--all of which had been
preserved by them from the waters, and were now therein.'

"Hearing this, this king told them he would have them opened. All the
priests assured him that it could not be done; but he replied, 'I will
have it certainly done.' So the engineers of his army opened a place
in the great pyramid by means of fire and vinegar; smiths aided the
work with sharpened iron and copper wedges, and huge engines to remove
the stones. It was a vast work, as the thickness of the wall was
twenty cubits. They were many months reaching an apartment within,
where they found a ewer made of bright-green emerald, containing a
thousand dinars, very weighty, one hundred chœnixes of gold-dust,
twenty blocks of ebony, a hundred tusks of ivory, and a thousand
ounces of rings of Arabic gold.

"This was all he found, for beyond this small chamber the workmen
could not penetrate, by reason of the three treasure-keepers,
namely,--the awful statue, with an enwreathed serpent upon his head;
the statue of agate, with the terrible voice; and the statue of stone,
with the power to draw every one to him, and press him to death
between his arm and his iron breast."

"Then said the king, 'Cast up the cost of making this entrance.' So
the money expended being computed, lo! it was the same sum which they
had found; it neither exceeded nor was defective. So he closed up the
opening and went his ways, seeing that the gods were against him.

"Many years afterwards, another king opened the other pyramid, and
found a passage which descended far below in the earth, in the
direction of the centre of the pyramid. By it he reached a
subterranean chamber far beneath the level of the foundation, almost
directly under the apex. In it was a square well, on each side of
which were doors opening into subterranean passages; these he
followed, and at length reached a gate of brass, which he perceived
led into the foundations of the greater pyramid. But he could not open
it, nor has any power been sufficient to do so to this day. Returning
he found another side passage, leading into the pyramid and so upward,
to a vaulted room, containing the mighty sarcophagus of the great
Noah. This dead monarch of two worlds, before and after the deluge,
was reposing in calm majesty in his colossal mummy-case, which was
covered with plates of gold. Upon his head was a crown of emerald
olive-leaves, each leaf an emerald; and upon his breast, a white dove,
made of one pearl. Leaving with awe the father of the world to his
sublime and eternal repose, guarded only by the pure white dove, the
king, in retiring, found, to his great joy, a narrow passage, which
led upward towards the top of the pyramid. It conducted him and his
attendants to a chamber with twelve sides, on each of which was
pictured one of the constellations in the path of the precession of
the equinoxes, in their motion towards the west. The floor was of
polished ivory, inlaid with silver stars, dispersed over it as they
appeared in their heavenly places when the pyramid was completed. The
seven planets, including the sun and the moon, were represented in the
ceiling, each one in a panel of silver, with its deity,--all inlaid
with silver and precious stones.

"In the centre of this 'Hall of the Universe,' was a hollow stone:
when the king entered the chamber, the stone vanished at the pressure
of his feet on the floor, and a statue larger than life, of pure
crystal, was displayed to his sight. This statue represented a king
upon whom was a breastplate of gold set with jewels; on his breast was
a stone of incalculable price, and over his head, a carbuncle of the
shape and bigness of the sacred egg of the phœnix, shining like the
light of the day. He held upon his left arm a shield formed of one
single topaz, upon which were characters written with a pen, that
neither the king, nor the wise men, nor astrologers, nor magicians,
nor the priests who knew all languages, could interpret. Suddenly
darkness filled the place, their torches were extinguished, and save
only the king who had with him his diamond-set signet, which shed
light before his steps, no one ever returned to the entrance; nor
could he ever find the chamber of the statue again. But the first
passage to the subterranean chamber remains open to this day, by which
men descend; and others are from time to time discovered; the
treasury-chambers, however, remain sealed to the eyes of men!"

When the intelligent Osiria had ended her account, I gratefully
expressed to her my appreciation of her kindness in giving me such
interesting information. She accepted my thanks in the graceful manner
which characterizes Egyptian ladies of rank. The magnificent Luxora
said, with a charming air of feigned provocation--

"With your brilliant tradition, sister, you have quite thrown into the
shade my poor solitary emerald table!"

"There is no doubt whatever, O Sesostris," said their father, who had
listened to the tradition as he sat in his ivory chair, in the rich
undress vestments he wore when not engaged in official acts in the
temple, "or rather, we of the priesthood do not doubt, that the
pyramids, at least the pair so nearly of a size and so close together,
were builded before the deluge, which, according to our astrologers,
took place under the dynasty of the demigods, about one thousand five
hundred and forty years ago, when the world was nearly two thousand
four hundred years old; but our books of mysteries give many more
thousands of years! In the most ancient temple of Thoth, at Thebes,
which is the true astronomical capital of the kingdom, as well as the
ecclesiastical one, there is a tablet in the ceiling of the adytum,
representing the configuration of the seven planets as they existed on
the first day after the creation. This was the beginning of the world,
and since that day the heavenly bodies have not stood thus again! Upon
the wall beneath it is a _stele_, portraying their position at the
time of the Noachic deluge. The arc of their celestial motion, between
the creation and the deluge, being accurately measured in the progress
of centuries, by astrologers of the houses of the mysteries, compared
with the arc measured for one thousand years since the deluge, shows
that the fixed stars, between the creation and the deluge, moved
thirty spaces of the thousand years along the zodiac westward. That
is, the arc of the zodiac was thirty times as large between the
creation and deluge, as between the deluge and the end of a thousand
years after it; while the seven planets changed their places in the
same proportions of time and change. Hence, guided by the march of the
heavenly bodies, they teach that thirty thousand years elapsed between
the creation and the deluge; since it would take that time to change
the configuration of the stars so greatly as to subtend so vast an arc
as their precession drew along the zodiacal path! But, as I have said,
the sacred books of the priests, who are governed only by the
planetary constellations, aided by tradition, give the number of years
I have previously stated."

"Do not the Egyptian astrologers," I asked, "give a period for a year
of the heavens to make one revolution through the zodiac?"

"It is one of their mysteries. Finishing upon a chart the arc of
precession which they measure on the zodiac they measure the whole
circle it will sweep, and calculate a cycle or period of thirty-six
thousand years, as the duration of one grand year of the universe!"

"As, then, thirty thousand years of this year of the stars passed
before the deluge, if the astrologers are correct in their sidereal
calculations," I remarked, "there are but four thousand and four
hundred and fifty years to the end of the first celestial year of

"Which," said Luxora, "they teach will terminate time; and the earth
will then be recreated, and there will be a new starry world, and the
year of the universe will be doubled to seventy-two thousand years;
and when twelve of these vast years are completed, the creation will
be dissolved and all things return to nothing as before the beginning
of time, and the souls of men will be absorbed in the Divine Essence!"

"You are remarkably well versed in astrology," I said to the
noble-looking young women.

"We are priest's daughters," she answered; "and from our father we
derive all our knowledge."

"Can you, then," I asked, "explain to me one thing that has been
alluded to in our conversation? I am desirous of knowing something
about the phœnix, which I see even now represented, inlaid in
ivory, upon this table of vases."

"I fear that I shall not be able, prince, to make you understand,
what, I confess, I am not well informed upon. The phœnix has always
been a mystery to me."

"I understand the bird," said Osiria, "to be the symbol of a star. But
I have never fully comprehended it. I have doubts if there be such an
extraordinary bird. Will you, father, gratify us and the Prince of
Tyre at the same time?"

The kind and courteous hierarch, before replying, laid down a
beautiful fishing-rod which he was arranging--it being a favorite
pastime of his leisure to sit in the pavilion before his windows, and
amuse himself by fishing in the oval lake that fills one of the areas
of his palace, and around which runs a columnar arcade, in whose cool
shade we take our walks for exercise in the heat of the day. And this
amusement, my dear mother, is not only a favorite one with him, but
with all Egyptian gentlemen; who also delight in hunting the gazelle
and other animals--keeping for the purpose leashes of trained dogs,
some of them very beautiful, and as swift as the winds. They are
singularly fond of having dogs accompany them in their walks, and
adorn them with gold or silver collars. The ladies also have pet dogs,
chosen either for their beauty, or--odd distinction--for their
peculiar ugliness. Luxora boasts a little dog, of the rare and admired
Osirtasen breed, which is as beautiful and symmetrical as a gazelle,
with soft, expressive eyes, and graceful movements; while Osiria
prides herself on a pet animal, the ugliness of which, as it seems to
me, is its only recommendation. Remeses has a noble, lion-like dog,
that he admits into his private sitting-room, and has for his
attendant at all times when he walks abroad. Nearly every lord has his
hounds; and to own a handsome dog is as much a mark of rank, as is the
slender acacia cane.

"The phœnix, according to the ancients," said the priest, "is a
bird of which there exists but one specimen in the world. It comes
flying from the east once in the course of six hundred and fifty-one
years, many other birds with dazzling wings bearing it company. It
reaches the City of the Sun about the time of the vernal equinox,
where it burns itself upon the roof of the temple, in the fire of the
concentrated rays of the sun, as they are reflected from the golden
shield thereon with consuming radiance. No sooner is it consumed to
ashes, than an egg appears in the funeral pyre, which the heat that
consumed the parent warms instantly into life, and out of it the same
phœnix comes forth, in full plumage, and spreading its wings it
flies away again, to return no more until the expiration of six
hundred and fifty-one years!"

"This is a very extraordinary story," I said.

"It is," answered the high-priest; "yet it has a simple explanation."

"I should be gratified to hear it," I answered.

"Do you believe, dear father," asked Osiria, "there ever was such a

"I have seen it," answered the priest, mysteriously. "But I will
gratify your curiosity. The first recorded appearance of this
phœnix was nineteen hundred and two years ago, in the reign of
Sesostris, a king of the twelfth Egyptian dynasty."

"The Pharaoh for whom I am named," I said.

"How came you, O prince, to have an Egyptian name?" asked Luxora.

"The memory of Sesostris the Great was highly venerated by my father,
and hence his selection of it for me; besides, I am related to the
Phœnician kings."

I had no sooner made this unlucky confession, than the two sisters
looked at their father, then interchanged glances, and appeared quite
embarrassed. I at once reflected that the memory of the Phœnician
dynasty is distasteful to the Egyptians; and that, by confessing my
alliance with them, I had risked their good-will. But the surprise
passed off instantly, for they were too well-bred to show any
continued feeling, and the priest resumed--

"The last appearance was six hundred years ago and in fifty-one years
he will reappear, to consume himself in the burning rays of the sun."

"I hope I shall be alive to see it," said Osiria, with animation.

"This singular myth," pursued the hierarch, "signifies to us of the
priests who are initiated into these astrological mysteries, nothing
more than the transit of the planet Mercury across the disk of the
sun. The fabulous bird, the phœnix, is an emblem of Mercury, as
Osiris is of the Sun, according to the teaching of the books of Isis."

"I perceive the whole truth now," I answered.

"What is it, my lord prince?" asked the sisters.

"There is but one planet Mercury, as there was but one phœnix. The
City of the Sun, or the Temple of the Sun, on which the phœnix was
said to consume himself, is simply the Sun, or the house of the god
Sun, in which Mercury, during his passage across the disk, may be said
to be consumed by fire. As the phœnix consumes himself once every
six hundred and fifty-one years, at the vernal equinox,--so say our
Sabæan books, kept in the Temple of Hercules at Tyre,--Mercury once
every six hundred and fifty-one years enters the flames of the sun on
nearly the same days of the year! As the phœnix flies from the east
westward to the City of the Sun, so the course of Mercury is from east
to west athwart the sun. While the phœnix in its passage to the
City of the Sun is attended by a flight of dazzling birds, so Mercury
in its passage across the disk of the sun is accompanied by bright,
scintillating stars in the heavens around. As the phœnix came forth
anew out of the flames which had consumed him to ashes, so Mercury,
while in the direct line of the sun, is lost to the vision as if
consumed, but, having crossed its disk, reappears and flies away on
his course again, resuming all his former splendor! Is not this a full
solution, my lord priest?" I asked.

"You have well solved the riddle," he answered; "and I must compliment
you on your knowledge of astrology, O prince. In Egypt we are
acquainted with this science, but it is not expected of strangers. In
all the years in which the phœnix, according to the 'Books of the
Stars,' is said to have destroyed himself with fire in the City of On,
Mercury has likewise performed his transits over the sun, according to
the calculations of our hierogrammatists, whose duty it is to keep
records of descriptions of the world, the course of the sun, moon, and
planets, and the condition of the land of Egypt, and the Nile."

When I had expressed my thanks to the noble and intelligent priest,
his wife, Nelisa, who entered a few moments before, said to him

"What a beautiful mystery you have destroyed with your science and
learning, my lord! I have from a child delighted in the mysterious
story of the phœnix."

"We have mysteries enough left in our mythology and astrology, my dear
wife," he answered. "There is scarcely a deity of the land who is not
in his origin a greater mystery than the phœnix. Around them all
are clouds and mists, often impenetrable by the limited reason of man;
and in many lands, as it was anciently in Egypt, the word for religion
is 'mystery.'"

The hierarch was now summoned by the sound of a sistrum to enter the
temple, with which his palace communicated--it being the hour of
evening prayer and oblation. The young ladies prepared to ride in a
beautiful chariot brought to the palace by their brother, a fine
specimen of the young Egyptian noble; while the lady of the house left
me, to return and oversee her numerous servants in their occupation of
making confections and pastry, and preparing fruits for a festivity
that is to take place in the evening, I believe, in my honor; for,
were I a son, I could not be more cordially regarded than beneath the
hospitable roof of the hierarch of Memphis.

As I was proceeding along the corridor which leads past the "Hall of
Books," I saw through the open door the stately and handsome Hebrew
woman Miriam. She was engaged in coloring, with cakes of the richest
tints before her, a heading to a scroll of papyrus. Her noble profile
was turned to my view. I started with surprise and a half exclamation,
for I beheld in its grand and faultless outline the features of
Remeses! How wonderful it is that he so strikingly resembles two, nay
three, of this foreign race!--not only this woman, though much older
than Remeses, and the venerable under-gardener Amram, but also a third
Hebrew whom I have met under singular circumstances. I will defer,
however, my dear mother, to another letter the account of it, as well
as of my interview with Miriam; for, hearing my exclamation, she
looked up and smiled so courteously that I asked permission to enter
and examine the work she was so skilfully executing with her pencil.

The hierarch, the lady Nelisa, and their daughters Luxora and Osiria,
desire to unite with me in my regards to you.

 Your affectionate son,




I have received from the Prince Remeses a letter informing me of the
arrival of each division of his army, chariots, horse, and footmen,
with the fleets under the viceroy Mœris, at the city of the
Thebaïd. They entered it, however, as conquerors, for the Ethiopian
king had already taken possession of it with his advanced guard.

I will quote to you from the letter of the prince:

 "I trust, my dear Sesostris," he writes, "that you are passing your
 time both with pleasure and profit, in visiting places of interest in
 the valley of the Lower Nile, and in studying the manners and usages
 of the people. You will find the pyramids an exhaustless source of
 attraction. From the priests, who are the most intelligent and
 learned class in Egypt, you will obtain all the information
 respecting those mysterious monuments of the past, which is known,
 besides many legends.

 "The idea of their antediluvian origin is by no means an unlikely
 one. As we travel down the past, at every epoch we find the pyramids
 uplifting their lofty heads into the skies! Still we move down the
 path of ages, and see the throne of the first mortal king
 overshadowed by their hoary tops! Farther back, against their bases,
 beat the receding waves of the deluge; for between the king of the
 first dynasty and the flood, there seems to be no interval in which
 they could have been upreared, even if there were time for a nation
 to rise and advance in power, civilization, art, and wealth, adequate
 to the product of such gigantic geometric works. Either our
 chronology is at fault, or the pyramids must have been constructed by
 the antediluvian demigods, and have outstood the strength of the
 surging seas which rolled over the earth. You will, however, no
 doubt, hear all that is to be said, and judge for yourself.

 "My army is in fine order. You already have learned, by my courier to
 the queen, how the dark-visaged, barbaric King Occhoris entered
 Thebes the day of our arrival in the suburbs. Upon receiving
 intelligence that the van of my forces, which was cavalry, had just
 reached the sepulchres of the Pharaohs below the city, I pushed
 forward, joined them, and, at their head, entered the city; while the
 main body of the troops of the Ethiopian king was moving on from
 Edfu. But Occhoris had already been driven from his position in the
 palace of the Pharaohs, by an infuriated and insulted populace. The
 barbarian monarch, after entering the city without opposition, at the
 head of two hundred chariots, six hundred horse, and his gigantic
 body-guard of Bellardines, consisting of a thousand men in iron
 helmets, round shields, and heavy short-swords, in order to show his
 contempt of our national religion, here in what has been called both
 its cradle and its throne, commanded to be led into the temple of the
 sacred Bull, a wild African buffalo,--a bull of a species as
 ferocious as the lion,--and ordered him to be let loose against the
 god. The fierce animal charged upon him as he stood in the holy
 adytum with his curators, and, overthrowing him, gored him to death
 in a few moments. Thereupon the priests raised the wild cry of
 vengeance for sacrilege. It was caught up by the people, and borne
 from tongue to tongue through the city in a few moments of time.
 Fearless, indifferent to the arms of the soldiers, the three hundred
 and seventy priests of the temple, armed only with their sacrificial
 knives, rushed upon the barbarian and his guard. The Ethiopians
 rallied about their monarch, and for ten priests they slew, ten-score
 filled their places. The floor of the temple became a battle-field.
 Occhoris, and the sixty men who entered the temple with him, formed
 themselves into a solid phalanx, facing their furious assailants, who
 seemed to think they could not die. Gaining at length the door, the
 king received reinforcements. But by this time the whole city was in
 an uproar and under arms, and the people, who feared Occhoris in the
 morning, and refused to oppose him, now knew no fear. The issue of
 this fearful combat was, that the sacrilegious king was forced to
 retire with the loss of two thirds of his body-guard, and nearly
 every chariot and rider; for the avenging people with knives crept
 beneath the horses and stabbed them to death; while others, leaping
 upon horsemen and chariots, dragged them to the ground, and put them
 to death. Not less than four thousand of the citizens of Thebes
 perished in the act of pious vengeance. Before I entered the city I
 heard the cries, the shouts, the ringing of weapons, and the whole
 tumult of war; and, making my way over heaps of slain that lay in the
 great 'avenue of the gods,' I pursued the retiring monarch beyond the
 gates. He regained the head of his army, and came to a halt near the
 ancient temple of Amun on the Nile. My whole army are now in advance
 of Thebes, in order of battle, awaiting a threatened attack from the
 Ethiopian king. My headquarters are at the palace of Amunophis I.,
 from which he departed nearly a century ago to drive the foreign
 kings from Memphis. I felt a deep interest in being in the house of
 my great ancestor. I have also visited the palace of my father, the
 Prince of Thebes, who was slain, not long before my birth, in battle
 with the Ethiopians. I have paid a visit to his tomb; and as I stood
 gazing upon the reposing dead in the royal mausoleum hewn from the
 solid mountain, I wondered if his soul were cognizant that a son,
 whom he had never seen to bless with a father's benediction, was
 bending sorrowfully over the stone sarcophagus that held his remains.

 "To-morrow we join battle with the barbaric king. From the tower of
 the pylon which looks towards the south, I see his vast army, with
 its battalion of elephants, its host of brazen chariots, its horsemen
 and footmen as numerous as the leaves. But I feel confident of
 victory. Prince Mœris has moved his galleys on the opposite side,
 in order to ascend secretly by night and gain the rear of the enemy,
 who are without boats. My chariots, some five hundred in number, have
 been crossed over in safety to this side, to co-operate with the
 Prince of Thebes. They are now drawn up in the wide, superb
 serpentine avenue the 'sacred way' of Thebes, lined with sphinxes and
 statues which adorn this vast circle of temples to the gods.

 "You shall hear from me after the battle. If we defeat and pursue
 Occhoris, we shall return to Memphis soon. If we are defeated and
 driven back upon Thebes--which the great God of battles forbid!--I
 know not how long the campaign will continue. I hope my mother, the
 queen, is well. Convey to her my most respectful and tender
 remembrances, and receive from me, beloved prince, the assurances of
 my personal regard and friendship.


In the mean while, my dear mother, until I have further news from
Prince Remeses, I will give you an account of the conversation I held
with the papyrus-copier and decorator, Miriam, the Hebrewess.

"You are wonderfully skilled in the art," I said to her, as I surveyed
the piece before her, which she said was the commencement of a copy of
a funeral ritual for the priests of Athor.

"I have been many years engaged in transcribing," she answered with
modest dignity, without raising her eyes to my face.

"I have not seen you before in the palace, though I have often been in
this hall," I said, feeling awakened in me an interest to learn more
of the extraordinary people who toil for the crown of Egypt, and whose
ancestors have been princes.

"I have been at Raamses for a few days. My mother was ill, and I
hastened to her."

"I hope your return is a proof of her recovery," I said kindly.

She raised her splendid eyes to my face, with a look in them of
surprise. If I interpreted aright their meaning, it was, "Can this
prince take any interest in the welfare of a Hebrew woman?" Seeing
that my own eyes encountered hers with a look of friendly concern, she
spoke, and said:

"She is better."

Her voice had a mellow and rich cadence in it, wholly different from
the low, silvery tones with which the Egyptian ladies speak.

"I rejoice with you," I said.

She slowly shook her superb head, about which the jet-black hair was
bound in a profusion of braids. There were tones in her voice, too,
that again recalled Prince Remeses. Hence the secret of the interest
that I took in conversing with her.

"Why do you shake your head?" I asked.

"Why should the Hebrew wish to prolong life?"

She said this in a tone of deep emotion, but continued her occupation,
which was now copying a leaf of brilliantly colored hieroglyphic
inscriptions into the sort of running-hand the Egyptians make use of
in ordinary intercourse. There are three modes of tracing the
characters of this system of writing; and scribes adopt one, which,
while it takes the hieroglyph for its copy, represents it by a few
strokes that often bear, to the uninitiated eye, no resemblance to the
model. This mode the Hebrewess was making use of, writing it with ease
and elegance.

"Life to you, in this palace, under such a gentle mistress as Osiria,
cannot be bitter."

"I have no want. I am treated here as if I were not of the race of the
Hebrews. But, my lord," she said, elevating slightly her noble-toned
voice, though not raising her eyes, "I am not so selfish, believe me,
as to have no thought beyond my own personal comfort. How can I be
happy, even amid all the kindness I experience in this virtuous
family, when my heart is oppressed with the bondage of my people? Thou
art but a stranger in Egypt, O prince,--for I have heard of thee, and
who thou art,--and yet thou hast seen and felt for my people!"

"I have, indeed, seen their misery and toil; but how didst thou know

"From the venerable Ben Isaac, whose son Israel thou didst pity and
relieve at the fountain of the shepherds." She said this gratefully
and with feeling.

"Thou didst hear of this?"

"He was of my kinsfolk. They told me of your kindness with tears and
blessings; for it is so unusual with our people to hear in Egypt the
voice of pity, or behold a look of sympathy!"

"I hope the lad recovered," I said, feeling that her knowledge of that
little incident had removed from between us the barrier which
separates entire strangers. Besides, dear mother, it is impossible for
me, a Syrian, to look upon the Hebrew people, who are also Syrians by
descent from Abram, the Syrian prince, with Egyptian eyes and
prejudices. They regard them as slaves, and look upon them from the
position of the master. I never have known them as slaves, I am not
their master, and I regard them, therefore, with interest and
sympathy, as an unhappy Syrian people, who deserve a better fate,
which I trust their gods have in store for them. Therefore, while an
Egyptian would feel it a degradation, or at least infinite
condescension, to converse familiarly with a Hebrew of either sex, I
have no such inborn and inbred ideas. Miriam was in my eyes only a
beautiful and dignified Syrian woman, in bondage. No doubt, if the
proud and queenly Luxora had passed by, and discovered me in
conversation with her, she would have marvelled at my taste; or have
been displeased at an impropriety so unworthy of my position; for
though, wheresoever I have seen Hebrews domesticated in families, I
have observed the affability and kindness with which their faithful
services are usually rewarded by those they serve, yet there cannot be
a wider gulf between the realms of Osiris and Typhon, than between the
Egyptian of rank and the Hebrew. The few thousand of the more refined
and attractive of both sexes, who are to be found in palaces and the
houses of nobles, are too limited in number to qualify the feeling of
contempt with which the miserable millions of their brethren, who toil
in the brick-fields south of On, between the Nile and the desert, and
in other parts of Egypt, are universally regarded. Even the lowest
Egyptian is deemed by himself above the best of the Ben Israels. What
marvel, therefore, that the handsome, dark-eyed youths who serve as
pages, and the beautiful brunettes who wait upon mistresses, have a
sad and timid air, and wear a gentle, deprecating look, as if they
were fully conscious of their degradation!

"He is well," Miriam answered, "and desires me to ask you (I pray you
pardon the presumption!) if he may serve you?"

"I learn that a stranger cannot take a Hebrew into service," I

"True. We are the servants of the Egyptians," she said, sadly. "But
the great Prince Remeses, son of Pharaoh's daughter, will suffer it if
you ask him. Will you do this for the lad? Otherwise he will perish in
the field, for his spirit and strength are not equal to his tasks."

"The prince is absent, but I will ask the queen," I answered, happy to
do so great a favor to the youthful Hebrew, in whom I felt a deep
interest, inasmuch as it is our nature to feel kindly towards those
for whom we have done offices of kindness.

"I thank you, and his father and he will bless you, O Prince of Tyre,"
she said, taking my hand and carrying it to her forehead, and then
respectfully kissing it; and as she did so, I saw a tear fall upon my
signet finger.

"I feel much for your people," I said.

She continued her task in silence; but tears began so rapidly to rain
down upon the papyrus, over which her head was bent, that she was
compelled to turn her face away, lest she should spoil her work. After
a few moments she raised her face, and said, with shining eyes--

"Pardon me, my lord prince, but your few kind words, to which my ears
are all unused, have broken up the sealed fountains of my heart. It is
seldom that we children of Jacob hear the accents of sympathy, or find
any one to manifest concern for us, when not personally interested in
doing so."

At this moment, the sound of the sistrum before the sacred altar of
the temple, fell upon my ears; and, turning round to the east, I laid
my hands across my breast, and bowed my head low in worship, it being
the signal that the hierarch was offering incense and libations.

To my surprise, the Hebrew woman pursued her work, and remained with
her head, as I thought, more proudly elevated than before.

"Do you not worship?" I asked, with surprise.

"Yes, the One God," she answered, with dignity.

I started with surprise, that a bondwoman should declare, so openly
and familiarly, the mystery which even Remeses scarcely dared to
receive, and which I had accepted with hesitation and awe.

"How knowest thou there is One God?" I said, regarding her with
deepening interest.

"From our fathers."

"Do all your people worship the One Unity?"

"Not all," she answered, a shadow passing across her queenly brow.
"The masses of our enslaved nation know only the gods of Egypt. They
adore Apis with servility. They are the first to hail the new-found
calf-god, if, by chance, he be found in the nome where they toil. They
are ignorant of the true God, and degraded by their long servitude
(for we are all born in bondage--_all_!); they worship the gods of
their masters; and pots of flesh which are sent from the sacrifices by
the proselyting priests, as bribes to make our chief men bow down to
Osiris and Apis, are temptations enough to cause these elders daily to
deny the God of their father Abraham. Jacob and Joseph are become
Egyptians, and the knowledge of the undivided God is preserved only by
a few, who have kept sacred the traditions of our fathers."

This was said with deep feeling, and with an expression of anger
mingled with sorrow.

"What do you worship?" I asked.

"The God of Abraham."

"Abram was a Syrian prince," I said. "He must have worshipped fire,
and the sun."

"In his youth he did. But the great Lord of heaven revealed Himself to
him as One God, and thenceforth he knew and worshipped only the Lord
of heaven and earth."

"How knowest thou mysteries which are approached with the greatest awe
by the most sacred priests?"

"Abraham, our father, gave to Isaac, his son, the knowledge of One
God, God _of_ gods!--above, beyond, higher, and over the fabulous
Osiris, Apis, Thoth, Horus, and all other so-called deities. Isaac
left the knowledge with his son Jacob. From Jacob it descended to his
twelve sons, princes by birth; and we are their progeny; and though in
bondage, and tempted to bow down ourselves to the gods of Egypt, yet
there remain a few in Israel who have never bowed the knee to the
black statue of Apis, or crossed the breast before the golden image of

"What is the name of the One God you, and minds like yours, worship?"
I asked.

"He is called the One Lord; not only Lord of the sun, but Lord of the
lords of the sun. He is One in His being, One in power, and yields not
His glory and dominion to others. Such is the tradition of our faith."

"How hast thou resisted the worship of Egypt?" I asked. "Hast thou not
from a child been an inmate of this palace?"

"Yes, my lord prince. But my mother taught me early the truths of the
faith of Abraham, and I have held firmly to the worship of my fathers,
amid temptations, trials, and menaces. But all the gods of Egypt have
not turned me aside from the One God; and my heart tells me that in
Him, and Him alone, I live, and move, and have my being!"

I regarded this noble-looking bondwoman with surprise and profound
respect. Here, from the lips of a female, a slave, had I heard the
mystery of God made known, by one who worshipped boldly the Divine
Unity, which the wisdom of Remeses shrunk from certainly
acknowledging; but felt after only with hope and desire.

"Prince," she said, looking up into my face, and speaking with
feeling, "dost thou believe in these gods of Egypt?"

I confess, dear mother, I was startled by the question. But I replied,

"I worship the gods of my own land, Miriam."

"Are they idols?"

"What is an idol?"

"An image or figure in stone, or wood, or metal, or even painted with
colors, to which divine homage is paid,--visible representations of
the invisible."

"In Phœnicia we worship the sun, and also honor certain gods."

"Then thou art not above the Egyptians. I saw thee bend in attitude of
prayer at the sound of the sistrum. Dost thou believe that the sacred
bull is God,--who made thee, and me, and nature, and the sun, and
stars, and upholds the universe? Dost thou believe Apis or Mnevis at
On, or Amun at Thebes, either or all of them, GOD?"

"Thou art a wonderful woman!" I exclaimed. "Art thou not a priestess
of the Hebrew people?"

"Not a priestess. I simply believe in the unity of God, which you
ought to believe in; for thou art open and ingenuous, and not afraid
of truth. A priestess I am not, yet in my family and tribe is
preserved sacredly the knowledge of the God who spake from heaven to
our ancestor, the Syrian. Canst thou believe, O prince, that a bull is
God?" she asked again, almost authoritatively.

"No, I do not," I answered, without disguise.

"Dost thou believe that all minor deities will ultimately be lost in
one God?"

"I do, most certainly."

"Then worship Him! Thou art a prince. I hear thou wilt become a king.
What would be your opinion of your subjects, and ambassadors of other
lands, also, if, instead of presenting petitions to you, they should
offer them to your grand-chamberlain, your royal scribe, your chief
butler, or chief baker,--mistaking them ignorantly for you?"

I made no reply, dear mother. The argument was irresistible. It will
be long, I feel, before I recognize in Apis, or in any statue of
stone, or any figure of a god, the One God, whose existence Remeses
first hinted at to me, and which the Hebrew has made me believe in;
for my own reason responds to the mighty truth! Do not fear, my dear
mother, that I shall return to Tyre an iconoclast; for I cannot set up
a faith in the One God in my realm, until I have His existence
established by infallible proofs. In my own heart I may believe in Him
and adore Him, whom my reason sees through and beyond all material
images of Himself; but, with Remeses, I must secure a foundation for
this new faith, before I overturn the ancient fabric of our mythology
of many gods.

She resumed her work. It was coloring the wings of an image of the
sun, which, encircled by an asp, his head projected, and with extended
wings, adorned the beginning of one of the leaves. The sun was
overlaid with gold; the asps were painted green, and brown, and gold,
while the feathers of the wide wings were blue, orange, purple,
silver, and gilt. It was an exquisitely beautiful picture.

"That is a god," I said, after watching for a time her skilful pencil;
"and yet you design and color it."

"The potter is not responsible for the use that his vases are put to.
The slave must do her mistress's work. I fulfil my task and duty by
obedience to the lords who are over me. Yet this is not a god. It is
the emblem of Egypt. The eternal sunshine is symboled in this golden
disk. The entwining asp is the winding Nile, and the two wings
represent Upper and Lower Egypt, extending along the river. It is an
emblem, not a god. In Egypt, no temple is erected to it. It is used
only in sculpture and over pylones of temples. Yet," she added, "were
it a god, I could not refuse to depict it. Commanded to do, I obey.
The condition of my people is one of submission: if a king rules well,
he is approved; if a slave obeys well, he also is approved."

At this point of our interesting conversation, I saw the
noble-looking, gray-bearded Prince of Uz pass along the corridor,
preceded by the page of the reception-room. Seeing me, he stopped and
said with benignity and courtesy:

"Prince of Tyre, it is a pleasure for me to meet with you here! I am
about to leave Egypt for Damascus, and learn from her majesty, the
good queen, that you have a galley which goes in a few days from
Pelusium to Tyre. I have come hither, knowing you to be a guest of my
friend the high-priest, to ask permission to sail in her. I have but a
small retinue, as my caravan has already gone through Arabia Deserta,
on its way to Upper Syria. I take with me but my secretary, scribe,
cup-bearer, armor-bearer, courier, and ten servants."

I assured the venerable prince that it would give me the greatest
pleasure to surrender to him the cabin and state-chamber of your
galley, my dear mother. And he will be the bearer of a letter from me
presenting him to you. I have already spoken of him in my account of
my first banquet with the queen. He is a prince, wise, good, virtuous,
and greatly honored, not only for his wisdom, but for the patience,
like a god's, with which he has endured the most wonderful sufferings.
At one time he lost sons, daughters, servants, flocks, herds, houses,
treasures, and health: yet he neither cursed the gods nor sought
escape in death. In reward for his patience and endurance, the
heavenly powers restored to him all things; and his name is now but
another term for sacred submission to the divine decrees.

Having courteously thanked me for granting his wish, he looked closely
at the Hebrew woman, and then said to her--

"Is it true that thy people worship the One God?"

"It is true, O prince!" she answered modestly.

"This is the true wisdom of life, to know the Almighty, and be
admitted into the secrets of the Holy One! Behold! happy is the man
who attaineth to this knowledge. The world gropes in darkness in the
daytime, and stumbles in the noon-day as in the night, not seeing the
pathway to God. Blessed art thou, O daughter of the wise Abram, the
princely Isaac, the good Jacob--the three great Syrian princes of the
East--in that thou knowest, thou and thy people, the traditions of thy
fathers! Can a man by searching find out God? Can the priests by their
wisdom find out the Almighty to perfection? Their light is darkness!
but the sons of Israel Ben Abram have the knowledge of the Most High,
and are wiser than Egypt!"

Miriam regarded the majestic old man with eyes expressive of wonder
and joy. They seemed to ask: "Who art thou?" He understood their
interrogating expression, and said:

"Daughter of Abram, offspring of wise kings, who walked with the One
God, who found Him and came even unto His seat, when darkness covered
the hearts of all men, I also worship GOD! I am of the family of the
King Melchisedec, who knew Abram thy father! They both had knowledge
of the mystery of the Divine Unity! They were friends, and worshipped
God, the Almighty, when the understanding of men knew Him not and
denied the God that is above, and the spirit of God who made them, and
the breath of the Almighty that gave them life. Our God speaketh
everywhere, yet man perceiveth it not, neither doth he know His voice!
Touching the Almighty--who can find him out? The world lacketh wisdom,
and is devoid of understanding, to bow down to the work of their own
hands, and see not Him who laid the foundations of the earth, who hath
stretched His line upon the heavens, and to whom all the morning stars
sang together at their creation, and all the sons of God shouted for

The venerable Syrian uttered these words with an air of inspiration.
His eyes were fixed inquiringly upon my face, as if he directed his
speech to me alone.

"I would know the God that you and the Hebrews know and worship," I
said, with emotion. "I no longer recognize Deity in stone and metal,
nor God in Osiris and Apis, nor the Creator of all in the sun--who is
but a servant to light the world."

When I had thus spoken, the eyes of the Hebrew woman beamed with
pleasure, and the Prince of Uz, whose name is Ra-Iub, or Job, took my
hand in his and said, with a smile of benignity--

"Thou art not far from the house of Truth, O Prince of Tyre! May the
Almighty instruct thee, and He who ordained the ordinances of heaven
enlighten thee! He alone is the Almighty! Can Apis, or Io, or Adonis,
the gods in whom you believe, give rain and dew, the ice and the hoary
frost? Can they bind up the wintry seas of Colchis, so that men may
walk upon the frozen face of the deep, as upon marble? Can Apis or
Bel-Phegor bind the sweet influences of Pleiades, or loose the bands
of Orion? Can they bring forth Mazzaroth in his season, guide Arcturus
with his sons, and hang Aldebaran and Sirius in the firmament? Can
they send forth the lightning, and give to thunder its voice? My son,
there is a spirit in man, and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth
understanding to them that seek it. Behold, God is great, and we know
Him not, neither can the number of His years be searched out; yet
whosoever prayeth unto Him, He will be favorable unto, and will
deliver his soul, and his life shall see the light of the living! Deny
not, my son, the God that is above!"

"But where, O wise man of God, is the Almighty to be found, and
whither shall my understanding go out to find the place of His
throne?" I asked, feeling like a child at his feet, under the power of
his words. "I am weary of idols," I continued, catching the spirit of
his speech, "and with worshipping myths born of the ignorance of man.
Where shall the Maker be found? Show me His seat, O man of God, that I
may fall down before His footstool!"

"God is everywhere, but His throne is in thy heart. His wisdom has no
price, neither can it be gotten for gold. The depth says, It is not in
me! The sea saith, It is not with me! It cannot be weighed in the
balance; nor can it be valued with the gold of Ophir; and the exchange
of it shall not be jewels of fine gold. The topaz of Ethiopia shall
not purchase it, nor shall the coral and pearls of the isles of the
sea equal it; for the price of the wisdom of God is above rubies! The
fear of the Lord that is wisdom, and lo the Almighty is found of them
who humbly seek Him. An idol, my son, is a snare, and the false gods
of the world lead to destruction; they have eyes but see not, ears but
hear not, feet but walk not, hands which bless not, mouths that speak
no wisdom! But God is the Maker and Father of His creatures, and
concealeth His glory in the secret places of His heaven; yet the pure
in heart shall find Him, and they that plead with Him shall not be
mocked. He will come unto thee, and abide with thee, and thou shalt
know the Almighty as a father. I have tried Him and He has proved me,
and though He sorely afflicted me He did not forsake me, and in the
end came to me with more abundant honor and blessing."

"Will God pardon transgression?" I asked, giving utterance in this
brief question to a thought of my heart that no mythology could

"There is no promise to man, that transgression against a sacred and
sinless God can be forgiven. We must hope in His mercy at the end! I
have prayed, in my affliction, O prince, for a Day's man--one to stand
between me and the Almighty, to plead for me! My heart hath yearned
for One; and I feel that the yearning of my heart is a prophecy."

"Dost thou believe a Day's man, or mediator, will be given by the
great God to man, to intercede for transgressors against His
holiness?" I asked, between sweet hope and trembling fear.

"We have a tradition that has overleaped the flood and come down to
us, that One will yet stand between earth and heaven to plead with the
Creator for His creatures, and that the Almighty will hear His voice."

"Is not this feebly typified in Horus, the son of Osiris, who presents
the souls of the dead and acts as their friend?" I asked.

"Without doubt," answered the Prince of Uz. "This belief is found
shadowed forth in all faiths of every land. But I must not detain you,
my lord prince."

I then accompanied the white-haired Prince of Uz to the galley in
which he had crossed the Nile, and taking leave of him, promised to
see him ere he sailed.

Believe me, dear mother, there is but One God, and that an idol is
nothing on earth, not even the god-created sun. I have since had
another long conversation with the Prince of Uz, and he has convinced
me that in worshipping images and attributes we offend the High God,
and degrade our own natures.

Farewell, dear mother.

 Your devoted son,




It is many weeks since my last letter was written. The interval has
been occupied by me, in visiting all places of interest in Lower
Egypt, previous to my voyage up the Nile, to the kingdom of the
Thebaïd. But the intelligence that your last letter contains, of the
misunderstanding arising between you and the King of Cyprus, and your
fear that war may ensue, will compel me to abandon my tour to the
Cataracts, and return to Tyre, unless the next courier brings more
pacific news. But I trust that the wisdom and personal influence of
your ambassador, Isaphris, will result in an amicable termination of
the difficulty. I have no doubt, that the haughty King of the Isle
will make due concessions, for his treatment of your shipwrecked
merchantmen, when your ambassador disclaims all intention, on the part
of your majesty, of planting an invading colony in any part of his
shores, and assures him that the vessels, which he supposed brought a
company of Phœnicians to occupy his soil, were driven thither when
bound for Carthage and distant Gades. But should he refuse to release
your subjects and to restore their vessels and goods, war would
inevitably ensue, and I will hasten home to conduct it in person. Do
not delay sending me the earliest intelligence by a special galley.
Until I hear from you, I shall linger in Lower Egypt.

Since writing the foregoing, dear mother, I have heard the most
important intelligence from the seat of war in Ethiopia; and what is
more, that the Prince Remeses is even now on his return to Memphis, a
conqueror! The dispatches brought by the courier state, that four
weeks ago the army of Egypt engaged Occhoris, beyond the gates of
Thebes, and after a severe battle, in which the chariots and horse
were engaged, he was forced to retreat; that he gained a new position,
and fortified himself, but was dislodged from it, and finally routed
in the open plain, he himself being taken prisoner, with most of his
chief captains; while a great spoil in treasures, camp-equipage,
elephants, camels, and horses, besides captives innumerable, enriched
the victors. This news has gladdened the heart of Queen Amense, and
relieved her mind from the great anxiety that has oppressed it ever
since the departure of Remeses, lest he should lose his life in the
campaign, as his father had done before him. But, without a wound, he
returns triumphant, leading his enemy captive at the wheels of his
war-chariot. The city is excited with joy, and in all the temples,
ascending incense and bleeding sacrifices, together with libations and
oblations, bear testimony to the universal gratitude of the nation, at
the defeat of the hereditary foe of the kingdom.

I will for a time delay this letter, that I may witness the scenes in
the city and behold the rites for victory, which, I am told, will be
most imposing, especially in the temples of Apis and of Vulcan.


Two weeks have elapsed since I laid down my pen, dearest mother. In
the interval I have been too much occupied to resume it, but do so now
with matter of the deepest interest to communicate. Remeses has
returned. Two days ago he entered Memphis in warlike triumph. On
hearing of his approach, I hastened to meet him three days' journey up
the Nile. When we met, he embraced me as a brother, with expressions
of joy; but the first question he put to me was:

"The queen--my mother, Sesostris, is she well?"

"Well, and happy at your victories," I answered.

"And your royal mother also, the Queen Epiphia, how fared she when
last you heard from her?"

"In good health, save her wish to see me," I answered.

Thus, dear mother, did this noble prince, amid all the splendor of his
victories, first think of his mother and mine! It is this filial
piety, which is one of the most eminent traits of his lofty and pure
character; and where love for a mother reigns supremely in the heart,
all other virtues will cluster around it.

I found Remeses descending the river in a hundred-oared galley, to
which I was conveyed by a barge which he sent for me, on recognizing
me. It was decorated with the insignia of all the divisions of his
army. Behind it came two galleys containing the prisoners of rank, who
were bound in chains upon the deck. The Ethiopian king was in the
galley with Remeses, who courteously let him go free in the cabin,
where he was served by his conqueror's own cup-bearer. Further in the
rear came the fleet, their parti-colored green, orange, blue, and
scarlet sails, and the bronzed and gilded heads of hawks, eagles,
wolves, lions, and ibises upon the topmasts, presenting a grand and
brilliant spectacle. Ever and anon, a loud, wild shout would swell
along the water, from the victorious troops. One half of the fleet had
been left in the Thebaïd country with Prince Mœris, who intended to
invade the interior of Ethiopia and menace its capital.

You may imagine, dear mother, that Remeses had many questions to ask
and answer, as well as I. I drew from him a modest narrative of his
battles; but he spoke more freely of the brilliant courage of Prince
Mœris than of his own acts. After we had sat in the moonlight, upon
the poop of his galley, conversing for several hours, I asked
permission to see his royal captive, who I fancied was some wild
savage chief, with the hairy head and neck of a lion, and the glaring
eyes of a wolf. When I expressed my opinion to Remeses, he smiled and

"I will send to him and ask if he will receive me and the Prince of
Tyre; for he has heard me make mention of you."

"You Egyptians treat your captives with delicate courtesy," I said,
"to send to know if they will receive you."

"I fear such is not our custom. Captives taken in war by our soldiers,
are, I fear, but little better off than those of other conquering
armies; yet I have done all that is possible to alleviate their
condition, and have forbidden unnecessary cruelty, such as tying their
arms in unnatural positions and dragging them in long lines at the
rear of running chariots! If you see the army on shore, you will find
that it is hard to teach the Egyptian soldier mercy towards a captive

I regarded the prince with silent admiration. "How is it," I asked of
myself, "that this man is in advance of all his predecessors and
before his age in virtue?"

"His majesty will see the Prince of Tyre and also his conqueror," were
the words which the messenger brought to Remeses.

Descending a flight of steps, we advanced along a second deck, and
then passing the door leading to the state-cabins, we descended again,
and came to the range of apartments occupied by the governor of the
rowers and the chief pilot. The latter had vacated his room to the
royal captive. Upon entering, reclining on a couch of leopard's skins
spread in the moonlight, which shone broadly in upon the floor through
the columns that supported the deck, I beheld a young man, not more
than my own age. His features were remarkable. His nose was slightly
aquiline, his forehead high and commanding, his brows arched and
delicate as a woman's, beneath which were the blackest and largest
eyes I ever beheld, and which seemed to emit a burning splendor. His
finely formed mouth was almost voluptuous in its fulness and
expression; yet I could perceive a slight nervous contraction of the
underlip, as if he were struggling between shame and haughty
indifference, when he beheld us. His chin was without beard. His black
locks were braided and bound up by a fillet of gold, studded with
jewels. His helmet, which was of beaten gold, lay by his side dented
with many a stroke of sword and battle-axe; and I saw that a wound
upon his left temple corresponded to one of these indentations. His
hands were very small, and of a nut-brown color (as was his
complexion), and covered with massive rings. A collar, rich with
emeralds, encircled his neck, from which was suspended an amulet of
agate, and a little silver box containing a royal charm. He was
dressed in a gaudy but rich robe of needle-work, which was open in
front, and displayed a corselet and breastplate of the finest steel,
inlaid with gold. His small feet were bare, save a light sandal of
gilded gazelle-leather. Altogether he was as elegant and fine-looking
a barbaric prince as one would care to behold, dear mother, and not at
all the monster in aspect I had pictured him: yet I am well convinced,
that in that splendid form lie powers of endurance which make him
respected, by the barbarians he commands; and that within those fierce
eyes blazes a soul, as fiery as any barbaric prince requires; while
the firm expression of his mouth, at times, betrayed a resolved and
iron will, with which no one of his subjects would willingly come into

He half-rose gracefully from his recumbent attitude, and said, with an
indolent yet not undignified air, and in good Koptic, as it is spoken
in the Thebaïd:

"Welcome, Prince of Tyre! I am sorry I cannot extend to you the
hospitality you merit. You see my kingdom is somewhat limited! As for
you, O Prince of Egypt, who have a right to command, I need not ask
you to be seated or recline." Then turning to me again, "I have heard
of Tyre. You are a nation of merchants who cover the great sea with
caravans of galleys, and plant your sandals in all lands. But you have
not yet had Ethiopia beneath them."

"Our commerce embraces even your own country's productions, O king!" I
answered. "I have seen in the mart of Tyre chœnixes of gold-dust,
ostrich-feathers, dried fruits and skins, vermilion, ebony, ivory, and
even baboons, apes, and leopards. In return we send you our purples."

"That is the name of Tyre, is it not,--the city of purple-cloth?" he
said interrogatively, and with a pointed sneer. "Ethiopia signifies
the land of warriors--children of the sun."

I could not help smiling at his vanity. Remeses did not say any thing.
The king then added, pleasantly:

"I have no quarrel with thee, O Tyre! Receive this ring--that is, if
the great Remeses do not regard all I possess, as well as myself, his
spoil--receive it in token that we are at peace."

As he spoke, he drew from his thumb a jewel of great price, and,
taking my hand, placed it upon my thumb, without looking to see
whether Remeses approved or no.

After a brief interview I left his presence, and soon retired to my
state-room. Remeses insists upon my retaining the ring, which, in
truth, the Ethiopian king, being a captive, had no right to dispose
of. Remeses says that he displayed the most daring courage and
marvellous generalship in battle; and that, though young, and
apparently effeminate, he inherits all the fierce, barbaric spirit of
his ancestor, Sabaco I., and of his uncle, Bocchiris the Great, and
third of the name.

At length arrived at the island of Rhoda, Remeses hastened to embrace
his mother, and to render to her an account of his expedition. The
next day, preparations were made to receive the vast and victorious
army, which had been slowly marching towards the capital, along the
western bank of the river. They entered the plain of the pyramids on
the same night, column succeeding column in a long line, attended by
an interminable train of captives, and by wagons, cars, and chariots
laden with spoils of arms, treasures, goods, and military stores.
Having encamped on their former ground, they awaited the signal to
move towards the city in triumphal procession.

The following morning the queen made her appearance at the head of the
great square, in front of the temple of Apis. She was arrayed in her
royal robes, and seated in a state-chariot of ivory, inlaid with gold,
drawn by four white horses driven abreast, richly caparisoned, and
with ostrich-plumes nodding on their heads. Attended by a splendid
retinue of the lords of her palace, she took a position near the
pylon, surrounded by her body-guard, in their glittering cuirasses of
silver, and bearing slender lances in their right hands. The lords of
the realm were ranged, in extended wings, on either side of her
chariot; the whole presenting a strikingly beautiful spectacle.

When all was arranged, from the portals of the vast temple, headed by
the hierarch in full dress, issued a procession of four hundred
priests, a shining host, with golden tiaras, and censers of gold, and
crimson vestments. Other sacred processions came advancing along all
the streets, headed by their chiefs, each escorting the god of their
temple in a gorgeous shrine, blazing with the radiance of precious

Prince Remeses, attended by the governor of the city, the twenty-one
rulers of the departments thereof, and by all dignitaries, of whatever
office, in their sumptuous robes and badges of rank, had already
departed from the city to meet the army, which, headed by its
generals, was in full motion. They came on in columns of battalions,
as if marching through an enemy's country, and with all the pomp of
war--their battle-banners waving, and their bands of music sounding.
Instead of accompanying Remeses, I remained, by her request, near the
queen. The towers of the pylones, the roofs of temples, the colonnades
of palaces, terraces, house-tops--every vantage-point--were crowded
thickly with spectators.

