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Title: The Train Wire - A Discussion of the Science of Train Dispatching (Second Edition)
Author: Anderson, J. A.
Language: English
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THE TRAIN WIRE

A Discussion of the Science of Train Dispatching

by

J. A. ANDERSON;

With an Introduction by B. B. Adams, Jr.

Second Edition--Revised and Enlarged.



Published by
The Railroad Gazette, 73 Broadway, New York.
1891.

Copyrighted, 1891,
bY
J. A. Anderson, Lambertville, N. J.



CONTENTS.


  INTRODUCTION                               v

  PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION                  ix

  CHAPTER I--Train Dispatching               1

  CHAPTER II--The Dispatcher                17

  CHAPTER III--The Operator                 23

  CHAPTER IV--The Order                     25

  CHAPTER V--The Manifold                   33

  CHAPTER VI--The Record                    35

  CHAPTER VII--The Train-Order Signal       37

  CHAPTER VIII--The Transmission            45

  CHAPTER IX--Rules                         59

  CHAPTER X--Forms of Train Orders          97
             Form A                        101
             Form B                        104
             Form C                        106
             Form D                        114
             Form E                        115
             Form F                        117
             Form G                        119
             Form H                        120
             Form J                        127
             Form K                        128
             Form L                        130

  CHAPTER XI--General Remarks              135

  CHAPTER XII--Conclusion                  143

  INDEX                                    147



INTRODUCTION.


In the first edition of this book, issued in 1883, Mr. Anderson, then
Superintendent of the Belvidere Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad,
modestly disclaiming perfection for his work, ventured the prediction
that the science of which he wrote would be greatly advanced as time
went on. In one sense this prediction has not been fulfilled. The eight
years which have passed have witnessed little or no change from the
principles then laid down by the author of The Train Wire, but he has the
satisfaction of now seeing their widespread adoption and a consequent
great improvement in the practice of this important science; and while
probably none at the present time know how to handle trains by telegraph
better than the dispatchers of the Pennsylvania road did when the
prediction referred to was made, the requisite knowledge and training are
now possessed by many more men than were numbered among the experts of
the earlier period.

The author's disavowal of exhaustive treatment is proper in view of the
fact that a complete treatise on the subject would include much relating
to the operation of the train rules and to points of discipline; but it
must be agreed that the first edition of this book was the first thorough
and precise essay on the subject which had appeared, and that it stated
the principles of dispatching in substantially the form since adopted by
the General Time Convention, a body composed of the General Managers and
Superintendents of practically all the important roads of the country
east of the Missouri River.

The inception of this book resulted from the author's work, several years
earlier, in revising the rules of the company under whom he was employed;
and in preparing his book he naturally took care not to trespass upon the
prerogatives of that company; but it is no more than right to say that
outside observers regard his work as one for which his own road and all
others are as much indebted to him as he can be to any road.

During the preparation of the Rules on Train Dispatching, formulated by
the eminent Managers and Superintendents composing the Time Convention
Committee, Mr. Anderson acted with that Committee, and his suggestions in
The Train Wire, with his other work in that line, were largely used as
the basis for this portion of the Time Convention rules. The deviations
in these rules from the lines laid down in the first issue of The Train
Wire are chiefly in the nature of compromises as to methods of practice,
made necessary to effect an agreement among railroad officers of
different needs and opinions. The Standard Code avowedly falls short of
perfection, but chiefly because of this necessity.

The duplicate form of order is presented by Mr. Anderson as a vital
feature in the science of dispatching. When he first wrote, this form
of order was in use on few roads. Many officers were ignorant of it,
and most others knew of it only in a vague way or looked upon it with
disfavor as impracticable for roads doing a heavy business. Now, the
requirement that all trains concerned in the execution of a specific
movement should receive the order in the same words, is widely recognized
as an axiom, and rules based on this principle are fast coming into
general use.

The first part of the book treats of general principles, while the latter
part takes up the rules which embody those principles and give them
effect, the Standard Code being taken as the basis of the discussion. It
might at first seem unnecessary, in view of the wide acceptance of the
Standard Code, to enter into a discussion of its rules, and some of this
discussion may appear to be needless repetition of matter presented in
earlier pages; but as there are still those who have not taken the most
advanced position, and probably many who, having adopted good practice,
are not thoroughly familiar with the reasons for it, the author has done
well to retain this feature of his earlier work, in connection with the
statement of principles. These comments serve to point out to those not
thoroughly acquainted with the subject the relations of the rules to the
reasons for them, and this must be useful to beginners in the science and
to men on new roads. For officers of experience, whose positions remove
them from personal contact with the telegraph work and yet require that
they have particular knowledge of it, a book of this kind should be both
elementary and full; and all readers will find in examining the rules for
practice that there is an advantage in having attention directed to the
conformity of the rules with the principles before enunciated.

One of the most interesting and original paragraphs in the first edition
of The Train Wire was that describing the scheme for numbering switches
and using those numbers in train orders, to facilitate the movement
of trains at meeting-points. This plan has since been put in use to
some extent and has given great satisfaction; and in connection with
"lap-sidings" it has been found of marked benefit in handling a heavy
traffic on a single-track road.[A]

[Footnote A: A description of the use of lap-sidings and numbered
switches on the Cleveland & Pittsburgh Railroad was published in the
_Railroad Gazette_ of December 26, 1890.]

The author of The Train Wire is no longer connected with the Operating
Department,[B] and has undertaken this revision reluctantly, but his
interest in his former work is still lively, and this is an enlargement
as well as a revision; so that both reader and author are to be
congratulated. The superintendents and dispatchers, the operators young
and old, among the million railroaders of the United States, have a
better handbook than ever before, while the author can justly take pride
in the fact that the individual views expressed by him in 1883 are now
generally accepted truth. The introduction of the Standard Code on 70,000
miles of American railroads is one of the important steps of recent
years in railroad operation, resulting in greater security to life and
property; and The Train Wire should be credited with a liberal share of
the honor of the reform.

[Footnote B: He is Superintendent of the Voluntary Relief Department of
the Pennsylvania and allied roads, with office at Trenton, N. J.]

  B. B. A., Jr.



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.


The views on train dispatching here offered have been arrived at during
an experience of some twenty years, including a recent connection with
the preparation of a set of rules for the company on whose road the
writer is employed. While his agency in the formation of the rules
referred to accounts for the existence of a general similarity and
no radical difference between them and the present treatment of the
subject, the latter is not to be taken as an authorized commentary upon
those rules, but as an expression of individual views for which, with
any additional matter or variations in arrangement, the writer is alone
responsible.

With his first experiments in train dispatching the writer became
convinced that the method of issuing train orders in the same words to
all concerned in each transaction afforded greater security than that
supplied by any other form of order. Another early conviction was that
each step in the process of preparing and issuing train orders should be
carefully and minutely arranged for by specific rules.

In here undertaking to impress these views, it is also sought to set
forth the general principles upon which rules should be based, and to
recommend methods of procedure for all ordinary practice. The methods
proposed have been tested by the writer, and the most of them by others.
If they are not found to apply to all existing circumstances, they may at
least serve as guides in devising other plans.

It is not assumed that this consideration of the subject of train
dispatching is exhaustive. The theme is a fruitful one and of growing
interest and importance. Much remains to be said of what has already been
accomplished, and the future will doubtless show advances in this science
far beyond the best practice of the present.

  1883.



THE TRAIN WIRE.



CHAPTER I.

TRAIN DISPATCHING.


The telegraph, as a means of directing the movements of trains, is
a necessary railroad fixture. But for its agency the moving of the
heavy traffic of some of our railroads would be impossible without
large additions to the tracks and consequent increase in the cost of
construction and transportation.

The train wire is thus a promoter of both economy and facility of
operation. Under the supervision which it permits, the products of
industry are rapidly and cheaply exchanged between distant points, while
the traveler, unimpeded by the slower-moving trains, goes swiftly on
his way. Steam is the noisy giant that shoulders the load and gets the
praise; but the silent man, in some quiet place away from the rattle
of the wheels, with his finger on the key, controls the ponderous and
complicated movements, which proceed so harmoniously that one may almost
imagine them to be the result of natural law.

Although the value, however, of the telegraph as a railroad appliance
is daily becoming more fully realized, its capabilities for usefulness
have not been developed to an extent commensurate with its importance. A
well-informed writer has justly said: "Telegraphy as a handmaid of the
railroad has not assumed any enduring form peculiarly adapted to this
business."

This is still true in a measure, although not to so great an extent as
when uttered. The circumstances must be very exceptional in which the aid
of the telegraph will not be of important advantage. Machinery breaks,
steam fails, connections are late, storms and floods disturb the roadway;
a thousand things cause delays. The difficulties may not be great or
numerous where trains are few, but they increase rapidly with the growth
of traffic, and vexatious delays can only be avoided by adequate means of
promptly controlling the movements of the trains. Hence the importance of
securing not only the best telegraphic appliances, but the best method as
well of rendering them useful in the service in question.

In arranging a system of train dispatching, its relations to safety and
economy require that careful consideration be given to the principles
on which it should be based. Some of the methods in use indicate this
careful study and a growing sense of its importance is shown in the
recent general acceptance of rules on the subject, prepared with the most
scrupulous care.

These rules, as will be seen, are in conformity with what was urged in
the former edition of this work, and the present intention is to direct
attention anew to some of the underlying principles, as well as to the
practical bearing of the rules referred to.

The means of instant communication afforded by the introduction of the
telegraph seemed to place at command a method of directing distant train
movements with ready facility; but it soon appeared that the use of the
new implement involved risks which must be carefully guarded against;
hence the various "systems" which have arisen having this in view.

The distinctive feature of the "American" system of train dispatching is
the issuing of orders from a central office, directing train movements,
supplementary to those provided for by the time-table and "train" rules.
This method is in general use, and is recognized as better adapted to our
circumstances than that of moving trains by the "staff" or other means
from station to station, as in European practice. In considering the
application of this mode of issuing telegraphic orders for single-track,
some of the methods will be seen to apply as well to roads having more
than one track.

A printed time-table, showing the regular times and meeting-places of
trains, may be prepared at leisure and studied by all trainmen, and
is full notice as to all regular trains on the road. With rules added
directing how the trains are to proceed with relation to each other,
understood by all alike and faithfully observed, collisions cannot occur.
If, however, it becomes necessary to issue special orders for trains that
are not on the time-table, or for the forwarding of any, otherwise than
by the operation of the ordinary rules, new precautions become necessary.

The conductor or engineman receiving such an order must know _that it is
given by competent authority_.

It must be understood _that others concerned have corresponding orders_.

These orders should be _so clearly expressed that they cannot be
misunderstood_, and they should be forwarded and delivered _under such
safeguards as to insure their certain and correct reception by the proper
persons_.

As these orders are to be acted upon at once, without opportunity for
careful study, _their form, and even the paper on which they are
written, should be such that they may be easily and quickly read and
comprehended_.

It is now generally agreed that _orders of this kind should be issued by
a designated dispatcher_, acting by the authority and in the name of the
superintendent. For two persons to engage in this work at the same time
for the same piece of road involves serious risk, and to insure safety as
well as confidence on the part of the trainmen this should never occur.
It may be taken as an initial principle that _the success of a system
depends largely upon the assurance upon the part of the trainmen that
every source of danger has been carefully considered and guarded against,
and that the rules adopted are strictly adhered to_. If it were known,
for instance, that orders were issued by the superintendent and one of
his assistants alternately, as might be convenient at the moment, it
would excite distrust. The author must confess to such feeling when, some
years since while on a delayed passenger train at a way station, he saw
the superintendent take a bit of paper from his pocket and write against
the side of a building an order for the train to proceed to a certain
point, regardless of another designated train. It came out all right, but
the incident did not inspire confidence in the telegraphic system of that
road. Within the knowledge of the author a disastrous collision resulted
from an oversight in regard to the delivery of an order where a skilful
official undertook to assist a dispatcher in an emergency. Between the
two an important point was omitted; each thought the other had attended
to it. Extreme care is necessary to carry out exactly the methods fixed
upon for the proper preparation and issuing of these messages, and
confusion is likely to result from interference with those charged with
this duty.

In issuing a time-table in advance of the date upon which it takes
effect, means can readily be used for making sure that it is received by
those who are to be governed by it. The means are more complicated and
subject to greater risks whereby we can be assured that a telegraphic
train order reaches correctly and surely the hands of those for whom it
is designed. After preparation by the Dispatcher it is transmitted in
telegraphic language by mechanical agency to a distant point, there to
be retranslated into plain English and written out without mistake, for
record and delivery; and all this in the shortest possible time.

The details of this process should be so arranged as to guard as far
as possible against every risk arising under the several steps, and
_nothing should be left to mere personal care that can be provided for
by fixed methods of proceeding_. To one who is an expert and can see in
his own case no occasion for extraordinary safeguards such precautions
may not seem important; but a consideration of the risks involved, of
the many steps to be taken, and of the number of agents engaged in the
process, many of whom are often not greatly experienced, must lead to the
conclusion that _a methodical following out of a carefully prepared mode
of proceeding_ is a most valuable means of providing against many of the
chances of failure.

Two general methods or "systems" of constructing train orders are in
use. They have been distinguished as the "single order" and "duplicate
order" system. The latter is accurately described by its title. The other
title is not a strictly accurate designation, but sufficiently so for our
purpose.

Although the "duplicate" method is now widely recognized as the best, the
other is still in use. For purposes of comparison of these methods we
will take a telegraphic order providing for the meeting of two trains at
a designated point beyond which the one has, by train rules, the superior
right of track as respects the other. The order is to limit the superior
right, and permit the inferior train to run to a point to which it could
not otherwise go without trespassing on the right of the other. If by
any error or misunderstanding the superior train fails to stop at the
proposed meeting-point, while the other proceeds upon the assumption that
it will thus stop, the result may be a disastrous collision.

Under the "_single order_" system, when two opposing trains are to
meet by special order, arrangements are usually first made to stop the
superior train by a "holding order." An order is then given forbidding it
to go beyond the designated point, and then another order is given to the
inferior train authorizing it to go to that point. The holding order is
addressed to an agent or operator whose station the superior train will
pass, and reads substantially as follows:

    _Hold train No. 5 for orders._

The person receiving this is required to display a signal to stop the
expected train if it is not already at the station, and not to allow it
to proceed until the meeting-order is duly forwarded and delivered. This
order to the superior train is usually addressed to the conductor and
engineman in the following form, or its equivalent:

    _You will not pass Alton until train No. 4 arrives._

The corresponding order to the conductor and engineman of the inferior
train, sent to some station to be passed by it, will read:

    _You will run to Alton regardless of train No. 5._

or perhaps--

    _You will meet and pass train No. 5 at Alton._

The holding order is dispensed with by some, and with some it is the
practice to issue orders to inferior trains while a superior is held by a
holding order until its movements can be determined on, when it receives
an order covering all that have been given to trains against it.

Under the "_duplicate_" system the holding order may be used, but such
has not been the general practice, and it would not under this system be
used in the manner above described. This system, as its name implies,
requires that _the order given to each train shall be a duplicate of that
given to every other train_ concerned in the movement provided for in
the order. For the simple movement above described an order is addressed
to the conductor and engineman of each of the two trains, _in the same
words_, as follows:

    _Trains No. 4 and No. 5 will meet at Alton._

This, being in the same words to each, may be transmitted over the
wire to both at the same time. This is usually done, and offers one of
the chief advantages of this form of order. The trains are stopped by
signals, which are required either to be displayed when an order is
sent, or to stand normally in position to stop trains, which are only
permitted to pass on the signal being changed or on getting proper orders.

Objection has been made to the "duplicate" form that it does not
distinctly order a train to proceed farther than its schedule rights
permit, nor in definite terms direct the other not to go beyond the new
meeting-point. The objection has no weight, as an order to meet can
only be construed as authorizing each train to go to the station named,
and not beyond it until both are there; and it is easy and proper to
provide a rule which shall definitely settle the point for those who are
unaccustomed to this form, if it should be deemed necessary.

The fatal defect in the "single order" system is that the orders to the
two trains, written separately and differently expressed, are subject
to the grave danger of inadvertently giving in one a meeting-place
different from that given in the other. This liability is greater if an
interval of time occurs between the preparation of the two. The risk
is very much increased by the usage under this system of including
several meeting-points in one order, and becomes still more serious
if meeting-points are to be made for several trains moving in each
direction. The schedule for these must be rapidly made up and written
out in parts, giving to each train its part, differing in form from all
the others. There is nothing but the care and skill of the Dispatcher to
prevent the opposing orders from differing in some particular. When we
consider the care necessary in preparing a time-table, to properly show
the running time and meeting-places of the several trains, we must see
that the risk, in the process described, of getting something wrong, must
far outweigh any supposed convenience in a train having an order showing
a continuous schedule of its meeting-points for several opposing trains.
Those unacquainted with this work would be astonished at the extent to
which the skill of some dispatchers in this direction has been developed.
To the uninitiated the mental operations would be simply bewildering,
which are required of a brain from which issue for hours, without
apparent effort, the instructions under which the trains on a busy road
are moved expeditiously and harmoniously. It is not to be denied that
many men have moved traffic of huge dimensions safely and with entire
satisfaction by the "single order," but this does not at all prove that
the system possesses inherent principles of safety. Great personal
ability and skill have, with it, achieved marked success where in less
able hands its defects would have become apparent; but that some have
developed this remarkable ability is no reason why we should depend upon
this in a matter of such vital importance. The prevalence of methods
which require exceptional skill has doubtless interfered with the more
extended usefulness of the railroad telegraph which would probably have
resulted under a system more readily operated by men of less experience
and ability.

Men who have successfully worked under the "single order" method have
stated that the mental strain is very great, augmented by anxiety born
of the fact that a single error may be fatal to property or life. Now, a
mode of constructing orders which may be operated with safety by men of
moderate skill, which relieves them of the mental strain, and _which in
itself provides against the most serious chance of error_ must at once
commend itself. The "duplicate" would appear to meet these requirements;
and that such is the case is the abundant testimony of those who have
used it.

In preparing this order the Dispatcher cannot possibly give different
meeting-points, as there is but one message for both trains, and when
transmitted to both simultaneously each must get the same as the other.
The mental anxiety arising from the other method is absent in this. An
experienced Dispatcher under the "single" system has stated that in
visiting an office where the "duplicate" was used he was surprised that
those engaged there appeared to have so little on their minds. He found,
on himself adopting the "duplicate," that it was readily explained. Each
transaction is at once complete. On the preparation and transmission of
the order in precisely the same language to both trains, and with no
necessary connection with any other transaction, the mind is at once
prepared to dismiss that and go on to the next. In the transmission of
two separate orders for the one meeting, there is ever the feeling that
an error may be or may have been committed. But where the one sentence is
prepared for both trains and, as is usually done, transmitted to both at
one sending, the Dispatcher may rest secure that _no collision can occur
from any oversight of his in preparing the orders_, and superintending
officers may, if necessary, commit this work to comparatively unskilled
hands, with the assurance that so long as the prescribed methods are
adhered to the proceeding will be _at least safe_, however great may be
the delays arising from unskilful movements.

The power of combination and of quickly calculating the probable
movements of trains and determining what shall be done is an entirely
distinct matter. This power is largely the result of experience. It
is essential to the full development of any system, but is exercised
with much greater facility under the relief which the "duplicate"
affords, it has been alleged that this method requires more telegraphing
than the other, and that trains cannot be moved by it so promptly. It
has, however, been for many years in use on roads where only the most
expeditious methods would serve; and superintendents moving a heavy
traffic, who have changed from the "single" to the "duplicate" state
that the amount of telegraphing is reduced one-third. Those who have
grown up with a system may have reasonable hesitation as to making a
change. It is not easy to give up methods of practice in which one has
been trained for those which are new; and it may seem difficult, perhaps
unsafe, to undertake to re-educate operators and trainmen in so critical
a matter. Nevertheless, those who have tried it have found these supposed
difficulties to quickly vanish, and have discovered the result to be
in every way satisfactory, and that this form of order is much to be
preferred. Some officers who were with difficulty induced to change are
now among the most enthusiastic supporters of the "duplicate" method.

