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Title: Of Ghostes and Spirites, Walking by Night - And of Straunge Noyses, Crackes, and Sundrie Forewarnings, - Which Commonly Happen Before the Death of Men: Great - Slaughters, and Alterations of Kingdoms
Author: Laveterus, Lewes
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Of Ghostes and Spirites, Walking by Night - And of Straunge Noyses, Crackes, and Sundrie Forewarnings, - Which Commonly Happen Before the Death of Men: Great - Slaughters, and Alterations of Kingdoms" ***

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Transcriber's Notes: Italic text is denoted by _underscores_
and change of font text by =equal signs=. There is no Bold text
to convert in this project. The caret character (^) is used for
superscript numbers (see l. 2795)

The Greek passages were very to hard to read, and every effort has
been made to reproduce them correctly.

Typographical errors worth a special mention:

Line 828: Original has 'Onocentanrus'. It should read: 'Onocentaurus'.

Line 1058: Original reads'=Paules Aegineta= writeth'. It should read:
'=Paulus Aegineta= writeth'. Corrected.

Line 1705: In the original book the abbreviation "w[superscript 't']
appears to be purely the author's own abbreviation for the word
'with'. For clarity this has been changed to 'with' in this text

Line 2651: [Sidenote: The spirit of Athens.] Original reads: 'The
spirit of Athen.'. Corrected.

Line 4817: The original reads: 'in the 16. of =Ruke='. It should
read: 'in the 16. of =Luke=.'. Corrected.

Line 5848: Original contains an isolated bracket: 'life of
=Cimon=, (as hée is translated'. It has been left as shown in the
original as uncertain as to where the missing bracket should be.

Line 6173: Original reads: '(which many haue noted before mee
(that many'. The bracket is reversed. It should read: '(which
many haue noted before mee) that many'. Corrected.

Line 7762: Original reads: 'fault vpon his wife =Eua=,'. It should
read:'fault vpon his wife =Eue=,'. Corrected.

Line 8216: Original reads: 'passiuely, as they terme it in the
schooles)'. The opening bracket is missing. It should read:
'passiuely, (as they terme it in the schooles)'. Corrected.

  Ghostes and Spirites,
  Walking by Night,

  And of straunge Noyses, Crackes, and sundrie
  forewarnings, which commonly happen before
  the death of men: Great slaughters,
  and alterations of Kingdomes.

  One Booke,

  Written by _Lewes Lauaterus of Tigurine_.

  And translated into English by _R. H._


  Imprinted at London by Thomas Creede.


To the Reader.

Being desirous (gentle Reader) to exercise my selfe with some
translation, at vacant times, and seeing, that since the Gospell
hath been preached, this one question, touching the appearing of
spirits and soules departed, hath not bin much handled amongst vs,
and therfore many, otherwise well affected in religion vtterly
ignorant heerein, I thought it not amisse to take in hand some good
and learned Treatise concerning this matter. Wherein as many haue
both learnedly, painfully, and religiously trauelled: so amongst
others, none in my iudgement hath more handsomly & eloquētly, with
more iudgment & better method discoursed the same, thē _Lewes
Lauaterus_, Minister of Tigurine. Others haue hādled it indeed wel,
but yet _Nihil ad nostrā hunc_, being either too short, or too long,
or too darke, or too doubtful, or otherwise so cōfused, that they
leaue the Reader more in suspence in the end, then they found him in
the beginning. As for Maister _Lauaterus_ his discretion heerein,
I will no otherwise commend it, then to desire the Reader to view,
and iudge himself. For thus much at the first sight he shall see: A
cleare methode, with a familiar and easie stile, the matter throughly
handled _Pro_ and _Con_, on both sides, so that nothing seemeth to
be wanting, nor any thing redounding. And if it be true that Horace
saith, _Omne tulit punctum, qui miscuit vtile dulci_, that is, He
winneth the prize, that ioyneth pleasure with profit: I thinke this
Authour may also in this respect be pronounced _Victor_, and adiudged
to the best game. For he so intreateth this serious and terrible
matter of Spirits, that he now and thē inserting some strange story
of Monks, Priestes, Friers, and such like counterfeits, doth both
very liuely display their falshood, and also not a litle recreate his
Reader: and yet in the end he so aptly concludeth to the purpose,
that his histories seeme not idle tales, or impertinent vagaries, but
very truthes, naturally falling vnder the compasse of this matter.
And how profitable this his woorke is, those may best iudge, which
are most ignorant in this question, some thinking euery small motion
& noyse to be Spirites, and some so fondly perswaded that there
are no Spirits, who being better enformed herein by this Authour,
I suppose will confesse his work to haue done them some profit: if
knowledge be profitable, and ignorance discommodious. And againe,
those which being hitherto borne in hande that mens soules returne
againe on earth, crauing helpe of the liuing, and haue spent much of
their substaunce on idle Monkes and Friers, to relieue them, will
confesse the like. For when they shall see they haue bene falsely
taught, and that they were not the soules of men which appeared,
but either falshood of Monks, or illusions of diuels, franticke
imaginations, or some other friuolous & vaine perswasions, they will
thinke it profitable to haue knowne the truth, as well to auoid error
hereafter, as to saue their mony from such greedy caterpillers.
Some also which be otherwise well trained vp in Religion, and yet
not knowing what to thinke of these matters, will not iudge their
labour euill imployed, nor the worke vnprofitable, wherby they may
be brought out of doubt, and know certainly what to beleeue. There
be many also euen now a dayes, which are hanted & troubled with
spirites, and know not howe to vse themselues, who when they shall
learne how a Christian man ought to gouern himselfe, being vexed with
euil spirits, wil think it a very profitable point of doctrine, that
shal teach them to direct themselues. Profitable therefore it is,
and shalbe, no doubt, vnto many, and disprofitable vnto none, except
perchance vnto popish Monks and Priests, who are like hereby to lose
a great part of their gaines, which sometimes they gathered togither
in great abundaunce, by their deceitfull doctrine of the appearing
of dead mens soules. But this their wicked and diuellish doctrine,
togither with all the patches and appendices therto belonging, he so
notably teareth and cutteth in peeces, that I am well assured they
shal neuer be able to cobble and clout them vp again. And this doth
he with such a moderation of breuitie and tediousnesse, that I may
rightly say; He hath said well, and not too much, and written truly,
and not too litle.

Now as touching my translation, although I haue not made him speake
with like grace in English, as hee dooth in Latine: yet haue I not
chaunged his meaning, nor altered his matter, endeuouring my selfe
rather to make thee vnderstand what thou readest, then to smoothe
and pollish it with fine & picked words, which I graunt others might
haue done more exquisitely, and perchaunce I my selfe also somewhat
better, if I would haue made thereof a study and labour, and not a
recreation and exercise. But howsoeuer I haue done herein, verily
good reader, I trust thou wilt take in good part, which is all that I
esteeme: if any man shall mislike therof, let him amend it. I trust
it be sufficient to testifie my good will to do thee good, and to let
thee vnderstand the Authours meaning.




To the right excellent and most wise and vertuous Lord _Iohn
Steigerus_ Consull _of the noble Common wealth of_ Berna, _his good
Lord and Patrone_, Lewes Lauaterus _of_ Tigurine, _wisheth health_.

Many and diuers things are reasoned vpon, both of the learned and
vnlearned, as wel of other matter, as also of Spirites, which are
seene and heard, and make men afraid in the night season, and in the
day time, by sea and by lande, in the fields, woods, and houses: And
likewise concerning such straunge things which for the most part
happen before the death of certain men, especially great Princes,
and before notable innouations of Kingdomes and Empires. Many which
neuer sawe or heard any of these things, suppose all that is reported
of them, to be meere trifles and old wiues tales: for so much as
simple men, and such as are fearefull and superstitious, perswade
themselues they haue seen this or that, when indeed the matter is
farre otherwise. Againe, there are some, which assoone as they heare
of any thing, especially if it happen in the night, they by and by
thinke some spirite dooth walke, and are maruellously troubled in
minde, because they cannot discerne naturall things from spirites.
And some (chiefly those whiche hunt after gaines, by the soules of
dead men) affirme that the most part of such things which are heard
or seene, are the soules of dead men, which craue helpe of them
that are liuing, to be deliuered out of the torments of most cruell
paine in Purgatorie. Many not only of the common sort, but also men
of excellent knowledge, do maruell whether there be any spirits or
no, and what maner of things they are. Yea and some of my familiar
friends haue many times requested me, to shew them my opinion
concerning these matters. Wherfore me seemeth it shall be worth my
laboure, if I declare briefly and plainly out of the word of God,
what we ought to iudge concerning these things. For the Ministers
of Gods Church can take nothing more profitable in hande, than to
instruct the people of God purely and plainly, in such necessary
matters as come in question out of the word of God, which is a
lanterne (as the Psalmist saith) vnto our feete, and a light vnto our
pathes: and to deliuer them from all errour and superstition, and
bring them out of all wauering and doubt. And verily their studie &
diligence is to be highly commended, who for these fewe yeares ago,
haue set forth certaine bookes drawne out of the scriptures, written
in the Germaine tongue against sundrie errours: and theirs likewise
who in these our dayes by writing of bookes do teache, instruct,
and confirme the rude and vnlearned people. For amongst many other
excellent benefits, which God our heauenly Father hath bestowed vppon
mankinde, this also is a great and most liberall gift, that in this
latter, and as it were old age of the world, he hath brought to light
by the Art of Imprinting, aswel many other good Authours, as also
the holie scriptures of the old and new Testament, written in diuers
languages: whereby he doth not onlie teach vs amply and fully what
to beleeue, and what to doo, but also mightily subuerteth and quite
ouerthroweth diuers and sundrie errours, which by little and little
haue crept into the Church. Truly all such are verie vngrateful
towards God, which do not willingly acknowledge this so notable a

[Sidenote: The diuision or partes of this booke.]

As touching this my treatise concerning Spirits, and straunge wonders,
I haue deuided it into three partes for the more cleare vnderstanding
therof. In the first parte I shewe, that there are visions and spirits,
and that they appeare vnto men sometimes, and that many & maruellous
things happen besides the ordinarie course of nature. In the second
I discusse what maner of things they are, that, is not the soules of
dead men, as some men haue thought, but either good or euill angels,
or else some secret and hid operations of God. In the third I declare
why God doth somtime suffer Spirits to appear, and diuers forewarnings
to happen: and also how mē ought to behaue themselues when they
happen to meete with such things. In these points or partes, the
chiefest thing wheron men vse to reason touching this matter, are
conteined. Now I mean to handle this matter, being very obscure and
intricate, with many questions, (I trust) so plainly, & clerely out
of the holy scriptures, whereon we may surely stay our selues, out
of the anciēt fathers, allowed historiographers, and other good
writers, that those which are studious and louers of Gods truth, may
well vnderstand what may be denied & thought of those apparitions, &
other straunge & maruellous matters. And I also trust that euen our
aduersaries also, (in case they wil lay their affections aside, but a
litle while) wil say that I haue truly alleaged all their arguments,
and confuted thē without any railing or bitternesse. For my purposed
ende is according to the doctrine of Saint _Paule_, to edifie and not
to destroy.

As touching diuinations, blessings, iuglings, coniurings, and diuers
kinds of sorcerie, and generally of all other diuellish practises,
certaine learned men of our time haue written bookes, as _Gasper
Pencerus_, _Ioannes Viera_, _Ludouicus Mellichius_, and perchaunce
some others also, whose worke I haue not yet seene. It is not long
ago since _Ioannes Riuius_ a man learned and eloquent, published a
booke in the latin toong, entreating of spirites and superstition. In
the which booke albeit very briefly, yet doth hee as he is wont in
all things, very finely & eloquently intreat of this matter, and of
other foolishe superstitions. And albeit that I do write more largely
of this, yet was it not my minde to gather togither al those thinges
which I could haue spoken and alleaged touching the same matter: but
only such as seeme the chiefest and most especiall points, partly
because I would not be tedious to the reader, & partly also least my
books shuld grow vnto an ouer great quantity. I haue great hope that
_Ioachimus Camerarius_, that excellent man, who readeth the auncient
writers both greeks and latins, with exquisite iudgemēt, and hath great
experience in all things, will shortly write learnedly & at large
of this matter, and also of others like vnto it. For so muche hee
seemeth to promise in his preface to _Plutarches_ Booke, _De defectu
oraculorum, & figura, & consecrata Delphis_ (wherin he handleth the
nature and operatiōs of diuels) and also in other of his writings. I
for my parte had once written this my treatise in the vulger tong,
and now bicause I trust it shal be also profitable to other men, I
haue translated it into latin, adding certaine things thereto.

[Sidenote: The dedication.]

This my booke which I haue with great labour and study gathered out
of other mēs writings I present & offer vnto you (most noble consul)
according to the ancient fashion & custome: not for that I suppose
you haue any neede of my teaching, touching these things which are
herein hādled. (For I am not ignoraunt, vnder what teachers you haue
atteined vnto true learning, and how you haue and do continually read
ouer sundry good authors with perfect knowledge in many tongues.) But
partly that I might purchase credit and authoritie vnto this my booke
with those men, vnto whome your goodnes, godlinesse and constancie
(which you haue alwaies hitherto euermore shewed, and yet do shewe,
in setting forth true religiō, & mainteining good lawes) is throughly
knowne: and partly that I might shew my selfe in some respecte
thankfull vnto you. For your honour hath bestowed many benefits on
me, whom you onlie knowe by sight, and vppon other Ministers of the
Church, wherby ye haue so bound me vnto you, that I shall neuer be
able to make any recompence.

Wherefore I most earnestly beseech you, not to refuse this signe and
token of my good wil, be it neuer so simple: but rather to vouchsafe,
whē ye haue leisure from the laboure and toile of the common wealth,
to reade ouer this my booke: for I haue good hope it will not seeme
vnpleasaunt vnto you & others in the reading, as wel for the plaine
order I vse therin, as also for the sundrie and manifold histories in
it recited.

Almightie God, who hath so blessed you with his heauenly gifts, that
for them, (albeit very yong) you haue aspired vnto the highest degree
in your noble citie and dominiō of _Berna_, vouchsafe to preserue you
in health, and increase and multiply his good gifts in you. My Lords
& brethren the ministers of _Tigurin_, and also your old companion
master _George Grebelius_, that excellent man in lerning, vertu, and
nobilitie, hartily salute your Lordship. From _Tigurin_ in the month
of Ianuary, the year of Christs Natiuitie. 1570.




A Table of the Chapters of the three principall parts, touching Spirits
walking by Night.

   _Of the first part._

   Concerning certaine words which are often vsed in this
   Treatise of Spirites, and diuers other diuinations of
   things to come. Chapter.1.                                   Folio.1.

   Melancholike persons and madde men, imagining things
   which in very deed are not. Chapter.2.                         Fol.9.

   Fearefull men, imagine that they see and heare straunge
   things. Chap.3.                                               Fol.14.

   Men which are dull of seeing and hearing, imagine many
   things which in very deed are not so. Chap.4.                 Fol.16.

   Many are so feared by other men, that they suppose they
   haue heard or seene spirits. Chap.5.                          Fol.21.

   Priests and Monkes fained themselues to be spirits: also
   how _Mundus_ vnder this colour defiled _Paulina_,
   and _Tyrannus_ abused many noble and honest matrons.
   Chap.6.                                                       Fol.23.

   _Timotheus Aelurus_, counterfeiting himselfe to be
   an Angell, obteined a Bishoppricke: foure Monkes of the
   order of Preachers, made many vaine apparitions at
   _Berna_. Chapter.7.                                           Fol.28.

   Of a counterfaite and deceiuing spirite at _Orleaunce_ in
   _France_. Chap.8.                                             Fol.37.

   Of a certaine parish priest at _Clauenna_, which
   fained him selfe to be our Lady, and of an other that
   counterfeited himselfe to be a Soule, as also of a certaine
   disguised Iesuit Frier. Chapter.9.                            Fol.41.

   That it is no maruell if vaine sightes haue bene in olde
   time, neither yet that it is to be maruelled at, if there
   be any at this day. Chap.10.                                  Fol.45.

   That many naturall things are taken to be ghostes.
   Chapter.11.                                                   Fol.49.

   A proofe out of the Gentiles histories, that ghostes do
   oftentimes appeare. Chap.12.                                  Fol.53.

   A proofe out of the histories of the auncient Church, and
   of the writings of holy Fathers, that there are walking
   spirits. Chap.13.                                             Fol.62.

   That in the bookes, set foorth by Monkes, are many
   ridiculous and vaine apparitions. Chap.14.                    Fol.65.

   A proofe by other sufficient writers, that spirits do
   sometime appeare. Chap.15.                                    Fol.68.

   Daily experience teacheth vs, that spirites do appeare to
   men. Chap.16.                                                 Fol.71.

   That there happen straunge wonders and prognostications,
   and that sodain noyses and cracks and such like, are heard
   before the death of men, before battail, and before some
   notable alterations and chaunges. Chap.17.                    Fol.77.

   It is proued by testimonies of holy scripture, that spirites
   are sometime seen and heard, and that other strange matters
   do often chaunce. Chap.18.                                    Fol.85.

   To whom, when, where, and after what sort, spirits do
   appeare, and what they do worke. Chap.19.                     Fol.88.

   _The Chapters of the second part._

   The opinion or beleef of the Gentils, Iewes, and Turks,
   concerning the estate of soules seperated from their bodies.
   Chapter.1.                                                    Fol.98.

   The Papists doctrine touching the soules of dead men,
   and the appearing of them. Chap.2.                           Fol.102.

   What hath followed this doctrine of the Papists,
   concerning the appearing of mens soules. Chap.3.             Fol.110.

   Testimonies out of the word of God, that neither the
   soules of the faithful, nor of infidels, do walke vpon
   the earth after they are once parted from their bodies.
   Chapter.4.                                                   Fol.114.

   Testimonies of the auncient Fathers, that deade mens
   soules parted from their bodies, doo not wander here
   vppon earth. Chap.5.                                         Fol.116.

   A confutation of those mens arguments or reasons, which
   affirme, that dead mens soules do appeare. And first,
   that is answered which certaine do alleage, to wit, that
   God is omnipotent, and therefore that hee can worke
   contrary to the ordinary course of nature. Chap.6.           Fol.123.

   That the true Samuel did not appeare to the Witch in
   Endor. Chap.7.                                               Fol.127.

   A confutation of their arguments, which woulde haue
   Samuell himselfe to appeare. Chap.8.                         Fol.133.

   Whether the Diuell haue power to appeare vnder the
   shape of a faithfull man? Chap.9.                            Fol.140.

   _Moses_ and _Elias_ appeared in the Mount vnto Christ our
   Lorde: many haue beene raised from the dead both in bodie
   and soule, and therefore soules after they are departed, may
   returne on earth againe. Chap.10.                            Fol.145.

   Whether the holy Apostles thought they sawe a mans
   soule, when Christ sodeinly appeared vnto them after
   his Resurrection. Chap.11.                                   Fol.148.

   Concerning the holy Fathers, Councels, Bishoppes, and
   common people, which say that soules doo visibly appeare.
   Chap.12.                                                     Fol.151.

   Whether soules doo returne againe out of Purgatorie,
   and the place which they call _Limbus puerorum_.
   Chapter.13.                                                  Fol.155.

   What those things are which men see and heare: and first
   that good Angels do sometimes appeare. Chap.14.              Fol.159.

   That sometimes, yea and for the most part, euill angels
   doo appeare. Chap.15.                                        Fol.163.

   Of wondrous monsters, and such like. Chap.16.                Fol.164.

   That it is no hard thing for the diuell to appeare in
   diuers shapes, and to bring to passe straunge things.
   Chap.17.                                                     Fol.167.

   Diuels do sometimes bid men do those things which are
   good, and auoyde things that are euill: sometimes they
   tell truth, and for what cause. Chap.18.                     Fol.171.

   _The Chapters of the third part._

   God by the appearing of Spirits doth exercise the faithfull,
   and punish the vnbeleeuers. Chap.1.                          Fol.175.

   What the cause is that in these our dayes, so fewe spirites
   are seene or heard. Chap.2.                                  Fol.183.

   Why God doth suffer straunge noyses, or extraordinary
   rumblings to be heard before some notable alterations, or
   otherwise. Chap.3.                                           Fol.186.

   After what sort they should behaue themselues, which
   see good or euill spirits, or meete with other straunge
   aduentures: and first how both Iewes and Gentiles behaued
   themselues in the like cases. Chap.4.                        Fol.187.

   How Christian men ought to behaue themselues when
   they see spirits, and first, that they ought to haue a
   good courage, and to be stedfast in faith. Chap.5.           Fol.190.

   It behoueth them which are vexed with spirites to
   pray especially, and to giue themselues to fasting,
   sobrietie, watching, and vpright and godly liuing.
   Chap.6.                                                      Fol.193.

   That spirits which vse to appeare, ought to be iustly
   suspected: and that we may not talke with them, nor
   enquire any thing of them. Chap.7.                           Fol.195.

   Testimonies out of the holy Scripture, and one example
   whereby it is prooued, that such kinde of apparitions
   are not to be credited, and that we ought to be verie
   circumspect in them. Chap.8.                                 Fol.201.

   After what sort the faithfull in the primatiue church,
   vsed themselues, when they met with spirits. Chap.9.         Fol.204.

   That sundry kindes of superstition haue crept in, wherby
   men haue attempted to driue away spirits. Chap.10.           Fol.206.

   That spirites are not to bee driuen away by cursing and
   banning. Chap.11.                                            Fol.214.

   After what sort we ought to behaue our selues, when we
   heare straunge cracks, or when other forewarnings happen.
   Chapter.12.                                                  Fol.216.



The first parte of this Booke, concerning Spirits walking by night.
Wherin is declared, that Spirits and sights _do appeare, and that
sundry strange and monstrous things doo happen_.


  Concerning certaine wordes whiche are often vsed in this
  Treatise of Spirits, and diuers other diuinations of
  things to come.

To the intent, that those men which occupie themselues in reading of
this my Booke, and especially in perusing of other auncient writers,
may the better vnderstand euery thing, I will at the first enteraunce
briefly expounde those things which shall séeme to concern the
proprietie of words and termes vsed in this my Treatise of Spirits.

[Sidenote: Spectrum.]

_Spectrum_, amongst the Latines doth signifie a shape or forme of
some thing presenting it selfe vnto our sight.

=Scaliger= affirmeth, that _Spectrum_ is a thing which offereth it
selfe to be séene, either truly, or by vaine imagination. The Diuines
take it to be a substance without a bodie, which being heard or
séene, maketh men afraide.

[Sidenote: Visum.]

_Visum_, signifieth an imagination or a certaine shewe, which men
being in sléepe, yea and waking also, séeme in their iudgement to
behold: as we read of Brutus, who saw his owne angell. =Cicero= in
his first booke =Acadæm, quest.= writeth, that _Visum_, amongst
the Grecians is called φαντασία, a fantasie, or vaine

[Sidenote: Visio.]

Also the Latines call those things _Visiones_, which the Grecians
name φαντασίας.

[Sidenote: Terriculamenta.]

_Terriculamenta_, are vain visions or sights, which make men afraide.
The Latines also call it _Terriculum_, because it bréedeth feare.

[Sidenote: Phantasma.]

[Sidenote: _Mat._24.]

[Sidenote: _Marke_ 6.]

That which S. =Matth. 24.= and =Marke 6.= call φαντασμα,
Erasmus doth translate it _Spectrum_, but the old interpreter vseth
the Gréeke word.

[Sidenote: Phasma.]

φασμα in like manner doth signifie an elfe, a sighte or
vaine apparition. =Suidas= maketh a difference betwéene _Phantasma_
and _Phantasia_, saying, that _Phantasma_ is an imagination, an
appearance or sight of a thing which is not, as are those sightes
which men in their sléepe do thinke they sée: but that _Phantasia_,
is the séeing of that onely which is in very déede.

[Sidenote: Pneuma.]

[Sidenote: _Luk._24.]

πνεῦμα is taken in =Luke 24.= chapter, for a spirite or vaine
imagination. Howbeit most commonly some other word is ioyned vnto it,
if it bee put for an euill spirite: as πνεύματα πλανά πονηρα. The
Gentiles (as S. =Augustine= and other Fathers doo testifie) supposed
that the soules of men became _Dæmones_, that is, good or euil
angels: which if they had done well, then were they called _Lares_,
that is priuate gods: but if they haue done euill, then were they
named _Lemures_, or _Larue_, bugs and Elues. But if it were doubted
whether they had liued well or ill, then were they called _Manes_.
=Apuleius= and other old writers affirme, that _Genij_ and _Lares_
were all one.

[Sidenote: Lares.]

[Sidenote: Præstites.]

It was supposed (as =Festus= witnesseth) that _Lares_, were
the soules of men, or else infernall gods. _Lares_ were called
_Præstites_, because they made all things safe with their eies: that
is, they saued and preserued all things.

[Sidenote: Hostilij.]

And Authors affirme, they were called _Hostilij_, for that they were
supposed to driue away enemies. Neither were they thought to beare
rule only in priuate houses, & in crosse méeting waies, but also to
defend Cities. They were likewise worshipped priuately in houses, and
openly in the high wayes. As touching those that were called _Lares_,
you may read more in =Anthonius Constantius=, of =Fauentia= his
Commentaries, and in =Ouid.lib.5.Fastorum=.

[Sidenote: Genius.]

_Genius_ (say the Grammarians) is the naturall god of euery place,
of euery thing, or of euery man when we are borne, as it is written,
we haue two _Genij_, whereof the one encourageth vs to doo well, the
other to doo euill. _Genius_ (saith =Censorinus=) is a god in whose
gouernance euery man doth liue, so soone as he is borne: either
because hée taketh care for our begetting, or that he is engendred
with vs, or else that he taketh charge and defence of vs when we are
begotten. Sure it is, he is called _Genius_, _à gignendo_, that is,
of begetting.

[Sidenote: Penates].

_Penates_ likewise are domesticall gods. =Macrobius= affirmeth,
that they are gods by whom we onely breathe, by whom we enioy this
body, and by whom we possesse the reason of our mindes. =Nonius=
saith, _Lemures_ are spirites walking by night, and terrors rising
of pictures of mē & beasts. Other say, that _Lemures_ are euil and
hurtfull shapes which appeare in the night, yea and that they be the
soules of those that make men black and blew, called after that name.

[Sidenote: Vmbræ.]

Some men call the ghosts of all dead things by yͤ name of
_Lemures_. Thus saith =Apuleius=, Of those _Lemures_, he that hath
care of his posteritie, and inhabiteth the house with a peaceable and
quiet kinde of rule, was called _Lar familiaris_, god of the house.
And be cause among the people of olde time, as they counted _Lares_
good, so they supposed _Lemures_ to be naught, therefore to driue
them away, they did sacrifice vnto them.

[Sidenote: Lemures.]

Some other affirme, that _Lemures_ are soules which tarry about the
bodies. =Porphyrius= calleth them the wandring soules of men departed
before their time, as it were _Remures_, taking their name of
=Remus=, whose soule folowed his brother =Romulus=: who to the intent
he might pacifie them, instituted feastes called _Lemuria_.

[Sidenote: Laruæ.]

[Sidenote: Ceriti.]

=Seruius= writeth, that _Vmbræ_ were called L_aruæ_: and they called
dead mens soules by the name of V_mbræ_. Of L_aruæ_ men are called
L_aruati_, that is to say, frantike men, and such as are vexed with
spirits. Who also as (=Nonius= witnesseth) are called _Ceriti_.

[Sidenote: Manes.]

=Seruius= saith, that mennes soules are called _Manes_, at suche
time as departing from their bodies, they are not yet passed into
other bodies. And he iudgeth that they are so called by the figure
ἁντίφρασις, (whiche is when one speaketh by contraries) of
the olde adiectiue _Manus_, that is good, because they were nothing
lesse than good. For the auncient people supposed, that _Manes_ were
infernall gods, and therefore did they number them amongst their euil
gods, and pacified them with sacrifice, least they should hurt them.
Some affirme that _Manes_ are indéed infernall gods, but yet good:
whereof commeth _Mane_, which signifieth good, and _Dii Manes_, as
if you would say, good and prosperous gods, and therof also is said
_Immanes_, for, not good.

Some other suppose, that soules separated from the bodies, were
called after this name: Wherby we sée the auncient monuments of
tumbes haue bene dedicated to _Diis Manibus_, to the infernall gods:
In the which opinion =Apuleius= was, as we said a little before.

There are some that iudge _Manes_, to be the very same, that the
old people called _Genii_, and that there were two of these _Manes_
assigned vnto mens bodies, euen immediately after their begetting,
which forsake them not whē they are dead, but continue in the graues
after the bodies are consumed. For the which cause, those men who
defaced Monuments, were thought to doo wrong vnto the gods called
_Manes_. The soothsayers called as well the celestiall as the
infernall gods by the name of _Manes_, and that because they beléeued
(as =Festus= doth write) that all things did _manare_, that is, were
deriued from them. Other thinke they were so called _à manando_, of
flowing, because the places betwéen the circle of the Moone and the
earth, from whence they come, are full of soules.

[Sidenote: Maniæ.]

_Maniæ_ are deformed creatures, as =Festus= saith: and also vgly
shapes, wherwith nursses make children afraid.

[Sidenote: Mormo.]

μορμω is a woman with a face almost of a monstrous fashion:
hereof it is taken for a heg: as also μορμοιλύκειον, doth
signifie a terrible sight, a spirit, or an elfe. =Nicephorus= saith
in his Ecclesiasticall history, that a woman vsing to walke by night,
is called by the name of =Gilo=.

[Sidenote: Lamiæ.]

L_amiæ_ were supposed of the auncient people to be women hauing eies
to put out or in at their pleasure, or rather certaine shapes of
diuels, which taking on them the shewe of beautifull women, deuoured
children and yoong men, allured vnto them with swéete inticements.

=Philostratus= in his booke =Appollonio=, writeth a maruellous
history or fable of one =Menippus=, beloued of an hegge. The same
authour writeth, that L_amiæ_ are called of some men L_aruæ_, spirits
walking by night: and L_emurei_, night spirits of horrible shapes:
and of many _Empusa_, ghoasts of variable fashion: and that nursses
so named them to make their children afraide.

=Chrysostomus Dion= writeth, that in the inmost part of _Affrike_ are
certain wild beasts, hauing the countenance of a woman, which in like
manner are called L_amiæ_: and he saith that they haue their paps and
al the rest of their breast so faire as any Painters wit can deuise,
which being vncouered, they deceitfully allure men vnto them, and
when they haue taken them, doo forthwith deuoure them.

[Sidenote: Lamiæ of Hier chap.4.]

In the fourth chapter of the Lamentations of =Hieremie=, it is saide:
_Lamiæ nudauerunt mammas suas_, _&c._ =Apuleius= writeth, that
_Lamiæ_ are things that make Children affraide.

[Sidenote: Striges.]

_Lamiæ_ are also called _Striges_. _Striges_ (as they say) are
vnluckie birdes, which sucke out the blood of infantes lying in their
cradles. And hereof some men will haue Witches take their name, who
also are called _Volaticæ_, as =Festus= writeth.

[Sidenote: Gorgones.]

The name of _Gorgon_, was inuented to make children afraid: for they
say these _Gorgons_ are rauening spirites, such as men faine _Lamiæ_
to be.

[Sidenote: Incubi.]

[Sidenote: Succubi.]

_Ephialtæ_, and _Hyphialtæ_, that is, _Incubi_ & _Succubi_, (which we
call Maares) are night spirits or rather Diuels, which leape vpon men
in their sléepe. The Phisitians do affirme, that these are nothing
else but a disease.

[Sidenote: Empusa.]

_Empusa_, is an apparition of the Diuel, or a spirit which sheweth
it selfe vnto such as are in misery, chaunging his shape into diuers
formes, and for the most part appeareth at noone time. Read more
hereof in =Suidas=.

[Sidenote: Dicelon.]

[Sidenote: Hecatæa.]

_Dicelon_, is so called because it is sent to make men afraid:
those kinds of terrors the Grecians call _Hecatæa_, as =Apollonius=
writeth, because =Hecate= or =Proserpina= is the cause of them, who
therefore is called βριμώ άπὸ τοῦ βριμᾷν, that is of terrifying, and
that by reason that terrours by night were thought to be stirred vp
by her.

[Sidenote: Acco.]

[Sidenote: Alphito.]

=Plutarchus= writeth, that _Acco_ and _Alphito_, were monstrous
women, by naming of whome, mothers kept their children in awe, and
made them feare to do euil.

[Sidenote: Telchinnes.]

=Cardanus= calleth these Diuels which kéepe vnder the earth, and many
times kill men as they are vndermining, by the name of _Tilchinnes_.
Men vsing witchcraft, and such as are possessed with a Spirit,
and out of their wits, are called amongst the Grecians, τελχῖνες.

[Sidenote: Pan.]

[Sidenote: Faunus.]

Of these sort are those monsters, halfe like men, and halfe like
beastes, whiche men say are founde in woods, and oftentimes haue
appeared vnto men. It is saide, that _Panes_ and _Fauni_, are all
one, hauing their nether parts like vnto Goates féete.

[Sidenote: Satyri.]

[Sidenote: Sileni.]

And menne saye, that _Satyri_, are almost lyke vnto men: And those
whiche are of full age are called _Sileni_.

[Sidenote: Onocentaurus.]

_Onocentaurus_, is a beast of a straunge fashion, which is reported
to be like a man in the vpper part, and downward like an asse.

[Sidenote: Onosceli.]

_Onosceli_, as it is written in =Plutarche=, are Diuels, hauing
legges like vnto asses.

[Sidenote: Hyppocentaurus.]

The olde people imagined, that _Hippocentauri_, were creatures, who
before were like to men, but the hinder parts had the similitude of

[Sidenote: Sphinx.]

And they do faine, that _Sphinx_ is _Animal_ ανθροπομορφον, a beast
of the similitude of a man.

[Sidenote: Scilla.]

[Sidenote: Harpyæ.]

_Scilla_, and _Harpyæ_, are rauening Diuels, with faces like vnto

[Sidenote: Triton.]

[Sidenote: Nereides.]

[Sidenote: Syrenes.]

As touching men liuing in the Sea, as _Tritones_, _Nereides_ and
_Syrenes_, who as the auncient people affirmed, had faces like vnto
men. Reade =Gesnerus= in _Historia Aquatilium_, where he intreateth
of them. For he prooueth out of many Authors, that there are founde
Monsters in the Sea, hauing shapes and countenaunces somewhat like
vnto men.

Some of these Monsters which are indéede, bee of the kinde of Apes,
and some are onely fabulous, or false: yet notwithstanding, it may
be, that the Diuell doth deceiue men vnder the formes of them.

Thus much concerning tearmes, which we must vse in this our Treatise
of Spirits or Visions.

Hereunto haue I adioyned straunge happes, and foretokens, which for
the most part chaunce before great matters. And therefore I knit them
vnto these, because they haue great resemblance vnto them.

[Sidenote: Portentum.]

For vaine imaginations also appeare vnto our sights: armed men as
it were are seene on earth, or in the aire: and other such like
shapes, voyces, noyses, crackes, and such like. But as touching
the very words, _Portentum_ is that which foresheweth some thing
to come, as when straunge bodies appeare in the aire, or blazing
starres, or thunder in faire weather, or whirlewindes do chaunce.
=Festus= saith, that albeit _Portentum_ be a naturall thing, yet it
happeneth sildome, and doth betoken some thing to come to passe after
a certaine season.

[Sidenote: Ostentum.]

_Ostentum_, is some straunge thing, which sheweth some thing to come
to effect speedily. They giue the like examples of them both.

[Sidenote: Prodigium.]

_Prodigium_, is a thing which albeit it often chaunce by course of
nature, yet notwithstanding it doth alwaies betoken some euill thing,
being called _Prodigium_, as it were of _porro agendum_, to be done

[Sidenote: Monstrum.]

_Monstrum_, is that which hapneth against nature, as when any thing
is brought foorth hauing members belonging to an other kinde: the
which is also called _Promonstrum_, as who should say, _Porro aliquid
monstrans, siue monens_, that is, shewing or warning some thing
to happen afterward. Notwithstanding these termes are many times
confounded togither, and taken in one signification, and that because
they respect one ende, that is, to tell before or giue warning of
things to come. The vaine visions wheron we here intreat, appertaine
nothing to naturall philosophers, neither yet these things which we
haue ioyned with them. For if a sodaine cracke, or sound, or groning,
or rumbling, as though the house would fall, or if any other thing
chance which standeth by naturall reason, it doth not properly belong
vnto this matter which we haue in hand. But letting these things
passe, we will by Gods helpe and aide come nearer to the matter it


  Melancholike persons, and mad men, imagine many things
  which in verie deed are not.

[Sidenote: Some men deny there are Spirits.]

[Sidenote: _Act.23._]

There haue bin very many in al ages, which haue vtterly denied
that there bee any spirits or straunge sightes. The Philosophers
of =Epicurus= sect, did iest & laugh at all those things which
were reported of them, and counted them as fained and counterfeyt,
by the which only children and fooles, and plaine simple men were
made afraide. When =Cassius=, who was an =Epicurian=, vnderstood by
=Brutus=, that he had séene a certaine vision, he (as =Plutarch= doth
testifie) indeuoured to attribute the matter vnto naturall causes.
We read in the 23. chapter of the Actes of the Apostles, that the
Sadduces did not beléeue there should be any Resurrection of the
dead, and that they denied there were any spirites or angels: Yea
and at this day, many good & godly men beléeue those things to be
but tales, which are talked of too and fro concerning those imagined
visions: partly because in all their life, they neuer sawe any such,
and partly or rather especially, because in time past men haue bin
so often deceiued with apparitions, visions and false miracles done
by Monkes and Priestes, that now they take things yͭ are true, to
be as vtterly false. Whatsoeuer the cause is, it may be proued, by
witnesse of many writers, and by daily experience also, that spirites
and strange sightes do sometime appeare, and that in very déed many
strange and maruellous things do happen. True it is, that many men
do falsly perswade themselues that they sée or heare ghoasts: for
that which they imagine they sée or heare, procéedeth either of
melancholie, madnesse, weakenesse of the senses, feare, or of some
other perturbation: or else when they sée or heare beasts, vapors, or
some other naturall thing, then they vainly suppose, they haue séene
sightes I wotte not what, as hereafter I will shewe particularly by
many and notable examples.

There is no doubt, but that almost al those things which the common
people iudge to be wonderfull sightes, are nothing lesse than so. But
in the meane season it cannot be denied, but that straunge sightes,
and many other such lyke things, are sometimes heard and also séene.

[Sidenote: Sundry imaginations of melancholike persons.]

[Sidenote: Theatrum a place to behold plaies and pastimes in.]

[Sidenote: Ioannes Sertorius.]

[Sidenote: Ste. Ludouic. Cæliu. li 17. ca.2 antiquitat.]

And first it cannot be denied, but that some men which either by
dispositions of nature, or for that they haue susteined great
miserie, are now become heauie and full of melancholy, imagine many
times with themselues being alone, miraculous and straunge things.
Sometimes they affirme in great soothe, that they verily heare and
sée this or that thing, whiche notwithstanding neither they, nor
yet any other man did once sée or heare. Which thing we sometimes
sée by experience to be true in those men, which be troubled with
great headache, or subiect to other diseases of the bodie, or cannot
take rest in the night, or are distraughted of their wittes. Those
which dwell with suche kinde of men, when they here them tell such
absurd tales, such straunge things, and such maruellous visions,
albeit they pittie their vnfortunate estate, yet can they not many
times containe themselues from laughing. =Aristotle= in his booke
_de rebus mirandis_, writeth of a certaine man distraught of his
wittes, who going into the Theatre of _Abydos_ a Cittie of _Asia_,
when no man was therein, and there sitting alone, by clapping of
his hands, signified that he liked as well euery thing there, as if
some Comedie or Tragedie had bin notably set foorth on a stage. The
verie lyke Historie hath =Horace=, in his second booke of Epistles,
of a certain man, who comming into the Theatre at _Argos_, behaued
himselfe euen as the other man did: And when his kinsfolke through
the helpe of good Phisitians, had restored him to his right wittes
againe, he was very angry with them, saying, that he neuer liued
more pleasantly than while he was beside himselfe. =Atheneus lib.=
12. writeth of one =Tresilaus=, whose braines were so distempered,
that he verily supposed all the ships which arriued at Port =Piræus=,
to be his owne: he would number them, he commaunded the Mariners to
launch from shore, and when they returned after their voyage home
againe, he as much reioyced as if he had bene owner of all wherewith
they were laden. The same man affirmed, that in all the time of his
madnesse he liued a verie pleasant life, vntill the Phisitian had
cured him of his disease. I myselfe haue séene a man, =Iohannes
Leonardus Sertorius= by name, whom very honest and graue men, which
knew him well, would testifie to be a godly man, which was throughly
perswaded with himselfe, that hée could prooue our Religion which we
now professe, to be true and Catholike, euen by a miracle from heauen
as sometime =Helias= did. He desired the Magistrates of certain
Countries to call togither their Papists, and Protestants: for he
was readie (he sayd) to shewe this miracle, and in case he did it
not openly before them all, he refused not to sustain any kynd of
punishment. The lyke reason is also of other men whiche are besides
themselues: for they take on them maruellous things, either because
they haue mused long time on some matter conceiued in their minds,
as cunning Artificers oftentimes doo: or because they haue bin long
weried with sicknesse, or else because they loue extremely. You shall
finde some that imagine themself as it were armed with horns of an
Oxe: other appeare to themselues to be erthen vessels, and therfore
they wil shun euery thing for feare they be broken.

[Sidenote: Galen de locis affectis.]

[Sidenote: Libro de Simtomatum diff. chap.3]

Of such an one writeth =Galene=, _De locis affectis_ _lib._3._cap._6.
and also _lib._4._cap._1. Other suppose themselues dead, other
thinke themselues great Princes, other to be learned men, other
to be Prophets & Apostles, & therfore they wil foretel things to
come. The same he writeth of them yͭ are taken with frenzie * and
namely, of one =Theophilus= a Phisitian, who in other things was
wise, and coulde dispute wel and perfectly knowe euery man: yet
notwithstanding, hee thought there were certain minstrels did haunt
that corner of his house where he vsed to lye, and that they tuned
their pypes and played on them euery daye: And hée verily thoughte,
that he sawe them, some sitting, and some standing, and in such
sorte continually pyping without intermission, that they ceased at
no time, neither in the day, nor in the night. And therfore he neuer
ceased to crie, and to commaunde his seruants to driue them out of
his doores. When he was throughly recouered of his sicknesse, then
he tolde all other things which euery one of them had sayd or done:
and also he called to mind the imaginations which he conceiued of the
tediousnesse of the minstrels.

[Sidenote: Paulus Aegineta.]

[Sidenote: Licanthropia.]

[Sidenote: Augustine vppon Genesis.]

[Sidenote: Hidrophobia.]

[Sidenote: Rufus.]

=Paulus Aegineta= writeth in his thirde booke and xv. chap. that
those that are taken with _Licanthropia_ (which is a kynde of
madnesse) leape out of their houses in the night, in all things
imitating the nature of wolues, and that vntill it waxe day, they
kéep about the graues of dead men. Moreouer, somtimes the diuel
(enemie to mankinde) so deceiueth men, that they séeme vnto them
selues to bée beastes. Whereof Augustin writeth =In Genesin ad
litteram lib.7.cap.11.= they which are bitten with madde Dogges are
afraide of water. This disease they call _Hidrophobiam_: out of which
=Aegineta lib.5.ca.cap.3.= reporteth, that they which are troubled
with this disease, looking on the water, and béeing broughte vnto it,
flée from them soone: other vtterly refuse all kind of moisture: and
that there are some which barke like Dogges, and bite them that come
vnto them. =Rufus= shewing the cause of their feare, saith that they
suppose they sée in the water the shadowe of the Dog which bitte them.

[Sidenote: Ephialtes the maare.]

_Ephialtes_, which the Phisitions call the Maare, is a disease of the
stomacke, concerning which, reade =Paulus Aegineta= =li.=3.=cap.=6.
Many which are taken with this disease, imagine that a man of
monstrous stature sitteth on them, which with his hands violently
stoppeth their mouth, that they can by no meanes cry out, and they
striue with their armes and hands to driue him away, but all in
vain. Some led with vaine fantasie, thinke him who oppresseth them,
to créepe vp by little and little on the bed, as it were to deceiue
them, and anon to runne downe. They séeme also to themselues to heare
him. This disease is called by an other name πνιγαλίον and πνιγἁμων.

[Sidenote: Madmen.]

Madde men which haue vtterly lost the vse of reason, or are vexed
by Gods permission, with a Diuell, whome the Gospell calleth
δαιμονιζομἁνους, doo maruellous thinges, talke of many visions and
diuers other matters. Their sight deceiueth them, in so much as they
mistake one man for another: which thing we sée by experience, in
Bedleme houses where madde and frantike men are kept. We read that
=Aiax= tooke the matter so gréeuously, when =Achilles= armour was
adiudged vnto =Vlisses=, that becomming mad through griefe, and
drawing out his sworde, he set vpon herds of swine, supposing that
he fought with the whole army of the Grecians. Afterwards hanging vp
two of the greatest of them on postes, with rayling words he whipped
them, thinking one of them to be =Agamemnon=, the other =Vlisses=,
of whom with the first he was angry as an euil iudge, with the other
bicause he was by him vanquished in iudgement. But afterwards when
he came againe to himselfe, for very shame he slew himselfe. It hath
many times chaunced in battaile, that the souldiers falling into
great fury, their captaines haue bene forced to take away their
armour, because by rage they tooke their own felowes for enemies, and
began to set on them violently.

[Sidenote: Tertullian.]

=Tertullianus= saith thus: Those which are mad sée one man in an
other, as =Orestes= sawe his mother in his sister, =Aiax= beheld
=Vlisses= in an heard of swine, =Athamas= and =Agaue= wilde beastes
in their owne children, &c.


  Fearefull men, imagine that they see and heare straunge

[Sidenote: 2._Pet._3.]

That whiche we haue hitherto spoken concerning melancholicke men,
and men out of their wits, may also be vnderstood of timorous and
fearefull men. For if any man be timorous by nature, or subiect
to feare through great daungers, or by some other wayes, he also
imagineth straunge things which indéed are not so, especially if
he haue in him any store of melancholy. Women, which for the most
part are naturally giuen to feare more than men, (for which cause S.
=Peter= in his first Epistle speaking of the dutie of married folks,
calleth them the weaker vessell,) do more often suppose they sée
or heare this or that thing, than men doo. And so do yoong women,
because commonly they are afraide. If when men sit at the table,
mention be made of spirites and elues, many times women and children
are so afraide that they dare scarce go out of doores alone, least
they should meete with some euill thing: and if they chaunce to heare
any kinde of noise, by and by they thinke there are some spirites
behinde them, such vaine perswasions they haue. A cowardly souldiour
iudgeth his enemies to be more in number than they are: the noyse of
a leafe being mooued so affrighteth him (which thing God in his lawe
threatneth his people of _Israel_, except they do their duties) that
he betaketh himself to his héeles: if he but heare a woodspeck with
his bill beating on a trée, he straight thinketh the enemy readie to
leape on his shoulders: yea if he heare but a mouse moue, by and by
his heart is in his hose. These and such like things neuer trouble a
stout and couragious souldier.

And yet sometimes in the chase, lustie souldiers flying away from
their companie, are so troubled in minde, that they thinke their
friends enemies, and cannot tell in the world where they are, and
whither they go: all the which commeth by feare.

[Sidenote: Plutarche.]

=Plutarche= in his booke _De sera numinis vindicta_, reporteth a
maruellous and notable historie, of one called =Bessus=: who after
he had murthered his father, hid himselfe a long season. But on
a time as he went to supper, espying a swallowes neast, with his
speare be thrust it downe: and when those which supped togither with
him, misliked and abhorred his cruelty (for we like not those men
that trouble little birdes and other beastes, because we iudge them
austere and cruell) he answered: haue they not (saieth hée) falsly
accused me, a great while crying out on me, that I haue slaine
and murthered my father. Those which were present, being striken
with great admiration, reported these his words to the king, who
immediately caused him to bee tormented, and examining the matter
diligently, at the last found him guiltie, and punished him as a
manquiller of his owne father. Hereof ye may gather what feare can
doo: the swallowes coulde not speake, and yet he perswaded himselfe
that they vpbrayed him with murthering his father. Euen so many
through feare, imagine that they heare and sée many thinges whiche in
déede are méere trifles.

[Sidenote: Theodoricus imagining that he seeth Symmachus.]

[Sidenote: Matth.14.]

[Sidenote: Luke.24.]

[Sidenote: Stout and coragious men seldom see any Spirits.]

=Procopius= in the beginning of the warres of _Italie_, declareth,
that as =Theodoricus= satte at meate, after he had put to death
=Boethius= and =Symmachus= his sonne in lawe, a fishes head being
brought before him, he sawe in it the countenance of =Symmachus=
looking horribly, which byting the nether lip with lowring eyes
séemed to threaten him, wherewith the King being sore abashed, fell
into a gréeuous sicknesse, wherof he afterwards died. Yea feare if it
be vnmeasurable maketh vs to abhorre those thinges, which otherwise
should be comfortable vnto vs. The apostles of our Lord Iesus Christ
may be examples hereof. Who in the night season being in greate
daunger in the Sea, when they sawe Christe walking on the water
approching towards them wer maruelously appalled. For they supposed
they sawe a Spirit, and cried out for feare. But the Lorde came to
deliuer them out of that present daunger wherein they were. After his
resurrection they were maruellously affraide, and as S. Luke saith,
they verily supposed they sawe a Spirit, when in déede he appeared
vnto them in his owne body. Therfore the lord comforteth & hartneth
them saying: Behold my hands & my féet, for I am euē he: handle me
and sée: for a spirit hath not flesh and bones as ye sée I haue. They
through great ioy could not beléeue it, but maruelled at it. Héere
thou séest, by feare it came to passe, that the Disciples supposed
yͤ Lord him self to haue bin a ghost. And therfore no man ought to
maruell if we hindered by feare, mistake one man for an other, and
perswade our selues that we haue séene spirits, whereas no such were.
They which are of stout and hautie courage, frée from all feare,
seldome times sée any spirits. It is reported of the Scithians, a
warlike natiō dwelling in mountains (from whom it is thought the
Turkes take their originall) that they neuer sée any vaine sightes of
spirits. Authors write that Lions are not feared with any bugs: for
they are full of stomacke and deuoide of feare.