At length the voice of trumpets, faint and far off, broke the silence
of expectation. Nearer and louder it was heard, now rising on the
breeze, now gradually dying away; but soon other instruments were
heard: the cymbals, the drum, the pipe and the cornet from a hundred
bands poured upon the air a martial uproar of instruments, which made
the blood bound quicker in every pulse. All eyes were now turned in
the direction of the entrance to the grand causeway of the pyramids,
and in a few moments, amid the answering clangor of the brazen
trumpets of the queen's guards, a party of cavalry, shining like the
sun, dashed into sight.

Their appearance was hailed by the vast assemblage of spectators with
acclamations. Then came one hundred and seventy priests abreast,
representing the male deities of Memphis, each attired like the image
of his god--an imposing and wonderful spectacle; as in it Horus was
not without his hawk-head, nor Thoth his horns and globe. Anubis
displayed the head of a jackal, and Osiris held the emblems of his
rank. These were followed by the high-priest of On, before whom was
borne the shield of the sun, resting upon a car carried by twenty-four
men, representing the hours. Following these were one thousand
priests--a hundred in line--chanting, with mighty voice, the song of
victory to the gods. They were succeeded by a battalion of cavalry,
the front of which filled the whole breadth of the avenue. It advanced
in solid column, till four thousand horsemen, in varied armor and
arms, had entered the immense quadrangle. Now burst out afresh the
clang of martial bands, and alone in his state-chariot, drawn by three
black steeds, appeared the Prince of Egypt, standing erect upon the
floor of his car. He was in full armor, and so splendid was his
appearance, so majestic his aspect, that he was hailed with a thunder
of voices, as conqueror! Leaving the golden-hued reins loosely
attached to the hilt of his sword, he suffered his proudly stepping
horses freely to prance and curvet, yet held them obedient to the
slightest gesture of his hand. On each side of their heads walked
three footmen. Behind him came his war-chariot of iron, from which he
had fought in battle on the Theban plains. The horses were led by two
lords of Egypt, and it was empty, save that it held his battered
shield, emptied quiver, broken lances, the hilt of his sword, and his
dented helmet--mute witnesses of his presence in the heat of battle.
Behind the chariot was a guard of honor, consisting of a brave soldier
out of every company in the army. But close to it, his wrists locked
together with a massive chain of gold, which was attached to the axle
of the war-chariot, walked the captive King of Ethiopia. His step was
proud and defiant, and a constant smile of contempt curled his lip, as
he saw the eyes of the spectators bent upon him, and heard their
shouts of hostile joy on beholding him. He moved, the king in heart,
though bound in hand. Over his shoulders hung a lion's skin as a royal
mantle, but his feet were bare. Behind him came a solid front of
chariots, which, line behind line, rolled into the square, until
nearly three thousand war-cars had entered, and moved, with all the
van of the vast warlike procession, towards the great pylon, before
which, in her chariot, stood the Queen of Egypt; for, as soon as the
head of the column came in sight, she had risen to her feet to receive
her returning army.

When Remeses came before her, he turned his horses towards her and
remained at her side. Past them marched first the foot-soldiers. To
the sound of drums and the tramp of ten thousand sandals, they wheeled
into the arena of temples, elevating their war-hacked symbols, each
man laden with his spoil. Then it was, that a company of sacred
virgins, issuing from the temple of Athor, each with a silver star
upon her brow, all clad in white, and bearing branches of flowers,
green palm-branches, ivy and lotus leaves, cast them before the army,
and sang with beautiful voices the hymn of the Conqueror. As they
passed, the priests, with censers, waved incense towards them, and
others sprinkled sacred water in the path of the battle-worn warriors.
The soldiers responded to the hymn of the maidens with a loud chorus,
that rent the skies as they marched and sang.

When half the army had defiled, there came a procession of Ethiopian
cars and wagons, drawn by captured oxen, and laden with trophies. Upon
one was piled scores of shields, another was filled with helmets, a
third bristled with spears, and a fourth was weighed down by cuirasses
and swords. After many hundreds of these had passed--for the whole
Ethiopian army was destroyed and their possessions captured--came
chariots, heavy with chests containing gold, and silver, and bronze
vessels; others glaring with ivory tusks; others full of blocks of
ebony. Five royal elephants, with their castles and keepers, and a
troop of camels, laden with treasures and mounted by their
wild-looking guides, preceded a body of horse escorting the purple
pavilion of the captive king--a gorgeous yet barbaric edifice of ivory
frames, covered with silk and fringed with gold. Next came a painted
car containing his wives, all of whom were closely veiled, and
followed by a train of royal servants and slaves.

Bringing up the rear of the immense procession was another large body
of horse, at the head of a long column of captives, twelve thousand in
number--the disarmed and chained soldiers of the defeated monarch.
Such a spectacle of human misery, such an embodiment of human
woe!--how can I depict the scene, my mother! Perhaps when I am older,
and have seen more of war than I have, I may feel less sympathy at a
sight so painful, and be more indifferent to the necessary horrors of
this dread evil.

Their features denoted them to be of a race very different from the
Egyptian. They were slender and tall, with swarthy, but not black,
faces like the Nubians--showing more of the Oriental than the African
in their physiognomy. Their long hair hung half-way down the back, and
they were dressed in costumes as various as the tribes which composed
the army of Occhoris.

These captives marched in parties of from one to two hundred
each--some linked by the wrists to a long connecting chain passing
along the line; others, chained two and two by the hands, and with
shackled feet, were led by their captors. Many of them were confined
to a long iron bar, by neck-collars, eight and ten abreast, each
compelled to step together, and sit or rise at the same moment, or be
subjected to dislocation of the neck. Several, of the most
unmanageable, were tied with their hands high above their heads, in
the most painful positions; while other wretches were so cruelly
bound, that their arms met behind in the most unnatural manner. There
was a long chain of Nubian and Southern Arabian soldiers so bound, who
writhed in agony as they were forced onward in the march. After these
came hundreds of women and children, the latter naked, and led by the
hand, or carried by their mothers in baskets, slung behind by a belt
carried across the forehead. Finally, when these had passed the queen,
who humanely ordered those so unnaturally bound to be relieved, the
rear division of the army came tramping on, with symbols aloft, and
drums beating, and trumpets blowing.

At length, this vast army of nearly one hundred thousand men,
including chariots, horsemen, and foot-soldiers, had marched past
before the queen, receiving her thanks and smiles, and the flowers
that were showered upon them from thousands of fair hands. As they
moved on, they wheeled in column, and gradually filled up the whole
area of the vast quadrangle, save the space in front of the pyramidal
gateway, where the queen and Remeses stood in their chariots.

At this juncture, the high-priest of On--a man of venerable
aspect--amid the profoundest silence, advanced before them, and thus
addressed Prince Remeses:

"Mighty and excellent prince, and lord of worlds, son of the queen,
and upholder of the kingdoms of the earth, may the gods bless thee and
grant thee honor and prosperity! Thou hast led the armies of Misr to
battle, and conquered. Thou hast brought down the pride of Ethiopia,
and placed the crown of the South underneath thy foot. Thou hast
fought, and overthrown, and taken captive the enemy of Egypt, and the
scourge of the world. Lo, chained he walks at thy chariot-wheels! his
soldiers are captives to thy sword, and his spoil is in thy hand! By
thy courage in battle, thou hast saved Egypt from desolation, filled
her borders with peace, and covered her name with glory. Let thy
power, henceforth, be exalted in the world like the sun in the
heavens, and thy glory and virtues only be equalled by those of the
sacred deities themselves!"

Remeses, with the gentle dignity and modesty which characterize him,
replied to this eulogistic address of the Egyptian pontiff. The queen
then embraced him before the whole army, which cried, "Long live our
queen! Long live Remeses our general!" All the while Occhoris stood by
the wheel of the chariot to which he was chained, his arms folded, and
his bearing as proud as that of a caged lion. He did not even deign to
look upon the queen, whom he had never before beheld; and seemed to be
above, or below, all manifestation of curiosity. Self-reliance,
fearlessness, immobility, characterized him.

Preparations having already been made for a national thanksgiving, the
queen and Remeses descended from their chariots, and led a procession
consisting of the priest of On, the high-priest of Apis, the priest of
Memphis, hierophants and chief priests from each of the thirty-eight
or forty nomes, and several hundreds of ecclesiastics in magnificent
dresses. This august procession entered the great temple of Pthah.
Here, after an imposing invocation, offerings from the queen to the
presiding deity, and also to Mars--whose statue was present,--were
made in recognition of their presence with the victorious army, and as
an acknowledgment that it was by their special favor and intercession
that the victory had been obtained.

This done, Remeses, in a formal manner, addressed the priest of the
temple, presenting to the deity all the prisoners, and the spoil taken
with them. As the vast army could not enter the temple, each captain
of fifty and of a hundred was present for his own men. The high-priest
then went forth upon the portico of the temple, and on an altar there,
in the presence of the whole army, offered incense, meat-offerings,
and libations.

All these customs and rites being ended, the army once more commenced
its march, and passed through the city, and beyond the pyramid of
Cheops' daughter to the plain of Libya, where Osirtasen used to review
his armies. There they pitched their camp, prior to being posted and
garrisoned in different parts of Egypt,--ready again to be summoned,
at three days' notice, to go forth to war.

The captives, being delivered up to the authorities, were at once put
to labor in the service of the queen, and are already engaged in
building temples, cutting canals, raising dykes and embankments, and
other public and state works. Some were purchased by the nobles; and
the women, both Nubian and white, were distributed among the wealthy
and noble families in the city. The Hebrew is the only captive or
servant in Egypt who cannot be bought and sold. Those who have them in
their houses do not own them, for, as a nation, they belong to the
crown; but the queen's treasurer is paid a certain tribute or tax for
their service, and must restore them whenever the queen commands them
to do so.

The King of Ethiopia, himself, after having been led through the city
at the chariot-wheel of his conqueror, was sent to the royal prison,
there to await his fate, which hangs upon the word of the queen.

It is possible he may be redeemed by his own nation with a vast
ransom-price; but if not, he will probably pass his days a captive,
unless he consents to a proposition, which will be made to him by the
prince, for recovering his liberty--namely, the surrender of the
northern half of his kingdom to Egypt, in order that he may be
permitted to reign over the remainder. As half a kingdom is far better
than none, any other monarch would probably acquiesce; but the spirit
of this king (whose looks and movements irresistibly make me think of
a Nubian leopard) is so indomitable and proud, that I believe be would
rather die a prisoner in a dungeon than live a king with half a

This letter, dear mother, has been written at three or four different
sittings, with a greater or less interval of time between them. It was
my intention to have given you, before closing it, some account of a
meeting which I had with a remarkable Hebrew, whose resemblance to
Remeses, is, if possible, more striking than that of Miriam the
papyrus writer, or of Amram the royal gardener. But having quite
filled it with a description of the triumphal entry of Remeses into
the capital, I must defer doing so till another occasion.

With my most affectionate wishes for your happiness, I am, my beloved

 Your faithful son,




The excitement, which the return of the triumphant army from its
brilliant Ethiopian campaign created, has now subsided, and the cities
of Memphis and On, and the thousand villages in the valley of the
Nile, have returned to their ordinary quiet, interrupted only by
religious processions, the music of a banquet, or the festivities of a
marriage. In this delicious climate, where there is no particular
incentive to action, the general state of the people is one of
indolence and leisure. The chief business, at the marts and quays, is
over before the sun is at meridian; and during the remainder of the
day, shade and repose are coveted. But when the sun sinks westward,
and hangs low over the brown hills of Libya, this inaction ceases, and
all classes, in their best apparel and most cheerful looks, fill the
streets, the groves, the gardens, the walks and avenues along the
river; and the spirit of enjoyment and life reigns.

One evening, not long since, I strolled along the banks of the Nile,
beneath a row of mimosa-trees, to enjoy the gay and attractive scenes
upon the river. It was covered with gayly painted barges, containing
happy family parties, whose musicians played for them as the rowers
slowly and idly propelled the boat; others, in sharp-prowed barisæ,
darted in emulous races across the water; others were suspended upon
the bosom of the stream, fishing for amusement; while others still
moved about, with their beautifully pictured sails spread to the
gentle breeze, as if enjoying the panorama of the shores they were
gliding past.

I had rambled alone some distance up the river, without any vestige of
my rank being apparent, in the plain Phœnician costume of a Tyrian
merchant (which I often wear, to prevent constant interruption by the
homage and prostrations of the deferent Egyptians), when I saw a small
baris, containing a single person, coming close to the steps of the
extensive terrace of one of the numerous temples of the image of Apis,
which here faced the Nile, separated from it only by a double row of
sphinxes. It was rowed by four Nubian slaves, clad in white linen
vests and fringed loin-cloths, each having a red cap upon his head.

As the boat approached the marble steps, a decorated and unusually
elegant galley, containing three young men of rank, as their dress and
the emblems on their mast indicated, was coming swiftly down the
stream, as if the owner strove to display the fleetness of his vessel
before the eyes of the thousands who looked on. The pilot, at the
lofty helm, called out to the baris to move quicker away from the line
of his course; but either the rowers failed to hear or to comprehend,
for they did not turn their heads. On like the wind came the galley. I
called aloud to the person who sat in the stern of the baris, and who
was intently engaged in reading a book, a portion of which lay
unrolled at his feet.

He looked up quickly, and saw, first me, and then, by the direction of
my finger, his danger. Before, however, he could give orders to his
rowers, I heard one of the young men say to the pilot, who was
changing his course a little--

"Keep right on! It is but a Hebrew; and it would be a favor to the
gods to drown a thousand a day."

The pilot obeyed his lord, and the bronze hawk-head of the gilded
galley struck the boat near the stern, nearly capsizing it, and then
the whole armament of twelve oars passed over it, striking overboard
two of the slaves, as the twenty-four oarsmen swept the galley along
at the height of its speed. I expected to see the priest, for such his
costume betrayed him, also pressed down by the long oars, under which,
like a low roof of inclined rafters, he was entangled; but stooping
low until his forehead touched the book on his knee, the sweeps passed
harmlessly over him, and when the galley had gone by, he recovered his
sitting posture, maintaining, the while, a composure and dignity that
made me marvel. His dark, handsome, oriental face betrayed scarcely
any emotion at the danger or the indignity. Seeing that one of the
slaves was swimming ashore, and that the other rose no more, he waved
his hand to the remaining two who had fallen into the bottom of the
boat, and who, recovering their oars, pulled him to the steps.

"A Hebrew!" repeated I to myself. "Truly, and the very likeness of
Remeses, save that his hair is of a browner hue, and his beard tinged
with a golden light. A Hebrew! What philosophy under insult and peril!
A Hebrew! What contempt of him and his life was evinced by the haughty
Egyptian noble! A Hebrew, and a _priest_!"

Such were the reflections to which I gave utterance, in an under-tone.

He debarked, and giving an order to the slaves, placed his scroll of
papyrus beneath his robe, and, ascending the steps, bowed low, and
with singular courtesy (for the Hebrews, mother, are naturally the
most polished and benignant people in the world), said in the
Phœnician tongue--

"I am indebted to you, sir merchant, for my life! Your timely voice
enabled me to save myself, although I have lost one of the poor Nubian
lads. Accept my gratitude!"

I could not remove my eyes from his face. It fascinated me! It seemed
to be Remeses himself speaking to me; yet the hair of the prince is
raven-black, and his beard also, while this man's is a rich brown, and
his fine beard like a golden river. The eyes of Remeses are black,
with a mild expression naturally, as if they were animated by a gentle
spirit; while those of the priest are hazel, or rather a brilliant
bronze, and full of the light of courage and of ardent fire. In person
he is just the height of Remeses--carried his head in the same
imperial manner, as if born to command; and the tones of his voice are
marked by that rich emotional cadence--winning the ear and touching
the heart--which characterizes the prince. His step is firm and
commanding--his motions self-poised and dignified. He seems three or
four years older than Remeses; but the likeness of the features, and
the entire presence of the stranger recalled my royal friend so
forcibly to my mind, on the occasion of which I speak, that I said
mentally--"Were the Prince Remeses a Hebrew, or were this Hebrew an
Egyptian, I should think them cousins, if not brothers!"

Pardon me, dear mother, for thus speaking of a royal personage; but I
only make use of the language, to express to you how wonderful in
every way, save in the color of hair and eyes, is the resemblance of
this man to the prince.

"I did but a common duty to a fellow-being," was my reply. "But why
did you address me in Syriac?"

"Are you not a Syrian merchant?" he asked, looking at me more closely,
after I had spoken.

"I am from Tyre," I answered. "You are a Hebrew?"

"Yes," was his reply, casting down his eyes and moving past me towards
the temple.

"Stay one moment," I said. He turned and regarded me with a look of
surprise; just such an one as the Hebrew woman Miriam,--to whom also,
dear mother, he bore a very striking resemblance,--gave me when I
irresistibly addressed her, in the courteous tone I would have used
towards any of her sex: such was my tone in speaking to this Hebrew;
for although his dress showed that he was only a neophyte, or
attendant with secular duties, yet the man himself commanded my

"May I inquire, without offence, why I see a Hebrew in the service of

"When we are only degraded slaves, and brick and clay workers, and
worship not the gods of Egypt?" he answered interrogatively; and I
imagined I detected a haughty light in his eyes, and a movement of his
lip, caused by a keen sense of the degradation of which he spake.

"You have expressed my motives," I replied. "If you are proceeding
along the avenue of sphinxes, I will accompany you, as I am merely

"Will you be seen walking with a Hebrew, my lord prince?" he said,

"You know my rank, then?"

"Your language betrays you; merchants do not speak as you do. Besides,
the signet of Prince Remeses, on your hand, designates your rank. I
have, moreover, heard you described by one, who will never forget that
the first words of kindness he ever received, save from his kinsfolk,
fell upon his ears from your lips, O Prince of Tyre!"

"Who is he?" I asked with interest.

"The lad Israel, whom you assisted in restoring to animation by the
well of Jacob the Shepherd!"

"At the strangers' fountain!" I repeated. "This little act seems to be
known to all the Hebrews!"

"Not to all, but to a few," he answered; "yet it will be heard of by
all of them; for kindness and sympathy from any one, especially from a
foreign prince, is so strange an event that it will fly from lip to
ear. Your name, O noble Sesostris, will be engraven in every memory,
and the sound thereof warm hope in every heart!"

He spoke with deep feeling. We walked some distance side by side
without speaking. After a few moments' silence I said--

"Where is the youth Israel?"

"With his people near Raamses."

"I am to receive him into my service."

"He will faithfully serve you, my lord prince. He is of my kindred,
and I shall be grateful to you for protecting his weakness. Every
shoulder in Israel cannot bear the burden!"

"Are you then of the family of Miriam?" I asked, recollecting that the
ritual transcriber, in the palace of the hierarch, had also claimed
kindred with the son of the venerable Ben Isaac.

"Miriam the scribe?"

"In the service of Luxora and Osiria, of Memphis."

"She is my sister."

"I would have said it!" I answered. "Is your father living?"

"He is in charge of the queen's flower-garden in On."

"I know him," I answered.

"It is he who has spoken of you to me, as well as the aged Ben Isaac,
young Israel, and Miriam. Therefore did I at once recognize you, when
your polished words led me to see that you were in rank above chief
pilots and governors of galleys."

"Will you reply to my inquiry? for, as we know each other's friends,
we need not now discourse wholly as strangers. How came you, being a
Hebrew, to become a priest? Do not you Hebrews worship the One
Infinite Maker and Upholder of worlds?"

"There are a few who retain, unmixed with superstition and
idol-worship, the knowledge of the one God of our ancestors Abraham,
Jacob, and Joseph; but this knowledge is confined, chiefly, to the
descendants of one man, Levi; and only to a few of these. The residue
are little better than the Egyptians."

"Art thou of the family of this Levi?" I asked.

"I am. We are more given to study than our brethren, and seek
knowledge and wisdom. Hence it is, that some of our tribe are taken
from the labor of the field to serve the priests. We are ready
writers, skilful with the stylus and the coloring pencil, and our lot
is preferable to that of others, who are more ignorant. Hence you
behold me a servitor in an Egyptian temple!"

"Hast thou long been in this service?" I asked, as we stopped in the
shade of the pyramidion of an obelisk, in front of the temple porch.

"From a child."

"So early! Then thou hast not borne the toils of thy people."

"I was discovered upon the banks of the Nile, in my fourth year, near
the Island of Rhoda, weeping bitterly; for I had seen my mother commit
my infant brother to a basket and launch it upon the river; and
observing it borne down by the current, young as I was, I so felt all
its danger, that I ran as well as I could along the shore crying
piteously, when a priest (who has made known to me the incident)
seeing me, took pity upon me, and noticing that I was a Hebrew child
led me away, pacifying me by saying that I should see my brother. From
that time I have been an inmate of the temple; for my mother seeing
him take me away followed, and as he promised he would rear me as his
own son, and that I should see her weekly, she yielded me up to him
with reluctant gladness; for, my lord prince, in that day the children
of Hebrew parents were not safe even at home, an edict having been
published commanding all male infants to be strangled or drowned.
Mothers held their children by a slight tenure, and seeing that the
protection of a priest would insure my safety, and spare me the toils
to which the little ones of our nation were early condemned, my
parents readily acquiesced in the wishes of the priest."

"Was thy infant brother lost?" I asked with interest.

"Yes, without doubt. Like hundreds of other innocents, he perished."

"Might he not have been saved by some one as compassionate as your
friendly priest?"

"Who would dare to save a child from the king's edict of death? Not
one, unless it had been the king's daughter! All his subjects trembled
at his power."

"I have heard of that cruel command of Pharaoh Amunophis," I answered.
"What is your office in this noble temple?" I asked, surveying the
majestic edifice, before which stood a black statue of Apis, the size
of life.

"My office is not that of a priest, though it is priestly. I write
books of papyrus for the dead. I cast images, in gold, of the young
calf Apis. I interpret hieroglyphics, make copies of the tables of
rituals, and keep a list of the sacred scrolls. I also study foreign
tongues, and transcribe from their books the wisest codes and most
solemn forms of worship."

"Yours is an office of trust and honor," I said.

"It is, through the favor of the venerable priest, who is my
benefactor, and to whom I am as a son," he answered. "If you will now
enter the temple with me, I will show you the casting-room of sacred
images; for my duty is there, during the next four hours."

I thanked the courteous Hebrew, and ascending the steps of the
portico, entered the vestibule of the temple. By a side corridor, we
reached a small court lined with alabastron, in which three priests
were pacing up and down, reading and meditating.

Not being noticed at all by them, I was conducted by the stately
Hebrew into a chamber, which was the vestibule to a large apartment,
whither we descended by eight steps, that led to a large brazen door
with two leaves. This was secured; but a small side door admitted us
into a vast subterranean room, which I saw was a place for casting.
Numerous workmen were busy about heated furnaces: some blowing the
fire beneath crucibles for melting gold, some weighing gold and
delivering it to the smiths; and others washing gold. Some were
casting small images of Apis in moulds, while a superintendent moved
up and down, dressed in the close robes of vesture priests wear, when
not performing duties at the altar. It was a scene of busy toil and
constant activity.

"This," said my guide, "is the casting-chamber of the temple. Each of
us has his departments. It is mine, to oversee the mixing of gold with
the proper alloy, and I have a scribe who records the results. Here,
you see, is a life-size image of Apis, when he was a calf. It is for
the temple at Bubastis, of the Delta. There you behold a mould for one
of larger size, ordered for the shrine at Osymandyes."

"Do you never cast any figures of the size of Apis?" I asked, looking
about me in amazement at this extraordinary scene.

"Not of gold," he answered, conducting me through the vast room in
which fourscore men were at work "Those are cast of bronze, not here,
but at a temple near the pyramid Dendara. The gods of this temple are
in great repute throughout all Egypt. They are consecrated here before
they are sent away, with ancient rites, known only to the priesthood
of this shrine. Come with me into this side apartment."

I followed him through a passage having double-doors of brass, and
found myself in a room full of vases, each one of which contained a
quantity of jewelry, consisting of rings for the fingers and thumb,
ear-rings, bracelets, flower-holders of gold, necklaces, and signets,
all of gold.

"These are sent here from various temples in the different nomes, out
of which, after melting them, we cast images of the size demanded."

In another room the intelligent Hebrew exhibited to me a great number
of small figures of Apis, of gold of Havilah, which is remarkably
beautiful from its deep orange-color. These figures, though not a palm
long, were valued at a talent. On all these images of the sacred calf,
I perceived that the mark of the crescent between the shoulders was
distinctly imitated, as well as the other peculiarities. Upon the head
of some of them was a sun enwreathed by the sacred uræus.

"Does your temple derive a revenue from all this?" I asked the Hebrew.

"There is a tithe retained from all the gold that is sent hither, for
the expenses of the temple," he answered.

We now turned aside to see men grinding to powder an old image of
Apis, of solid gold of Ophir. The image had been in the hands of the
Ethiopians, and being recaptured, was sent here to be ground to dust;
for it was regarded as accursed until this were done. This process is
effected by the free use of _natron_, and is an art known only to the
Egyptians. The dust is then washed in consecrated water. In taste, I
am told, it is exceeding bitter and nauseous. Thus gold, as a drink,
would not be coveted by men.

We next came to a flight of stairs which led to a paved hall
surrounded by columns, and thence a door led into a small garden,
where three majestic palms towered high above the columns that
inclosed it; while a fountain ceaselessly let fall its refreshing
rain, in a vast shallow vase, wherein gold and silver fishes glanced
in the light.

It was now near the close of day, and I began to thank him for his
courtesy, when he said--

"Do not leave now, O prince. This is my apartment, and the one
opposite is that of the aged priest, my benefactor. Enter, and let me
have water for thy feet and hands, and place before thee some
refreshment; for it is a long walk back to the palace where thou art

Willing to learn all I could of the remarkable Hebrew people, who seem
to be a nation of princes as well as of bondmen, I accepted his
invitation, and entered a cool porch, from which opened a handsome but
simply furnished apartment, where he lodged. I seated myself upon a
stone bench, when, at a signal made by him, two black slaves
approached with ewers of water, one for the hands, and the other with
a silver basin for my feet. Each of them had thrown over his shoulder
a napkin of the finest linen. But upon the vessels, the vestures, the
slaves, and the napkins, I saw the crescent, which showed that they
were all the property of the temple.

At length fruit, and wheaten bread, and fish, were laid before me. The
Hebrew stood while I partook, declining to eat with me, saying that
his nation never broke bread with any but their own people; adding,
"and the Egyptians regard it as infamy to sit down with us."

"I have no such prejudices," I said, with a smile. When I had eaten,
and laved my fingers in a crystal vase, which the priest placed before
me, and the Nubians had retired, I said, "My meeting with you has been
a source of great pleasure to me. I am deeply interested in your
nation. As a Syrian we are not far from a kindred origin, and as a
foreigner I have none of the feelings which, as masters, the Egyptians
entertain towards a Hebrew. I have witnessed the working of the
deep-seated prejudice in a variety of ways, and cannot but wonder at
it. From all I can learn of your history, you have never been at war
with them, nor wronged them."

"We are unfortunate, unarmed, and weak; and the greater ever oppress
the helpless," he answered.

"Do you feel no resentment?"

"The bondage of one hundred and seventy years has graven the lines of
patience deep in our hearts. Forbearance has become a second nature to
the Hebrew. But, my lord prince, I feel that this will not always be,"
he added. "The time cannot be far off, when Egypt, for her own safety,
will give us our liberty and the privileges of citizens. We are not a
race of bondmen, like Nubia's children. We were once free! Our fathers
were princes in Syria; and was not Joseph the ruler of Egypt for
sixty-one years, during the long reign of Pharaoh-Apophis? Not long
after the Theban dynasty, which now rules the two Egypts, assumed the
double crown, did our degradation begin."

"Doubtless a change in your condition must ere long take place," I
said. "There must be leaders among you. Not all the suffering of your
oppression has destroyed the princely air among many of your people."

"But not one Hebrew is trained to war, or knows the use of any sort of
weapon. For three generations, we have been a laboring, patient,
unarmed people. If, here and there, one rises above the masses, it is
by accident or favor, or from interest on the part of those who employ
us. I have said that the family from which I spring is skilled in
letters and art, and is ambitious of the learning of the Egyptians,
and of becoming scribes and copyists to the priests. Others among us,
of the sons of Dan, are skilful boatmen; others are builders; while
others prefer the culture of the field, or the tending of flocks. We
were twelve princes--brethren--in the ancient days, and the
descendants of each are remarkable for some special skill; and the
Egyptian taskmasters having discerned this aptitude, distribute them
to their work accordingly. We are not all brick-makers, though four
fifths of the nation are reduced to that degraded toil--all, of every
tribe or family, who are not skilful in some art, being driven into
the field. Of late years, the Egyptian artificers have made such great
outcries, to the effect that the Hebrews were filling the places of
their own workmen, that the chief governor of the Hebrews in Lower
Egypt has, in order to preserve peace, sent thousands into the
brick-fields, who had never before encountered such heavy toil. The
result is, that hundreds perish, and that youths like Israel sink
hourly under their unendurable sufferings."

"Have you no gods--no ear to hear your prayers?" I asked impulsively,
as I am apt to do, dear mother, when my feelings are deeply moved.
"Have you no worship? I hear of no altar or temple."

"A few among us have mysteries, such as the existence of One God; that
He is a spirit; that all men are His offspring; and that we must be
just in order to please Him. But I must confess, O prince," he said,
sadly, "that we have very little knowledge, even the best among us, of
the God in whose existence we profess to believe. It is easier to
serve and trust to the visible gods of Egypt; and our people, from the
depths of their misery, stretch forth their clay-soiled hands to
Osiris, to Pthah, to the images of Apis, and cry, 'Deliver us, O gods
of Egypt, deliver us from our bondage!' They have cried to the
invisible God of Abraham in vain, and they now cry in vain to the gods
of the land, also. Neither hear--neither answer; and they sink into
blank despair, without any hope left in a god--a nation of infidel

"Can this be a true picture?" I said.

"Nearly so. Even I, O prince, under the ever-present power of the
religion to which this temple is upreared,--I, from the influence of
example, from ignorance of the worship of the Hebrew God of Isaac,
from the education of my life, am half an Egyptian. The religion of
Egypt appeals to the senses, and these, in most men, are far stronger
than the imagination; and we Hebrews know nothing of a God, except
that our fathers had one, but that He has deserted and left us, their
miserable descendants, under the yoke of oppressors. Is it any wonder
that the wisest of us turn to the gods of Egypt? If the Egyptians can
be happy, and cherish hope, and die in peace under their faith, let us
also seek its shelter, and let their gods be our gods! Such is the
prevailing language and growing feeling of our people."

This was all said in a tone of sadness and bitterness; while that
despair of which he spoke, cast its shadow heavily over his noble
countenance. I arose soon afterwards, and took my leave of him, more
and more deeply interested, dear mother, in the history and condition
of this singular people.

 Your affectionate son,




It is with emotions I am unable to command, that I commence, after a
silence of several weeks, another letter to you. I know not how,
properly to unfold and rightly to present before you the extraordinary
events which have transpired since I last wrote to you. But I will
endeavor to give a narrative of the unparalleled circumstances, in the
order of their occurrence up to the present time, and will keep you
advised of the progress of this remarkable and mysterious matter, as
each day it develops itself.

I believe, in one of my letters to the Princess Thamonda, I spoke of
the approaching birthday of Remeses--his thirty-fifth--and that the
queen had resolved, on that day, to confer upon him the crowns of
Egypt, and resigning, with the sceptre, all dominion into his hand,
retire to a beautiful palace, which she has recently completed on the
eastern slope of the Libyan hills, west of the pyramids, and
overlooking a charming lake, which, begun by former rulers, has been
enlarged and beautified by each, and by none more than by herself.

This purpose of the queen was made known to Remeses, about three weeks
after his return from Thebes with his victorious army. I was not
present at the interview, but will repeat to you the conversation that
passed, as it was made known to me by the prince, who extends towards
me all the confidence of one beloved brother to another; and, indeed,
keeps no secrets from me. This pleasing confidence is fully
reciprocated on my part, and we are in all things as one.

I had been, that morning, on a visit to that part of Memphis which
stretches away westward from the Nile in a succession of gardens,
squares, palaces, and monuments, girdling the Lake of Amense with
beautiful villas, and climbing with its terraces, grottoes, shrines,
and marble pavilions, the very sides of the cliffs of Libya, two
leagues from the river; for to the extent of Memphis there seems to be
no limit measurable by the eye. Even the three great pyramids are
almost central in the mighty embrace of the sacred city.

Upon landing from my galley upon the Island of Rhoda, my Hebrew page
Israel, now become a bright and blooming youth, with a face always
enriched by the light of gratitude, met me, and said:

"The prince, my lord, desires to see you in his private chamber. He
bade me ask you not to delay."

I found Remeses walking to and fro in the apartment, with a pale face
and troubled brow. As soon as I entered, he approached me, and taking
my hand between his, pressed it to his heart affectionately, and said:

"I am glad you have returned, Sesostris, my friend and brother! Come
and sit by me on this seat by the window. I have much to say--much! I
need your counsel."

"My noble friend," I answered, moved by his unusual emotion, "I am not
able to counsel one so wise and great as you are."

"Nay, you are too modest, prince. I must tell you all. Strange events
have occurred. Hear me, and you will then be able to strengthen my
soul! You know that of late my dear mother has been given to
melancholy; that she has appeared absent in thought, abrupt in speech,
and ill at ease. Thou hast observed this; for we have spoken of it
together, and marvelled at her mood, which neither the memory of our
victories in Ethiopia, the prosperity of her kingdom, the peace in her
borders, the love of her subjects, nor my own devotion could remove;
nor the music of the harp, nor the happy songs of the chanters

"Do you not think," I said, "that this state of mind is connected with
her illness before you left, when the viceroy Mœris dined with us?"

Remeses started, and fixed upon me his full gaze.

"Sesostris, what led you to connect the present with that event?"

"Because the queen has never been wholly well and cheerful since that

"What think you of Prince Mœris? Speak freely."

"He is a proud, ambitious, and unprincipled man."

"Do you think he loves me?"

"I fear not."

"You are right. But you shall hear what I have to relate. Three hours
since my mother sent for me. I found her in the chapel where the
shrine of Osiris receives her most private prayers. She was kneeling
when I entered, her face towards the god; but her eyes, wet with
tears, penetrated the heavens, and seemed to seek a living Power that
could hear and answer prayer, Sesostris. She did not see me, and her
voice was audible:

"'Protect him! Guard him from his foe! Spare me the discovery of the
secret, and place him upon the throne of Egypt, O immortal and pitying
Osiris! O Isis, hear! O goddess of the sacred bow, and mother of
Horus, hear! Give me strength to act, and wisdom in this my great

"I drew near, and kneeling by my mother's side, laid her head against
my heart, and said--

"'The God of all gods, the Father Infinite hear thee, O mother! What
is it thou prayest for with such strong woe and fear?'

"'Hast thou heard me?' she exclaimed, rising and speaking wildly.
'_What_ didst thou hear? Nay, I have betrayed no secret?'

"'None, mother, none! Thou didst only speak of one which distressed
thee,' I said soothingly; for, my dear Sesostris, I was inexpressibly
moved by her agitated manner, unlike any thing I have ever before
witnessed in her usually calm, serene, and majestic demeanor.

"She leaned heavily upon me, and I led her to an alcove in which was
the shrine of Athor.

"'Sit down, Remeses--my son Remeses,' she repeated, with a singular
emphasis upon the words 'my son.' 'Hear what I wish to reveal to thee!
I am now more composed. There is in my heart a great and ceaseless
anxiety. Do not ask me what it is! The secret, I trust, will remain
sealed forever from thy ears! Ask not--seek not to know it. You may as
successfully obtain an answer from the heart of the great pyramid,
revealing what is buried there from human eyes, as obtain an answer
from me of the mystery lying at my heart. It will be embalmed with me,
and go with me to the lower world!'

"'Mother,' I said, alarmed at her depressed manner, 'thou art ill--let
me send for thy physician--'

"'Nay, nay--I am not ill! I shall be better soon! _You_, Remeses, have
the key to my happiness and health,' she said tenderly, yet seriously.

"'Then I will yield it up to thee!' I answered pleasantly.

"'Hear my words, my son, for art thou not my son, my noble Remeses?'
she asked, taking both my hands and holding them to her heart, and
then pressing her lips upon them almost passionately; for I felt tears
flow upon my hands.

"'Thy son, with undying love, my mother,' I answered, wondering in my
heart, and deeply affected. She remained a few moments silent, and at
length said--

"'Remeses, hast thou ever doubted my love?'

"'Never, no never, my mother!' I replied, moved.

"'Have I not been a true and fond mother to thee?'

"'Why distress yourself, dear mother, with such useless
interrogatories?' I asked. No longer agitated, and her nervous air
having quite disappeared, she spoke calmly but earnestly:

"'Have I neglected, in any way, a mother's duty to thee, O Remeses?'

"'Thou hast ever been all that a mother could be,' I answered her.

"'Do you think a mother could love a son more than I love thee?' she

"'No, O my mother!'

"'And _thou_, Remeses, dost thou love me?' she continued, with the
same fixed, solemn, and painful earnestness.

"'Why shouldst thou doubt?' I asked.

"'I have no reason to doubt,' she replied; 'yet I would hear thee say,
'Mother, I love thee above all things beneath the sun!'

"I smiled, and repeated the words, distressed to perceive that
something had taken hold upon her noble and strong mind, and was
shaking it to its centre.

"'Remeses, my son,' she said, answering my smile, and then immediately
assuming an expression of singular majesty, 'I am now advancing in
life. I have passed my fifty-first year, and am weary of the sceptre.
I wish to see you king of Egypt while I live. I wish to see the
grandeur and wisdom of your reign, and to rejoice in your power and
glory. When I am laid in the sarcophagus, which I have caused to be
hewn out in the chamber beneath the pyramidion of my obelisk, I shall
know and behold nothing of thy dominion. It is my desire, therefore,
to invest you with the sovereignty of Egypt; and after I see you
crowned, robed, and sceptred as her king, I will retire to my Libyan
palace and there contemplate thy greatness, and reign again in thee!'

"'I rose to my feet in surprise, dear Sesostris, at this announcement
from the lips of my mother, but listened with deference until she had
concluded, and I then said,--

"'This intent and purpose be far from thee, O my mother and queen!
Thou art in the meridian of life, and still in the possession of thy
wonderful beauty. Scarcely a silver thread has stolen amid thy soft,
dark hair; thou art yet young; and may the Lord of the kings of the
earth long preserve thee upon thy throne, and lend thee strength and
wisdom to wield thy sceptre. Far be it from me, therefore, my mother,
to accept the crown, until Osiris himself transfers it from thy
majestic brow to mine!'

"'Nay, Remeses,' she said firmly, yet sadly, 'my will is the law of
Egypt. Thou hast never opposed it.'

"'But this is where my own elevation involves your depression,' I
answered. 'It cannot be!'

"'I am firm and immovable, my son, in my purpose,' she replied. 'Your
thirty-fifth birthday will soon arrive. That is the age at which
Horus, the son of Isis, was crowned. It is a number of good omen, and
I wish you to prepare for your coronation, by performing all the rites
and sacrifices, that the religion and laws of Egypt require of a
prince who is about to ascend the throne of the Pharaohs.'

"'Mother, my dearly honored mother!' I said, kneeling to her, 'forgive
me, but I must firmly decline the throne while you sit thereon. You
are ill at ease in your mind to-day. Some deep grief, which you
conceal from me, preys upon you. It is not because you are old that
you would abdicate the throne to me, who am not yet old or wise enough
to rule this mighty nation; but you have some secret, painful reason,
which I beg you to reveal to me.'

"My words seemed to inflict pain upon her. She rose to her feet, and
paced the apartment twice across in troubled reflection. Then she came
to my side, and said impressively, placing her trembling grasp upon my

"'Remeses, if I reveal to thee the secret of my heart, wilt thou then
consent to be king?'

"'If I perceive, my mother,' I answered, 'that necessity demands my
acceptance of the crown before my time, I will not refuse it.'

"'If your views of necessity do not influence you, O my son,' she said
earnestly, and with a sudden gush of tears, 'let my affection, my
happiness, my peace of mind, plead with you!'

"'Please, my beloved mother, to make known to me the circumstances
under which you are moved to this unusual step,' I said.

"'Not unusual,' she replied. 'I have consulted the book of the reigns
of the Pharaohs, in the hall of Books, in the temple of Thoth. Within
two thousand years, not less than seven kings and three queens have
resigned the sceptre of Egypt to children or adopted heirs. The Queen
Nitocris resigned to her adopted son, Myrtæus; Chomæphtha, after
reigning eleven years, weary with the weight of the crown, resigned it
to her nephew, Sœconiosochus. Did not Phruron-Nilus, the great
monarch, decide to abdicate in favor of Amuthantæus, his son, when
sudden death only prevented his retirement? The crowns of Egypt are
_mine_, my son, by the laws of the gods, and of the ancestral kings
from whom I have inherited them. I will not wait for the god of death
to remove them from my head; but with my own hands I would put them
upon thy brow! It must be done soon,--_now_! or neither thou nor I
will hold rule long in Egypt!'

"I begged my mother to explain her mysterious words.

"'Come, sit by me. Be calm, Remeses! Listen with your usual meekness
and reverence to me when I speak.' I obeyed her, and she thus began:

"'Thou knowest thy cousin Mœris;--his lofty ambition; his
impatience; his spirit of pride; his lust for dominion, which his
viceroyship in the Thebaïd has only given him an unlimited thirst
for;--his jealousy and hatred of you, Remeses! None of these things
are concealed from you, my son.' My mother paused as if for my assent,
which I signified by a respectful bow. She continued:

"'This Prince Mœris, for whom I have done all in my power--whom I
have made second only to me in the Thebaïd, I have reason to know
seeks your ruin and my throne!'

"'What proof hast thou of this?' I cried, deeply moved.

"'Remeses,' said my mother, in ringing tones, 'I must unfold to thee
all! I know how slow thou art to suspect or believe evil of any one;
and that you fancy Mœris an honorable prince, overlooking his
jealousy of you. You have confidence in my judgment and truth?'

"'I have, the most undoubted and deferential,' I answered the queen.

"'Then, my son, hear me!' she said, with a face as pale as the fine
linen of her vesture. 'Prince Mœris possesses a secret (ask me
_not_ what it is) which gives him a dangerous power over me. He
obtained possession of it years ago, how I know not; but it has placed
in his hands a power that I tremble beneath. Nay, ask not! My heart
itself would as soon open to thine eyes, under the shield of my bosom,
as reveal its secret! It will die with me! Yet Mœris, my nephew--a
man of talents and ambition, in morals most unprincipled, and in
disposition cruel and unjust--holds my happiness in his hand!'

"'My mother,' I cried, 'why then didst thou confer on him the
principality of the Thebaïd and its enormous military power?'

"'To bribe him, when he menaced me with the betrayal of what he knew!'
was the queen's almost fierce rejoinder.

"'But why make him the admiral of your fleet of the Nile?'

"'Another bribe when he renewed his threats to inform you--'

"'Me!' I exclaimed.

"'Did I say you? No! no!' she cried, checking herself; 'when he
menaced me with the betrayal of the dreadful secret.'

"'And, my dear mother, who was interested to know it, whom would it
benefit or injure?' I asked, lost in amazement.

"'Injure one whom--whom I love--destroy my happiness and
hopes--benefit Mœris himself!' she answered coloring with deepest
confusion and alarm.

"'Why not crush such a dangerous subject when he menaces your peace?'
I demanded, my whole spirit roused for my mother, and my indignation
excited against this wicked man. 'If thy happiness is thus menaced, O
my mother, if this prince is the cause of all your sorrow, say the
word, and in thirty days hence, he shall be brought bound in chains to
your feet.'

"'Nay, Remeses, I dare not. One word from his lips, though he were in
chains, would reveal all it has been the study of my life to conceal,
and give him all the revenge his bitter spirit would ask. No, no!
Mœris must not be made angry. It is only his ambitious hopes that
keep him quiet.'

"What are these hopes?" I inquired, feeling that henceforth Mœris
and I were mortal foes.

"Didst thou, O prince," said I, as he returned to his seat by me,
which he had left, in the excitement of his narrative, to pace the
floor, "suspect the secret?"

"No," he answered gloomily; "no, Sesostris; nor do I now know what it
can be; neither have I the least idea, unless--" Here he colored, and
looked confused.

"Unless what?" I asked, painfully interested.

"Unless Mœris be the son of the Prince of the Thebaïd, and I the
son of the brother of Pharaoh. In other words, that Mœris and
Remeses have changed places, and that Mœris knows or suspects the

"A most extraordinary idea!" I exclaimed; yet at the same time, I must
confess that I was forcibly reminded of what I have before alluded to,
dear mother, the total absence of all likeness between Remeses and his
mother, Amense.

"What can possibly have suggested to your mind such a strange
conjecture?" I added.

"A mystery, my dear Sesostris," he said, "calls into exercise the
whole machinery of suspicion, and all the talent of investigation; and
a hundred things, which before had only an ordinary signification,
under its wand, take an importance and meaning wholly new.
Irresistibly, my mother's anxiety to impress upon me that she had been
'all a mother could be to a son,' in connection with her whole manner,
and especially her uncalled for reiterations of affection for me, and
of appeals to my devotion to her;--all this rushed upon my memory, and
with a dizzy brain, and a heart full of anguish, under the dreadful
suspicion, I cried, 'Why must not Prince Mœris be made angry? Why
may he not be prevented from doing thee harm?'

"'I have told you,' she replied, with a deadly pallor. 'Remeses, your
roused spirit alarms me for us three.'

"'But I must oppose, and if necessary destroy him,' I said, in my
emotion, 'who destroys my mother's peace.'

"'Yes, I am thy mother. Thou art a son to me. I know thou wilt protect
me from this prince-nephew,' she said, in broken sentences. 'He shall
not come between me and thee, and the throne.'

"'He has no claim to the throne. He does not aspire to it in your
lifetime,' I said; 'and if I hold it after, I will take care of my own
crown. My mother, fear not Prince Mœris. Let his secret perish with

"'And thou, also, Remeses!' she said, passionately.

"'I, my mother?' I repeated. A spirit of severe investigation then
came upon me, strengthened by my suspicion.

"'My mother, Queen Amense,' I said, with the deepest emotion, and, O
Sesostris, with fear and dread, 'a fearful suspicion has taken hold
upon me! _Am_ I thy SON?'

"No sooner had I given utterance to this interrogative doubt, which
was wrung from my tortured heart, than shrieking aloud, she fell
forward, and but for my intervening arm, her form would have been
prostrate at my feet. I caught her in my arms; I kissed her marble
brow; I chafed her cold pulses; and breathed words of comfort, words
praying her forgiveness, into her ears. At length she revived, as I
supported her against my wildly beating heart; and, with stony eyes
staring me in the face, gasped--

"'Remeses! Who hath--who--who hath said this?'

"'No one, _no one_, my dearly loved mother,' I answered, tenderly. And
when I saw that she was more composed, I said, 'It was only a
conjecture--a wild suspicion--for I could not comprehend the mystery
between you and my cousin Mœris, except that (as has been done in
former dynasties) he and I are in each other's places. Is Mœris thy
son, and am I the son of the brother of Amunophis?'

"I had no sooner said this, than she raised her head from the
gold-embroidered purple cushion of the ivory couch, on which she lay
reclining against my arm, and with a strange laugh of joy and
surprise, said,--

"'So this is _all_, Remeses! Then thou needest not fear. Mœris is
not my son. He is nothing to me but my kinsman. Canst thou believe
that that wicked prince is my offspring? I forgive thee, Remeses,
because, perhaps, my words, and the necessity of guarding my secret,
may have forced thee to this conclusion.' This she spoke with a mind
evidently greatly relieved.

"'Then, dear mother, I _am_ thy son in spite of Prince Mœris?'

"'In spite of Mœris,' she answered. 'Hast thou ever known any other
mother? Remeses, let thy heart be at peace! Mœris is not my son! On
that he does not found his hopes to grasp the reins of Egypt. Now hear
me, my son,' she said, solemnly. 'That prince once sought my life.
When I was taken ill on the day that he dined with me, he had bribed
my cup-bearer to drop a subtle poison in my cup. Dread of the prince
forced him, under his eyes, to do it; but, as the cup-bearer handed me
the wine, he pressed my little finger, where it clasped the cup, so
significantly, that I looked in his eyes, and saw them full of
warning. I did not drink, but pleaded illness, and left the
banquet-room. I sent for the cup-bearer, and he confessed what he had
done. When I heard his confession, and was thereby acquainted with the
purpose of Prince Mœris against my life, I was overwhelmed with
despair. My future safety lay in sending for him the next day. He
came. It was a brief but dreadful interview. He acknowledged that he
sought my life, because I had the day before refused him the crown of
Upper Egypt, declining to give him the half of my empire. He
threatened to betray my secret, and I pleaded for silence. He demanded
the white crown of the Thebaïd as his reward, but I put him off with
evasions. He had command of the fleet, and I dared not anger him. I
shrunk from making known to you his demand, and the terror with which
he inspired me. I promised that if he entered the Ethiopian capital
within six months, he should reign in Thebes.'

"'My mother,' I cried, 'gave you such a promise to him? He is already
marshalling his forces!'

"'And in order not so much to conquer Ethiopia, as to usurp one of the
thrones of Egypt,' she answered.

"'And are you bound by this promise to him?' I demanded, overwhelmed
with amazement, both at the audacity of Mœris, and the power he
held over my mother by means of this secret.

"'By all the vows that a mortal can make to the gods! Here, in this
sacred chapel, before these shrines, he made me swear that in
consideration he subdued the central capital of Ethiopia, and
preserved my secret, I would transfer from my head to his the
white-gold crown of Upper Egypt, the most ancient kingdom mortal ever
ruled over on earth, after the demigods.'

