Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: License to Steal
Author: Newman, Louis
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "License to Steal" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



          Ignorance of the law can so be a valid excuse--and
              the result is this hilarious but legal....

                           LICENSE TO STEAL

                            By LOUIS NEWMAN

                          Illustrated by WOOD

           [Transcriber's Note: This etext was produced from
                     Galaxy Magazine August 1959.
         Extensive research did not uncover any evidence that
         the U.S. copyright on this publication was renewed.]



The history of man becomes fearfully and wonderfully confusing with
the advent of interstellar travel. Of special interest to the legally
inclined student is the famous Skrrgck Affair, which began before the
Galactic Tribunal with the case of _Citizens vs. Skrrgck_.

The case, and the opinion of the Court, may be summarized as follows:

Skrrgck, a native of Sknnbt (Altair IV), where theft is honorable,
sanctioned by law and custom, immigrated to Earth (Sol III) where
theft is contrary to both law and custom.

While residing in Chicago, a city in a political subdivision known as
the State of Illinois, part of the United States of America, one of
the ancient nation-states of Earth, he overheard his landlady use the
phrase "A license to steal," a common colloquialism in the area, which
refers to any special privilege.

[Illustration: Fig. 1: Actual scene of license issue (Skrrgck
superimposed)]

Skrrgck then went to a police station in Chicago and requested a
license to steal. The desk sergeant, as a joke, wrote out a document
purporting to be a license to steal, and Skrrgck, relying on said
document, committed theft, was apprehended, tried and convicted. On
direct appeal allowed to the Galactic Tribunal, the Court held:

(1) All persons are required to know and obey the law of the
jurisdiction in which they reside.

(2) Public officials must refrain from misrepresenting to strangers the
law of the jurisdiction.

(3) Where, as here, a public official is guilty of such
misrepresentation, the requirement of knowledge no longer applies.

(4) Where, as here, it is shown by uncontradicted evidence that a
defendant is law-abiding and willing to comply with the standards of
his place of residence, misrepresentation of law by public officials
may amount to entrapment.

(5) The Doctrine of Entrapment bars the State of Illinois from
prosecuting this defendant.

(6) The magnitude of the crime is unimportant compared with the
principle involved, and the fact that the defendant's unusual training
on Sknnbt enabled him to steal a large building in Chicago, known as
the Merchandise Mart, is of no significance.

(7) The defendant, however, was civilly liable for the return of the
building, and its occupants, or their value, even if he had to steal
to get it, provided, however, that he stole only on and from a planet
where theft was legal.

[Illustration: Fig. 2: The moment of decision, case of _Citizens vs.
Skrrgck_]

       *       *       *       *       *

The Skrrgck case was by no means concluded by the decision of the
Galactic Tribunal, but continued to reverberate down the years, a field
day for lawyers, and "a lesson to all in the complexities of modern
intergalactic law and society," said Winston, Harold C, Herman Prof, of
Legal History, Harvard.

Though freed on the criminal charge of theft, Skrrgck still faced some
20,000 charges of kidnapping, plus the civil liability imposed upon him
by the ruling of the Court.

The kidnapping charges were temporarily held in abeyance. Not that the
abductions were not considered outrageous, but it was quickly realized
by all concerned that if Skrrgck were constantly involved in lengthy
and expensive defenses to criminal prosecutions, there would be no
chance at all of obtaining any restitution from him. First things
first, and with Terrans that rarely means justice.

Skrrgck offered to pay over the money he had received for the building
and its occupants, but that was unacceptable to the Terrans, for what
they really wanted, with that exaggerated fervor typical of them,
provided it agrees with their financial interests, was the return of
the original articles. Not only were the people wanted back, but the
building itself had a special significance.

Its full title was "The New Merchandise Mart" and it had been built
in the exact style of the original and on the exact spot on the south
side of the Chicago River where the original had stood prior to its
destruction in the Sack of Chicago. It was more than just a large
commercial structure to the Terrans. It was also a symbol of Terra's
unusually quick recovery from its Empire Chaos into its present
position of leadership within the Galactic Union. The Terrans wanted
that building back.

So Skrrgck, an obliging fellow at heart, tried first to get it back,
but this proved impossible, for he had sold the building to the
Aldebaranian Confederacy for use in its annual "prosperity fiesta."

