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Title: The American Girl's Handy Book - How to Amuse Youself and Others
Author: Beard, Adelia B. (Adelia Belle), Beard, Lina
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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text is surrounded by _underscores_.]



The American Girl’s Handy Book.


What to do and How to do it



D.C. Beard.


Charles Scribner’s Sons.]


    1 Vol. Cloth. Price, $2.00.


How to Amuse Yourself and Others



    Lina Beard
    Adelia B. Beard






“I DO wish some one would write a book like that for girls,” is the
remark we have frequently heard when a new book of sports for boys
has made its appearance; but it was not until the publication of the
“American Boy’s Handy Book” that it occurred to us to write a book for
the American boy’s neglected sisters, which should be equally original
and practical.

In the “Girl’s Handy Book,” which it has been our endeavor to make
peculiarly American, we have sought to introduce original and novel
ideas, and by their aid to open new avenues of enterprise and enjoyment.

One of our objects is to impress upon the minds of the girls the fact
that they all possess talent and ability to achieve more than they
suppose possible, and we would encourage a belief in the truth of
the remark said to have been made by a famous Frenchman: “When you
Americans undertake anything you never stop to ascertain if it be
possible, you simply _do it_.”

We desire also to help awaken the inventive faculty, usually
uncultivated in girls, and, by giving detailed methods of new work and
amusements, to put them on the road which they can travel and explore

We know well the feeling of hopelessness which accompanies vague
directions, and, to make our explanations plain and lucid, we have
ourselves, with very few exceptions, made all of the articles, played
the games, and solved the problems described.

The materials employed in the construction of the various articles are
within easy reach of all, and the outlay, in most cases, little or

We scarcely deem it necessary to point out the fact that in supplying
healthy, sensible work and amusement for leisure hours, employment is
given whose whole tendency is to refine the tastes and ambitions of our
American girls.

A few of our chapters are taken from articles which were written by
us for, and published by, the _Youth’s Companion_, _St. Nicholas_,
_Harper’s Young People_, _Golden Days_, and _Wide Awake_.


  PREFACE                                                            iii


  FIRST OF APRIL                                                       3
    First of April Party, 5; Mirror Tableau, 6; Noah’s Ark
      Peep-show, 8; The Supper, 10.

  WILD FLOWERS AND THEIR PRESERVATION                                 13
    Transplanting Wild Flowers, 14; Cut Wild Flowers, 15;
      Sending Flowers by Mail, 15; Preserved Flowers, 16;
      Pressed Flowers and Leaves, 18; Leaves and Ferns for
      Decoration, 19; Color of Flowers Changed, 19: Natural
      Wax Flowers, 20; To Freshen Cut Flowers, 20; Crystallized
      Flowers, 21; How to Preserve the Perfume of Flowers, 21;
      Spring Flowers in Winter, 23; The Four-leaved Clover, 23;
      Several Methods of Preserving Flowers, 24.

  THE WALKING CLUB                                                    27
    Rules to be Observed, 31.

  EASTER                                                              33
    Easter Customs in Other Lands, 33; Easter Egg Games, 36;
      Easter Egg Dolls, 39; Humpty Dumpty, 42; Miss Rolly-poly,
      45; Mandolin, 47; Maple-wax Easter Eggs, 49; Bonbon Box,
      49; Easter Cards, 50; Little Quakeress, 52.

  HOW TO MAKE A LAWN-TENNIS NET                                       55
    Rules for Lawn-Tennis, 63.

  MAY-DAY                                                             71
    May-day Sports, 72; How to Make May-baskets, 74; May-day
      Combat, 75; The May-pole, 77; May-pole Dance, 79.


  MIDSUMMER EVE                                                       83
    The New Fern-leaf Game, 85; Fortune-telling: The Plaintain
      Test, 86; Fortune’s Wheel, 88.

  SEA-SIDE COTTAGE DECORATION                                         91
    Window Decorations, 92; Row-boat Book-shelves, 95; Crab-net
      Work-basket, 96; Hat-rack, 98; Marine Screen, 99;
      Horseshoe-crab Bag, 102; Sea-urchin Vase and Candlestick,
      102; How to Dry Starfish and to Polish Shells, 104.

  A GIRL’S FOURTH OF JULY                                            105
    Interior Decoration, 107; In-door Illumination, 108;
      Out-of-door Decoration, 109; Fireworks, 111; Parachute,
      112; Thunderbolts, 112; Whirls, and Winged Fancies, 113;
      Pin-wheels, 114; Bombs, 115; Declaration of Independence,
      117; Toss, 118; Fourth of July Jackstraws, 119;
      Progressive Mining, 119.

  PRINTING FROM NATURE’S TYPES                                       123
    Impression Album, 123; Winter Landscape, 127.

  PICNICS, BURGOOS, AND CORN-ROASTS                                  131
    A Burgoo, 132; Burgoo Stew, 133; A Corn-roast, 134.

  BOTANY AS APPLIED TO ART                                           139
    The Peony Leaf, 140; A Bunch of Turnips, 142; Plant
      Cross-section Designs, 144; Flower Sprays, 146; Changing
      the Color, 146; Burs, 147; The Water-Lily, 148.

    Five Minutes’ Conversation, 153; Blind Man’s Singing-school,
      155; A Game of Noted Men, 155; What Will you Take to the
      Picnic? 156; Assumed Characters, 157; Shadow Verbs, 157.

  HOW TO MAKE A HAMMOCK                                              159
    Materials, 161; Barrel Hammock, 165.