In arranging for the issuing of train orders, experience has shown that
forms may be simplified and improved methods adopted by which the work
is facilitated and the orders rendered clearer to those receiving them;
and disaster has taught the necessity for precautions not before thought
of. These points will be considered in detail with reference to the
"duplicate" system of orders, although much that follows will apply to
the other.



CHAPTER II.

THE DISPATCHER.


The Train Dispatcher holds a most important position as respects safety
of life and property. He may perhaps do more than any other official to
secure it by care or endanger it by lack of vigilance. His relations to
economy, too, are important. As the time of engines, cars, and employés,
and of the persons and things carried, is of value, delay avoided is
money saved.

It cannot be too strongly insisted upon that the man who issues train
orders should make it his especial business, and should have no
interference from others. None but a very limited business will warrant
the performance of this duty by the superintendent in person, or by any
one engaged in other work. If it is such as to call for any approach
to continuous attention, persons must be specially assigned to it. The
hours of duty and the question of other occupation must depend upon the
frequency and constancy of the demands of the work specially in hand.
Upon a busy road where the trains are run much on orders, safety as well
as efficiency will be best promoted by excluding other occupation and
anything which may distract the attention of the "Train Runner," and
under these circumstances a period of duty of eight hours is as long as
can prudently be assigned. This conveniently divides the twenty-four
hours between three men, and does not overtax them. With lighter duties
a longer time may be admissible. With very heavy work, six hours may be
long enough.

The importance of confining the work of dispatching, for the time being,
to the individual charged with this duty, has already been referred to,
and cannot be too strongly urged. The office where this work is done
should be separate from others, and should not be subjected to the visits
and conversation of outsiders or of employés whose business does not
call them there. The Dispatcher should be a proficient operator. He may
not himself transmit his orders, but he should be able to read all that
passes on the wire, in order to have an intelligent understanding of what
is going on. He should be thoroughly acquainted with the location and
length of the various sidings, the grades and curves, the capacity of the
engines, and other matters which may affect the movements of the trains
he has in hand, and some experience as conductor will be of value. He
should be a man of more than average ability, of good judgment, clear
head, and strictly temperate habits. In many cases the chief Dispatcher
is the right-hand man of the superintendent in all matters associated
with the management of the trains; and a suitable recognition of the
importance of the position will have a valuable effect in elevating the
character of this service and in promoting its efficiency.



CHAPTER III.

THE OPERATOR.


Where the work of the Dispatcher is considerable, he will require the aid
of one or more operators in the work connected with the transmission of
orders. In view of the importance of his duties and of the fact that he
may in turn become Dispatcher, the operator should be selected with care.
He too should have a clear head and correct habits, be a good pen-man, an
expert telegrapher and a sound-reader. It will be his duty to transmit
the orders, or write them down as transmitted by the Dispatcher, and
to follow them through the subsequent steps until the process, up to
delivery, is complete. He should not be charged with message or clerical
work where it may interfere with his principal duty.

The station operator who receives the orders must also have part in the
subsequent steps, and on him is placed the duty of delivery. Besides
the personal and professional qualifications required for the other, he
should, with him, be thoroughly conversant with the rules and methods
prescribed for this service, as well as with the time-tables and general
train rules and the character and designations of the trains. A station
operator may do much to keep business moving by advising the Dispatcher
of arrivals, delays, and other things occurring near him, which have a
bearing on train movements, but which the letter of his instructions may
not require him to report. One who does this intelligently prepares and
recommends himself for advancement.

It is quite important that operators be impressed with the gravity of
the work in hand. Their apprenticeship and training should be such as
to assure this as far as possible, and before appointment they should
be thoroughly examined as to their qualifications in all respects, and
afterward constantly supervised by competent officials. Young persons
readily learn to telegraph, and the lowest compensation paid is something
considerable to the youth just leaving home, while the salaries usually
paid to railroad operators are not such as to offer fair inducement to
men of years and experience to accept or retain these positions. Hence
many of our operators are comparatively young. It is no disparagement to
them to say that they have not ordinarily the steadiness of character and
sense of responsibility which we expect in maturer years. Without these
it is difficult for them to have a proper conception of the magnitude
of the interests dependent on their attention to their duties, and of
the importance of exactly carrying out details which to them may seem
almost trivial. We have here a cogent reason for so systematizing this
business as to render the working of it as nearly automatic or mechanical
as possible, and thus eliminate as far as practicable the risk arising
from the deficiencies of the human agency. In all systems worked by man
this risk will be found. Better pay will procure better men, greater care
and greater conscientiousness. Men laboring for a bare pittance and with
little hope of advancement in the future do not usually cultivate these
qualities to the highest point. Thus we are brought to one of the many
points where the balance must be constantly sought between economy of
expenditure and security of management. Each railroad officer must work
it out for himself.

Operators should aim at a high standard of qualification and attention
to duty. If the result is not greater remuneration in this service,
their efforts may be rewarded by promotion in other directions. Reliable
men are always wanted, and the consciousness of doing one's best is a
source of satisfaction of more value than money. A careful study of their
special work will develop a sense of its importance, leading to better
attention to duties and preparation for advancement. Operators will
therefore do well to make themselves masters of their business, rather
than rest satisfied with a merely mechanical attention to prescribed
methods, without an intelligent apprehension of their significance.

Telegraph offices should be carefully guarded against the intrusion of
outsiders or employés off duty. Conversation or other interruptions may
distract the attention at a critical moment and cause an operator to
write an order incorrectly or allow a train to pass which he should stop.



CHAPTER IV.

THE ORDER.


There are some general considerations which it is important to bear
in mind in the preparation and issuing of train orders. Some of these
have been already pointed out. The circumstances under which they are
to be acted upon render it of the utmost importance that there shall
be nothing in their form or matter to obstruct in any way a clear and
prompt comprehension of their intent. _No instructions should be included
that are not strictly running orders._ Directions to take on or put off
cars, or to change engines, or general instructions as to the management
and stops of a train with reference to its traffic, are not properly
included in such orders. Again, _the language in which the orders are
expressed should be simple and unmistakable_. Simplicity implies brevity.
Superfluous words or ambiguous terms or expressions should be carefully
excluded. To avoid the use of anything of this character the precise form
of expression should be determined on beforehand for all cases that can
be anticipated, and strictly adhered to. This also renders the work of
the Dispatchers uniform, and enables them to perform it with facility,
especially if not greatly experienced; and the trainmen become accustomed
to the forms, and comprehend them at sight.

There are differences of opinion among practical men as to the propriety
of including more than one transaction in the same order. Some reasons
have been before urged against this practice. As men generally favor the
practice to which they are accustomed, it is not easy to settle this
question. A number of meeting-points may be given in succession in one
order more readily in the "single order" system than in the other; and
this is claimed as an advantage, and as better than giving the same on as
many different pieces of paper. With an order, hastily and perhaps poorly
and closely written on flimsy paper, to be read by a conductor in a storm
or by the dim light of a hand-lamp, there is a good deal of risk that in
a long order for several meeting-points something may escape notice; a
line may be skipped and a meeting-point missed. In the "duplicate" order
the same danger would exist, and, in addition to the matter affecting the
train receiving an order, it would get matter not at all affecting it.
Thus, if A is ordered to meet B, and B to meet C, and both orders are
included in one for the benefit of B, the duplicate to A would include
matter for C in which A has no concern, and that to C would have matter
for A which he does not require. Circumstances might make it of some use
for A to know where C is to meet B; but burdening the order with this
extraneous matter will be found usually to be a positive disadvantage
and to cause much more work in transmission than giving each operation
singly. The latter has been found to work entirely well in practice, and
is theoretically the safer method. The conductor or engineman holding
several of these orders arranges them in their proper succession,
and each one as it is fulfilled is laid aside. It may be desired to
change a meeting-place ordered, and, if this is included in an order
containing several others, the change is not so readily made. The reasons
would appear to be important for insisting _that each order should be
ordinarily confined to a single transaction_, with slight exceptions,
some of which are elsewhere adverted to.

The following is a sample of "duplicate" order actually and frequently
given in practice on one of the principal divisions of the Pennsylvania
Railroad. It is given to illustrate perhaps the least objectionable
method of combining several movements in one order. It is compact, and
is alleged to serve a good purpose. The principal objections to it are
those above given.

                                                             C. T. 262.

                Pennsylvania Railroad Company.

                        PHILADELPHIA DIVISION.

                    Telegraphic Train Order No. 14

 _Superintendent's Office, West Philadelphia_, March 10^{th} 1888

                   _To Conductor and Engineman_


    of ___1^{st} & 2^{nd} No 6 Stby.___ at ___1^{st} & 2^{nd} No 9 DV___
  1^{st} & 2^{nd} No 7 & 1^{st} & 2^{nd} No 3 Lancr.
  1^{st} No 6 and 1^{st} & 2^{nd} No 9 will meet at Branch Int.
  1^{st} No 6 and 1^{st} No 7 will meet at Hillsdale,
  1^{st} No 6 and 2^{nd} No 7 will meet at Conewago,
  1^{st} No 6 and 1^{st} No 3 will meet at Elizabethtown.
  1^{st} No 6 and 2^{nd} No 3 will meet at Kuhnz.
  2^{nd} No 6 and 1^{st} No 7 will meet at Branch Int.
  2^{nd} No 6 and 2^{nd} No 7 will meet at Hillsdale.
  2^{nd} No 6 and 1^{st} No 3 will meet at Conewago
  2^{nd} No 6 and 2^{nd} No 3 will meet at Elizabethtown.
                                                                31 glr.
  _____________Conductor. _____________________Engineman.
    Paynter                Haffmaster 1^{st} 9
    Foulon                 Raynier 1^{st} No 7
    Rettew                 Kelley 2^{nd} 9
    Jacobs                 Melsky 2^{nd} 7
    Ruth                   Smurth Mail 1^{st} 6
    Baldwin                Deisem 2^{nd} 6
    O'Donnill              Manahan 1^{st} 3
    Blankenbelan           Shultz 2^{nd} 3

  Received at _153. a__M. from __E F Dunlop__ Opr., by __H Coterskey__ Opr.

  Made ___Concat___ at ___158 a__M. from ___EFD___ Opr., by __HCot__ Opr.

  Conductor and Engineman must each have a copy of this order. See Rule 96.

An order _must not be taken to allow more than it expressly authorizes_.
As, for instance, a train authorized by order to run in the time of
another is not on this account to assume that it may run within the time
of any other superior train which may be understood to have to keep out
of the way of the train whose right is curtailed. Each train must be
governed in all respects by train rules with relation to every other
train, excepting as distinctly provided in the special orders; and as a
necessary consequence of this, _no train should be permitted to run under
the authority or protection of an order given to another_.

Every provision in an order should be held to be _in force indefinitely
until fulfilled or annulled, or expired by some limitation in the order
or in the rules_. In the orders delivered to those who are to execute
them _no erasures, alterations, or interlineations should be permitted_.
These tend to obscure the meaning and raise doubts as to accuracy. The
writing should be clear and plain, the letters well formed and without
flourishes. Orders must often be read in dim light or in storms, and
when men are hurried, and they should not be required to decipher bad
writing. Many orders have come under the author's notice which were
defective in this respect. The following specimen is given, omitting
names that would indicate where it was issued. The bad writing, the
number of points covered by the order, the difficulty arising from these,
and the flimsy character of the paper must condemn the order as utterly
unfit as a reliance for the safety of life and property dependent upon
its proper execution. The illustration is not wholly satisfactory, for
the reproduction of the order on smooth, white paper does not adequately
represent the indistinctness arising from yellow paper, thin and
crumpled, on which it was written, in common with so many train orders.

[Illustration:

  967-C1  624.  61          188

  Train Order No.     227.221.

  To ___________   Edwards

  Two Extra East Engs 227 & 221
  and No 24. Eng 222. meet 1^{st}
  21 Carij Co-ad at ______
  2^d 21 a by Canada mitdo
  Engs 227 & 221. at ______
  and No 24 at ______
  Engs 227 & 221, Will Not Pass
  _____ before 245 PM.
  There lookout for Jos. Sullivan
  handles signals.
  [unclear] & Corr
  [unclear] 12 W1013
  [unclear] 17 Rue

  Endorsement

  Train Order No. __________________________________
                                     Superintendent.
  Time._________Correct [signature]_________________
                                          Conductor.
  ______________Correct [signature]__________________
          Train Dispatcher.                Conductor.

  This Order is incomplete, and the train must not leave the station until
  it is endorsed "CORRECT," the exact time given and the initials of the
  Dispatcher affixed.
]

Orders should be identified by _consecutive numbers_, as is now usual.
If the regular business requires a large number it is better to begin
with No. 1 each day. As a precaution against the engineman overlooking
orders, and as a means for properly taking care of them, _a clip should
be provided for them on the engine, in a position to be readily seen
by the engineman while attending to his duties_. This will avoid the
necessity of his putting the orders where he may forget them; and _with
each on a separate paper_ they may be arranged in proper succession
and removed as executed, leaving always before the eye the next to be
executed. The copies of orders retained by operators should remain in the
book. These books and the copies that have been used by trainmen should
be sent to headquarters for inspection. This will serve to indicate the
manner in which the regulations are carried out, and the condition, as to
legibility, etc., in which the orders are issued.

Forms of orders will be considered under "Forms."



CHAPTER V.

THE MANIFOLD.


Under the common practice there must be prepared at least three copies
of each train order received for delivery. The conductor and engineman
are each supplied with a copy, and the operator retains one. To make
three several copies by pen and ink, as heretofore practiced by some,
takes a good deal of time, and there is danger that they may not be all
alike, and the time and risk are increased if more than three copies
are required. To obviate this, the manifold system of writing has
come into general use and with very great advantage. As used by many,
however, it has serious defects. The tissue paper frequently used is
very objectionable, especially the yellow variety. Messages written on
it are quite difficult to read, especially in a poor light; it is easily
crumpled, rendering it still more indistinct; it is difficult to handle
in the wind, and it is easily damaged by wet. In the use of the manifold
for some seventeen years the author found it entirely practicable to
use an opaque white paper, of sufficient body to be free from the above
objections and yet capable of giving seven distinct copies with a good
pencil of the hardness of No. 4 Faber. This is now recognized as the
best and is prescribed in the specifications connected with the Time
Convention rules.

Operators should not be permitted to receive orders on separate slips
and copy them on the manifold, but should take the order down at once
in the manifold-book. A sheet of tin placed in the book enables them
to make all the copies perfectly distinct. Of course none but "sound"
operators can do this. It takes but little more time and application to
make a "sound" than a "paper" operator, and the advantage of the former
is so great in this as well as in other respects in this service that
it should always be required. Operators readily become able to take the
requisite number of copies in manifold without the use of intermediate
slips, and the risks of copying are thus avoided. When more copies are
wanted than are made at the first writing they should be traced from one
of the original copies. In the case of a general order, as in annulling a
train, operators would usually make but one copy, and others required for
delivery should be traced from this. Careful supervision should be had as
to the actual practice of operators in the proper use of the manifold,
and as to frequently changing the carbon paper to secure distinctness.



CHAPTER VI.

THE RECORD.


A careful record ought to be kept of each step in the issuing of an
order, as well as of its exact terms. This record should be made on the
original copies held by the Dispatcher, and by the operator who receives
and delivers the order. The Dispatcher's copy should show who issued it,
and both should indicate what operators were engaged in its transmission,
and the time at which each step was taken, as well as the proper address,
etc.

The Dispatcher's train sheet should constantly show the movements of the
several trains, which should be promptly reported by the operators and
recorded by them in the prescribed forms. A practical difficulty occurs
in making the Dispatcher's record of all the steps in the issuing of
an order, which it may be well to refer to here. When the Dispatcher
is assisted by an operator, the most of the steps will be taken and
recorded by the latter. They should be at once recorded on the original
copy of the order, so as to leave nothing to be remembered or copied.
Now, if the Dispatcher must write the order out in the book before
transmission, the operator may have occasion to use the book at the
same time for recording steps then in progress with reference to other
orders; and if he does not, the passing of the books back and forth
between them is inconvenient. It has, partly on this account, doubtless,
become the custom with many for the Dispatcher himself to telegraph the
orders without first writing them down, his operator taking them down as
repeated back and writing them in the book of record. The operator thus
has the book all the time in his hands. The objections to the Dispatcher
transmitting orders himself are elsewhere considered, and it is designed
here to point out a method by which the other plan can be pursued and
the inconvenience referred to avoided. The Dispatcher is provided with a
manifold-book and some loose sheets properly headed. With these, by the
manifold process, he prepares two copies of the order, one in his book
and the other on a loose sheet which he hands to the operator for use in
transmitting. On this all the subsequent record is made by the operator,
and at the close of each day all the orders for that day are fastened
together and filed away. The numbers and manifold writing sufficiently
identify the two copies if subsequent comparison is necessary, each being
in fact an original. This method has the further advantage that the
Dispatcher has by him all the time copies of orders he has issued, for
reference if needed.



CHAPTER VII.

THE TRAIN-ORDER SIGNAL.


A method much used for signaling a train to stop for orders is to display
a flag or light of suitable color, after receiving the direction to "hold
the train." This is often done by holding the signal in the hand or
placing it on the platform or ground or in some fixed place. If placed
on the platform, without attendance, it is liable to be obscured or
removed by persons about the place. If held, in the hand of the agent or
operator it is a poor arrangement for performing so important an office.
The operator is usually required to report that the signal is displayed.
He evidently cannot do this without leaving the signal unattended, and in
fact when he is alone he must so leave it, as, after it is displayed, he
must return to the office to receive the order, and he must also often be
engaged in his office while expecting a train. It will frequently occur
that trains will pass his station after he has received an order for some
subsequent train; in which case he must temporarily remove the signal,
or stop a train which might otherwise not be required to stop. When this
plan is used all trains that arrive before that for which the order is
held are actually stopped. A serious accident occurred some years since
from the hand-lamp going out as it was swung as a signal to stop a train
for which orders had been received. The signal failed, and the train went
on and collided with the opposing train. Lanterns and flags are the only
available movable signals to be put in the hands of train and track men,
but they should not be relied upon where anything better can be used.
The evils attending this use of hand signals are so manifest that the
practice is fast disappearing, and the reference to it here may before
long be only a reminder of what has been done.

A signal for this purpose should be distinctive and of the most
substantial character. A fixed signal manipulated from within the office
is greatly to be preferred. Several such have been devised. The signal
should be such as to be distinctly seen at proper distances; it should
be as little as possible liable to confusion with other objects, and
it should be an adornment rather than a disfigurement to the landscape
in which it forms a prominent feature. The most satisfactory signal
within the author's knowledge is the simple semaphore arm, extending
horizontally from a post and showing a red light to signify "stop," and
inclined and showing a white light to signify the opposite, and operated
by a handle within the telegraph office.

Much discussion has been had in the past as to whether a danger signal,
which this preeminently is, should stand normally at safety or danger.
The earlier practice favored the former, as indicated, above, the absence
of a signal, in the plan described, being the rule. In more recent years
the weight of opinion has been that in all systems of danger signals the
normal position, and that to which such signals should automatically
move, is that indicating danger. So arranged, the indicator will always
be in a position to stop trains unless it is moved to another position
to show that there are no orders for them. It becomes a standing order
to "hold," and, when an order is forwarded for a train, the fact of its
receipt requires that the signal be simply left in its normal position
and the train thus stopped. It will be then the rule and the habit of
trainmen to observe all these signals and to stop when they are not
placed, on their approach, in the position permitting them to proceed.