"When, my dear Sesostris," said Remeses, after having related to me,
with a dark countenance, the foregoing conversation, "I heard this, I
was for some time confounded, and could not speak. At length I cried

"'That mystery--that secret, known only to you and Mœris, and for
the safe-keeping of which you part with one of your crowns, _what_ is
it! divulge it! Am I not worthy, O my mother, of the confidence which
Prince Mœris, by foul means, shares with you? Will you not intrust
me with the secret which he can extort by bribery?'

"The queen looked deadly pale, and her whole frame trembled. She
essayed to reply, and then said, with an effort, as if a corpse had
become vocal--

"'Remeses--you must--must not know it! Do not ask--do not suspect
evil. Do not doubt me, or you will kill me! Kiss me, Remeses! Kiss me,
my son! Are you not my son? I love you, and know you love me. Let all
else pass by. You shall be king! You shall wear the double tiara! You
shall grasp both sceptres! Therefore is it, I would now make you king.
Dost thou understand me? Mœris must not march into Ethiopia. That
evil man must have a master. My power is failing! I would surrender it
to thee. The only safety of Egypt, the only security for thy crown and
dominion, is in taking the throne, and ruling all Egypt in thine own

"'Is this so, my mother?' I demanded. 'Does Prince Mœris not only
torture thy soul with a secret, which, as a just prince, he ought
forever to forget, if thou desirest it, but does he also aspire to
sever Egypt, and rule in the Thebaïd, on the ancient throne of my
ancestors, as the price of a secret held over thee with an unmanly

"'He does, my son,' she answered. 'The only safety of the empire
depends on my resignation of the crowns into your hands. Once Pharaoh,
you have Mœris at your feet, and if he prate his secret, you will
then be able to despise it, and put to silence his tongue.'

"'Mother, my dear mother,' I answered, after long reflection, 'what
you have told me has brought me to a decision. I shall act
blindly--not knowing the nature of the power of the prince over you;
but I shall act from affection and sympathy for you, in obedience to
your wishes, and for the preservation of the integrity of the united
kingdom. I am ready to obey you. In order to defeat Prince Mœris,
and relieve your mind, I will accept the sceptre which you are
desirous of placing in my feeble and inexperienced hand. I am ready to
enter upon the sacred rites of initiation, and in all things will be
your dutiful and obedient son. The wickedness and ambition of Mœris
must be crushed.'

"When I had thus said, my mother, with a cry of joy cast herself into
my arms. I bore her, almost fainting with happiness realized, to the
apartments of her women, and again assuring her of my full compliance
with her wishes, I took tender leave of her, and hastened to my room
to reflect upon all that had passed in that extraordinary interview;
and then I sought you."

Thus the Prince Remeses ended his interesting and singular statement.
I knew not what to respond to him when he had done. But be sure, dear
mother, there must something grow out of this, of the greatest
importance to this dynasty. Who can divine the secret?

But I must here close my letter, with assurances of my fondest
attachment to you, my dear mother, whom the gods guard from all
mysteries and secrets, and from ambitious princes like the lord

 Your ever faithful




In the preceding letter I have made known to you the extraordinary
purpose of the queen to invest, with the dignity of royalty, her son,
the Prince Remeses; the singular scenes which passed between them; the
mystery which enveloped her motives; and the final yielding of Remeses
to her commands and earnest appeals.

It now became necessary that he should, according to the custom and
laws of the realm, prepare himself for his coronation, by submitting
to certain religious ceremonies, and a solemn initiation into the
deeper mysteries of the temples; for though, as a prince, he was
nominally, or by courtesy of the laws, the high-priest, yet not until
he became king could he offer the supreme sacrifice on the altar of
Osiris,--which is the highest religious act of the sacred priesthood;
and it is only upon the shields of kings that the symbol of "priest"
is sculptured. Thus, as chief priests, or pontiffs, the Pharaohs were
the head of the hierarchy, which consolidated their political power,
and gave them an influence over the minds of the people that the mere
possession of the sceptre of Egypt could not have commanded; for in
their king, they also behold their mediator with the gods. Yet,
although absolute over his subjects, he had no power over the
priesthood, except by their own consent. As one of their body he was
bound, by certain most solemn and mystic vows, to the rules and
regulations of their order; and in all matters of state he was pledged
to the hierarchy of prince-priests, who constituted a council of
advice, to which he was, by the laws (also made by a legislature
composed of the hierarchs of each nome), compelled to submit his own
will. All his duties are regulated by a code drawn up by the Priest of
On, and subscribed by the king at his coronation. Thus the monarch is
entirely under the influence and control of the priests. I will, by
way of illustration, describe to you how the queen (who is also chief
priestess, by virtue of her rank, and, as such, offered up a sacrifice
on the altar of Osiris on the day of her coronation) has her daily
duties and hours apportioned to her, by this august council of

When her majesty arises in the morning, her royal scribe brings to
her, in a shallow vase of gold, the letters that have come to her from
all parts of her kingdom, and of the world. These she reads, and lays
aside for reply after consultation with Remeses, and, if of great
importance, with her council of state: for she has also a cabinet of
generals, lords of nomes, and high admirals, together with the lord of
the nilometers, whom she calls together on matters exclusively of
state, such as the affairs of the army or of the navy, the condition
of the harvests and treasure-cities, and the state of the Nile; on
which two last matters the reign of prosperity or famine depends. She
then receives, and at once attends to all reports or messages that are
in writing, from any officers of her palace, such as the captain of
her guard, the chief butler, chief gardener, her captain of chariots,
and her master of horse. She then issues her orders to these and other
servants of her household. All this time she reclines in a robe of
white silk, elegantly embroidered with the leaves of the lotus and
acanthus, and with flowers imitated to the full beauty of natural
ones. Her hair is braided and confined by a rich turban; and before
her is an ivory table containing ink, tablets, a stylus or two, and
parcels of royal papyrus stamped with her signet, and beautifully
gilded, upon which she inscribes her replies either with her own hand,
or by her scribes, and sometimes only by impressing thereon her
signet, upon which vermilion is rubbed from a small cushion by her
side. For religious affairs the signet is different, having the sacred
hawk's-head engraved upon it above the royal cartouch, and instead of
red color,--the sacred hue of the Memphitic realm,--it is bright blue,
which is taken from a very small crystal bottle, held in readiness by
a scribe's page, from whose thumb it is suspended by a ring of gold.

The queen having dismissed all these attendants, retires to her
bathing-room, which is hung with curtains of cloth of gold; and having
bathed, her handmaidens anoint her with costly perfumes, and arrange
her hair with the highest art; for in the style of the hair the
Egyptian ladies of all ranks display great taste, and expend in
dressing and beautifying it a large proportion of their time; and I
must acknowledge they display perfect skill in making most attractive
this glorious adornment of your sex, dear mother. The young wear it in
numerous braids, mingled with natural tresses; others shape it into a
sort of a helmet, with a crest of curls falling around; others fasten
it behind in a rich knot, and let what is free flow upon the
shoulders. Some cover the head with a braided tiara sparkling with
gold and jewels; and others, especially at banquets, wear rich caps of
embroidered cloth, of beautiful shape, terminating behind in a cape
enriched with needle-work, and ornamented with fringe of floss of
gold,--a peculiar filament I have seen fabricated only in Egypt.
Indeed, an Egyptian lady seems to regard her hair as her crown of
beauty by nature, and she tries by art to make it also a diadem of
glory. As if its natural brilliancy were not enough, after pouring
upon it fragrant perfume, her maid, from a small ivory box, the convex
lid of which is filled with minute perforations, sprinkles its smooth
surface with powder of gold.

The dressing-room of the queen opens upon gardens, is furnished with
luxury, and is encircled by columns of alabaster; its intercolumnar
panels glitter with foreign marbles, and paintings of the highest art;
the tables are resplendent with gold and silver, electrum, and
variegated stones; while before its doors hang drapery of Tyrian
purple wrought with gold, and representing scenes of the chase. More
or less resembling this, are the dressing-rooms of all the ladies of
rank. The lords of Egypt covet gorgeous and expensively adorned "halls
of books," or libraries; but the ladies beautify and enrich their
dressing-saloons, in which they spend so much of their time, and where
they often receive their very intimate female acquaintances: and as a
great favor, gentlemen, on familiar footing with the family, are
sometimes admitted into this beautiful adytum, where the goddess of
beauty is adored by homage the most religious.

The queen, after being attired by her ladies in magnificent robes, is
adorned with jewels; and wearing over her shoulders the splendid
leopard's-skin of the sacrificer, and upon her head the insignia of
sovereignty, she enters, with all her train, the private chapel of the
palace, and there presents offerings to the gods, pours a libation of
wine, and invokes Osiris. On certain high days her chief priest is
present, who, after praying, sacrifices a snow-white fowl, and offers
oblations of more or less magnitude. The queen then asks forgiveness
of the gods for what she may have done wrong in ignorance, in
administering her kingdom, and implores wisdom and guidance in the
acts of the day. The priest now gently touches her crown and sceptre
with his finger dipped in the vase of blood, pours the rest into a
vessel upon the altar, and extending his hands over her as she kneels,
blesses her in the name of Osiris, the lord of the worlds, and king of
the rulers of earth. He also pronounces an imprecation against her
enemies, exempts her from all accusation for things done in ignorance,
and solemnly denounces those of her ministers who wrongfully have
instructed her, or administered evil counsel.

Then the queen, coming forth from prayer, is met by pages who present
her with flowers, and, at the sound of musical instruments, she is led
to her breakfast apartment, where the choicest food is brought on
golden dishes,--cakes of fine flour, steeped in milk or honey, the
flesh of birds roasted or broiled, fruit of all kinds, mild wines of
Palestine and Cyprus, and water of the Nile filtered with the paste of
almonds, and flavored with Arabian spices and Persian condiments.

The meal over, she goes forth to her throne-room, and seating herself,
the doors are thrown open, and she receives all petitioners and comers
who desire audience; but not official persons, such as ambassadors,
who have certain hours for audience with her. She decides on all final
appeals from the judges in the city, or in the nomes, and determines
with wisdom and equity.

These duties over, she walks in her garden, or in the colonnades of
her palace; or rides out to visit her public works, or for air. At
noon she dines, as do all other Egyptians. On these occasions she has
her high officers, and strangers of rank, philosophers, and others, at
her table. Whosoever she delights to honor, she invites to a banquet.
If any of her subjects greatly distinguishes himself, so as to confer
a benefit upon Egypt by any new art or improvement, she not only
places him at her table, whatever his previous rank, but invests him
with a robe of honor, throws a gold chain over his neck, puts a ring
upon his finger, presents him with a chariot to ride in, and makes him
a high officer over some of her works or departments. Thus, by her
virtues and justice, has she won the esteem and love of her subjects.

The queen usually passes the afternoon with her maidens, in her
embroidering rooms, where she always has a large number of handmaids
at work with the needle or the loom, or engaged in the art of
needle-work, or embroidering for the use and decoration of the palace.
She also, at evening, receives guests, and at that time Remeses is
usually found in her company. She retires not long after the close of
day, unless it be a moonlight night, when her players on instruments
of music fill the gardens with harmony, while the queen and her
friends, seated in the corridors, listen, or converse together. In
conversation the queen never speaks evil of any one, and she frowns
upon slander; hence this vice is scarcely known in Egypt, and the
Egyptian ladies, when they hear one of their own sex spoken against,
at once defend her, and find excuses for her. This is certainly a
delightful trait, and should cause the world to concede to the dames
of Egypt the foremost position in the rank of civilization.

I will now speak of the proposed succession of Prince Remeses to the
throne. As I have before said, the king is the representative of the
deity. His title, Ph'rah, or Pharaoh, signifies "the sun," "a king,"
the "lord of light." The head of the religion of the state, he is not
only the judge and lawgiver, but commander of the army, and its leader
in war. These latter duties have been delegated by his mother to
Remeses, by the consent of her council, many years ago. The sceptre of
Egypt is hereditary; but in the event of there being no lineal heir,
the monarch can adopt one, if taken from the priestly or military
class; as the army or the priesthood are the two professions followed
by all men of rank, the navy not having been, until Prince Mœris,
its admiral, demanded it, an exclusive service. Most of the Pharaohs
have been from the military class, and younger princes, from the days
of Osirtasen to Prince Remeses, have adopted the warlike profession;
but it is the universal belief, that no former prince of Egypt has
evinced such ability as Remeses to command vast armies, and lead the
destinies of a mighty people.

When a prince is about to ascend the throne, the laws require that he
should be instructed in all the mysteries of the religion of his
empire, and initiated into the various offices of a sovereign pontiff.
He is taught all that relates to the gods and other mysteries hitherto
concealed from him, the services of the temple, the laws of the
country, and the duties of a king, as inscribed in the ten sacerdotal

In order that in these things he may be properly instructed, he is
enjoined to pass forty days in the temples of Osiris, Pthah, Isis,
Athor, and other gods; and to remain one night, the last of all, in
the temple of Thoth, before the pyramids, watching alone, praying for
the blessings of the gods, and offering sacrifice and libations. This
solemn vigil ended, and the sun risen, he is escorted by a grand
procession of priests, who swing incense before him, and lead him to
the temple of the Sun, to be crowned in the presence of all the
nobles, high officers, and people of Egypt. This ceremony, as
described in the royal books, is grand beyond conception.

In order, therefore, to enter upon this formal preparation, the Prince
Remeses, on the third day after his interview with his mother, retired
from the palace, and sought the holy solitudes of the temple of the
Sun. A council of the hierarchy, assembled by the queen, had
reluctantly given their consent to her abdication; but willingly
yielded to the coronation of Remeses; for, however devoted a warlike
nation may be to a reigning queen, the preference of the people's
heart is for a king. While, therefore, the intelligence, which soon
spread through Egypt, that Amense the Good was to lay down her sceptre
in favor of her son, cast a shadow over their hearts, it was chased
away by the light of the anticipated splendor, which the reign of a
prince, a "Pharaoh," would shed upon the land of Egypt.

"As the good queen will still live, we need not grieve," said some of
the artisans at work upon her obelisk; "we can rejoice in Remeses, and
still honor his royal mother."

It was an affecting parting between the prince and his mother when he
left the palace. I accompanied him to the vestibule of the temple.
Here twelve priests, led by the high-priest, received him; and three
others came forward to disrobe him of his vesture, his bonnet and
sandals; while three more invested him with sacerdotal robes, a
priestly tiara, and placed upon his feet the sacred sandals. Then
inclosing him in their midst, as if to shut him out from the world,
they moved forward into the gloomy cloisters of the temple, and
disappeared with him from my gaze.

At his previous request, and at the earnest solicitation of the queen,
who, in his absence, depressed in spirits, finds relief, as she kindly
says, in my presence, I returned to the Island of Rhoda, and am now
occupying the apartments of the prince; for when he is crowned king,
he will remove to the superb old palace of the Pharaohs, on the banks
of the Nile, between the river and the City of the Sun.

No one is permitted to speak with the royal novitiate until the forty
days are ended; and when he proceeds from temple to temple, to go
through in each certain rites and receive certain instructions, it is
at midnight; and all persons are forbidden to appear in the streets
through which the mysterious procession of priests passes.

It is now the thirty-fourth day since he entered upon his initiation.
Since that time I have seen much more of Egypt and of the people. I
have not, however, been far from the Island of Rhoda, as the queen
constantly demands my society, and inquires of Acherres after me, if I
am long away.

Yesterday afternoon, as I was engaged with a party of nobles fishing
in the Lake Amense, which I have before described as almost a sea in
extent, and bordered by palaces, a galley, rowed by twenty-four oars,
was seen coming towards us at great speed. Upon seeing it, one said:

"It is a royal barge!"

"Nay," said another, "it is that of the old Admiral Pathromenes. His
sails are blue and white."

"I do not heed the color of his sails," said the first lord. "Seest
thou not that it is the queen's galley, by the golden hawk's-head at
the mast, and the cartouch of the Pharaohs above the poop?"

"It _is_ the queen's galley," I said, "for I have frequently been in
it, and recognize its symbols."

Hereupon there was manifested a general curiosity to know why it was
coming so swiftly towards us. In a few minutes I discovered my Hebrew
page, Israelisis, (for I have Egyptianized his name since he came into
my service), upon the deck, and began to suspect the queen had sent
him for me. I was not mistaken. The galley came sweeping round us with
a roar of spray from its dashing oars, and the page, springing lightly
upon the bulwarks of our vessel, with a low obeisance presented me the
queen's signet, saying:

"The queen has sent for thee, my lord!"

The party of nobles expressed great reluctance at parting with me, and
one of them said:

"You are in great favor with our royal house, O prince."

"Only as a guest and stranger," I answered, smiling.

They returned my parting bow with courtesy, and I went upon the
galley, which was soon cleaving the shining surface of the beautiful
lake, called by the Egyptians "the Celestial Sea." It is twenty stadia
in circuit, and from it lead out canals in numerous directions, lined
with verdure, and rich with harvests. It also communicates with the
majestic Father of rivers by a winding artificial outlet, which is
lined with gardens and palaces. Along this lovely serpentine stream,
our galley, after leaving the broad lake, flew like the wind, all
other vessels swiftly moving from its course and giving it the way.
Shooting out into the swift Nile, between two colossal sea-dragons of
red stone, which guarded the entrance to the canal, we crossed to the
palace-covered Rhoda. As I was about to land at the stately quay, I
saw, to my surprise, the war-galley of Prince Mœris riding near,
her rowers still seated at their banks, as if ready to move at a
moment's warning. I met Acherres, who has wholly recovered from his
long illness, of which I wrote his father, at the gateway of the

"My prince," he said, looking anxious, "I am glad you have come. Her
majesty is in some great distress."

"Is Prince Mœris here?" I quickly asked.

"No, my prince; but his galley has brought hither a courier with

"Perhaps he has been defeated in the borders of Ethiopia," was my
reflection; for I knew he had been contemplating an invasion of its
capital, on account of the promise he had exacted from the queen, that
he should rule alone on the ancient throne of the Theban kings in
Upper Egypt.

Ushered from apartment to apartment, I was soon led into the immediate
presence of the queen. In the antechamber, before I entered, I had
seen a stranger, whose features and costume showed that he was a
Theban lord or high officer. He bowed haughtily to me, as I
acknowledged his presence in the usual way when strangers meet.

I found the queen alone. She was walking to and fro with a quick,
nervous step. In her hand she held a letter with the seal broken. Upon
seeing me, she came towards me, and said:

"O Prince Sesostris, who art to me next to my son, I am glad you have
come! Pardon me for sending for you!" Her eyes were bright with tears,
and her voice was tremulous.

"You ought to have done so, O noble queen," I answered, "since you are
in trouble."

"In trouble, Sesostris! It is more than trouble; it is a weight
greater than I can bear!"

"Has Mœris been defeated?" I asked, with earnest sympathy.

"Mœris defeated! No, oh no; but rather conqueror. But I speak an

"Has aught happened to Remeses in his sacred duties?"

"No, oh no! It is Mœris! He will break my heart!"

"What has he done? What can I do?" I asked, perplexed.

"Nothing--that is, _you_ can do nothing! As for Mœris, he has done
every thing! But why do I talk to you? You understand me not! There is
a fearful secret, O Sesostris! I did not send for you to reveal it to
you--but--but for sympathy;--for your company! I know you love me, for
you are the friend of Remeses, and you have a mother whom you love and

"And I also love and honor you, O my mother!" I said, taking her hand
and conducting her to a chair. But she refused to sit down. She
regarded me with eager eyes, as if she were penetrating my soul to its
depths. Suddenly she said:

"Has Remeses told you _all_ the conversations I have had with him?"

"He has talked much with me of what has passed between you, O queen,"
I answered.

"Did he speak of a secret I held locked in my heart even from him?"

"He did. He said it was known, however, to Prince Mœris, who held
it over you as a power of evil."

"Did Remeses suspect its nature?" she demanded.

"He informed me that he once had a suspicion which your majesty

"Yes," she said, with a strange, cold smile, "he fancied that
Mœris's secret was, that he was the true heir of the throne--my
son; and that Remeses was the nephew of Pharaoh, not himself! Was it
not an extraordinary idea, prince?" she asked me with the same icy
irony that was unaccountable to me. "Who could ever doubt that Remeses
is my own son?"

"No one, your majesty," I answered, seeing she looked to me for a

"Surely no one! Dost thou not mark how like our eyes are? And then our
voices are much on the same key, though his, as becomes a man, is
deeper. His smile, is it not mine? Nay, no one could say we are not
mother and son, could they, O Prince of Tyre? How strange, is it not,
that Remeses should have conceived such an idea?"

"He had probably heard, your majesty, traditions of infant sons of
kings having been interchanged; and as he could not account for the
Prince of Thebes' influence over you by a secret, on any other
reasonable grounds, he ventured this supposition."

"But he never will doubt again, O Sesostris!" she cried in an earnest
manner; "no one now could make him suspect, a second time, he is not
my son! Oh no, never! never! Could they, think you, my lord prince?"

"No, madam," I answered; her singular manner and language wholly
surprising me, and leading me to fear that she was not at all well;
that her nerves had been too severely tried by the intelligence,
whatsoever its nature was, which she had received from Prince
Mœris. "Your majesty, I hope, has had no evil tidings," I added,
glancing at the letter she still grasped.

"Oh, evil! All evil, all!" she cried, with anguish in her looks.
"Prince Sesostris!" she all at once exclaimed, "you can be trusted! I
need sympathy. I cannot have it unless I reveal to you my terrible
secret! I know I can confide in you. My heart will break unless I rest
the weight which oppresses it upon another heart!"

"Remeses will in a few days be with you, and--" I began; but she
interrupted me with accents of terror,

"No--no! It is of him! _He_ must never know my secret! It would kill
him--he would fall to the earth a dead man, as if the lightnings of
heaven had smitten him! No, _not_ Remeses! With him silence--eternal

"If it will relieve your majesty to confide in me, I will receive with
gratitude your revelation, and extend you all the sympathy in my
power," I said, with emotion.

"Noble, excellent, virtuous prince!" she exclaimed, lifting my hand to
her lips. "My determination is fixed! You shall know my secret! It
will be safe in your honorable breast. But will you, O prince, consent
to receive a revelation affecting Remeses, your friend, which you are
forbidden to make known to him?"

"For your sake, O queen, I will receive it, and conceal it from
Remeses, and all men," I answered. "I would not wish to make known to
him what would affect him, as you say."

"Come with me, then, O prince, into my private cabinet," she said,
with a voice deep and full, as if she were greatly moved.

I was about to follow her, as she went with a quick resolved step,
when her page without the door gave the usual sign, by tinkling a
silver sistrum, which forms the handles of their ivory sticks, that he
wished to enter. The queen said, almost sternly--

"I can see no one, prince."

I approached the double door, and, opening one of the inlaid valves,
saw behind the page the tall figure of the Theban.

"This lord waits for an answer," said the page.

"The queen will give you audience by and by," I said. "At present her
majesty is engaged. Await her leisure."

The Theban courier bit his lip, and scowled impatiently. I perceived
that the man had caught the spirit of the master; and could judge how
defiant and haughty Mœris must be when his courier could play the
impatient follower so well. Rejoining her majesty, I said, in answer
to her inquiring look, "The courier from the viceroy."

"Yes--he is restless. But I must have time!" She grew so deadly pale,
as she spoke, that I supported her into the cabinet, when she sunk
upon a lounge, and would have fainted away but for water at hand. When
she recovered she said--

"Sesostris, my son, my friend, when you hear all, you will find
excuses for me. Read that letter first."

And she placed in my hand an epistle, written upon the silver leaves
which the kings of Thebes have always made use of for their royal

But, my dear mother, I will here close this epistle. My next will not
be for your eye at present, if ever; unless circumstances transpire
which will remove the seal from the secret revealed to me.

I feel that your warmest sympathies will be with the unhappy queen.

Farewell, dearest mother! May the gods preserve you from all sorrow,
and the Lord of the Sun, the Great Invisible, defend your life and
throne. I hope soon to hear the result of your embassy to the barbaric
King of Cyprus.

 Your dutiful son,




I embrace the first leisure I can command, since closing my last
letter, to resume the subject which filled its pages.

This letter, however, I shall withhold, until I either have authority
to send it to you, or circumstances render it expedient to destroy it;
but in order to keep a record of the events now transpiring, I write
them down in the shape of an epistle to my dear mother, so that
hereafter, if it be necessary to refer to it for facts, there may be
written evidence of them.

The letter of Prince Mœris, which the queen placed in my hands, was
dated some years back, and, no doubt, on noticing this, my countenance
betrayed surprise; for she said quickly--

"Read that first. I conceal nothing from you. You shall know from the

By permission of her majesty, I took a copy of the letter, and of the
two that follow. It was dated--



 "Your Majesty,--I address my letter to you from this petty castle,
 though, albeit, the stronghold of your kingdom seaward, over which
 you have made me governor. For a subject, this would be a post of
 honor. For me, the son of your husband's brother, your royal nephew,
 it is but an honorable exile from a court where you fear my presence.
 Honorable, do I say?--rather, dishonorable; for am I not a prince of
 the blood of the Pharaohs? But let this pass, your majesty. I do not
 insist upon any thing based upon mere lineage. _I feel that I was
 aggrieved by the birth of Remeses._ I see that you turn pale. Do not
 do so yet. You must read further before the blood wholly leaves your
 cheek. I repeat, I am aggrieved by the 'birth of Remeses.' You see I
 quote the last three words. Ere you close this letter, your majesty
 will know why I mark them _thus_. Your husband, the vicegerent of the
 Thisitic kingdom of the South, after leaving his capital, Thebes, at
 the head of a great army, died like a soldier descended from a line
 of a thousand warrior kings, in combat with the Ethiopian. I was
 then, for your majesty was without offspring, the heir to the throne
 of Egypt. I was the son of your husband's younger brother. Though but
 three years old when your lord was slain, I had learned the lesson
 that I was to be king of Egypt, when I became a man. But to the
 surprise of all men, of your council of priests, and your cabinet of
 statesmen, lo! you soon afterwards became a mother, when no evidences
 of this promise had been apparent! Nay, do not cast down this letter,
 O queen! Read it to the end! It is important you should know all.

 "When I became of lawful maturity, it was whispered to me by a
 certain person, that there were suspicions that the queen had feigned
 maternity, and that she had adopted an infant of the wife of one of
 her lords, in order to prevent the son of her husband's brother from
 inheriting. It is true, your majesty, that my father, your lord's
 brother, loved you, as a maiden, and would have borne you from the
 palace of Pharaoh, your father, as his own. Yet why should your
 revenge extend to his son, after he married another princess? Why did
 you deceive Egypt, and supplant his son (myself), by imposing upon
 Egypt the infant Remeses, the child of a lord of your palace, whom no
 one knows, for you took care to send him, with an ample bribe of
 gold, to Carthage, or some other distant country. Now, your majesty
 knows whether this be true or not. I believe it to be so, and that
 the haughty, hypocritically meek Remeses, has no more right to be
 called the son of Pharaoh's daughter than one of the children of the
 base Hebrews, or of an Egyptian swine-herd; and, by the gods, judging
 from his features, he might be a Ben Israel!

 "I demand, therefore, that you make me viceroy of the Thebaïd. Unless
 you do so, I swear to your majesty, that I will agitate this
 suspicion, and fill all Egypt with the idea that your favorite
 Remeses is not your son. Whether I believe this or not, matters not.
 If there be any truth in it, _your majesty knows_, and will, no
 doubt, act accordingly.

  "Your faithful nephew,
  "MŒRIS, Prince."

When I had finished reading this extraordinary letter, I raised my
eyes to the queen. She was intently observing its effect upon my

"Dared that man write thus to your majesty?" I cried, with the
profoundest emotions of indignation.

"You have read," answered the queen, with a tremulous voice.

"And did not your majesty at once send and arrest the bold insulter
and dangerous man?" I said.

She bit her lip, and said, in a hollow tone--

"Prince of Tyre, is he not this day viceroy of the Thebaïd?"

"Does your majesty mean that you yielded to his demand?"


"I marvel at it," said I, confounded at the acknowledgment. "If what
he had said had been true--"

"Sesostris, falsehood often flies faster than truth. It can do as much
mischief. The rumor of such a thing, false or true, would have shaken
my throne, and destroyed the confidence of the mass of the people in
Remeses when he came to the sceptre. I resolved to stifle it by giving
Mœris what he asked."

I regarded the queen with sentiments of pity and sorrow. She said

"Read another letter from him." I did so. It was dated three years
later, and demanded the command of the fleet, and its separation
from the control of the general-in-chief of the armies. This
general-in-chief was Remeses, dear mother. To the demand the queen
yielded, and thereby erected the maritime arm of her kingdom into an
independent service, acknowledging no superior authority but that of
the throne. When I had ended the perusal of the letter, the queen
placed in my hand a third missive from this powerful man.

"This is what I received but now," she gasped. "Read it, Sesostris,
and give me your sympathy."

It bore date--



 "Your Majesty,--I write from my pavilion pitched at the foot of the
 Libyan mountains. I need not forewarn you of the subject of this
 letter, when I assure you that within the hour I have received
 intelligence from Memphis, that you are about to abdicate your throne
 in favor of Remeses, your suppositious son. This intelligence does
 not surprise me. When I was in Lower Egypt, I saw through you and
 your policy. I perceived that while you feared me, you resolved to
 defeat my power over you. This purpose, to surrender the sceptre of
 the two Egypts, I can penetrate. You design, thereby, securely to
 place Remeses beyond my power to harm him, for that, being king, if I
 lift a finger he can destroy me. I admire your policy, and bow in
 homage to your diplomacy. But, O queen, both you and Remeses are in
 my power! Nay, do not flash your imperial eyes at this assertion.
 Hear me for a few moments.

 "Your ready compliance with my demand, a few years ago, to create me
 viceroy of Thebes, led me to believe that my suspicions were true;
 that is, that Remeses was the son of one of your noble ladies, whom
 you had adopted. And when you made me admiral of your fleet, on my
 second demand, I was convinced that you feared the truth, and that it
 might be proven, with proper evidence, that Remeses was not your son.
 I set to work to obtain this evidence. You know that I have something
 of the sleuth-hound in my composition, and that once upon a track I
 will follow it to its termination, were it under the pyramid of
 Noachis itself. I employed emissaries. I bribed even your own
 courtiers. I ascertained who were of your court when your husband was
 killed in Ethiopia, thirty-five years ago. Three old lords and ladies
 still live, and have good memories when gold, and jewels, and
 promises of place dazzle their humid eyes. From them I learned, that
 about the time of the supposed birth of Remeses, you sent away, in
 one day, five of your ladies and maids of honor, to a distant
 country: yet not so quickly but that one of them dropped the secret,
 that you were not a real mother, and that the infant you called your
 own was the son of another woman. This secret was told to her brother
 who, in after years, was my master of horse. When, on one occasion, I
 was about to put him to death for cowardice in battle, he informed me
 that he held a great secret 'concerning the queen, Prince Remeses,
 and myself,' and that if I would pardon and restore him to his rank,
 he would divulge it, saying, that for fear it would be traced to him
 by your majesty if he ever spoke of it, he had never made it known to
 any man.

 "Curiosity and instinct led me to pardon him. He then stated what I
 have above written,--that you feigned maternity, and, obtaining a
 male child from the Hebrew nurse of one of your ladies, who had given
 birth to it a few weeks before, you shut yourself up three months,
 and then palmed it upon the priests and people, as the heir of your
 throne and of the sceptre of the Pharaohs. The mother, the nurse, and
 the ladies who were parties to the transaction, were then all
 banished from Egypt.

 "Instituting a thorough investigation, by dispatching galleys to
 Tyre, Carthage, Gades, and the isles of the sea, at length I was
 rewarded by the discovery of the port to which your women were
 carried. Two of them only were found alive. Those two are now in the
 city of On! When I was in Lower Egypt I saw them, and will name them:
 Thebia, of Pythom, and Nilia, of On. Your majesty perceives how exact
 I am: that I have my way clear as I advance. Methinks I can see you
 turn deadly white, and that with a shriek you let fall the papyrus!
 Take it up again, and resume the perusal. It is useless to shrink
 from the development of the truth. You may shut your eyes at noon,
 and say 'It is night,' but you cannot, by so doing, destroy the light
 of the sun. You may close your eyes--you may destroy this letter, or
 may read no further; but the truth will shine, nevertheless, with a
 brightness which will drive night itself before it!

 "These venerable women, examined apart, told the same tale. It is as

 "'That you had approached the river on the morning of the festival of
 Isis (you see I am particular), to bathe, as your custom was, in the
 marble crescent at the foot of the gardens of your palace of Rhoda,
 where you now are residing. You had descended the steps into the
 water, and your women had taken your necklace, and other ornaments
 from you; and, robed in your bathing-dress, you were about to step
 into the river, when you descried a basket floating slowly past,
 close to the place where you stood. While you were looking at it, it
 lodged against a group of flags, near the statue of Nepth, just above
 you. Your maidens were lingering upon the bank, or walking near at
 hand, awaiting you, when, seeing Nilia not far off, you called to
 her, and said--

 "'Seest thou the little baris of basket-work, O Nilia. Draw it in to
 the shore, and look what it contains.'

 "The handmaiden obeyed you, aided by her companion, Thebia, and when
 you drew near and opened the lid, you beheld a beautiful child lying
 within it. It looked up into your face, and wept so piteously, that
 you took it up, deeply impressed by its beauty and helplessness, and
 the extraordinary manner in which it had come to you. You placed it
 in the arms of Thebia, and said to her:

 "'This child is sent to me by Nilus, the deity of this great river of
 Egypt. I will adopt it as my own, for it has no father but the river,
 no mother but this little ark of flags and bitumen in which it has
 floated to my feet.'

 "You then gave the lovely babe many kisses, tenderly soothed its
 cries, and was so happy with the prize, that you hastened to leave
 the river. But before you did so, the wind blew aside its mantle, and
 you discovered that it was a Hebrew male child, for the Egyptians do
 not circumcise their infants. This discovery was made also by the two
 women, Nilia and Thebia, and you said:

 "'It is one of the Hebrews' children.'

 "It was at the time when your father's edict for the destruction of
 all the male children of this Syrian race was in existence. You
 deliberated what to do with it, when its wailing tones moved your
 heart, and you said to them:

 "'It shall still be mine! Let us keep the secret! I will raise it as
 my son! Its parents think it has perished, for they could not have
 hoped to save it by committing it to this frail bark, and it can
 never know its origin!'

 "That child, O queen, is Remeses! Of this I have certain evidence.
 The two women say, you ordered the little ark to be taken in charge
 by your chief of the baths. In verification of the account, the ark
 still exists, and I have seen it.

 "It is not necessary for me to add more. I have written enough to
 show you the power I hold over you, and over this Remeses-Mosis. His
 very name signifies 'Taken out of the water,' and was given to him by
 yourself, as if the gods would make you the means of your own

 "Now, O queen, who intendeth to place a degraded Hebrew upon the
 throne of Egypt, I, Mœris, write this epistle warning you, that
 unless you revoke your purpose, and publicly adopt me as your son,
 and convey to me the two crowns, I will proclaim through all Egypt
 your shame, and the true history of this Remeses! I could have
 excused you had he proved to be the son of one of your ladies, as the
 report was; but an Hebrew! _He_ deserves death, and _you_ to forfeit
 your crown! But I will make these terms with your majesty:--if you
 will call a council of your hierarchy and adopt me as your son, that
 I may be your heir, and will abdicate in my favor, I will conceal
 what I know from the Egyptians; and more still, I will make Remeses
 governor over Goshen, and lord of all his people under my rule. Is
 not this liberal?

 "If you refuse my terms, I will descend upon Lower Egypt with my
 fleet, declare your throne vacant, Remeses a slave, and seize the
 sceptre! Once in my power, your favorite Remeses shall die an
 ignominious death, and you shall remain a prisoner for life in the
 castle of Bubastis.

 "I dispatch a special courier--my master of horse--_whose sister was
 your lady in waiting at the finding of Remeses_. Unless I have a
 reply in the affirmative, for which my courier will delay six hours,
 you shall hear me knocking at the gates of Rhoda with the head of my


When, my dear mother, I had finished reading this extraordinary
letter, I held it unrolled in my hands for a few moments, stupefied,
as it were, with amazement. My eyes sought the face of the queen. It
was rigid as iron--white as alabaster; but her regards were riveted
upon my countenance.

"Your majesty," I said, hardly knowing what to say, "what fable is
this of the daring and impious Prince of Thebes--?"

She interrupted me with--

"What dost thou think, O Sesostris? If it be a fable, is it not, in
such a man's hand, as dangerous as truth? Dare I let him circulate
such a tale throughout Egypt? _Can_ I let it reach the ears of

"Why not, O queen?" I asked. "If it is false, it can be shown to be
so; and my friend Remeses is too great and wise to heed it. Is it by
so improbable and artfully framed a story as this, you are made
unhappy; and for this you resign your crown and hasten to secure
Remeses in power?"

"Is it not enough?"

"No, O wise and virtuous lady!" I answered, with indignant feelings
against Mœris, and sympathy for her womanly fears; "my advice to
you is, to defy the malice and wickedness of the viceroy, inform
Remeses of these letters--nay, let him read them--assemble your army,
and meet him with open war. A row of galleys sunk across the Rile will
stop his fleet; and if he land, your soldiers, with Remeses at their
head, will drive him back to his city of a hundred gates, and--"

Again the queen interrupted me:

"No, no! I cannot tell Remeses! He must never know of these letters!"
she almost shrieked.

"Has Remeses any suspicion of the tale they tell?" I asked.

"No. He knows no other mother. If he hears this story, he will
investigate it to the last, to show me that he would prove it false in
the mouth of Mœris."

"And this he ought to do, your majesty," I said, firmly.

"Prince Sesostris, dost thou believe he could prove it false?" she
demanded, in a mysterious and strange tone.

"Undoubtedly," I answered; though, my dear mother, I could not wholly
resist the recollection, which forced itself upon me most sharply and
painfully, of the resemblance I had noticed between Remeses and the
Hebrew people. But I banished the idea it suggested, regarding it more
probable for an Egyptian and Hebrew to look alike, than for Remeses to
have been born a Hebrew, and adopted by Pharaoh's daughter.
Nevertheless, there was apparent to myself a want of fulness in my
tones when I answered her "undoubtedly."

The queen came close up to me, and said in a deep, terrible whisper,
looking first wildly around her, to see if any one overheard her,--

"_He cannot prove it false!_"

"You mean, O queen," said I, "that though Remeses cannot prove it
false, it nevertheless _is_ false?"

"_No._ It cannot be proven _false_, because it is TRUE!" she answered,
as if her voice came from within a sarcophagus.

"True?" I repeated, with horror.

"True, O prince! It is impossible for me to conceal or prevaricate. I
promised to confide in you; but I have kept back till the last the
_whole_ truth! I can do so no longer!" She caught by my arm to sustain
her tottering form.

"Is not Remeses, then, your son?" I cried.


"Is he a Hebrew?"


"Then this letter of Mœris is all true?"

"All, as to the fact that Remeses is a Hebrew!"

Such was the rapid colloquy which followed. O my dear mother, no
mortal can estimate the amount of agony which overwhelmed my soul at
this intelligence! I sank upon the pedestal of a statue near me, and
covering my face with my hands, burst into tears. The queen did not
speak, but suffered my paroxysm of grief and mortification to exhaust
itself. At length I raised my head. I felt for her--felt, oh how
profoundly, for the unhappy Remeses--ignorant of his calamity, and
engaged, even then, in the vigils and rites which were to prepare him
to ascend the throne! I could now understand all that had been
inexplicable in the queen's conduct, unravel her mysterious language,
see the motive of all her acts. I no longer marvelled that she, loving
Remeses with all a mother's love, trembled before Mœris and his
secret, and gave him all he demanded as the price of silence. But when
he asked for her throne as the bribe for secrecy, it was more than her
spirit could bear; and unable alone, unaided, to meet him in his
demand, she sought counsel of me and sympathy; and little by little
made known to me, as I have narrated, the secret she would have
sacrificed her life to conceal, if she could thereby have concealed it
forever from Remeses.

"Poor, noble, unhappy Remeses!" I ejaculated.

"He must _never_ know it!" she cried, passionately.

"It will be known to him," I answered, sorrowfully "If you refuse
Prince Mœris's demand, he will write another such missive as this,
and dispatch it to Remeses. The prince, if I may, from love, still
call him so, will, as you have said, examine the matter. Mœris will
refer him to the ladies Nilia and Thebia. He will then come to you--"

"To me?" she cried, with a shudder.

"To you, O queen, and ask of you if Prince Mœris and these women
relate the truth."

"He would not believe--he would not believe it--so far as to come to
me. He would not insult me by making such a demand of me!"

"He may be forced to it. Circumstances may overcome him, so that he
will feel that he must appeal to you. He would refuse to ascend the
throne of Egypt, so high is his integrity, if there were a doubt as to
his legitimate right to it."

"O prince, counsel me! What shall I do?" she cried, wringing her
hands, and looking towards me in the most appealing and helpless

"I know not how to counsel your majesty," I replied, greatly
distressed, my heart bleeding both for her and Remeses, who, I felt,
sooner or later, must come to the truth of the dreadful rumor; and
also from my knowledge of the perfect uprightness and justice of his
character, as well as his firmness, that he would investigate it until
he either disproved or verified it.

At length, after a long and painful interval of embarrassment, the
queen, of her own will, said to me--

"Sesostris, I meant no wrong. I loved the weeping babe, in its
desolate state, and no sooner did I take it up than it smiled, and won
my heart. You know the fine appearance of Remeses as a man; judge you
therefore how lovely he was when an infant three months old. I was
childless. My husband had been a few weeks dead, and this infant
seemed to be sent to me in part to fill up the place made void in my
affections. That it was a Hebrew child did not move me. I had always
opposed the cruel edict of the king, my father; and felt that, to save
this child of the oppressed Hebrews, would in some degree, atone for
the death of so many who were destroyed in obedience to his orders.
Thus I was influenced by a threefold motive--to save the infant, to
adopt a son, to atone for evil."

"Good and lawful motives, O queen," I said, interested in her
narrative, so touchingly told as to deeply affect me.

"I did not believe I was doing evil. I at once, at the suggestion of
one of my maids, sent a Hebrew girl, who was gazing upon us from afar,
to call a nurse from the Hebrew women for the child. She brought one,
comely and gentle in manner, whom I took with me to the palace; and,
after instructing her to keep the matter a secret, suffered her to
take the child home, for she lived in a garden, not far above the
palace, upon the island, her father being a cultivator of flowers for
the priests. The tenderness of this Hebrew woman towards the beautiful
babe pleased me, and, after I had, in a public manner, acknowledged
the child, even as Mœris's letter states, I let it remain with her
until it grew to be three years old, when I commanded her to bring it
to the palace to remain; for although I had seen it almost daily, I
now desired to have it wholly in my possession. From that time he has
been brought up in my own palace, as my son, and educated as prince of
the empire and heir to the throne. For all my care and affection, he
has repaid me with the profoundest devotion, and tenderest attachment.
At first, seeing he was very fond of his Hebrew nurse, I jealously
forbade her again to visit him, so that I might be the sole object of
his attachment. He soon forgot her, and from his fourth year has known
no love but mine. When he came to manhood, I had him instructed in the
art of war, and made him general of the army of the pyramids. By the
greatest philosophers and sages he was taught geometry, astrology,
architecture, physics, mythology, and the knowledge of all science. I
have spared no care to educate him in all the learning of the
Egyptians. With all his wisdom and vast knowledge, he is as docile and
gentle in disposition as a child: ever dutifully submissive to my
will, the voice which has led armies by its battle-cry, melts into
tenderness in my presence. Ah, prince, never mother loved a son as I
have loved him!"

"I pity you, O queen, with all my heart," said I, warmly.

"Oh, what shall I do? What shall I reply to Mœris?"

"I know not how to counsel you!" I said, embarrassed by this appeal.

"I will then act. His courier shall not go back unanswered. I will
defy him!" A new spirit seemed all at once to animate her.

She clapped her hands. A page entered.

"Bid the Theban courier enter. His answer is ready." The master of
horse came haughtily in, a cloud of impatience yet upon his brow.

"Go back to thy master, and say to him, that Amense is still queen of
Egypt, and wears both the crowns of her fathers, and that she will
defend them. Say, that I defy him, and fear him not!"

The courier looked amazed, bowed with a slight gesture of obeisance,
and left the presence.

No sooner had the valves of the door closed upon him, than she said--

"It is done! The arrow is drawn from the quiver, and set to the
bowstring. There is nothing left but to defy him, and trust the gods
to aid the just cause. Remeses will be crowned king, ere Mœris can
get my message and return a letter to him. There are but five days
more to the end of the forty. Three days afterwards is the coronation.
That is nine from to-day. It will take twelve or more days for a
message to go and come from the camp of Mœris. Three days! Time
enough to make or mar an empire. Sesostris, this prince of Typhon,
this haughty Mœris, shall yet be confounded!"

Thus speaking, the queen, whose whole powers were aroused by despair
linked with affection, laid her hand in mine, bade me good-night--for
it was now moonlight, so long had we discoursed--and begged me come in
the morning and breakfast with her.

Here, in the quiet of my chamber, dear mother, I have made a record of
this extraordinary interview. The letter I shall preserve unless it be
necessary to destroy it; but I shall not send it to you until the seal
of secrecy is removed.

What can I say? How can I realize that Remeses is a Hebrew? How little
he suspects the truth! Will he hear it? If he does; but it is useless
to speculate upon the consequences. I pray that he may be well crowned
before Mœris can do him any mischief; for, son of Misr, or son of
Abram, he is worthy of the throne of Egypt, and will wield its sceptre
with wisdom and justice, beyond that of any of the proud Pharaohs. The
attachment of the queen is natural. I deeply feel for her. The conduct
of Mœris is also natural. What will be his course? Farewell, dear

 Your affectionate son,




I commence this letter, as I did one written and addressed to you two
days ago, with the probability, that circumstances may yet render the
seal of secrecy, now placed upon it, unnecessary; at least I shall
detain both this one and that, for a time, if not finally destroy
them. But I have a feeling that you will yet read what I write.

If the incidents and scenes recorded, in the preceding letter, were of
an extraordinary kind, you must be prepared to read in this, of events
still more strange, and painfully interesting. It is with an effort
that I calm my pulse, and subdue my emotions sufficiently, to narrate
equably what I desire to make known to you.

The morning after my interview with the queen, I arose early from a
sleepless couch; for the events of the preceding evening, recalled by
an excited mind, kept me awake with reflections of the most anxious
and distressing nature. I mourned for Remeses, my noble, wise, and
great friend and counsellor,--a prince by nature, and by the seal of
all the gods, if not by inheritance from the Pharaohs. Not regarding
the Hebrew race with the disdainful eye of those who have been masters
over them, like the Egyptians, but looking upon them only as an
unfortunate nation, descendants of the three patriarchal princes of
Palestine, I, dear mother, felt no contempt for Remeses on account of
his lineage and blood: To me, he was still as dear and as much
honored. It was not the "prince" I loved from the first, but the
"_man_" and he remains. I tossed my head on my pillow, grieving for
him; as I knew, should the tidings ever come to his ears, and be
confirmed as a truth, that it would break his great heart--crush his
mighty soul to the earth; for, educated as an Egyptian prince, he
entertains towards the Hebrews, the haughty contempt (so far as this
sentiment can repose in such a benevolent bosom), which characterizes
the Egyptian nation. How will he be humbled, overwhelmed, confounded,

Such were my wakeful reflections, when at length the morning dawned;
and I arose, bathed, and prepared to obey the command of the queen to
breakfast with her. Believing that she must have passed a sorrowful
night, and would not awake early, I sat down to read in a roll of
papyrus which lay upon my table, among other books that belonged to
Remeses; for I was occupying his own suite of rooms during his
absence, amid the sacred mysteries of his kingly initiation. It proved
to be written in the Theban running character, which I am not familiar
with, and laying it down, I took up a leaf of new papyrus, on which I
recognized the bold and elegant script of Remeses. As he had given me
free access to all upon the table, I examined the subject, and finding
that it was a sacred poem, I read therein a few sentences, when I
perceived that it was the history of a remarkable era in the life of
the venerable Lord of Uz, to whom I have alluded. This aged and
interesting Syrian has already taken his departure, but previously
made known to Remeses, as he told me, all the events connected with an
extraordinary period of his middle life.

I read, therefore, with interest what Remeses had commenced: for it
was only a beginning. After giving the name of the Lord of Uz, and
that of the land in which he dwelt, he spoke of his uprightness, his
holiness, his riches, and his pious care over his children--who were
seven sons and three daughters; and also of their happiness,
festivities, and prosperity; and how, by the permission of the One
God, Typhon, or the Spirit of Evil, tempted him.

Thus far had my friend got in the history, and I was about to replace
the scroll, when the door opened, and lo! Prince Remeses himself stood
before me! I started with an exclamation of joyful astonishment; but
seeing his visage haggard and pallid with woe, I was alarmed. I
approached him to embrace him, as he stood just within the door,
regarding me with looks of doubt and solicitude.

"Wilt thou, O Prince of Tyre, embrace a Hebrew?" he surprised me by
asking, in a voice deep and tremulous.

"Then thou knowest it all," I cried, "O my friend!" as I threw myself
into his embrace.

For a few minutes we wept in each other's arms. At length he spoke and

"Yes, Sesostris, I have heard it all! Thou knowest the secret also,
says my moth----nay--I forgot--I should have said--the queen!" Here
his emotion overcame him. He leaned his noble head upon my shoulder
and continued: "Yet she is my mother, prince! She has ever been a
mother to me! I have known no other! I shall love her, while my life
lasts, above all earthly things. Pardon my grief, Sesostris! Nature is
mighty in sorrow, and will have her way! The heart, like our Nile,
will sometimes overflow, if full."

In a few moments he was composed, and said sadly--

"Knowing my history, can you regard me as before?"

"I love thee as ever, O prince--"

He interrupted me--"Call me not 'prince,' call me by my name--that, at
least, is left me! But I am a slave!"

"No--not to me! You are a descendant of kings! Are not Prince Abraham,
Isaac, and the great Prince Jacob your ancestors? I am not an Egyptian
any more than thyself," I answered him.

"True, true! I must not forget that! I thank thee, O prince, for
reminding me of this. A slave in Egypt may be a freeman in Tyre!"

"That is true also," I said. "May I ask, O Remeses, why you have left
the temples and are here; and how you heard this intelligence, which
you bear up under like a god?"