  Men which are dull of seeing and hearing, imagine many
  things which in verie deed are not so.

[Sidenote: Dronken men see straunge things.]

[Sidenote: Euripides.]

[Sidenote: Pro.23.]

They whiche are weake of sight, are manye times in suche sorte
deceyued, that they beholde one man in steade of an other.
Poare-blinded men whome the Gréekes call Μὑοπες, whiche can
not sée any thing, except it be verie neare their eyes (as for the
most part students are, which night and day turne ouer their bookes)
are so much deceiued in their sight, that they are many times ashamed
to vtter what they haue thought they haue séene. And it standeth by
naturall reason, that an oare séemeth to be broken in the water:
and a tower foure cornered, a farre off sheweth to be rounde. Those
which drinke wine immoderately, in such sort that their eyes begin
to waxe dimme, and stare out of their heads, like hares which haue
bin caried hanging on a staffe a mile or twaine, sée things farre
otherwise than sober men doo. They suppose they sée two candles on
the table, when there is but one: desiring to reach the potte, they
put their hand amisse. In =Euripides= Tragedie named =Bacchis=,
=Pentheus= affirmeth, that he seeth two Sunnes and two citties of
_Thebes_: For his braines were maruellously distempered. It is a
common saying, that if wine haue the victorie, all things seeme to
haue turned vpside downe: trées to walke, mountaines to be moued, and
riuers to run against the head, &c. =Salomon= exhorteth all men from
drunkennesse, in his prouerbs, cap.23. shewing what discommodities
ensue therof, and amongst other thinges he saith thus: Thy eyes
shall sée straunge (to wit) visitions and maruellous apparitions.
For as timorous men imagine miraculous things, euen so doo drunken
men, who of purpose corrupt and spoile their sight. And albeit God
shew many wonders in the aire, and in the earth, to the ende he may
stir men vp from idlenesse and bring them to true repentaunce, yet
notwithstanding, we must thinke that dronken men which sit vp vntill
midnight, do often say, that haue séene this or that vision, they
haue beheld this or that wonder, when as indéed they are vtterly
deceiued. For in case they had returned home in due season, and not
ouercharged themselues with too much wine, no such thing had appeared
vnto them. For indéede their eyesight had not bene blinded. Doth it
not often come to passe, that when men are once throughly warmed with
wine, they mistake one for another, of whom they thought they were
abused in word or déede, and violently flie on them with weapon? The
place before alleaged out of =Salomon=, may also be vnderstood to
this purpose: Thy eyes shall sée straunge (to wit,) women, to lust
after them. For experience teacheth vs that men being drunke, assaie
to rauish matrones and maidens, which being sober they would neuer
once think vppon. Wine immoderately taken, is the nurse of rashe
boldnesse and filthie lust.

[Sidenote: Some see themselues.]

=Aristotle= writeth, that some men through the féeblenesse of their
sight, beholding in the aire neare vnto them (as it were in a glasse)
a certaine image of themselues, suppose they sée their owne angels
or soules: and so as the Prouerbe is, they feare their owne shadow.
Although men in obscure and darke places can sée nothing, yet do
they not (I pray you) imagine they sée diuers kindes of shapes and
colours. And we many times suppose those things which we sée, to be
farre otherwise than indéed they are.

[Sidenote: Hearing deceiueth.]

It is well knowne, a mans sight may be so deceiued, that he verily
thinkes that one deuoureth a sword, spitteth out money, coales,
and such like: that one eateth bread, and spitteth foorth meale:
one drinketh wine, which after runneth out of his forehead: that
one cutteth off his fellowes head, which afterwardes he setteth on
againe: and that a Cocke séemeth to drawe after him a huge beame of
timber, &c. Moreouer it may be brought to passe by naturall things,
as by perfumes and such like, that a man would sweare in earnest,
that all men sitting at the table with him, haue no heds at all, or
else that they are like the heads of asses: & that somtimes a vine
spreadeth it self as it were ouer al the house, whē indéed it is
a mere deceit, or a plaine iugling cast. Of which matter there be
bookes commonly set abroad. The like reason is in hearing, & in the
other senses. Those men whose hearing is somewhat decaied, many times
séeme in their owne imagination, to heare the noyse of boysterous
winde, or violent tempest, the sparkling of fire, the roaring of
waters sodeinly increased, singing and sounding of instruments,
and also the iangling of belles, when as indeed these things are
not so, but only chaunce by default of hearing: for others which
are conuersant with them, hauing the right vse of hearing, do not
heare any such thing at all. Somtimes in very déed such things are
heard, as the crackling of wainscot walles, and such like, which are
naturall signes of some tempest shortly after ensuing.

[Sidenote: The sense of feeling is deceiued.]

There are also certaine hollowe places, through the which the winde
whiszing, giueth a pleasant sound, as it were through a pipe, much
like vnto singing, so that men wonder verie much thereat. We reade in
writers of Philosophie, that the very same also chaunceth in bankes
of riuers, which bende a little in compasse. Hearing is also deceiued
when we thinke we heare thunder, and it is indéed but the rumbling
of some Carte. There be many which thinke they handle something, and
yet are deceiued: If men sicke of the ague, drinke wine of the best
and swéetest sorte, yet they thinke it is more bitter than Gall: if
they eate pottage neuer so good, yet they iudge it vnsauorie: which
thing commeth not of any faulte in the Cooke, but of the mouth and
stomacke whiche is distempered with sicknesse. For vnto them which
haue abundance of choller, all things séeme bitter. And euen so it
commeth to passe, that a man supposeth he seeth, heareth, féeleth, or
is felt of some spirit, when indéed it is not so, and yet no man can
perswade him the contrary.

[Sidenote: VVeakenesse of the sight and feare.]

If feare and weaknesse of the sight and of other senses méete
togither, then men fall into strange and maruellous imaginations,
beléeuing things vtterly false, to be verie true: Neither will they
be brought from their owne opinions by any meanes or reason.

We reade that not only perticular and priuate men, but also whole
armies of souldiers generally haue bene so deceiued, that they
haue verily thought their enemies hard at their héeles, when as no
man followed. And hereof haue procéeded many horrible flightes in

[Sidenote: Cominæus.]

[Sidenote: King.4.]

=Cominæus=, a knight and diligent writer of histories, in the
ende of his first booke of the Acts of =Lewes= the II. King of
_Fraunce_, writeth, that when =Charles= Duke of _Burgundie_, with
other Princes, had remooued their armie to _Paris_, they vnderstood
by their espials, that the next day the king had determined to set
on them with all his power of men. Wherefore the next day =Charles=
sent out certaine horsemen to view his enemies: who comming foorth,
by reason that the element was somewhat darke, supposed they sawe a
huge number of pikes and speares, but when they had passed a little
further and that the aire was a little clearer, they vnderstood the
same place wherein they iudged the king to be with all his armie,
to be planted and ouergrowne with many high thistles, which a far
off shewed as it had bene long speares. For the night beguileth mens
eyes. And therefore none ought to maruell, if trauellers towardes
night or at midnight, mistake stones, trées, stubbes, or such like,
to be sprites or elues. We reade in the last booke of the kings the
3.chap. that after the death of king =Achab=, the Moabites reuolted
from =Ioram= his sonne, wherefore he desired =Iosaphat= to aide him,
and with all his power he determined to make warre on the Moabites,
to reduce them to obedience, and subiection. Which thing when the
Moabites heard, they prepared to defend themselues, so many as were
able to beare armour. But when they had set foreward verie earely in
the morning against their enemies, supposing in the rising of the
Sunne, the waters which God had miraculously brought out to be redde,
they said amongst themselues: Surely the two Kings haue encountred
togither, and eache haue destroyed other, wherevppon they running on
heapes without order, to spoile the Israelites Tents, were by them
vanquished and slaine: here you sée all the Armie mistooke water in
stead of bloud.


  Many are so feared by other men, that they suppose they
  haue heard or seene Spirits.

[Sidenote: Salomons pro.]

Furthermore, it commeth to passe many times that not only pleasant
and mery conceited men, but also spitefull and malitious men,
chaunging their apparell, make others extreamely affraide. It is a
common custome in many places, that at a certaine time of the yeare,
one with a nette or vizarde on his face maketh Children affraide, to
the ende that euer after they should laboure and bee obedient to the
Parentes, afterward they tel them that those which they saw, were
Bugs, Witches and Hagges, which thing they verily beléeue, and are
commonly, miserably affraide. Howbeit, it is not expedient alwayes
so to terrefie Children. For sometimes through great feare they fall
into dangerous diseases, and in the night crie out, when they are
fast a sléepe. =Salomon= teacheth vs to chasten children with the
rod, and so to make them stand in awe: he doth not say, we must beare
them in hand they shall be deuoured of Bugges, Hags of the night, and
such like monsters.

[Sidenote: Daunsing Spirits.]

Many times, pleasant & mery yong men, disguise themselues like vnto
Diuels, or ofe shroud themselues in white shéetes to make other men
affraide: with whome if simple men chaunce to méete, they make no
doubt of the matter, but verily thinke they haue séene spirites, and
straunge sightes. And yet it is not alwayes the safest way, so to
deceiue men with iests and toyes; for many examples might be brought
to shewe how euill some men haue sped hereby. It is an vsuall and
common thing that yoong men merily disposed, when they trauell by the
way, comming to their Inne at night, tie ropes to the bed side, or to
the couerlet or garments, or else hide themselues vnder the bedde,
and so counterfeiting themselues to be Spirites, deceiue and mocke
their fellowes. It chaunced once at _Tigurin_ where we dwel, that
certaine pleasant yong men disguising themselues, daunced about the
Churchyard, one of them playing on a béere with two bones, as it were
on a drumme. Which thing when certaine men had espied, they noysed it
about the citie, how they had séene dead men daunce, and that there
was great danger, least there should shortly ensue some plague or

Moreouer, it is well knowne to all men, that harlots, and
whooremongers, haue practised their wickednesse a long season vnder
this cloake and pretence, perswading their family, that walking
Spirites haunt the house, least they should bee taken with the déede
dooing, and that they might enioy their desired loue. Many times such
bugges haue bin caught by the magistrates, and put to open shame.
Théeues likewise vnder this colour haue many times robbed their
neighboures in the night time, who supposing they heard the noyse of
walking Spirits, neuer went about to driue the théeues away. Touching
this point, that an euil Spirit, by means of naturall things which
haue strange vertues, can do maruellous things, by deceiuing mens
senses, I will at this present speake nothing.


  Priestes and Moncks fained themselues to be Spirites:
  also how _Mundus_ vnder this colour defiled _Paulina_,
  and _Tyrannus_ abused many noble and honest matrones.

To these thinges may bee added, that there haue bin in all ages
certaine Priests, which practising strange deuises, and giuing
themselues to Necromancie, haue bewitched foolish men that highly
estéemed them, to the ende they might thereby encrease their riches,
and follow their lustfull pleasures. Touching which matter, to the
ende godly disposed men may be the more héedfull, I will rehearse a
fewe histories.

[Sidenote: Iosephus de antiquitatib.]

=Iosephus= a writer of histories, in his 18.booke and 4.chap. of
Antiquities, remembreth a notorious deed which hapned at =Rome=, in
the time of =Tyberius Cesar= vnder the pretence of sacrificing to the
goddesse =Isis=. I will record the historie as it is translated by
=Galenius=, a very learned man.

[Sidenote: Paulina and Mundus.]

There dwelled at =Rome= a woman named =Paulina=, no lesse renoumed
for honestie of life, than for the nobilitie of parentage: She was
also very rich and excéeding beautful, as one that was now in the
floure of her age, and especially adorned with the great vertue of
chastitie, and married she was to one =Saturnius=, a man worthie of
such a wife. It chaunced that =Decius Mundus=, a famous yoong knight,
became very much enamored with her: and because she was a woman of
greater wealth than that she might be won with rewardes and money, so
much the more was this louers madnesse inflamed, in so much that he
stuck not to proffer her for one night .200000. groates. The Atticke
groat and the Romain peny are by common valuation all one. =Budeus=
accounteth one of them worth 8. Crusados: so this summe according to
his reckoning, amounteth to 26000. Florens.

[Sidenote: Ruffinus.]

And yet not being able by these means to moue her constant mind,
bicause he could not endure the rage of his loue, he determined, by
abstinence and hunger to make an ende both of life and loue togither.
This determination was not vnknowne to =Ide=, =Mundus= Fathers
bondseruaunt, a maide cunning in many artes, but such as were not to
be liked. She maruellously gréeued with the yoong mans wilfulnesse in
absteining frō meat, talking with him, by swéete and flattring words
began to encourage him, assuring him that she would bring to passe,
that he should at his pleasure embrace =Paulina=. After that he had
gladly condiscended to her entreatie, she telleth him she must néedes
haue fiftie thousand groates to ouerthrow the Gentlewomans chastitie.
So putting the yoong man in good hope, and receiuing as much mony as
she required, because she wel knew =Paulina= could not be wonne with
mony, she deuiseth a new way to deceiue her. Vnderstanding therefore
that she was maruellously addicted to the worshipping of =Isis=, she
inuenteth these meanes: She talketh with some of =Isis= Priests, and
hauing receiued sure promise of them to kéepe all things secrete,
and (which is most effectuall) hauing shewed their reward, promising
presently 25000. groates, and when they had done the déed, other
25000. she openeth vnto them the yoong mans loue, beséeching them
to helpe by al means possible, that shée might enioy the same. They
touched at the heart with desire of the mony, gently promised their
helpe. Wherefore the eldest of them spéedily goeth to =Paulina=,
and being admitted to her spéech, after hee had obtained to talke
with her in secrete, he declareth that he is come vnto her being
sent by the great God =Anubis= (this =Anubis= hauing a head lyke
to a Dogge, was worshipped togither in one Temple with =Isis=) who
is maruellously in loue with her beautie, and doth commaund her to
repaire vnto him. She ioyfully receiued the message, and forthwith
vaunteth among her familiar acquaintaunce, that the God =Anubis=
hath vouchsafed to loue her: And shée telleth her husband, that shée
must suppe and lye with him. Which thing was so much the more easily
graunted vnto her, for that her husband had had good experience and
knowledge of her chastitie. Whereupon shée goeth to the Temple, and
after supper when time of rest drew neare, being shut in by the
priest, shée méeteth with =Mundus=, who had priuily hidden himselfe
there, the darkenesse bringing them togither, without any suspition.
And so all that night shée satisfied the yong mans desire, supposing
she had done pleasure vnto the God. Afterwards he departing from hir,
=Paulina= early in the morning, before the priestes (who were priuie
to this deceit) were stirring, returned home to her husband, to whome
she recounteth her meeting with =Anubis=, and also with great words
setteth out the same amongst her gossips and friends. They could not
beléeue her, considering the nature of the thing, and yet could they
not chuse but maruell, waying the great chastitie of the woman. Thrée
dayes after the déede done, =Mundus= méeting by chaunce with his
beloued, saide vnto her: O well done =Paulina=, thou hast saued me
200000. groats wherewith thou mightest haue encreased thy riches, and
yet notwithstanding thou hast fulfilled my desire, for I way it not
that thou hast despised =Mundus=, sith vnder the title of =Anubis=,
I haue enioyed my desired lust, which words said, he departed. But
the woman then first perceiuing this villany, began to teare her
garments, and opening the whole matter vnto her husband, beséecheth
him that he suffer not such a notorious mockery to go vnpunished. Her
husband then declareth the whole matter to the Emperoure =Tiberius=:
who after he had learned all things by diligent examination, trusseth
vp these iugling priests on the gallowes, togither with =Ide=, the
author of all this mischiefe, by whose meanes chiefly the chastitie
of this noble Gentlewoman was defiled: and ouerthrowing their
temple, he commaunded the Image of =Isis= to be sunke in the riuer
of _Tibris_. But it pleased him to chasten =Mundus= with banishment,
a more gentle kind of punishmēt, ascribing his fault to yͤ weaknes
of his immoderat loue. By this history it may easily be gathered how
sathan in times past bewitcht the Gentils, and how their priests
persuaded them yͭ their Gods appearing in visible forme spake this
or yͭ vnto them, which notwithstāding were very false. Vnder the
pretence of worshipping their gods, they gaue thēselues to wicked
deuises. For how often may we wel thinke they cōmitted abhominable
mischief (although indéed yͤ matter it selfe neuer came to light.)
If they brought it to passe, yͭ =Mundus= by their meanes enioyed
his desired loue, surely there is no doubt, but yͭ they thēselues
vnder the colour of holinesse defloured other mēs daughters & wiues:
for otherwise this deuise could neuer haue bin so ready in mind. This
matron would neuer haue bin so wel cōtent, vnles yͤ very same had
bin practised with other dames before. Neither yet wold her husbād
haue suffered her to lodge in the Church all night. What néed was
there for yͤ gods to haue beds prepared for thē in yͤ Church,
whē it was most aparant they neuer lodged in thē. Princes also may
learne by yͤ example of =Tiberius=, although he were a wicked
tyrant, how such varlets are to be restrained. To this purpose maketh
yͭ historie which =Ruffinus= a Priest of _Aquilia_ reporteth in
=Li.=11.=ca.=25. of his ecclesiasticall history.

[Sidenote: Tyrannus a wicked priest.]

There was a priest in _Alexandria_ in _Egipt_, vowed to =Saturn=,
whose name was =Tyrānus=. This mā as it had bin frō the mouth of
god, vsed to say vnto al such noble & principall men, whose Ladies
he liked & lusted after, that =Saturne= had cōmanded, yͭ such a
ones wife shuld lie al night in the temple. Then he which heard yͤ
message, reioycing much yͭ the god vouchsafed to call for his
wife, decking her vp brauely, & giuing her great gifts (forsooth
lest she shuld be refused bicause she came emptie) sent her foorth
vnto yͤ temple, where the woman being shut vp in the presence of
al men, =Tirannus= whē he had fast locked the doores, surrendring
the keyes departed his wayes. Afterwards in great silence passing
through priuie caues vnder the ground, he issued foorth out of the
open holes into the image of =Saturne=: which image was made hollow
in the backe, and cunningly fastned to the wall. And as the candles
burned within the Church, he spake sodeinly vnto the woman (giuing
great care, and praying deuoutly) through yͤ image made of hollow
brasse, in such sort that the vnhappie woman, trembled betwéene feare
and ioy, because she thought her selfe worthie of the spéech of so
great a god. Now after the baudie god had talked his pleasure to
bring her in great feare, or to prouoke her to lust and wantonnesse,
sodeinly all the lightes were put out with the spreading abroad of
shéets, by a certain cunning deuise. And then descending out of
the image, he committed adultery with the woman much abashed and
afraid, vsing most profane and wicked gloses vnto her. When he had
thus dealt a long season, almost with all the wiues of these silly
Gentlemen, it chaunced in the end, that a certain chast Gentlewoman
began to abhorre and loath the deede, and marking the matter more
héedfully, knew it to be =Tyrannus= voice: and there vpon returning
home againe, declared the slie conueiance of this horrible déed vnto
her husband. He being set on fire with rage for the iniurie done vnto
his wife, or rather vnto his selfe, apprehēded =Tyrannus=, & brought
him to yͤ place of torments, where being conuicted he cōfessed al
yͤ matter, & thē other deceits being likewise detected, al shame &
dishonor was spred throughout the houses of yͤ Pagans: the mothers
were found adulterers, fathers incestuous persons, and their children
illegittimate and bastardes. Which thing so soone as it was brought
to light and noysed abroad, togither both Church and image, and
wickednesse, and all was vtterly subuerted and destroied. We reade
that =Numa Pompilius= bare the people of _Rome_ in hande that hée
hadde familiar company with =Egeria= a Goddesse of the waters, to the
ende he might purchase credit and authoritie to his lawes.


  _Timotheus Aelurus_, counterfeiting himself to be an
  Angell, obteined a bishopricke: foure Monkes of the order
  of Preachers, made many vaine apparitions at _Berna_.

[Sidenote: Lippis & tonsoribus notum.]

It might be somewhat borne withall, if these things had only chaunced
among the Gentiles, which were without the word of God, if we did
not euidently sée the like happen oftentimes amongest Christians,
and in case it were not to be feared least many such things should
happen euen at this day also. For it is well knowne to all men, that
there haue bene many Magiciens, Sosserers, and Coniurers, and those
especially Monkes and Priests, who would easily counterfeit visions,
and miracles, and familiar talking with soules.

[Sidenote: Theodorus.]

[Sidenote: Foure Monks of Berna.]

=Theodorus Lector=, =collectaneorum ex historia ecclesiastica lib.1.=
writeth of =Timotheus Aelurus=, that he, before =Proterius= bishop
of =Alexandria= was put to death, gaping for the bishoppricke, in
the night cladde in blacke apparrell walked about the celles of the
Monkes, and calling eache man by his name, they answering, sayd vnto
them, that he a spirit, one of Gods seruants came to warne them, that
euery one reuolting from =Proterius=, should ioyne himselfe vnto
=Timotheus=. And by his craft and deceit obteining the bishoppricke,
hée made great vproares in the Church of God. Here I cannot refraine
my selfe as touching this present matter, but that I rehearse a
famous historie, of foure Monkes of the order of Preachers (who were
bernt at =Berna= in =Heluetia=, in the yeare of our Lord 1509. the
last day of May) by what subtilties they deceiued a poore simple
Frier whom they had lately reteined into their monastery: concerning
which thing, many bookes were written at the same time when these
things were done, which are yet extant both in the Latin and in the
Germain toong. There was great contention betwéen the Monkes of yͤ
order of Preachers, and the Friers =Minorites=, or =Franciscans=,
touching the conceptiō of yͤ virgin =Mary=. The Friers preachers
affirmed, that she euen as other men also was conceiued in originall
sin, that the =Franciscans= denied and stoutly denied. At the last
the matter came to that issue, that the preachers determined to
auouch and prooue their opinion by false and fayned miracles: taking
aduisement in a certaine Synode (which they call a chapter) holden
at _Vimpenium_ a cittie of _Germanie_, where the most conuenient
and fittest place for this matter might be founde: and at the last
they chose out _Berna_ in _Heluetia_, because the people there were
plaine and simple, and giuen to the warres. Foure therefore of the
chiefest in the Abbay of the order of preachers beganne the pageant
at _Berna_: and because the Supprier one of the foure, was well seene
in coniuring, he bounde the Diuell to ioyne in councell with them
by what meanes they might best bring their purpose to passe. Hée
appearing vnto them in the likenesse of a =Negro= or blacke Morian,
promised them all that he could doo, vnder this condition, that they
should yéeld and giue themselues vnto him, which thing they willingly
did, deliuering vnto him a writing written with their owne hand and
blood. And it chaunced at the same time very fitly, that one =Iohn
Iezerus=, a plaine fellowe, a Taylour by occupation, was chosen into
their order, who séemed to be verie fit for their purpose. They tryed
him by throwing stones into his chamber in the night time, making
a great noyse, and faining themselues to be Spirits. The matters
séemed vnto them, euen from the beginning, that it would take good
successe. On a certaine day being Friday, the Supprior shrouding
himselfe in a shéete, togither with other Spirites, whom he had
coniured vp for this purpose, brake into the Friers cell with great
force and noyse, faining with many teares, that he desired his ayd
and help. Now had they priuily conueied Holy water and the Reliques
of Saints into his Cell before. The poore Frier halfe dead with
feare, denied that he could by any meanes helpe him, recommending
himselfe to Christ our Sauior, and to his holy mother. The Spirite
aunswered, that it was in his and his brethrens power to deliuer him
out of this miserie, if he would suffer himselfe for the space of
viij. dayes, euery day to be whipped vntill the blood followed, and
moreouer, cause eight Masses to be sung for his sake in S. =Iohns=
Chappell, himselfe while they were sung, lying in the floore with
his armes spread abroad. After hée tolde him that the next Friday
before midnight, he wold come again with greater noyse, willing him
in any wise not to be afrayd, for the Diuels could nothing hurt him,
because he was an holy man. The next day this foolish Frier openeth
all the matter to the ringleaders of this deuise, beséeching them to
assist him, that the miserable soule might be deliuered. The matter
was out of hand rumored about the Citie. The Monkes preached openly
hereof in the pulpit, commending highly yͤ holinesse of their
order, which euen hereby might be séene, for that the spirite craued
helpe of them, and not of the wicked drunken =Franciscans=. At the
time appointed, the spirite accompanied with the other euill spirits,
came againe with great noyse to the Friers Cell, who adiuring and
coniuring him, questioned with him touching certaine points. The
spirit shewed him who he was, and for what cause he was so miserably
vexed: and withall gaue great thanks both vnto him and also to his
fathers, for being touched wͭ remorse of him, adding, yͭ in case
there were yet 30. Masses sung, and 4. Vigiles obserued, and yͭ
he would yet once again whip himself vntil he bled, thē he shuld be
clean deliuered out of most cruell torments, which he had cōtinually
endured a 160. yéers. He had conference with him also of other
maruellous matters, which we néed not here to reherse. Afterwards
yͤ same spirit appeared again vnto the Frier, and preferred the
order of preachers before all others, bearing him in hand, that many
of them which had bene aduersaries vnto this order, suffered most
horrible torment in purgatorie, and that the citie of _Berna_ should
be vtterly ouerthrowne, except they banished yͤ =Franciscans=, and
refused yͤ yéerly stipends which they receiued at the French kings
hands. He also talked of sundry things which had hapned to the Frier
(which thing they had learned before of him by meanes of auricular
confession.) Moreouer he hartily thanketh the Frier for the great
benefit of his deliuerance, giuing him to vnderstand, that he was
now admitted into the eight degrée of Angels, and that he should say
Masse there for his benefactors.

After these things thus done, an other night one comming vnto him in
the apparell of a woman, said he was =S. Barbara=, whom he deuoutly
serued, and told him yͭ the blessed virgin would shortly appear
vnto him, and make ful answere vnto those questions which one of the
Monkes had writtē in paper for him. This paper =Barbara= promised
that she her self would deliuer vnto our Lady, which they should
shortly after find in a holy place sealed & signed miraculously. The
Frier vpon this reuealeth the whole matter vnto his fathers, desiring
to be confessed of his sinnes, wherby he might be found worthy the
apparition or séeing of our Lady. He willed them to search in yͤ
halowed place for the scroll, which at the last they found in the
Fratry (as they term it) where they had laid it before. Thē they
caried it with great reuerēce vnto the high alter, affirming yͭ
it was sealed with Christs blood, and that the tapers lightned of
their own accord. In the morning the virgin =Mary= appeared vnto him
againe, rehearsing many things which her sonne Iesus commaunded her
to tell vnto him; to wit, that Pope =Iulius= was that holy man, which
should reconcile the two orders in friendship againe, and institute
and ordaine the feast of the defiled conception of our Lady, for she
would send vnto the Pope a crosse marked with foure droppes of her
sonnes blood, in signe that she was conceiued in originall sinne: and
that they should find an other crosse marked with fiue drops of blood
in their fratrie, which they must conuey to _Rome_, for the Pope
would allowe and confirme it with large indulgences, and after return
it to _Berna_ again: other things likewise she said, whereof many
things were both reported and written too and fro.

But in witnesse of the aforesaid things, the same =Mary= droue an
yron nayle through the hande of the poore Frier, saying: this wounde
shall be renewed in the day wherein my sonne was crucified, and
in the feast of my sonnes bodie. After they tooke a burning water
made by Necromancie, by the which they taking away his senses, made
foure other woundes in his bodie. And after that he came againe
vnto himselfe, they bare him in hand that there was a certaine holy
thing I wotte not what, which appeared about him. And when they sawe
that many men came flocking about him to sée this newe Christ, they
taught him (for hée was of rude conditions) howe to behaue himselfe.
And when they had giuen him a drinke beréeuing him of his senses,
and causing him to fome at the mouth, then they sayd he striued
and wrestled with death, euen as Christ did in the mount Oliuet.
After all this, another of them appeared vnto him, telling him many
things: but yͤ Frier knowing him by his voyce, beganne to suspect
and mislike the whole matter, and with violence thrust him from him.
The next night the Frier himselfe appeared vnto him, saying that he
was =Mary= of whome he had bene in doubt, and to the ende he should
be out of all suspition, she had brought him the host of her sonnes
bodie (for he brought him an host stiped in poyson) to the ende hée
shoulde no more thinke he sawe an euil spirite: he also affirmed,
that he had brought a vessel of glasse full of her sonnes bloud,
which he would giue vnto him, and vnto his Monasterie. But the Frier,
who also had this vision in suspition, answered: If (sayde he) thou
be not an euil spirit, rehearse thy =Pater noster= and thy =Aue
Maria= with me. The Prior sayde the =Pater noster=, and afterward
sayd in the person of our Lady: =Hayled am I Mary full of grace, the
Lord be with me. &c.= The Frier knowing the Priors voyce, caught a
knife, and wounded him therewith, and when he defended himselfe, the
Frier stoutly resisted, and draue him backe. These things thus done,
the Supprior béeing in good hope to restore all that they had lost,
appeared againe to the Frier, saying that he was =S. Catherin= of
_Sena_, and therwith begun to chide him, for that he so discurteously
had intreated the holy Virgin: adding moreouer, I am sent (quoth he)
to shewe thée, that the wounds which thou hast in thy body, are the
very true wounds of Christ, which neyther I, nor yet S. Francis hath,
and that he enlarged with many words. Yet notwithstanding, the Frier
so entertayned him, that he was glad to saue him selfe with running
away. Now bicause the Frier wold no longer be mocked at their hands,
they, maruellously troubled, and almost at their wits ende, taking
aduise among them selues, brake the matter vnto him, and tolde him,
that in verie déede they fréely confessed many of those apparitions
which he had séene to be fayned, and that for no other cause, but to
the ende he should perseuere in his profession and Religion, howbeit
the very effect of the matter was most true, and that he ought not
to doubt, but that he bare the wounds of Christ in his body. And
forsomuch as the matter was nowe knowen abroad, they earnestly
besought him, that he would not refuse to go on in the matter, for
otherwise their order should incurre open shame, and both he and
they fall into present daunger, but in case he woulde persist in
his enterprised purpose, the thing would fall out to his and their
great aduantage. And so with fairer words, they perswaded him to make
promise to be ruled by them hereafter.

After long instruction and teaching, they placed him on the altar
of our Lady, knéeling on his knées within a chappell before the
image of the holy virgine: Where one of the Monkes standing behinde
a cloath, spake through a cane réede, as if it were Christ talking
with his mother, in this wise: Mother why dost thou weepe? haue I not
promised thée, yͭ whatsoeuer thou willest, shall be done? Wherto
the image made answere. Therfore I wéepe, bicause this businesse
findeth no end. Then said the image of Christ: Beléeue mee mother,
this matter shall be made manifest. This doone, the Monke priuily
departing, the chappell doores were shut. Assoone as these things
were scattered about the citie, by & by there was a great thronging
of people. Amongst whome also came foure monks, dissembling and
fayning, that they knewe not what was there doone, and therfore they
commanded the doores to be opened, and after asked the Frier howe
and after what sorte he came there. He answered them that he was
carried by a spirit. And moreouer told them what words the image had
spoken, and that he could by no meanes moue out of that place before
that foure of the chiefest Aldermen were come vnto him, vnto whom
he had certaine things to be declared: he also desired to receiue
the holy sacrament. The Aldermen were foorthwith called, and then
the Frier declared vnto them, how the virgin Mary lamented and
sorrowed, for that the citie of _Berna_ should be shortly destroyed,
for receiuing yearely pentiōs of the French king: Also for that they
droue not the =Franciscans= out of their citie, who honoured her with
the fayned tytle of vndefiled cōception. Vnto this hir talke the
Aldermen answered very little. By and by the other Monkes gaue him
the host infected with poyson, which when he refused to receiue, they
brought him an other, which he tooke, then they led him with greate
pompe into the quire, (for so they call the vppermost parte of the
churche.) The Frier & the other foure Monkes were soone after called
before the Aldermen, to testifie the truth whether those things
were so or not. But the foure fearing exceedingly least he should
betray something because they knew he suspected thē, endeuoured by
all meanes to do him some priuie mischief by poyson giuen in his
meate, & therefore they gaue him the sacrament dipped in poyson,
which he presently cast vp againe by vomit: finally they so vexed and
tormented him by so many wayes, that in the end he left the Colledge
and ran away, and opened the whole matter to diuers and sundry men.
In the meane time the Monkes dispatched two Legates or messengers to
=Rome=, to obtaine a confirmation of these things of the Pope, that
hereafter it should be vtterly vnlawfull for any man to contrary
or mislike the same. And when these messengers were returned, (and
as the Prouerbe is) thought themselues in a safe heauen, the noble
Senate had commaunded the foure Monkes to be fast kept in prison: for
they had learned the whole circumstance of the matter before of the
Frier, whome they had committed to ward. And sparing neither labour
nor mony, sent also vnto =Rome=, that they might perfectly knowe,
what they should do in this matter. In the end both the Frier & the
foure Monkes were all put to torments, and there confessed all the
matter. And when they had bin openly conuicte of so many guiles, and
horrible deeds, by the Popes permission they were first putte from
the orders (which they commonly call degradation) and afterwards
burned in the fire.

It was commonly reported, that in case the noble Senate of _Berna_
hadde not prosecuted the matter with great constancie, and courage,
the Cleargie woulde haue cloaked all the knauerie, and haue sette
the authors at libertie. For they had greate cause to doubte, as
it after came to passe, lest they should loose their credit and
authoritie amongst many of the orders of Monks, and that these things
whereon the Popedome resteth, as it were vpon pillers, should now
be had in great suspition with all men. For it is most euident,
that after the impietie, deceit & wickednesse of these Monkes began
to be knowne abroad, the opinion of the Cleargie began to decaie,
and to be suspected more and more euery day, of good and godly
men: when as they sayd this or that soule required their helpe:
that tapers lighted of their own accord: that this or that image
spake, wept, or moued it selfe from place to place: that this or
that Saint endowed their monasterie with precious reliques: or that
Crosses were sprinkeled with the blood of Christ: yea and although
they had obteined confirmation of these matters from the Pope, yet
notwithstanding many afterwards would in no wise beléeue it to be so.
Likewise they would not bee perswaded, that this holy father falling
into a traunce, saw any miraculous things: or that =Francis= and
=Catherin= of _Sena_, bare the markes of Christes fiue woundes in
their bodie.

Furthermore, not without great cause, men began to doubt of
transubstantiation of bread into the body of Christ, sith they had
so often poysoned the Sacrament: and also of those things which they
chaunted vpon with open mouth, touching pardons, vigilies, orders,
purgatorie, holy water, and satisfaction. For that we let passe many
things, it is clearer then the daylight, euen by this historie, that
many things haue bene beaten into the peoples heads touching these
foresaid matters, which were only deuised and inuented by these idle


  Of a counterfait and deceiuing spirit at _Orleance_ in

And that no man thinke the Friers Preachers alone to haue bene so
bolde, and wicked, and so readie in deuising so many monsters, let
vs hearken a while to a notable historie of the =Franciscan= Friers,
reported by =Sleidane= in the ninth booke of his Commentaries,
concerning the state of religion and the Common wealth in the time of
=Charles= the fifth.

In the yeare (saith he) of our Lord 1534. the =Franciscan= Monkes
played a bloodie and deadly pageant at _Orleaunce_ in _France_.
The Maiors wife of the same Citie, when shée died, commaunded in
her will, that she shoulde be buried without any pompe or noyse,
solemnely vsed at that time. (So also =William Bude=, a rare
and singular ornament of _Fraunce_, lying on his death bedde at
_Paris_, in the yeare of our Lord 1540. in the month of August,
left commaundement with his friendes to bury him without any great
solemnitie and pompe.) The womans husband, who reuerenced the
memoriall of his wife, did euen as she had willed him, and because
she was buried in the Church of the =Franciscans=, besides her father
and grandfather, gaue them in rewarde only sixe Crownes, whereas they
hoped for a farre greater pay. Shortly after, it chaunced that as he
felled certaine woods, and solde them, they desired him to giue vnto
them some parte of it fréely without money: which hee flatly denied.
This they tooke very gréeuously, and whereas before they misliked
him, they deuised this meanes to bee reuenged: forsooth to report
that his wife was damned for euer. The chiefe workemen and framers
of this tragedy were =Colimannus=, and =Stephanus Atrebatensis=,
both doctors of diuinitie, and =Colimannus= a great coniurer,
hauing all his implements in a readinesse, which he woonted to vse
in such businesse: and thus they handled the matter. They place
ouer the arche of the church a yong nouice: he about midnight when
they came to mumble their praiers (as they were wont to do) maketh
a great rumbling & noise: out of hand the Monks began to coniure
& charme, but he answereth nothing, then being required to giue a
signe whether he were a dumbe Spirit or no, he begins to rumble and
stir again: which thing they tooke as a certaine signe. Hauing laid
this foundation, they go vnto certain citizens, chief men and such
as fauored them, declaring that a heauy chaunce had hapned at home,
in their monasterie, not shewing what the matter was, but desiring
thē to come to their mattens at midnight. Whē those citizens
were come and that praiers were now begun, the counterfeit spirit
beginneth to make a maruellous noise in the top of yͤ church, and
being asked what he meant, and who he was, he giueth them signes that
it is not lawful for him to speak: Therfore they commaunde him to
make aunswere by tokens and signes, to certaine things they woulde
demaunde of him. Nowe there was a hole made in the vaute, through
the which he might heare and vnderstand the voyce of the coniurer:
and then had he in his hande a little boord which at euery question
he strake in such sort as he might easily be heard beneath. First
therefore they aske him whether he were one of them that had bin
buried in the same place, afterwards they reckning vp many by name
which had bin buried there, at the last also name the Maiors wife:
and there by and by, the Spirit gaue the signe that he was her soule.
He was further asked whether he were damned or no, and if he were,
for what desert or fault? Whether for couetousnesse, or wanton lust,
for pride, or want of charitie, or whether it were for heresie, and
for the secte of =Luther= newly sprung vp? Also what he meant by that
noyse and sturre he kept there? Whether it were to haue the bodie
now buried in holy ground to be digged vp again, and to be laide in
some other place? To all the which points, he answered by signes as
he was commanded, by the which he affirmed, or denied any thing,
according as he strake the boord twise or thrise togither. And when
he had thus giuen them to vnderstand, that the very cause of his
damnation was =Luthers= heresie, and that the bodie must needs be
digged vp againe, the Monkes request the citizens (whose presence
they had vsed) that they would beare witnesse of those things which
they had séene with their eyes, and that they would subscribe to
such things, as were done a fewe dayes before. The citizens taking
good aduise on the matter, least they should offend the Maior,
or bring themselues in trouble, refuse so to do: but the Monkes
notwithstanding take from thence the swéete bread, which they call
the host, and body of our Lord, togither with all yͤ reliques of
saints, and cary them to an other place, & there say their Masse. The
bishops substitute iudge (whom they call =Officiall=) vnderstanding
this matter, commeth thither accompanied with certain honest men, to
yͤ intēt he might know yͤ whole circumstances more exactly, &
therfore he cōmandeth them to make cōiuration in his presence,
& also he requireth certaine to be chosen to go vp to yͤ top of
the vault, and ther to see whether any ghost appeared or not. That
=Stephanus Atrebatēsis= stifly denied, and maruellously persuading
yͤ cōtrary, affirmed, that the spirit in no wise ought to be
trobled. And albeit the =Officiall=, vrged thē very much, yͭ
there might be some coniuring of the spirit, yet could he nothing
preuail. In the mean while that these things wer a doing, the Maior,
whē he had shewed the other iustices of the citie, what he wold
haue thē do, tooke his iorny to the king, and opened the whole
matter vnto him. And because the Monks refused iudgement vpon plea
of their owne lawes and liberties: the king choosing out certaine of
the Aldermen of _Paris_, giueth them absolute and full authoritie,
to make enquirie on the matter. The like doth the chancelor, maister
=Anthonius Pratensis=, Cardinall and Legate for the Pope, throughout
_Fraunce_. Therefore when they had no exception to alleadge, they
were conueyed vnto _Paris_ and there constreyned to make their
aunswere: but yet could nothing be wroong out of them by confession.
Wherevpon they were put a part into diuers prisons, the Nouice
beeing kéept in the house of maister_Fumæus_, one of the Aldermen,
who being oftentimes examined & earnestly requested to vtter the
truthe, woulde notwithstanding confesse nothing, because he feared
that the Monks would afterwards put him to death, for stayning their
order, and putting it to open shame: but whē the Iudges had made
him sure promise, that he should escape punishment, and that he
should neuer come into theire handling, he repped vp vnto them the
whole matter, as it was done, and being brought before his fellowes,
aduoucheth the same to their faces. The Monkes albeit they were by
these meanes conuicted, and almost taken tardy with the déede doing,
yet did they refuse the Iudges, bragging and vaunting them selues
on their priuiledges: but al in vaine: for sentence passed on them,
and they were condemned: that they being caried backe againe to
_Orleaunce_, and there cast in prison, should finally be broughte
foorth to the chiefe Church of the citie openly, and from thence to
the place of execution, where they should make open cōfession of
their trespasses. But there chaunced at the very same time a greeuous
persecution against the =Lutherans=, which was the cause why that
sentence, (albeit was too gentle for so great an offence) was neuer
put in executiō. For they feared much, because =Luthers= name
was odious euery where, least if any sharpe iudgement hadde passed,
they should not so muche haue punished the offenders, as shamed
their order: and many supposed that whatsoeuer had hapned vnto them,
would haue bin a pleasant and ioyful pageaunt and spectacle for the
=Lutherans=. Now the order of the =Franciscane= Friers, hath the
opinion of great holinesse with the common people: insomuch, that
when they being condemned, were carried to _Orleaunce_, certaine
fonde women moued with foolish pittie, followed them to the very
gates of the citie, weeping & sighing abundantly. When they were
come to _Orleaunce_, and were there cast into diuers prisons, againe
they vaunted and bare themselues very brag on their priuiledges, and
liberties: and so at the last when they had lyen long in prison,
they were in the end deliuered without any greater punishment. All
the while they were in prison, they wanted nothing: for there was
bestowed vpon them, especially by women, very largely, for to serue
for their liuing, and to purchase to them help and fauour. Except
these persecutions and troubles, which we spake of before, had
hindred the matter, the king (as many reported) was fully determined,
to haue ouerthrowne their house, and made it euen with the ground.

This Historie also doth demonstrate and shewe, that Spirits are not
alwayes heard, when some men affirme they are.


  Of a certaine parish Priest at _Clauenna_, whiche
  fayned himselfe to bee our Ladie, and of an other that
  counterfeited himselfe to be a soule: as also of a
  certaine disguised Iesuite Frier.

[Sidenote: Ioannes Stumpfius.]

To the ende wee may the better vnderstande this matter, I will yet
rehearse an other Historie of a certaine parishe Prieste, which
chaunced a yeare before the other I spake of, which is sette foorth
briefely, but yet truely, by =Ioannes Stumpfius=, in the Germane
Chronicles of the =Heluetians=, in the twentieth Booke and eighth
Chapter, whereof also many notable men at this day beare suffucient
witnesse. A certaine parish Priest of _Clauenna_, (whiche is a Citie
neare the Laake or water =Larius=, in the Countrey of _Rhetia_),
being farre in loue with an honest and faire mayden, the daughter
of a citizen in the same town, oftentimes followed her, as she went
vnto her fathers barne: and attempted to haue defloured her, but she
euer resisted, and put him backe. In the ende when he saw he could
not obtaine his purpose, he priuily stole out of the church a blew
cloth, beset with sundry starres, and therwith couering himselfe,
saue only that he left his armes & féete naked, which he also berayed
with blood, he hideth himselfe without the towne, and there muffling
his face with a thinne linnen cloath, méeteth again with the mayd,
fayning himself with a counterfeit voyce, to be the blessed virgin
=Mary=. Then in many words he declareth vnto her diuers plages, which
were shortly like to fall on the Citie, for the heresies of =Luther=,
(for at other times also hée had bitterly enueyed against =Luther=,
in his open Sermons:) he also commaunded the mayd to shew many
things vnto the citizens, touching holy dayes, fastings, generall
processions, &c. And amongst other things he added, that there was a
certain holy and religious man, whiche had heeretofore asked a thing
at her hands in the very same place, which she had hitherto denied
him, but now it was her pleasure, if he required yͤ same again,
she should in any wise grant it, if she would attain euerlasting
life: and yͭ aboue all thing, she must conceale and kéep close this
latter point vnto her self. The maydē by & by blazed it about al the
citie, that our Lady had visibly appeared vnto her, & foretold her
of sundry plagues likely to happen vnto the citie. The inhabitants
taking good aduise on this matter, at the last for feare of these
imminent dangers and plages, gaue commandement, that three daies
shuld be kept holy. In the which time, the mayd, supposing she shuld
do high seruice to the virgin =Mary=, fulfilleth the lust of that
wicked knaue. This trecherie and deceit being shortly after detected
by the wonderfull prouidence of God, the varlet was first beheaded,
and afterward burnt in fire.

[Sidenote: Erasmus.]

[Sidenote: Spectrum.]

=Erasmus Roterodamus=, writeth in his two and twentieth booke of
Epistles, vnto a certaine Bishop, excusing himself, touching certaine
points, which he had moued vnto him, to the ende he should be very
circumspect: and amongst other things, making mention there of
spirits or wandring soules, he reporteth this Historie. There was
(saith he) a certaine parish Priest, who had dwelling with him in
his house, a Néece of his, a woman well stored with money: In whose
Chamber hee woulde oftentimes conuey himselfe, being disguised in
a shéete lyke vnto a Spirite: And then he cast foorth a doubtfull
voyce, hoping that the woman would either procure a coniurer for her
helpe, or else her selfe make him answere. But she hauing a man-like
courage, priuily requesteth one of her friendes to lodge in her
Chamber secretly all night. The man being armed with a clubbe insteed
of other coniuring tooles, and being well tippled with drinke, to
auoyd feare, hideth himselfe in the bedde. Sodainly commeth the
Spirit roaring very miserably: The coniurer with his clubbe awaketh,
leapeth out of his bedde scant sober, and setteth vpon him. Then the
Spirit with his voyce and iesture, beginneth to make him afrayd. But
the drunken coniurer soone answered him: If (quoth he) thou be the
Diuel, I am thy mother: and therewith catching holde on him, all to
beat him with his club, and would also haue slaine him, if he had
not chaunged his voyce, and cryed; O spare me for Gods sake, I am
no soule, but I am sir Iohn. Which voyce when the woman heard and
knewe, she leapes out of her bedde, and parts the fraye, &c. The same
=Erasmus= writeth in the foresayd Epistle, that this Priest vpon
Easter eue, put liue crabbes priuily into the churchyard, hauing waxe
candles on light cleauing to their sides: which when they crawled
amongst the graues, séemed to bee suche a terrible sight, that no man
durst approach néere them. Hereof rose a fearfull reporte, wherewith
all men béeing amazed, the priest declareth to yͤ people in the
pulpit, that they were yͤ soules of deade men which desired to be
deliuered out of their torments by Masses & almes déeds. This deceite
was espied by these meanes: that at the last one or two of the
crabbes were found amongst the rubbish, hauing the candles done out
cleauing on their backs, which yͤ priest had not takē vp.

[Sidenote: Georgius Buchananus.]

=Georgius Buchananus=, prince of all Poets in this our age, reporteth
an historie in his Commodie called =Franciscanus=, of one =Langus=
a priest, who falsly affirming that in a field of Scotland full of
Brimstone there were soules miserablie tormented, which continually
cried for helpe and succour, suborned a countrie clowne whome he
would coniure, as if he had bin one of those soules. Which deceite of
his, yͤ husbandmā afterward discouered whē he was drunk. I would
here repeate his verses, but that his bookes are nowe in euery mans
hands. While I was writing these things, it was reported vnto me by
credible persons, that in =Augusta=, a noble citie of Germanie, this
present yeare 1569. there was a maide and certaine other men seruants
in a great mans family, which little regarded the sect of the
=Iesuite= Friers: & that one of the saide order made promise to their
master, that he wold easily bring them to an other opinion: & so
disguising himselfe like vnto a Diuel, was hid in a priuie corner of
yͤ house: vnto the which place, one of the maides going, either of
hir owne accorde to fetche some thing, or being sent by her master,
was by yͤ disguised Iesuite made maruellously afraide: which thing
she presently declared vnto one of the mē seruants exhorting him
in any wise to take héede of the place. Who shortly after going to
the same place, & laying hold on his dagger, sodeynly stabbed in
the counterfeit diuell, as he came rushing on him. This history is
written in Duch verses, and put in print, and now almost in euery
mans hands.


  That it is no maruell if vaine sightes haue bene in old
  time, neither yet that it is to be maruelled at, if there
  be any at this day.

Many other like examples might be brought, but these may suffise to
proue euidently, to what point ambition, couetousnesse, enuy, hatred,
stubburnesse, idlenesse and loue, do most commonly driue men.

[Sidenote: Ambition.]

We sée by common experience, that proude ambitious men dare aduenture
any thing. If they may hurt or hinder other men by accusations,
slanders, or any other wayes or meanes, whome they suppose may
preiudice or let their exalting to honour, they sticke not at all
to doo it. What maruell is it then that Monkes and Priests, which
desire to be aloft, indeuour now a daies to purchase vnto themselues
authoritie by false miracles, vaine apparitions, and such other like

[Sidenote: Couetousnesse.]

[Sidenote: Paule.]

All men know what a pernitious thing couetousnesse is. For they which
are not contented to liue with a litle, but will néeds be rich,
neither care for any man, nor yet spare any man. Hungry guttes séeke
sundrie wayes to fill themselues: fewe willingly endure hunger.
Wherefore it is not be maruelled at, if amongst Monks and Priests at
these our dayes, who haue bene euer reported to be couetous, there
be some founde, which by false apparitions of soules, séeke their
gaines, inuenting holy pilgrimages, and other baytes to get mony. For
what wil not idle and slothfull lubbers attempt to purchase riches?
Doth not Saint =Paule= say, that those which will waxe rich by
idlenesse, fall into the snares of the Diuell?

[Sidenote: Enuis.]

Emulation, wilfulnesse, enuie, hatred, contention, desire to
ouercome, what they may doo, what they may bring to passe, daily
experience teacheth vs. The Preachers of _Berna_, when they perceiued
they could not ouercome their aduersaries by any other means, yéelded
themselues (which is horrible to be spoken) vnto the diuel, making
him one of their counsell. And who can deny but yͤ priests now
adayes are also for the most part, stubborne, and full of contention.