The dominant culture of the Aldebaranian system is a descendant of the
"conspicuous destruction" or "potlatch" type, in which articles of
value are destroyed to prove the wealth and power of the destroyers.
It was customary once every Aldebaranian year--about six Terran--for
the Aldebaranian government to sponsor a token celebration of this
destructive sort, and it had purchased the Merchandise Mart from
Skrrgck as part of its special celebration marking the first thousand
years of the Confederacy.

Consequently, the building, along with everything else, was totally
destroyed in the "bonfire" that consumed the entire fourth planet from
the main Aldebaranian sun.

Nor was Skrrgck able to arrange the return to Terra of the occupants of
the building, some 20,000 in number, because he had sold them as slaves
to the Boötean League.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is commonly thought slavery is forbidden throughout the Galaxy by
the terms of Article 19 of the Galactic Compact, but such is not the
case. What is actually forbidden is "involuntary servitude" and this
situation proved the significance of that distinction. In the case of
_Sol v. Boötes_, the Galactic Tribunal held that Terra had no right to
force the "slaves" to give up their slavery and return to Terra if they
did not wish to. And, quite naturally, none of them wished to.

It will be remembered that the Boöteans, a singularly handsome and
good-natured people, were in imminent danger of racial extinction due
to the disastrous effects of a strange nucleonic storm which had passed
through their system in 1622. The physiological details of the "Boötean
Effect," as it has been called, was to render every Boötean sterile in
relation to every other Boötean, while leaving each Boötean normally
capable of reproduction, provided one of the partners in the union had
not been subjected to the nucleonic storm.

Faced with this situation, the Boöteans immediately took steps to
encourage widespread immigration by other humanoid races, chiefly
Terrans, for it was Terrans who had originally colonized Boötes and it
was therefore known that interbreeding was possible.

But the Boöteans were largely unsuccessful in their immigration
policy. Terra was peaceful and prosperous, and the Boöteans, being
poor advertisers, were unable to convince more than a handful to leave
the relative comforts of home for the far-off Boötean system where,
almost all were sure, some horrible fate lay behind the Boöteans'
honeyed words. So when Skrrgck showed up with some 20,000 Terrans,
the Boöteans, in desperation, agreed to purchase them in the hope of
avoiding the "involuntary servitude" prohibition of Article 19 by
making them like it.

In this, they were spectacularly successful. The "slaves" were
treated to the utmost luxury and every effort was made to satisfy any
reasonable wish. Their "duties" consisted entirely of "keeping company"
with the singularly attractive Boöteans.

Under these circumstances it is, perhaps, hardly surprising that out of
the 20,101 occupants, all but 332 flatly refused to return to Terra.

The 332 who did wish to return, most of whom were borderline
psychotics, were shipped home, and Boötes sued Skrrgck for their
purchase price, but was turned down by the Galactic Quadrant Court on
the theory of, basically, Caveat Emptor--let the buyer beware.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Court in _Sol v. Boötes_ had held that although adults could not be
required to return to Terra, minors under the age of 31 could be, and
an additional 569 were returned under this ruling, to the vociferous
disgust of the post-puberty members of that group. Since there was
apparently some question of certain misrepresentations by Skrrgck
as to the ages or family affiliations of some members of this minor
group, he agreed to an out-of-court settlement of Boötes' claim for
their purchase price, thus depriving the legal profession of further
clarification of the rights of two "good faith" dealers in this
peculiar sort of transaction.

The Terran people, of course, were totally unsatisfied with this
result. Led by some demagogues and, to a milder degree, by most of the
political opposition to the existing Terran government, and reminded of
certain actual examples from Terra's own history, many became convinced
that some form of nefarious "brainwashing" had been exercised upon the
"unfortunate" Terran expatriates. Excitement ran high, and there was
even some agitation for withdrawal from the Galactic Union.

Confronted with such unrest, the Terran government made efforts to
reach some settlement with Boötes despite the decision of the Court
in _Sol v. Boötes_, and was finally able to gain in the Centaurian
Agreement a substantial reparation, it being specifically stipulated
in the Agreement that the money was to be paid to the dependents who
suffered actual financial loss.

In a suit against the Terran government by one of the excluded
families, to obtain for that family a share of the reparation, the
validity of the treaty, as it applied to exclude the suing family and
others in like position, was upheld by the United States Supreme Court.

The suit was begun before the Agreement had been ratified by the
General Assembly, and the Court indicated that the plaintiff would
have lost on the strength of a long line of cases giving the World
President certain inherent powers over the conduct of foreign affairs.
Since, however, the matter came up for decision after ratification,
the Court said that the "inherent powers" question was moot, and that
the Agreement, having been elevated to the status of a treaty by
ratification, must be held valid under the "Supremacy of Treaties"
section of Article 102 of the United Terran Charter.