"I am calm now; but, Sesostris, I have passed through a sirocco of the
soul! You shall hear all. Come and sit here."

I placed myself by the table opposite to him. He then began as

"I need not describe to you, O my friend, the nature of the rites and
ceremonies, nor the character of the mysteries which I have been in
contact with, for five-and-thirty days; let it be enough for your
curiosity to know, that beneath all the splendor of our polytheism is
hidden the mystery, known to the 'sons of the Lord of heaven, of One
God. This truth is guarded by the mystics, as a mystery, not as a
doctrine; and is of no value to them nor to the world: it is as if the
sun were forever shrouded in impenetrable clouds. I have learned it
only darkly; but this is not to my purpose now, my friend: perhaps at
another time we will discourse of these things. I had passed my
decreed days and nights, at all the shrines which the laws for kings
direct when, last night, I was borne across the Nile by a company of
the mystics, who left me at the entrance of the avenue leading to the
sphinx that is before Cheops and Chephres. There twelve other
ecclesiastical mystics took me in charge. We marched together, six on
each side of me, in profound silence; till, on passing the lion facing
the sphinx, their leader cried--

"'Let the king be as a lion in strength and majesty!'

"The rest answered with one voice--

"'And may his enemies be as lambs beneath his paws!'

"At the small temple, between the feet of the sphinx, three priests
stood, one of whom sprinkled my head with sacred water; the second,
with his little finger that had been dipped in the blood of a cock
which he had sacrificed, touched my forehead; and the third waved
incense before me;--while from within came a low, plaintive chant of
voices and instruments, invoking the gods in a hymn on my behalf. The
whole scene was solemn and impressive.

"I was then conducted to the pylon of the great temple before the
pyramids. As I passed beneath the gate, the twelve priests left me;
and twenty-four others, dressed in white robes and bearing torches,
took me in charge, and conducted me at a slow march across the great
quadrangle, leading me to a dark portal which descended, as I was
told, to the base of the pyramid, down to the 'hall of all the
mysteries of the earth.'"

"Is not this the temple of the magicians?" I asked, gratified to see,
that Remeses could for a moment so far forget his great sorrow, as to
enter into these details, for my gratification.

"Yes, the place where the sorcerers and soothsayers hold their mystic
and fearful rites. For ages, this subterranean temple, under the earth
between the two pyramids, but no part of the pyramidal structure
itself, has been their place of solemn assembly. Into this region I
descended, led by only two men, who received me at the head of the
stairs of stone.

"But I may not describe, more particularly, the progress of my
mysterious journey through subterranean passages, which I had no
conception existed beneath the space between the two pyramids;
although tradition has it, that the whole territory underneath both is
a labyrinthine catacomb, which assertion I have now no reason to
doubt. After traversing vast gloomy corridors of pillars hewn from the
solid rock, and a succession of chambers dedicated to mysteries, I was
ushered, by the sound of awful music, from an unseen source, into a
great central temple, so large that the torches borne by my guides,
could not penetrate its outer blackness. In the centre of this solemn
hall stood an altar of black marble. We approached it, when suddenly
from it soared aloft a bright flame which illumined the temple, to its
remotest obscurities, with a light like the moon when it is full.
revealing in the height above, a firmament with its thousand stars
reflecting the light. I had already, my Sesostris, passed through such
varied and surprising scenes, in the progress of my initiation, that I
was not surprised at this, for the arts of the priestly magicians seem
to embrace a knowledge of all the secret alchemy of nature; and they
possess wisdom and skill to control her wonderful powers. While this
brilliant flame burned from a brazen vase which stood upon the altar,
a procession of figures entered by a distant door, and slowly made the
circuit of the massive corridor. I perceived at once that they were
attired symbolically, representing the powers of nature, and were
preceded by five stately and imposing forms standing for fire, water,
earth, air, and the Nile; symbols of which were worn upon their heads,
and carried in their hands. Behind these came seven persons, each
crowned with a star, the whole representing the seven stars. Then
advanced Orion, belted and armed; Arcturus, Aldebaran, Procyon, Rigel,
and Antares, each with a blazing coronet above his brow, and carrying
the symbols and wearing the dress of the god. These, with an interval
of space between, were followed by the twelve constellations of the
zodiac; each zodiac consisting of twelve bands of men, subdivided into
twenty-four smaller companies, and so moving, each in a place assigned
him, as to show the position of every star of the constellation, which
he was appointed to aid in illustrating. Each individual carried above
his head a starry light, inclosed in a crystal cup.

"This imposing and magnificent representation and illustration of the
march of Time through the heavens, with all the movements of the
heavenly orbs, presented a spectacle of splendor unsurpassed by any
human display. Solemn as the march of the stars themselves, this
procession of constellations moved once around the grand circuit of
the temple, and then the five leaders advanced towards the altar, by
which I stood alone, deserted by those who had led me thither. Every
one of these symbolic persons in succession bent the knee before me,
in token that the powers of the earth, air, fire, and water, with the
great Nile itself, were submissive to my will. Ah, Sesostris,"
interspoke Remeses here, "how little did they suspect, when paying me
this customary homage, that I was a mere Hebrew slave, who could make
use of the air, of fire, of water, of the earth, or of the Nile, only
by the permission of my Egyptian masters!

"Other striking ceremonies passed thereafter, and by and by I was left
alone beside the altar, the flame of which it was my duty to feed with
naphtha until morning, this being the first vigil of the last five
nights. I was not, however, long left alone. Seven magicians, in their
gorgeous apparel, came from a door that seemed to be an outlet from
beneath the second pyramid, and approached me, chanting a war-song.
Each bore a piece of royal armor,--one a helmet, one a cuirass, one a
spear, another a shield. As they passed me they presented, and I
received from each, a piece of the armor, and invested myself
therewith. I was told by the leader to be strong and fight valiantly,
for I should be assailed by powers of evil. They then left me, and
again I was alone, yet on my guard. Feeding the flame till it burned
high, I sought to penetrate the gloom, at least expecting to behold a
lion let into the temple for me to combat with, that I might prove my
right to the sword of the Pharaohs which I held in my grasp.

"I know not, Sesostris, who or what would have been my assailant, if
due time had elapsed for his coming; but I suddenly heard a step
behind me, and behold, instead of a fierce beast or a warrior, a
single magician, tall and commanding, who bore in one hand merely the
sacred _crux_ or emblem of life, and in the other his black wand
tipped with an emerald. I challenged him, as I was directed to do by
my instructors, and demanded whether he came for good or evil, with
war or peace in his heart.

"He made no other reply than--

"'Follow me!'

"I obeyed. Ah, how little did I suspect, O Sesostris, that I was about
to encounter what was more fearful than a roaring lion,--more terrible
than an armed host! But you shall hear.

"I crossed the echoing temple-floor to a small portal, which at first
did not reveal its presence, being a slab in the wall, but which, at a
slight pressure of the magician's wand, betrayed an opening through
which we passed,--I, with my sword held in my hand to defend or
attack. The stone door closed behind me, and I was conducted through a
beautiful chamber, adorned with marbles, and sparkling with precious
stones, that seemed to shine by a light of their own, as I could
discover no source of reflection; though doubtless, however, that was,
in some part, concealed by the art of these ingenious and wise

"There was an inner chamber, or adytum, entirely encased with panels
of black marble, polished like a mirror. I was conducted into this
room, and commanded, by a voice unknown, and from an invisible person,
to seat myself upon a stone chair in the centre of the floor. I
obeyed; for princes, during their initiation, are taught constantly,
that 'he who would know how to command must learn how to obey;' and
thus, in these rites, submission and obedience are inculcated, as
necessary elements in the character of one who wishes to exact them
from others. Indeed, Sesostris, the whole routine of the ceremonies,
though sometimes vain and frivolous, sometimes extravagant, is
calculated to impress upon the heart of a prince the wisest lessons in
self government, and the profoundest knowledge of himself. Every
temptation is offered him, that he may resist it. Every condition of
life, from hunger and thirst upward, he passes through in his
progress. Three nights and days I fasted in the temple of Pthah, that
I might pity the hungry: two days I suffered thirst, that I might feel
for the thirsty: six hours I toiled with burdens, that I might know
how my poorer subjects toiled: one hour I was a servant, another a
prisoner, a third cup-bearer to the high-priest. Every rite is a link
in the practical education of a prince; and he who comes to the
throne, has reached it through every grade of society, and through
every condition of humanity; and thus the king centres and unites
within his own person, from having been engaged in each, the pursuits
of all his people, and knows by experience their joys and sorrows,
toils and pleasures; and can say to every class of Egyptians, 'there
is nothing which appertains to you that is foreign to me. The people
of Egypt are represented in their king.'

"When I had taken my seat in this chamber of black marble, which was
dimly lighted by a misty radiance before me, I saw that I was alone.
Now, O Sesostris, came my trial!--such an one as no prince of the
house of Pharaoh had ever passed through. It is said that Osirtasen,
when he was brought to this chamber, had it revealed to him that he
was the son of the god Hercules but to me was revealed, alas! thou
knowest what, and shalt hear how!

"'Remeses-Moses,' said a deep and stern voice from what, in the
obscurity, seemed to me a shrine, 'thou art wise, and virtuous, and
strong of heart! Gird thyself with courage, and hear what is to be
revealed to thee! Know that thou art not the son of Amense, queen of
Egypt, as thou believest. She was never a mother!'

"'It is false, thou wicked magician!' I cried, starting to my feet.
'Art thou, then, the foe I am to meet and destroy?'

"'Silence, young man!' cried another voice, with a tone of power.
'What the mysterious oracle utters is true. Thou art not the son of
Pharaoh's daughter! Thou hast no title to the throne of Egypt!'

"'Who am I, then?' I cried, impressed and awed, yet full of anger at
the words.

"'Thou art the son of a Hebrew mother and a Hebrew father!' said the

"I advanced sword in hand to meet these invisible persons, believing
that the insult was but another of the series of tests, and this one
in particular, of my patience and temper; for, O Sesostris," added
Remeses to me, bitterly, "what greater insult could have been put upon
a prince of Egypt than this! When I came forward, I saw the wall, as
it were, open before me; and I beheld the Nile in bright sunshine; the
Island of Rhoda, with its palaces and gardens; the distant towers and
obelisks of On, and all the scenery adjacent, but seemingly so near,
that I could lay my hand upon it all.

"At this surprising spectacle manifesting itself in the dark chambers
of the pyramids, I stood amazed and arrested! I felt that it was
supernatural, or produced by magic. As I gazed, perplexed, a third
voice said--

"'Behold! Thou seest that the obelisk of Amense is wanting; that the
palace of the governor of the Nile has only its foundations laid. The
scene is, as Egypt was thirty-five years ago.'

"I looked again, and recognized the truth. I saw it was not the Nile
of to-day. I saw, also, that its stream was at a height, different
from its present mark upon the nilometer. I was amazed, and awaited
with intense expectation. Suddenly I saw a party of spearmen enter a
hut, which I perceived was one of a group that was occupied by Hebrew
workmen, who were engaged upon the governor's palace. Presently they
came forth, two of them, each bearing an infant aloft upon a spear,
which was thrust through it, and followed by shrieking women. I could
hear and see all as if I were on the spot. I impulsively advanced to
slay the men, for all seemed so real, but as I did so, saw at my feet
a yawning gulf. Then the men cast the infants into the Nile. I saw
three others go into another hut, whence they were driven forth by two
desperate Hebrews, who, armed with straw-cutters, slew two of them;
but the other fled, and returning with his comrades, they set fire to
the hut of rushes, and consumed the inmates within it. I now perceived
that it seemed drawing towards the close of day. From a hut, near the
water, a man and a young girl, both Hebrews, stole forth, and
collecting bulrushes in their arms, returned to the hut. It was now
night. I had seen the shades of evening fall over the scenery, and the
stars come out. Yet, by a power incomprehensible to me, I could look
into the closed and barred hut, and see that, by the light of a rush
dipped in bitumen, three of its inmates were making, in secret haste,
a large basket. I saw them finish it, and then beheld the man smear it
within and without with pitch. From their conversation, I learned that
they wished it to resist water, and that they were to commit some
precious freight to its frail protection; what, I could not learn; as,
when they spoke of it, their colloquy was in low hushed tones, and
with looks of fear, especially the two females, who wept very much.
One of them, I learned by their words, was the daughter of the man by
a former wife. There was another child, a boy apparently of the age of
three years, lying in sweet sleep upon a bed of rushes, made up in a
corner of the hut. When the little ark was done, I watched with the
deepest interest their further proceedings. At length the three went
out together, and to my surprise I saw, by the setting moon, that it
was near dawn. They bent their steps, swiftly and silently, towards
the ancient temple of Isis, which was then, as now, in ruins, and
deserted by every Egyptian, for the sacrilege done therein under the
reign of Bnon, the Phœnician Pharaoh. I could see them steal along
the tangled avenue beneath the palm-trees, and through that of the
broken sphinxes, until they came to the pyramidion of the obelisk of
Sesostris I. Here a deep, ancient excavation, covered with vines and
rushes, showed a flight of broken steps. After carefully looking all
about, to see if they were observed, they descended. In a few minutes
the three came forth, the elderly woman holding in her arms an infant,
upon the beautiful face of which the waning moon shone for a moment,
but instantly she hid it with her mantle, and hurried to the
river-side. Here the man put the basket upon the shore, and extended
his arms for the child. The poor mother, as I now perceived she must
be, burst into tears, and clasped it closer and closer to her heart.

"'Nay, Jochebeda,' he said, with gentle firmness, 'thy cries will
attract notice. The child cannot live if we delay. Hast thou not had
warning from the kind Egyptian woman, who was with thee when it was
born, and who aided thee in concealing it, that its hiding-place is
known, and that in the morning soldiers will be there? Bear up, heart!
If we commit it to the Nile, the God of our fathers, in whom we trust,
and who will yet return, to redeem us, according to His promise to our
father Abraham, may guide the frail baris to some secure haven, and
provide for the child a pitiful heart to save it.'

"I saw the mother give it its last nourishment at her breast, and
then, with tears, lay it softly, sweetly sleeping the while, within
the basket of bulrushes,--pillowing its head first upon her hand,
until the daughter had placed beneath it a pillow of wild-flowers and
lotus-leaves, gathered on the spot in the dawning light. The father
then covered it carefully over, and kissing it, with grief shaking his
strong frame, was about to commit the frail boat to the water, when
the poor mother arrested his arm, implored one more look, one more
embrace of her child! She was a young and beautiful woman; and, the
last kiss given, kneeled by the shore praying to her God, as the
father launched the ark into the stream. At this moment, I beheld,
straying upon the bank, as if seeking its parents, the other child
that I had seen in the house. I now saw the current take to its
embrace the little ark, and upon its bosom bear it downward. In a few
moments it lodged amid some rushes, which the mother seeing, she ran
hastily, entered the water, passionately kissed her child, and would
have offered it the breast again, but the more resolute father sent it
once more upon its way. In the vision, I now saw that day had dawned,
and that the stir of life on land and water was everywhere visible.
The father watched the bark, until it could be no longer seen for the
curve of the shore, and then drew near to his wife, and gently led her
away to the hut,--her lingering looks ceaselessly stretched towards
the Nile. The little maid, who was not more than twelve or thirteen
years of age, having been previously instructed by her mother,
followed along the shore to see what would become of the ark. But I
weary you, Sesostris, with details, which to me had a sort of
fascination, as they were enacted before me in the scenes I beheld."

"And they are deeply interesting to me, my dear Remeses," I said with

"I followed the bark also," continued Remeses, "until, after several
escapes from imminent peril, it lodged against a group of flags, at
the moment that a beautiful lady, accompanied by her maids, came to
bathe, at the foot of the garden of Pharaoh's palace. At a glance,
Sesostris, I recognized, as she was in her youth, my mother--I mean to
say, the Queen Amense. I saw her attention drawn to the little ark, in
the fate of which I had become intensely interested, little dreaming
how much and intimately it concerned _me_! I heard her bid the maids
take the basket out of the river, and her cry of surprise, on opening
it and seeing the babe, which answered her with a sorrowful wail, as
it were, of appeal. I saw her offer it to the bosoms of three Egyptian
nurses in vain, when the little maid, its half-sister, drew near with
mingled curiosity and fear and said--

"'O princess, shall I call one of the Hebrew women, that she may nurse
the child for thee?'

"The princess said, 'Go!'

"Immediately the maiden ran with the swiftness of a gazelle, until she
came at length to her mother's house. The poor Hebrew woman was at her
task, combing flax and weeping as she toiled, feeling that she had
parted with her child forever. At the height of her grief, the young
maid flew in at the door, crying with a voice choked with joy--

"'Mother, run quickly! make no stay! Pharaoh's daughter has found my
little brother, taken it from the ark, and sent me for a Hebrew nurse!
Come quickly, before any other is found!'

"With a cry of joy, and with hands clasped to heaven in gratitude, I
saw the mother about to rush out, wild with happiness, when her
daughter said, 'Be calm, mother, or the princess will suspect. Put on
your coif! Arrange your dress! Seem quiet, as if you were not its

"'I will try to do so--oh, I will try to do so!' she said touchingly.
I saw that, in her emotion, she did not think of her other boy, who,
though hardly four years old, had followed the stream, as if he
understood what the ark contained. Him I saw kindly taken pity upon by
an Egyptian priest, who carried him away to his house."

Here I uttered an exclamation which attracted the notice of Remeses;
for I recollected the story of the young Hebrew ecclesiastic and gold
image-caster, dear mother, and saw now that he was this brother of
Remeses, and the mystery of the resemblance was solved. I did not make
any remark to Remeses, however, in reply to his inquiring look, and he
resumed his wonderful narrative.

But I will continue the subject, dear mother, in a subsequent letter.





Your courier reached me yesterday with your important letter, advising
me of the refusal of the King of Cyprus to receive your ambassador, or
release your subjects; and that you only await my return to declare
war. I shall not fail to respond to your call, and will next week
leave Egypt for Syria. I have not yet visited the Thebaïd, and the
superb temples of Upper Egypt, nor seen the wonderful Labyrinth, nor
the Cataracts; but I hope at some future day to revisit this
interesting land. I feel, indeed, rejoiced to go away now, as the
painful and extraordinary events connected with Remeses have cast a
gloom over all things here, and changed all my plans.

But I will resume the narrative, interrupted by the abrupt ending of
my last letter. That, with the preceding, as well as this, I shall now
send to you, as the seal of secrecy is removed from them, by the
publicity which has been given to all the events by Remeses.

To return, dear mother, to the account of the scenes which the
magicians presented to his vision, in the black marble chamber of the

"I now," continued Remeses, "beheld the excited mother reach the
presence of the princess, trying to calm the wild tumult of hope and
fear in her maternal bosom; and to her, I saw the princess, after many
inquiries, commit the charge of the infant.

"'I shall adopt this child, O nurse,' she said; 'bring it, therefore,
to the palace daily that I may see it. Take as faithful care of it as
if it were your own, and you shall be rewarded with my favor, as well
as with a nurse's wages.'

"The joyful Hebrew woman tried to repress her happiness, and trembled
so, that the princess said--

"'Thou art awkward. Carry it tenderly; and see that thou keep this
secret closely, or I shall take the boy away from thee, woman, and
also punish thee. What is thy name?'

"'Jochebeda,' she answered.

"'And thy husband's?'

"'Amram, your majesty,' she replied.

"I saw her, O Sesostris, when she had well got out of the princess's
sight, clasp, by stealth, her recovered child to her bosom, while
words of tenderness were in her mouth, and her eyes streaming with
tears of gratitude and wonder.

"That child, O Sesostris, was myself!" suddenly exclaimed Remeses. "Of
this you have already been convinced. I saw the scene before me,
rapidly change from day to night, and months and years fly by like a
cloud, or like a fleet of ships leaving no trace of their track on the
closing waters. Through all I saw myself, from the infant of three
years old, taken into the palace from my Hebrew mother, to the boy of
twelve--to the youth of twenty! Like the cycle of fate, that scene
rolled by before my eyes, until I saw myself, that is, the Hebrew boy,
in every scene of my life up to the very moment then present. Then,
with a sound of mournful music, the Nile and its scenes slowly faded
from before my vision, and I was alone! The whole fearful history had
terminated in me, and left me standing there in solitude, to reflect
upon what I had seen.

"Housing myself from my stupor of amazement, I staggered back, and
sunk in horror upon the stone bench. I know not how long I lay there,
but I was at length aroused by a hand upon my shoulder; I looked up
and beheld the magician with the emblem of life, and the
emerald-tipped wand. He said--

"'My son, thou hast read the past of thy life! Wilt thou still be King
of Egypt?'

"'By what power hast thou opened the gates of the past? How hast thou
known all this?' I cried, with a heart of despair.

"'Dost thou believe?'

"'As if the open Book of Thoth lay before me! I doubt not,' I

"'Wilt thou be King of Egypt?' again asked another voice. A third, in
another direction, took it up, and every subterranean echo of the
vaulted pyramid seemed to take up the cry. I rushed from the hall, not
knowing whither I went. Doors seemed to open before me, as if by
magic, and I at length found myself emerging, guided by the magician,
into the open night. The granite valves of the gate closed behind me,
and I was alone, in the quadrangle of the great temple of Thoth. The
stars shone down upon me like mocking eyes, watching me. I fled
onward, as if I would fly from myself--I feared to reflect. I passed
the sphinx, the pylones, the obelisks; and ran along the avenue of the
Lake of the Dead, until I reached the Nile. I crossed it in a boat
that I found upon the shore, and without having formed any clear idea
of what I ought to do, sought the palace, and gained my mother's
ante-room. Did I say 'my mother,' Sesostris? I meant the good queen. I
sent in a page to say I wished to see her. In surprise at my return,
before the forty days were fulfilled, she came to the door hurriedly,
in her night-robe, and opened it. I entered as calmly as I could, and
did not refuse her kiss, though I knew I was but a Hebrew! One night's
scenes, dreadful as they were, O Sesostris, could not wholly break the
ties of a lifetime of filial love and reverence. I closed the door,
secured it in silence, and then sat down, weary with what I had
undergone; and, as she came near and knelt by me, and laid her hand
against my forehead, and asked me 'if I were ill, and hence had left
the temple,' I was overcome with her kindness; and when the reflection
forced itself upon me that I could no more call her mother, or be
entitled to these acts of maternal solicitude, I gave way to the
strong current of emotion, and fell upon her shoulder, weeping as
heartily as she had seen me weep when lying in the little ark a
helpless infant.

"During this brief moment, a suspicion flashed across my mind, that
the magicians might have produced this as a part of my trial as a
prince;--that it was not real, but that by their wonderful arts of
magic they had made it appear so to my vision. I seized upon this
idea, as a man drowning in the Nile grasps at a floating flower.

"'Mother,' I said, 'I am ill. I am also very sorrowful!'

"'The tasks and toils of thy initiation, my son, have been too great
for thee. Thy face is haggard and thy looks unnatural. What is thy

"'I have had a vision, or what was like a dream, my mother. I saw an
infant, in this vision, before me, placed in an ark, and set adrift
upon the Nile. Lo, after being borne by the current some ways, it was
espied by a princess who was bathing, whose maids, at her command,
brought it to her. It contained a circumcised Hebrew child. The
princess, being childless, adopted it, and educated it, and declared
it to be her son. She placed him next to her in the kingdom, and was
about to resign to him the crown, when--'

"Here my mother, whose face I had earnestly regarded, became pale and
trembled all over. She seized my hands and gasped--

"'Tell me, Remeses, tell me, was this a dream, or hast thou heard it?'

"'I saw it, my mother, in a vision, in the subterranean chamber of the
pyramids. It was one of those scenes of magic which the arts of the
magi know how to produce.'

"'Dost thou believe it?' she cried.

"'Is it not thy _secret_, O my mother, which Prince Mœris shares
with thee? Am I not right? Does not that Hebrew child,' I cried,
rising, 'now stand before thee?'

"She shrieked, and fell insensible!

"At length I restored her to consciousness. I related all I have told
you. Reluctantly, she confessed that all was true as I had seen it. I
then, in a scene such as I hope never to pass through again, assured
her I should refuse the throne and exile myself from Egypt. She
implored me with strong appeals to keep the secret, and mount the
throne. I firmly refused to do so, inasmuch as it would be an act of
injustice, not only to Mœris, but to the Egyptians, to deceive them
with a Hebrew ruler. She reminded me how, for sixty-one years, Prince
Joseph had governed Egypt. 'Yes,' I said, 'but it was openly and
without deceit; while my reign, would be a gross deception and
usurpation.' But, O Sesostris, I cannot revive the scene. It has
passed!--I have yielded! She showed me the letters of Prince Mœris.
She implored me for her sake to keep the secret, and aid her in
resisting the conspiracy of the viceroy. When I reflected that he had
made my mother so long miserable, and now menaced her throne, I
yielded to her entreaties to remain a few days at the head of the
affairs that have been intrusted to my control, and to lead the army
against Mœris, should he fulfil his menace to invade Lower Egypt.
After that, I said, I shall refuse to be called the son of Pharaoh's
daughter, and will retire from the Court."

"Not among the Hebrews?" I exclaimed.

"No, perhaps not. I have nothing in common with them. I can do them no
good: I cannot yet consent to share their bondage. I shall seek my own
family, for the queen has told me who they are. My mother, my _own_
mother, Sesostris, shall again fold her child to her heart! I
recollect her beautiful, tearful face, as seen in the vision of the
pyramids. I have a brother, too, and a sister!"

"I know them both!" I cried, almost joyfully; though, dear mother, it
was a sad joy I felt, to know that Remeses was a brother to Miriam and
the ecclesiastic gold-caster. He became at once interested, and I told
him all I knew about them, as I have you. He listened with deep
attention, and seemed pleased. I also told him how often I had
conversed, in the garden of flowers, with the venerable Amram, the
father of Miriam.

"And _my_ father also, you should add," he said, with a melancholy
smile. "I knew it not, Sesostris; I believed him to be the husband of
my nurse. Thinkest thou all this time he knew I was his son?"

"I doubt it not," I answered. "The eyes of your father and mother must
naturally have been upon you from your childhood up. They must have
witnessed all your career, and rejoiced in it, and kept the secret
locked in their own humble hearts, lest you and the world should know
it, and the glory they secretly saw you sharing, be taken away or
resigned by you."

"I shall see them. They shall yet hear me say, mother, father,
brother, sister, to each one of them. But, Sesostris, I must then bid
them farewell forever, and Egypt also,--if the queen will permit me to
go," he suddenly added, with bitter irony unusual with him; "for
slaves must have no will but their master's."

I laid my arm kindly and sympathizingly upon his shoulder, and
silently embraced him.

"I feel for you, O Remeses, with all my heart," I said.

"I know you do, O prince: I am sure that you do. But let us terminate
this subject. My mother's--I mean, alas! the queen's desire shall be
gratified. I will, for a few days, continue as I am, but no more
return to the temples. My initiation is over. Without doubt the
priests of the hierarchy will seek to put me to death, when they learn
that a Hebrew has been initiated into all their learning and
mysteries. It will be necessary for me to leave Egypt."

"Then let Tyre, O prince, be thy asylum--thy future home!" I cried.
"There the Hebrew is not in bondage, and is a Syrian among Syrians.
There you shall have a palace and retinue, and be served as becomes
your wisdom and greatness. My mother Epiphia will welcome you with
pleasure, for she has already learned to honor you, from my letters.
Our city is about to go to war with the King of Cyprus, and my mother
has written, urging me to return. Twelve galleys will await me at
Pelusium, in a fortnight hence, to escort my own to Tyre. Consent, O
Remeses, to go with me."

"Noble prince," he exclaimed, deeply moved, "how can I thank you! It
is the greatest consolation, in this my sorrow and humiliation, to
know that you do not withdraw from me your friendship; that you can
still esteem me as a man! Sesostris, I thank you. I will accept your
offer, if my--that is, the queen, will change her mind, and permit me
to address a letter, by a swift courier, to Prince Mœris. In it I
will briefly say that I am informed of my true lineage, and that if he
will quietly wait the succession, and be submissive to the queen, and
withhold his army from Memphis, I will, within three days after
obtaining his affirmative reply, leave Egypt for a foreign land. Such
a course will prove the best in the end for him and Egypt, and I have
no doubt he will consent to adopt it. How extraordinary that this wily
man should so long have kept the secret with which he so terribly
menaced my--the queen!"

I approved of the course suggested. Remeses soon afterwards sought the
queen; and at the end of four hours he returned to me, looking very
weary and pale, yet smiling, saying--

"It is achieved! It was a fearful struggle! The queen has consented!
Indeed, she seems heart-broken, spirit-crushed! This discovery,
against which her soul has so long battled, has left her prostrate,
almost wrecked! For her sake I bore up and hid my own unfathomable
sorrow. She has, at my solicitation, consented that I shall not only
write to Prince Mœris, inserting a clause enjoining silence as to
my birth, but her own courier shall be its bearer, signifying her wish
for conciliation. The letter was written in her presence, the clause
for silence introduced, and the courier is already gone with it."

While Remeses was speaking, a page entered and informed him that the
queen wished to see him. He found her ill with a feverish pulse. She
called him to her, and said--

"My son, I am about to die! This blow is too heavy for me to bear! I
shall never recover! It was my wish to leave you firmly seated upon my
throne; but the gods have decreed otherwise. Call a council of the
hierarchy. I must not be faithless to my ancestors, and leave a vacant
throne. You have advised me to adopt Prince Mœris. I can do no
otherwise. For this act, assemble my councils, both of state and of
the priesthood."

"I obeyed," said Remeses, when he subsequently related what passed.
"The next day the councils met in one session, and the queen,
supported upon her couch, presided. Briefly she announced her
intention of adopting Mœris-Mento,--giving his full name,--as her
son, and the next in succession to the throne, their consent being
obtained. Then came up the question, 'why Prince Remeses declined?'
Being present, I answered that it was my intention to retire from the
court, visit foreign lands, and leave the government of Egypt in the
hands of Mœris. At the earnest request of the queen I made no
allusion to the secret. The united councils yielded their assent, and
the royal secretary drew up the papers in due form, which the queen,
supported by me, signed. A courier was then dispatched with a copy of
the instrument to the prince. The cabinet was soon afterwards
dismissed, and I was left alone with the queen, who soon became very

Thus far, my dearest mother, had I written in this letter five days
ago, when the chief chamberlain came hastening to my room, in great
terror, saying that the queen was dying! I lost not a moment in
following him to her apartments. Ever since the meeting of the council
she had been growing worse, and all the skill of her physicians could
not abate the disease, which was pronounced inflammation of the brain.
She had been for two days wildly delirious, calling upon Remeses not
to leave her, and accusing the gods of seeking to put upon her a
stranger for her own son! At length her ravings and her fever ceased,
and she rapidly failed. When I entered, I found Remeses kneeling by
her side, his manly head bowed upon her couch, and tears falling upon
her cold hand, held in his. Her mind was clear now, but I could see
that the azure circle of death girdled her eyes, and that the light of
the soul within was expiring. Her whole attention was fixed upon
Remeses, to whom she kept saying, in a faint whisper, and with a
smile, "My son, my son, my own son! call me mother!"

"Mother, O my mother!" he exclaimed, in his strong anguish, "I cannot
part with thee! Thou hast been a mother to me indeed!"

As I entered, her gaze turned towards me.

"It is the Prince of Tyre! I thought it was the others!"

"What others, my mother?" asked Remeses.

"They will soon come. I commanded him to bring them all. I must see
them ere I die. But the Prince of Tyre is welcome!" And she smiled
upon me, and gave me her other hand to kiss. It was cold as ivory! I
also knelt by her, and sorrowfully watched her sharpening features,
which the chisel of Death seemed shaping into the marble majesty of a

At this moment the door opened, and I saw, ushered in by a Hebrew
page, the venerable head gardener, Amram; the young Hebrew
ecclesiastic; Miriam the papyrus writer; and, leaning upon her arm, a
dignified and still beautiful dame of fifty-five. I could not be
mistaken--this last was the mother of Remeses.

"Cause all persons to go forth the chamber," cried the queen at the
sight, her voice recovering in part its strength. She glanced at me to

"Come hither, Amram," she said, "and lead to my bedside thy wife.
Remeses, behold thy mother and father! Mother, embrace thy son! Since
he can be no longer mine, I will return him to thee forever!" Her
voice was veiled with tears. Remeses rose, and turning to his mother,
who looked worthy of him, said:

"My mother, I acknowledge thee to be my mother! Give me thy blessing,
as thou hast often done in my infancy."

He tenderly and respectfully embraced her, and then pressing his
father's hand to his lips, he knelt before them. They were deeply
moved, and instead of blessing him, wept upon him with silent joy.

"Are there not two more--a brother, a sister?" said Remeses, his fine
face radiant with that ineffable beauty which shines from benevolence
and the performance of a holy duty. I then led forward Miriam, whom he
regarded with admiring surprise (for she looked like a queen in her
own right), and then tenderly embraced, saying to me, "Though I have
lost a kingdom, O Sesostris, I have gained a sister, which no crown
could bestow upon me." Then, when he saw the noble and princely
looking priest, he cried, as he folded him to his breast--

"This is, indeed, my brother!"

The whole scene was touching and interesting beyond the power of my
pen to describe, my dear mother. The dying queen smiled with serene
pleasure, and waving her hand, Remeses led first his mother, and then
his father, and in succession his sister and brother, to her couch.
Upon the heads of each she laid her hand, but longest upon the
mother's, saying:

"Love him--be kind to him--he has no mother now but thee! Love him for
my sake--you cannot but love him for his own! If I took thy babe, O
mother, I return thee a man and a prince worthy to rule a nation, and
in whom my eyes, closing upon the present, and seeing far into the
future, behold a leader of thy people--a prince to thy nation. Born to
a throne, he shall yet reign king of armies and leader of hosts, who I
see follow him obedient to his will and submissive to the rod of his
power. Remeses, I die! Kiss me!"

The noble Hebrew reverently bent over her lips, as if in an act of
worship; and when he lifted his face, there remained a statue of clay.
The Queen of Egypt was no more!


I closed, dear mother, my account of the death of the great and good
Queen Amense (which I wrote the day following that sad event), in
order to accompany Remeses to the chief embalmers. As I passed through
the streets, I saw that the whole population was in mourning. Women
went with dishevelled hair, men ceased to shave their heads and
beards, and all the signs of woe for death, which I have before
described, were visible. By the laws of Egypt, not even a king can be
embalmed in his own palace. Remeses, on reaching the suburb of the
embalmers, was received into the house of the chief, and here he gave
directions as to the fashion of the case and sarcophagus, and the
pattern of the funeral car, and of the baris in which it was to cross
the Nile to the pyramid which, I have already said, she has
been, since the first year of her reign, erecting for her
burial-place--placing a casing of vast stones, brought down from the
quarries near Elephantis, each year.

I will not delay to describe the ceremonies of preparation, nor the
embalmment and burial of the august lady whose demise has cast a pall
over Egypt. Your assurance that it would take you five months to get
ready your war-fleet against Cyprus, and the desire of Remeses that I
delay until the eighty days' mourning for the queen were over, induced
me to remain. It is now four days since her burial in the centre of
her stately pyramid, with the most imposing and gorgeous rites ever
known at the entombment of a monarch. Prince Mœris was chief
mourner! I have omitted to state that he readily acceded to the
conditions proposed in the letter of Remeses, and when the courier
followed, conveying to him the fact that he had been adopted and
declared her heir by the queen, he addressed a frank and friendly
letter to Remeses; for it is easy for him to assume any character his
interest prompts. As soon as the intelligence of the death of the
queen reached him, he hastened to Memphis. Here he had an interview
with Remeses, whom he treated with courtesy, and offered the
supervision of that part of Egypt where the Hebrew shepherds dwell;
for I have learned that in a valley, which leads from Raamses to the
Sea of Arabia, there are hundreds of Hebrews who, like their
ancestors, keep vast flocks and herds belonging to the crown, but out
of which they are allowed a tenth for their subsistence. Over this
pastoral domain, embracing about twenty thousand shepherds, the
prospective Pharaoh proposed to place Remeses. I felt that it was
intended as an insult; but Remeses viewed it as an evidence of
kindness on the part of one who knows not how to be noble or great.

The interment of the queen past, there is nothing to detain either
Remeses or myself longer in Egypt. By her bounty he is rich, and has
given to his parents a large treasure, which will enable them to be at
ease; and besides, the queen gave to them and to Aaron (this is the
name of the elder brother of Remeses), and his sister, the right of
citizenship. Mœris, the day of the queen's burial, virtually
ascended the throne. His coronation, however, will not take place
until after he has passed through the forty days' novitiate.

And now, my dear mother, you will be surprised to learn that, the
information of the Hebrew birth of Remeses (who has modestly dropped
his first Egyptian name and adheres only to the second, which is
Mosis, or Moses, as the Hebrews pronounce it), was wickedly conveyed,
with large bribes, to the magicians by Prince Mœris himself; and
that, upon this information and influence, they recalled from the
past, which, like the future, is open to their magical art, the scenes
of his life, and presented them before his vision.

Wonderful, incomprehensible, dear mother, above all things I have seen
in Egypt, is the mysterious power of these magicians and sorcerers.
Originally of the priestly order, they have advanced into deeper and
deeper mysteries, until the hierarchy of the regular temple-worship
fear them, and deny their ecclesiastical character, saying, "that they
have climbed so high the mountains of Osiris, that they have fallen
headlong over their summits into the dark realms of Typhon, and owe
their dread power to his auspices."

Whatever be the source of their powerful art, dear mother, there is no
doubt of its reality. Not even all the invocations, sacrifices,
oblations, prayers, libations, and exercises of the regular priesthood
can compete with these magicians and sorcerers. They can convert day
into night! destroy the shadow of an obelisk! fill the air with a
shower of sand, or of flowers! convert their rods into vines that bear
grapes! and walk with living asps as if they were almond or acacia
rods! They can present before the inquirer, the face or scene in a
distant land that is desired to be beheld! They can remove blocks of
porphyry by a touch of the finger, and make a feather heavy as gold!
They can cause invisible music in the air, and foretell the rain! And
when extraordinary motives and rewards are brought to bear upon them,
they can, by their united skill and necromantic art, aided by sorcery,
reproduce the past, as in the case of Remeses!

These powerful, yet dreaded and hated men, have for ages been an
appendage to the crown, and call themselves the "servants of the
Pharaohs." The kings of Egypt, who have protected, favored, and sought
their assistance, have also trembled at their power. Without question
they are aided by the evil genii; and perform their works through the
agency of the spirit of evil.

This, dear mother, will be the last letter I shall write you from
Egypt. Accompanied by Remeses, I shall to-morrow embark in my galley
for Pelusium. My friend, the Admiral Pathromenes, will accompany us to
the mouth of the Eastern Nile. I ought to say that King Mœris, now
Pharaoh-elect, has extended towards me marked civilities, and seeks
for a continuance of friendly intercourse. I shall bear a royal letter
from him to your majesty, expressive of his respect for you, and his
desire to perpetuate the alliance. But I have no love for the man! If
I can, I will raise an army in Phœnicia, after I see the King of
Cyprus chained to the poop of my galley, and, placing Remeses at the
head, invade Egypt, call the Hebrews to arms, and, overturning the
throne of Mœris, place my friend in his seat. Did not the dying
queen prophesy that he was born to rule? It is over Egypt he will yet
wield the sceptre! I will do my part, dear mother, to fulfil the

To the lovely Princess Thamonda convey my devotions, and assure her
that I shall make war against Cyprus more successfully, with her heart
wedded to mine, than alone. Warn her, dear mother, that I shall claim
her hand as soon as I return, and that Remeses will be the
groom-friend whom I shall honor with the high place of witness and
chief guest at our nuptials.

Farewell, dear mother.

Remeses desires to unite with me in affectionate regards to you.

 Your son,

[Here the correspondence of the Prince of Tyre with the Queen Epiphia






It is with emotions wholly new to me, awakened by those fraternal ties
to which I have been hitherto entirely a stranger, that I take up my
pen to address you, inscribing at the commencement of my letter the
endearing words, "my brother!" It is true I have lost much in many
respects; but I have also gained much in the affection of my newly
discovered kindred.

After you left us below Memphis, the galley of the Prince Sesostris
sped swiftly down the Nile, and ere noon we had entered the Pelusian
branch. As I passed the old city of Bubastis, and Pythom, the new
treasure-city, which is rising upon its ruins, I groaned with
heaviness of heart! Around and upon its walls, I beheld the thousands
of my oppressed countrymen toiling, like Nubian slaves, under the lash
of their taskmasters! I could only groan in heart; for what was I now
able to do for them,--myself an exile, and flying from the land? May
the prophecy which exists among your people (_my_ people), as you
asserted in the last long and interesting conversation we held
together, on the day I embarked, be soon fulfilled! This bondage
cannot continue many years! There is not room in Egypt for two

At Pelusium we found the prince's fleet awaiting him. It set sail
shortly after our arrival, and coasting by the shores of Arabia, and
passing Askelon, in Philistia, in seven days we entered the port of
Tyre; which is built upon a rocky isle and peninsula, and rises from
the sea with imposing magnificence.

I was most kindly received by the mother of Sesostris, whose glad
reception of her son made my eyes fill with tears; for I remembered my
(I was going to say, mother)--the Queen Amense's tenderness, whenever
she met me after the shortest absence.

But I must not refer to the past.

Prince Sesostris treats me in every respect as an equal. Were I still
Prince Remeses of Egypt, he could not show me more kindness and
regard. We have now been here one month; and in that time I have seen
much of Tyre, but my continued grief for the death of the beloved
queen,--my more than mother,--renders me quite indifferent to external
objects. As the guest of the prince, I have endeavored to interest
myself in what concerns him. He is engaged earnestly in preparations
for war. The port of Tyre is thronged with war-galleys; and reviews of
troops take place daily, on a plain which is overhung by the
mountain-range of Libanus. The grandeur of this mountain, in which the
earliest worship of men rose to the gods, deeply impressed me. The
fleet will sail in about one month.


Since writing the above I have come to this beautiful city, which lies
in a lovely vale watered by two rivers, the Abana and Pharphar, that
fertilize it and render it indeed "the garden of the earth"--as it is
termed. I travelled hither with the prince, who has come to take to
wife Thamonda, the fair princess of this city. She is amiable and
sensible, and I rejoice that my princely friend has such happiness in
store! How fortunate for me, my brother, that while I was Prince of
Egypt, I did not interest myself in any princess, who would be now
humbled and wretched at my degradation! The nuptial ceremonies will
take place soon, and occupy some days. I wish Sesostris every
happiness in his alliance.

I met here the venerable Prince of Uz. He had travelled thus far on
his return to his own land, which lies on the borders of Chaldea and
Sabæa, and when informed of my present position was deeply moved. We
have had long and interesting conversations together, upon the unity
of God! which have so deeply absorbed my reflections, that I have
accepted an invitation to visit him, after I return from Cyprus,
whither I accompany the prince and his bride.


My beloved Sesostris is married. The ceremonies were unusually
magnificent;--several kings of cities and princes of provinces being
present, with their retinues. But I do not excel in descriptions of
scenes and festivities, and leave them to the more graceful and easy
pen of Sesostris. We depart in three days with a gala procession of
horsemen, to return to Tyre.


Having kept this roll of papyrus with me, I now close my epistle here,
where I commenced writing it, with the intelligence of our arrival;
the happy reception of her new daughter-in-law, by Queen Epiphia; and
with the announcement that the fleet will set sail within three days
for the Levantine island-kingdom.

Commend me, my brother, with respectful affection, to my father Amram,
to my honored mother, and to my stately sister, Miriam. Trusting you
are all in health and safety, I am your brother, with profound
fraternal regard,





A year has passed, my brother, since I last wrote to you. In the mean
while I have received your very kind epistle. It reached me at Tyre,
where I found it awaiting me, on my return from the expedition against
Cyprus. You have probably learned the result of the war, and that
Prince Sesostris landed his army, defeated the King of Cyprus in a
pitched battle, taking his battalion of chariots, which were armed
with scythes, and destroying his cavalry. The king implored peace, and
surrendered his capital. Sesostris, after levying a tribute of two
thousand talents of silver upon it for ten years, and demanding a
portion of the island, on the north, for a Phœnician colony,
returned triumphant to his country.

I am now travelling through the whole of Syria. From this point I
shall proceed to the province of Uz. I desire to know more fully this
wisdom of the One God, the Almighty, as taught by the Sage of that
land. When I saw him in Damascus, a year ago, I informed him that I
had begun to write an account of the wonderful incidents of his life;
but when I read to him what I had commenced, and afterwards heard his
conversation upon the God he worshipped, I perceived that I was a
child in ignorance, and had entered upon a task impossible for me to
perform, by reason of my religious education as an Egyptian.

"My son," he said, "thou art not far from the knowledge of the
Almighty, and thy soul aspires after the true God. Come with me to my
own land, for thou sayest thou art a wanderer, and I will teach thee
the knowledge of the Holy One. Then thou mayest write the acts of the
Invisible to man, and justify Him in His ways to me, His servant. The
gods of Egypt darken knowledge, and veil the understanding of those
who trust in them, and say to an idol of gold, 'Thou art my god.'"

I am now journeying, O my brother, to sit at the feet of this man of
God, whose simple wisdom has enlightened my soul more than all the
learning of Egypt; nay, I would gladly forget all the knowledge I
obtained in Egypt, to know, and fear, and love the "Holy One"--the
Almighty God--of the Prince of Uz. What is particularly worthy of note
is, that his views of the Invisible are the same as those which you
taught me were held by the elders among our people; and of the truth
of which you so eloquently and feelingly endeavored to convince me, on
the evening before my departure from Egypt, as we sat by the door of
our mother's home, under the two palms. Dissatisfied with the gods of
Egypt, and the emptiness and vanity of its worship, as not meeting the
wants of man, I turn to any source which will pour the light of truth
into my soul. We both, brother, are feeling after God, if haply we may
find Him; for I perceive that your own soul is darkened and clouded as
well as mine, by the dark myths of Egypt, in which we have been
educated. But let us both take courage, my noble elder brother. There
is light, there is truth, there is knowledge somewhere on earth! and I
go to the aged Prince of Uz to learn of him. Sitting at his feet, I
will empty myself of all the false and unsatisfying wisdom of Egypt,
and meekly say, "I am ignorant--enlighten me! Teach me concerning thy
God, for I know that He is the God my soul longs for, whom the nations
know not!"

Your letter spoke of Pharaoh, and his cruelty and power. I am prepared
to hear that he takes new measures to heap burdens upon our people.
The Lake Amense, which you say he is enlarging to an inland sea, will
destroy thousands of the Hebrews whom you tell me he is putting to the
work; for, unaccustomed to labor in the water, they must perish
miserably. I trust he will suffer you and my father's family to dwell
unmolested. Be prepared at any moment to escape, should he seek to
destroy the prosperity in which the beloved queen left you, and those
dear to me by the sacred and affectionate ties of nature.


 Your brother,





I have been here now one year. The venerable prince honors me as a
son, and I repay him, so far as I can, by instructing him in the
history of Egypt, and other knowledge; for, so great is his wisdom, he
seeks ever to know more. In astrology, physics, geometry, and all
arts, he is deeply learned. But above all, is his knowledge of the
Almighty. This man has the mysteries of God in his heart, and to the
eyes of his divine piety, the Most High is visible as He is. He hath
spoken to the Lord of heaven face to face, and he communicates with
Him as a servant with his lord.

When I came hither, after visiting Baal-Phegor and other places, he
received me with affection, and gave me rooms in his palace, and
servants, and a place at his table. I found him dwelling in a city he
himself had builded, and reigning the wealthiest, wisest, and yet
humblest prince in all the East. Around it lay the cities of Shuh,
Teman, and Naamath, the lesser princes of which are his bosom friends,
and once a week meet at his hospitable board. They hang upon the words
of his lips, and reverence him as a father. He also possesses vast
herds of cattle and oxen, which cover his plains; fourteen thousand
sheep are on his mountains; six thousand camels; and stores of silver
and gold. He has seven sons, who are princes of as many provinces, and
three daughters, the youngest of whom, Keren-happuch, is married to
the Lord of Midian; for when the Prince of Uz, three years ago,
travelled down into Egypt with a large caravan of his merchants, he
passed through Midian, having this daughter in company, who, being
comely in person, was admired by the prince of that land, and by him
asked in marriage of her father. Of the two daughters who remain, no
women in all the land are found so fair. Such is the prosperity and
power of this mighty and wise prince.

Now, at length, my dear brother, I have written the book of the life
of this venerable man; not as I began it in Egypt, with imperfect
ideas of the God of heaven, whose servant he is, but from his own lips
have I received the narrative which I inclose to you. When you have
read it, you will arrive at the knowledge of the Almighty, whose name,
and glory, and being, and goodness, and justice, and love, are
recognized in every page. As you read, reflect that the God of the
Prince of Uz is also my God, and the God worshipped by our fathers
when they were in Syria. Away, O Aaron! with all the gods of Egypt!
They are brazen and golden lies, all! The myth of Osiris and Isis is
an invention of the priests. The whole system of their mythology is
hostile to true religion, and the adorers of idols are the worshippers
of Satan--for this is the name of that spirit of evil, antagonistic to
the true God, hitherto represented to us under the title of Typhon.

It would take a score of papyri for me to convey to you the course of
divine and sage instruction by which I arrived at that clear,
luminous, and just notion of the Lord God of heaven and earth, which I
now hold; the possession of which fills my soul with repose, my
intellect with satisfaction, my heart with joy, peace, and love to God
and man. With this _certain_ knowledge of the Almighty that has
entered into my soul, is an apprehension of His omnipresence, His
truth, holiness, majesty, and benevolence; and a consciousness that I
have received his Divine Spirit, which last is, as it were, a witness
vouchsafed of Himself to me. By the light of this new spirit within me
I behold His glory, and recognize that He is my God, my Creator, my
Benefactor, and Lawgiver. I feel that in Him I live, move, and have my
being, and that besides Him there is no God. The realization of these
majestic truths, O my brother, is a source to me of the profoundest
happiness. Before their light the dark clouds of the myths of Egypt
dissolve and fade away forever!

When I speak of Him I find new language rise to my lips: when I write
of Him my words seem to clothe themselves with sublimity and majesty.
Henceforth, like the holy Prince of Uz, I am a worshipper of One God,
whose name is the Almighty, and the Holy One.