The rules of many railroads still indicate a usage contrary to this.
The lamp, flag, or other stop signal is displayed only when a train is
to be stopped for orders. It appears that under some circumstances,
especially where the duties of the agent and operator are performed
by the same person, the telegraphic duties being comparatively small,
it is thought better to retain this method, and the rules of the Time
Convention were so framed as to provide for either, leaving the choice
to those concerned. Under the "normal at danger" plan, when an order is
received in advance of the arrival of the train for which it is designed,
and has been properly verified and prepared for delivery, it remains in
the hands of the operator until the train arrives, the signal showing
"stop." If, in the mean time, other trains pass for which there are no
orders, the signal must be placed, as they approach, so as to indicate
that they may pass. But there is then the danger that the operator may
inadvertently allow the train to pass for which he has an order. This has
actually occurred, and should be provided against. This should be done
by requiring that, as soon as an order for a train not arrived is ready
for the signatures of the trainmen, or for delivery when signatures are
not taken, the copies designed for them shall be removed from the book,
folded, and marked with the train number, and put in a designated place
and in such position that the signal handle cannot be moved without the
eye and hand being directed to the orders. This is readily effected by
a rack to hold the orders placed on a small door closing by a spring
and catch over the handle by which the operator moves the signal. The
handle cannot be moved without unfastening the door and so opening it
as to bring the orders, which are on it, under the eye and hand of the
operator. This precaution may appear trivial, but while it is of great
importance to adopt such routine that its mechanical performance will
lead to a correct result, it is equally important to interpose such
obstacles as are necessary to prevent a mechanical inadvertence that
may lead to disaster. The same kind of risk exists in the use of block
signals, and several plans have been used to obviate it by suitable
mechanical means. In the other use of the train-order signal there is, to
a certain extent, the same liability to this unconscious movement when
it has been placed at danger, and a like precaution is needed to guard
against it. It often happens that there are orders on hand for several
trains. A definite place for them prevents their getting mixed with each
other or with other papers; and removing them from the book avoids the
necessity of leafing them over to find the particular order which men may
be waiting to sign, and possible mistake in getting the wrong order.

The only reason of apparent moment that could be assigned for leaving
the orders in the book is that the trainmen may sign all the copies.
There does not appear to be any good reason for requiring their
signatures on their own copies, and the manifold writing by them would be
unsatisfactory. Again, it will often happen that more than one train is
to receive a copy of the order, in which case the same signatures are not
wanted on all the copies. The point here urged as of paramount importance
_is that the order itself shall be interposed between the operator and
the instrument by which he might give a signal permitting a train to
pass improperly_. In this view the discussion of the point is pertinent
to the subject of "Signal." It may be added that the final indorsement
of "complete" after signature on each copy takes but a moment, and
perhaps no longer than a careful writing of it over several copies in the
manifold-book; and as the men should read and compare their copies before
the final steps, it is difficult to see how they could do this properly
if the orders remain in the book.

The train-order signal should be used for no other than its legitimate
purpose. It will not be inconsistent with this to use it for holding a
train the required time after the passage of another train in the same
direction.

Upon some roads, trains passing while the stop signal is shown receive a
"clearance" card stating that orders in hand are not for them. This is
included as a part of the plan presented in the Time Convention rules for
the use of the signal with its normal position at safety. It would seem
to be necessary with this method; and in any case where it can be used it
is a valuable precaution, the only objection being that it requires the
stopping of fast or heavy trains which it might be quite objectionable to
stop. This would seem, however, to be proper for any train stopped by the
signal for time.

Where the plan is adopted of keeping the train-order signal normally at
safety it should still, as in the other system, be so arranged that it
will move automatically to danger if any of the mechanical parts fail.
If this is not done and dependence is placed on fastening it at danger,
the fastenings or some of the connections may fail and the signal move to
safety without the fact being observed. One important advantage of the
other plan of using the signal is that it is never at safety excepting
when held in that position by the operator. Where the usual position is
safety it cannot be arranged for the operator to actually hold the signal
while it occupies the danger position.



CHAPTER VIII.

THE TRANSMISSION.


The transmission of orders will be taken to include all the steps after
preparation by the Dispatcher until final delivery.

These are:

  1. Telegraphing the order to the stations to which it is to be sent.

  2. Writing down as received.

  3. Repeating it back to the Dispatcher.

  4. The response of the Dispatcher indicating that it is correctly
       repeated.

  5. The acknowledgment of this response.

  6. Comparing copies of the order with the persons to whom it is
       addressed, and taking their signatures.

  7. Telegraphing the signatures to the Dispatcher's office.

  8. The Dispatcher's reply, acknowledging the receipt of the signatures,
       and indicating that the order may now be delivered.

  9. The indorsement of this reply on the order.

  10. The delivery to the trainmen.

Some Dispatchers prefer to personally telegraph their orders, having
an assistant operator to copy them as transmitted or as repeated, and
to perform the subsequent work of verification, record, etc. Those who
are accustomed to transmit their own orders strongly contend for that
practice. Those who pursue a different course are equally strong for
theirs. In arranging for those, at least, who have not become wedded to
any particular method, general consideration should govern. If contests
or inquiries arise on the wire when the Dispatcher is sending, time is
occupied which he may very much need, and where the amount of work is
large it will leave the Dispatcher more at liberty to attend to his
special duty if he simply prepares his orders and hands them to an
operator for the subsequent steps, and this is by some carefully insisted
upon.

The Dispatcher's duty is not simply to direct each movement as the
exigency arrives. He should be constantly on the alert to provide as
far as possible in advance for the arrangements necessary for keeping
his trains moving, and his mind should be free from anything that may
interfere with this. Attention by him to the merely mechanical duties
detracts from his usefulness and the benefits which the road should
derive from the talents which are supposed to fit him for his position.
Some points connected with this subject are referred to in Chapter VI.
Whether sent personally by the Dispatcher or by an operator from a
written sheet, the order should, whenever practicable, _be transmitted
simultaneously to all the offices to which it is to be sent_. Ordinarily
this will be to but two offices. An order annulling a train may have to
be sent to all the offices on the division. The simultaneous transmission
is a most valuable safeguard and a saving in telegraphing only
practicable with the duplicate order. It has been urged as an objection
to the duplicate order that where agents act as operators their duties
as agents may sometimes interfere with their attendance as operators
when wanted for simultaneous transmission. This furnishes no ground for
objecting to this form of order, as simultaneous transmission is not
essential, and it is only necessary in such case that the precaution be
observed of sending first to the train of superior right.

On calling an office a special signal should be used to indicate that a
train-order is to be sent. The numerals 31 or 19 are now generally used
for this purpose, the former for orders to be signed by the trainmen
before delivery and the latter for orders to be delivered without such
signature. After this signal the word "copy" should follow, with a number
indicating how many copies are to be made. This maybe omitted when three
is the number required, that being the most usual. If the system in use
does not provide that the train-order signal shall stand normally in the
"danger" position, the operator who is to receive the order must, at
this point, place it in that position and report that he has done so. He
then prepares his manifold-book for the requisite number of copies and
takes the order down as sent, with the proper address for his station,
immediately repeating it back word for word, _reading from the order as
actually written on the paper to be delivered_, and not from a slip to be
afterward copied. A "paper" operator should write the order in manifold
before repeating. Some defer the repeating until the signatures of the
trainmen are to be reported. But it is on many accounts preferable to
repeat and verify the order at once and before signatures are taken,
even if the trainmen are present. It assures its accuracy before they
have read and signed it. The repeating operators can listen to each
other better than if they repeat at different times, and the sender of
the order can better attend to its verification while the original lies
before him. There will also be less detention to trains if the repeating
is done before their arrival. The importance of this will further appear
from the consideration elsewhere of the effect of an order where the
telegraph fails after but one train has received and proceeded on it.

The relative succession in which the offices are to repeat should be
fixed by rule or usage, to avoid doubt or conflict. It is better that the
repeating be done in the same succession as that in which the several
offices are addressed. This assures the repeating first by the office
receiving for the superior train. As a valuable precaution against error,
_each should be required to listen while the others repeat_. An operator
has been known to hear the name of a meeting-place correctly, write it
down incorrectly in the order and repeat it back correctly. If he had
looked at his copy as the other repeated, he would probably have noticed
his error.

In this connection it may be observed that too much importance cannot be
attached to the cultivation of a careful habit in telegraphing orders. A
certain degree of rapidity in handling the key is not inconsistent with
distinctness, but the latter should never be sacrificed to haste and a
hurried and careless style of telegraphing should never be permitted.

The operator in the Dispatcher's office should carefully observe each
word as repeated by each, to make sure that all is repeated correctly.
Some observe the commendable practice of underscoring each word as
repeated, thus making sure that their attention is not withdrawn. If the
Dispatcher transmits his orders himself and his copy for record is made
as the order is repeated, as is the practice of some, his copy can hardly
be said to be an original. It may vary from what was sent or designed
to be sent, and his operator taking it down has not the opportunity of
checking as above, and may himself make a mistake in receiving it. All
offices required at the time to repeat an order should do so before the
Dispatcher replies. The signal for this reply now generally used, and
adopted for the "Standard" Code, is "O K." This is given simultaneously
to all, naming each, and each should acknowledge it. It is important that
the Dispatcher should know that each has received the "O K." It is not
necessary that the Dispatcher personally authorize this reply. It may be
properly done by his operator who has watched the repeating. Where the
order is not repeated back until the signatures are obtained and sent
with it, the response, "O K" and sometimes "complete" is used to cover
the whole, but where the practice herein recommended is pursued, the use
of two signals is necessary, "O K" being the first. The time at which the
order is sent and "O K" given should be noted on all the copies, with the
initials or signals of the operators sending and receiving, and the name
or initials of the superintendent. The order is then ready for signature
and delivery, and, if the train for which it is designed has not arrived,
the train copies should be removed from the book, folded and marked on
the outside with the train number, and placed in the rack provided, as
indicated under The Train-Order Signal.

Practice has varied very much in the method of delivering orders. Some
have simply had them authenticated by repeating back as above, with
perhaps the proviso that the trainmen compare their copies with that
of the operator, and in some cases sign for them. The transmitting of
signatures has not in all cases been required. Many rules, especially
those of early date, appear to be based on the idea that the whole
process of sending, verifying, and acknowledging an order is to be
continuous and while the train is at the station. Much that appears
in some rules gives the impression that either this idea prevailed or
that the phraseology used in connection with it was retained while the
practice had changed. On a busy road it would certainly be impracticable
to carry out this idea, and it is not now usually attempted.

In early days of train telegraphy, when orders were not prepared with the
precision of the present day, it was the custom to add to the order the
phrase "how do you understand?" This came to be represented by a signal,
the most generally used perhaps being the numeral "31." The reply to
this, preceded by "we understand we are to," represented by "13" or
other numeral, was required to be written out by the trainmen as their
"understanding." This was probably in most cases a verbatim copy of the
order. Whether this was actually done by the conductor and engineman is
doubtful. Some allowed the operator to do it. With the definite forms
of orders now used and well understood, there is certainly no necessity
for men to write out their "understanding." The manifold copies,
authenticated by repeating back and compared by reading aloud, which also
serves to impress the order on the men, must certainly be better than
anything written by or for them. There would seem to be no reason for
perpetuating a fiction by referring to the repeating of the order as the
"understanding" or by the use of "31" and "13" in their original sense,
when the question and answer which they represent are no longer designed
to be used, and this practice and the expressions which arose under it
have almost entirely given place to the improved methods.

Following, then, the practice here recommended and now generally used,
the message has been placed in the hands of the operator and its verbal
accuracy assured, and the train-order signal being in position to stop
the train, the conductor and engineman understand that on arrival they
are to go to the office "for orders." One of them (or the operator)
should read the order aloud while each looks at his copy, the object
being _to guard against a hurried reading of the order, to acquaint them
fully with its exact terms, and to impress its purport upon them_. It
is to be hoped that no man would willfully disregard a train order, but
there are many who would proceed upon a hasty examination or none at all,
if permitted to do so, and perhaps on a wrong impression as to what it
directs to be done.

The order having been thus read and compared, the signatures should be
taken on the operator's copy. From the many rules forbidding operators to
sign for trainmen, and conductors for enginemen, it would seem probable
that this is sometimes done. This is a practice which no considerations
of convenience can justify. Personal signatures should be insisted upon.
Without this there is danger that men will hastily "grab" an order and
fail to get its meaning. Time is well spent in securing their particular
attention to it, and their signatures attest that this has been done.

There is much difference of opinion as to whether it is important to take
the signature of the engineman. Much time is often lost by taking him
from his engine, particularly on very long trains, and some think that
the purpose is as well served by having his copy delivered to him by the
conductor. In the latter plan there is some danger that the attention of
the engineman may not be particularly called to the purport of the order,
and for this reason the author believes that the practice is best where
both signatures are required. The Time Convention code leaves the choice
optional.

The signatures having been obtained, the Dispatcher is to be advised, by
their transmission to him, in connection with the number of the order
signed for and the train number or designation. The reply that all is
satisfactory, authorized by the Dispatcher personally, is then to be
given in some prescribed form. The word "complete" has been adopted in
the "Standard Code," superseding "correct," which was formerly used.

The selected word should be written on each copy, with the exact time at
which it was given. The order may then be delivered, and the train order
signal so placed as to allow the train to proceed. If the Dispatcher's
office is also used as an office for delivering orders, the same
formalities in delivery should be observed as at way offices.

It will sometimes occur that an order must be sent to a disabled or
other train away from a telegraph station. It must, in that case, pass
through additional hands, and great care is necessary to guard against
error. The conductor or messenger who carries the order should be made
accountable for its delivery in proper form, by himself signing for it
and getting "complete." The order being addressed to the conductor and
engineman of the train "in care of" the messenger selected, the latter
should be furnished with an additional copy, on which he is to take the
signatures of the conductor and engineman, as if they were at a telegraph
office. This copy should be delivered as soon as practicable to an
operator, who should forward the signatures, completing the process.

Although when these paragraphs were first written the method of
transmission described did not correspond entirely with any practice that
might be termed general, it agreed in essential points with the practice
upon several roads where most careful consideration has been given to the
various risks in train dispatching and to methods for avoiding them. The
process detailed indicates the points to be guarded, and furnishes what
has proved a practicable and satisfactory method, and corresponds with
the regulations now being rapidly adopted on our principal roads.

The rules should determine the course to be pursued if the telegraph
fails during the process of transmitting an order. If this occur
before its correct reception is assured by repeating back and giving
and acknowledging "O K" for any office concerned, the process is not
sufficiently complete for the men of a train at such office to be
allowed to sign for and act upon it. If, therefore, communication is
not quickly restored it is perfectly safe and proper to provide that an
operator shall permit a train, in such case, to proceed on its schedule
rights without orders. If, on the other hand, "O K" has been given and
acknowledged, the correct reception of the order is assured, and a period
is reached when the men of a train may, and often must, be permitted, on
arrival, to sign for and act on the order before the arrival of the other
at the point where the order is awaiting it. If the men of one train have
thus proceeded, and the other on arrival cannot be communicated with,
it would be obviously unsafe for it to proceed upon the order awaiting
it for which signatures cannot be transmitted, because, although the
opposing train may be on the way to execute the order, this is not known
to the train that is cut off from communication. It would therefore be
improper for it to proceed either in accordance with the order or on
schedule rights. It would appear, therefore, that an order wholly or
partly sent by the process detailed, and for which "O K" cannot be given
and acknowledged by reason of the telegraph failing, should not operate
to hold the train addressed, but that an order for which "O K" has been
given and acknowledged should have this effect. The rule should therefore
be _that, after "O K" is given to an order and acknowledged, the train
to which the order is addressed shall not be permitted to pass until the
signatures are transmitted and "complete" obtained_, or until the train
can be communicated with by the Dispatcher. This is based, of course,
upon the presumption that the plan is followed of assuring the accurate
transmission for both trains, and that each operator has acknowledged the
"O K" before "complete" is given to either. The delays arising from the
operation of this rule cannot be frequent, and it is better to submit to
these than to run the risk involved in a different course.

In the use of the "19" order, to which the signatures of the trainmen
are not taken, the order becomes of effect only when "complete" has been
given and acknowledged; and until this is accomplished it should be
treated as of the same effect as a "31" order for which "O K" has not
been given and acknowledged.

If the practice is followed of delaying the repeating of the order until
the signatures are obtained and sent, then the presence of the order in
the operator's hands should serve to hold either train if the telegraph
fails, as neither can know but that the other train has received the
order and proceeded on it. It must be seen, however, that there is some
risk in depending on a train being held by the mere presence of an
order, the correct reception of which has not been fully acknowledged,
as the receiving operator may even have made an error in receiving the
number of the train for which the order is designed; and this offers
an additional reason for repeating back at once on the receipt of the
order. These considerations as to the holding effect of an order when
the telegraph fails, do not, of course, apply to a general order, as one
annulling a train, until such order is specially addressed to a train. It
should be understood that operators hold trains a reasonable time for the
resumption of communication broken during the transmission of orders.

It is important that the holding effect of an order not signed for
should be clearly understood, so that the Dispatcher may run trains with
confidence against a train so held.

A careful Dispatcher will observe that the inconveniences arising from
a train being held by the incomplete transmission of an order will be
greater as the distance is greater between the point to which the order
is sent for delivery and the point where it is to take effect.



CHAPTER IX.

RULES.


Many books of Rules have borne evidence that the ability to construct
rules is not always commensurate with the many other gifts of successful
railroad officers. To know what is to be done and how is one thing, but
it is quite another to express the intention clearly and concisely. A
scholar might present the subject in precise and grammatical form, and
yet fail to so render it as to make it plain to practical men of limited
education; and yet, while the language must be clear to the untrained
mind, there should be no expressions that are not within the bounds of
rhetorical propriety. The evident difficulties surrounding the subject
render more conspicuous the admirable results of the work of the able
committee of the General Time Convention in the production of the
"Standard" code of train and telegraph rules contributed by that body
to the railroad service. To have produced a set of rules that should be
accepted for general adoption, in which so few deficiencies have been
pointed out, is a work worthy of the highest commendation. Under the
operation of these rules will disappear the uncertainty often appearing
in anxious inquiries by "Conductor" or "Train-Master," in the railroad
papers, as to how this rule or that order is to be understood under given
circumstances. There will be fewer occasions for trainmen to reconcile
conflicting regulations and fewer cases of "doubt," in which to "take the
safe course and run no risks."

No one, however, feels that entire perfection has been reached, in
practice or statement, or that even in the near future, additions or
changes may not be found desirable; and, as methods of operation improve,
scope will doubtless still be found for fresh talent in the production of
regulations for new combinations of circumstances as well as improvement
in those prepared by earlier hands.

The Telegraph Rules of the Time Convention, adopted October 12th, 1887,
are here given, with some discussion relating to them. In considering
these rules mention will necessarily be made of points referred to on
previous pages and which are here embodied in form for practical use.
This necessarily involves some apparent repetition. The rules are here
designated by the numbers given to them by the Time Convention Committee;
and it may be here stated that, in conformity with the method followed
in the Time Convention train rules, the term "time-table" is herein
applied to the issue governing the movements of all regular trains, while
"schedule" is used to designate that part of the time-table which applies
to any one train.

  Rule 500.--Special orders directing movements varying from or
    additional to the time-table will be issued by the authority and over
    the signature of the Superintendent. They are not to be used for
    movements that can be provided for by rule or time-table. They must
    not contain information or instructions not essentially a part of
    them.

    They must be brief and clear, and the prescribed forms must be used
    when applicable; and there must be no erasures, alterations, or
    interlineations.