Although this failed to satisfy the Terran people--and their anger may
have contributed to the fall of the Solarian Party administration in
the following election--the Treaty is generally considered by students
of the subject as a triumph of Solarian diplomacy, and an outstanding
example of intergalactic good faith on the part of Boötes.

       *       *       *       *       *

Of course, neither the demagogy nor the anger could hide forever the
true facts about how the Boöteans were treating their "slaves," and
when the true facts became known, there was a sudden flood of migration
from Terra to Boötes, which threatened to depopulate the Solarian
Empire and drown Boötes. The flood was quickly dammed by the Treaty
of Deneb restricting migration between the two systems. This treaty
was held to be a valid police-powers exception to the "Free Migration"
principle of Article 17 of the Galactic Compact in _Boleslaw v. Sol and
Boötes_.

All this left Skrrgck with liabilities of some forty million credits
and practically no assets. Like most Altairians, he was a superb thief
but a poor trader. The price he had received for the Merchandise Mart
and the "slaves," while amounting to a tidy personal fortune, was
less than half the amount of the claims against him, and due to an
unfortunate predilection for slow _Aedrils_ and fast _Flowezies_, he
only had about half of that left.

Skrrgck, who had by this time apparently developed a love of litigation
equal to his love of thievery, used part of what he did have left in a
last effort to evade liability by going into bankruptcy, a move which
was naturally met with howls of outrage by his creditors and a flood
of objections to his petition, a flood which very nearly drowned the
Federal District Court in Chicago.

It would be difficult to imagine a more complex legal battle than might
have taken place, nor one more instructive to the legal profession, had
the situation been carried to its logical conclusion.

On the one hand was the age-old policy of both Terran and Galactic
bankruptcy law. A man becomes unable to pay his debts. He goes into
bankruptcy. Whatever he does have is distributed to his creditors, who
must be satisfied with what they can get out of his present assets.
They cannot require him to go to work to earn additional funds with
which to pay them more. It is precisely to escape this form of mortgage
on one's future that bankruptcy exists.

Yet here were over seven thousand creditors claiming that Skrrgck's
debts should not be discharged in bankruptcy, because Skrrgck could be
required to steal enough to satisfy them fully.

Could the creditors require Skrrgck to exert such personal efforts to
satisfy their claims? A lawyer would almost certainly say "no," citing
the Bankruptcy Act as sufficient grounds alone, not to mention the
anomaly of having Terrans, in a Terran court, ask that Skrrgck, for
their benefit, commit an act illegal on Terra and punishable by that
Terran court.

The idea of a Terran court giving judicial sanction to theft is novel,
to say the least. Indeed, Judge Griffin, who was presiding, was
overheard to remark to a friend on the golf course that he "would throw
the whole d--n thing out" for that reason alone.

       *       *       *       *       *

Yet, in spite of this undeniable weight of opinion, it is difficult to
say just what the final decision would have been had the matter been
carried to the Galactic Tribunal, for in the original case of _Skrrgck
v. Illinois_, that august body, it will be remembered, had specifically
stated that Skrrgck was liable for the value of the building and its
occupants, "even if he must steal to obtain it."

Now that hasty and ill-advised phrase was certainly dicta, and was
probably intended only as a joke, the opinion having been written by
Master Adjudicator Stsssts, a member of that irrepressible race of
saurian humorists, the Sirians. But if the case had actually come
before them, the Court might have been hoist on its own petard, so to
speak, and been forced to rule in accord with its earlier "joke."

Unfortunately for the curiosity of the legal profession, the question
was never to be answered, for Skrrgck did a remarkable thing which
made the whole controversy irrelevant. What his motives were will
probably never be known. His character makes it unlikely that he began
the bankruptcy proceedings in good faith and was later moved by
conscience. It is possible that the bankruptcy was merely an elaborate
piece of misdirection. More probably, however, he simply seized on the
unusual opportunity the publicity gave him.

Whatever the motives, the facts are that Skrrgck used the last of
his waning resources to purchase one of the newly developed Terran
Motors' "Timebirds" in which he traveled secretly to Altair. Even
this first model of the Timebird, with its primitive meson exchange
discoordinator, cut the trip from Sol to Altair from weeks to days,
and Skrrgck, landing secretly on his home planet while his bankruptcy
action was still in the turmoil stage, was able to accomplish the
greatest "coup" in Altairian history. He never could have done it
without the publicity of the legal proceedings. In a culture where
theft is honorable, the most stringent precautions are taken against
its accomplishment, but who could have expected Skrrgck? He was
light-years away, trying to go into bankruptcy.