To Sesostris I have written of these great things, and to you also I
will send a treatise, that you may, without obscurity, behold His
unity and glory as they were known to our fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and
Jacob, before the false worship of Egypt corrupted our hereditary
faith. With this knowledge, O Aaron, our people, even in bondage, are
superior to Pharaoh on his throne.

 Your affectionate brother,





I received your letter, written to me from Bubastis. I grieve to hear
that King Mœris is increasing so heavily the burdens of our people,
as to drive to the fields, and to the new lake to which he has given
his name, all who were servants in houses. Unused to toil under the
sun, they will suffer more than others. I read the copy of the edict
you inclosed, forbidding the Egyptians to receive, as domestics, any
of the Hebrew people, that so all might be driven to become toilers in
the field. His motive is evident. He is alarmed at the increase of the
Hebrews, and would oppress them, to death by thousands. My heart
bleeds for those he has sent to the mines in the Thebaïd. This is a
new feature in the Hebrew bondage. But there is a just God on high, O
my sister Miriam, the Holy One, whom our fathers worshipped. He will
not forget his people forever, but in due time will bring them out of
their bondage. Has not Aaron, our learned brother, made known to you
the words of tradition that are cherished among our people,--that they
are to serve Pharaoh a certain number of years, forty-one of which are
yet to come? He sent me the copy thereof, wherein I find it written,
as the declaration of Abraham our father, that "his posterity should
serve Pharaoh four hundred years." Aaron, who, since I left Egypt, has
been giving all his time to collecting the traditions, and laws of our
fathers, is confident that ere another generation shall have perished,
God will raise up a deliverer for the sons of Jacob, and lead them
forth to some new and wonderful land. If such a promise, O my sister,
was given by the Almighty, He will redeem it; for He is not a man that
He should lie! Let us therefore wait, and hope, and pray to this
mighty God of our ancestors, to remember His promise, and descend from
Heaven with a stretched-out arm for our deliverance. I rejoice to hear
that my dear mother is well, also my father. Commend me to them with
reverential affection. Aaron reads to you my letters, and you will
have learned from them how I arrived at the knowledge of the true God,
in whom, O Miriam, both you and he believed, while I, considering
myself an Egyptian, was a worshipper of the false gods of Egypt! Yet,
lo! by the goodness of the true God, I have been enabled, at the feet
of the sage of Uz, to arrive at such clear conceptions of His glory,
and majesty, and government of the universe, as to teach even you. I
speak this not boastingly, but with gratitude to Him who has made me
the instrument of illumining your mind, and of giving you greater
confidence and trust in the God, who is the God of Abraham, and the
God of the Prince of Uz.

I have now been five years absent from Egypt, and my heart yearns for
my brethren in bondage. I feel that it is not becoming in me to remain
here, at ease in the court of Sesostris; for he has now been two years
king, since his royal mother's death, of which I wrote to my mother at
the time. I pant to make known to the elders of the Hebrews, the clear
and true knowledge of the God of our fathers, which has come down to
them imperfectly, and mingled with superstitions, even when it is not
corrupted by the idolatry of Egypt. I wish to learn the character and
condition of my brethren in servitude, whom I formerly viewed from the
proud height of an Egyptian prince. How I feel a desire to mingle
among them to know them, and be one of them. All my Egyptian pride,
dear sister, is long since gone, and I seek daily to cultivate that
spirit of meekness, which better becomes one, who is of a race of
bondmen. But, my sister, rather would I be a slave, chained at the
chariot-wheel of Pharaoh-Mœris, with my present knowledge of the
Holy and Almighty One,--compared with which all the wisdom of Egypt is
foolishness,--than be that monarch himself with his ignorance of Him,
and his worship of Osiris and Apis!

May the God of our fathers, by whose will we are in bonds, in His own
time send us deliverance, to whom be glory and majesty, and dominion
and power, in heaven and earth, to the end of ages.

 Most affectionately, your younger brother,





In a letter written a few days ago, and which went by a vessel that
was to touch at Pelusium on its way to Carthage, I alluded to a
feeling (which has been increasing in strength for many months) that
prompted me to visit my brethren in bonds in Egypt. It is true, I have
no power. I am but one, and Mœris would, no doubt, gladly seize
upon me if he knew I was in his kingdom. I have, however, determined
to yield to the desire; and next month shall sail in a galley that
goes to Egypt for ebony and ivory. Not long, therefore, after you
receive this letter, which the scholarly Aaron will read to you, will
you embrace your younger and long-absent son. It is expedient that I
go unknown. I wish to observe the Hebrew people, without awakening
suspicion, as to who I am. Should Mœris hear of me, he would
quickly suspect me of planning evil against him. If I can do no more,
I can carry to the elders the certainty of the truth, as they received
it, by tradition, of One God, Lord of heaven and earth, Infinite in
holiness, and Almighty in power. From the holy Prince of Uz, I not
only received this, but many other things of wonderful interest--which
he seemed to know by the voice of God--concerning the creation of the
world in six days, and the formation of man and woman, whom he placed
in a garden of beauty, with dominion over all things. But I will not
go further into these divine and wonderful things, at this time, O my
mother, as I shall hereafter read to you, from the sacred leaves, the
narrative of the acts of creation, as they were written by the Prince
and Prophet of Uz: to whom, before all men, has been revealed the
truth of the Most High, and the mysteries which have been secret from
eternity. Lo! the pages of the book of his patience under God's trial
show, that no man on earth ever before had such illumination of divine
light! Such language as that of his which I have written in the book,
when he speaks of God, could only have been suggested by the
inspiration of the Almighty. He talks of God as if he had sat at His
feet, and daily beheld His glorious majesty, or heard His voice shake
the heavens. Of him have I learned the wisdom of the past; and there
whispers in my heart, O mother, a solemn voice, which bids me hope
that if I fear God, and walk uprightly, and seek His face, and trust
in Him, He will also draw nigh to me, unveil His glory, and speak face
to face with me, as He hath done to His holy servant, the Prince of
Uz! It shall be the aspiration of my heart, to be received into the
divine favor as He has been, and made the recipient of His will, and
of His laws for men! Censure me not,--charge me not with pride, O my
mother! In the spirit of meekness and lowliness do I cherish this hope
The path to the ear of God, and to His favor, the Prince of Uz hath
taught me, is prayer. On bended knees, therefore, seven times a day,
do I bow in supplication before the Holy One Almighty, the Lord God of
Hosts; and more and more do I feel my spirit go forth to Him; and
daily, the infinite distance between earth and His throne seems to
lessen! Nor will I cease to pray to Him, O mother, until I hear His
voice in my soul, and feel the intimate presence of His Being in union
with my own! Then will I reach the height of humanity, which is the
reunion of the creature with the Creator, the restoration in his soul
of the divine image, and the reception into his own of a divine and
immortal life!

My friend, King Sesostris, reluctantly consents to my departure. He
has never ceased his affectionate regard for me, and he has called his
beautiful son, now four years old, Remeses--after me. This child, I
love as if he were mine own. He is intelligent and full of affection,
and already understands that I am about to go away, and sweetly urges
me not to leave him. The Queen Thamonda has prepared many gifts for
you and my sister, whom she loves, though not having seen. Here, dear
mother, the bondage and degradation of the Hebrew is not comprehended.
We are not, in their eyes, crown-serfs. We are but a Syrian nation
held in captivity; and other nations regard us with sympathy, and have
no share in the contempt and scorn with which we are regarded by our
Egyptian taskmasters.

Israelisis the Hebrew, whom Sesostris brought with him five years ago
to Tyre, is now a fine young man, and assistant secretary to his royal
scribe. All that our people want, my mother, is to be placed in
positions favorable to the development of their intellect, and they
will rise, side by side, with any other people on earth. If we were a
nation, with a country of our own, we would give laws to the world.

Farewell, my dear mother. In a few days you will embrace me.

 Your devoted son,




It is with gratitude to God, O Sesostris, that I inform you of my safe
arrival in Egypt, after a perilous passage across the sea. Our chief
pilot, finding, after we left the port of Tyre, that the wind was fair
for the mouth of the Nile, and the weather seeming to be settled,
signified to me his intention to leave the coast, and boldly steer
from land to land. Having no knowledge of nautical affairs, I neither
advised nor objected, leaving him to act according to his own
experience and skill: he therefore laid the course of the ship as
nearly straight for Pelusium, as he could ascertain it, by the
position of the sun at noon.

Before night we were surrounded by a horizon of water, and this being
the first time since I had lived on the earth, that I had been unable
to behold it, the situation was wholly novel, not only to me but to
other passengers,--some of whom manifested the liveliest fears, lest
we should no more behold the land. My mind was impressed by the
sublimity and vastness of the view; and the majestic idea of
eternity--boundless and infinite--filled my soul. It seemed as if,
from our deck, I could survey the universe of space, for there was
nothing terrestrial to arrest and confine the eye.

"Who," I reflected, "as he surveys the illimitable sky, and the
measureless ocean over which it extends, can withhold the confession
that there is One God only, the Upholder of worlds and the Governor of
His creation? Who, with such a scene before him, as day with its
splendor and vastness of space, and night with its stars presented
above the sea, could give the glory of the Almighty to another, and
put his trust in such myths as are the gods of Egypt and the deities
of Phœnicia?" I rejoice, O king, that you have listened to the
truths it was my happiness to unfold to you, and that in your heart
you acknowledge and secretly adore the Almighty. May the time soon
come when you will have strength given you, from Himself, to establish
His holy worship in your dominions! A king is God's representative on
earth, and his power is great; and if he exercise it,--not like the
Pharaohs, who reign as if they were gods, but--with judgment, and
fear, and humble recognition of the Infinite source of all power, then
He who is King of kings and Lord of lords, will bless him and cause
him to prosper. When a king acknowledges that his power is delegated,
and that he must be accountable for its use or abuse to his God, he
has gained the highest wisdom that earth can give! Seek, O king, that

Pardon me, my dear Sesostris, for presuming to teach you. I am
diffident in speech when present with you, but you perceive I am bold,
perhaps too much so, when away from you.

We continued, for three days and nights, sailing upon the sea, without
a shore in view, and in a few hours more hoped to find the mouth of
the Nile; when the wind, after a sudden lull, came round to the south,
the air was darkened with clouds, and night came on, enveloping our
ship in the profoundest gloom, amid which we drove, our pilot knew not
whither! It was a night of painful suspense. The seas dashed over us;
our banks of oars were broken or washed away; and not a cubit's
breadth of sail could remain on the mast, while the air was filled
with sharp sand, blown from the Arabian desert.

The passengers and crew were in despair, and believing that every
succeeding billow would go over us and destroy us, they called
frantically upon their gods! The Syrian cried to Hercules, and the
Sabæan upon the sun and upon fire. The merchants of Tyre prayed to
Adonis and Io, the Arabians to Ammon, and the Egyptians vowed
libations and offerings to Apis, Osiris, and Thoth. Our pilot, finding
all hope desert him, burned a cake of incense to the deity of the sea,
and vowed an oblation to all the gods he could in his extremity call
to mind.

Then it was, O Sesostris, that I felt the power and excellency of my
faith in God! Then did the folly, the vanity, and degradation of the
religions of those about me, deeply impress me, and move me to pity.
Calm, serene, confident in the Almighty, who holdeth the sea in the
hollow of His hand, and directeth the stormy winds and tempests of the
skies, I lifted my heart and my voice to Him, whom, with the eye of
instructed intelligence, I beheld seated above the darkness and the
whirlwind, in the ineffable glory and peace of His own heaven, and
directing all things by His will. I felt that He could protect and
defend me, and those who sailed with me; that the night to Him was as
clear as the day; and that even I was not too insignificant to be
cared for by Him, who, in His love, gave voices of music to the little
birds, who painted the lily, and perfumed the flower.

"O Lord God, Holy One, the Almighty, who art the Creator of all
things, if I have found grace in Thy sight, hear my humble petition,
which I now offer before Thee. Let Thy presence be here, and Thy
power; save us who are tossed upon the great sea, and who have no hope
but in Thee. These call upon their idols, but I, O Lord God, call upon
Thee, the God of our fathers. Guard us in our danger, and bring us in
safety to our haven! For Thou art the only true and living God, and
besides Thee there is no God!"

All the people who heard my voice, as I thus invoked the Living God,
and saw my hands outstretched heavenward, turned from their idols and
amulets, and ceased their prayers and cries, to hear me. The
lightnings flashed about us in a continual flame, so that the ship
seemed on fire, and I could be seen by all.

Judge, O Sesostris, my surprise, when instantly the winds--which at
the first word of my prayer softened--ceased to roar; the waves fell
level with the sea; the clouds parted above us, and revealing a bright
moon shining down from the starry sky, they rolled, on all sides,
swiftly away towards the horizon.

This sudden and wondrous change, evidently in response to my prayer,
as a proof that it was heard by the Ear to which I, in fear and hope,
addressed it, amazed me. It was the power and act of my God! I felt it
to be so, and lifting up my eyes and hands to the cloudless skies, I

"Thine, O Lord Almighty, thine be the praise and glory; for Thou art
the hearer and answerer of prayer, and art loving to all Thy
creatures. Thou hast power in heaven and on earth, and on the broad
sea, nor is any thing hid from Thee. Darkness is no darkness with
Thee, and no power can resist thine! Thanks be to Thee, O Lord God on
high, for this manifestation of Thy presence, and this confirmation of
my faith. Let these idolaters likewise glorify Thee, for whose sakes
Thou hast also done this."

When I ceased, I beheld a crowd, made up of all nations, prostrate
around me. The captain, turning away from his god, was burning incense
before me, while the invocations of the crew and passengers were being
offered to me. With horror I drew back and waved them away, saying,
"Rise, men, stand upon your feet! Not unto me, not unto me, but unto
God, the one invisible Creator, give thanks and praise for your mighty

I then made known to them the mystery of the true God, whose power
they and I had witnessed, and exhorted them to turn from their idols,
and worship Him in spirit and in truth; for that He was their Maker,
and besides Him there was no God. Nevertheless, but for my stern anger
against it, they would have sacrificed a sheep to me, as if I were

In a few hours we reached Pelusium, and to escape the adulations of
the people on shore, to whom the crew made known this miracle of God,
I withdrew privately, and went to Bubastis. After visiting, unknown to
them, the tens of thousands of my brethren, who are engaged in
extending the walls of that place, and increasing the number of
treasure-houses therein, I took boat and came hither secretly, for
fear that Mœris, if he knew me to be in Egypt, might watch my
movements, if not banish or imprison me.

I have now been several days in the bosom of my family. My mother and
father are well; but they, and Miriam with all the other women of our
nation, have tasks of weaving put upon them, which are to be done each
day before they are permitted to sleep. My heart is deeply wounded at
all this. On every side I behold oppression and cruelty. Daily, scores
of the Hebrews perish, and their dead bodies are thrown into ditches,
dug for the purpose, and covered with earth. Often, the wretched men
who dig them are the first to occupy them, for the work goes on day
and night. An edict has been published throughout all Egypt, within
the past month, that no Egyptian shall assist a Hebrew; and that no
Hebrew who sinks down under his toil, shall be suffered to remain upon
the ground, but must be placed upon his feet again, and driven to his
task, until he sinks to rise no more; and to such, neither bread nor
water shall be offered, that they may die! Such, O king, is the heart
of this Mœris!

Yet, with all these extraordinary measures, inspired by his fear, to
lessen the number of the Hebrews, they increase in the most
unprecedented manner. The women bring forth without midwives, and are
put to no inconvenience whatsoever afterwards. Such a state of things
alarms the Egyptian king, and well it may; for it seems to me to be a
direct act of the Divinity, so to multiply the people, that Egypt will
be compelled to liberate them, and send them forth to find a country
of their own.

There is a prophecy which, as I associate more with the elders--who
are slow, however, to give me their confidence, regarding me still as
an Egyptian in feeling and prejudices--I ascertain to be well
preserved, that, at the end of about four hundred years from the days
of Prince Abraham, his descendants shall come out of Egypt a great
nation. This period is drawing to its close. God, who can deliver from
the storm, can deliver from the hand of Pharaoh those who trust in
Him, and call for His Almighty arm to aid them.


Since writing the foregoing, my dear Sesostris--for such is the
familiar title, notwithstanding the present difference in our rank and
position, that you condescendingly permit me to make use of in
addressing you--since writing the foregoing, I say, I have been
studying the traditions of my fathers, the Hebrews of old. In them I
have found the following prophecies; and you will observe how
confidently God, the Almighty, is recognized and spoken of as the one
true God:

"Our father Abram, the Syrian, having been born in the great kingdom
of Chaldea, served idols, as did all other men--the knowledge of the
one God, being yet veiled under the multiplicity of gods. Abram, being
just, and possessing those virtues and excellencies which elevate man,
it pleased the one great and mighty God, only and true--who made all
things in heaven above, in the earth beneath, and in the seas that are
thereunder--to make Himself known unto him, as he was one day uttering
a prayer to the sun. Suddenly, he beheld a hand across the disk of the
sun, and the earth was instantly covered with night. While Abram
wondered and trembled, the mighty hand was removed, and the day was
restored. Then came a voice from above the sun--

'O man, and son of man that is clay! dost thou worship the creature,
and know not the Creator? I am the Creator of the sun, the heavens,
the earth, and man upon the earth! Worship me, who alone can create
light, and who maketh darkness! I am God, and will not give my glory
to a creature! The sun is but clay, and thou, O man, art clay also!
Give _me_ thine heart; worship me, the Maker both of thee and of the

"Then Abram saw the hand again cover and extinguish the sun; but lo,
instead of night, the universe was lighted by the brightness of the
hand, which shone with the splendor of a thousand suns, so that our
father fell upon his face, as if dead, before its consuming splendor.
When he rose again, the sun shone as before, and he fell prostrate
upon the ground and said:

"'Lord God of the sun, Creator of all things, what is man, that thou
displayest thy glory and revealest thyself to him? I am as a worm
before thee! Teach me what thou wouldst have me to do!'

"Then a still, small voice answered:

"'Arise, go forth from this Chaldea, thy country, unto a land flowing
with milk and honey, which I will show thee; and there I will make of
thee a great nation, who shall bear thy name; for I will make thy name
great, and a blessing to all men; and those who bless thee I will
bless, and those who curse thee, I will curse; and in thee shall all
the families of the earth be blessed!'"

This remarkable tradition then goes on to say, O Sesostris, that the
Chaldean hastened to obey God, and going into the city of Haran, where
he dwelt, gathered his substance, and took his wife, and nephew, and
all his servants, and departed from the land--being then
five-and-seventy years old. By a sign, the Lord God went before him
through many lands, until he crossed over the river of the king of
Sodom into Palestine, when the Almighty, taking him into a high
mountain, showed him all the land, from the lake and fair valley of
Gomorrah and Sodom to the great sea westward, and from Libanus on the
north to the desert of Arabia on the south, saying:

"'Lift up now thine eyes, and look from the place where thou art,
northward and southward, and eastward and westward, for all the land
which thou seest, to thee will I give it and to thy seed after thee!
Arise, walk through the land, in the length of it and in the breadth
of it, for I will give it to thee; for the whole earth is mine!'"

"Night fell upon them while they looked from the mountain, and the
Lord God said to our father: 'Look now towards heaven, and tell the
stars if thou art able to number them. So shall thy posterity be. But
know thou,' said the Lord to him, 'that thou, and thy son, and thy
son's son shall be strangers in this land, and thy seed after thee
shall also be strangers in the land shadowing with wings, and shall
serve its kings, and they shall afflict thee four hundred years; but
grieve not, for the nation whom they shall serve will I judge, and
afterwards shall thy posterity come out of that land a mighty people,
with great substance; and he whom I will raise up as their deliverer,
shall lead them unto this land, and they shall enter in and possess
it, and shall become a great people, and be in number as the sands of
the seashore, and as the dust for multitude.'"

Then Abram believed God. We, O Sesostris, are his posterity. Are we
not as the stars of heaven in number, and as the sands of the shore?
The four hundred years are drawing to a close. Will not He who has
brought about the fulfilment of one part of His prophecy, accomplish
also the other? Therefore do I look with hope to our release, ere
another generation passes away. Who shall live to behold it? Who shall
be so blessed as to see this deliverer that is to lead them forth to
the promised land? I may not live to see that day of joyful
deliverance! Perhaps thy son Remeses may behold it. That land,
according to our tradition, is Palestine, through which I journeyed
when I visited the ruins, visible above and beneath the Lake of
Bitumen; near which, also, I beheld that extraordinary statue of an
incrusted woman, on whom the shower of salt fell until it had encased
her alive, and transfixed her to the spot, as if hewn from a column of
salt. The people of that region informed me, that she was a niece of
Prince Abram, overtaken in her flight, when the five cities of the
plain were overthrown by fire from heaven. How beautiful is all that
land of Palestine! It is like a garden for fertility, and is filled
with populous cities, and a cultivated and warlike people. I also
visited the city of Salem, where, anciently, King Melchisedec, the
wise sage, and friend of God and of Abram, dwelt. It is now but a rock
covered with fortresses and the treasure-city of the land. Is this
land yet to be given by God to our people? Is it, indeed, already ours
by the title of God to our Abram, only waiting for us to go up and
possess it? We are then not without a country, though in bondage. This
idea elevates my heart; and I have sought to rouse the dormant
feelings and hopes of our elders and people, with the faith that our
nation has a country reserved for us, by the God of our fathers.

But they shake their heads. They have so long sat in the dust of
despair, that they have ceased to hope. Still, my brother Aaron and I
everywhere try to lift up their feeble hearts, and to encourage them
with the bright future. But one of the old men answered--

"Thou sayest that it is a land filled with a warlike people; that they
are the descendants of the old Phœnician shepherd-kings, who once
conquered Egypt. How, O son of Pharaoh's daughter," he added, giving
me this appellation in his anger, "how can we Hebrews, who know not an
arrow from a lance, or a spear from a bow, who are crushed in spirit
and dwarfed by toil, how are we to conquer such a land, even if the
God of our fathers has given it to us?"

"Does not this foreign land of which the stranger-Hebrew speaks,"
arose and said another, by the name of Uri,--whose son is the most
skilful in Egypt in devising curious works in gold, and in silver, and
in precious stones, having served with the queen's royal
artificer,--"does it not lie beyond Arabia, and are there not many and
strong kings in the way, the armies of Edom, of the Hittites, of the
Philistines, and of the sons of Ishmael! Even though Pharaoh were to
bid us begone to-morrow, to the new country of our God that we boast
of, could we traverse the desert, or do battle with the nations on the
way, much more conquer the warlike people who hold it? Listen not to
this Egyptian-Hebrew, who doubtless would tempt us to leave Egypt,
that we may be destroyed by the warlike people, who will dispute our
march. Doubtless, Pharaoh, his former friend, hath sent him to talk
with us that he might thereby either get rid of us, or seek occasion
to destroy us in a body."

Thus, my dear Sesostris, were my words turned against me. Yet I will
not fear, but shall quietly strive to influence my brethren, and
persuade them to look forward with hope, to deliverance by the arm of

Farewell, Sesostris! May the Almighty give you His divine Spirit, and
fill you with wisdom and judgment, that you may honor Him as King of
kings, and rule your people mercifully and prosperously. To the
beloved queen, Thamonda, I send the most respectful greetings; and
thank her from my heart for giving to your daughter the dear and
honored name, "Amense." May the virtues of the pure Queen of Egypt be
transferred to her; but may her life be far happier! To my namesake,
the bright and beautiful Remeses, give my cordial affection. Tell him
that I hope, when he shall be a man, and like other princes, visit
Egypt, he will not find the Hebrew nation there in bondage, and that,
if he inquires after the people of his father's humble friend, he will
be answered--

"Their God, with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm, led them forth
to a land given to them for an inheritance, where they now dwell, free
and happy!" Ah, Sesostris, shall this dream of hope thus be realized?
Tell Remeses to lay a bunch of flowers for me upon the tomb of Queen
Epiphia, whose memory and kindness I shall ever cherish deep in my

 I once more write, farewell.





Pardon, O king, thy servant, for addressing an epistle to thee; but
when thou art informed of the reason which has led me to take this
liberty, thou wilt, I feel, acquit me of too great boldness.

Know, O King Sesostris, that my brother, thy beloved friend, who wrote
the letter which I send to thee with this epistle (and which he
himself would have forwarded, but for what I am about to relate), has
fled from Egypt, pursued by the vindictive power of Pharaoh. I will,
as briefly as I can, make known to thee the painful circumstances
which led to this result.

The morning after he had completed his letter to thee, O king, he said
to me, "I will go forth and see my brethren who are at work on Lake
Mœris, that I may talk also with the old and young men, and inspire
their heavy hearts with hope." So he departed, and, crossing the
river, disguised as an Egyptian,--for no Hebrew dare now be seen
walking alone for fear of being challenged by the soldiers, who
garrison all the country, and stand guard at every corner, and at
every gate,--he came to the shores of Lake Amense, the beauty of
which, with its garden and palace-lined shores, so much pleased thee,
O king, when, five years ago, thou wast in Egypt. There he saw King
Mœris clothed in scarlet, a chain of gold across his breast,
standing in his chariot, as he slowly drove around the lake, giving
directions to the chief captains over the works. My brother was not
recognized by him, however, and went on his way, observing the severe
labors of his brethren. In the two hours that he was there, he saw
three strong men lie down in the foul water and die! At length, coming
to a place where several young and old men were working together, he
beheld such cruelty exercised upon them, that he groaned in spirit,
and prayed the Almighty to shorten the days of the four hundred years,
and come to their deliverance. Unable longer to behold sufferings that
he could not relieve, he walked sadly away, deeply meditating upon the
mysterious providence of the Almighty, in His dealings with the seed
of His servant Abraham. After a little time he found himself in a
narrow, sand-drifted lane, between two walls, when he was suddenly
aroused from his reflections by a cry of pain, accompanied by sharp
blows with a stick. He looked up, and spied an Egyptian taskmaster
dragging by the hair Izhur, a youth whom he greatly loved. The
Egyptian had pursued him, as he fled up the lane from his blows, and
was now plainly intent, in his great wrath, upon putting him to death.

My brother, indignant and grieved, commanded him in a tone of
authority to release him; whereupon the Egyptian, cursing him by his
gods, drew his knife from its sheath and would in revenge have driven
it into the heart of Izhur, when Moses caught his arm, and bade the
young man fly. The Egyptian, thereupon, would have slain my brother,
who, looking this way and that, and seeing they were alone, struck him
to the earth with one blow of his hand, in the name of the God of
Abraham, the Avenger of his people, so that he died on the spot! He
then hid the body in the sand, and returned home, where he made known
to me what he had done.

"Surely," I said, in amazement, "thou art the first Hebrew, my
brother, who hath slain an Egyptian. A divine motion must have moved
thee! Peradventure it is by _thy arm_ that he will yet deliver his

Thereupon my brother, with his characteristic modesty, said--

"Not mine! not mine, my brother! Breathe into my heart no such
ambitious pride! Yet I felt moved and animated by God to do this.
Therefore do I justify the act to man and my own conscience."

The next day, my brother visited the lake again, intending to make its
circuit, and see certain elders to whom he wished to make himself
known,--men wise and good, who were superintending the work of others
of their own people. On his way he perceived two Hebrews striving
together, and as he came up, one of them struck the other with his
working tool, so that he staggered from the blow.

"Sirs, ye are brethren," he said; "why do ye strive together, seeing
ye are brethren?"--and then added, sternly and sorrowfully, to the one
who had struck the blow--

"Friend, why hast thou done this wrong? He whom thou hast stricken is
a Hebrew. Do not your taskmasters beat you enough, that you must
strike each other?"

Whereupon the man who did the injury to his fellow, said fiercely,
looking narrowly upon my brother--

"Thou art Remeses, the Hebrew 'son of Pharaoh's daughter!' I remember
thee. Dost thou think that thou art still a Prince of Egypt? Mœris
is now our king. Who hath made _thee_ prince and judge over us? Thou
forgettest that thou art now a slave, like the rest of us. Intendest
thou to kill me as thou killedst the Egyptian yesterday?"

No sooner had the man thus spoken, than Moses, alarmed, perceived that
the thing was known, and beholding the eyes of the Egyptian officers,
and many of the Hebrews fastened upon him, he hastened to escape, for
he beheld several men run to a high officer of the king, as if with
the news, who at once drove rapidly away in his chariot, probably
seeking Mœris, whom my brother knew to be not far off, superintending
the placing of a statue of Horus upon a new terrace. Several Hebrews
would have interposed to arrest Moses, when they heard who he was, for
they look upon him more as an Egyptian than as one of their brethren.
But he succeeded in retiring unharmed, and at once hastened to recross
the Nile. When he had told us that what he had done to the Egyptian
was known, and that he was recognized, and that Mœris would surely
hear of it, his mother and I advised his immediate flight.

He said that he had no doubt the king would seek his destruction, and
that he ought to be cautious and consult his own preservation. "But,"
he added, "I do not fear the wrath of Pharaoh so far that, were I in
his power, I would either deny, excuse, or ask pardon for my act. What
I have done I will justify. The oppressor deserved to die! And so, one
day, will God, by the hand of a Hebrew, slay Pharaoh and all his
hosts!" This was spoken with the light of prophecy in his noble face,
as if his words were inspiration. When Amram, his father, came in, and
heard all, he said--

"The God of Jacob be glorified! There is one man in Israel to whom He
has given courage to smite the oppressor of his people! Fly, my son!
Fly not for fear, for thou art a brave man and hast been a tried
soldier; but fly to preserve a life which my spirit tells me will yet
be dear to our people!"

"My father," said Moses sorrowfully, "I believed that my brethren
would understand that God was with me, and would acknowledge me as
sent to be their friend, instead of joining the Egyptians against me!
I will fly! Mœris would rejoice to hold me in his power! But with
the hope, that even in a foreign land I may serve my people, at least
by prayer and supplication to God for them, I will keep my life out of
Pharaoh's hand."

In the garb of an Egyptian, with a store of provisions, and taking
gold in his purse, my brother embraced us all, and departed from the
house, my mother weeping and saying--

"A second time have I given up my son from the sword of Pharaoh,--once
to the waters and now to the desert sands!"

"And the waters, O woman," said my father, "gave him to be a prince of
Egypt, and from the sands of the desert God can call him to be king
over Israel!"

I looked into my venerable father's face, for often of late years he
is gifted with prophetic inspirations, and I saw that his aged eyes
shone with a supernatural lustre. My brother returned a few steps,
again embraced his mother, bowed his head before his father for his
blessing, arose, and went on his way eastward. I accompanied him for
an hour, when tenderly embracing we parted--he taking the way towards
Midian. Ru-el Jethro, the lord of that country, O king, which was
settled by Midian, son of Abram, by Keturah, thou didst meet at this
table of thy friend "Remeses," when thou wast in Egypt, at which time,
thou mayst remember, he invited my brother to visit his kingdom in

It was well for Moses that he so thoroughly knew the character of King
Mœris; for when I returned, I learned from my mother, that a party
of soldiers had been sent by Pharaoh to seize him. Another hour, and
he would have fallen into his hand.

At my mother's request, O king, I have written the foregoing, and now
inclose his letter to you. I had no sooner entered my house, than I
saw my parents and sister preparing to fly from the king, fearing his
vengeance when he should learn of the escape of Moses! Not that
Pharaoh cared for the life of the slain Egyptian, but he would gladly
seize upon the occasion, as a pretext to destroy his former rival.

May God long preserve thy life, O king.

 Written in Egypt by thy servant,

 _Series of Letters to his Father_.




It is with emotions of no ordinary kind, that I find myself amid the
scenes familiar to your eyes, when forty-six years ago, a young man,
you visited Egypt. Every object upon which I gaze is invested with new
interest as I reflect--"And this my father also saw. On this pylon he
has stood and surveyed the landscape; and along these corridors, his
feet have awakened the echoes which respond to mine."

The letters which you wrote from Egypt, during the reign of the wise
Queen Amense, addressed to my royal grandmother, and which are now in
my possession, early familiarized my mind with this wonderful land;
and I recognize every place of interest, from your descriptions.

There are, however, some changes. Pharaoh-Mœris, who has been long
dead, and his son Meiphra-Thothmes, Thothmeses his grandson, and
Thothmeses IV., the present king, all inaugurated their reigns by
laying the foundations of temples, palaces, and pyramids; while the
ruins of others have been repaired. Mœris restored the ancient
temple of Thoth, in the Island of Rhoda, where Prince Remeses was
hidden three months, and also all other temples in Egypt. His reign,
though tyrannical, was distinguished by improvement in arts, in
letters, in astronomy, architecture, and arms. His pyramid is an
imposing one, and singularly pre-eminent, by having an obelisk at each
angle. His lake, however, is this Pharaoh's greatest monument, if I
may so term it.

This lake was begun by former princes, and enlarged by Queen Amense,
in order to receive the surplus waters of the Nile, when the
inundations, as sometimes happen, arise and overflow the fields after
the corn is up. The lake, however, was not large enough wholly to
correct this evil, and King Mœris still further enlarged it, by
means of the services of the Hebrews, three hundred thousand of whom,
it is said, perished in the work, before it was completed. It is ample
enough in breadth and depth to contain the excess of the Nile. One of
the wonders of the world, it is only paralleled in grandeur by the
pyramids. In the midst of this magnificent inland sea--for such it
seems--arise two pyramids, upon the summit of each of which, three
hundred and eight feet in the air, stands upon a throne, shaped like a
chariot, a statue, one being that of Thoth, the other of Mœris.
Upon the former is inscribed--

"The god prospered;" on the other, "Pharaoh builded." Beneath this
inscription is written--

"This lake is three hundred and forty miles in circumference, and one
hundred and fifty feet in depth. Within its bounds it can contain all
the rivers of the earth."

This sublime work, my dear father, has upon the east side a canal
eighty feet broad, and four leagues in length. At its entrance are
seated two colossi, figures of Apis and Mnevis; and along its shores
are double rows of trees, bordering a terrace, upon which face
palaces, villas, temples, gardens, and squares. At the Nile
termination stands a single colossus, representing the god Nilus. He
is astride the canal, his feet upon the bases of pyramids, and beneath
him are great floodgates, that let in or exclude the waters of the
river. On the south of the lake, upon a plain of sand, Mœris
erected a vast temple to Serapis, dedicated it with great pomp, and
inclosed it by gardens a mile square, the earth of which was carried
by Hebrews in baskets, from the excavations of the lake. He commenced
a noble avenue of sphinxes, leading from the lake to the temple, and
which has been recently completed by Thothmeses IV., who last week
invited me to be present at its inauguration. It was a magnificent
spectacle, first the procession of priests and soldiers, nobles and
citizens, with the king and his court, in a thousand galleys, sailing
across the lake; then the landing at the majestic pylon, the march of
the procession for a mile between the double row of sphinxes, the
mighty temple terminating the vista, and the solemn invocations,
libations, and sacrifices before the god.

I marvel, my dear father, at such splendor having no other object than
a black bull; such glory leading to an enshrined brute, before whom
all this magnificence, power, and rank fall prostrate, as to God!
Happy am I, O my wise and good father, to have been early instructed
in the knowledge of the true God. I pity while I admire what I see in
Egypt. This king is an intelligent man, and I often feel like saying
to him, "O king, dost thou believe in thy heart that this bull is

The shores of this vast artificial sea are lined with groves, palaces,
and waving fields. The sides of the Libyan hills are terraced and
adorned with marble palaces and gardens. At one point, where the
cliffs stretch into the lake, are four temples, facing four ways,
respectively dedicated to Athor, Pthah, Apis, and Bubastis, the four
deities of Memphis; and their sides are covered with golden bronze, so
that, in the sunlight, nothing can be more gorgeous.

Upon a small island, opposite this gilded promontory, and left for the
purpose, Thothmeses II. erected, during his brief reign, a temple of
Syenite stone to the goddess Isis, before which is a recumbent figure
of Osiris, seventy feet in length. Its vestibule is enriched with
sculpture, and is the most splendid portico in Egypt. In the interior
it is surrounded by a peristyle of statues representing the twelve
constellations, each eighteen feet in height.

Besides all these, I have visited, my dear father, during the six
weeks I have been in Egypt, the "Plain of the Mummies," the Catacombs,
the Labyrinth--a marvel of mystery and perplexity to one not initiated
into the intricacies of its mazes--the chief pyramids, and that also
of Queen Amense, at the entrance of which I placed fresh flowers for
your sake.

Pharaoh-Mœris greatly extended the bounds of Memphis. It is not
less than twelve miles in circuit. He covered with it a large portion
of the plain westward of the pyramids; and where once was a barren
waste, are now streets, avenues, colonnades, temples, public edifices,
aqueducts, causeways, and all the splendor of metropolitan
magnificence. Avenues of sphinxes are almost innumerable; colossal
statues, obelisks, and pyramids meet the eye everywhere. Near the foot
of the hills he formed a chariot-course, that extends three miles
along the lake. In the rock of the cliff he caused to be hewn fourteen
sarcophagi of black marble, and of gigantic dimensions. In these he
entombed the bodies of as many tributary kings, when, in succession,
they died; commanding their mummies to be brought into Egypt for the
purpose. He has everywhere multiplied, with singular variety, his
statues; and in front of this tomb of kings stands one of them upon a
pedestal, the feet of which are fourteen sculptured crowns,
representatives of their own.

But, my dear father, Egypt is so familiar to you, that I will not
weary you with any more descriptions, unless, indeed, I should visit
the City of a Hundred Gates, as you were not able to go thither. I
will speak, however, of a visit that I paid yesterday to the sphinx
that stands before Chephres, and near Cheops. I was impressed, as you
were, with the grandeur of the whole. But the great ancient temple,
which you spoke of as ruinous, has, in forty-five years, become still
more defaced. Indeed, the reigning Pharaoh has expressed his intention
of removing it altogether, so that the pyramids may stand forth in
solitary majesty.

Among other events of the reign of Mœris, was the discovery, by
him, that the tradition which represented the great sphinx as being
hollowed into chambers was a true one. He found the entrance, which
was beneath the small temple, between the fore-paws of the statue.
What he discovered is known to no man; but it is certain that he
suddenly displayed vast treasures of gold and silver, jewels and
precious stones, with which he carried on his magnificent and
expensive works.

You have not forgotten the Ethiopian captive king, Occhoris. He still
exists, though his beard is snow white and his form bent. He remains a
captive, each monarch in succession retaining so important a personage
in chains, annually to grace their processions to the temples of the

The condition, my dear father, of the Hebrew people, in whom you are
so deeply interested, has enlisted all my sympathies also. Forty years
have multiplied their number, notwithstanding all the ingenious
efforts of the Pharaohs to destroy them by deadly labors, until they
amount to three millions and a half of souls. The population of Egypt
is only seven millions; and thus, for every two Egyptians there is one
Hebrew. This alarming state of things fills the mind of Thothmeses IV.
with ceaseless anxiety. He does not hesitate to confess to me, freely,
his fears for the security of his crown.

I have not yet described this monarch to you. When I arrived and
presented your letters, he received me with marked courtesy; inquired
after your welfare and the prosperity of your reign; asked your age,
and when I told him you were seventy-three, he said he knew of no king
so aged, unless it was Jethro, king of Midian. He inquired why I had
delayed coming to Egypt until I was forty-two (for I told him my age,
which exactly corresponds with his own); and when I informed him that
I had been engaged in improving and restoring my kingdom of Damascus,
which I inherited from my mother, and which the Sabæans had thrice
invaded and devastated before I came of age, he expressed his pleasure
that peace was restored, and that I had come into Egypt, at last. He
seems naturally superstitious, credulous, and irresolute. I think he
possesses little or no stability of character, and that he is easily
influenced to do evil. He is timid in his policy, yet rash; vain of
his wisdom, yet constantly guilty of follies; a devout worshipper of
his gods, yet a slave to the basest personal vices; jealous of his
rights, yet, from want of courage, suffering them continually to be
invaded, both by his subjects and tributary princes; a man whose word
is kept, only so far as his present interest demands; who will pardon
to-night a suppliant, from irresolution and morbid pity, and execute
him in the morning when the coldness of his nature returns. Were he my
friend, I should distrust him; were he my foe, I would not delay to
place the sea between me and his sword.

Under such a prince, you may imagine that the condition of the Hebrew
people is not less pitiable than under his predecessors. Fearing them,
he doubles their tasks, and resorts to every device of destruction,
short of open and indiscriminate slaughter. Yet even this infernal
idea has been suggested by him to his private council; but it was
opposed, on the ground that the burial of so many millions would be
impossible, and that a plague would result fatal to the population of

So the Hebrews still exist, feared, suspected, and crushed by
additional burdens. I have been among them, and, as you directed, have
made many cautious inquiries after the learned Hebrew, Moses. They are
more enlightened than when you saw them. The idea of God is less
obscure in their minds, while their hope of a deliverer is bright and
ever present. Few of the old men remember Remeses, or Moses; and none
of them know any thing of his present abode, but seem sure he is long
since dead. I have become deeply interested in some of these venerable
men, in whose majestic features, set off by flowing beards, I
recognize the lineaments of Abram, their ancestor, as sculptured on
the mausoleum of his servant, "Eliezer of Damascus." The beauty of the
children and young women, amid all their degradation, is wonderful. I
was struck with the seeming good feeling which existed among these and
the women of Egypt. The latter, either from pity, or because the
Hebrew women are gentle and attractive, hold kind intercourse with
them; and at a marriage, which I witnessed in one of their huts, the
Hebrew females, especially the bride, were decked with jewels loaned
to them by their friends, the Egyptian maidens. I have also been
struck with the patient, uncomplaining, and gentle manner in which the
Hebrews speak of the Egyptians, excepting their task-officers--who are
brutal soldiers--and the king. Generations of oppression have made
them forbearing and submissive; and, besides, the Egyptians and
Hebrews, who now know one another, knew each other as children, before
either could understand their different positions.

Here and there I have met a lord who recalled your visit, dear father,
with pleasure; but were you now here you would feel a stranger indeed.

Farewell, my honored and revered father. I will continue my inquiries
after Prince Remeses. To my sister Amense, and her husband, Sisiris,
king of Sidon, give my kindest greetings.

 Your affectionate son,


I unseal this epistle to inform you, that while it has been lying
three days, waiting for the galley of the Lord of Sarepta to depart, I
have had intelligence of your old friend Remeses. He lives, and is in
Midian, as you suspected, and is well, though, of course, far advanced
in years. This is all that I can now add to my letter, as the
secretary of the Sareptan noble is in my reception-room, and lingers
only to take this letter, the wind being now favorable.

 Your faithful son,




Having an opportunity, my dearest father, to send this letter the day
after to-morrow, I will herewith make known to you, how I obtained the
intelligence, that your ancient friend Remeses is still in the kingdom
of Midian, whither he fled from King Mœris.

In obedience to your last instructions, I have diligently made all
inquiries that were likely to obtain the information which your lively
friendship prompts you to seek. There is something, dear father, very
beautiful in this undying attachment, which has survived a period of
forty years, and which still looks forward to behold the beloved face
of thy cherished friend once more!

Learning yesterday that a caravan had arrived from Ezion-geber (by the
Edomites called Ekkaba), which lies near the head of the orient arm of
the Red or Arabian Sea, and not far from which are the borders of
peninsular Midian, I crossed the Nile to the suburbs of the City of
the Sun, where the caravan had found quarters in the quadrangle of the

Having found the governor of the company of merchants, I made myself
known to him as a foreign prince, travelling for knowledge, and sight
of men and scenes. He courteously received me, and I asked him many
questions about his country, his journey, and the articles he brought,
until he was at his ease with me, when I inquired if he had ever been
in Midian. He answered that he himself was a Midianite, and that
twenty days before he had left Midian to join the caravan, part of
which belonged to Jethro, prince and priest of that country. Upon
hearing this name, dear father, I was struck by its similarity to that
mentioned in the last letter of Aaron the Hebrew, as being that of the
king of the country who had invited Moses, while prince, to visit him.

"Dost thou know this Prince Jethro?" I asked.

"I have sat at his feet--his hand has often rested upon my head when I
was a lad," he answered.

"You call him a priest," I said; "what is his religion?"

"That of our progenitor, Abram the Chaldean."

"The Hebrews sprung from Abram," I replied.

"Yes, by Sara, his first wife. The Midianites are the sons of Midian,
a son of Abram by Keturah, the wife he took after Sara died. The
cities of Epher, Ephah, and Hanoch, in Midian, were founded by princes
who were this same Abram's grandsons, and sons of Midian."

"Do you worship the God of Abram--or Abraham, as the Hebrews call
their ancestor?" I asked.

"Hast thou ever heard, O prince," he said, with feeling, "that we were
idolaters, or fire-worshippers, or that we pray to bulls, and beasts,
and creeping things, as these Egyptians do? We worship one God--the
Lord of Heaven--the Almighty Creator, who revealed Himself to our
father Abram."

When I told him that I also worshipped the same God, he took my hand,
kissed it reverently, and said solemnly--

"There is but one God!"

"What is your form of worship, that your king is also your priest?" I

"By sacrifices. Morning and evening, the priests offer up to God
incense, and oblations, and sacrifices of lambs. Hence we have large
flocks and herds. On great days, the king himself officiates, lays his
hand upon the head of the victim, and asks the Almighty to take the
life of the sacrifice instead of that of the people, and to visit upon
its head the wrath which the kingdom had incurred."

"Did Abram thus sacrifice?"

"Not only Abram, but Noah, the first father, and all the fathers of
the old world. Our worship, therefore, O prince, consists in offering
the life of a victim, to preserve our own!"

"Yes, if the great Lord of Heaven will so receive it! For who can
weigh the life of a man with that of his lamb?" I said.

"None but God, who, in His goodness and glory, wills it so to be!"
answered the Midianite.

"Hast thou ever heard, in Midian, of a Hebrew called Moses?"

"Dost thou mean Moses the Egyptian?" he asked, quickly.

"He was educated an Egyptian, and was supposed to be the son of
Pharaoh's daughter, but was only adopted by her; and being discovered
to be a Hebrew, he left Egypt."

"This same Moses, once Prince Remeses, is now in Midian, where he hath
been these forty years," answered the venerable chief-captain of the
caravan. "He is son-in-law to our prince, who has made him ruler over
all the companies of shepherds in the region that lieth between the
city of Keturah and the sea, and even to the back of the desert,
where, on the sides of Horeb and the valleys thereof, he feeds his
flocks. Moreover, there also he meditates, and writes in a cave--for
he is a man of vast learning, and greatly revered in Midian as a wise
sage. He is married to the daughter of the Prince Ru-el Jethro, and by
her hath had many sons, but two only--mere lads--remain, the rest
having died early. Surely, what man in Midian knoweth not Moses, the
wise shepherd of Horeb?"

Upon hearing this good news, dear father, I rejoiced, in anticipation,
at the pleasure you would receive, when you should read my letter
containing the pleasing tidings. I now asked the good Midianite when
he would return. He said that in seven days he should depart, and that
it would take him eleven days to reach that part of the country where
Moses dwelt. Upon this, my dear father, after making sundry other
inquiries about the route, I determined to accompany him; for I knew
you would value one letter from me, saying I had seen and spoken with
your friend face to face, more highly than many from the hundred-gated
Thebes. I shall be gone but one month, and shall be well repaid, not
only by seeing Moses, whose noble countenance I can just recollect as
a pleasant remembrance of my childhood, but by conferring upon him the
unexpected pleasure of hearing from you by your son, his namesake.
Thus, for your sake, as well as for his, and also my own gratification
in seeing a new and rarely visited country, I take my departure with
the caravan. After I reach Midian, and have seen your old friend in
the land of his long exile, I will write to you fully of all that may
interest you.

May the God of Abraham and of Moses have you always in His sacred

 Your loving son,





With what emotions of joy and gratitude I embraced your princely son,
Remeses, I can feebly express! I give God thanks for this happiness,
vouchsafed to me in my eighty-first year, of hearing from you again,
and by the mouth of your son. I rejoice to hear of your welfare, and
prosperous reign. The sight of the young Remeses revives all the past,
and in his face I see, with delight, your features and smile. I also
perceive that he possesses all your virtues, and, above all, that you
have taught him the knowledge of the true God. His presence here, and
his readiness to come across the desert to see me, gratifies me. It
assures me that I am loved by you both! Although, my friend, I have
not written to you--for, since my flight from Egypt, my life has been
wholly without events--yet, from time to time, by foreign merchants
who have been in Tyre, I have had news of you, and of your prosperity.
Until I beheld your son, I believed that I was quite forgotten!

I shall keep Remeses with me as long as he will remain. My way of
life, however, is humble. We are a pastoral people, and my occupation
is that of a shepherd; for, though I am chief shepherd of the land,
yet do I not disdain to lead my own flocks to feed upon the
mountains,--where, as they browse, I meditate in solitude upon God,
and also think upon the sad condition of my brethren in bondage in
Egypt. Four kings have reigned and perished, and yet the sons of Jacob
toil on, exchanging only one oppressor for another, each more cruel
than the last! But the day draws near for their deliverance, O
Sesostris, my friend and brother! The four hundred years of prophecy
are drawing to a close! On the arrival of every caravan from Egypt I
look for intelligence, that a deliverer has arisen, who, lifting the
standard of the God of Abraham, shall call on Israel to rally around
it, exchange their spades for spears, assert their freedom, and defy
Pharaoh and his power! Who will be this hero of God? Who the favored
man, to whom shall be committed the happiness and glory of leading the
mighty Hebrew nation out of Egypt? Will they hear his voice? Will they
acknowledge his authority? Will they have the courage to follow him?
or has the yoke of Egypt, so long bound their necks down, that they
have no hope nor desire to be free? Thus I meditate upon their fate,
and meanwhile pray earnestly to my God to send the deliverer of my
people; for the time is come when He will remember His promise to
Abraham, and to our fathers!

From the painful accounts that your son Remeses gives me, the cup of
their bondage is full to overflowing!--also the cup of Egypt!--for the
same prophecy which foretells their deliverance after four hundred
years, adds, "and the nation which they serve will I judge." Thus, O
king, do I look forward to the overthrow of the power of Egypt, when
God shall send His angel to deliver Israel from beneath Pharaoh's hand
of iron.

What courage, wisdom, patience, meekness, faith, dignity of person,
and ardent piety, must the servant of God have, who will lead Israel
out of bondage! What man on earth is sufficient for this high office?
What man in all Egypt, among the Hebrews, has God raised up and
endowed with these attributes? Alas, I know none! They are all
oppressed and broken in heart, and the spirit of manhood has died out
within them! But He who wills can do! and He can arm with power the
weakest instrument of His will! Let us trust in Him! for by _His_ arm,
whoever be the agent, they will be delivered.