[Sidenote: Idlenesse.]

Idlenesse is the nurse and mother of all mischiefe: what goodnesse
then may ye looke for of them, which not only exercise themselues in
no labours prescribed by God, neither yet apply themselues to good
learning, but day and night play the gluttons? Tell me I pray thée,
whether the laboring husbandman, or the idle man, who alwayes spent
his time in inuenting pernitious mischiefes, first founde out those
cruel instruments of warre which they call gunnes?

[Sidenote: Loue.]

It might be declared in many words what loue is able to do. Now
because Monks and Priests liue idlely, abounding in all wantonnesse,
and yet are restrained from holy marriage, what maruell is it if at
this time also they faine and counterfeit many visions, that they
might thereby the easier enioy their loue? And here I wil not say
it is to be feared, that there are many amongst them so wicked and
villanous, as to exercise & practise magicall Artes, and such like,
which are vtterly forbidden. Who can then maruell hereafter, if it be
sayd, they counterfeyt spirites, affirming they haue let men see this
or that soule? For in what men soeuer these vices be, which we haue
rehearsed, surely those dare boldly aduenture any thing.

No kinde of men are more obnoxious to these kinde of things, than
those which leade their life in Monasteries, and Colledges: and
therefore no man ought to maruell or thinke it a straunge thing, if
we say that in times past many false visions haue bene practised,
and may also at this day likewise happen. For yͤ world, as all men
iustly complaine, waxeth worse and worse. Men are now more impudent,
more bold, more couetous, and more wicked, than euer they were in
times past.

Moreouer, the Cleargie of _Rome_ haue in many places this
prerogatiue aboue others, that most men (especially such as are led
by superstition) make much of them, worshipping them with great
reuerence, no man so much as suspecteth them to apply their mindes
to euill matters, to subtiltie, craft, and deceit: all men looke for
other things at their hands. If therefore they addict themselues to
euill deuises, they may easily deceiue men, except God miraculously
reueale their wickednesse, and bring it to light, as we declared in a
fewe examples rehearsed before.

[Sidenote: Popes haue fained visions.]

[Sidenote: Bruno.]

[Sidenote: Gregorius 7.]

[Sidenote: Bartholomeus Platina.]

[Sidenote: Bonifacius.]

And perchance for this cause also, Priests and Monkes could not bee
so well blamed, for their so often deceiuing plaine meaning folkes
with craft and subtiltie, in so much as some of their moste holy
Fathers, I meane Popes of _Rome_, haue bin very cunning in magicall
sciences, as their owne Historiographers affirme, and by meanes of
those artes, haue aspired to the high top of Popedome. =Beno= (or
rather =Bruno=, for so I iudge his name is) who was also a Cardinall,
set foorth the life of Pope =Gregorie= the seuenth, in writing,
in the which hée sheweth the sayd Bishop to haue bene a proude,
arrogant, malicious and couetous Monke, and that hée was throughly
séene in the blacke art of Negromancie. =Bartholomeus Platina= (who
being a sworne seruant with the Pope, excusing their faults as much
as he can) writeth of =Siluester= the second, yͭ he gaue himselfe
to the diuel, and that by his meanes, his counsell & magical deuises,
he atteined yͤ great office of papacie. Doo ye think, that it is a
hard thing for him yͭ is confederat with the enemy of mankind, to
faine spirits & soules, or to cōiure a diuel, to make men beléeue he
were a soule, do you thinke such men abhorre to doo such mischiefe?
The =Historiographers= report that =Bonifacius= the 8. deceiued
his predecessor =Celestinus=, by a voyce sent through a cane réed,
as though it had come from heauen, perswading him to giue ouer his
office of Popeship, and to institute therein, one =Bonifacius= a
worthier man than he, except he would be thrust out of the kingdome
of heauen. The poore simple Pope obeying this voyce, ordeined
=Bonifacius= Pope in his steade, in the yeare of our Lord 1294. who
first brought in the yeare of Iubile. Of this =Boniface=, the common
people would say, _He came in like a Fox, he raigned like a wolfe,
and died like a Dog_. If the very vicar of Christ, who hath all
knowledge as it were fast lockt in the Coffer of his brest, could be
deceiued, lette no man maruel any more if simple credulous husbandmen
and citezens haue ben deceiued, and that it hath bin said to them:
God spake this: This soule did aske helpe: and such like things,
which are most false and vaine. Yf this man coulde counterfeit the
voyce of God, coulde he not also faine the voice of dead men?

[Sidenote: Sometimes Laye men beguile the Priests.]

Before I procéede any further, this is also to be obserued, that
plesaunt conceited fellowes, may oftentimes deceiue the priests,
themselues. For when the priests did brag, that they coulde coniure
Spirits and deliuer mens soules, it may be that other being wrapped
in shéets, hauing vnderneth them liue coales in an earthen pot,
appeared vnto priests, who by and by were persuaded they sawe
saules which required their helpe to be deliuered. =Erasmus= in his
=Colloquio= or talke which he intituled =Exorcismus, vel spectrum=,
or a coniuration or vision, writeth howe one =Polus= maruellously
deceiued a priest called =Faustus=. But there is no doubt but that
priests being many times deceiued in iest by the lay men for pastimes
sake, haue on the other side more often times beguiled them in

[Sidenote: Men walking by night.]

I haue spoken hitherto of men being awake, and now I will adde a
fewe words of such as sléepe. There be many which haue such a kinde
of disease, that they walke in their sléepe: which thing we reade to
haue bin true in one =Theon= a =Stoicke=, and in =Pericles= seruant,
who in their sléepe climed vp to the top of the house. I haue hearde
of some which in their sléepe haue done that which béeing awake, they
could not do by any meanes. If a man sée such a one walking in the
night, either apparrelled or naked, and after here him say he was at
the same time in his bed, he will straight thinke, it was his soule
that he sawe, the like will he do if he heare such a one at his owne


 That many naturall things are taken to be ghoasts.

[Sidenote: Fayries of the earth.]

There happen daily many things by the ordinary course of nature,
which diuers men, especially they that are timorous and fearefull,
suppose to be visions or spirits. As for example, when they heare the
crying of ratts, catts, weasels, martins, or any other beaste, or
when they heare a horse beate his féete on the plankes in the stable
at midnight, by and by they sweat for feare, supposing some bugges to
walke in the dead of the night. Somtimes a bittour, or hearne (which
birds are sildome séene with vs in _Germany_) or some other straunge
birds, make a noise in the aire: many fooles straightwayes dreame,
they haue heard I wotte not what. If a worme which fretteth wood,
or that bréedeth in trées, chaunce to gnawe a wall of waynescot, or
other timber, many will iudge they heare one softly knocking vppon
an anduill with a sledge: and sometimes they imagine they heare
many hammers at one time. Simple foolish men hearing these things,
imagine, I know not how, that there be certaine elues or fairies of
the earth, and tell many straunge and maruellous tales of them, which
they haue heard of their grandmothers and mothers, how they haue
appeared vnto those of the house, haue done seruice, haue rocked the
cradle, and (which is a signe of good lucke) do continually tarry
in the house. If such dwarfes or elues haue bene séene at any time,
surely they were euill spirits. For we reade that the Gentiles in
time past, had their familiar or houshold gods, whome they worshipped
with great deuotion, because (as they thought) they tooke care of
their house, and defended their family: and vnto these men, euil
spirits did sometimes appeare, thereby to confirme them the more in
their blinde superstition.

[Sidenote: Olaus Magnus.]

=Olaus Magnus= Archbishop of _Vpsalia_, writeth in his history =de
Gentibus Septentrionalibus=, that euen at this day also, there are
spirits séene in these countries, which hauing the shape of men, do
men seruice in the night, dressing their horse, and looking to their
cattell. The winde in the night, ouerthroweth some thing, or shaketh
a casement or lid of the window: many by and by thinke they sée a
spirite, and can very hardly be brought from that vaine opinion.

[Sidenote: Echo.]

This thing is also according to nature, that when a man either crieth
or speaketh in the woods, valies, or other hollow places, =Echo= wil
resound the later word or sillable, so plainly many times, that a man
would verily thinke some liuing bodie made him answere againe. Many
would be afraide hereof at all times, but especially in the night
season, except he knew very well it were a naturall thing.

[Sidenote: Cardanus.]

=Cardanus= in his booke =de Subtilitate lib.18.= rehearseth a
maruellous historie of one =Comensis=, who very late in the night,
comming to a riuersside, not knowing where he might passe ouer,
called out aloude for some bodie to shewe him the foorde, and when
the =Echo= made him answere, hee supposing it to be a man, asked him
if he might passe ouer here: to whom the =Echo= answered again in
yͤ Italian tong, Here, here. But in yͭ place was a whirlpoole,
and a great roring of the water: Therfore yͤ man douting, asketh
once or twice againe, whether the riuer might be past ouer in the
same place: to which the =Echo= answered stil that it might. In the
end, when he had escaped yͤ passage without danger, he told his
friends, how by the persuasiō of the diuel, he had almost throwne
himself hedlong into the riuer, and drowned himself. In the same
place, he saith, that the great Hall at =Ticinium= in _Italy_, doth
render sundry and manifold voyces, if one speake in it, and that the
voyces as it were die and make an end much lyke a mans voyce, when he
lyeth a dying, in so much that a man can scant be perswaded it is the
noyse of =Echo=.

[Sidenote: Things shyning by night.]

[Sidenote: Hector Boethius.]

There are certain things which shine only in the night, as some
precious stones doo, the eyes of certaine beastes, a Glowoorme, or
Globard, as also some kinde of rotten wood, wherewith many times
children so terrifie their play-fellowes, that they imagine with
themselues, to sée euil spirites, or men all burning with fire.
=Hector Boethius= writeth, that a certain King of Scots caused some
of his men to be disguised in garments with bright shining scales,
hauing in their hands rotten wood instéed of staues, and so to
appeare to his nobilitie and Lords in the night, exhorting them to
fight couragiously with their enemies, and promising them to obtaine
victorie. Whereby the noble men supposing they had séene angels,
behaued themselues valiantly, and atchieued the victorie.

[Sidenote: Burning lights.]

Many times candles & small fires appeare in the night, and séeme to
runne vp and downe. And as the yong men in _Heluetia_, who with their
firebrands which they light, at the bonfires in Shroftide, sometime
gather themselues togither, and then scatter abroad, and againe,
méeting togither, march in a long rancke: euen so doo those fires
sometime séeme to come togither, and by and by to be seuered & runne
abroad, and at the last to vanish cleane away. Sometime these fires
goe alone in the night season, and put such as sée them, as they
trauell by night, in great feare. But these things, and many such
lyke haue their naturall causes: and yet I will not deny, but that
many times Diuels delude men in this maner.

[Sidenote: Exhalatons.]

Natural Philosophers write, that thicke exhilations aryse out of
the earth, and are kindled. Mynes full of sulphur and brimstone, if
the aire enter vnto it, as it lyeth in the holes and veines of the
earth, will kindle on fier, and striue to get out. Sometimes fire
bursteth out of the earth, as high as a tall trée, and is suddeinly
put out againe. Which thing is to be thought to procéede of fierie
matter, séeking a vent to gush out. Wee reade of the mount _Aetna_
in _Cicilie_, that in times past it burnt continually, day and
night, casting forth flames of fire, fiery stones and ashes in great
aboundance. The lyke is read also at _Vesuuius_ a hill in _Campaine_,
about a Germaine mile from _Naples_: The same hill in the time of
=Titus= the Emperour, as S. =Hierom= reporteth, cast foorth of it so
much fire, that it burnt the country, and cities, and people rounde
about it, and filled the fieldes adioyning full of cinders and ashes.
These two hilles, euen in our dayes boyling with great heate, haue
very much indamaged the people inhabiting thereabout. In _Iseland_,
as =Olaus Magnus= witnesseth, are found fiers which breake out of
the earth. And as whole hilles and mountaines may burne, euen so may
a litle fire be kindled in the earth, and yet wander very large.
They which trauelling by the way, or by some other meanes chaunce to
sée these things, and know not the naturall causes of them, imagin
by reason of feare, that they haue séene men burning like fire, or
some other straunge thing, which they haue heard other men talke of.
And by means of their great feare, oftentimes they fall into great
daungerous diseases.

[Sidenote: Glasses.]

The arte perspectiue doth also worke this wonderfull feate, that
diuers and sundrie shapes will appeare in glasses, made and sette
togither aftter a certeine artificial sorte: sometimes they will
séeme to goe out of the doores, and resemble men of our familiar
acquaintance. Many things in very déed are naturall, although we
cannot finde any naturall reason for them.

And yet by the way, they shewe themselues too foolishe, which labour
to bring all things to natural causes. Here I will say nothing of
these men, which can beare plaine and rude people in hande, that
they, or some other of their acquaintance, haue séene strange things,
which they earnestly auouch to be true, when as indéede there was
no suche thing. How often I pray you, do we heare things affirmed
as true, which afterward proue most false: as that one was caried
away bodie and soule, that an other was put to death, and an infinit
nomber of such like reports.


  A proofe out of the Gentiles histories, that Spirites and
  Ghoasts do oftentimes appeare.

Albeit many melancholicke, madde, fearefull, and weake sensed men,
doo oftentimes imagine many things which in very déed are not, and
are likewise deceiued, sometime by men, or by brute beasts: and
moreouer mistake things which procéede of naturall causes, to be
bugges and spirites, as I haue hitherto declared by many examples,
yet it is most certaine and sure, that all those things which
appeare vnto men are not alwayes naturall things, nor alwayes vaine
terrors to affray men: but that spirites doo often appeare, and many
straunge and maruellous things doo sundry times chance. For many
such things of this sort, are to be red in diuers graue and auncient
Historiographers: and many men of no small credite, haue affirmed,
that they haue séene spirites both in the day and in the night also.
And here I will orderly declare a fewe histories out of diuers
allowed authors, touching spirites which haue appeared and shewed

[Sidenote: Triton appeared to Iulius Cæsar.]

=Suetonius Tranquillus= writeth, that when =Iulius Cæsar= marching
out of _Fraunce_ into _Italie_ with his army, and comming to the
riuer _Rubico_, which diuideth _Italie_ from the hether _Fraunce_,
staying there a while, and reuoluing with himselfe howe great an
enterprise hee had taken in hand, as he was wauering in mind whether
he shuld passe the water or not, suddeinly there appeared a man of
excelling stature and shape sitting hard by, pyping on a réede.
(=Melancthon= in his Phisickes calleth him =Triton=) vnto whom when
not only shepheards, but also very many souldiers from the campe, and
amongst them diuers trumpetters had flocked to heare him, he sodeinly
snatched a trumpet from one of them, and leaped to the riuer, and
with a lustie breath blowing vp the alarum, went to the farther side.
Then sayd =Cæsar=, good lucke mates, let vs goe whither the gods
warnings leade vs, and whither our enemies iniquitie calleth vs: The
dice are throwne. And so he transported ouer.

[Sidenote: Theseus seene in the battaile of Maratho.]

=Plutarke= writeth in =Theseus= life, that many which were in the
battaile of =Marathonia=, against the =Medians=, did affirme, that
they sawe the soule of =Theseus= armed, (who long time before died of
a fall) before the vauntgard of the =Grecians=, running and setting
on the barbarous =Medians=. For which cause the =Athenians= afterward
were moued to honor him as a demigod.

=Pausanias= writeth in =Atticis=, That in the field of =Maratho=.
400. yeares after the battaile there foughten, there was heard the
neying of Horses, and the encountring of souldiers, as it were
fighting euery night: And that they which of purpose came to heare
these things, could heare nothing, but those that by chaunce came
that way, heard it very sensibly.

The same =Plutarke= writeth in the life of =Cimon=, that when the
citizens of =Cherouesus=, had by faire words called home their
captaine =Damon=, (who before for diuers murthers departed the citie)
afterwards they cruelly slew him in a Hotehouse, as he was bathing
himselfe, and from that time foorth, there were many strange sightes
séene in the same place, & many times also most gréeuous gronings
were there heard, insomuch that they were euer after constreined to
stop vp the hotehouse doores.

Also in yͤ life of =Dion=, he reporteth that the saide =Dion= being
a stoute & a couragious man without any feare, sawe notwithstanding
a great and maruellous horrible sight. For when he chaunced to sit
alone in the entry of his house in the euening (those are =Plutarks=
owne words, as =Xiliander= interpreteth them) musing & discoursing
many things with himselfe, being sodeinly moued with a great noyse,
he arose and looked backe to the other side of the gallerie, and
there he espied a monstrous great woman, who in apparell and
countenaunce nothing differing from a Tragi, call furie, swept the
house with a broome. With the which sight being amazed & terribly
afraide, he called his friends and acquaintance vnto him, and
declaring vnto them what he had séene, desired thē to remaine with
him al that night: for béeing as it were stricken dead with feare,
he doubted least it would appeare vnto him againe, if he were alone,
which indéede neuer hapned after. But a fewe daies after, his sonne
threwe himselfe headlong from the top of the house, and died, and he
himselfe being stabbed through the bodie, ended his miserable life.

The same author writeth in the life of =Decius Brutus=, how when
=Brutus= was determined to transporte his army out of =Asia= into
=Europe=, being in his tent about midnight, the candle burning dimly,
and all the host quiet and silent, as he was musing and reuoluing
with himselfe, he séemed that he hearde one entring the Tente into
him, and looking backe vnto the doore, he sawe a terrible and
monstrous shape of a bodie, which farre excéeded the common stature
of men, standing faste by him without any words, wherewith he was
sore afraid: and yet he ventured to aske it this question. What art
thou (saieth hée) either a God, or a man? and why commest thou vnto
me? Whereto the image answered: I am (quoth he) O =Brutus=, thy euill
ghoast, at =Philippos= thou shalt sée mée. Then saith =Brutus=,
being nothing amazed: I will sée thée. When the sight was vanished,
he called his seruants, who tolde him, that they neither sawe any
such thing, neither heard any voyce at all. All that night =Brutus=
could not sléep one winke. In the morning very early, he goeth vnto
=Cassius= and sheweth him his straunge vision. =Cassius= who despised
all such things (for he was an Epicure) ascribed the whole matter
to naturall causes. For his disputation hereof, is yet extant in
=Plutarke=. Afterwards =Brutus= (being vanquished by =Augustus=, and
=Anthony=, in the field of =Philippi=) slew himselfe because he would
not bee deliuered into the hands of his enemies.

[Sidenote: Caius Cassius sawe Iulius Cæsar.]

=Valerius Maximus=, in his first booke and sixt chap. writeth that
=Caius Cassius= sawe =Iulius Cæsar= in the battaile of =Philippi=,
(in a shape of greater maiesty, than any man hath) setting spurres to
his horse, and running on him with a terrible threatning countenance:
which when =Cassius= sawe, he turned his backe to the enemy, and
fled, and shortly after murthered himselfe.

[Sidenote: Drusus sawe a woman excelling all mortall creatures in

=Dio Cassius Nicæsus=, in his Roman historie from the beginning of
his 55.booke writeth of =Drusus=, who by spoyling _Germany_ far and
néere on euery side, came euen to the riuer =Albis=, where when he
could not get ouer, erecting monuments of victorie, departed back
againe: For he there saw a woman, excéeding the state of mortall
creatures, which met him, and sayd vnto him: =Drusus=, which canst
finde no end of thy gréedie desire, whither goest thou? It is not
lawfull for thée to sée al these things: but rather get thée hence,
for the ende both of thy life and worthie déedes is nowe at hand.
When =Drusus= heard these things, he sodeinly chaunged his course,
and being on his iourney, before he came to the riuer of =Rein=, he
sickned and dyed. Other like foretokens the same author reporteth
to haue hapned before his death, all the which notwithstanding, he
nothing regarded. For two yong men appeared on horsebacke vpon the
rampiers, and the shriking of women was also hearde, with many other
such like. &c.

[Sidenote: Plinius secundus writing of spirits.]

=Plinius secundus= citizen of =Nouocomensis=, hath an Epistle of
Spirits appearings, written vnto his friend =Sura= in the vii. booke
of his Epistles, which we haue thought good to set downe whole in
this place: Leisure (saith he) graunteth me libertie to learne,
and giueth thée leaue to teache. Therfore I am very desirous to
knowe whether thou thinke fantasies are any thing, and whether they
haue any proper figure of their owne, and be some kinde of diuine
power, or else whether they take vppon them some vaine & variable
shape, according to the feare which we haue of them? That I should
so beléeue, I am especially moued thereto by that which I heare
saie happened to =Curtius Rufus=, who was as then, companion to the
Proconsul of =Affrica=, bothe poore, and also of small reputation.
And as he walked one day in a Gallerie towardes the euening their
méeteth with him the shape of a woman, more great & beautifull, than
any liuing creature. Wherat he béeing amazed, she telleth him that
she is _Affrica_, and is come vnto him to foretell him of good happe
to followe: First that he should go to Rome, and there take on him
the state of great honoure, and afterwarde, that he should returne
into the same prouince with full and high authoritie, and there end
his daies. Which things came all to passe. And moreouer, the same
figure (as it is saide) mette with him againe on the shore side, as
he entred out of the ship, and came towardes _Carthage_ to take his
charge and regiment in hande. Afterwards falling sick, when no man
dispayred of his healthe, coniecturing things to come by those that
had passed, and comparing aduersitie with his former prosperitie,
he vtterly cast away all hope of recouerie. Is not this also more
terrible, and no lesse maruellous, whiche I will now repeate as I
haue heard it tolde?

[Sidenote: The spirit of Athens.]

There was in _Athens_ a goodly and a very large house, but euill
reported, and counted as an infortunate and vnluckie house. For about
midnight, there was heard the noyse of iron, and if one marked it
well, the ratling of chaines, as it were a farre off at the first,
and so, néerer and néerer: shortly there appeared an image or shape,
as it were an olde man, leane and loathsome to beholde, with a long
beard and staring haire: on his legges he had fetters, and in his
hands carried chaines which he alwaies ratled togither. By meanes
whereof, those that inhabited the house, by reason of their feare,
watched many heauie and pittifull nights: after their watching
folowed sicknesse, and soone after, as feare increased, ensued death.
For in the day time also, albeit the image were departed, yet the
remembrance thereof, was euer present before their eyes: so that
their feare was longer than they had cause to feare. Vpon this the
house stood desert and solitarie, wholly lefte vnto the monster
whiche haunted it: yet was it proclaimed to be solde, if happily any
man whiche was ignorant of this great mischiefe, would either buy
it or hire it. =Athenodorus= chanced to come to _Athens_, and there
readeth the writing on the doore: And when he had learned the price,
because he suspected the good cheapenesse thereof, enquiring further,
vnderstoode the whole matter, and notwithstanding any thing that he
heard, he hired the house, so much the rather. When it waxed night,
he commaundeth his seruauntes to make his bedde in the vtter part
of the house: he taketh his writing tables, his writing wier and a
candle, and sendeth all his seruaunts into the inner part of the
house. He himselfe setleth his minde, his eyes and hand to write,
least his mind being vnoccupied, should imagine it heard straunge
figures, and should bréed vaine feare. In the beginning of the night,
there was silence as is in all other places, but not long after
the iron began to ring, and the chaines to moue: but yet he would
not looke vp, nor let cease his writing, but hardned his hart, and
stopped his eares. Then the noyse increaseth & draweth neare, and
séemeth sometimes to be without the porch, sometimes within. Thē
he looketh back, and seeth and acknowledgeth the shape whereof he
had heard before: the image stood still and beckned with his finger
as though he had called him, the philosopher on the other side
signifieth with his hand, that he should stay a while, and falleth
againe to his writing. The image shaketh his chaines ouer his head,
as he sate writing. He looketh about againe, and seeth him beckning,
as he did before. And so rising vp without delay, taketh the candle
in his hand and foloweth: the image goeth before with a softly pace,
as though he were heauily laden with chaines: After he had turned
aside into the court of the house, sodeinly vanishing away, leaueth
his walking mate alone. He being forsaken, laieth hearbes and leaues
gathered togither vpon the place. The next day he goeth to the rulers
of the citie, and willeth them to commaund the place to bée digged
vp, whiche done, they finde bones wrapped and tyed in chaynes: which
the bodie béeing putrified and consumed with long lying in the earth,
had left lying in bondes: those bones being gathered togither, were
buried solemnely: The house, after they were orderly laide in the
ground, was euer after cleare of all such ghostes.

In these things I must beléeue other mens reports, but that which
followeth, I can boldly affirme on mine owne knowledge.

I haue one with mée, sometime my bondseruaunt, but nowe enfraunchized
and set at libertie, a man not vtterly vnlearned: with him my yonger
brother lay togither in one bed. He in his owne imagination seemed
that he saw a certain personage sitting vpon the bedde where he laie,
putting kniues vnto his head, and therewith polling off his haires.
When it was day light, the haires were found on the ground, he being
in very déed notted about the crowne of his head. Shortly after the
like happened vnto him, which made all men beléeue the first was
true. The boy amongst a great many of his fellowes chaunced to sléepe
in the schoole, and being in sléepe, there came certaine in at the
windowes (as he sayd) cloathed in white garments, and shore of his
haire as he laie, and so departed againe as they came. This polling,
and also his haires scattered abroad, were founde when it was day.
No notable matter ensued hereof, except it were, perchaunce, that I
was not accused of treason, as I should haue bene, if =Domitianus=,
who died about this time, had liued longer. For there was a libell
found in his coffers, giuen vnto him against me, written by maister
=Carus=. By which it may well be coniectured, that in so much as
those which are accused, doo vse to let their haire growe very long,
the cutting of my friends haire, was a sure signe of escaping the
great daunger, which then hung ouer my head. Wherefore I hartily
require you to straine your learning. The matter is worthie, wherein
ye may vse long and déepe consideration: and I surely am vnworthie
to whom ye shuld open your knowledge. You may therfore (if it please
you) dispute the matter on both sides, as ye are accustomed, but
yet I pray you handle it more throughly on the one side, least ye
sende me away wauering and hanging in doubt, whereas the cause of my
séeking counsel, is to the ende I might be quite out of doubt. Fare
ye well.

[Sidenote: Manlius.]

What answere master =Sura=, (who as it appeareth, was well learned)
made vnto maister =Pliny= I do not finde. But to say the truth, what
sound answere could he, being a Gentile make herein? The like history
is to be red in the collections of =Iohn Manlius= common places,
who (as =Philip Melancthon= reporteth) dooth write, that =Theodorus
Gaza= had a lordship or manour place in _Campania_, giuen him by
=Nicholas= Pope of _Rome_. In the manour, when by chaunce, one of
his farmers had digged vp a coffin with dead mens bones in it, there
sodeinly appeared a spirit vnto him, commaunding him to bury the
coffin againe, or else his sonne should shortly after die. Which when
the farmer refused to doo, shortly after his sonne was found slaine
in the night. A fewe dayes after, the Spirit appeared againe vnto
the husbandman, menacing and threatning him, that in case he did not
bury the aforesaid bones, he would kill his other sonne also. The man
taking warning by his losse, and séeing his other sonne fallen sicke,
goeth vnto maister =Theodorus= and sheweth him all the matter. He
vnderstanding it, goeth with him to the manour, and there in the same
place where the farmer had before digged vp the coffin, casting a new
graue, they bury the coffin with the bones. As soone as the bones
were laide in the graue, the husbandmans sonne immediatly recouered
his health.

=Dion= writeth, that the Emperour =Traianus= was ledde out of the
house, where he had taken vp his Inne, in the time of an earthquake,
into a more safer place.

=Iulius Capitolinus=, which setteth out a fewe lines of the Romane
Emperours, reporteth, that =Pertinax= for the space of thrée days
before he was slaine by a thrust, sawe a certaine shadow in one of
his fishponds, which with a sworde readie drawne threatened to slaie
him, and thereby much disquieted him.

=Flauius Vopiscus= writeth, that whereas =Tacitus= fathers graue
opened it selfe, the sides therof falling downe of their owne accord,
and that his mothers soule appeared both to him and =Florianus=
day and night, as if she had bene liuing, it was a most sure and
infallible signe, that he should die shortly after.

=Ammianus Marcellinus=, writing of the signes or prognostications of
=Constantius= death, saith that he was troubled and terrified in the
night season with shapes and figures.

The same Author affirmeth in his 25. booke, that a little before
=Iulianus= died, as he sate writing in the tents, following the
example of =Iulius Cæsar=, he sawe the image of the publicke
=Genius=, or god of the place (which was wont to be painted with
=Amaltheas= horne in his hand) departing from him, more deformed and
ill fauoured, than when it began to mount vp to the narrow top of the

[Sidenote: Lucan.]

=Lucanus= as well an excellent Historiographer, as also a most
learned Poet, reckneth vp many forewarnings, in his first booke of
the battaile of =Pharsalia=, which chaunced before the great conflict
betwéen =Iulius Cæsar=, and great =Pompeius=: and amongst other
things, he writeth thus.

_The trumpets blew, and looke euen as the battaile ioynd apace, So
did the night with silent shades increase her darkish face. And then
the ghosts of_ =Sylla= _fierce, were plainly seene in field, Thereby
declaring euil signes, of blood that should be spild. And by the
floud of Anien, the husband did spie Great_ =Marius=, _out of broken
graue his head aduauncing hie_.


  A proofe out of the histories of the auncient Church, and
  of the writings of holie Fathers, that there are walking

[Sidenote: Sozomenus.]

If we read ouer the Ecclesiasticall histories, we shall finde many of
these examples. =Sozomenus= writeth in his Ecclesiasticall historie,
the sixt booke and 28. chapter, of one =Apelles=, a black Smyth
by occupation (whose name was at that time very famous throughout
_Egipt_, for the gift of working miracles, wherwith he was indewed)
who as he was one night hard at his work, had appearing vnto him, a
vision of a Diuel in the likenesse and attire of a very beautifull
womā, mouing & intising him to the vice of lechery. But he sodenly
catching yͤ iron which he wrought on, glowing hot out of the fire,
thrust it in yͤ diuels face, and scorched his visage, wherat he
fretting & crying out, in al hast fled away.

Likewise in his 7. booke and 23. chap. writing of the sedition
raised at _Antioche_, for the immoderat action and tribute which
=Theodosius= layd on the citie in the time of warres, whereby the
people being offended, ouerthrew the images of the Emperour and his
wife, dragging them in roapes about the citie, and reporting all
kinde of villany and dispite against them, thus he saith. But in
the night before, assoone as the rebellion began, immediatly at the
breake of the day, it is certainly reported there was a straunge
sight séene, of a woman hauing a huge stature and most horrible
looke, running vp and downe the citie through the stréetes aloft
in the aire, whisking & beating the aire with a whip, rendring a
fearefull sound. That as men are wont to prouoke wilde beasts to
anger, which serue for publike spectacles: euen so it séemed, some
euil angell by the craft of the diuell stirred vp that commotion
amongst the people.

[Sidenote: Theodorus.]

[Sidenote: Nicephorus.]

=Theodorus Lector=, in his first booke of Collectanies, out of the
Ecclesiasticall historie writeth, that as =Gennadius= Patriarch of
_Constantinople_, came downe to the high aultar to make praiers and
orizons, there appeared vnto him a certaine vision or spirit in a
most horrible shape and figure, which so soone as he had sharply
rebuked, straightwaies he heard a voice crying out aloud, yͭ so lōg
as he liued he would giue place & cease, but when he was once dead,
he would surely ransack and spoyle the Church. Which when yͤ good
father heard, he ernestly praied for yͤ preseruation of the church,
& soone after departed this life. There are many things to be read in
=Gregori^9 Nicephor^9=, who setteth foorth Ecclesiastical matters at
large, & =Abdias= in the liues of the Apostles, concerning visions,
dreames, miracles of saints, and also appearings of spirites. For
wise men iudge, they were more diligent & ready in describing such
things, than in other matters, which might haue bin to greater
purpose and much more profitable for the readers to vnderstand.

He that readeth ouer the Histories, which in times past haue bene
written, (and that especially by Monkes) shall méete with an
innumerable company of these sorts: Yet by the way I must néedes say
this, that verie many things haue bin written by them, which the
Readers may iustly suspect, and stand in great doubt of.

=Ludouicus Viues=, =Beatus Rhenanus=, and many other learned men of
our time, in describing other things, doo finde great fault with the
Chronicles written by Monkes, for that they were gathered togither
by vnlearned dolts without any iudgement. But let euery man estéeme
of them as he list. For albeit there are diuers things in them very
foolish and ridiculous, yet it may be well thought that many things
were so in very déed, as they haue committed them to writing.

[Sidenote: Ambrose.]

A man shall méete with many places concerning visions and appearings
of spirits, euen in the old fathers also. S. =Ambrose= in his 90.
Sermon, writeth of a noble Virgin named =Agnes=, who was crowned
with martirdome for the professiō of christian religion. And as her
parents watched one night by her graue, they saw about midnight, a
goodly company of Virgins cloathed in golden vayles, amongst whome
also was their daughter, arraied like vnto the rest: who willing the
other Virgins to staie awhile, turning her selfe towards her parents,
willed them in any case, not to bewaile her as if she were dead, but
rather to reioyce with her, for that she had obteined of God eternal
life. Which assoon as she had spoken, she immediatly vanisht vanisht
out of sight.

[Sidenote: Augustine.]

[Sidenote: Felix appeared at Nola.]

[Sidenote: Gregorie.]

S. =Augustin= declareth in his booke, =De cura pro mortuis agenda=,
that when the Citie of _Nola_ was besieged by the Barbariens, the
citizens saw =Felix= the martyr plainly appearing vnto them. Touching
S. =Gregorie=, who in his Dialogues writeth many such things, we will
entreate hereafter when his turne commeth.

Ye shall read of many such like, in the liues of the auncient
Fathers, which al are not to be reiected as vain and fabulous, for
some part of them written by graue and learned men, whereof letting
the rest passe for breuitie sake, I will rehearse one short historie.

[Sidenote: Basiliscus appeared to Chrysostome.]

It is to be séene in the life of =Ioannes Chrysostom=, that
=Basiliscus= Bishop of _Comane_ (who suffered as a Martir with
=Lucianus= the priest at _Antioch_, vnder =Maximianus= the Emperour)
appeared vnto Saint =Chrysostome=, when hee was in exile, and sayd
vnto him: Brother =Iohn=, be of good comfort, for to morrow we shall
be togither. But first he appeared to the priest of that Church, and
sayd vnto him: prepare a place for our deare brother =Iohn=, who will
shortly come hither. Which things the euent proued afterwards to be


  That in the Bookes set foorth by Monkes, are many
  ridiculous and vaine apparitions.

We made mention a litle before, of Chronicles written by Monkes.
Now as touching their legendes of Saintes (as they terme their
storehouses of examples, and liues of auncient Fathers, in the which
are many apparitions of diuels & spirits,) verily there is no cause
at all why we should ascribe much vnto them, for the most part of
such stuffe as is set forth in them, haue no shewe nor likelihood of
truth: perchaunce their minde was to bring men to great feare and
Religion by those their counterfeited and imagined histories. But
concerning these, this place now serueth not to intreate.

The like may be sayd, of many superstitious Popish writers, who
following these mens steppes, haue written many vpon other mens
credit and reports, which least any man thinke I write, being moued
with enuie or hatred of the persons, I will shewe you one onely
historie or fable amongst so many, that you may thereby haue as it
were a taste of that which I sayd euen now.

[Sidenote: S. Seuerine Bishop of Colin.]

=Petrus Damanus=, who first was a Monke after the order of S.
=Benedict=, and afterward Bishop of _Hostia_, a man of great
estimation among Papists, as well for the opinion they had of his
learning, as for the shewe of his vpright liuing, telleth a storie
of a certaine Monke of _Colein_, who on a time passing ouer a Riuer
on horsebacke, espied Saint =Seuerinus= sometime Bishop of _Colein_
on the Riuer, who not long before was departed this life, and being
buried at that time, was much renowmed for doing sundrie miracles.
The Bishop catcheth holde on the Monkes bridle, and would not let
him passe any further: wherewith the Monke was sore afraide, and
diligently enquired of him, why he being so notable a man, was there
withholden in that place. The Bishop then required him to lende him
his hand, that hée might vnderstand by féeling how it was with him,
which when he had done, and that the Bishoppe had dipped the Monkes
hande downe into the water, sodeinly in one moment all the flesh
of his hand, by reason of the extreame heate, was scalded off, so
that the bones only remained al bare. Vnto whom then the Monke, sith
(quote hée) thou art so famous a man in the Church, how commeth it to
passe that thou art so gréeuously tormented? The Bishop aunswered:
only sayd hée for this cause, for that I haue not sayd ouer my
Canonicall houres in due time distinctly as I should haue done: for
I was in the Emperours Court busied and occupied with matters of his
priuie Counsell, in the morning hudling vp all my prayers at once,
all the rest of the day I was troubled with other businesse: and for
that cause do I now suffer this punishment of miserable heat. But
let vs both togither call vnto Almightie God, that it may please him
to restore thy hand againe, which came presently to passe assoone
as they had thus saide. And then spake he to the Monke saying: Go
my sonne and desire the brethren of our Church, as also al other of
the Clergie there, to poure out their praiers for mée, to giue almes
to the poore and néedie, and to perseuere incessantly in offring vp
continuall sacrifice for me, for so soone as these things shal be
fulfilled, I shal be deliuered out of these my torments, and shal be
ioyfully translated to the fellowship of those blessed Citizens of
heauen, which do earnestly desire my company. Out of this historie,
this argument or reason they make: If that good and godly Bishop, who
being ouercharged with affaires of the Emperour leading to publike
wealth, could not dispatch his taske of prayers in due time, and
therefore is so miserably vexed and tormented, what punishment may
they looke for, which hauing no necessarie businesse, say ouer the
Canonicall houres very coldly, or else leaue them cleane vnsayd, that
they may the better followe their owne lustes and vaine deuises? And
héere note by the way, they make no mention at all of omitting those
things which God hath expresly commanded vs. But in case the Popish
Bishoppes doo verily beléeue this story to be true, let them thinke
with themselues, howe they can be able to excuse themselues before
the iudgement seate of Almightie God, for that they are content to
be created Bishops of those Churches, whereof notwithstanding they
haue no care or regarde, but either wholly intangle themselues with
worldly matters, or if they do deale in matters of the Church, their
whole study is directed to this end, to stop the sincere preaching of
Gods word, and to tread those vnderfoote whose mindes are occupied
day and night, to the aduancing and setting forth of Gods glory. Of
this stampe and sort, are most of those thinges wherewith the Monkes
inferred and stuffed their bookes.


  A proofe by other sufficient writers, that Spirites doo
  sometime appeare.

[Sidenote: Alexander ab Alexandro.]

As touching other notable writers, they also make mention of spirites
which do oftentimes appear. =Alexander ab Alexandro=, an excellent
Lawier, born at _Naples_, in his secōd booke _Gemalium dierum_, and
ninth chapter, writeth that a certain familiar friend of his, of
good credite, did celebrate yͤ funeral of one of his acquaintance,
and as he returned towards _Rome_, he entred into an Inne fast by
the way, because it was night, and there laide himselfe downe to
rest. As he laie there alone broad awake, sodeinly the image of his
friend lately deceased, came before him maruellous pale and leane,
euen as he was when he sawe him last on his death bedde, whome when
he beheld, being almost besides himselfe with feare, he demaunded of
him who he was? But the ghost making no answer, but slipping off his
cloathes laide him downe in the same bedde, and drew neare, as if he
would haue embraced him. The other gaue him place, and kéeping him
off from him, by chance touched his foote, which séemed so extréemly
cold, as no Ice in the world might be compared vnto it. Whereat the
other looking very lowringly vpon him, tooke vp his clothes againe,
and rose out of the bed, and was neuer afterwards séene. He reporteth
other histories in the same place, which hapned in his time. He liued
aboue foure score yeares ago, or neare that time.

[Sidenote: Baptista.]

=Baptista Fulgosus=, Duke of _Genua_, in his booke of worthy sayings
and doings of Emperors, Princes, Dukes, &c. (which he wrote being in
exile to auoyd idlenesse: Touching straunge and monstrous things)
writeth that in the Court of =Mattheus=, surnamed the great Shiriffe
of the Citie, in the euening after Sunne sette, there was seene a
man farre excéeding common stature, sitting on a horse in complete
armour: who when he had bin there séene of many, by the space of
an houre, in the end vanished away, to the greate terrour of those
that beheld him. About thrée daies after in like maner, two men on
horsebacke of the same stature, were séene in the same place, about
thrée houres within night, fighting togither a long season, and in
the ende vanished away as the other didde before. Not long after,
Henry the seuenth Emperor, departed this life, to the vtter vndoing
of all the Shiriffes.

Immediately after this Historie, he putteth an other more worthie
memorie than the foremost. =Lodouicus= father to =Alodisius=, ruler
of _Immola_, not long after he died, appeared vnto a Secretarie, whom
=Ludouicus= had sente to _Ferraria_, as he was on his iourney, riding
on a horse with a Hauke on his fist, as he was wonte when he liued,
and willed the Secretarie (albeit wonderfully afraid) to bid his
Sonne the nexte day to repaire vnto the same place, for he had matter
of greate importance to declare vnto him. Which when =Lodouicus=
heard, partly because he could not beléeue it, partly for that he
doubted some body laye in waight for him, he sent an other to answere
in his roome. With whome the same soule méeting as it did before,
lamented very much that his Sonne was not come thither, for if he
had so doone, he saide, he would haue opened many other things vnto
him. But as then he willed the messenger to tell him, that twentie
two yeares, one month and one day being passed, he should loose the
rule and gouernment whiche he nowe possessed. As soone as the time
foreshewed by the ghost was expired, albeit he were very circumspect
and careful, yet the same night, the souldiours of =Philip= Duke of
_Millen_, with whom he was in league & therfore stood came ouer the
ditches hard frozen with Ice vnto the walles, and raising vp ladders,
tooke both Citie and Prince togither.

[Sidenote: Melancthons Aunt.]

=Phillip Melancthon=, writeth in his booke _De anima_, that he
himselfe hath séene some Spirits, and yͭ he hath knowne many men
of good credit, which haue auouched not only to haue séene ghostes
themselues, but also that they haue talked a great while with them.
In his booke which he intituleth _Examen Theologicum_, he rehearseth
this historie. Which was, that he had an aunt, who as she sat very
heauily by the fire, after her husband was dead, two men came into
her house, whereof the one being very like, said he was her husband
deceased, the other being verie tall, had the shape of a =Franciscan=
Friar. This that séemed to be the husband, came neare the chimney
saluting his heauy wife, bidding her not to be afraide, for (as he
said) he came to commaund her certaine things: then he bid the long
Monke to go aside a while into the stoue hard by. And there beginning
his talke, after many words, at the last be earnestly beséecheth,
and most hartily desireth her, to hire a Priest to say Masse for his
soule, and so being readie to depart, he biddeth her giue him her
right hand: which thing (she being sore afraide) abhorring to doo,
after he had faithfully promised she should haue no harme, she giueth
her hand, which albeit indeed it had no hurt, yet did it séeme to be
so scorched, that euer after it remained blacke. This being done, he
calleth foorth the =Franciscan=, and hastily going forth togither,
they vanish away. =Ioannes Manlius=, in his collectanies of Common
places, writeth concerning other spirites which he and other men also
did sée, the first tome in the Chapter _De malis spiritibus & ipsorum
operibus_, and also in the Chapter _De satisfactione_.

[Sidenote: Ludouicus Viues.]

=Ludouicus Viues=, saith in his first booke _De veritate fides_, that
in the new world lately found out, there is nothing more common,
than not only in the night time, but also at noone in the midday,
to sée spirits apparantly, in the Cities and fieldes, which speake,
commaund, forbid, assault men, feare and strike them. The very same
do other report which describe those nauigations of the great Ocean.

[Sidenote: Hieronimus Cardanus.]

=Hieronimus Cardanus= of _Millen_, excellently séene in Philosophie &
Phisicke, remembreth a great many of these apparitions, in his booke
_De subtilitate, & varietate rerum_: which who so listeth to reade, I
referre him to his bookes, for I am desirous to be bréefe.

[Sidenote: Olaus.]

=Olaus Magnus=, Archbishop of _Vpsalia_ in _Sueueland_, declareth
in his history _De Gentibus Septentrionalibus_, the second booke
and third chap. that spirits appeare in _Iseland_, in the shape &
likenesse of such, as men are acquainted withal: whom the inhabitants
take by the hand in stead of their acquaintance, before they haue
heard any word of those their acquaintāce death, whose similitude and
likenesse they take on them, neither do they vnderstand that they are
deceiued, before they shrinke and vanish away. These things haue I
brought togither both out of the olde and also new writers, that it
might plainly appeare, that spirites do oftentimes walke and shewe
themselues vnto men.


  Daily experience teach vs, that spirits do appeare to men.

To all the premisses before handled, this also is to be added, which
no man can deny, but that many honest and credible persons of both
kindes, as well men as women, of whome some are liuing, and some
already departed, which haue and do affirme, that they haue sometimes
in the day, and sometimes in the night séene and heard spirits. Some
man walketh alone in his house, and behold a spirit appeareth in his
sight, yea and sometimes the dogs also perceiue them, and fal down
at their masters féet, and wil by no means depart fro them, for they
are sore afraid themselues too. Some man goeth to bed, and laieth him
downe to rest, and by and by there is some thing pinching him, or
pulling off the clothes: sometimes it sitteth on him, or lieth downe
in the bed with him: and many times it walketh vp and downe in the
Chamber. There haue bene many times men séene, walking on foote, or
riding on horseback, being of a fierie shape, knowne vnto diuers men,
& such as died not long before. And it hath come to passe likewise,
that some eyther slaine in the warres, or otherwise deade naturally,
haue called vnto their acquaintance béeing aliue, and haue bene
knowne by their voice.

[Sidenote: Spirites requiring helpe.]

Many times in the night season, there haue béene certaine spirits
heard softly going, or spitting, or groning, who being asked what
they were, haue made aunswere that they were the soules of this or
that man, and that they nowe endure extreame tormentes. If by chaunce
any man did aske of them, by what meanes they might be deliuered
out of those tortures, they haue aunswered, that in case a certaine
number of Masses were soong for them, or Pilgrimages vowed to some
Saintes, or some other such like déedes doone for their sake, that
then surely they shoulde be deliuered. Afterwardes appearing in
greate light and glorie, they haue said that they were deliuered, and
haue therefore rendred greate thankes to their good benefactours, and
haue in like manner promised, that they will make intercession to
God and our Ladye for them. And hereby it may be well proued, that
they were not alwayes Priestes, or other bolde and wicked men, which
haue fayned themselues to be soules of men deceased, as I haue before
saide: in so much that euen in those mennes chambers when they haue
bene shut, there haue appeared such things, when they haue with a
candle diligently searched before, whither any thing haue lurked in
some corner or no. Many vse at this day to search and sifte euery
corner of the house before they go to bed, that they may sléepe more
soundly: & yet neuerthelesse, they heare some scriking out, and
making a lamētable noise, &c.

It hath many times chanced, that those of the house haue verily
thought, that some body hath ouerthrowne the pots, platters, tables
and trenchers, and tumbled them downe the staires: but after it waxed
day, they haue founde all things orderly set in their places againe.

It is reported, that some spirits haue throwne the doore off from
the hookes, and haue troubled and set all things in the house out of
order, neuer setting them in their due place againe, and that they
haue maruellously disquieted men with rumbling and making a great

Sometimes there is heard a great noyse in Abbeis, and in other
solitarie places, as if it were Coopers hooping and stopping vp wine
vessels, or some other handicraftes men occupied about their labour,
when it is most certaine, that all in the house are gone to bedde,
and haue betaken themselues to rest.

[Sidenote: Builders hear spirits in the night.]

When houses are in building, the neighbours many times heare the
Carpenters, Masons, and other Artificers handling all things in such
sort, as if they were busily labouring in the day time. And this
straunge wonder is ioyfully receiued as a sure token of good lucke.

There be some which iudge it commeth to passe naturally, that we
suppose we heare these things in the night, which we heard before
in the day time. Which question I leaue to be discussed of better
learned than my selfe.

[Sidenote: Diuels are in Mines.]

Pioners or diggers for mettal, do affirme, that in many mines, there
appeare straunge shapes and spirites, who are apparrelled like vnto
other labourers in the pit. These wander vp and down in caues and
vnderminings, and séem to besturre themselues in all kinde of labour,
as to dig after the veine, to carry togither oare, to put it into
baskets, and to turne the winding whéele to drawe it vp, when in very
déed they do nothing lesse. They very sildome hurt the labourers (as
they say) except they prouoke them by laughing and rayling at them:
for then they threw grauel stones at them, or hurt them by some other
means. These are especially haunting in pittes, where mettall moste

A certain godly and learned man wrote once vnto me, of a siluer mine
at =Douosium= in the _Alpes_, vpon the which =Peter Buol= a noble
man, the Schultish of the same place, (whom they call =Landammanus=,)
had bestowed great cost a fewe yeres before, and had gathered therby
good store of riches. In the same myne was a spirite or Diuell of
the mountaine, who when the laborers filled the stuffe they had
digged into their vessels, he seemed, for the most parte, euery
Fridaye, to be very busie, pouring the mettals of his owne accord
out of one basket into an other. Wherewith the Schultish was not
offended: and when he would eyther descende into the pit, or come
vp againe, blessing himselfe with the signe of the Crosse, he neuer
receiued hurt. It chaunced on a time that while the saide spirit was
too busie intermedling himselfe with euery thing, one of the miners
being offended therewith, began to raile at him very bitterly, and
with terrible cursing words, bid him get him thence in the diuels
name. But the spirit caught him by the pate, and so writhed his necke
about, that his face stoode behinde his backe, yet notwithstanding he
was not slaine, but liued a long time after, well knowne vnto diuers
of his familiar friends, which yet liue at this day, howbeit he died
within a fewe yeares after.

[Sidenote: Agricola.]

=Georgius Agricola=, whose learned workes which he wrote of
mettalles, be yet extant in the end of his booke of creatures liuing
vnder the earth, he maketh two kindes of Diuels haunting in certayne
Mynes abroade. For hée saith, there are some cruell and terrible to
behold: which for the moste parte, doo very much annoy and hurt the
labourers digging for mettall.

