Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Personal Reminiscences of the War of 1861-5 - In Camp—en Bivouac—on the March—on Picket—on the Skirmish Line—on the Battlefield—and in Prison
Author: Morgan, W. H. (William Henry)
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Personal Reminiscences of the War of 1861-5 - In Camp—en Bivouac—on the March—on Picket—on the Skirmish Line—on the Battlefield—and in Prison" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

OF 1861-5***


Internet Archive (https://archive.org)



      Images of the original pages are available through
      Internet Archive. See
      https://archive.org/details/personalreminisc00morg


Transcriber's note:

      Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).



PERSONAL REMINISCENCES OF THE WAR OF 1861-65


[Illustration:

  W. H. MORGAN]


PERSONAL REMINISCENCES OF THE WAR OF 1861-5


[Illustration]


IN CAMP—EN BIVOUAC—ON THE MARCH—ON PICKET—ON
         THE SKIRMISH LINE—ON THE
            BATTLEFIELD—AND IN
                  PRISON

by

W. H. MORGAN



Lynchburg, Va.
J. P. Bell Company, Inc.
1911

Copyright, 1911
by W. H. Morgan



                            TO THE MEMORY OF
                        "THE LOVED ONES AT HOME"
                           WIFE—FATHER—MOTHER
              THIS BOOK IS TENDERLY AND LOVINGLY DEDICATED



                                PREFACE


I launch this little volume upon the great ocean of books, craving the
indulgence of the kind reader for its shortcomings and imperfections,
with the hope that it will not be viewed with a critic's eye, and that
its imperfections may be charitably passed by. I have endeavored to
relate my experiences in the great war of 1861-5 just as events
occurred, as if I were detailing them to family or friends in private,
or, as I have sometimes done in the past, at gatherings of veterans and
friends during the past years.

The old huntsman delights to tell of his tracking game in the snow, the
chase through the woods and fields of the fox, deer and bear; the old
sailor spins his yarns of the adventures and perils of the deep; the old
fisherman will sometimes tell a big fish tale, and the old soldier is
wont to join in with the rest and tell of his life in camp and field.
This last I have endeavored to do in the following pages after the lapse
of many years. I might have spun out the story much longer, but
believing that brevity is often the soul of writing, as well as of wit,
I have endeavored to "be brief and to the point."

                                                           W. H. MORGAN.

 _Floyd, Va._, January 23, 1911.



                                CONTENTS


                               CHAPTER I

Personal—Organization—Roll of company.

                               CHAPTER II

Enter the service—Trouble about arms.

                              CHAPTER III

On to Manassas—The 11th Regiment—The 1st Brigade.

                               CHAPTER IV

Battle of Blackburns Ford—The battle begins—The enemy driven back—
Incidents of the battle.

                               CHAPTER V

Battle of First Manassas—General Johnston to the rescue—Gen. Kirby Smith
turns the tide of battle—The Rebel Yell—Under shelling—The news of
victory—The enemy not pursued—Gathering the spoils.

                               CHAPTER VI

To Centreville and Fairfax C. H.—Picket close to enemy—Exciting times on
picket—Back to Centreville—The fight at Drainesville.

                              CHAPTER VII

Fall back from Centreville—The Peninsular campaign—Yorktown lines
evacuated—The battle of Williamsburg—"Give it to them"—Into a hot fire—
Colonel Garland wounded—Incidents of the battle—Garland and Kemper
promoted.

                              CHAPTER VIII

Back to Richmond—Battle of Seven Pines—The brigade in reserve—Into the
fight at double-quick—Incidents of the battle—On the picket lines.

                               CHAPTER IX

Seven days fights around Richmond—Battle of Gaines' Mill.

                               CHAPTER X

Second Manassas and Maryland campaign—Sharpsburg—Back to Virginia—From
Winchester to Culpeper—To Fredericksburg.

                               CHAPTER XI

The battle of Fredericksburg—Kemper's Brigade in reserve—Spectacular
scene—Behind Marye's Hill—Sharpshooting—At home; sad loss.

                              CHAPTER XII

To Richmond, Chester Station and Petersburg—To North Carolina—Back to
Virginia at Suffolk—To Taylorsville—On to join General Lee.

                              CHAPTER XIII

Pennsylvania Campaign—Gettysburg—Back to Virginia—General Lee and the
army of Northern Virginia.

                              CHAPTER XIV

To Taylorsville—At Chafin's Farm—To North Carolina again—Marching
through swamps and sand—The capture of Plymouth—Companies C and G have
serious experience—Incidents of the battle—The gunboat _Albemarle_—Col.
James Dearing wins promotion—On to Washington, N. C.—Newberne again
invested.

                               CHAPTER XV

Back to Petersburg, Va.—Beast Butler—The battle of Drewry's Bluff—
General Gracie's courage—Into a heavy fire at close range—Col. Richard
F. Maury—Yankee brigade captured—General Whiting's failure—The Yankee
flags.

                              CHAPTER XVI

To Milford and to capture—Prisoner of war—On to Washington—To Fort
Delaware.

                              CHAPTER XVII

To Fort Delaware—Short Rations—Song—Prison rules.

                             CHAPTER XVIII

Off for Charlestown—Alleged retaliation—On shipboard—Run aground—Short
of water—In stockade—Under fire—Prison rules.

                              CHAPTER XIX

To Fort Pulaski—Rotten cornmeal and pickled rations—A plot laid.

                               CHAPTER XX

Back to Fort Delaware—Disappointment and great suffering—Deaths on ship
and burials at sea.

                              CHAPTER XXI

Yankee infamy—Conduct of the war—Sherman's march through Georgia—The
dismemberment of Virginia.

                              CHAPTER XXII

Lee's surrender—Lincoln's assassination—Out of prison and at home.

                             CHAPTER XXIII

Reconstruction and since.



                              INTRODUCTION


When I first undertook to write my war experiences, I had no thought of
ever publishing what I wrote. It was only intended as a family paper,
written at the solicitation of my children.

If I had undertaken to write a history of Kemper's Brigade, or the
Eleventh Regiment, or even of the Clifton Grays (Company C), the story
would have been far less personal than are these "Personal
Reminiscences," and doubtless more interesting to others, but of less
interest to those for whom the sketches were originally designed.

This is my apology for using the personal pronoun so often, and
referring so frequently to those who were nearest and dearest to me, all
of whom—wife, father, mother, and brothers—have passed away, and I am
left al—— no, not alone; I have friends and old comrades still living
whom I esteem highly and who I am sure esteem me, and children and
grandchildren whom I love and who I know love me.

And it was but natural that I should desire to transmit to these last,
recollections of those nearest and dearest to me, and of the comrades in
arms with whom I was most intimately and closely connected during those
years of blood and strife.

If I had undertaken to give in detail all the brave deeds performed by
the men of Company C, and those who made up the Eleventh Regiment and
Kemper's Brigade, this book would have been much larger than it is.

The Yankees had a custom of promoting men from the ranks for brave
conduct on the field of battle. If this custom had prevailed in the
Confederate army, as I have often remarked, there would have been more
officers than privates in that army; for no army ever had so many men so
deserving and so capable of being officers. Having, at the solicitation
of friends, determined to publish my REMINISCENCES, I now have only to
say as to the following pages. "What I have written I have written," and
will let it go at that; trusting that old comrades who may read this
book will find therein something to remind them that they were "there or
thereabout," and that they and their sons and daughters may find
something to interest, if not something entertaining, and perchance
instructive to the young.

To those who may be disposed to criticize the accuracy of dates and
incidents, and doubtless there are inaccuracies and errors, too, I beg
them to remember that nearly fifty years have passed over all our
"memory boxes" since these war scenes were enacted, and that the events
herein related are from my viewpoint and place on the stage of action,
and that they saw and heard many things I did not see nor hear, and vice
versa.

Any one who has heard witnesses testify in court as to a personal
difficulty between two men, if only a common assault and battery case,
or a more serious encounter with knives and pistols, know that no two
will tell exactly the same story; so it is with war stories. We all did
not see and hear and feel alike at the same time and place. What
impressed one and fixed an event or date indelibly on the mind, did not
impress another. And now "I don't remember," "I forget," "I was there,
but don't recollect," are common expressions heard from old soldiers
when they meet and talk over the old, old times.

To all comrades of Company C and all the other companies of the Eleventh
Virginia and of Kemper's Brigade and Pickett's Division, Longstreet's
Corps, and the army of Northern Virginia, to whom these greetings may
come, I extend the right hand of comradeship most heartily. We marched
and camped and bivouacked and fought together. We suffered and
sacrificed all save honor, and thousands of our comrades died for a
cause which we knew and still know was just and right and holy.

And know ye that we will not be forgotten as long as truth and chivalry
shall live upon the earth, and that generations yet unborn will be proud
to trace their genealogy back to the men who fought under Lee and
Jackson.

And now, old comrades, good-bye, and may God bless you all. At a reunion
some years ago, I heard a veteran say, "God will never send an old
Confederate soldier to hell!" My prayer is that none of them may ever
go, or be sent to that bad place; but let us not forget that, "By grace
are ye saved, through _faith_ in Jesus Christ."



              PERSONAL REMINISCENCES OF THE WAR OF 1861-5
                   —IN CAMP—EN BIVOUAC—ON THE MARCH—
                     ON PICKET—ON THE SKIRMISH LINE
                       —ON THE BATTLEFIELD—AND IN
                                PRISON.



                               CHAPTER I

                 PERSONAL—ORGANIZATION—ROLL OF COMPANY


After a lapse of more than forty years, I here record brief sketches of
my experiences as a Confederate soldier, beginning about the 1st of May,
1861, and ending the 21st day of May, 1865, and some things since. Many
of the occurrences herein related remain indelibly fixed on my memory
through all these years and can never be effaced.

The scenes and events of the battles are burned into the faculty of
recollection so deep that they remain more firmly fixed than any other
events in my experience. Amidst the rush and roar and crash of battle,
every fibre of the brain is intensified and highly wrought, and receives
the scenes and events of the hour with the accuracy and permanency of
the camera.

As to many of the dates, marches and camps, my memory has been refreshed
by memoranda and data collected during the years, since the close of
that memorable struggle, and by the perusal of wartime letters, and some
assistance from old comrades.

I have headed these sketches "Personal Reminiscences," which I have
designed to be a simple narrative of what I saw, heard and felt, without
any desire to recount deeds of my own; but rather, at the solicitation
of my children and others, that they may know something of my comrades
and that I may leave to those who come after me some record of the part,
inconspicuous as it was, which I took in that fierce and bloody
conflict, my reasons, therefor, and my convictions and actions since.
These things alone have prompted me to undertake this task.

I find already that the personal pronoun will appear in the narrative
much oftener than I would wish. This seems unavoidable, according to the
plan and scope designed.

I read sometime ago Gen. Fitzhugh Lee's life of Gen. Robt. E. Lee. When
the book was finished, I remarked that I had a higher opinion of Fitz
Lee than ever before, for the reason that his modesty caused him to
leave himself out of the book, only a few times mentioning Fitz Lee's
Brigade or Division incidentally, showing him to be a great man. I would
like to do likewise, but this will be impossible.


                    ORGANIZATION AND ROLL OF COMPANY

In the year 1860, at Pigeon Run—now Gladys, Campbell County, Va.,—near
where I was born and reared, the young men of the neighborhood, catching
the military spirit that swept over the State and South immediately
after the John Brown raid at Harper's Ferry the year before, organized a
volunteer infantry company, "The Clifton Grays," named after a small
stream near by, the name being suggested by my father, the late Richard
Morgan.

At the organization of the company, Adam Clement was elected captain;
Jos. A. Hobson, first lieutenant; H. H. Withers, second lieutenant; Jas.
A. Connelly, third lieutenant, and R. M. Cock, fourth lieutenant. When
mustered into service only three lieutenants were allowed. I was elected
orderly sergeant, which position I preferred at that time.

The following is as complete a roll of the company as I have been able
to make up from memory, and by the aid of old comrades from the
beginning to the end:


                                CAPTAIN

Adam Clement; promoted to major; wounded and disabled at Sharpsburg, Md.


                              LIEUTENANTS

Jos. A. Hobson; retired at the end of the first year.

H. H. Withers; retired at the end of first year.

Jas. A. Connelly; missing at Gettysburg.

Jabe R. Rosser.

Robt. M. Cock; captured at Five Forks, Va.


                            ORDERLY SERGEANT

W. H. Morgan; promoted to first lieutenant and captain; captured at
Milford, Va., May 21, 1864.


                               SERGEANTS

Thos. M. Cock; promoted to orderly sergeant; died since war.

E. M. Hobson; detailed as regimental ordinance sergeant.

E. G. Gilliam; badly wounded at Five Forks, Va.

Geo. Thomas Rosser.

Robt. M. Murrell.

Geo. W. Morgan; died since war.


                               CORPORALS

Ed. A. Tweedy; captured at Milford, on the 21st of May, 1864.

G. A. Creacy; wounded at Drewry's Bluff, May 16, 1864.

Chas. A. Clement; promoted to orderly sergeant; captured at Five Forks,
April 5, 1865; died since war.

W. T. Tynes; killed at Five Forks, Va.

W. H. Hendricks; killed at Second Manassas, August 30, 1862.


                               _Privates_

Allen, Chas.; killed at Drewry's Bluff, May 16, 1864.

Allen, Reuben; died since the war.

Brooks, John J.; died since the war.

Bailey, Allen; killed at Drewry's Bluff, April 16, 1864.

Bailey, Miffram; killed at Williamsburg, May 5, 1862.

Bailey, Harvey; died near Yorktown, April, 1862.

Bateman, Abner; wounded at Plymouth, N. C., April 18, 1864; died since
the war.

Barber, Silas; killed at Seven Pines, May 31, 1862.

Brown, Geo. A.; captured at Milford.

Brown, Jas. A.; captured at Milford.

Brown, W. Lee; wounded at Gettysburg and Milford on the 21st of May,
1864, and captured; dead.

Bell, Geo. W.; lost arm near Petersburg on March 30, 1865.

Blankenship, Chas. E.

Blankenship, Leslie C.

Cocke, Jas. B.; died since war.

Clement, Geo. W.

Creacy, Thos. C.

Caldwell, Daniel R.

Caldwell, Samuel; died since war.

Cary, Peter.

Callaham, Moses H.; captured at Milford, on 21st of April, 1864.

Callaham, Chas. M.

Dunnavant, Lee.

DePriest, Jno. R.; killed at Drewry's Bluff, May 16, 1864.

Daniel, John A; died since war.

Eads, Hairston; died since war.

Eads, William.

Elliott, Robt. A.; died since war.

Elliott, H. O.; color sergeant; killed at Second Manassas.

Franklin, Samuel T.

Franklin, Edmond L.; died since war.

Farris, Benjamin; killed at Williamsburg, May 5, 1862.

Frazier, John B.; now blind.

Gardner, John.

Hobson, W. H.; mortally wounded at Dranesville, Va., January, 1862.

Hobson, Nathaniel R.; died since war.

Hughes, Andy.

Hughes, Crockett; killed at Williamsburg, May 5, 1862.

Harvey, Richard C.; died since war.

Hall, Stephen; died since war.

Harvey, Thos. W.; died since war.

Hendricks, Joseph.

Holcome, Ellis H.

Jones, Robt. H.

Jones, Geo. W.

Jones, Joshua.

Jones, Jas. T.; captured at Milford, April 21, 1864.

Jones, J. Wesley; captured at Milford, April 21, 1864.

Jones, Chas.; killed at Gettysburg, July 3, 1863.

Jones, Walker; wounded at Gettysburg.

Jones, Jas. Chap.; lost arm at Gettysburg.

Jones, Linneous; killed at Gettysburg, July 3, 1863.

Jones, Robt. W.; wounded at ——.

Jones, Jasper; died since war.

Jennings, Monroe; died since war.

Kabler, Fred; captured at Milford, April 21, 1864.

Kabler, W. S.; captured at Milford, April 21, 1864.

Kabler, Jack.

Kelley, Len.; died since war.

Keenan, John; detailed as drummer.

LeGrand, Peter A.; died since war.

Layne, David; killed at Williamsburg, May 5, 1862.

Layne, John; died near Fredericksburg, January 1863.

Layne, Miffram; died since war.

Morgan, Robt. W.; wounded at Second Manassas and Gettysburg; captured at
Milford; dead.

Moorman, Thos. E.

Martin, James; detailed as cook; died since war.

Monroe, John; killed at Drewry's Bluff, May 16, 1864.

Monroe, William; killed at Plymouth, April 18, 1864.

Monroe, William T.; captured at Milford, May 21, 1864.

Martin, Henry; killed at Second Manassas, August 30, 1862.

Murrell, Chas.; killed at Second Manassas, August 30, 1862.

Moore, Richard; died since war.

Murrell, Emory.

Matthews, William; died since war.

Mason, Maurice M., Jr.; killed at Gettysburg.

Miles, Chas.; shot accidentally; died since war.

Organ, Jas.; died since war.

Organ, John; killed at Williamsburg, May 5, 1862.

Pillow, Daniel; missing at Gettysburg.

Pillow, William; detailed as cook.

Puckett, John; died since war.

Phillips, Thornton; died in service.

Pugh, James.

Pugh, Nat.

Quilly, Michael.

Rosser, Walter C.; wounded at Williamsburg and Drewry's Bluff.

Rosser, Alfred S.; killed at Drewry's Bluff.

Rosser, Granville; killed at Williamsburg.

Rosser, Thos. W.; died since war.

Rosser, John W.; captured at Five Forks.

Rice, Joe; killed at Sharpsburg, September, 1862.

Roberts, Pleasant; deserter.

Rice, Alec W.; captured at Milford; died in prison; buried at Arlington.

Terrell, James; killed at Seven Pines, May 31, 1862.

Tweedy, G. Dabney; killed at Gettysburg, July 3, 1863.

Tweedy, Bennett; killed at Plymouth, July 18, 1864.

Tweedy, Ferdinand.

Tweedy, Joseph; died since war.

Tweedy, Robt. C.

Walthall, Isaac; company commissary; died since war.

Walker, Geo. W.; mortally wounded at Drewry's Bluff.

Wood, Wash. W.; killed near Petersburg, 1865.

Woody, Bruce; killed at Drewry's Bluff, 1864.

Wood, John; killed at Williamsburg, May 5, 1862.

Watkins, James L.; died since war.

Woodall, Jno. J.

Wilkerson, W. A.; captured at Milford, May 21, 1864.

Williams, Whit B.; wounded at Williamsburg; dead.

Wilson, Wm. H.; killed at Williamsburg, May 5, 1862.

Withers, W. S.; detailed as hospital steward.

Wingfield, W. H.; died since war.

Wood, James; killed at Seven Pines.

No doubt several names have been omitted, and others were killed or died
from wounds and disease not now remembered. It has been impossible to
give the number and names of all the killed and wounded in the battles
in which the company was engaged. From three to five wounded to one
killed is about the average, I think.

One man on this roll has "deserter" written after his name. He was a
good soldier while with the company. Unfortunately he was a _nullius
filus_; I suppose he thought he had nothing to fight for. We heard later
he went to Ohio, where he drove a stage during the war. I have never
heard of him since.

I wish I could mention by name each one of these men, what they did, and
how faithfully they served their country; but time and space and lack of
memory as to many interesting incidents will not permit this. I can only
say that, with very few exceptions, they were good and faithful
soldiers.

The uniform of the company was steel-gray, with cap of same color.



                               CHAPTER II

               ENTER THE SERVICE—TROUBLE ABOUT ARMS—CAUSE
                              OF SECESSION


The company was drilled from time to time, but was not armed until it
entered the service about the 1st of May, 1861, at Lynchburg, Va.,
enlisting for one year. It was mustered into service by (then) Col.
Jubal A. Early, as one of the ten companies of the Twenty-eighth
Regiment of Virginia Infantry, Col. Robt. T. Preston, commanding. At
that time there were about eighty-five men in the company, made up of
the young men from several miles around Pigeon Run. I had one brother,
Geo. W., called "Coon"; a brother-in-law, Robt. M. Cocke, and many
kinsmen and connections in the company; the young Joneses, the Hobsons,
the Baileys, and others were relations of myself or wife. We were all
friends and neighbors, and many were former schoolmates. Most of them
young unmarried men, many in their teens. I had been married not quite
five months when the war came on.

None of the officers or men had any military education, but little
training in drilling and none in camp life, and were all, officers and
men, quite green and inexperienced in military affairs generally. But we
all knew how to handle guns and how to shoot straight.

These young men made as brave and faithful soldiers as any in the army;
always ready to do their duty, to go wherever ordered; standing firm in
action. But I think none of them liked to fight just for the fun of it;
I did not for one, I well know. It was of this class of men that the
army of Northern Virginia was made up.

That army was composed of the very pick and flower of the Southern
youth, and made a name and fame that will live always.

At the beginning of the war, at Manassas, Gen. G. T. Beauregard issued a
general order, in which he said that strict military rules of discipline
would not be enforced, that the general commanding would depend upon the
good breeding of the men, rather than harsh military discipline, to
insure good order and efficiency in the army. This kind of discipline
prevailed all through the war. General Grant soon after he met Lee in
the Wilderness said in a dispatch to Washington that the Rebel army was
very hard to drive, so well was it disciplined. It was not discipline
that made this army so effective, but rather the courageous and
patriotic spirit of the men who carried the guns.


                           TROUBLE ABOUT ARMS

As before said, the company had not been armed up to the time of
enlistment. The company was organized as a rifle company; we expected to
be armed with the "Mississippi Rifle."

Soon after we got to Lynchburg it was learned that rifles could not be
procured, the only arms available being old flint-lock muskets changed
to percussion. All guns in those days were muzzle-loaders; the
breech-loaders had not been invented.

We were much disappointed, and many of the men very much disgruntled, at
the prospects of going to war with those antiquated, cumbersome and
inferior arms. Other companies were in the same predicament, and many of
the men threatened to disband and go home. The companies had not yet
been mustered into service. It was a very critical time in the military
experience of all. The companies were formed in line and addressed by
some of their officers. Captain Clement made a speech to his company,
and I spoke briefly and earnestly to my comrades, telling them that the
State of Virginia was doing the very best she could to arm and equip her
soldiers, that they might go forth to meet the invaders of her sacred
soil; that it was our duty to go to the front with the best arms
available, even if armed with nothing but "rocks and sticks," and closed
by calling on every man who was willing to go to war under the existing
circumstances to follow. I marched out through the camp; the whole
company following.


                         THE CAUSE OF SECESSION

I had fully determined if the company disbanded to join another
immediately, as I knew it was the duty of every son of Virginia to
enlist under her banner when called. I have never been of any other mind
since, and if it were all to do over again I should act in the same
manner. I never thought of deserting to the enemy during the war nor
since. While I was not an original secessionist and voted for the Union
candidates for the Convention, yet when the North determined to wage war
on the South; when Lincoln called on Virginia for her quota of troops to
coerce the seceding States, and when Virginia seceded, it did not take
me two seconds to cast my lot with Virginia and the other Southern
States. Here I took my stand then, now and forever, and will never give
aid in any way to those who were enemies to my State and section, many
of whom are still haters and traducers of the Southern people, the
avowed purpose at the close of the war being to put the negro, the late
slave, over the white people of the South, to rule and govern as brave
and chivalrous a people as ever lived on God's green earth. To make the
highest type of the Anglo-Saxon subject to the African! Ye gods! What a
crime was attempted! And for a time the outrage was in force. This, if
nothing else, justified the South in its attempt at separation from the
North. The people of the South had gotten tired of the sectional and
domineering, hectoring spirit of the North, especially the New England
Yankees, manifested in many ways before the war, and determined to sever
the bonds that bound them together; peacefully if they could, forcibly
if they must. They did not want war, but the North forced the issue. The
question of slavery in the Southern States was not an issue at the
beginning of the war, as many believe.

In the presidential election of 1860, the right of the slaveholder to
take his slaves—property recognized by the Constitution and laws of the
land—into the territories, was an issue made by the Republican party,
but no question as to slavery where it already existed, was involved. On
the other hand, Lincoln, in his inaugural address on the 4th of March,
1861, expressly declared that he had no authority to interfere with
slavery in the States, and no intention of doing so. And not until the
promulgation of Lincoln's emancipation proclamation, which went into
effect on the 1st of January, 1863, made without shadow of right or law,
and in direct violation of his solemn declaration and oath of office,
was this issue raised, as a war measure, to strengthen the Union cause,
which was then on the wane, among the abolitionists at home and abroad.
The New England Yankees, who first imported the negro to America, and
who had sold their slaves to the Southern planters, because slave labor
was unprofitable at the North, and who had engaged in the African slave
trade until this was prohibited by law, at the instigation of the South
and against the protest of New England shipping interests which was
largely engaged in the African slave trade, and had become rabid
abolitionists, now demanded emancipation as the price of their loyalty
to the Union cause.

France had all the while been friendly inclined towards the South, and
was urging England to join her in the recognition of the Southern
Confederacy as an independent nation. England, who had years before
abolished slavery in all her provinces, and was known to be a nation of
abolitionists, was now appealed to, and urged to stand for emancipation
in not recognizing the independence of the South. The cotton factories
of England were closed, the Southern ports being blockaded, the
operatives were clamoring for work or food; bread riots prevailed in the
manufacturing cities, the people urging the recognition of the South, so
that the ports could be opened and cotton, work, and food procured.

Henry Ward Beecher and other abolitionists went to England, faced and
spoke to these howling mobs, appealing to them in behalf of the Union
cause and the Southern slaves. Not so much, I opine, for the good of the
slaves as for the success of the Union cause. They all knew if the
Southern ports were opened the South would be victorious.

These are the true facts and the reasons for Lincoln's emancipation
proclamation, as I verily believe, and well known at the time. New
England was always jealous of the South, opposed everything that would
extend the influence and power of the Southern States: fought bitterly
the acquisition of the Louisiana territory and also the annexation of
Texas, because it would tend to destroy the "balance of power," as they
called it; and one of these states, Massachusetts, threatened to
withdraw from the Union, boldly claiming the right so to do. As all
know, New England was the manufacturing section of the country—the
South, the agricultural section. New England wanted to control the
policy of the government as to the tariff, and thereby protect their
industries, and could not brook the extension of Southern influence and
power against their protection policy. They still to this day maintain
this policy, but now we are beginning to hear the rumblings of
discontent in the West, and I am curious to know what will be the
result. I know one thing—that the Yankees of New England will hold on to
their pet policies, "like grim death to a dead nigger." What the great
West will do, future events only can develop. The North has held the
West in political slavery, by abusing and vilifying the South, and by
waving the "bloody shirt"; but that old rag is about worn out. I repeat,
I am curious to know the result, and want to live to see the end of it.

We remained in Lynchburg until about the 1st of June, 1861, doing camp
duty and drilling. Several of the company, including my brother and
myself, had negro cooks the first year, after which, few, if any,
remained, except ours, who stayed until the last. Rations became too
scarce to divide with cooks, so the men did their own cooking, forming
messes of from four to six and eight men to a mess, cooking by turns
when in camp. We also had two or three company cooks detailed from the
company, who did much of the cooking when not in permanent camp, one of
whom, Isaac Walthall, acted as company commissary, drawing the rations
from the regimental commissary and distributed them to the messes, when
in camp, or cooking them and distributing to men when in line of battle
or near the enemy.

Our camp equipments, as far as cooking facilities were concerned, were
very poor, and never much better.

At first, we had only sheet-iron pans and boilers, called camp kettles,
which did very well for boiling beef, but the sheet-iron pans were very
poor for baking bread and frying meat. No wonder the biscuits were
called "sinkers," being burned on the outside, tough and clammy through
and through. We afterwards got ovens and skillets, "spiders," as the Tar
Heels called them, and had better bread. We were in camp in a grove west
of College Hill, which was afterwards the fair grounds, and is now
Miller Park.



                              CHAPTER III

                ON TO MANASSAS—THE ELEVENTH REGIMENT—THE
                             FIRST BRIGADE


About the 1st of June, 1861, the regiment was ordered to Manassas, which
name afterwards became historic as a great battle-ground. The first
battle of Bull Run, on the 18th of July, 1861, and the ground on which
the first battle of Manassas was fought on the 21st of July, 1861, and
the second battle of Manassas on the 30th of August, 1862, are all in
close proximity, and General Jackson, a few days before the last-named
fight, by a bold movement captured the place, which was then Pope's
dépôt of supplies, burning what his soldiers could not eat and carry
off, which no doubt was a plenty.

The place was occupied by one side or the other during nearly the whole
war, being, in the beginning, considered a strategic point in the
defence of Richmond by the Confederates, and for the defence of
Washington and for the advance on Richmond by the Yankees.

At Lynchburg we had no equipments except the old muskets, no belts,
cartridge or cap boxes, only some little cotton-cloth bags such as
mothers make children to gather chinquapins in, little tin shop-made
canteens, home-made haversacks of cotton cloth or cheap oilcloth,
home-made knapsacks of poor material and very cumbersome, the latter
packed full of clothes, hair-brushes and shoe-brushes, needle cases, and
many other little tricks which mothers, wives, and sweethearts made for
their soldier boys. Many of these things were superfluous and were not
carried after the first year of the war; for the next three years about
all a Confederate soldier carried was his gun, cartridge and cap box, a
blanket, an oilcloth captured from the Yankees, and an extra shirt—very
often not the latter.

Many a Confederate soldier has taken off his shirt, washed it, hung it
on a bush, lying in the shade until it was dry. He also carried a
haversack which was often empty.

There was considerable excitement when it was known we were to go to the
front, to meet the enemy; hasty preparations were made, tents were
struck, which, with the cooking utensils and all camp equipment, were
sent to the dépôt for shipment.

At the appointed hour the regiment, with Colonel Bob Preston mounted on
his big nicked-tailed bay horse, handsomely caparisoned, at its head,
marched through the city down to the Orange & Alexandria Railroad, now
the Southern. The streets were lined with people, the men cheering, the
ladies waving their handkerchiefs to the soldiers as they marched in
proud array to martial music—the fife and drum. Boarding the train, in
box cars, we rolled away to the seat of war.

The train was stopped at Culpeper Court House, the troops detrained, and
marched out into a field northwest of the town and prepared to go into
camp; very much disappointed that we had been stopped before reaching
Manassas. I remember it was a very windy day, and we had great
difficulty in raising the tents. Before this was fully accomplished,
orders came to strike tents at once, board the cars and hurry on to
Manassas. The rumor was that the Yankees were advancing on Manassas and
we were to rush forward as fast as possible, to meet and drive them
back. All was now bustle and excitement; in an incredible short time the
tents were struck, rolled up, taken to the dépôt, placed on the cars,
and the regiment was soon off again for the front. Of course, discussion
as to the probability of soon being in a battle went on as we sped
along.

Up to this time, no cartridges had been issued to the men; some cases or
boxes of ammunition were now placed aboard each car, but were not
opened. The men were very anxious to be supplied with cartridges,
fearing the Yankees would be on us before the boxes could be opened and
the guns loaded.

In due time, the train reached Manassas without running into the enemy
or the enemy running into us. It was said a scouting party had come out
from the Yankee lines near Alexandria, and hence the false alarm which
caused our hasty and exciting exit from Culpeper.

The regiment went into camp at Manassas station, a short distance to the
right of the railroad, where we remained for about two weeks, drilling
and doing guard duty around the camp and at General Beauregard's
headquarters not far away. Not long before the first battle, Captain
Clement's company, and Captain Hutter's company from Lynchburg, were
transferred to the Eleventh Virginia Regiment, commanded by Colonel
Samuel Garland, Jr., of Lynchburg, a V. M. I. man, and a fine officer.
In the regiment there were already three companies from Lynchburg and
one from Campbell County.


                         THE ELEVENTH REGIMENT

The Eleventh Regiment, which was camped immediately on the north side of
the railroad, just west of the dépôt, was now composed of ten companies,
with the following named field and staff officers and company
commanders:

Colonel, Sam Garland, Jr., of Lynchburg; Lieut.-Colonel, David Funston,
of Alexandria; Major, Carter H. Harrison, of Lancaster County; Adjutant,
J. Lawrence Meem; Sergeant Major, Chas. A. Tyree; Chaplain, Rev. J. C.
Granberry; Surgeon, Dr. G. W. Thornhill; Assistant Surgeon, Dr.
Chalmers; Quarter-Master, R. G. H. Kean; Commissary, L. F. Lucado;
Commissary Sergeant, W. L. Akers.

Company A, Capt. Morris S. Langhorne; Company B, Capt. Robert C.
Saunders; Company C, Capt. Adam Clement; Company D, Capt. D. Gardner
Houston; Company E, Capt. J. E. Blankenship; Company F, Capt. Henry
Foulks; Company G, Capt. Kirk Otey; Company H, Capt. J. Risque Hutter;
Company I, Capt. —— Jamison; Company K, Capt. Robert Yeatman.

Colonel Garland was promoted to brigadier-general in May, 1862, and
was killed at Boonsboro Mountain, Md., in September, 1862.
Lieutenant-Colonel Funston succeeded Colonel Garland in command of the
regiment, and was disabled by wounds at Seven Pines, on the 30th of
May, 1862, and retired from the service; he was later elected to the
Confederate Congress, and I think still later was in the service
again. Major Harrison was mortally wounded at Bull Run, July 18, 1861.
Captain Langhorne succeeded him as major and was afterwards promoted
lieutenant-colonel. He was disabled by wounds at Seven Pines on the
30th of May, 1862, and never returned to the army.

Captain Clement was promoted to major just before the Seven Pines fight,
was disabled at the battle of Sharpsburg, Md., the 17th of September,
1862, while in command of the regiment, and never returned to the field.

Captain Saunders retired at the end of the first year, and was
afterwards in the commissary department as collector of tax in kind.

Captain Houston was killed at Gettysburg on the 3d of July, 1863.

Captain Blankenship retired at the battle of Blackburn's Ford on the
18th of July, 1861; he secured a position in the engineering corps, I
think.

Captain Foulks was killed at Seven Pines. I was in a few feet of him
when he was shot dead.

Captain Yeatman resigned.

Lieut. G. W. Latham succeeded Captain Langhorne in command of Company A,
and he was succeeded by Lieut. Robt. M. Mitchell, Jr. Lieut. Thos. B.
Horton succeeded Captain Saunders of Company B, and I succeeded Captain
Clement of Company C; Lieut. Thos. Houston succeeded his brother, D. G.
Houston, of Company D; Lieut. C. V. Winfrey succeeded Captain
Blankenship of Company E; Lieut. Robt. W. Douthat succeeded Captain
Foulks of Company F; Lieut. J. Holmes Smith succeeded Captain Otey of
Company G; Lieut. Jas. W. Hord succeeded Captain Hutter of Company H;
Lieut. A. I. Jones, I think, succeeded Captain Jamison of Company I;
Lieut. Andrew M. Houston, a brother of the other Houstons already
mentioned, succeeded Captain Yeatman of Company K; Captain Otey was
promoted to major, lieutenant-colonel and colonel. Captain Hutter was
promoted to lieutenant-colonel, and was in command of the regiment at
the battle of Five Forks on the 5th of April, 1865, when he and nearly
all of the regiment were captured.

Capt. C. V. Winfrey, of Company E, was afterwards succeeded by Lieut.
John C. Ward. Several of these officers were V. M. I. men, as I now
remember, as follows: Garland, Harrison, Otey, Hutter, Blankenship,
Ward, D. G. Houston, and perhaps others.

Company G, the old "Home Guard," was the crack company of the regiment.
Company A, the "Rifle Grays," also of Lynchburg, was a close second to
Company G, armed with the Mississippi rifle, and generally acted as
skirmishers, and one of these rifles brought down the first Yankee on
the 18th of July, 1861, as hereinafter related.

Company D was also armed with Mississippi rifles and was often on the
skirmish line. Company B was made up of men from the western section of
Campbell County; Company C, as before said, from the Pigeon Run section,
Mt. Zion, and Falling River neighborhoods. Company D came from Botetourt
County—large, hardy, hale fellows they were too, many of them with
German names. Company E was made up largely of college boys from
Lynchburg College, its first captain being one of the professors.

Company F, a sturdy lot of men, came from the hills of Alleghany
Mountains in Montgomery County around Christiansburg.

Company H was a new Lynchburg company, recruited by its captain, then in
his teens, with many sons of Erin in its ranks.

Company I was made up of men from Culpeper County.

Company K was from the James River section of Rockbridge County—its
commander, a canal freight-boat captain, and many of the men boatmen on
the canal when the tocsin of war was sounded. All classes, from the
college-bred and the professional man to the country schoolboy, were
represented in the regiment.

The following are the rolls of the four Lynchburg companies of the
Eleventh Regiment. I have been unable to get the rolls of the other
companies of the regiment:


                       THE RIFLE GRAYS, COMPANY A

  First Captain, M. S. Langhorne.
  Second Captain, G. W. Latham.
  Third Captain, Robt. M. Mitchell, Jr.
  First Lieutenant, G. W. Latham.
  First Lieutenant, John W. Daniel.
  Second Lieutenant, Robt. M. Mitchell, Jr.
  Second Lieutenant, H. C. Chalmers.
  Second Lieutenant, James O. Thurman.
  First Sergeant, Joseph A. Kennedy.
  Second Sergeant, Elcano Fisher.
  Third Sergeant, Henry D. Hall.
  Fourth Sergeant, Peter B. Akers.
  First Corporal, Geo. T. Wightman.
  Second Corporal, Samuel R. Miller.
  Third Corporal, Lucas Harvey.
  Fourth Corporal, Jas. O. Thurman, Jr.


                               _Privates_

  Allman, William H.
  Akers, William L.
  Bailey, James H.
  Bailey, James W.
  Benson, Henry G.
  Brown, Leslie C.
  Beckwith, Henry C.
  Burroughs, Henry A.
  Ballard, James F.
  Bagby, George W.
  Cheatham, Thos. F.
  Cochran, Robert L.
  Cooney, Thomas.
  Camp, Albert G.
  Crumpton, James A.
  Crumpton, Joseph A.
  Clinkenbeard, Wm. E.
  Conklen, Thomas A.
  Connolly, Jerry M.
  Devine, Frank.
  Diuguid, Edward S.
  Davis, Thomas N.
  Delano, Joseph S.
  Dady, David.
  Evans, William H.
  Edwards, James M.
  Elam, H. F.
  Feyle, Frank H.
  Fulks, James W.
  Frances, Joseph M.
  Furry, William H.
  Gooldy, John F.
  Henry, Charles W.
  Henry, John L.
  Harvey, Charles C.
  Hollins, John G.
  Hollins, James E.
  Heybrook, L. G.
  Hersman, Wm. B.
  Hunt, William R.
  Johnson, Shelbry.
  Jones, William B.
  Jones, Charles J.
  Kennedy, Michael.
  Kidd, George W.
  Latham, Robert F.
  Linkenhoker, Sam'l.
  Mitchell, John R.
  Mitchell, T. Holcomb.
  Mitchell, John J.
  Mitchell, William H.
  McKinney, Sam'l H.
  McCrary, Wm. B.
  Marks, James L.
  Milstead, William.
  McDevitt, C. P.
  Norris, Michael A.
  Norvell, Otway B.
  Omorundro, T. A.
  Porter, Thomas D.
  Pendleton, William.
  Price, N. Leslie.
  Parrish, Booker S.
  Pugh, Charles E.
  Peters, John I.
  Rucker, Edward P.
  Raine, John R.
  Robertson, Thomas D.
  Rainey, Charles W.
  Rogers, James B.
  Rock, John J.
  Rector, Thomas S.
  Sims, Robert F.
  Sewell, George W.
  Stubbs, Robert F.
  Stewart, Philip H.
  Slagle, John H.
  Slagle, David H.
  Sholes, Thomas C.
  Stewart, Stephen P.
  Stabler, Thomas S.
  Shepherd, Joseph H.
  Tyree, Charles H.
  Taylor, William H.
  Thurman, Powhatan.
  Turner, John H.
  Truxall, Andrew J.
  Tyree, Wm. D. R.
  Tyree, John R.
  Taliaferro, Rhoderick.
  Torrence, William H.
  Victor, Henry C.
  Wren, Peter R.
  Warfield, Thomas.
  Williams, William H.