During my exile I have re-written the book of the life of the Prince
of Uz, with great care, and a larger share of the wisdom of God. At
the same time I have instructed many, in Midian, in the truths of God.
It has also seemed good to me, under the inspiration of the Almighty,
to write, from our divine traditions, a narrative of the first acts of
creation, from the beginning, when God created the heavens and the
earth, down to the death of Prince Joseph. Of this book, a copy has
been made by my wife Zipporah, which I will send to you by Prince
Remeses for your acceptance.

With greetings of true and holy friendship, I am, O King Sesostris,
thy servant and friend,






I have been two weeks a guest of your venerable friend, the Hebrew,
Moses. My journey across the desert was agreeable from its novelty,
and my sensations upon the boundless waste, were combined emotions of
solitude and sublimity, similar to those I experienced on the great
sea. Our route, after leaving the land of Egypt, continued eastward
for five days--most of the time in the Arabian desert, with the
mountains of Etham on our right, far to the south. Having on the sixth
day passed round the western horn of the Sea of Arabia, we turned
southwardly into the desert of Shur, which terminated at the base of a
low range of hills, of mingled cliff and pasture-land. A valley opened
between, and after three days' journeying, amid vales filled with
herds and Arabian villages, we entered a mountainous region, the sea
being on our right. Every hour the scenery became more grand and
rugged, until the ridges, constantly rising in altitude, stretched far
southwardly, and terminated in a majestic twin-peaked mountain, midway
between the two arms or horns of the sea.

"That is Horeb," said the chief of the caravan. "It is in the land of
Midian, though remote from the town of the king. In that mountain the
royal flocks are pastured, and there you will find your father's
friend Moses the Hebrew, either with his shepherds and flocks or in
the retirement of his cave."

The same evening we entered the valley of Mount Horeb, which rose in
sublime majesty, with its double crown, far into the skies above us.
We had turned an angle of the mountain, which rose as abruptly as a
pyramid from the plain, and were entering a gorge through which a road
lay to the city of the king--a day's journey distant--when I beheld,
from my camel, a shepherd standing upon a rock and leaning upon his
staff--his sheep reclining about him. He was a tall, venerable man,
with dark locks mingled with white, and a beard, like snow for
whiteness, that descended over his breast. There was a majesty, and
yet simplicity, in his aspect and costume, which impressed me, as he
stood--the evening sun lighting up his kingly visage--upon a rock,
like the statue of the god of the mountain-pass.

My heart instinctively said, "This is Moses!"

"Lo! there stands the son-in-law of Jethro!" said the merchant.

I immediately caused my camel to kneel, and descended to the ground
with haste and joy. The next moment I was bending before thy friend,
my dear father, crying, with reverent feelings of emotion--

"I am Remeses, son of Sesostris, thy friend! Venerable father, give me
thy blessing, for I bear thy name!"

He regarded me for an instant with surprise, and then raising me,
embraced me and said, a holy radiance of love and joy illumining his

"I see thy father, and hear his voice, in thee! Welcome, my son! How
fares the good king? Hast thou ventured across the desert to see the
exiled Hebrew?" he asked, with a smile of benignity and pleasure, as
he gazed upon me. "The sight of thee brings up all the past!"

His voice was disturbed with emotion; though I perceived it had also a
slight natural embarrassment of speech. I related why I had come, and
gave him your messages of love. He took me to his cave, or grotto,
which is like those of the sacred priests in Lebanon. The caravan
encamped, near by, that night, and I remained in the company of the
wise and virtuous sage. We conversed, for many hours, of you, of Tyre,
of my grandmother, of Queen Amense, of the Hebrews in bondage, and his
certain hope of their speedy deliverance.

How happy the princely old man was to hear from you, my dear father!
What a venerable and holy friendship exists between you!--fresh and
green at fourscore, as in the fire and impulse of youth!

The next day, I accompanied him to the chief city of Midian. There I
beheld his matronly wife, Zipporah--and his two sons, beautiful and
ingenuous youth of sixteen and eighteen. I was also presented to the
venerable Ru-el Jethro, or the King Jethro, now one hundred and one
years old, but retaining the full vigor of manhood. He described to me
pleasantly, under what circumstances he first met Moses, forty years

"My seven daughters," said the patriarchal Prince of Midian, "were
with my shepherds at the well, near the city, drawing water for the
flocks; for the prince of the mountain having no water, had thrice
sent his shepherds to draw it from this well, when we had but little
for our own herds. I sent my daughters, thinking that they would
reverence their presence; but the mountain shepherds would have driven
them away, when a stranger, who was seated by the well, rose up, and
with great courage chastised the assailants. Though many in number,
they fled from him in great fear, when he turned and bade my daughters
remain and heed them not; and he helped them water the flocks.

"When they returned to me earlier than I looked for them, I inquired
the cause, and they replied--

"'An Egyptian, a mighty man of valor, delivered us out of the hand of
the shepherds, and aided us also in drawing water for our flocks.'
'Where is he?' I asked. 'Why is it that ye have left this brave
stranger at the well?' They answered: 'He is an Egyptian;' for such
from his dress, and speech, and looks, they believed him to be. I then
sent my daughter Zipporah after him, to invite him to come and eat
bread with me. From that day we became friends, and when I learned his
story, that he was a Hebrew, and like myself, a descendant of Abram, I
gave him Zipporah to wife, and he was content to remain in the land,
and is now the greatest and wisest man in it, for God is with him."

I was much interested in this brief account, my dear father, and
believe that you will be, as it is a connecting link in the life of
Moses, that has been hitherto wanting.

The following week, I retired with Moses to the mountains, and here I
pass my days, listening to his sublime teachings. Not all the wisdom
and learning of Egypt can compare with his sublime knowledge. The
secrets of nature, the mysteries of creation, seem unveiled to his
intellectual vision. It is his habit to pass an hour or two every
night in prayer, upon the mountain, beneath the silent stars,
communing alone with his God, as if he were the high-priest of the
earth, Horeb his altar, the universe his temple, and his theme the
Hebrew nation in Egypt. Ah! my dear father, if God is to deliver them
from Egypt by the hand of man, my heart tells me that Moses will be
appointed their deliverer; for who on earth has so at heart their
misery, or supplicates Heaven so earnestly for aid in their behalf? It
is true he is an old man, seven years your senior, but his step is as
firm as mine, his eye clear and brave, his natural force not abated,
and his looks those of a man in his prime--so healthful is this
mountain life, and the simple routine of his days.

He has written to you. I shall be the bearer of his letter, as well as
of this, which I write in the door of his grotto, facing the valley,
with the sea beyond. There go the ships of Ezion-geber, and the
galleys of Ind. Far to the west is the blue line of the shores of
Arabian Egypt, and to the east the rocky land of Arabia, and Eastern
Midian. The prospect is sublime, and, at this hour of sunset, while
purple mists are upon the hills, and a golden light upon the sea, it
is beautiful and serene.

I had almost neglected to inform you, that your learned and eloquent
friend Aaron, the brother of Moses, was lately in Midian, and was, for
a time, an assistant priest of the sacrifices in the city; but has now
returned to Goshen, where he married many years ago. His sister Miriam
is here with Moses, and is one of the most majestic women I ever
beheld. She is in her ninety-fourth year, but is as erect and buoyant
in her step as a young and resolute woman. With her snow-white hair,
piercing black eyes, and queenly mien, she looks like the venerable
priestess of the sun at Baal-Phegor. The mother of Moses also dwells
at Midian; but I think their father died in Arabia Deserta; for
thither they fled from Egypt, before coming finally into Midian. Aaron
is spoken of here as a noble-looking and stately priest, when, in his
flowing robes, he used to offer sacrifices according to the simple
rites of the Midianites, in the plain temple hewn from the rock, in
which they worship God.

Farewell, my dear father. I am not surprised that you love Moses. He
has won _my_ heart.

 Your affectionate son,





You will see by the date that I am once more in Egypt; and I am here
under circumstances the most wonderful and amazing. Remeses--that is,
Moses, the servant of the Most High God--is here also. My trembling
fingers can scarce form the letters legibly, so great is the emotion
under which I now write to you! But I will not delay to give you a
history of the events.

I wrote to you last, from the grotto of the shepherd-sage of Horeb.

The following day he led a portion of his own flock, from a distant
plain, to the secluded valley on the rear of the mountain of Horeb,
away from the sea. Expecting his return, I had gone forth to meet him,
and was descending a steep path, when I beheld him advancing before
his shepherds, and leading his flock up the valley. He preceded them
some distance, and was quite alone, when I perceived a bright flame
arise by the side of his path. It rose above the bushes, which it
seemed to consume without smoke. At the same moment I observed that
Moses turned aside and approached the dazzling fire. In an instant he
was lost to my gaze, and enveloped in its flame. I hastened down the
mountain-path, surprised and alarmed at what I had seen; and, as the
way was winding, it was some minutes before I came to the valley,
where I expected to find the venerable sage consumed by the flames,
that appeared to have surrounded him.

Upon reaching the valley, lo! I beheld the shepherds fallen upon their
faces, the man of God standing before the burning bush, his
countenance like the sun, and his raiment shining with supernatural
light! My soul was seized with an indescribable awe at the sight! His
sandals were removed from his feet, and he seemed as if he were
standing in the presence of his God, so awful was the majesty of his
countenance. He appeared to be holding discourse with one in the
flames. I was transfixed to the spot, and fell upon my face at the
sight of this stupendous vision, feeling the presence of the Almighty
there. Then I heard a voice utter these words from the midst of the
fire, in which I had seen appear the form of a man, radiant with glory
above the brightness of the sun:

"I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and
the God of Jacob."

While the calm, divine voice spake in still, soft tones, the earth
seemed to tremble, as if its Creator stood upon it. I looked up with
fear and trembling, and, lo! Moses was standing with his face covered
by his shepherd's mantle, for he was afraid to look upon God; while my
heart sunk within me, and I became as a dead man.

When I returned to consciousness, I heard, without raising my face
again, Moses talking with the mighty Angel in the flame, which I
perceived rested upon the thorn-bush like dazzling sunbeams
concentrated thereon, but without consuming or changing a leaf. It was
the radiance alone, of this celestial Person's glorious presence, that
constituted the wonderful flame of fire.

"I have surely seen," said the Voice from the flaming glory, "the
affliction of my people which are in Egypt, and have heard their cry
by reason of their taskmasters; for I know their sorrows, and I am
come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to
bring them up out of that land unto a good land, and a large, unto a
land flowing with milk and honey,--the land of the Canaanites and the

"Now, therefore, behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come up
before me: and I have also seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians
oppress them. Come now, therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh,
that thou mayest bring forth my people, the children of Israel, out of

Here the holy and divine Voice ceased. How did its words thrill my
heart! Had the mighty God of the Hebrews come down from heaven at last
to deliver His people, fulfil His promise to Abram, and also make
Moses the servant of His power? My soul was overpowered with the

Then Moses spake, in accents of the profoundest humility and fear, and

"Who am I that I should go unto Pharaoh, and that I should bring forth
the children of Israel out of Egypt?"

And the Voice replied--

"Certainly I will be with thee; and this shall be a token unto thee,
that I have sent thee,--lo! when thou hast brought forth the people
out of Egypt, ye and they shall serve God upon this mountain."

Then Moses answered the Angel of the flame, with that meekness and
humbleness of heart which characterizes him--

"Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto
them, 'The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you;' and they shall
say unto me, 'What is His name?' what shall I say unto them?"

The inquiry was made by him with the profoundest homage in the tones
of his reverent voice, not as if he doubted God, but his brethren.
Moreover, he now beheld, as it were face to face, the Lord God of
heaven and earth, whom he had so long worshipped, and whose name to
men, neither he nor any man knew. And I heard the Voice answer--with
majesty inconceivable, so that my spirit failed before it--and say
unto Moses--

"I AM THAT I AM. Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, 'I
AM hath sent me unto you!'"

Then after a brief silence, during which Moses fell upon his face and
worshipped, the Voice from the midst of the fire said:

"Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, 'The Lord God of
your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of
Jacob, hath sent me unto you. THIS is my NAME _forever_; and this is
my memorial unto all generations!' Go, and gather the elders of Israel
together and say unto them, 'The Lord God of your fathers, the God of
Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, appeared unto me, saying--

"'I have surely visited you, and seen that which is done to you in
Egypt; and I have said, I will bring you out of the affliction of
Egypt, unto the land of the Canaanites, unto a land flowing with milk
and honey!' And the children of Israel shall hearken to thy voice; and
thou shalt come, thou and the elders of Israel, unto the king of
Egypt, and ye shall say unto him--

"'The Lord God of the Hebrews hath met with us; and now let us go, we
beseech thee, three days' journey into the wilderness, that we may
sacrifice to the Lord our God.' And I am sure that the king of Egypt
will not let you go, no, not by a mighty hand; and I will stretch out
My hand and smite Egypt with all my wonders which I will do in the
midst thereof; and after that he will let you go: and when ye go, ye
shall not go empty, but ye shall spoil the Egyptians."

When the Voice had ceased, I heard Moses answer, and say with modest

"But, behold, the elders and people of my brethren, the Hebrews, will
not believe me nor hearken to my voice; for they will say, 'The Lord
hath not appeared unto thee.'"

How extraordinary, O my father, this humility of the wisest of men!
How impiously vain some sages and seers would have been, at such an
infinite honor as the appearance of God to them, to talk with them,
face to face, as He did now to Moses,--veiling the ineffable splendor
of His glory under the form of an angel enveloped in a mantle of
dazzling sunbeams,--His presence a flame of fire! But see this great
and holy man modestly declining the service, considering himself mean
and powerless when compared with the mighty Pharaoh, and utterly
unable to do any thing for the Hebrew nation. Forty years ago, he had,
indeed, felt a divine motion in himself to deliver them, which he then
believed was an indication that God would use him as an instrument for
that purpose: but forty years an exile, forgotten by the children of
Israel, and being only a ruler of shepherds, and guardian of the
flocks of a small province, he felt the humility and insignificance of
his position, as well as his total want of means and power to do what
God now commanded him to do. But, lo! God condescends to inspire him
with the confidence and resolution, the magnanimity and fortitude,
that his sublime errand demanded.

The voice of the Lord spake and said:

"What is that in thine hand?"

He answered, "A rod."

This was the staff with which he climbed the sides of Horeb, and
guided his flock, and upon which he often leaned his head when he
stood and worshipped.

And the Voice said, with authority:

"Cast it on the ground."

As Moses obeyed, I heard first the rod strike the ground, then a sharp
hissing, as of a serpent, and lastly, a cry of surprise from Moses;
when, raising my face from the earth, upon which I had remained
prostrate, fearing to look upon the glory before me, I perceived, with
horror, a serpent rearing its head angrily into the air, and Moses
flying from before it. Then the Voice from the ineffable light said to
him, "Put forth thy hand and take it by the tail." Moses, with
hesitating obedience, obeyed, put forth his hand and caught it, when,
lo! it became a rod again in his hand.

"This shall be a sign to them, that they may believe that the Lord God
of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of
Jacob, hath appeared unto thee," was again spoken.

I had risen, and stood upon my feet in terror, at beholding the
serpent, and would have fled, but had no power to move. I now heard
the Voice command Moses to thrust his hand into his bosom; and he put
his hand into his bosom: and when he took it out, behold, it was as
leprous as snow. Then the Voice said--for I heard only, not daring to
behold the Angel more--"Put thy hand into thy bosom again." And he put
his hand into his bosom again; and when he had plucked it out of his
bosom, it was turned again as it was before, like his other flesh.

Then I heard the Angel of God, who was God himself, say to him:

"It shall come to pass, if they will not believe thee, neither hearken
to the voice of the first sign, that they will believe the voice of
the latter sign. If they will not believe, also, these two signs,
neither hearken unto thy voice, then thou shalt take of the water of
the river of Egypt and pour it upon the dry land, and it shall become

Then Moses looked troubled in spirit, and said unto the Lord--

"O my Lord, I am not eloquent, neither heretofore, nor since Thou hast
spoken unto thy servant; but I am slow of speech and of a slow

This embarrassment of speech, my dear father, which existed in a
slight degree, as I have heard you say, when you knew him, and which
proceeded from modesty and diffidence when expressing himself in
intercourse with others (though with his pen he is powerful and
eloquent beyond all men), has, no doubt, been increased by his long
retirement as a shepherd, and his love of solitude; yet, nevertheless,
he is the most interesting teacher of wisdom to whom I ever listened.
But no one save himself would accuse him of being slow of speech and
slow of tongue.

Then the voice of the Lord said, with a rebuke in its tones--

"Who hath made man's mouth? Or who maketh the dumb, or the deaf, or
the seeing, or the blind? Have not I the LORD? Now, therefore, go, and
I will be with thy mouth, and teach thee what thou shalt say!"

Notwithstanding all this, the heart of Moses failed him. He trembled
at being an ambassador of God to his people, and said, with great fear
and dread visible in his countenance--

"Send, I pray Thee; but not by me, but by the hand of him whom Thou
wilt send."

Thus speaking, he fell prostrate before the Lord and covered his face.

Then the anger of the Angel of the Lord seemed to be kindled against
Moses, for the flames were agitated and spread abroad, and shot forth
fiery tongues, and I looked to see him consumed. But from their midst
I heard the Voice demand--

"Is not Aaron, the Levite, thy brother? I know that he can speak well;
and also, he cometh forth to meet thee, and when he seeth thee he will
be glad in his heart. And thou shalt speak unto him" (the dread Voice
was no longer in anger), "and put words in his mouth; and I will be
with thy mouth, and with his mouth, and will teach you what you shall
do. And _he_ shall be thy spokesman unto the people; and he shall be,
even he shall be unto _thee_ instead of a mouth, and thou shalt be to
_him_ instead of God. And thou shalt take this rod in thy hand,
wherewith thou shalt do signs."

Then Moses rose from the ground, and bowed his head low in submission
and obedience to the voice of the Lord. The flame had already begun to
fade slowly, until it appeared like a golden cloud, which now rapidly
melted away like a mist touched with the setting sun. The next moment
it was invisible, leaving the sacred bush as before, green with leaves
and brilliant with wild-flowers; and as I gazed, a pair of snow-white
doves lighted upon it.

Then Moses, lifting up his eyes to heaven, said: "O Lord God, who is
like unto Thee among the gods? Who is like unto Thee, glorious and
fearful, doing wonders? The Lord shall reign forever, great in power
and holiness! He is my God, and I will praise Him; my fathers' God,
and I will magnify His holy name forever! He hath remembered His
covenant with Abraham, and His vengeance against the nation that
oppresseth His people."

At this moment I beheld Aaron advancing along the defile. When he
beheld Moses, whose person yet seemed bright with the lingering glory
of the divine Presence, he ran to him, and kissing him, said--

"Thus did I behold thee in my vision, brother!"

"Hast thou also seen God face to face?" demanded Moses, regarding him
with affectionate earnestness, "that thou art come hither from Egypt
so soon?"

"I was at prayer fourteen days ago, in Goshen, when a vision stood
before me!--such a form, doubtless, as our father Abraham beheld. It
said to me, 'Go into the wilderness to meet Moses.' Then, in the
vision, I beheld thee standing in the mount of God, and the glory of
the Lord shone upon thee, and thou wast talking with one who seemed
like an angel of God, and I knew that thou wast ordained of Him, with
authority to deliver Israel out of Egypt. Therefore, delaying not, I
am come hither according to the command of the angel of the Lord. My
heart is glad at beholding thee! Speak now, O my brother, for the
angel said to me, 'He shall tell thee all the words of the Lord, and
all the signs which He hath commanded him.'"

Moses then told Aaron all the words which God had spoken unto him, and
how the Lord had sent him to deliver Israel, and had given him courage
and power to obey, removing his fears and confirming his faith.
Thereupon he showed Aaron the rod in his hand, and said, "If this rod
becomes a serpent, as it did before the Lord, then wilt thou know that
He hath sent me, and is with me! for this is His sign."

As he spoke, he cast the rod far from him upon the ground, which it no
sooner struck than it became a serpent, and ran swiftly towards Moses,
who reached forth, and grasping it by the head without fear, lo! it
became again a rod of almond-wood, as before! The other sign also
Moses showed to his brother, who then answered and said--

"Thou shalt deliver Israel, and I will be thy servant, and bear thy
rod before thee!"

I had already, by the invitation of Moses, drawn near to these holy
and great men, and walked with them, feeling, prince that I am, the
deepest sense of inferiority and humility. I felt that I could be the
servant of both, and that I was honored when taking up the sandals
which Moses had put off his feet. I knelt before him to put them on;
but, in his modesty, this prince appointed of God would not suffer me.

The two venerable brothers--one eighty years of age, and the other
eighty-three--now walked together towards the shepherd's cave on the
mountain-side, discoursing of the wonderful and joyful events which
had just passed, of the promised deliverance of Israel, and how God
would accomplish it, and by what sort of exercise of power and

The next day Moses returned to Jethro, and said to him--

"I pray thee let me go, and return unto my people which are in Egypt,
and see how they fare, and if my brethren of the family of Levi be yet
alive--for the Lord hath shown me that all the men are dead which
sought my life." And his venerable father-in-law said--

"Go in peace."

Therefore, my dear father, three days afterwards, Moses, accompanied
by his brother and myself, took leave of Jethro, and taking his wife
and son, and holding the "rod of God" in his hand, left Midian. The
next day we fell in with a caravan from the East, and after many days
I once more reached Egypt. In sight of On, I parted from Moses, who
went with his family to that part of the land of Goshen where his
tribe dwells, which is not far from the treasure-city of Raamses.

The first hours I could command, after reaching the palace of the
Governor of On, with whom I dwell as a guest, I have devoted, my dear
father, to a recital of these extraordinary events. Moses seems to be
a different man! calm majesty sits enthroned upon his brow, and he is
profoundly impressed with the sublime mission which Heaven has
intrusted to him.

Aaron, who has, from time to time, revisited Egypt, and is well known
to the elders of his people, will be a great support and aid to Moses,
in his intercourse with the Hebrews. The two mighty brothers are now
assembling the elders together, though it is but two days since they
returned to Egypt. Secretly, messengers have been going by night
throughout the land of Goshen, calling an assembly, in the name of the
God of Abraham, to meet, two nights hence, at the ruined fountain of

I shall also be present, dear father, by permission of the inspired
Moses. What infinite issues will grow out of that midnight meeting of
these "sons of God," for such, though in bondage, are these Hebrews
shown to be! How little Thothmes-Amosis, who calls himself also,
vainly, after Amunophis, the Great, and assumes the style, "Upholder
of worlds," "Lord of the Diadem of Heaven," and "Beloved of the Sun,"
upon his cartouch,--how little, I repeat, he dreams that One mightier
than he, the Upholder of the universe, very Lord of heaven and earth,
and Creator of the sun, is armed with vengeance against him, and will
presently bring him into judgment for the bondage of the Hebrews! I
saw him this morning in his palace, for he is now in his palace at On,
having hastened to pay him my homage after my absence. He was in gay
humor, for news had reached him that his "lord of the mines" had
opened a new vein of silver, in the southern mountains near Ethiopia.

"I will send one hundred thousand of these Hebrews to work it, O
prince," he said. "I will, to-morrow, give orders to all the
governors, and chief captains, and officers over them, to choose me
the strongest and most dangerous, and assemble them in companies of
thousands, and, under strong guard, march them to the Thebaïd. By the
gods! yesterday I was planning some new device to destroy their
children, male and female; but the mines come happily to my aid!"

Thus does this proud, weak, luxurious, and cruel monarch, confident of
power, and sitting as a god upon his throne, acknowledging no power
above his own, dream of wealth, and rejoice in dominion!

Did policy prompt me to give him warning? I feared the God of Moses
more than I sympathized with a contemporaneous prince, albeit Tyre was
his ally.

Farewell, my dear father.

My next letter will, no doubt, convey to you startling tidings.

 Your affectionate son,





The secret assembly of the elders, called by Moses, met last night. It
was in a solitary place, far from any of the garrisons of soldiers. In
the disguise of a Hebrew, I also was present, standing by Aaron. It
was after midnight before all the elders could elude the vigilance of
their officers, and had assembled. The well of Jacob, you recollect.
It is where you had the conversation with Remeses (now Moses), upon
the condition of the Hebrews. The Egyptian soldiers, who are very
superstitious, will not venture near this desolate fountain by night;
for the tradition is, that it leads to the realms of the lower world,
and that there are evil beings who issue from it in the darkness, and
drag under the earth all who walk past it. The Hebrews have no such
superstition, or despised their fears on an occasion like the present.
Aaron, in selecting the spot, knew it would be safe from intrusion on
the part of the Egyptians.

It was a sublime spectacle to see no less than four hundred and eighty
elders of the Hebrews, forty out of each tribe, met together beneath
the aged palm-trees that overshadowed the fountain, and where Jacob
had sat, with his sons about him, in peace, under the protecting
sceptre of the king of that day.

The moon shone here and there upon a silvery head, while others were
grouped in shadow. There was a deep, expecting silence. At length
Aaron stood up in their midst, his venerable figure visible to all
present, as the pale moonlight fell upon him--

"Men and brethren, Hebrews of the house of Abraham our father, hear,
while I make known to you why I have called this strange meeting--for
when before has Israel met in such an assembly! Your presence, your
readiness to come, your courage, and your success in reaching here,
all show to me the hand of God, and the power of God."

Aaron then gave a history of the origin of their nation, of God's
promise to Abraham, of his prophecy of their bondage and deliverance,
and his promise to give them the land of the Canaanites. They listened
with deep attention, for he spoke with remarkable eloquence. He then
said, "The hour of our deliverance is at hand. God has remembered His
promise, and come down to our deliverance." Then, with thrilling
power, the venerable speaker described the scene at the burning bush
on Horeb, and, in conclusion, presented Moses, his brother, to the
elders. He was received with a murmur of satisfaction; but some
doubted. Others remembered that he had been raised an Egyptian, and
openly expressed their fear that it was a plan to betray them into a
movement, that would give Pharaoh an excuse to destroy them all.

"Let us see his miracles! If God sent him, let us see his rod become a
serpent before our faces," said an old man brutally and tauntingly.

Moses took the rod from the hand of his brother, and said with

"Thou shalt see and believe!"

He then cast it upon the ground, when it not only became a serpent,
but its scales glittered like fire. With fierce hissing it coiled
itself about the form of the doubter, and lifting its head above his
own, darted it every way with flashing eyes, so that there was a
universal cry of horror. The wretched old man fell to the ground, the
serpent uncoiled from his form, and Moses taking it by the tail it
became a rod again in his hand!

At this miracle, the whole assembly, save one man became convinced
that Moses had been sent by God to them. This one said--

"It is the magician's art! He hath been an Egyptian priest, and knows
their mysteries."

Upon this, Moses said--

"Korah, I remember thee! I was educated as an Egyptian, but I know
none of their magic; and to show thee that this is the power of God,
thrust thy hand into thy bosom!"

The man obeyed.

"Take it forth!" said Moses, in a tone of command.

He did so and it was leprous as snow, and the moon glared upon it, as
upon the alabaster hand of a statue. He uttered a cry of horror.

"Be not unbelieving," said Moses. "Replace thy hand in thy bosom." He
did so, and took it out restored like the other. The man who had been
entwined by the serpent also rose to his feet, and both acknowledged
the power of God, and the authority of Moses. He now made known to
them that God had sent him to demand their release from Pharaoh; and
that the king would at first refuse, but that after he had seen the
power of God he would yield and let them go forth out of Egypt, to the
good land promised to Abraham for his seed, forever.

"Return now, elders and brethren," he said to them, like one who spake
by authority to those who recognized it, "return to your places of
toil. Be quiet and patient, and wait the hand of God. He will manifest
His glory and display His power in your behalf, as was never done on
earth before. Bear patiently your labors, and do not doubt that the
time of your deliverance is at hand. Let all Israel know the glad
tidings of God's visitation, and that He has surely stretched out His
arm over Egypt, to break their yoke of bondage."

This extraordinary assembly then separated, each man to his place; and
Moses and Aaron went to the house of one Naashon, a Levite, whose
sister had become Aaron's wife many years before. Here I remained
until morning; but no eye closed in sleep, for many had followed the
brothers, and till dawn they were holding discourse with their
friends, on the wonderful things about to happen.

Moses said he should go before Pharaoh the next day but one, when he
held public audience in the throne room, that great hall of Egyptian
state, which, my dear father you once described, and where you were
presented to Queen Amense, as she was seated upon the same throne.

Farewell, my dear father. In three days I will write you again.






Moses has met Pharaoh, face to face, and demanded of him the liberty
of the Hebrew nation! The scene in the throne-room was deeply
interesting and striking; and I will endeavor briefly to convey to you
a conception of it.

The king, on that day gave audience in the throne-room, when,
according to custom, no one, however humble, was refused permission to
lay his petition before his king. At the hour appointed, Moses the
mighty Hebrew, and Aaron his brother, accompanied by seven of the
chief men of their nation--a venerable company with their flowing
beards and snow-white locks--entered the city from Raamses, and
proceeded towards the palace. The captain of the guard, seeing they
were Hebrews, looked amazed, and would have stopped them, but the
majesty and authority with which the two brothers moved, side by side,
awed him, and without speaking, he suffered them to enter the palace,
and they passed on, looking neither to the right nor the left. Knowing
that they would appear at that hour I stood near and beheld them. They
traversed the corridor of the vestibule, and the courtiers and lords
and servitors gave way before them, for they were clad in long robes
like priests, and appeared to them to be some sacred procession: but
when they perceived that they were Hebrews, they looked with contempt
on them, yet let them pass. So these chosen men advanced, and stood
before the ivory throne, where the king sat in robes of cloth of
purple and vestments of gold, wearing the double crown. His high
officers stood about him, his body-guard were stationed on each side
of the throne, while before him kneeled a single petitioner. It was a
woman, whose son had accidentally wounded an ibis with an arrow, and
was condemned to die. She plead to the king for his life.

"Nay, woman, he must not live!" answered Pharaoh. "If he had slain a
slave or a Hebrew, I might grant thy prayer; but to wound a sacred
bird is sacrilege. Retire! But who come hither?" he demanded of his
grand-chamberlain beside his footstool, as he saw the Hebrew company
advancing. "Who are these?"

"They look like Hebrews, father," said the son of Thothmeses, a young
prince twenty years of age, who lounged indolently against one of the
ivory figures that adorned the throne.

"Hebrews?" said the king. "What do they here? And in robes! Ah, Prince
of Tyre, welcome!" he said, turning to me, as, at the moment, I
appeared and made my obeisance before him. "You honor us by your
presence in our hall of judgment."

While he spoke, Aaron and Moses had reached the foot of the throne.
Their venerable and majestic aspect seemed to impress him. "Who are
ye? Are ye not Hebrews?" he demanded, with a face expressing mingled
surprise and doubt.

"We are Hebrews, O king," answered Aaron, with respectful homage. "We
are two brethren. My name is Aaron the Levite, and this my brother is
Moses the Midianite; and these others are the elders of Israel--chiefs
of the Hebrew people." This was spoken with calmness and fearlessness.

"And wherefore are ye come hither?" the king cried. "Who of my
governors has let you from your work? Who is Israel?"

"Thus saith the Lord, the Governor of the universe," answered Aaron:
"'Israel is my son, even my first-born. Let my son go, that he may
serve me.' And if thou refuse to let Israel go, O king," continued
Aaron with an air of inspiration, "behold our God will slay thy son,
even thy first-born."

The king started, and became pale with anger and amazement; and his
son, Amunophis, sprang forward a step, and laid his hand upon the
jewelled scimitar he wore at the girdle of his vesture, crying,--

"Slay me! What menace is this, graybeard? A conspiracy, my father!"

"Who is the Lord," demanded the king, "that I should obey His voice,
and let Israel go? I know not the Lord, neither will I let Israel go.
What threats are these? Ho! captain of the guard, seize these Hebrews,
and put them in prison!"

The captain of the guard prepared to obey, but not a soldier moved.
The majesty of Moses, as he fixed his eyes upon them, as it were,
paralyzed them. Then Aaron answered Pharaoh, and said:

"He is the God of the Hebrews, O king; the Lord of the sun, and
Upholder of worlds. He hath met with us and commanded us to go three
days' journey out of Egypt into the desert, and sacrifice unto Him, as
our fathers aforetime did: and if we disobey His voice, He will fall
upon us, and destroy us with pestilence or with the sword; for what
other people is there that do not their sacrifices, save our nation?
Therefore, thus saith the Lord of the Hebrews to thee, O King of
Egypt, 'Let my people go, that they may hold a holy feast to me in the

"By the gods of Egypt, ye Moses and Aaron," cried the king, rising
from his throne in great wrath, "I defy the God of the Hebrews!
Wherefore do ye hinder the people from their works? Get you, and these
old men with you, unto your burdens! Ye seek to destroy Egypt; for if
the Hebrews, which are now many in the land, be let three days from
their burdens, they will do mischief, and make sedition. Get thee from
my presence! But for thy gray head, O Aaron, you should be put to
death! This is a new thing in Egypt. Let them forth!" he called to his

Moses answered, speaking for the first time,--

"O King Thothmeses, the God of the Hebrews, whose servant I am, will
yet make thee know His power, and that there is none else--no other
God but Him!"

The king made no reply. He sunk back upon his throne overcome with
surprise; and I could perceive a certain look of fear in his eyes.
Prince Amunophis followed the retiring ambassadors of God, and, as
they reached the vestibule, he gave orders to the outer guard to
arrest the whole company. But with a gesture of his hand, Moses caused
them to retire before him; and the prince, returning with amazement,
said to the king:

"These two men are gods, O king! They carry the aspect and majesty of
demigods, and all men fear to lay hands on them!"

"If I hear more of them," answered Pharaoh, by this time recovered
from his emotion, "I will know whether they are gods or men! They
shall die, by the life of Osiris! Do these Hebrews want more work?"

The king then commanded to come before him his chief officers,
governors, captains, and head taskmasters, and said to them, "Ye shall
no more give the Hebrew people straw to make brick as heretofore. Let
them go and gather straw for themselves. And the number of bricks
which they have made heretofore, shall ye bind them to. Ye shall not
diminish aught thereof; for they are idle, and cry, 'Let us go and
sacrifice to our God.' Let there be more work laid upon the men, that
they may be so employed as not to have leisure to regard the vain
words of this Moses and Aaron!"

Thus, my dear father, the first result, of the interposition of Moses
for his people, is to increase their oppression! Yet their God is
above all, and will manifest His power for their deliverance.

 Your affectionate son,




Many days have passed since I wrote to you. You will wish to hear the
ultimate issue of the command of Pharaoh, to increase the burdens of
the Hebrews, and its effects upon them.

In obedience to this command, the taskmasters and officers of this
unhappy people went out and strictly fulfilled it. The poor Hebrew
brick-makers, in whose work coarse straw of wheat cut fine is
necessary to make the clay cohere, as they are only dried in the sun,
are now distributed all over Egypt seeking straw, which hitherto the
Egyptian laborers brought to them in carts and laden barges. Thus
dispersed, they gather stubble, and dry bulrushes, and grass, and
every thing they can in their haste find on the surface of the ground;
for if night comes and their tale of bricks falls short, they are
beaten. As, therefore, one half of the time of many is consumed in
searching the highways and fields, instead of being all the time, as
heretofore, engaged only in making brick, the task put upon them is an
impossible one; and everywhere the sound of the rod and whip, and the
cry of sufferers, goes up from the land. At length the elders and
officers of the Hebrews (for their own people are often made their
taskmasters, who also had to account to their Egyptian captains for
their fulfillment of the king's command), got courage from despair,
and meeting the king as he was abroad in his chariot, cast themselves
before him, crying, "Wherefore hast thou dealt thus with us? It is not
our fault that we cannot make up the number of bricks, as heretofore,
seeing straw is not given us; and thy servants are beaten; but the
fault is in thine own officers."

Pharaoh angrily answered, "Ye are idle! Ye are idle! Ye have not
enough to do, or ye would not think ye had time to go into the desert
to sacrifice to your God. Go, therefore, and do your tasks, for there
shall no straw be given you."

"And shall we deliver the tale of bricks?" they cried.

"To the last one of them!" answered the king; and with an impatient
sign for them to stand aside from his chariot-wheels, he dashed
forward on his way, attended by his brilliant retinue. The unhappy men
then perceived "that they were in evil case," as one of them said to
me in relating this interview; and meeting Moses and Aaron in the
fields not long afterwards, one of their number said, indignantly, and
with grief--

"The Lord look upon you, Moses and Aaron, and judge you, because by
your interference with the king, thou hast put a sword into the hand
of Pharaoh to slay us."

Moses looked sorrowfully and troubled, and raising his eyes heavenward
as he left them without a reply, for he wot not how to answer, they
heard him cry unto his God, and say--

"Lord, wherefore hast Thou so evil entreated this Thy people? Why is
it that Thou didst send me? For since I came to Pharaoh to speak in
Thy name, he hath done evil to this people; neither, O Lord God, hast
Thou delivered Thy people at all!"

Then came a voice from heaven, which they heard, and said--

"Thou shalt see what I will do to Pharaoh; for he shall let you go,
and drive you out of his land. I am the Lord who spake to thee in
Horeb, out of the burning bush; and I appeared unto Abraham, unto
Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty. But by my name
JEHOVAH was I not known to them. I have heard the groaning of the
children of Israel. Wherefore say unto them, 'I am the Lord, and I
will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will
take you to me for a people, and I will be to you a God; and ye shall
know that I am the Lord your God, which bringeth you out from under
the burdens of the Egyptians. And I will bring you in unto the land
which I did swear to give to Abraham, and to Isaac, and to Jacob, and
I will give it to you for an heritage. I am the Lord!'"

With these words, Moses sought to comfort the Hebrews, his brethren,
going to them and proclaiming it to them in their ears; but for an
anguish of spirit, and the great pressure of their cruel bondage upon
their minds, they did not hearken unto him. Hope in their bosoms was
utterly dead. Moreover, many of them looked on him with eyes of
hatred, as the author of this increase of their wretchedness.

What a situation was this for the servant of God! Confident of the
power and truth of Jehovah, he could not reconcile therewith this
increase of the power of Pharaoh. Perhaps, at times, his own faith was
severely tried.

Since then, a month has passed, during which period I saw Moses often
in Goshen, where he passed his time in encouraging those of his
brethren who would give heed to him.

In the mean while, Pharaoh, as if in contempt or defiance of the God
of the Hebrews, has been engaged in extraordinary religious rites; and
every day the streets have resounded with the music of instruments and
choral songs of processions to the gods. I witnessed all of these
ceremonies, and will describe some of them that are not mentioned by
you in your letters from Egypt, my dear father.

On the seventh day after Moses and Aaron left him, Thothmeses went in
state to the black marble temple of the sacred serpent, Uræus, to
offer sacrifice and oblation to its great image of gold with jewelled
eyes and hideous head. He addressed it as the god of wisdom and
sagacity, and presented offerings of flowers, and a necklace of
emeralds; while, for the living serpents, held sacred by the
Egyptians, he left gifts of money to purchase food for their

The next day he proceeded, at the head of the priests and the most
magnificent religious procession I have seen in Egypt, from his palace
along the sphinx-lined avenue to the terrace of the Nile, opposite the
Island of Rhoda, where stands a brazen statue of the god Nilus, with
those of Osiris and Thoth on either side of its pedestal.

Descending from his chariot, he advanced to the river, and poured from
a goblet, set with diamonds, a libation of wine into its waves, and
invoked the river itself as a deity, concluding his prayer with a
curse upon the God of the Hebrews. Then, at his command, the chief
sacrificer advanced, leading a Hebrew boy four years old, whom he laid
upon the altar before the statue of the god, and, at a stroke of his
sacrificial knife, sacrificed there. I could scarcely refrain from a
cry of horror. I knew that the Egyptians, on certain occasions,
sacrificed human beings to the gods; but I never expected to behold an
immolation like this. The palpitating form of the child was then taken
up by two assistants, and the blood of its heart was poured forth into
the Nile, as a libation to the god. The empurpled wave then received
the inanimate form, amid a crash of instrumental music. This unusual
libation of blood to the Nile was intended as an act of defiance to
the Hebrew JEHOVAH.

The following day, Pharaoh made a procession to the temple of sacred
frogs, on the borders of the canal of Amun. Here libations were poured
out before a colossal sphinx having a frog's head, and offerings made.
The frog is held sacred by the Egyptians, because it is supposed to
purify the waters by feeding on poisons in the marshes and river.

The succeeding day Pharaoh, as if possessed with a religious
infatuation, that now led him to seek the favor of gods hitherto
neglected by him, in his dread of the God of the Hebrews, paid a
visit, with all his court, to the temple of the scarabæus, or sacred
beetle of Egypt. This is a marble edifice, adorned with a frieze of
scarabæi, having heads of every variety of animal. The god himself is
a gigantic beetle of black marble, with a human head. He is supposed
to protect the temples from vermin, such as lice and fleas; for one of
these seen in a temple, or upon the garments of a priest, causes
ceremonial defilement, and neither priest nor temple may be made holy
again but by purification.

The next day a procession was made by Pharaoh and his people to the
little temple of Baal-Zebel, a deity that is reverenced as their
protector from flies, which sometimes infest the land in ravenous
swarms, and which, it is believed, this idol only can remove. Can
Thothmeses be so superstitious? Or does he make all this show of piety
merely to humor the superstitions of his people, and sustain the
priests of these shrines? Does he fear Moses and his power, so as to
desire to strengthen himself in the affections of the priesthood and

The day after the visit to the temple of the fly-god, he went in great
state to the temple of the sacred ox of On, Mnevis. Here he
sacrificed, prayed, poured libations, and offered oblations. It was an
imposing scene, as he was attended by one thousand priests clad in
rich vestments, and wearing shining crowns, the whole waving censers
of gold. Of the god he asked protection to all the cattle of Egypt,
and prosperity to the harvests; and then solemnly denounced the God of
the Hebrews, as a God not known or honored in Egypt, and who, if He
existed, was but a God of slaves.

The next day of this ten days' ovation, Pharaoh proceeded to the
gloomy temple of Typhon, on the edge of the desert. Here a Nubian
slave was sacrificed to the Evil Principle, by being bound to the
altar and burned alive. The officiating priests then gathered the
ashes and cast them high into the air, calling on their god and
praying him, that wheresoever an atom of the ashes was borne on the
wind, evil might not visit the place.

Thothmeses has diligently revived the human sacrifices which Queen
Amense forbade, and the act sufficiently illustrates the native
cruelty and superstition of the man.

Two days afterwards, having crossed the Nile in great pomp, he
proceeded, in grand procession, to the temple of Serapis. The god
Apis, you are aware, my dear father, has the peculiar office, besides
many others, of protecting the country from locusts; and at the
seasons when these destructive insects visit Egypt, Apis is invoked to
command them to retire from the land.

The rites performed by the king before the god were imposing and
gorgeous. He invoked him, not against locusts, but against the God of

Does not all this show a secret dread of the God he defies? Yet he
knows nothing of His power, and has witnessed no act of wonder
performed by Him. Doubtless he felt, that a servant who dared to be so
bold and confident, must have a divine Master, who is great and
powerful. Perhaps he had heard of the God of the Hebrews in times
past;--of the dream of Prince Joseph and the seven years' famine;--of
the destruction of the vale of Sodom, with its cities, by fire from
heaven at God's command;--of the dispersion of the nations at the
pyramid of Babylon;--of the mighty deluge which He caused to overflow
the mountains and drown the world! Perhaps, for he is learned and
intelligent enough, when Aaron spoke to him of the God of the Hebrews,
he remembered who He was in times of old, and trembled to hear His
name again.

Three days afterwards the king visited the shrine of Isis, and poured
libations, and made thanksgivings; and invoked her, as the moon, and
controller of the seasons and weather, to send abundant rains upon the
mountains of Ethiopia, and the sources of the Nile, so that the annual
overflow, now near at hand, may not fail, nor the land be deprived of
its fertility.

Two days later, with a procession of all the priests of all the
temples, and with chariots, and horsemen, and footmen,--a vast
array,--he visited the great temple of Osiris, or the sun; and, after
august ceremonies, himself acting as high-priest, with the high-priest
of On for his assistant, he presented the statue of the god with a new
crown of gold, and a crook and flail of ivory inlaid with jewels. He
invoked him, by the appellation of the god of light, the dispeller of
darkness, the terror of clouds, and the foe of lightnings and storms.
And he implored clear skies, and serene weather for the harvests, as

Thus the piety of Thothmeses has been quickened into unwonted activity
by the dread of the God of Israel, as if he would secure his gods'
faithfulness should the God of Moses be too strong for him. In the
mean while the children of Israel are groaning under the weight of
their increased oppression. I have seen Aaron to-day. He informed me,
with looks of holy faith in his God, that Moses and he were,
to-morrow, by God's command, to appear again before Pharaoh, and
demand the release of the Hebrews.

What a scene will be enacted! Will these two courageous men brave his
anger, and escape? I tremble for the result. They are firm and
resolved, being strong in the strength of their God. I shall be sure
to be at the palace to-morrow, that I may behold these servants of
Jehovah meet, once more, face to face, this cruel Pharaoh and his gods.

 Your affectionate son,





You will read what I am about to write, with the profoundest interest.
The two mighty Hebrews again sought an audience of the king, and
boldly demanded the freedom of Israel.

This meeting did not take place in the palace of On, but in that at
Memphis, on the avenue of the pyramids. Pharaoh was seated in the
court of the palace, giving audience to the governors of the
thirty-nine nomes, which now constitute the number of his provinces.
When he had ended his instructions to them, Moses and Aaron were
announced. I stood near him conversing with the prince; for I knew
that the two men of God purposed to seek the king's presence.

"How darest thou announce these Hebrews?" cried the king, sharply, to
his trembling grand-chamberlain.

"I could not forbid them, O king! I fled instinctively and without
power of resistance before the majesty of their presence. Behold them

Pharaoh turned pale. He essayed to give some fierce order to those
about him, but his tongue failed him.

"Who will slay me these men?" cried the Prince Amunophis, seeing the
king's troubled looks.

Not a man moved. Awe and curiosity took the place of all other
feelings. Side by side the two brothers came unfalteringly forward
till they stood before the monarch,--fixing their regards only upon

"What are ye come for, Moses and Aaron?" at length he uttered, in a
thick voice. "Have I spared your lives, that you might come again to
mock me in my palace?"

"We are come, O king," answered Moses with dignity, and looking far
more kingly than he whom he addressed--"we are come in the name of the
God of the Hebrews. He hath heard their cry from all the land of
Egypt, by reason of their taskmasters, and I am sent to command thee,
in His name, to send the children of Israel out of thy land!"

"Have I knowledge of your God? What is His power? Let Him make Himself
known! Or, if He hath sent thee to me, where are thy credentials from
His hand? I listen to no ambassadors from God or man, unless they show
me that they are sent. By what sign wilt thou declare thy mission? If
a king sent thee, show me his handwriting; if a god, show me a

Aaron held the rod of Moses in his hand, and casting it upon the
marble pavement of the court, it became a serpent, slowly gliding
along the floor and flashing fire from its eyes. The servants of
Pharaoh fled before it. The king upon his throne, at first, became
alarmed, but seeing the monster inflate its throat and stretch lazily
and innocuously along the lion-skin before his footstool, he smiled
contemptuously and said--

"Thy Arabian life has given thee great skill, O Moses. Ho! call my
magicians! I have magi that can equal thy art!"

All was expectation, until at length two stately personages solemnly
entered, each with his acacia rod. They were Jambres and Jannes, the
royal and chief magicians of Egypt, of whose fame other lands have
heard. They were dark-featured, Arabic-looking men, and dressed with
great magnificence, wearing robes blazing with gold and jewels. Their
bearing was haughty and imperious, and they looked about them with
disdain, as if they were beings of a better order than the Egyptians,
who stood awed, or prostrated themselves in their presence.

"Seest thou this serpent?" demanded Pharaoh, directing the attention
of Jambres to the monster, which lay coiled upon the lion-skin before
the steps of the throne; while several of the guard with spears stood
near, to thrust it through, should it approach the king. The magicians
regarded it with surprise, and then looked fixedly at Moses and Aaron.
They had evidently heard by the messengers, what had passed. "Half an
hour since, he was a rod in the hand of that Hebrew magician!" said
the king. "Show him thy art, and that we have gods whose servants can
do as great miracles as this!"

The magicians advanced and said--

"O king, beloved of the sun, live forever! Behold the power of thy own
magicians!" Thus speaking, they cast their rods upon the ground, when
they became serpents also, after a few moments had transpired. Pharaoh
then said, addressing the Hebrew brothers--

"Ye are but impostors, and have done your miracle by the gods of
Egypt, as my magicians do."

"If the god of Egypt be strongest, let his serpents destroy my
serpent: but if the God of the Hebrews be the greatest and the only
God, let my serpent devour his!" Thus quietly spake Aaron.

"So be it," answered Pharaoh.

In a moment, the serpent of Moses uncoiled himself, and fiercely
seizing, one after another, the two serpents of the magicians,
swallowed them. At this there was an outcry among the people; and,
greatly terrified, Pharaoh half-rose from his throne; but Aaron
catching up the serpent, it became a rod as before. Instead of
acknowledging the God of Moses, the king became exceedingly enraged
against his own magicians, and drove them from him, and ordered Moses
and Aaron to depart, saying that they were only more skilful sorcerers
than the others, and must show him greater signs than these ere he
would let Israel go. I have since learned, that these magicians
brought with them real serpents, which they have the power of
stiffening, and holding at arm's length by pressing upon their
throats: that they came with these, which could not be detected in the
obscurity of the shadows where they stood, and casting them down they
resumed their natural motions. That the rod of Moses should devour
them, and return to a rod again, ought to have shown Pharaoh that it
was a miracle, and not sorcery. But his heart seems to be hardened
against all impressions of this nature.

The following morning, the governor of the nilometer having reported
to the king that the Nile had commenced to rise, Pharaoh, according to
custom, proceeded to the river, where the statue of Nilus stands, and
where he had caused the Hebrew boy to be sacrificed and his blood
poured as a libation into the stream. Here, with great pomp, he was
about to celebrate the festivities of the happy event, when, lo! Moses
and Aaron stood before him by the river's brink,--the latter with the
rod, which had been turned into a serpent, in his hand.