Suche a one was hée which was called =Annebergius=, who only with his
breath, destroyed aboue 12. labourers at once, in the Caue called
=Corona Rosacea=. The wind wherwith he slewe them, he let flée out
of his mouth: for he appeared in the similitude and likenesse of an

Such an other was =Snebergius=, who wearing a blacke roll about his
necke, tooke vp a labourer aloft from the ground, and set him in the
brinke of a certaine exceeding déepe place, where had sometime bene
great store of siluer, not without gréeuous brusing of his bodie.

And againe he saith, there be some very milde and gentle, whom some
of the =Germanes= call =Cobali=, as the =Grecians= do, because they
be as it were apes and counterfeiters of men: for they leaping and
skipping for ioy do laugh, and séeme as though they did many things,
when in very déed they do nothing. And som other call them elues,
or dwarfes of the Mountaines, thereby noting their small stature,
wherein they commonly appeare. They séeme to be hoare, wearing
apparell like the mettall Finers, that is, in a peticoate laced,
and an aperne of leather about their loynes. These hurt not the
labourers, except they misuse them, but do imitate them in all their
doings. And he saith, they are not much vnlike vnto those whom the
=Germanes= call =Guteli=, because they séeme to beare good affection
towards men, for they kéep horses, and do other necessary businesse.
They are also like vnto them whom they call =Trulli=, who taking on
them the feined shapes of men and women, do serue as it is sayd,
like seruants, both amongst other nations, and specially amongst the

Touching these spirits haunting Mines of mettal, there is somewhat
to be read in =Olaus Magnus de Gentibus Septentrionalibus=, the sixt
booke and tenth Chapter.

[Sidenote: VVhich are people that eate and deuoure men.]

They which saile on the great Ocean sea, make report, that in
certaine places, where the =Anthropophagi= do inhabit, are many
spirits, which doo the people there very much harme.

Here many straunge things might be brought concerning visions
appearing vnto men in their sléepe: and also of them, which being in
a traunce, haue lyen a whole day and more without mouing, lyke vnto
dead men: and after being restored to themselues againe, haue told
many miraculous things which they haue séene.

[Sidenote: Cicero.]

[Sidenote: Augustine.]

=Cicero= writeth of maruellous things in his booke of diuination,
or soothsaying. And so do many other men also. Augustine himselfe
reciteth in many places of his bookes, that some after they were
dead, haue warned many their friends of diuers matters, and haue
disclosed vnto them secrete things, which were to come, and haue
shewed sicke folkes good remedies for their diseases, and haue done
many such like things.

[Sidenote: Marsilius.]

=Auenzoar Albumato=, a Phisitian of _Arabia_, writeth, that he
receiued an excellent medicine for his sore eyes, of a Phisitian
lately deceased, appearing vnto him in his sléep: as =Marcilius
Ficinus= doth testifie, writing of the immortalitie of the soule.
=Lib. 16. cap. 5.=

[Sidenote: _Mat.1.& 2._]

The holy Scriptures also teach vs, that God hath reuealed many things
vnto men by dreames. =S. Mathew= in his first and second chapter
writeth, that the Angell of God appeared many times vnto =Ioseph=,
our Sauiour Christes foster father in a dreame, and commaunded him to
beware of those which laie in wayt to destroy Christ Iesus.

[Sidenote: _Acts._]

We reade in the tenth Chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, that
S. =Peter= fell into a traunce, sawe the heauens open, and sawe a
vessell, as it were a great shéete, descend downe vnto him from
heauen, knit togither at the foure corners, wherein were all maner
of foure footed beastes of the earth, and wilde beasts, and créeping
things, and foules of the heauen. And there came a voyce vnto him:
Rise =Peter=, kill and eate.

[Sidenote: _Acts 16._]

And in the 16. Chapter, as S. =Paul= was yet in _Asia_, comming downe
towardes _Troada_, this vision appeared vnto him: There stoode a man
of _Macedonia_ and prayed him, saying: Come into _Macedonia_ and
helpe vs. Hereby =Paule= gathered, it was the will of God, that he
should passe the sea, and should preach the Gospell in _Macedonia_.

But I purpose not to write of spirites and visions appearing vnto men
in their sléepe, least my Booke grow vnto an huge volume: but only of
those which we sensibly sée when we are awake.


  That there happen straunge wonders and prognostications,
  and that sodein noyses and cracks and such like, are
  heard before the death of men, before battaile, and
  before some notable alterations and chaunges.

It hapneth many times, that whē men lie sicke of some deadly disease,
there is some thing heard going in the chamber, like as the sicke men
were wont, when they were in good health: yea & the sicke parties
themselues, do many times hear the same, and by and by gesse what
will come to passe. Oftentimes a litle before they yéeld vp yͤ
ghost, and sometime a litle after their death, or a good while after,
either their own shapes, or som other shadowes of men, are apparantly
séen. And diuers times it commeth to passe, that when some of our
acquaintaunce or friends lie a dying, albeit they are many miles
off, yet there are some great stirrings or noises heard. Sometimes
we think yͤ house wil fal on our heads, or yͭ some massy &
waightie thing falleth down throughout all yͤ house, rendring and
making a disordered noise: and shortly within fewe moneths after, we
vnderstand that those things happened, the very same house yͭ our
friends departed in. There be some men, of whose stock none doth die,
but that they obserue and marke some signes and tokens going before:
as that they heare the doores and windowes open and shut, that some
things runneth vp the staires, or walketh vp and downe the house, or
doth some one or other such like thing.

But here I cannot passe this in silence: that there are many
superstitious mē, which vainly persuade themselues that this cousin,
and this or that friend of theirs will shortly die. For in the end,
the falling out of the matter it selfe, sheweth it was a vaine and
foolish persuasion, that they vnderstood such things by any signes.

[Sidenote: Cardanus.]

=Cardanus= in his booke _De veritate rerum_, writeth, that there was
a certaine noble Familie at _Parma_ in _Italy_, out of the which so
often as any one died, there was séene an olde woman in the chimney
corner. On a certaine time shée appeared, when a mayden of the same
family laie very sick, and therfore they cleane dispaired of her
life: but soone after she recouered again, and in the meane while, an
other, which was then in good health, sodainly died.

There was a certaine parish priest, a very honest and godly man,
whome I knew well, who in the plague time, could tell before hand,
when any of his parish should die. For in the night time he heard a
noyse ouer his bed, lyke as if one had throwne downe a sacke full of
corne from his shoulders: which when he heard, he would say: Now an
other biddeth me farewell. After it was day, he vsed to inquire who
died that night, or who was takē with yͤ plague, to the ende he
might comfort and strengthen them, according to the dutie of a good

It hath bin often obserued in Guilde Halles where Aldermen sit, that
when one of those Aldermen was at the point of death, there was heard
some ratling about his seate, or some other certaine signe of death.
The same thing happeneth beside pewes and stalles in Churches, or
in other places where men are often conuersaunt, or accustomed to
exercise their handie labour.

In Abbies, the Monkes seruants or any other falling sicke, many haue
heard in the night, preparation of chestes for them, in such sort as
the Coffin-makers did afterwards prepare in déed.

In some country villages, when one is at deaths doore, many times
there are some heard in the Euening, or in the night, digging a graue
in the Churchyard, and the same the next day is so founde digged, as
these men did heare before.

There haue bin séene some in the night when the Moone shined,
going solemnely with the corpes, according to the custome of the
people, or standing before the doores, as if some bodie were to bee
carried to the Church to burying. Many suppose, they sée their owne
image, or as they say, their owne soule, and of them diuers are
verily perswaded, that except they die shortly after they haue séen
themselues, they shall liue a very great time after. But these things
are superstitious. Let euery man so prepare himselfe, as it he should
die to morrow, least by being too secure, he purchase himselfe harme.

There happen other straunge things also. For when some lye in the
prison in chaines, readie to suffer punishment for their offences,
many times in the night season, there is heard a great noyse and
rumbling, as if some bodie were breaking into yͤ gaile to deliuer
the prisoners. When men come to vnderstand the matter, they can
neither hear, nor sée any bodie, and the prisoners likewise say they
heard no maner thing.

Some executioners or hangmen do report, that for the most part, they
know before hand whether any man shall shortly bee deliuered into
their handes to suffer: for their swordes will moue of their owne
accord. And there are other that say, they can tell before, after
what sort the prisoners shall suffer.

Many wonderfull and straunge things happen about those which wilfully
cast away themselues. Somtime their corpses must be carried a great
way off, before they being thrust in a sack can be throwne into the
sea: and being laid in a waggon or cart, the horse could scant draw
them downe the hill, but vp the hill they néed not labour at all, for
the cart would runne very fast of his owne accord.

[Sidenote: De animorum immortalitate li.16.cap.5.]

[Sidenote: Virgil.]

Some men being slaine by théeues, when the théeues come to the dead
bodie, by and by there gusheth out freshe blood, or else there is
declaration by other tokens, that the théefe is there present.
=Plato= writeth in the first booke of his lawes, that the soules of
such as haue bene slaine, do oftentimes cruelly molest & trouble the
soules of those which slew them. For which cause =Marsilius Fiscinus=
doth thinke it chaunceth, that the wound of a man being slaine, while
the carkasse lieth on the ground, doth send out blood against him,
which wounded him, if he stand neare looking on his wound. Which
thing both =Lucretius= affirmeth to come to passe, and also Iustices
haue diligently obserued. =Dido= in =Virgil= thus threatneth =Aeneas=.

_And when the cold of death is come, and body voyd remaines, Each
where my haunting spirit shall pursue thee to thy paines._

The like place is in =Horace= & in other Poets. As a théefe sitteth
at the Table, a cuppe being ouerthrowne, the wine pearceth through
the whole and sound wood of the Table, to all mens admiration.

Touching these and other such maruellous things, there might be
many histories and testimonies alleaged. But whosoeuer readeth this
booke, may call to their remembrance, that they haue séen these and
such like things themselues, or that they haue heard them of their
friendes and acquaintance, and of such as deserue sufficient credit.

[Sidenote: Suetonius.]

Before the alterations and chaunges of kingdomes and in the time of
warres, seditions, and other dangerous seasons, ther most commōly
happen very strange things in the aire, in yͤ earth, and amongst
liuing creatures clean cōtrary to the vsuall course of nature.
Which things men cal, wonders, signes, monsters, and forewarnings
of matters to come. There are séene in the aire, swords, speares,
& suche like, innumerable: there are heard and séene in the aire,
or vppon the earth, whole armies of men encountring togither, and
when one part is forced to flye, there is heard horrible cries, and
great clattering of armour. Gunnes, launces and holberdes, with other
kindes of weapons and artillerie, do often times moue of their owne
accord as they lye in the armories. When as souldiers marche towards
their enimies, and their ensignes will not displaie abroade but fold
about the stander-bearers heads: if the souldiours be therewith
amazed, they surely perswade themselues there is some great slaughter
towardes. It is saide also, that horses will be very sad and heauie,
and will not lette their masters sit on their backes, before they go
to the battaile wherin they shall haue the ouerthrow: but when they
are coragious and lustilie neighing, it is a sure token of victorie.
=Suetonius= writeth, that the company of horses which =Iulius Cæsar=
let run at libertie, neuer to be put to labour againe, did wéepe
aboundantly when =Cæsar= was slaine.

When =Miltiades= addressed his people against the _Persians_, there
were heard tirrible noyses before the battaile, and certaine spirits
were séene, which the =Athenians= afterwards affirmed to be the
shaddowe of =Pan=, who cast suche a feare on the _Persians_, that
they turned their backs and fled. Thereof =Terrores Panici= tooke
their name, being spoken of sodayn feares vnlooked for, and terrours,
suche as =Lymphatici= metus are, which driue men out of their wits
being taken therewith.

[Sidenote: Cicero de diuinatione.]

Before the _Lacedemonians_ were ouerthrowne in yͤ battaile at
=Leuctris=, the armour moued, & made a great noise in the temple
of _Hestor_. At the same time the doores of =Hercules= temple at
=Thebes= being fast shut with barres, opened sodainly of their owne
accord: and the weapons and armour which hoong fastned on the wall,
were found lying vppon the grounde. These things are to be read in
=Cicero= his first booke =De diuinatione=.

[Sidenote: Liuie.]

In the second warres of _Carthage_, the standerd-bearer of the first
battaile of pikemen, could not remoue his ensigne out of his place,
neither yet whē many came to helpe, they could any thing preuayle.
These and suche other signes of euill lucke, =Caius Flaminius= the
Consull, nothing regarded, but soone after his army was discomfited,
and he himselfe slaine. Concerning which matter, =Titus Liuius=
writeth at large. In the beginning of the warres waged with the
people called =Marsi=, there was heard out of secrete places,
certaine voyces, and noyse of harnesse, which foreshewed the daunger
of the warres to come.

[Sidenote: Plinie.]

=Plinie= writeth in his.2.booke and 59.chapter, that in the warres
with the _Danes_, and many times before, there was heard the clashing
of armour, and the sound of trumpets out of Heauen.

[Sidenote: Appianus.]

=Appianus= declareth what signes and wonders went before the ciuill
warres at _Rome_: what miserable cries of men clashing of armour, and
running of horses were heard, no man séeing any thing.

[Sidenote: Valeri. Max.li.1.cap.6.]

=Valerius Maximus= in his firste booke and 6.chapter of straunge
wonders, writeth how =Cneius Pompeius= had warning before, not to
fight the fielde with =Iulius Cesar= for as he launced off, at
=Dirrachium=, his souldiours were taken with a sodayne feare: and in
the night likewise before the battaile, their hearts and courages
sodainly failed them. And after, the same author addeth that which
=Cesar= himselfe rehearseth in his 3.booke =De bello ciuili=: how
that the very same day wherin =Cesar= fought his fortunate battaile,
the crying of the armie, and the sound of trumpets was heard at
_Antioche_ in _Syria_, so sensibly, that the whole citie ranne in
armour to defend their walles. The very same thing he saith, happened
at =Ptolemais=, and that at =Pergamus= in the most priuie and secret
parts of the temple where none may enter, saue only priests, which
place the _Grecians_ call ἄδυτα, there were heard the sound
of drummes and timbrels.

[Sidenote: Castor and Pollux.]

[Sidenote: Plutarch.]

[Sidenote: Iosephus.]

The historiographers reporte, that =Castor= and =Pollux= haue béen
often séene in battailes sitting on white horses, & valiantly
fighting against yͤ enemies campe. =Plutarch= writeth in
=Coriolanus= life, that they were séene in the battaile against
=Tarquinius=, and that immediatly after, they bare tidings to _Rome_
of the victory. The selfe same writeth =Titus Liuius= also in his
8.booke of his first decade. We may reade in the history of the siege
of the noble citie of _Magdeburge_ in _Saxonie_, that the enimie
which laide siege to the towne, so often as the citizens issued out
to skirmish with them, supposed that one vpō a white horse came
riding before the citizens battaile, when as the citizens themselues
sawe no such man. =Iosephus= in his bookes of the warres in _Iurie_,
recordeth what straunge signes hapned before the destructiō of
=Ierusalem=: which were, that a brasen gate being fast rampierd
with barres, opened in the night time of his owne accord. And that
before the Sunne set, there were séene chariots in the aire, and
armies of men well furnished, enuironing the citie rounde about. And
that at Whitsontide, as the priests entred the temple to celebrate
diuine seruice, they heard a great noise, and by & by a voice crying
=Migremus hinc=. Let vs depart hence. He reckeneth vp other like
things, which we néede not repeate in this place. The same night that
=Leo= of =Constantinople= was slayne in the temple, the trauellers by
sea heard a voice in the aire which said: that =Leo= had roared out
euen to the same place.

[Sidenote: Felix Malleolus.]

=Felix Malleolus= doctor of both yͤ lawes, master of =Solodor=, &
canon at =Tigurū=, a mā of great reading, as it may easily apeare
by his lerned writings which ar yet extāt. (For he liued about yͤ
time whē yͤ Coūcell of =Basil= was holdē) writeth in his booke
=de nobilitate=, =c.=30. yͭ it is to be séen in yͤ historie of
=Rodulphus= king of the Romanes, that when the said =Rodulphus= had
vanquished =Othotarus=, King of _Boemia_, continuing on the place all
night, where the battell was fought, about midnight, certain Spirits
or Deuils, with horrible noise and tumulte, troubled and disordered
his whole armie. And that those were spirits walking by night, it
appeared hereby, that they sodeynly vanished away like smoake.

The same Author writeth in his xxvi. chapter, That in the yeare of
our Lord .1280. as one of the =Plebans= (as they call them) belonging
to the churche of _Tigurine_ preached to the people, the graue stone
of the tumbe or sepulchre of the two martires =Felix= and =Regula=,
patrones of the same place, violently brake asunder, no man mouing
or touching it, giuing a horrible sound like vnto thunder, so that
the people were no lesse astonished and afraide, than if the vaute
of the Churche had fallen downe. And he saith, that the same yeare,
the third day of October, the greater part of the citie of =Tigurum=
was brent with fire, and moreouer, that sedition was moued amongst
the Citizens, for certaine Ecclesiastical disciplines, and for the
Imperiall Banne (as they terme it.) In the yeare of our Lord .1440.
the twelfe day of December, at yͤ dedication of the foresaid
churche, about midnight, there was the like noise hearde, and
immediatly after followed ciuill warres, which the _Tigurins_ held
with vncertaine successe against the other =Heluetians=, for the
space of seuen yeares and more.

The same writer in the .33. Chap. hath, that at the same time in the
yeare of our Lorde .1444. before that valiaunt battaile, which a
feawe =Heluetians= fought against the innumerable companie of =Lewes=
Dolphin of =Fraunce=, fast by the wals of =Basill=, in the time of
the generall Councell, there was hearde certaine nightes about those
places, the alarme of Souldiours, the clattering of harneys, and the
noyse of men encountring togither. &c.

Here I purposely omit many such like examples, for there are many
bookes, both of auncient and also of newe writers, touching straunge
signes and wonders, wherein these may be redde.


  It is proued by testimonies of holy scripture, that
  spirites are sometime seene and heard, and that other
  straunge matters do often chaunce.

[Sidenote: Luke 14.]

Yet perchaunce it will be obiected vnto vs, that we bring no
testimony out of holy scripture, touching this matter: especially
to proue, that Spirits do oftentimes appeare vnto men. I answer,
that truth it is, There are fewe things hereof in the scriptures,
and yet notwithstanding somewhat is to be redde in them. It is read
in S. =Matthew= his fourtéenth Chapter, of Christs Disciples, that
when in the night season, by reason of a contrary wind, they were in
great danger of drowning in the lake of =Genazareth=, and that in the
dawning of the day, the Lord walked on the water, they being afraide,
cried out, supposing they sawe a Spirit. Hereof we gather, that they
knew well inough, that Spirits appeared vnto men vpon sea and land.

Likewise when the Lord being risen from death, appeared vnto his
Disciples, meaning to assure them of his resurrection, they thought
at the first, that they sawe a Spirit. In the which place, Christ
denieth not but there are Spirits and straunge sightes, and that they
are sometimes séene, but he rather confirmeth the same by putting a
difference betwéene himselfe, and Spirits of vaine apparitions. But
as touching these two testimonies, we wil speak more in another place.

[Sidenote: 2.Samuel.]

It is a notable historie which we read in the seconde Booke of
=Samuel= concerning =Saule=, who, at what time the Philistians warred
vppon him, and that he was in verie great daunger of them, he came
to a woman, who was a witch, and desired her to raise =Samuel= from
death, that he might know his counsell touching the successe of
the wars. She raised him vp one, whom =Saule= tooke to be =Samuel=
indéede, who also tolde him what euente shoulde come of the warres.
But whether hée were a true =Samuel= or a counterfait, wée will
dispute the matter more at large in his conuenient place.

[Sidenote: 2.Samuel.]

[Sidenote: 1.Paral.14.]

As concerning other maruellous things, there is somewhat to be read
in the Scriptures: In the seconde of =Samuel= & the fift chap. Also
in the first of =Paralipomenon=, and the .xiiii. chap. we reade, that
the Philistines went vp the seconde time into Iurie, to make warres
on =Dauid=: Hée went vnto the Lord, and shewed him the matter, who
commaunded him, that he shoulde embushe himselfe behinde the wood
with his armie, and when he heard a rustling or noise in the toppes
of the trées, he should immediatly sette vppon them. This sounde they
say was a strange and supernaturall sound.

[Sidenote: 2.Reg.6.7.]

It is written in the second booke of the Kings the .vi. and vii.
chapters, that God deliuered the citie of _Samaria_ from great
famine, when it was fiercely besieged by =Benhadad= king of the
_Assirians_, for in the night season their enemies did heare the
noise of the chariots, the neighing of horsses, and shréeching of a
huge armie, as it were in their owne pauillions and tentes, supposing
therefore, that the kyng of Israel had gathered togither his footemen
and horssemen, and had nowe sette vppon them, they soughte to saue
themselues by flighte, leauing theyr victuall and other prouision
behinde them in their tentes.

[Sidenote: 1.Samu.7.]

In the first of =Samuel= and the seuenth chapter, God caused a
wonderfull greate noyse to sounde ouer the Philistians, and so
destroyed them. I meane they were so affrighted with a kinde of
straunge feare, that it was an easie matter to vanquish them.

[Sidenote: _Daniel_ 5.]

In the fifth Chapter of =Daniel= ye may reade, that king =Balthasar=
in his roysting banquet, espied right against the candle, a hand
writing vpon the wall what his end should be.

[Sidenote: 2. _Macha._ 3.]

It is redde in the third Chapter of the seconde of the =Machabees=,
that there appeared a horsse vnto =Heliodorus=, seruant vnto
=Seleucus= king of _Asia_, as he was about to destroy the temple of
_Hierusalem_: and vpon the horsse séemed to sit a terrible man, which
made towards him to ouerrun him. On eache side of him were two yoong
men of excellent beautie, which with whippes scourged =Heliodorus=.

[Sidenote: 2. _Mach._ 10.]

[Sidenote: 2. _Mach._ 11.]

The second of the =Machabees= and tenth chapter, =Iudas Machabeus=
encountred with his enemies, and when the battaile was hotte, there
appeared vnto the enemy out of heauen, fiue men sitting on horses,
rayned with notable bridles of gold, who ledde the Iewes hoste, and
two of them defended =Machabeus= from all his enemies. And vnto
=Machabeus= appeared a horsman in a shining garment, his armour all
of gold, and shaking his speare. Whereby it was signified, that he
should obtaine a notable and famous victorie. 2. =Macha.= 11.

I alleadge not these examples, for that I adiudge the bookes of
=Machabees=, of as good authoritie as the Canonicall bookes of the
new and old Testament: but only for that they are ioyned togither
with them, and may be read of euery one: and they were alwaies read
of the auncient people. For albeit they neuer went about to approue
any doctrine by them, yet were they of great authoritie amōgst them.


  To whome, when, where, and after what sort, Spirites do
  appeare, and what they do worke.

By all these examples we may plainly perceiue, that many strange
things are obiected to mens senses, and that sometimes Spirits
are séene and heard, not only (as some haue thought, as =Plutark=
witnesseth in the life of =Dion=) of children, women, sicke folkes,
dottards, and otherwise very plain and simple creatures, but also
to men of good courage, and such as haue bin perfectly in their
wits. Yet it may not be denied but that there appeare many more vnto
some, than vnto other some, as vnto trauellers, watch-men, hunters,
carters, and marriners, who leade all their life not only in the day
time, but also in night, in iourneying, in the water, woods, hills
and vallies. You shall méete with some one who neuer sawe nor heard
any of this geare in all his life time, and contrariwise, there be
other some which haue séene and heard very many such like things.

So there are some which very sildom chance vpon Serpents, and againe,
many there are which oftentimes méete with them in their iourney.
The common people say, that those whose natiuities chance vpon the
Angaries (for so they terme the foure seasons of the yeare) do sée
more store of spirits, than those which are borne at other times,
but these are méere trifles. Those which are stedfast in true faith,
sée or heare such things more sildome than superstitious people, as
in all other things. He that is superstitious, vseth some blessing
(as they call it) to heale his Horsses disease, and it taketh good
effect: he enchaunteth a Serpent, and it cannot once mooue out of the
place. He applieth a blessing to staunche bléedyng, and it stoppeth
presently: He taketh a hollie rod, or twisted wand inchanted, & it
will moue where a mettle mine is: but he that is of a sounde fayth
and doth despise these things, (for he knoweth well they are contrary
to the word of God, and also to the Popes decrées) albeit perchaunce
he practise such things, yet notwithstanding he can bring nothing
to passe. And so also it chaunceth that he seeth spirites and vaine
visions, a great deale more seldome than superstitious men do, for
hée knoweth well what hée ought to déeme and iudge of them. There are
some kinde of men, who thinke it a gay thing, if many such straunge
sights appeare vnto them.

There were farre many more of these kindes of apparitions and
myracles séene amongest vs, at such times as we were giuen vnto
blindnesse and superstition, than since that the Gospell was purely
preached amongest vs: the cause whereof I will shewe hereafter.

And moreouer it commeth oftentimes to passe, that some one man doth
heare or sée some thing most plainly, when an other which standeth by
him, or walketh with him, neyther seeth, nor heareth any such matter.

[Sidenote: Some men see things which other men see not.]

[Sidenote: _Actes_.9.]

[Sidenote: _Actes_.22.]

We reade in the historie of =Heliseus=, that he sawe chariottes of
fire, and many horsmen vpon the toppe of the Mountaine: and yet his
seruaunt sawe nothing vntill the Prophet prayed vnto the Lord, that
he would vouchsafe for his confirmation and consolation, to open his
eyes that he might also behold this notable miracle. So likewise we
reade in the 9. chapter of the Actes of the Apostles, that Christ
ouerthrew =Paule= before _Damascus_, and that he spake vnto him, and
his companions also hearde the voice. Afterwardes in the 22. chapter,
=Paule= himselfe shewing vnto the people in the presence of =Lycias=,
in the Castle at _Hierusalem_, what had happened vnto them, saith
that they heard not the voice of him that talked with him: which two
places are not repugnant, for the meaning is, that they heard a voyce
or sounde indéede, but they vnderstood not what the Lord had sayd
vnto him.

[Sidenote: Socrates familiar.]

=Plato= writeth in his dialogue called _Theages_, that =Socrates=
had a familiar spirit, who was woonte to put him in mynd to cease
from labouring, when that which he attempted should haue no happie
successe. This spirit he himselfe sawe not, and other men hearde not.
They say that sometimes Children doe sée certaine things, which other
men see not, and by a certaine peculiar operation of nature, some men
behold that which others in no wise can perceiue.

[Sidenote: At what time spirits appeare.]

[Sidenote: Apocalips.]

As touching the time when spirits appeare, we reade in histories that
it shall be after a thousand yeares which God hath appoynted, in
the which time Sainte Iohn prophesied in the Apocalips, that Sathan
shoulde be lette loose, that is to saye, errours and superstition,
and al kinde of mischéefe shuld abound, and many spirits appear euery
where: for men gaue them more credite, than the Scriptures. If a
spirit appeared, or was heard to say in case these or those things be
decreed, to wit, vowed Pilgrimage, and erecting Chappelles, and that
this shall be an acceptable kinde of worship vnto God, the Bishoppes
and paryshe Priestes weighed not whether those things were agréeable
to the word of God or no, &c. Spirits appeared in old time, and do
appeare still in these dayes both day and night, but especially in
the night, and before midnighte in our first sléepe. Moreouer, on the
frydayes, satterdayes, and fasting dayes, to confirme superstition.
Neither may we maruell, that they are heard more in the night, than
in the day time. For he who is the author of these things, is called
in the holye Scriptures the Prince of darkenesse, and therefore he
shunneth the light of Gods word.

[Sidenote: In what place spirits are seen.]

And albeit these are heard or séene in al places, yet are they most
especially conuersant in the fieldes where battels haue bene fought,
or in places where slaughters haue bene made: in places of execution;
in woods into the which they have coniured deuils being cast out of
men: in Churches, Monasteries, and about Sepulchers, in the bounds
of countries, and buts of lands: in prisons, houses and towers, and
sometime also in the ruines and rubbish of Castles.

[Sidenote: _Esay_ 13.]

[Sidenote: Monsters of the desart.]

[Sidenote: _Esay_.34.]

God threatneth the Babilonians in the 13. chap. of =Esay=, that
Spirits and Satyres shal daunce where their magnificent houses and
Pallaces were, where they were wont to lead their daunces. And in
his 34. chapter, where he threatneth destruction vnto all nations
and enemies of God, he saith: In the ruinous and tottering Pallaces,
Castles, and houses, horrible spirites shall appeare with terrible
cries, and the Satyro shall call vnto her mate, yea and the night
hags shall take their rest there. For by the sufferaunce of God,
wicked diuels worke straunge things in those places where men haue
exercised pride and crueltie.

[Sidenote: After what sort spirites appeare.]

The maner of appearing of spirits, is diuers and manifold, as it
appeareth by those things which I haue alleaged before. For they
shewe themselues in sundry sorts: sometimes in the shape of a man
whom we know, who is yet aliue, or lately departed: and otherwhile in
the likenesse of one whom we know not.

I heard of a graue and wise man, which was a Magistrate in the
Territorie of _Tigurie_, who affirmed, that as he and his seruant
went through the pastures, in the sommer very early, he espied one
whome he knew very well, wickedly defiling himselfe with a Mare,
wherewith being amazed, he returned back againe, and knocked at
his house, whome he supposed he had séen, and ther vnderstood for
a certaintie, that he went not on foote out of his chamber yͭ
morning. And in case he had not diligently searched out yͤ matter,
the good & honest man had surely bin cast in prison, and put on the
rack. I reherse this history for this end, that Iudges should be
very circumspect in these cases, for yͤ diuell by these means doth
oftentimes circumuent yͤ innocent. =Chunegunda= wife vnto =Henry=
the 2. Emperour of yͭ name, was greatly suspected of adultery, and
thereuppon many false rumors scattered, that she was too familiar
with a certaine yoong man in the Court, for the Diuell in the
likenesse of the same yoong man, was oftentimes séene come out of
the Empresse Chamber. But she afterwards declared her innocencie by
treading vppon hotte glowing ploughshares, (as the custome was then)
without any hurting her féete, as witnesseth =Albertus Cranzius=, in
his fourth booke, and first Chapter of his _Metropolis_.

We reade that many spirites haue appeared vnto certaine Hermites and
Monkes in the shape of a woman, alluring and intising them to filthie
lust. They appeare also in the fourme of brute beastes, sometime
foure footed, as of a Dogge, a Swine, a Horsse, a Goate, a Catte, or
a Hare: and sometimes of foules, and créeping wormes, as of a Crow, a
night Owle, a schritch Owle, a Snake, or Dragon, whereof the Gentiles
had great plentie in their Temples and houses, and nourished them,
as we may reade euery where in the Poets. Spirits haue sometimes
appeared in a pleasaunt fourme, and sometimes in a horrible shape.
At one time some hath bene séene ryding on horsebacke, or going on
foote, or crawling vppon all foure. At an other time hath appeared
a man all burning in fire, or beraide with blood: and somewhile,
his bowelles haue séemed to traile out, his belly being as it were
ripped vp. Sometimes a shadow hath onely appeared: sometimes a hand,
sometimes an instrument, as a staffe, a sworde, or some such lyke
thing which the spirite helde in his hande. Sometimes he appeared
in maner of a bundle of hey, burning on fire: another while onely a
hoarse kinde of voyce was heard. Sometimes a spirit hath bene heard
walking in the inner parte of the house, turning the leaues of a
Booke, or telling money, or playing at dice, or bounsing against
the wall. And sometimes there is heard a terrible noyse or clappe,
as if a peale of Gunnes were discharged hard at hand. And spirits
sometimes, taking a man by the arme or by the haire of the head, haue
walked with them.

[Sidenote: Olaus.]

[Sidenote: Daunces of Spirits.]

[Sidenote: Saxo.]

[Sidenote: Pomponius Mela.]

[Sidenote: Solinus.]

=Olaus Magnus= in his third booke and eleuenth Chapter _De Gentibus
Septentrionalibus_, writeth, that euen in these our dayes, in many
places in the North partes, there are certaine monsters or spirites,
which taking on them some shape or figure, vse (chiefly in the night
season) to daunce, after the sounde of all maner of instruments of
musicke: whom the inhabitants call companies, or dances of Elues,
or Fairies. Somewhat also is to bee reade touching this matter in
=Saxo Grammaticus=, in his historie of _Denmarke_. Such like things
are those which =Pomponius Mela= reporteth in his third booke of the
description of _Aethiopia_, that in _Mauritania_ beyonde the Mount
_Atlas_, many times in the night season are séene great lightes,
and that tinkling of Cymballs, and noyses of Pipes are also heard,
and when it is daylight no man appeareth. =Solinus= writeth in his
thirtie eight and fortie foure chapters, that in this same Mountaine,
=Ægiptians= vse euery where to leade their daunces: of whom also
=Plinie= maketh mention in his first booke and first Chapter. Men
holde opinion, that they are =Panes=, =Faunes=, and =Satyres=, of
whom the olde writers haue mentioned many things.

[Sidenote: Hierome.]

[Sidenote: A Fable out Hierome, of a Centaure, A Monster hauing the
forepart like a man, the hinder like a horse.]

Saint =Hierome= writeth in the life of =Paule= the Hermit, that an
=Hippocentaure=, appeared vnto =S. Anthonie=, in the same shape
which is described of the Poets. In a stonie valley (saith he) he
espied a Dwarffe of a small stature, hauing a crooked nose, and his
forehead rough with hornes: the hinder part of his bodie, and his
féete like vnto a Goate. =Anthony= nothing amazed with this sighte,
taketh vnto him the shield of faith, and the brestplate of hope, lyke
a good warriour. Notwithstanding the foresayde creature presented
him with Dates, to refresh him in his iourney, as witnesses of peace
and friendship. Which when =Anthonius= vnderstood, he staide, and
enquiring of him what he was, receiued this answere. I am (quoth he)
a mortall creature, and one of the inhabitants of this desart, whome
the Gentiles, being deceiued with many errors, dooth worship, calling
vs =Faunes=, =Satyrs=, and night Mares.

And I am sent as Embassador from our company, who earnestly beséech
thée, that thou wilt pray vnto the God of all creatures for vs, whom
we acknowledge to be come into the world, to saue the same, &c.

[Sidenote: Plutarch.]

And here we may in no wise ouerpasse in silence, that notable
historie which =Plutarch= in his booke _De fectu oraculorum_,
(translated by that learned man =Adrianus Turnebus=) reciteth in
these words. Touching the death of diuels, I haue heard a certaine
historie of one who was neither foolish, nor accustomed to lye. For
it was =Epitherces=, my countreyman, a professour of Grammer, father
vnto =Æmilianus= the Rhethoritian, of whome some of you also haue
heard the same: He told me, that when he once tooke ship, meaning
to go into _Italie_, because he carried with him not only great
store of marchandise, but also very many passengers, in the euening
when they were about the Islands =Echinadæ=, the wind quite ceased,
and that the shippe driuing in the Sea, being brought at the last
vnto _Paxe_, many then waking, and many also quaffing after they
had supped, sodeinly there was heard a voyce of one which called
=Thamus=, in such sort that euery man maruelled. This =Thamus= was a
Pilotte borne in _Egipt_, vnknowne vnto many which were in the ship.
Wherefore being twice called, he held his peace, and the third time
answered: then the other with a louder voyce commaunded him, that
when he came vnto =Palodes=, hée should tell them that the great God
=Pan= was departed. When this was heard, euery man was amazed with
feare, as =Epitherces= affirmed vnto vs: And being in consultation
whether they should do as was commaunded or not, =Thamus= thus iudged
of the matter: that if the winde did blowe, they must passe by with
silence, but if it were calme without winde, he must vtter that
which we had heard. When therefore they were come to _Palodes_, and
no wind stirred, nor waue moued, =Thamus= looking out of the sterne
towards the lande, cryed out as he had heard, that the great God
=Pan= was deceased: Hée had scant ended those words, when immediatly
there followed a great groning, not of one man, but of many, being
admixt as it were with great admiration. And because many were
present in the ship, (they said) the same hereof was spéedely spred
abroad at _Rome_, and =Thamus= sent by =Tiberius= yͤ Emperour, who
gaue so much credit vnto the matter, that he diligently enquired,
and asked who that =Pan= was. The learned men whome he had in great
number about him, supposed that =Pan= was he, who was the sonne of
=Mercurie= and =Penelope=, &c.

[Sidenote: De preparatione Euang. li.5.chap.9.]

[Sidenote: Paulus Marsus.]

These and such like things, (=Eusebius= who also reciteth this
historie) affirmeth to haue chaunced in that time of =Tiberius=, in
the which Christ being conuersant amongst men, expelled all maner of
diuels from the societie of them. Other most godly professours of our
Religion, affirme, (as namely =Paulus Marsus=, in his Annotations
vppon the first of =Ouids Fasti=) that this voyce was heard out
of _Paxe_, the very same night ensuing the day wherein our Lorde
suffered, in the 19. yeare of =Tiberius=, which was the same yeare
that Christ was crucified in: by the whiche voyce being vttered in a
wildernesse of solitary rockes, it was declared that our Lord and God
had suffered for vs. For the word =Pan= in Greeke, signifieth all:
and then the Lord of al the world was crucified.

He addeth moreouer, that =Theodosius= doth say, that the _Archadians_
doo worship this God, calling him τὸν τῆς ὔλης κύριον,
meaning thereby to signifie a Lorde and Ruler, not of words, but of
all manner of materiall substances: whose power is suche, that it
is able to create the essence and substaunce of all bodies, whether
that they be heauenly, or earthly. And albeit he referre this vnto
the Sunne, yet if a man marke diligently, his mysteries haue a higher
meaning, &c.

[Sidenote: Hunting of Diuels.]

Hereunto belongeth those thinges which are reported touching the
chasing or hunting of diuels, and also of the daunces of dead men,
which are of sundry sortes. I haue heard of some which haue auouched,
that they haue séene them.

No man is able to rehearse all the shapes wherein spirits haue
appeared, for the diuell, who for the most part is the worker of
these things, can (as the Poets faine of =Proteus=) chaunge himselfe
into all shapes and fashions.

These walking spirites sometimes stoppe the way before men as they
trauell, and leade them out of their way, and put them in suche great
feare, that sometimes they become grayheaded in one night. I remember
I haue heard the like historie of my olde friende =Iohn Willing=, a
godly and learned man, of one in the Countie of _Hannow_, who not
many yeares ago, méeting with a walkyng spirite in the night season,
was so much altered, that at his returning home, his owne Daughters
knewe him not.

Spirites oftentimes awake men out of their sléepe, and cause many
to forsake their owne houses, so that they cannot hire them out to
any other. Sometimes they ouerthrow somewhat, or strike men, or cast
stones at them, and hurt them either in their bodies or in their
goods: yea and sometime God doth suffer them to bereaue men of their
liues. It often chaunceth that those mens faces and heads do swel,
which haue séene or heard spirits, or haue bene blasted with them:
and some are taken mad, as we sée by experience. I remember well it
hath happened, that some supposing they haue séene armed men, who
were ready to take them, haue therefore assaied to slaie themselues:
which thing may be by craft of the diuel. Spirites do also trouble
cattell in the night time, in the pastures.

Thus much concerning the first part of this worke, wherein (I trust)
I haue proued, and made it euident, that albeit there be many which
vainely perswade themselues they haue séene wandring spirits, or haue
beheld one instéed of an other: yet notwithstanding that there are
walking spirits, and that other strange things so sometime happen.

I haue also shewed vnto whome they appeare especially, and where,
when, after what sort, or in what fourmes they shewe themselues, and
what things they worke and bring to passe.

Whosoeuer dare flatly deny these manifold and agréeable testimonies
of the olde and new writers, he séemeth vnworthie in my iudgement,
of any credit, whatsoeuer he say. For as it is a great token of
lightnesse, if one by and by beleeue euery man which saith, he hath
seene spirits: so on the other side, it is great impudency, if a man
rashly and impudently contemne all things which are aduouched, of so
many, and so credible Historiographers, and auncient Fathers, and
other graue men of greate authoritie.


  The seconde parte of this Booke doth shewe, that those
  Spirits and other straunge sights, be not the soules of
  men, but either _good or euil Angels, or else some secret
  and hid operations_.


The opinion or beliefe of the Gentiles, Iewes, and Turkes, concerning
the estate of Soules seperated from their bodies.

In the second part of this booke we haue to consider, what those
things be which (as wee haue before shewed) are both heard and séene,
in the day time and in the night, whether they be the soules of dead
men or no: also what the olde writers haue iudged of them, and what
the holy scriptures, do teach vs herein.

[Sidenote: Platos opinion.]

=Plato= doth think, that Heroicall and excellent soules, as being of
the pure sort, do mount aloft: but that other base and viler soules,
that are defiled with the pleasures & lustes of the bodie, do wander
below on the ground, and the same he déemeth to be those spirits
which are eftsoones séene.

[Sidenote: Tertullian.]

Also other heathen and prophane writers say, they are heereby mooued
to thinke that the soules of men doo liue after death, for that it
is most cleare and euident, that many spirits wander and raunge
hither and thither, and are oft times heard and séene, and founde to
talke with men: for they suppose that most of these are mens soules.
=Tertullian= a very auncient writer, in his booke _De anima_, saith,
that the wise Heathens, which did define the soule to be immortall,
(for some of them, as namely the Epicures, thought that the soules
died with their bodies) thought that the soules of the wise, if they
departed from their bodies, hadde their abiding on high: but the rest
were throwne downe into Hell.

[Sidenote: Homer.]

[Sidenote: Virgil.]

Furthermore, the Heathen thought the Soules should stray continually
abroade before they founde rest, vnlesse the bodies from which they
were seuered, were rightly buried in the earth. Wherefore (as we may
reade in Poets) it was a gréeuous crime to caste foorth any bodie
vnburied. =Hector= in =Homere=, besought =Achilles= that he woulde
not cast foorth his carcasse to be deuoured of Dogs and birds, but
that he would deliuer the same to be enterred by olde =Priamus= his
father, and =Hecuba= his mother. =Patroclus= appeared in a vision
by night after his deathe vnto =Achilles=, and requested him to
bestowe vppon him all funeral solemnities. For otherwise he saide
the soules of those that were buried, woulde thrust him backe, that
he should not be able once to enter in at Hell gates. Which example
=Tertullian= aledgeth, and therwithal cōfuteth this vaine opinion
of the heathen. =Palinurus= in =Virgill=, besought =Æneas=, that he
woulde cast earth on him, when he was dead, and erect vnto him an
hearse, for so did they call those Monuments of the deade, in whiche
albeit no man was layde, yet were they vsed in the honour of the
deceassed. =Virgill= writeth, that =Deiphobus= his Ghost wandred
abroade, vnto the whiche =Æneas= erected an Horse.

[Sidenote: Plato.]

For the Gentiles were of suche an opinion in those dayes, that they
thought an emptie and counterfeyted buriall profitted very much.
Moreouer the heathen were perswaded that the soules which dyed before
their naturall time (especially of those whiche perished by violent
death, whom they call βιοθανάτους, as by hanging, drowning,
or beheading, &c.) did straie abroade so long time as they should
haue liued, if they had not bin slain by violent death. Which opinion
=Tertullian= also confuteth. =Plato= in his ninth booke _De legibus_,
writeth, that the soules of those which are slain, do pursue their
murtherers so farre, that they do hurt them: the which, except it be
vnderstood by way of a Metaphor, is likewise to be reiected.

[Sidenote: The Iewes opinion.]

[Sidenote: _Iob_.7.]

The Catholike faith amongst the Iewes was, that the soules of the
dead did not returne into this earth, but either were at rest, which
was when they died in the faith of the promised =Messias=, or were
cōdemned if they departed hence in their sinnes without repentance.
For =Iob= in his seuenth Chapter saith: Euen as the cloude vanisheth
and fadeth away, so he that goeth downe to the graue shall come vp no
more, nor returne into his house, &c.

[Sidenote: _Psal._31.]

[Sidenote: _Eccle._12.]

[Sidenote: _Wisd._3.]

[Sidenote: _Psal._49.]

But if thou wilt say that =Iob= was an Ethnicke, it may be alleaged
of =Dauid=, that when he was in very great danger, and death euen
present before his eyes, he praied in the 31. Psalme. Into thy hands
O Lord I commend my spirit. The Preacher also in his 12. Chapter
saith: The spirite shall returne to God that giueth it. In the booke
of Wisedome (which of olde writers is attributed to =Philo Iudeus=)
the third Chapter thereof, it is written: the soules of the righteous
are in the hande of God, and no torment shall touch them. And on the
other side, the soules of the wicked go downe into hell. In the 49.
Psalm it is written of those wealthie worldlings, which for lucres
sake, depart from God and his Commaundements: They are laid as shéepe
in Hell, Death shall consume them, and Hell is their habitation, &c.

[Sidenote: 2. _Samu._ 12.]

[Sidenote: _Eccle._ 38.]

If the Iewes had beléeued, that the soules after this life were
tormented in Purgatorie, no doubt amongst so many diuers kinds of
sacrifices, which they offered for the sinnes of the liuing, they
would at least haue some one kind of sacrifice whereby to redéeme
soules, or in some part to assuage and mitigate their paines. And
that soules do returne after death, do offer themselues to be séene
and beheld of men, and require aide of them, we finde no where in
the old Testament, but rather the contrary. In the 2. of =Samuel=
12. =Dauid= speaketh this of his yoong childe, that he begat by
=Bersaba=, that he could not bring him into life againe, that hee
would go to him, and the childe should neuer returne vnto him againe.
And Iesus the sonne of =Syrach=, in his 38. chapter saith: There is
no returning from death. Of the vision which was shewed to =Samuel=,
we will straightway speake in his proper place.

And that in latter ages, long after Christ came in flesh, there
were some amongst the Iewes, who thought that the soules separated
from their bodies, did straie and raunge abroad: it may hereby be
gathered, for that certaine of the Rabbines write, that the soule of
=Naboth= (which was slain, because he would not sell his Vineyard to
=Achab=) was that spirit that promised his helpe to seduce =Achab=,
being as it were one that coueted his death.

[Sidenote: The Turkes opinion.]

The Turkes also beléeue that the soule is immortall, and that assoone
as they are loosed from the bodie, they come either into a place of
rest, or of torment. But whether that they did thinke, that soules
returned againe into the earth, and roue there too and fro, I could
finde no plaine mention thereof in their _Alcaron_.


  The Papists doctrine touching the soules of dead men, and
  the appearing of them.

[Sidenote: Papists.]

[Sidenote: Iacobus de Cusa.]

The Papists in former times haue publikely both taught and written,
that those spirites which men somtime sée and heare, be either
good or bad angels, or els the soules of those which either liue
in euerlasting blisse, or in Purgatory, or in the place of damned
persons. And that diuers of them are those soules that craue aide
and deliuerance of men. But that this doctrine of theirs, and the
whole state therof may be the more euidently perceiued, we will more
largely repeate the same out of their owne bookes. =Iacobus de Cusa=,
a _Carthusian_ Friar, and Doctor of diuinitie, wrote a booke of yͤ
Apparition of soules, after they were seperated fro the bodies: which
worke of his, hath in it many superstitious toyes, and was Printed in
a Towne belonging to the dominion of _Berna_, named _Burgdrofe_, in
the yeare of our Lord, 1475.

[Sidenote: Foure places for soules.]

Popish writers commenting on the 4. booke of the Maister of
Sentences, do appoint foure places to receiue soules, after they are
departed from the bodies. Thrée of the which places they say are
perpetuall, and one which lasteth but for a time already limitted.

[Sidenote: Heauen.]

[Sidenote: Hell.]

[Sidenote: Limbus puerorum which is a place wher the Papistes imagine
the soules of yong childrē to be, which departed without Baptisme.]

[Sidenote: Purgatorie.]

The first place or receptacle is _Cælum Empireum_, the firie heauen,
so termed of his passing great brightnesse and glory, which they
say is the seate ordeined for yͤ blissed sort: this place by an
other name in scripture is called =Paradise=. The second place is
Hell vnder the earth, being the Mansion of Diuels and Infidels,
departing hence in deadly sinne, without repentance. The third place
they tearme _Limbus puerorum_, which is prouided as well for the
children of the faithfull, as of the vnfaithfull: who (they say)
shall continually abyde there without any sense of payne, being only
depriued from the fruition of Gods presence. And therefore they say,
that after their death, they ought not to be buried in holy buriall.
The fourth place is Purgatorie, which is prepared for them that
departe hence without deadly sinne, or if they committed any such
sinnes, did some penance for them, but yet made not full satisfaction
for them, or else went hence only stained with venial sin.

Of this place, to wit, Purgatorie, Popish writers teach maruellous
things. Some of them say, that Purgatorie is also vnder the earth as
Hell is. Some say that Hell and Purgatorie are both one place, albeit
the paines be diuers according to the deserts of soules. Furthermore
they say, that vnder the earth there are more places of punishment
in which the soules of the deade may be purged. For they say, that
this or that soule hath bin seene in this or that mountaine, cloud,
or valley, where it hath committed the offence: and that these
are particuler Purgatories, assigned vnto them for some speciall
cause, before the day of Iudgement, after which time all manner of
Purgatories, as well general as particuler shall cease. Some of them
say, that the paine of Purgatorie is all one with the punishment of
hel, and that they differ only in this, that the one hath an end, the
other no ende: and that it is far more easie to endure all the paynes
of this worlde, whiche all men since =Adams= time haue susteined,
euen vnto the day of the last Iudgement, than to beare one dayes
space the least of these two punishmentes.

Further they holde that our fire, if it be compared with the fire of
Purgatorie, doth resemble only a painted fire. Séeke their Doctours
in this pointe, on the fourth booke of Sentences, the 20. distinction.

[Sidenote: By whome Soules are tormented in purgatorie.]

This question also they moue, by whome the Soules in Purgatorie are
tormented. Wherfore their opinions are very diuers, and disagréeable
among themselues.

=Richardus de Media Villa= a _Franciscan_ Frier, writeth vpon the
Maister of Sentences, and saith, he verily beléeueth that soules
are caried by good Angels, into the places of torment, but yet that
they themselues do not torment them, because they shall become at
length fellow citizens with them. Neyther yet are they punished by
Deuils (who after this life do no longer tempte men) but only by the
méere iustice of God. And yet (saith he) it may so come to passe,
that the Deuils be present at the doing thereof, and reioyce at
their tortures. I thought good to repeate these things of Purgatorie
somewhat at large, the rather for that the reader might sée, that
their Doctours do disagrée in a matter of great weight, by which they
haue both robbed men of their wealth, and plunged them into very
great miserie.