This rule indicates the proper function of a Telegraphic Train Order,
the authority under which it is to be given, and the essential features
of its construction, with the requirement that the prescribed forms
are to be used when applicable. While in the fixed forms provision is
made for the majority at least of the cases likely to occur, occasions
will doubtless arise when other forms or modifications of these will
be required. It is therefore important that the principles on which
these forms are to be constructed be distinctly stated. The provisions
as to how orders shall be issued and as to the use of the forms, when
applicable, and the absence of alterations, are all necessary as tending
to secure uniformity and accuracy. The following note, attached by the
Time Convention Committee, emphasizes a point hereinbefore dwelt upon as
of great importance:

  [Note.--On Roads whose organization provides that any other officer
    than the Superintendent shall direct train movements, the
    official title of such officer may be substituted in the above
    rule. The Committee considers it essential, however, that but one
    person's signature should be used in directing train movements on
    any dispatching division.]

  Rule 501.--Each order must be given in the same words to all persons
    or trains directly affected by it, so that each shall have a
    duplicate of what is given to the others. Preferably an order should
    include but one specified movement.

Here is determined the feature essential to the "duplicate" system, viz.,
that the order shall be "in the same words" to all concerned; and the
preference is here given to the point urged by the author, of covering
but one movement by an order.

  Rule 502.--Orders will be numbered consecutively for each day as
    issued, beginning with No. 1 at midnight.

The use of numbers for orders serves to identify each order and to
indicate the priority of issue.

  Rule 503.--Orders must be addressed to those who are to execute them,
    naming the place at which each is to receive his copy. Those for a
    train must be addressed to the conductor and engineman, and also to
    a person acting as pilot. A copy for each person addressed must be
    supplied by the operator.

The requirement here that orders shall be addressed to those who are
to execute them might seem superfluous but for some former looseness
in this respect and the necessity for exactness in prescribing each
step in the process of issue. The address, including the place of
delivery, is necessary as indicating, in simultaneous transmission, which
operators are to receive for those respectively to whom the orders are
sent. The introduction of the Pilot here is valuable. As the one under
whose special direction the train is for the time being, he should be
directly informed of orders controlling its movements. The conductor and
engineman who are in charge of the train subject to his control, are also
necessarily advised. The relations of the Pilot to the train are much the
same as those of the pilot to a vessel of which he has control for the
time being. He is placed there because of his having special knowledge,
not possessed by the conductor and engineman, of circumstances which
necessarily affect the movement, and has entire control of the train in
this respect. He may or may not be an engineman. He may or may not run
the engine. He, however, is to say when it may or may not run, and is
the person by whose authority the movements are to be regulated with
reference to the signals and the physical features of the road and with
respect to other trains as well as the established rules. He does not
assume the duties of the conductor as to those things which are purely
local to the train, and the brakemen and fireman are properly held to be
under his orders through the conductor and engineman. The trainmen are
not, by the presence of the Pilot, relieved from the usual obligation to
protect the train and perform other duties connected with it or required
by the rules.

  Rule 504.--Each order must be written in full in a book provided
    for the purpose at the Superintendent's office; and with it must be
    recorded the names of trainmen and others who have signed for the
    order, the time and signals, showing when and from what offices the
    order and responses were transmitted, and the Train Dispatcher's
    initials. These records must be made at once on the original copy,
    and not afterward from memory or memoranda.

The requirement here as to the record of each order in a book is usually
now fulfilled by the preservation of a manifold copy in the book in
which the blanks are bound. This, in fact, is the method contemplated,
although the rule is so drawn as to admit of other methods. The record of
the various points specified is requisite for a complete history of each
transaction.

  Rule 505.--The terms "superior right" and "inferior right" in these
    rules refer to the rights of trains under the Time-table and Train
    Rules, and not to rights under Special Orders.

This rule is rather an authoritative statement of a logical conclusion
from the facts, but very properly gives this prominence to a point that
must be constantly borne in mind. When the rights of trains are reversed
by an order, as is usually the case, the inferior becomes for a time
the superior, and this definition emphasizes this. In this connection
it may be again noted that a very important and necessary part of the
training of those engaged in operating the railroad telegraph is the
acquisition of an intimate knowledge of the rules governing the rights
and movements of trains when acting independently of telegraphic control.
The legitimate use of the telegraph is to facilitate movement when, under
the unaided operation of the rules, there might be delay, and to give
preference, for special reasons, to trains which, under the rules are
inferior. An exact knowledge of the effect of the rules, and what may be
done by trains under their provisions, is therefore important, so that
there shall be no unnecessary use of special orders, and that those used
shall be the most appropriate to the circumstances.

  Rule 506.--When an order is to be transmitted, the signal "31" (as
    provided in Rule 509) or the signal "19" (as provided in Rule 511),
    meaning "Train Order," will be given to each office addressed,
    followed by the word "copy," and a figure indicating the number of
    copies to be made, if more or less than three--thus, "31 copy 5," or
    "19 copy 5."

This rule begins upon the details of transmission and is the first in
which mention is made of the special signals "31" and "19," signifying
"train order," the use of which is more fully indicated later on.
We have here the first step in the methodical plan of transmission
prescribed in these rules, preparing the operator for the reception
of the order and informing him of the number of copies for which he
must prepare his manifold sheets. As three is the number most usually
required, the omission of this number economizes telegraphing. In the
same case the word "copy" might as well be omitted.

  Rule 507.--An order to be sent to two or more offices must be
    transmitted simultaneously to as many as practicable. The several
    addresses must be in the order of superiority of rights of trains,
    and each office will take only its proper address. When not sent
    simultaneously to all, the order must be sent first for the train
    having the superior right of track.

  [Note.--On roads which desire the operator at a meeting-point to have
    copies of the order, the several addresses will be, first, the
    operator at whose station the trains are to meet and next in the
    order of superiority of the rights of trains.]

This rule brings us to the transmission of the order and requires that
it be simultaneous as far as possible. This is a safeguard possible only
with the duplicate system. Here also the priority of transmission to the
superior train is insisted upon. In addition to other advantages, the
systematic naming of the superior train first calls the attention of
operators to the relative superiority of trains. The principle involved
here is elsewhere recognized. The note attached by the Time Convention
Committee has reference to the arrangement which some prefer of sending a
copy of the order to the operator at the meeting-point in addition to the
copies sent to other points for delivery to the trains.

  Rule 508.--Operators receiving orders must write them out in manifold
    during transmission, and make the requisite number of copies at one
    writing or trace others from one of the copies first made.

This rule directs the use of the manifold writing and practically
dispenses with any record book other than that in which the manifold
copies are preserved.

This is one of the most important improvements over the old methods. In
the early days of telegraphing and with some to a comparatively recent
period, each copy of an order was written separately, occupying much
time and involving great liability to error in transcribing. Now the
perfection of the manifold admits of making at one writing all the copies
usually required. If additional copies are wanted, their exactness is
assured by tracing from one of those made at the first writing. It must
be observed here that the rule does not permit an operator to take the
message down on a separate sheet and make his manifold copies afterward.

  Rule 509.--When an order has been transmitted, preceded by the signal
    "31," operators receiving it must (unless otherwise directed) repeat
    it back at once from the manifold copy, and in the succession in
    which their several offices have been addressed. Each operator
    repeating must observe whether the others repeat correctly. After
    the order has been repeated correctly by the operators required at
    the time to repeat it, the response "O K," authorized by the Train
    Dispatcher, will be sent simultaneously to as many as practicable,
    naming each office. Each operator must write this on the order with
    the time, and then reply "i i O K," with his office signal.

    Those to whom the order is addressed, except enginemen, must then
    sign their names to the copy of the order to be retained by the
    operator, and he will send their signatures to the Superintendent.
    The response "complete," with the Superintendent's initials, will
    then be given, when authorized by the Train Dispatcher. Each
    operator receiving this response will then write on each copy the
    word "complete," the time, and his last name in full; and will
    then deliver a copy to each person included in the address, except
    enginemen, and each must read his copy aloud to the operator. The
    copy for each engineman must be delivered to him personally by ----,
    and the engineman must read it aloud and understand it before acting
    upon it.

  [Note.--The blank in the above rule may be filled for each road to
    suit its own requirements. On roads where the signature of the
    engineman is desired, the words "except enginemen" and the last
    sentence in the second paragraph may be omitted. See also note
    under Rule No. 500.]

  [Individual operator's signals may be used when desired in addition
    to office signals, as here and elsewhere provided for.]

In this rule are given in detail the steps to be taken after the order
has been transmitted, this rule having special reference to the orders
for which signatures of trainmen are to be taken, known technically as
the "31" order. Much of the efficiency of the telegraph, as well as the
safety of operation, depends upon the careful drill of operators in this
respect and strict adherence to the requirements of the rule. Repeating
back at the time of receiving may be properly omitted under the direction
of the Dispatcher, in case of a general order, as one annulling a train.
This would be sent to all stations but not necessarily delivered at all,
and therefore repeating back at once from all would unnecessarily occupy
the wire. Other cases may arise where the repeating may be postponed. In
repeating, however, the requirement that it be done from the manifold
copy should be carefully complied with. Reading, word for word, from the
copy actually to be delivered is one of the most important precautions
against mistake. The succession in which offices are to repeat is
prescribed, so that all shall understand it, and it is so fixed that the
repeating shall be done in the order of superiority of trains addressed.
As a repeated order for which the "O K" has been given and acknowledged
serves to hold the train addressed, this secures the superior train at
once.

The requirement that operators observe the repeating by each other is a
further valuable safeguard.

The next step, that of transmitting the "O K," is now prescribed in
the same methodical way and its acknowledgment provided for. Without
this acknowledgment the Dispatcher could not be sure of the train being
held, and it is quite important, although not directed in the rule,
that the acknowledgment of the "O K" should be made by the different
offices in the succession in which they were addressed. This brings us
to the point where the order is fully in the hands of the operator and
becomes operative to a certain extent, as is seen in Rule 510. The train
for which an order has thus been sent may not have yet arrived. By the
rule, however, the signal is displayed to stop the train, and when it
arrives the conductor (and the engineman if required) must go to the
office and sign for the order. The signature (or signatures) must then
be telegraphed to the Dispatcher's office, and when found correct the
final response, "complete," is given, signifying that all the steps in
telegraphing have been taken that are necessary before delivery. It still
remains for the receiving operator to record the "complete" on the order,
with the time and his name, all of which are important for the completion
of a paper which involves the safety of human life. It is still, however,
possible that those who are to use this important paper may fail to
observe its full signification, and it is therefore provided, as a final
precaution, that each one who receives it shall read it aloud to the
operator, who has his own copy before him. This is better than reading
by the operator to the trainmen, as they might not listen attentively,
while they can hardly fail to note the signification of words which they
themselves read aloud.

The notes appended by the Time Convention Committee point out
modifications which may be made with respect to certain points in which
difference of practice prevails and which do not affect the essential
features of the plan.

The author believes that the weight of sentiment is decidedly in favor of
taking the signature of the engineman as well as that of the conductor
for the order, unless controlling circumstances prevent.

  Rule 510.--For an order preceded by the signal "31," "complete"
    must not be given to the order for delivery to a train of inferior
    right until "O K" has been given to and acknowledged by the operator
    who receives the order for the train of superior right. Whenever
    practicable, the signature of the conductor of the train of superior
    right must be taken to the order and "complete" given before the
    train of inferior right is allowed to act on it.

    _After_ "O K" has been given and acknowledged, and _before_
    "complete" has been given, the order must be treated as a holding
    order for the train addressed, but must not be otherwise acted on
    until "complete" has been given.

    If the line fails _before an office has received and acknowledged_
    "_O K_" to an order preceded by the signal "31," the order at that
    office is of no effect, and must be there treated as if it had not
    been sent.

  [Note.--On roads where the signature of the engineman and pilot is
    desired, the words "engineman and pilot" may be added after the
    word "conductor" in the first paragraph of Rule 510.]

Rule 510 presents a requirement of very great importance in prescribing
that "complete" shall not be given for the inferior train until "O K"
has been given and acknowledged for the superior. The reason for this
is apparent from the following considerations: When "complete" has
been given, the train receiving an order on which it is indorsed may
at once proceed to the execution of the order. If it has rights given
to it against a superior train, it is of the highest importance that
the latter shall be informed of this before it can proceed to a point
where the order may bring the inferior into conflict with the rights of
the other. After "O K" has been given and acknowledged for the order at
the point where the superior train is to receive it, the order "holds"
the superior train, as provided in the second paragraph, and it is only
then safe to permit the inferior train to proceed, by giving for it the
final word "complete." It would be still better if in all cases the
signatures of the men of the superior train could be taken before the
other is permitted to act on the order. The rule requires this "whenever
practicable." It is, however, often not practicable on account of the
varying and often considerable distances between telegraph stations, the
varying speed of trains, and unforeseen and unpreventable delays. It is
doubtful whether any reasonable expenditure in increasing the number of
offices would admit of absolute compliance with such a requirement, but
it is quite true that any expenditure at all approaching what this would
require would be much beyond the ability of the majority of railroads. It
is also true that, at least without enormous additions to the facilities,
a strict requirement of this kind would interfere with the movement of
trains to an extent that the patrons of the roads would never agree
to. If the plan provided in the rules really involves any risk in this
respect, it is one which cannot be avoided in the present state of
financial ability and of the means of moving trains.

The closing paragraph of the rule provides for the contingency of
the failure of telegraphic communication at a critical moment in the
transmission.

An order may have been fully received by an operator, but, if the
telegraph fails before he can repeat it back and be informed by the
Dispatcher that it is "O K," it would not be safe to use it. Neither is
it proper that it should have any effect whatever until the Dispatcher is
assured, by the acknowledgment of the "O K," that it has been received.
When an order has been transmitted and is altogether in the hands of
the operator, there is the chance that he may have written down some
important word incorrectly. Hence the requirement that he repeat it back.
This, if carefully performed, assures the Dispatcher of the verbal
accuracy of the message as the operator has it, and the Dispatcher admits
this by the response "O K." He must now act, with reference to this
train, as if it were held at the point at which it is addressed. But he
cannot assume this until he is assured that "O K" has been received. This
is by the required acknowledgment.

If communication absolutely fails before the completion of this process,
all that he has done goes for nothing unless communication is quickly
restored. It is of the utmost importance that the Dispatcher know what
will or will not be done by a train to which an order has been addressed,
as this knowledge guides him in giving other orders. It would not be
proper, even, to assume that a train would be held by the presence of
an order addressed to it unless the accuracy of the order is assured,
for an error may have occurred in receiving the address and the wrong
train number may have been noted. Nor will it do for a train to proceed
regardless of an order addressed to it when the whole process of
transmission cannot be completed, unless the rule authorizing it is made
to specify the precise point in the process of transmission when this
may be permitted. It is also of equal importance that, in the absence of
telegraphic communication with a train, the Dispatcher can depend upon
the fact that it will act in accordance with the rules, notwithstanding
a partial transmission of an order intended to control its movements.
Briefly, he must know whether the train retains the right to proceed or
not, and under what conditions, or he cannot intelligently direct other
trains with reference to it. The question how long a train should wait
for communication to be restored must depend upon so many circumstances
that no rule can be given. The "break" may be but momentary or it
may last for hours. The train may have just time to get to a regular
meeting-place, at which, if reached in time, it may have to lie for
belated trains. Rules must fail here to indicate what is best to be done,
and often the best judgment is no guide. Whatever is determined on may
involve delay. It should never involve danger.

There is a plan in use on several prominent roads by which it is claimed
that the objectionable feature in Rule 510, represented by the phrase
"whenever practicable," may be eliminated. Under this plan there is
added an "advance" order, issued to the superior train, directing it
to stop "for orders" at a point where it is intended to deposit for it
the duplicate of a meeting or other order on which an inferior train is
to be permitted to proceed from some other point before the order is
received by the superior train. By this plan the superior train is "held"
before the inferior is allowed to act on the order, and thus far the risk
is avoided of the superior being improperly allowed to pass the point
where the duplicate order is to be placed for it. It is claimed that a
considerable experience has demonstrated that this plan is feasible and
secures the object in view, and that with it the rule of always first
securing the superior train may be made absolute. Experience is one of
the best of teachers, and few theories can be taken as proved without
it, but even imperfect methods may produce good results under careful
management, so that experience alone is not sufficient for determining
the merits of a system.

The purpose of the plan in question, to "hold" the superior train before
giving orders against it is good, and what all wish to accomplish.
This idea gave rise to the "hold" order of the older methods of train
dispatching and it has been suggested that under the advance-order plan
there is danger of a relapse from strict adherence to the duplicate
method. Careful supervision may prevent this.

If the advance order is invariably given, operators may get to depending
on it rather than on their own care for stopping trains at points where
duplicates are deposited. This is a point to be carefully considered and
on which the railroad fraternity will be by no means agreed. Two things
are depended on. If one fails we have the other. Many hold that this is
better than to rely on one alone. Many, again, maintain that, where the
responsibility is thus divided, each party may depend on the other and
both fail, while, if there is but one, his sense of responsibility is
quickened and the result is better. In view of the difference of opinion
on this point it may be said that if this be the only point in the
consideration of the advance order it may be given a trial.

If it is to be tried, then we must see that there are no exceptions to
its use. The Dispatcher must always anticipate possible contingencies
long enough ahead to be able to designate in advance the points where
trains are to stop for orders, and he must do this before the necessity
arises of allowing the inferior train to proceed on orders which the
superior trains are subsequently to receive. If he cannot thus anticipate
he must still give the order to stop for orders and send it to the point
to which the meeting-order is sent, both to be delivered to the superior
at the same time; and in that case he must depend upon the signal at that
point for stopping the train, as in the Standard rules, or always keep
the inferior train from acting on the order until the orders for the
other train are delivered.

Again, a train for which it is thought meeting-orders may have to be
given must make a stop in order to get the advance order, and again
another at the point named in it, perhaps only that it may receive an
order annulling the first, if meeting-orders are found not to be needed.
Frequently a duplicate order may be placed for a train and annulled
before its arrival if the occasion for it has passed, but the advantage
of this is lost if the advance order is used.

There are many roads on which the circumstances would not admit of thus
always seeing far enough in advance the things to be done, and very many
on which the business would not admit of the stops necessary, and the
occurrence of a single exception would vitiate the whole and make it
necessary to fall back on the provision "whenever practicable."

It is not easy to see how the rule could be invariably applied at
junction points at which trains of superior right are to arrive from
other roads or divisions, and circumstances are so various that it is
difficult to determine just where such a plan could or could not be
satisfactorily applied. Some say they have succeeded with it. Others
point out quite conclusively that the circumstances with them are
such that it would be impracticable. Where it can be applied and used
without exception and the question of divided responsibility can be
satisfactorily disposed of, it is, to say the least, an experiment in the
right direction, but it is to be very much feared that this plan does not
yet supply the universal remedy for the difficulty involved in the phrase
"whenever practicable." The multiplication of messages on a busy wire
will occur to all as a serious objection, but scarcely as one that should
weigh against positive considerations of safety.

  Rule 511.--When an order has been transmitted, preceded by the
    signal "19," operators receiving it must (unless otherwise directed)
    repeat it back at once from the manifold copy, and in the succession
    in which the several offices have been addressed. Each operator
    repeating must observe whether the others repeat correctly. After
    the order has been repeated correctly, the response "complete," with
    the Superintendent's initials, will be given, when authorized by the
    Train Dispatcher. Each operator receiving this response must write on
    each copy the word "complete," the time, and his last name in full,
    and reply "i i complete" with his office signal, and will personally
    deliver the order to the persons addressed, without taking their
    signatures.

  [Note.--On roads where it is desired, the signatures of the
    conductors (or conductors, enginemen, and pilots) may be taken
    by the operator on the delivery of the order. See also note
    under Rule 500. The Committee has recommended two forms of
    train orders--the "31" order and the "19" order; leaving it
    discretionary with the roads to adopt one or both of these forms.]