"The Lord God of the Hebrews," cried Moses in a loud voice, "hath sent
me unto thee, saying, 'Let My people go.' Lo! hitherto thou wouldst
not hear. Now thus saith the Lord--'In this thou shalt know that I am
the Lord!' Behold, O king, at His command, I will smite with the rod
that is in mine hand upon the waters which are in the river, and they
shall be turned into blood!"

"I defy you and your God, and both of ye shall die!" answered Pharaoh,
pale with anger.

Then Moses, turning calmly to Aaron, his brother, said, in my hearing,
and in that of the king and all his people, "Take this rod of God, and
stretch out thine hand upon the waters of Egypt, that there may be
blood throughout all the land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood and
vessels of stone."

Aaron, obeying, stretched forth his hand with the rod and smote the
water at his feet, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of the
thousands of Egyptians present, and in a moment the Nile ran blood
instead of water, the fish in hundreds rose to the surface and died,
and the smell of blood filled all the atmosphere. The people uttered a
great cry, and Pharaoh looked petrified with horror. From the galleys
on the river, from the women on the opposite shore, from avenues,
terraces, and plains, from every side, rose a loud and terrible wail,
such as was never before heard. The king sought his chariot, and fled
from the face of Moses and Aaron, and all was wild dismay. These two
servants of the God, whose words had wrought this great wonder, then
walked calmly away. I felt too much awed to come near them, and in my
chariot sought my own palace. On the way I saw that the canals were
red with blood, also the standing pools, the lakes, and every body of
water. Men were running in every direction seeking for water; women
wrung their hands, and despair and fear were impressed upon every
countenance. As I passed the fountains in the court of Pharaoh's
palace, I saw that they also spouted forth blood; and in the corridor
and porticos, the water in the vases for guests, in the earthen jars
for filtering, and in those which stood in the cisterns, was of the
same crimson hue. When I reached my own apartments, lo! there also the
water in the vases and ewers was of the color of blood. The voice of
Moses, empowered by his God, had indeed turned all the waters of Egypt
into blood. Surely, I said, now will the king let Israel go. In the
afternoon I went forth, and saw the Egyptians digging everywhere for
fresh water, along the canals and river. I drove out of the city
towards Goshen, and saw all the people in motion and terror, for but
few knew the cause of the awful visitation. After an hour I reached
Goshen, the fair plain where Prince Jacob once dwelt, and where now
the children of Israel dwell by hundreds of thousands. With joyful
surprise I beheld, as I entered the province, that the canal was free
from blood, the pools sparkling with clear water, and the fountains
bright as crystal. As I rode on in the direction of the dwelling of
Moses, I perceived that the plague of blood had not fallen upon the
land where the Hebrews dwelt--only upon the Egyptians. This was a
twofold miracle.

When Pharaoh found that water could be obtained by digging shallow
wells, and also that Goshen was free from the plague, he sent for
Jambres and Jannes, and offered to pardon them if they could turn
water into blood. They commenced their incantations upon water dug up
from his gardens--for the miracle of the rod covered only the waters
at the time on the surface, whether in the river or in houses. After
art had for some time been practised upon the water, to my surprise it
was turned to the semblance of blood.

"See," cried Pharaoh with great joy, "the servants of Pharaoh are
equal to the servants of the Hebrew God!"

"And O king," said Jambres vainly, "had the Hebrew juggler left us the
Nile, we could have turned that also by our enchantments."

Then Pharaoh rewarded him with a chain of gold, and hardened his
heart, and defied Moses and his God. But in three days afterwards all
the fish died in the lakes, and river of Lower Egypt, and a stench of
their flesh and of crocodiles and reptiles that perished by the blood
in the river, and the difficulty of getting water, rendered Egypt
almost uninhabitable. Thousands fled to the pure air and water of
Goshen, where also I remained. Every hour I expected to behold a royal
courier coming for Moses and Aaron, ordering them to appear before the
king, to receive permission to lead the Hebrews out of Egypt. At the
end of seven days the river and waters of Egypt resumed their natural
color and purity, by God's permission, lest all the people of Egypt
should die for Pharaoh's hardness of heart.

Then God appeared again unto Moses, and commanded him to go before
Pharaoh with the same message as before. But the king, in great fury,
ordered them from his presence, when Aaron stretched forth his hand
over the streams, the river, the canals, lakes, and fountains, and in
a moment myriads of frogs appeared on the shores, in the fields, in
the streets, squares, corridors, terraces, gardens, groves, and
porticos of the temples. They leaped upon every place, upon the
people, upon the stairways. They found their way by hundreds into the
houses and bedchambers, and upon the beds, tables, chairs of palaces
and huts; leaped into the ovens and kneading-troughs, and occupied
every place. In horror the priests closed all the temples, lest they
should enter, and dying there, defile them. Even Pharaoh was obliged
to shut himself up in the recesses of his palace to escape their
loathsome presence.

In great alarm, he was about to send for Moses, when Jambres, his
chief sorcerer, stood before him, and said:

"O king, believe not that the God of this Hebrew is greater than the
gods of Egypt. Thy servants also can do this enchantment."

"Do so, and thou shalt have a rod of gold," answered the king.

Then descending into a fountain, inclosed by a high wall of the
palace, where the frogs had not yet appeared, the magician caused
frogs also to appear. "At first," said the chief butler, who spoke to
me of this deed, "the king was greatly pleased, but suddenly said:

"'What thou hast produced by thy enchantments, remove by thy
enchantments. Command them to disappear from the fountain.'

"This the two magicians not being able to do, the next day, the frogs
rendering every habitation uninhabitable, and the lords of Egypt
appealing to Pharaoh, he sent for Moses and Aaron. It had become time
to do so. Every part of my rooms was filled with these animals; they
got into the plates and cups, and defiled every place--while by night
their combined roar filled all Egypt with a deafening and terrible
noise, so that if a bed could be found to sleep in, sleep was nowhere
possible; and by day we could tread nowhere but upon frogs."

When the two Hebrew brothers again stood in the presence of Pharaoh,
he said, with mingled shame and displeasure--

"Entreat your God to take away this plague of frogs from me, my
people, and the land of Egypt; and if thou canst free the land from
them, I will acknowledge that it is the power of the God of the
Hebrews, and will let the people go to do sacrifice unto the Lord, who
hath commanded and sent for them."

Then Moses answered the king--

"The Lord shall be entreated as thou desirest; and thou, O king, shalt
set the time, lest thou shouldst say I consulted a favorable aspect of
the stars. Choose when I shall entreat for thee to remove this plague
from the land, the people, and their houses."

"To-morrow," answered Thothmeses.

"Be it according to thy word," answered Moses; "and when thou seest
the plague removed at the time appointed by thee, know it is God's
gracious act, and not our sorcery. To-morrow the frogs in all the land
of Egypt shall be found in the river only."

What a scene did Egypt present the next morning! The land was covered
with dead frogs; and it took all the people of Egypt that day and
night to gather them into heaps and cast them into the river: for they
threatened a pestilence.

When Pharaoh saw that his wish was granted at the time he named, and
that there was a respite, he said--"This was by my voice and my
power, and not by their God, that the frogs died on the morrow I
named! The glory over Moses shall indeed be mine, as he hath said!"
Ceasing to speak, he sent orders to the taskmasters to increase the
burdens of the Hebrews, refusing to keep his promise to Moses and

Then the Lord again sent them before Pharaoh, and in his presence
Aaron stretched forth his rod, and smote the dust of the earth, when
all the dust of the earth became alive, and rested upon man and beast
in the form of lice!

Then, in a rage, Pharaoh called his enchanters, but they could not
perform this miracle, and said plainly to the king--

"This is beyond our power. This is the finger of their God."

Upon hearing this, Pharaoh drove both his magicians, and Moses and
Aaron forth from his palace. The next day no sacrifice was offered, no
temple open in all Egypt; for on the priests were lice, and no one
could perform an official act with any insect upon his person, being
thereby made unclean. The Egyptians were enraged, both with the
Hebrews and with their king--but, shut up in his palace, he refused to
consent to the demands of Moses.

Three days afterwards, by the command of God, given at the well of
Jacob,--where, in a bright cloud like a pillar of fire, He descended
to speak with Moses, and seemed to be now every day present in Egypt,
in communion with his holy servant,--the two brothers again sought the
presence of the king, as he was entering his galley. Reiterating their
usual demand, Moses continued--

"The Lord hath said unto me, 'Stand before Pharaoh when he comes forth
to the water, and say unto him, thus saith the Lord, 'Let my people
go; else, if thou wilt not let my people go, I will send swarms of
flies upon thee and thy servants, and upon thy people, and the houses
of the Egyptians shall be filled with them, and also the ground; and I
will sever in that day the land of Goshen, in which my people dwell,
that no swarms of flies shall be there; to the end that thou mayest
know that I am the Lord in the midst of the earth. And I will put a
division between my people and thy people; and to-morrow shall this
sign be!'"

Pharaoh, in fear and anger, commanded his galley to leave the shore,
heeding none of the words spoken by Moses. The next day when I awoke,
lo! the air was darkened with flies. They covered the city like a
cloud, and their noise was like the roar of the sea after a storm.
When the sun was well risen, they descended and alighted upon the
dwellings, and soon filled the houses, and rooms, and every place they
could penetrate. It was impossible to hear for their hum, or to see
for their number, as they would alight upon the face, seek the corners
of the eyes and the edges of the eyelids, and inflict their bite. In a
few hours the Egyptians became frantic under the plague, as it was
impossible to keep them off; and if driven away, they would
pertinaciously return to the attack. All employment in Egypt ceased.
Eating and sleeping were impracticable. I fled in my chariot towards
Goshen! My horses, stung to madness, flew like the wind. Hundreds of
women, and children, and men were pressing in the same direction, for
safety and relief. I crossed the great canal which divides the
province, and not a fly followed me nor my horses across the aerial
and invisible barrier God had set as their bounds. All Goshen was free
from the plague, and the Hebrews were extending favors to the
Egyptians who sought shelter among them.

The next day, Pharaoh, unable to endure the plague, and finding his
magicians could neither remove nor cause it, sent for Moses and Aaron,
who immediately answered his summons.

"Go," he cried, when he beheld them,--"go, sacrifice to thy God in
this land; for He is a mighty God, and may not be mocked!"

"It is not meet, O king," answered Moses, "that we should sacrifice to
our God in the land of Egypt. We Hebrews sacrifice bulls and rams,
sacrifices abominable to the Egyptians, who call them their gods! Lo!
shall we sacrifice the gods of the Egyptians to our God, before their
eyes, and will they not stone us? If we sacrifice, we will go three
days' journey into the wilderness, and sacrifice to the Lord our God
as He shall command us."

Seeing the resolute purpose of the terrible Hebrew, Pharaoh consented
to his demand, only adding, "Ye shall not go very far away! Now go and
entreat your God for me, for the removal of these flies!"

While this discourse was passing between them, the fan-bearers of the
king, with all their diligence, could not protect his face from the
stings of the flies, which plagued him sorely; while upon Aaron and
Moses not one alighted.

"To-morrow," answered Moses, as he went out, "the Lord, whom I will
entreat for thee, shall remove this plague also. But deal not
deceitfully, O king, any more, in not letting the people go."

When, the next day, Pharaoh saw that the flies were removed, so that
not one remained, he repented that he had given his promise, and
resolved not to keep it with Moses.

Once more God sent his servants, the two Hebrews, to the king,
demanding the release of the children of Jacob from their yoke of
bondage, menacing him with a murrain upon all the cattle, horses,
camels, and beasts of Egypt, if he resolved to hold them still in the
land. The king, however, who seemed after every demand to grow more
obstinate when the evil had passed, refused, and sent them away with
threats of vengeance. Indeed, it is surprising, my dear father, that
he hath not slain them before this; and I have no doubt he is
miraculously restrained from doing so, by the Almighty God, whose
faithful and holy servants they are.

On the morrow, according to the word of Moses, a fatal pestilence
seized upon the oxen, the bulls, and cows of Egypt, so that all the
cattle in the land died. When the priests of the sacred ox, Mnevis,
came rushing from their temple to the palace, crying that their god
was dead with the murrain; when at midnight came before him the
priests of Apis, exclaiming that the sacred bull was also dead, then
Pharaoh began to know and feel that the God of the Hebrews was greater
than the gods of Egypt. Early in the morning, when he rose, hearing
that not one of the cattle of the Israelites was dead, instead of
repenting and trembling, he became enraged, acting like a man blinded
by the gods, when they would destroy him by his own acts.

Judge, my dear father, of the patience and forbearance of the God of
the Hebrews towards him who still refused to acknowledge His power.
Behold the firmness and steadiness of purpose of Moses and
Aaron,--their courage and independence! What a sublime spectacle--two
private men contending successfully with the most powerful king on the
earth! What a painful sight to see this most powerful king of the
earth measuring the strength of his feeble will against the power of
the God of the universe!

Upon the refusal of Pharaoh to let Jehovah have His people, that they
might serve Him, God commanded Moses in a vision of the night, beside
the fountain of Jacob, where He talked with him as in the burning
bush, to take the ashes of a human sacrifice, to be immolated by
Pharaoh the next day, and sprinkle it towards heaven upon the winds.
He did so; and instead of protecting the places wheresoever its atoms
were carried, they broke out in boils upon man and beast, breaking
forth with painful blains. The magicians and sorcerers, essaying to
recover their credit with the king, attempted to do the same miracle;
but the boil broke forth upon them also so heavily, that they could
not stand before Moses, and fled with pain and cries from his
presence. Yet Pharaoh remained obdurate, and grew more hardened and
defiant; for the boils touched not his own flesh.

That night, the Lord appeared unto Moses, and commanded him again to
make his demand upon Pharaoh for His people. Then stood Moses and
Aaron in the morning before the king, who was walking up and down in
the corridor of his palace, ill at ease; for all his public works were
stopped by the sufferings of the Egyptians; and his soldiers in the
fourscore garrisons at On, and Memphis, and Bubastis, and Migdol, were
unfit for military duty. There was not a well man in all Egypt, save
in Goshen.

"What now, ye disturbers of Egypt and enemies of the gods?" he called
aloud, as he saw them approach and stand before him.

"Thus saith the Lord God of the Hebrews," answered Moses: "'Let my
people go, that they may serve me.'"

"The same words! Thou shalt never have thy wish,--thou nor thy God!
Who is the Lord? Will no man rid me of this Moses and Aaron? Speak!
What more?"

"Thus saith the Lord, 'If thou, O king, refusest to let Israel go, I
will send all my plagues upon thy heart, and upon thy people, that
thou mayest know that there is none like me in all the earth! For this
cause, O Pharaoh, have I created thee and raised thee up on the throne
of Egypt, that in thee I may show my power; and that by my dealings
with thee, My name may be declared throughout all the earth. All
nations shall behold My works with thee, and My vengeance on thy gods,
and shall know that I am the Lord, and God of all gods! Thou art My
servant to show forth My glory! Thy proud heart exaltest thyself above
Me, and against My people, and thou wouldst contend with Me! Thou
shalt know I am God, ere thou shalt be cut off from the earth; and
that the heavens are My throne, and the earth is My footstool, and
none can say, What doest Thou? Behold, to-morrow I will darken the
heavens with clouds, and send hail upon the earth, and every man and
beast in the field shall die by the hail.' If thou regardest the life
of thy servants," continued Moses, "send, therefore, for all thou hast
in the field."

This threat was made known everywhere in a few hours, and those who
fear the word of the Lord have made their servants and cattle flee
into the houses prepared for them; but those who regard not the
warning have left them in the field. What will to-morrow bring forth?

Farewell, dear father.

Warned by Aaron, I depart at once for the sheltering skies of Goshen.

 Your loving son,




Scarcely had I reached the confines of Goshen, after the threatened
judgment of God upon Pharaoh, when I heard, as it were in the air, a
voice speaking, which I knew to be the voice of Moses; and behind me I
heard, instantly, loud thunders uttering their voices, and the earth
shook beneath my chariot-wheels. To the right of me, at the same
moment, I beheld Moses and Aaron standing, side by side, on the tower
of the ruined fountain of Jacob, beneath which I was driving; the
former stretching forth his hands, and his rod therein, northward
towards the city of Pharaoh, upon the obelisks of which the sun was
then brilliantly shining, and was also reflected in splendor from the
shield of gold upon the lofty tower of the temple of Osiris. Leaping
from my chariot, and leaving it with my servants, whom I commanded to
hasten further into the land of the Hebrews, I drew reverently near
the men of God, feeling greatly awed by their presence, but assured
that near them was safety,--though they were the visible sources of
God's terrible wrath upon Egypt. I stood not far off, and beheld, with
expectation. Moses, his rod extended, and waving eastward, and
northward, and westward, stood with a majestic and fearful aspect, his
eyes raised to the heavens, which were already answering his voice by
far-off thunderings. He continued, as I drew near, in these words:

"And let thunder, and hail, and fire, O Egypt, descend out of heaven
from God upon thee, and let the fire mingle with the hail, and smite
throughout all the land of Egypt, all that is in the field, both man
and beast, and every herb in the field, and break every tree! Only in
the land of Goshen let there be no hail."

No language, my dear father, can convey to you any idea of the
terrible power and godlike authority with which he spake. To his
words, Aaron pronounced a loud "A-men,"--the Hebrew word for
expressing full assent and confirmation.

Then I looked, with expectant awe, towards the land of Egypt, over
which the thunders rolled without a cloud; when, lo! from the north
came rolling onward a black wall of darkness, which I perceived was a
mighty cloud from the great sea. It advanced with the swiftness and
roar of ten thousand war-chariots rushing to battle. Out of it shot
forth lightnings, and its increasing thunders shook Egypt. In a moment
it had filled half the heavens, and still onward it rolled. Beneath it
moved its shadow, dark as itself, extinguishing the light upon
obelisk, tower, and pylon. I am told that Pharaoh, from the top of his
palace, witnessed this scene also. Directly the sun was blotted out,
and the city of On became invisible. Then I saw fire pour down upon
the earth out of the cloud, as if lightnings could not fast enough
exhaust its angry power; and I heard the voice of falling hail like
the voice of the sea when lashed by a storm. A million of Hebrews, who
had gathered in Goshen, stood and beheld what I did. The roads, the
fields, the plain were covered with people flying from the terror
towards Goshen.

Onward marched this awful servant of the Almighty, more terrible than
an army with banners. Fire ran along the ground before it, and red
forked lightnings shot far out beyond its advancing edge athwart the
blue sky, while, in a moment afterwards, the cloud of blackness rolled
beneath, like the sulphurous smoke that the priests of Egypt say
forever rolls above the fiery regions of Typhon!

Each instant it enlarged its compass, until from east to west it
enveloped Egypt, while fire, mingled with hail, ran along the earth
beneath it. Now behold, my father, the power of God! The vast pall
which Jehovah had thus begun to draw over Egypt, no sooner had reached
in the height of heaven over the borders of Goshen, casting its very
shadow, and pouring its stones of hail, and sending its tongues of
fire almost to the foot of the tower whereon Moses stood, than it
ceased to move! It became stationary in the air a mile high, and there
hung beetling over the verge of Goshen like a crag, its edge working
and agitated by the wildest commotion, and shooting its lightnings
into the blue calm sky over Goshen, but restrained from advancing
further by the power of Him who commandeth the heavens, who maketh the
clouds His chariot, and who keepeth the lightnings in His quiver!

At length the darkness became so dense, that it seemed a wall, between
Egypt and Goshen, from the ground up to the cloud. Over the latter the
sun,--oh, what a sublime contrast!--shone with unclouded brightness,
the winds slept peacefully, the fields waved with the ripened flax and
full-eared barley, the birds sang their songs of gladness, and the
children of God dwelt in security, under the protection of His gentle
love and terrible power.

Surely Pharaoh must perish if he dare any longer madly to resist the
God of the Hebrews, who has now shown that He is God of heaven as well
as of the earth, and that He is God alone, and there is none else! If,
my dear father, your early instructions had not made known to me the
God of Noah, who is the God of the Hebrews, I should, ere this last
manifestation of His awful majesty and terror, have prostrated myself
before Him and acknowledged Him as _my_ God. Wonderful that He, who
dwells in heaven, should stoop to behold things on the earth, and make
such displays of His glory, and majesty, and strength, for the sake of
a poor, enslaved people like the Hebrews. But, as the holy Moses
taught me the other day, when I was humbly sitting at his feet, and
hearing him discourse on these mighty events (for which he takes to
himself no honor or merit, but only seems the more meek and lowly the
more he is intrusted with power by God), these displays of God's
majesty have a threefold end: first, to prove to the trembling and
heart-crushed Israelites that He who is so terrible in power, doing
wonders, is _their_ God, as He was the God of Abraham, and has power
to deliver them from Pharaoh; as well as to teach them that if He can
so punish the Egyptians, He can punish them also, with equal
judgments, if they rebel and do wickedly: secondly, to punish Pharaoh
for the oppression of His people, to afflict the land upon which they
have groaned so many generations, and to show the Egyptians that He
alone is God, that their gods are as stubble in His hand, "that there
is none like Him in all the earth;" and thus bring them to acknowledge
Him, and to fear and worship Him: and, thirdly, that the word of His
mighty deeds and wonders done in Egypt, going abroad to the ears of
kings and princes, priests and lords, and people of all nations upon
the earth, may give _them_ the knowledge of the true God, prove to
them the impotency of their idols, and the supremacy of the God of the
Hebrews, in heaven, and on earth, and over kings and people.
"Therefore, and for these ends," continued the divine Moses, "that He
might not leave Himself without a witness before men, and that He
might declare His power to all His creatures, and His care for the
oppressed, and His judgment upon kings who reign by cruelty, has He
permitted, not only the bondage of our nation, but raised up such a
man as Pharaoh, in whom to show forth His power and judgments, as He
said to this king, 'And in very deed, for this cause have I raised
thee up, to show in thee my power, and that my Name may be declared
throughout all the earth.' Therefore did the Lord God say to me in the
beginning, when He sent me before Pharaoh, 'I am sure that the king of
Egypt will not let you go, no not until I stretch out my hand with
mighty power, and smite Egypt with all my wonders which I will do; and
after that he will let you go!' I did not understand this all at the
first," said Moses, "but now I perceive the mind of God, and that He
will do His will upon Pharaoh, and send yet more terrible punishments;
after which, humbled, and acknowledging God to be the Lord, he will
let the people go!"

What a wonderful mystery is passing before us, O my father! How
dreadful is this God! How wonderful, how glorious is His majesty! In
His presence, and before Him, what is man but dust, breath, vanity? I
humble myself before Him, and feel that I am a worm, and no man! Yet
Thothmeses, like a madman, stands and defies this living God!

Not all the horror of the plague of hail and fire, of the lightnings
and thunderings, moved him to let Israel depart. When the judgment of
God was at its height, driven to the interior of his palace,--from the
tower upon which he had ascended "to see what Moses and Aaron would
do," as he said,--he remained there three days, until, unable longer
to bear the terrors of the scene, and the cries of his people, he sent
for Moses and Aaron. No messenger could be found to go but Israelisis,
your former page, who, since he returned to Egypt, is a servant of the
king, greatly devoted to him, and from whom I have obtained much
interesting information of the effects of these divine judgments upon
him. Three couriers, one after the other, had been struck down by the
hail. But the Hebrew walked forth fearlessly and unharmed, and moved
through the showers of ice, as if he bore a charmed life. This alone
should have proved the power of God to be with the Hebrew servant, and
against Pharaoh and his servants.

Moving through the darkness, amid the fire upon the ground, and the
hail and scalding rain, the man arrived, and told Moses and Aaron that
the king had repented, and prayed them both to hasten to him, for he
knew their God would defend them from injury on the way.

The king is represented as having received the Hebrew brothers in his
bath-room, with his physicians around him, his face ghastly with fear,
and anxiety, and an indefinable dread. It is also said that his manner
was servile rather than humble, and that his speech was mingled with
lamentations and accusations. When they entered, he said:

"It is enough, O men of God, it is enough! Entreat the Lord your God
for me, that there be no more mighty thunderings and hail, and I will
let you go, and without any longer delay."

As he spoke, the palace shook to its foundations, and the water in the
fountain swayed to and fro with violence, as in an earthquake, while
the hail, descending with a great noise into the outer courts, was
piled many cubits in height against the columns, the sculptured work
of which, struck off in every exposed part, fell to the earth mingled
with the hail-stones.

"As soon as I am gone out of the city I will spread abroad my hands
unto the Lord," said Moses, "and the thunder shall cease, and the
hail, that thou mayest know how that the earth is the Lord's. But, O
king, as for thee and thy lords, I know that ye will not _yet_ fear
the Lord God. Has He not mocked the power of your pretended goddess,
Isis, over the heavens, and seasons, and winds? Who hath known a rain
and hail in Egypt in this month? or hath seen the winds blowing clouds
from the sea? God is God, and Isis is no god; or if a god, where is
her power? Entreat her to remove this _chamsin_ of heaven, such as
earth never before felt upon her bosom."

"God is God, and entreat Him for me," answered the king, with a feeble
gesture of impatience, doubtless humbled, and yet angry at being
compelled to consent to lose six hundred thousand working-men from the
mines and great works he is carrying on; for though he fears the
number of the Hebrews, he would rather retain them, keeping them under
by increased oppression, than release them, and thereby be relieved
from the apprehensions to which their unparalleled increase has given

When Moses had left the city of On behind him, he spread abroad his
hands towards heaven unto his God; and the thunders, and rain, and
hail, and lightnings ceased.

Anticipating the removal of the judgment, I had been standing for some
hours by the tower and fountain of Jacob. Suddenly the awful mass of
ebony-black cloud, which, for three days, had never ceased to utter
its voices of thunder, and send forth its lightnings, hail, and fire
upon the earth beneath, began to roll itself up, like a scroll,
towards the north. The thunder ceased. The lightnings were no more
visible. The hail fell no more. And, as the cloud receded, the shadows
upon the land--now smitten and desolate--moved with it. Gradually the
whole landscape reappeared; first I saw the walls of On, then its
towers, then the obelisks caught the light, and all at once the
effulgent sun poured, from the clear sky above it, the splendor of his
beams, which the shield of Osiris caught and again reflected with its
former brilliancy. Slowly, but with awful majesty, the cloud of God's
anger descended the horizon, and finally disappeared in the north. And
I thought that mayhap its dark volume would be seen passing over the
sea, even from Tyre, to your consternation and wonder.

What a scene of desolation the land presented when, the next day, I
returned to On! The fields of flax and barley were smitten and
consumed; the trees were broken and stripped of their leaves, either
by the fire or hail; the houses and villages of the plain were
devastated; in all the fields were dead corpses; and cattle and horses
which had escaped the former plague, or been purchased from the
Hebrews, were lying dead everywhere with their herdsmen. Chariots and
their riders, overtaken in flight from On, lay upon the highways; and
death, desolation, and horror reigned!

Entering the city, I saw soldiers that had been struck dead at their
posts by the hail, still lying where they fell; and the streets filled
with the dead and wounded, and with heaps of hail; while the sun shone
down upon a scene of universal wailing and woe!

I passed on to the palace of Pharaoh, my position and rank having at
all times given me free access to his presence. I found him at a
banquet, as for three days and nights he had scarcely tasted food for
terror and confusion, neither he, nor his lords, nor servants. They
were feasting and drinking wine, and the king's face was flushed with
strong drink; for, seizing the present moment of security, he
revelled, striving to forget the past terrors. As I entered, his
singers were singing a hymn to his gods; and when it was ended,
Pharaoh, with his cup in his hand, cursed the God of the Hebrews who
had sent such terrors upon his land, for hitherto he had said it was
the gods of Egypt who had done these things, forced thereto by the
powerful enchantments of the Hebrew brothers.

I turned away from his hall, refusing to go in, when Moses and Aaron
passed me, and entered his presence. Upon seeing them, Pharaoh's heart
was hardened against them and their God, and he and his lords rose up
in fear and anger.

"Are ye come again before me, ye Hebrews?" he cried, in his wrath and
wine. "I will not let Israel go! Not a foot nor hoof shall stir from
the land! I have sworn it by the life of Pharaoh, and by the gods of

Then Moses answered the king, and said--

"Thus saith the Lord God of the Hebrews, O Pharaoh: 'Let my people go!
How long wilt thou refuse to humble thyself before me? Let my people
go, that they may serve me; else on the morrow will I bring the
locusts into thy coasts, and they shall cover the face of the earth,
and devour what remaineth in the field, and shall fill thy houses, and
the houses of all the Egyptians, even as hath not been upon the earth
unto this day!'"

"We have seen locusts in Egypt, O Hebrew, and fear them not," answered
Pharaoh, with a laugh of derision. "Go tell your God that Pharaoh and
his gods defy Him and His locusts!"

Then Moses turned himself, and went out from Pharaoh. But the lords of
Egypt feared, and said unto their king--

"How long shall this man be a snare unto us and the evil destiny of
Egypt? Let the men of the Hebrews go, that they may serve their mighty
and dreadful God, as He commandeth them. Knowest thou not, O king,
that Egypt is destroyed; and the locusts will destroy the wheat and
the rye which are just bursting out of the ground, and the leaves that
are putting forth?"

Then Pharaoh sent for Moses and Aaron, who had not yet reached the
gate of the palace, and when they again stood before him, he said--

"For the sake of these, and for Egypt's sake, which thy sorcery has
nearly destroyed, I yield to thy demand, not because I fear thy God.
Go, serve the Lord your God; but who are they that shall go?"

And Moses answered, and said firmly and fearlessly--

"We will go with our young and with our old, with our sons and with
our daughters; with our flocks and with our herds will we go; for we
must hold a feast unto the Lord, and a sacrifice unto our God."

Then Pharaoh answered, in great anger--

"Let the Lord look to you, not to me, for his sacrifices, as if I will
let you go, and your little ones, that you may feast to Him! Look to
it! Provoke not my wrath, for evil is before you! Ask not so. Go now,
ye that are men and serve the Lord, since that is what ye ask! Now
leave my presence! Ye are become the curse of Egypt. What! Do ye
linger to ask more? Drive the men forth from the palace!"

The guards followed for some paces, but drew not near them for fear;
and with calm dignity of demeanor, the divine brothers went out of the
palace, and left the city. When we had departed from the presence of
Pharaoh--for I had joined their holy companionship--he stretched forth
his rod over the land eastward, and invoked the new judgment of God
that he had threatened. Immediately a strong east wind arose, and blew
all that day, and all the night, each hour increasing; and in the
morning, when I waked at a great cry of the people, I looked forth,
and beheld the heavens dark with a strange aspect, wholly unlike a
cloud, yet moving like one, or, rather, like a great ocean-wave
rolling along the sky. It was attended in its approach, which was from
the direction of the Arabian Sea, by a confused humming, like the wind
sweeping through the tall cedars on Libanus. As it drew near, it
covered half the heavens, and appeared many hundred feet in thickness,
the lower surface being not far from the earth. I soon perceived, from
the cries around me, that it was the threatened plague of locusts
coming upon Egypt, loosed from the open palm of God's hand. My
position was at a window in the house of Aaron, and not far from the
line between Goshen and the rest of Egypt. I saw them, as they passed
over the plains, and fields, and city, and villages, descend in
showers like flakes of snow, hundreds and thousands at a time, until
the whole earth was brown with them. Thus the flight continued all
that day, and all night, and all the next day and next night,--an
endless cloud, darkening the sun by day and the stars by night. The
surface of Egypt seemed agitated and alive like the sea after a storm,
restless, and in continual motion in every part; while the noise made
by the wings of the locusts was incessant,--a monotone awful to hear,
without variation or diminution, till the ear became weary of hearing,
and in vain sought relief from the deep, angry bass of this voice of
vengeance of the Hebrews' God! In crossing the Nile, myriads fell into
it, and covered its surface,--galleys, barges, men, and sails; and the
water was defiled by their presence. At noon-day there was a dreadful
twilight prevailing, for the beams of the sun could not penetrate this
living cloud. They covered the whole face of Egypt, and their voracity
left not a bud, or leaf, or any green thing on the trees, which were
just putting out again; or in the herbs of the field, which had sprung
up since the hail; for much seed was in the ground, which came up
after the hail, only to be destroyed by the locusts.

Then the people, in despair, besieged the palace of Pharaoh with great
cries. Though the Egyptians regard their king as their priest, and as
a god, and are proverbially submissive to his will and power, they had
now lost all fear, being driven to despair by this last plague.
Nothing but famine and death were before them, and their wives, and
little ones! Pharaoh also became alarmed at the endless power of the
God of the Hebrews! He had long since given his magicians, Jambres and
Jannes, to death, because they failed to keep pace with Moses and
Aaron, and he evidently felt that this was the power of a God he could
no longer compete with. He therefore sent for Moses and Aaron in
haste. When they came into his presence they beheld him in a closed
room, lighted by the seven golden lamps which Osirtasen captured from
the king of Nineveh; for the locusts made it necessary to close every
shutter, and turn day into night, in every house. He was reclining
upon a lounge covered with Tyrian purple, and adorned with
needle-work; and was surrounded by the ladies of his palace, who were
imploring him, as the Hebrew brothers entered, to let Israel go! Even
his son, the careless and gay Prince Amunophis, was kneeling before
him, and urging him to abide by his resolution, to grant the demand of
the God of the Hebrews. When he beheld the tall and majestic persons
of Moses and Aaron enter, he rose from his couch, and cried--

"I have sinned against the Lord your God, and against you. Now,
therefore, O Moses and Aaron, forgive, I pray thee, my sin only this
once, and entreat the Lord your God that he may take away from me this
death only!"

This confession seemed to be made with a certain frankness and
sincerity, and a show of deep humility; and Moses answered--

"The Lord forgive thee, according to what is in thy heart. I will
entreat the Lord for thee, and the plague shall be removed from thee
and thy people."

Then Moses went out from the presence of Pharaoh; and when he had come
into Goshen he ascended the tower of Jacob, and entreated the Lord for
Pharaoh. Immediately the cloud of locusts became tossed as with a
whirlwind; and the wind, changing from the east to the west, blew
strongly, and pressed back the mass of locust-clouds, sweeping those
that were on the earth into the air, and rolling the whole body of
winged creatures eastward. This wind blew all night, and all the next
day, and the next night, a mighty wind, and on the following morning
not a living locust was visible in all the coasts of Egypt.

Moses now sent messengers all through Egypt, calling upon the children
of Israel to leave whatever they might be occupied in, and assemble
themselves in the land of Goshen, with their wives, and children, and
flocks, and all that they had. He had previously sent men into Upper
Egypt and to the mines; and, what is wonderful, the Hebrews in the
mines were permitted to go forth from thence by their keepers, for the
fear of Moses had reached their ears, and they gladly let them go! The
messengers whom Moses now sent everywhere, from Migdol to Syene, were
Hebrews, and were nowhere molested as they went; for a fear and
reverence of them, as the people of the mighty God of Moses, had taken
the place, in the minds of the great body of the Egyptians, of their
former contempt: nay, every one was willing to do them a kindness.

Now, my dear father, you are prepared to read that Pharaoh, according
to his word, permitted the children of Israel to depart from his
dominions. But Thothmeses IV. is no ordinary man! Probably, such a
character as his is unknown in the history of kings. Such a union of
opposite qualities is rarely encountered in one individual.
Superstitious, yet sacrilegious! cowardly, yet braving death! faithful
to his oath to his gods, yet a perjurer of himself to men!
tender-hearted as a woman to his own children and family, yet cruel as
a tiger and relentless as a lion to the Hebrews and their little ones!
Treacherous, sycophantic, malicious, and ironical, he is twofold in
speech, and double-minded in secret intention; he promises when in
danger, and revokes his word in security! Despising his foes, yet
fearing them, he flatters, smiles upon, and deceives them! Trembling
under judgment, he denies his terrors when they are past! convinced of
the truth, yet opposing it! confessing the power of God, yet defying
it! These qualities, God, who reads the character in the heart, saw in
Pharaoh, and knew from the beginning what he would do, and how he
would receive Moses, far better than we can know how our well-known
friends would act under supposed circumstances. It was perhaps,
therefore, on account of the peculiar character of this Pharaoh, that
God chose the time and the man for showing His power, glory, majesty,
and terror to Egypt, to Israel, and to the world! Under such a queen
as Amense, or such a prince as the mild Thothmeses II., the first
miracle of the serpent swallowing the rods of the magicians, would
have drawn their consent to let Israel go. Where then would have been
the manifestation of the power of God, that the earth is now
witnessing with awe and fear? God, therefore, knowing what was in the
man, chose this Pharaoh as the person in whom, through the natural
agency of his obdurate heart, He might make manifest His name as the
God of heaven and earth, whose power neither man nor gods can resist.
Thus Pharaoh, unwittingly, through the perversity of his own will, and
the instability of his character, is actually carrying out God's
ultimate designs, glorifying Him in His greatness, and drawing forth
these stupendous manifestations of His Almighty power over earth, and
air, and skies! Yet is he no less guilty before God; for he does not
intend His glory, but, on the contrary, denies and defies Him in its
every successive manifestation!

Pharaoh, therefore, did not stand to his word now, dear father. When
left to himself, he forgot all that had gone before, and sent word to
Moses and Aaron not to attempt to remove the Hebrews, as he would not
let them go; for Egypt was devastated, and nearly ruined in every
part, and he must first have the labors of the Hebrews to restore the
dikes and canals, and the terraces and gardens of the lakes, and then
he would let them go.

Then Moses and Aaron went at noon-day and sought the Lord as
aforetime, in the silence and loneliness of the well of Jacob, where
they ever prayed unto Him, and where He spake unto them all the words
He commanded them to speak before Pharaoh. And when they had ended
their prayers and supplications before their great and terrible God,
whose name they never spake but with the profoundest awe, the Lord
said unto Moses:

"Stretch forth thine hand towards heaven, that there may be darkness
over the land of Egypt, even darkness that may be felt."

Obeying the command, Moses ascended the tower of Jacob, and stretched
forth his hand towards heaven.

Then followed a scene, my dear father, of solemn terror. The
atmosphere became the color of blood. The sun disappeared as if
extinguished. A thick and instant darkness fell upon the earth. The
birds ceased their songs; the cattle lowed; the wail of Egypt went up
in one great cry! Though On is several miles distant, the cry of the
city reached the ears of the children of Israel in Goshen. But with
them all was light, and joy, and beauty. The sun shone; there was
light in every dwelling; the birds sang; the green harvests waved in
the joyous sunshine; the verdant fields and leafy trees danced in the
soft breeze; for no plague had come nigh the Hebrews, their fields,
foliage, or dwellings. The darkness stood, like a great wall of black
mist rising high as heaven, between Goshen and Egypt.

Its sudden descent upon Egypt caught the Egyptians on the road, in the
fields, upon the Nile, in the streets, temples, and palaces, as they
chanced to be; and where it fell upon them, there they were compelled
to remain. No flame could burn in the thick, black fog, which felt
slimy to the touch. I would have entered it for a moment after
touching it, but Aaron warned me not to tempt God; that safety was
alone in the sunlight of Goshen. Out from the black abyss came, now
and then, a fearful cry of some desolate wayfarer, and the Hebrews
answered kindly back, and so by their shouts directed the wanderer in
the darkness how to move towards the light. During this darkness, the
Hebrews, by the command of Moses, were collecting their flocks, and
preparing to depart to sacrifice to their God: also, those who had not
been circumcised now received the rite.

This horrible night continued without change--without moon or star to
lend it a ray--until the third day, when Pharaoh, unable longer to
hold out in this unequal combat against God, sent two Hebrews, born in
his house, to Moses; for only the Hebrew could walk through this night
of God as in the light. Without a word of impatience or doubt, Moses
and Aaron rose up and disappeared in the awful veil of darkness, in
response to the summons of the king. No sooner did Pharaoh behold
them, than he cried out, in a voice of mingled complaint and

"Go ye, Moses and Aaron, ye and yours, only let your flocks and herds
stay in the land; for hast thou not destroyed," he added with
bitterness, "whatsoever parteth the hoof in all the land of Egypt?
Your little ones may also go with you." This was spoken in a tone of

And Moses answered and said:

"Thou must suffer our flocks and herds to go with us, O king, that we
may have sacrifices and burnt-offerings wherewith to sacrifice unto
the Lord our God. Our cattle, therefore, must also go with us. There
shall not a hoof be left behind."

When Pharaoh heard Moses speak thus firmly and boldly to him, abating
nothing from his first demand, he seemed to lose his reason with rage.
Casting his sceptre from his hand at the two brothers, he cried--

"Get ye from me, ye destroyers and curse of Egypt! Take heed to
thyself, O Moses, and see my face no more, for in that day thou seest
my face thou shalt die!"

Then Moses answered, with calm and severe majesty:

"Thou hast spoken well, O Pharaoh. I will see thy face no more. But
hear thou the word of the Lord, which, knowing thy heart, He hath
spoken unto me to say now before thee: 'I will bring yet one plague
more upon Pharaoh and upon Egypt. About midnight will I go out into
the midst of Egypt, and all the first-born in the land of Egypt shall
die, from the first-born of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even
unto the first-born of the maid-servant that is behind the mill; and
all the first-born of beasts: and all these thy servants shall bow
down themselves unto me, saying--"Get thee out, and all the people
that follow thee; and thy lords, and high captains, and governors, and
great men, and all who serve thee, shall come down to me, to urge me
to go forth out of Egypt: after that I will go out."' These, O king,
are the words of the Lord against thee. Thou hast cast thy sceptre at
my feet. As I step my foot upon it, so shall the Lord place his foot
upon Egypt!"

Thus speaking, Moses went out from Pharaoh in great anger. As he left
the palace, the Egyptians prostrated themselves before him, and sought
his favor, and some cried, "He is a god! Let this god, who is mightier
than Osiris and greater than Serapis, be our god!"

"But Moses sternly rebuked them," said Aaron, who related to me all
that had passed, "and felt deeply grieved and humbled at so great a
sin, and called upon them to worship God in heaven, whose servant only
he was, with no power in himself to do these wonders which they had

Farewell, my dear father. My next letter, without doubt, will convey
to you the victory of the Lord God over Pharaoh and his gods, and the
deliverance of the Hebrews from their bondage.

 Your affectionate son,





The events which have transpired since I last wrote to you, mock my
pen by their sublimity and infinite grandeur. Upon a rock for a
tablet, the desert around me, the Sea of Edom before me, I desire to
record, while they are vivid in my memory, the stupendous scenes of
the past six days. The millions of Israel have come forth out of
Egypt! The Sea of Suphim is between them and the land of their
bondage! But I have so much to write, such wonders to relate, that I
will not anticipate your curiosity, but proceed to send you a
narrative of each event in due order. Let all the earth say that the
Lord God of the Hebrews is the only God: besides Him there is no God!

The day that Moses and Aaron departed from the presence of
Pharaoh-Thothmeses, in truth to see his face no more, the Lord
commanded them to call together the elders and people of the Hebrews,
and instruct them to take a male lamb, or a kid without blemish, one
to each household, keep it till the fourteenth day of the month, which
day was just at hand, and kill it on the evening thereof, sprinkling,
with a bunch of hyssop, the lintel and door-posts of their houses
dipped in its blood, and roasting the flesh, eat it at night, leaving
none until morning. "And ye shall eat it," said the Lord, "in haste,
with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in
your hand; for it is the Lord's passover, who will the same night pass
through the land of Egypt, and smite all the first-born of the land of
Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will
execute judgment! I am the Lord: and this day shall be a memorial to
you forever."

Then Moses did as the Lord commanded. Moreover on the day of the night
on which the lamb, that had been selected from the flocks three days
before, was to be slain, he said to the elders of Israel, whom he
called, together, "Thus saith the Lord your God, 'Let none of you go
out at the door of his house until the morning; for this night the
Lord will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the
blood upon the lintel, and on the two side-posts, the Lord will _pass
over_ the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your
houses to smite you.'" There were also other ordinances of bread
unleavened established, which bread they were commanded to eat for
seven days, at the "feast of unleavened bread."

And when Moses had proclaimed these and other ordinances, the people
bowed their heads and worshipped God, and said they would do all that
the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron to say unto them.

Then, my dear father, followed a scene of the deepest interest! It was
three millions of people preparing to break their bondage of
generations, and to go forth from under the cruel sceptre of the king
of Egypt forever. The mighty miracles of Moses had, long since,
silenced the murmurs and doubts of the elders, openly uttered at the
beginning, when Pharaoh in revenge against Moses and Aaron, increased
their burdens, and denied them straw for their bricks. At each
successive miracle they had gained confidence in their powerful
advocate before Pharaoh; and when they saw that he could not be
equalled by the magicians, they became vain and proud of him, whom
before they had condemned; and waited, with wonder and expectation,
their mighty deliverence. At the occurrence of the sixth miracle they
threw up all work, and no Egyptian had the heart to say, "Go to your
tasks!" for they saw that God was with them. Thus from all parts of
Egypt, drawn by curiosity, hope, wonder, and a desire to behold this
mighty leader whom God had raised up, they flocked to Goshen, until
the land was filled with their vast numbers! The houses and huts could
not contain them, and they slept by thousands in the fields, and by
the wayside. When they perceived that the darkness, and the locusts,
and the hail approached not their land, the most timid and desponding
took courage, and lifted their voices to the God of their fathers, in
hope and gratitude. Indeed, after the awful plague of darkness,
thousands of the most ignorant Hebrews shouted that he was a god, and
the Egyptians of all classes were ready to acknowledge him as Osiris
or Thoth! And in some of the temples, the day after the darkness
passed, the priests waved incense to Osiris by the name of Musæusiris,
or Osiris-Moses: and, I doubt not, divine honors will be paid him in
Egypt for generations to come! Yet this mighty servant of God moves
among the people, as unassuming and self-forgetful as the humblest of
his brethren, quietly giving his directions for the greatest movement
earth was ever to behold--a nation marching in one day from bondage to

I moved in and out, everywhere among them. There was a strange joy
lighting up every face. Old men looked calm and happy; young men were
noisy with hope; maidens were full of joy; mothers smiled with
delight, as they clasped their babes to their bosoms, in the certainty
that they would not grow up in servitude to Pharaoh. All eyes were
turned to Moses and Aaron, as they passed to and fro, and many fell on
their knees, and worshipped them; while others shouted, as the only
way they could express their emotions. How must the heart of the
servant of God have swelled with gratitude to his Creator, as he
beheld the happiness around him! And how deeply he must have realized
his responsibility, as he reflected that the hopes of three millions
of people, whom he had assembled in Goshen, with the promise of
deliverance from the sceptre of Pharaoh, hung upon his single arm, but
which was, for the time, the arm of God!

With what emotions of awe and expectation did the children of Israel,
each at the door of his house, prepare to slay the chosen lamb, and
sprinkle its blood on the side-posts and lintel! To them it was the
command of Moses simply, and beyond that none knew the significance.
It was a beautiful and serene evening. The sun had filled the skies
with golden atoms, and the horizon was tinged with commingled emerald,
blue, and orange colors, fused into an atmosphere of ineffable glory.
It seemed as if the presence of the God of the Hebrews was in His
skies, beholding His people! At the given hour, being the ninth of the
day, a hundred thousand sacrificial knives--held in the hands of the
men of a whole nation, which became, for the moment, a nation of
priests to God--flashed in the sun, and the blood of the victims,
pouring upon the land of Goshen, consecrated it as the altar where the
God of the Hebrews first received the national worship of His people,
and their recognition of Him as their God.

Then, with hyssop dipped in a basin of the blood, each man sprinkled
the door-posts, and cross-piece of the entrance of his house, in
behalf of all who either should dwell in it, or who, being
stranger-brethren, came from other parts of Egypt, and could enter no
house for the throngs, yet were numbered with some one household: as,
for instance, the house of Aaron's father-in-law, which could hold but
thirty people, had on its list three hundred and seventy names, as its
household,--all brethren from other provinces; for Goshen was now like
a mighty camp. There were besides, hovering about the confines of
Goshen, and even mingling with the Hebrews, thousands of Egyptian
families, who, flying from the terror of the Lord in Egypt, had sought
safety near the Hebrews, and under the wing of the God who had
protected them,--hoping to share their safety. Many of these brought
their substance with them--their rich apparel, their gold, and jewels,
and silver--hoping, therewith, to purchase the favor of their once
despised, and now dreaded, bondmen.

How, my dear father, shall I record the events of the night that
followed the death of the lambs! As the sun went down, the Hebrews,
with awe, retired within their dwellings, and closed the doors.
Mothers, with anxious haste, drew in their first-born. Even many of
the hapless Egyptians, who had heard of the command to the Hebrews,
chose a lamb and slew it--their hands trembling, and hearts sinking
between hope and fear--and sprinkled the door-posts of their wretched
places of shelter, if, peradventure, the great and terrible God of the
Hebrews would, in the coming night of His vengeance upon Pharaoh,
seeing the blood, pass them by, and spare their first-born also.

At length a silence, like that which forever reigns in the heart of
the pyramids, reigned throughout Goshen. Not an eye was closed in all
Israel, during those first hours of dread watching for the first sound
abroad of God's coming down upon Egypt. I remained up, in the house of
the venerable Aminadab, the father-in-law of Aaron. Elisiba, the wife
of Aaron, with her arm around her eldest son Nadab, a fine young man,
held him firmly by her side. Aaron and Moses were apart, in a room by
themselves, engaged in low conversation, or in solemn prayer. No other
sound was heard, but the voice of this wonderful man talking, as if
face to face with his God.

Suddenly, at midnight, a bright light from heaven shone above the
dwelling, and from it went forth a glory which filled the land of
Goshen with its beams. I stood, at the moment, in the court, and fell
with my face to the earth; for I knew that it was the presence of God.
At length Moses touched me, and said--

"Fear not! Rise and behold the glory of God, that when thou shalt
return and sit upon thy throne, thou mayest teach thy people that the
God of the Hebrews is the God of heaven and earth! For thy sake, as
well as for Israel, and Pharaoh, and the Egyptians, and all the
nations who shall hear of this, are these wonders and judgments done;
that Pharaoh, and all kings, and the whole earth, may know who is the
Lord, and worship only Him!"

I arose, and lo! in the height of heaven I beheld a column, or pillar
of fire, the base of which was above the roof of the house, and the
summit thereof in the region of clouds. It was in the form of a Hebrew
staff, with a bar of light across it near its top, upon which seemed
to be a crown of glory, shooting forth thorns of light and splendor.
In this cloud, or pillar of light, there seemed to stand a form like
that of a man, but resplendent with ineffable radiance, and I covered
my face and worshipped. When I looked again, the dazzling vision, if
such it were, was in motion towards Egypt, and the city of On. As it
moved, it lighted up the whole earth. When it came over the city of
the Sun, a sword seemed to be drawn by the man who stood in the pillar
of fire, and I beheld it sweep over the palace of Pharaoh, and strike.
Then, with the swiftness and dazzling gleam of lightning, it turned
every way over Egypt, till I could not, dared not behold longer and
bowed my head, veiling my eyes, and adoring.