And so, while all eyes on Altair, as well as throughout the rest of the
Galaxy, were amusedly fixed on the legal circus shaping up on Terra,
Skrrgck was able to steal the Altairian Crown Jewels, and the Altairian
Crown Prince as well, and flee with them to Sol.

       *       *       *       *       *

The reaction was violent. The Galaxy was gripped by an almost
hysterical amusement. Skrrgck's creditors on Terra were overjoyed. The
Altairians made one effort to regain their valuables in the courts, but
were promptly turned down by the Galactic Tribunal which held, wisely,
that a society which made a virtue of theft would have to take the
consequences of its own culture.

So Skrrgck's creditors were paid in full. The jewels alone were more
than sufficient for that, containing as they did no less than seven
priceless "Wanderstones," those strange bits of frozen fire found ever
so rarely floating in the interstellar voids, utterly impervious to
any of the effects of gravitation. Altair paid a fantastic price for
the return of the collection, and Skrrgck also demanded, and got, a
sizable ransom for the Prince, after threatening to sell him to Boötes,
from whence, of course, he would never return. Being a prince in a
democratic, constitutional monarchy is not as glamorous as you might
think.

His creditors satisfied, Skrrgck returned to Sknnbt, dragging with
him an angry Crown Prince--angry at having lost the chance to go to
Boötes, that is. At Altair, Skrrgck was received as a popular hero.
He had accomplished something of which every Altairian had dreamed,
almost from the moment of his birth, and he was widely and joyously
acclaimed. Riding on this wave of popular adulation, he entered
politics, ran for the office of Premier, and was elected by an
overwhelming majority.

As soon as he took office, he took steps, in accordance with Altairian
custom, to wipe out the "stain" on his honor incurred by allowing the
Chicago police sergeant to fool him with the now famous License to
Steal.

He instituted suit against the sergeant for the expenses of his defense
to the original theft charge.

The case was carried all the way to the Galactic Tribunal, which by
this time was heartily sick of the whole mess. Feeling apparently that
the sergeant was the original cause of said mess, the Court overruled
his plea that he had merely been joking.

The Court cited an ancient case from West Virginia, U.S.A.--_Plate v.
Durst_, 42 W. Va. 63, 24 SE 580, 32 L.R.A. 404. (Note: The date of this
case is invariably given as 1896, which is most confusing, since the
present date is only 1691. The 1896, however, refers to the eighteen
hundred and ninety-sixth year of the pre-atomic era, which we, of
course, style A.A.--Ante Atomica. Since the present era begins with the
first atomic explosion, the case actually occurred in approximately the
year 54 A.A.)

The Court quoted the opinion in this ancient case as follows: "Jokes
are sometimes taken seriously by ... the inexperienced ... and if such
is the case, and the person thereby deceived is led to (incur expenses)
in the full belief and expectation that the joker is in earnest, the
law will also take the joker at his word, and give him good reason to
smile."

       *       *       *       *       *

Accordingly, the sergeant was charged with a very large judgment.
Although the City of Chicago paid this judgment, the sergeant had
become the laughing-stock of the planet, so he applied for, and was
granted, a hardship exception to the Treaty of Deneb and migrated to
Boötes.

There, regarded as the real savior of the Boötean race, and a chosen
instrument of the God of Boötes, he was received as a saint. He died in
1689, surrounded by his 22 children and 47 grandchildren, having made
himself wealthy by becoming the leader of a most excessive fertility
cult, which is only now being forcibly suppressed by the Boötean
Government.

In 1635 P.A., someone on Earth remembered the kidnapping indictments
still outstanding against Skrrgck and attempted to prosecute them. By
this time, however, Skrrgck was Premier, the chief executive officer of
Altair, and all extradition matters were within his sole discretion. In
the exercise of this power, he refused to extradite himself, and the
prosecutor on Earth, whose constituents were beginning to laugh at him,
had the indictments quashed "in the interest of interstellar harmony."

The story has an interesting sequel. During Skrrgck's unprecedented six
consecutive terms as Premier (no one else had ever served less than
seven), he was able, by dint of unremitting political maneuvering,
to have theft outlawed in the Altairian system. It was, he said, "a
cultural trait that is more trouble than it is worth."





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "License to Steal" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home