This rule provides for the steps in transmission of the "19" order, for
which signatures of trainmen are not required, as Rule 509 does for
the "31" order. The steps are the same excepting as to the "O K" and
its acknowledgment and the signatures. The same general considerations
apply to the steps which are identical. The absence of the requirement
as to signatures renders the "O K" unnecessary, the "complete" being
the Dispatcher's notice both that the order has been correctly repeated
and that it may be delivered after "complete" has been acknowledged,
which should be in the succession in which offices are addressed. The
responsibility of delivery to the right parties is placed on the operator.

The use of this method, rather than that under which trainmen sign for
the order, has been the subject of much serious thought and discussion.
In either case the "danger" signal and the carefulness of the operator
are the means depended on for stopping a train for which an order
has been transmitted. The difference is in the mode of delivery. If
signatures are taken the men must take the time to go to the office. If
they are not taken the men may go to the office or the operator may go
out to deliver. The train may perhaps not stop entirely. In any event
the delivery is likely to be hasty and without careful inspection of the
order by those who receive it. A conservative view would seem to indicate
that there were some risk in this, and yet many experienced officers do
not look upon it in that light, and on roads having heavy traffic and
many fast trains this method is used with satisfactory results.

The real solution of the question may be in careful supervision, good
discipline, correct habits, and strict attention to business. In these
lies _safety_; in the opposite, _danger_.

It will be observed that a note of the Time Convention Committee,
attached to the rule and here shown, indicates that the adoption of
either form or both is discretionary with roads adopting the "Standard"
rules, and that it is suggested that it may be provided that operators
shall take the signatures of trainmen for "19" orders. These would be
simply evidence of delivery, and the signatures would not, under this
arrangement, be telegraphed to headquarters.

The question as to when it is best or proper to use the "19" order must
be determined by circumstances. Taking and transmitting the signatures is
intended to secure deliberate care in the delivery and certainty that the
order is delivered to the right train.

The first is reasonably certain when the trainmen are required to go
to the office and sign for the order; the second is determined by the
transmission of the signatures. Those who use the "19" order must
leave both these points to the care of the operator. If operators are
thoroughly drilled and under constant and careful supervision, and so
fully occupied with the work as to be necessarily always on the alert,
this dependence is more likely to result favorably than where discipline
is slack and business dull, and especially where the operator is required
to attend to other duties. Circumstances may often seem to require the
delivery of an order without signatures where the contrary is the usual
custom. It would be necessary in such case to use special precautions
in instructing the operator, and it should scarcely be allowed without
special authority from the responsible head.

  Rule 512.--For an order preceded by the signal "19," "complete" must
    be given and acknowledged for the train of superior right before it
    is given for the train of inferior right.

    If the line fails _before an office has received and acknowledged
    the "complete"_ to an order preceded by the signal "19," the order
    at that office is of no effect, and must be treated as if it had not
    been sent.

This rule is for the "19" order what Rule 510 is for the other, and no
additional remarks are needed.

  Rule 513.--The order, the "O K" and the "complete" must each, in
    transmitting, be preceded by "31" or "19," as the case may be, and
    the number of the order; thus, "31, No. 10," or "19, No. 10." In
    transmitting the signature of a conductor it must be preceded by
    "31," the number of the order, and the train number; thus, "31, No.
    10, Train No. 5." After each transmission and response the sending
    operator must give his office signal.

Here is prescribed the succession in which the signals, etc., shall be
transmitted. For the "office signal," which the operator is required to
give after each transmission and response, some substitute the personal
signal of the operator, which is usually one or more letters assigned,
by which the operator shall be known, and indicates at the same time the
operator and the office where he is known to be on duty.

  Rule 514.--The operator who receives and delivers an order must
    preserve the lowest copy. On this must appear the signatures of those
    who sign for the order, and on it he must record the time when he
    receives it; the responses; the time when they are received; his own
    name; the date; and the train number; for which places are provided
    in the blanks. These copies must be sent to the Superintendent.

The subjects treated of in this rule have been sufficiently considered in
former remarks.

  Rule 515.--Orders used by conductors must be sent by them daily to
    the Superintendent.

This provision affords an opportunity of examining orders that have been
used, and of ascertaining whether they have been prepared and issued in
accordance with the rules.

  Rule 516.--Enginemen will place their orders in the clip before them
    until executed.

This rule supposes that a place has been provided on each engine for
placing orders conspicuously before the engineman who is to execute
them. This is a very important provision. If he has to put them in his
box or pocket they may be rendered illegible, or forgotten or lost.

  Rule 517.--For orders delivered at the Superintendent's office the
    requirements as to record and delivery will be the same as at other
    points.

This requirement would seem to be so obvious that it was hardly necessary
to include it in the rules, but for the fact that there has been some
oversight of so manifest a precaution.

  Rule 518.--Orders to persons in charge of work requiring the use of
    track in yards or at other points, authorizing such use when trains
    are late, must be delivered in the same way as to conductors of
    trains.

This rule recognizes the fact that the same care is necessary in giving
the use of the track in the time of regular trains, whether it be to a
yard crew or a train on the road. Carelessness in this respect, by men
working at stations, has frequently resulted in disaster. The sacredness
of the "rights" of trains should be an integral part of railway doctrine.

  Rule 519.--An order to be delivered to a train at a point not a
    telegraph station, or while the office is closed, must be addressed to

    "_C. and E._, _No._ ---- (_at_ ----), _care of_ ----," and forwarded
    and delivered by the conductor or other person in whose care it is
    addressed. "Complete" will be given upon the signature of the person
    by whom the order is to be delivered, who must be supplied with
    copies for the conductor and engineman addressed, and a copy upon
    which he shall take their signatures. This copy he must deliver to
    the first operator accessible, who must preserve it, and at once
    advise the Train Dispatcher of its having been received.

    Orders so delivered to a train must be compared by those receiving
    them with the copy held by the person delivering, and acted on as if
    "complete" had been given in the ordinary way.

    Orders must not be sent in the manner herein provided to trains the
    rights of which are thereby restricted.

The subject of delivery of orders at points away from telegraph stations
has already been considered. The method of doing this is here determined.

Safety in carrying this out must depend largely on the carefulness of the
person selected to deliver the order.

  Rule 520.--When a train is named in an order, all its sections are
    included, unless particular sections are specified; and each section
    included must have copies addressed and delivered to it.

This rule is based on the fact that all sections of a train are
substantially one train, so far as schedule rights are concerned. This
is definitely fixed by the "Standard" train rules. This rule provides
that each section included in the operation of an order must have copies.
Instances might be cited where this would seem unnecessary.

A delayed train may be ordered to meet a superior train at some point
short of the meeting-point. Without any order each section of the
superior train would have a right to go to the designated point, and
it may be supposed that, if the first section is held by the order at
that point for the inferior, the other sections cannot go by until the
inferior is out of the way. While this may be true, circumstances may
arise even in this case that would render it important that each section
should know of the movement. The difficulty of specifying in a rule the
cases in which the provision might be omitted probably led to making the
rule absolute. It is pointed out, however, by practical men that serious
and needless delays may often arise from strict adherence to the rule,
and that in certain cases there can be no danger from giving the order to
the leading section only. It is quite possible that the rule may admit of
some amendment in this respect.

  Rule 521.--Meeting-orders must not be sent for delivery to trains at
    the meeting-point if it can be avoided. When it cannot be avoided,
    special precautions must be taken by the Train Dispatchers and
    operators to insure safety.

    There should be, if possible, at least one telegraph office between
    those at which opposing trains receive meeting-orders.

    Orders should not be sent an unnecessarily long time before delivery,
    or to points unnecessarily distant from where they are to be
    executed. No orders (except those affecting the train at that point)
    should be delivered to a freight train at a station where it has much
    work, until after the work is done.

Here it is wisely provided that trains shall, if possible, be advised of
their place of meeting before reaching it. It is scarcely necessary to
point out the obvious reasons for this, arising from the possibility of
a train, on arrival, passing the switch where the meeting is intended to
be. The first and second paragraphs both suggest the advantage of being
able to communicate with a train in the event of a desire to change an
order or of an error having been found to have occurred on the part of
a train or in the preparation or transmission of an order. The third
paragraph is to guard against men forgetting orders delivered to them,
through lapse of time or preoccupation in their work, and also against
the necessity of changing orders issued long in advance of the time at
which they are expected to be used, when a new set of circumstances may
have arisen.

  Rule 522.--A train, or any section of a train, must be governed
    strictly by the terms of orders addressed to it, and must not assume
    rights not conferred by such orders. In all other respects it must be
    governed by the train rules and time-table.

To some disciplinarians the provisions of this rule would seem to be
unnecessary. To say that a thing means what it says and no more would
seem to be superfluous, and yet the vital importance of the point, and
the fact that it has been often disregarded, warrant this enforcement
of it. A case in point came not long since to the author's knowledge. A
rule in the book of a certain road required that "all trains must slow
up at meeting-points with trains of any class." The rule was intended
to apply to schedule meeting-points, and was so generally understood,
notwithstanding the indefiniteness of the designation. An order was given
requiring a superior train to wait until a time stated for the arrival
of an inferior train at a point reached by the superior train before its
arrival at the schedule meeting-point. The inferior train not arriving
by the time stated, the superior train went on and passed the schedule
meeting-point without slackening speed, as required by the rule. The
inferior train was there and not quite out of the way, and a collision
occurred. The conductor and engineman of the superior train claimed that
the order to meet had done away with the schedule meeting-point, and
therefore the rule did not apply, whereas the order was provisional, and
was completely fulfilled when the inferior train failed to arrive and the
superior train went on past the point named in the order without meeting
the other. The inferior, being unable to reach the given point by the
time stated, ran on its rights and stopped at the schedule meeting-point,
respecting which the order had made no mention.

It is to be remarked that while the indefiniteness of the rule may have
been partly chargeable with the wrong view taken by the trainmen, a
strict construction would make it applicable to every point that became a
"meeting-point," whether under the operation of the rules or of special
orders. A rule capable of these different constructions is fatally
defective.

  Rule 523.--Orders once in effect continue so until fulfilled,
    superseded, or annulled. Orders held by or issued for a regular train
    which has lost its rights, as provided by Rule 107, are annulled, and
    other trains will be governed accordingly.

The first provision in this rule is also one that would seem scarcely
necessary, but for the importance of emphasizing this point. Future
experience and training may render it needless to include so simple a
statement in these rules.

Train Rule 107, referred to in the second sentence, provides that
a regular train 12 hours behind time loses all its rights, and is
practically annulled.

The expiration of orders, with the expiration, under the rules, of
the entire rights of a train which has received them, is a necessary
consequence, although to some it might not be sufficiently clear without
this authoritative statement.

The statement that, under these circumstances, orders "are annulled,"
leaves the mind in doubt as to whether they are simply annulled by
the state of facts or by the process provided for annulling orders. In
the publication of these rules as adopted by the Pennsylvania Railroad
Company this doubt is removed by modifying the language to read, "Orders
held by or issued for a regular train are to be considered as annulled
when the train has lost its rights, as provided by Rule No. 107, and
other trains will be governed accordingly."

The Chesapeake & Ohio road adds to Train Rule 107 a provision that a
train having the right of track may take to a telegraph station a train
that under this rule has lost the right to proceed. This seems a good
provision, as such train has no right to proceed even as an extra, and
under many circumstances the Dispatcher would have difficulty in getting
control of a train without this help. The discussion of this belongs,
however, more properly with the consideration of train rules.

  Rule 524 (A)--A fixed signal must be used at each train-order office,
    which shall display red at all times when there is an operator on
    duty, except when changed to white to allow a train to pass after
    getting orders, or for which there are no orders.

    When red is displayed all trains must come to a full stop, and not
    proceed as long as red is displayed. The signal must be returned to
    red as soon as a train has passed. It must only be fastened at white
    when no operator is on duty. This signal must also display red to
    hold trains running in the same direction the required time apart.
    Operators must be prepared with other signals to use promptly if
    the fixed signal should fail to work properly. If a signal is not
    displayed at a night office, trains which have not been previously
    notified must stop and inquire the cause, and report the facts to the
    superintendent from the next open telegraph office.

  When a semaphore is used, the arm means red when horizontal and white
  when in an inclined position.

  Rule 524 (B)--A fixed signal must be used at each train-order office,
    which shall display red when trains are to be stopped for orders.
    When there are no orders the signal must display white.

    When an operator receives the signal "31" or "19," he must
    _immediately_ display red, and _then_ reply "red displayed." The
    signal must not be changed to white until the object for which red is
    displayed is accomplished.

    While red is displayed all trains must come to a full stop, and
    any train thus stopped must not proceed without receiving an order
    addressed to such train, or a clearance card on a specified form,
    stating, over the operator's signature, that he has no orders for
    it. Operators must be prepared with other signals to use promptly if
    the fixed signal should fail to work properly. If a signal is not
    displayed at a night office, trains which have not been previously
    notified must stop and inquire the cause, and report the facts to the
    superintendent from the next open telegraph office.

    When a semaphore is used, the arm means red when horizontal and white
    when in an inclined position.

Rules 524(A) and 524(B) refer to the character and operation of the
train-order signal, and in the original report of the committee they are
accompanied by a note indicating that the adoption of either or both
forms of the rule is to be discretionary, according to the circumstances
of traffic.

Both recognize the value of the "fixed" signal, instead of hand signals,
and its necessity for the proper carrying out of the rules. The
difference between the two forms of the rule is that the former provides
that the signal shall stand constantly at "danger," excepting when
changed to another position to permit a train to pass, while with the
latter the normal position is at "safety," the other to be shown only
when an order is to be sent.

Under the first plan a train approaching a station must stop unless the
signal is seen to have been changed from its normal position of "danger"
to that of "safety"--from red to white. The operator in this case moves
the signal and this is an indication that there are no orders for that
train, although there may be for others.

The presence of an order in the hands of an operator does not, under this
method, require that all trains passing shall stop. Under the other plan
the signal at red indicates that the operator has orders in his hands,
and no train can be allowed to pass by the simple moving of the signal,
but each, on arrival, must stop and get orders, or a "clearance card"
stating that there are no orders for it.

Some considerations respecting these two methods have already been
advanced, and they need not be repeated here. There does not seem to be
any substantial reason why the practice of permitting a train to pass,
by the movement of the signal, might not be used in connection with the
plan of "normal at safety" as well as with the other, and the author is
under the impression that this is done on some roads.

The rule wisely requires a provision of other signals for prompt use
in case the fixed signal fails to work. The machinery may break or
the lights go out; and to see that this precaution is observed is an
important duty of the officer having direct supervision of these matters.
The non-display of a usual night signal is recognized as a reason for
inquiry and caution.

  Rule 525.--Operators will promptly record and report to the
    Superintendent the time of the departure of all trains and the
    direction in which extra trains are moving. They will record the time
    of arrival of trains and report it when so directed.

The records and reports here required are important as a means of
information for the Dispatcher and as a check on operators and trains as
well as a part of the permanent record. Suitable blanks must be provided
for these records.

  Rule 526.--Regular trains will be designated in orders by their
    schedule numbers, as "No. 10" or "2nd No. 10," adding engine numbers
    if desired; extra trains by engine numbers, as "Extra 798"; and all
    other numbers by figures. The direction of the movement of extras
    will be added when necessary, as "East" or "West." Time will be
    stated in figures only.

  [Note.--In case any roads desire to state time in words as well as
      figures, the Committee sees no objection to their doing so.]

  Rule 527.--The following signs and abbreviations may be used:

    Initials for Superintendent's signature.

    Such office and other signals as are arranged by the Superintendent.

    C & E--for Conductor and Engineman.

    O K--as provided in these rules.

    Min--for Minutes.

    Junc--for Junction.

    Frt--for Freight.

    No--for Number.

    Eng--for Engine.

    Sec--for Section.

    Opr--for Operator.

    9--to clear the line for Train Orders, and for Operators to ask for
      Train Orders.

    31 or 19--for Train Order, as provided in the rules.

    The usual abbreviations for the names of the months and stations.

Rules 526 and 527 prescribe the mode of designating trains and the use of
figures, signs, and abbreviations, with option as to figures, in a note
under Rule 526. Uniformity in these matters is important for clearness of
understanding and economy and expedition in telegraphing.

It is a question how far abbreviations may properly be used in train
telegraphing. They certainly should be admitted only when they can be
shown not to interfere with a safe understanding of orders. Initials for
the signatures of Superintendent or Dispatcher and operators may be used,
but they would hardly be admissible for the signatures of trainmen. The
latter may very properly be addressed as "C. and E." The "O K" for "all
right" is an established signal, not requiring a dictionary to interpret
it.

Min for minute, junc for junction, exp for express, frt for freight,
eng for engine, No for number, K for o'clock, sec for section, opr for
operator, cannot mislead.

For inquiries and replies respecting the work, many codes have been
constructed wherein each is represented by a number or a word, and the
telegraphing thus abbreviated.

It will probably never be settled to the satisfaction of everybody
whether numbers should be represented in figures or written out in full.
The opinion of practical men has been lately growing more favorable to
figures, although some adhere rigidly to writing out numbers in words.
The "Standard" rules favor figures. Much depends of course on the
training of the operators. Figures are unmistakable if properly made,
while a long number written out in full may be so poorly written as to
confuse the reader. Where a single figure occurs in describing a section
of a train as 2nd, 3rd, etc., it is easy to take the one for the other,
both in telegraphing and in the written figures, and it is wise to write
these out. The numbers of trains and of engines are not so liable to
be confused with others in their immediate neighborhood, and it would
appear to be entirely proper to use figures to represent them.

The designation of trains is usually by numbers. This is more definite
and more brief than by any other time-table title, as "local freight,"
"Chicago express," etc. An extra train is probably best described by the
engine name or number, as there is usually nothing else about a train so
definite as this. Some add the names of conductors and enginemen. Where
there is any danger of one train being mistaken for another, the engine
number should be used, and care taken against mistakes arising from
change of engines.



CHAPTER X.

FORMS OF TRAIN ORDERS.


The advantage of pre-arranged forms of train orders for the cases
ordinarily occurring has been already adverted to, and is now fully
recognized. Forms should be brief. A multitude of words is confusing.
They are not so easily read; while a short form, with a uniformly well
understood meaning, is comprehended at a glance. To know what it intends
becomes a part of the education of a railroad man. For this reason it
would be a great advance if this service could be everywhere conducted
on the same plans. Brevity also economizes time in telegraphing, which
is of great importance on a busy wire. In a conversation carried on by a
company of persons several may speak at once, or nearly so, and things go
smoothly along, but on a wire only one can speak at a time, and hence the
time each communication may occupy becomes important.

All men, however, do not quickly catch an idea when its expression is
reduced to the simplest form. This is, sometimes, because it is new, or
it may be from lack of training, or even natural dullness, or because
human nature is so constituted that men view the simplest things in
different lights. To provide against all contingencies of this kind,
and to explain to men the proper understanding as well as to settle it
authoritatively, explanatory rules are needed, with definite instructions
as to how orders are to be interpreted. These may be studied at leisure
and discussed and mutually understood by the men. The need of these rules
does not arise from any incompleteness in the forms of orders. A signal
for a given purpose is sufficient in itself, but it is necessary to state
the purpose which it is designed to serve. A word expresses a definite
thought, but we may have to turn to the dictionary to learn what that
thought is. Another and highly important service of such explanatory
rules is that they beget confidence, on the ground that all understand
alike.

It has been before urged that a separate order should be given for each
separate transaction. This, however, need not be pressed to extremes.
Circumstances may arise in which forms may be combined with advantage.
For instance, an order may be given:

    _Engine 530 will run extra to Brighton, and will meet train No. 2 at
      Lisbon._

This serves the purpose of an "extra" order and of a "meeting" order, and
is not in any way confusing.