                      LYNCHBURG RIFLES, COMPANY E

  First Captain, J. E. Blankenship.
  Second Captain, C. V. Winfree.
  Third Captain, John C. Ward.
  First Lieutenant, C. V. Winfree.
  First Lieutenant, James W. Wray.
  Second Lieutenant, W. A. Strother.
  Second Lieutenant, W. M. Taliaferro.
  Lieutenant, John P. Knight.
  Lieutenant, Walter R. Abbott.
  Lieutenant, Adolphus D. Read.
  Lieutenant, Charles H. Tyree.
  Lieutenant, George P. Norvell.
  First Sergeant, W. R. Abbott.
  Sergeant, John C. Ward.
  Sergeant, A. D. Read.
  Sergeant, James W. Wray.
  Sergeant, Thomas Keenan.
  Sergeant, E. G. Williams.
  Sergeant, William M. Seay.
  Sergeant, John L. Marion.
  Corporal, J. H. Sheppard.
  Corporal, John Lovett.
  Corporal, D. M. Pettigrew.
  Corporal, Thomas H. Love.
  Corporal, John Kelly.
  Corporal, John R. Holt.
  Corporal, John Lovett.
  Corporal, W. P. Whitlow.


                               _Privates_

  Anderson, Thos. N.
  Atkinson, John.
  Butterworth, John M.
  Butterworth, Wm. W.
  Bradley, Winfree.
  Brown, F. M.
  Brown, Hillary.
  Burks, Paulus Powell.
  Burks, S. C.
  Bailey, Samuel D.
  Bailey, Thomas D.
  Coffee, William H.
  Colvin, Howard H.
  Colvin, William O.
  Colvin, Robert O.
  Grant, Bluford.
  Gaulding, T. Henry.
  Gregory, Edward S.
  Gregory, N. H.
  Goins, James.
  Gilbert, George W.
  Gilbert, William.
  Gilbert, Thomas.
  Hart, Patrick S.
  Haines, Robert L.
  Hurt, Samuel.
  Hickey, Patrick H.
  Hendricks, James.
  Howard, John.
  Houston, Francis R.
  Hudgins, James L.
  Hancock, W. T.
  Jones, Charles T.
  Jenkins, J. Samuel.
  Johnson, Charles Y.
  Kayton, J. Patrick.
  Lawhorne, Delaware.
  Lawhorne, James H.
  Lawhorne, Lorenzo.
  Lawhorne, Lucas P.
  Lipscomb, Charles P.
  Moore, Thomas H.
  Miller, James M.
  Mann, Daniel.
  Milstead, Benjamin.
  Marshall, John W.
  Marshall, James.
  Marshall, Charles.
  Marshall, David B.
  Myers, William.
  McCarthy, Patrick.
  Nangle, Edward A.
  Clark, C. C.
  Clark, C. B.
  Clark, R. C.
  Carey, John H.
  Carey, James.
  Day, Thomas E.
  Davis, Arthur P.
  Davis, T. D.
  Dunnivant, William.
  Evans, T. F.
  Equi, Joseph.
  Elder, Hiram P.
  Farriss, William.
  Fortune, William.
  Foster, William E.
  Neville, Lewis C.
  Noell, James H.
  Pettus, John E.
  Patrim, William A.
  Paris, Thomas H.
  Parr, John E.
  Padgett, J. J.
  Parker, Joseph A.
  Roberts, Charles R.
  Rucker, Jackson.
  Rockecharlie, V.
  Strause, Simon.
  Stewart, William H.
  Simpson, Charles W.
  Searson, Thomas.
  Sullivan, Michael.
  Spillan, Patrick.
  Smith, George W.
  Smith, John G.
  Smith, Thomas.
  Smith, Robert H.
  Smith, James.
  Thomas, Andrew J.
  Taylor, William.
  Taylor, Burley T.
  Trent, George W.
  Turner, G. Kempton.
  Turski, Francois.
  Ward, James S.
  Williamson, L. C.
  Wooldridge, Jas. R.
  Wooldridge, Joseph.
  Wright, Wm. Richard.
  Wray, Ellis D.
  Wills, John McD.
  Walker, J. S. L.
  Wray, Thomas C.


                         HOME GUARD, COMPANY G

  First Captain, Samuel Garland, Jr.
  Second Captain, Kirkwood Otey.
  Third Captain, J. Holmes Smith.
  First Lieutenant, K. Otey.
  Second Lieutenant, J. G. Meem.
  Third Lieutenant, S. M. Simpson.
  Orderly Sergeant, J. L. Meem.
  Third Sergeant, W. J. H. Hawkins.
  Sergeant, J. C. Johnson.
  Color Sergeant, William Sanford.
  Fifth Sergeant, B. L. Blackford.
  Corporal, C. D. Hamner.
  Corporal, John K. Seabury.
  Corporal, J. H. Smith.
  Corporal, Hugh Nelson.
  Surgeon, Benjamin Blackford.


                               _Privates_

  Abrahams, H. J.
  Adams, R. H. T.
  Akers, E. A.
  Armistead, James.
  Apperson, R. F.
  Anderson, John G.
  Ballowe, T. H.
  Barnes, C. F.
  Blackford, W. H.
  Booth, S. C.
  Brugh, J. B.
  Burks, E. W.
  Button, R. P.
  Burch, Samuel.
  Cabell, Breck.
  Cabell, P. H.
  Cabell, S.
  Campbell, Wiley.
  Colhoun, Robert.
  Conley, John.
  Cosby, C. V.
  Creed, J. J.
  Cross, J. H. (K.)
  Crumpacker, John.
  Dowdy, T. N.
  Dabney, H.
  DeWitt, C.
  Eubank, E. N.
  Franklin, James, Jr.
  Franklin, P. H.
  Ford, William A.
  Gregory, W. S.
  Guggenheimer, M., Jr.
  Guy, D. C.
  Goggin, John P.
  Harris, H. V.
  Harris, Meade.
  Hawkins, S. M.
  Holland, William.
  Ivey, J. W.
  Jennings, J. H.
  Jennings, T. D., Jr.
  Johnson, Minor.
  Kean, R. G. H.
  Kinnear, James F.
  Kinnear, James O.
  Kabler, N.
  Kreuttner, Joseph.
  Kent, J. R.
  Lee, John A.
  Lavinder, G. T.
  Langhorne, C. D.
  Leckie, M. M.
  Lewis, John H.
  Lucado, L. F.
  Lyman, G. R.
  Lydick, James H.
  Lydick, D.
  Mayer, Max L.
  McCorkle, C.
  Miller, A. H.
  Moseley, C. A.
  Moorman, S. L.
  Mosby, L. C.
  Nelson, W. S.
  Nowlin, A. W.
  Oglesby, John.
  Page, C. H.
  Percival, C. D.
  Pierce, R. C.
  Peters, R. T.
  Preston, L. P.
  Preston, S. D.
  Preston, T. L.
  Salmons, G. J.
  Sears, J. R.
  Shelton, G. W.
  Simpson, T. H.
  Snead, W. B.
  Spencer, C. S.
  Stratton, A. B.
  Sumpter, John U. H.
  Shaver, W. H.
  Taliaferro, Van.
  Terry, A. W. C.
  Thompson, J. H.
  Toot, W. A.
  Trigg, W. K.
  Valentine, Joseph.
  Waldron, R. L.
  Watkins, R. W.
  Walsh, T. C.
  Woods, W. H. H.
  Wheeler, J. M.


                    JEFFERSON DAVIS RIFLE, COMPANY H

  Captain, J. Risque Hutter.
  First Lieutenant, William L. Goggin.
  First Lieutenant, William S. Hannah.
  Second Lieutenant, James W. Hord.
  Second Lieutenant, Ro. D. Early.
  First Sergeant, Jas. O. Freeman.
  Second Sergeant, S. B. Wright.
  Third Sergeant, D. C. Wright.
  Fourth Sergeant, Wm. S. Thayer.
  Fifth Sergeant, Brandon P. Neville.
  First Corporal, George L. Jesse.
  Second Corporal, Geo. T. Mitchell.
  Third Corporal, Pat. H. Rourke.
  Fourth Corporal, Charles Schade.


                               _Privates_

  Akers, H. C.
  Banton, Robert.
  Banton, James H.
  Banton, Richard.
  Blanks, John N.
  Blanks, Robert.
  Burford, William.
  Boland, John.
  Brown, John C.
  Cramer, A. W.
  Callan, Dan.
  Cunningham, Felix.
  Davis, John R.
  Davis, Thomas M.
  Daniel, John.
  Doyle, Henry.
  Donatini, G.
  Eagan, Gabriel.
  Floyd, Alex.
  Floyd, John J.
  Floyd, Nathan D.
  Flowers, Wm. P.
  Flowers, Joseph W.
  Fulks, Robert.
  Fox, Edward.
  Farrer, Robert.
  Fitzgerald, Cyrus.
  Fitzgerald, Ceyton L.
  Gouldin, H. L.
  Gouldin, William.
  Geurtz, Peter.
  Grossman, William.
  Hanly, John.
  Hurt, John H.
  Humphrey, M. L.
  Jones, Thomas.
  Kyle, Benjamin M.
  Labby, M. H.
  Lavinder, James.
  McCormack, L.
  McCormick, S.
  McCormack, Wm.
  McCormack, Wm. D.
  Mitchell, Richard H.
  Micalany, Peter.
  Musgrove, Franklin.
  Myers, Samuel W.
  Oliver, Pleasant.
  O'Brien, Michael.
  Rucker, George W.
  Rucker, Paulus G.
  Reynolds, James.
  Reynolds, John H.
  Rodgers, George W.
  Rider, William.
  Still, Thomas.
  Stanly, Joseph.
  Stanly, D. W.
  Singleton, William H.
  Seay, Isaac.
  Seay, Richard.
  Sprouse, Samuel.
  Turner, Charles.
  Whitten, James.
  White, John W.

The Eleventh Regiment soon won an enviable reputation; it was well
officered, well drilled and not excelled by any regiment in the First
Brigade, which was first commanded by Longstreet, then by A. P. Hill,
then by J. L. Kemper, and later by Wm. R. Terry. This brigade was as
good as any brigade in Pickett's Division; Pickett's Division was not
surpassed by any division in Longstreet's corps; Longstreet's Corps was
equal to any corps in the army of Northern Virginia, and the world never
saw a better army than the army of Northern Virginia.

While at Manassas, many troops came on from the South. All were
organized into regiments and brigades. The First, Third, Seventh,
Eleventh and Seventeenth Virginia Regiments composed the First Brigade
of Virginia Infantry, commanded by Brig.-Gen. James Longstreet. In
September, 1862, the Seventeenth Regiment was put in Corse's Brigade,
and the Twenty-fourth Virginia was added to Longstreet's old brigade.

The Twenty-fourth was then commanded by Col. W. R. Terry, Lieut.-Col.
Peter Hairston, and Maj. Richard F. Maury.

The First Regiment was commanded by Col. P. T. Moore, of Richmond,
Lieut.-Col. G. W. Palmer, I think, and Maj. John Dooly, and was made up
entirely of Richmond companies.

The Third Regiment was commanded by Col. Joseph Mayo, Jr., Lieut.-Col.
Wm. H. Pryor, and Maj. John D. Whitehead.

The Seventh Regiment was commanded by Col. J. L. Kemper, of Madison
County; Lieut.-Col. W. Tazwell Patton, and Maj. C. C. Floweree.

The Seventeenth Regiment was commanded by Col. M. D. Corse, of
Alexandria; Lieut.-Col. Morton Mayre, and Maj. Wm. Munford.

There were many changes in these field officers. Perhaps I have failed
to name correctly all the original field officers.



                               CHAPTER IV

                 BATTLE OF BLACKBURN'S FORD—THE BATTLE
                 BEGINS—THE ENEMY DRIVEN BACK—INCIDENTS
                             OF THE BATTLE


There were frequent rumors while in camp at Manassas that the Yankees
were advancing. On the 17th of July the report proved true; the Yankees
were coming sure enough this time. Longstreet's Brigade marched down to
Blackburn's Ford on Bull Run some mile and a half or two miles north of
Manassas. The regiments, except the Eleventh, were formed in line of
battle above and below the ford, along the south bank of the creek, or
run, as it is called, a small wooded stream with the ground rising on
the north side to quite a bluff, heavily timbered, the road from the
ford leading up through a narrow ravine. Other brigades were posted
along Bull Run above and below Blackburn's Ford.

The men on the line of battle made temporary breastworks along the bank
of the run, with old logs, driftwood, and fence rails, and awaited the
coming of the enemy—skirmishers having been thrown well forward on the
high ground beyond the stream and woods.

The Eleventh Regiment, held in reserve, was placed behind a small bluff,
a short distance south of the stream and above the ford. This bluff was
pretty good protection except from fragments of shells bursting
overhead.

The enemy did not appear until the next day in the afternoon, when the
attack was made on the position at the ford about three o'clock. Company
A of the Eleventh Regiment was on picket, or skirmish line, across the
run, when a Yankee quartermaster captain rode down the road, and
enquired of one of the company if he knew where General McDowell's (the
Yankee commander's) headquarters were. The man replied, "No, I don't
know where General McDowell's headquarters are, but I can show you to
General Beauregard's very quick." The captain seeing his mistake wheeled
his horse and dashed away.

Several of the pickets fired on him, when he tumbled from his horse
dead, shot through the body. The captain had on a pair of spurs, which
one of the men took off, and when the company returned to the regiment
after the Yankees advanced in force, gave the spurs to Major Harrison,
who put them on and in a short time thereafter received his death wound.
Unlucky spurs these! My recollection is, as I heard it after the battle,
that when the Yankee fell from his horse, Henry Beckwith said, as they
approached him, "If he is shot through the belt, I killed him. I aimed
at his belt"; and that the ball had entered the body at or near the
belt. Tom Davis, Leslie Price, and Jim Foulks, I think, were the other
men who fired. Who really fired the fatal shot was not known.


                           THE BATTLE BEGINS

Pretty soon after the captain was shot, the Yankees advanced in line of
battle, the skirmishers in front engaging in a lively fight over on the
hill beyond the run, the Confederates retiring as the main body of the
enemy advanced. All knew then that the fight was beginning and would
soon be on in earnest. After the Confederate skirmishers returned to the
south side of the run everything was quiet—a deathlike stillness
prevailed for some time, which was intense and oppressive. All nerves
were strung to a high tension. We were on the eve of a battle, a sure
enough battle in which men would be wounded and killed, and who would be
the victims no one knew.

Perhaps not a single man in the brigade, with the exception of General
Longstreet, had ever heard the sound of a hostile gun before that day.

It was not long, however, until this silence was broken by the big boom
of a Yankee cannon away over on the hill, and simultaneously, a long
shell came shrieking through the air, making a noise that can not be
described; it was more like the neigh of an excited or frightened horse
than anything I can compare it to; a kind of "whicker, whicker, whicker"
sound as it swapped ends in the air. This shell passed over high above
all heads, striking the ground on the hill in the rear, making the dirt
fly, and tearing a hole in the ground, as some of the boys said, "Big
enough to bury a horse in."

I have said that all nerves were highly strung while waiting for the
battle to begin. This shot and shell not only broke the silence and
relaxed the nerve tension, but severely tried not a few nerves, caused
many a heart to stand still, and face to blanch. I saw many pale faces;
don't know how I looked, but felt rather pale.

This shell struck near a Confederate battery, which immediately limbered
up and went to the rear at a gallop—why, I never knew; the supposition
was that the battery withdrew in order to draw the Yankees on; if so, it
had the desired effect, for in a few minutes the musketry firing began
down at the ford. At first it was pop—pop—pop, then pop, pop, pop—and
then a continuous roar in which no single shot could be distinguished;
it was like a loud, continuing peal of heavy thunder. The roar was
punctuated by frequent cannon shot and bursting shells, which sounded
louder than the musketry. The noise was frightful, almost deafening, and
such as we never heard before, but knew full well it was the "noise and
din of battle," about which we had heard and read, but never
experienced. I must say it was more terrific and awe-inspiring than I
expected. Many of the balls and shells passed a few feet above us;
shells and grapeshot struck among the trees and bushes that crowned the
small bluff behind which the regiment was posted, with the rushing,
swishing, fear-creating noise heard many times afterwards, but which I
never learned to like or admire.

History records that General Washington, in his youthful days, in
writing to a friend describing a battle with the Indians, said, "The
sound of the bullets was music to mine ear." Now, I never had much ear
for music, though I like good music, and can distinguish between good
and bad music. I here and now record that the sound of shell, solid
shot, grapeshot, shrapnel, minie ball, or any other kind of battle
noise, was never "music to mine ear"; therefore, I conclude that any and
all of these sounds, if music at all, is very poor music.

During the battle, Company G, of the Eleventh Regiment, was deployed as
skirmishers along the run on the left flank of the Confederate line of
battle, not far from the position occupied by the regiment, the men all
lying down behind a fence that ran along the bank of Bull Run, in plain
view of the other companies of the Eleventh Regiment; no Yankees
appeared on this part of the line. And, I think, Company F was also
deployed below Company G near the run.

The heavy firing in this battle did not last long, not over half an hour
perhaps, but it seemed a long time.

In the midst of the heaviest firing, one of General Longstreet's staff
officers galloped up to the Eleventh Regiment and called for two
companies to go down to the ford. When asked how the battle was going,
he said, "They have the advantage of us just now, but we will drive them
back with these two companies." Some of the Yankees had charged across
the creek, or run, at the ford. Colonel Garland called out at the top of
his voice, "Major Harrison, take Company E and Company H down to the
ford." These two companies, with Major Harrison leading them on
horseback, rushed off through the bushes in double-quick time and into
the fight they went.


                        THE YANKEES DRIVEN BACK

The Yankees were quickly driven back. Dr. G. W. Thornhill, surgeon of
the Eleventh Regiment, who went along to look after the wounded,
captured a Yankee who had crossed over the run and was hiding in the
bushes. Very soon, Major Harrison was borne back from the line of battle
on a stretcher, or litter, as it was called, shot through the body, and
as before said, mortally wounded. Major Harrison was a good officer and
a splendid man, very popular in the regiment, and his untimely death was
deeply lamented by all. It was rumored through the brigade that Colonel
Garland had been mortally wounded. When he heard this rumor, he said,
"It was a better man." A fine tribute this, to Major Harrison.

Soon after the two companies went into the fight, the Twenty-fourth
Virginia Regiment, led by Col. Peter Hairston on horseback, came
double-quicking down the road leading to the ford.

Company A of the Twenty-fourth was the leading company and was commanded
by Capt. C. M. Stigleman, and Dr. B. P. Elliott was orderly sergeant.
This company was from Floyd County. I did not know any of the officers
or men; but since I came to Floyd, have been well acquainted with nearly
all of them, and have often talked about the incidents of this day. I
have heard Dr. Elliott relate that, as they started into the fight they
passed by General Beauregard standing by the roadside, and that the
General spoke to each company as it passed saying, "Aim low, men."

The doctor, in telling it, would laugh and say, "These words sent a
chill down my spinal column," and that when they emerged from the pines
into the open field, and saw the men of Company G lying down in skirmish
line, they thought these men had been killed and laid out there in a
row, and some one exclaimed, "Good God, look at the dead men!"

Dr. Elliott also related, as they passed by Major Harrison, being borne
to the rear on the stretcher, the Major said, "Hurry up, men, or you
will be too late"; and that Colonel Early said to them as they started,
"Now, boys, if you don't run, the Yankees will." And when the command
was given the regiment to load, one of the captains stepped out in front
of his company and gave the command, "Load in nine times—load!" Then
"old Jube" in his piping voice at a high pitch, exclaimed, "Load in nine
times? Hell and damnation! Load in the most expeditious manner
possible."

The Twenty-fourth was the leading regiment of a brigade commanded by
Col. Jubal A. Early. About the time the front files of the regiment was
half-way across the field between the pines and the run, Colonel Early
came riding along down by the line, his black horse in a long trot,
calling out, "Halt in front!" Colonel Hairston could not hear him on
account of the noise of the battle. Finally, Colonel Early reined in his
horse so hard that the war steed was thrown well back on his haunches,
and called out in a loud and emphatic tone, "Tell Colonel Hairston to
halt." From the position occupied by the Eleventh Regiment, we could see
and hear all these incidents.

The word "halt" was passed rapidly along to the front of the regiment,
and just before the head of the column (the troops were marching by the
flank) reached the bushes bordering the run, they came to a halt, and
Colonel Early went forward to find General Longstreet and ascertain
where to place his brigade in line of battle. Just then the firing
slackened and in a few moments the musketry firing ceased altogether.
The Yankees had been driven back, retiring out of sight over the hill;
the artillery fire was kept up for some time, however.

Up to this time the Confederates had no artillery engaged in the fight,
though a few shots were fired at the right flank of the enemy from
Mitchell's Ford, where General Bonham of South Carolina commanded.

Soon after the musketry firing ceased, and while the Yankees were still
throwing shot and shell from their guns on the hill, scaring many but
hurting few, a battery of the New Orleans Washington Artillery came in a
gallop into the open field, and wheeling to the right into battery,
about midway between the pines and the run, unlimbered and opened up a
lively fire at the Yankee battery over on the hill beyond the run. These
batteries were not in sight the one of the other, the woods on and
beyond the run intervening to obstruct the view, the gunners firing at
the puffs of smoke from their opponents' guns.

This was a lively and spirited artillery duel for a while, but the
plucky Louisianians proved too much for their opponents. When the Yankee
gunners got the range on them, they moved their guns by hand to the
right or left and poured shot and shell into the enemy thick and fast,
soon knocking their opponents out of action, disabling one or more of
their guns, and causing them to get out of range in great haste. The
Washington Artillery won laurels in this their first fight, which they
wore proudly and deservedly through the whole war, being conspicuous in
all the great battles in which the army of Northern Virginia engaged,
and always performing their part bravely and well.


                        INCIDENTS OF THE BATTLE

In the midst of the battle General Longstreet's big bay horse came
galloping out from the bushes along the run, riderless, and wild with
the noise and excitement of battle, dashing across the field with head
high in air, swaying from right to left, with bridle reins and stirrups
flying over his neck and back. We thought sure our General was either
killed or badly wounded, but it turned out that General Longstreet had
thrown himself off his horse to the ground to escape the fire of some of
his own men. The general was unhurt, and was soon again mounted on his
horse, though there was dirt on his clothes from the fall to the ground.
The smoke of the battle, which was thick and heavy along the run, soon
cleared away, the wounded were all carried to the field hospital in the
rear, the dead were laid away, and ere the shades of night set in, all
was peaceful and quiet along Bull Run, except that now and then the
words, "Friends on the other side, pass it down the line," were passed
from company to company along the line, our scouts, at intervals,
crossing over the run to watch the Yankees, lest, peradventure, they
might make another attack. But no other efforts were made to dislodge
the Confederates at Blackburn's Ford.

The Yankees were very much surprised at the stubborn resistance they met
here. Their newspapers, and other writers since, gave conflicting
statements of the affair, some making light of it as a battle, claiming
that it was only a reconnoissance in force, a mere skirmish. Others
attributed it to the "rash enthusiasm" of Gen. E. B. Tyler, who thought
he could easily brush aside the rebels and march on to Manassas. General
McDowell, the commander-in-chief, who had established his headquarters
at Centreville, contemplated, it was said, turning the Confederates'
left flank when all his troops were up and everything ready for the
attack. General Tyler had in the fight, Richardson's and Sherman's
Brigades of Infantry, and Ayres's Battery. These were met and
successfully resisted by Longstreet with his brigade, with eight
companies of one of the regiments, the Eleventh, in reserve.

The loss in this engagement was small for the amount of shooting done.
The Confederates' loss was about twenty and the Yankees' about one
hundred. This engagement on the 18th made General McDowell stop and
ponder until the 21st of July, when the battle of Manassas was fought,
and won by the Confederates.

About sundown on the 18th the Eleventh Regiment and Early's Brigade
relieved the troops who had been engaged, taking position along the run
above and below the ford, where they remained on the _qui vive_ all
night and the next day, without seeing or hearing of a single Yankee.

The trees and bushes along and in the rear of the line of battle were
scarred by big and little shot. The Yankees, being above on the bluff,
overshot the Confederates.

Up on the bluff we saw the first dead Yankee—he lay stark and cold in
death upon the hillside among the trees in the gloom of the gathering
twilight: the pale face turned towards us, upon which we looked with
feelings mingled with awe and dread. We had heard and seen many new and
strange things that day. Later on in the war, we could look upon the
slain on the battlefield with little less feeling than upon the carcass
of an animal. Such are some of the hardening effects of war. I don't
think we were again as badly scared as on that day; I was not, I am
sure.

Longstreet's Brigade remained at and near Blackburn's Ford all through
the 19th and 20th of July, waiting for and expecting another attack,
discussing the events of the battle, and conjecturing as to what would
be the next move in the game of war. I remember talking with Lieut. Jim
Hord of Company H along this line, when he remarked, "There will be a
big battle Sunday—most all of the big fights come off on Sunday." This
prophecy came true. The brigade had received its baptism of fire, the
nerves and mettle of the men had been tried, and while it was a
nerve-racking ordeal, yet all had stood the test, so far as I remember,
except one officer in command of a company in the Eleventh Regiment,
whose nerve seemed to fail him. He was taken sick and collapsed; was
taken to the rear and never returned to his company.

I think if it had not been for pride and regard for reputation, a good
many of us would have been like a negro cook in Company C: George, who
belonged to my brother-in-law, Robert Cocke, and had been with the
company as one of the cooks, brought down from the camp at Manassas
about noon on the 18th some cooked rations, and when the battle
commenced, was back in the rear near the hospital. When the Yankee
shells began to fall and burst in his vicinity, George broke and ran for
dear life back to camp, stopping only long enough to say, "Dem big balls
come flying over me saying, 'Whar is you? whar is you?' an' I lit out
from dar in a hurry," and away he went up the railroad track four miles
to Bristow Station. The boys laughed at George a great many times about
his ignominious flight; George, however, never expressed a regret that
he took to his heels and made good time out of danger.

The Confederate lines extended along the south side of Bull Run about
eight miles, that small and insignificant stream having been chosen by
General Beauregard as his line of defense, instead of waiting, as was
expected by the inexperienced, for the enemy to come on to Manassas,
which position had been fortified and the forts mounted with big guns.
Of course, the enemy would have never attacked this place, but flanked
it, viz., marched around the place and forced the Confederates to
evacuate. On Bull Run the right of the Confederate lines was at Union
Mills, with General Ewell in command. Next up the run was McLean's Ford,
where General Jones and his brigade were posted. Next came Blackburn's
Ford, where, as before said, was posted Longstreet's Brigade; then came
General Bonham at Mitchell's Ford with his brigade; next above this was
Ball's Ford, with Gen. Phillip St. George Cocke in command of a brigade,
and lastly the Stone Bridge, the extreme Confederate left, in charge of
General Evans with his brigade. The general direction of Bull Run is
from west to east, or rather, from northwest to southeast.

General Holmes with his brigade and Colonel Early with his brigade, and
maybe others, were back in reserve, and when Generals Jackson, Bee, and
Bartow arrived with their brigades, they were also held in reserve.
There were also batteries of artillery along the lines near the several
fords, with cavalry on the flanks, and at intervals back from the run.

Along Bull Run, nearly all the way, grew trees and bushes, and much of
the ground back of the stream on either side was covered with
second-growth pines and scrub-oaks, the ground being rolling, though
tolerably level.

McDowell's command was concentrated at and near Centreville, about a
mile north of Bull Run, and consisted of thirty-five or forty thousand
men. Beauregard had twelve or fifteen thousand men; Gen. Jos. E.
Johnston brought to his relief in the very nick of time on the 21st some
ten or twelve thousand men.



                               CHAPTER V

             THE BATTLE OF FIRST MANASSAS—GENERAL JOHNSTON
                     TO THE RESCUE—GEN. KIRBY SMITH
                   TURNS THE TIDE OF BATTLE—THE REBEL
                      YELL—THE NEWS OF VICTORY—THE
                      ENEMY NOT PURSUED—GATHERING
                               THE SPOILS


On Sunday morning, the 21st of July, quite early, on the left, up the
run, the ball opened again, and "partners, to your places," was the
order, or in army parlance, "Fall in!" "Attention!" The Yankee General,
McDowell, stole a march on General Beauregard that morning.

Beauregard had planned to take the aggressive, by making an attack on
McDowell's left near Centreville, and when General Johnston reached
Beauregard about noon on the 20th, he approved the plan; accordingly
orders were issued that night to begin the battle the next morning at
sunrise. The right wing of the Confederate forces was to cross the run
and attack the left wing of the Yankee army. McDowell had also been
doing some planning himself, and as he got in the first lick, frustrated
the Confederate general's scheme.

He, too, proposed to use his right arm in an attack on the Confederate
left wing. McDowell put his army in motion before daybreak on the
morning of the 21st of July, moving out from Centreville. A small column
of infantry, artillery and cavalry, in battle array, marched out on the
road leading to the stone bridge, the Confederate left, and at daylight
formed line of battle and opened fire at long range, while the main body
of the army was making a detour through the woods still higher up the
run, and crossing at Sudley's Ford two miles above the stone bridge
unopposed, marched down on the Confederate left flank and rear. As soon
as General Evans, who was in command at the stone bridge, was apprised
of this movement on the left, he changed front with a part of his
brigade to meet the attack and sent for reënforcements. Generals Bee and
Bartow first came to his relief, and in a short time the battle was
raging fiercely. Generals Johnston and Beauregard hearing the firing to
the left, and learning the extent and object of this movement of the
enemy, at once abandoned their contemplated attack with their right
wing, and bent every energy to resist the attack on their left.
Beauregard went immediately to the front and displayed great gallantry,
personally leading the troops in the charge, while Johnston remained
back to direct the forwarding of the troops to reënforce the
hard-pressed left.

Before sufficient reënforcements could reach the scene of conflict, the
heavy columns of the enemy drove back the small forces confronting them.
The position at the stone bridge being flanked by the enemy and
abandoned by the Confederates, the Yankee column in front of this
position crossed over and joined the flanking column of the enemy. Some
desperate fighting was done here, and noble deeds of valor performed by
men and officers never before in battle.

Bee and Bartow, two young generals from South Carolina and Alabama, won
immortal fame, both giving their lives to the cause on that (to them)
fateful day. Reënforcements were hurried forward as fast as possible,
but still the Confederate lines were pressed slowly back, contesting
every foot of ground, which was covered in many places with
second-growth pines.


                     GENERAL JOHNSTON TO THE RESCUE

By preärrangement, of which none but the chief Confederate officers
knew, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, who was confronting a Yankee army in the
Valley under General Patterson, who had orders to hold Johnston in the
Valley while McDowell attacked Beauregard at Manassas, was to come to
General Beauregard's support at the proper time. And if General McDowell
stole a march on Beauregard on the morning of the 21st, General Johnston
had on the 18th stolen a march on Patterson. On the 18th, about noon,
Johnston got word from Beauregard that McDowell was in his front with an
army much larger than his own, and that now was the time to help.
Johnston, who was then at Winchester, at once put his army in motion up
the Valley pike, then marching across towards the Blue Ridge to
Piedmont, with Jackson's Brigade in the lead, which marched seventeen
miles that afternoon. Jackson boarded the cars at Piedmont, and on the
20th by noon was at Manassas, the other troops following. Jackson, as
before said, was placed in rear of the line along Bull Run as a reserve,
and now, at a critical moment on the 21st, arrived on the battlefield,
and noting the situation, remarked, so it was said, "We will give those
people the bayonet," and forming his brigade in line of battle, stood
firmly awaiting the propitious moment, as the Yankees were ascending the
pine-covered hill on which he and his men stood. General Bee called on
his broken and retreating men of the far South to "rally on the
Virginians." "Look," exclaimed Bee to the South Carolinians and
Alabamians, "see Jackson and his men standing like a stone wall!" Then
and there the sobriquet of "Stonewall" was given to this demigod of war
and his brigade, which will live forever.

As the Yankee line pressed up the hill, Jackson charged, driving them
back in confusion, thus giving the first substantial check to the enemy,
who had pressed back the Confederate lines for a mile or more.


               GEN. KIRBY SMITH TURNS THE TIDE OF BATTLE

And there was to be another "Richmond on the field," very soon. Generals
Kirby Smith and Elzey, of Johnston's command, were on the train on the
Manassas Gap road, hurrying as fast as steam could carry them to
Manassas Junction.

Hearing the firing to the left and knowing that the battle was not far
away, instead of going on to Manassas Junction, General Smith stopped
the trains before reaching that place, detrained the troops, and
following the rule of war, "marched across the country to the sound of
the heaviest firing," struck the enemy on his flank, with a wild yell
that terrified the Yankees, and caused them to break in great confusion.

General Smith was shot from his horse, though not killed. General Elzey,
who, with his brigade, had just arrived on the scene of action, then
assumed command, and pushing his troops still further to the rear of the
Yankee lines, completed the rout.

Such a rout and stampede as then and there occurred has scarcely been
equaled in the annals of war. Of course, the Yankees had some troops
back towards Centreville and on the left of their line, who were not
routed and panic stricken, but I am quite sure from what I afterwards
heard, and saw the next day, every mother's son of them who crossed to
the west or south side of Bull Run that day were completely routed and
demoralized.


                             THE REBEL YELL

While a prisoner during the last year of the war, I talked with a Yankee
sergeant who was in the battle, and asked him why they were so badly
routed. His answer was, "Well, when Kirby Smith came in on our flank and
raised that _yell_, we just thought the Rebels were rising up out of the
ground in those pines, everywhere, when we broke and ran, and never
stopped until we crossed the Long Bridge into Washington City." This
Yankee laid stress on the "yell." The Yankee cheering was done in unison
and in time. It was "hip, hip, huzza, huzza, huzza," which sounded
coarse and harsh to the ear, while the "Rebel yell" was one continuous
shout of mingled voices, without any intermission, unisonance or time.
Each man just opened his mouth as wide as he could, strained his voice
to the highest pitch and yelled as long as his breath lasted, then
refilling the lungs, repeated it again and again. It was a commingling
of shrill, loud sounds, that rent the air and could be heard for a
distance of two miles or more, often carrying terror to the enemy. It
was awe-inspiring to the Yankees, but joyous sounds to the Confederates
when victory was achieved. The "Rebel yell" was a child of victory, born
that day on the plains of Manassas, and was afterwards, by common
consent, adopted as the battle shout of the army of Northern Virginia.

I have given at some length, principally from hearsay, the main features
of the battle on the left of the Confederate lines, in order that what
occurred at and near Blackburn's Ford, where Longstreet's Brigade was
posted, may be better described and understood.

During the whole of this day, the Yankees kept up a show of fight at
Blackburn's Ford, in order to prevent the Confederate troops on the
right from going to the relief of the hard-pressed left. Bonham, Holmes,
Ewell, Early (except the Twenty-fourth Regiment, which remained at
Blackburn's Ford), and Cocke, or the greater part of these brigades,
were sent to the left. Early was late in getting upon the scene of
action, owing to the miscarriage of the order for him to move, which
was, from some unknown cause, delayed three hours. He rendered good
service, however, pressing still further on the enemy's right and rear
than Kirby Smith and Elzey had done. Jones and Longstreet remained at
McLean's and Blackburn's Ford.


                             UNDER SHELLING

Throughout the whole day the Yankees shelled these positions at
intervals of every five or ten minutes.

In the afternoon the two brigades and the Twenty-fourth Regiment crossed
over the run, formed in column of regiments and lay down in the woods,
expecting every moment to be ordered forward and charge the battery in
front, the shells from which were continually bursting among the
tree-tops, cutting off branches, these, and the fragments of shells,
falling around, now and then striking some one.

I remember how sleepy I was, lying there in the woods that hot July day,
often dozing between the shots. We had slept but little the past three
nights. The boom of the guns, the scream of the shells, the dull thud of
the pieces striking the ground and sometimes a man, was enough to awake
the dead almost, and made all lie low and hug mother earth pretty
closely, but still I dozed between shots.

It is surprising how close men can get to the ground when lying under a
good, brisk shelling; great affection seems to be manifested for the
dust, from which all sprung. At such times, a lizard, when rocked by a
boy, never laid flatter on a fence rail than the soldiers lay on the
ground. It was afterwards said, that orders were sent Jones and
Longstreet to advance on the enemy's left near Centreville, but the
order was not delivered; it was conjectured that the messenger was
killed by a shell.

All day at Blackburn's Ford we could hear the battle raging up the run
to the left; the booming of cannon, the explosion of the shells, and the
noise of the musketry could be distinctly heard.

Sometimes the sounds would die down, the musketry firing amounting to
little more than a sharp skirmish; then again the noise of the battle
would rise higher and louder, sometimes drawing nearer and then recede
and die down almost entirely, then fiercely rise again, while the loud
peals of the battery in our front waked the echoes far and near. All
this time the strain and suspense were terrible; no tidings as to how
the battle was going came to us; no news came, only the roar of the
battle two or three miles away could be heard. I thought this fight was
the biggest that had ever occurred in the history of the world; others
were of the same opinion. Col. Bob Preston in the midst of the battle
remarked to Colonel Withers, as I heard Colonel Withers relate
afterwards, that "the battle of Waterloo was a mere skirmish to it." I
could not conceive on the 18th, while the fighting was in progress, how
any could escape where so much shooting was going on. And, now on this,
the 21st, the shooting was going on all day.

What must be the result! How many dead and dying were lying on the field
of strife? Were our friends getting the best of the fight, or were the
Yankees going to be victorious? How soon would we be called into action,
and charge through the open fields up "to the very cannon's mouth"? And
what would be the result? Would we capture the battery and drive away
the infantry support, or be repulsed and driven back? Who and how many
would be left on the field wounded, bleeding, dying and dead? All this
and much more we had time to think of on that hot, never-to-be-forgotten
21st day of July, 1861. This was one of the days that the sun seemed to
stand still, or move slower than usual. I never saw our company,
regiment or brigade falter in battle or fail to respond to any call, but
I never saw them "eager for the fight," as it is sometimes expressed. My
observation of men, and my own feelings on the eve of the battle, going
into the fight, or in the midst of strife, was that the bravest realized
the danger and dreaded the fiery ordeal, yet did their duty when bidden.

Dr. W. H. Taylor in his "Experiences of an Assistant Surgeon," says, "I
freely admit that I was never in a battle but that I should have felt
the most exultant joy if I had been out of it." I freely concur in this
statement as to myself and all whom I observed in battle.


                          THE NEWS OF VICTORY

At last, as the sun was sinking over the western hills, and the shadows
lengthening, tidings from the battlefield came, and joyful news it was.

The firing had just ceased, except now and then a cannon shot in the
distance; the battery in our front had ceased firing—there was an
ominous silence; the very air around us, hot and sultry as it was,
seemed surcharged with something more than summer heat and sulphuric
fumes from exploding shells. Every man was now on his feet, all nerves
were strung to the highest pitch; every one, from the highest officer to
the humblest private, wore a look of intense anxiety, all in silent
expectancy. What did all this portend? Was it a calm before a mightier
storm than we had heard during the day, that was about to burst? Or had
the storm already spent itself, and what was the result? Or had the
contestants in the deadly all-day strife up the run been exhausted, and
lay limp and impotent on the ground, unable to strike another blow, the
one at the other? Or had they, like the Kilkenny cats, devoured each
other, leaving none to tell the tale?

As the noise of battle died away, from away up the run we heard shouts
and cheers, at first scarcely audible, then louder and nearer came the
cheers, rolling along down the valley of Bull Run in seeming waves of
mingled voices, each wave rising higher and more distinct. Messengers
mounted on fleet-footed steeds, which that day had become war horses
that sniffed the smoke of battle, not "from afar," but on the very field
of strife and carnage, hurried down the lines along the run, shouting,
"Victory! victory! victory; complete victory!" Each detachment took up
the joyous shout and wafted it on to those below. From Mitchell's Ford,
just above us, where Bonham and his South Carolinians on the 18th held
the fort and let fly the dogs of war on the enemy's flank, Longstreet's
Brigade caught the inspiration and raised its first "Rebel yell" that
made the welkin ring, and sent the glad and glorious news on down to
Jones and his men at McLean's Ford, and quickly came the echo back in
ringing peals.