  (For Little Girls.)
  CORN-HUSK AND FLOWER DOLLS                                         169

  HOW TO MAKE A FAN                                                  177
    Butterfly Fan, 178; Mikado Fan, 180; Daisy Fan, 182;
      Cardboard Fan, 183.


  ALL-HALLOW-EVE                                                     187
    Halloween Parties, 189; Melted Lead, 190; Nutshell Boats,
      192; “Three Luggies,” 193; Roasting Nuts, 193; Kaling,
      194; The Magic Mirror, 194; Three Tin Cups, 195; The
      Ring Cake, 195; Bobbing for Apples, 196; The Ghostly
      Fire, 197; The Fairy’s Gifts, 198.

    Fresh Autumn Wild Flowers, 202; Buckeye Portière, 204;
      Panel of Fall Decorations, 205; Louis Quinze Screen,
      206; A Panel of Field Corn, 209; Ornamental Gourds,
      210; Gourd-Dippers and Bowls, 211; Vases, 212; Small
      Decorations, 214; Brackets, 214.

  NUTTING-PARTIES                                                    217
    “Little Brown Squirrel,” 218; Rules for Nutting-Parties,

  HOW TO MAKE A TELEPHONE                                            224

  HOW TO DRAW                                                        229

  HOW TO PAINT IN WATER-COLORS                                       238
    Materials for Water-Color Painting, 238; Flowers, 239;
      Landscapes, 241; Painting from Notes, 244.

  HOW TO PAINT IN OIL-COLORS                                         249
    Materials, 249; Mediums, 251; Canvas, 251; The Light,
      252; Setting the Palette, 253.

  HOW TO MODEL IN CLAY AND WAX                                       257
    Materials, 259; How to Manage Clay, 260; Hints for
      Modelling a Head, 262; How to Model in Wax, 263;
      Modelling-wax, 263.

  HOW TO MAKE PLASTER CASTS                                          267

  CHINA PAINTING                                                     272
    List of Materials, 272; A Monochrome Painting, 278; Tinting,
      278; New Method of Decorating China, 279; Tracing, 280;
      Mottled Grounds, 281; Snow Landscape, 281; How to Paint
      a Head on China, 284; How to Paint a Carp, Sea-weed,
      and Fish-net, on China, 287; Foliage on China made with
      a Sponge, 289; Mixing Colors, 289; Royal Worcester Ware,

  A CHAPTER ON FRAMES                                                295
    Marine Picture Frame, 296; Decorated Frame, 297; Frame
      Covered with Tin-foil, 298; Cork Frame, 299.

  THANKSGIVING                                                       302
    Impromptu Burlesque Tableaux, 304; Landing of the Pilgrims,
      305; First Harvest, 307; Devastation by the Indians, 308;
      The Revolution, 309; Slavery, 310; Rebellion, 310; Peace
      and Plenty, 310; The Game of the Headless Turkey, 312;
      A Suggestion, 313.


    Julklapp, 319; Polish Custom, 320; The Bran Pie, 321; The
      Blind Man’s Stocking, 321; Home-made Christmas Gifts,

    New Game of Bubble Bowling, 335; Biographical Nonsense,
      339; Comic Historic Tableaux, 341; Living Christmas
      Cards, 342.

  NEW YEAR’S AND A LEAP YEAR PARTY                                   347
    Pantomime of an Enchanted Girl, 348.

  HOME GYMNASIUM                                                     353
    Course of Exercises, 356.

  A DECORATIVE LANGUAGE                                              364
    The Field and the Points of Heraldry, 366; Divisions, 367;
      Colors, 369; How to Make a Design in Decorative Language,
      371; Book-plates, 377; Floral Vocabulary, 377.

      ORIGINAL PATTERNS                                              380
    Plain Sewing, 380; Button-holes, 383; How to Patch, to Sew
      on a Button, and to Mend a Kid Glove, 386; Fancy Stitches,
      387; Drawn Work, 389; Applique and Original Designs for
      Portières, 391; Lace, 393; Ribbon Embroideries, 393.

  SCRAP-BOOK AND HOME-MADE BOOK-COVERS                               395
    Mother Goose Scrap-book, 395; Transformation Scrap-book,
      398; An Album, 400; Home-made Book-cover, 401.

  A HEAP OF RUBBISH AND WHAT TO DO WITH IT                           403
    The Mirror, 404; The Table, 406; Lantern, 408; A Music Roll,
      410; Work-basket, 411; Key and Button-hook Rack and Paper
      Weight, 412.

    The Tables, 413; Flowers for Decorations, 417; The Months,
      420; The Five Senses, 421; Walls, 423; Grab-bags, 423;
      The Lady of the Lake, 425; Fortune’s Wheel, 426;
      Rag-balls, 427.

  WINDOW DECORATION                                                  429
    Oriental Window-shade, 430; Ribbon-curtain, 430; Drapery
      of Very Small Scraps, 431; Painting Window-panes, 432;
      Painting on Lawn, 434; To Imitate Stained Glass, 435;
      Windows of Imitation Ground Glass, 436.

  FURNITURE, OLD AND NEW                                             438
    The Bookcase, 439; The Chair, 441; The Bedstead, 444; A
      Dressing-table, 444; Washstand, 446; A Hall Seat, 447;
      Window Seat and Book-shelves, combined, 448.


  HOME-MADE CANDY                                                    458
    Peanut Candy, Butter Scotch and Molasses Candy, 459; Walnut
      and Fruit Glacé, 460; Marsh-mallow Paste, 460; Chocolate
      Caramels, 461; Pop-corn Balls, 462.