Ordinarily there is little to be gained by departing from the general
rule laid down, but experience and good judgment will soon determine
where it will be proper, if the principles upon which safety may depend
are kept steadily in view.

Attempts have been made to introduce printed blanks for the several forms
of orders, with spaces for the words which vary with each case, such
words only to be telegraphed. This plan does not appear, however, to have
met with much favor. The brevity possible in forms is such that little
is saved by this method, in the amount of telegraphing. The words sent
are disconnected and unsatisfactory, and the care and attention required
in having a number of books on the operator's table from which to select
the proper form would be considerable, especially if the manifold is
used. A supposed advantage is in having explanatory rules printed on each
blank. It is better to have these printed together with all the forms for
circulation among the employés, who can then discuss and become familiar
with them and come to a uniform understanding as to their meaning.

Much variety has existed in the forms of orders in use. Prior to the
quite general adoption of the "Standard" code there were probably no two
roads on which they were in all respects alike. This lack of uniformity
was unfortunate, and some of these variations assumed serious importance
in view of the time occupied in telegraphing superfluous words. A very
few forms suffice for the most of the orders issued.

Those here considered are the forms issued with and forming a part of the
Time Convention Rules. They are the same in principle as those given in
the former edition of The Train Wire, and not greatly different in their
construction. Some have been amplified and some additions have been made.

They will be considered under the following classification:

  A. For trains meeting.
  B. For trains passing.
  C. Reversing rights of trains.
  D. Movements regulated by time.
  E. For running in sections.
  F. For extra trains.
  G. For annulling trains.
  H. For annulling an order.
  I. Holding orders.

Practice may suggest additional forms or combinations of these.

In these forms trains are designated by numbers, it being understood that
those of odd numbers move in one direction and have the right of track
as against opposing trains of even numbers, and that the train rules fix
this as well as which train shall ordinarily take the siding.

It will be understood that all orders are addressed in the manner
required by the rules, including in the address the places where the
order is to be delivered, thus:

    C. & E. train No. 1, Paris.

    C. & E. train No. 2, Madrid.

The forms are accompanied by examples of their use, with variations for
different cases and explanatory notes or rules, all being a part of the
"Standard" rules. Following each are the author's remarks:


Form A.--Fixing Meeting-Point for Opposing Trains.

    ---- and ---- will meet at ----.

  EXAMPLES.

    _No. 1 and No. 2 will meet at Bombay._

    _No. 3 and 2nd No. 4 will meet at Siam._

    _No. 5 and Extra 95 will meet at Hong Kong._

    _Extra 652 North and Extra 231 South will meet at Yokohama._

  Trains receiving this order will, with respect to each other, run
  to the designated point, and having arrived there will pass in the
  manner provided by the Rules.

This order is usually given to designate a definite meeting-place at
which the trains would not meet under the operation of the time-table and
train rules. No. 2 has no right to pass the regular meeting-place if No.
1 is late, until it has arrived; and No. 2. would hence in such case be
delayed unless an order is given authorizing it to proceed.

If No. 2 is too late to reach the regular meeting-place before No. 1 may
leave, it must, by the rules keep out of the way of No. 1 by waiting at
some other point, but an order enables it to run with confidence, without
time clearance, to a new meeting-place. It may happen that an order will
be useful authorizing trains to meet at their regular meeting-place, when
both are behind time or when the inferior train is not much late. In any
case it avoids the necessity for allowing any time for clearance. It is
not necessary to add to the form of the order as given above, as has
been sometimes done, "and pass according to rule." The order should not
be burdened with this. The rules respecting train orders should always
provide, as above, that _trains ordered to meet at a designated point
will both run to that point, and having arrived there will pass each
other in the manner provided by the rules, unless otherwise indicated
in the order_. This settles the question, which has been raised, of the
sufficiency of this form of order, and also renders unnecessary the
expression "meet and pass." The word "pass" is best reserved for use
in connection with a train going around another moving in the same
direction, and it would seem unnecessary to direct trains meeting each
other to "pass," as they cannot proceed without passing; and the rules
should prescribe the method. This positive meeting-order is generally
deemed the safest form of order for opposing trains, as it leaves no room
for doubt or calculation in determining how the order is to be executed.
In the use of this order for trains of several sections it must be held
to apply to all the sections, unless otherwise specified, and each
section that is included in the operation of the order should be referred
to and is required by the "Standard" rules to have copies.

If the different sections are to be met at different places, separate
orders are best. In the forms contained in a book of rules which appears
to have been carefully prepared, is found the following for a train or a
section of a train which is to meet one of several sections:

"Train No. -- will meet and pass ---- sections of train No. -- as
follows: first section No. --, at ----; second section, at ----; third
section, at ----."

Some of the objections urged against the practice of including several
meeting-points in one order, under the "single order" system, apply
equally to this. The whole of this order must be transcribed for and
delivered to each section, and each conductor and engineman must
acquaint himself with the whole, while but one train is concerned with
all of it. The men of each of the sections named must carefully pick out
what belongs to them, and those of the first train must exercise great
care to avoid missing any of the points named. It will be found vastly
better and safer to give a separate order for each meeting.


Form B. Authorizing a Train to Run Ahead of or Pass Another Train Running
in the Same Direction.

    (1.) ---- will pass ---- at ----.
    (2.) ---- will run ahead of ----, from ---- to ----.


  EXAMPLES.

    (1.) _No. 1 will pass No. 3 at Khartoum._

    (2.) _No. 4 will run ahead of No. 6 from Bengal to Madras._

  When under this order a train is to pass another, both trains will
  run according to rule to the designated point and there arrange for
  the rear train to pass promptly.

Referring to Example 1, if train No. 1 is superior to No. 3, the rules
should give it the right to pass, as No. 3 must keep out of its way and
no order would be required. If No. 3 is the superior and is for any
reason running slower than No. 1 and it is desired to permit the latter
to pass, an order of this kind is needed. A regular freight train may
be in the way of a special passenger train which it is necessary should
pass the freight. The order may also be needed for two extras or for
regular trains of equal class. If the train passed is the superior, the
order does not in terms fully convey to the other all the right needed.
Having passed, it may be for some time, or at a subsequent period, within
the time of the superior train, and it hence would _by the train rules_
be required in turn to clear the track for a train which it had passed
a short time before. A fair inference is that, if allowed to pass, it
is of course to proceed ahead of the other, but if this is not clearly
understood or fixed by a rule, the form of the order should be modified
for such cases either by adding, "and will run ahead from there," or by
making it read as in Example 2 indicating the point _to_ as well as that
_from_ which the train specified is to "run ahead" of the other.

This variation is also for authorizing a train to run ahead of and in the
time of another from some point at which the other has not arrived. The
point _to_ which it shall so run is to be omitted when it is not desired
to impose such limitation.

Under this use of the order No. 6 is assumed to be late, and No. 4, an
inferior train waiting for it, is allowed to proceed in its time. No.
6 may be a first-class passenger train waiting for connections, and
No. 4 may be a local freight train which is enabled by this order to
proceed with its work; or perhaps it may be a train starting from some
way-station or junction at which the rules would require it to wait for
No. 6 to pass. No. 6 is to assume that the other may be ahead at any
point beyond that named in the order, and run accordingly. The Dispatcher
of course provides, by giving more definite orders as soon as he can
do so, that no unnecessary delay arises to the superior train from the
operation of the order.

The train rules should make it clear that _when a train is authorized to
"run ahead" of another by special order, the train following must guard
against collision with the train ahead, as during the operation of the
order their relative rights as to superiority (when any existed) are
reversed_.

An order giving a train the right to use a given number of minutes in
the time of a superior train going in the same direction, comes properly
under "time-orders."


Form C.--Giving a Train of Inferior Right the Right of Track Against
an Opposing Train of Superior Right.

    ---- has right of track against ---- ---- to ----.


  EXAMPLES.

    (1) _No. 2 has right of track against No. 1, Mecca to Mirbat._

    (2) _Extra 37 has right of track against No. 3, Natal to Ratlam._

  This order gives a train of inferior right the right of track against
  one of superior right to a designated point.

  If the trains meet at the designated point, the train of inferior
  right must take the siding, unless the rules or orders otherwise
  indicate.

  Under this order, as illustrated by example (1), if the train of
  superior right reaches the designated point before the other arrives,
  it may proceed, provided it keeps clear of the schedule time of the
  train of inferior right as many minutes as the inferior train was
  before required by the train rules to keep clear of the superior
  train.

  If the train of superior right, before meeting, reaches a point
  beyond that named in the order, the conductor must stop the other
  train where it is met and inform it of his arrival.

  Under example (2) the train of superior right cannot go beyond the
  designated point until the extra train arrives.

  When the train of inferior right has reached the designated point,
  the order is fulfilled, and the train must then be governed by
  time-table and train-rules or further orders.

  The following modification of this form of order will be applicable
  for giving a work train the right of track over all other trains in
  case of a wreck or break in the track:--


  EXAMPLE.

    _Work Train Extra 275 has right of track over all trains between
      Stockholm and Edinburgh from 7 P. M._ ----.

  This gives the work train the exclusive right of the track between
  the points designated.

This form is equivalent in effect to that known as the "Regardless"
order, which reads thus:

    "_No. 2 will run to (Lyons) regardless of No. 1._"

The term "regardless," although having something of a reckless sound, has
been taken as exactly indicating the purport of this order, viz.: that a
train is to cease to regard certain rights of another which are conferred
by the rules, but are suspended or abrogated by this order. Here, as in
other duplicate orders, it is understood that _a new right conferred upon
one train takes away or limits a right of some other train_; and that an
order allowing a train to run regardless of another requires the latter
to keep out of the way.

It was thought best, and is certainly an improvement, to dispense with
the old designation and adopt for this order a title and phraseology
indicating its purport more specifically.

The ordinary use of this order is to advance a train to a point within
the time of one superior to it, when there may be uncertainty as to the
trains actually meeting there. The trains would usually proceed expecting
to meet, but anticipating possible new orders. If the Dispatcher thinks
he is likely to have further orders, he may find it best to add, "and ask
for further orders." This will bring the trainmen at once to the office
on arrival if the opposing train is not seen. A positive meeting-order
is to be preferred to this form when it will as well serve the purpose.
A note to this effect was proposed in the Time Convention, but it was
finally determined that this should be left to the discretion of
operating officers.

The use of this order for a train "running ahead," as proposed in the
former edition of The Train Wire, is unnecessary with the second example
under Form B.

The effect of an order in Form C is to reverse for a time or for certain
parts of the track the relations of trains as respects superiority of
right. Some have failed to perceive that, under certain circumstances,
it will be proper for a train mentioned in this order to leave the
designated point before the other has arrived.

This point is settled by the rules with the form, but it may not be
altogether clear to some that the conclusion is correct. The following
will perhaps make it clear:

Let A, B and C in the following diagram represent three stations, of
which B is the schedule meeting-point of two trains running in the
directions indicated, No. 1 being the superior train and having the right
to run on its own time beyond B if No. 2 has not arrived.

  A      B      C

  No. 1[hand]      [hand]No. 2.

Both trains are due at B at the same time. If No. 1 is late before
arriving at A an order is given:

  "_No. 2 has right of track against No. 1 from B to A._"

Under this order No. 2 becomes temporarily superior to No. 1, and obtains
the right to run to A on its own time without regard to the time or
rights of No. 1. On the arrival of the latter at A it may be found to
have made up so much time that it can proceed toward B and reach that
or some intermediate point before No. 2 can, on its own schedule time,
reach such point. May it do so? There is clearly nothing in the order
or in the rules to prevent. No. 1 is, for the time being, the inferior
train. It is in the position of a train having no rights against No. 2,
and must be governed by that fact. But any train inferior to No. 2 may
go from A to B or to any point if it can clear No. 2 in accordance with
the rules. It should be held as a cardinal principle in train dispatching
that _an order is not to be taken as having greater effect than is
actually expressed_. In the order in question one train is directed to
run to a point without respect to the rights of another. This annuls the
rights of the one _as respects the regular time of the other_ for the
portion of the track designated. The rights are simply reversed. No. 1
is now required to keep clear of the time of No. 2 as laid down in the
time-table, with as much clearance as the train rules required of No. 2
as respects the time of No. 1 before the order was given. It cannot be
supposed that No. 2 may possibly run ahead of time from B. This could
only be done on an order to do so duplicated to No. 1 and to any other
train affected by it.

If B is the point given in the order, no such question can arise as to
either train, as each is due at the same time. If, however, C is the
given point, it is upon the assumption that No. 2 is too late to get
farther than C without interference with No. 1. If No. 2 makes up time,
so that on reaching C it is found that it has time to go farther and
still keep clear of No. 1, as required by the rules, its schedule rights
will admit of this, and the order does not in any way interfere with them
excepting in adding to them what is supposed to be required to enable the
train to reach C.

It would appear then that when an order gives a train of inferior right
the right of track to a given point against a superior train, the train
arriving first at the designated point may go beyond it, before the other
arrives, to any point where it can clear the regular time of the opposing
train the number of minutes required. The train thus passing the given
point must run as the inferior of the two until the other is met, and
should be required, as in the rule, to clear the other by as much as the
train rules prescribe for clearance of similar trains.

As a further illustration of this question, suppose that a general order
were issued giving to a regular train the right of track against all
other trains. It is not to be supposed that this would prevent other
trains from running, excepting as they might fall into the time of the
train to which this right was given. Or the order under Form D giving all
trains the right of track against a given train, does not prevent the
designated train from running freely where it does not get in the way of
other regular trains.

It is evident that this form of order differs from the "meeting" order in
this important respect, that under certain circumstances trains may meet
at some other point than that named in the order, and that it may be said
that "when either train has reached the point designated in this order,
it may proceed, if it can do so without trespassing on the schedule time
of the other." The point is further illustrated under the operation of
Form D.

It is evident that, if the inferior train is an extra, it has no schedule
time by which the superior train can be guided, and hence the latter, as
provided by the rule, cannot go beyond the designated point until the
extra has arrived.

The careful discussion of the question here involved is justified by the
fact that practical men hold different views respecting it, and many
rules determine it differently or leave it wholly or partly unsettled.
The fact that there is a considerable diversity of opinion upon so
important a point, indicates that the course to be pursued under the
circumstances should be clearly set forth in the rules. A rule should
not, however, be made to add to the effect of an order. It is usually
only needed by way of explanation or to authoritatively determine that
upon which a doubt may exist. It may occur to some that the trains
meeting at an unexpected point may not recognize each other as the trains
designated in the order. It must be presumed that conductors will observe
all trains met, and knowing what regular trains are due will know when
they have met them, and not wait elsewhere for them; and that extras are
distinguished from regular trains by proper signals.

To avoid delays, however, a provision is made that a train of superior
right reaching a point beyond that designated in the order before
meeting the other train, must notify the latter when it is met. As in
that case the train of superior right has not the right of track, it
must take the siding where it meets the train which has been given the
right of track against it. When the train of inferior right arrives at
the point designated in the order before meeting the other, the order
is fulfilled; and having no longer the right of track it must take the
siding at that point or at such other point as it may reach under the
operation of the rules in time to clear the train of superior right.

An order in Form C with time limit is objectionable, as there is danger
of overlooking the time limit. It is better to use a distinct form for
time orders.


Form D.--Giving all Regular Trains the Right of Track Over a Given Train.

    All regular trains have right of track against ---- between ---- and
    ----.


  EXAMPLE.

    _All regular trains have right of track against No. 1 between Moscow
      and Berlin._

  This order gives to any regular train of inferior right receiving it
  the right of track over the train named in the order, and the latter
  must clear the schedule times of all regular trains, the same as if
  it were an extra.

This form involves the same principles as the last, and might have been
included under the same general head but for the wish to give it greater
distinctness. The use of "over" in the title and the rule, instead of
"against" used elsewhere, is probably the result of oversight.

No form was presented by the Convention Committee for giving to a given
train the right of track against all regular trains. If circumstances
require, such an order can of course be given on the same plan as others
involving the same principles.


Form E.--Time Orders.

    (1.) ---- will run ---- late from ---- to ----.

    (2.) ---- will wait at ---- until ---- for ----.


EXAMPLES.

    (1.) _No. 1 will run 20 min. late from Joppa to Mainz._

    (2.) _No. 1 will wait at Muscat until 10 A. M. for No. 2._

  Form (1) makes the schedule time of the train named, between the
  points mentioned, as much later as the time stated in the order, and
  any other train receiving the order is required to run, with respect
  to this later time, the same as before required to run, with respect
  to the regular schedule time. The time in the order should be such as
  can be easily added to the schedule time.

  Under Form (2) the train of superior right must not pass the
  designated point before the time given, unless the other train has
  arrived. The train of inferior right is required to run with respect
  to the time specified, the same as before required to run with
  respect to the regular schedule time of the train of superior right.

The character and effect of these two forms of Time Orders are
sufficiently clear from the explanatory rules. The first simply sets
back a schedule and the second is positive as to the time to which the
superior train must wait. There might have been added a form authorizing
an inferior train to use a given number of minutes of the time of a
superior train. This would have applied to any point. The effect would
have been, for the particular inferior train, the same as under Example
1 for all trains. It was probably concluded that, if a train was to run
late, all others should have the benefit, and that there would be no
particular advantage in a form for but one train. The time-limit feature
appears also in Forms G and H.

Many object to time-orders. They are certainly not as definite as a
positive meeting-order, and for this reason, and because there is
a chance of error in the calculations required, they are not to be
preferred. A time-table, however, is a "time order," and it is not
always possible to avoid directing trains to run with reference to time.
A judicious Dispatcher will discriminate as to the cases in which he
should do this. In all cases such even number of minutes or hours should
be given as will reduce to a minimum the risk of making the necessary
addition or subtraction. The risk of a time order and of all running on
time, arises largely from the possibility of trainmen not having the
correct time. The allowance of five minutes for difference in watches
does not appear to answer the purpose for which it is designed, as men
will trespass on this. The objections made to time orders appear to be
overcome as far as possible by the forms presented, and now generally
adopted, with the present excellence of time-keepers and the precautions
insisted on for preserving them in good condition.


Form F.--For Sections of Regular Trains.

    ---- will carry signals ---- to ---- for ----.


EXAMPLES.

    _No. 1 will carry signals Astrakhan to Cabul for Eng. 85._

    _2nd No. 1 will carry signals London to Dover for Eng. 90._

  This may be modified as follows:

    _Engines 70, 85, and 90 will run as 1st, 2d and 3d sections of No. 1
      London to Dover._

  For annulling a section.

    _Eng. 85 is annulled as second section of No. 1 from Dover._

  If there are other sections following add:

    _Following sections will change numbers accordingly._

  The character of train for which signals are carried may be stated.
  Each section affected by the order must have copies, and must arrange
  signals accordingly.

When two or more trains are run on the same schedule or time-table
time, with the same schedule rights, each carrying signals for that
following it, each several train is referred to as a "section." Upon
some roads these sections following the first train are called extra
trains. This method is not recognized under the "standard" rules, the
term "extra" being applied only to trains not run by schedule. It is of
great importance that the rights of a second or other following section
be clearly understood, both by trainmen and those engaged in the issue
of telegraphic orders. The general practice is now probably such as
to leave but little misapprehension on this point, whatever may have
been the case in the past, when with some the rule was to "follow the
flag" wherever it might go, instead of as now treating each section, in
ascertaining its rights, as though it were running alone on the schedule.
When a regular train is to carry signals to denote that a second section
is to follow on the same schedule, the author is of the opinion that a
train order to this effect should be given in a definite form.