Then details of the victory began to come in. The enemy was completely
routed; many prisoners and many guns had been captured. Then it came
that "Long Tom," a noted Yankee cannon, was captured; then that
Sherman's Battery, the crack artillery of the United States Army, was
taken; then that Rickett's, another noted battery, and also Griffin's,
had all been captured. The first mentioned battery, with Capt. W. T.
Sherman in command, won laurels in the Mexican War, and had been known
ever since as Sherman's Battery.

Longstreet at once led his brigade forward into the open field, at the
farther side of which was a redoubt with abattis in front, where had
been stationed the Yankee guns that shelled us all day. How different
were our feelings now from what they would have been if we had entered
this field during the day, and been met by a shower of shot, shell,
grape and canister! Now, we were without fear, exultant and in high
spirits; before, we would have been rent with missiles of death, great
gaps would have been torn through the column of regiments, and many
would have been left wounded and dead on the field.

The brigade marched on into the woods beyond the field towards
Centreville, bivouacking on the ground of a Yankee camp, which the enemy
had just abandoned, leaving evidences of hasty departure; coffee, sugar,
hard-tack, and many articles of food and equipments lay scattered
around. Some of the men shouted, "Don't eat them things, they may be
pizened." Later on the "pizen" was not for a moment considered when a
Yankee camp was raided, and when many a hungry Rebel ate to his full
once more.

As the Eleventh Regiment was taking position in camp for the night,
General Longstreet, "Old Pete," as he was sometimes called, rode close
by, when Colonel Garland called on the men of the Eleventh to give three
cheers for General Longstreet, which were given with a will, then some
one, Captain Clement, I think, called out, "Three cheers for Colonel
Garland," and again the shouts were raised. Warnings were sent not to
use the water from Bull Run; it was said the stream up about the stone
bridge was filled with dead Yankees and overflowing its banks from the
obstructions of the bodies. This was a great exaggeration; in fact, few,
if any, Yankees were dead in the stream.

The Yankee army was in full retreat, and more; the larger part of it was
in complete rout and panic. The cry of "On to Richmond" was quickly
changed to "Back to Washington."

A soldier, unless panic stricken, will hold on to his gun to the last;
only when completely demoralized does he cast away his weapon of offense
and defense, then he is little more than a frightened animal. The army
of Northern Virginia was never panic stricken. General Lee said, "My men
sometimes fail to drive the enemy, but the enemy does not drive my men,"
which was literally true up to the very beginning of the end, or rather,
if the expression is permissible, up to the very ending of the end. Let
the mind run back over the long list of desperate encounters that this
army had with the enemy during those four bloody years, and this will be
found to be literally true.


                         THE ENEMY NOT PURSUED

Much has been said about the failure of a vigorous pursuit of the enemy
at and immediately after this battle of Manassas. Without going into
details or giving reasons in _in extenso_ for my opinion, I have always
contended that Johnston and Beauregard acted wisely and prudently under
all the circumstances. No one in the Confederate army at the close of
that day knew or had any means of knowing how panic stricken the Yankee
soldiers really were. There were several thousand soldiers in and around
Centreville, who had not been engaged, in position and condition to
resist a pursuit by any force the Confederates could have sent against
them that night; it's a very risky business to pursue a retreating army
in the night time; traps, ambuscades, and surprises are easily planned
and executed, into which the rash pursuers are sure to fall. A large
majority of the Confederate troops had been marching or fighting, or
both, all day, many without rations, and were in no condition to pursue
the enemy ten, fifteen or twenty miles that night. The bulk of the
fleeing enemy had gotten several miles away, and was still going, before
it could have been possible to organize anything like a systematic and
immediate pursuit. Even if the enemy had had no organized rear guard, it
would have been one mob pursuing another mob.

The Confederate army could not have possibly reached the vicinity of the
Potomac River opposite Washington City before the next day, and then not
before noon. Here all approaches were well fortified, mounted with siege
guns and manned, and the capture of Washington would have been an
impossibility.

So then, away with the cry then raised by bomb-proof generals in
editors' chairs a hundred miles or more away, and, as has been since
often repeated, that "if Johnston and Beauregard had pursued, or if Jeff
Davis, who came upon the scene of action late in the afternoon, had not
prevented a pursuit, Washington could have been captured and the war
then and there ended." I did not believe then, have not since, nor now
believe, that any such thing could have been accomplished.

And above and far beyond all opinions and speculations on this question
is the fact, that Joseph E. Johnston, G. T. Beauregard, and Jefferson
Davis were all on the ground, and if these three men, with all their
experience, wisdom and information did not know what was the right thing
to do, who could, would, or should have known?

In this battle the losses were nothing like as large as expected, when
all was summed up. The Confederate loss was estimated at a little less
than four hundred killed and not quite fifteen hundred wounded.

The enemy lost about five hundred killed, one thousand wounded, and
about fifteen hundred prisoners.

The Confederates captured many pieces of cannon, thousands of small
arms, accoutrements, camp equipage, etc.


                          GATHERING THE SPOILS

On the next day, the 22d of July, Longstreet's Brigade was detailed to
scour the country between Centreville and the Stone Bridge to secure the
cast-away arms and equipments the Yankees left in their wild flight from
the battlefield. The whole brigade was deployed, as if in skirmish line,
on either side of the Warrenton turnpike, converging as it moved on to
the crossing at the Stone Bridge. The greater part of the day was spent
in picking up muskets, cartridge-boxes, belts, knapsacks, haversacks,
canteens, coats, hats, blankets, etc. It was a dark, drizzly, foggy day,
much of the way through second growth pines. I remember as we were
crouching beneath the low-hanging branches of the pines late in the
afternoon, some of Company C were considerably startled by a cry of
"halt." It proved to be a little Yankee soldier, a mere youth, who was
hatless and had been wounded in the head, which was bound up with a
bloody bandage. He had been in hiding since the day before in the pine
thicket, presenting a forlorn appearance as he crept out from his hiding
place. He had called out "halt," doubtless from habit formed while on
guard duty, to attract attention. He was not badly wounded and was taken
along and turned over to the provost guard who had charge of the
prisoners.

Crossing over the stone bridge, the brigade went into camp for the night
at the top of the long hill on the Warrenton pike, on a part of the
battlefield where there were many dead horses and men, broken cannon
carriages, caissons, and ammunition wagons.

Along the road between the stone bridge and Centreville much flotsam and
jetsam, cast-away and abandoned things, lay strewn around on all sides.
Large numbers of people, men and women, had followed in the wake of the
army to witness the battle, and to join in the "On to Richmond," which
all expected to follow at once. It was currently reported and believed
among the Yankee soldiers and people of the North that the "Rebel army"
was but a half-organized mob, armed only with flint-lock muskets and
shotguns that could be easily brushed out of the way. Great preparations
had been made for a big ball in the city of Richmond within the next few
days. Many carriages filled with women, with all their ball costumes,
were also along; Congressmen and other dignitaries came from Washington
to witness the battle, and see the "Rebels run"; wagons and carts loaded
with baskets of wines, liquors, and other things; stacks of pound-cake,
confectioneries and fruits, oranges, lemons, etc. During the day, while
the "Rebels" were being driven back, these spectators followed along the
road and drew near the stone bridge, all, no doubt, in high feather and
glee with much eating and drinking, and watched the scenes at the front.

When the tide of battle turned and the stream of flying Yankee soldiers,
artillery, caissons, ammunition wagons and ambulances came rushing back,
these spectators, in dismay and horror, turned to fly, but the mad rush
of the army fleeing was upon them; no respect was paid to sex or person.
It was, "Every man for himself and the devil take the hindermost."

The Confederate batteries galloped to the top of the hill south of the
run and sent shells screaming along the road. The cavalry crossed the
stone bridge and dashed into the rearmost ranks, all causing confusion
worst confounded. Carriages, carts and wagons were upset, their
occupants and contents dumped out and scattered along the road. Some of
these civilians were taken prisoners, including Congressman Eli, of
percussion-cap fame, whose carriage had broken down or overturned; I
think he was taken to Richmond and soon afterwards released, and
returned to Washington, doubtless a wiser, if not a better man. At the
stone bridge a wagon or gun-carriage had been overturned or broken down;
here there was a perfect jam of all kinds of vehicles that blocked the
bridge.

After this our men were much better supplied with guns, cartridge-boxes,
haversacks, canteens, knapsacks, oilcloths, blankets, and many other
things; and all during the war until the last year, 1865, the Yankees
supplied Lee's army with such things, leaving them laying around loose
on almost every battlefield.

The next day the brigade marched back to camp at Manassas, passing over
much of the battlefield, where still lay among the scrub-pines many
swollen, blackened corpses yet unburied, though details were at work at
the gruesome task. Conspicuous among the dead bodies could be seen the
New York Zouaves with flashy uniforms and red fez with tassel, loose,
red knee-pants and long stockings; big stalwart fellows they were, with
bronzed faces and necks, but now they lay dead upon the battlefield. And
doubtless some, if not all of us, in the words of the "good old Rebel,"
"wished we'd killed some more."

These men had invaded Virginia with guns in their hands, and we knew
they had met their just deserts. Virginia and the South only wanted to
be let alone; peacefully to withdraw from the compact, leaving the
states north of Mason and Dixon's line with their "Union and their
Flag," to cherish and love as they pleased. Only this and nothing more.
But the North would not, as Horace Greeley advised, "Let their erring
sisters of the South depart in peace." Instead, they waged upon the
South a most cruel and devastating war. The Yankees are still charging
that the South tried to break up the United States Government. This is a
false charge. The South made no attack on the United States Government.
The South only attempted to get from under the yoke of the North and be
a free people.



                               CHAPTER VI

             TO CENTREVILLE AND FAIRFAX COURT HOUSE—PICKET
                      CLOSE TO THE ENEMY—EXCITING
                TIMES ON PICKET—BACK TO CENTREVILLE—THE
                                FIGHT AT
                              DRAINESVILLE


On the 24th of July, the brigade broke camp at Manassas and marched to
Centreville, where the Eleventh Regiment pitched its tents, just on the
outskirts of that little hamlet of a few houses.

Other troops were camped round about, all in fine spirits, fast learning
to be soldiers, always keeping up the drills, company and regimental.
Colonel Garland was a fine drill officer and had the regiment well
drilled. While here General Longstreet had brigade drills a few times,
but this did not amount to much, and was never tried again. In battle
the maneuvers practiced in drilling were seldom used; but drilling
learned the men to keep together, rally and get into line quickly when
separated. In battle few orders were heard except "fall into line,"
"load," "commence firing," "cease firing," "forward," "charge," and the
like. Sometimes, but not often, in the army of Northern Virginia, the
command was heard, "fall back."


                     ADVANCE TO FAIRFAX COURT HOUSE

On the 10th of August, 1861, the brigade moved to Fairfax Court House,
seven miles. The day was intensely hot, and many fell by the wayside,
going into camp just north of the town; not a very desirable camping
ground, as it was rather low and flat. It rained a good deal and there
was a great deal of sickness, measles, typhoid fever, and diarrhea. It
was surprising how many men had never had measles; it seemed that half
or more of the army had the disease the first year of the war, and large
numbers died from the effects. Typhoid fever frequently followed the
measles, often proving fatal. While here my brother Coon had measles
which was followed by fever. He was taken to the field hospital near
camp, and after remaining there in a tent a few days, Dr. Thornhill said
if he was not sent away he would die. I immediately went to work and got
a sick-furlough for him, carried him to Manassas in an ambulance, put
him on the train the next day on a mattress and started him for
Lynchburg; he was too sick and weak to sit up, but I could not go with
him. On the train, as good fortune would have it, was the Rev. H. M.
Linney, a Methodist preacher, who was or had been the year before on the
Campbell County circuit. Mr. Linney acted the part of the Good Samaritan
and ministered to his wants until the train reached Lynchburg, where he
was met by my brother-in-law, Mr. Geo. A. Burks, to whom I had wired.
Mr. Burks took him to his house where he had a long and severe spell of
fever.


                  PICKET CLOSE TO ENEMY—EXCITING TIMES

After the brigade moved to Fairfax Court House, we did a great deal of
picket duty down towards Alexandria and Washington City, close to the
enemy's line. We were sometimes in sight of the dome of the capital, and
could see the Yankees drilling on the high hills on the south side of
the Potomac River. The Yankees often had a balloon up in the air,
anchored by a long cable, at which a cannon shot would sometimes be
fired, and a shot brought it down. This shot, I think, was fired by
Lieut. Thos. L. Rosser, afterwards General Rosser. The principal picket
posts were at Mason's, Munson's and Upton's Hill's, Falls Church, and
near Annandale.

One night Company C, and a cavalry company commanded by Captain ——
Carter, were on picket near Annandale, close to the enemy's line, when,
about midnight, a squad of Company C, on outpost duty, came in to the
reserve post, and reported that a body of cavalry was approaching along
the road by which we had come from Centreville. It was at once
conjectured that the Yankee cavalry had, by another road, flanked our
position, gotten in the rear and was attempting to bag the Confederate
pickets. Captains Clement and Carter made disposition of the two
companies to give the enemy a warm reception. Company C was posted along
the fence by the roadside, while Captain Carter formed his company in
the field a short distance in the rear. Instructions were given to the
men to let the cavalry approaching pass along the road until the head of
the column reached the extreme right of our line, and then, at a signal
from Captain Clement, to open fire on them, when Captain Carter and his
company would charge; this was the plan and instructions in case the
approaching horsemen proved to be, as was believed, Yankees.

The night was dark; objects could be distinguished only a few feet away.
In silence we anxiously awaited the coming of the approaching
cavalrymen, the noise of whose horses' hoofs we soon heard coming down
the hill; the suspense was intense. Every man had his gun at a "ready,"
determined, at the proper signal, to pour a volley into the enemy, who,
when along the road in our immediate front, would not be more than ten
feet from the muzzles of the guns. On, the horsemen came in silence,
right along in our front; each man clutched his musket tighter; not a
word or whisper was uttered, until the front files of the column had
reached the right of the line, when Captain Clement, who had taken
position at that point, called out in his deep bass voice, in a firm
tone, "Halt! Who comes there?" In an instant the horsemen came to a
standstill and the answer to the challenge came from the front files,
"Friends, with the countersign;" whereupon Captain Clement called out,
"Advance one and give the countersign." One of the men came up and in a
low tone gave the word, which, as I remember, was "Richmond." Captain
Clement at once called out, "Countersign correct, advance, friends," and
the scare was over, and each party felt much relieved.

Explanations followed, which developed that this company had been sent
down to strengthen the picket post, and had not taken the precaution to
send a single horseman in front to notify us of their coming.

These men thought, they said, when they were halted and heard the click
of some of our men's musket locks, as they made ready to fire, that they
were right in the midst of the Yankees. If a single shot had been fired
by either side (and it is often hard to restrain men under such
circumstances), there would have been many friends slain by friends. I
think this was after we moved back to Centreville in the fall.

Another, and for a time rather serious, but in the end, amusing incident
occurred while on picket near Falls Church. Here the lines were close
together and the pickets often in sight of each other. The picket forces
were heavy, sometimes with a battery of artillery along. On one occasion
the Yankees had a post in a house a few hundred yards away, across a
wooded ravine, and the captain of the battery concluded he would shell
this Yankee post. Company C was drawn up in line, near by, as a support
in case the Yankees made a dash to capture the guns. Two guns were let
loose on the house, and it was fun to watch the Yankees scamper out and
take to their heels. Pretty soon some one said, "Don't you hear the
Yankees bringing up their guns? They are going to shell us." This
changed the humor of the men very quickly from hilarity and good
feelings to solemnity and anxiety for their own safety. Just as it was
expected the Yankee guns were about to open fire, one of the men,
looking pretty nervous and rather pale about the gills, like most of us,
turned to Captain Clement and said with earnestness, "I don't think it
is _far_ to have cannon on picket." It was great fun to see the Yankees
skedaddle, but quite another thing to be shelled. The Yankees did not
shell us, but we laughed at Peter Cary many times afterwards about this
remark.

While on picket down there at Falls Church we fared fine. I remember
some of us would go every morning to a house for breakfast, where we
feasted on buckwheat cakes, butter, honey and milk.

Near Mason's Hill, at a picket post, there was a large farm occupied by
a Yankee, who had abandoned it upon the approach of the Confederates,
and gone within the Yankee lines, leaving a fine garden, large
cornfields, fruit, etc. The soldiers were told these things had been
confiscated by the Confederate authorities for their use, on account of
the disloyalty of the owner, and they fairly feasted on roasting-ears,
potatoes, tomatoes, etc.,—boiling camp kettles full of potatoes and
corn. Some of the men would eat as many as twelve or fourteen ears of
corn at one time; Ned Gilliam, I believe, was the champion corn eater,
and Tom and Jabe Rosser, Sam Franklin, the Tweedy and Jones boys, and
others, were close seconds. I think maybe they appropriated some
bee-gums, or their contents, and perhaps some jars of preserves and
other sweets. I must say that Company C had very few men in it who would
forage illegally. On one occasion a year or two afterwards, I suspected
some of the company of killing a hog while down in the south-side of
Virginia, though I did not know it, and took no pains to investigate, as
meat was very scarce about that time: in fact, we had none, and it was
right hard for a soldier to let a hog bite him and not kill it when
hungry. I have heard soldiers say that they would kill a sheep if it
tried to bite them. Some of the boys told a story on R. H. Jones about
eating, or rather, not eating "stolen hog." Bob was quite young and very
conscientious. On one occasion his mess had fresh pork for breakfast
which they did not draw from the commissary. When the chops were fried
brown and crisp, the boys gathered around the frying-pan and began
eating. Bob sat aloof, munching on his corn pone, when some one said,
"Bob, have some meat." "No," drawled Bob, "I don't eat stolen hog," all
the while looking at the pan and nibbling away on his dry bread. Again
some one said, "Bob, you better have some, it's mighty good." Bob
reached over towards the pan with his bread and said, "I won't eat any
of the meat, but will take a little of the gravy."

While encamped around Fairfax Court House, the whole army was thrown
into a high fever of excitement one day by the beating of the long roll.
Under the army regulations the long roll is never beaten except in cases
of emergency—the sudden and unexpected attack or approach of the enemy.
When the long roll is sounded it is the duty of every drum corps in
hearing to take it up and repeat it, and every man is hastily called to
arms. On this occasion the long roll was started without cause by a
_fresh_ "officer of the day," as he said, "to see what effect it would
have." For miles around the drums rolled and there was much hurrying and
scurrying of staff officers and couriers. I think the "officer of the
day" got a court-martial for his freshness, and very likely, if "old
Jube" had the say-so, a good _cussing_.


                          BACK TO CENTREVILLE

On the 19th or 20th of October, 1861, the army moved back to Centreville
and went into camp—the Eleventh Regiment on the same ground it had
before occupied.

The whole army was encamped round about and along Bull Run; rations were
plentiful and the men passed a very comfortable winter, making pipes and
trinkets from ivy roots dug up along Bull Run, which had now become
historic.

The Fifth Louisian Regiment was camped about one-half mile from the
Eleventh Virginia. The Louisian Regiment had a fine band, and every
afternoon would play many patriotic pieces, including "Dixie," "The
Bonnie Blue Flag," etc. The Eleventh Regiment also had a very good band,
led by Geo. W. Lyman, of Lynchburg.

We still picketed down close to Fairfax Court House. While on picket
there during the winter I was taken with break-bone fever and sent home
on a sick furlough. It was a rainy time, and I slept one night on a pile
of rails, and the next morning every bone in my body was aching. I
remember telling old Dr. Withers of this after I got home, when he
remarked, "Sleeping on rails is well calculated to make one's bones
ache." I had never seen our little boy, Dixie, who was born on the 25th
of September, 1861, and was then about five months old. He was a fine
little fellow, and a great comfort to his mother in my absence. Of
course, we all enjoyed the home-coming.

While I was away the regiment went on a foraging expedition, in support
of Stuart's Cavalry, north of Centreville. Near Drainesville they got
into a fight with the Yankees, when Wm. H. Hobson, of Company C, a
cousin of my wife, was mortally wounded, being shot through the bowels,
dying soon afterwards. He was the first man of Company C killed. Lieut.
H. C. Chalmers, of Company A, lost an arm in this fight.

As soon as I was well again, I returned to the army, which was still at
Centreville, where it remained for some time.

While in camp here, Governor Letcher visited the army and presented each
Virginia Regiment with a new State flag. The troops were all drawn up
around one of the forts, the colonels going up into the fort, the
Governor making a speech to each as he presented the flags, and the
colonels, on receiving them, replying. I remember Col. Eppa Hunton, of
the Eighth Virginia, said in his speech, "Every man in Fauquier County
shall be carried home feet foremost before his flag will be
surrendered." I think this was the summer or fall before or during our
first encampment at Centreville.



                              CHAPTER VII

                FALL BACK FROM CENTREVILLE—THE PENINSULA
                  CAMPAIGN—YORKTOWN LINE EVACUATED—THE
                      BATTLE OF WILLIAMSBURG—"GIVE
                  IT TO THEM"—INTO A HOT FIRE—COLONEL
                       GARLAND WOUNDED—INCIDENTS
                         OF THE BATTLE—GARLAND
                               AND KEMPER
                                PROMOTED


Gen. Joseph E. Johnston had been for some time sole commander of the
army, General Beauregard having been ordered south some months before.
Gen. George B. McClellan, who succeeded General McDowell, was in command
of the Yankee army, and had been all winter recruiting, reorganizing,
equipping and drilling what he claimed to be "the finest army on the
planet," some 125,000 strong. When winter began to break, General
Johnston knew his adversary would soon move against him, and thinking it
not prudent to stand his ground at Centreville or Manassas, against so
powerful an army, with only about 40,000 men, just as McClellan was
preparing to advance, the Confederate army, on the 9th of March, 1862,
broke camp, having first made dummy cannons of wood, painted black,
mounting them in the forts and redoubts around Centreville, also dummy
soldiers, in order to deceive and delay the enemy. The army retired
leisurely at first, stopping several days at a time in camp.

The terms of enlistment of most of the Confederate troops were about to
expire, and the men were called upon to reenlist for the war, which
nearly all did. On this march, while in camp a few days, Company C
elected officers to take the place of those who had been at first
elected and whose terms would expire about the 1st of May. Captain
Clement was reëlected captain, I was elected first lieutenant, James
Connelly was reëlected second lieutenant, and Jabez R. Rosser was
elected third lieutenant. J. A. Hobson and H. H. Withers, first and
second lieutenants, not being reëlected, left the company at the end of
their terms. About this time the company received a number of recruits,
the militiamen up to thirty-five years old having been called out and
given the privilege of joining the companies of their choice. The
recruits were mostly married men, from twenty-five to thirty-five years
old.

McClellan did not essay to follow Johnston, but determined to change his
base and plan of campaign from Northern Virginia to the Peninsula. His
army was accordingly embarked on transports, sailing down the Potomac
and Chesapeake Bay, landing at the lower end of the Peninsula at
Fortress Monroe.

As soon as General Johnston was aware of this move, he put his army in
motion and marched rapidly to Richmond. The march was through Prince
William, Spottsylvania, Hanover, and Henrico counties, into Richmond,
where we arrived on the 12th of April, 1862. This march was very
laborious, through rain and mud, the troops often marching through
fields to avoid the muddy roads, and to give place to the trains of
artillery and baggage and commissary wagons. At that time each regiment
had thirteen wagons, but never again after the Peninsula campaign; after
that year about three was the limit.

This was the first real hard marching we had done. Some of the men gave
out on the route, and had to be hauled in wagons and ambulances; many
had their knapsacks hauled. Only one man of Company C besides myself
carried their knapsacks, blankets and guns through without any help.


                         THE PENINSULA CAMPAIGN

On arriving at Richmond on the 12th of April the troops were embarked on
boats, steamed down the James to King's Landing, seven miles from
Williamsburg, marching through that quaint and dilapidated old town, on
down the Peninsula to the lines near Yorktown, where General Magruder
was in command with fifteen or twenty thousand men, confronting
McClellan and his "grand army" on the lines stretching across the
Peninsula from the York to the James. McClellan had 125,000 men;
Johnston about 50,000, all told.

The lines, at the point the Eleventh Regiment faced the Yankees, were
about one thousand yards apart; at other places the lines were much
closer, and there were frequent skirmishes and sharp-shooting. Forts at
intervals along the lines were mounted with big guns, and shots were
often exchanged.

One day I was standing behind one of the Confederate guns, when a shot
from a thirty-two-pounder was fired at a Yankee fort one thousand yards
off, across an open level field, and saw the ball, a black mass, as it
sped across the field, go right into the fort and explode. Of course, we
could not see from that distance what damage was done, but heard
afterwards from prisoners that this shell played havoc in the Yankee
fort, killing and wounding men right and left, and tearing up things
generally. This was a splendid shot, aimed and the fuse timed exactly
right; it went to the very spot desired, exploding at the very second to
do the most damage. The Yankees did not return the fire.

The service on the Peninsula was arduous and disagreeable; in the muddy
trenches, or back in the woods, lying on the rain-soaked ground, or
marching along the cut-up and muddy roads, was trying indeed, and caused
no little sickness among the troops. Harvey Bailey, of Company C, died
of disease while here. One night while the regiment lay back in the
woods, the men sleeping on their arms, that is, every man lying with his
gun by his side, instead of being stacked, there was a night alarm, with
sharp musketry firing along the trenches; all were aroused and under
arms in a moment. It was a cloudy, pitch-dark night, and we did not know
what the trouble was. Just as the firing ceased the hooting of a big owl
was heard in the distance. "There now," was whispered along the lines,
"we are cut off; that is a Yankee signal." Nothing came of it, however,
except a good scare. When soldiers are thus suddenly aroused at night by
a call to arms, it causes a chilling sensation, and they shake like one
with the "buck ague."

General Johnston was often seen riding along the lines, sitting his
horse very erect, and presenting a soldierly appearance. He always
reminded me of a gamecock trimmed and gaffed ready for the main. While
here our first year of enlistment expired, and I entered upon the duties
of first lieutenant; I had been orderly sergeant up to this time,
carrying a musket.


                        YORKTOWN LINES EVACUATED

General Johnston, getting information that McClellan was preparing to
send a force by transports up York River to West Point, and which he,
Johnston, had no means of preventing, and thus get in his rear and
between him and Richmond, it was determined to evacuate the Yorktown
line of defense. Accordingly, about the 3d or 4th of May, 1862, the
trenches were evacuated and the whole army began falling back up the
Peninsula, the wagons and artillery in front. The Yankees made a landing
at West Point, but were driven back to their transports by a force sent
to meet them. As we marched up the Peninsula we could hear the booming
of the big guns in this fight.

The roads were in wretched condition, muddy and badly cut up by the long
trains of wagons and artillery, making the march very trying and
disagreeable, for it rained nearly every day about this time. No one who
has not marched on foot behind army wagon and artillery trains has any
conception of what muddy roads are. Horses and mules were sometimes
literally buried in the mud and left to perish, or shot dead on the
spot.

It is surprising how much fatigue and hardship men can stand when put to
it. Soldiers were often put to the supreme test of endurance, and, no
doubt, many an old Confederate soldier often says to himself, "How did
we stand those long, tiresome marches, through the rain and mud of
spring, through the dust and heat of summer, and midst snow and ice of
winter, often poorly shod, scantily clothed, and on short, very short
rations, sometimes none at all." A man can stand more than a horse. But
the Confederate soldiers did stand these things, enduring more, perhaps,
than any soldiers ever endured before. It took men to do these things—
men with muscles, sinews, and nerves in their bodies, and courage in
their hearts; and then, on the battlefield, to meet the foe two, three,
and four to one, and vanquish that foe, took men of the highest valor.
Of such was the Confederate soldier. The service of our Revolutionary
fathers was not comparable to the arduous trials and privations of the
Confederate soldiers. The privations and suffering of the army at Valley
Forge during the winter of 1777-78 was as nothing to the experiences of
the Confederates around Petersburg during the winter of 1864-5.

On February 8, 1865, General Lee wrote to the Secretary of War to this
effect: "For three days and nights the right wing of the army has been
in line of battle; some of the men have had no meat for three days, and
all suffering from reduced rations and scant clothing, exposed to the
fire of the enemy, cold, hail and sleet." About the same time General
Lee issued a circular letter to the farmers in the surrounding country,
beseeching them to "loan the army all the cornmeal and sorghum they
could spare." But I am anticipating, so back to the Peninsula.


                         BATTLE OF WILLIAMSBURG

I should have stated before, that about the time the army fell back from
Centreville and Manassas, General Longstreet was promoted to
major-general, and Col. A. P. Hill of the Thirteenth Virginia Regiment
was promoted to brigadier-general, and assigned to Longstreet's old
brigade, which now formed a part of Longstreet's Division.

On the afternoon of the 4th of May, the brigade marched through the town
of Williamsburg; slept on their arms in an open field just west of the
town. Early next morning it was evident to all that a fight was on hand—
staff officers and couriers were riding hither and thither in great
haste. McClellan was pressing on General Johnston's rear a little too
closely to suit him, and Johnston determined to give him a taste of what
was in store for him later on.

Hill's Brigade, as well as other troops, infantry and artillery, were
marched back through the town. Just at the eastern limits of the town
the brigade turned off the road to the right, through the fields, and
was massed in a deep hollow. Other troops were known to be in the woods
a few hundred yards in front, and we were in position as their support.

Other troops had passed on down the Yorktown road towards Fort McGruder,
and the other forts east of Williamsburg, some of which the Confederates
had abandoned. I remember Latham's Battery dashing by, as we marched
through the streets, at a gallop. Latham's Battery was from Lynchburg,
and the men well known to many of the Eleventh Regiment. Some one in the
Eleventh called out to them as they passed, asking if they were going
into the fight. "Yes," shouted back Jim Ley, one of the battery;
"Latham's Battery is always in the fight." Artillery firing could
already be heard at the front. As the men passed along the streets, they
unslung their knapsacks, depositing them in the front yards of the
houses on the street—stripping for the fight. There were no forts or
breastworks in our front, nor was there any artillery with the brigade
or with the troops in front. The position was the extreme right of the
Confederate lines.


                           THE BATTLE BEGINS

We did not have to wait long. Sharp musketry firing soon commenced in
the woods—lasting only a short time, however. About the time the firing
ceased, the brigade was ordered forward, not in line of battle, but
marching by the flank. As we entered the woods Gen. Roger A. Pryor and a
few men came out and moved off to the left, along the edge of the field.
Soon after getting into the woods the brigade was formed in line of
battle by the maneuver, "By the right flank into line." The woods were
thick with much undergrowth, and we could see only a few yards in front.

For some time after the line was formed, everything was quiet. It was a
cloudy, misty morning, and the air was filled with the smoke of the
recent firing; no enemy was in sight nor could we see any of the
Confederates who had been engaged. It has always been a mystery to me
what became of these troops. We could see and smell the smoke from their
guns, but not a man was seen, except perhaps fifteen or twenty who came
out as we entered.

Company C was on the left of the Eleventh Regiment, and the Seventh
Regiment, commanded by Col. James L. Kemper, was the next regiment on
the left. Colonel Kemper took position at the right of his regiment. My
place, as first lieutenant of Company C, being near the left of the
company, placed me close to Colonel Kemper, and it is of the fighting
along the line of these two regiments I propose to tell, as I saw and
heard it that day.


                           "GIVE IT TO THEM!"

While standing here in line of battle some of Company C saw a line of
men through a slight opening in the woods about one hundred yards away,
obliquely to the left. Only a few files of the men were visible through
the vista; some one called my attention to these men. I looked; they
seemed to have on blue uniforms, and the brass buttons on their coats
could be plainly seen; they were standing at rest. I called Colonel
Kemper, who came and said he believed they were Yankees, but was not
certain. Just then General Hill, on foot, came along down in the rear of
the line of battle from the right, and Colonel Kemper called his
attention to these men. General Hill leveled his field-glasses on the
line, and in a moment said: "Yes, they are Yankees; give it to them!"
Colonel Kemper's clear-ringing voice broke the stillness with, "Now,
boys, I want you to give it to those blue-coated fellows; ready, aim,
fire." At the first command every musket was raised to the shoulder and
leveled, every eye ran along the barrel at the command "aim," and at the
word "fire" a sheet of flame burst forth from the line with a deafening
roar.

Very few of our men could see the enemy, but every man shot straight to
the front—the guns on a level. No doubt, the first volley did much
execution, the men reloading as quickly as possible and continuing to
fire rapidly. In the midst of the firing Colonel Kemper's clarion voice
rang out above the roar of the muskets. He said: "General Hill says the
line must be advanced." Not a man moved forward, but all continued
loading and shooting as fast possible. Again Colonel Kemper shouted
louder than before: "General Hill says the lines must be advanced." At
this moment General Hill came to the front, immediately in front of
Company C, pistol in hand. General Hill wore a dark blue blouse or
overshirt, gathered at the waist by the sword belt, had on a military
cap with a sprig of pine fastened in front, and as he went forward,
waving his pistol over his head, looking back over his shoulder and
calling on the men to follow, made a splendid picture of the heroic and
gallant soldier that he was. This picture was photographed on my memory
never to be forgotten.


                            INTO A HOT FIRE

The whole line rushed forward over a fence and down a slight slope in
the ground, about fifty yards, and was met by a close and deadly fire
from the enemy, whom we could not see, but the sharp, quick "sip, sip"
of the minie balls, as they whacked the trees and cut the bushes and
twigs, told plainly that we were in very close quarters. On the hill
where the firing commenced, I don't remember that we suffered any
casualties—I think the Yankees shot too low; but now the men were
falling on every hand. The firing was kept up here for some little time,
the men sitting or kneeling on the ground, loading and shooting into the
bushes in front whence the balls were coming, though no enemy was in
sight. While here I looked to the left, oblique from our front, and saw
a Yankee standing beside a tree some seventy-five yards away, about
where the line had been first seen. Up to this time I had carried a
pistol, a Colt's five-shooter, and drawing this I aimed at this Yankee,
snapped the pistol several times, which, failing to fire, I threw it
down, picked up a loaded musket that had fallen from the hands of some
man, killed or wounded, and fired at the Yankee; where he was hit, I
never knew. About this time the cry came along our lines from the right,
"They are running." The line again pushed forward, but we did not catch
sight of the Yankees, that is, live ones, but a short distance, some
twenty yards in front, their line of battle was plainly marked by the
dead men lying strewn along through the woods. The lines continued to
press forward through the woods for a quarter of a mile or more, until
the eastern edge of the woods was reached, where the timber had been
felled.

While pushing along through the woods I saw to my left several of
Company C around a gray-haired Yankee officer with side-whiskers and
mustache, seemingly rifling his pockets. I shouted at the men, "Stop
robbing that officer." They replied, "We are just loosening his belt."
The officer said the same when I approached him. He had been desperately
wounded and left by his men.

In the felled timber, some thirty yards from the woods, the Yankees had
taken refuge, lying down behind the logs and stumps, and as the
Confederates came up, opened a close and rapid fire, our men protecting
themselves behind trees and logs at the edge of the woods and returning
the fire. Here the firing was fast and furious, both sides being under
cover. The casualties here were not serious, on the Confederate side, at
least, the Yankees shooting too high, riddling the trees and bushes
overhead.


                        COLONEL GARLAND WOUNDED

In the midst of this severe fighting, Colonel Garland, with his left arm
bandaged and in a sling, came up. He had been shot through the forearm
early in the action, had his wound dressed, and continued in the fight
to the end.

As soon as Colonel Garland came up, he shouted out, "Charge 'em!"
Captain Clement, a brave man, whose courage was beyond question and who
still lives in Campbell County, a scarred veteran, remonstrated, saying:
"For God's sake, Colonel Garland, don't send the men over there into
that fire. They will all be killed." Colonel Garland replied: "Well,
hold on a while then." It was not long before the fire of the enemy
began to slacken—the well-aimed shots of the Confederates were telling.
Our lines rose up without orders, and over the logs the men rushed right
among the Yankees. Some of the enemy jumped up and ran; many were shot
down as they ran; others lay still behind the logs and stumps and were
captured; some were hauled from brush piles, and many lay killed and
wounded on the ground, most of whom were shot in the head. This scene
reminded me of a lot of boys hunting rabbits in thickets.

While engaged in gathering up the prisoners, sending them to the rear
and exulting over the victory, the noise of artillery wheels was heard
(it was impossible to see far, on account of the smoke and fog), and the
men were ordered back to the woods whence they had just charged. There
were several abandoned Yankee cannon in the road in our front; I don't
remember whether these were taken off the field or not, but think they
were. We held this position during the remainder of the day, without
seeing or hearing anything of the enemy in our front.

Pretty soon after we fell back to the edge of the woods, a terrific
musketry fire opened up to the right of this position, which seemed to
be a little to the rear of the extension of the line, the minie balls
flying thick and fast through the woods in the rear. As this firing
increased in volume and seemed to be drawing nearer, some of the Seventh
Regiment began to look anxiously to the rear, like a balky horse, as if
contemplating a retreat. All eyes were turned in the direction of the
firing, which was only a few hundred yards to the right, and seemed to
be drawing closer. Colonel Kemper, who was still at the right of the
Seventh, noticed the anxiety of his men, and spoke out in firm and
defiant tones: "Steady, men, steady. The old Eighth Virginia is out
there." I never knew whether or not the Eighth Regiment was out there—I
don't think it was; but Kemper's words had the desired effect.

The men remembered Ball's Bluff, where the Eighth Virginia had some time
before distinguished itself, and whatever fears they may have had of
being flanked were allayed, and every man stood firmly at his post.

It was not long until the firing ceased all along the lines. The brigade
remained here until darkness closed over the bloody scenes and thrilling
events of the day, which were, no doubt, indelibly fixed in the minds of
every participant.

In the meanwhile, the battle was raging to the left over towards Fort
McGruder, where the fighting first commenced in the morning, and was
kept up pretty much all day. Here the Twenty-fourth Virginia and the
Fifth North Carolina distinguished themselves, as Pickett's Division did
at Gettysburg, in an unsuccessful, but gallant charge. There were no
better fighting regiments in the army.

Soon after dark the brigade moved silently off by the left flank,
marching back to the edge of Williamsburg, where we had turned off the
road early in the morning. We slept on the wet, muddy ground until
daybreak next morning, when we again marched through the old town
towards Richmond, the men gathering up their knapsacks deposited along
the street in the front yards the day before, and which the people had
taken care of.

On the march we did not hurry, camping four or five days on the east
bank of the Chickahominy; but the enemy did not crowd us again, the work
of the 5th of May having taught General McClellan a lesson, the moral of
which was, "Don't crowd Joe Johnston too closely on a retreat." Some of
the Yankee historians claim a victory at Williamsburg, a dear-bought
victory to be sure. They lost about five hundred killed, fifteen hundred
wounded, and four hundred unwounded prisoners, twelve cannon, and ten
stand of colors.

The Confederate loss was much less. We drove the enemy back, held the
battlefield, and marched off the next morning at our leisure, and did
not have a chance to fire another shot at the Yankees for weeks; indeed,
not until the 31st day of May, when Johnston again attacked and defeated
them at Seven Pines. We had whipped them in a fair, stand-up fight with
muskets at Williamsburg. It is a little singular and surprising that
McClellan with his "grand army" never made an attack on the
Confederates, but on the contrary, was always on the defensive in all
the battles from Williamsburg to Malvern Hill.

I saw nothing of the fighting on the 5th of May on the left of the
lines, nor on the right, except along the lines of the Seventh and
Eleventh Regiments. I know full well we cleaned them up here in nice
style, with small loss, comparatively. We drove them from their first
line in the woods, charged and captured their second position in the
fallen timber, killing, wounding, capturing and scattering everything in
front of Hill's Brigade. If this was not a victory, I'd like to know
what it was.