[Sidenote: Papists feigne that soules returne to earth againe.]

Héervnto they adde, that the spirits, as well of the good, as the
ill, do come and are sent vnto men liuing, from hell. And that by the
common lawe of iustice, all men at the day of Iudgement shall come to
their trial from hell: and that none before that time can come from
thence. Farther they teache, that by Gods licence and dispensation,
certaine, yea before the day of Iudgement, are permitted to come
out of hell, and that not for euer, but only for a season, for the
instructing and terrifying of the liuing. Héervppon they recite
diuers kindes of visions, that certaine Clarkes, and Laye persons
being damned, bothe men and women, haue appeared to their ghostly
fathers, and others, and haue opened vnto them the causes of their
damnation: all which to rehearse héere were lost laboure. And that
the soules which be in euerlasting ioye, or in Purgatorie, do often
appeare, it may be séene in =Gregories= Homelies and =Gregories=
Dialogues, who writeth that =Peter= and =Paule=, and other Saintes,
did not onely appeare vnto holie men, but did also conducte their
Soules vnto Celestiall ioye. Moreouer that God doth licence soules
to return from those two places, partly for the comfort and warning
of the liuing, and partly to pray aide of them. And yet that those
soules doo not here represent themselues to be séene of men, when,
and how often soeuer they list themselues. No doubt these men shewe
themselues to haue a sharpe wit and profound knowledge.

[Sidenote: VVhether we may wish to see spirits.]

These Doctors moreouer moue this question, whether we may request
without offence, that the soules of such as are departed, may shewe
themselues to be beheld and séene of the liuing.

To riue asunder this crabbed knotte, they bring this wedge: that
if this request proceede of some good intent, without the spot of
lightnesse & vanitie, that a man might vnderstand the state of some
friend, neighbour, benefactour, or of his parents, or some other,
therby to helpe and relieue them speedily of their torments, it is
no offence at all: because dead mens soules doo of their owne accord
shew them selues vnto the liuing, to receiue helpe of them, and
therefore nothing can let vs to aske this thing at Gods hand. Of this
opinion is =Thomas= of =Aquine=.

But as concernyng the time and place, when and where Spirites doo
proffer themselues to be séene, they say, no certaine rule can be
giuen: for this standeth wholly in Gods pleasure, who if he list to
deliuer any, suffereth him to make his appearaunce foorthwith, euen
in such places as he may be well heard in. And that spirits do not
alwayes appeare vnder a visible shape, but sometimes inuisibly, in
so much that sometime nothing else is heard of them but snéesing,
spitting, sighing, and clapping of hands &c. Of which point I haue
noted somewhat before, when I spake generally of ghostes, because
they appeare in sundry sorts. And wheresoeuer these spirits be,
they say, that they endure punishment. Besides that soules doo not
appeare, nor answere vnto euery mans interrogatories, but that of a
great number they scantly appeare vnto one.

[Sidenote: How a man ought to vse himself when spirits appeare
according to the Papists.]

[Sidenote: _Dan._10.11.]

[Sidenote: 1._Samu._3.]

And therefore they teache. Whensoeuer such visions of spirits are
shewed, men should vse fasting and praier or euer they demaunde any
question of them: which (say they) in the tenth and eleuenth Chapters
of =Daniell=, is read to haue bene done by =Daniell= himself. Besides
this, shrift, and massing should be vsed ere we question with them:
farther, that we should not giue credit assoone as we heare but one
sign, but waite to heare the same thrice repeated, which in the first
booke of =Samuel= and third Chapter, is read to haue bin done by
=Samuel= being yet a childe: for otherwise the diuell may delude and
deceiue vs, as he doth very often. And so soone as these thinges are
dispatched and performed, that foure or fiue deuout priests are to be
sent for, which should come to the place where the spirit was wont to
shew himselfe, and that they should vse certaine ceremonies, as to
take a candle that hath bene halowed on Candlemasse day, and light
it: also holy water, the signe of the Crosse, a censor in their hand,
and when they light their candle, should pray ouer it (as I remember)
the seuen penitential psalms, or read the Gospell of S. =Iohn=. And
when they come to the place, they should sprinkle it with holy water,
and perfume it with Frankincense, casting about their neckes a holy
stoale, and then that one of them kneeling on his knées, should
rehearse this praier following.

O Lord Iesu Christ, the searcher of all secrets, which art alwaies
wont to reueale healthfull and profitable things vnto thy faithful
people and litle ones, which hast permitted some certaine spirit to
shew himselfe in this place: we humbly beséech thee of thy great
mercy, by thy death & passion, and by the sheading of thy most
precious bloud for our sinnes, that thou wilt vouchsafe to giue
in charge to this spirite, that he may declare and open what he
is, without any fraying or hurting of vs, or of any other creature
besides: shewing vnto vs thy seruants, or to other sinners as we be,
who he is, why he is come, and what he desireth, so that hereby thou
maist be honoured, he comforted, and thy faithfull people also holpen
and succoured. In the name of the father, the sonne, and the holy
ghost. Amen.

Yet do they teach, that a man may choose to vse this or some other
forme of praier, and ceremonies: because that without these, spirites
haue often appeared, & shewed what they required. This done, we
should (as they teach) fall to questioning with them, and say: Thou
spirite, we beséech thée by Christ Iesus, tell vs what thou art,
and if there be any amongst vs, to whome thou wouldest gladly make
answere, name him, or by some signe declare so much? After this,
the question is to be moued, eache man there present being recited
whether he would answere vnto this or that man. And if at the name
of any, hée speake, or make a noyse, all other demaunds remaining,
should be made vnto him: As these and suche lyke. What mans soule he
is? for what cause he is come, and what he doth desire? Whether he
require any aide by prayers and suffrages? Whether by Massing, or
almes giuing he may be released? Farther, by how many Masses that may
be compassed, by thrée, six, ten, twentie, thirtie. &c. Furthermore,
what manner of priests should say Masse for him, Monks, or secular
priests. Then if he aske for any fasting, by what persons, how long,
and in what sort he wold haue it done: If he require almes déeds,
what almes déeds they should be, how many, and on what persons
bestowed, whether on him that lacketh harbour, or that is diseased of
the leprosie, or on some other sort of people.

Furthermore, by what signe it may be perfectly knowne that he is
released, and for what cause he was first shut vp in Purgatorie.
And yet they hold, yͭ no curious, vnprofitable, or superstitious
questiōs shuld be demanded of yͤ spirit, except he wold of his
own accord reueale and open thē. And yͭ it were best, yͭ sober
persons shuld thus questiō with him, on som holiday before diner, or
in yͤ night seasō, as is commōly accustomed. And if the spirite
will shewe no signe at that time, the matter should be deferred vnto
some other season, vntill the spirit would shewe himselfe againe: and
yet that the crosse and holy water should bee left there, for that
by the secret iudgement of God, it was ordeined, that they should
appeare at certaine houres, and to certaine persons, and not vnto
all men. And farther, they say that we néede not to feare, that the
spirite would doo any bodily hurt vnto that person, vnto whome it
doth appeare. For if such a spirit would hurt any, he might justly be
suspected that he were no good spirit.

[Sidenote: By what tokens good spirites may be discerned from euil.]

[Sidenote: _Luke_ 1.]

Moreouer, popish writers teach vs to discerne good spirits from
euill, by foure meanes. First they say, that if he be a good spirit,
he will at the beginning, somewhat terrifie men, but againe soone
reuiue and comfort them. So =Gabriel= with comfortable words did
lift vp the blessed Virgin which before was sore troubled by this
salutation. They also alleage other examples. The second note is to
discrie them by their outwarde and visible shape. For if they appeare
vnder the forme of a Lyon, Beare, Dog, Toade, Serpent, Cat, or blacke
ghoste, it may easily be gathered that it is an euil spirit. And that
on the other side, good spirits doo appeare vnder the shape of a
doue, a man, a lambe, or in the brightnesse, and cleare light of the

We must also consider whether the voyce whiche we heare be sweete,
lowly, sober, sorrowfull, or otherwise terrible and full of reproach,
for so they terme it.

Thirdly we must note, whether the spirit teache ought that doth varie
from the doctrine of the Apostles, and other Doctors approoued by the
Churches censure: or whether he vtter any thing that doth dissent
from the faith, good maners, and ceremonies of the Church, according
to the Canonical rites or decrées of Councels, and against the lawes
of the holy church of _Rome_.

Fourthly, we must take diligent héede whether in his words, déeds,
and iestures, he do shewe forth any humilitie, acknowledging or
confessing of his sinnes & punishments, or whether we heare of him
any groning, wéeping, complaint, boasting, threatning, slaunder or
blasphemie. For as the beggar doth rehearse his owne miserie, so
likewise doo good spirits that desire any helpe or deliueraunce.
Other signes also they haue to trie the good Angels from the bad: but
these are the chiefe.

[Sidenote: How we may helpe and succoure soules.]

Now touching the suffrages or waies of succour, wherby soules are
dispatched out of Purgatorie, Popish doctors appoint foure meanes:
That is, the healthfull offering of the sacrifice in the Sacrament of
the aultar, almes giuing, prayer, fasting. And vnder these members,
they comprise all other, as vowed pilgrimages, visiting of Churches,
helping of the poore, and the furthering of Gods worship and glory,
&c. But aboue all, they extoll their Masse, as a thing of greatest
force to redéeme soules out of misery: of whose wonderfull effect,
and of the rest euen now recited by vs, they alleage many straunge

Of these things they moue many questions, the which who so lust to
sée, let him search their bookes which haue bin written and published
of this matter.

[Sidenote: A notable deede to relieue soules.]

Neither only in their writings, but in open pulpit also they haue
taught, how excellent and noble an act it is, for men touched with
compassion, with these foresaid workes to ridde the soule that
appeareth vnto them and craueth their help, out of the paines of
purgatorie: or if they cannot so doo, yet to ease and asswage their
torture. For say they, the soules after their deliuerance, ceasse not
in moste earnest maner to pray for their benefactors, and helpers.
On the other side, they teach that it is an horrible and heynous
offence, if a man giue no succoure to suche as séeke it at his
hands, especially if it be the soule of his parents, brethren and
sisters. For except by them they might conueniently be released of so
manifolde miseries, they woulde not so earnestly craue their helpe.
Wherefore say they, no man should be so voyd of naturall affection,
so cruell and outragious, that he should at any time deny to bestowe
some small wealth, to benefit those, by whom he hath before by diuers
and sundry waies bene pleasured.

If they were not the soules of the dead which craue helpe and
succour, but diuellish spirits, they would not will them to pray,
fast, or giue almes for their sakes: for that the diuels doo hate
those, as also all other good workes.


  What hath followed this doctrine of the Papists,
  concerning the appearing of mens soules.

[Sidenote: Monkes by their doctrine of spirits haue heaped infinit

By these means it came to passe, that the common sort were of opiniō,
that those spirits which wer séen and heard, were the soules of the
dead, and yͭ whatsoeuer they did say, was without gainsaying to
be beléeued. And so the true, simple, and sincere doctrine of yͤ
calling vpō God in the name of Christ Iesus only: of the confidence
in Christs merits, and redemption from sin and damnation: of yͤ
true déeds of Christian charitie, was daily more and more impugned
and oppressed. So that when men by litle and litle, forsooke holy
scripture, and cast it aside, mens traditions and precepts began
straightway to be had in great price and estimation, yea, they were
more regarded than Gods owne word. A great offence was it taken to
be, if any would presume once to breake mens traditions. On those
apparitions of spirits, as on a sure foundatiō of their Purgatory is
chiefly builded. For by talke had with them, Popish writers taught
that men atteined vnto saluation, by their owne, and by other mens
merits: which opinion so blinded them, that they became retchlesse,
secure, and sluggish. For if any dyd so perswade himselfe, that he
coulde hyre one for mony, which could worke one feate or other to
deliuer the deade from torments, then woulde he either delay the
amendment of his life, or vtterly neglect it. Wherfore vnto suche
fellowes, that happened, whiche chaunced vnto the fiue foolish
virgins, of whom mention is made in the .25. of Matthew. By these
apparitions of spirits, masses, images, satisfaction, pilgrimages
for religion sake, relikes of saints, monasticall vowes, holidaies,
auricular confession, and other kinds of worshippings and rites, and
to be short, all things whiche haue no grounde in holy scripture, by
little and little grewe into authoritie and estimation. So that the
matter came at the last to that extremitie and excesse, that many
deuoute, and simple soules, pinched and nipped their owne bellies,
that they might yͤ better haue by these meanes, wherewithall to
finde and mainteine idle monks and priests, and to offer vnto images.
They founded chappels, alters, monasteries, perpetuall lights,
anniuersaries, frieries, and such like, to release their friends out
of the torments of Purgatorie. And this did the walking spirits will
them to do. And sometime also by their councell, mens last willes &
testaments were altered. Hereby priests and monks increased daily,
their parishes, colleges & monasteries with yerely reuenewes, & got
into their hands yͤ best farmes, vineyards, lands, medowes, pondes,
parkes, bond men, iurisdictions, great lordships, and the authoritie
of the sword. For after yͭ this opiniō once tooke firme roote in
mēs harts, yͭ mens soules did walke after their death, & appeare
on yͤ earth, the greatest part did whatsoeuer they commanded thē.
And yͭ it may more plainly be perceiued how much mē estéemed those
visions & such like pelf, & how in memorial of thē they deuised &
framed to thēselues new kinds of worshippings, I will recite vnto you
one or two histories.

[Sidenote: Martinus Polonus.]

=Martinus Polonus= Archebishop Of =Consentine=, and the Popes
Penitētiarie, writeth in his Chronicles, that Pope =Clement= the
fourth did canonize for a Saint at _Viterbe_, one =Eduergia=,
Duchesse of _Polonia_, a widdow of great holinesse, who (among many
notable things that are written of her) when her canonization had
bene many yeares delaied, at length appeared her selfe in a Vision to
her Proctor in the Court of _Rome_, being heauie and pensiue about
this matter, and certified him, both of the spéedie dispatching of
this businesse, and also of the day wherin it should be dispatched.
Canonization amongst the Ethnicks, from whence it tooke his
originall, is named ἁποθἑοσις, that is, deification, or
making of a God.

[Sidenote: All soules day whēce it took originall.]

[Sidenote: Polydore.]

=Ioannes Tritenhemius= Abbotte of _Spanheim_, a man of great
authoritie, in his booke of Chronicles teacheth, that the memorie
of all faithfull soules, termed All soules day, had his originall
obseruation by this meanes: that when a certaine Monke returned from
_Ierusalem_, and lodged in a certaine Hermits house in _Sicill_,
about the mount _Aetna_, which flasheth foorth fire, hée learned of
the saide Hermit, that many soules of the dead were tormented there
by fire, out of which again through the praiers of the faithful,
they were released, as it was taught him by the testimony euen of
the spirites themselues. Hereof also writeth =Polydore Virgil=, in
his sixt booke, and 9. Chapter, _De inuentione rerum_, that the
feast of All hallowes had the very same originall, whiche they shall
finde in _Petrus de natalibus_ his tenth booke, and first Chapter.
Wherby thou maist gather, that Feastes were first ordeyned by the
tales of spirites appearing vnto men. The like fable is founde in
=Damascene=, who writeth of =Macharius= thus: When according to his
maner he prayed for the dead, and was desirous to vnderstande whether
his prayers did profitte them ought, and whether they receiued any
comfort thereby, God willing to reueale so muche to his seruaunt,
inspired a drie scull with the word of truth, so that the dead scull
brake forth into these words: When thou praiest for the dead, we
receiue comfort by thy praiers.

[Sidenote: The beginning of the order of Carthusians.]

[Sidenote: Polydore.]

Of the like roote sprung the order of the =Carthusian= Monkes, which
of the common sort is iudged to be the most holiest and straightest
order of the which the Monks themselues of this broode haue put
foorth a booke. For as =Polydore Virgil= recordeth, they began vpon
this occasion in the Vniuersitie of _Paris_, in the yeare of our Lord
1080. A certaine Doctor which for his learning and integritie of life
was very famous, chaunced to die, when he should haue bene buried
in a certaine Church, he cried out with an horrible voyce: I am by
the iust iudgement of God accused. Wherupon they left the Coffin in
the Church by the space of thrée dayes, during which time the people
flocked togither out of sundry places, to behold this straunge sight.
The second day he cried againe: By the iust iudgement of God I am
iudged. The third day likewise he cried: I am by the iust iudgement
of God condemned. And as =Vincentius Bellonacensis= saith, some adde
hereunto, that he rose vp thrice vpon the béere, which perchaunce
they faine of their owne heads. Now because no man suspected that so
notable and famous a man was vtterly condemned for euer, euery man
was sore astonished thereat.

Wherfore =Bruno=, a Doctor of diuinitie borne in _Coleine_,
foorthwith forsooke all that he had, and taking to him sixe other
godly companions, gat him into a desart called _Carthusia_, in the
diocesse of _Grationopolis_: where he erected the first monasterie
of that order, which drawing his name of the place, was called the
=Carthusian= order. For this cause also, or for the like, many other
monasteries at the first beginning, were both founded and endowed
with great liuelihood.


  Testimonies out of the word of God, that neither the
  soules of the faithfull, nor infidels, do walke vpon the
  earth after they are once parted from their bodies.

[Sidenote: Soules go either to hell or to heauen.]

[Sidenote: _Iohn 3._]

[Sidenote: _Iohn 5._]

[Sidenote: _Iohn 6._]

[Sidenote: _Iohn 14._]

[Sidenote: _Mat.10._]

[Sidenote: _2.Cor.5._]

[Sidenote: _Luke 23._]

[Sidenote: _Apo.14._]

Now that the soules neither of the faithfull nor of infidels do
wander any longer on the earth, when they be once seuered from the
bodies, I wil make it plaine and euident vnto you by these reasons
following. First, certaine it is, that such as depart hence, either
die in faith, or in vnbeliefe. Touching those that go hence in a
right beliefe, their soules are by and by in possessiō of life
euerlasting, and they that depart in vnbelief, do straightway becom
partakers of eternal damnatiō. The souls do not vanish away & die
with the bodie, as yͤ Epicures opinion is, neither yet be in euery
place, as som do imagin: touching this matter I wil alleage pithie &
manifold testimonies out of the holy scripture, out of which alone
this questiō may and ought to be tried & discussed. Our Sauiour
Christ Iesus which could well iudge of these misteries, in the 3.
of =Iohn= saith: So God loued the world, yͭ he wold giue his only
begotten son, yͭ who so beléeueth on him, shuld not perish, but haue
life euerlasting. For god sent not his son into yͤ world to cōdemn
yͤ world: but that yͤ world by him might be saued. He yͭ beléeueth
in him is not cōdemned, & he yͭ beléeueth not, is cōdemned alredy,
because he beléeued not in yͤ name of yͤ only begotten son of god.
And in yͤ 5. of =Iohn= he saith: Verily verily I say vnto you: he
that heareth my word, & beléeueth on him yͭ sent me, hath euerlasting
life, & shall not come into iudgemēt or cōdemnation, but hath passed
alredy frō death to life: he doth not say yͭ his sins shuld first be
purged in purgatorie. And in the 6. cha. he saith: This is yͤ wil
of him yͭ sent me, that euery one yͭ seeth the son, and beleeueth
on him, should haue life euerlasting, and I will raise him vp at
the last day againe: verily I say vnto you, he that beléeueth on me
hath life euerlasting. In the 14. of =Iohn=, also our Sauior Christ
Iesus saith, that he wil take vs vp to himselfe, that where he is,
there should we be also. &c. When Christ sent forth his disciples
to publish his gospel in yͤ 10. of =Mat.= he said vnto them: Go ye
into the whole world, and preach yͤ gospel to euery creature: he yͭ
beléeueth and is baptized, shalbe saued, and he yͭ beleeueth not
shalbe cōdemned: & in the 5. cha. of yͤ 2. to yͤ =Cor.= yͤ apostle
S. =Paul= saith: we know yͭ if the earthly house of this tabernacle
be destroied, we haue a building of God, yͭ is, a house not made
[tw] hands, but eternal in yͤ heuens, &c. By these places it may be
euidently gathered, yͭ the soules of the faithful are takē vp into
eternal ioy: and the soules of the vnfaithful assoone as they are
departed frō their bodies are condemned to perpetual torment. And
yͭ this is done straightway after death, may be perceiued by the
words yͭ Christ spake to the théefe on the crosse, when he hoong
on his right hand: This day shalt thou be with me in paradice. And
in the 14. cha. of the =Apoc.= it is written, And I heard a voice
yͭ said vnto me, write, Blessed ar yͤ dead yͭ die in the lord,
ἁπαρτἱ =amodo=, as the old trāslatiō redeth, yͭ is by & by, out of
hand, without delaie. Steuē in the very point whē he looked to be
stoned, cried lord Iesu receiue my spirit. He douted nothing, but
was assuredly persuaded yͭ his soul shold straitway be translated
to eternal ioy. Paul in the 1. chap. of his epist. to the =Philip.=
saith: I desire to be losed, or I couet to depart hence, and to be
with Christ. Here is no mentiō at all of purgatory, in which the
soules should be first purged. If thou wilt here obiect that the
persons afore alleaged were saints and martirs, we say farther, that
paradice was opened also to the théef assoone as he became repentant.
And that the soules both of the faithful & vnfaithful, which
presently after their death are translated to heauē or hel, do not
return thence into the earth before the day of the last iudgement,
may wel be perceiued by the parable of the rich man cloathed in
purple, and =Lazarus=, as we read in the 16. of =Luke=. For when the
rich man praised =Abraham= that he would send =Lazarus= vnto him, to
coole his toong, =Abraham= gaue him this answere: Betwixt this and
vs, there is a great gulfe set, so that they which would go hence
(from =Abrahams= bosome) to you (in Hell) cannot: neither can they
come from thence to vs. And when he besought him, that he would send
=Lazarus= to his fathers house to admonish his fiue brethren, least
they also should come into that place of torment: he saide vnto him;
They haue =Moses= and the Prophets, let them heare them. And again:
If they heare not =Moses= and the Prophets, neither will they beléeue
though one rose againe from the dead.


  Testimonies of the auncient Fathers, that dead mens
  soules parted from their bodies, doo not wander heere
  vppon earth.

[Sidenote: August.]

This matter was also thus vnderstood by the holy and auncient
Fathers. For =Augustine= in his 18. Sermon _De verbis Apostoli_,
hath, that there be two mansions, the one in euerlasting fire, the
other in the euerlasting kingdome.

[Sidenote: Idem.]

And in his 28. Chapter of his first booke, _De peccatorum meritis &
remissione contra Pelagianos_, in the seuenth tome of his workes, he
saith: Neither can any man haue any middle or meane place, so that he
may be any other where than with the diuel, who is not with Christ.

[Sidenote: Idem.]

And in his notable worke _De ciuitate Dei_, the 13. booke and 8.
Chapter, he saith: The soules of the godly so soone as they be
seuered from their bodies be in rest, and the soules of the wicked
in torment, vntil the bodies of the one be raised vnto life, and the
other vnto euerlasting death, which in scripture is called the second

[Sidenote: Iustine.]

=Iustine= also an auncient Father, writeth in _Responsione ad
Orthodoxos, quest. 75._ that the difference of the iust and vniust,
both appeare euen assoone as the soule is departed from the body.
For they are carried by the angels into such places as are fit for
them: that is, the soules of the iust are brought vnto Paradice,
where they haue the fruition of the sight and presence of Angels, and
Archangels: and moreouer the sight of our Sauiour Christ, as it is
conteined in that saying, whiles we are straungers from the bodie,
we are at home with God. And the soules of the vnrighteous on the
other side, are carried to Hell, as it said of =Nabuchodonozor= the
king of _Babylon_: Hell is troubled vnder thée, being readie to méete
thée, &c. And so till to the day of resurrection and reward, are they
reserued in such places as are méetest for them.

[Sidenote: Hillarie.]

Saint =Hillarie= in the ende of his exposition of the second Psalme,
writeth: that mens soules are straightway after death, made partakers
of rewards or punishments.

[Sidenote: Dormitantii.]

[Sidenote: Caluin.]

And touching the soules of the old Patriarkes, that died before the
natiuitie of Christ, =Austin=, =Hierom=, =Nazianzen=, and other holy
Fathers teache, that God in certaine places by him chosen out for
that purpose, hath preserued the soules of al those that are departed
from this life in the true faith of the =Messias= to come, in such
sort that they féele no griefe, but yet are depriued of the sight of
God. This place they call =Abrahams= bosome, and Hell (for Hell doth
not alwaies betoken a place of torment, but also generally the state
that soules are in after this life.) And that our Lord Iesus Christ
did visit and release them, and when he ascended, carried them with
himselfe into heauen. Albeit certain of the Fathers, as =Ireneus=,
=Tertullian=, =Hilarie=, & others, think that they shall at the last
day ascend to heauen. Some also there be of our time which maintaine
this fonde opinion, that the soules sléep, vntil the day of the last
iudgement, in which they shall be again coupled with their bodies:
but this assertion hath no ground in holy scripture, of the which
point diuers haue entreated. But especially =Iohn Caluin=, that
worthie seruant of God, in a proper Treatise that he wrote of the
same matter, in which he doth learnedly confute their reasons that
maintein the contrary opinion.

[Sidenote: Ciprian mar.]

[Sidenote: Soules do not walke.]

[Sidenote: Tertullian.]

[Sidenote: Athanasius.]

Wherefore sith holy scriptures, as the Fathers vnderstand and
interpret them, teache that the soules of men, as soone as they
departe from the bodies, do ascende vp into heauen if they were
godly, descende into hell if they were wicked and faithlesse, and
that their is no thirde place in which soules should be deliuered,
as it were out of prison, & that soules can neither be reclaimed out
of heauen or hel. Hereby it is made euident, that they cannot wander
on the earth, and desire aide of men. For first the soules of the
blessed néed no aid or help that men cā giue them: & on the other
side, the damned sort can no way be reléeued: the which S. =Ciprian=
the martir in his oration against =Demetrian=, doth plainly witnesse
in these words: when we be once departed out of this world, there is
afterward no place left for repentance, no way to make satisfactiō:
here life is either woon or lost, & so forth. Albeit the testimonies
alredy alleged on this point of doctrine, may well suffise those that
loue the truth, and are desirous to come to the knowledge thereof:
yet to increase the number, I wil recite other testimonies also out
of yͤ fathers, to proue manifestly, yͭ the soules departed, do
not againe return & wander on the earth, so that all they which
haue not yet stopped their eares that the truth might not pierce &
enter into them, may euidently perceiue, that those anciēt times
taught a far better doctrine of those spirits and ghosts, than other
latter times vnder poperie haue cōmended and allowed. =Tertullian=
a very auncient writer, in the end of his booke =De anima=, saith,
the soules do not any longer abide on the earth, after they be once
loosed from their bodies: & that neither by their owne accord,
nor other mens cōmandement, they do wander at all after they haue
descended into hell, but he saith, that euil spirits do vse this
kinde of deceyt, to faine themselues to be the soules of suche as
are deceased. And that Hell is not open to any soule, that it should
afterward at any time depart thence, Christ our Lorde in the parable
of the poore man that was in rest, and the rich glutton that was in
torment, doth plainely ratifie vnder the person of =Abraham=, that
there can be no man sent backe to shewe or tel ought of the state of
hel. And albeit the fathers haue noted certaine errours and scapes
in =Tertullian=, yet there was neuer any that reproued him for this
opinion. =Athanasius= in his booke of questions, the xiii. questiō,
doth giue a reason wherfore God will not suffer that any soule
deceased, shuld returne vnto vs, and declare what the state of things
is in hel, and what great misery is there: hereby (saith he) many
errors wold easily spring vp among vs: for many diuels might so take
on thē the shape of men, and be transformed into yͤ likenesse of
the dead, and say, that they arose frō the dead, and so publish many
lying tales, and false opinions of things there don, therby to seduce
and hurt vs. Weigh these wordes of =Athanasius=, I pray thée.

[Sidenote: Chrisostome.]

Sainct Chrysostome in his nyneteenth Homilie on the eight chapter of
sainct Matthewes Gospell, hath in maner the same woordes, for hee
moueth this question: Why suche as were possessed with Spirites,
liued in graues? Therefore (sayeth he) they abode there, to put this
false opinion in mens heads, that those persons soules whiche by
violent death departed, were turned into Diuels, and so did seruice
vnto witches and soothsayers. The which opinion the diuell first
broughte in, thereby to diminishe the Martyrs prayse and glorie, that
so the Sorcerers might slea those persons, whose wicked trauell and
help they vsed, and those matters saith he, are far from truth. For
he proueth by the Scripture, that the spirits of the godly are not
vnder the power of the Diuels, nor yet do stray abroade after death:
then that they woulde retourne vnto theyr owne bodies, if they mighte
wander whether they lusted. And further if they didde any seruice too
theyr Murtherers, by that meanes they should at their handes receiue
a reward for an ill déed and displeasure. By naturall reason also
it cannot come to passe, that a mans bodie should be turned into an
other bodie, and therefore also the spirit of a man cannot be changed
into a diuel.

But among other things which properly belong to our purpose, he
saith: If we heare a noyse that saith, I am such a soule, we must
thus thinke, that this talke proceedeth of some sleight and subtiltie
of the diuel, and that it is not the soule of the dead bodie that
speaketh these things, but the diuell that deuiseth them to deceiue
the hearers. And by and by he saith, that there are to be counted
old wiues words, or rather doting fooles toyes to mocke children
withall. For the soule when it is parted from the bodie cannot walke
any longer in these parties. For the soules of the iust are in the
hands of God. And on the other side, the soules of the wicked after
their departure hence, are straightway ledde aside and withdrawne
from vs, which may euidently be séene by Lazarus and the rich man.
And in another place also the Lord saith: This day will they take thy
soule from thée; wherefore the soule cannot heere wander when it is
departed from the bodie.

A little afterward he addeth, that it may be proued out of many
places of scripture, that the soules of the iust do not here wander
after death. For =Steuen= said, Lord receiue my spirit, and =Paule=
desired to be loosed and to depart hence, and to be with Christ.

Also the scripture, as touching the Patriarks death, vseth this
phrase, he is laide vnto his fathers, growne vp vnto a good olde
age. And that the soules of sinners and wicked men, cannot after
their departure, here abide any longer, we may learne by the riche
mans words, if we will weigh and confider with our selues what be
demannded and could not obtaine. For if after death mens soules might
any longer haue their conuersation heere on earth, no doubt the riche
man himselfe woulde haue returned as his desire was, and certified
his friendes of hell torments. Out of which place of scripture it
is most cleare, that soules immediatly vpon their departure from
their body, are carried vnto a certaine place, whence they cannot of
themselues returne, but néedes must waite there for that terrible day
of iudgement.

Also in his second Homily of =Lazarus=, amōg other things, he saith;
It is most plaine, not only by that we haue before rehearsed, but
also by this parable, that soules parted from the bodie, haue their
abiding here no longer, but are forthwith lead away. For it came to
passe (saith he) that he died, and was carried away by the Angels.
And not onely the soules of the iust, but of the vniust and wicked,
are hence led away, and carried to their proper places, which doth
euidently appeare, by another rich man, of which mention is made in
the 12. of =Luke=, to whom the Lord said: Thou foole this night will
they take thy soule from thée.

And in his fourth Homily of =Lazarus=, he plainly teacheth, that we
should giue more credite to holy scripture, than to one that came
from the dead, or an Angell from Heauen. Herewithall he also sheweth,
that the dead doo not only make no appearance vnto men liuing, but
yeldeth reasons wherefore they do not returne hither, in these words.
If God had knowne that the dead being raised might haue profited
the liuing, he would neuer haue let passe so great a benefit, who
otherwise doth giue and prouide vs al things profitable.

Furthermore he addeth, that if it were requisite still to raise vp
dead men, to make relation vnto vs of such things as there are done,
this no doubt in continuaunce of time would haue bene neglected: and
so the Diuell very easily would haue broached and brought in damnable
opinions into the world. For he might often haue made counterfeit
sightes, or suborne suche as should faine their selues to be dead and
buried, and by and by to present themselues before men, as if they
had bin in déede raised from death, and by suche manner of persons
might so haue bewitched simple soules, that they would beléeue
whatsoeuer he would haue. For if now when there is indéed no such
thing, the vaine dreames as it were of men deceased, that haue bin
shewed to men in sléepe, haue deceiued, peruerted & distroied many:
surely much sooner would the same haue fallen out, if it had bin a
thing truly don, & this opinion had preuailed in mens heads. For
if many dead persons had retourned backe again into this life, the
wicked spirit the diuell would easily haue deuised many sleights and
wiles, and brought in much deceit into the life of man. And therfore
God hath clean shut vp this dore of deceit, and not permitted any
dead man to returne hither & shew what things be don in yͤ other
life, least the diuel might gréedily catch this occasiō to plant his
fraudulent policies. For when the prophets were, he raised vp false
prophets: when the Apostles were, he stirred vp false Apostles:
and when Christ apeared in flesh, he sent thither false Christs or
antechrists: And when sincere & sound doctrine was taught, he brought
into the world corrupt & damnable opiniōs, sowing tares whersoeuer he
came. And therfore although it had come to passe, yͤ dead mē shold
return again, yet would he haue counterfeited yͤ same also by his
instruments, by some fained raising of the dead through the blinding
and bewitching of mens eyes: or otherwise by subborning of some which
should feine themselues to be dead (as I said before) he would haue
turned all things topsituruie and vtterly haue confounded them. But
God who knoweth all things, hath stopped his way, that he should
not thus deceiue vs, and of his great mercie towards vs, hath not
permitted that at any time any shuld return from thēce and tel vnto
mē liuing, such things as there are don, hereby to instruct vs that
we should be of this opinion & iudgment, that the scriptures ought to
be beleeued before other things whatsoeuer, because that God in them
hath most clearly taught vs the doctrine of the last resurrection.
Further, by them he hath conuerted the whole world, banished error,
brought in truth, and compassed all these things by vile and base
fishers, and finally in them hath giuen vs euery where plentifull
arguments of his diuine prouidence, &c.

[Sidenote: Cyrillus.]

S. =Cyril= in his 11. booke & 36. cha. vpon S. =Iohns= gospell saith:
We ought to beleeue, that when yͤ soules of holy men are gone away
from the bodies, they are commended vnto the goodnesse of God, as
into the handes of a most deare father, and yͭ they do not abide
in yͤ earth, as some of the Heathens beleeued, vntill such time
as they abhorred their graues: neither that they are carried as the
soules of wicked men, vnto a place of excéeding torment, which is
hel, Christ hauing first prepared this iourney for vs, but that they
rather mount vp aloft into their heauenly fathers hands, &c.

[Sidenote: The Glosse of the canō law.]

[Sidenote: _Deut._ 18.]

And in the Popes canon law, _Causa._ 13. _quæst._ 2. _Fatendum_,
we read, that many do beléeue that some come from yͤ dead to the
liuing: euen as on the other side holy Scripture doth witnesse that
=Paule= was caught vp from the liuing into Paradice. Vpon these words
the glose saith, that some doo indéed so beleeue, but falsly, sith
they be but fansies and vain imaginations, as it is in _Causa_.26.
_quæstione_.5. _Episcopi_.

What farther may bee saide to those men that knowe these things, and
neuerthelesse do beléeue that soules straie on the earth, I know not:
and yet that I may laie out all thinges plainly, I will heere confute
their chiefest arguments.


  A confutation of those mennes arguments or reasons, which
  affirme, that dead mens soules doo appeare: And first
  that is aunswered whiche certaine doo alleage, to witte,
  that God is omnipotent, and therfore that he can worke
  contrary to the ordinary course of nature.

First our aduersaries do laie against vs, that by the vsuall and
common course of things, the soules of the godly abide in heauen, and
the soules of the wicked in hell, vntill the last day, and do not
walke at all: but yet that God may dispence with them to appear here
sometimes, therby to instruct and admonish vs: And then =Samuel= did
appeare after his death vnto king =Saule=, and =Moses= also which
forsooke this life many yeres before: Likewise =Elias=, who was taken
vp in to heauen in a firie charet, appeared vnto Christ our sauior &
his thrée disciples, whom he tooke with him at his transfiguration
in the mount. =Lazarus= also of _Bethanie_, returned from death into
yͤ earth, and many other also were raised from death by Christ, his
Apostles, and Prophets.

Farther they alledge this, yͭ Christs Apostles beléeued, that yͤ
spirit or soule either of Christ, (as som of the fathers vnderstand
it) or of som other person did appear vnto them. Besides to proue
this matter, they alledge places out of the fathers, decrées of
councels, & the common report yͭ hath bin bruted of those yͭ
returned frō the dead. To al these reasons by Gods assistance, we
will briefly and orderly answere.

[Sidenote: The soules do returne to instruct men contrary to the
common course of nature, by the omnipotent power of god.]

As touching yͤ first obiection, yͭ al things are possible vnto
God, we deny it not. We graunt then, that God can bring soules out of
heauen or hel, and vse their trauell & seruice to instruct, comfort,
admonish, & rebuke men. But for yͭ no text or example is found
in holy scripture, that euer any soule came from yͤ dead, which
did so scoole & warn men: or yͭ the faithfull learned or sought
to vnderstand any thing of the soules deceased, we cannot allow
yͤ sequele of their reason. We may not of Gods almightie power
inferre conclusions to our pleasure. For this is a principle holdē
in schooles, yͭ the reason doth not truly folow, yͭ is set from
yͤ power of doing, to the déed done. For God doth nothing against
himself, or his word writen, to warrāt their reson: they shuld first
haue proued, that it was gods wil, yͭ soules shuld return into the
erth: for so do holy fathers intreat of gods almightie power.

[Sidenote: How we oght to reason of the omnipotent power of God.]

=Tertullian= against =Praxias= saith: Truly I neuer thought that any
thing was hard to bee done of God, we may faine of God what we list,
as if he had done the same, because he is able to doo it. But we must
not beléeue that God hath therefore done all things, because he is
able to doo them. But first wee ought to make enquirie whether hee
hath done them.

[Sidenote: Ambrose.]

S. =Ambrose= in his sixt booke of epistles, and 37. epistle, writeth
vnto =Cromatius= in this wise: Therefore what is there vnpossible
vnto him? Not that thing which is harde to his power, but that which
is contrary to his nature. It is vnpossible for him to lye, and this
impossibilitie in him, procéedeth not of infirmitie, but of vertue
and maiestie. For truth receiueth no lye, neither doth the vertue
of God entertaine the vanitie of errour. Reade farther that which
followeth in the same place.

[Sidenote: Hierome.]

=Hierome= writing to =Eustochia=, of the preseruing of her
virginitie, saith: I will boldly auouch this one thing, that though
God can do all things, yet can he not restore a virgin after her fall.

[Sidenote: Augustine.]

=Augustine= in the tenth chapter of his fifth booke _De ciuitate
dei_ hath: That God is sayd to be omnipotent in dooing that he will,
and not in doing that he will not. Againe he addeth: Gods power is
not hereby any whit diminished, when we say, that God cannot die or
be deceiued. And immediately, therefore he cannot doo some things
because he is omnipotent, &c.

[Sidenote: Theodoret.]

=Theodoret= also teacheth vs, that it may not absolutely without
exception be pronounced, that all things are possible vnto God.
For who so doth precisely affirme this, dooth in effect say this
much, that all things both good and bad are possible vnto God, &c.
Wherefore féeble is that obiection of theirs: God can sende soules
vnto men, to teache and admonish them; therefore these spirites that
praye ayde, bee soules that come out of Heauen or Hell. In the meane
time we do not denie the power of God, as some do maliciously report
of vs: but we wold not haue the same made a denne or couert of errors.

[Sidenote: VVee must learn nothing of the dead. _Deut._18.]

Heare what the Lorde our God in the 18. of =Deuteronomie= speaketh:
When thou shalt come into the lande whiche the Lorde thy God giueth
thée, doo not thou learne to doo after their abhominable rites, and
vsages of those nations. Let none bee founde among you, that maketh
his sonne or his daughter to passe through the fire: nor a diuiner
that doth foreshew things to come, nor a sorcerer, nor a witche, nor
a charmer, nor one that consulteth with spirits, nor an inchanter,
nor a Magitian, nor one that raiseth vp the dead. For the Lorde doeth
abhorre all that doo such things: and because of these abhominations,
the Lord thy God hath cast them out before thée. Be thou therfore
sound and perfect before the Lord thy God: and by and by he promiseth
to send them that great Prophet whom they should heare.

[Sidenote: _Esay_ .8.]

[Sidenote: _Luke_ .22.]

In the 8. of =Esay=, it is written: If they say vnto you, enquire of
them which haue a spirite of diuination, which whisper and murmure
softely in youre eares to deceiue you. Should not euery people or
nation enquire at their God? what shall they go from the liuing to
the dead? Let them goe vnto the lawes testimonie, suche as haue
no light, should they not speake according to this word, which
who so should contemne, shall be hardened and hunger, &c. Heereby
we doo vnderstand, that vnder a great penaltie God hath precisely
forbidden, that we shoulde learne and searche out any thing of the
dead. He alone woulde be taken for our sufficient schoolemaister. In
the Gospell we read: They haue =Moses= and the Prophets, let them
heare them. Vnto these may be added testimonies out of the Apostles
writings, that God doth not send vs soules hither to informe vs. The
common and ordinarie way whereby it pleaseth God to deale with vs,
is his word. Therwithall should we content our selues, and not wait
for new reuelations, or receiue any thing that doth not in all points
agrée therewith. But as touching this matter, we wil speak more in
his proper place.


  That the true Samuell did not appeare to the Witch in

[Sidenote: _Matth._8.]

Now touching yͤ examples by them commonly alleaged, which do think
that the souls of yͤ dead do return again vnto the liuing vpō the
earth: I wil first intreat of =Samuels= apparition, of which matter
now adaies there is great contentiō and reasoning. And (as I trust) I
shall proue by strong arguments, that very =Samuell= himself did not
appeare in soule and bodie, neither that his bodie was raised vp by
the sorcerers, which perchance then was rotten & consumed vnto dust
in the earth, neither yͭ his soule was called vp, but rather some
diuellish spirit. First the author of the two bookes of =Samuel=,
saith: that =Saule= did aske counsell of the Lord, and that he would
not answere him, neither by Visions, nor by =Vrim=, nor by his
Prophets. Wherefore if God disdained by his Prophets yet liuing, and
other ordinary wayes to giue answer vnto him, whom he had alreadie
reiected, we may easily coniecture, that he would much lesse haue
raised a dead Prophet to make him answere. And the rather, for that
as we haue a little before said, the lawe of God hath seuerely by a
great threatening, forbidden to learne ought of the dead, and would
not haue vs to searche for the trueth of them, nor that any man vse
diuination by Spirites, and suche other diuellishe Artes. Secondly,
if verie =Samuell= indéede appeared, that muste of necessitie haue
come to passe, either by the will of God, or by the worke of arte
Magike. But Gods will was not that =Samuel= should retourne. For he
hath condemned Necromancie, and would not haue vs to aske counsel
at the dead: and that the spirit of God did that which was contrary
herevnto, or did permit the Saints to do it, or was present with them
that did ought contrary thereto, it may not be graunted. And that
those things were done by the force and operation of Art Magike, wée
can not affirme. For the wicked spirit hath no rule or power ouer the
soules of the faithfull to bring them out of their places when he
lust, sith they be in the hand of God, and the bosome of =Abraham=,
nay (which is lesse) he hath no power ouer filthy and vncleane swine,
for he was driuen (as we reade in the viii. chapter of Mathew) to beg
leaue, before he could enter into the heard of swine: and how then
should he haue any power ouer the soule of man? yet can it not be
denied, that God somtimes for certain causes doth giue the Diuell and
his seruants, Magitians & Necromancers, power to do many things, as
to hurt and lame man and beast, and to worke other straunge things.
But that God dooth giue the Diuell leaue to raise dead bodies, or to
call, bring foorth, or driue away soules especially out of Heauen,
it hath no grounde at all in Scripture, neither can there be any
reasonable cause alledged, wherefore God would or should giue the
Diuell licence to doo these things contrary to the vsuall and common
order, yea and againe his owne expresse commaundement. For vayne
and childishe is the cause heereof that is giuen of some men, that
=Samuell= shoulde appeare to terrifie and astonishe =Saule=: as if
God coulde not haue feared him by other waies and meanes. Was he
not before vtterly abashed and dismayed? Thirdly, if =Samuell= were
brought backe, the same was done either by his will and consent, or
without the same, but that he did fréely and of his owne accord obey
the sorcerers, no man I thinke is so blinde to imagine.

[Sidenote: Wordes of thēselues haue no force.]

[Sidenote: Iupiter Elicius.]

[Sidenote: Plinie.]

For that were vtterly repugnant to the Lawe of God, that hee shoulde
confirme Witchcraft and Sorcerie by his example. If the Witch had
called for =Samuell=, whilest he liued, doubtlesse he would haue
not approached vnto hir. And how then can we beléeue that he came
to hir after his death? We may not so say, that the Witch compelled
him to resort to hir against his will: for the Diuel hath no power
ouer the soules of the godly, and Magike of it selfe is of no force.
Heathenish superstition no doubt it is, that wordes vttered by
Magitians, after their peculiar manner, or figures drawne, should
haue suche a secret and hidden operation. For the Heathens beléeued
that they could with a certain set stile & number of words, bring
and draw downe =Iupiter= out of Heauen. Wherfore they termed him
=Iupiter Elicius=. There are also certaine superstitious persons in
these our daies, which go about to cure diseases by certaine rites
of blessings, and by coniurings. Some hang aboute their neckes
certaine scrolles of Paper, in which ther are written diuers strange
words, but whether wordes of themselues haue any force at all, reade
=Plinie= in his 28. booke, and 2. chapter, and =Cælius Rhodiginus= in
his 16. booke and 16. chapter of Antiquities.

[Sidenote: _Apoc._19.21.]

[Sidenote: _Rom._12.]

[Sidenote: _Actes_.12.]

Fourthely, if very =Samuel= himselfe had appeared, hée would not haue
bene worshipped of =Saule=. For we reade in the 19. and 22. chapter
of the Reuelation, that =Iohn= would haue worshipped the angell,
whiche had opened vnto him great misteries, but the Angell of God
forbad him so to do. Some héere aunswere, that =Saule= ment not to
giue vnto the Prophet, the honor that was due vnto God, but onely a
certeine outward and euill worship, such as we are wont to yéelde
vnto honest men, and suche as haue well deserued of the Churche and
common weale. For they say, that the Hebrue word =Schachah= there
vsed, doth signifie to bend the knée, and to fall downe at a mans
feete: which kinde of worship we reade, that =Abigael= and =Nathan=
the Prophet gaue vnto King =Dauid=. And =Paule= also in the 12.
Chapter of his Epistle to the Romanes teacheth, that we should honour
one another. =Thomas= of =Aquine= intreating of those two places
that I euen nowe recited out of the Reuelation, saieth, that =Iohn=
ment not to worship the Angell, with the worship properly called
=Latria=, but with an other kind of worship termed =Dulia=, that is
to say, that =Iohns= will was not to withdrawe from God, the honor
due vnto him, but to worship the Angell that was sent from God, only
with a ciuill and outward homage: and yet the Angell would not so
far condiscend vnto him. In the new Testament the 10. chap. of the
Acts of the Apostles, we read that =Cornelius= met with =Peter=,
fell downe at his féet and worshipped him, yet, so as he had bene an
embassadour from God and not God himselfe, and yet =Peter= lifted
him vp & said, Arise for I my selfe am a man also. He said not to
=Cornelius= thou doest well herein: nor as his worthie Vicare (with
a mischiefe) is wont to do, proffered his foote vnto him to kisse.
We may read also that =Elias= disciples worshipped =Elizeus= that
succéeded into his office, to which place the word to bowe the knée,
or fall downe, is vsed. But whether the Prophet did except and allowe
this kind of reuerence or no, there is no expresse mention. Bréefly,
it is not likely that the Prophet would haue suffered the King to
fall downe at his féete.

[Sidenote: Testimonies out of the Fathers touching Samuels appearing.]

[Sidenote: Samuels appearing.]

Fiftly, if he had bin the true =Samuel=, he would no doubt haue
exhorted =Saule= to repentance, and willed him to wait for aide from
God, to put his whole confidence in him, or at least way, to haue
giuen him some comforte, or counselled him to fight againste his
enimies with more courage. For though the Prophets do often chide
and threaten men, yet do they againe reuiue and solace them. Now
because this =Samuel= doth beate no other thing into his heade, but
that God was displeased with him, and had alredy forsaken him, we may
not beléeue that he was the true, but a meere counterfeit =Samuel=.
Sixtly, the auncient Fathers write, that the true =Samuel= was not

[Sidenote: Tertullian.]

[Sidenote: Augustine.]

=Tertullian= in his booke _De anima_ saith, that the Diuill did there
represent =Samuels= soule, God forbid (saith he) that we should
beléeue that the diuel can drawe the soule of any Saint, much lesse
a Prophet, out of his proper place, sith we are taught that Sathan
dooth transfourme himselfe into an Angel of light, and much sooner
into a man of light: who also will auouch himselfe to be God, and
doo notable signes and wonders to seduce, if it were possible, the
very elect. S. =Augustine= is not alwaies of one iudgement touching
this apparition: in his second booke to =Simplician= Bishop of
_Millaine_, and the third question thereof, hée graunteth that by
the dispensation of Gods will, it might so come to passe, that the
spirite of some holy Prophet, should consent to present it selfe in
the sight of the King, to come out of his owne place, and to speak
with him, but not to doo this by constrainte, or by the vertue of
Arte Magike, which might haue any power ouer it: but thereby to
shew it selfe obedient to the secret dispensation of God: and yet
he doth not dissemble, that a better answer may be giuen, to witte,
that the spirite of =Samuel= was not truly and indéed raised vp from
his rest, but rather some vain vision and counterfeit illusion,
that should be brought to passe by the diuels practise, which the
Scripture therefore doth tearme by the name of =Samuel=, because the
same is woont to call the images and similitudes of things, by the
names of the things themselues. For who is he (saith =Augustine=)
that will be afraid to call a man painted, a man, considering that
without staggering, we are accustomed to giue eache thing his proper
name, assoone as we behold the picture of the same: as when we take
the viewe of a painted table, or wall, we say straightway, this is
=Tullie=, this is =Salust=, hée =Achilles=, that other =Hector=, this
is the floud called _Symois_, that place tearmed _Rome_, whereof
these things be indéede no other than painted Images, of those things
whose names they beare. Sith this is so, he saith, it is not to be
maruelled that scripture saith =Samuel= was seen, when perchance
=Samuels= image séemed to appeare, through the craftie pollicie
of him, that transformed himselfe into an Angell of light, and
fashioneth his ministers like vnto the Ministers of righteousnesse.