  SAINT VALENTINE’S DAY                                              464
    Valentine Party, 465.

[Illustration: SPRING]


The American Girl’s Handy Book.



THIS is the children’s own day, and no assumption of dignity on the
part of their elders can deter them from exercising the privileges
granted to them by acknowledged custom and precedent.

“April fool! April fool!” cries my little nephew, as he dances with
delight to see his aunt walk out of the room with a piece of white
paper dangling from a hooked pin, attached to her dress.

“April fool! April fool!” shout the children in the street, thus
announcing the success of some practical joke.

“April fool!” laughs everyone at the table, when some unfortunate bites
into a brown, wholesome-looking cruller, only to find it a delusion and
a snare, the coat of a cruller, but the inside of cotton.

“April fool! April fool!” is what even the little sparrows seem
to chirp, as with a “s-w-h-e-r-r” they sweep down from the tree
and, frightening away the kitten, take forcible possession of her
bone. What does all this mean? Why is the first day of April called
“All-Fools-Day,” and when or where did the custom of the day originate?
Who can tell? No one seems to know. Even the derivation of the word
April does not appear to have been definitely settled, and this saucy
month, with her mischievous tricks and pranks, her surprises and
mysteries, fools and puzzles our wisest men.

Through many centuries the observance of All-Fools-Day has descended to
us. In many climes and many countries this day is chosen as the proper
time for playing tricks on the unsuspecting.

“Festum Fatuorum,” or “Fools’ Holiday,” is what it was called in
England at the time of the arrival of the early Christians in that

Easily caught like the mackerel, which are plentiful on the French
coast in April and are said to be deficient in understanding, the April
fool in France derives his name from that fish, and is called “Poisson
d’Avril” or “April Fish,” and again, “Silly Mackerel.” From the cuckoo,
a bird that does not know enough to build its own nest, the appellation
of “gowk” is taken, and is given to the foolish one in Scotland who
allows himself to be duped on this day.

In India at the festival called Huli Festival held on the last day of
March, the natives make merry at the expense of their friends, just as
we do, and their fool is called “Huli Fool.”

So in the East and in the West, in the North and in the South,
in the oldest nation as well as the youngest, is this ridiculous
custom observed, and, as if to make it still more ridiculous, no one
apparently knows why.

Now, girls, since this holiday has descended to us from so far back
that its origin appears lost in the dim twilight of past ages, there
surely must be some reason for its existence, and that reason may be,
that “a little nonsense now and then is relished by the wisest men,”
and is therefore wholesome as an occasional diet. So why not help
to perpetuate it; not with rude, practical jokes, but with comical
surprises, and absurd, but unembarrassing, situations. Much harmless
fun can be derived from the privileges of this day, devoted as it is to
nonsense, and we introduce the April Fool Party as an excellent means
of concentrating the fun, and furnishing plenty of merriment to the
young folks who are bent on having a good time.

=First of April Party.=

I remember, when quite a little girl, I was granted the privilege
of celebrating my birthday, which came on the 1st of April, with a
candy-pull, and a few days previous to the event I started joyfully
off to invite my friends. The invitations were laughingly given and
accepted, and it did not occur to me that I would be suspected of
playing a joke, although the party was to be on April-Fools-Day. It
seems, however, that my good intentions were doubted, and the children
were undecided whether to come or not. I had begun to suspect that a
joke was to be played on me by their all remaining away, before they
finally arrived in a body, having taken the precaution of coming in
that way, so that if the party were a hoax they would all be fooled

I relate this incident that warning may be taken from my experience,
and that it may be understood how important it is to make the guests
invited to your First of April party realize that the invitations are
given in good faith, and that your friends are expected to be on hand
at the appointed time.

It is well, in giving a party of this kind, to have the whole programme
laid out beforehand, so that everything may go smoothly and nothing be

The few methods of April fooling given here need not constitute the
whole entertainment; the list may be added to by the young hostess, who
will, no doubt, have many ideas of her own to carry out. We will head
our list with the

=Mirror Tableau.=

This novel tableau is made ready in the following manner:

In a door-way, or bay-window draped with full curtains, place a large
mirror. Instead of having the curtains suspended from the usual
pole, it is best to stretch a wire across the space and slip the
curtain-rings upon that, as they will slide more readily on the wire;
and when it is time to draw back the drapery it should be done quickly.
A table placed before the curtains will serve as a barricade, keeping
the too curious from taking a peep at the hidden mysteries before they
are ready to be revealed.

At the time selected, remove the table, and request all those desiring
to see the tableau to arrange themselves in front of the curtain, and
to remain perfectly quiet, as any movement will disturb those taking

If the front rows of the audience can be induced to kneel or sit upon
the floor, those in the rear can obtain a better view, and it will, at
the same time, make the group more effective. When perfect quiet is
obtained, give the signal to your assistant, who must stand opposite to
you at the side of the curtain, and with her help quickly draw aside
the draperies, thus disclosing the tableau of a group of young people,
motionless, gazing into the mirror with eager and expectant eyes. For
an instant the audience will be held spell-bound, scarcely realizing
that they themselves are forming the pretty tableau.

“We are April Fools,” written with soap on the mirror near the top,
as shown in the illustration, tells what character the actors are
assuming, and gives a name to the tableau.

[Illustration: The Mirror Tableau.]

During the interval which should be allowed to intervene before
introducing the next thing on the programme, the guests will find
amusement in the many harmless practical jokes which are awaiting the
unwary in all manner of places.