This was the first regular fight in which the Eleventh Regiment had been
engaged. The regiment, except two companies, was only under fire on the
18th of July at Blackburn's Ford, but did not fire a gun. On the 21st of
July the regiment lay all day under a shelling, but did not see a Yankee
or fire a gun. In the skirmish at Drainesville, in which Company C lost
its first man, I am not certain, but I don't think there was much
shooting done by the regiment.

At Williamsburg we got into it right. Company C lost eight men killed
and many wounded. The killed were Miffram Bailey, who married my wife's
sister, and had only been with the company about a month; Benj. Farris,
Crockett Hughes, Granville Rosser, David Layne, John Organ, John J.
Wood, another recruit, and Wm. H. Wilson, a first cousin of my wife, all
of whom were good soldiers. I noticed Billy Wilson, during the fight in
the bottom, some distance in front of the line, fighting with deadly
intent. I have often thought that he determined to distinguish himself
in this fight, but alas! he was stricken down, shot through the body,
dying in a few minutes. In this fight, so far as I could see, every
officer and man, from General Hill down to the humblest private, did his
whole duty. I never saw troops fight better on any field.


                        INCIDENTS OF THE BATTLE

I have often said this was the most satisfactory fight I was ever
engaged in, and I have read somewhere that General Kemper had said the
same thing. I noticed among others a member of Company C, Jim Brown,
from "Hell Bend" (a rather disreputable section of Campbell County), an
humble private of no pretentions, standing up and fighting like mad,
loading and shooting rapidly, with the corners of his mouth blacked by
the powder as he bit off the cartridges. I never forgot this, and it
stood Jim in good stead when, months afterwards, he was court-martialed
for absence without leave, and sentenced to wear a ball and chain for
sixty days. At Goldsboro, N. C., in 1863, when Chas. Clement drew up a
petition for his pardon, I gladly approved it, making an endorsement on
the petition to the effect, that "Brown was a brave soldier, had been
tried in battle and found not wanting in courage, fighting like a hero."
The paper was forwarded to headquarters, and quickly came back with an
endorsement granting the pardon prayed for. I remember it was at night
when it was returned to me. I at once repaired to Brown's quarters, and
found him and several others in their "dog house," under their blankets,
with the ball and chain at the foot, lying on the ground. I called to
Brown, telling him his pardon had come, that he could now take off the
ball and chain. Brown raised up on his elbow, looked down at the ball
and chain and said: "I have gone to bed now; I believe I will wait till
morning before I take it off." And so he did. Brown remained true to the
end, and was captured at Milford, May 21, 1864.

After the firing had all ceased, Colonel Kemper and Colonel Garland met
on the lines in the rear of Company C and exchanged congratulations,
both in high spirits and well pleased with the day's work. Colonel
Garland said among other things, "Kemper, honor's easy with you to-day."
I was standing near, and pointing to Garland's bandaged arm in the
sling, said: "Colonel Garland, you have the best of it, you have a
wound." "Yes," replied Garland, "I always wanted an honorable wound in
this war." Poor fellow, he got his death-wound at Boonsboro Gap, Md., a
few months afterwards while trying to rally his brigade. Colonel Garland
was a fine soldier, and if he had lived, would doubtless have attained
higher rank. He had a worthy ambition, was cool and steady in action,
not possessed so much of that brute courage that makes men reckless in
battle, but in an eminent degree of that high moral courage and pride
that enable true soldiers to do their duty in the face of the greatest
danger. He was highly endowed intellectually, a learned lawyer, a
brilliant and eloquent speaker, and possessed of considerable wealth.
Colonel Garland had a bright future before him, but alas! like so many
others, was cut down in his early manhood, in that cruel and ruthless
war waged by the North against the South.


                      GARLAND AND KEMPER PROMOTED

Garland and Kemper both won the stars and wreath of a brigadier at
Williamsburg. The former was first promoted and assigned to a North
Carolina Brigade, the latter soon afterwards succeeding Gen. A. P. Hill
as commander of the First Brigade, which he led into battle the first
time at Seven Pines, in less than one month after the Williamsburg
fight.

I remember, when Colonel Kemper took command of the brigade, he had his
old regiment, the Seventh Virginia, formed, and, mounted on his horse in
front of the regiment, made a stirring and patriotic speech, eulogizing
the men for their courage and devotion to the cause, and expressing his
love and devotion to all of them, declaring that, "Next to the child
that sprang from my own loins, I love the Seventh Regiment."

Before closing the account of this battle, I will relate one of the many
incidents of cool and deliberate bravery exhibited by the Confederate
soldiers on that day. While the firing at the edge of the woods was
going on, Daniel Pillow, a private of Company C, Eleventh Virginia, when
ready to fire, would raise up on his knees as high as he could, look
intently out among the logs and stumps in front, then raise his gun,
take deliberate aim and fire, and after firing raise his head again and
look in the direction he had shot. I called to him, saying, "Daniel,
when you have fired, don't expose yourself in that way by looking over
there; get down and load as quickly as possible." Pillow turned his face
towards me and said quietly in measured tones, "I reckon I want to see
what I am doing," and continued firing.

I also noticed Robt. Cocke, pressing forward in the hottest of the fight
in the attitude of one breasting a storm, leaning forward with a
determined expression on his face; in fact, I did not see a single man
of the company flinch.

Captain Clement wrote home highly complimenting the men and officers of
his company for their conduct in this fight.



                              CHAPTER VIII

               BACK TO RICHMOND—BATTLE OF SEVEN PINES—THE
                   BRIGADE IN RESERVE—INTO THE FIGHT
                    AT DOUBLE-QUICK—INCIDENTS OF THE
                       BATTLE—ON THE PICKET LINES


As before said, on the 6th of May we again marched through Williamsburg
on towards Richmond. The roads were deep in mud; it was a hot, sultry
May morning. A few miles out on the road I was taken suddenly very sick,
and lay down on the roadside utterly unable to march any further.
Visions of capture and prison rose before me like a nightmare. The
regimental ambulance was in the rear, and when it came up I was taken in
and rode all day, camping that night with the wagon trains, and the next
day rejoined the command.

On the 9th of May we reached the Chickahominy River at Bottom's Bridge,
where we remained for several days, waiting for the Yankees, but they
did not come so fast as they did at Williamsburg. On the first day's
march from here it was raining, the marching being very fatiguing. I
remember that night when we turned off the road into woods partially
cleared with the brush piled, I spread my blanket on one of the piles of
brush, with a Yankee oilcloth over me, and slept soundly till morning.
It rained nearly all night, but I was dry and ready for the march the
next morning. The next day we trudged on up the Peninsula, passing by
some historic old homesteads, among others, if I remember aright,
Ex-President John Tyler's old place and his grave (the tombstone a
simple white slab) by the roadside.

On the 15th of May the brigade went into camp in the vicinity of
Richmond, near what was called Darbytown (though I don't remember seeing
anything like a town or village), where it remained for a few days. This
locality, I later learned, is called Darbytown after a family of
Enroughties, whose local cognomen is Darby. How Darby could have been
evolved out of Enroughty has always been, to me, one of the mysteries of
evolution. Yet quite as reasonable as that man sprang from a monkey. I
got a pass from here into Richmond, where I bought an officer's uniform,
having before only a jacket.

On the 27th of May we moved to a camp near Howard's Grove, remaining
there only four days, when the battle of Seven Pines came off.


                       THE BATTLE OF SEVEN PINES

Early on the morning of the 31st of May, 1862, the brigade marched out
of camp to go into the battle of Seven Pines. Orders were issued the
night before to take every available man, even the cooks.

Every one knew that a battle was to be fought that day. I remember as we
marched along the road that morning, it somehow occurred to me that I
would be wounded in this battle. Dr. Thornhill was passing along and I
remarked to him that I felt I would be wounded, and that he must see
after me. The doctor replied, "Oh, you must not think that." W. T.
Withers, of Company C, who had been detailed as hospital steward, also
came along and remarked that I had a chance to win my spurs that day, I
having a short time before taken command of Company C. Captain Clement
promoted to major, had gone home for his horse and equipments.

I didn't get wounded that day nor win any spurs that I ever saw, but was
in a very hot fight, and had three bullet holes through my clothes. So
my presentment came near being thrice fulfilled.

Two corps of the Yankee army had crossed over the Chickahominy at
Bottom's Bridge, fortifying their position at Fair Oaks and Seven Pines,
near Richmond, while three corps remained on the other side of the
river. General Johnston and his generals had conceived the plan of
falling suddenly on these two corps and crushing them before relief
could reach them from the other side. It was said General Longstreet
first made the suggestion. The night before, it had rained very hard;
this it was thought would add to the success of the scheme, as the rain
would raise the Chickahominy and keep back reënforcements, but the
swollen streams and muddy roads delayed the movements of the Confederate
troops, so that the attack upon the enemy's lines was delayed until
three o'clock P. M., while the plan was for it to be made in the morning
by nine or ten o'clock.

Longstreet with his own and D. H. Hill's Division was to make the attack
at Seven Pines, and was ready early in the morning, but other troops who
were to assist on other portions of the line failed to come up and take
position until three o'clock P. M. This no doubt caused a partial
failure of the enterprise.

While the Yankees were soundly thrashed and driven from their
breastworks and camps, yet they were not crushed and captured, as it was
hoped they would be.

Gen. Jas. L. Kemper was now in command of the brigade, which, as before
said, was first commanded by Longstreet, and then by A. P. Hill, who was
now a major-general. The brigade was held in reserve while the other
brigades of Longstreet's and D. H. Hill's divisions advanced on the
Yankee lines, who were in their fortified camps at Seven Pines.


                         THE BRIGADE IN RESERVE

It is one of the rules of war to hold the best troops in reserve, and
put them into the fight at the critical moment. No brigade in the army
stood higher than the "First Virginia," as it was called. The Eleventh
Regiment, which stood as high as the highest, was in reserve at the
battle of July 18, 1861, at Blackburn's Ford. The brigade was in reserve
at Williamsburg on the 5th of May, and now again at Seven Pines on the
30th of May, and also soon afterwards at Gaines' Mill on the 27th of
June, and in many other battles during the war.

The brigade was posted in an open field about three-fourths of a mile
from the Yankee lines, the enemy's first line being in the woods at the
edge of a field, the woods extending to within two hundred yards of the
Yankee camps, and in front of the camp were breastworks and redoubts
mounted with big guns. The attacking Confederate troops were in these
woods also. The brigade was first marched off the road some distance to
the right, then marched back, the left resting on the road leading down
to Seven Pines, where it remained standing in line until ordered into
the fight. While here the firing commenced in the woods at the front.
About this time the command was given to load. The ramrods rattling down
the musket barrels created a sensation akin to that of the clods falling
upon the coffin lid, which is a reminder that some one is dead, and
suggested the question, Who will be the next? The first suggested death
to many, and who will be the victims? While loading, I spoke a few words
to the men of the company, exhorting them to do their duty, and remember
what they were fighting for.

The fighting was very heavy in front for some time, and we expecting
every moment to be called into action. Such suspense is very trying, but
not as bad as lying under a shelling.


                     INTO THE FIGHT AT DOUBLE-QUICK

General Longstreet, with his staff about him, was sitting on his horse
in the road close by, looking intently in the direction of the firing. I
don't remember how long after the firing began, half an hour or perhaps
more (time seems to move slow on such occasions), it was not long,
however, before the brigade was ordered to go to the front in
double-quick time, and down the road we went in a run. About the time
the woods were reached, the wounded men began to appear in large numbers
going to the rear, some on foot, some on stretchers, and some in
ambulances; some limping along, shot in their feet or legs; some holding
a wounded hand or arm; all bleeding and bedraggled, having charged
through a swamp; some groaning and moaning, lamenting their sad fate, in
utter despair and helplessness; others, in grim and heroic silence,
bearing the pain and shock of their wounds in silence, with fortitude
and bravery.

One man I remember, who was completely demoralized, called out as we
passed him, making his way to the rear, "Oh, men," he wailed, "don't go
down there, you will all be killed; they are killing our men, they have
wounded me. It is no use to go; don't go." A little further on, came
another man, shot in the head or face, bleeding profusely, bareheaded,
swinging his arms and shouting at the top of his voice, "Go in, boys,
and give 'em hell. They have shot me, but I gave them the devil first;
go in, boys, and give it to 'em." These two incidents illustrate how
some men are affected in battle. The one was completely undone, perhaps
he had no relish for the fight in the start, and was probably what was
called in the army, "a whiner"; always low spirited and complaining of
everything that happened. The other brave and resolute, who took things
as they came, making the best of everything. Of such were a large
majority of Confederate soldiers—this last class.

On, the brigade went still at a run, the Eleventh Regiment leading,
Company C in front. Capt. J. Lawrence Meem, of Lynchburg, who, until
Garland's promotion was adjutant of the Eleventh Regiment, and was now
General Garland's chief of staff, met us with word from the front to
"hurry." By this time all were well out of breath, but rushed on at
increased speed through mud and water almost knee-deep in some places.
Again a messenger is sent from Gen. D. H. Hill to "hurry, it is a
critical time at the front; the enemy has been driven from his
breastworks and camps, but there are not enough men of the assaulting
column left to occupy and hold the works. The men are doing all that
mortal men can do, some are falling by the wayside from sheer
exhaustion, nothing but the excitement keeps any on their feet." General
Kemper said to the messenger, "Tell General Hill I am left in front and
would like to change." The messenger replied, "No time to change now,
hurry on." Soon the brigade emerged from the woods into the open field,
on the farther side of which the Yankee breastworks and camps were
located, but not a living soldier, Yankee or Confederate, was in sight.
I have said "living soldier," because as we rushed along by the edge of
this field, over which the Confederates had charged, the ground was
thickly strewn with dead Confederates close up to the Yankee breastworks
and redoubts, where stood their abandoned cannon. Passing beyond these
works, Generals Hill and Garland, with their staff officers, were seen
waiting, behind a big pile of cord wood, the coming of the brigade,
which was directed to file to the right through the Yankee camp, with
their small fly-tents still standing, where, facing towards the enemy,
the rear rank was in front, but this made little or no difference. Like
the English "Fore and Aft," the men fight from front or rear rank just
the same. As the brigade filed out through the camp, a terrific fire was
opened by the Yankees, who had rallied or been reënforced by fresh
troops, a hundred or two yards beyond their camp. The Yankee lines could
not be seen on account of the smoke and fog, but the balls flew thick
through the air, killing and wounding many. The men lying flat on the
ground, returned the fire as best they could. In a short time some one
gave the order to fall back to the abandoned Yankee breastworks, some
forty or fifty yards in the rear, which afforded protection from the
enemy's shots. This order was obeyed in double-quick time, all hurrying
over the breastworks, getting on the reverse side, into the ditch half
filled with water, preferring the cold water to hot lead. I did not hear
the order to fall back, and the others got the start of me. I think I
was the last man to go over the works, and was sure a Yankee bullet
would hit me as I did so. I expect it was here that one or more of the
bullets passed through my clothes. I thought about being shot in the
back, of which I always had a dread, but did not take time to turn
around, face the enemy and go over backwards, making all haste possible
to get out of danger. From the breastworks the fire was kept up for some
time, until General Kemper sent a detachment around on the enemy's left
flank, when the firing ceased.


                        INCIDENTS OF THE BATTLE

The brigade lost a good many men in this fight, Colonel Funston and
Lieutenant-Colonel Langhorne, of the Eleventh Regiment both being badly
wounded and permanently disabled. Company C lost three men killed,
namely: James Wood, Silas Barber, and James Terrell, all recruits, and
several wounded. Terrell was in the Mexican War. Capt. Lawrence Meem,
Garland's chief of staff, was killed dead on the field, shot through the
head; a fine soldier he was too, brave, handsome and accomplished. Capt.
Henry Fulks, of Company F, was killed in a few feet of me. He had rushed
into the Yankee camp exhausted from the double-quicking, sat down on a
Yankee fly-tent, which sank to the ground with his weight, and had just
raised his head to look to the front when a ball struck him about the
head or face, when he sank back and was dead in a few minutes. I heard
the whack of the ball as it struck him and saw the blood trickling down
his neck. About this time Color-Bearer Hickok, of the Eleventh Regiment,
who was standing close by with his flag in hand, and who was about the
only man or officer I saw on his feet, was shot down, badly wounded,
when Color-Guard Jim Haynes, of Company F, seized the colors and rushed
to Captain Foulks, taking him in his arms, but still holding the flag
aloft, and cried out, "Oh, my poor captain is killed; my poor captain is
killed." So Captain Foulks died with the Confederate battle-flag waving
over him, its folds partly enveloping his body.

I must again refer to Daniel Pillow, of Company C, who was so cool and
deliberate and fought with such deadly intent at Williamsburg. When the
troops fell back to the breastworks, Pillow, instead of getting down in
the ditch as the others did, took his seat on the parapet while several
comrades behind him loaded guns which he fired at the enemy with
deliberate aim. At one time the order was given to cease firing; it was
thought some Confederates were in front between the lines. Pillow paid
no heed to the order. Colonel Corse, of the Seventeenth Regiment, came
along the lines, and said to Pillow, "My man, cease firing, our men are
over there." Pillow turned towards the Colonel and said with
determination and sternness: "Don't I see the Stars and Stripes? I am
going to shoot"; and continued firing as before. Colonel Corse stooping
down, looked under the smoke and fog, and seeing the Yankee flag, said,
"Well, fire away then."

Daniel Pillow was an humble private, an "overseer" at the beginning of
the war, without education or pretensions, but he was a soldier, every
inch of him. He was always at his post, ever ready for any duty. Being
six feet or more tall, he marched at the head of the company, being
always near me on the march and in battle; never grumbled or whined, and
was one of the bravest of the brave. He was reported missing at
Gettysburg, and never heard of again. I have no doubt that he fell with
his face to the foe in that desperate charge in which Pickett's Division
was immortalized, and that he sleeps in an unknown soldier's grave. All
honor to his memory.

Walter Rosser, Jim Cocke, Sam Franklin, and Daniel Pillow were the big,
or rather the tall, four of Company C, being over six feet high; were
always at the head of the company, and all good fighters, too.

There was no more fighting on this part of the line. The Confederates
had driven the Yankees from their works and camp, capturing all their
camp equipage and stores, several pieces of cannon, 7,000 muskets, and
about 350 prisoners. Longstreet's and D. H. Hill's divisions had soundly
thrashed a Yankee corps under General Keys.

Gen. G. W. Smith was on the Confederate left towards Fair Oaks station,
but was not engaged until nearly night, when General Sumner's Corps,
crossing over the Chickahominy, came to the relief of Hientzleman and
Kasey, whose troops fell back in that direction and were joined by
Sumner in resisting Smith's attack. General Johnston, who was on this
part of the line, was wounded about seven o'clock, when the command
devolved on General Smith.

The wounding of the Confederate commander-in-chief at this critical
moment was a great misfortune to the Confederates, and no doubt lessened
their chances of the complete success aimed at—the destruction and
capture of the two corps that had crossed over the Chickahominy.

For the number of troops engaged, this was one of the bloodiest battles
of the war. The Confederate loss both days was estimated at a little
over 6,000 killed and wounded; the Yankee loss a little over 5,000. The
Confederates attacked the enemy in his breastworks, which accounts for
the heavy loss sustained. The Confederates also captured many prisoners
and several pieces of cannon.

The brigade remained behind the breastworks until after dark, then other
troops took its place, when we marched back a short distance and slept
under some scrub-oak trees. I remember that night a young kinsman of
mine, George Bright, from Prince Edward County, who was acting as
courier for General Kemper, came to where we were to enquire how we
fared in the fight, and gave me a first-rate new blanket he had picked
up in the Yankee camp, which I carried and used through the rest of the
war, only parting with it when I left Fort Delaware, in May, 1865. I
remember also that Dr. Thornhill got General Kasey's large camp-chair,
with the General's name on it, which the doctor used as long as he
remained in the field.

The next morning, which was Sunday, the brigade marched back to the
breastworks, formed in line of battle at right angles with the works,
facing towards Fair Oaks, where it remained during the day, lying in the
hot (first day of June) sun, without any protection from its rays, all
day long. There was considerable fighting towards Fair Oaks early that
Sunday morning, but none on this immediate line.

That night the Confederates marched out from the lines back towards
Richmond, Kemper's Brigade, as it was now called, going into camp just
northeast of Richmond, where it remained until the 26th of June, 1862,
when the Seven Days' battles around Richmond began.


                          ON THE PICKET LINES

After the battle of Seven Pines, picket duty was very heavy—whole
regiments going on duty, some on the advance line and others in reserve.
The Eleventh Regiment picketed near Seven Pines. The advance lines or
posts were in the woods, near where the fighting commenced on the 31st
of May, and very close to the Yankees.

I remember one morning, when the Eleventh Regiment was ordered on
picket, while getting ready to go, I heard one of the men say, "I
understand picket firing _are_ very fatal down there." The pickets would
fire on each other at every opportunity.

On this trip the Eleventh Regiment was in reserve, while some North
Carolina troops occupied the advanced posts. During the time a North
Carolina captain came running back from the front where there was some
sharp firing, and reported that the Yankees had charged the picket
lines, capturing and killing all of his company—he alone being left to
tell the tale.

Company C and Company H were ordered from the reserves to go to the
front and retake the picket lines. Accordingly the two companies were
formed in line of battle in the open field, a few hundred yards from the
woods, Captain Hutter, of Company H, being the senior officer,
commanding. We marched on towards the woods, expecting every moment to
be fired upon, Captain Hutter leading in front of the line.

The woods were reached without seeing or hearing of the enemy. Advancing
into the woods some distance, the Confederate pickets were discovered at
their posts on the alert, watching for the Yankee pickets through the
bushes. They motioned to us and spoke in low tones, warning us to keep
under cover, that the Yankees would fire on sight of any one. So it
turned out that the pickets had not been killed or captured, the Tar
Heel captain being the only man who had been demoralized and run away.

I walked out into the road running through the woods along which we had
gone into the fight on the 31st of May, and as I did so, one of the
pickets close by waved me back, saying: "Don't go out there, you will be
shot." I remained long enough in the road to see, a few hundred yards
away, at the farther edge of the woods, a column of blue-coated Yankees
passing across the road, moving to the right, with the Stars and
Stripes—a very large flag—flying above them. That flag looked hateful to
me then, and on other occasions, when I saw it flying above the heads of
men with guns in their hands, who were our deadly enemies, invaders of
the sacred soil of Virginia, doing their utmost to kill her sons who
dared to defend their rights, and who burned houses and devastated the
country ruthlessly and cruelly; and now I here record, that I have never
since that day looked very _admiringly_ or _adoringly_ on that flag, nor
have I since the war worn any blue clothes.

In a short time I went back to the general commanding the picket lines
and reported that the pickets were on their posts, with the line intact,
also that I had seen the column moving to the right. The general
remarked, "They are massing on our right," and ordered a battery to open
fire in that direction. This fire drew no response from the enemy, and
in a short time the two companies were ordered back to the reserves, and
all was quiet.

As I was going back to report to the general I met the Tar Heel captain,
a small, pale-faced youth. He seemed much relieved when I informed him
that his company was not captured, and hastened down to rejoin them,
saying, "That's all right," mortified, no doubt, that he ran away. I
felt sorry for him.



                               CHAPTER IX

                SEVEN DAYS' FIGHT AROUND RICHMOND—BATTLE
                            OF GAINES' MILL


The brigade remained near Richmond some weeks longer. On the afternoon
of the 26th of June, 1862, the Seven Days' fights around Richmond
commenced at, or near, Mechanicsville, north of Richmond on the upper
Chickahominy. McClellan's army lay on both sides of the Chickahominy,
his right wing extending as far up the stream as Mechanicsville.

Gen. R. E. Lee was now in command of the army around Richmond, and
determined to strike a blow at the enemy instead of waiting to be
attacked at Richmond. On the morning of the 26th of June we marched out
of camp, going north. As we crossed the York River Railroad an engine,
with an inflated balloon attached to a heavy cable, passed along. This
balloon was used by the Confederates in observing the movements of the
enemy.

By a master stroke of strategy Stonewall Jackson was brought from the
Valley, where he had just out-generaled and whipped three Yankee armies
in detail, each larger than his own, and before any of the Yankee
generals anywhere knew of his movements, joined General Lee and helped
thrash McClellan and his "grand army," now 160,000 strong; Lee had about
80,000 all told.

A. P. Hill's division crossed the upper Chickahominy on the 26th of
June, and in the afternoon attacked the Yankees in a strong position on
Beaver Dam Creek, driving them from their first lines. It was expected
that Jackson's forces would join with A. P. Hill's in this attack by
striking the enemy on the right flank and rear, but from some unknown
cause, Jackson's men were delayed, and did not arrive in time. The
battle lasted until nightfall. The Confederates lost heavily in this
fight, from assaults on the enemy's works.

The Yankees withdrew from their position during the night and fell back
to Gaines' Mill, lower down the Chickahominy, where the next day a
terrific and bloody battle was fought and won by the Confederates.

Longstreet's Division crossed over the Chickahominy at Meadow Bridge,
below where Hill had crossed the day before, and moved down towards
Gaines' Mill, as the right wing of Lee's army, on the north side of the
Chickahominy, with Hill in the center and Jackson on the left. Kemper's
Brigade halted as it was crossing the bridge, with the Eleventh
Regiment, or a part of it, on the bridge. While waiting here, General
Lee rode by on "Traveler," picking his way carefully along through the
ranks. When close to Company C, General Lee asked what regiment this
was. Perhaps a dozen men spoke out, saying, "Eleventh Virginia."

Up to this time, the 27th of June, no one but the generals knew that
Jackson was anywhere near. During the day it was rumored that Jackson
had come from the Valley or was coming. That afternoon I saw some men
from Campbell County who belonged to Jackson's army, and asked them if
it were true that Jackson was near. They replied, "Yes, Jackson and all
his men are right over there," pointing to the left. This was, indeed,
good news. This piece of strategy had been worked to perfection by
General Lee. I remember a few days before, it was reported, in fact well
known, that Lee was sending reënforcements to Jackson in the Valley.
General Whiting's Division was sent by train via Lynchburg, around-about
way—no doubt to attract attention and deceive the enemy—to Staunton,
where it remained until the proper time, when it came back with
Jackson's troops via Charlottesville and Gordonsville.


                         BATTLE OF GAINES' MILL

At this battle of Gaines' Mill, on the 27th of June, 1862, Kemper's
Brigade was again in reserve, and was not actually engaged in the fight,
the Yankees breaking just as it was called in to reënforce after
sundown. This was one day the sun set before we got into the fight.

The brigade lay back in the pine woods, where now and then a stray shell
would come, anxiously awaiting the issue of the battle at the front—not
"eager for the fight," but ready to go when called on. It was about
sunset when Capt. J. W. Fairfax, of General Longstreet's staff, on his
war horse, came bounding over the logs and brush, through the woods,
towards where the brigade lay. All knew then what was up; the men knew
they were wanted whenever Captain Fairfax was seen dashing up on his
gray charger in time of a fight. Then some one was sure to say, "Boys,
we've got to go in now; yonder comes Captain Fairfax after us."
Longstreet with the rest of his division was hotly engaged at the front.

This was one of the hardest fought battles of the war. We lay in full
hearing, though not in sight of the battle-ground, on account of the
woods and hills intervening. I never before or afterwards heard such
heavy musketry firing. I have read somewhere that General Lee said it
was the heaviest he ever heard.

The Confederates lost heavily in this fight, as they attacked the enemy
in strong, fortified positions. The Yankees admitted a loss of 9,000
killed and wounded, and twenty-two cannon.

The brigade went down the road towards the battlefield. It was nearly
dark by the time we got down to the creek, when the firing ceased, and
the battle was over. The Yankees had been driven from every part of the
field, and that night crossed to the south side of the Chickahominy, and
McClellan commenced his retreat by the left flank to James River.

I remember, as we were going down the road, seeing Chaplain John C.
Granberry, later Bishop Granberry, going along with the men. I said to
him, "Mr. Granberry, you ought not to go into this fight; you have no
gun and may get shot." He replied, "I have an object in going," and on
he went. A few days afterwards, at Malvern Hill, he was badly wounded
and left on the field for dead, but recovered, losing the sight of an
eye, however, from the effects of a wound on the brow. I remember also,
as we were going down the hill, we heard that Col. R. E. Withers had
been mortally wounded. As we crossed the bridge over Powhite Creek I saw
the surgeon of the Eighteenth Virginia, which the Colonel commanded, and
asked the doctor if Colonel Withers was badly wounded. "Yes, sir," he
replied, "he can not live an hour." He did live, however.

I was sick that day, but stayed with the company until the fighting was
all over, when I started back to Richmond, the surgeon having given me a
sick-pass during the afternoon.

I determined, however, to go into the fight if the regiment was called
on, but as before said, the Yankees gave it up before we got at them, to
which I had not the slightest objection; in fact, I was very glad of it.
I made my way back towards Richmond next day, walking very slowly, and
resting often by the wayside, went to the camp where the tents were
still standing, where the man Pillow I have spoken of was also sick. In
a few days several old men from Campbell County, who had come to
Richmond to look after the sick and wounded men of Company C, took us to
Richmond to a hotel where we went to bed. In a day or two we were sent
with other sick and wounded to Lynchburg, and from there I went home and
remained until restored to health, after a long spell of sickness.

The brigade was engaged in the fight on the 30th of June at Frazier's
Farm, though I don't think many were killed.

As I lay in the tent, I could hear the booming of the big guns in this
battle. The Yankees made a last stand at Malvern Hill, where, on the 1st
of July, a desperate battle was fought, the Yankees holding their
position until after nightfall, when they retired to Harrison's landing
under the protection of their gunboats. McClellan was afterwards called
Gunboat McClellan, he having sought the safety of the gunboats. His
initials were G. B.

In the Seven Days' fighting around Richmond, the Confederates, according
to General Lee's report, captured more than 10,000 prisoners, fifty-two
pieces of artillery, and 35,000 muskets. The Yankees admit they had
160,000 in the Peninsula campaign, and that there were only 85,000, when
it ended at Harrison's landing on the James River, fit for duty. The
Confederate loss was heavy, but nothing to compare with the Yankee loss.



                               CHAPTER X

         SECOND MANASSAS AND MARYLAND CAMPAIGN—SHARPSBURG—BACK
                            TO VIRGINIA—FROM
                       WINCHESTER TO CULPEPER—TO
                             FREDERICKSBURG


               SECOND MANASSAS AND THE MARYLAND CAMPAIGN

Some time after the battles around Richmond, the brigade set out on what
is called the Maryland campaign. It took part in the second battle of
Manassas, on the 30th of August, 1862, when my brother, Robert W., who
was just eighteen years old, and had joined the company the day before,
was badly wounded in the thigh. He was taken to Warrenton, where his
father came to him. While there the latter had a severe spell of typhoid
fever.

In the fight Company C lost four men killed, as follows: Harvey Martin,
W. H. Hendricks, Chas. Murrell, and H. O. Elliott, and several wounded.
In this battle the brigade charged and captured a Yankee battery.


                               SHARPSBURG

The brigade was also engaged in the battle of Sharpsburg, Md., on the
17th of September, 1862, when Major Clement was in command of the
Eleventh Regiment and was desperately wounded. He never again returned
to the army. He still lives in Campbell County, respected and honored by
his people. Adam Clement was a true man, among the bravest of the brave.

I have heard some of Company C relate that on the evening of September
15th, when near Sharpsburg, they saw General Lee by the roadside. When
the head of the column, which was falling back before the Yankee army
from the direction of South Mountain, reached a certain point, General
Lee remarked, as the troops by his order filed off the road to form line
of battle, "We will make our stand on these hills," and here the
Confederates did make a desperate stand before a largely superior force,
30,000 against 80,000, and held their ground to the end. This was a
bloody fight, many thousand men being killed and wounded on both sides.
General Jackson had a few days before captured Harper's Ferry, with
11,000 prisoners and large quantities of stores and munitions of war.
Jackson and his men then set out to rejoin General Lee at Sharpsburg,
arriving, some of them, late in the afternoon on the 17th inst., with
ranks much depleted by the hasty march. But "old Jack" got there in time
to save the day.

Company C lost two, and perhaps more, men killed, as follows: Joe Rice
and John Rice, and several wounded.


                            BACK TO VIRGINIA

After the battle of Sharpsburg the brigade, with the Confederate troops,
re-crossed the Potomac River and camped about Winchester until the
latter part of October.

I rejoined the army near Winchester about the 25th of September, 1862,
going by railroad to Staunton in company with several men of Company C,
who had been home on sick and wounded furloughs, from whence we tramped
down the pike and back road, a distance of ninety-odd miles to and
beyond Winchester.

The second day, I think it was, we left the rock road, crossing over to
the back road in order to procure rations more easily along the way,
which we did without any trouble, buying our food from the farm-houses
along the road, and sleeping in the woods at night. It took four or five
days to make the trip.

With the main army, the brigade left Winchester about the 25th of
October, marched up the rock road some distance, then struck across
towards the Blue Ridge, wading the Shenandoah River, waist-deep or more.
Along the farther side of the river, I remember there were some grand
old sycamore trees growing with wide-spreading branches. Whenever I read
of or hear Stonewall Jackson's dying words, "Let us cross over the river
and rest under the shade of the trees," I think of those sycamores on
the Shenandoah, under which I have no doubt Jackson and his men rested
in the long ago.

We crossed the Blue Ridge at Thornton's Gap, not far from Sperryville,
passing through Madison, Rappahannock, Orange, and Culpeper counties.
Through Madison County the road ran for some distance along Robinson
River, which has the rockiest bed I ever saw, literally covered with
small boulders, not very small at that, some of them. We arrived at
Culpeper Court House about the 3d of November. In the meantime, the
enemy had crossed the Potomac and were then near Warrenton, Fauquier
County, and about the middle of November moved towards Fredericksburg.

The army remained in Culpeper and Orange counties until about the 19th
of November, 1862, when it moved on towards Fredericksburg, where the
brigade arrived about the 25th of November, stopping by the way several
times, going through the Wilderness country—large tracts of woodlands,
miles and miles in extent, which afterwards became famous as the ground
on which several bloody battles were fought—a part of the way along the
old plank-road, going into, as was thought, winter quarters, building
"dog houses," some two miles south of Fredericksburg.

The Yankee army, now commanded by General Burnside, was in camp on the
opposite side of the Rappahannock River, on what was called Stafford
Heights, which overlooked the town and country on the south side, their
thousands of white tents being in plain view from the hills on the south
side of the river.

The Yankees always camped in the open fields, where they pitched their
tents. The Confederates camped in woods after the first year, when
improvised shelters were used, for few were the tents they had.

The camps of both armies extended along the river, on either side, some
twelve or fifteen miles. The picket lines were along the river banks, in
sight of each other, but no firing was done; instead, the soldiers
sometimes clandestinely crossed over, swapping tobacco and coffee—the
"Johnnies," as the Yankees called the Confederates, having the tobacco,
and the "Yanks" the coffee. Newspapers were also exchanged.

While here many of the men were without shoes, and beef hides were
issued to make moccasins, but this was a poor shift for shoes, and did
little or no good.



                               CHAPTER XI

                 THE BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURG—KEMPER'S
              BRIGADE IN RESERVE—SPECTACULAR SCENE—BEHIND
                     MARYE'S HILL—SHARP-SHOOTING—AT
                             HOME—SAD LOSS


                      THE BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURG

Longstreet was in command of the corps, and Gen. Geo. E. Pickett was the
division commander, having been assigned to the division in September.
The hills along the south side of the river on which Lee's army was
encamped are from a half to a mile back from the river, broad bottom
lands intervening between the river and hills. When the line of battle
was formed, Jackson's Corps was on the Confederate right, Longstreet on
the left, and Kemper's Brigade on Longstreet's right flank, and about
the center of the line of battle, which was some four miles long.

Jackson being on the right, no one was uneasy about that wing;
Longstreet on the left, with General Lee near him, all felt at ease, and
with Pickett's Division about the center, we were sure of success.

I don't know whether the Yankees knew Kemper's Brigade was in the center
or not; one thing certain, they did not attack this part of the line. I
for one was very glad of it, and I think I had company.

It had been rumored about camp for some time that the Yankees were about
to cross the river and give battle. On the morning of the 11th of
December the rumor proved true—the Yankees were preparing to cross now,
beyond a doubt. I remember when we were aroused early that morning by
the Yankee guns shelling the town, I exclaimed, "Poor old
Fredericksburg!" It was not a part of General Lee's plan to seriously
contest the crossing; only one brigade, Barksdale's Mississippians, who
occupied the river front, in and just below the town as pickets, made
any resistance. They, however, drove back several times the pontoon
bridge-builders before they succeeded in laying their bridges across the
river, which is here about 300 yards wide. It was not until the
afternoon of the 12th that the Yankee army had crossed over. On the
morning of the 13th of December, 1862, when the line of battle was
finally formed for the big fight, I remember General Kemper rode out in
front of each regiment of his brigade and spoke to the men, urging them
to do their duty, saying among other things, "If we can whip the enemy
here to-day, I tell you from what I know, the Confederacy is surely
established." But alas! he did not know. The enemy was badly whipped
that day, but the Confederacy failed.

As before said, the Yankees did not attack the center of the Confederate
lines, but tried both the right and left wings about the same time. The
morning of the 13th of December was very foggy along the river bottoms,
and it was some time after sun-up, perhaps nine or ten o'clock, before
the fog lifted and the battle commenced. Soon after the firing began on
the right and left, Kemper's Brigade was marched back off the line of
battle up on a hill, so as to be in position to give support wherever
needed. While lying down there a big shell from a Yankee gun across the
river was fired at the line. The big, long shell, "camp kettles," as
they were called, struck the ground near by, but did not explode—it just
tipped along through the chinquapin bushes like an old hare and then lay
still; no one went out to investigate—all were glad it did not burst,
and just "left it be." They did not throw any more over there; all were
glad of that, too, but did not let the Yanks know it; we just laid
still, and like Pete Vaughan's bear, "never said a word," nor made any
sign of approval or disapproval.

From where the brigade lay on this hill, the Yankee lines advancing on
Jackson's position could be plainly seen, but Jackson's men could not be
seen—only the smoke from their guns, the men being concealed in the
woods.


                           SPECTACULAR SCENE

This battle scene was a grand spectacle—more like some great panoramic
picture of a battle than anything I saw during the war. Ordinarily, very
little of a battle is seen by the troops engaged or in reserve, the
reserve forces being generally concealed as much as possible from the
enemy, and the troops engaged too busy to pay any attention to what is
going on except in their immediate front. Most of the fighting is done
in the woods.

Three times with triple lines of battle the Yankees advanced across the
open field to within musket range of Jackson's men, the artillery on
each side belching forth shot and shell, grape and canister the while,
and each time upon receiving a deadly fire, halted and then began to
waiver, give back, scatter and finally disappear over the rise in the
ground, out of sight and out of range, leaving many dead and wounded
behind.

The Yankee officers on horseback could be seen riding hither and thither
among the men. One fellow on an iron-gray horse was particularly active
and conspicuous, seeming to be doing his utmost to urge his men forward,
but all to no purpose. They had run up against "Stonewall," and they had
no better success than their comrades, who about the same time were
butting up against a rock wall at the foot of Marye's Hill, on the
Confederate left. We could see the Yankee ambulances busy hauling the
wounded across the river and up the hills beyond, to the hospitals.

All the time we could hear the roar of the battle-tide to the left, as
well as see and hear it on the right. The booming of the cannon, the
bursting of the shells, and the long, deep, continuous roar of the
musketry, made a noise as if all nature was in convulsion.

               "Then shook the hills with thunder riven,
               Then rushed the steed to battle driven,
               And louder than the bolts of heaven,
               Far flashed the red artillery."