In his booke _De octo Dulcitij questionibus_, the 6. question
thereof, he vttereth all this in as many words, & in his booke _De
cura pro mortuis gerenda_, he writeth that some are sent, from the
deade to the liuing: as on the other side, =Paule= was rapt vp from
the liuing vnto Paradice: hée addeth there the example of =Samuel=
being dead, which did foreshewe to =Saule=, things, that afterwardes
should come to passe. He saith further, that this place may otherwise
be vnderstanded, and that certaine faithful men haue bene of this
iudgement, that it was not =Samuel=, but that some spirit fit for
such wicked practises, had taken vpon him his shape and similitude.
And in other places, as we will shew hereafter, he affirmeth, that
there is a figure conteined in those wordes, because the name of the
thing is giuen vnto the Image that dooth but represent the same: and
that it was not =Samuel= that appeared, but some diuellish spirit.

[Sidenote: The Popes decrees.]

Other Fathers of the Churche haue written nothing particularly of
this storie, so far as I know, but in certaine places of their
workes, they teache generally that good spirites are not pulled
backe into the earth by Magicall Art. Of =Iustine= and =Gregorie=
I will speake anone. In the very Papall decrées, 26. question 5.
chapter, _Nec mirum_, it is written that it was not =Samuel=, but
rather some wicked spirite that appeared to =Saule=: And that it were
a great offence that a man should beléeue the plaine words of the
storie without some farther meaning, for how saith he could it come
to passe, that a man from his byrth holie and iust in conuersation
of life, should by Art Magicke be pulled out of his place? And if
he were not so drawne against his will, then he must néedes agrée
thereto: both whiche are like absurde, to bee imagined of a iust
man. This is the Diuels legerdimaine, to make shewe, as though he
had power ouer good men, thereby the rather to deceiue many. He
there farther addeth, that the Historiographers doo set foorth both
=Saules= minde, and =Samuels= state, and also those things which were
sayd and séene, omitting this, whether they were true or false. And
other words followe, whiche who so list to sée more of that matter,
may there reade.

[Sidenote: Lyra.]

But here =Nicolas Lyras= iudgement (which in his Commentaries on the
bookes of the Kings, mainteineth the contrary opinion) should bee
little weighed and regarded of vs. Where he noteth, that the place by
vs euen now alleaged, is not written according to the censure of the
Church, though it be found in the Popes lawe, for otherwise saith he,
they which ensued in latter times, wold not haue written contrary to
yͤ same, for many of those things concerning which men haue written
otherwise in latter times, were neuerthelesse set foorth to the
world, to be beleeued, as the very expresse and sound iudgement of
the whole Christian Church, because they were put in the Popes booke
of =Decretalls=.


  A Confutation of their arguments, which would haue Samuel
  himselfe to appeare.

[Sidenote: _Eccle._46.]

We will now come to the Confutatiō of their Arguments, which
maintaine, that very =Samuel= himselfe appeared to the Sorcerers,
for he that rightly ouerthroweth his aduersaries arguments, is
supposed by the same meanes to confirme his owne cause. The chéefest
arguments which our aduersaries vse, is taken out of the 46. chapter
of =Ecclesiasticus=, where these words are found. =Samuel= before his
death made protestation before God, and before his annointed, that
he tooke from no man his substance, no not so much as the value of
a shoe, and no man could then reproue him. And after his death he
prophesied, and tolde the King of his ende. From the earth he lift
vp his voyce, and shewed that the wickednesse of the people should

This place somewhat troubled S. _Augustine_, and other godly Fathers.
For if the Diuell onely appeared, and not =Samuel=, howe is it there
saide that he slept, that is, died, for the Diuel neyther sléepeth
nor dieth. Hereunto I may shape this answere, that this booke is not
to be nombred among the Canonicall bookes of the olde Testament, and
that Doctrine in controuersies, cannot bee proued by the authoritie
thereof, the whiche Saint =Augustine=, also confesseth in his booke
_De cura pro mortuis agenda_.

But howsoeuer that be credited as true or false, I answere them
plainly, that Iesus the Sonne of =Syraches= intent was, to alleage
the Storie literally, as the wordes lye, and not by reason to debate
the matter, whether =Samuel= truly appeared or no. Hée speaketh there
according to the opinion of =Saule= and the Witche, which thought
that =Samuel= himselfe was raised. Further they say, that hée which
appeared vnto =Saule=, is sometimes expresly and in plaine words
called =Samuel=. And an vnséemely matter it were, making much for the
reproach of so great a Prophet, if his name had bene applied vnto
the Diuel. If say they, it had not bene =Samuel=, but some wicked
spirite, the scripture would in some one word or other, haue noted
the same.

To this Argument first I aunswere, that euen in our common spéeche,
it is an vsuall phrase by the figure _Metonymia_, to terme the Image
by the name of the thing, that it presenteth. So we terme the Armes
and Ensigne of a Noble man, by the name of that Lord himselfe,
that giueth those Armes. We say, this is =Iulius Cæsar=, =Nero=,
Saint =Peter=, Saint =Paule=, or here thou maist sée the Cities of
_Tigurine_, and _Argentorat_, also the Duke of _Saringe_, whereas
indéed they are only their counterfeits, or Armes, and signes of

In a Comedie or Tragedie, we call this man =Saule=, that =Samuel=,
an other =Dauid=, whereas they do but betoken and represent their
personages. So saith =Virgil=, in his first booke of =Æneidos=: They
wonder at =Æneas= gifts, and haue =Iulius= in admiration. And yet
was it not =Iulius= or =Ascanius=, but =Cupid= feining himselfe to
be =Iulius=, whereby he might the easiler pearce the heart of the
ignorant Quéene, with his dart of Loue.

Sainte =Augustine= in his seconde Booke and ninthe chap. _De
mirabilibus scripturæ_ saieth, that holie Scripture doeth sometimes
applie the verie names of thinges to the Images and similitudes of
the same. Hée alleageth there this example, that the foule spirit
is called =Samuel=, because hée did falsely beare =Saule= in hande,
that hée was =Samuell=: whiche fraude of the Diuell, coulde no waies
turne to =Samuels= reproach. For who would say, that it should be a
reproach for an honest man, if some knaue would terme himselfe by his
name, as if he were he himselfe.

The false prophets sayde, they were true Prophets, and Gods
servauntes, yea (which is more) they feined themselues to be the
verie =Messias=, the Sonne of God. And that Scripture dooth not so
muche as in one word make mention, that this was verie =Samuell=
in deede, but rather some spirite, we must thinke that it so came
to passe, for this cause, that all men by the Lawe of God might
vnderstand, that Magike and enquirie of things at the dead, did much
displease God. =Saule= himselfe before by the counsell and motion of
=Samuel=, slewe all the Magitians that he could any where finde. And
God is not accustomed in this wise to interprete Figuratiue spéeches:
for many of them are soone descried by such as giue diligent héed to
them. A vaine and superfluous spéech it were, if a man woulde say
that is =Peter=, this is the Image of =Peter=, whiche by a Figure, is
called by the name of =Peter=.

[Sidenote: 1. _Cor._ 1.]

[Sidenote: 1. _Cor._ 10.]

[Sidenote: _Iere._ 10.]

[Sidenote: _Psal._ 96.]

Furthermore, holie Scripture dooth vse to speake of things, rather
according to the opinion and iudgement of men, than according to
the substaunce and true béeing which they haue indéede. So Iesus is
called the Sonne of =Ioseph=, and =Iosephe= named his father, whereas
notwithstanding, our Sauiour Christ Iesus, was borne of a chaste and
vnspotted Virgine, without any helpe of man. And yet neuerthelesse
many of the Iewes, imagined, that he was the Sonne of =Ioseph=.
In the =1.Cor. 1.= the Gospel it selfe is named foolishnesse,
because that men did account the great wisedome of God but as méere
foolishnesse. So in the first Epistle to the =Corinthians=, and tenth
chapter, the scripture tearmeth them gods, which be nothing lesse
than so indéed. And that for this cause onely, for that the Heathen
tooke them for gods, and so did worship them. Euen so the scripture
doeth tearme the Diuell =Samuel=, because =Saule= thought him to be
=Samuel= in very déed.

[Sidenote: VVhether the diuel forknow of thinges to come.]

[Sidenote: _Iohn_ 8.]

An other reason they vse, that =Samuel= foreshewed vnto =Saule= suche
thinges as afterwardes should come to passe: as that the Philistians
should in battayle ouerthrowe his Armie, and he and his sonnes
togither be slaine. And all these thinges came to passe according to
his Prophesie. And say they, the Diuel knoweth not, neither can he
foretell of things to come, sith it is onely in Gods power so to doo:
But as Christ in the eight of =Iohn= saith, he is a lyar, and the
father of lies. Hereunto a man may easily answere: The Diuell knewe
howe things stoode with the Iewes, and the Philistines, he vnderstood
euen the very secret consultations, priuie practises, and warlike
preparation on both sides. He sawe that the Israelites were slenderly
addressed vnto battaile, and vtterly daunted of courage. Besides
this, =Samuel= had a little before threatned =Saule= with Gods heauie
wrath and vengeance, and that =Dauid= should be aduaunced to the
kingly throne, whereby he might easily gather what would ensue, and
that =Saule= must néedes giue place to =Dauid=. And if the euent had
bene otherwise, yet he knew that =Saule= with this prophesie would be
quite dismaied, and driuen to dispaire: which thing must néedes well
content and please Sathan, who laieth his baites day and night to
intrappe men.

[Sidenote: Which being doubtfully spoken, may be vnderstood either of
subuerting other kingdomes, or loosing his owne.]

The Diuell dooth not presently vnderstand things to come, and
therefore he giueth doubtfull answeres to such as séeke oracles of
him: As when he said,

=Crœsus perdet Halin transgressus plurima regna=.

That is, =Cresus= passing ouer the riuer, =Halis= shall ouerturne
many kingdomes. And yet oftentimes he gathereth one thing no
otherwise than by an other. Hereof writeth =Augustine= in the 26. 27.
28. Chapters of his Booke _De Anima_. The Diuel is one which hath
bene long beaten in experience, the which thing in all affaires and
matters is of very great force. For olde and practised souldiours
doo by and by foresée to what issue things will come, but yoong
men, and such as want experience, doo not forthwith espie out the
euent of each enterprise. Moreouer, the Diuels are very actiue, and
can soone dispatch their matters. The Marriners knowe when windes
and stormes will arise. Husbandmen also are not destitute of their
prognostications. The skilfull Astronomer can many yeares before
exactly foretell when there will happen an Eclipse of the Sunne and
Moone. The Phisitian by the criticall dayes, pulse, and vrine, can
lightly iudge whether his patient shall liue or no: builders sée
before hand when an house will fall, and a practised souldioure
can straightwayes iudge who shall winne the victorie. And what
maruaile then may it be, if the Diuell an olde trained souldiour, can
sometimes foreshew some certain thing? Shall we be of this minde,
that so many yeares experience hath broughte them no knowledge at
all? Otherwhiles he telleth things which be true indéed, and yet to
no other end, but that he may thereby purchase a certaine credite
vnto his lying, to seduce the ignorant.

For euen that counterfeit =Samuell=, made wise, as if he had taken
it in very ill part, that =Saule= did so molest and disquiet him,
and that he should be forced to talke with him: he vseth farther the
words as it were of =Samuel= himselfe. And hereof it commeth, that
many gather, he was the true =Samuel= indéede. But what doth not
Sathan deuise, to deceiue men, and to force them vnto desperation?
Here I could alleage examples of suche as haue bin perswaded, that
they sawe and heard this and that man, and moreouer knewe them
perfectly by their speeche: whereas they haue afterwards had euident
intelligence, that they were at that time many miles distant from
them. So craftie is the Diuell, and knoweth how to worke these and
many other feates.

There are farther, diuers places alleaged out of the auncient
Fathers, that séeme to make for them, whiche affirme that true
=Samuell= appeared vnto =Saule=. But these places wée haue before for
the moste parte aunsweared. For albeit =Augustine= in some places
mooue a doubte, whether it were the true =Samuel= or no, yet in
certaine other places hee lyketh and beste alloweth their opinion,
who denie =Samuel= to haue appeared at all, taking rather that kinde
of spéech, for tropicall and figuratiue.

[Sidenote: Iustinus.]

=Iustine= the Martir, who is one of the most auncient Fathers,
reasoning against =Trypho= a Iewe, writeth in his _Colloquio_, that
the couetous Sorceresse at =Saules= commaundement raysed vp =Samuels=
soule. And no man shoulde maruaile héereat, sith that the selfesame
Author doeth by and by adde, that he is of this iudgement, that all
the soules of Prophettes and iust menne are subiect vnto suche power
as a man may in verie déed beléeue, to haue bene on this gréedie and
subtile Witche. But this none of the Fathers will graunt him. Other
Gréeke writers also, whiche in their tender yeares applied theyr
mindes to Philosophie, and not to the studie of holy Scriptures, and
afterwardes were conuerted to Christianitie, doo sette foorthe in
their writings certaine opinions which are not agréeable to the word
of God. Wherefore it néede not séeme a straunge thing to any manne,
that =Iustine= the Martire in some pointes had his errors.

The same Authour in _Responsionibus ad Orthodoxos_, question 52.
mainteineth the contrary assertion. For, saith he, whatsoeuer things
were done by that hungry Witche, were indéede the workes of the
Diuell, who did so dazle the eyes of such as beheld him, that it
séemed vnto them, they sawe =Samuel= himselfe, when in verie déede
hée was not there. But the truth of his words procéeded from God, who
gaue the diuel power to appeare vnto the Sorceresse, and to declare
vnto her, that which should afterwards come to passe. &c.

[Sidenote: Gregorius.]

If any man obiect that this woorke is not rightly ascribed vnto
=Iustine=, (for so muche as hée doth make mention of =Origen=, and
=Ireneus= the Martire, whereas notwithstanding hee him selfe was
martyred before them. And farther, speaketh of the =Manichees=, who
were in their ruffe long after this time. Hereunto we answere, that
if this booke were not written by =Iustine=, yet (as may appeare)
some other learned Clarke wrote that worke, whose authoritie might
carry away as great credit as =Iustines=, sith that the same doth
fully agrée with holie scripture. Furthermore we may set against
=Iustine=, other holy Fathers, as =Tertullian= and =Chrysostome=, of
whom we haue before spoken, who haue by holy scripture instructed vs,
that it was not =Samuell= indéede whiche appeared vnto =Saule=. We
will hereafter say somewhat of =Gregorie=, who no doubt was a learned
and godly Father, but yet too simple and light of beléefe.

And the Fathers themselues deny, that a man should subscribe vnto
their opinion in ought that they doo maintaine and auouche without
the warrant of Gods word. The Popes out of =Augustine= written in
their Decrées, =Quest. 9. ca. Noli=, that a man should credit none of
the Fathers except he proued his saying out of holy Scriptures. But
in these dayes many cull nothing out of their bookes but errours, and
whatsoeuer they maintaine by good testimony of the holy scriptures,
that they reiect and disanull: in which point they do fitly resemble
those children, who only in things wicked and euil, imitate their
good parents: for good men also haue their faultes.


  Whether the Diuell haue power to appeare vnder the shape
  of a faithfull man?

[Sidenote: 2. _Cor._ 11.]

[Sidenote: 2. _Reg._ 22.]

But thou doest demand whether the Diuill can represent the likenesse
of some faithfull man deceased? Hereof we néed not doubt at all. For
in the =2.Cor.11.= S. =Paul= witnesseth, that sathan transformeth
himselfe into the shape & fashion of an Angell of light. Sathan by
nature is a spirit, and is therefore tearmed an Angel, because God
vseth to send him to bring that thing to passe which he thinketh
best. So in the second of =Kings= .22. Chapter, an euil angell was
sent foorth to =Ahabs= destruction, to be a lying spirit in the mouth
of 400. false prophets. This was an angell of errour and darkenesse:
who yet in outwarde shewe could resemble a good Angell, that he might
so guide the counsell of =Baalls= worshippers, who no doubt vaunted
themselues, as if they had bene gathered togither by Gods holy
spirit. If sathan be then so skilfull, can he not counterfait and
faine himselfe to be some holy man, by resembling his words, voyce,
iesture, and such other things?

Amongst the Gentiles he hath done miraculous Actes, perswading them
to thinke, that soules by Arte Magicke were called vp, and compelled
to giue answere of secrete and hidden things that were to come. And
therefore not only in publike, but also priuate affaires, if they
séemed to be any thing hard vnto them, they consulted with Magitians
and Sorcerers, and had moreouer recourse sometimes vnto Oracles.

[Sidenote: Tertullian.]

=Tertullian= in his booke _De Anima_ mentioneth, that there were some
euen in his dayes, which professed they could raise vp and reclaime
soules from the hellishe habitation. And he calleth Arte Magike,
the second Idolatrie, in the whiche the diuels doo as well fayne
themselues to bee dead men, as they doo in the other to bee Gods. So
doo these subtle spirites lurke, and doo many straunge things vnder
the pretence of deade men. He addeth, that Magike is thought to
conuey soules out of Hell which lye there in rest, and to represent
them vnto our sighte, by reason that it sheweth a vaine vision, and
counterfeiteth the shape of a bodie. Neither is it a harde matter for
him to bleare and beguile the outward eyes, who can easily darken
and dazell the inwarde sighte of the minde. The Serpents that were
brought foorth by the inchaunters rods, séemed to the _Egiptians_ to
be bodies, but the truth of =Moises= deuoured vp the Magitians lye.
=Simon= also and =Elimas= the Magitians, did many signes and wonders
against the Apostles &c. Hée addeth, that euen in his time those
heretikes named properly Simonistes of =Simon= the Magitian, the
first author of that sect, did with suche greate presumption aduaunce
their arte, that they professed they coulde rayse from the dead, euen
the soules of the Prophets. &c.

[Sidenote: Lactantius.]

=Lactantius= in the .2. booke & 17. chap. =De origine erroris=,
writeth, that euill angels lurking vnder the names of the dead, did
wound and hurt the liuing, that is, they tooke vnto themselues the
names of =Iupiter= and =Iuno=, whome the heathens tooke to be gods,
or as we now say, they tooke vnto them the names of S. =Sebastian=,
=Barbara=, and others.

[Sidenote: Idem.]

In the 7. booke and 13. chap. he saith, that the Magitians with
certaine inchauntmentes did call soules out of hell. But this may not
so be vnderstood, that =Lactantius= was of this iudgement, that they
by their wicked arts did bring the soules back again into their dead
bodies: but that they did so vaunt and boast that they had raised vp
this and that soule. He also confuteth the opinion of the Ethnikes,
prouing by the testimonie of the very Magitians, whom they highly
reuerenced, that the soule was immortall. These men affirmed and
taught, that they did call vp soules from the dead, the which point,
euen those of the Gentiles beléeued, who notwithstanding thought,
that the soule did straightway die with the bodie.

=Iustine= the Martire, in the second Apologie which he wrote in the
defence of Christians, hath these wordes: I will (saith he) say the
truth: In times past wicked angels through vain visions deceiued
women, and children, and with straunge and monstrous sightes made man
afraide, by whiche meanes they often wroong that oute of foolishe
and rude persons, which by reason they coulde neuer get of them. And
therefore not knowing that these were the Diuels engines and policies
tending to delude them, they by one consent termed the workers of
these slie conueyances, by the name of Gods, assigning to eache of
them their proper names, as best pleased themselues. &c.

Afterwardes in the same Apologie hée exhorteth the Heathens, that
they would not deny mens soules after this life to be endued with
sense, but at the least way, would giue credit to their owne
Necromancers, who teach that they call vp mens soules. Also let them
beléeue those yͭ affirme they haue bin vexed with spirits of dead
men, which persons the common people term furious & frantike bodies.
In =Augustin= _De ciuitate dei_, many such things be cōteined.

Now what dreadfull, strange, and maruellous ceremonies they vsed when
they went about by their Magicall Artes to call vp the soules of the
dead, a man may sée in the sixth booke of =Lucan= the Poet: where he
setteth foorth how =Erictho=, a famous Witche in _Thessaly_, reuiued
and restored a souldiour to life againe, who was lately slaine
before. Which act he did at the request of =Sextus Pompeius=, that
so he might by him learne what woulde be the issue of the battaile
fought at _Pharsalia_.

This kind of Magike they properly terme =Necromancie=, or
=Phycomancie=, which is wrought by raising vp the spirits and soules
of the dead. Of which there were diuerse sorts. For sometime appeared
vnto men the whole bodies of the dead, but at an other time onely
ghostes and spirits: and often nothing was heard, sauing onely a
certaine obscure voyce.

=Plutarch= in the life of =Cimon=, (as hée is translated by
=Ioachimus Camerarius=, in the Preface on =Plutarches= bookes, _De
oraculis quæ defecerint_, & _de conseruata figura, Ei, Delphis_
writeth, that =Pausanias=, when he had taken the Citie of _Bizance_,
sent for =Cleonice=, a mayden of noble parentage, to haue vnhonest
company with her. Whom her parents partly by necessitie, and partly
for fear, sent vnto him. But after that the virgin had once obteined
so much of his waiters in his priuie Chamber, that they should at her
first entrance, put out the lightes, she in the darke going softly
towardes =Pausanias= bedde, by the way stumbled on the candlesticke,
and ouerthrew it against her will, as he laie a sléepe in his bedde,
who being troubled with the sodaine noyse, drew a swoord that laie
by him, and therewith slewe the virgine, as she had bene his enemie,
which went priuily to set vpon him. But she being thus slaine with
that deadly stroake, would neuer suffer =Pausanias= to take his
quiet rest, but in a vision appearing vnto him in the night season,
denounced sentence of hatred against this noble captaine, in these

[Sidenote: Ephori amōgest the Lacedemonians were Magistrates, who in
certaine cases were aboue kings, vnto whom appeales were made from
kings: euen as amongst the Romans, they appealed from the Consuls to
the Tribunes.]

Στεῖχε δἱχες ἆσσον μάλα τοι χαχὸν άνδράσιν ὕβρις which is, Answere
to the lawe, for wrong is an euill thing vnto all men. This
heinous déede of =Pausanias= was verie gréeuously taken of all his
companions, who therefore vnder the conduction of captaine =Cymo=
sette on him, and chased him out of _Thracia_. And thus hauing lost
the Cities of _Bizance_, when (as it is reported) the fight continued
in troubling him, he fledde vnto _Necyomantium_, at _Heraclea_,
where the soule of =Cleonices= being called vp, hée by intreatie
pacified her displeasure. Shée did there both present her selfe vnto
his sight, and also told him, it should shortly come to passe, that
the euill towardes him should cease, assoone as he came to _Sparta_.
Hereby priuily intimating his death, &c. This =Pausanias= did at
the first soberly and discréetely demeane himselfe, but afterwardes
béeing puffed vp with such victories as he had obteined, he ruled and
raigned lyke a verie Tyraunt. Wherefore when the Magistrates called
=Ephori=, would haue committed him to prison, he tooke Sanctuarie in
a Temple, where he was shut vp vntill he famished through hunger.

I might here heape togither many such like Histories, to proue
euidently what this =Samuel= was. In other matters also, if God
licence him, the Diuel is not destitute of power, and how craftie and
readie he is for all assaies, experience doth well declare.

Furthermore graunt that, wherin the pith and strength of the question
doth consist (which can neuer be proued by scripture) that God did
permit =Samuell= to returne and to prophesie things to come after his
death, yet will it not thereof follow, that such visions should now
be shewed also, or that those things should be out of hand credited
and done which they commaund.

God in times past, did often in visible shape send his Angels vnto
men, but now we heare not that many are sent vnto men, neither indéed
is the same necessary. When the Apostles liued here, many notable
miracles were done, but now for certaine good causes, they cease
and fall away, for whatsoeuer is necessary for our saluation, is
expresly conteined in the word of God. These notes touching =Samuels=
appearing, may suffise.


  Moyses and Elias appeared in the Mounte vnto Christ our
  Lord: many haue bene raised from the dead both in bodie
  and soule, and therefore soules after they are departed,
  may returne on earth againe.

[Sidenote: _Mat.17._ Moses & Elias appeared.]

In like manner they obiect vnto vs, out of the 17. of =Matthew=, that
=Moses= and =Helias= were séene in the Mount, (which is called by the
olde Writers _Tabor_,) with our Lord Iesus, by the Apostles whom he
had chosen for the same purpose, and that they did speake with him.
=Luke= telleth of what matters they communed with him, to wit of his
death, that is yͤ death of the crosse. Thereupon they gather, that
the soules of dead men may come againe into earth & appeare vnto men:
we haue graunted before that God is able to send soules again into
the earth, but that it is his will so to do, or that it is necessary
especially at these dayes, is not yet proued. =Moses= and =Helias=
appeared appeared not to al the Apostles but only to thrée, neither
did they speake to those thrée, they brought no new Doctrine, they
commanded them not to build Churches in their honor, or to do any
such like thing, whether that their soules came alone, or their
bodies: also sure it is, they were not sent to the Apostles, but to
Christ onely.

It was very necessary, that they which should be Christs witnesses,
shuld very wel vnderstand, that both yͤ Law and the Prophets, do
beare record vnto our Sauior Christ, that he shuld die for the world,
and come again in the latter day, to raise vp the dead bodies, to
glorifie them, & to carry them with him, into eternal blisse. And for
this cause, God would haue these two excellent Prophets séene of the

[Sidenote: Lazarus came againe on earth. _Iohn 11._]

=Lazarus= soule did not only appeare, but he came againe both in
bodie & soule, as =Iohn= witnesseth in his 11. chap. he is as it were
a sure token, of our true resurrection, which shall be in the last
day, as also others, which our Sauiour Christ, the Apostles, and in
auncient time, the Prophets haue raised from the dead. You shall
neuer read that either =Lazarus=, or any other haue tolde where they
were while they were dead, or what kind of being there is in the
other world, for these things are not to be learned and knowne of the
dead, but out of the word of God.

[Sidenote: _Matth.27._ At the resurrectiō of christ many rose againe.]

[Sidenote: Augustine.]

The like may be said to that which is in the 27. chap. of S.
=Matthew=, that when Christ suffered on the Crosse, the graues were
opened, & afterwards on the day of his resurrection, many dead bodies
did arise, & appeared to many at _Hierusalem_. The soules of the dead
did not only appeare, neither did they warne the liuing, or command
them to doo this or that for yͤ deads sake, to wit, either to pray
for them, or to go on pilgrimage to saints, &c. But yͤ dead with
their soules and bodies togither, came into the earth: for héereby
God would shewe, that he by his death hath ouercome and destroyed
death to the faithfull, and that at the last day their soules and
bodies shall be knit togither, and liue with God for euer. Now what
these holy men were that rose againe, and whether they remained any
time in this present life, or died againe, or went with Christ into
heauen, looke the iudgement of =S. Augustine= in his 99. Epist. to
=Euodius=, and his 3. booke _De mirabilibus. cap.13._

[Sidenote: Spiridion raised his daughter.]

[Sidenote: Ruffinus.]

To these we may ioyne that which =Ruffinus= writeth in his
ecclesiastical history, 1. booke, 5. chap. and which =Socrates=
repeateth in his first booke & 12. chap. touching =Spiridion= Bishop
of _Cyprus_. He had a daughter called =Irene=, with whome a certaine
friend of hers left gorgious apparrell, she being more wary than
néeded, hid it in the ground, and within a while died. Not long
after cōmeth this man yͭ owned the apparel, & hearing say yͤ
maiden was dead, goeth to her father whom sometimes he accuseth, &
sometimes intreateth. The old father supposing this mans losse to be
his owne calamitie, cōmeth to his daughters graue, & there calleth
vpō god, beseeching him yͭ he wold shew him before yͤ time, the
resurrection which is promised. And his hope was not in vaine, for
the virgin being reuiued, apeared to her father, & shewed the place
wher she had hid the apparel, & so departed again.

I wil not deny this thing to be true. For the like historie hath
=Augustine= in his 137. epist. A certain yong man which had an
euill name accused =Boniface=, =Augustines= priest, yͭ he inticed
him to filthinesse. Now whē yͤ matter could neither be proued,
nor disproued by sufficient reasons: both of them were bid to go
to the graue of one =Felix= a Martyr, that by a miracle the truth
might be known. They had not bin sent, vnlesse before this time
also some secrete matters had bene knowne by this meanes: it may be
wel answered, that they were good, or rather euil angels which did


  Whether the holy Apostles thought they sawe a mans
  soule, when Christ sodeinly appeared vnto them after his

[Sidenote: _Luke 24._]

We reade in the 24. Chapter of Saint =Lukes= Gospell, that two
Disciples whiche returned from _Emaus_ to _Hierusalem_, told the
Apostles, that they had séene Christ aliue againe, and whiles they
yet spake, the Lorde stood in the midst of them, and saide vnto them,
Peace be vnto you: but they being amazed & afraid, thought they sawe
a spirit. &c.

[Sidenote: Christs Disciples supposed they sawe a ghost.]

Out of this some go about to proue, that the Apostles beléeued that
spirits or soules did walke and appeare vnto men, and that they
themselues did thinke they sawe the spirit of Christ (as certaine of
the old Writers do expound it) or else some other mans spirit.

[Sidenote: Many kindes of spirites.]

This argument may be answered two wayes. First if they thought they
sawe a soule, they thought a misse. But they were no lesse deceiued
with the common sorte now, that when they thought Christ would raise
vp an outward and earthly kingdome, in which they should be chiefe.
Secondly, it may be, that they supposed they sawe an euill or good
Angell, for there are more kindes of spirites than one. There is a
spirit that created all things, to wit, God the Father, the Sonne,
and the holy Ghost. Againe there be spirits that be created, as good
and euil Angels, as also the soules of men, which either are in
the bodie, or by death seuered from the bodie, and abide either in
euerlasting life, or in eternall damnation. As touching the state
of soules in Purgatorie, where they are prepared to the heauenly
iourney, and of _Limbus puerorum_, there is nothing extant in holy

It is manifest in scripture, that God appeared vnto the holy
Patriarches, to the Prophets, to Kings and others, in diuers visions
and formes, and that he shewed himself vnto them and spake with them.
=Iacob= sawe a ladder reache from the earth vp to heauen, and God
leaning on it. =Isaias= sawe the Lord sitting vpon an high throne.
=Daniel= sawe an olde man sitting, and his sonne comming vnto him and
receiuing all power of him.

=Tertullian= and other holy Fathers do teach, that the son of God,
which at the appointed time should take vpon him humaine flesh, did
appear vnto the Patriarches in an angelicall shape.

When =Iohn Baptist= did baptise our Sauiour in _Iordan_, the holy
Ghost was séene in the shape of a Doue. The holy scriptures in many
places do testifie, that good Angels haue oftentimes appeared to Gods

That euill spirits are often séene, and that at this day they shewe
themselues in diuers formes, to Inchaunters and Coniurers, and to
other men also, as wel godly as wicked, both histories and daily
experience doth witnesse.

Truly we reade not, that soules haue appeared on this fashion. By
these we may easily gather, that the Apostles, when they thought they
sawe a spirit, did not beléeue they sawe a soule. Could they not
thinke I pray you, they sawe an euill spirit? Or rather that they
sawe a good spirit, or a good Angel? For it may be shewed by many
examples, that euen the faithfull haue bene troubled, and feared at
the appearing of good Angels.

[Sidenote: _Dan.8.10._]

In the eight and tenth Chapter of =Daniel=, we read that the Prophet
fel into a sicknesse at the sight of Angels. The Virgin =Mary=
her selfe was afraide when she sawe the Angell =Gabriel=. So was
=Zachary= the Priest, & many others.

[Sidenote: _Acts 12._]

[Sidenote: _Mat.18._]

[Sidenote: _Psal.19._]

In the 12. of yͤ Acts, we reade, that =Herode= killed =Iames= the
Apostle with the sword, and when he sawe that it pleased the Iewes,
hée caught =Peter= also, and when hée had put him in prison, hée
deliuered him to .16. Souldioures to be kepte, entending after the
feast of Passeouer to kill him. But the Angell of the Lorde led S.
=Peter= out of the prison by night through the Souldiours watch, and
sette him in the right way to the house of =Mary=, the mother of
=Iohn=, whose surname was =Marke= (where many were gathered togither
and prayed.) And when he had knocked at yͤ entrie doore, a maid
came forth to harken, named =Rhode=. But when she knew =Peters=
voice, she opened not the entrie doore for gladness, but ran in and
tolde howe =Peter= stood before the entrie, but they said vnto hir
thou art mad: yet she affirmed constantly that it was so. Then said
they it is his Angell, but =Peter= continued knocking, and when they
had opened and saw him they were astonied. In like maner, now also
when the Apostles saw Christ, peraduenture they thought they sawe a
good Angel. For there are Angels giuen of God vnto men to kéepe them.
Of this matter there is somwhat red in the .18. of S. Matthew, & in
the 19. Psal. & we will note somwhat more of it hereafter.

The Gentiles also beléeued (as may bee gathered by their writings)
that euery man had a good & an euil Angel, and that the good
Angel did stir men vp to vertue, & defend them, but that the euil
Angell did hurt men wheresoeuer he could, and did prouoke them to

If our Elders, when they haue séene or heard any thing of one that
hath bene trauelling or dead, did say it is his spirit, it may be,
they ment not his soule, but his Angel: for if when as spirits were
séene now in this place, and by and by in an other place, they did
thinke them to be soules (as in these latter times all men haue
beléeued:) in this they were deceiued, as they haue bene in many
other things also, for soules are by and by receiued, eyther into
euerlasting ioy, or into eternall damnation.

If the Preachers and Teachers had done their duties, and had in this
and other pointes of Christian Doctrine, rightly instructed the
people committed to their charge, or at the least, if they had not
forbidden them to reade the holy scriptures, they would haue thought
aright both of this, and other things which at this day are in


  Concerning the holy Fathers, Councels, Bishops, and
  common people, which say that soules do visibly appeare.

[Sidenote: The holy Fathers say that soules appear.]

[Sidenote: Ambrose.]

[Sidenote: Augustine.]

[Sidenote: Gregorie.]

The authoritie of the holie Fathers is obiected against vs, as that
which Saint =Ambrose= writeth of Saint =Agnes=, and Saint =Augustine=
of Saint =Felix=, of which we haue spoken before. And that which
=Abdias= hath in the life of the Apostles, that =Thomas= appeared
after his death and preached. Saint =Gregorie= in his Dialogues, doth
write diuerse and wondrous things, among others he rehearseth many
examples of the dead which appeared, and desired helpe of certaine
Saintes, yea and of the Apostles themselues, whiche haue visited some
vppon their death beddes, a little before they departed, and many
other suche lyke matters, which they that list may read themselues.
It is saide that =Hierome= appeared to Saint =Augustine=.

[Sidenote: Many things fabulous in Gregories Dialogues.]

I will not in this place accuse the holie Fathers of vanitie,
yet this we must note, they say not they haue beléeued that they
whiche appeared, were the soules of dead men, but they spake after
the common manner. As touching S. =Gregories= Dialogues, I cannot
hide, this (which many haue noted before mee) that many things are
conteined in them that are nothing true, but altogither like old
wives tales. Not because the holie Father hath written these things
of malice, but for that he being too too credulous, hath put many
things into his bookes, rather vppon other mens report, than that he
himselfe knew them certainly to be true.

At this day also there are many honest and godlie men which haue
this faulte, that they are too quicke of beléefe, and altogither
ruled by others. They iudge other men by themselues, they would be
ashamed to reporte any thing that were false, and thinke suche men in
like manner to be affectioned, which doe abuse their simplicitie and
goodnesse. Oftentimes these men, through their too muche lightnesse
of beléefe, fall into great daungers.

Moreouer, in that age wherin =Gregorie= liued, men began to attribute
much to those apparances and visions. And at that time the true and
sincere Doctrine began greatly to decay. Truly the time in which a
man happens to liue, is much to be regarded: he himselfe confessed
that his times was the latter times. Therefore the Scriptures shoulde
haue béene more diligently lent vnto, neither should any thing haue
bene retained that was not agréeable vnto them. Some going about to
excuse him, for that he hath stuffed his Dialogues ful of miracles
and wonders, say he did it to mollifie by those examples, the
peruerse and hard hearts of the =Longobardes=, to the end they might
embrace the true Religion, which they had so greeuously persecuted.
But that it is in no wise profitable to make knowen the true faith,
by these helpes which are nothing else but vaine tales, euen =Viues=
himselfe, in his first booke _De tradendis disciplinis_ doth

[Sidenote: Counsells approue the appearing of Soules.]

Some vrge vs with the authoritie of counsels, which haue allowed
certain apparances of soules, and haue suffered some bookes, whiche
are extant of such apparitions, to be read for the edifying of the
simple, and some againe togither with their visions, they haue cleane

[Sidenote: Councels may erre.]

[Sidenote: _Matth.24._]

It is reported that the Counsell of _Constance_, hath allowed this

A certaine Deane when he had giuen ouer his Deanrie, went into the
Wildernesse to doe penaunce: after his deathe he appeared to his
Bishop, and tolde him that the same houre in which he departed this
life, there died thirtie thousand men, among whome only his soule
and S. Barnarde were made partakers of eternall saluation, and thrée
went into Purgatorie, and all the rest into endlesse damnation. &c.
They say that Councels & the churche cannot erre, because they are
guided by the holy Ghost. Also in the 24. of Matthew, the Lord doth
say in the later dayes there shalbe signes and wonders, that the very
elect if it were possible might be seduced, therefore they conclude
those things which Councels do saye of such apparitions, are to be
beléeued. Christs words are not so to be vnderstood that the chosen
can neuer be broughte into errors (for the contrary may be shewed by
many examples) but that they do not abide in erroure, albeit some
do very hardly get out of the same againe. Tell me, I pray you, who
they were that came togither in auncient Councels? were they not holy
fathers? It is manifest that in many points they were at variaunce
among themselues, and that they haue shewed by their contrary
writings: yea and many times they are contrary to themselues, and
therfore they haue not alwaies thought aright. Sometime they send
vs to the word of God, as to the most certaine rule and leauell of
faith. There are examples inough, by which it may be shewed, that
the old Councelles haue erred in some of their determinations. The
Councell of =Ariminum= hath allowed the Arrians doctrine. The second
Ephesin councell did subscribe to =Eutiches=. The Councell holden
at _Carthage_, which =Cipriā= gathered, pronounced flatly against
the scriptures, &c. What shall we say was done in latter times? It
is well inough knowen by histories who hath resisted Councels, and
ruled them, and what hath bene chiefly handled in them for certaine
hundred yeares: And what for the most parte hath by and by followed
after them, euen cruel warres and bloudy slaughters. If nowe those
auncient Councels coulde erre, who will maruaile that they which haue
assembled since haue erred? But as touching the apparitions, that I
may (all other things omitted) talke only of them, tell me I pray you
who should certifie the Councels, whether this or that vision were
true or false? Certainly no Councels can bring to passe that the lyes
which haue bene scattered abroade, shall now begin to be true tales,
although they of the Councel haue saide they are true.

[Sidenote: Popes haue approued the appearing of soules.]

It is euen as foolishe to say, the Pope (who wil be counted aboue all
Councels) hath confirmed this or that miracle to be true, which they
say was wrought in some one monasterie or other. How can the bishop
of =Rome= being so far off, knowe any thing better than they which
dwell in the same places? If the bishop hauing no other assuraunce
than out of their words or writings, which perhaps go about to erecte
newe pilgrimages, and newe deuises to get money, confirme once that
this or that soule was séene, it must straight way without any
gaynsaying be beléeued. But if any other men who haue with diligence
sought out the truth of the matter, do testifie the contrary: al that
they say must not be regarded. Consider (I beséeche you) of this
matter. Before, all haue doubted whether the thing were so or no, but
assoone as the Pope doth giue his verdicte, or some Church man do in
his dreame sée it to be so, it is a heynouse matter afterwards to
doubt of it. O time! O manners!

[Sidenote: Many affirme they haue seen soules.]

As touching other common and lay men as they terme them, which say
they haue séene one after his death, and haue heard and knowne him,
and haue spoken with him: I easily graunt they haue séene and heard
some thing, and haue thought verily they were soules, and that they
did speake with them. But it followeth not therfore, that they were
soules indéede, much lesse that any dead man hath appeared in bodie &
soule vnto them. For at doomes day only, the soules shall returne to
their bodies againe. Soules are spirits, but spirits are inuisible,
wherefore they cannot so be séene, vnlesse they take some outward
shape vpon them. But it can neuer be proued by the testimony of holy
scripture, that as good and euil Angels, so soules take som shapes
vpon them. Besides this, it is most true that oftentimes the shapes
and formes of them whose soules are not yet sundred from their bodies
by death (as when one lieth vpon his death bed) are no lesse séene
than theirs which are already dead. Therfore it is not necessary
that we beléeue yͤ ghostes which are séene, to be soules. By these
things you vnderstand what is to be thought of the tale of =Platina=,
=Nauclerus=, and others, which write that a certaine Bishop sawe Pope
=Benedict= the eight (lately dead) in a solitary place sitting on a
blacke horse, and being demaunded why he was so carried about with
the blacke horse, he warned the Bishop that he should distribute
the money which was giuen to the vse of the poore (but now wickedly
kept to other purposes) vnto those poore folkes to whom of right it
belonged. Other tales of like stampe are rife euery where.


  Whether soules do returne againe out of Purgatorie, and
  the place which they call _Limbus puerorum_.

[Sidenote: 1. _Thess._ 4.]

That soules, which are gone either to heauen or to hell, returne not
thence, nor appeare againe before the latter day, perchaunce some
men would easily graunt: but they imagine there is a third place,
(which is Purgatorie) out of the which soules do returne vpon earth.
For as yet the last sentence hath not passed on them, and therfore
as yet they may be helped, and therfore also they do craue help, and
shewe themselues vnto men. But we haue proued before at large, both
out of the scriptures, and also out yͤ writings of the auncient
Fathers, that the soules of the faithfull are saued, and that the
soules of the vnbeléeuers are damned immediatly without delay, and
therefore there is no Purgatorie. Against this, they alledge sundrie
arguments, amongst the which this, albeit it be very common, yet is
it the chéefest, when they say, that no man is saued except he bee
purged from all his sinnes, and that sinne cleaueth vnto vs euen
vnto the graue. If we say that puritie and cleannesse consisteth
not in our workes, or in the paines which wee endure, but that God
through faith in his sonne Iesus Christ (who is our onely redemption,
iustification, satisfaction, and raunsome for our sinnes) dooth
iustifie vs: they straight aunswere, that our faith is vnperfect,
and that the moste godly men complaine when they depart hence, of
the weakenesse of their faith. And therefore that God dooth not take
vp suche kinde of men straightwayes into heauen, nor yet because
they are not vtterly voyde of faith, thrust them presently downe
into hell. And therefore, that there is a middle place betwéene
both, which is called Purgatorie, in which the soules are purified
from the imperfection whiche remained in them at the time of their
death, and out of the which they are deliuered by the merits of the
liuing, and by large pardons. Is not this as much as to attribute
that vnto our owne paines and to externall fire, which ought only to
be ascribed vnto the death of Christ? Dooth not Christ teache vs,
that if at any time we féele any weaknesse of faith, we shuld crie
out with the Apostles, Lord increase our faith? Dooth God disdaine
to heare the prayers of his faithfull people in the extremitie of
death? Christ saith, he that is washed hath no néede saue to washe
his féete, but he is cleane euery whitte: Hée will saue vs, not for
the woorthinesse of our faith, but by his méere grace onely. He dooth
bestow these things amongst vs, as if some riche man did fréely giue
meate and drinke vnto others, whereof some of them receiueth it in
woodden, some in earthen, and some in siluer or golden vessels:
or as if a Prince did distribute vnto euery one a piece of golde,
and some receiue it with a féeble hand, and some with a strong and
lustie hand. He that hath the [weake] hand, receiueth money as
well as he that hath the strong hande. Saint =Paule= exhorteth the
Thessalonians in his first Epistle and fourth Chapter, that they
mourne not for the dead as the Gentiles doo. If there had bene a fire
of Purgatorie, as they haue falsely imagined, he could not haue bene
angry with them, although they had taken their friendes departure
somewhat impatiently, &c. Other arguments which are brought for the
confirmation of purgatorie, are of late so confuted by many godly
and learned men, that it is maruaile our aduersaries will so often
repeate them.

But before I leaue this matter, I will here insert this historie
following. A certaine Germain being accused by the Inquisitours of
heresie (as they terme it) that amongest his companions he denied
Purgatorie, contrarie to the common consent of the Catholike Churche,
made his answeare thus: If our parish Priest (quoth he) whome I
credite very much, preach vnto vs true doctrine in the Pulpet, either
there is no Purgatorie at all, or else it is cleane emptie. For hée
oftentimes saieth, that Turkes, Iewes, heretikes, and wicked men,
goe not into Purgatorie, but straight into Hell fire, from whence
they shall neuer bee deliuered: Then that by Pardons whiche are
euery where solde for money, many soules are restored to their first
perfection. And moreouer, that the Masse is of such force, that
there is not one sung in all the world, by whiche one soule at the
least is not deliuered out of the flames of Purgatorie. If these
things (quoth he) be true, (for I will not go about to refell that
which maister Parson hath saide) I will stande in this my opinion.
For you doo all complaine, that the nomber of the Catholikes is
verie small, the greater part of men being diuided into sundry
sectes, and the multitude of Epicures daily increasing. Then are
all mens pursses many times drawne drie by pardoners, which for
mony sell their indulgences, that by them the soules of men may bee
deliuered out of the torments of Purgatorie. Furthermore, there is
no village but there are a great many Masses sung in it, before any
one husbandman dieth. What followeth then, but that there is either
no Purgatorie, or one vtterly voyde and emptie? When the Inquisitors
(who knew very well that their men commonly taught such doctrine)
heard these things, they were amazed, and taking aduise togither,
they all berated him for occupying his head about questions nothing
appertaining vnto him, which they commaunded him to leaue vnto
Diuines, and to follow his owne businesse.

[Sidenote: Dilemma, is a kind of argument or reasoning, which euery
way cōuinceth him vnto whome it is spoken.]

There was in our Countrey an honest and sober man, who before the
light of the Gospell began to appeare, vsed this =Dilemma=: The
Bishop of _Rome_ either hath authoritie to bring soules out of the
paines of Purgatorie, or else he hath no authoritie: If he haue that
power, and will not vse it, except he receiue money, he cannot escape
the fault of crueltie and couetousnesse: But if hée haue no such
authoritie, surely it is great villainie to robbe so many widowes
and fatherlesse children, and so arrogantly to boast himselfe of
authoritie whiche hée hath not. And if there bee no Purgatorie (as
by the holy Scriptures it plainly gathered there is not) surely then
mennes soules can neyther returne from thence, nor offer themselues
to be séene of men.

[Sidenote: Limbus puerorum.]

Nowe as touching the fourth place, namely =Limbus puerorum=, (in
the which innocent children, as they call them, are saide to be)
Papistes themselues scant dare affirme, that they returne againe and
appeare vnto men, and craue their helpe: for they teache, that if
they depart without baptisme, they shall neuer enioy the sight of
God, and for that cause they may not be buried in the same Churchyard
with other Christians. Merciful God! how many godly matrones hath
this false deuise miserably vexed? I call it a false deuise, for
that they bring nothing out of the holie scriptures whereby to proue
this poynt of doctrine. The scriptures do not attribute so much vnto
external baptisme, which is by water. Was the condition of infants
better in the olde Testament than in the new? You do not reade that
the olde Fathers, supposed that infants which died before the eight
day, and therfore were not circumcised, should be separated from the
sight of God for euer. =Dauid= the king and prophet, said he should
follow his sonne, whom God had called out of this life before he was
circumcised. But it was not =Dauids= meaning that hee should goe
into a place where he should bee depriued of the sight of God for
euer. But it appertaineth not much vnto our purpose to dispute any
further hereof. Thus haue I now answered the cheefest arguments of
our aduersaries, whereby they would proue the soules of good and euil
men, to offer themselues to be séene sometimes of them that liue,
after their departure by death from their bodies.


  What those things are which men see and heare: and first
  that good Angels do sometimes appeare.

[Sidenote: Angells appeare. _Matth._18.]

[Sidenote: _Esay_.63.]

[Sidenote: _Dani._10.]

[Sidenote: _Psal._34.]

[Sidenote: Whole armies of Angels.]

[Sidenote: Cōstantinople preserued by the appearing of Angels.]