Then we heard, even in Goshen, a cry as from the living heart of
Egypt, as if every mother in the vast cities of On and Memphis, and
the hundred surrounding villages, had lifted her voice in one
prolonged, dreadful wail of woe.

I knew what that cry meant, and trembled in silent awe. I prostrated
myself before God and cried for mercy!

At length the sword was drawn back by the hand of the man in the
pillar of cloud, and the shining column returned and stood over the
house where Moses and Aaron remained; a calm, lambent light, soft as
moonbeams, being now emitted from it, instead of the angry splendor
with which it shone before.

One or more hours passed, and two horsemen, riding like the wind,
entered Goshen and cast themselves upon the ground at the feet of
Moses and Aaron. They were couriers from Pharaoh.

"My lords," cried one of them, pale and trembling with fear and haste,
after he had risen from his prostration, "the king hath sent us to
thee, and these are the words he hath commanded us to say: 'Rise up,
Moses and Aaron, and get you forth from among my people, and from
Egypt, both ye and the children of Israel, and go and serve the Lord
as ye have said. Take your flocks, and your herds, and all that ye
have, and be gone; and pray your dreadful God for me, that He may
bless me also, for He hath slain my son!'"

Then came, while he was yet speaking, a large company of lords, and
high officers, and great men of Egypt, whose sons the wrath of God had
slain (for there was not a house in Egypt where there was not one
dead, from the first-born of Pharaoh that sat upon the throne, to the
first-born of the captive that was in the dungeon), and they were
urgent upon Moses and Aaron, and the Hebrew people, imploring them,
with tears and supplications, to hasten from the land, with all they
had, and to make all haste.

Then Moses, as soon as it was day, sent word throughout all Israel to
prepare to go forth out of Egypt that day. He directed the people to
take all the jewels, and gold, and silver, and raiment, which the
Egyptians were forcing upon them to bribe them to hasten; "for," he
said, "it is yours, as the Lord hath commanded you to spoil the
Egyptians, for whom ye have labored without wages. It is the Lord's
gift to you from those whom He would spoil, and whose lives He has
spared to them."

Now followed a spectacle of wonderful interest and sublimity. As if
moved by one spirit, Israel marshalled itself into companies of
hundreds, and these into bands of thousands, and these into mighty
divisions of tribes, so that by noon there were twelve separate armies
of God, ready to march at the voice of Moses. The whole plain of
Goshen, as far as the eye could see from the tower of Jacob, was
covered with their mighty hosts. Each tribe had its women, and little
ones, and flocks and herds within its own square. They waited now for
the signal to move forward, every man with his loins girded, his shoes
on his feet, and his staff in his hand, their bread unbaked in their
kneading-troughs, and their persons laden with the jewels and gifts
which the urgent Egyptians had forced upon them, either that they
might see their faces no more, or from fear, or in the hope to be
blessed by their Lord God for these favors: for so the Lord, to whom
the gold and silver of the earth belong, had disposed their hearts
towards the Hebrews.

Then, at the going down of the sun, Moses gave the signal for this
mighty march. There were no trumpets sounding, no military display of
banners and spears; but they moved to their own tread, which seemed to
shake the earth. They came on in columns, a thousand men abreast, and
marched past the tower of Jacob, on which Moses stood, with Aaron by
his side, the miraculous rod in his hand. When the van of this army of
Jehovah, terrible in its strength, came up with the tower, the white
cloud of the Presence of Jehovah (which, all day had stood in the air
like a snow-white cloud, immovable and wonderful to behold), advanced,
as if borne upon a gentle wind, and placed itself before the host.
Night came on ere half the divisions had passed by where Moses stood;
and, as the sun went down, never more to rise upon Israel in Egypt,
the Pillar of Cloud became a Pillar of Fire, and shed a glory over the
innumerable armies of Israel equal to the splendor of day.

It was midnight ere the last tribe had passed by with its face to the
desert. Then Moses and Aaron descended, and I kneeled before them, and
asked if I might be permitted to go out of Egypt with the Lord's
people, and continue to behold the power of God. Moses answered me
with benignity, and said I should be with him as a son, that I might
see the wonders of Jehovah, and make known in Phœnicia His glory
and power.

While he was speaking, a mixed multitude of Egyptians, Nubians,
slaves, captives of Egypt, and of all those persons who hoped to be
blessed and benefited with Israel, fell to the ground before Moses,
and entreated him to suffer them to go up to the new land to which he
was going. Moses granted them, without hesitation, their prayer.

Then I learned that those among the Egyptians who had, in obedience to
the command of Moses, sprinkled their own door-posts, escaped like the
Israelites, for it was the sign of the blood of obedience alone, that
the angel of the Lord regarded; on the other hand, several Israelitish
families saw their first-born perish, they having neglected to obey
the command of Moses, from avarice or indifference, or doubt of the
intention of God, or supposing that being Israelites would save their

And here, my dear father, let me make known to you that I have learned
from Aaron the significance of this sign; for God having made known to
him that "he is to become the high-priest, as Moses is the leader, of
his people, has revealed to him that the slaying of the lamb is a type
of a divine and innocent Person, who shall come down from God, and one
day be sacrificed. Earth, as the antitype of Egypt, is to be the altar
of this future stupendous sacrifice. And as by the blood of a lamb,
and the death of the first-born, Israel is delivered from Egypt, so by
the blood of the Lamb, the first-born of God, shall the whole of
mankind who look to his blood be finally delivered from this earth,
and from Satan its Pharaoh, and be led by God into a heaven above the
skies, a land of eternal happiness and peace, to dwell there till the
end of ages."

Is not this a sublime doctrine? Is God, then, making with Israel, an
outline of what He is to perform with the whole earth? Shall we escape
this world-broad Egypt, and under a divine leader like Moses, by the
blood of the mysterious Lamb of God, be led to another world? I have
but indistinct knowledge, my dear father, of all this; but have
learned enough to make my heart bound with joy. For in this enlarged
conception of the wonderful theme, you and I, and all in the whole
earth,--who shall look to the God of Israel, and by foresight of faith
trust in the sprinkling of the blood of the Lamb upon the threshold of
our hearts,--are also of Israel; their God is our God; their land of
heaven our land of promise also! Oh, who can fathom the wisdom, and
goodness, and love, and power of God? To His name be glory, majesty,
dominion, and worship from all nations! Before Him let kings fall
down, and princes prostrate themselves, and every knee of all people,
nations, kindred, and tongues, be bent; for He is the Lord of heaven
and earth, and besides Him there is no God!

Also, my dear father, Moses, whose lips ever distil celestial wisdom,
was graciously pleased, on the night before the death of the
first-born, as he walked to and fro in the court of the house of
Aminadab, to reveal to me the divine aim in sending such miracles as
He did upon Egypt, instead of any others. I listened with wonder and
increased awe, and, if I may so express it, redoubled admiration of
the wisdom and justice of God.

Said the holy Hebrew and sage, "The Egyptians have ever believed, that
the jugglery and magic arts, in which their magicians and priests of
mysteries display such astonishing proficiency, are actual miracles,
exhibiting the power of their deities, and their co-operation with
their priests to enable them to do these deceptions. Miracles,
therefore (or magic), were regarded by them as acts of their idols. It
became necessary that the Lord God of the Hebrews should manifest
Himself and His power by miracles also; and not only this, but that
the miracles which He performed should be of such a character as to
distinguish them from the jugglery of the magicians, and at once
convince the Egyptians that they proceeded from a Being omnipotent
over their idols, and show the Israelites themselves, who had almost
forgotten God, that the author of such mighty miracles as they beheld,
must be the only living and true God of the earth and skies. Now, my
dear Remeses," he continued, "if you will give heed to my words for a
few moments, you will perceive how perfectly fitted the ten miracles
which God performed in the sight of Pharaoh, Egypt, and Israel, were
to destroy their faith in the gods of Egypt, and make known the true
God as the only Deity to be feared and worshipped by men.

"At first, in conformity with the Divine purpose, the strength of the
magicians was brought out and fairly measured with my own, as God's
servant, inspired by Him, for of myself I did nothing. Unless this
trial of skill had been made, both the Egyptians and doubting
Israelites would have said that I derived my power from their gods
(for they would not forget I had been an Egyptian and knew their
mysteries), and God would not have been honored. But when the royal
magicians appeared in the name of the gods of Egypt, lo! the God of
heaven was shown not only to be superior to their sorcerers by His
miracles, but, as you will perceive, hostile to their idolatrous
worship. The observers of both sides were permitted not only to
distinguish the power of God from the inferior arts of the magicians
of Egypt, but are led to withdraw with us, as is the case with tens of
thousands who seek to follow us from Goshen,--their confidence in the
protection and power of their gods being utterly destroyed. Observe
now, my dear prince, the direction taken by the miracles.

"The first one, which confirmed my authority and mission to Pharaoh,
destroyed the serpents. This was the first assault of the Almighty
upon the gods and sacred animals and things of Egypt; for you are
aware of the temple of the sacred Uræus, where the serpent is
worshipped. The serpent of the rod of God destroying the serpents of
the Egyptians, showed Pharaoh that his gods could not live, or save
themselves in the presence of the servant of the true God. Thus the
serpent form taken by the rod was not merely an arbitrary shape; there
was profound design concealed thereunder.

"The Nile is held sacred, revered as a god by the Egyptians, and the
fish they regard as holy. Its waters supply all Egypt with a drink
which they quaff with reverence and pleasure, believing that a healing
virtue dwells in its waves. Changed to blood, and its fish becoming
putrid, they loathed their god and fled from his banks with horror.

"The next miracle--of frogs--was also directed against a god of the
Egyptians and the worship of these unclean animals. He was made to
become their curse; and as they dared not kill them, being sacred,
they became to them a terror and a disgust unspeakable.

"The miracle which followed was directed against their priests and
temples; for, by the laws of the forty two books, no one could
approach the altars upon which so impure an insect harbored; and the
priests, to guard against such an accident, wore white linen, and
shaved their heads and bodies every other day. The severe nature of
this miracle, as aimed against the religious rites and altar-services
of the Egyptians, you will perceive. So keenly did the magicians feel
this, and foresee how it would close every temple in Egypt, that they
were forced to exclaim, in my presence--

"'This is the finger of God!'

"The succeeding and fifth miracle was designed to destroy the
confidence of the Egyptians in their god of flies, Baal-zebul. This
god had the reputation of protecting Egypt from the swarms of flies
which, at certain seasons, infest the air throughout all Egypt. The
inability of the magicians who were sent for by Pharaoh to remove
them, showed that the Lord God was more powerful than their fly-god,
and thus led them to look upon their own idol with contempt.

"The miracle which destroyed their cattle was aimed at Apis, and
Mnevis, and Amun, the ram-headed god of Thebes, and at the entire
system of their worship of animals. Thus, by this one act of power,
the Lord Jehovah vindicated His own honor, and destroyed their
confidence in their idols, and the very existence of their gods.

"When, by the command of God, I took ashes from the altar of human
sacrifices, and sprinkled it towards heaven, as did their priests, to
avert evil, and evil came in the shape of the boil, God taught them,
that what they trusted to, He could make against them, and out of
their idolatrous rites bring a curse upon them and upon Egypt.

"The eighth miracle," continued Moses, while I gave ear to his words
with wondering attention, "was directed at the worship of Isis, as the
moon, and controller of the seasons, and clouds, and weather. When the
hail and the rain, the lightning and thunder, was brought by God upon
the land, and all the prayers to Isis failed to stay the fearful
tempest of His wrath, it should have convinced Pharaoh of the folly of
his idolatry, and taught the people not to put their trust in an idol
that could not help them against the power of the God of the Hebrews.

"The miracle which followed, was directed against the adoration and
rites of Serapis, and his whole gorgeous system of worship; for the
Egyptians saw that the god who was regarded as their peculiar
protector against the destructive power of locusts, was impotent to
remove the cloud of these voracious insects, which God brought upon
them from the sea; and that only when Pharaoh entreated God, were they

"The last miracle was aimed at the universal worship of Osiris, or the
Sun. It was intended to teach Pharaoh and the Egyptians, and also
Israel, that the God of the Hebrews was superior to their 'lord of the
sun,' and that He could veil His splendor when, and for any length of
time, it pleased Him! And also that they were called by the exhibition
of this mighty miracle to worship Him who made the sun, and moon, and
stars, and all the glory of them--Jehovah is His name!"

When, my dear father, the man of God had ceased speaking, I remained
for some time silent with awe, meditating upon what I had heard;
worshipping, and adoring, and praising God, whose wisdom, and power,
and judgments, are over all His works, who will not give His glory to
another, nor leave Himself without a witness of His existence upon

Thus you see, my dearest father, that the miracles were not arbitrary
displays of power, but grand divine lessons, mingled with judgments.
It was JEHOVAH vindicating His own worship, and showing the impotency
of false gods, by the manifestation of His supreme power and majesty,
as the destroyer of gods, and the only potentate,--God of gods, King
of kings, and Ruler over all, blessed for evermore!

Having now revealed to you the mystery, veiled under the miracles of
Moses, I will close my long letter, leaving you to reflect, my father,
upon the wonders of God, and to contemplate His wisdom. In one or two
more letters, I shall close my correspondence; as, travelling in the
desert, I shall have no opportunity to communicate with you. I shall
proceed into Syria by the caravan route in a few days, and by the way
of Palestine and the valley of the Jordan, return to Damascus, and
thence, as soon as my affairs will permit, shall hasten to see you at
your palace in Tyre.

Farewell, my dear father.

 Your affectionate son,





I will now resume the subject which occupied the foregoing portion of
my last letter, namely, the departure of the twelve armies of the
Hebrews from the land of Egypt.

When the last division had passed the tower, after midnight, Moses and
Aaron went forward and travelled all night, along the column of march,
addressing the leaders of tribes, divisions, thousands, and hundreds,
as they went, giving them words of courage, and commanding them to
keep in view the Pillar of Fire.

This Divine Glory, which the whole people of the Hebrews, and even the
Egyptian followers, were permitted to behold and gaze at with wonder,
as if it were the moon or sun, moved onward, far in advance of the
last division, and seemingly directly over the head of the column.
When I reached, with Moses, the van of the mighty slowly-moving host,
I perceived that a sort of sarcophagus on wheels was drawn by twelve
oxen in front of all; and that over this, the "shekinah," as Aaron
termed the presence of God in the cloud of light, was suspended. I had
not seen this before, but knew that it must contain the embalmed body
of Prince Joseph, which the children of Israel had jealously guarded
and concealed from the Pharaohs of the present dynasty, waiting the
time of the deliverance; for the venerable Joseph, on his death, had
taken an oath from his brethren, the children of Israel, that they
would carry up his bones out of Egypt, when God should send the
deliverer to bring them forth.

Faithfully were this wonderful people now fulfilling the oath of their
fathers to Joseph, after more than two hundred years had passed. Thus
their going out of Egypt bore a resemblance to a national funeral. At
the side of the sarcophagus Moses and Aaron walked, and thus the
solemn march advanced towards the wilderness. All that night they
journeyed from the plain of Raamses, and came to the verge of a rocky
valley where the way was rough, compared with the fertile and level
plains of Egypt. When the sun arose, the pillar of fire faded, as it
were, into a columnar cloud which still advanced miraculously and
wonderfully before us. When the heat of the day increased, the cloud
descended and rested over a place called Succoth. Here Moses ordered
the people to encamp, and bake their unleavened bread which they
brought with them in their kneading-troughs from Egypt. The next night
they travelled up the valley to a place called Etham, a short journey;
and thence, after a rest, turning back a little, they traversed the
valley between rocks eastward, and encamped at a well of water called
Pi-hahiroth, where there were many palm-trees. Here they remained to
rest, with the hills on either hand, wondering why God should not have
let them pass into the desert at Etham, instead of bringing them into
that defile, which seemed to have no outlet but at the shore of the
sea. Passing Pi-hahiroth, with its castle and garrison, the latter of
which fled at our advance, as also the garrison of the tower of
Migdol, which guarded the way to Egypt from the Arabian Sea, and so up
the cliffs of the valley-sides, Moses encamped between Migdol and the
sea, which spread far away eastward in front, with the towers and
fortified city of Baal-zephon visible on the opposite side. The Pillar
of Cloud had indicated this place of encampment, by resting above it
near the shore.

When I surveyed the place, I marvelled to know how Moses would move
forward the next day; for the mountainous ridges of the rocky valley,
along which we had come, continued close to the shore of the sea on
the right hand, and on the left, and I could perceive, as I walked to
the place, no room for a single man, much less an army, to go either
south or north between the mountains and the water; for the sea broke
with its waves against its perpendicular sides. I concluded,
therefore, that on the morrow the whole host would have to retrace its
steps, and enter the desert by the way of Etham, where it had before
encamped, and so make a sweep around the head of the sea to the
northward and eastward. But I did not express to any one my thoughts.
The calm majesty and repose of Moses awed me. Upon his expansive brow
was stamped confidence in his God, who, if need were, could make a
road across the sea for His people, for whose deliverance He had done
such wonders. I reflected, too, that the leader was God himself, and
that He had gone before, and led them to the place where they were. I
therefore waited the will of God, to see what in His wisdom He would

How little did I anticipate the end! How far was I from understanding
that God had led His people into this defile, which had no outlet but
that by which they entered, in order to display His glory, and present
to the world the final exhibition of His power, and his judgments upon
Pharaoh and the Egyptians!

The divinely inspired Moses seemed to understand my thoughts, when I
returned to the camp.

"My son," he said, "this is done to try Pharaoh; for, when he heareth
that we are in the valley of Pi-hahiroth, before Migdol, he will say,
'They are entangled in the land--the wilderness hath shut them in.'
'Then,' saith the Lord to me, 'Pharaoh will repent that he let you and
my people go, and he will follow after you, and when he shall come
after you, I will be honored upon Pharaoh and upon all his host; that
the Egyptians may know that I am the Lord.' God will yet avenge
Himself upon this wicked king, and reward him for all his wickedness
that he hath done against Him and His people Israel! Wait, and thou
shalt see the power of God, indeed!"

With what expectation, and with what confidence in God I waited the
result, my dear father, you may conceive. How wonderful is this God,
and His ways how past finding out! "It was just four hundred and
thirty years from the day Israel left Egypt," said Aaron to me, "to
the day their father Abram left Chaldea for Canaan; and that, their
books say, is the exact time prophesied for their deliverance. Their
actual residence in Egypt from the Syrian Prince Jacob's coming to
settle in Goshen, to the day they left, was two hundred and fifteen
years. The existence of their _bondage_ began at the death of Joseph,
who died sixty-five years, not seventy, as you supposed, before the
birth of Moses. This servant of God is now eighty years old;
therefore, the number of years _that they were in servitude_ is one
hundred and forty-five, or equal to five generations. Thus, were the
descendants of Abraham, and Abraham himself, wanderers without any
country of their own for four hundred and thirty years, according to
the word of the Lord to Abraham; not all this time in bondage, indeed,
but under kings of another language. Now, at length behold them
returning a mighty nation, to claim from the Canaanites and
Philistines the land so long ago promised to their remote ancestor,
Abram. God is not forgetful of His promise, as this vast multitude
proclaims to the world, though He seems to wait; but His purposes must
ripen, and with the Almighty a day is as a thousand years, and a
thousand years as one day."

Now behold, my dear father, a new manifestation of His glory and
power, and the awful majesty of His judgments, before whom no man can
stand and live! The next day, being the seventh, whereon a divine
tradition ordains rest, but which in their bondage could not be
regarded, Moses and Aaron commanded the whole host to repose. Thus
time was given Pharaoh, not only to hear the report,--as he did by
some Egyptians who, in dread of the wilderness, went back,--of their
being shut in by the craggy mountains, with the sea before them,--but
to arm and to pursue and destroy them or compel them to submit again
to his yoke.

I have learned from an officer of Pharaoh, who, fearing God, escaped
from the palace, and came and informed Moses of the king's purposes,
that when the news reached the king, who had been three days bitterly
repenting his compliance with the demands of Moses, he sprang from the
table at which he sat, and, with a great oath by his gods, cried--

"They are entangled between Pi-hahiroth and the sea! They have played
me false, and are not gone by Etham into the desert to sacrifice!
Their God has bewildered them in the Valley of Rocks by the sea! Now,
by the life of Osiris, I will up and pursue them!" He called all his
lords and officers, and gave commands to send couriers to the army
already assembled at Bubastis, and expecting to march against the king
of Edom, who had long menaced Egypt. He ordered this army to hasten,
by forced marches, to the plain before On. He then sent to the city,
where he kept his six hundred chosen chariots of war, for them to be
harnessed, and meet him the next day before Raamses. Couriers on fleet
horses were sent to every garrison, and all the chariots in other
cities, and in the three treasure-cities, to the number of four
thousand charioteers, each with his armed soldier, gathered on the
plain which the Israelites had left four days before. The forty-seven
fortresses of the provinces sent forth their garrisons, of three and
four hundred men each, to swell the Egyptian hosts.

All this intelligence reached Moses; but he remained immovable in his
camp, the Pillar of Fire also standing in the air above the tent of
Aaron, in which was the sarcophagus of Prince Joseph. Messenger after
messenger, sometimes an Egyptian friendly to the Israelites, sometimes
an Israelite who had been detained and did not leave Egypt with his
brethren, came to Moses, and as they passed through the camp, gave up
their news to the people.

One man said Pharaoh had left his palace, armed in full battle-armor,
and at the head of his body-guard of six hundred chariots of gold and
ivory, was driving to the plain of Raamses. A second messenger brought
tidings, that the king's great army, from the vicinity of Bubastis and
Pelusium, had passed On in full march,--seventy thousand foot, ten
thousand horsemen, and two thousand chariots of iron! A third came,
reporting that four thousand chariots had also assembled from all
parts of Lower Egypt, and that every man was rallying to the standard
of the king, to pursue the Hebrews and destroy them by the edge of the
sword. By and by, a fourth came, an escaped Hebrew, who told that the
king had marshalled his vast hosts of one hundred thousand foot,
twenty thousand horsemen, nine thousand chariots of iron, besides his
six hundred chosen chariots of his body-guard, and was in full pursuit
of the Israelites by the way of Succoth.

These tidings filled the bosoms of the Hebrews with dismay. They were
in no condition to do battle, there being among them all, one only who
knew the use of arms, which one was Moses; who, with God on his side,
was an army in himself.

The Egyptian army, marched all night, without rest to hoof or sandal.
Before the sun was up, their approach was made known by the distant
thunder of their chariot-wheels, and the tramp of their horses. At
length, when the Pillar of Fire was fading into a white cloud, and the
sun rose brilliantly over the Sea of Arabia, the van of the Egyptian
army became visible, advancing down the inclosed valley. When the
Israelites beheld its warlike front, and heard the clangor of
war-trumpets and the deep roll of the drums, they fled with fear. The
elders then hastened, and, pale with terror and anger, came before
Moses, and cried to him--

"Because there were no graves in Egypt, hast thou taken us away to die
here in the wilderness? Wherefore hast thou dealt thus with us to
carry us forth out of Egypt? Did we not, at the first, tell thee in
Egypt, 'Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians?' for it had
been better for us to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in
the wilderness."

Then Moses answered their tumult, and said, without displeasure
visible in his godlike countenance--

"Fear ye not! Stand still, and see the salvation of the Lord, which he
will show you to-day! for the Egyptians whom ye have seen to-day, ye
shall see them again no more forever! The Lord shall fight for you,
and ye shall hold your peace. Wait to see what He will do."

Then Moses, with a troubled face, entered his tent, and his voice was
heard by those near by, calling upon God.

And the Lord answered him from the cloud above the tent--

"Why criest thou unto me? Speak unto the children of Israel _that they
go forward_! But lift thou up thy rod and stretch out thy hand over
the sea, and divide it; and the children of Israel shall go on dry
ground through the midst of the sea. And behold Pharaoh, (whom I
withhold from nothing which he chooseth in his hard heart to do,
leaving him to his own devices to reap the fruit of his own ways), he
shall follow you with the Egyptians into the sea! and I will get me
honor upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host, upon his chariots and upon
his horsemen. And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord!"

Then Moses came forth from the tent, whence the voice of the Lord had
been heard by all, both near and afar off. Now, lo! the angel of God
in the Pillar of Cloud, as soon as the armies of Israel began to move
forward to the sea, removed from the front, and went to the rear of
the Hebrew host, and stood behind them in the Pillar of Cloud! Thus,
it stood between the camp of the Israelites and the camp of the
Egyptians, so that when night came, the Israelites, lying encamped on
the shore, had the full splendor of its light; while the Egyptians, to
whom it presented a wall of impenetrable darkness, also encamped,
fearing to go forward in the unnatural night which enveloped them. So
the two hosts remained all night, neither moving--the Pillar of Fire
and the Pillar of Cloud between them, creating day on one side of it,
and tenfold night on the other.

Now, at the going down of the sun, on that day when the Egyptians
encamped because of the cloud, Moses had stretched forth his hand over
the sea by God's command, and lo! there arose a mighty wind upon the
sea, rising from the south and east; and all that night we heard the
sea and waves roaring, and the hearts of Israel sunk within them for
fear. The Pillar of Fire cast upon the sea a radiance like moonlight,
so that we could perceive that it was in a great commotion, and that
God was doing some great wonder in the deep. It is said that the noise
of the waves reached the ears of Pharaoh, and that he at first
believed it was the sound of the tramping of the whole host of the
Israelites, advancing with their God to give him battle in the
darkness. He called his men to arms, and tried to show front of war;
but the shadow of the cloud between him and the Hebrews, rendered it
impossible for any man to move from one place to another, or to see
his fellow.

At length morning came to us, but not to the Egyptians, whose night
still continued. But what a spectacle of sublimity and power we
beheld! Before us, an avenue, broad enough for two hundred men to
march abreast, had been cut by the rod of God through the deep sea,
the water of which stood as a wall on the one side and on the other,
glittering like ice on the sides of the rocks of Libanus, when capped
with his snows. At this sight, the Hebrew hosts raised a shout of joy
to God, for they could see that the sacred avenue reached as far as
the eye could extend across the sea; but so great was the distance,
that its sides converged to a point far out from the shore, and seemed
but a hair line. Then Moses, lifting up his voice, commanded the
children of Israel to form into companies and columns of one hundred
and eighty men abreast, and enter the sea by the way God had opened
for them. First went Aaron and the twelve elders, being one of each
tribe, who guarded the body of Prince Joseph. Then followed the
sarcophagus, drawn by twelve oxen, one also furnished by each tribe.
Then came a hundred Levites, carrying all the sacred things which the
Hebrews had preserved in their generations. Now came Moses, leading
the van of the people in column. I also walked near him. As we
descended the shore and entered the crystalline road, I marvelled, yet
had no fear, to see the walls of water, as if congealed to ice, rise
thirty cubits above our heads, firm as if hewn from marble, with sharp
edges at the top catching and reflecting the sunlight. The bed of the
sea was hard and dry sand, smooth as the paved avenue from Memphis to
the pyramids. All day the Israelites marched in, and when night came
not half their vast column had left the land. All the while the Pillar
of Cloud stood behind, in the defile between the Israelites and the
Egyptians. At length, in the first watch of the night, it removed, and
came and went before the Israelites, throwing its beams forward along
our path in the sea. Its disappearance from the rear removed also the
supernatural darkness that enveloped the Egyptians; and when, by the
light of the skies, Pharaoh beheld the Israelites in motion, he
pursued with all his host, leading with his chariots his eager army.
It was just light enough for him to see that his enemy was escaping,
but not enough so to see by what way; but, doubtless, he suspected
that they were wading around the mountains; for great east winds have,
from time to time, swept the sea here outward, so that the water has
been shallow enough for persons to make a circuitous ford around the
northern cliff, and come in again upon the same shore into the desert
above. Pharaoh knew that the wind had been blowing heavily, which he
at first mistook for the Israelites in motion, and there is no doubt
that he pursued with the idea that the sea had been shoaled by the
wind, and that they would come out a mile or two on the north side,
and gain the desert by Etham, and so double the head of the sea into
the peninsula of Horeb. There can be no other reason assigned for his
pursuit into such a road of God's power, unless it was judicial
madness,--a hardening of his heart by God, in punishment for his
contumacy and opposition to His will. Doubtless this is one way in
which God punishes men, by making their peculiar sin the instrument of
their destruction.

Pharaoh and his chariots, and horsemen, and host pursued, and came
close upon the rear-guard of the Israelites, against whom they pressed
with shouts of battle. The sea was faintly lighted, and the king and
the Egyptians did not see the walls of water which inclosed them, as
they rushed madly and blindly after their prey, urged on by the loud
voice of Pharaoh. At length, when they were in the midst of the sea,
the Lord, in the Pillar of Cloud, suddenly turned and displayed its
side of dazzling light towards the astonished Egyptians! By its
sunlike splendor, Pharaoh and his captains perceived their peril, and
the nature of the dreadful road in which they were entangled. The
walls of water on each side of them, say the Israelites who were in
the rear and saw, moved and swelled, and hung above them in stupendous
scrolls of living water, upheld only by the word of God! The vivid
light of the shekinah blinded their eyes, and bewildered their horses,
and troubled the whole host. All the horrors of his situation were
presented to the mind of the king. With frantic shouts to his
charioteers to turn back, he gave wild orders for his army to retreat,

"Let us flee from the face of Israel! for the Lord their God fighteth
for them against us!"

Then followed a scene of the most horrible confusion. The steady gaze
upon them of the Angel of the Lord, in the cloud of fire, discomfited
them! They turned to fly! Their chariot-wheels sunk in the deep clay
which the wagons of the Hebrews had cut up, and came off! The king
leaped from his car, and, mounting a horse held by his armor-bearer,
attempted to escape, when the Lord said unto Moses, who now stood upon
the Arabian side of the sea--

"Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the waters may come again
upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen."

Then Moses stretched forth his hand upon the sea, in the deep defile
of which, cleaved by God for his own people, the Egyptian hosts,
chariots, horse and foot, were struggling to retrace their course to
the Egyptian shore, each man battling with his comrade for preference
in advance. The whole scene, for several miles in the midst of the
sea, was a spectacle of terror and despair such as no war, no battle,
nothing under the skies, ever before presented. The shouts and cries
of the Egyptians reached our ears upon the shore with appalling

Now Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, out of the path
through which the last of the Israelites were coming forth, when the
billows that had been cloven by the rod of God, and made to stand in
two walls like adamant, began to swell and heave, and all at once both
edges of this sea-wall fell over like two mighty cataracts plunging
and meeting, roaring and rushing together each into the chasm wherein
the whole host of Pharaoh--his captains, chariots, and horsemen--with
their faces towards Egypt, were struggling to escape from the snare
that God, in His just vengeance, had laid for them. The returning
waters covered the whole host of them before our eyes, and, while we
looked, the wild sea rolled its huge waves, laden with death, above
the abyss; and then subsiding, the great sea once more flowed calmly
over the spot, and Pharaoh, who had been erecting for years a majestic
pyramid to receive his embalmed body, was buried by the God whom he
defied, beneath the chariots and horses in which he trusted for
victory over the sons of God.

This spectacle of God's power and judgment filled all Israel with awe.
Those who had murmured against Moses sought his presence, and
prostrated themselves before him, acknowledging their fault, and
asking him to entreat God to pardon their iniquity, declaring that
henceforth they would receive the voice of Moses as the voice of God.

That day the Israelites encamped on the shore; and all night the waves
cast upon the coast the dead bodies of Pharaoh's host, and chariots
innumerable, with their stores of quivers of arrows, lances, swords,
and spears; so that the men of Israel, to the number of one hundred
thousand chosen out of each tribe, save that of Aaron were armed from
the spoils of the dead soldiers and chariots. Was not this, also, the
finger of God, O my father! The impression made upon the minds of the
children of Israel, by this wonderful exhibition of the power of
God,--of His goodness to them and His vengeance upon Pharaoh,--was
such that they believed God, and feared Him, and professed themselves
ready henceforth to be obedient to His voice.

When Moses and the children of Israel saw that their enemies were
dead, they chanted a sublime hymn of praise and triumph to God upon
the shore. Then came Miriam, the sister of Aaron, the aged prophetess
of God, bearing a timbrel in her hand, and followed by an innumerable
company of maidens and daughters of Israel, each with her timbrel in
her hand, and singing songs of joy and triumph, while the virgins
danced before the Lord.

Now, my dear father, I have brought my letters nearly to a close. I
have recorded the most wonderful events earth ever saw, and displays
of Divine power which man has never before witnessed. In contemplating
these wonders, you will be impressed with the terrible majesty of God,
and overwhelmed by His greatness. You will be struck with His
unwavering devotion and care for His people whom He hath chosen, and
with His unceasing vengeance upon His enemies, and such as oppress
those whom He protects. You will be awed and humbled with a sublime
perception of his limitless power in the heavens, on earth, and in the
sea; and feel deeply your own insignificance as a mere worm of the
dust in His sight; and you will cry with me, as I beheld all these
manifestations of His glorious power--

"What is man that thou art mindful of him, O God, who fillest the
heavens with the immensity of Thy presence, and in Thine own fulness
art all in all?"

From the Sea of Arabia, Moses led the armies of Israel, for three
encampments, into the wilderness towards Horeb. Here was no water but
that which was bitter; and the people murmuring, Moses pacified them
by a miracle. Thence they came to Elim, where were twelve wells of
water and seventy palm-trees, and here we encamped for some days.
After certain further wanderings, we came to a wilderness, just one
month after departing from Egypt, God, in all that time, taking not
away the Pillar of Cloud by day nor the Pillar of Fire by night from
before the people. Indeed, the whole journey was a miracle, and
attended by miracles; for in this wilderness, Sinn, their provisions
failed, and the people (who are a perverse and stiff-necked people,
forgetful of favors past, and rebellious--as is perhaps natural to
those who have been so long in bondage, and find themselves now free),
murmured, and again blamed Moses for bringing them from their fare of
flesh and bread in Egypt, to die of hunger in the wilderness. God,
instead of raining fire upon them, mercifully and graciously rained
bread from heaven to feed them, returning their want of faith in Him
with loving-kindness and pardon. And not only did God send bread from
heaven--which continues to fall every morning--but sent quails upon
the camp; so that they covered the whole plain. The taste of this
heavenly bread is like coriander-seed in wafers made with honey. It is
white, is called by the people manna, and is in quantities sufficient
for the whole of them. The camp thence moved forward and came into the
vale of Horeb, where I had first beheld Moses standing by his flock.
Here there was no water, and the people murmured in their thirst, and
again blamed Moses for bringing them out of Egypt into that
wilderness, not remembering the mighty deliverance at the Sea of
Arabia, nor the manna, nor the quails. At the first obstacle or
privation, they would ever cry out against Moses, who, one day,
exclaimed to his God, in his perplexity--

"What shall I do to this people? They are almost ready to stone me!"

Then the Lord commanded him to take his rod and strike the rock in
Horeb. He did so, and the water gushed forth in a mighty torrent, cool
and clear, and ran like a river, winding through all the camp.

We are now encamped before Horeb. From this mountain God has given,
amid thunders, and lightnings, and earthquakes, His laws to His
people, by which they are to walk in order to please Him. They are ten
in number: four relating to their duty to Him, and the remaining six
to their duty to one another. It would be impossible, my dear father,
for me to describe to you the awful aspect of Horeb, when God came
down upon it, hidden from the eye of Israel in a thick cloud, with the
thunders, and lightnings, and the voice of the trumpet of God
exceeding loud, so that all the camp trembled for dread and fear. Nor
could I give you any idea of the aspect of the Mount of God, from
which went up a smoke, as the smoke of a furnace, for seven days and
nights, and how the voice of the trumpet waxed louder and louder,
sounding long and with awful grandeur along the skies, calling Moses
to come up into the mount to receive His laws, while the light of the
glory of the Lord was like devouring fire. In obedience to the
terrible voice, Moses left Israel in the plain and ascended the mount.
Aaron and others of the elders accompanied him so near, that they saw
the pavement on which the God of Israel stood. It was, under His feet,
as a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven in its
clearness.[2] He was absent forty days. When twenty days were passed
and they saw him not, nor knew what had happened to him, the whole
people murmured, became alarmed, believed that they would never see
him again, and resolved to return to Egypt if they could find a
leader. Aaron refused to go back with them; but at length they
compelled him to consent, if in seven days Moses returned not. At the
end of this period they called Aaron and shouted:

"Up! Choose us a captain to lead us back to Egypt."

But Aaron answered that he would not hearken to them, and bade them
wait for Moses.

Then came a company of a thousand men, all armed, and said:

"Up! make us gods which shall go before us! As for this Moses, we wot
not has become of him."

At length Aaron, no longer able to refuse, said--

"What god will ye have to lead you?"

"Apis! the god of Pharaoh and the Egyptians, whom we and our fathers
worshipped in Egypt."

Then Aaron received from them the jewels of gold they had taken from
the Egyptians, and cast them into a furnace, and made an image of the
calf Serapis, and said, in grief, irony, and anger--

"This, and like this, is thy god, O Israel, that brought thee up out
of the land of Egypt!"

And erecting an altar before this image, these Israelites, not yet
weaned from Egyptian idolatry, burned incense and sacrificed before
it, and made a feast to the god, with music and dancing, as the
Egyptians do. At length Moses reappeared, sent down from the mount by
an indignant God, who beheld this extraordinary return to idolatry.
When the holy prophet saw what was done, he sternly rebuked Aaron, who
excused himself by pleading that he was compelled to yield, and that
he did so to show them the folly of trusting to such an idol, after
they had the knowledge of the true God. Moses took the calf they had
made, and made Aaron burn it in the fire, and he ground it to powder,
and made the idolatrous children of Israel drink of the bitter and
nauseous draught. Again he rebuked Aaron, and called for all who were
on the Lord's side, when several hundreds of the young men came and
stood by him. He commanded them to slay all who had bowed the knee or
danced before the calf; and in one hour three thousand men were slain
by the sword, in expiation of their sin against God.

Now, my dear father, my last letter must be brought to a close. Moses
informs me that the Lord, in punishment of this sin of Israel, will
cause them to wander many years in the wilderness ere He bring them to
the land promised to their fathers, and will subject them to be
harassed by enemies on all sides, some of whom have already attacked
them, but were discomfited by the courage of a Hebrew youth, called
Joshua, who promises to become a mighty warrior and leader in Israel,
and whom Moses loves as an own son.

In view, therefore, of this long abode of the children of Israel in
the desert, I shall to-morrow join a caravan which will then pass to
the northward, on its way into Syria from Egypt. It will be with
profound regret that I shall bid adieu to Moses, to Aaron, to Miriam,
and all the friends I have found among this wonderful people. Will not
the world watch from afar the progress of this army of God, which has
beheld the wonders by which He brought them out of Egypt? Doubtless,
ere this you have heard, by ships of Egypt, of some of the mighty
miracles which have devastated her cities and plains; and you will
hear, ere this letter reaches you, of the destruction of the whole
army of Egypt, with their king Pharaoh-Thothmeses, in the Arabian Sea.

Farewell, my dear father; in a few weeks I shall embrace you. We will
then talk of the majesty, and power, and glory of the God of Israel,
and learn to fear Him; to love, obey, and serve Him,--remembering His
judgments upon Pharaoh, and also upon His chosen people Israel when
they forgot Him; and, that as He dealt with nations, so will He deal
with individuals! Obedience, with unquestioned submission in awe and
love to this great and holy God, our august Creator, is the only path
of peace and happiness for kings or subjects; and the only security
for admission, after death, into His divine heaven above, "whither,"
saith His holy servant Moses, "all men will ultimately ascend, who
faithfully serve Him on earth; while those who, like Pharaoh-Thothmeses,
despise Him and His power, will be banished forever from His celestial
presence into the shades below, doomed there to endure woes that know
no termination, through the cycles of the everlasting ages."

Farewell, my dear father; may the Pillar of Cloud be our guide by day,
and the Pillar of Fire by night, in the wilderness of this world! With
prayer to God to bring me in safety to you, and to guard you in health
until I see your face again,

 I am your ever affectionate son,

[2] Exodus xxiv. 10.



There are necessary, perhaps, a few words to show that the author of
the preceding book has not arbitrarily employed facts, and made use of
traditions to suit a certain series of hypothetical events; but has
been controlled strictly by authorities.

Scholars, versed in Egyptian archæology, will do the author justice in
the plan and execution of his work; for minds, enriched with true
erudition, upon the history of the land where his scenes are placed,
will not only understand the difficulties which a writer has to
contend with, but appreciate what he has done. Captious criticism
will, of course hold itself wholly independent of facts; while
hypercriticism must be suffered to show its _quasi_ erudition. To fair
and manly scholastic criticism, whether from theological scholars, or
students in the "learning of the Egyptians," the work is open; and the
author will be grateful to any judicious and respectable scholar who
will kindly point out errors--proving them to be such.

The reader of Egyptian history is aware that but little reliance can
be placed on the assigned length of periods, which furnish us with
neither names nor facts, nor reliable monuments; because at this day
we have no control over the fictions and errors of historians. To
carry up to the first century of history a connected chain of
authentic chronology is not yet possible.

We have given due credit to MANETHO'S statements, but have little
confidence in many of his alleged facts, vouched as they are by
JOSEPHUS and HERODOTUS. The late discoveries by CHAMPOLLION _le
Jeune_, BUNSEN, Dr. YOUNG, LEPSIUS, and others, with the revelations
of actual historical inscriptions, have rendered the books of these
hitherto universally quoted writers nearly obsolete. The traveller of
to-day, who visits Egypt and can read hieroglyph, knows more of the
or any of the cis-Pharaoic writers thereupon. As revelations are made
from time to time, we have to change our dates, revise our "facts,"
and reform our whole history of the past of Egypt, both in its
chronology and dynasties. In this work we have availed ourselves of
the latest discoveries, down to those of last year, by the celebrated
French _savant_, M. AUGUSTE MARIETTE, whose discoveries have, until
recently been made known only to the Academy of Sciences, France, in
modest and unpretending reports of his scientific researches.

As we have very thoroughly gone over the ground of Egyptian
archæology, both in its scientific and theological relations, we are
aware from what quarters attacks will be likely to come, if this book
is honored by the notice of scholars. But to such, we beg leave to say
that, while we may not have formed our work on the plan _their_ views
would have suggested, we have done so on a plan which is defensible;
for there are several schools of interpretation of chronology and
dynasty; and as we have chosen to abide by one of them alone, we are
ready to defend our position, so far as may be necessary to prove that
we are not ignorant of the subject we have attempted to illustrate.

The impartial scholar will see that we have endeavored to combine the
different, and often conflicting statements and opinions of the
mythology of Egypt, and to present a system which should represent the
belief of the Egyptian people at the time; and out of confusion to
create order.

In writing a book, the _time_ of which is placed anterior to the
language in which it is written, and even to the Greek and Roman,
there is of necessity the use of terms, which in one sense are
anachronisms, unless one actually makes use of the vernacular of the
Egyptians. For instance, the Greek form of names of gods and men, is
often adopted instead of the Misric, the use of which would be
unintelligible pedantry: therefore, Apollo, Hercules, Venus, Isis, and
Mars, are often written in our pages instead of the Egyptian names.

In order to show the general reader the variety allowable in Egyptian
names and dynasties, as well as chronology, we will append a few

According to one writer on Egypt, it was Amenophis who was lost in the
Red Sea. According to another, it was Thothmes III.; to another,
Thothmes IV.; and to still another, Amos I.; and to another, Osis!

Amuthosis is called by KENRICK (ii. p. 154), Misphragmuthosis.
Thothmes is also called Thothmeses and other variations. Osiris has
many titles and many legends, but we have adopted the popular one in

Sesostris is called Ositasen, Osokron, Remeses, and other names,
according to the interpretation of his cartouches, and other

The pyramid of Chephren is called also Chafre, Chephres, Cephren, and
other designations, while Cheops has half a dozen appellations. A
writer, therefore, who seeks to present an intelligible view of the
manners, customs, religion, and polity of the ancient Egyptians must
decide what authority and what path he will follow; and having chosen
each, he should pursue it undeviatingly to its close. This we have
tried to do; and while those who might have selected a different one
may, perhaps, not coincide with our judgment, they will at least have
the candor to acknowledge that we are as much entitled, as scholars,
to respect in the choice we have made, as if we had made one in
harmony with their own peculiar views.

The question of "dynasty" has presented singular difficulties; but we
have mainly followed NOLAN and SEYFFARTH, leaving their guidance,
however, when, our own judgment dictated a deviation from their views.
When some chronologers of the highest character place the birth of
MOSES 1572, B. C. (vide NOLAN), others 1947 (vide SEYFFARTH), others
2100 years, others 1460, it is necessary that a writer, whose book
requires a fixed date, should make a decision. We have, after careful
consideration of the whole ground, adopted the era which we believe to
be the true one. The confusion attending the adjustment of the
Pharaoic dynasties to their true time, is well known to scholars and
admitted by all except those who have advanced figures of their own,
and expect Egyptian Chronology henceforth to be construed by them
alone. NOLAN (vide Book IV., Sect. iv.), has presented to our minds
the clearest exposition of the question; and we have followed, very
closely, his table of the dynasty of the Pharaohs between the eras of
Joseph and the Exodus.

The Biblical scholar need not be informed that Moses was forty years
of age before he interested himself openly in the Hebrews. Egyptian
history (see NOLAN) shows that in his thirty-fifth year, the
queen-mother, Pharaoh's daughter, died, and was succeeded by Mœris;
and as the Scriptures are silent, as to the occupation and place of
Moses in the interval, we are justifiable in placing him out of Egypt,
during the six years that followed, as we have done.

We desire here to acknowledge our indebtedness to the following
authors, whose works, either directly or indirectly, we have
consulted, and from which we have made use of such parts as served our
purpose; and not wishing to burden our pages with notes and
references, we here make our grateful acknowledgments to them, and
recognition of their works:

 G. SEYFFARTH, A. M., Ph. D., D. D., seriatim, especially,
 "Observationes Egyptiorum Astronomicæ, et Hireroglyphice descriptæ in
 Zodiaco," &c., &c.--Leipz.

 "The Egyptian Chronology Analyzed;" by FREDERICK NOLAN, LL. D., F. R.

 "The Monuments of Egypt and Voyage up the Nile;" edited by FRANCIS L.
 HAWKS, D. D., LL. D.

 "Ancient Egypt under the Pharaohs;" by JOHN KENRICK, M. A. A work
 which presents at one view the most complete illustrations of Egypt

 To SIR GARDINER WILKINSON, D. C. L., F. R. S., &c., the writer is
 indebted for much information respecting details of art, society, and

 "The Philosophy of the Plan of Salvation;" edited by Professor C. E.
 STOWE, D. D., by an anonymous author.

 Dr. MAX UHLEMANN'S writings on Egyptian antiquities.

 Rt. Rev. BISHOP WAINWRIGHT'S "Land of Bondage."

 MILLS' "Ancient Hebrews."

 LEPSIUS' "Discoveries in Egypt, Ethiopia," &c., and this eminent
 author's other valuable writings upon Egyptian archæology and

 STANLEY'S "Sinai and Palestine."

 HENGSTENBERG'S "Egypt and the Books of Moses Illustrated by the
 Monuments of Egypt."

 Col. HOWARD VISE on the Pyramids.

 J. A. ST. JOHN'S "Egypt and Nubia;" London, 1845.

 "Antiquities of Egypt;" London, Rel. Tr. Soc., 1841.


 BURTON'S "Excerpts Hierogl."

 J. C. NOTT, M. D., Mobile, to whose courtesy the author is indebted
 for several valuable works illustrating ancient Egypt.

 VON BOHLEN (Petrus).

 BIROU, Roy-Soc. Lit.

 "Description de l'Egypte," pendant l'Expédition de l'Armée Française,

 LESUEUR, "Chron. des Rois d'Egypte."

 Dr. ROBINSON'S very valuable researches.

 BUNSEN'S "Egypten" and other writings, seriatim.

 "DENON'S Voyage."

 PLUTARCH, and other Greek and classic authors who have written upon
 Egypt, have been made use of by the author as sources of information,
 and adopted as authorities so far as subsequent monumental
 revelations have not lessened the weight of their testimony.

 We are also under obligations to Professor HENRY S. OSBORN, for the
 aid afforded in the Phœnician portion of our book, by his recently
 published work, "Palestine, Past and Present," with "Biblical,
 Literary, and Scientific Notes;" one of the most valuable and
 interesting books of travel and research which has appeared for many
 years, on the East: Challen & Son, Phil., 1859.

Besides the above, we have availed ourselves of numerous sources of
information accessible to the Egyptian student, to enumerate which
would extend this note to a catalogue.

We have sought in the foregoing work, to illustrate and delineate
events of the Old Testament, as in the "Prince of the House of David"
the New, so that they should "come home with a new power," to make use
of the language of another, "to those who by long familiarity have
lost, as it were, the vividness of the reality," and bring out their
outlines so as to convey to the mind of the reader a more complete
realization of scenes which seem to be but imperfectly apprehended by
the general reader of the historical parts of the Old Testament. The
work is written, not for scholars nor men learned in Egyptian lore; it
advances nothing new; but simply offers in a new dress that which is
old. The writer will have accomplished his object, "if his book," to
quote the words of Mr. STANLEY, in his preface to "Sinai and
Palestine," "brings any one with fresh interest to the threshold of
the divine story 'of the Exodus,' which has many approaches, and
which, the more it is explored, the more it reveals of poetry, life,
and instruction, such as has fallen to the lot of no other history in
the world."

The intention of the author in writing these works on Scripture
narratives is to draw the attention of those persons who do not read
the Bible, or who read it carelessly, to the wonderful events it
records, as well as the divine doctrines it teaches; and to tempt them
to seek the inspired sources from which he mainly draws his facts.

The author's plan embraces three works of equal size. They cover the
three great eras of Hebrew history, viz.: its beginning, at the
Exodus; its culmination, as in the reigns of David and Solomon; its
decline, as in the day of Our Lord's incarnation.

J. H. I.

*** End of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "The Pillar of Fire - or, Israel in Bondage" ***

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