The big Yankee guns over the river punctuating the noise with frequent
loud and long sounding booms, followed by the screams of the big shells,
as they sped across the river, the reply of the Confederates' heavy
guns—all sounded like "pandemonium broke loose"—whatever that is—or like
the crash of worlds in the coming clash of the spheres, if ever God
Almighty lets loose the reins that hold them in their orbits. It has
been said that during this battle, General Lee remarked to some one,
"This is grand; it is well that it does not come often. We would become
too fond of such things."


                          BEHIND MARYE'S HILL

Soon after the Yankees got enough of Stonewall's men on the right, and
while the battle was still raging on the left, Kemper's Brigade was
called to "attention," and marched off in quick time to the left towards
Fredericksburg; going to support the troops on Marye's Hill, who had
borne the heat and burden of the day on that wing, passing Gen. R. E.
Lee on the road, standing by his war horse, "Traveler," with his staff
about him, on a high point from where he could "view the landscape
o'er," and a large part of the battlefield as well; I think, however,
General Lee was giving more attention to the battle than to the
landscape. A battery of heavy artillery was near by, engaged in a duel
with the Yankee guns across the river. The brigade did not halt to act
as a second in that duel, but hurried on down the telegraph road towards
Fredericksburg.

Just about the time the head of the column reached the foot of the long
hill, and filed to the left, a Yankee battery from somewhere, presumably
from across the river, commenced throwing shells right into the line,
exploding in the midst, and knocking men right and left. A few feet in
front I saw a shell explode and knock several men of Company H heels
over head. All were now moving at a run and soon got out of range of
this battery, crossing Hazel Run, and going in the rear of Marye's Hill,
lying down there until dark, expecting to be called into action at any
moment. But Generals Ransom and Cobb, with their gallant North
Carolinians and Georgians, stood like statues behind the rock wall—with
the now famous Washington Artillery, under Colonel Walton, behind them
on the crest of the hill—and repulsed with great slaughter the frequent
and desperate assaults made by the enemy in columns of whole divisions,
literally covering the ground with dead Yankees. Not during the war was
any piece of ground so thickly covered with dead men as this.

Some years ago I talked with a Yankee soldier who was in one of the
assaulting columns at this place, who described the situation there in
front of the Confederate lines as, "a hell on earth."

Six separate and distinct assaults the Yankees made with divisions
heavily massed, but all failed.

While the brigade lay just back of the hill, spent balls came over from
the front, dropping among the men, and now and then wounding some one—a
very uncomfortable position to be in, though not very dangerous; the
balls had hardly force enough to kill, yet they hit pretty hard. I
remember Captain Houston, of Company K, had the breath fairly knocked
out of him by being struck about the short ribs with a spent minie ball.
The surgeon made an examination and found the skin had not been broken,
only a severe bruise, whereupon he remarked, "It is only a furlough
wound." No enemy was in sight upon whom the fire could be returned; all
that could be done was to lay low, hug mother earth, and await events.

About sundown the firing ceased and the battle of Fredericksburg was
over, though no one knew it.

The Yankees had been beaten back at every point they assailed the
Confederate lines, but were not routed nor driven back across the river.
General Lee, standing on the defensive all this day, still stood
awaiting another attack, but none came.

I have often thought how presumptuous it was in Burnside to attack Lee
and Jackson in their chosen position; although his forces greatly
outnumbered theirs, yet he stood no earthly chance of driving the
Confederates from their position. General Burnside used no strategy or
tactics in this battle; he just hurled his massed forces against Lee's
lines.

"On to Richmond" was the clamor at the North, and Burnside had to do
something. He got soundly whipped, for a fact.


                             SHARP-SHOOTING

At dark the brigade went around the hill to the left and relieved the
troops who had been fighting all day. The Eleventh Regiment was placed
in a cut in the road on the outskirts of the town, just to the left of
the stone wall, remaining here that night, and the next day,
sharp-shooting with the Yankees posted in the houses of the town. If a
head was raised above the bank for half a minute, "sip" would come a
minie ball, the Confederates returning the fire, giving the Yankees
tit-for-tat—shot for shot.

It was fun for some of Company C to place a hat or cap on a ramrod,
raise it slowly above the bank, and as soon as the Yankee ball whizzed
by, rise up and fire at the door or window from whence the puff of smoke
came. Some of them would raise a hand above the bank and say, "Look,
boys, I am going to get a furlough wound," but they would hold it there
only a second, lest it be struck sure enough. I saw here one of the men
fire upon two Yankees, one on the back of the other, who let his charge
drop at the crack of the gun. I have often regretted not preventing this
shot. It was a case of one comrade helping a sick or wounded friend.
Then we looked upon them as deadly enemies, and they were, too;
revengeful, vindictive, and cruel.

All that day and the next, the 14th and 15th, the two armies lay still,
only engaging in sharp-shooting and picket-firing along some parts of
the line. On the night of the 15th, the Yankees, like the Arab, folded
their tents and quietly stole away in the night, re-crossing the river
on their pontoon bridges, which they drew ashore on the north bank, and
again all was quiet along the banks of the Rappahannock; "no sound save
the rush of the river." But many a soldier was "off duty forever."

In the battle of Fredericksburg the Yankees admitted the loss of between
twelve and fifteen thousand men killed, wounded and captured, while the
Confederate loss was comparatively light.

The brigade, on the 16th, marched back a mile or two south of
Fredericksburg, camping in the woods near Guinea Station, on the
Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad, where big snowball battles
were fought, regiment pitted against regiment, the field officers on
horseback taking part, and getting well pelted too.

While in camp near Fredericksburg, John Lane, a young soldier of Company
C, died. He had been sick only a few days. One evening we had orders to
be ready to march at sun-up the next morning. I got up that morning
quite early to look after him and get him in the ambulance. I first went
to where he was sleeping to enquire how he was. I found him lying
between two of his sleeping comrades, stark and cold in death, his
bed-fellows being unaware that he had passed away while they slept.
Blood-stains on his lips told that he had died of hemorrhage. We
remained in the vicinity of Fredericksburg until the latter part of
February, 1863. Just before the brigade moved from here, an order came
to detail one officer from each regiment to go home for supplies of
shoes, socks, and clothing for the men. Maj. Kirk Otey, who was in
command of the regiment, very kindly gave me this detail without
solicitation on my part. Of course, I was delighted to go home, and be
with the loved ones, but this great pleasure ended very sadly indeed. A
terrible stroke fell on my wife and myself in the death of our little
boy, Dixie, who was then nearly eighteen months old. We had gone from my
father's, where my wife made her home during the war, to her father's,
Capt. William Cocke, when our little boy was taken with a severe spell
of acute indigestion, which threw him into convulsions, caused
congestion of the brain, and in spite of all that loving hearts and
hands and medical skill could do, he died in a few days. We laid him to
rest in the old family graveyard at Shady Grove with sad, sad hearts.
The day after he was buried I had to leave home for the army, the time
of my detail having expired, and the rules of war being inexorable, I
had to go. My wife was inconsolable. It was with a sad and heavy heart I
left her in care of those I knew full well would do all for her that
human love and sympathy could do. Duty called me hence and I had to
obey.



                              CHAPTER XII

                TO RICHMOND, CHESTER, AND PETERSBURG—TO
                  NORTH CAROLINA—BACK TO VIRGINIA, AT
                     SUFFOLK—TO TAYLORSVILLE—ON TO
                            JOIN GENERAL LEE


                              TO RICHMOND

While I was away Pickett's Division and other troops under Longstreet
left the vicinity of Fredericksburg, marched to and through Richmond,
and camped on the 13th of February, 1863, near Chester Station, on the
Richmond & Petersburg Railroad. I heard some of the men say, that when
bivouacked here, while the army slept under their blankets a heavy snow
fell, enveloping all in a mantle of white while sleeping comfortably and
quietly until day dawned, unconscious of the additional cover spread
over them during the night. I rejoined the command about that time, and
later we marched to the south side of Petersburg, protecting forage
trains down towards Suffolk.

After marching in Southside, Va., for a few days, through Southampton
and other counties, where we got some of the splendid hams—the finest I
ever ate—for which this section is justly famous, one afternoon our mess
bought some fresh herring. That night we ate all we could for supper and
covered the rest up in the leaves for breakfast. But we were aroused at
daybreak the next morning, and left for Petersburg, leaving the herring
there in the woods. I often afterwards thought of and wished for those
fish.


                      OFF FOR THE OLD NORTH STATE

About the 20th of March, 1863, the brigade took the train at Petersburg
for North Carolina. We were in box-cars, and built fires of pine wood on
piles of dirt in the cars. It was very cold, and all were well smoked.
We went by way of Weldon to Goldsboro, going into camp in the long-leaf
pine woods just north of the town.

While here three men were shot for desertion. All the regiments were
drawn up around the victims, who were bound to stakes in hollow square
formation, one side of the square being open. A detail of eighteen men,
one-half of whom had balls in their guns and the other half without
balls, did the shooting. I don't remember to what commands these
deserters belonged; I am sure none of them belonged to the Eleventh
Regiment. This was to me a sickening spectacle, never witnessed before
or afterwards. Very few Confederate soldiers suffered a like fate. It
was necessary to make examples sometimes.

From Goldsboro we went to Kinston, on Neuse River, remaining here
several days, and then marched to New Berne, lower down the Neuse—where
there was some fighting with the Yankees who occupied the town. The
Eleventh Regiment was not engaged. It was expected the place would be
attacked, but it was not. General Pickett was in command.

I remember it was after night when the vicinity of New Berne was reached
by Kemper's Brigade. Company C was detailed for picket duty. The company
was conducted out through the pitch darkness, the night being foggy and
very dark, by a guide sent for the purpose, who led us for some distance
across an open field, finally posting the company with instruction to
keep a sharp lookout for the Yankees in our front. When morning dawned,
it was discovered that the company was one-half mile away from where it
was intended to be posted, and facing in the wrong direction.

While in North Carolina, rations were plentiful, sweet potatoes and rice
especially, also black-eyed peas, cornbread and bacon, all of which were
greatly enjoyed, for rations had been pretty short in Virginia for some
time. The country down on Neuse River was very rich and productive,
large quantities of corn being raised, and while the troops occupied the
country and kept the Yankees in their strongholds near the coast,
foragers were busy with the wagons hauling out provisions and supplies
for the army in Virginia.

There were some fine old plantations and homes in this rich lowland
country, where once prosperity, peace and happiness reigned; but now all
was changed; the ruthless hand of a cruel and relentless enemy had been
laid upon the country along the coast, the towns were in his possession,
and the country and people for many miles back wore an aspect of gloom
and despair, with many lone chimneys standing out as grim monuments to
Yankee vandalism.

While at Kinston, Lieut. John W. Daniel, later United States Senator,
who was then adjutant of the Eleventh Regiment, was promoted to major
and ordered to report to Gen. Jubal A. Early, for duty as chief of
staff, which position he filled with credit and distinction until he
fell desperately wounded at the battle of the Wilderness, and as all
know, maimed for life. What a name and fame he won in civil life is
known of all men.


                            BACK TO VIRGINIA

About the 4th of April, 1863, the brigade left North Carolina by train
for Franklin Station, Va., south of Petersburg, on Blackwater River. In
a few days, with other troops under the command of General Longstreet,
we crossed Blackwater River and marched down near Suffolk, and had
several skirmishes with the Yankees, who occupied the town. No attempt
was made to capture the place. I think the object of the expedition was
to give the Confederates an opportunity of gathering supplies along the
Blackwater River and beyond, and by threatening Suffolk, prevent the
Yankees sending reënforcements to Hooker, whom Lee was confronting on
the Rappahannock.

The Confederates had a line of breastworks extending out from the Dismal
Swamp at right angles on either side of the main road to Suffolk to
another swamp on the left, with an abattis in front, but as usual the
Yankees did not attack. There was also one or more batteries of
artillery along, and some cavalry.

The picket line was about 1,000 yards to the front, at the further edge
of a pine thicket, with open fields in front, extending towards Suffolk,
though we were not in sight of the town; there were rifle-pits every few
yards along the picket line.

One day while here the Yankees came out from Suffolk in force, drove in
the pickets, and placed a battery in position in sight of the
breastworks 800 yards away, and opened fire. The works were at once
manned, and two batteries vigorously returned the fire of the enemy. All
were expecting an attack on the breastworks and were prepared to meet
it, but it did not come. It was not long before a shell from one of the
Confederate guns struck and exploded an ammunition chest of a Yankee
gun, at which a wild cheer went up from the Confederate lines, whereupon
the Yankees broke and ran for dear life, leaving a disabled limber and
one or more dead men on the ground. The captain of our battery had
measured the distance from the breastworks to the point where the
Yankees planted their battery, and knew exactly how to cut the fuse to
do effective work. A Yankee detail returned the next day under flag of
truce to get their dead, and said, "When you fellows raised that yell,
we thought you were charging us, and we decamped in short order." The
"Rebel yell" had terrified them again.

Another day, when Company C and Company D were on picket, the Yankees
came out again. We could see the skirmishers deploying across an open
field half a mile or more to the front, while their main body marched
along the outside of the road fence in columns of fours, partially hid
by trees and bushes. On they came, nearer and nearer, until the
skirmishers reached a fence running parallel with our line some distance
in front, rather out of range of our guns; here they halted and
commenced shooting at long range. Expecting the main body to advance and
attempt to drive us back from the picket line, we occupied the
rifle-pits, and Captain Houston and myself tried to restrain the men
from returning the fire until the enemy was in good range, but when the
balls would come whizzing by, whacking the trees behind us, some of the
men would crack away now and then in spite of us, but did not hit any of
the Yankees.

While this was going on, a black smoke burst forth from a large
dwelling-house about 150 yards in our front, on the right of the road,
the inmates, women and children, running and screaming from the burning
house. The vandals had set fire to that house and burned it with all its
contents, leaving those women and children homeless and helpless, only,
as they said, because some of the Confederate pickets had been going
there and getting something to eat. The miscreants left when the flames
enveloped the house.

The Confederates gave them a parting volley, together with a loud cheer
of derision and defiance. One of the Yankees was seen to fall, but got
up again and went on. Sam Franklin, of Company C, took deliberate aim at
this man in the road. At the crack of his gun the Yankee fell prone to
the ground, when Sam cried out exultingly, "I got him; I got him." As
the Yankee struggled to his feet and moved off down the road, Sam's
exultant tone changed to one of chagrin, as he said, "No, I didn't; he's
got up and gone." The Yankee went off; we never knew whether he had a
bullet hole in his measly hide or not. No doubt all of us hoped he had,
and that it had reached a vital spot.

After remaining near Suffolk several days longer, the command returned
to Franklin Station, which place was abandoned on the —— day of May.
Marching through the country, Petersburg was reached the 9th of May,
1863. From thence we went to Taylorsville, in Hanover County, remaining
at the latter place until about the 3d of June.

This falling back from Suffolk was done in regular military order, as if
expecting the enemy to make a hot pursuit. The trees along the roadside
were chopped nearly down by the corps of sappers and miners—"_sappling_
miners," as some of the boys called them—ready to be felled across the
road by a few licks of the axe when the rear guard had passed. At the
bridge across Blackwater, troops were deployed in line of battle on
either side of the road; the artillery was also in position, in battery,
unlimbered and ready for action; General Longstreet was at the bridge
seeing to it that every detail was carried out. But the enemy made no
effort to pursue. I think the bridge was destroyed after all had crossed
over.

In the meantime General Lee had, on the 1st to 5th of May, fought and
won the battle of Chancellorsville, where the immortal "Stonewall"
Jackson fell.

While down on the Dismal Swamp the echoes of the great guns, away up on
the Rappahannock, could be heard rolling through the swamps and
lowlands; loud-mouthed messengers, telling of the deadly struggle raging
far away.



                              CHAPTER XIII

                 PENNSYLVANIA CAMPAIGN—GETTYSBURG—BACK
                    TO VIRGINIA—GENERAL LEE AND ARMY
                          OF NORTHERN VIRGINIA


                         PENNSYLVANIA CAMPAIGN

These troops—Pickett's Division and others—that had been in North
Carolina and southeast of Petersburg since February, as before said,
halted at Taylorsville, where they remained until the 3d of June, 1863.
Leaving Corse's Brigade at Taylorsville, they then set out to join
General Lee's army. Of course, no one knew where we were going, nor what
General Lee's plans were. We were going to join "Mars Bob," and follow
where he might lead. The Gettysburg or Pennsylvania campaign having been
determined on, General Lee was gathering in all available troops. The
battles around Chancellorsville had been fought and won without
Longstreet and his legions, except McLaw's Division, but now they were
again to play an important part in the army of Northern Virginia. We
marched through the counties of Hanover, Spottsylvania, Orange, and
Culpeper.

On the march I was taken sick, riding in an ambulance part of the way;
the night before reaching Culpeper Court House I was quite ill. The next
morning I was sent in an ambulance to Culpeper Court House to be
forwarded to Lynchburg. At Culpeper I stopped at the hotel, where I went
to bed until the next morning, when I got aboard the train for
Lynchburg. The ladies at Culpeper were very kind to me, as they were to
all soldiers, doing everything in their power for the Confederates all
over the South.

On the train near Charlottesville I met Dr. G. W. Thornhill, who had
been the regimental surgeon until a short while before, and with whom I
had become quite intimate. The doctor was very kind, and before we got
to Lynchburg, told me I need not go to the hospital, he being the chief
surgeon in charge, but to a private house, and that his ambulance would
be at the dépôt. When we got to Lynchburg, he took me to his ambulance,
telling the driver to take me wherever I wished to go, saying he would
come to see me every day. I went out on College Hill to my
brother-in-law's, Mr. Geo. A. Burks, where, of course, I had the best of
attention, and Dr. Thornhill, true to his promise, visited me daily. My
wife and father came up at once, the former remaining with me until I
was able to go out home in a carriage, which was in about two weeks. Dr.
Thornhill said he had no authority to issue sick furloughs, but that I
could go home, stay until I was well and report back to him, which I did
in about three weeks.


                               GETTYSBURG

General Lee led his army on towards the Potomac, maneuvering, so as to
force the enemy to evacuate Virginia. The Southern army crossed the
river and invaded Pennsylvania, when the bloody and ill-fated battle of
Gettysburg was fought on the 1st, 2d and 3d days of July, 1863.

On account of this sickness I missed the Pennsylvanian campaign and the
Gettysburg battle, in which Pickett's Division greatly distinguished
itself, making a name that will live forever. I have often regretted not
being in that charge; may be, if I had been there I would not now be
writing these reminiscences.

In the battle of Gettysburg the loss was very heavy. Company C lost six
men killed as follows: Lieut. James Connelly, M. M. ("Boy") Mason,
Daniel Pillow, Charles Jones, Dabney Tweedy, and Lanious Jones.
Lieutenant Connelly and Daniel Pillow were reported missing; that is, no
one saw them fall and they were never heard of afterwards, and no doubt
died on that bloody field doing their duty. They were brave and faithful
soldiers. I was told by some of the company that when the command came
to charge, after the heavy cannonading had ceased, Charles Jones was
among the first on his feet, and although only a private, called out,
"Come on, boys, let's go and drive away those infernal Yankees." He died
game. It was also said of Dabney Tweedy, that as he was borne to the
rear on a stretcher, his lifeblood fast flowing, he sang with his last
breath a hymn he and his mess were wont to sing in camp. The company
also had a number of men wounded. J. C. Jones lost an arm; my brother
Robert W., was wounded in both feet. While going forward in that
desperate charge the latter was struck with a minie ball on the instep
of the right foot. Stopping to ascertain the extent of the wound, and
"to see if I was hurt bad enough to go to the rear," as he expressed it,
another ball struck his left foot just at the root of the third or
fourth toe, tearing its way through the full length of his foot, and
stopping in the heel. Hesitating no longer, he picked up his own and
another musket that lay near by, which had fallen from the hands of some
dead or wounded comrade, and using them as crutches, hopped to the rear,
when he was taken charge of by the faithful negro servant, Horace, who
had been with us from the beginning and remained faithful until the end.
Horace, by taking Robert on his back, when no other means of conveyance
was at hand, and by getting him in an ambulance or wagon when possible,
brought him safely out of the enemy's country, across the Potomac, on
down the Valley to Staunton, and in due time landed him safely at home,
where our mother showered thanks on, and almost embraced, the faithful
servant for bringing her boy home. I was at home when he arrived. The
negroes were very faithful during the war, and I have always had kindly
feelings towards them.

Robert remained at home until his wounds were healed, when he joined the
command, and did faithful service to the end.


                            BACK TO VIRGINIA

General Lee re-crossed the Potomac ten days after the battle of
Gettysburg, and crossed the Blue Ridge into Culpeper County soon
afterwards.

I rejoined the command about the last of July in Orange or Culpeper
County.

There was no more fighting that summer between the main armies of
Northern Virginia and the army of the Potomac, as the Yankees called
their "grand army," greater by far in numbers and resources than the
army of Northern Virginia, but deficient in leaders when compared with
Lee and Jackson, and not equal in the courage and dash that enabled the
much smaller army of Southerners to beat them on nearly every
battlefield.

Lee and Jackson had a way of throwing a large body of men upon certain
portions of the Yankee lines during a battle, generally striking them in
the flank. Both as strategists and tacticians they were unsurpassed.
They could combine armies and concentrate forces in action with the
greatest skill, which are the true tests of military genius.

Lee's army was much exhausted and depleted by the spring and summer
campaigns—the great battles around Chancellorsville—which began on the
1st of May and ended on the 5th, on the night of which day the Yankees,
badly beaten, stole back over the Rappahannock River, glad to escape;
the three days' fighting at Gettysburg, in the first two of which the
Confederates were successful, but failed on the third day because
Pickett's men were not properly supported.

The armies lay on either side of the Rapidan, on the south side of which
General Lee had taken position, while the Yankees confronted him on the
north side, the two armies stretching up and down the river for many
miles. Later General Lee retired south of the Rappahannock.

The army of Northern Virginia, while its ranks were much depleted by the
many bloody battles of the year (and many were footsore and weary from
the long marches, ragged and dirty as they were), yet the men were not
dispirited nor had they lost faith in their great leader, upon whom all
looked as the greatest captain of the age. I know full well the
sentiment among the men was, that the failure at Gettysburg was due, not
to General Lee's want of skill and ability as a leader, but to the
tardiness of Longstreet, and his failure to support Pickett's charge.
The men knew well where the fault lay, and were not slow to express
themselves.


                  GENERAL LEE AND THE ARMY OF NORTHERN
                                VIRGINIA

In August or September, after the men had rested and the army had been
recruited by the return to duty of many sick and wounded, there were
general reviews. The whole army, of every branch—infantry, artillery,
and cavalry—was drawn up in columns of regiments, brigades, and
divisions, in large open fields, General Lee and his staff riding along
the lines of each command, and then all marched by the reviewing
station, showing by the steady and firm step and soldierly bearing that
they were not disheartened, but ready to go whenever their trusted and
beloved commander might point the way. While other commanders were often
criticized, never a word of censure of General Lee escaped the lips of
his men; he was "Mars Bob" and "Uncle Bob" with them, and whatever he
did was right, in their estimation.

I have just spoken of General Lee as the greatest captain of the age,
and so he was; I am equally sure that the army of Northern Virginia was
never excelled in the annals of the world.

Without this army Lee and Jackson could never have made the name and
fame they did. These generals had confidence in their men, and the men
had confidence in their generals; there was not only mutual confidence,
but mutual love and esteem.

History records no incidents like those in which, on two occasions,
Lee's men, when he had placed himself in front to lead desperate
charges, cried out, "General Lee, to the rear"; and private soldiers
actually seized his bridle reins and led his horse through the lines to
the rear saying, "General Lee, we will attend to this; you go to the
rear." I did not see this, but it is too well authenticated to admit of
question. I am sure there were men in Company C, and the other companies
of the Eleventh Regiment, who would have done and said the same thing
under like circumstances.

At the Bridge of Lodi, Napoleon, after his men had made two unsuccessful
attempts to cross the bridge and capture a battery, seized the colors
and led a successful charge. Lee's men compelled him to go to the rear
and then made successful charges. Some one, in writing of this incident
in Napoleon's career, remarked that "any corporal in the French army
should have been capable of carrying the flag over that bridge." Lee had
thousands of privates capable of leading his horse to the rear and
commanding him to go to the rear. General Lee fully recognized the
prowess of his men, and always gave them due credit in general orders.

I believe the time will come when some great historian will be raised up
to tell the true story of the Southern Confederacy, of her heroic armies
and matchless leaders; some Gibbons, Burke or Macaulay; and another
Virgil or Homer in a great epic poem will sing of arms and of men, the
like of which the world has never known. An Englishman has truly said,
"It was an army in which every virtue of an army, and the genius of
consummate generalship, had been displayed."

If Lee and Jackson had lived in the mythological ages of the world they
would have been called the sons of gods, if not very gods, and the men
they led classed with the heroes who fought under the walls of Troy.

When this history is written the world will be astonished at the
disparity in numbers, equipments, and resources of the contending
armies.

"True greatness will always bear the test of time. The greatness of
really great men will grow as the ages roll by." The fame of Lee and
Jackson, and the army that helped to make them great, will go down the
eons of time, ever increasing, and when time shall be no more, the echo
will be heard resounding through the corridors of eternity.



                              CHAPTER XIV

                  TO TAYLORSVILLE—AT CHAFIN'S FARM—TO
                    NORTH CAROLINA—MARCHING THROUGH
                     SWAMPS AND SAND—THE CAPTURE OF
                       PLYMOUTH—COMPANIES C AND G
                   HAVE SERIOUS EXPERIENCES—INCIDENTS
                           OF THE BATTLE—THE
                        GUNBOAT "ALBEMARLE"—COL.
                                 JAMES
                              DEARING WINS
                              PROMOTION—ON
                 TO WASHINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA—NEWBERNE
                                INVESTED


                            TO TAYLORSVILLE

In the early fall of 1863, the brigade now commanded by Gen. ("Buck") W.
R. Terry, General Kemper being disabled by wounds received at
Gettysburg, moved down towards Spottsylvania County, and later, about
the 1st of October, 1863, went into camp near Taylorsville, Hanover
County, which seemed a favorite stopping place. I remember on this march
I wore a pair of new boots. My feet becoming sore and blistered, I had
to fall back in the rear. I took off the boots and walked in my socks
until the sand worked through, when the bottoms of my feet began to burn
as if walking on hot embers. I then took off my socks and walked on,
barefooted, until the sand and gravel began to wear away the cuticle,
when I put on my boots without socks, and limped on, coming up with the
command after dark, which was bivouacked by the roadside.

The brigade remained at Taylorsville until about the 1st of January,
1864, guarding the railroad bridges over the North and South Anna
rivers, and doing picket duty to the east down on the Pamunky. I
remember while on picket that fall, the weather was delightful, the
atmosphere pure and clear as that under the far-famed Italian skies, and
how the boys used to watch the morning-star as it rose high in the
heavens, keeping track of it as late as 10 and 11 o'clock A. M., when it
could be seen plainly with the naked eye, by knowing exactly where to
look, some one always keeping it in sight.

The command was quite comfortably situated here, some building huts or
"dog houses" and chimneys to tents, and as the picket duty was not very
arduous, we had a pretty good time, though rations were scarce. My
memory is at fault as to the time the brigade was in camp below Richmond
at Chafin's Farm, nearly opposite Drury's Bluff. At any rate, we were
there at one time, and relieved Gen. Henry A. Wise's brigade. Here we
had a fine camping ground in high, level fields, and expected to remain
some time, but did not tarry very long. While here I visited the
batteries at Drury's Bluff, and saw the big guns mounted there, pointing
down a long stretch of the river half a mile or more. The men here said,
that lower down on the bluff other big guns were in position near the
water's edge, which, they declared, "could blow clear out of the water
any Yankee gunboat that attempted to pass up the river." The Yankee
gunboats at one time attacked this place, but were driven off in short
order. The Confederate ironclad gunboat, _Patrick Henry_, lay at anchor
in the river just above the bluff. This I also visited, going on board,
and inspecting the little monster, small though formidable, with its
ribs of railroad iron, and big guns. I was struck with how neat and
clean everything was kept—spic and span as any ladies' parlor or
drawing-room—the floors highly polished, the brass work clean and
shining, and the officers and crew very polite, taking pains and seeming
pride in showing visitors over the boat.

Soon after we arrived at Chafin's Farm I went on some errand for General
Kemper or General Terry (I forget now which was in command) to Gen.
Henry A. Wise's headquarters. I had seen General Wise before and had
heard him speak more than once, but had never met him. I was struck with
his polite and pleasing manner, and the courtesy with which he received
me. But the man of the most pleasing and delightful manners I met during
the war was Col. Isaac H. Carrington, provost marshal of Richmond. I had
occasion once to visit his office on business and was perfectly charmed
with his urbanity not profuse or embarrassing to a visitor, but
delightfully easy and pleasing was his manner; I am sure he was a born
gentleman.

I should have stated before, that in the early fall of 1863, soon after
the brigade and the other brigades of Pickett's Division had been
detached and sent to Taylorsville, thence below Petersburg, Longstreet
and his other two divisions, Hood's and McLaw's, were also detached and
sent to Tennessee, where they rendered distinguished service in the
battle of Chickamauga, and later at Knoxville.


                        TO NORTH CAROLINA AGAIN

On the 10th of January, 1864, the brigade embarked on the cars at
Petersburg for Goldsboro, N. C, via Weldon; remained at Goldsboro until
near the last of the month, going thence to Kinston, on Neuse River.

About the 1st of February the brigade, with other troops under General
Pickett, marched to New Berne, lower down on the Neuse. The town was
invested and there was some fighting, some outposts taken and prisoners
captured as well as considerable stores, but the town was not attacked,
nor was the Eleventh Regiment actively engaged, though at one time the
brigade was drawn up in line of battle, and all thought that we were
going into a fight. I remember as the line was being formed, seeing the
drummers with their drums slung over their shoulders going back to where
the surgeons had selected a position for the field hospital, to assist
the doctors. I remarked to some one that if I lived through the war, I
intended to have all my boys learn to beat the drum. Whenever the
drummers and the cavalry were seen going to the rear, some one was sure
to say, "Look out, boys, we are going to have a fight." The troops
marched back to Kinston, thence to Goldsboro, where we remained until
the 20th of February, when we again marched to Kinston.

About this time, I got a twenty-days' furlough and went home. Many of
the officers and men got furloughs during the winter, as there was
little or no fighting going on.


                    MARCHING THROUGH SWAMPS AND SAND

We lived pretty well while marching and tramping around through the
swamps and sands of Eastern North Carolina, but some of the marches were
very trying. In places the roadbeds were worn down a foot or two; in
rainy weather the roads would be full of mud and water half-leg deep,
through which we tramped for miles on a stretch, the roadside being
closely bordered with thick-growing bushes and intertwining vines; it
was impossible to avoid the slush and water. Often when a particularly
muddy stretch of road, or a big, deep mudhole was encountered, some wag
would call out, "Boys, you have been looking for a soft place, here it
is." By the "soft place" was meant an easy, bomb-proof detail, where
there was no fighting, picket or guard duty to perform.

Some of these marches were made in the night time, when the men would
splash and flounder along through the mud, some swearing, some laughing
and cracking jokes, and ever and anon, the "Bonnie Blue Flag," "Dixie,"
or some other patriotic song would be started, when the woodland would
ring for miles with the songs, and the echoes go rolling through the
swamps and marshes.

In some sections the roads ran through high and dry lands, the roadbeds
filled with loose, white sand, over which the marching was very
laborious; sometimes through the long-leaf pine turpentine orchards, as
they were called—great forests of tall pines, the bark from two sides of
the trees being scraped off, with steel-bladed knives on long poles,
many feet from the ground, so that when the sap rises it exudes freely,
running down the trunks of the trees into deep notches near the ground,
cut with long-bladed axes, made for the purpose, and then dipped out
into buckets and conveyed to the turpentine distillery.

During the winter these scraped-off surfaces are incrusted with dried
rosin, which burns freely when set on fire, the blaze running up the
trees many feet. On these night marches sometimes the soldiers would
apply the torch to the rosin-covered trees along the roadside, when the
woods and country around would be lighted up, the flames leaping up the
tall pines to the very tops; the long, gray moss hanging in festoons
from the branches of the live oaks interspersed among the pines, the
glare of the long streaks of flame reflecting on the white sand,
scintillating like carpets woven of silver threads and sprinkled with
tiny diamonds; the gloom off in the woods beyond the penetration of the
light, and anon the hooting of the big owl and the scream of the
nighthawk—all brought to mind scenes described in fairy tales, where
witches and goblins in fantastic attire and shapes participate in high
carnival, reveling with kindred spirits in some vale of tangled
wild-wood, deep hidden and embossed in the gloom, save for the glare of
the torches of the devotees—while the gray lines of the soldiers, like
grim spectral figures stalking along betwixt the blazing trees, the red
lights flashing from their burnished muskets and bayonets, reflected on
their begrimed faces, resembled gigantic and uncanny figures moving
amidst the flames of some plutorion realm.

These high, sandy roads traverse the country between Goldsboro, Kinston,
and Tarboro.

While I was on furlough, the command went by train to Wilmington, thence
by steamer down Cape Fear River to Smithville, opposite Fort Fisher,
camping on the seashore, where the men feasted on oysters and fish.

After the expiration of my furlough I returned to the command, which
was, when I left home, still on the seashore, but on my arrival at
Wilmington I met the brigade on the return trip up the river on the way
to Goldsboro, where we remained until the 1st of April, then marched to
Tarboro on Tar River, when some one started a report that "Tar River was
on fire," but the report, like many others circulated in the army,
proved untrue. These rumors were called "grapevine dispatches," and were
about on a par with the weather man's reports of to-day. While at
Manassas the first year of the war a report was circulated that the
Black Horse Cavalry had captured the Yankee gunboat _Pawnee_ on the
Potomac River.


                        THE CAPTURE OF PLYMOUTH

On the 15th of April, 1864, the brigade, with other troops—infantry,
artillery, and cavalry, under the command of Gen. R. F. Hoke, of North
Carolina—marched on Plymouth, which was captured on the 20th of April,
with a brigade of Yankees, and large quantities of stores, arms, and
provisions. Our little army lived high for a few days, literally
feasting on the fat of the land. While besieging the town, Company C and
Company G of the Eleventh Regiment had an experience worth relating; a
very trying and disastrous one it was, too, for these two companies,
which I will presently relate. Plymouth is situated on the south bank of
Roanoke River, not far from where it empties into the Albemarle Sound.

The Yankees had erected several forts and redoubts around the place, one
of which, Fort Warren, was about a mile up the river and not in sight of
the town. When the town was invested, Terry's Brigade, except the
Twenty-fourth Regiment, which went below near the town, was placed in
front of this fort, which could not be seen from where the lines were
first formed, for the woods intervened. As soon as the lines were
established, Company C was detailed for picket duty and placed along the
farther edge of the piece of woods in which the line was formed. I
walked out in the field to see what could be seen, and pretty soon came
in sight of the Yankee pickets to the left, one of whom took off his cap
and waved it; I did not return his salute. About that time there
appeared beyond the Yankee pickets, still further to the left, what I at
first thought was a train of cars. While I was looking on in
astonishment, a puff of smoke burst from the supposed train with a loud
boom and shriek through the air, which I at once recognized as a cannon
shot and shell. I divined at once, that what I had taken for a train of
cars was a Yankee gunboat steaming up Roanoke River, though I could not
see the river for the high banks. I don't know whether that shell was
fired at me or not—they may have just been "shelling the woods"; I was
the only Confederate in sight of the boat in the direction which it was
fired. If it was, it was a poor shot, it went high overhead and crashed
into the woods beyond. I did not run, but am pretty certain I ducked my
head, and walked back to the picket line; I did not return the
salutation of the Yankee picket, but bowed to the shell. It was very
hard to keep from dodging when a shell went by, or a minie ball whizzed
close. I heard a story on one of our generals who, on one occasion when
his men were dodging at the minie balls, upbraided them, saying, "Stand
up like men and don't dodge," when pretty quick a shell came very close
to the general, who ducked his head. The men began to laugh, and the
general said, "It is all right to dodge them big ones."

The gunboat steamed on up the river out of sight. That afternoon or the
next morning the Confederate pickets advanced nearer to, and in sight of
the fort, wading through a swamp in the woods for several hundred yards
from half-leg to knee-deep in water, to the edge of the field in which
the fort was situated, some 800 or 1,000 yards away.

The companies took daily turns at this duty while the siege of the town
lasted.


               COMPANIES C AND G HAVE SERIOUS EXPERIENCE

Now I come to the relation of that trying and disastrous experience
mentioned above. The scare I had from the Yankee gunboat and shell was
as nothing compared to this. One morning before day, Company C and
Company G were aroused from sleep, called to arms, and received
instructions from Colonel Otey, coming from General Terry, to "march out
in the field in front of the fort to within musket range, open fire and
keep down the Yankee gunners while the Confederate battery shells the
Yankees out of the fort." Company G was commanded by Lieut. James
Franklin, of Lynchburg, and I, being the senior officer, had charge of
the expedition. As soon as the orders were received, off we started.
Wading through the swamp, we came out at the picket posts at the edge of
the field when the first streaks of daybreak could be seen in the east.
Company G had not yet gotten out of the swamp. It being important to get
position as near the fort as possible while it was yet dark, I at once
deployed Company C in skirmish line and moved forward, leaving word with
the pickets for Company G to come on as soon as they got through the
swamp.

We marched on in silence until within about 400 yards of the fort, when
all at once, without any warning, or even saying, "by your leave," the
Yankees let loose the dogs of war upon us, with, as it seemed to me, all
kinds of guns and shot, big and little—shells, grapeshot, canister, and
minie balls. At this warm and sudden salutation, the men fell prone to
the ground. Thinking that we were not close enough to the fort to do
much execution with muskets, I gave the command, "Forward," when every
man rose to his feet and rushed forward some distance. When the command,
"Lie down and commence firing," was given, this was at once obeyed.
About this time Company G came up at double-quick and joined in the
firing. All the while the Yankees were pouring it into us, killing and
wounding a good many. Here the two companies lay out in the open field
without any protection whatever, without a tree or rock, stump or log to
shelter them, firing at the fort until after sun-up, while the
Confederate battery was trying to shell the Yankees out of the fort.
They were only trying, sure enough, for I could see the shells bursting
high in the air over the fort, while never a one entered or exploded
near it. I had sent back for more ammunition, some of the men saying
their supply was running short from the rapid firing, but before the
messenger returned I concluded the right thing to do was to get away
from that place as soon as possible; so I gave the command, "Skirmish in
retreat; double-quick, march," which was done in full double-quick time.
Sad to say, we left five or six men, good soldiers, dead on the field,
while a number of others were wounded.

Company C lost two good men killed, as follows: Bennett Tweedy, Wm.
Monroe, and I think another, whose name I do not remember. Among the
wounded was Abner Bateman, who had his right arm shattered above the
elbow. A section of the bone was removed by the surgeon, so that
afterwards he had an extra joint, as it were, in his arm. Company G lost
several men also. That night a detail was sent out and brought off the
dead bodies, which were buried down there in the sands of the Old North
State, where, no doubt, they still lie mouldering into dust, if not
already dust, ere this.

I remember when we came back to the line of battle that morning, F. C.
Tweedy, a brother of Bennett, who from some cause had not gone with us,
came to us and said, "Where is Bennett?" Some one replied, "Bennett was
killed." "Ferd" then threw up his hands and exclaimed, "Oh, my God!" I
shall never forget the agonized tone of Ferd's voice; it was if his very
soul was pierced through and through.

This fort was manned by 200 men with muskets, besides the big guns,
32-pounders, mounted on the parapet; also had sandbags arranged along
the parapet, so as to form loopholes for muskets. These 200 men in the
fort, well protected, were shooting at the 75 or 80 men laying out there
in the field, without the slightest protection—an equal contest indeed!

I have always thought it a "fool order" that sent these companies out
that morning.