But thou wilt say, I doo not yet clearely and plainly vnderstand
what manner of things those are, whereof (as it is sayd before)
Historiographers, holy Fathers, and others, make mention: as that
holie Apostles, Bishoppes, Martyres, Confessours, Virgines, and
manie other which dyed long agoe, appeared vnto certaine men lying
at the poynt of death, gaue them warnyng, aunsweared vnto certaine
questions, commaunded them to doe this or that thyng: and that
some thing is séene and heard at certeine times, whiche not only
affirmeth it selfe to be this or that soule, but also sheweth howe
it may be succoured, and afterwardes returning againe, giueth great
thankes vnto them of whome it hath receiued such a benefite: that the
husband being dead, came in the nighte vnto his wife nowe a widowe,
and that seldome times any notable thing hathe happened, whiche was
not foreshewed vnto some man by certaine signes and tokens. You wil
say, I heare and vnderstand very wel that these things are not mens
soules, which continually remaine in their appointed places, I pray
you then what are they? To conclude in fewe words, If it be not a
vaine persuasion procéeding through weakenesse of the senses through
feare, or some suche like cause, or if it be not deceit of men, or
some naturall thing, wherof we haue spoken muche in the firste part,
it is either a good or euill Angell, or some other forewarning sent
by God, concerning the which we will speake more orderly and fully
hereafter. Our sauioure witnesseth in the Gospell, that children haue
their good Angells: and we reade in the 18. of Matthew, that the
Lorde saide: Take héede ye contemne not one of these litle ones: for
I saye vnto you, that their Angels in Heauen do alwayes behold the
face of my father whiche is in Heauen. Which words are not so to be
taken, as though they were neuer sent downe into the earth, but the
Lord here speaketh after the manner of men. For as seruaunts stande
before their maisters to fulfill their commaundement, euen so are
the Angels prest and ready to serue God. =Esay= the 63. The Angell
of his face, that is, which standeth ready in his sight, preserued
them. And further they which often stand in presence of their Lorde,
are acceptable vnto them and priuy to their secrets. Out of this
place of Math. Saincte =Herome= in his commentaries, and other
fathers do conclude, that God doth assigne vnto euery soule assoone
as he createth him his peculiar Angell, which taketh care of him.
But whether that euerie one of the elect haue his proper Angell, or
many Angels be appointed vnto him, it is not expresly set foorth,
yet this is most sure and certaine, that God hath giuen his Angels
in charge to haue regarde and care ouer vs. =Daniel= witnesseth in
his tenth Chapter, that Angels haue also charge of kingdomes, by whom
God kéepeth and protecteth them, and hindreth the wicked counsels
of the diuell. It may be proued by many places of scripture, that
all Christian men haue not only one Angell, but also many, whome
God imployeth to their seruice. In the 34. Psalme it is sayd, the
Angell of the Lord pitcheth his tentes round about them which feare
the Lord, and helpeth them: which ought not to bee doubted but that
it is also at this day, albeit we sée them not. We reade that they
appearing in sundry shapes, haue admonished men, haue comforted them,
defended them, deliuered them from daunger, and also punished the
wicked. Touching this matter, there are plentifull examples, which
are not néedfull to be repeated in this place. Sometimes they haue
either appeared in sléepe, or in maner of visions, and sometimes
they haue performed their office, by some internall operations: as
when a mans minde foresheweth him, that a thing shall so happen, and
after it happeneth so indéed, which thing I suppose is done by God,
through the ministrie of Angels. Angels for the most part take vpon
them the shapes of men, wherein they appeare. And so it may be, that
S. =Felix=, and Saint =Agnes=, and other which haue appeared vnto
honest and godly men, were the Angels of God. Angels haue appeared
not only one at a time, but also whole Armies and Hostes, of them, as
vnto =Iacob= the patriarch, and =Heliseus= the Prophet. It is read in
the Ecclesiasticall history written by =Socrates= and =Sozomenus=,
that =Archadius= the Emperour receiued =Gaina=, with all his Armie of
souldiers, into the Citie of _Constantinople_, to defend it, but this
traitor went about to get the rule of the Citie into his owne hands,
and therefore he sent a band of men to fire the Emperours Pallace,
which sodeinly espied a great hoste of Angels, of large stature,
armed like vnto souldiers, whereupon they gaue ouer their enterprise
of fiering. Then sent he others who reported the very same: At the
last he went himselfe, and sawe it to be so, and so left his purpose:
and thus God by a miraculous meanes, preserued the Cittie and Church
of _Constantinople_ from the craftie subtiltie of the tyrant.

[Sidenote: Augustine.]

Whereas S. =Augustine= in his booke _De cura pro mortuis agenda_,
Chapter 10. writeth, that dead men, haue appeared vnto the liuing in
dreames, or any other meanes whatsoeuer, shewing them where their
bodies laie vnburied, and requiring them to burie them. There he
supposeth, that these are the workes of Angels by the dispensation of
Gods prouidence, vsing vnto good purpose, both good and euil Angels,
according to the vnsearchable depth of his iudgements. He saith not
that such soules appeare in sléepe, but the similitude of soules. He
addeth further, if the soules of the dead had any thing to do with
matters of the liuing, and that we might talke with them as often as
we list in our sléepe, his mother no night would leaue him, who to
liue with him, followed him both by sea and by lande, suche loue bare
she towards her sonne.


  That sometimes, yea and for the most part, euill Angels
  do appeare.

[Sidenote: Paule.]

Contrariwise, euill angels are hurtfull and enemies vnto men, they
followe them euery where, to the ende they may withdrawe them from
true worshipping of God, and from faith in his onely sonne Iesu
Christ, vnto sundry other things. These appeare in diuers shapes:
for in the diuell (as =Paule= doth witnesse) transformeth himselfe
into an Angell of light, no lesse may he take the shape of a Prophet,
an Apostle, Euangelist, Bishop, and Martyr, and appeare in their
likenesse: or to bewitch vs, that we verily suppose we heare or sée
them in very déede. He taketh on him to tell of thinges to come,
whether hée hit them right or wrong. Hée affirmeth that hée is this
or that soule, that he may bee deliuered by this or that meanes, that
by these meanes he may purchase credite and authoritie, vnto those
things which haue no ground of scripture.

By meanes of false myracles, he decreeth new Hollydayes, Pilgrimages,
Chappels, and Aultars: by Coniurations, blessings, enchauntments, he
attempteth to cure the sicke, to make his doings haue authoritie.

You shall reade maruellous straunge things in =Arnobius=,
=Lactantius=, and other holie Fathers, who wrote against the Gentiles
and their superstition, after what sorte Diuels haue deluded the
miserable Gentiles, and haue entrapped them in many errors. He
ioyned and hid himselfe in their Idolles, he spake through them from
one place to an other, he made them to moue, and did such straunge
myracles, that verie lame men leauing their stilts whereon they
leaned in the Temples of their Idols, returned home to their houses,
without any helpe or stay of them, but especially in the temple of
=Æsculapius= (who was counted the Patron of Phisicke) many of these
kinde of miracles are reported to haue happened. Wherefore there is
no cause, why the Papistes at this day, shoulde so insolently glorie
of the like myracles, by the which they goe about to proue their
intercession of Saints, and such lyke trumperie.


  Of wondrous Monsters, and such like.

Nowe as concerning other straunge things, we must hereafter search
what nature they are of: as when one dieth that there is somewhat
séene, or some great noyse is sodeinly heard, but especially that
many signes and wonders happen before the death of great Princes. It
is well knowne by Histories, what signes went before the death of
=Iulius Cæsar=, amongst the which, a great noyse was heard in the
night time, in very many places farre and neare.

As concerning other Emperors, and Kings, and other great mens
deathes, we reade that some certaine forewarnings were heard or
séene, we must also consider what those straunge things are, which
for the most part happen before the innouations of kingdomes, before
battailes, seditions, and subuersions of Cities.

I say flatly, euen as I sayde before concerning spirits: if they be
not vaine perswasions, or naturall things, then are they forewarnings
of God, which are sent, eyther by good Angels, or by some other
meanes vnknowne vnto vs, that we might vnderstand that all these
things happen not by aduenture, without the wil and pleasure of
God, but that life and deathe, peace and warre, the alteration of
Religion, the exchaunge of Empires, and of other things, are in his
power, that we might thereby learne to feare him, and to call vppon
his name. In the meane season, Sathan also fayneth and worketh many
things to terrifie men, and to plant superstition in their hearts.
But that all things are done by Sathan, hereby we may vnderstand: It
chaunceth that one is thrust thorow and slaine by one with whome he
neuer was at variance, but hath euer vsed him as his friende, some
man is drowned, or falleth from some high place, or otherwise is
miserably slaine, an euill spirit can haue no foreknowledge hereof
(for there are no naturall signes, or coniectures going before them,
as there are in diseases) yet notwithstanding, some signes and rare
casualties fall out before. Hereof do I gather, that these things
are wrought by God, who onely knoweth that they shall come to passe,
and they are not onely admonishments vnto them, whom they especially
concerne, but also vnto them which heare them, and are present at the
doing of them.

There was a certaine Magistrate within the liberties of _Tigurine_,
not long before I wrote this, whome certaine of his friendes tarried
for to breake their fast with him before hée tooke his iourney, and
thus waiting, they supposed they heard a knife falling from the
vpper part, or flore of the stewe, wherein they were, yet sawe they
nothing, and sodeinly as they communed togither of this straunge
wonder, they thought they heard it againe. In the meane while
commeth the Magistrate, vnto whome they declare what had happened,
and as they had scant ended their talke, the knife fell againe the
third time, in the hearing of the Magistrate, who before doubted
very much of the matter. And therefore taking occasion hereby, he
began to exhort them, that whereas within fewe dayes after, a great
marriage should be kept in the same place, they should all endeuour
to maintaine peace, and obserue sobrietie, least perchaunce through
quarrelling and murther, it should bee a bloudie marriage. After
he taking his iourney, and within a day or twaine dispatching his
businesse, as he was returning towards his Castle, (his horse falling
into a riuer, whiche was sodeinly encreased with raine) after he had
long striued with the water, at the last died miserably.

And that the diuell doth delude men with straunge happes, hereof I
gather, that if any be taken with gréeuous sicknesse, so that not
onely the Phisitian, but also the sicke themselues dispaire of their
owne health, in the night time there is heard a noyse as if one were
making a coffin or chest to laie one in, or were burying a dead
bodie: that suppose I to be an illusion of the diuil, for he thinketh
verily the diseased will die, whom God by meanes of godly and earnest
praiers, doth restore againe to his former health.

[Sidenote: Plinie.]

Where =Plinie= writeth that rauens are of such sharp senses, that
they will flie thrée or foure dayes before, vnto the place where
carryon will afterwardes be, it is altogither vaine and fabulous. If
this were graunted, it were no absurditie to say, that the diuell
hath a knowledge of things to come, yea euen where there are no
naturall causes, &c. Moreouer he may by Gods permission, if warres
and mutinies be towards, stirre the instruments of warre, and all
other kinde of munition as it lyeth in the Armorie, he can make a
noyse and reare a clamour and crie, as it were of a great Armie in
the aire, and play as it were on a Drum, and do other such things,
which all Historiographers affirme with one voyce, haue oftentimes


  That it is no hard thing for the Diuell to appeare in
  diuers shapes, and to bring to passe straunge things.

But it is no difficult matter for the Diuel to appeare in diuers
shapes, not only of those which are aliue, but also of dead men,
(whereof I spake also before, when I entreated of Samuels appearing)
yea, and (which is a lesse matter) in the fourme of beasts and birds,
&c. as to appeare in the likenesse of a blacke Dog, a Horse, an Owle,
and also to bring incredible things to passe, it is a thing most
manifest: for hee may through long and great experience, vnderstand
the effects and force of naturall things, as of hearbes, stones,
&c. and by meanes hereof worke maruellous matters. And then he is a
subtile and quicke spirite, which can readily take things in hand,
which in each thing is of no small weight. By his quicknesse, and
by his knowledge in naturall things, he may easily deceiue the eye
sight, and other senses of man, and hide those things which are
before our face, and conuey other things into their places. Whereof
the holy scriptures, and histories, and continuall experience beareth
record. How did the wicked spirit handle =Iob=? what did he not bring
to passe in short space? What straunge workes of an euil spirit
did =Bileam= bring to passe? did he not purchase a famous name by
his Magicall Artes? what wonderfull great miracles did =Pharaos=
Sorcerers? Did not =Simon Magus= so bewitch the _Samaritanes_ with
his vnlawfull Artes, that he would say he was the great vertue of
God? Touching this Coniurer, the olde Fathers write many things, as
=Ireneus= in his first booke and tenth Chapter, =Eusebius= in his
second booke and thirtéenth Chapter.

=Egesippus= writeth in his third booke and second Chapter, of the
destruction of _Hierusalem_, that this =Symon= came to _Rome_, and
there set himselfe against =Peter=, boasting that he could flie vp
into heauen, and that he came at the day appointed vnto the Mount
_Capitoline_, where leaping from the rocke, he flew a good while not
without the great admiration of the people, who now began to credit
his words, but sodeinly he fell downe and brake his leg, and after
being carried vnto _Aritia_, there died.

=Iohannes Tritenhemius=, Abbot of _Spanheimium_, writeth in his
Chronicles concerning the Monasterie of _Hirsgraue_ of the order
of S. =Bennet=, in the yeare of our Lorde 970, that =Peter= and
=Baianus=, the two sonnes of one =Simon= a Monke, ruled ouer the
_Bulgarians_, wherof the one, namely =Baianus=, was throughly séene
in the Arte of Necromancie, and thereby wrought many myracles. He
chaunged himselfe into a Wolfe so often as he list, or into the
likenesse of an another beast, or in such sort as he could not be
discerned of any man, and many other straunge things hée could doo,
and did, whereby he brought men into great admiration.

And after in the yeare 876. he writeth, that there was a certaine
Iewe named =Sedechias=, sometimes Philosopher and Phisitian vnto
=Lewes= the Emperour, who being very cunning in sorcerie, did
straunge miracles and wonderfull sleights before the Princes, and
before all other men. For he brought it to passe by his cunning,
that he séemed to deuoure an armed man with his horse, and all his
harnesse, and also a carte loaden with hay, togither with the horse
and carter. He cut off mens heads, their hands and féete, which he
set in a basen before all the lookers on to behold, with the bloud
running about the basen: which by and by he would put againe vppon
the places whence they séemed to haue bene cut off, without any
hurt to the parties. He was séene and hearde of all men to exercise
hunting and running, and suche like things in the aire and cloudes,
as men are accustomed to exercise vpon the earth. He practised so
many and diuers deceites, that all men maruelled and were astonished
out of measure.

In the yeare of our Lord .1323. when =Frederike= Duke of _Austrich_,
who was chosen Emperour against =Lewes=, as the same author
witnesseth, was vanquished in a great battail betwéene _Ottinga_
and _Molndorfus_, and deliuered into the hands of =Lewes=, who sent
him away into a strong castell to be safely kepte: It chaunced
shortly after, that a coniurer going vnto his brother =Lupoldus= in
_Auctriche_, promised, that by the helpe of a spirit, he would within
the compasse of an houre, deliuer =Frederike= safe and sounde out of
captiuitie, if he would promise him and giue him a worthie reward
for his paines. The Duke aunsweared him: if thou wilt (quoth he) do
as thou makest promise, I wil worthily reward thée. So the Magitian
with the Duke entring his circle of coniuration in an houre moste
conuenient, calleth the Spirit whiche was accustomed to obey his
commaundement. Whome, when he appeared in the likenesse of a man, he
commaunded by the vertue of his coniurations, that he should spéedily
bring vnto him into _Austriche_, Duke =Frederike=, deliuered safely
out of prison. Vnto whome the spirit aunswering, said, If the captiue
Duke will come with me, I will willingly obey thy commaundement. This
saide, the spirite flieth awaye into _Banarie_, and taking vppon him
the forme of a Pilgrime, he entreth into the prison where the Duke
was kepte prisoner: whome assoone as he sawe, the Spirit whiche was
sente as messenger vnto him, said: If thou wilt be deliuered out of
captiuitie, mount thée vp vpon this horse, and I will bring thée safe
and sounde without any hurte into _Auctrich_ vnto Duke =Lupoldus=
thy brother. Vnto whome the Duke saide: Who art thou? The Spirite
aunswered: Aske not who I am, because it appertaineth nothing to the
purpose, but get thée vp on the horse which I offer thée, and I will
bring thée safe and sound, and fréely deliuered into _Austrich_.
Which when the Duke heard, hée was taken with a certaine horror,
and feare, being otherwise a hardy knight: and when he had blessed
himself with the signe of the holy crosse, the spirite sodainly
vanished away with the blacke horse, which he had proffered him, and
returned emptie againe vnto him that sent him: of whom being rebuked
because he had not brought the prisoner, he declared all the matter
vnto him in order. Duke =Frederick= at the last being deliuered
out of prison, confessed that it had so happened vnto him in his
captiuitie the very same day they named. This historie is also to be
séene in the Chronicles of the _Heluetians_.

There are also Coniurers found euen at this day, who bragge of
themselues that they can so by inchauntments saddle an horse, that in
a fewe houres they wil dispatch a very long iourney. God at the last
wil chasten these men with deserued punishment. What straunge things
are reported of one =Faustus= a Germane, which he did in these our
dayes by inchauntments?

I will speake nothing at this time, of those old Sorcerers,
=Apollonius=, and others, of whom the histories report straunge and
incredible things. Hags, Witches, and Inchaunters, are said to hurt
men and cattell, if they doo but touch them or stroake them, they
do horrible things wherof there are whole bookes extant. Iuglers
and Tumblers, by nimblenesse do many things, they will bid one eate
meate, which when they spit out againe, they cast forth ordure and
such like. Magitians, Iuglers, Inchanters, and Necromanciers, are no
other than seruants of the Diuel: do you not thinke their maister
reserueth some cunning vnto him selfe?

Howbeit this is not to be dissembled, that the diuel doth glory of
many things which indéede he cannot performe: as that he saith, that
he raised the dead out of their graues. &c. He may in very déede by
Gods sufferaunce, shewe the shapes of them vnto men, but he hath no
such power ouer the dead bodies.


  Diuels doo sometimes bid men doo those things which are
  good, and auoide things that are euill: sometimes they
  tell truth, and for what cause.

If those spirites which séeke helpe at mens hands be not soules,
but Diuels, many will say, why then do they perswade men vnto good
things, exhort them vnto vertue, and call them from vice. For they
say, Iudge vprightly, take héede of theft and extortion, restore
goods vniustly gotten vnto their owners, beware of periurie, surfets,
and drunkennesse, enuie and hatred, lying and deceit, pray earnestly,
come to church often, &c.

The Diuell is not pleased when wée doo good, and auoide euill:
nothing woulde gréeue him more, than that we should liue accordyng to
the prescript worde of God. Therefore they are not Diuels which bid
vs doo good, and eschue euil.

Moreouer, those Spirites speake truthe, but the Diuell is a lyer, and
is called by Christe, the father of lyes. Therefore wée may not say
that they are diuellish Spirits.

Vnto this argument I aunswere thus: hée dooth this for his owne
aduantage. If he should shewe himselfe so, as he is by nature, he
should little profit. That whiche he doth, he doth it to this ende,
that he may purchase credite vnto his words, and that he might the
better thrust other things vpon men, and bring and driue them into
sundry errours, whereby they forsaking the worde of God might giue
care vnto Spirites. Did not the seruaunts of vncleane Spirits, I
meane false Prophets, come in times past vnder shéepes skinnes, and
fayned themselues to tender the peoples commoditie, whereas in very
déed in the meane space they sought after another thing, that is,
that when they had obteined great authoritie, they might pill and
poule other men, and fill their owne bags with golde and siluer?
Do not all heretickes yet at this day say, they are sent from God,
and that we must eschue wickednesse, and séeke after vertue? Didst
thou neuer heare that théeues trauelling by the way with those on
whose company they light, haue talked of liuing honestly, and of
the punishment of wicked men, and the rewarde of good men, to the
ende that after they might take yͤ aduantage of them vnawares?
Whereas the Diuell hath fayned himselfe to bee otherwise than he is,
it hath brought forth innumerable errors, superstitions, and false
worshippings in the Churche of God. For Bishops in proces of time
neglected the word of God, they would accept the Diuell and receiue
him as an Angell of light, when he came not in a blacke and horrible,
but a pleasaunt and acceptable forme. He speaketh some good things,
that he may intermedle euil things therwith, he speaketh truth,
that he may scatter abroade lyes, and roote them in mens hearts. So
=Simon= in =Virgil=, mingled falshood with truth, that he might the
better entrape the _Troians_.

Sathan doth imitate craftie gamesters, who suffer a plaine and
simple yoong man to winne a while of them, that afterwards being
gréedie to play, they may lurch him of all his golde and siluer. He
followeth them which once or twise iustly repaie vnto their creditors
such money as they haue borrowed, kéeping their promise duly, that
afterwards they may obtaine a great summe of them, and then deceiue

[Sidenote: Ambrose.]

The diuel sometimes vttereth the truth, that his words may haue the
more credit, and that he may the more easily beguile them. He that
would vtter euil wares, doth not only set them foorth in words,
but doth also so trim and decke them, that they séeme excellent
good, whereby they are the more saleable: this Art also the diuel
knoweth, for he painteth out his stuffe that he may obtrude it vnto
other men in the stéede of good ware. S. =Ambrose= writeth in his
Commentaries vpon the first Epistle to the Thessalonians, and fift
chapter, expounding these words: =Quench not the spirit. Despise
not prophecying. Examine all things, and keepe that which is good.=
Euill spirites are wont to speake good things craftily, as it were by
imitation, and amongst those they priuily insinuate wicked thinges,
that by meanes of those things which are good, euil things may be
admitted, and because they are supposed the words of one spirit,
they may not be discerned asunder, but by that which is lawfull an
vnlawfull thing may bee commended by authoritie of the name, and not
by reason of vertue, &c.

[Sidenote: Why the diuel doth somtimes tel truth.]

[Sidenote: _Acts_16.]

[Sidenote: _Marke_.1.]

[Sidenote: _Luke_.4.]

Hereunto appertaine those words which we reade in =S. Chrysostomes=
second sermon =De Lazara=. There he sheweth that many simple men haue
bene in this erroure, that they haue thought the soules of those
which were slaine by some violent death, did become Diuels. He saith
further, that the Diuell hath perswaded many Witches, and such as
serue him being in this erroure, that they should kill the tender
bodies of many yong men, hoping they shuld become Diuels, and doo
them seruice. And by and by he addeth: But these things are not true,
no, I say, they are not. What is it then that Diuels say? I am the
soule of such a Monke? Verily I beléeue it not, euen for this, that
Diuels doo auouche it: for they deceiue their auditours. Wherefore
=Paule= also commaundeth them to silence, albeit they speake truth,
lest taking occasion by truth, they mingle lyes therewith, and so
purchase themselues credit. For when they had said: These men are the
seruants of the most high God, shewing vnto you the way of saluation:
The Apostle not content herewith, commaunded the prophecying spirite
vnto silence, and to come foorth of the mayd. And yet what harme
speake they? These men are the seruantes of the most high God. But
because the most parte of simple men haue not vnderstanding alwayes
to iudge of those things which are vttered by diuels, he at once
excludeth them from all credit. Thou art (saith he) of the number of
infamous spirites, it belongeth not to thée to speake fréely, hold
thy peace, kéepe silence, it is not thy office to preach. This is the
authoritie of the Apostles: why takest thou vppon thée that which
appertaineth not vnto thée, hold thy peace, be thou infamous. So also
did Christ sharply rebuke the diuels saying vnto him: We know thée
who thou art, therein prescribing vnto vs a lawe, that we should in
no wise trust the diuel, albeit he tell the truth.

Sith we know these things, let vs in no wise beléeue the diuel,
nay rather if he say any thing that is truth, let vs flée from him
and shunne him. For it is not lawfull exactly to learne sounde and
wholesome doctrine of diuels, but out of the holy scriptures.

That you may therfore know that it can in no wise be, that a soule
once departed out of the bodie can come vnder the tyrannie of the
diuell, heare what S. =Paule= saith: For he that is dead is iustified
from sinne, that is, he sinneth no more. For if the diuil can do
no hurt vnto the soule while it is in the bodie, it is euident, he
cannot hurt it when it is departed out of the bodie. &c. By all these
things it is plaine, what manner of things those are which are heard
and séene.


The third parte of this Booke, in which is shewed, why, or to what
ende God suffereth Spirits to appeare, and other straunge thinges to
happen: as also howe men ought to _behaue themselues when they meete
with any suche things_.


  God by the appearing of Spirits doth exercise the
  faithfull, and punish the vnbeleeuers.

It foloweth now hereafter to be intreated of, why God suffreth
spirits, ghosts, and horrible sightes to appeare, &c. And also why
he doth permit other straunge and miraculous things to happen: And
furthermore, how men ought to behaue themselues when they sée anye
suche things.

[Sidenote: Causes why God suffereth spirites to appeare.]

God doth suffer spirits to appeare vnto his elect, vnto a good ende,
but vnto the reprobate they appeare as a punishment. And as all other
things turne to the best vnto yͤ faithfull, euen so doo these
also: for if they be good spirits, which appeare vnto men, warning,
and defending them, therby do they gather the care, prouidence, and
fatherly affection of God towardes them. But in case they bee euill
spirites, (as for the most part they are) the faithfull are moued by
occasion of them vnto true repentance. They looke diligently vnto
themselues so long as they liue, least the enimie of mankinde, who
is readie at all assaies, and lieth alwaies in waight, should bring
them into mischiefe, and take further vauntage to vexe and hurt them.
God also by these meanes doeth exercise and trie their faith and
pacience, to the end they continue in his word, and receiue nothing
contrary to the same, haue it neuer so faire a shewe, nor do any
manner of thing against his worde, although those spirites do not
straightwayes cease to vexe them.

God doth also suffer them to be exercised with haunting of spirites,
for this cause, that they should be the more humble and lowely.
For in the second Epistle to the Corinth. and .xii. chap. =Paul=
saith: And least I should be exalted out of mesure, through the
excellencie of reuelations, ther was giuen vnto me vnquietnesse
through the flesh, euen the messenger of Sathan to buffet me, because
I should not be exalted out of measure. For this thing besought I
the Lord thrice, that it mighte depart from me. And he said vnto me:
My grace is sufficient for thée, for my strength is made perfect
through weakenesse. Except God did shut vp the way before vs with
certaine stops and lets, we should not know our selues, we shoulde
not vnderstande whereof we stand in néed, we should not so earnestly
pray vnto God, to deliuer vs from euill, to strengthen our faith, and
to giue vs patience, and other necessarie things. Neither should we
be touched with compassion of other mennes miserie which are vexed
with spirits: but we woulde rather say, that they cannot tell what
they speake, and that they imagine many vaine feares. Moreouer, if
other vnderstande that godly men are for their exercise vexed by
spirits, they become more patient whensoeuer they are sicke, or
otherwise troubled, acknowledging their owne harmes to be but small
in comparison of other mens. For nothing is more gréeuous, than when
a man is tormented by the Diuel.

[Sidenote: Seeing of spirites to the wicked is a punishment.]

Now as touching infidells, they are constrained, will they, or nill
they, to confesse, that there are diuels, for there are many which
would neuer be persuaded, there are good or euill Angels or spirits,
except sometimes they had experience thereof indeede. God suffereth
these things to chasten them. For so muche as they will giue no place
vnto truth, but are wilfully deceiued, it is good reason they be
taught by diuellish illusions what they must doo, or leaue vndone,
and that they be illuded by euil spirits, after some other meanes.

[Sidenote: _Deut._ 13.]

Thus we reade in the 13. chapter of Deuteronomie: if there arise
among you a prophet or a dreamer of dreames, and giue thée a signe
and wonder, and that signe or wonder that he hath saide come to
passe, and then say, let vs goe after straunge Gods, which thou hast
not knowne, and let vs serue them: hearkē not thou vnto the words of
that prophet, or dreamer of dreames. For the Lorde thy God proueth
you, to wit, whether ye loue the Lord your God with all your soule.
Ye shall walke after the Lorde your God and feare him, kéepe his
commandements, and hearken vnto his voice, serue him and cleaue vnto
him. And he addeth further, that the same prophet or dreamer shall
die the death.

[Sidenote: _Iohn_ 3.]

[Sidenote: _Iohn_ 5.]

[Sidenote: 2. _Thessa._ 2.]

[Sidenote: 2. _Timo._ 4.]

By these words we do not only sée that God doth suffer suche lewde
fellowes to worke maruellous thinges, but also to what ende and
purpose he permitteth it, that is, to trie his faithfull, how
constant they be, and how faithfully they would beléeue in him, if
at any time spirits do come and foretell things to happen hereafter.
Our Sauiour Christ saith in the third Chapter of Saint =Iohn=: This
is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men
loued darknesse more than light, because their deedes were euill:
for euery one that doth euill, hateth the light, neither commeth he
to the light, least his déedes should be reproued, &c. By the which
words our Sauiour sheweth the cause why the worlde is condemned,
which is, because they receiue not the light of the word of God,
or Christe himselfe, who is the light of the worlde, set foorth
vnto vs in his word: but rather shut their eyes against the cleare
light, preferring darkenesse, that is, errors, superstition, and
wickednesse, before the word of God. If God then condemne and reiect
the vnthankfull world, what maruell is it, if hee vexe them with
spirites and vaine apparitions? Christ saieth in the fifth of =Iohn=,
I come in my Fathers name, and you receiue mée not: If an other come
in his owne name, you receiue him. Christe laboured for their health
and saluation: this they would not acknowledge, but refused him:
therefore was it the iust iudgement of God, that they shuld receiue
others, that hunted after their owne commoditie and profit: suche as
were =Theudas=, =Iudas= of _Galilee_, and many other false doctors,
and seditious seducers. Wherefore if any refuse to giue eare to
Christ and his Ministers, it is by the iust iudgement of God, that
they hearken vnto spirites, and suche lyke things. Sainte =Paule=
in the seconde to the Thessalonians and second Chapter, writeth of
Antichrist, that he shoulde exercise great tyrannie in the Churche of
God, and sheweth against whome, and for what cause God will suffer
him so to doo, saying: Among them that perish: because they receiued
not the loue of the truth that they might be saued. And therefore God
shall send them strong delusions, that they shoulde beléeue lyes,
that all they might be damned, whiche beléeue not the truth, but
had pleasure in vnrighteousnesse. And in the fourth Chapter of his
seconde Epistle to Timothie, he earnestly beséecheth his scholler
to be diligent in preaching daily. He giueth this reason: for the
time will come, when they shall not suffer wholesome doctrine: but
after their owne lustes shall they (whose eares itche,) get them an
heape of teachers, and shall withdrawe their eares from the truth,
and shalbe turned vnto fables. Now we sée the cause why god dothe
suffer seducers, false teachers, and wicked spirites, to deceiue men
in the place of true doctours: which is, for that eyther they vtterly
despise his woorde or little estéeme it, and cannot abide godly and
constant preachers.

[Sidenote: Examples of the Wicked punished by delusions of spirits
pharao. Exodus.]

Touching whiche matter, wée will alleage a fewe examples. =Pharao=
contemned God and his seruants, =Moyses= and =Aaron=, wherefore God
blinded his eyes, that he gaue himselfe to be ruled by his =Magi= or
wise men, and at the last perished miserably in the red Sea.

[Sidenote: Samuel.]

[Sidenote: 1. _Cor._10.]

=Saule= would not giue eare vnto =Samuell=, who bare a right hart
and good affection towards his king: he loued him not (as by reason
he shoulde haue done) but hated him, and all other that loued him
right well, for he contemnned the woorde of God. Wherefore it came
to passe, that being in extreme daunger, he sought helpe of a witch
to reare =Samuel= from the dead, yͭ he might now vse his aduise,
whō he dispised beeing aliue, and disdained to heare him. This woman
reareth one, who is no otherwise called =Samuell=, than when false
gods, are called gods, when in very déede they are not gods, but wood
and stones, or rather (as =Paul= saith) .1. Corin. 10. very diuels.
This counterfeit =Samuel= giueth him neither comfort nor Counsell,
but driueth him to vtter desperation. The same hapned vnto =Saule=
which chaunceth vnto those stubborne children, whiche despise their
parents, contemne their counsel, & would gladly wish their death, and
at the last grow vnto yͤ point, yͭ they would willingly take in
hand a great iorney on condition it might be graunted them to heare
them giue their last counsell.

[Sidenote: Achab.]

[Sidenote: 3. _Reg._ 22.]

An other example hereof. =Achab= king of Israel, & =Iezabel= his wife
had many godly prophets, amongst whō =Elias= was a man indued with
the gifte of the wing and working miracles. But they did not only
contēne these prophets, but also cruelly murthered so many of them as
they coulde catche. Yet amongst the rest, they especially laboured
to intrape =Elias=, who was excéeding zealous. The =Baalamites= were
in greate fauoure with the King: but especially with the Quéene, as
her chief dearlings. And when the time approched, that =Achab= should
suffer due and worthie punishment for his Idolatrie and wickednesse,
wherein he had long time liued, he entred councell with his kinsman
=Iosaphat=, that they ioyning their powers togither might recouer
againe the Citie of _Ramoth Gilead_, which the =Assirians= had taken
from him. =Iosaphat= allowed well this deuise, notwithstanding hée
woulde in any wise aske counsaile héerein of God. =Achab=, therefore
gathereth togither a Councell of 400. priests of =Baall=, who all
with one voyce, exhorted him to goe on with his enterprise, assuring
him of most certaine victorie. One of them named =Sedechias=, was
so vainly bold, that putting hornes of yron on his head, he saide:
With these hornes shalt thou pushe the =Assirians=. But =Iosaphat=
suspecting the matter, asked if there were any one Prophet of God
to be found, of whome they might séeke counsell. =Achab= answered:
There is (quoth he) yet a certaine man by whom we might enquire of
the Lorde, but I hate him, for he doth not prophecie good vnto me,
but euill, his name is =Micheas=. =Iosaphat= thought good in any
wise to heare him. Wherfore the king presently sent for him by one
of his Chamberlaines. And thus the messenger spake vnto him. All
the Prophets with one voice, prophecie good lucke vnto the king, I
pray thée therefore, that thou speake nothing to the contrary. When
he was nowe brought before the two kings sitting in their thrones,
clad with sumptuous apparell, and before the other Prophets, which
stood in their presence, king =Achab= asked him, whether they should
make warres against _Ramoth Gilead_, or no? Vnto whom he scoffingly
answered: go (saith he) thou shalt haue prosperous successe. The
king who by the maner of his vtterance, vnderstood he spake not in
earnest, instantly required him to tell him the truth. Wherevppon he
saide: that he had séene all _Israell_ dispersed in the mountaines,
as shéep without a shepheard, and that the Lorde had saide: These
men haue no Lorde, let euery one returne home to his owne house in
safetie. Then saide =Achab=, Did I not tell thée, that this fellow
both prophecie me no good? The Prophet went on, saying: Heare the
word of God: I sawe the Lord sitting in his seate of maiestie, and
all the hoste of heauen stande about him on his right hande, and on
his lefte hande. And the Lorde saide, Who shall entice =Achab= that
he may go and fall at _Ramoth Gilead_. And one saide on this manner,
and an other saide on that manner. Then there came foorth a spirit,
and stoode before the Lorde and saide, I will entice him. And the
Lorde saide vnto him, wherewith? And he saide, I will goe out and
be a false spirite in the mouth of all his Prophets. Then he saide,
thou shalt entice him, and shalt also preuaile: go foorth and do
so. Now therefore beholde, the Lord hath put a lying spirite in the
mouth of all these thy Prophets, and the Lorde hath appointed euill
against thée. Then =Sedechias= came neare and smote =Micheas= on
the chéeke, and saide: when went the spirit of the Lord from me, to
speake vnto thée? And =Micheas= prophecied what should happen also
vnto him. So the king commaunded him to be cast into prison, and to
be fed with bread and water vntil he returned from the wars. Then
saide =Micheas=, If thou returne in peace, the Lorde hath not spoken
by me: and therewith he willed all the people to hearken what he
spake. Notwithstanding the kings went foreward with their enterprise,
and prepared themselues, and led foorth their armies against their
enemies. =Achab= was slaine in the battaile: =Iosaphat= because he
ioyned himselfe with the wicked, was in very great daunger, &c.

I haue handled this historie somewhat at large, that we might
vnderstand, how God by his iust iudgement sendeth spirites vnto those
which despise his word, whereby they may be beguiled and deceiued.

The very same happened vnto the Christians after the Apostles time.
For when the word of God began to be lesse estéemed than it should
haue bene, and men preferred their owne affections before the hearing
thereof: and when as they would incurre no maner of daunger, for
the defence of their faith, and of the truth, but accounted of
all religions alike, God so punished them, that now they began to
giue eare vnto false teachers, whiche framed themselues vnto their
vaine affections, they learned of images, whom they called Lay-mens
bookes, they kissed these mens bones, and shrined them in golde (if
happily they were their boanes) whose doctrine before they disdained
to receiue: they gaue credit vnto false apparitions and diuellish
visions: and so suffered they worthie punishment for their great
ingratitude. Euen as yoong men, which will not be ruled by their
maisters, are after compelled to obey other men with great shame: so
also happened it vnto those men: for they fel daily more and more
from the word of God, in so much that when they had once lost the
truthe, some ranne one way, and some an other, to finde a meanes for
the remission of their sinnes: and one man beléeued this spirite, an
other that, which no man can deny.

[Sidenote: _Rom._ 1.]

[Sidenote: Athanasius.]

The like chaunced vnto the Gentiles in times past, as it appeareth
by the first chap. to the Romanes, and also by their owne writings.
They worshipped many gods, many miracles were shewed amongst them:
they had many visions of gods, and many oracles: which when the
Apostles began to preach, all ceased. S. =Athanasius= in his booke
=De humanitate verbi.= =Fol.= 55. and 64. writeth, that in auncient
time there were oracles at _Delphos_ in _Bœotia_, L_ycia_, and other
places which hee nameth: but nowe since Christ is preached euery
where vnto all men, this madnesse hath ceased, &c. In the like maner
writeth =Lactantius= and others. But in these our dayes, since we
haue refused mens traditions, and willingly imbraced the doctrine of
the Gospell, all appearings of soules and spirits haue quite vanished

Who (I pray you) heareth now of any soule or spirit, which dooth
wander, and as they call it, craue mens deuotions? Those rumblings of
spirits in the night, are now muche more sildome heard than they haue
bene in times past.


  What the cause is that in these our dayes so fewe
  spirites are seene or heard.

The cleare light of Gods word driueth away all such spirits, which
vse to worke their feates in the darke. The cleare light approaching,
the shadow & darkenesse vanisheth. The prince of darknesse shunneth
light, and hath nothing to doo where men worship God the Father, only
through Iesu Christ, beléeuing only on him, and committing themselues
wholy vnto his protection. If men estéem the word of God, and haue
it in price, he will in no wise suffer them to be so ouerséene and
deceiued, as they are which do all things without the warrant of his

Here I cannot ouerpasse with silence a certaine merry iest: when
once there chaunced to be talke in a certaine place of visions and
spirites, a certaine professour of the Gospell saide vnto a Papist
in this maner: You ought (quoth he) euen by this to gather, that our
religion is true, and youres false, for that since the Gospell was
preached vnto vs, very fewe spirits haue bin séene of any man. To
whome the other made aunswere by way of reasoning called =Violentum=:
Nay (saith hée) hereby ye may gather, that your religion is naught,
and oures good: for the diuell assaulteth those, whome he feareth
will shortly reuolte from him.

[Sidenote: A storie of S. Benedict, seing many diuels in a monastery
and fewe in the market.]

It is not much vnlike whiche =Æneas Siluius= (who was afterwardes
made Pope, called =Pius= .2.) reciteth in his Historie of the
Councell of _Basill_, out of the life of holy =Benedict=, father of
the Monkes called after his name. Hée sometimes visiting a certaine
Monasterie of holy men, espyed an infinite route of diuels, who as it
were fighting with the holy fathers, laboured to disturbe the good
workes which they went about. And he forthwith going to a faire full
of marchandise and buying and selling, sawe there but one diuell,
and he also idle and sad, sitting vppon a watch-toure, wherat saint
=Benedict= maruelling, that he saw the place which was holy and
dedicate to praier, full of diuels, and that he founde the prophane
place which was occupied with periurie and other offences, guarded
but with one Diuell: coniures the same Diuell to declare and shewe
vnto him the true cause thereof: who straight answered him, that it
was néedfull the holy place shoulde be assaulted by many diuels, but
those which sinned of their voluntarie accorde, had no néede to bée
deceiued by the Diuell.

But I aske thée this question O thou Papist, mighte not the Gentils
in ancient time haue obiected the same to the Christians, when they
demaunded of them why their Oracles ceassed? and why there were so
fewe Visions? If those Spirites or bugges be Diuels, why doe you then
saye and beléeue that they are the soules of deade menne, whiche
desire helpe of you? I will shewe you the verye true cause why those
visions are nowe so seldome times séene: forsoothe because the Diuell
perceiueth, that wée vnderstande his subtilties and craft, therefore
hée hunteth after other men, and séeketh to deceiue them. As for
example, when thou wilt crampe some man by the toes in night time
(as sometimes pleasant fellowes vse to do, to recreate themselues
when they trauell) and so draw him out of his bedde, if thou perceiue
he bee acquainted with thy sleight, by and by thou leauest him, and
goest vnto an other which is fast a sleep, and cannot perceiue the

[Sidenote: A burnt child dreads fire.]

There be other causes also why these things happen now more sildome.
If any man deceiue thée once, twice, or thrice, afterwards thou
openest thy eyes, and espiest what he doth and what he goeth about:
so when we haue bene often beguiled with false apparitions, we will
not easily be persuaded, if any man tell vs that a soule or spirite
hath appeared (as the prouerbe saith,) Burnt childe, dreads fire.
Moreouer, whereas now adayes fewe stand in feare of spirits, many
might be easily found, who would séek them, féele them, yea and also
handle them. This is well knowne, and therefore no man will gladly
put on a visor, or otherwise counterfeit himselfe to be a ghost. A
man may soone persuade a childe that there is a black man, a tall
woman, which will put children that cry in their budget, &c. but
after they are come to maturitie of yeares, they will no more bee
feared with visours and such like persuasions: they will laugh at thy
follie, if afterwards thou goe about to make them so afraide. Euen so
when we were children in the scriptures, that is, when we vnderstood
them not, we might be easily seduced to beléeue many things: But nowe
that we reade them in all manner of tongues, and do daily profit
in them, we do not suffer our selues to be so mocked, neither doo
we beléeue euery vaine apparition. How many sights of spirits did
the knauerie of the Monkes of _Berna_ driue away, after it was once
detected? Things are set vp in the fields to feare away the birdes,
which at the last also they perceiue to be but trifles, and are not
driuen away any longer with suche toyes. What maruel is it then, if
after so great a shipwrack of godlinesse and truth, men albeit they
are simple, doo at the last open their eyes.


  Why God doth suffer straunge noyses, or extraordinarie
  rumblings to bee heard before some notable alterations or

In that there happeneth certaine straunge things before the death
of men, and also before notable alterations, and destructions of
countries, as maruellous crackes, and terrible roaring, surely it
turneth to good vnto the iust, and to further damnation to the
wicked. For by these means God sheweth that nothing commeth to
passe by chance, or by aduenture, but that the life and death, the
prosperous or vnfortunate estate of al men, is in the power and hand
of God. It is nothing so as the Epicures affirme, that God hath no
regard whether any man liue, or be borne, or do well or euill, or
otherwise, or whether commō wealths do florish, or be made waste.
Christ himself teacheth vs, that not so much as a sparrow falleth
vnto the grounde without the will of God. =Salomon= and =Daniel= say,
that the hearts of kings are in Gods hands, and that he appointeth or
deposeth kings at his pleasure. Wherfore if we happily do heare any
noises or such like, they ought rather to put vs in good comfort, thā
to make vs afraide. And againe, God hereby admonisheth vs, that we be
not idle and secure, for he hath in all ages stirred vp his seruants,
not only with word, but also with rare and straunge apparitions. The
very Gentiles accounted these miraculous things, as the admonitions
and warnings of their gods, and it may be séen euery where, in their
histories. And albeit it be very likely, that most of these things
happen by the diuels procurement, yet neuerthelesse, we herein
perceiue Almightie God his fatherly care, loue, and preseruatiō of
vs against yͤ deuises of the diuel. For albeit the diuel take no
rest, but is alwayes in readinesse to destroy vs, yet can he not hurt
vs, so long as God kéepeth watche and defendeth vs. The wicked who
despise the preaching of Gods word, are sore terrified with these
things, in so much that they not knowing whither to turne themselues,
are constrained to confesse, that God doth gouerne all mens actions,
and that there are good and euil spirits. Otherwise they coulde in no
case be repressed, but that they would doo greater mischiefe vnto the
faithfull, except God by these meanes did cast feare vppon them, and
as it were with a snaffle or bridle, did hale and drawe them backe.


  After what sort they should behaue themselues, whiche
  see good or euil spirits, or meete with other straunge
  aduentures: and first how Iewes and Gentiles behaued
  themselues in the like cases.

[Sidenote: What the Gētiles did when they sawe spirits.]

[Sidenote: Suetonius.]

That we may rightly vnderstand how we ought to behaue our selues, if
any thing either good or euill, appeare vnto vs, we wil first declare
how the Gentiles and Iewes vsed themselues in like cases. Amongst the
Gentiles, not only those wandring spirits beare men in hand that they
were mens soules, but also shewed what were good and expedient for
them to doo for their sake, to wit, that they should do sacrifices
for their soules, obserue their obsequies, burie their bodies, erect
Temples, make holy dayes, and such like stuffe. =Suetonius= writeth,
that the Emperor =Caligule= his bodie was priuily conueyed into the
gardeins called _Lamiam_, and there with a hastie fire being but
halfe consumed, was cast into a pit, and couered with a litle earth.
But afterwards, whē his sisters returned from exile, it was taken vp,
and thorowly burnt, and afterward solemnly buried. But before they
had so done, the gardē kéepers were very much troubled with appearing
of spirites. And moreouer, no man could passe any night in the same
house where he was slaine, without some great feare, vntil such time
as the house was vtterly destroyed with fire.

[Sidenote: Septimæ Tricessimæ Anniuersaria.]

[Sidenote: Lilius Giraldus.]

[Sidenote: Cicero.]

We read also in other writers, that the ghostes of them which were
not orderly buried, or whose accustomed rites and ceremonies in the
time of warres were omitted, did appeare either to their friendes
or vnto others, complayning and intreating that their funerals, and
all other ceremonies might be obserued for their sake: whereof came
the hearses, wéekemindes, monthmindes, and anniuersaries, whereof
we reade many things in the Ethnike writers, and many things are
recited out of the olde Poets, and in =Lilius Giraldus=, in his
booke _De sepultura_, and also in =Polid. Virgilius= _De Inuentione
rerum.lib.6.cap.10_. We haue shewed before in the second part and
first Chapter, that some haue desired others, that they might bee
buried after that they were dead. =Cicero= writeth in his 1. booke
_De legibus_, that =Romulus= the first founder of _Rome_, walking
after his death not farre from =Atticus= house, appeared vnto =Iulius
Proculus=, and told him that he was now a god, and that his name was
=Quirinus=, and therwith commanded that there should be a Temple
erected and dedicated vnto him in the same place.

[Sidenote: Ouid.]

[Sidenote: Feralia.]

[Sidenote: Parentalia.]

=Ouid= writeth _Lib._4. _Fastorum_, that =Remus= appeared in the
night time vnto =Fastulus=, and to his wife =Accia Laurentia=,
sometime his Nurse, complaining vnto them of his miserable death,
and desiring them to make laboure, that the same day wherein he was
slaine, might bee accounted amongst their holy dayes. The people
of _Rome_ (as =Ouid= witnesseth, _Lib._2. _Fastorum_) kept a feast
in the moneth of Februarie called _Feralia_, in the which they did
sacrifice vnto the infernall goddes, and those whose duties it was
to celebrate the funeralls of their Auncesters, carried dishes of
meat to their sepulchers. Whereof =Fastus= and =Varro= called the
same feast by the name of _Feralia_. These dishes of meate were set
vpon a stone, at the time of these sacrifices: for the which cause,
as =Seruius= saith, they were called _Silicernium_, by the which
word some will haue a certaine feast signified, which is bestowed
vppon old men. =Donatus= sayth, that _Silicernium_ is a supper,
which is made to the infernall Gods, because _Eam silentes cernant_,
that is, the deade soules do receiue it, or because those that doe
serue it, do onely _cernere_, sée it, and not taste thereof, &c.
There were also certaine holie feastes called _Parentalia_, in
the which meate was carried to the Sepulchers, for the soules of
Parents and Auncestours before deceased. And albeit they suppose,
that soules were pleased with small giftes, as of milke, wine, and
such like, whereof mention is made in =Ouid=, yet notwithstanding
they also killed sacrifices, whereof some suppose that _Feralia_
tooke their name, _à feriendis pecudibus_, of killing shéepe. Vnto
their sacrifices they also added praiers, and kindled lightes.
When in times past the Romanes being troubled with warres, had let
passe the feast of _Parentalia_, they therefore supposed (that
the infernall Goddes being for the same cause angrie) there arose
stormes and pestilence, and that soules rising out of their graues,
did wander with pittifull complaintes about the graues, and by the
highway sides, and in the fieldes. This feaste endured by the space
of fiftéene dayes, in the whiche married women lay not with their
husbandes, neither those whiche were marriageable did marrie, and the
Images of their Goddes were couered. The soules of them that were
dead, when they came to the meate, they wandred about the graues, and
were fed (as they thought) with the banquet.

[Sidenote: Lemuria.]

[Sidenote: Ouid.]

In the moneth of May, there was holden a feast in the night time,
which at the beginning they called _Remuria_, and afterwardes
_Lemuria_. This did not differ much from the feaste called _Feralia_,
whiche was instituted to pacifie soules. Touching the originall of
them, and the rytes belonging therto, looke =Ouid= in his _Lib._5.
_Fastorum_. One who tooke on him to pacifie the soules, arose in the
night verie late, he went barefooted, and washed himselfe ouer with
fresh springing water, and then taking beanes whiche he had rolled in
his mouth, he threw them behinde his backe, and said, that with them
he did redéeme himselfe, and after beating on a péece of brasse, he
prayed the soules to depart from thence: which thing if they had done
nine times, they thought they had ended their holy seruice. These
were celebrated by the space of thrée dayes. The sacrifices which are
done for the infernall gods, are called _Inferiæ_.

We reade in =Lucan=, of the soules of =Sylla= and =Marius=, which
were purged by sacrifice. We shewed before how =Athanagoras=
commanded the bones which were digged vp in the entrie of his house
at _Athens_, to bee orderly buried againe. &c.

[Sidenote: Touching the Iewes behauiour.]

The auncient Iewes had an expresse commandement of God, not to
bee any thing moued with the miracles of false Prophets, and God
in plaine words forbad them, not to séeke counsel of dead bodies.
=Saule= in the beginning of his raigne, while he yet gaue himselfe
vnto godlinesse, vtterly destroyed all Coniurers and Witches. I doo
not remember that I haue euer heard or read, how the Iewes behaued
themselues when any spirits appeared vnto them: yet I doubt not but
that they are superstitious as well in these things, as in all others.


  How Christian men ought to behaue themselues when they
  see Spirites, and first that they ought to haue a good
  courage, and to be stedfast in faith.

Howe Christian menne oughte to behaue themselues in this behalfe, it
is fully and amply declared in the holie Scriptures, in like manner
as all other things are, whiche appertaine vnto our saluation. To
wit, that first we ought to be of good courage without feare, being
assured and constante in true faith.