For instance, some boy will print APRIL FOOL in large white letters
on his own back, by simply resting for a moment in a convenient chair
upon whose snowy tidy the dreaded words have previously been printed
backwards with white chalk. On the dark woolly surface of the coat,
the white letters will be perfectly transferred, and the boy, little
knowing what he has done, or the cause of the merriment, will join in
the general laughter his appearance creates.

A treacherous divan can be provided by removing the top of a low, flat
packing-box, and putting in its place brown wrapping-paper, tacking
it down around the edges of the box. With a piece of drapery thrown
over it, entirely concealing the box, and sofa pillows placed upon it,
leaning against the wall, the divan looks exceedingly comfortable and
inviting. But woe unto the person who mistakes appearances for reality,
for to attempt to sit upon this seeming substantial couch is but to
break through and sit upon the floor instead.

The box used for the divan should not be more than twelve inches high,
so that the fall will be only funny, not dangerous.

The next diversion may be a

=Noah’s Ark Peep-show.=

Make the peep-show of a box about two and a half feet long and one
foot and a half high. Remove the top and both of the end-pieces (Fig.
1). Cut from pasteboard a slide to exactly fit the box, and place it
in the middle, thus cutting off the view from either end, as shown in
Fig. 1. Make a curtain in two pieces, and tack them around the upper
edge of the box, letting them meet at each end. Stout pieces of twine,
stretched across the openings at the ends of the box, will serve to
attach the drapery at these points.

[Illustration: Noah’s Ark Peep-show.]

Almost any kind of material will answer for this purpose, provided it
is not too thin and is of some bright hue, for the peep-show should be
made to look as gay as possible. Place the box upon a high stand, and
so arrange it that a strong light will shine down into it, making the
interior, from end to end, perfectly light.

From a list, previously prepared, of the animals supposed to be on
exhibition, read the first two, and invite two persons, a girl and a
boy, for instance, to look into the peep-show. We will suppose that
the first animals on the list are the raven and the dove. Inform your
would-be audience that you have two of Noah’s special pets to show
them; that from the girls’ point of view will be seen a raven, and
from the boys’, a dove. When taking their places at the box, one at
each end, the two spectators must part the curtain, and, putting their
faces between, hold the drapery together under their chins. This is to
keep the remainder of the company from obtaining a glimpse into the
wonderful show before their turns arrive.

When all is ready, and the two wondering faces are hidden between the
folds of the peep-show curtains, with the words, “Behold the pretty
dove, and the mischievous raven,” remove the slide, and expose to the
astonished gaze of each spectator a companion’s familiar face at the
opposite end of the box. Of course, upon retiring from the show, its
secret must be kept, otherwise the joke will be spoiled for those whose
turns are yet to come.

Before the next two take their station at the box, replace the slide
and pretend to rearrange the show, to divert the suspicion that the box
is empty.

=The Supper=

can be made the means of perpetrating many practical jokes. The shams
must be so intermingled with the real delicacies that one can never be
sure what the consequences may be of partaking too rashly of even the
most tempting-looking morsel.

Small blocks of wood covered with batter and browned in the oven are
excellent imitations of cakes. Dainty confectionery, in crimped papers,
can be made of small radishes covered with icing of different colors.
Button-moulds coated with chocolate will readily be mistaken for candy.

If a small pasteboard pill-box is first filled with flour, and the
top then covered with tissue-paper pasted down around the edges, it
will look, when iced, like a delicate little cake, and will cause much
merriment when anyone bites into it; for the moment the paper cover is
broken the flour will fly in every direction. The fertile brain of
girls, on mischief bent, will suggest many more frauds of this kind,
and enough surprises may be prepared to make the supper as merry as
anything else on the evening’s programme.

Before leaving this subject, once more let the caution be given to keep
the jokes entirely harmless. It is only poor fun that can be obtained
at the expense of injuring others, or by running the slightest risk of
hurting them in any way.

The spirit of mischief must be kept within bounds even on All-Fools-Day.

[Illustration: APRIL FOOL]

[Illustration: Gathering Wild Flowers.]



LONG before the first green leaves make their appearance, while the
snows of winter still linger in the shaded nooks, and the branches are
still bare, though blushing with the full, flowing sap that tinges
their tips pink, yellow, and red—when the air is filled with a sweet
freshness and delicate fragrance—it is charming in our rambles to find
scattered here and there upon the hill-side, down among the roots of
the great trees, or under the hedges delicate little wild flowers
waving on their fragile stalks with the faintest passing breeze. They
are so exquisitely beautiful with their tender hues and graceful
shapes, that a longing comes to possess them.

And why not keep them fresh at home? Plants live in the earth and
require light, air, and moisture. All of these requirements can be
and are fulfilled in thousands of homes where plants are kept, all
over the world. But these are _wild flowers_. True, and they may need
something to be found only in the wild woods. What, then, is it? Let us
see. Earth, light, and air abound everywhere. Still, upon inspection
we discover that the soil around our timid wild flowers is somewhat
different from that to be found in our door-yards. But what is simpler
than to take the earth up with the plant?

Be careful in

=Transplanting Wild Flowers=

to dig well all around and under the roots, so that the earth
surrounding and clinging to the plant may be taken up at the same time
(Fig. 2). After covering the root and soil adhering to it with a layer
of clay, mud, or damp earth (Fig. 3) set the root in a large leaf, and
tie it up with string or a wisp of grass (Fig 4), in order to make sure
the soil does not fall off the plant. Thus secured the specimens will
keep nicely until you reach home; then plant them in a shady place and
keep the ground moist. Beautiful little woodland gardens are made in
this way, where within a few steps of the door a glimpse may be had of
the fair forest flowers.