It was said afterwards, and no doubt true, that a little lieutenant who
had been doing some scouting, suggested the project to General Terry.
This lieutenant was standing out in the field alone while the firing was
going on that morning, some distance from the firing line, when the
Yankees took a crack at him with a charge of grapeshot, one of which
struck him in the heel and maimed him for life. We did not know that he
was anywhere near, nor that he had been wounded until after the fighting
was over. When it was known that he had suggested the "fool project," I
don't think he got much sympathy from any one.

On the 20th of April, the troops near the town, by an assault on and
capture of the forts near the place, compelled the surrender of the
enemy. We could hear the fighting going on down the river a mile away.
All at once the firing ceased and cheering commenced, when the men began
to say, "They are cheering—sh! sh! Listen, listen! See which side is
cheering!" It was not long before the "Rebel yell" was recognized, then
all knew the day had been won, when the troops above sent up a mighty
shout in answer to their comrades below.

Pretty soon two men in a small boat was seen pulling up the river
towards Fort Warren; all knew it meant the surrender of the fort, and it
was not long after they landed before the Stars and Stripes were hauled
down, and a white flag run up in its place. Another mighty cheer went
up—the "Rebel yell"—three times three. It was a glad time when "Old
Glory" slid down the flagpole. Col. Jim Dearing and a Yankee officer
were in this boat.

The brigade marched down and took possession of the fort and garrison.
Some of the Yankees said they wanted to see the men who came out in the
field that morning, and lay under their fire for nearly an hour. They
saw them and greatly admired such courage as was then and there
displayed. They only lost one man, their best gunner, who was shot
through the body while aiming one of the big guns. The brigade with the
prisoners then marched down to the town, where the other prisoners and
Confederate troops were assembled, when congratulations and good cheer
among the Confederates were exchanged; all feasting on the good things
to eat and drink captured in the forts and town.


                        THE GUNBOAT "ALBEMARLE"

The capture of Plymouth was greatly aided by the Confederate ironclad
gunboat, _Albemarle_, built at Weldon, and commanded by Captain Cooke,
of the navy, which dropped down the river as the troops marched by land,
the movements of each being timed so as to coöperate in the attack. The
_Albemarle_ glided by the upper fort in the night-time, the night after
the troops invested the town, dropping down the river near Plymouth,
where the Yankees had three gunboats lying in the river.

The Yankees in Fort Warren, which is situated on the river bank, said
they saw the _Albemarle_ as it passed down the river that night, and had
their guns trained on it, but did not fire, thinking it was one of their
boats which had passed up the river that afternoon, which I have already
mentioned, but had returned by another channel, unknown to the occupants
of Fort Warren.

These Yankee gunboats were the _Southfield_, the _Miami_, and the
_Bombshell_. There were three other forts on the land side of the town:
Fort Williams, Fort Wessels, and Fort Comfort. Captain Cooke lay at
anchor until daylight. The Yankees during the night became aware of his
presence, and made preparations to give him a warm reception when day
dawned. They conceived the idea, so it was said, of fastening the ends
of a long chain to two of their gunboats, with which they proposed to
drag off the anchor of the _Albemarle_, by running a boat on either side
of it. Captain Cooke heard the hammering on these boats during the
night, and divining their scheme, when daylight dawned, turned the prow
of the _Albemarle_ towards the _Southfield_, one of the boats to which
the chain was attached, with full steam ahead, and struck the Yankee
boat with terrific force, sending it to the bottom at once.

Captain Cooke then turned on the _Bombshell_, which surrendered. The
_Miami_ was next attacked, when it made its escape by flight down the
river. Her captain was killed, and some of her guns disabled before she
got out of range.

By this bold and successful stroke of the _Albemarle_, the whole river
front of the town was exposed to the fire of the gunboat, and it may be
depended upon that Captain Cooke made good use of the advantage thus
gained. I heard General Wessels, the Yankee commander, after the
capitulation, berating the gunboats for their failure to protect his
water front, attributing his defeat and capture to this. This may have
been true, but I hardly think so. General Hoke was a fine soldier and
officer, had gone there to capture Plymouth, and would have been almost
sure to have succeeded without the aid of the _Albemarle_, but would
have no doubt lost many more men than he did. The Confederate loss was
small.

It was said that there were some negro soldiers at Plymouth, who took to
the swamps, were pursued by Dearing's Cavalry and left in the swamp,
dead or alive; none of them were taken prisoners, or brought out of the
swamp. Some of the prisoners captured were identified as deserters from
the Confederate service; a court-martial was convened later, and several
of them were hung. These men were North Carolinians.


                   COL. JAMES DEARING WINS PROMOTION

Col. Jim Dearing, of Campbell County, won his brigadier-generalship at
Plymouth. He was put in command of the artillery and cavalry by General
Hoke. Dearing was a dashing officer, and in this battle performed his
part with great skill and bravery, charging a fort with artillery,
running the guns by hand right up to the fort, pouring shot and shell
into it until the white flag was sent up. The first day he surprised, by
a quick dash with his troopers and artillery, another fort, running in
on the Yankees so suddenly that they had no water to cool their guns,
and could only fire a few rounds, when they sent up a white flag.
General Dearing was mortally wounded in a hand-to-hand fight with a
Yankee officer a few days before the surrender. This officer also
received his death wound in the encounter. It has been said that General
Dearing was shot by one of his own men, who was trying to shoot the
Yankee officer. Dearing was brought to Lynchburg where he died in a few
days.


                  MARCH ON WASHINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA

After securing the trophies of the victory won at Plymouth, which
consisted of 1,600 prisoners, 2,000 muskets, and 25 cannon, and a large
quantity of ammunition and provisions, and sending them up the country,
General Hoke and his little army marched on Washington, situated about
30 miles south of Plymouth, on Tar River, near the head of Pamlico
Sound. The town was reached about the 25th of April. The troops formed
in line of battle, ready for the attack, when it was found that the
place had been evacuated by the Yankees, who doubtless had heard of the
fate of Plymouth and its garrison, and fearing lest they should share a
like fate, had decamped, bag and baggage.


                        NEWBERNE AGAIN INVESTED

From Washington the command marched towards Newberne, situated, as
before said, on Neuse River, not far from where it also enters into
Pamlico Sound, some 35 miles still further south.

On the 2d of May, the town was invested and preparation made for the
attack, when orders were unexpectedly received to withdraw and march up
the Neuse to Kinston with all possible speed.



                               CHAPTER XV

                BACK TO PETERSBURG, VA.—BEAST BUTLER—THE
                BATTLE OF DRURY'S BLUFF—GENERAL GRACIE'S
                      COURAGE—INTO A HEAVY FIRE AT
                      CLOSE RANGE—COL. RICHARD F.
                 MAURY—YANKEE BRIGADE CAPTURED—GENERAL
                               WHITING'S
                              FAILURE—THE
                              YANKEE FLAGS


                           BACK TO PETERSBURG

Leaving Newberne at night (a pitch-dark night it was), with the Eleventh
Regiment as the rearguard, we marched up to Kinston, where the brigade
boarded the cars for Goldsboro. As the rearguard moved off from
Newberne, after the other troops were well on the road, a body of
cavalry was heard approaching, when the regiment halted. A lone horseman
approached, who was stopped by a cry of "Halt! who comes there?" The
horseman replied, "It's some of _we all's_ men"—a non-committal reply,
to be sure.

It was a squadron of North Carolina cavalry coming back to get in the
rear of the infantry. These Tar Heels were as badly scared as we were,
each side taking the other for the enemy. Every man had bundles of
fodder tied on behind his saddle, and presented a grotesque appearance
in the darkness, as they passed to the rear.

It was soon rumored that we were needed in Virginia to protect Richmond
and Petersburg from Beast Butler and his army, who had sailed up James
River, and was threatening Petersburg.

Arriving at Goldsboro, the train was sent on to Weldon as fast as steam
could carry it, and from Weldon on towards Petersburg. On reaching
Jarratt's Station, it was found that a body of Yankee cavalry had come
up from Suffolk and destroyed the railroad, tearing up the track and
burning the bridge over Stony Creek, several miles further on. Leaving
the train at Jarratt's, the troops marched along the torn-up railroad
track to Stony Creek, when another train was taken for Petersburg, where
we arrived on the —— of May, 1864, none too soon for the safety of the
city.


                              BEAST BUTLER

Beast Butler had come up James River on transports, with an army of
about 40,000 men, landing some at City Point, and marched on Petersburg,
while the main body landed at Bermuda Hundred, higher up the river. This
move was no doubt intended as a diversion to draw troops from General
Lee, who was confronting Grant in the Wilderness, but was checkmated by
drawing troops from other points, threshing old Butler, and sending some
of these men on to join General Lee, as we shall presently see.

On the day before we arrived, or that day, I am not sure which, Butler
had advanced a strong column as far as the Richmond & Petersburg
Railroad, between Richmond and Petersburg, and destroyed a portion of
the same; the column had been driven back, however.

The people of Petersburg gave a joyous welcome to the Confederates, the
ladies greeting and feeding the soldiers as they marched through the
streets.

Until the arrival of these troops there was only a thin line,
principally old men and boys, with some regular troops, holding back the
Yankees from Petersburg. General Beauregard also had, with other troops,
hurried on from the south about the same time.

Butler, with the bulk of his army, now being between Petersburg and
Richmond, threatening both cities, it was necessary to have troops to
defend each. Dispositions were accordingly made to that end: General
Whiting was left at Petersburg with about 3,000 troops; Beauregard, who
was now chief commander, with the others, passed on towards Richmond,
and took position opposite Drury's Bluff, the line extending southwest
to the Richmond & Petersburg Railroad.

As Terry's Brigade marched along the country road towards Richmond, we
knew the Yankees were only a short distance to the right of the road,
though not in sight. Along the road at Swift Creek the trees were
scarred with bullets fired in the fight a day or two before.

Company C marched on the right flank of the regiment in single file, and
about fifty yards from the road, as skirmishers, moving silently along
through the pines and bushes, the men five paces apart, looking out for
the Yankees to the right, and expecting every moment to be fired upon by
the enemy; a right ticklish position.

We got through, however, without being attacked. Hardly had the column
passed before the Yankees came into the road we had marched over, firing
upon the rearguard. The brigade was then halted and formed in line of
battle, expecting an attack, but none came. The command in the afternoon
moved on a little farther towards Richmond, occupying the lines between
Drury's Bluff and the railroad, abandoning a line of breastworks, which
the Yankees afterwards occupied.

During the next few days there was considerable fighting along the front
lines, principally with artillery, but our regiment was not engaged.


                      THE BATTLE OF DRURY'S BLUFF

The army lay here on this line until the night of the 15th of May. Late
that afternoon, General Beauregard had orders given to all the officers,
from the major-generals down to the company commanders, for an attack on
the enemy's lines at daybreak the next morning.

I remember well, Col. Kirk Otey calling up all the company commanders of
the Eleventh Regiment, and telling them that General Beauregard had
determined to attack the enemy the next morning, and had ordered that
the troops at dark march to positions to be assigned them in front of
the enemy's lines, sleep on their arms, and at daybreak the next morning
charge the breastworks in their front. This was an unusual order; the
Commanding General did not often disclose his plans in this way.

And so it was done. Terry's Brigade was moved to the extreme left of the
Confederate lines near Drury's Bluff. There the brigade lay in the thick
pines with their guns by their sides until morning.

I have spent many more pleasant and less anxious nights than that one.
Knowing that when the morning dawned we would have to face death in
front of the enemy's breastworks was not very pleasant to contemplate,
to say the least. Before daybreak on the morning of the 16th of May,
1864, the army was aroused and the men on their feet, ready to do or
die. Many did die that morning, and something was done, too.

The brigade took position in an open field not far from where the night
had been spent, first marching along the river road, crossing a branch
or small creek near an old mill site, then filing to the right off the
road, and forming line of battle close to the bushes growing along the
branch, with the open field in front. The morning was dark, a heavy fog
arising from the river enveloping the country around.

About fifty yards in front of the brigade, an Alabama brigade, commanded
by General Gracie, was forming in line of battle also. This brigade was
the front line. Terry's Brigade was the supporting line, with orders to
keep 200 yards in the rear of Gracie while advancing, until called on to
go forward. Maj.-Gen. Bushrod Johnson was in command of this part of the
line; General Pickett, I believe, was at Petersburg; Major-General
Ransom, I think, commanded the front lines.

On the right flank of Gracie's Brigade, Hankin's Battery, of Surry
County, was taking position also. No unnecessary noise was made, no one
spoke unless giving orders, and then in a low tone. The artillery moved
into position slowly, and with as little noise as possible. I remember
well the cluck of the iron axles as the guns moved slowly into position
as quietly as a funeral procession.

When all was ready, and while it was yet dark, the Alabamians moved
forward up the hill, the artillery keeping pace with them, firing by
sections, each section moving forward after firing.

Pretty soon the Yankee pickets opened fire on the advancing column,
which it returned, the column moving on the while, driving the pickets
from their rifle pits near the top of the hill. On down the hill General
Gracie took his men right into a very heavy fire, the artillery halting
at the top of the hill, still firing away into the darkness beyond,
throwing shot and shell into the woods in front, where the enemy is
supposed to be.

It was a grand spectacle that dark morning—the firing of the battery by
sections as it advanced; the roar of the guns; the flames of fire
bursting forth in the darkness. Though rather awe-inspiring at the time,
it was grand, nevertheless. I shall never forget the scene.

Terry's Brigade followed on and halted at the top of the hill, some 150
yards in rear of Gracie's, which was now hotly engaged at the foot of
the hill, many of the Yankee bullets flying over the hill, killing and
wounding several, as the men knelt or sat on the ground.

I remember while here, one of Company H, the next company to Company C,
was shot through the body, and how tenderly an Irish comrade, who was
sitting by his side, took him in his arms and said, "Poor —— (I forget
the name) is killed; poor fellow," and, "his poor wife and children." It
was truly a pathetic scene in the midst of a battle. I shall never
forget the tender, sympathetic tone of that Irishman's voice.

Until reaching this position we were not exposed to the fire of the
enemy, but now the bullets were whizzing by pretty thick. The enemy
seemed to have no artillery on this part of the line. By this time day
was breaking, but it was still very foggy and dark.


                        GENERAL GRACIE'S COURAGE

Through the mist could be seen stragglers and wounded men from Gracie's
Brigade coming back from the front, some of them loading and firing as
they fell back; soon larger squads of them came breaking to the rear,
and up the hill came General Gracie on his horse, cursing and swearing
like a sailor, apparently oblivious of the danger from the balls that
were flying through the air, calling his men "d——d cowards," and using
much strong language. General Gracie was a stout man with iron-gray hair
and mustache, and was blowing like a porpoise while riding among his men
trying to rally them. One of his men, a tall, light-haired, good-looking
young man, seemed to resent his harsh words, saying, "General Gracie, we
stayed there as long as we could." "Yes," replied the General, "you ran
away, too, like d——d cowards"; or, to be a little more accurate, though
not quite exact in quoting the General's words, "Like d——ned cowardly
sons of —" (female canines).

General Gracie rode up to General Terry and said, "General Terry, send
me a regiment down there to take the place of one of mine that has run
away." Just then one of Company C came up to me and said, "It is no use
for us to go there; don't you see they have driven back them men?" I
replied, "Then this is the very time we are needed."

General Terry called on the Eleventh and Twenty-fourth regiments to go
forward, and down the hill the two regiments went at double-quick, with
a wild yell that sounded above the roar of battle.

The Twenty-fourth was just on the right of the Eleventh, with Col. R. F.
Maury, sword in hand, in front, walking backwards, calling on and
beckoning to his men to come on. I noticed Ned Gillam, a sergeant in
Company C, dash to the front as the line started, look back, open wide
his mouth, raise the "Rebel yell" and press forward, as if breasting
against a heavy storm of wind and rain. (Men in battle did do this; why,
I do not know. The body would be leaning forward, the face averted as if
the going forward required great physical exertion.)

Addison says, "Courage that grows from constitution often forsakes a man
when he has occasion for it; courage which arises from a sense of duty
acts in a uniform manner." I opine the courage displayed by General
Gracie that morning was of both kinds. It did not fail him then or
thereafter; while Ned Gillam's was more from a sense of duty. But I must
stop philosophizing in the midst of a battle, and go on with the fight.


                     INTO A HOT FIRE AT CLOSE RANGE

On reaching the foot of the hill, the Eleventh and Twenty-fourth halted
in the edge of the woods, where the enemy's fire was very heavy and
destructive at very close range. The minie balls were flying thick, the
"sip, sip, sip" sound they made indicating unmistakably that the Yankees
were close by, though hidden by the fog, smoke and bushes, and our men,
standing or kneeling, returning the fire with a will. Here these
regiments suffered a heavy loss in a very short space of time.


                         COL. RICHARD F. MAURY

I remember passing Colonel Maury just at the edge of the woods, lying on
his back looking ghastly pale. I said to him, "Colonel, are you badly
wounded?" He replied calmly, "Yes, very badly." He recovered from the
wound, however, and still lives in Richmond. Colonel Maury is a son of
the late Commodore Matthew F. Maury, "the pathfinder of the seas."
(Since this was first written the gallant Colonel Maury has answered the
last roll call; peace to his ashes.) Colonel Maury was a strict
disciplinarian and not very popular in camp, but in a fight his men
stood by him, and died by him.

I also remember while kneeling here in the woods, in this terrific fire,
when the twigs around me on every side were being cut by bullets, and
men shot down on every hand, I felt a sense of safety and security; it
seemed there was a small space or zone just around my person into which
no balls came. I have often thought and spoken of this, but never could
account for the impression clearly and distinctly made upon my mind in
the midst of imminent danger. It may be, at that early hour of morning,
a loved one at home—wife or mother—at her morning devotions, was at that
very moment sending up an earnest petition to the God of Heaven and
earth, the Maker and Ruler of all things, for my protection, and that
though the petitioner was far away, the prayer reached the throne of
grace and mercy, and the answer came down there to me in the midst of
that scene of carnage, "Safe"! Who knows? Maybe in the sweet bye-and-bye
I may know more of this. So mote it be.

While here G. A. Creasy, a young soldier of Company C, who was at my
side, spoke out, saying, "Captain, I am wounded, what must I do?"
Looking at him, I saw the blood running from a wound in the face. I
replied, "Go to the rear," and he went. Gus still lives in Pittsylvania
County.


                        YANKEE BRIGADE CAPTURED

It was not long before the word came along the lines from the left,
"Cease firing." The other regiments of the brigade, and part of
Gracie's, on the left, had advanced, overlapping the enemy's lines on
his right flank, and swinging around, came in on the enemy's flank and
rear.

They had surrendered; a whole brigade—General Heckman, their commander,
and all.

The Eleventh and Twenty-fourth at once went forward and came upon the
Yankee breastworks, not over twenty steps in front. There the Yankees
stood with their guns in their hands, very much frightened and
bewildered, apparently, and looking greatly astonished as if something
had happened, but not knowing exactly what; they found out very soon,
though, when, after surrendering their guns, they were marched to the
boat-landing at Drury's Bluff (escorted by the Seventh Virginia
Regiment) and sent up the river by the boat to Richmond, and into Libby
Prison. My brother Bob said that as he approached the Yankee
breastworks, an officer fired his pistol into his face, but his aim was
bad. Color-Bearer Hickok also went forward among the foremost, and was
told by the Yankees not to come into the works, presenting their guns.
Hickcock brought down his flag-staff at a rest, and went ahead, heedless
of their protestations. I saw Major Hambrick, of the Twenty-fourth
Regiment, after the battle was over, who was also wounded, shot through
the thigh, who said, when asked about his wound, "D——n 'em, I will live
to fight them again." Poor fellow, he died in Richmond soon afterwards
from his wound.

By this time the battle was raging along the lines for a mile or more.
The plan of battle was to first strike the Yankees on their right flank
and follow it by successive attacks on their line from right to left,
all of which was successfully and handsomely done before the sun was
well up.


                       GENERAL WHITING'S FAILURE

A further plan of the battle was, that General Whiting, who, as before
said, had been left in command of the troops at Petersburg, was to
attack the Yankees in the rear at the same time they were assailed in
front. This, however, was a miserable failure. It was said at the time
that Whiting was drunk; how true this was I never knew, he only marched
out of Petersburg and then marched back again. If the attack in the rear
had been made simultaneously with the one in front, there is no doubt
but that Butler's army would have been completely crushed, as if caught
between the upper and nether millstones, and captured almost to the last
man, when there would have probably been a first-class hanging. Butler
had been outlawed; that is, proclamation had been issued by the
Confederate authorities to hang Butler on the spot, if captured, for his
beastly conduct towards the people, especially the women, of New
Orleans, while in command of that city. Butler had threatened to turn
his soldiers loose upon the women.

Col. Geo. C. Cabell used to tell, that when in Congress he had a talk
with Butler about this battle, and upon Butler's asking him what would
have been his fate if he, Butler, had been captured, Colonel Cabell said
he replied, "I do not know as to the others, but if my regiment had made
the capture, you would have been strung up at once." A Richmond paper
described this battle as a contest between a great eagle and a buzzard.
Of course, the Beast was the buzzard, and Beauregard the eagle.

By the time the sun was an hour high the Yankee army was in full retreat
for its base, Bermuda Hundred, the Confederates following on, though the
pursuit was not a very vigorous one. All who knew of the plan of battle
were anxiously awaiting the sound of Whiting's guns in the rear of the
Yankee army, but alas! those guns were silent, and Beast Butler and his
badly beaten army made good their escape.

Some of the prisoners captured that morning said they were taken
completely by surprise; that orders had been issued to attack the
Confederates at sunrise. So Beauregard stole a march on them by
attacking at daybreak. The early bird caught some of the worms that
morning, if not all, as was planned.

Beauregard followed on to the top of the river hills overlooking Bermuda
Hundred, where the Yankees were well fortified, with gunboats in the
river to assist in the defense of the strong position. Here there was
some artillery firing, but no attempt to assault the position was made.
Butler was "bottled up." In this fight, Company C lost seven men killed
and mortally wounded, as follows: Chas. Allen, John DePriest, Allen
Bailey, John Monroe, Bruce Woody, Alfred Rosser, and Geo. W. Walker, and
many wounded.

In a few days the bulk of the Confederate army went to join General Lee
in his death struggle with Grant and Meade, which had been going on
since the early days of May in the Wilderness and around Spottsylvania
Court House.


                              YANKEE FLAGS

On the 20th of May, Terry's Brigade marched through Richmond, each
regiment proudly carrying a Yankee flag, captured on the 16th of May.
The brigade marched into the Capitol Square, where there was assembled a
great crowd of Congressmen, high Confederate dignitaries, and others.
The troops were massed in columns of regiments, and there, beneath the
grand equestrian statue of Washington, these flags were delivered to the
War Department officials. I have no doubt that if Washington was there
in spirit, he looked on approvingly.

That afternoon part of the brigade went by train to Hanover Junction,
where troops were assembling from different quarters to reënforce
General Lee, who had been fighting and holding his own for nearly three
weeks against tremendous odds. But his ranks had been greatly depleted,
while Grant's army was being reënforced almost daily. Gen. John C.
Breckenridge was here with his troops also. It was said Breckenridge was
the handsomest man in the army; some of Company C saw him here and
declared he was the finest-looking man they ever saw. I could have seen
him by walking a hundred or two yards, but did not do so, being very
tired and worn out generally, and sad on account of the loss of seven
good men a few days before.



                              CHAPTER XVI

                TO MILFORD AND TO CAPTURE—A PRISONER OF
                          WAR—ON TO WASHINGTON


The same afternoon we arrived at Hanover Junction, the First Virginia
Regiment and five companies of the Eleventh, A, B, C, E and K, under the
command of Major Norten, of the First Regiment, boarded the cars and
went to Milford Station in Caroline County, on the Richmond,
Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad, arriving there about night, and going
into camp across the Mattapony River, just west of the station. The
Mattapony here is quite a small stream, spanned by a wooden bridge. The
First Regiment at that time was very small, numbering perhaps not over
100 to 150 men. The five companies of the Eleventh Regiment numbered
about eighty-five or ninety men—Plymouth and Drury's Bluff had depleted
their ranks. Pickets were posted on the roads, and there were some
cavalry videts still farther out. The rest of the command bivouacked in
the woods a short distance from the bridge.

Early the next morning, the 21st of May, 1864, the cavalry videts came
in and reported the Yankees were making a raid on the station with the
intention of burning it. Major Norten declared they should not do this,
and made his dispositions to prevent it, posting the men of the First
Regiment to repel the attack on the station, while the companies of the
Eleventh were held in reserve.

It was not long before the supposed raiders made their appearance. At
first they were few in number and shot at long range, firing on the
First Regiment at the bridge from a grove on a hill some 600 yards away,
with long-range guns, dropping a few balls about them, while too far
away for them to return the fire with their muskets. Major Norten
ordered up the reserves, directing them to "Take that hill and hold it
at all hazards"—a very positive and unwise order, I thought.

The five companies of the Eleventh Regiment crossed over the bridge,
formed in line of battle, and moved forward at double-quick across the
broad river bottom, crossing over the railroad track right up to this
hill, taking possession of it without firing a single gun, the few
Yankees who occupied it retreating before the line was in shooting
distance.

As soon as the hill was occupied, no Yankees being in sight, I walked up
on the northeast side of the grove of trees and saw half a mile away,
thousands of Yankee cavalry; the hills were blue with them. It turned
out to be General Torbet's Division, the advance division of Grant's
army, instead of a raid to burn Milford Station. I went back and told
Capt. Bob Mitchell, of Company A, who was the ranking officer, that we
could not hold that hill—that there were ten thousand Yankees over on
the next hill. Mitchell replied, "We have orders to hold the hill at all
hazards." I said, "All right, we will all be captured." I have often
thought Captain Mitchell should have sent a messenger to inform Major
Norten of the situation, but he did not. The Yankee skirmishers,
dismounted cavalry, soon began to advance on two sides of the hill, when
a long-range skirmish began, which continued for some time, growing
hotter as the Yankees approached nearer and nearer, protecting
themselves behind trees and whatever they could. They were held at bay
for an hour or more. During this time the Confederates had several men
wounded. The Yankees were being hit also. Captain Mitchell was shot in
the chin and left the hill. Lieutenant Atkins, of Company K, was also
wounded. I saw him clap his hand on his side as the ball struck him. I
never learned his fate, and I am not certain that I have his name
correct, but know he was a lieutenant of Company K. Capt. Thomas B.
Horton, of Company B, was next in command. Going again to the crest of
the hill, on the northeast side, I saw a regiment of dismounted Yankee
cavalry forming in line of battle a few hundred yards away; a colonel or
general with gray hair and mustache was riding along the rear of the men
getting them into position, the men seeming very awkward and hard to get
straightened out. I called up one of Company C, either Tom Rosser or Sam
Franklin, both good fighters, and told him to raise the sight of his
Enfield rifle to 400 yards and shoot that officer. The order was obeyed
promptly; I did not see the result of the shot however. Just as he
fired, one of Company B, who was lying on the ground on the crest of the
hill firing at the enemy, in a few feet of where I was standing,
attracted my attention by calling out at the top of his voice, "Run
here, ambulance corps; run here, ambulance corps." Seeing he had only a
scalp wound on the side of the head, and thinking a man who could call
out so lustily for the ambulance corps to come to his aid, although his
head was bleeding profusely, could aid himself by getting up and
running, I told him so, whereupon he jumped up and ran like a deer off
the hill. I suppose he got away safely.

The men of the companies were scattered around on the hill, among the
trees, embracing about an acre in area, without any regard to lines,
fighting on the Indian style, some protecting themselves behind trees,
some lying down, while most of them stood out in the open, watching for
and shooting at every Yankee who showed himself within range. The
Yankees, too, were under cover as much as possible with longer range
guns than ours, slipping around behind trees, bushes and fences, and at
every opportunity popping away at the Confederates, all the while
getting a little closer and extending their lines around the hill. They
were not very good shots, however.

Captain Horton and myself consulted, or held a small council of war,
upon the situation. It was beyond question that if we remained on the
hill, all would be killed or made prisoners in a short time. Some, or
all of us, might escape by beating a hasty retreat. We agreed to try the
latter, orders or no orders. Turning to the men who were by this time
pretty close together about the center of the hill, with the Yankees
still closing in, we told them we would all make a break and attempt to
escape. Many of the men so earnestly demurred to this, saying, "We will
all be killed as we run across the bottom," that Captain Horton and
myself concluded not to make the attempt. I said to the men, "We will
stay with you then." Near the top of the hill there was a ditch leading
from what appeared to be an old icehouse, and in this ditch we made the
last stand and fought the Yankees until they were close up. I remember
Marion Seay, of Company E, who still lives in Lynchburg, was at the
upper end of the ditch, shooting at a Yankee not thirty steps away, and
then calling out and pointing his finger, saying, "D——n you, I fixed
you," repeating it several times. Seay was then a little tow-headed boy,
but he was game to the backbone.

Pretty soon our men ceased firing, as all knew that the inevitable had
come. The Yankees then rushed up to the ditch, and all the Confederates
dropped their guns—the seventy-five men left were prisoners of war.

I think we were justifiable in surrendering. If we had fought until the
last man fell, nothing would have been accomplished for the good of the
cause. There was no possibility of rescue, so it was die in that ditch
in a few minutes or surrender; we chose not to die then and there. It
was not a forlorn hope we were leading or defending, which demanded such
a sacrifice of life.

As the Yankees came up, one of their men was shot through the head, and
fell dead into the ditch; killed, I think, by one of his own men who was
some distance off, firing, as he thought, at the Rebels. Some of the
Confederates were bespattered with the brains of the dead Yankee.

At Plymouth, N. C., thirty-one days before, and again just five days
before, at Drury's Bluff, we had been at the capture of brigades of
Yankees, and exulted in the captures—now the tables are turned and we
are prisoners, and the Yankees are exulting at our capture. Such are the
fortunes of war.

I can testify that the sensations of the captors are very different from
those of the captives, but shall not attempt to set forth the contrast;
words are inadequate.

The Yankees said they had thirty-five or forty men killed and wounded in
the fight; so that for every "Rebel" captured that day, they had half a
man killed or crippled—not a bad showing for the "Rebs," if they did
surrender, when outnumbered by more than one hundred to one. I don't
remember that we had any killed on the field; nearly all the wounded got
away.

Capt. Thos. B. Horton, Company B; Lieut. Peter Akers, Company A, and
Lieuts. J. W. Wray and Geo. P. Norvell, of Company E., were captured. I
have no means of getting the names of the men of the other companies
captured.

Beside myself, the following men of Company C were captured: W. L.
Brown, G. T. Brown, J. A. Brown, H. M. Callaham, H. Eads, J. T. Jones,
J. W. Jones, W. S. Kabler, Fred Kabler, W. T. Monroe, R. W. Morgan, S.
P. Tweedy, E. A Tweedy, W. A. Rice, W. C. J. Wilkerson—seventeen in all.
W. L. Brown and S. P. Tweedy were wounded; the former slightly, the
latter a bad flesh wound in the thigh. Some of the company were on
picket duty and escaped capture, and some who were wounded got away,
others were at home, or in hospitals, sick or wounded.

Not long ago, in looking over some old papers and letters, I found a
letter written by Lieut. Robert Cocke to my wife, telling her about the
fight and capture; it is dated the 22d of May. Among other things he
says: "I was sent out the night before to guard a road that the Yankees
were expected to come, but _fortunately for the Yankees_, they did not
come that way; if it had not been for that, I would have been taken or
killed myself, I expect."

Our negro boy, Horace, just as we were ordered forward to charge the
hill, came up to me and said, "Where must I go?" I replied, "Stay with
the surgeon." There were no wagons with us, with which he usually
stayed. Horace, after we were captured, made his way home, taking with
him what little baggage I had left in his care.

Thus ended my experience as a Confederate soldier in the field. I had
been in active service for three years and more.


                           A PRISONER OF WAR

Now another experience was to be tried, of which I will tell in the
closing pages of these reminiscences; long, bitter, and trying, too,
that experience was.

The truth shall be told, setting down nothing in malice, giving credit
where credit is due, with condemnation and reproach when deserved.

While these seventy-five men were sacrificed by what was another "fool
order," in the light of subsequent events an advantage was gained.

These companies were sent out to that hill simply to protect the dépôt
at Milford from the torch of supposed Yankee raiders, when in truth and
in fact, Grant's whole army was approaching, and in a few hours were
upon the scene, marching by the dépôt in which the prisoners were
confined.

General Grant was then on his famous flank movement from Spottsylvania
Court House, while General Lee was moving on parallel lines in the
direction of Hanover Junction, all the while keeping his army between
the enemy and Richmond, the goal that the enemy had been endeavoring to
reach ever since the beginning of the war, in the spring of 1861; yet in
May, 1864, the goal was far from being attained, although hundreds of
thousands of lives had been sacrificed, and billions of dollars expended
in the effort.

When it was known that the men captured at Milford on the 21st of May
were from the army which, on the 16th of May, under Beauregard, had
soundly thrashed Beast Butler at Drury's Bluff, and then "bottled him up
at Bermuda Hundred on James River," as General Grant expressed it, and
had come on to join forces with General Lee, General Grant halted his
army that morning, and made dispositions to repel an attack, threw up
breastworks, and remained near Milford for two days, giving General Lee
ample time to concentrate his forces near Hanover Junction and select a
strong position on the south bank of North Anna River. Grant, I have
since learned, mentioned these men captured at Milford from Beauregard's
army in a dispatch to Washington, and called for more troops. So that
when General Grant finally moved forward he was confronted by Lee with
his whole army, in a strong and commanding position, that Grant dared
not assail; instead, he again side-stepped, flanking off towards Cold
Harbor, where Lee's army was again in his front, and where the
Confederates inflicted a loss of 12,000 men in a few hours, in repelling
assaults on their hastily formed breastworks. This battle was fought on
the ground on which the battle of Gaines' Mill occurred on the 27th of
June, 1862, only the position of the two armies being reversed.

From Cold Harbor Grant made a long side-step, not halting until he had
crossed to the south side of James River at City Point, where he could
have gone by water months before without the loss of a single man. In
the campaign from the Rappahannock to the James, Grant had lost more men
than Lee had in his whole army.

Grant had boasted in the early days of the campaign in the Wilderness
that he would, "fight it out on this line if it takes all summer." But
he changed his mind as well as his line. From Cold Harbor, it was said,
Grant sent this dispatch to Washington: "All the fight is knocked out of
this army." This was after his order to renew the assaults on the
Confederate lines had been disobeyed; the men standing still and mute
when ordered to renew the charge. Then it was that Grant struck out
across the Peninsula to the James.

The Confederate prisoners were first marched over on the hill where the
main body of Torbet's Cavalry was posted, surrounded by a strong guard,
the Yankee officers celebrating their victory, 10,000 against 85, by
feasting on wine and cake. Lieut. Peter Akers, of Company A, marched up
to a group of these officers, sitting on their horses, saying: "Hello,
fellows, ain't you going to treat?" The Yanks laughed, handed around the
wine and cake to the "Rebel" officers, with whom they chatted in a very
friendly way. Like Bob Jones was with the stolen hog, I took some of the
cake, but none of the wine.

Pretty soon we were marched down to the dépôt and confined there. It was
not long until Grant's Infantry began to march by, Hancock's corps
leading, in serried ranks of brigades, divisions, and corps, marching on
across the little Mattapony out on the hills beyond, where lines of
battle were formed, and the digging of entrenchments begun, and redoubts
for cannon were thrown up.

The prisoners were marched out later, sleeping that night in an old
barn, where they were guarded until the army moved forward, the
prisoners being taken along. That night one of the guards said to me,
"Old man, were you drafted?" I replied, "No, I volunteered." The reason
he called me "old man" was, my hair was gray, though I was not then
twenty-seven years old. While in prison many thought I was a political
prisoner and not a soldier, for the same reason.

I was forcibly struck with the difference in the discipline in the two
armies. In the Confederate army the officers and privates often messed
and slept together, and were on equal terms, socially. In the Yankee
army there was a great gulf between the officers and enlisted men, the
officers rarely ever speaking to the men except when giving orders.

Rations were short with the Yankees at this time; the "Rebs" were, of
course, very hungry, having none at all; there were no rations at hand
to issue. Some of the Yanks, however, divided hard-tack from their
haversacks, and some fresh beef was issued that night, which we _briled_
on the coals and ate without salt or bread. The next day the commissary
trains came up, when hard-tack was issued; not very plentiful, however—
five crackers to the man.

On the morning of the 23d the Yankee army moved on, and that night
camped on the high hills on the north side of the North Anna River,
opposite General Lee's position.

The prisoners slept in a clump of bushes not far from General Grant's
headquarters. The next morning, as the army moved out, the prisoners
still going along, Grant and his staff rode along the lines, when we got
a good look at him.

I never see a picture of Grant but that morning is called to mind, when
I recall and distinctly remember Grant's face and figure.

His appearance was not striking or prepossessing; he reminded me of my
uncle, Mack Morgan.

Grant had nothing about his form, features or bearing that compared with
the handsome, noble, and majestic appearance of Robert E. Lee.

General Lee far excelled Grant in personal appearance, as he did in
generalship.

Grant's final success over Lee was not accomplished by his genius as a
general, but by the recognition and application of the well-known laws
of physics—that a larger body put in motion will overcome the force of a
smaller one; that a greater mass of material thrown upon a smaller mass
of the same material will crush it. To use a homely expression, Grant
overcame Lee by "main strength and awkwardness."

It was not the flashing blade of a strategist and tactician that cut its
way to victory, but the heavy hammer of a Thor that crushed Lee and his
valiant band.

Suppose Lee had had an army of anything like equal strength in numbers,
equipments and supplies, to Grant's, is there any one who would contend
that Lee would not have prevailed over Grant? Why, Lee would not have
left a "grease spot" of Grant and his "grand army" in the Wilderness,
and there would have been no Appomattox.

On the afternoon of the 23d, there was some fighting at the front on the
North Anna River.

Some of the Yankees crossed over above where Lee had taken his position.
Here other Confederate prisoners were captured and added to our squad;
among them, I remember Colonel Brown, of South Carolina, who was in the
command of a brigade of A. P. Hill's Corps. Colonel Brown said, in
advancing in line of battle, two of his regiments got separated in the
thick woods, and he walked through the gap in the line, right into the
Yankees. On the afternoon of the 24th of May, or the next morning, I am
not certain which, the prisoners were turned back and headed for Port
Royal, on the Rappahannock River, under a strong cavalry guard, a part
of the way riding in wagons going back for supplies, but marched a
greater part of the distance. As we marched, to the rear could be heard
the thunder of Lee's guns on the North Anna, bidding defiance to Grant,
saying, if not in words, in effect, "Thus far shall thou come and no
farther." On the march to the rear, we passed large numbers of fresh
troops going to reënforce Grant, many of them negroes. These were the
first negro troops we had ever seen. One of them remarked as we passed
by, "They ought to have gin 'em (us) Fort Pillow. If we had cotch 'em we
would have gin 'em Fort Pillow."

On the last day's march I was taken very sick, getting dizzy, and came
near fainting, and dropped down by the roadside. My brother Bob, was
also taken sick about the same time and stopped with me. When the
rearguard came up to where we were, they commenced to shout at us, "Get
up, go on, go on." I told them we were sick and unable to go. We did not
know what would be done, but we received humane treatment. The officer
commanding the rearguard put us in charge of a big Dutch corporal and
another man, with instructions to bring us on when able to march.

After a short time we were able to go on to a house close by, on the
roadside, where we rested in the yard under the shade of the locust
trees, when the good woman of the house gave us ice-water and something
to eat, peach preserves and cold biscuits, as I remember, which greatly
refreshed and strengthened us. God bless the Confederate women, who were
always kind to the soldiers, who suffered so much anxiety, and endured
so many privations during the war, who, with their daughters of to-day,
are still true to the memory of the dead and the honor and welfare of
the living.

                  _A Tribute to Confederate Womanhood_

              Ye survivors of that gallant band,
                A scanty remnant thinned by time;
              Crown her, love, honor, cherish her,
                And hail her queen of womankind.