Rule 110 of the "Standard" rules appears to authorize the practice that
prevails with some, under which the signals for freight trains running in
sections are ordered on by the yard dispatcher or station agent. If the
train Dispatcher is duly advised, there does not seem to be any serious
objection to this, although there are reasons to be urged in favor of all
orders affecting the movement of trains being issued from the central
office. Certainly it would not be wise to delegate this authority as
respects passenger trains, and this the "Standard" rules recognize.

The forms given for sections make the order to carry signals equivalent
to an order to run as a section of a regular train. The order annulling
a section implies that signals will be removed as the circumstances may
require.


Form G.--For Arranging a Schedule for a Special Train.

  (1.) Eng. ---- will run as special ---- train, leaving ---- on ----
  on the following schedule, and will have the right of track over all
  trains:

  Leave  ----.
         ----.
  Arrive ----.


EXAMPLE.

    (1.) _Eng. 77 will run as special passenger train, leaving Turin on
      Thursday, Feb. 17th, on the following schedule, and will have the
      right of track over all trains_:

     _Leave  Turin 11.30 P. M._
            _Pekin 12.25 A. M._
           _Canton  1.47 A. M._
     _Arrive  Rome  2.22 A. M._

  Example (1) may be varied by specifying particular trains over which
  the special shall or shall not have right of track, and any train
  over which the special train is thus given the right of track must
  clear its time as many minutes as such train is required to clear the
  schedule time of a first-class train.

    (2.) Eng. ---- will run as special ---- train, leaving ---- on
      ---- with the rights of a ---- class train ----, on the following
      schedule, which is a supplement to time-table No. ----:

      Leave  ----.
             ----.
      Arrive ----.


EXAMPLE.

    (2.) _Eng. 75 will run as special passenger train, leaving Geneva,
      Thursday, Feb. 17th, with the rights of a first-class train east, on
      the following schedule, which is a supplement to time-table No. 10_:

     _Leave  Geneva 10.00 A. M._
             _Pekin 10.30 A. M., passing No. 12._
            _Canton 11.00 A. M., meeting No. 7._
     _Arrive Athens 11.30 A. M._

Example (2) creates a regular train and the specified meeting and passing
points are to be regarded as if designated in the same manner as on
the time-table. Such trains will be governed by all rules which affect
regular trains.

Forms for arranging schedules were not suggested in the former edition
of The Train Wire, and their use has not been very general. They appear
to be adapted to some special circumstances and wants, but in the
adoption of the "Standard" rules some roads have omitted a portion of the
provisions under Form G.

No particular remarks need be made respecting these forms, excepting
perhaps that we have here an introduction of the time feature and that
any risk from this is enhanced by the considerable number of "times" to
be sent by telegraph and observed by trainmen.


Form H.--Extra Trains.

    ---- will run extra from ---- to ----.


EXAMPLE.

    (_a._) _Eng. 99 will run extra from Berber to Gaza._

  A train receiving an order to run extra is not required to guard
  against opposing extras, unless directed by order to do so, but must
  keep clear of all regular trains, as required by rule.

  A "work train" is an extra, for which the above form will be used for
  a direct run in one direction. The authority to occupy a specified
  portion of the track, as an extra while working, will be given in the
  following form:

    (_b._) _Eng. 292 will work as an extra from 7 A. M. until 6 P. M.
      between Berne and Turin._

  The working limits should be as short as practicable, to be changed
  as the progress of the work may require. The above may be combined,
  thus:

    (_c._) _Eng. 292 will run extra from Berne to Turin and work as an
      extra from 7 A. M. until 6 P. M. between Turin and Rome._

  When an order has been given to "work" between designated points, no
  other extra must be authorized to run over that part of the track
  without provision for passing the work train.

  When it is anticipated that a work train may be where it cannot be
  reached for meeting or passing orders, it may be directed to report
  for orders at a given time and place, or an order may be given that
  it shall clear the track for a designated extra in the following form:

    (_d._) _Work train 292 will keep clear of Extra 223, south, between
      Antwerp and Brussels after 2.10 P. M._

  In this case, extra 223 must not pass either of the points named
  before 2.10 P. M., at which time the work train must be out of the
  way between those points.

  When the movement of an extra train over the working limits cannot be
  anticipated by these or other orders to the work train, an order must
  be given to such extra, to protect itself against the work train, in
  the following form:

    (_e._) _Extra 76 will protect itself against work train extra 95
      between Lyons and Paris._

  This may be added to the order to run extra.

  A work train when met or overtaken by an extra must allow it to pass
  without unnecessary detention.

  When the conditions are such that it may be considered desirable to
  require that work trains shall at all times protect themselves while
  on working limits, this may be done under the following arrangements.
  To example (_b_) add the following words:

    (_f._) _protecting itself against all trains_.

  A train receiving this order must, whether standing or moving,
  protect itself within the working limits (and in both directions on
  single track) against all trains, in the manner provided in Rule 99.

  When an extra receives orders to run over working limits it must
  be advised that the work train is within those limits by adding to
  example (_a_) the words:

    (_g._) _Eng. 202 is working as an extra between Berne and Turin._

  A train receiving this order must run expecting to find the work
  train within the limits named.

Under Form H it has been undertaken to cover the whole subject of orders
for extra trains, excepting for cases which come naturally under other
forms, as when an extra is ordered to meet another train.

The term "wild" has been quite extensively used for these trains, and
history should preserve the fact that on some roads, when a train was
ordered to run extra, it was directed to "wildcat."

An order for a train to run extra is very simple. The train is accurately
designated by the number or name of its engine, and the order reading as
in example (_a_) is the foundation for those which follow.

This is of course not a duplicate order. But one train is concerned, and
there is no other train to be notified until it becomes necessary to
forward the extra by meeting or other orders. In those it is described as
an extra and treated as any other train, but in the meantime it must keep
out of the way of all regular trains, and the Dispatcher must keep it in
hand and especially guard against having more than one extra on the same
part of the track at the same time. Here is an element of danger where
the necessities require frequent extra trains. Whenever practicable,
trains should be run on a regular schedule, but it will often happen that
there is no regular train upon which signals may be carried for a train
that must be run, and it must go as an extra.

A precaution which has been found valuable is for the Dispatcher to have
before him a large blackboard on which he shall place conspicuously the
number of each extra ordered. The habit, soon acquired, of looking at
this whenever an extra is ordered, has proved a sufficient safeguard
where this plan has been used.

There is a class of extras which cannot be dispensed with, and the
management of which gives rise to serious difficulty. These are the
material or "work" trains. These trains must work upon the track away
from stations, often with a large force of men, and delays to their
operations cause expense as well as hindrance to work. At the same time
they must not be permitted to interfere with the passage of regular
trains, nor of others more than can be avoided. The solving of this
problem has been attempted in various ways. Some allow the "work train"
to occupy the track by right, except that it must keep out of the way of
regular trains. Some permit it to work under flag "until freight trains
come in sight." To get it out of the way for any but regular trains, the
want must be anticipated, and an order given while it is within reach
for the work train to report for orders at a designated hour and place.
This plan does not give as complete control of the movements of the work
train as is desirable.

A plan which has commended itself during long use, and is presented in
the foregoing rules, is as follows: The work train, previous to starting
out for the day, receives an order to run extra to the part of road
where its work lies. At the same time, and, if convenient, in the same
order, it is authorized to work upon the part of the track desired,
between two contiguous telegraph stations, a specified time being added,
if convenient, at which the train will have to go to one of the offices
limiting the working ground, for further instructions, if it is foreseen
that it may be wanted about that time for this purpose. Confining the
working limits between two contiguous telegraph stations leaves the
smallest practicable part of the track beyond complete control. This
practically makes a section of the track for the time being a "yard,"
through which extras cannot pass without looking for yard engines, as is
usually provided where yard rules include a portion of the main track.

The rules provide two methods for operating "work train" on the section
assigned, a note by the Time Convention committee indicating that either
or both may be adopted, according to circumstances. One of these requires
the train to protect itself against all trains; the other allows it
to work without protection, and requires extras to look out for it and
protect themselves against it, after receiving notice as to where it
is working. Under the first plan the work train is required to keep
signals out at all times for its protection, and in running to either
limit of its working ground to fully protect itself against any extra
which might come. It is of course required to keep clear of all regular
trains, and when running to or from its working ground is provided
with such meeting-orders as may be required. Under this plan, if the
Dispatcher finds it necessary to send an extra over the working grounds,
he informs it in the order that the work train is there (_g_). This
furnishes a precaution in addition to the signals of the work train, and
the proceeding is entirely safe. It can be no less so than the practice
of working under flag in the time of a delayed regular freight train
until it appears in sight, and this plan seems to afford an entirely
practicable method for working these trains with the least interference
with their work and with other trains, and with entire safety.

Under the plan by which the work train is under no requirement to use
any precautions to protect itself on working ground, if another extra
is to pass over that ground there is only the notice to such extra
of the presence of the work train, and the necessity of protecting
against it. This may be sufficient with a clear view, but there are many
circumstances where the double precaution would seem to be best, as the
requirement that signals shall be kept a given distance ahead of a moving
train is scarcely likely to be fully complied with. The plan in which the
work train is required to protect itself is not to be viewed as a case of
divided responsibility, in which each party may depend on the other. The
requirement for the work train is absolute. An extra getting a notice as
to where the work train is employed is not required to protect itself.
Such notice would lead to keeping the train under greater control and
looking for the signals of the work train, and whether the rule is that
the work train shall protect itself or not it would be best to give such
notice, as this would enable extras to run with confidence and without
protection against the work train on parts of the road where it was not
employed.

As to which of the methods provided by the rule shall be used, this must
depend somewhat upon circumstances. Where the passing of an extra train
is very infrequent, the constant putting out of signals by the work train
would seem to those charged with the duty so unnecessary that they would
be likely to neglect it, and it would be better under such circumstances
to require extras to protect when orders cannot be given. When extras
are so frequent that the loss of time in protecting themselves would
be very serious, it would be better to put the duty on the work train.
There would be the advantage then of the daily habit on the part of those
attending to this duty.


Form J.--Holding Order.

    Hold ----.


EXAMPLES.

    (1) _Hold No. 2._

    (2) _Hold all trains east._

  As any order for which "O K" has been given and acknowledged operates
  as a holding order for the train to which it is addressed, this form
  will only be used in special cases to hold trains until orders can
  be given or for some other emergency. The reason for holding may be
  added, as "for orders."

  This order is not to be used for holding a train while orders are
  given to other trains against it which are not at the same time given
  to it in duplicate. It must be respected by conductors and enginemen
  of trains thereby directed to be held as if addressed to them.
  Conductors, when informed of the order, must sign for it, and their
  signatures must be sent and "complete" obtained.

  When a train has been so held it must not go until the order to hold
  is annulled, or an order is given in the form:

  "---- _may go_."

  This must be addressed to the person or persons to whom the order to
  hold was addressed, and must be delivered in the same manner.

The rules and explanations under this form are so complete that comment
as to the design and significance of the order is unnecessary. In view
of much former practice, too much importance cannot be attached to the
provision relating to what the holding order shall _not_ be used for.


Form K.--Annulling a Schedule Train.

    ---- of ---- is annulled.


EXAMPLES.

    (1) _No. 1 of Feb. 29th is annulled._

    (2) _No. 3, due to leave Naples Saturday, Feb. 29th, is annulled._

  Adding "_from Alaska_," or "_between Alaska and Halifax_," when
  appropriate.

  This order takes away all rights of the train annulled and authorizes
  any train or person receiving it to use the track as if the train
  annulled were not on the time-table.

  If a train is annulled to a point named, its rights beyond that point
  remain unaffected.

  The Train Dispatcher may direct any operator to omit repeating back
  an order annulling a train, until he has occasion to deliver it.

  When a train has been annulled it must not be again restored under
  its original number by special order.

As this is a general order, which may or may not have to be delivered
to trains at all telegraph stations, it is very properly provided that
repeating back at once by each office need not be insisted upon.

The restoration of an annulled train under its original number would tend
to confusion, and the impropriety of such action is here recognized.

When a train is annulled it naturally follows that orders previously
issued to it cease to be of effect and the Dispatcher must see that
the duplicates of such orders, held by other trains, are annulled, if
from not doing so confusion or delay would arise. Ordinarily the order
annulling the train would be sufficient, if sent to trains holding these
orders. If a section of a train is annulled it would seem that the same
general rule should apply. The "Standard" rules do not touch on this and
it would be difficult to frame and operate a rule upon any other than the
plan pointed out. It may be suggested that orders held by the annulled
section should be transferred to the section following it, and which, by
the rules, takes its place. This would be convenient in some cases and
when so might be directed; but there may be no following section, and,
if there is, the circumstances may have so changed since the orders were
issued as to render them inapplicable. The transfer of orders without the
usual precautions to ensure their correct reception is objectionable and
it is best to avoid it when not absolutely necessary.

The better way is no doubt to leave to the Dispatcher the disposition of
orders issued for a train afterward annulled, whether such train be a
section or otherwise. It would have been well if the "Standard" rules had
made some explicit declaration on this point.


Form L.--Annulling or Superseding an Order.

  Order No. ---- is annulled.

  This will be numbered, transmitted, and signed for as other orders.

  If an order which is to be annulled has not been delivered to a
  train, the annulling order will be addressed to the operator, who
  will destroy all copies of the order annulled but his own, and write
  on that:

  _Annulled by order No._ ----.

  An order superseding another may be given, adding, "_this supersedes
  order No._ ----," or adding, "_instead of_ ----."


EXAMPLE.

  _No. 1 and No. 2 will meet at Sparta instead of at Thebes._

  An order which includes more than one specified movement must not be
  superseded.

  An order that has been annulled or superseded must not be again
  restored by Special Order under its original number.

  In the address of an order annulling or superseding another order,
  the train first named must be that to which rights were given by the
  order annulled or superseded, and when the order is not transmitted
  simultaneously to all concerned it must be sent to the point at which
  that train is to receive it and the required response first given,
  before the order is sent for other trains.

The annulling order is here properly made subject to all the safeguards
adopted for orders directing the movements of trains, and placed by its
number in the series with them. Superseding one order by another without
the previous process of annulling is here provided for with the important
provision that this method shall not be used for an order including more
than one specified movement. It would seldom be applicable to such a
case, and if it were it might tend to confusion, so that it is better to
annul the whole order and give new instructions in separate orders.

The provision that an annulled order shall not be restored under its
original number is quite necessary to avoid the confusion which might
arise under the opposite course. The requirement as to priority in
transmission of this order is important, in view of the fact that orders
reverse the rights of trains, and the reason here is the same as that
which obtains in the original transmission.

The Time Convention rules prescribe the forms, etc., for the blanks on
which train orders are to be written. These forms are here shown, with
the specifications for the manifold-books.

Some slight changes have been made in these by roads adopting them, but
in all essential features they have not been departed from, so far as the
author is aware.


Standard Train Order Blank for 19 Order.

  +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                              BOUND HERE.                        |
  |                                                                 |
  |                                                                 |
  |                           PERFORATED LINE.                      |
  +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                   LONDON & PARIS RAILWAY COMPANY                |
  |                                                                 |
  |                   TELEGRAPHIC TRAIN ORDER No. --.               |
  |                                                                 |
  |        _Superintendent's Office_,           March 27, 1885.     |
  +----+--------------------               --------------------+----+
  |FORM|           _For_ Station _to_ C. & E. _of_ No. 13.     |FORM|
  |19  |                                                       | 19 |
  +----+                                                       +----+
  |                                                                 |
  |                                                                 |
  |                                                                 |
  |                                                                 |
  |Conductor and Engineman must each have a copy of this order.     |
  +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
  |_Rec'd_ 2:15 P. _M._ _Made_ Complete _at_ 2:16 P. _M._           |
  |_Rec'd by_ Jones _Op'r_.                                         |
  +-----------------------------------------------------------------+


Specifications for Train Order Form and Books for Operators for 19 Orders.

  Form as here shown. Blank space for order 4 inches, with no lines.
  The mode of filling the blanks is indicated by small type.

  Names of divisions and office to be varied to suit each division.

  Form 6-3/4 x 6 inches below perforated line. Book 6-3/4 x 7-1/2
  inches.

  Three hundred leaves; stitched; bound at top; paper cover on face and
  top; very stiff back on lower side.

  Paper opaque, green, sized, and of such thickness as to admit of
  making 7 good copies with No. 4 Faber pencil.

  To be used with carbon paper, 6-3/4 x 7 inches, and a stiff tin, same
  size, corners rounded.


Standard Train Order Blank for 31 Order.

  +-----------------------------------------------------------+
  |                        BOUND HERE.                        |
  |                                                           |
  |                     PERFORATED LINE.                      |
  +-----------------------------------------------------------+
  |               LONDON & PARIS RAILWAY COMPANY              |
  |                                                           |
  |               TELEGRAPHIC TRAIN ORDER NO. 10              |
  |                                          ----             |
  |     _Superintendent's Office_,         March 27, 1885.    |
  +----+-------------------------------------------------+----+
  |FORM|                                                 |FORM|
  |    | _For_ Station _to_ C. & E. _of_  No. 13         |    |
  | 31 |                                                 | 31 |
  +----+                                                 +----+
  |                                                           |
  |  Conductor and Engineman must each have a copy of         |
  |this order.                                                |
  +===========================================================+
  |_Time received_ 2:15 A. _M._  O. K. _given at_ 2:15 A. _M._|
  +==========+============+======+=========+======+===========+
  |Conductor.| Engineman. |Train.|  Made.  |  At  |Received by|
  +----------+------------+------+---------+------+-----------+
  |  Jones.  |   Brown.   |  13  |Complete.| 2:20 | Dennison. |
  +----------+------------+------+---------+------+-----------+
  |          |            |      |         |      |           |
  +----------+            +------+---------+------+-----------+
  |          | (Omit this |      |         |      |           |
  +----------+column where+------+---------+------+-----------+
  |          |engineman is|      |         |      |           |
  +----------+not required+------+---------+------+-----------+
  |          | to sign.)  |      |         |      |           |
  +----------+            +------+---------+------+-----------+
  |          |            |      |         |      |           |
  +----------+            +------+---------+------+-----------+
  |          |            |      |         |      |           |
  +----------+            +------+---------+------+-----------+
  |          |            |      |         |      |           |
  +----------+------------+------+---------+------+-----------+


Specifications for Train Order Form and Books for Operators for 31 Orders.

  Form as here shown. Blank space for order 4 inches, with no lines.
  The mode of filling the blanks is indicated by small type.

  Names of divisions and office to be varied to suit each division.

  Form 6-3/4 x 9-1/4 inches below perforated line. Book 6-3/4 x 10-1/2
  inches.

  Three hundred leaves; stitched; bound at top; paper cover on face and
  top; very stiff back on lower side.

  Paper opaque, white, sized, and of such thickness as to admit of
  making 7 good copies with No. 4 Faber pencil.

  To be used with carbon paper, 6-3/4 x 9 inches, and a stiff tin, same
  size, corners rounded.

The following is the clearance card proposed in connection with the
"Standard" rules to be used when the train order signal is operated on
the plan of Rule 524(B):

  +------------------------------------------------------------+
  |             LONDON & PARIS RAILWAY COMPANY                 |
  |                     CLEARANCE CARD.                        |
  |                                                            |
  | Dover,      9:15 A. M.         March 25,        188   7.   |
  | ------------------------------------------------    ------ |
  |Conductor and Engineman No.  12                             |
  |                           ------                           |
  |  I have no orders for your train. Signal is out for No. 16.|
  |                                                     -------|
  |                                                            |
  |                              John Jones,                   |
  |                 -------------------------------------      |
  |                                                  Operator. |
  |                                                            |
  |   This does not interfere with or countermand any orders   |
  | you may have received.                                     |
  |   Conductor MUST SEE that the number of HIS TRAIN          |
  | is entered in the above form correctly.                    |
  |   Conductor and Engineman must each have a copy.           |
  +------------------------------------------------------------+



CHAPTER XI.