Sweet-scented white violets, delicate little anemones, odd yellow
violets, and quaint jack-in-the-pulpits, with many others, not
forgetting the graceful ferns, are now growing in the shaded corner of
the writer’s lawn, transplanted there from their home in the woods,
where she found them one lovely spring morning, when out with a party
of friends on a hunt for wild flowers.

The day was perfect, filled with sunshine and the song of birds. All
nature appeared glad and joyous, and the trees seemed veiled in the
softest greens and pinks of budding leaves.

It was a happy party that went wandering into the forest, straying here
and there, and finding new treasures at nearly every step, stopping to
gather a few of the violets that gave a purple tinge to the ground for
yards around, then rambling on to the spot that was covered with the
fragile anemone, each girl laden with the flowers she loved best. Some
had taken them up roots and all, while others preferred the

=Cut Wild Flowers.=

For these it is best to use a tin box of convenient size and form
shutting closely. The flowers must be fresh and not at all damp; in
such a box they can be kept for days bright and unfading. They may also
safely be sent to friends at a distance, though it is better, when

=Sending Flowers by Mail,=

if you wish to send a quantity, to pack them in a strong pad or wooden
box. First lay down a piece of oiled paper of the proper size; spread
a thin layer of damp paper on this; next a layer of flowers, then one
of thin wet paper; and so on until the box is full. Over the last layer
place a dry paper, and cover this with oiled paper or tin-foil; put the
lid on the box and tie it down securely.

By this method a larger number of flowers can be sent in a given space
than when simply inclosed in a tin box.

The writer has often sent daisies from New York to Cincinnati where
they arrived as fresh as when first gathered.

For the benefit of those who wish directions for sending flowers
by mail, we give the following on authority of the _American

    “The law passed some years since by Congress, allowing
    packages of plants to be sent by mail, if not over
    four pounds in weight, was a capital arrangement
    for those who lived at a distance from railroad and
    express offices, but it is so hampered with the various
    constructions given by the Post Office Department,
    that it is difficult to know what is required by the
    officials. The law now is, we believe, as follows: A
    package, weighing four pounds or less, can be sent at
    the rate of two cents per four ounces, but the writing
    of the words “roots” or “plants” makes a letter of
    it, and is charged letter postage. Nothing should be
    written except the address, and the package must not
    be sealed, or contain any writing, and it must be so
    fastened that the postmaster can examine the contents
    if he wishes. The plants may, however, be numbered, and
    their names sent by letter.”

Now let us think of some way in which these lovely blossoms can be

In Germany they excel in making decorations for rooms, dinner-tables,
etc., of

=Preserved Flowers.=

Bright-colored flowers are best adapted to this method. White flowers
are apt to turn yellow. Jack-in-the-pulpits, clover, roses, and daisies
came out beautifully when the writer dried them, and why should not
many other kinds do just as well? Try and see.

Procure three or four quarts of fine sand; white scouring-sand is
the best; wash it perfectly clean. This can be tested by pouring the
water off until it looks quite clear; then dry the sand, by placing
it in a clean tin in the oven. When it is dry—fully dry and cool—pour
enough in a box to enable the flowers to stand by themselves, their
stems embedded in the sand, which should be a mass of fine particles of
uniform size.

[Illustration: Preserved Flowers.]

If the flowers are cut so that they all measure nearly the same length
from the tip of the blossom to the end of the stem, they can more
readily be covered with sand. The flowers must be fresh and entirely
free from moisture. Place them stem downward in the sandy layer, and
very gently and slowly pour in the sand a little at a time, until each
leaf and petal is firmly held in place (Fig. 5); then fill the box with
sand nearly two inches above the level of the flowers.

It is very essential that every particle of the flower rest in the
sand, and that in filling up, the smallest petal has not been bent or

Take care not to shake the box lest the flowers inside be injured. Set
it in a warm, dry place, and let it stand at least two weeks.

This manner of preserving flowers retains the color, while the shape
of the leaves and petals remains unaltered. The flowers will keep for

There are other ways also of preserving flowers.

=Pressed Flowers and Leaves.=

Although these are perfectly flat, they seldom fade and are very pretty
and useful. Have ready a large book or a quantity of old newspapers and
several weights. Use the newspapers for leaves and ferns—blotting-paper
is best for the flowers. Both the flowers and leaves should be fresh
and without moisture. Place them as nearly in their natural positions
as possible in the book or papers, and press, allowing several
thicknesses of paper between each layer. Remove the specimens to dry
papers each day until perfectly dry.

Some flowers must be immersed—all but the flower head—in boiling water
for a few minutes, before pressing, to prevent them from turning black.
Orchids are of this nature.

If possible, it is well to obtain all parts of a plant, the roots as
well as the seeds, for a more interesting collection can thus be made
than from the flower and leaf alone.

It is advisable to be provided with a blank book or, what is still
better, pieces of stiff white paper of uniform size on which to mount
the flowers or leaves when dried; also with a small bottle of mucilage
and a brush for fastening them, and some narrow strips of court-plaster
or gummed paper for the stems and thicker parts of the plants. The
sooner they can be mounted the better. Place them carefully on the
paper, writing beneath the locality and date of finding. Flowers and
leaves thus prepared make beautiful herbariums. Should you desire

=Leaves and Ferns for Decoration,=

first press them nicely; then give them a coat of wax, by ironing them
on both sides with a hot iron over which a piece of beeswax has first
been rubbed. Cover the specimens completely with wax, as this renders
them quite pliable, and they are no longer brittle nor easily broken.
Sprays of small leaves can be pressed entire.