              Ye present generation, those unborn,
                Both now and hereafter, through all time,
              Crown her, love, honor, cherish her,
                And hail her queen of womankind.

              Ye of all nations, every tribe,
                Of every age and every time,
              Crown her, love, honor, cherish her,
                And hail her queen of womankind.

We remained here perhaps half an hour, when the guards let us ride their
horses, walking at the horses' heads, holding the bridles by the bits.
This was very kind and duly appreciated. After going a mile or so, the
Dutch corporal, with the perspiration streaming from his face (it was a
very hot, sultry morning), stopped and said, "I ish proke down and can't
valk no farder." I told him all right, we could make it then, and
thanking him for his kindness, we marched on, the guard telling us to
take our time.

By this time we were feeling much better and stronger, and that night,
May 26th, after dark, came up with the other prisoners at Port Royal. I
am able to fix this date from an old letter I found some time ago,
written to my wife from that place, in which I gave the names of all the
men of Company C who were captured with me, and requested her to have
the names published in the Lynchburg papers, that their friends might
know their fate.


                            ON TO WASHINGTON

The next day the prisoners were put aboard an old freight ship, which
steamed down the Rappahannock River, out into the bay, and up the
Potomac River to Washington City. Here the officers and men were
separated. My brother Bob was very anxious to go with me, but, of
course, this was not permissible; and there on the wharf, on the 28th of
May, 1864, I parted with him and the other members of Company C, not to
meet any of them again until that "cruel war was over," and many of them
never again. Some of the company not captured were killed during the
last year of the war, and many have died since the war. Some still live.
Every now and then I read in the papers of the death of some of them,
which always recalls memories of long ago. It will not be many years
before the last one of us shall have answered the final roll call. May
we all meet again in a better world, where there is no war, is my
fervent prayer. War is horrible. General Sherman said, "War is hell."
Few, if any, did more than William Tecumseh Sherman to make war hell,
and if I had to guess, I should say that ere now Sherman knows all about
the horrors of both—war and hell. There may be something in a name after
all. "Tecumseh!" The savage.

The enlisted men were sent to Point Lookout, and the officers
incarcerated in the old Capitol Prison.

I remember as we entered from the street, when the door closed, the key
turned and the bolt went into its place with a grating sound, Captain
Horton turned to me and said, "This is the first time the bolts were
ever turned on me." So we all could say. There were other prisoners
confined here.

While here, we could often see from the windows ambulances moving along
the streets filled with wounded Yankee soldiers. When Peter Akers would
see these loads of wounded Yanks, he would remark, "There goes more
dispatches from General Lee to old Abe."



                              CHAPTER XVII

               TO FORT DELAWARE—SHORT RATIONS—SONG—PRISON
                                 RULES


These officers remained here for about two weeks, when we were taken by
boat down the Potomac and Chesapeake Bay, passing out into the ocean
between Cape Charles and Cape Henry; thence up the coast into Delaware
Bay to Fort Delaware, where we were placed in prison barracks with
several thousand other Confederate officers. While at the Old Capitol
Prison we were well treated, and the rations were all we could wish. At
Fort Delaware it was very different. The rations were badly cooked and
scarcely sufficient in quantity to sustain life, besides being very
inferior in quality. There were only two meals a day; breakfast at eight
A. M., and dinner at four P. M.

We got to Fort Delaware in the afternoon. I was not feeling very well
and did not go to dinner. We had some rations brought from Washington.
Captain Horton went, and the first thing he said when he came back was,
"Take care of that meat, it is as scarce as hen's teeth here." In truth
it was very, very scarce.

My brother, J. L. Morgan, who was living in Brooklyn, N. Y., very kindly
furnished me with clothes, and supplied me with money with which to
supplement the poor and scanty prison fare, saving me from much
suffering, and I have but little doubt, saved my life; for many who had
to depend alone on what they got in prison died from lack of sufficient
and proper food and clothing. My brother also furnished money to Robt.
Morgan and W. L. Brown, who was his brother-in-law, and to other
Confederate prisoners.

For breakfast, we had a slice of light-bread, about four ounces, and
about one and one-half or two ounces of bacon; for dinner the same bread
and about two or three ounces of loud-smelling pickled beef—"red horse,"
as it was called—and a tin cup of miserable stuff, called soup, so mean
that I could not swallow it. This was all, day in and day out, week
after week, and month after month. Men who lived on these rations were
always hungry. Even those who had money did not fare much better, as the
prices at the sutlers' were so exorbitant that a dollar did not go far.
I shared the money sent me with my bunk-mate, Capt. Thos. B. Horton.

Prison life was hard and very monotonous, though many things were
resorted to to while away the tedious hours.

All kinds of games were played, "keno" being the most popular, and much
gambling went on. Concerts were given, debating societies formed, and
many other things resorted to to kill time. My brother sent me a set of
chess-men. There were other sets in the prison, and this game was played
a good deal. There were some fine players among the officers; Capt. J.
W. Fanning, of Alabama, and Capt. H. C. Hoover, of Staunton, Va., being
the champion players.

I here give a song composed and sung by Confederate prisoners at Fort
Delaware, at a concert given by the prisoners, for the benefit of the
destitute among the 600 Confederate officers, who were put under fire on
Morris Island, and afterwards sent to Fort Pulaski and Hilton Head, and
confined there during the winter of 1864-65, and who were sent back to
Fort Delaware in March, 1865, in a pitiable plight:

                    "IN THE PRISON OF FORT DELAWARE

                 (TO THE TUNE OF "LOUISIANA LOWLANDS")

     "Come listen to my ditty, it will while away a minute,
     And if I didn't think so, I never would begin it;
     'Tis 'bout a life in prison, so forward bend your head,
     And I'll tell you in a moment how dey treat the poor Confed.

                         CHORUS:

     "In the prison of Fort Delaware, Delaware, Delaware,
     In the prison of Fort Delaware, Del.

     "Dey put you in de barrack, de barrack in divisions,
     Den dey 'lect a captain who bosses the provisions;
     He keeps the money letters, keeps order in the room,
     And hollers like the debbil if you upset the spittoon.

                         CHORUS:

     "Wheneber dey take de oath, dey put dem near de ribber,
     Dey work dem like de debbil, worse dan in de Libby;
     Dey shake 'em in de blanket, thow stuff into der eyes,
     And parole dem on de island, and call 'em "galvanized."

                         CHORUS:

     "Some officers do washing, many makes de fires,
     So hot upon a sunny day, dat every one expires;
     Some working gutta-percha, some walking in de yard,
     Many make dey living by de turning ob de card.

                         CHORUS:

     "Dar's tailors and shoemakers, some French and Latin teaching,
     Some scratching ob de tiger, while some odders am a-preaching;
     Some cooking up de rations, some swapping off dey clothes,
     While a crowd of Hilton Headers are a-giving nigger shows.

                         CHORUS:

     "Dar's anoder lot ob fellers and cunning dogs dey are,
     Dey get an empty barrel and den set up a bar,
     Git some vinegar and 'lasses—fer whiskey am too dear—
     And mix it wid potato skins and den dey call it beer.

                         CHORUS:

     "No matter what you're doin', one thing am very sartin,
     Dat ebery one is ready from dis prison to be startin';
     De very sad reflection makes eberybody grieve,
     For not a single debbil knows when he's gwine to leave.

                         CHORUS:

     "Now white folks here's a moral: There's nothin' true below,
     This world am but a 'tater patch, de debbil has the hoe;
     Ebery one sees trouble here, go you near and far,
     But the most unlucky debbil am the prisoner of war."

These lines give in a crude way, a pretty correct account of the doings
in the prison barracks.

I preserved a copy of Prison rules, which follows:

                  *       *       *       *       *

                              PRISON RULES

                          "HEADQUARTERS, FORT DELAWARE, DEL.,
                                                         _July 8, 1864_.

  I. Roll call at reveille and retreat.

 II. Police call at 7 A. M. and 4 P. M.

III. Breakfast at 8 A. M. Dinner at 4 P. M.

 IV. Sergeants in charge of prisoners will exact from them strict
compliance with the above calls, which will be regularly enforced, and
must promptly report to the officer in charge the number present and
absent, sick, etc., and any who are guilty of insubordination or any
violation of the Rules of Prison. They must also notify their men that
if they do not promptly obey any order given them by a sentinel, officer
or man in charge of them, they will be shot.

  V. Sergeants in charge will be held responsible for the due execution
of these Rules, and for the regular accounting for the full number of
their men.

By command of—

                                   BRIG.-GENL. A. SCHOEPF.
                                                     GEO. W. AHL,
                                                    Capt. & A. A. A. G."



                             CHAPTER XVIII

               OFF FOR CHARLESTON—ALLEGED RETALIATION—ON
                     SHIPBOARD—RUN AGROUND—SHORT OF
                WATER—ON MORRIS ISLAND—IN STOCKADE—UNDER
                           FIRE—PRISON RULES


I remained at Fort Delaware until the 20th of August, 1864. Some time
previous to this, seventy-five field officers confined at Fort Delaware
were selected for retaliation, as the Yankees called it, to be put under
fire of the Confederate guns, on Morris Island in Charleston Harbor.

The Confederates had hospitals in one section of the city of Charleston,
S. C., with yellow flags flying over them. The Yankees, in shelling the
city from their batteries on Morris Island, were in the habit of
shelling these hospitals, and were notified that some of their officers,
who were held as prisoners of war, would be placed in or near the
hospitals. The Yankees did not heed this, but prepared to put
Confederate prisoners under fire of Confederate guns, when firing on
Yankee batteries on Morris Island.

Firing on hospitals, which were designated by yellow flags, was begun by
the Yankees on the 18th of July, 1861, at Blackburn's Ford, and kept up
during the war, contrary to the usage of all civilized nations the world
over.

These seventy-five field officers were taken to Charleston Harbor, but
were not put under fire; instead, they were exchanged for a like number
of Yankee officers.

When orders came to Fort Delaware, soon after this exchange, for 600
field and company officers to be put under fire, there was a general
desire among the prisoners to be one of the 600, but we had no say-so as
to who should go. On the 19th of August, all the prisoners were called
out and formed in line, when 600 names were called, and those on the
list were notified to be ready to embark the next morning for the trip.
Some were so anxious to go that they paid others, whose names had been
called, for the privilege of surreptitiously answering to their names.
One officer gave a fine gold watch, and after remaining away seven
months, and suffering untold privations, was landed back at Fort
Delaware.


                              ON SHIPBOARD

At the appointed hour on the 20th of August, 1864, the 600 officers
embarked on board the steamer _Crescent_, which steamed away down the
bay, out into the broad Atlantic, and down the coast to Charleston
Harbor, where they were landed on the 7th day of September, having been
eighteen days aboard ship. Capt. Thos. B. Horton and myself were among
the number, also Lieut. Peter B. Akers, of Lynchburg.

It was a nasty trip on board this old freight ship, in the summer-time.
The prisoners were on the lower or freight deck, nearly on the water
line. Two rows of temporary bunks had been built around the sides of the
ship, two tiers high. These bunks were about six feet long and three
feet wide, with two men in each bunk; a pretty close fit, especially if
both occupants were good-sized men. The bunks did not afford sufficient
room for all the prisoners, consequently a good many lay on the floor of
the deck between the bunks. Here the prisoners laid and sweltered
through eighteen days, the boilers running up through the middle, making
it much hotter. I occupied a lower bunk on the inside row with Captain
Horton, who was my messmate while a prisoner; a good fellow he was, too,
and a good soldier. There was a guard of 150 soldiers on board, who
occupied the upper deck. The _Crescent_ was escorted by a gunboat.


                              RUN AGROUND

Off the coast of South Carolina, before reaching Charleston, one night
the pilot, who was a Southern sympathizer, attempted to run the ship
under the guns of a Confederate battery on the coast, changing the
course of the ship, and heading it for land, but unfortunately ran
aground near some low-lying islands near the coast, not far from, but
not in sight of the mainland. When it was known at dawn of day that the
ship was aground, all hands were aroused. Some of the prisoners who knew
the coast, said the pilot had missed the channel by only a narrow
margin, which led to the Confederate batteries not far away, but not in
sight. Nor was the Yankee gunboat in sight; the pilot had given the
escort the slip in the darkness. It was plain to see that the guards
were very much excited and scared, for they assembled on the top or
hurricane-deck with their guns in their hands. The crew of the
_Crescent_ went to work to get the ship off the sand-bar on which it was
grounded. The prisoners came on deck at will, the guards abandoning
their post at the hatchway, where they had been stationed to keep all
the prisoners below, except a certain number, who were allowed to come
on deck at intervals. All hands were very anxious. Some of the prisoners
consulted and determined to make an effort to capture the ship and
guard. Col. Van Manning, of Arkansas, was the leading spirit in the
movement. I had just come on deck and was standing right by the colonel
while he wrote a note to the Yankee officer who commanded the guard. I
think I can give the note verbatim: "Sir—We hereby demand the surrender
of your guard and this ship. If you comply, you and your men shall be
treated as prisoners of war; if you refuse, you will have to take the
consequences." The plan was to make a rush on the guard and overpower
them by making the attack with such things as were at hand about the
deck, if they refused to surrender. Just as Colonel Manning finished
writing this note, some one looked out to sea and there was the old
gunboat bearing down upon us, and all hope of the capture of the ship
and guard was dashed to the ground. And how quick the demeanor of the
guard changed; before the gunboat appeared they were very much
frightened, and as before said, were gathered together on the upper
deck, taking no control of the prisoners, who came on the deck at will,
but now they were insolent and dictatorial, ordering the prisoners to
assist the crew, and taking control again. The crew pretty soon worked
the ship off the bar and we sailed on down the coast, accompanied by the
gunboat. I have often thought what a good joke it would have been on the
Yankees if we could have captured the ship and guard and taken them all
into port on the coast.

The pilot was at once arrested and put in irons. We learned afterwards
he was court-martialed and given a term at hard labor.


                             SHORT OF WATER

While on the _Crescent_ the supply of water ran short; then the only
water the prisoners had was sea water condensed in the ships, and issued
out scalding hot in limited quantities. We would pour the hot water from
one tin cup to another until cool enough to swallow without burning the
throat.

Think of it! Nothing but hot water to drink in the month of August on
shipboard on the southern coast. The Yankees had ice on board, but the
prisoners got none of it.

The _Crescent_ steamed on down the coast, passing Charleston Harbor—
preparations to receive the prisoners not being completed—to Port Royal
Sound, where we remained a few days on shipboard. Here two or three
prisoners escaped from the ship in the night-time, by dropping in the
water and swimming ashore. Only one, however, made good his escape.

While here we could see sharks swimming about the ship. It took pretty
good nerve to get in the water and swim for the shore.


                            IN THE STOCKADE

When the stockade was ready, we went up to Charleston Harbor, landing on
Morris Island, as before said, on the 7th of September, and marched
between two lines of negro soldiers (big black, slick negro fellows they
were) two miles up the island, and into a stockade made of pine logs set
on end in the ground, about twenty feet high, enclosing an acre of
ground. In the stockade were small fly-tents arranged in regular
military order. Four men occupied each tent.

The negro soldiers guarded us—the sentries, on platforms on the outside
of the stockade, about three feet from the top. These sentries would
fire upon the slightest provocation, though I must say that the negro
soldiers treated the prisoners better than the white officers who
commanded them. For these officers the prisoners had a perfect contempt.
They were a low-down, measly set. One Lieut.-Col. William Gurney was in
command, and the most despisable in the lot was he.

While here the rations were scant and sorry. For breakfast, we had three
crackers, sometimes two, and sometimes only one and a half, and a very
small piece of bacon, about two ounces; towards the last, five crackers
per day were issued. For dinner, we had soup made of some kind of dried
peas, about one pint, very unpalatable—for supper, a pint of very thin
mush or rice. The mush was made of stale cornmeal, full of worms. One
prisoner picked out and counted 125 small, black-headed worms from a cup
of this mush. I would pick out worms a while, and then eat the stuff a
while, then pick out more worms until all were gone. Some just devoured
worms and all, saying they could not afford to loose that much of their
rations; that if the worms could stand it, they could. The detestable
Yankee lieutenant-colonel would sometimes come into the camp while we
were devouring the mush and worms and with a contemptible sneer and
Yankee nasal twang, say: "You fellows need fresh meat to keep off
scurvy, so I give it to you in your mush."

One day all the prisoners were taken out of the stockade, marched down
to the wharf and put aboard two old hulks or lighters and towed out in
the bay, where the hulks remained all night. The next morning we were
again landed and marched back to the stockade. I never knew why this was
done, unless it was to search the tents for contraband articles, or to
see if there was any tunneling going on from the tents, in order to
effect escapes. I think some efforts were made at tunneling out, but
without success.

While here we were not allowed to purchase anything to eat from the
sutler unless directed by the surgeon when sick, consequently, every man
was hungry all the while, as a whole day's rations were not sufficient
for one meal. During the time a flag-of-truce boat passed between the
island and Charleston, by which the good women of Charleston sent the
prisoners a good supply of pipes and tobacco, and something good to eat,
which was highly appreciated.


                               UNDER FIRE

After the prisoners were placed here near the Yankee batteries, so as to
be exposed to the fire of the Confederate guns, the Confederate
batteries did not fire a great deal. What shelling was done was mostly
at night. Some of the shells burst over the stockade and the pieces
would fall around, but I don't remember that any of the prisoners were
hit. It was rather uncomfortable, though, to lie there and watch the big
shells sailing through the air, which we could see at night by the fuse
burning, and sometimes burst above us, instead of bursting in or above
the Yankee forts 100 yards further on, and then listen at the fragments
humming through the air and hear them strike the ground with a dull thud
among the tents. We would first hear a distant boom, two miles away
towards Charleston, and then begin to look and listen for the shell
which was sure to follow that boom. Peter Akers used to say, "That is
trusting too much to the fuse to shoot two miles and expect the shell to
burst 100 hundred yards beyond the stockade."

The prisoners were located about midway between two Yankee forts, Gregg
and Wagner. Through the interstices between the pine logs forming the
stockade, we could see indistinctly Fort Sumter, which looked like a
pile of ruins. The outer walls of brick had been battered to pieces by
the Yankee batteries on Morris Island and the breaks filled up with sand
bags. The city of Charleston was also visible, though indistinctly. We
were not permitted to go near the stockade.

One day a Yankee monitor, which, with other blockading ships, lay near
the entrance of the harbor or bay, moved up about opposite the stockade,
and engaged in a fight with the Confederate batteries. We could see the
Confederate shots strike the water and skip along towards the Monitor,
which pretty soon got enough of it, and moved out of range.


                              PRISON RULES

I also preserved a copy of the Prison Rules here, which is as follows:

                  *       *       *       *       *

                                      "HEADQUARTERS, U. S. FORCES,
                                               MORRIS ISLAND, S. C.,
                                                    _September 7, 1864_.

"The following Rules and Regulations are hereby announced for the
government of the camp of the prisoners of war:

"The prisoners will be divided into eight detachments, seventy-five in
each, lettered A, B, C, etc., each prisoner numbered 1, 2, 3, etc. Each
detachment will be under the charge of a warden, who will be detailed
from the guard for that duty. There will be three roll calls each day,
the first at one-half hour before sunrise, at which time the prisoners
will be counted by the wardens, and the reports will be taken by the
officer of the day at the company streets before the ranks are broken.
Each warden will see that the quarters in his detachment are properly
policed, and will make the detail necessary for that duty. Sick-call
will be at 9 o'clock A. M. each day. Each warden will make a morning
report to the officer in charge on blanks suitable for that purpose.
There will be two barrel sinks for each detachment, which will be placed
on the flanks of the companies during the day and in the company streets
at night. They will be emptied after each roll call by a detail from
each detachment. No talking will be allowed after evening roll call, and
no prisoner will leave his tent after that time except to obey the calls
of nature. During the day the prisoners will be allowed the limits of
the camp as marked by the rope running between the stockade and the line
of tents. Prisoners passing this line under any pretense whatever will
be shot by the sentinels. No persons except the guard and officers on
duty at the camp will be allowed to communicate with the prisoners
without written permission from these or superior headquarters. The
sentinels will always have their guns loaded and capped. If more than
ten prisoners are seen together, except at meal-time and roll call, they
will be warned to disperse, and if they do not obey at once, they will
be fired upon by the sentries.

"If there is any disturbance whatever in the camp or any attempt made by
the prisoners to escape, the camp will be opened upon with grape and
canister, musketry, and the Requa Batteries.

"If a prisoner is sick, he may be allowed to purchase such luxuries as
the surgeon in charge may direct. The prisoners will be allowed to
purchase only the following named articles: Writing materials, pipes,
tobacco, and necessary clothing.

"Everything bought by or sent to them will be inspected by the provost
marshal. The prisoners will be allowed to write letters, one a week, not
more than one-half sheet of paper to each letter. The letters will be
opened and pass through the hands of the provost marshal before being
mailed. No candles or light of any kind will be allowed. The hours for
meals are as follows: Breakfast, 7 A. M.; dinner, 12 M.; supper, 5 P. M.
The rations will be cooked and served under the direction of the provost
marshal.

By order of—

                                 "LIEUT.-COL. WILLIAM GURNEY,
                                      127th Regt. N. Y. Vol., Com. Post.
                                                 "R. H. L. JEVOETT,
                                 Capt. 54 Mass. Vol., A. A. A. G."

 "Official: GEO. N. LITTLE,
      1st. Lt. 127th R. N. Y. V.,
           A. A. A. C."



                              CHAPTER XIX

                  TO FORT PULASKI—ROTTEN CORNMEAL AND
                      PICKLED RATIONS—A PLOT LAID


On the 17th of October the prisoners were notified to be ready to move
at daylight next morning. In one of the tents the next morning, in order
to see how to get ready, one of the prisoners struck a light, when the
negro guard fired into the tent, wounding two of the occupants badly,
one through the knee and the other in the shoulder. On the 18th we were
marched to the wharf and put aboard two old hulks and towed out to sea.
We had been forty-two days in this stockade and were glad enough to get
away. But alas! we did not know what was in store for us later on. Three
days' rations, so-called, had been issued—fifteen crackers and about
five or six ounces of bacon. After being at sea three days and two
nights, one hulk-load of 300 were landed at Fort Pulaski, on Tybee
Island, Ga., at the mouth of the Savannah River, and the other 300 were
landed at Hilton Head, a short distance up the coast.

Fort Pulaski was built of brick, with very thick walls, surrounded by a
wide moat, was very damp, and when the east winds blew, very cold and
disagreeable, there being no window-lights in the embrasures to the
casements in which the prisoners were confined—only iron bars. Here the
prisoners were guarded by the 127th N. Y. Regiment, commanded by Col. W.
W. Brown, who treated the prisoners kindly.

In this regiment there were a great many youths in their teens. I
remarked on this in a conversation with a Yankee sergeant, who stated
that these boys were put into the army by their fathers for the sake of
the large bounties paid, which, in many cases, amounted to $2,000 and
over, and that these fathers were using the money to buy homes and lands
for themselves.

Just like a Yankee—he would sell his own flesh and blood for money!

The Confederate soldiers were patriots, fighting for their country,
while a large majority of the Yankee army were hirelings, fighting for
money. Yet these hirelings are lauded as patriots by the North and
pensioned by the United States Government!

For a time the rations were better here than on Morris Island. All the
men and officers of this regiment had seen service in the field and had
a fellow-feeling for a soldier, although he was a "Rebel" prisoner.
Whenever we were guarded by Yankees who had never seen service in the
field, they were as mean as snakes. The guards at Fort Delaware were of
the latter kind—they shot several prisoners without cause. One instance
I remember was that of Colonel —— Jones, of Virginia, who was sick and
very feeble, scarcely able to walk. He had gone to the sink and had
started back when a guard ordered him to move faster, which he could not
do, and was shot through the body, dying the next day. The miscreant
boasted that, "This makes two Rebels my gun has killed."


                  ROTTEN CORNMEAL AND PICKLED RATIONS

While at Fort Pulaski, Gen. J. G. Foster, the Yankee general commanding
the department, and a cruel, unfeeling wretch he must have been, issued
an order to put the prisoners on ten ounces of cornmeal and half pint of
onion pickles per day.

This cornmeal was shipped from the North, was completely spoiled and
utterly unfit for food, being mouldy, in hard lumps, and full of worms,
big and little, some of them an inch long. The brands on the barrels
showed that this cornmeal was ground at Brandywine in the year 1861.
This was done, it was said, in retaliation for the Confederates feeding
the Yankee prisoners on cornbread and sour sorghum. We would have been
very glad to have gotten cornbread and sorghum, such as the Yankee
prisoners had. They did not even give us salt, absolutely nothing but
this ten ounces of rotten, wormy cornmeal and pickles, and would not
allow those who had money to buy anything to eat from the sutler's. Some
say that Edward M. Stanton, the Yankee Secretary of War, the arch-fiend
of South-haters, was responsible for this cruel treatment. It savored of
many of Stanton's acts during and after the war. In consequence of this
inhuman order, there was a great deal of sickness and many deaths among
the prisoners. "Starved to death," said the Yankee surgeon who attended
the sick, "medicine will do them no good." Scurvy, a loathsome disease,
prevailed to an alarming extent; the gums would become black and putrid,
the legs full of sores, drawn and distorted. Many a poor fellow, in
attempting to make his way to the sinks, would fall fainting to the
ground. I remember, in one day, assisting three of these unfortunates to
rise from the ground and back to their bunks. To substantiate what I
have here recorded as facts, I give the following from the "War of the
Rebellion, Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series
II, Vol. VIII, page 163":

                  *       *       *       *       *

                            "HEADQUARTERS, DISTRICT OF SAVANNAH,
                                                    SAVANNAH, GA.,
                                                     _February 1, 1865_.

 "Assistant Adjutant General,
     Headquarters, Department of the South:

"My medical director yesterday inspected the condition of the Rebel
prisoners confined at Fort Pulaski, and represents that they are in a
condition of great suffering and exhaustion for the want of sufficient
food and clothing; also that they have the scurvy to a considerable
extent. He recommends as a necessary measure, that they be at once put
on full prison rations ("full prison rations," God save the mark!), and
also that they be allowed to receive necessary articles of clothing from
their friends. I would respectfully endorse the surgeon's recommendation
and ask authority to take such steps as may be necessary to relieve
actual sickness and suffering.

                                  (Signed) "C. GROVER,
                                                  Brevet Major-General,
                                                            Commanding."

                  *       *       *       *       *

Now, here it is from their own records, showing how wantonly and cruelly
the Yankees treated these prisoners.

During these frightful days I made a ring out of a gutta-percha button,
which was traded to a Yankee soldier, on the sly, for a good chunk of
middling meat, which was a Godsend. I escaped the scurvy, but my
messmate, Captain Horton, had it pretty badly, although I shared the
meat with him. The prisoners killed and ate all the cats they could
catch. I ate a small piece of a cat myself, and would have eaten more if
I could have gotten it. One of the Yankee officers had a fat little dog
that followed him into the casemates when making his tours of
inspection; the hungry prisoners longed to get this dog, but he kept
close to his master's heels, as if cognizant of the fact that he was on
dangerous ground. With half a chance he would have been caught, killed,
skinned, and devoured in short order. Some one may have nabbed this dog;
I don't know.

These starvation days lasted about two months. During this time a Yankee
major, out of compassion for the starving prisoners, went out with a
boat and net one day, caught and gave to the prisoners a number of fresh
fish, which were greatly enjoyed. This kindness was duly appreciated.
But those higher in authority forbade its repetition, and we got no more
fish.

While at Fort Pulaski the "Lee Chess Club" got out a paper, in pen and
ink, foolscap size; I was one of the scribes and preserved a copy. A few
years ago I sent this copy to the Confederate Museum at Richmond, Va.,
where it is now preserved in a glass case in the Virginia Room, in the
White House of the Confederacy.


                              A PLOT LAID

While here, six officers laid a plan to capture the ship when we were
removed from the place, it being often rumored we were to be taken away.
These six officers each selected ten others to act with them. No one
else knew anything of the plot. I do not remember the names of the
leaders. Captain Horton and myself were among the number selected.

About the 1st of March, rumors were rife that we were to be moved, and
the plot was perfected as far as possible. The plan was to overpower the
guard when at sea, take charge of the ship and run it to Nassau, or some
other neutral port, in the West Indies. While here, some of the
prisoners escaped from the hospital. Only one, however, made good and
got safely away. Those recaptured were put in irons, cast into a foul
dungeon, and cruelly treated.



                               CHAPTER XX

                BACK TO FORT DELAWARE—DISAPPOINTMENT AND
                    GREAT SUFFERING—THREE DEATHS AND
                             BURIALS AT SEA


About the 3d or 4th of March, I think it was, the soldiers guarding us
said an order had been received from General Grant, "an autograph
letter," they said, to take us to Norfolk; thence up James River to City
Point, for exchange. This was joyful news, indeed, and with eagerness
and high hopes the prisoners made preparations to leave that dismal
place. The next day we boarded a small steamer and were off for Dixie,
as all believed. We left many a poor comrade buried in the sand on that
Tybee Island, victims of Yankee cruelty and hatred.

After taking on board the prisoners at Hilton Head, the ship was so
heavily loaded that the captain refused to put to sea. All the prisoners
were then transferred to the steamship _Illinois_, a larger and better
boat, which sailed for Norfolk. So certain were all that an exchange
would be effected, no effort was made to carry out the plan to capture
the ship. The guards on the ship paid little or no attention to the
prisoners; they virtually had the freedom of the ship, could go on deck
at will, and could have taken possession without the loss of a single
man. There was no gunboat escort.

On this trip up the coast there was a great deal of seasickness. There
was no storm, but the ship rolled considerably. I was sick myself, and
as I lay in a bunk down on the lower deck, looking out a small porthole
at the huge billows, feeling very miserable, I made up my mind if
anything happened to the ship, to just lay still and go down with it
without making any effort to save myself. I remember one poor fellow who
was suffering terribly, groaning and heaving as if trying to throw up
his very "gizzard," when some one called out, "Give that man a piece of
fat meat, it will help him." The sick man cried out in his agony, "O
Lord God, don't talk about fat meat to me." Any one who has been
sea-sick knows what an aversion the nausea produces to food, especially
fat meat.

On the night of the 7th of March we dropped anchor at Norfolk, thinking
of nothing but that the next morning we would steam up the historic
James to City Point, and there be exchanged.


                   DISAPPOINTMENT AND GREAT SUFFERING

The next morning the ship weighed anchor, with many of us on deck in
high spirits. Soon after getting under way, the ship was hailed by a
gunboat, lying in Hampton Roads, with "Where are you bound?" The captain
of the _Illinois_ shouted back through his trumpet, "Fort Delaware." Oh,
horror of horrors! our hearts sank within us; visions of exchange, of
home and friends, vanished in a twinkling. Doomed to further
incarceration in a detestable Yankee prison, when we had expected in a
few short hours to be free and with friends! With hope, aye, certainly
of relief, dashed to the ground, our feelings may be better imagined
than expressed in words. The doom of the damned, "Depart from me ye
cursed into everlasting fire," can not be much worse. The Yankee guards
on board the ship were at once on the alert, and with harsh and insolent
commands, ordered and compelled, at point of bayonet, all the prisoners
to get off the deck, and would not allow, after this, more than six or
eight men on deck at a time; sentinels with loaded guns and fixed
bayonets stood at the hatchways above us, and there was no chance to
take the ship. One scoundrel threatened to shoot me as I stood at the
foot of the ladder, with my hand on it, awaiting my turn to go on deck.
He said to me in an insolent tone, "Take your hand off that ladder." I
did so, then he said, "If you are an officer, why don't you dress like
an officer?" I replied, "It is none of your business how I dress." Then
he said, "Damn you, I will shoot you," bringing down his cocked gun on
me, when I stepped back out of sight, thinking "discretion the better
part of valor." How much the seventy men in the plot regretted not
putting that plot into execution can never be told.


                    THREE DEATHS AND BURIALS AT SEA

While on the way up the coast to Fort Delaware, the suffering among the
prisoners was greatly intensified. The sick and disabled especially were
downcast, and in utter despair; a more miserable set of men were perhaps
never seen on board a ship. The floor of the lower deck was covered with
vomit, which sloshed from side to side as the ship rolled back and
forth.

Gloom and despair sat like a black pall on every face. Before Fort
Delaware was reached, three officers died and were buried at sea. I
witnessed one of the burials. The body was sewed up in a blanket with a
cannon ball at the feet, then placed on a plank, feet foremost, which
was pushed out over the side of the ship and the plank tilted up, when
all that was mortal of the poor fellow slid off, and dropped into the
sea, many feet below, to rest in a watery grave until the final roll
call at the Judgment Day, "when the sea shall give up its dead."

Seventy-five sick were taken from the ship to the hospital, and many
more were hardly able to walk, but the hospital was full. We disembarked
at Fort Delaware on the 12th of March, 1865.

It was said the reason we were not exchanged, was that upon the arrival
of the prisoners at Hampton Roads their condition was so horrible the
Yankees did not want the Confederate authorities and the world to know
their condition, hence they were shipped back to Fort Delaware.

That the exchange was ordered by General Grant I here present proof from
the same volume of "War Records," before quoted from, on page 417, where
will be found the following:

                  *       *       *       *       *

                                     "CITY POINT, VA., _March 21, 1865_.

"Brigadier-General Mulford, Commanding General: I do not know what has
been done with the officers at Fort Pulaski; I sent orders to have them
delivered at Charleston. Before the order had been received, Charleston
had fallen into our possession. I then sent orders to have them sent to
the James River. Before that order was received, General Gilmore wrote
to me that, having received my first order, which had been directed to
General Foster, he had sent a flag to find the enemy to deliver the
prisoners to. I have heard nothing since.

                                        (Signed) "U. S. GRANT,
                                                    Lieutenant-General."

                  *       *       *       *       *

Proof of Grant's order to Foster for exchange at Charleston is in the
same volume, page 219, and is dated 14th of February, 1865. "So near,"
we were to exchange and relief from suffering, "and yet so far."



                              CHAPTER XXI

               YANKEE INFAMY—CONDUCT OF THE WAR—SHERMAN'S
                       MARCH—VIRGINIA DISMEMBERED


The Yankees were continually giving out to the world exaggerated
accounts of the conditions of their soldiers in Confederate prisons, and
are still at it, all the while refusing to exchange prisoners, except in
a few instances.

The Yankees during the war did many mean, contemptible and uncivilized
things, but I have always thought about the most contemptible and
meanest thing they did was when, sometimes, there was an exchange of
sick and wounded prisoners, they would strip to the skin their sick and
wounded men, the most emaciated, have their pictures taken and sent
broadcast over the country, to fire the Northern people and prejudice
the world against the Confederates, when they knew the Confederate sick
from Northern prisons were equally emaciated; but never a picture of
these did they take and scatter abroad. I have seen some of these
pictures. They are still harping on the horrors of Andersonville, but
never a word do they utter about the wilful, malicious and cruel
treatment of prisoners on Morris Island, and in Fort Pulaski, and Hilton
Head.

The Confederates fed the Yankee prisoners, as best they could, the same
rations issued to Confederate soldiers—cut off as they were from the
world, a large part of their country overrun by a brutal and merciless
foe, who carried desolation and destruction through the land, wherever
their worse than Hessian hoards went. There was much suffering
everywhere in the South.

Food was scarce in the South, women and children suffered, and our own
soldiers in the field had scanty rations, very often nothing but bread
and not enough of that, while the Yankees, with plenty of supplies,
their ports open to the world, less than half fed the Confederates in
all their prisons, through malice and revenge.

It is a well-known fact, established by the records, that while there
were more Yankee prisoners in Southern prisons than there were
Confederates in Northern prisons, many thousands more of Confederate
prisoners died in Northern prisons than Yankees in Southern prisons. It
is established by the records of the war office at Washington that,
during the war, Yankee prisoners to the number of 270,000 were captured
and that 220,000 Confederates were captured. Of these prisoners 20,000
Yankees died in Southern prisons (about eight per cent.), while 26,000
Confederate prisoners died in Northern prisons (about sixteen per cent.
of those captured). Most of the Confederate prisoners were confined in
prisons in cold lake regions, and at Point Lookout, where they suffered
untold miseries from exposure in those bleak locations. Confined in
open, board barracks and tents with a very, very scant supply of fuel,
with only a few thin blankets, thin, worn out clothing, and less than
half fed, no wonder many of them died, victims of Yankee cruelty.

Let it ever be remembered that all this suffering, privation, and tens
of thousands of deaths, were caused by the Yankees during the last two
years of the war refusing to exchange prisoners, while the Confederates
were always willing and anxious to exchange. General Grant said, when
urged to agree to exchanges to prevent suffering and death in prison of
his own men, "It is hard on our men confined in Southern prisons, but it
would be harder on our soldiers in the field to consent to an exchange,
because, if the 30,00 Rebel prisoners were released, they would go back
to the army and fight, while our men would return to their homes." The
Confederate authorities offered the Yankees the privilege of sending
food, medicine, and hospital supplies to their prisoners in the South to
be dispensed by Yankee doctors, but the offer was coldly and cruelly
declined.

As proof of this, I refer to Col. Robt. Olds' letter to General Grant,
dated Richmond, Va., January 24, 1865, in "War of the Rebellion,
Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies," Series II, Vol.
2, pages 122-23, published by the United States Government.

Not only this, but in truth no reply was made. They made medicine
contraband of war; that is, they would not allow medicine to be shipped
into the South any more than they would powder and lead or food or
clothing—something no other nation of modern times has ever done. These
things here recorded are historic, known and read by all men.


                           CONDUCT OF THE WAR

The conduct of the war on the part of the North was cold-blooded and
cruel in the highest degree. The Northern soldiers burned and pillaged
thousands of homes, and ruthlessly destroyed millions of dollars' worth
of private property. The beautiful and fertile Valley of Virginia, "the
garden spot of the world," was made a howling wilderness by wanton
destruction and devastation; every mill and barn was burned, together
with many dwellings; every kind of food for man or beast was destroyed,
and the women and children left in a pitiable plight, the vandal
Sheridan sending a message to Grant after the dastardly work was done,
that "A crow flying over the Valley would have to take his rations with
him." Gen. U. S. Grant had ordered this destruction and devastation, and
found in Sheridan a willing tool to execute the infamous order.

The annals of history, ancient or modern, furnish few if any atrocities
equal to those perpetrated by the Northern armies. The monster, Sherman,
in his march through Georgia and North Carolina, burned and pillaged as
no army ever did before, leaving a burned and blackened swath behind him
forty to sixty miles wide. A few years ago, when the world was horrified
at the cruelty the United States soldiers practiced on the Philippinos,
including the "water cure," which consisted of inserting a rubber tube
into the throat while the victim lay bound on his back, and pouring
water in the tube and down the throat until the stomach was filled and
distended to its fullest capacity, then jumping on the victim's stomach
with the feet, forcing the water out, repeating the operation time and
time again—when I read of this I remarked to some one that I was not
surprised: that the Yankees were mean enough to do anything; that I knew
them of old.


                            SHERMAN'S MARCH

General Sherman, in his official report of his operations in Georgia,
says: "We consumed the corn and fodder in the country thirty miles on
either side of a line from Atlanta to Savannah: also the sweet potatoes,
hogs, sheep, poultry, and carried off more than 10,000 horses and mules.
I estimate the damage done to the State of Georgia at one hundred
million dollars, at least, twenty millions of which inured to our
benefit, and the remainder was simply waste and destruction." Could
anything be more diabolical?

From Gen. Bradley Johnston's "Life of Gen. Jos. E. Johnston," I take the
following extracts, descriptive of Sherman's march: "A solid wall of
smoke by day forty miles wide, and from the horizon to the zenith, gave
notice to the women and children of the fate that was moving on them. At
early dawn the black veil showed the march of the burners. All day they
watched it coming from the northwest, like a storm-cloud of destruction.
All night it was lit up by forked tongues of flame, lighting the lurid
darkness. The next morning it reached them. Terror borne on the air,
fleet as the furies, spread out ahead, and murder, arson, rapine,
enveloped them. Who can describe the agonies of mothers for their
daughters, for their babes, for their fathers and young boys?