For if they be good Angels which shew themselues vnto vs, then are
they sent vnto vs from God, to a good ende and purpose. But if
they be wicked and euill, they can do vs no harme be they neuer so
desirous, excepte God giue them leaue thereto. If it be nothing but
a vaine imagination that we haue, or an idle sight obiected vnto our
eies, surely it is great follie to be any thing afraid. In déed it is
naturall vnto vs, to be amazed with feare when we sée suche things:
for very godly menne, as we read both in the olde and newe Testament,
were stricken with excéeding feare when they sawe good Angels, but
yet a man must pull vp his heart againe. When Christes Disciples
sawe their Maister walking vpon the water, and approching neare the
shippe, they thought they sawe a spirite, and they were astonished,
and cried out through feare. But the Lorde saide vnto them, be of
good comforte, it is I, be not afraide.

[Sidenote: _Luke_ .24.]

[Sidenote: _Matth._ 10.]

The like is reade in the foure and twentie Chapter of Saint Luke,
when he appeared vnto them after his resurrection, and sawe that they
were maruellously afraid. Matthew the 10. Feare not saithe Christ,
those whiche slay the bodie, but cannot kill the soule, but rather
stande in awe of him, who can cast both bodie and soule into hell
fire. The Diuell would like it well, if we would alwaies stand in
feare of him.

Be not dismaide, although thou heare some spirit stir and make a
noise, for in case hee rumble onely to make thée afraide, care not
for him, but lette him rumble so long as he will, for if he sée
thée without feare, hée will soone depart from thée. And if thou
thinke good, thou maiest boldly say vnto him, get thée hence with a
mischiefe thou wicked Diuell, thou hast nothing to do with me, who
haue sette my onely beléefe in Christ Iesu my Sauiour.

I am owner of this house, and not thou, vnto whome there is an other
place appointed. &c. If he perceiue yͭ there is no feare or dreade
of him, and that his bustling is not estéemed, he will not continue
long time. I will make this matter manifest with a similitude, which
is well knowne. There be certaine men, which if they thinke other men
stande in feare of them, they make wise to drawe their sworde, and
sometimes two they draw it, and strike the stones therewith, chafing
and swearing lustily: But if they knowe their aduersaries haue a good
courage, and that (if néede require) they will fight it out stoutly,
they will quickly put vp their sworde into their scabberde. In like
manner, if the Diuill sée thou art of a good stomacke, and well armed
with Gods worde, he will soone séeke after others whome he may mocke
with feare.

But if it please God to exercise thée by the Deuill for a certaine
time, as he did sometime =Iob=, thou must patiently suffer all things
which he laieth vppon thée, and that willingly for Gods commaundement
sake. And knowe thou well, that he cannot thus much hurt, neither thy
goods, nor bodie, nor soule, without the permissiō and sufferance of
Almightie God: if God giue him leaue to plague thy bodie, thinke with
thy selfe howe so euer it be done, that God hath so doone for thy
profitte and commoditie, who also sendeth gréeuous sicknesses vppon
other men, by other meanes & instruments, or else doth exercise them
with other kindes of calamities. Be therefore strong and constant
in faith, yet lette euery one beware of boldnesse, temeritie, and
headdie rashnesse.

[Sidenote: Christ hath conquered the diuel.]

[Sidenote: _Luke_ 11.]

[Sidenote: _Iohn_.12.16.]

Let it comforte thée, that thou knowest Christe hath conquired the
Deuill, as he himselfe teacheth in the eleuenth chapter of Luke, by
the example of a strong man at armes. In the 12.&.16. of Iohn he
saith: the Prince of this worlde shalbe cast out of the doores, that
is to say, out of the hearts of them which cleaue to the worde of
God, and are not in loue with the world, whereof he is prince and
ruler. For he hath power ouer such, which do gréedily loue the world.

[Sidenote: 1. _Iohn_ .3.]

In the first of =Iohn= the third chapter, it is saide: The sonne of
man appeared, that is, came into the world for that cause, that he
might destroy the workes of the diuel. There are many miracles in
the Gospell which shewe that Christ cast out diuels. Albeit God for
a time do suffer the diuel in many things, yet hath he appointed
him his bounds, which he may not passe. And he doth not suffer the
faithfull to be tempted any more of him than they are able to endure.
He giueth his grace plentuously vnto them, vpon whome he laieth great

[Sidenote: The diuel is conuersant among men.]

We ought not to maruel if spirits sometimes be séen or heard. For as
Saint =Peter= saith: Sathan raungeth euery where, in houses, fieldes,
water and fire: and yet he is not alwayes espied of men, neither can
he so bee, except God giue him leaue to shewe himselfe. In that that
we doe alwayes sée him (for he being of an inuisible nature, taketh
on him diuers shapes) or heare him, we haue to thanke the goodnesse
of almightie God: for otherwise we should not be in rest one moment
of time. But if sometime wicked spirits méete with vs in a visible
forme by the will of God, or do otherwise trouble and disquiet our
houses, we must not think therfore that they were neuer in house


  It behoueth them which are vexed with spirites, to pray
  especially, and to giue themselues to fasting, sobrietie,
  watching, and vpright and godly liuing.

Now because good Angelles appeare vnto vs more sildome in this oure
time (for there is a verie greate difference of men liuing vnder the
newe Testament, from them that liue vnder the olde, vnto whom God
many and oftentimes sent his Angels) and that euill angels very often
appeare, we ought the rather to commit our selues more diligently to
the tuition of almightie God, both when we go to bed, and also when
we arise againe.

Our Sauiour amongst all other things, taught vs to pray to this
purpose: =Deliuer vs from euill=. And moreouer he saith in the 17.
Chapter of =Matthew=, that some kinde of diuels are not driuen
away by any other kinde of meanes than fasting and praying. As
touching those which suppose that diuels ought to be cast out with
coniurations, and execrable cursings, I will intreat in the end
of this my booke. Watch and pray, least ye fall into temptation.
=Matthew= 26. And in the 22. of =Luke=, Christ saith vnto =Peter=,
Sathan hath desired to sift you euen as corne, but I haue praied
that thy faith faile not. And euen at this present also he maketh
intercession for vs sitting at the right hand of his heauenly father.

The auncient Fathers in olde time, call vppon God in all their
daungers and troubles, whereof it were a néedlesse matter to auouch
many examples. It is also very profitable and good to craue the
prayers of the whole congregation, whensoeuer we are vexed with euill
spirites and vaine fantasies. For we know right well that the prayers
of the Church haue bene very profitable and effectuall vnto others,
and that the godly in their distresses haue euermore desired them.

It is Gods pleasure, that the faithfull should succour one an other
with their good prayers. Howbeit that the Saintes after their
departure from hence, should pray for vs, that we should in any wise
desire their prayers, surely there is no commandement of God, or any
example thereof in the holy scriptures.

[Sidenote: _Ephe._6.]

[Sidenote: 1. _Pet._5.]

Moreouer, the Apostles teach vs to withstand the craft and subtiltie
of the diuell by this meanes. Saint =Paule= to the Ephesians the 6.
Chapter, and =Peter= on his first Epistle and fifth Chapter saith: Be
ye sober and watche, for your aduersary the diuel, as a roaring lyon
walketh about, séeking whom he may deuoure: whome resist stedfast in
faith, &c.

[Sidenote: We must fight against the diuel with good life.]

When men are secure and negligent, wholly giuen vnto pleasures and
as it were drowned in surfetting, couetousnesse, adulterie, and such
other wickednesse, then hath the diuel place to shewe himselfe.
Wherefore we ought to giue our selues to watching, praying, fasting,
and godly liuing: we must heare the word of God often and gladly,
we must desire to reade and talke of him continually, that we may
thereby put from vs those diuellishe illusions and sightes.

If thou haue any publike office or charge, do it faithfully: restore
thy goods euil gotten, either vnto their true owners, or else imploy
them to some good and godly ende. If men care neither for God, nor
his word, it is no maruell if vaine sightes appeare vnto them. For
God suffereth such things to happen vnto them, to humble them and to
make them know themselues.

It is an horrible thing, that there are some which giue ouer
themselues to the diuel, because he should not torment them: they
ought rather to weigh with themselues, that if they so do, they shall
be perpetually tormented of euil spirits, except they truly repent
and turne againe to God.


  That spirits which vse to appeare, ought to be iustly
  suspected: and that we may not talke with them, nor
  enquire any thing of them.

[Sidenote: _Matth._ 1.]

We ought not without great cause to suspecte all Spirites, and other
apparitions. For albeit God doth vse the helpe and seruice of good
Angels, for the preseruation of his elect, yet notwithstanding in
these our dayes they appeare vnto vs very sildome. For things are
nowe farre otherwise since Christes comming into the worlde, than
they were before in auncient time. Although perchaunce thou thinke
thou haste séene a good Angell, yet doo not easily and vnaduisedly
giue him credite. If the euent of the matter declare afterward,
that it was a good Angell, which gaue thée notable warning of some
matter, or deliuered thée out of some great dangers: giue God thankes
that he hath dealt so fatherly and mercifully with thée, and hath
suche care ouer thée, and endeuour to frame thy selfe to his wil and
pleasure. But if thou sée an Angell which flattereth and speaketh
thée faire, suche a one of those are whiche craue thy helpe, (as
thou hast heard before) in no wise credite their wordes. Men which
blaunche and flatter with vs, are alwayes suspitious, why then should
not such spirites be suspected? Enter into no communication with such
spirites, neither aske them what thou must giue, or what thou must
doo, or what shall happen hereafter. Aske them not who they are, or
why they haue presented themselues to bee séene or heard. For it they
be good, they will like it well, that thou wilt heare nothing but the
world of God: but if they be wicked, they will endeuour to deceiue
thée with lying. When the Angell in the first Chapter of =Matthew=,
instructed =Ioseph= in a dreame, he by and by alleaged testimony
out of the prophet. If it be so, that we must not beléeue an Angell
comming from heauen, who can iustly blame vs, if we giue no credite
to spirits and suspitious dreames? Although Christ and his Apostles
had the full power to shew miracles, yet did they establish and
confirme their doctrine by the holie scriptures.

When Almightie God himselfe had enquired of =Adam= in Paradice,
touching the breaking of his Commaundement, and that he had layde the
fault vpon his wife =Eue=, and she had put it ouer to the Serpent,
which caused her to eate of the forbidden frute, God woulde not
demaund of the Serpent, that is, of the Diuell, (whiche had vsed him
as an instrument) why he had so done, for he knewe right well that he
was a lyer. Except =Eue= had talked with the Serpent, she had neuer
transgressed Gods Commandement.

If Spirites of their owne accorde woulde gladly tell vs many thinges:
yet wée must not giue eare vnto them, much lesse ought we to coniure
them to tell vs the truthe. God commaunded in his lawe, (as wée haue
oftentimes said before) that no man should enquire any thing of the

[Sidenote: God hath alwayes giuen vs teachers.]

God himselfe sent his faithfull seruants, the Prophets, Apostles,
Euangelists, and especially his onely begotten sonne Christ Iesu our
Lord and Sauiour into the worlde, by whome he truly and plentifully
taught his faithfull seruants what they ought to beléeue, to do,
to leaue vndon, and what kinde of worshipping did best please him,
with many other such things. By them he enformed vs concerning great
and waightie affaires, which should happen in his Churche, and in
kingdomes, euen vnto that blessed day wherein Christ shall iudge
the world, and shall call togither his generall Councell, and shall
pronounce finall sentence vppon them who haue done well or ill, and
wherein he shall make a diuision and separation betwéene the good and

Christ himselfe after his Resurrection did not immediately ascend
into heauen, but aboade a while on earth, appearing vnto his
Disciples and others, least we should at any time say: Who euer came
again to tell vs what estate is to be looked for in the other world?

[Sidenote: God hath preserued the scriptures.]

Moreouer, God among suche great and long persecutions, wherein many
profitable bookes haue perished, hath miraculously preserued the holy
Scriptures for our profite, euen vnto this day, and hereafter will
preserue them in despite of all impious and wicked men.

[Sidenote: God hath instituted the holy ministerie.]

[Sidenote: _Psalme._119.]

[Sidenote: _Iohn_.8.]

He hath also ordeyned the ministerie of the worde, that vnto the
ende of the worlde, there shoulde be some men, whiche bothe by
liuely voyce, and also by their writings, shoulde interprete his
worde, and enfourme others of his will and pleasure. His woord is a
shining lanterne, which shineth in this darke worlde, which is full
of errours, as we reade Psalm.119. And our sauiour saith in the eight
chapter of Saint _Iohn_, that he is the light of the world, whome if
any man follow, he walketh not in darkenesse.

This standeth as a sure grounde: wherefore no other reuelations are
to be looked for, neither by myracles from Heauen, nor by wandring
spirites or soules, as the common people misterme them. But lette
vs imagine, that they are the wandring spirites of deade bodies,
then is it necessarie, that they be the soules, either of faithfull
men, or of infidels. If they be the soules of the faithfull, they
wil say with God the father concerning his sonne Christe Iesus,
_Heare him_. But if they be the soules of Infidels and of wicked
men, who I pray you, will vouchsafe to heare them, or beléeue any
thing they say? Moreouer those things whiche these counterfeite
soules doo speake, eyther agrée with the holy Scriptures, or else
are contrary vnto them. If they are agréeable, then are they to be
receiued, not because spirits speake them, but because they are
comprysed in the word of God. But in case they are repugnant to the
woorde of God, they ought in no wise to be receiued, albeit an Angell
from Heauen vtter them. Thou wilt not beléeue a man of thy familiar
acquaintaunce, otherwise worthy of credite, who sounde of bodie and
soule, nowe liueth togither with thée, if hée affirme any thing which
thou knowest to be contrary to the holy Scriptures: why them wouldest
thou beléeue a spirite which thou doest not knowe? In ciuill causes
the euidence or witnesse or dead men is reiected, why then in causes
of religion shuld we giue care to the testimonie of runagate and
wandring spirites.

It is no harde or difficulte matter for the Lorde oure God to sende
his Angels vnto vs, whome otherwise hée vseth for our profite, and by
them to instructe vs in the faith: but it hath pleased him to appoint
the matter otherwise.

[Sidenote: _Acts_ .10.]

Wée reade in the tenth chapter of the Actes, that by an Angell he
commaunded =Cornelius= to sende for =Peter=, that he might instruct
him in the faith. He mighte haue commaunded the Angell to teache
=Cornelius=, but he followed an orderly meanes. It shal be best for
vs therfore to stand to the holy Scriptures simply, and that all
appearing of spirites, as also all dreames and reuelations be tried
by the holy Scriptures, as vpon a touchstone, and so to admit nothing
but that which is set foorth in the holy Scriptures: for except we go
thus warely to worke, there is greate daunger least wee bée deceiued.
If the auncient Fathers had so doone, they had not estrayed so farre
from the Apostles simplicitie.

[Sidenote: S. Augustines counsell.]

[Sidenote: Scripture to be only beloued.]

S. =Augustine= in his third booke and .6. chapter, writing againste
the letters of =Petilianus= saieth thus: If concerning Christe, or
any other thing, whiche appartayneth to faith and euerlasting life,
(I will not say, we: for comparing with him that said: Albeit that
wée) but simply, whereas he going on, sayd: If an Angell from Heauen
shall teache you any thing besides that whiche you haue receiued in
Scriptures conteining the law and the Gospel, bée he accursed.

[Sidenote: Chrisostomes aduise.]

S. =Chrisostom= vnto the Epistle to the Galathians the firste
chapter: =Abraham= (saith he) when he was desired to send Lazarus,
said: They haue =Moises= and the prophets, if they will not heare
them, they will not giue care vnto them which rise vp from the
dead. And when he bring in Christ vttering these words, he sheweth
howe he woulde haue the holy scriptures more worthy of credite
than any raised from the dead. S. =Paule= (when I name =Paule=, I
name likewise Christ, for he stirred vp his mind) preferreth the
Scriptures before Angels descending from Heauen, and that for very
iust cause. For albeit Angels are great, yet are they seruants and
ministers. For all holy scriptures were not commaunded to be written
and sent vnto vs by seruants, but by almightie God yͤ Lord of all
things. Thus write these two holy fathers.

[Sidenote: All things necessarie to saluation are cōteined in the

What things soeuer are necessarie for vs to know, are conteined
in the holy scriptures: those things which are not expressed in
them, we must not curiously enquire of, as things profitable for
our saluation. Who will therefore say against the commaundement of
God, that these things are to be sought and learned of dead men,
and by diuellish visions? These things which are secret and hidden,
we shall throughly sée when we come to eternall life. May not God,
if we be not content with his holy word, say that vnto vs, which
sometimes he spake by the mouth of =Helias= vnto the messengers
of king =Ochosias=. Is there no God in _Israell_, that you now go
to =Accaron= to aske counsell of Belzebub? Yea =Thomas Aquinas=
denieth that diuels are to be heard, whiche deceiue simple menne,
feyning themselues to be the soules of dead men: and by that coloure
especially terrifie menne, whiche sometimes also happened vnto the

[Sidenote: Hierom.]

If it were certaine and sure that the Diuell coulde not appeare and
deceiue menne, and also shewe greate and straunge miracles, then
perchaunce some men would thinke that we shoulde giue care vnto such
Spirites: but nowe we sée the contrary happen. An euill spirite
cloaketh his erroures vnder the coloure of diuine seruice, and vnder
the pretence of religiō, he endeuoureth to ouerthrow religion. For
as S. =Hierome= saith, the diuell sheweth not himselfe with all his
deceits, that he may be knowne what he is. And therefore it behoueth
vs to be very circumspect and warie.

[Sidenote: Miracles are seales of the word.]

Moreouer, miracles are onely testimonies and seales of the word,
neither may any thing be approued by them, which is repugnant to the
word of God. All miracles which lead vs away from our Creator vnto
creatures, and do attribute that vnto our workes, which is onely due
vnto the merites of Christ: and to be short, all those which induce
vs any wayes into errour, are to be eschued. If we must néeds beléeue
these appearing soules, no man can be assured of his estate: for new
things should be continually deuised, as we sée plainly it happened
in the olde time. Therefore we must let passe all maner of spirits,
and embrace true religion, and therein constantly abide.


  Testimonies out of holie Scripture, and one example
  whereby it is prooued, that such kinde of apparitions
  are not to be credited, and that we ought to bee verie
  circumspect in them.

That wee ought not by and by to beléeue all thinges which we heare,
not onely experience and many common Prouerbes, but also the holy
Scriptures teach vs, especially in cases concerning our saluation,
touching the which thing, we will alledge only a fewe places and

[Sidenote: _Mat._10.]

[Sidenote: _Mat._24.]

[Sidenote: 1._Tim._4.]

[Sidenote: 2._Thess._2.]

[Sidenote: 1. _Iohn_ .4.]

[Sidenote: The holy virgin did not by & by beleeue the appearing of
the Angell.]

When Christ first sent abroad his Disciples to preach the Gospell, he
said vnto them, =Matthew= 10. Be yée wise as Serpents, and simple as
Doues, beware of men: howe much more than ought we to take heede of
diuels? Christ prophecieth in the 24. of =Matthew=, that many false
teachers shall come in the latter daies, and shall shewe straunge
myracles to confirme their erroures, and therefore hée commaundeth
the faithfull, to be héedefull and circumspect, and not without cause
hée addeth: Beholde I haue tolde you before. Sainte =Paule= to the
Galathians the firste Chapter, saith in greate earnest vnto them,
that if an Angell come from Heauen, and preache vnto them any other
Gospell, hée shoulde be accursed. Euen so, if at this time spirites
appeare, and doe vtter any thinge repugnant to the Doctrine of the
Apostles and Prophets, they are to be reiected. The Apostle in his
firste Epistle and fourth Chapter to Timothie, dothe prophecie of
false teachers whiche shoulde come, and saithe, the spirit speaketh
euidently, that in the latter times some shall departe from the
faithe, and shall giue héede vnto spirits of errour and doctrines
of Deuils, whiche speake lies through hipocrisie, and haue their
consciences burned with an hote yron, forbidding to marrie, and
commaunding to absteyne from meates which God hath created to be
receiued with gyuing thankes of them whiche beléeue, and knowe the
truth. &c. By the worde (spirite) are vnderstoode false teachers,
whiche vaunt themselues of the spirite of God: But what cause is
there, why it may not be vnderstoode of suche wandring spirites,
which haue induced men to take in hande many things? In the seconde
Epistle to the Thessalonians, and the seconde Chapter, when certaine
affirmed the latter daye to be presente at hande, =Paule= foretelleth
them, that there shall be a defection, and that Antichrist shall
first come, saying: Nowe we beséech you brethren by the comming of
our Lorde Iesus Christe, by our assembling vnto him, that yée be not
sodenly moued from your intent, nor troubled, neither by spirits,
nor by word, nor by letter, as it were from vs, as though the day
of Christ were at hande. Let no man deceiue you by any meanes.
&c. Whiche wordes truly in my iudgement may also be verie aptly
vnderstood of those wandering spirites. Saint =Iohn= saith in his
first Epistle and fourth Chapter: Dearly beloued, beléeue not euery
spirit, but trie the spirits whether they are of God: for many false
prophettes are gone out into the world. Hereby shall ye knowe the
spirit of God. Euery spirit that confesseth that Iesus Christ is
come in the flesh, is of God, and euery spirite whiche confesseth
not, that Iesus Christ is come in the flesh, is not of God. &c.
Here he speaketh not of spirites which falsly affirme themselues to
be mens soules, but of those teachers whiche boaste of themselues
that they haue the spirite of God. But in case we must not beleeue
them being aliue, much lesse ought we to credite them when they
are dead. And albeit that neyther Christe nor his Apostles, had so
diligently giuen vs warning, not to suffer our selues to be seduced
with myracles, and with the talke of spirits, yet notwithstanding,
daily experience teacheth vs to bee circumspect and warie in these
cases. For assoone as false teachers sée that they haue no testimonie
of Scripture to defende themselues withall, by and by they turne
themselues to spirites and visions, whereby they may confirme their
doctrine, which thing hath opened a large windowe to many errors. To
what inconuenience ambition, couetousnesse and enuie, hath brought
many of the Clergie, it is both well knowne by many examples, and it
hath also as it were by the way bene before declared. Haue not the
orders of Monkes striued amongest themselues for the preheminence?
haue not they inuented newe miracles? haue they not counterfeited
gods, pilgrimages, saintes and spirits? The holy Virgin is a famous
and notable example, that we shuld not rashly beléeue euery spirit.
For at what time yͤ Angell =Gabriel= appeared vnto her in a visible
shape, and saluted her, shewing her before of yͤ incarnatiō of the
sonne of God, she thought with her selfe, what maner of saluation
that should be, how this thing could come to passe, séeing shée had
knowne no man. Then at the last being enformed of the meanes by the
Angell, she said: Beholde the handmayd of the Lord, be it vnto me
according to thy word. Why then should we beléeue euery spirite,
especially those which teach things quite contrary to the word of God.


  After what sort the faithful in the primitiue Church,
  vsed themselues when they met with spirits.

I haue declared out of the word of God how good and godly men ought
to behaue themselues, when soeuer any spirites appeare vnto them. And
truly the auncient Christians behaued themselues after this sort.
For they were couragious and without feare, they gaue themselues to
godlinesse, and all good workes, they diligently auoyded all things
which were displeasing vnto God: and they were also very circumspect,
not to attribute too much vnto spirits and visions.

[Sidenote: The signe of the Crosse.]

[Sidenote: Tertullian.]

[Sidenote: Hierome.]

[Sidenote: Origen. &c.]

[Sidenote: Athanasius.]

It was a common custom amongst them, to blesse themselues with the
signe of the Crosse, when they mette with these things, which many
also vse at this day. =Tertullian= writeth in his booke _De corona
militis_, that the auncient Christians did many times marke their
foreheades with the signe of the Crosse. S. =Hierom= exhorteth
=Demetriades=, that he often crosse his foreheade, least that
the destroyer of _Egipt_ finde any place therein. =Origen= also,
=Epiphanius=, =Chrisostome=, and =Augustine=, write many thinges of
the vertue of the holie Crosse. S. =Athanasius= writeth in his booke
_De Humanitate verbi, eiusque corporali aduentu_. _Fol._67. In times
past (saith he) the diuels by vaine shewes, and mockerie, ensnared
men, abiding somtimes in wels, sometime in riuers, in stones,
and woods, and so by craftie deceytes, brought vnwise men into
sottishnesse. But nowe since Gods word hath appeared vnto vs, suche
sightes and vaine fantasies haue surceased. Fol. 56. and 72. and in
other places also he handleth the same matter.

=Lactantius= writeth of the same in his fourth booke _Diuinarum
Institutionum_ 26. Chapter, and also throughout the 27. Chapter. He
saith that the diuel can haue no accesse vnto those, nor any wayes
hurt them, which signe their foreheads with the Crosse. He addeth
moreouer, that the Christians vsed this ceremonie in old time, in
casting out diuels and healing diseases.

[Sidenote: Whether the bare signe of the Crosse haue anie force.]

Not for that they ascribed such efficacie and force to the externall
signe of the Crosse, (for that were superstitious) but vnto the
Crosse, that is, to the merites of Christe, whose worthinesse and
excellencie, they called withall to their remembrance. Touching
the holy Apostles, or Apostolike Churches, we reade not, that they
euer vsed the signe of the Crosse, in expelling diuels, in curing
diseases, or in any other thing. God spared the Iewes in _Egipt_,
whiche marked the doore postes with the bloude of the Lambe: not that
Lambes bloude is able to deliuer men from death, but it was a figure
of the bloud and passion of Christ Iesus. And the Iewes sprinkled
not bloud of their owne good deuotion, as they terme it, but by the
commandement of God. The holy Fathers by the ceremonie that they
signed themselues with the Crosse, ment to testifie their confidence
in the crosse, that is, in the death of Christ Iesus, which
abandoneth all euill and mischiefe. The Diuell neuer a whit feareth
the Crosse, wherewith we signe our selues, nor yet those pieces and
fragments of Christes Crosse, which are shewed for reliques, but he
trembleth at the power and force of Christs death, by the which he
was conquered and ouerthrowne. If any man attribute too much vnto
ceremonies, he cannot be excused from superstition, which worthily
deserueth blame.

[Sidenote: Coniurations against diuels.]

We read more in the auncient writers, that they vsed exorcismes, or
coniurations in the primatiue Churche against diuels.

[Sidenote: Tertullian.]

You may read in =Tertullian= in his booke _De anima_, that vncleane
spirits haue oftentimes deceiued men, haue taken on them the persons
of others, and haue fained themselues to be the soules of dead men,
that men should not beléeue that all soules descended into Hell (what
is to be vnderstood by the word Hell, I haue shewed before) and so to
bring the beléefe of the latter iudgement of the resurrection of the
dead, into doubt and question.

Moreouer, we reade that the olde Fathers haue cast diuels out of
men, and out of such places wherein by their rumbling, they haue put
many in horrible feare. Such an historie of Saint =Iohn= in =Abdias
Babylonius=, for the holy Apostles, and many godly men after them,
were endued with this grace from God, that they could cast out
vnclean spirits: which gift continued a long season in the Church, to
the great profit of the faithfull, but afterwards it ceased as other
miracles did also. It maketh vnto this purpose, that =Tertullian=
writeth in his =Apologetico=, =Fol.= 858. and 159.

Thus we haue sufficiently séene after what sort the holy Fathers and
auncient christians behaued themselues when any spirits appeared vnto


  That sundrie kindes of superstition haue crept in,
  whereby men haue attempted to driue away spirits.

[Sidenote: 2._Thess._2.]

[Sidenote: 1._Iohn_.4.]

In proces of time, superstitions encreased more & more. =Paule=
complaineth, that in his time Antichrist beganne to practise his
ministerie of iniquitie, that many opinions and sects beganne to
spring vp. Saint =Iohn= writeth, that in his time, there were many
Antichristes. What maruel is it then, if afterwards, yea and that
verie quickly, diuers errours croape into the Churche, and multiplyed

[Sidenote: Augustine.]

Sainte =Augustine= in his 22. booke _De ciuitate Dei_, and eighte
Chapter, after that hee hadde recited certaine miracles, whiche were
therefore shewed that men might beléeue in Christ, he setteth foorthe
this historie. =Hesperius= a man of good worshippe and calling
amongest vs, hath a piece of land in the territorie of _Fussalum_
called _Cubedi_, in the which, perceiuing by the languishing of his
cattell and seruauntes, that his house was infected with the force
and rage of euill spirites, he desired our fellow Priestes, (I being
then absent,) that some one of them would take the paines to go
thither, that the spirit by his good praiers might giue place: one
of them went thither, and there offred the sacrifice of the bodie of
Christ, praying very earnestly, that the same disquieting of spirites
might cease, and by and by God had compassion, and it ceased. He had
giuen him of a friend of his, some parte of holy lande brought from
Hierusalem, where Christ being buried, rose againe the third day:
that earth he hung vp in his chamber, least any euill might happē
vnto him. But when his house was deliuered frō that trouble, he
deuiseth with himselfe what he might do with the saide earth, which
for reuerence sake, he would not kéepe any longer in his chamber.
&c. Héereby it is manifest, that superstition began immediatly, and
(as it hapneth alwaies) grewe bigger with great increase, as if one
shoulde roll foorthe snowe clodded togither, or as when huge lumpes
of snowe begin to fall down from the _Alpes_, all things on euery
side are filled with snowe. Shortly after menne began to praye,
and offer sacrifice for dead mennes soules, yea and that with a
good intention, as it may euidently appeare in many of the auncient

Afterwards when Bishops and parish Priests, did not onely not correct
olde superstitions, but also vppon a good meaning increase them, at
the last they grew to an infinite number. For when spirits appeared,
men called not vpon God through Christ only, but also vpon Saints,
forgetting that which S. =Paule= saith to the Romanes the tenth. (For
I wil let passe at this time all other arguments,) how shall they
call vpon him in whom they haue not beléeued? The Papists themselues
cannot deny, but that we must beléeue onely in God, and therefore he
onely is to be worshipped through his sonne.

[Sidenote: The Aue Marie is no praier.]

[Sidenote: _Ephe._1.]

[Sidenote: _Iohn_.2.]

[Sidenote: 1. _Timo._ 2.]

Some write that it is a soueraign remedie to driue away diuels, if
we pray _Aue Maria_. Where by the way is to bee noted, that the
same salutation of the Angell is no prayer, but onely a gréeting,
and historicall narration, to witte, howe the Archangell =Gabriell=
tolde the Virgin =Mary= before of the Incarnation of Christ. But I
pray thée weigh the sense of the words, and whether though wilt or
no, thou must néedes say that these words conteine in them neither
asking, nor thankesgiuing, which are the parts of prayer. When the
Angell came vnto her, he saluted her, saying: χαῖρει, _i.
salue_, that is, God spéede, or reioyce (for as =Festus= saith,
the Gréeke and the Latin word haue one signification.) Then he
addeth further, full of grace, which is to be vnderstood passiuely,
(as they terme it in the schooles) for because God bestowed his
grace vpon her: for so the Angell himselfe expoundeth it, when he
saith afterwardes, that she had founde grace, that is, that God
is mercifull and louing towardes her. Those words may not be so
vnderstoode, as if she were the fountaine of grace (as some haue
expounded it) and that she hath grace of her selfe, and bestoweth it
vpon such as call vppon her, or speake vnto her with the salutation
of the Angell. For neyther the Gréeke worde, nor any other places of
the Scriptures admit this sense. The Apostle saieth to the Ephesians
the first Chapter, that God hath made vs his faithfull seruants,
deare by his grace through his beloued, that is, through Iesus
Christ. In the which saying, the same word is put, which the Angell
vsed in saluting the holy Virgine. It is written in the first Chapter
of saint =Iohns= Gospell in plaine wordes, that =Iohn Baptist= bare
witnesse of Christ with a loude voyce, and saide, that we all haue
receiued of his fulnesse, grace for grace. For the lawe was giuen by
=Moses=, but grace and truth sprang vp by Christ. Many other suche
places I omit for breuities sake. The Virgin =Mary= her selfe saith,
the Lord hath done maruellous things vnto me. She setteth foorth the
grace of God, giuen vnto her from God, without any of her deserts.
For he neuer bestowed greater grace on any woman. And there is a
very great difference betwéen him that conferreth grace, and them
which receiue or obtaine grace. Grace is only to be sought at his
hands, who giueth grace, and not of them which themselues receiue
grace. A fewe yeares past, all men besought the Virgin for helpe,
hoping for more grace and succour of her than of Christ himselfe. The
Angell addeth further: Blessed art thou amongst women, that is, God
hath conferred more grace vnto thée, than vnto any other woman. The
words which are ioyned herevnto, Blessed is the frute of thy wombe,
are not the words of the Angell, but of her cousin =Elizabeth=, who
also saluted her. Vnto these words some religious men added, Iesus
Christ, Amen. Therefore the Angell vttered not all those words of the
=Aue Marie= (as it may manifestly be gathered out of the very text
of Saint =Luke=, Chapter 1.) not because we deny these words to be
good and holy, for the text saith of =Elizabeth=, that she was full
of the holy ghost: but that which the Angell spake not, is not to
be attributed vnto her. You shall not finde in any allowed Authors,
that in the time of the Apostles and many dayes after, this greeting
was accounted as a prayer, or that any godly men did salute, and
call vpon the holy Virgin. Which thing I write not, because I would
bereaue the holy Virgin of hir honor, but least that against hir
will, we giue hir that honour which is only due to God the Father,
and to his sonne Iesu Christ. For he is our onely mediatour and
redéemer. 1. Timoth. 2. Otherwise the =Aue Marie=, and other such
places of holy Scripture full of consolation and comfort, touching
the humanitie of Christ, his punishment, death, and merites, are to
be often read, and diligentely considered: neither are the Scriptures
to be pulled out of the handes of the lay people, in whiche they
may sée all these things with their owne eyes. Indéede I denie not
but Spirites haue many times vanished away vpon the saying of =Aue
Marie=, but it was so doone, that men might therby be confirmed in
their superstition.

[Sidenote: Holy Water.]

But these men procéeding further, did coniure or consecrate water
with certain peculiar ceremonies, and kept it in vessels in their
churches, houses and elsewhere: amongest many other vertues,
ascribing this force vnto it, that it chaseth away spirites, and
vaine sights. They also consecrated saulte, and taught, that whether
soeuer it were cast, it draue away spirites, and all deceites of
the diuil, yea and the diuel himselfe also. Moreouer, they coniured
with certain cerimonies and words, candles, palme, herbes, and other
creatures, to driue away fantasies (as they terme them.) They laide
these and such like things, as also the relikes of Saintes, in those
places wheras Spirits had bin séene or heard. They also bare men
in hande, that greate belles and sancebelles by their noise fraied
spirites out of the ayre. All these things are founde more at large
in the Papists bookes whiche are written of the consecration of suche
things, and are publikely extant. If belles be roong on S. =Iohns=
day, or S. =Agathes= day, they say it is a most excellēt remedie
against spirits. Some vsed to burne a bundell of consecrated herbes,
that with the smoke therof they might chase away diuels. Many haue
their peculiar and straunge blessings against spirites. There haue
bene also many holy rites instituted by the commaundement of wandring
soules, as Masses for the dead, vigils, prayers, and tweluemonths
minds: as though the soules of godly men, being deliuered from all
trouble, were not immediately translated into eternall rest. And it
is also plaine by reading the Poets and Historiographers, that the
Gentiles had their sacrifices for the dead, as their rites called
=Nouendialia=, which were obserued the ninth day, and their yearely
feastes. &c. Howbeit those counterfait ghostes craued nothing so
earnestly, as that many Masses might be sung for their sakes, for
they bare men in hand, that those had great and maruellous force to
redéeme them out of Purgatorie.

[Sidenote: The order of Cistertians.]

[Sidenote: Exorcists.]

=Iohn Tritenhemius= writeth in his Cronicles of the Monasterie of
=Hirsgauium=, about the yeare of our Lorde 1098. =Henricus= the
fourth then being Emperour, that at such time as the order of the
=Cistertians= first began, there appeared many dayes and nights, not
far from the citie of _Wormes_, great troupes of horsmen and footmen,
as if they were now going foorth to battail, running now here & now
there in troupes, and that about .ix. of the clock at night they
returned again to the hill nere at hand, out of yͤ which they vsed
to come forth. At last a certaine Monke of the Abbey of _Limpurge_,
which stood not far from yͤ hil whence they issued, associating
certain other vnto him, came on a certain night to yͤ place of the
hil, & blessing himselfe with yͤ signe of yͤ holy Crosse, adiured
them in the name of the holy and vnseparable Trinitie, as they came
out of the hil, to declare vnto him who they were: vnto whom one of
the company made answer: we are (quoth he) no vain things, neither
yet liuing souldiers, but yͤ soules of earthly men, seruing in this
world vnder our prince, who not lōg since was slain in this place.
The armour, furniture, & horses, which were vnto vs instruments of
sinne while we liued, are euen now after our death, certaine signes
and tokens of tormentes. Whatsoeuer ye sée about vs, is all firie
vnto vs, although you nothing discerne our fire. When the Monkes
enquired whether they might be holpen by men, the spirit answered: we
may (saith he) be holpen by fasting and praiers: but chiefly by the
oblation of the bodie and blood of Christ, which thing we beséech you
do for vs. Assoone as he had so saide, all the whole rout of spirits
cried thrée times with one voyce: pray for vs, pray for vs, pray for
vs. And sodeinly withal, they séemed to be all resolued into fire,
yea and the hill it self, as if it had bin on fire, cast forth as it
were a great crashing and rushing of trées. They had in Churches a
peculiar order of them whom they called =Exorcists=, or Coniurers,
whose dutie was to coniure and driue away diuels, but they were not
so endued with that gifte, as the auncient Christians were, and
therfore they did but vaunt & boast of themselues.

Afterwards certaine Monkes and Priests well séen in Magicall sciences
(for they were neuer without such trim men) tooke vpon them to
coniure and driue away euill spirits out of houses into woods &
desart places. They wroght maruellous and straunge things, and they
said that a spirit in the name of Saints, and by the vertue of their
coniuring and characters, was constrained to giue place whether he
would or not. Indéede the diuel giueth place, but he doth it as
enemies doo, which by flying chuse a more fit place to fight in, or
more apte to embushe themselues. That which Sathan doth, he doth it
willingly and of his owne accorde, that he might withdrawe men from
trusting in God onely, and driue them headlong into Idolatrie. Christ
and his Disciples cast out diuels, but they were loth and vnwilling
to depart. Moreouer they vsed to hang Saint =Iohns= Gospell about
their neckes, and carried about with them hallowed waxe inclosed in
a purse, which they call an _Agnus Dei_, There are certaine bookes
abroade, especially one written by =Iacobus de Clusa=, a Carthusian,
concerning the appearing of soules separated from their bodies,
wherein amongst other things we reade, after what sort men should
prepare themselues, when any spirits appeare, howe they shall behaue
themselues in comming to them, in departing from them, in the place
where they appeare, and what questions are to be proposed vnto them:
touching which things I spake before, in the second part of this
Booke and second Chapter, where if you list you may finde them.

I haue heard men which haue confessed themselues to haue bene so
superstitious, that when the priest lifted vp the host (as they call
it) in saying masse, they woulde presently wipe their face with their
hands, because they were perswaded, that it was good to stop all
spirits from méeting with them in a visible forme.

But tell mée I pray thée whosoeuer thou art whiche doest so, by what
places of Scripture canst thou confirme those ceremonies? Where doth
Christ and his Disciples teach vs to expell the diuell (which is a
spirit, and therefore without any bodie) by bodily things? shewe
but one example, that they haue cast forth the diuel by this way or
means. If you bring out of the bookes of =Tobie=, that the heart
and liuer of the fish being laide on the coales, droue away the
diuel with the smell, we say that the same booke is not accounted
amongst the Canonicall scriptures: and moreouer that the same diuel
was rather vanquished by the praiers of =Tobias= and his wife, than
by any fumigation. Did Christ ordaine the holy Supper to this ende,
that thereby diuels should be cast out? Albeit that an euil spirit
doo faine to giue place, because of these things, yet he bringeth to
passe in the meane season, that superstition is more déeply rooted in
the hearts of men.


  That spirites are not to bee driuen away by cursing and

[Sidenote: _Rom._ 8.]

Here I cannot ouerpasse, that certaine doo vainly persuade
themselues, that spirites may easily be driuen away with cursing and
banning, for that (as they say) spirits approach neare vnto such as
pray, and do more egerly disturbe and vex them. Our Lord Iesus Christ
who can best tell how we should fight against the craft and subtiltie
of the diuel, teacheth vs in many places to pray continually, he
biddeth vs to pray in yͤ Lords praier, that we may be deliuered
from euil, calling Sathan by the figure κατά ἑζοχήν:
Euil it selfe, because he excelleth therein. Nothing can be more
acceptable and pleasing to the diuel, than when any man vseth cursing
and banning. He feineth that he is hereby driuen away, but in the
meane season he créepeth inuisibly into their bosomes. If you list ye
may driue away the diuel, in saying that he hath no place with you,
but his place is in Hell, and that he hath nothing to do with those
which put their only trust and confidence in Christ Iesus. For in
the eight Chapter to the Romanes in the beginning, it is said: Now
there is no condemnation vnto them, that are grafted in Christ Iesu,
who walke not according to the flesh, but according to the spirit. A
man may commaund the diuel to depart from him without any cursing or
banning. And that is also to be blamed, that certaine wicked and rash
men talke very beastly, and filthily with spirits, if they appeare at
any time vnto them.

Some others, when spirits appeare vnto them, will by and by set on
them, and driue thē away with naked swords: and sometimes throw them
out of the windowes, not considering with themselues, that spirites
are nothing hurt with weapons. In the Grecian histories we reade,
that a certaine _Lacedemonian_ passing by a sepulchre in the night
season, when a spirit séemed to appeare vnto him, ranne towards it
thinking to run it through with his speare: saying: Whither fliest
thou, O thou soule which shalt twice die? Surely it is praise worthie
when a men méeting with a spirit is not afraid, but yet boldnesse
and rashnesse cannot be commended. If thy enemy, albeit he be very
weake be not to be despised, much lesse ought an enemy so mightie
and so craftie, to be neglected. There haue bene some who when they
would haue striken a spirit with their sworde, haue thought they haue
striken the featherbed, the diuel so mocked them. Others supposing
they had throwne a spirit out of the window, by and by thought they
heard shingles falling and ratling amongst the trées.

It is reported that there haue bin some, who supposing with their
weapons to hurt spirits, haue wounded themselues, for their armes
and other members of their bodie haue neuer serued them after. We
must not vse a materiall sword against spirits and vaine shewes
(for it profiteth nothing) but we must vse the sword of the spirit.
They which will strike spirits and ghosts with a sword, indéed
σκιαμαχουσι, that is, fight with their owne shadow. In the booke of
=Iobe= the diuel is signified by =Leuiathan=, which careth not for
the speare, for he appeareth in diuers shapes, and cannot be put
to flight with pikes. The diuel is a spirit, he hath not bones and
flesh, but he only taketh on him a shape for a time. But in case
spirits which haue bodies do wander (that is, coniurers, priests,
whores, & whoremongers, which faine themselues to be spirites) there
can be no better coniuration inuented, than to bang them well with
a cudgell. For thou shalt not so much preuaile with these kindes of
diuels with words as with stripes.

Hitherto I haue shewed howe they ought to behaue themselues which
méete with spirits. As touching them which neuer heard or sawe any
thing (for there bee many which neuer chaunced on such things) let
them be thankful vnto God for so great a benefit, let them not be
rashe and bolde, nor desirous to sée such things, but rather let them
pray vnto God for them which are vexed with such euils. Let them not
doo, as they many times vse which were neuer greatly sicke: for they
féele not other mens griefes, and therefore they thinke they are
litle sicke, or that they counterfeit their sicknesse, vntill such
time as they themselues fall into some great and daungerous disease:
euen so God can cause them to sée spirites, which neuer sawe any
before, that afterwards they may be the more touched with other mens
griefes, and diligently pray for them.


  After what sort we ought to behaue our selues, when we
  heare straunge crackes, or when other forewarnings happen.

But nowe as concerning other matters, as in case any straunge crackes
and noyses be heard, or any rare and maruellous things happen before
the alteration of kingdomes (which we speake of before) what shall
we then doo? Surely we must not attribute too much vnto such things,
for they sometimes, yea and most commonly chaunce by the deceit of
the diuell, who hath a great pleasure to haue men muse night and
day on such matters, and to imagine before their eyes and mindes
many horrible things, that thereby they may fall into some gréeuous
sicknesse, and neuer be at rest. When such things happen indéed,
they ought to put vs in minde, that we casting from vs all these
things which displease God, should wholly consecrate our selues vnto
God, and so frame our selues, that at what houre soeuer he come, and
please to call vs out of this life, we should be readie for him euen
as he himselfe teacheth vs, and also endure patiently all vnfortunate
chances, how many soeuer happen vnto vs, knowing that they come not
by chance, but by the prouidence of God.

[Sidenote: Plutarches Christian opinion.]

=Plutarch=, albeit he be an Heathen writer, is of a sounde iudgement
(as me séemeth) concerning Monsters and wonders. For writing of
=Alexander= the great, in his booke _De vitis_, he saith; that there
happened certaine prognostications before his death, which sometimes
=Alexander= cared not for, but contemned them, and contrariwise,
sometimes he tooke smal and trifling things, as signes of euil lucke.

[Sidenote: Valerius Maximus.]

He addeth further, how dangerous a thing it is, to despise tokens and
signes sent from God vnto men, and on the other side, how pernitious
and hurtfull it is to be afraid of euery trifle, for as in all other
things, so is there a measure to be obserued herein. The same opinion
is he of, touching other wonders and miracles. For ye may reade in
the life of =Camillus=, that when he being Captain, had taken and
destroyed the _Veians_, he made a solemne vow, to translate the
Image of =Iuno= vnto _Rome_. And therefore he commaunded certain
men to take vp the Image: he offered sacrifice vnto the Goddesse,
and besought her that she would vouchsafe to follow him, and to be
fauourable vnto the Romanes, as other Goddes were which now dwelt at
_Rome_. The Image made him answere that she would goe with him. He
also writeth, that those men which noted and recorded these things,
report other such straunge matters, as that Images did sweate, that
they gaue great grones, that they turned away their faces, or hanged
down their heads: he saieth, that men whiche liued before his time,
gathered many suche examples togither, and that he himselfe hath
heard many maruellous things of men liuing in his time, which were
not by and by to be neglected and contemned: and yet mans infirmitie
is such, that it cannot attribute either too much or too little, vnto
those things without great daunger, for men obserue no measure, but
are either too superstitious and attribute ouer much to such matters,
or else do vtterly reiect and contemne them. And therefore the safest
way is, to be aduised, and to kéepe a meane in suche affaires.
=Valerius Maximus= confesseth in his first booke, that the very
Gentils themselues had many miracles and wonders happening among them
in great suspition, and that not without iust cause. True wonders
ought to stir vs vp from sléepe. A couragious horse goeth well inough
of his owne accorde, and yet if you do but make signe vnto him with a
wande, or put spurre vnto him, he will be more readier and quicker.
Euen so must we go in the way that leadeth vnto heauen so long as we
liue, but in case we sée any foretokens, or some great alteration
séeme to hang ouer vs, we ought to bee the more stirred vp, to giue
our selues to praier, and to exercise godlinesse. The Gentiles if at
any time such forewarnings were shewed vnto them from heauen, did
institute certaine solemne praiers and processions to pacifie their
Gods: how much rather ought all Christian Princes and Magistrates,
Doctors and Preachers of our time, to bend themselues wholly herein,
when so euer plagues hang ouer our heads, that all men generally and
particularly shewe forth true repentance?

[Sidenote: The conclusion.]

Hitherto (I trust) we haue sufficiently shewed what we may thinke,
concerning visions and appearing of spirites, and other straunge
things which haue great affinitie and likenesse vnto them. And that
in times past, Doctors wrote and taught farre otherwise concerning
them, than the very truth it selfe was, we haue also shewed the
causes thereof. It might be also declared in many words, that the
like hath happened in other pointes of Christian doctrine, yea and
many excellent learned and godly men, haue at large opened the same
in their bookes which are now extant concerning such matters.

And that I may conclude this my booke, I shall beséech all those,
for the glorie of God, that shall happen to reade it, that in case
they thinke I haue straied from the rule of the word of God, they
would fréely and friendly admonish me thereof, but if they know it be
agréeable to the word of God (as I trust it is) that then they suffer
not themselues to be ruled and mocked of iugling Monkes and Priests,
but rather giue God thankes for that great and vnspeakable benefit,
whereby he doth daily deliuer them out of great errors and feares,
and doth continually more and more bring his truth to light: let them
not so lose the raignes to their affections, that they reiect the
truth which they haue once acknowledged.

The Senat and people of _Rome_ as stories witnesse, granted libertie
to the people of _Cappadocia_, when the stocke and issue of their
kings was vtterly extinct, to be frée, and Lords of themselues for
euer after. But the Nobilitie consulting on the matter, refusing
libertie which they coulde in no wise disgest, desired to haue a
King. The Romaines wondring héereat, gaue them leaue to choose whome
they would to be their King. Let not vs bée such fooles, but rather
let vs imbrace the libertie of our soules, whiche God doth daily
offer vnto vs by his word.

Many Noble nations fighting couragiously, haue put themselues in
present daunger of life, to obtaine and kéepe this swéete eternall
libertie. How muche more ought the Christians to fight against the
subtiltie and deceit of the Deuill, least the libertie of our soules,
whiche is much more precious than the other, shoulde be opressed by
diuers errors and supersticions.

Men sitting in darkenesse, desire the light very earnestly. Let not
vs therefore cast away light fréely offered vnto vs by God in this
Scriptures. We haue nothing here in earth more deare vnto vs, than
the libertie of our soules and consciences. Let vs not then (as
=Paule= saith,) withhold truth in vnrighteousnesse, let euery man of
what age soeuer he be, weigh with himself how fraile and brittle this
life is whiche God hath giuen vnto vs, and that wee must depart from
hence, sooner then we thinke for, and render an account to the iust
Iudge, of our faith, wordes, and déeds.

Glorie and praise be vnto Almightie God for euer and euer, and I
beséech him to vouchsafe to stretch foorth his hande, to deliuer all
suche as are still entangled in superstition and errours, and to
graunt those whome he hath deliuered his heauenly grace, that they
be alwaies thankfull for so great a benefit, least they be wrapped
againe in the same mischiefe.


  Printed by Thomas
  Creede. 1596.

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