To heighten the effect, use dry colors, rubbing them in, and selecting
those corresponding with the color of the leaves when first gathered.

The colors must be put on before the coating of wax. Ferns should be
gathered when nearly full grown, and, after they are pressed, painted
light green with oil-colors; in that case the beeswax is not used. The
oil in the paint, like the wax, makes the specimens more substantial,
and they look quite fresh and fair.

Sometimes the late autumn frosts will bleach the ferns perfectly white;
then are they even more delicate than before Nature changed their
color. We have seen the

=Color of Flowers Changed,=

and it is a very pretty experiment, very simple, too. Immerse the
flowers in ammonia, and you will be surprised to see white lilies
change to a delicate yellow, pink roses turn a lovely light green,
while dark-red sweet-peas assume blue and rich purple tints; and
the change is so rapid it is almost like magic. Another interesting
experiment is making

=Natural Wax Flowers=

by dipping the fresh buds and blossoms in paraffine just sufficiently
hot to liquefy it; first the stems of the flowers; when these have
cooled and hardened, then the flowers or sprays, holding them by the
stalks and moving them gently. When they are completely covered the
flowers are removed and lightly shaken, in order to throw off the
superfluous wax. The flowers are then suspended until perfectly dry,
when they are found hermetically sealed in a film of paraffine, while
they still keep their beautiful coloring and natural forms, and for a
while even their perfume. Now let us find what can be done

=To Freshen Cut Flowers.=

When the heat has made them wilt, clip the stems and set the flowers in
cold water; in a few hours they will regain their freshness and beauty.

Some flowers, however, must be differently treated, such as heliotrope
and mignonette; these keep if placed _upon_ damp moss or cotton and set
in a cold place at night.

Rosebuds will retain their freshness for hours when not placed in
water, if the ends of the stems are snipped off, and immediately tipped
with melted sealing-wax; this excludes the air, and so keeps the
flowers from drooping.

If roses are wilted before they can be placed in water, cut off the
ends of the stalks and immerse in very hot water for a minute or two,
and they will regain their pristine freshness.

Another way to keep flowers fresh is to put a pinch of nitrate of
soda into the glass each time you change the water Nitrate of potash
or saltpetre in a powder has nearly the same effect, or a drop of

If plants are chilled by frost, shower them with cold water, and leave
in a cool room; or set the pot in cold water and keep in a moderately
cool place. Now one word about

=Crystallized Flowers,=

that sparkle and look so beautiful. They must first be dried in sand,
then crystallized in the same way as dried grasses—the rougher the
surface the better will it crystallize. Dissolve as much alum in
boiling water as it will hold; when this is determined, pour it off and
boil the solution down to one-half.

Suspend the flowers by a net-work of string tied across the top of a
pail into which they must hang; then pour into the pail the boiling
alum water, which must completely cover the flowers, and leave it
undisturbed twelve hours, or all night.

The flowers should not touch each other or the sides of the bucket. Be
careful in removing them the next morning, as the crystals are easily
broken off.

Flowers or sprays of grass may be beautifully frosted by dipping them
in a solution of gum-arabic and sprinkling them with powdered isinglass.

Flowers are not only very beautiful, but many of them possess a
fragrance so sweet that we would fain learn how to keep the

=Perfume of Flowers.=

Rose-leaves are the most simply prepared. Take a covered jar, fill it
with sweet-scented rose-leaves, and scatter through them some salt.
Keep the jar closed tight, and when the petals have dried the “scent
of the roses will cling to them still,” so that every time the jar is
opened a delicious fragrance will fill the air. Or you can cover the
rose-leaves with melted lard, and leave them for a day or two in some
place at a temperature of about 140° F.; then cool it and knead the
lard in alcohol. Pour off the alcohol in fancy glass bottles and use as
handkerchief perfume.

For varieties we find this method:

    “The delicate odor of pinks and other flowers may be
    obtained as follows: Get a glass funnel, with the
    narrow end drawn to a point; in this place lumps of
    ice with salt, by which a very low temperature is
    produced. The funnel should be supported on an ordinary
    retort-stand and placed near the flowering plants,
    when water and the ethereal odor of the blossom will
    be deposited on the exterior of the glass funnel, and
    will trickle down to the point, from which it drops at
    intervals into a glass vessel below. The scent thus
    obtained is very perfect, but is apt to become sour in
    a few days unless some pure alcohol is added. By this
    process many odors may be procured for comparison and
    study. To obtain the odor in perfection the blossom
    must be in its prime.”

Dry some sweet clover, and the fragrance will be sweet and pleasant.
Fill a fancy bag of some thin sheer material with the clover, and you
will find that you have imprisoned the fresh breath of summer.



Old-time lavender can be prepared in the same way.

Our thoughts so far have been for the flowers in their season. But did
it ever occur to you that it is possible to have

=Spring Flowers in Winter?=

If you search in the woods during December you may find, tucked away
in sheltered spots, little woodland plants which, when taken up and
carefully transplanted in a flower-pot and set in a sunny window, will
soon begin to grow, sending up tender stems, and in about three weeks
will blossom. The little fairy-like flowers seem even more beautiful
coming in the cold wintry weather.

Fruit-tree twigs and sprays from flowering shrubs will blossom when
the ground is white with snow, if cut from trees about the first of
February, placed in well-heated water in a warm room, and the water
changed every day for some that is almost but not quite hot.