GENERAL REMARKS.

Rules as to Rights of Track.


The respective rights of trains are frequently spoken of in what has gone
before. Any method of dispatching must be subject to modification in some
of the details to accord with the particular rules of the road governing
train rights. A great deal of ingenuity has been expended in constructing
such rules, with a view to avoiding delay to trains under all imagined
circumstances. Trains to which the superior right of track has been
assigned have been required to wait at meeting-points twenty, thirty or
more minutes, and changing or movable rights have been connected with
this, and allowances have been made for "variation in watches." These
devices may occasionally prove useful, and rules are necessary to govern
the trains in the most of their movements, as the telegraph may sometimes
be out of order and at best cannot control the general movements of
trains as well as it can be done by rule. But where the telegraph is
managed with anything like the perfection now possible, the occasions are
few upon which it is unavailable for any long time; and whatever may
have been the seeming necessity formerly for complicated rules and time
allowances, it would seem that these may now be greatly simplified, as
has in fact been done in the "Standard" rules.

These rules provide that all trains running in one direction, specified
on the time-table, shall have absolute right of track over opposing
trains of the same class, the rule being entirely without complication by
time allowance for clearance.

This is exceedingly simple and interposes no difficulties in ascertaining
the respective rights of these trains. The precaution is observed of
requiring superior trains to stop at schedule meeting-points unless the
switches are seen to be right and the track clear, and to run cautiously,
prepared to stop at other points where a train may be met that has not
been met at a schedule meeting-point. This, however, adds no complication
to the rule.

For trains of different classes it is simply arranged that those of any
class shall clear the main track five minutes before the time of those of
a superior class.

It is not within the plan of this work to enter upon a full discussion
of the various methods of arranging train rights. It is only insisted
that the rules should be simple. This not only tends to safety in their
ordinary operation, but greatly simplifies the work of train dispatching
and removes the risks to which this work is subjected by a complicated
system of train rules. The reduction of the amount of mental effort
required of the Dispatcher, in determining what aid he shall give to
trains by special orders, reduces the risk of his making mistakes in
the preparation of these orders, and the simplicity here urged is in
the direct line of the work of the Time Convention committee in the
preparation of the "Standard" rules.


Numbering Switches.

Of those matters fixed by the train rules which directly affect the train
dispatching, few are more important than the arrangements which determine
how trains meeting shall pass each other. It is usually understood and
provided that, when trains meet, those having the right of track shall
keep the main track, with sometimes an exception to this in favor of
trains which cannot go on the siding without backing. Where this latter
provision exists it renders it unnecessary for either train to pass the
switch in the face of the other when they are to meet at a siding open
only at one end. It is sometimes, however, necessary to put a superior
train on the siding for a train that is too heavy or too long to go on,
or for some other reason. The train order must settle this, but this
usually adds to its length. The following provision has been found to
entirely meet the case:

At each siding or group of switches the main track switches are numbered
from No. 1, and the numbers, all running in the same general direction,
are painted on the switch signals with the initial letter of the station
or siding. For instance, at the London passing siding the northernmost
switch will be marked L 1, and the southernmost L 2. An order is given
requiring trains No. 1 and No. 2 to meet at London, and it is desired
to put the superior train, No. 1, going north, on the siding. The order
would then read:

_No. 1 and No. 2 will meet at London No. 2._

Train No. 2 may then run to switch No. 2 on the main track, and train
No. 1 can go no farther. It is a physical impossibility for the trains
to pass at that switch without No. 1 going on the siding, which it would
do without question under the operation of a rule requiring that _when
trains meet on orders the train shall take the siding which can do so
without backing_. This simple arrangement indicates also which siding is
to be used at a station having several. It economizes telegraphing very
much and is perfectly definite.

This plan is especially valuable when the arrangement of sidings is not
of the most simple character, or when three or more trains are to meet
or pass at the same point, at or near the same time. The simplicity with
which the placing of the trains is effected leaves nothing to be desired.
Each goes to its own place without hesitation or loss of time.

In all railroad operations we now see increased attention given to
minute details. To this is due much of the marvelous advance in every
department. This is especially evident in all mechanical appliances. It
is very apparent in the construction of the "Standard" Rules.

The suggestion here brought forward is in this direction. Instead of
directing trains to meet at a given station where there may be doubt as
to the exact point, leaving them to ascertain on arrival which switch
is to be used or which siding is clear, this plan gives in the order
the precise point and also conveys the information as to which train
will take the siding. This suggestion, made in the earlier edition of
this work, has been adopted only to a very limited extent, so far as the
author is aware. He is so fully convinced of its value that he feels
like urging its careful consideration. To fully carry out the plan,
those using the "Standard" rules would have to add the provision above
indicated requiring those trains to take the siding which can do so
without backing.


Double Track.

With more than one track the business of train dispatching is usually
little more than to keep slow trains out of the way of faster ones. The
protection of trains unexpectedly stopped from trains following, may be
effected by the "block system" in use on many of our best roads.

Single track work may be needed when one of the tracks is blocked, but
unfortunately the men engaged on double track do not become familiar
with the methods for single track, and cannot usually operate them
satisfactorily in emergencies.

The use of the opposite tracks for laying off trains is frequently
practiced, but usually under the protection of signals only. Where there
are two, three or four tracks a much more extended use of them might be
made for passing trains around each other, by the adoption of the methods
for single track train dispatching, with good results in the saving of
sidings and in keeping heavy trains moving, and it is not improbable
that expenditure for additional tracks might sometimes be postponed
for considerable periods by the proper adaptation of the telegraph.
There would seem to be here an opportunity for managers to keep down
their capital account by increasing the capacity of their tracks by the
addition of a wire. That this has not been done in many cases may have
been owing to the slow advance of the science of train dispatching in
past years, or perhaps to limited information on the part of railroad
owners and officers as to its capabilities. It is certainly true that
single track roads with siding facilities none too good are now doing an
amount of business that not many years ago would have been thought to
imperatively demand additional tracks.



CHAPTER XII.

CONCLUSION.


Telegraphic train dispatching came with the telegraph. The first attempts
were very crude. As late as the year 1865, on one of our most important
railroads, the plan was for any conductor to telegraph from a station
where he might be, to the conductor of an opposing train at the next
station, stating when he would leave, and where he would meet the other.
When the two came to an understanding they went ahead.

The early orders, in the attempt to render them more secure, were often
obscured by accumulated cautions as to how to run, and by general
directions. To undertake now to give the historical facts of those early
days would require more research than the author has been able to give,
and might involve controversy into which he does not care to enter. It
appears likely that methods nearly like the present "single order" were
the earliest tried, and these seem to have been more widely used than the
"duplicate." The latter was at least not long behind the other. It was
originated and carefully worked up in several independent quarters, and
from these it has been adopted by others. The author has never used any
other method. Adopting it in 1863, it was in use for some years before he
was aware that others were in the same path, who may have commenced at a
still earlier date.

The closing paragraph of the first edition of this work was as follows:

"This method is growing in favor, and one object of the author will have
been attained if this discussion shall aid in promoting its general
adoption."

In preparing this second edition the fact has constantly appeared that
the former words of recommendation related to points which are now
realized facts on a majority of our railroads and that the method then
urged has now reached the then desired position of "general adoption."

The author cannot take leave of his subject without a special word to
railroad managers. No "system" has yet been devised, or ever will be,
that will work itself. Rules cannot be given to men with the expectation
that they will take them up, master their principles and operate them
satisfactorily, especially in so important a matter as that under
discussion, without careful instruction and intelligent supervision on
the part of those who, from their official position, are responsible for
the results. A superintendent who is not himself particularly informed
respecting the rules and methods of his telegraph department, the
character and capabilities of the men employed, and the manner in which
their duties are performed, cannot expect to secure the advantages which
the telegraph is capable of giving. Perhaps the first public intimation
that anything is wrong may be a series of so-called "accidents" on his
line. Investigation points to the carelessness of some operator or
dispatcher as the cause. Deeper probing would perhaps discover that
such carelessness was the natural consequence of lack of constant and
painstaking supervision. Besides securing for such particular supervision
a competent and trustworthy person whose special business it should be,
the superintendent can never get away from the necessity of constantly
impressing upon such official the responsibilities of his position,
discussing with him the details of the work, and seeing, at least
occasionally, with his own eyes, how it is performed.

The telegraph may be viewed as holding to the railroad a relation
analogous to that of the nervous system to the body. From the center of
authority and intelligence it carries information and instructions to
every member. It keeps in motion the whole body, which, without this,
would be in a measure lifeless. Its ceaseless and healthful activity
is all-important; and as failure of the nervous energy is to the human
frame, so to the railroad is a falling off in the vital force operating
through the train wire. A tonic is needed and perhaps a change of doctors.

The author's duties for some time have not brought him into direct
connection with the operation of trains, and he will probably never again
be engaged in this department of railroad work.

His interest in it, however, is unabated, and his desire that the methods
he has endeavored to set forth shall meet with enlarged usefulness, until
better shall be found, has led him to this second effort to present what
has been his study during the most of his business life, and now leads
him to urge upon those now actively engaged in this work that the "price"
of success, as of "liberty," is "eternal vigilance."



INDEX.


  Abbreviations                                                          94
  "Accidents" resulting from lack of supervision                        145
  Acknowledgment of O K, Effect of                                       69
       "         "   "   Succession of                                   69
  Acknowledging "Complete"                                               79
  Acknowledging OK                                                       50
  Addressing Orders                                                      62
  Addresses of Orders, in order of Superiority                           66
  "Advance" Order                                                        75
  Annulling an Order                                                    190
      "        "     before train arrives                                78
  Annulling a Train                                                     128

  Blackboard, showing Extras                                            123
  Blank for "19" order                                                  132
     "   "  "31" order                                                  133

  Clearance card, form                                                  134
      "      "    Use of                                                 42
  Clip, on engine                                                    31, 83
  Collision, Following train guard against                              106
  Combining Forms                                                        98
  "Complete," first to Superior train                                    82
       "      given by Dispatcher                                    54, 68
       "      write on Order                                             70
       "      acknowledgement of                                         79
       "      when given                                         70, 71, 79
  Conclusion                                                            143
  Copies of Orders, How Keep                                         31, 83

  Delivering Orders at Superintendent's Office                           84
       "       "    Methods of                                           51
       "       "    without signatures                                   80
  Direction of Trains, affecting rights                            100, 136
  Disabled Train, Orders to                                              54
  Dispatcher, The                                                        17
      "       Orders Should be Issued by                                  5
      "       transmitting Orders                                    35, 45
  Double Track                                                          140
  Duplicate Order, described                                              9
      "       "    Safe in Unskilled Hands                               13
  Duplicate, Orders in                                                   82

  Enginemen, Signatures of                                       53, 68, 71
  Expiration of Orders                                                   89
  Explanatory Rules, needed                                              98
  Extra Trains                                                          120

  Figures, Use of                                                    93, 94
  Fixed Methods, best                                                     6
  Fixed Signal                                                       38, 90
  Form A, Fixing Meeting points                                         101
  Form B, Train running ahead                                           104
  Form C, Reversing Rights                                              106
  Form D, Right to all regular trains over given train                  114
  Form E, Time Orders                                                   115
  Form F, for Sections                                                  117
  Form G, Arranging Schedule                                            119
  Form H, Extra Trains                                                  120
  Form J, Holding Order                                                 127
  Form K, Annulling a Train                                             128
  Form L, Annulling an Order                                            130
  Forms of Orders                                                        97
    "        "    Classification of                                     100

  General Remarks                                                       135

  Holding effect of Order not signed for                                 57
  Holding Order                                                         127
  Holding train after O K is acknowledged                                57
     "      "   by signals for time                                      42
     "      "   when telegraph fails                                     57

  Inferior Right, defined                                                64
  Initials, Use of                                                       94
  Instructions, Not include in Orders                                    25

  Language of Orders, simple                                             25

  Manifold, The                                                          33
     "      Orders to be written in                                      67
  Meeting Order, Use and Advantage of                                   102
  Meeting Point, Copy of Order for Operator at                           66
     "      "    Orders not Delivered at                                 86
  Numbering Orders                                                   31, 62
  Numbering Switches                                               vii, 137
  Numbers for Trains                                                     93

  O K sent and acknowledged                                          68, 60
  Operator, The                                                          21
  Order, The, holds train after O K is acknowledged                      71
    "    interposed to prevent Improper signal                           42
    "    One movement in                                                 62
  Orders, remove from book                                       40, 41, 51
    "     functions, etc.                                                61
    "     held by Annulled train                                        128
    "     how long in force                                          29, 89
    "     including more than one transaction                       26, 103
    "     in duplicate                                                   62
    "     limited to express terms                                       29
    "     no erasures, etc                                               29
    "     not send too long in advance                                   86
    "     not to meeting point for delivery                              86
    "     sent to superintendent daily                                   83
    "     to trains away from telegraph stations                         84
    "     to be strictly construed                                  87, 110
    "     who issue                                                      61

  Paper for orders                                                   30, 33
  Passing, in same direction                                            104
  Passing point in Form C, Leaving, before opposite train arrives       109
  Pilot, relations to train                                              63
    "    to have orders                                                  62
  Position of signal, Normal                                             39
  Precautions in issuing orders                                           4
  Printed forms for orders                                               99

  Reading Order aloud                                            53, 68, 70
  Record, The                                                            35
     "    of Orders                                                      64
  Regardless Order, superseded                                          107
  Repeating Orders                                           48, 67, 60, 79
  Responsibility, divided                                                77
  Reversing rights                                                      106
  Rights reversed by Orders                                              65
  Rights, Rules respecting                                              135
  Rules                                                                  60
    "   construe strictly                                                87
  Rules of Time Convention, when adopted                                 60
  Rule 500                                                               61
   "   501                                                               62
   "   502                                                               62
   "   503                                                               62
   "   504                                                               64
   "   505                                                               64
   "   506                                                               65
   "   507                                                               66
   "   508                                                               87
   "   509                                                               87
   "   510                                                               71
   "   511                                                               79
   "   512                                                               82
   "   513                                                               82
   "   514                                                               83
   "   515                                                               83
   "   516                                                               83
   "   517                                                               84
   "   518                                                               84
   "   519                                                               84
   "   520                                                               85
   "   521                                                               86
   "   22                                                                87
   "   523                                                               80
   "   524 A                                                             90
   "   524 B                                                             91
   "   525                                                               93
   "   526                                                               93
   "   527                                                               94
  Running Ahead                                                         104

  Schedule, meaning of                                                   61
  Schedule time, made later                                             115
  Sections, included in Order                                            85
     "      Meeting order for                                           103
     "      Order for                                                   117
     "      ordered by yard dispatcher                                  118
     "      Rights of                                                   117
  Semaphore, for signal                                                  38
  Signal, The Train Order                                                37
    "     Fixed, for train orders                                        90
  Signals, "31" and "19"                                                 65
     "    for emergencies                                        90, 91, 93
     "    not shown at night                                         91, 93
     "    Operator's                                                     83
     "    meaning "train order"                                          47
  Signatures, of Enginemen                                       53, 68, 71
      "       for"19"order, not taken                                    79
      "       for orders, how taken and transmitted              53, 68, 70
      "       for Superior Train before "complete" for Inferior          71
      "       Object of                                                  81
      "       transmission of                                            54
      "       with "19" order                                            81
  Signs and Abbreviations                                                94
  Simultaneous Transmission                                          47, 66
  Single Order, described                                                 8
    "      "    fatal defect                                             10
  Sound Operators, best                                                  34
  Special Train, Schedule for                                           119
  Specimen Orders                                                    28, 30
  Succession, in repeating Order                                     49, 67
       "      in acknowledging "OK"                                      69
  Superiority, Addresses in Order of                                     66
  Superior Right, defined                                                64
  Superseding an Order                                                  130
  Supervision, necessary                                                144
       "       of Operators                                              82
  System, American                                                        3
  Systems, two in Use                                                     7

  Telegraphing, Careful habit in                                         49
  Telegraph, failing                                                     55
      "      effect on order                                 57, 71, 73, 82
      "      relation to railroad                                       145
  Time Limit in Form C, objectionable                                   114
    "  of Train, Record and report                                       93
  Time Orders                                                           115
  Time Table, Meaning of                                                 61
  Tracks, Orders for use of, in yards                                    84
  Train Dispatching                                                       1
  Train of Superior right, when take siding                             113
  Train Order Blanks                                               132, 133
  Train Orders, Forms of                                                 97
  Train Order Signal, Normal position of                                 92
  Train Rule 107, how affects Orders                                     89
  Train Rules, Knowledge of                                              65
  Train Sheet                                                            35
  Trains, all regular, right over given train                           114
    "     away from telegraph station, Orders for                        84
    "     designated by Numbers                                          68
    "     Report time of                                                 93
    "     to be governed strictly by Orders                              87
  Transmission, The                                                      45
       "        First Steps in                                           65
       "        incomplete, how act                                      55
       "        Process after                                        67, 79
       "        simultaneous                                         47, 66

  "Understanding," Use of                                                51

  "Whenever practicable," in Rule 510                                    72
  Wild Trains                                                           122
  "Wildcat" order                                                       122
  Work Train                                                       120, 123
    "    "   Working limits for                                         124
    "    "   given right of track                                       107

  Yards, Use of track in                                                 84


    WILLIAM P. HALL. Pres.                  A. W. HALL, Gen. Man.
    W. S. GILMORE, Treas.                   S. MARSH YOUNG. Gen. Agt.

                [Illustration: The Hall Signal Company,]

                    SOLE MANUFACTURERS AND OWNERS OF

                 Several Forms and Systems of Thoroughly
                        Tested Automatic Railroad
                          Signals of Proven and
                         Guaranteed Reliability.

                               ----------

                FOR WHICH THE FOLLOWING CLAIMS ARE MADE:

    1st. That they are the ONLY RELIABLE AUTOMATIC RAILROAD SIGNALS in
         the market.

    2d.  That they are the only Automatic Signals that can he
         successfully operated on ALL CLASSES of roadbed.

    3d.  That they are the only Automatic Signals that INVARIABLY
         SIGNAL "DANGER" WHEN STRUCK BY LIGHTNING.

    4th. That they are cheaper to erect and maintain than any other
         signals that have given even approximately satisfactory
         service.

    5th. That they have caused fewer unnecessary stops in proportion to
         the number of operations than any Automatic Signals in use at
         the present time.

    6th. That they can be operated on either the Permissive or Absolute
         Block System.

    7th. That they fully guard against the most common classes of
         railroad accidents.

                               ----------

         We are prepared to fully substantiate the above claims
           to any railroad official desiring such information.

                               ----------

                        THE HALL SIGNAL COMPANY,

                         50 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.
               WESTERN OFFICE, - 340 THE ROOKERY, CHICAGO.


                        The E. S. Greeley & Co.,

                      5 and 7 Dey Street, New York,

              MANUFACTURERS AND IMPORTERS OF AND DEALERS IN

                         [Illustration: Improved
                               VICTOR KEY,
                                 $2.50.
                           The latest and best.
                           Send for Circular.]


                    Telegraph and Telephone Supplies,

               Railway Signals,               Fire Alarms

                                   AND

                         ELECTRICAL BELLS, Etc.,

                            AND ALL KINDS OF

                          ELECTRICAL MATERIALS

                      AND EXPERIMENTERS' SUPPLIES.

                               ----------

               Standard Electrical Measurement Apparatus,

                      MEDICAL and other BATTERIES,

                         BLASTING MACHINES, Etc.



      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber's note:

Hyphenation was not standardized.

Transcriptions for the two reproduced forms which show handwritten
orders are provided. As the author testifies, they are not very
legible and the worse parts are marked [unclear]. One form has two
symbols of a hand pointing which are displayed as [hand].





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