"This crime was organized and regulated with intelligence and method.
Every morning details were sent out in advance and on the flanks. The
burners spread themselves over the whole country for miles beyond either
flank of the marching columns, and they robbed everything.

"All valuables, gold, silver, jewels, watches, etc., were brought in at
night and a fair division made of them among all parties. The captain
was entitled to so much, the colonel to his share, the general to his
portion.

"Let a few other things also speak. Major-General Halleck, then, I
believe, commander-in-chief, under the President, of the armies of the
Union, on the 18th of December, 1864, dispatched as follows to General
Sherman, then in Savannah: 'Should you capture Charleston, I hope that
by some accident the place may be destroyed, and if a little salt should
be sown upon its site, it may prevent the growth of future crops of
nullification and secession.'"

On the 26th of December, 1864, General Sherman made the following
answer: "I will bear in mind your hint as to Charleston, and don't think
that 'salt will be necessary.' When I move, the Fifteenth Corps will be
on the right wing, and the position will bring them naturally into
Charleston first, and if you have watched the history of that corps, you
will have remarked that they generally do their work pretty well. The
truth is, the whole army is burning with an insatiable desire to wreak
vengeance upon South Carolina."

The Northern people have immortalized these dastardly deeds in the song,
"Marching Through Georgia," and still exultingly sing and play it, which
but perpetuates an infamy which should and does cause every American,
worthy of the name, to hang his head in shame.

Here we have it from those high in authority approving and urging on the
demons in human form who were perpetrating the most dastardly
atrocities, and gloating over it, too. Who can doubt but that Hades
burned hotter and his Satanic Majesty rubbed his hands in glee, when
Stanton, Halleck, Sherman, _et id genus omne_, were hurled headlong into
the bottomless pit?

How different was the conduct of General Lee and his army when invading
the enemy's country! I give here General Lee's order when in
Pennsylvania:

                  *       *       *       *       *

                          "HEADQUARTERS ARMY NORTHERN VIRGINIA,
                                                        _June 27, 1863_,

 "Gen. Orders No. 73.

"The Commanding General has observed with marked satisfaction the
conduct of the troops on the march. There have, however, been instances
of forgetfulness on the part of some that they have in keeping the yet
unsullied reputation of this army, and that the duties exacted of us by
civilization and Christianity are not less obligatory in the country of
the enemy than our own.

"The Commanding General considers that no greater disgrace could befall
the army, and through it our whole people, than the perpetration of
barbarous outrages upon the unarmed and defenseless, and the wanton
destruction of private property that have marked the course of the enemy
in our own country....

"It will be remembered that we make war only upon armed men.

                                       (Signed)     R. E. LEE, General."

                  *       *       *       *       *

What a contrast! Robert E. Lee would have thrust his right hand into the
fire and burned it off inch by inch before he would have written such
words as Halleck and Sherman wrote.

W. T. Sherman was utterly incapable of entertaining or expressing such
high and noble sentiments as emanated from Lee in the above-quoted
order.

It is true that Early burned Chambersburg, but this was done in
retaliation for wanton destruction of private houses in Virginia by the
Yankee General Hunter, upon the refusal of the town to pay an indemnity
in money.


                          VIRGINIA DISMEMBERED

A most atrocious act of the Yankee Government during the war,
high-handed and inexcusable and without any semblance of law, right or
necessity, was the dismemberment of the State of Virginia, when the old
Mother of States was despoiled of one-third of her territory. West
Virginia, cleft as it was from the side of the old Mother State by the
sword, when in the throes of war, left that mother bleeding, and robbed
of her richest mineral territory. Not that it would make the United
States Government any stronger or richer, but only to satiate the
hatred, revenge and malice of the Yankee nation. Virginia! The proud Old
Dominion, that in 1795 voluntarily gave to the young Republic that vast
northwestern domain, 250,000 square miles in extent, which her sons,
during the Revolutionary War, single-handed and alone, under the
leadership of the indomitable George Rogers Clark, wrested from the
British and their Indian allies, and which now comprises the states of
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and that part of Minnesota
east of the Mississippi River; yet her original domains, as one of the
thirteen States as fixed and adjusted after Kentucky was formed, and the
ceding to the United States of this great western empire; the oldest,
foremost, and proudest of the States, on whose shores the first English
settlement on the continent was made, whose ter-centennial in this year
of Grace, 1907, is being celebrated, and on whose sacred soil the fires
of liberty were kindled and fanned into flame by the burning words,
"Give me liberty or give me death," which fell from the lips of her own
Patrick Henry; yet Virginia, the proud old Mother of States and
statesmen, her borders extending from the sands on the ocean shore on
the east to the Ohio River on the west, must be cut in twain, in hatred,
in malice and in revenge.

These facts, the treatment of prisoners, and destruction of private
property, are here recorded that the truth of history may be vindicated,
and that the cold-blooded and cruel atrocities of the enemies of the
South may not be forgotten. Multiplied instances of cruelty and
vandalism might be here written down, but the subject is distasteful.

All this cruelty and these wanton acts of devastation and destruction
were visited on the South and her people, not because they were
criminals and outlaws, but to satiate Yankee hatred and revenge. That
the South acted within her rights in withdrawing from the Union is now
conceded by all unbiased and fair-minded men who have intelligence
enough to investigate the rights of the states under the original
compact—the Bill of Rights, the constitutions of several states, and the
Constitution of the United States.

Impartial history will accord the South honor, genius, skill, bravery
and endurance, under adverse conditions, unexampled; victories many,
against great odds. Truthfully has it been said of the Confederacy:

                   "No nation rose so white and fair,
                   Or fell so pure of crime"—

While to the North will be accorded success through unlimited resources
and vastly superior numbers, together with dishonor and shame for
cruelty, revengefulness and wanton destruction of private property,
unequaled in modern history.



                              CHAPTER XXII

              LEE'S SURRENDER—LINCOLN'S ASSASSINATION—OUT
                         OF PRISON AND AT HOME


Prison life at Fort Delaware had not improved any during the absence of
the 600; the same bad, scanty rations were still served, with no
surcease of the tedious, weary hours. When General Lee surrendered at
Appomattox on the 9th of April, 1865, the prisoners were very much
depressed, and almost the last hope of the establishment of the
independence of the South vanished. A meeting of the Virginia officers
was held to consult as to what was best to be done. Gen. Jos. E.
Johnston was still in the field with an army in North Carolina, and Gen.
Kirby Smith, commanding the Trans-Mississippi Department, was in Texas
with a few thousand men. Whether we would abandon all hope and get out
of prison as soon as possible by taking the oath of allegiance to the
United States Government, which was offered, or await future events,
were the questions discussed. Several speeches were made. Among the
speakers I remember Capt. Jas. Bumgardner, of Staunton; Capt. H. Clay
Dickerson, of Bedford, and Capt. Don P. Halsey, of Lynchburg. Captain
Halsey closed his speech by submitting a motion: "That the meeting take
no action at present," which motion I seconded, and it was carried
unanimously. We were not yet ready to surrender to what seemed to be the
inevitable. General Johnston was still standing before the enemy with
his tattered, battered, and shattered battalions, and we considered our
unqualified allegiance was still due to the Confederacy while he thus
stood. The remaining days of April were anxious and exciting ones.


                        LINCOLN'S ASSASSINATION

When the news of the assassination of Lincoln, which occurred on the
night of the 14th of April, 1865, reached Fort Delaware the next
morning, there was great excitement among the Yankee guards and
prisoners also. The Yankee soldiers looked mad and vindictive, and the
guards were doubled. Visions of retaliatory measures—banishment to Dry
Tortugas, or worse—rose up before the Confederate officers. If
retaliation was resorted to, no one knew how many Southern lives it
would take to appease the wrath and vengeance of the North. If lots were
cast for the victims, no one knew who would draw the black ballots.
While all were discussing these questions in all seriousness, Peter
Akers, the wit of the prison, broke the tension with the remark, "It was
hard on old Abe to go through the war and then get bushwhacked in a
theater."

The Yankees almost moved heaven and earth to implicate the Confederate
authorities in the assassination of Lincoln, but failed most signally.
No doubt, they would have given worlds, if at their command, if
President Jeff Davis and other leaders could have been connected with
the plot and crime. As is well known, Boothe, the assassin, was shot
dead in the attempt to capture him, and that a man named Harold, who was
with Boothe when killed: Payne, who the same night attempted to
assassinate Secretary of State, Wm. H. Seward, and Mrs. Surratt—were
hung, the latter in all probability innocent of any crime; there was no
evidence to connect her with the assassination or the plot. Some of the
assassins boarded at her house and her son fled.

The assassination of Lincoln was the act of a scatter-brained actor,
John Wilkes Boothe, and did the South no good, if, indeed, it was so
intended. Many people think that if Lincoln had lived the South would
have fared much better after the war. I do not think so. Lincoln might
have been disposed to have dealt more justly with the South, but in my
opinion he would have been overruled by the Sewards, the Stantons, the
Mortons, the Garrisons, and the Thad Stevenses, and many more of that
ilk, who lived and died inveterate haters and vilifiers of the Southern
people. Meanness is bred in the bone of some people. If Lincoln ever did
a kindly or generous act in behalf of the South, I do not recall it.

When Gen. Joseph E. Johnston surrendered on the 26th day of April, 1865,
the last vestige of hope against hope vanished. We felt like saying,
"'Tis the last libation that Liberty draws from the heart that bleeds
and breaks in her cause."


                       OUT OF PRISON AND AT HOME

I remained at Fort Delaware until the 21st day of May, 1865, when I was
released by a special order from Washington, which my brother had
procured, and who brought the order to Fort Delaware and accompanied me
to New York and to his home in Brooklyn. So that I was a prisoner of war
one year to a day. I came out of prison in a much worse condition,
physically, than when captured. Three years of active service in the
field was as nothing to my experience in prison, although I did not
suffer as much as thousands of poor fellows who received no aid from
friends. I was sick several times while in prison, but had no serious
illness, but was much debilitated at the end.

We left Fort Delaware on the steamer _Mentor_, going up Delaware River
to Philadelphia, and thence by train and boat to New York.

After remaining in New York about two weeks recuperating, my brother and
family and myself left for Virginia and home, going by steamer to
Norfolk; thence up James River to Richmond, where we found a large part
of the city in ashes. Gloomy and distressing was the scene. Here I met
General Kemper and other comrades. The next day we took the train for
Lynchburg—on the old Richmond & Danville Railroad. At Burkeville we
found the road to Farmville destroyed. My brother and family went by
private conveyance to Farmville, while I remained at Burkeville, sitting
up all night guarding the baggage, as the railroad system was so out of
joint and deranged that no care could be taken of baggage by the
officials. The next morning I went by wagon to Farmville with the
baggage, when we again took the train to another break in the road at
James River below Lynchburg. Here we got aboard an old-fashioned canal
boat, drawn by an old mule or two, which landed us at Lynchburg. The
next day we went to my father's, twenty-one miles, in Campbell County,
and joined the loved ones there. The reunion was a happy one. But what a
change! Scores of thousands of dollars' worth of property gone forever,
and the future, with reconstruction and attempted negro domination,
staring us in the face, the prospect was anything but encouraging. But
all was not lost; honor and truth still lived, though might had
triumphed over right.

Thus ended my four years of service to the Confederacy, which I served
loyally and willingly, and my only regret is that we all could not have
rendered our dear Southland more efficient service, even to the full
fruition of our fondest hopes in the beginning.

I had three brothers in the army, all of us escaping without the loss of
life or limb. The youngest, Taylor, was only in service a short time,
being only thirteen years of age when the war began. He was in the
cavalry service, as was my brother, Coon, towards the end.



                             CHAPTER XXIII

                        RECONSTRUCTION AND SINCE


As a fit climax to, and exhibitory of, Yankee hatred, malice, revenge,
and cruelty practiced during the war, the North bound the prostrate
South on the rock of negro domination, while the vultures,
"carpet-baggers" and "scalawags," preyed upon its vitals. Unlike
Prometheus, however, the South did not have its chains broken by a
Hercules, but rose in its own might and severed the fetters that bound
it, and drove away the birds of prey, and her people are now free and
independent, controlling their own state affairs without let or
hindrance; though many at the North are still growling and snarling,
threatening reduction of representation in Congress, howling about negro
disfranchisement, and the separation of the races in schools and public
conveyances.

Let it never be forgotten that in Virginia in 1868, 80,000
"carpet-baggers," "scalawags," and negroes voted to disfranchise every
Confederate soldier who fought for home and native land, and every man
in the State, young or old, who would not swear that he had never given
aid or comfort to the soldiers in the field, or sympathized with the
Southern cause. Armed Yankee soldiers were posted at every courthouse in
the land. Civil law gave place to arbitrary military rule. The names of
states were obliterated, the states being designated as "Military
Districts Nos. 1, 2, 3," etc. Detectives were abroad in the land.
Everything that Yankee ingenuity and malignancy could conceive of was
done to humiliate the Southern people. This service was very distasteful
to some of the Yankee officers and soldiers, but they were urged on by
the venom of a majority at the North. Peaceful citizens were hauled up
before the military courts on complaints of worthless and vicious
negroes, whose word was taken before that of the white man.

The "carpet-baggers" were unprincipled Northern men who came South after
the war—political adventurers and freebooters—to steal and plunder as
office-holders. The "scalawags" were native white men, many of them
skulkers and deserters during the war, who, like the "carpet-baggers,"
sought political office—"apostates for the price of their apostasy."
They took sides against their kith and kin, fawning on the Northern
South-haters and traducers, joining in with the despoilers of the South,
"that thrift might follow fawning."

And all these atrocities practiced by the North in the name of "liberty
and freedom," and, as it was often expressed, that, "treason might be
made odious." "Oh, Liberty, what crimes are enacted in thy name!"
Treason, indeed! Lee and Jackson "traitors"? Blistered be the tongue
that utters it. The brave men of the South who for four years fought as
never men fought before. "Traitors"? Palsied be the hand that writes it.
The charge of treason against the South is as black as the hearts that
conceived it, and as false as the tongues that uttered it.

Henrich Heine, in speaking of England's banishment of Napoleon and his
death on the lonely island of St. Helena, says, "Brittania! thou art
queen of the ocean, but all great Neptune's ocean can not wash from thee
the stain that the great Emperor bequeathed thee on his deathbed."

Well might it be said of the Washington Government, both during the war
and afterwards, that not all the waters of all the oceans can wash away
the stains of infamy practiced by it upon the South and her people. The
cruel torture of President Davis at Fortress Monroe is a "damned spot
that will not out," along with thousands of other acts, some of which I
have enumerated.

A large majority of the Northern people were bitter enemies of the
South, vilifying and slandering the Southern people, and sought to
degrade and oppress them in many ways, but not all of them were so
disposed, and many others are beginning to see the heinousness and folly
of Reconstruction.

A late Northern paper, the Brooklyn _Eagle_, says: "Under Reconstruction
the Republican party outlawed character, dispensed with fairness,
degraded decency, elevated ignorance and invested in barbarism, under
all the forms of politics which covered the fact of brigandage." A true
and just arraignment by a Northern man, it gives a true statement of
facts in a few words.

No wonder, then, the great mass of the people of the South have stood
together for their section, and are political opponents of their
traducers and persecutors.

There are, however, many just and good men at the North who were opposed
to the invasion of the South by the Northern armies and the waging of
that cruel war, who have, since the war, battled for the rights of the
South, and held in check, to some extent, that puritanical element
which, like the Pharisee, ascribes to itself all the virtue and
intelligence of the land.

The original Puritans came to this country, as they said, to escape
persecution. I think the truth is, they left their native country for
that country's good. I have often thought that if the _Mayflower_ had
landed at the bottom of the ocean instead of on Plymouth Rock, it would
have been much better for this country.

The New England Yankees are, in a large measure, responsible for the
events that brought on the war, and for the atrocities committed in the
South during and since the war. I don't believe the West and South would
ever have gone to war had it not been for this puritanical spirit of New
England. Envy is the ruling attribute of the Puritan; magnanimity is
foreign to the Puritan nature. One thing formerly practiced by the New
Englanders, they utterly failed to establish in this country. A good
thing it was too for the old women, or else many more of them might have
been burned, hanged or drowned as witches, as was done in New England
when the Puritan spirit prevailed in its undiluted state.

The following is a copy of an old-time Massachusetts legal document,
reproduced here that early history may be perpetuated:

                  *       *       *       *       *

                        EXECUTION FOR WITCHCRAFT

  _"To George Corwin Gent'n, High Sheriffe of the County of Essex
    Greeting:_

"Whereas Bridgett Bishop al's Olliver, the wife of Edward Bishop of
Salem in the County of Essex Lawyer at a speciall Court of Oyer and
Terminer held at Salem the second Day of this instant month of June for
the Countyes of Essex Middlesex and Suffolk before William Stoughton
Esque. and his associates of the said Court was Indicted and arraigned
upon five several Indictments for using practising and exerciseing on
the ... last past and divers other dayes and times the felonies of
Witchcraft in and upon the bodyes of Abigail Williams, Ann Puttnam ...
Mercy Lewis, Mary Walcott and Elizabeth Hubbard of Salem Village ...
single women; whereby their bodyes were hurt, offlicted, pined, consumed
and tormented contrary to the forme of the statute in that case made and
provided. To which Indictm'ts the said Bridgett Bishop pleaded not
guilty and for Tryall thereof put herselfe upon God and her Country
whereupon she was found guilty of the Felonyes and Witchcrafts whereof
she stood indicted and sentence of Death accordingly passed ag't her as
the Law directs. Execution whereof yet remaines to be done. These are
therefore in the names of their maj'ties William and Mary now King and
Queen over England &c. to will and command That upon Fryday next being
the Tenth Day of this instant month of June between the hours of eight
and twelve in the aforenoon of the same day you safely conduct the s'd
Bridgett Bishop al's Olliver from their maj'ties Gaol in Salem afores'd
to the place of execution and there cause her to be hanged by the neck
untill she be dead and of your doings herein make returne to the clerk
of the s'd Court and of this pr'cept. And hereof you are not to faile at
your peril. And this shall be your sufficient warrant Given under my
hand & seal at Boston the eighth of June in the fourth year of the
reigne of our Sovereign Lords William and Mary now King and Queen over
England &c., Annoq'e Dom. 1692.

                    "June 10, 1692. WM. STOUGHTON."

                  *       *       *       *       *

"According to the within written precept I have taken the body of the
within named Brigett Bishop out of their majesties goal in Salem and
safely conveighd her to the place provided for her execution and caused
y sd Brigett to be hanged by the neck untill she was dead and buried in
the place all which was according to the time within required and so I
make returne by me.

                                                    "GEORGE CORWIN,
                                                              "Sheriff."

                  *       *       *       *       *

As before said, the sentiment at the North is changing in favor of the
South; many are beginning to learn the true history of the past and
present state of affairs, though the South still has its traducers and
slanderers there, for in this year of grace, 1907, a Sunday-school
magazine up North printed in its columns the following: "And when
General Lee invaded Pennsylvania, at the time of the battle of
Gettysburg, destruction and rapine followed in the wake of the invaders.
There was evil and misfortune at every turn." A bigger lie was never
told. A fouler slander was never uttered.

The South, despite its enemies, is advancing rapidly in material
interests, and is destined to be the most prosperous portion of the
United States. "King Cotton" is coming to his throne again. The South
has always been the most chivalrous, conservative and American-like,
holding more closely to the traditions, customs, and manners of the old
days, where the high and unselfish principles of right, justice and
honor, which go to make up the true gentleman and patriotic citizen,
have always prevailed. The pure Anglo-Saxon blood still predominates in
the South, as well as the spirit of the cavalier. Blood will tell.

The average Yankee has a very poor conception of what is right and
honorable in his transactions and intercourse with his fellow-man, and
very faint conceptions of those principles of right and justice which
are the same among men of honor, world without end. To drive a sharp
bargain, to get money no matter how, but to get money, and diffuse and
enforce his own ideas and notions, seem to be the _summa summorum_ of
all his ends—as witness the developments in the past few years of
rascality and thieving being brought to light at the North, as it exists
among the "great captains of finance," as they are wont to be called; I
think "great thieves" would be a much more suitable appellation. The
foundations of many of the great, overgrown fortunes at the North were
laid during the war by swindling and stealing by Government contractors,
and they are still at it. Graft, graft; fraud, fraud, everywhere and in
everything they touch.

As before said, the South is coming to its own again. I firmly believe
the days of retribution will come when the evil deeds the North
perpetrated in the South during and since the war, will be avenged, not
in kind perhaps, but in some way. "The gods wait long, but they are just
at last;" their "mills grind slowly, but they grind exceeding fine." God
is just; His will be done.

I have written much more than I anticipated in the beginning—the subject
and occurrences opened up the "cells where memory sleeps." The more I
wrote, the more I recalled.

These reminiscences were commenced several years ago and virtually
completed last February. Since then they have been gone over, revised,
added to and some parts rewritten, and now on this, the 31st day of
December, in the year of our Lord, 1907, the last day of the year, are
completed.

                                                            W. H. MORGAN



                                 INDEX


 Akers, P. B., 214, 217, 224, 233, 239, 267.

 Akers, W. L., 36.

 Albemarle Sound, 181.

 Allen, Chas., 205.

 Annandale, 87.

 Anglo-Saxon Blood, 279.

 Appomattox, 220, 266.

 Army of Northern Virginia, 49, 78, 168, 169, 170.

 Atkins, —— Lieut., 210.


 Bailey, Allen, 205.

 Bailey, Harvey, 98.

 Bailey, Miffram, 112.

 Balls Bluff, 109.

 Balls Ford, 64.

 Balloons, 87, 133.

 Barber, Silas, 125.

 Bartow, —— Gen., 66, 67.

 Bateman, Abner, 184.

 Beauregard, G. T., 26, 36, 57, 64, 65, 66, 67, 95, 194, 195.

 Beaver Dam Creek, 134.

 Beckwith, H. C., 52.

 Bee, —— Gen., 64, 66, 67, 68.

 Bermuda Hundred, 193, 205.

 Black Horse Cavalry, 180.

 Blankenship, J. E., 37, 38.

 Blackburn's Ford, 51, 62, 64, 71, 72.

 Blackwater River, 159, 163.

 Blue Ridge, 68, 143.

 Bottom's Bridge, 117.

 Breckenridge, Jno. C., 206.

 Bonham, —— Gen., 59, 64, 71.

 Booth, J. Wilkes, 268.

 Boonsboro, Md., 37.

 Botetourt County, 39.

 Brigade, Barksdale's, 146.

 Brigade, Longstreet's, 50, 51, 62, 63, 64, 71, 85, 86.

 Brigade, A. P. Hill's, 102, 111.

 Brigade, Kemper's, 120, 125, 129, 133, 135, 145, 147, 150, 152, 153.

 Brigade, Terry's, 173, 180, 181, 194, 196, 206.

 Brigade, Corse's, 50, 164.

 Brigade, Gracie's, 197.

 Brigade, Heckman's, 202.

 Bright, Geo., 129.

 Brown, James A., 112, 214.

 Brown, W. L., 214.

 Brown, G. T., 214.

 Brown, —— Col.

 Brown, W. W., Col., 244.

 Bull Run, 33, 51, 63, 64, 92.

 Bumgardner, James, 266.

 Burks, Geo. A., 86, 165.

 Burnside, A. E., Gen., 143, 152.

 Burial at Sea, 252.

 Butler, B. F., Gen. (Beast), 193, 204.


 Cabell, Geo C., 204.

 Callaham, H. M., 214.

 Carter, —— Capt., 87.

 Carpet Baggers, 272.

 Cary, Peter, 90.

 Carrington, Isaac H., 175.

 Centreville, 64, 66, 85, 92, 95.

 Chalmers, H. C., 94.

 Chalmers, —— Dr., 36.

 Chambersburg, Penn., 263.

 Chafin's Farm, 174.

 Chancellorsville, 163.

 Charleston, S. C., 231, 236.

 Chester Station, 156.

 Chess Club, 248.

 Chickahominy, 117, 128, 176.

 Chickamauga, Tenn., 176.

 City Point, 193, 250.

 Clark, Geo. Rodgers, 264.

 Clement, Adam, 17, 27, 36, 37, 38, 87, 96, 107, 116, 119, 141.

 Clement, Chas. A., 113.

 Clifton Grays, 17.

 Cold Harbor, 216.

 Cobb, —— Gen., 150.

 Cock, James, 127.

 Cock, Robt. M., 17, 25, 115, 214.

 Cocke, Phillip St. George, 64, 71.

 Company A., 36, 39, 40, 52, 208.

 Company B., 36, 39, 208.

 Company C., 37, 39, 87, 90, 96, 104, 112, 123, 130, 152, 158, 161, 181,
    182, 208.

 Company D., 36, 39, 161.

 Company E., 36, 39, 40, 56. 208.

 Company F., 36, 39, 55.

 Company G., 36, 39, 45, 55, 182.

 Company H., 36, 39, 47, 56, 130, 198.

 Company I., 40.

 Company K., 40, 208.

 Connelly, James A., 17, 95, 166.

 Confederate Soldiers, 34, 100.

 Confederate Women, 222.

 Cook, —— Capt., 187, 188, 189.

 Corps, Longstreet's, 49, 145, 176.

 Corps, Jackson's, 145.

 Corse, M. D., 50, 127.

 Creasy, G. A., 202.

 Crescent (ship), 232.

 Culpeper, 35, 143.


 Daniel, Jno. W., 159.

 Darbytown, 118.

 Davis, Jefferson, 79, 268, 274.

 Davis, Thos. N., 53.

 Dearing, James, 186, 189, 190.

 Deaths on Ship, 253.

 De Priest, John, 205.

 Discipline in Army, 26, 218.

 Dickerson, H. Clay, 266.

 Dismal Swamp, 160.

 Division, Longstreet's, 120, 128, 134.

 Division, D. H. Hill's, 120, 128.

 Division, Whiting's, 135.

 Division, Pickett's, 145, 156, 164, 166.

 Dooly, Jno. H., 50.

 Douthat, R. W., 38.

 Drainesville, 93.

 Drury's Bluff, 175, 195.

 Dummy Cannon, 94.


 Eads, H., 214.

 Early, Jubal A., 25, 57, 58, 64, 71, 263.

 Eli, —— Congressman, 82.

 Elliott, B. P., 57.

 Elliott, H. O., 140.

 Elzey, —— Gen., 69.

 Emancipation, 29.

 Evans, —— Gen., 64, 66.

 Ewell. R. S., 63, 71.


 Falls Church, 87, 88, 90.

 Fairfax Court House, 86, 87, 92, 93.

 Fair Oaks, 119, 128.

 Fairfax, J. W., 136.

 Flags presented, 94.

 Flags, Yankee, 206.

 Floweree, 50.

 Fanning, J. W., 227.

 Farris, Benj., 112.

 Five Forks, 38.

 Fort Comfort, 188.

 Fort Delaware, 225, 231, 250, 253.

 Fort Fisher, 179.

 Fort Gregg, 239.

 Fort Magruder, 102, 109.

 Fort Monroe, 96, 274.

 Fort Pulaski, 243.

 Fort Sumter, 239.

 Fort Wagner, 239.

 Fort Warren, 187.

 Fort Wessels, 188.

 Fort Williams, 188.

 Foster, J. G., 245.

 Foulks, Henry, 37, 38, 126.

 Franklin, James, Jr., 183.

 Franklin, Saml. T., 91, 127, 162, 211.

 Franklin Station, 159, 162.

 Frazier's Farm, 138.

 Fredericksburg, 143, 145.

 Fulks, James, 53.

 Funston, David, 36, 37, 125.


 Gaines' Hill, 134, 135.

 Garland, Saml., Jr., 36, 37, 56, 85, 107, 113, 114.

 Graft, 279.

 Garrett's Station, 193.

 "General Lee to the rear," 171.

 George, negro cook, 63.

 Gettysburg, 166.

 Gilliam, Ed. G., 91, 200.

 Gladys, 17.

 Goldsboro, N. C., 113, 157, 176, 172.

 Gracie, —— Gen., 197, 199, 200.

 Granberry, Jno. C., 36, 137.

 Greeley, Horace, 84.

 Grant, U. S., 26, 215, 219, 250, 257, 258.

 Grapevine dispatches, 180.

 Griffin's Battery, 76.

 Gunboat, "Albemarle," 187.

 Gunboat, "Bombshell," 188.

 Gunboat, "Miami," 188.

 Gunboat, "Patrick Henry," 175.

 Gunboat, "Southfield," 188.

 Guinea Station, 153.

 Gurney, Wm., 237.


 Hairston, Peter, 50, 57, 58.

 Halleck, H. W., 260.

 Halsey, Don P., 266.

 Hankin's Battery, 197.

 Hanover Junction, 206, 215.

 Harrison, Carter H., 36, 37, 52, 56.

 Harrison's Landing, 138.

 Hambrick, Joe, Maj., 203.

 Harper's Ferry, 141.

 Haynes, Jim., 126.

 Hazel Run, 150.

 Hickman, —— Gen., 202.

 Hendricks, W. H., 140.

 Hickok, M. V. B., 126, 203.

 Hientzleman, —— Gen., 128.

 Hill, A. P., 101, 104, 105, 114, 120, 134.

 Hill, D. H., 120, 123, 124.

 Hilton Head, 227.

 Hobson, Jos. A., 17, 96.

 Hobson, W. H., 93.

 Hoke, R. F., 180, 189.

 Hoover, H. C., 227.

 Home Guard, 39, 45.

 Horton, Thos. B., 38, 210, 212, 214, 224, 232, 247.

 Hord, Jas. W., 38, 62.

 Horace, negro cook, 167, 214.

 Houston, D. Gardner, 37, 38, 161.

 Houston, Thomas, 38.

 Houston, A. M., 38, 151.

 Hospitals, 231.

 Hughes, Crockett, 112.

 Hutter, J. Risque, 36, 37, 130.

 Hutton, Eppa, 94.

 Howard's Grove, 118.


 Jackson, T. J. (Stonewall), 33, 64, 68, 133, 141, 142, 163, 170.

 James River, 97, 193, 250.

 Jamison —— Capt., 37.

 Jeff Davis Rifles, 47.

 Johnston, Jos. E., 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 95, 96, 97, 99, 102, 110, 119,
    128, 266, 269.

 Johnson, Bushrod, 197.

 Johnson, Bradley T., 260.

 Jones, A. I., 38.

 Jones, Charles, 166.

 Jones, Lanious, 166.

 Jones, J. C., 167.

 Jones, J. T., 214.

 Jones, J. W., 214.

 Jones, R. H., 91.

 Jones, —— Gen., 63, 91.


 Kabler, Fred., 214.

 Kabler, W. S., 214.

 Kasey, —— Gen., 128, 129.

 Kean, R. G. H., 36.

 Kemper, Jas. L., 50, 104, 105, 109, 112, 113, 114, 115, 120, 124, 125,
    146.

 King's Landing, 97.

 Kinston, N. C., 157, 176, 191.

 Knoxville, Tenn., 176.


 Lane, John, 154.

 Langhorne, M. S., 37, 125.

 Layne, David, 112.

 Latham, G. W., 38.

 Latham's Battery, 102.

 Lea, Jas. B., 102.

 Lee, Robt. E., 27, 101, 133, 134, 141, 150, 163, 166, 170, 193, 219,
    262.

 Lee, Fitz., 16.

 Letcher, John, 94.

 Linney, H. M., 86.

 Lincoln, Abe, 28, 29, 267, 268.

 Libby Prison, 203.

 Long, Tom, 76.

 Long Roll, 92.

 Longstreet, James, 50, 53, 60, 119, 122, 159, 169.

 Lucado, L. F., 36.

 Lyman, Geo. W., 93.

 Lynchburg, 25, 27, 31, 39.

 Lynchburg Rifles, 42.


 Magruder, —— Gen., 97.

 Malvern Hill, 138.

 Manassas, 33, 35, 51, 65, 140.

 Manning, Van., 234.

 Marye, Morton, 50.

 Martin, Harvey, 140.

 Maryland Campaign, 140.

 Mayflower, 275.

 Marye's Hill, 148, 149.

 Masons Hill, 87, 90.

 Mason, M. M. (Boy), 166.

 Maury, R. F., 50, 200.

 Mayo, Joseph, 50.

 Measles, 86.

 McClellan, G. B., 95, 96, 97, 99, 102, 110, 133, 138.

 McDowell, —— Gen., 52, 61, 64, 65, 67.

 McLean's Ford, 63, 71.

 Mechanicsville, 133.

 Meem, J. Lawrence, 36, 123, 126.

 Milford Station, 208.

 Mitchell's Ford, 59, 64.

 Mitchell Robert M., Jr., 36, 209, 210.

 Monroe, William, 184.

 Monroe, John, 205.

 Monroe, W. T., 184.

 Moore, P. T., 50.

 Morgan, Richard, 17.

 Morgan, G. W., 25, 86, 227.

 Morgan, Dixie, 93, 154.

 Morgan, Robt. W., 140, 167, 103, 214.

 Morgan, J. L., 225, 269.

 Morgan, Taylor, 271.

 Morris Island, S. C., 227, 236.

 Munford, Wm., 50.

 Munson's Hill, 87.

 Murrell, Charles, 140.


 Negro soldiers, 189, 221.

 Napoleon at Lodi, 171.

 New York Zouaves, 83.

 New England Yankees, 28, 29, 30, 31, 275.

 Norvell, George P., 214.

 Norton, —— Maj., 208, 209.

 North Anna River, 220.

 North Carolina, 157, 159, 176.

 North Western Territory, 263, 264.

 Neuse River, 157.

 New Berne, N. C., 158, 191.


 Old, Robert, 257.

 Old Capitol Prison, 224.

 Organ, John, 112.

 Otey, Kirk, 37, 154, 196.


 Palmer, G. W., 50.

 Pamlico Sound, 190.

 Patten, W. Tazwell, 50.

 Patterson, —— Gen., 67.

 Peninsular Campaign, 96, 100.

 Pennsylvania Campaign, 164.

 Petersburg, 101, 156, 157, 162, 176.

 Pigeon Run, 17.

 Pickett's Division, 145, 156, 164, 166, 169.

 Picket lines, 87, 89, 90, 93, 130, 160, 174, 181, 182.

 Pickett, George E., 145, 158, 197.

 Pillow, Daniel, 115, 126, 127, 166.

 Plymouth, N. C., 180.

 Port Royal, Va., 223.

 Port Royal, S. C., 236.

 Point Lookout, 224.

 Preston, Robert T., 25, 34, 73.

 Price, Leslie, 53.

 Prisoners escape, 236, 249.

 Prisoner of War, 215, 246.

 Prisoners, Exchange of, 250, 254, 257.

 Prison rations, 226, 237, 245.

 Prison life, 226.

 Prison rules, 230, 240.

 Prison guards, 244.

 Prison ships, 232, 250.

 Pryor, W. H., 50.

 Pryor, Roger A., 103.

 Puritans, 275.


 Ransom, —— Gen., 150, 197.

 Rappahannock River, 143.

 Rebel yell, 70, 162.

 Reconstruction, 272.

 Reviews, 170.

 Retaliation, 232.

 Regiment, 28th Va., 25.

 Regiment, 1st Va., 50, 208.

 Regiment, 3d Va., 50.

 Regiment, 7th Va., 50, 104, 109, 203.

 Regiment, 11th Va., 36, 49, 50, 52, 85, 98, 104, 121, 123, 130, 152,
    200.

 Regiment, 17th Va., 50.

 Regiment, 24th Va., 5, 7, 71, 110, 181, 200.

 Regiment, 5th La., 9, 3, 110.

 Regiment, 8th Va., 109.

 Richmond, Va., 33, 97, 117, 195, 206, 269.

 Rickett's Battery, 76.

 Rice, Joe, 141.

 Rice, John, 141.

 Rice, W. A., 214.

 Rifle Grays, 39, 40.

 Rosser, Alford, 205.

 Rosser, Granville, 112.

 Rosser, Jabe R., 91, 96.

 Rosser, W. C., 127.

 Rosser, G. T., 91, 211.

 Rosser, Thos. L., 87.

 Roads, muddy, 100, 177.

 Roanoke River, 181.


 Saunders, Robt. C., 37.

 Scalawags, 272.

 Sea, W. M. 212.

 Secession, Cause of, 27.

 Sea-sickness, 251.

 Seven Pines, 118.

 Seven Days' Fights, 133.

 Sharpsburg, Md., 140.

 Shenandoah River, 142.

 Sherman's Battery, 76.

 Sherman, W. T., 76, 224, 258, 261.

 Sherman's March, 259.

 Slavery, 29.

 Smith, J. Holmes, 38.

 Smith, G. W., 128.

 Smith, Kirby, 69, 266.

 Smithfield, N. C., 179.

 South Side Va., 156.

 Southern Confederacy, 146, 171.

 Southern Traducers, 278.

 Song, 227.

 Sperryville, 143.

 Spottsylvania C. H., 206, 218.

 Spoils of Battle, 80.

 Stars and Stripes, 131, 186.

 Stafford Heights, 143.

 Stigleman, C. M., 57.

 "Stone Wall" Sobriquet, 68.

 Stuart's Cavalry, 93.

 Stockade, 236.

 Stone Bridge, 64, 66.

 Sudley's Ford, 66.

 Suffolk, 159.


 Tarboro, N. C., 180.

 Tar River, 180, 190.

 Taylor, W. H., Dr., 74.

 Taylorsville, Va., 163, 173.

 Terry, Wm. R., 50, 183, 199.

 Terrell, James, 125.

 The South, 278.

 Thornhill, G. W., Dr., 36, 56, 86, 119, 129, 165.

 Thornton's Gap, 143.

 Torbet's Cavalry, 209.

 Turpentine Orchards, 178.

 Tweedy, Bennett, 184.

 Tweedy, Dabney C., 166, 167.

 Tweedy, Smith P., 214.

 Tweedy, E. A., 214.

 Tweedy, F. C., 185.

 Tyler, E. B., 61.

 Tyree, Chas. H., 36.v

 Tybee Island, 243.


 Under Fire of Confederate Guns, 238.

 Under Shelling, 71, 72.

 Upton's Hill, 87.


 Virginia Dismembered, 263.

 V. M. I. Men, 39.

 Valley Forge, 101.


 Walton, —— Col., 151.

 Walker, G. W., 205.

 Walthall, Isaac, 32.

 War, Conduct of, 258.

 Ward, Jno. C., 39.

 Washington Artillery, 59, 150.

 Washington City, 223.

 Washington, N. C., 190.

 Washington, George, 55.

 Water, Hot, 235.

 Weldon, N. C., 157, 176.

 West Point, Va., 99, 100.

 Wessels, —— Gen., 189.

 West Virginia, 263.

 Whitehead, Jno. D., 50.

 Whiting, —— Gen., 135, 194, 204.

 Williamsburg, 97, 101.

 Wilderness, 26, 143.

 Wilson, W. H., 112.

 Wilkerson, W. C. J., 214.

 Wilmington, N. C., 179.

 Winfree, C. V., 38.

 Winchester, 68, 142.

 Wise, Henry A., 174, 175.

 Witchcraft, 276.

 Withers, H. H., 17, 96.

 Withers, R. E., 73, 137.

 Withers, W. S., 119.

 Worms in food, 237.

 Wood, James, 125.

 Wood, John J., 112.

 Woody, Bruce, 205.

 Wray, James W., 214.


 Yankee Flags, 206.

 Yankee Infamy, 255.

 Yeatman, Robert, 37, 38.

 Yorktown Lines, 97, 99.

 York River, 97, 99.


 Zouaves, New York, 83.



      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber's note:

Silently corrected simple spelling, grammar, and typographical errors.

Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.

Deleted the word thousand on p. 138.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Personal Reminiscences of the War of 1861-5 - In Camp—en Bivouac—on the March—on Picket—on the Skirmish Line—on the Battlefield—and in Prison" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home