The twigs being kept warm will blossom in a few weeks.

It is quite a pretty idea to take up and plant in a little flower-pot

=The Four-leaved Clover.=

Very frequently you may find a tuft bearing only the mystic number,
and should it happen to have a five- or six-leaved clover in with the
others, they will add to the luck.

If you possess one of these charmed plants, it is said “good luck” will
always be near at hand.

Besides the foregoing directions for the preservation of flowers,
plants, etc., there are numerous other methods, which, although not
experimentally verified by the writer, are no doubt as worthy of a
place here as any of the former.

The following recipes have been culled from various old papers, books,

=Some Old-fashioned Methods of Preserving Flowers.=

The first of these ways is more properly intended for botanical
collections, and is often resorted to by collectors of rare blossoms.
It consists in placing

=Flowers in Alcohol,=

and possesses the great advantage of preserving the flowers for years,
and keeping their most delicate fibres uninjured. They make invaluable
specimens to sketch from, and though their beauty may be somewhat
impaired by loss of color, their outlines remain perfect.

Place the flowers in a wide-mouthed bottle, fill it to the top with
alcohol, cork it tightly, and cover the cork with plaster-of-Paris or
melted beeswax, thus hermetically sealing it. Do not use sealing-wax,
as experience has taught us that the fumes of the alcohol soften the
wax, and not only spoil the neat appearance of the bottle, but allow
the spirits to evaporate.

Another way is to

=Bottle Flowers.=

Carefully seal the ends of the stems with sealing-wax, place them in
an empty bottle—both flowers and bottle must be perfectly dry—cork the
bottle, and hermetically seal it with either sealing-wax or beeswax.

The next method has greater possibilities of beauty, and consequently
the reader will be more interested in learning

=How to Preserve a Vaseful of Flowers for a Year.=

Take home your basket of wild flowers, “nodding violets,” cowslips,
bright-eyed anemones, and all the lovely offerings of the woods, and
before arranging them in the vase, carefully seal the stem of each
flower. Place a glass shade over the vase; be careful that flowers,
vase, and shade are perfectly dry; then fill up the groove in the
wood, in which the shade stands, with melted wax. By covering the wax
with chenille it can be perfectly hidden.

Flowers kept in this way will last for a twelvemonth.

The flowers preserved in an empty bottle may be taken out, the wax cut
from the stems, and, if arranged in a bouquet, will last as long as
perfectly fresh flowers.

Those in the alcohol lose their color after being immersed for a time,
and will not last when removed from the alcohol.

In following any of these directions be careful not to tie the flowers.
No string must be used. The flower stems must be loose and separate
from each other.

A florist of much experience in preserving bouquets for an indefinite
period gives this recipe for

=Keeping Bouquets Fresh a Long Time.=

When you receive a bouquet sprinkle it lightly with fresh water, then
put it into a vessel containing some soapsuds; this will take the place
of the roots and keep the flowers bright as new. Take the bouquet out
of the suds every morning, and lay it sideways, the stems entering
first, in clean water; keep it there a minute or two, then take it out,
and sprinkle the flowers lightly by the hand with water; replace it in
the soapsuds, and it will bloom as fresh as when first gathered.

The soapsuds need changing every three or four days. By observing these
rules a bouquet can be kept bright and beautiful for at least a month,
and will last longer in a very passable state. From another source we
learn how

=To Keep Flowers or Fruit a whole Year perfectly Fresh.=

Mix one pound of nitre with two pounds of sal ammoniac and three pounds
of clean common sand; then in dry weather take fruit of any sort which
is not fully ripe, allowing the stalks to remain, and put them one by
one into an open glass until it is quite full; cover the glass with
oiled cloth, closely tied down. Put the glass three or four inches down
in the earth in a dry cellar, and surround it on all sides to the depth
of three or four inches with the above mixture. The fruit will thus be
preserved quite fresh all the year round.

In giving the following recipe for the manufacture of rose-water, it
may be as well to state that the original verse is given, not for its
merit as such, but simply because it is the form in which the recipe
reached the writer.


    “When the bushes of roses are full,
      As most of them are about June,
    ’Tis high time to gather, or pull
      The leaves of the flowers. As soon
    As you’ve picked all you need for the time,
      To each _quart of water_ unite
    A _peck of the leaves_, which, if prime—
      And they will be, if pulled off aright—
    May be _placed in a still_ near at hand,
      On a _very slow fire_. When done,
    Bottle off, and permit it to _stand
      For three days_ ere you cork down each one.”




A SOUND of girlish voices is suddenly heard in the quiet village
streets, as our Walking Club, issuing from the house of one of its
members, starts off on the first tramp of the season. The gay chatter
and bubbling laughter blend with the twittering and chirping of the
birds fluttering among the budding trees, and all these merry sounds
seem in perfect harmony with the youthful gladness of the bright

There is a subtle power and exhilaration in the spring sunshine that
stimulates the blood, and sends it tingling through our veins, as
with light-springing steps we quickly leave the village behind us
and penetrate into the outlying country, stopping now and then to
secure a branch of the downy pussy willow or brilliant red blossoms
of the maple, and again to admire a distant view where the trees
seem enveloped in a hazy mist of delicate color; on we go, exploring
sequestered spots or entering deep into the woods in search of early
wild flowers.

[Illustration: The Walking Club.]

Although possibly timid as individuals, as a club we are brave enough;
for a party of fourteen or sixteen girls, including our merry little
chaperon, may go, with impunity, where it would not be so pleasant for
one to venture alone.

Once a week all through that delightful spring the club might have been
seen, now upon a road leading in this direction, now in that. And,
often as we stepped aside to allow a carriage to pass, its occupants
would lean forward smiling, and waving their hands in greeting; for
the moment, perhaps, feeling in sympathy with the vigorous young life
that preferred this mode of locomotion to being carried about on the
downiest cushions of the easiest of carriages. A ride which accorded
with the unconventional mood of our club was not despised however, for,
urged on by the girls, our little matron would make bold to accost some
countryman driving a vehicle sufficiently large, and persuade him,
in the terms of the country, to “give us a lift.” Jolting about in a
springless wagon or hay-cart was not in the least enervating, and we
experienced no indolent wish to continue our journey on wheels when
forced by diverging roads to leave our equipage. It was not until the
ever-increasing heat of the sun, and our own languid disinclination to
much exertion, warned us that the mildness of spring had passed, that
we concluded to disband for the summer. In the fall we again fell into
rank, and came home from our walks laden with the gorgeous trophies of
autumn, as we had once carried in triumph the tasselled branches and
dainty flowers of spring.

We continued our tramps into the early winter, when the frosty
crispness of the air made it very bracing, and the brisk exercise
of walking brought the healthy color to cheek and lip of the young

Such a club as this, which at the same time promotes health, good
spirits, and sociability, is one that most girls will enjoy and derive
benefit from.

A closer acquaintance with Nature, which these walks afford, is not
the least of their benefits, and to her true lover, Nature has many
delightful surprises and secrets to reveal; and as has been said, even
for those who cannot read her deeper meanings she has a language which
calls attention to her more outward forms of beauty, and which one may
study until gradually, with slowly opening eyes, is seen more and more
of the exquisite perfection of her work, that long ago might have been
seen had one but chosen to look.

As a society, the Walking Club is one of the most informal.

No officers are needed, although a secretary may sometimes be found
useful when any word is to be sent to absent members.

The membership of the club should be large enough to insure the
attendance of at least twelve or fourteen on each walk; for in this
case, as I have said, safety lies in numbers. At a place of meeting
previously appointed, the members should assemble, and, before starting
on their walk, the route to be taken should be decided by vote; a
decision on this point will be more quickly arrived at if a chairman be
appointed to keep order.

The first walk should not be too long. Three miles is a good walk to
start with; a mile and a half out and the same home again. Gradually
the distance can be lengthened, and the club be able to take a ten-mile
walk without feeling fatigue.



    _1st. Carry the body erect on the hips, the shoulders
    thrown back, the chest raised, and the head square on
    the shoulders._

    _2d. Breathe through the nose while walking rapidly,
    otherwise the mouth will become dry and the breath

    _3d. Wear loosely fitting clothes that will permit
    a free motion of the limbs, and shoes with broad,
    moderately thick, soles and low, broad heels. In all
    cases a girl’s skirts should be supported from the
    shoulders, and in walking any distance it is absolutely
    necessary for comfort that there should be no weight
    upon the hips._]




EVERYWHERE the children are playing with eggs; eggs colored in every
hue—mottled, striped, and gilded; real eggs and imitation ones; sugar,
glass, and wooden eggs; for this is Easter-tide, and not only in
America, but in many far-away countries, where the habits and customs
are very different from ours, does Easter bring to the children the
highly prized, gayly-colored eggs.

How nice it would be if we could take a peep into these foreign
countries, and discover what else Easter brings the little ones besides
the pretty eggs, and also how the people of such widely differing
nations keep this happy festival common to all.

If we could look into England now, we should find that the ceremonies
there begin on Palm Sunday (the last Sunday before Easter), and on that
day many people go a-palming, only they do not, of course, find palm,
but gather instead branches of willow, which they stick into their
hats and button-holes. On Good-Friday we might see, on almost every
breakfast-table, those hot spicy cakes with a cross stamped on the
face, known to many of us as well as to our English cousins, as “hot
cross buns.” We should feel very much at home looking into the churches
on Easter Sunday, for we should find them beautifully decorated with
flowers, and hear the Easter anthems chanted as we might in our own
country. I do not think we can see in America, though, the ceremony
which, on Easter Monday, is performed by the charity school-children
in England. Were we among the spectators who, with shouts and merry
laughter, crowd around to watch this performance, we should see the
children take their places, with their backs against the outside of
the church, and then join hands until a circle is formed around the
building, thus completing what is called “clipping the church.”

It would be great fun to see the Easter celebration in Russia, which
includes many peculiar customs, and where the children receive presents
as we do at Christmas, besides more eggs than any of us ever thought
of possessing; some of the eggs being beautifully made of glass or
porcelain, and filled with sugar-plums or small presents. How amusing
it would be to watch the people, following a custom always observed on
Easter Monday in this queer land, as they go about kissing relations,
friends, and acquaintances, wherever they happen to meet them.

If we were really in this great, cold, furry country, we might go with
the children to make their Easter visits, and, on entering a house,
hear the greeting, “Jesus Christ is risen,” and the answer, “Yes, he is
risen;” then after kissing the inmates and exchanging eggs with them,
go to visit elsewhere.

All this would seem very strange to American eyes; and it would be a
strange sight too, if we could look into the cities of Spain and see
the people in the streets shooting at stuffed figures of Judas Iscariot.

A passing glance at Ireland on Easter morning would show us the people
making haste to be out at sunrise to see the sun dance in a pool or
pail of clear water.

It would be worth while to give more than a passing glance into Germany
at this season, for in this country, where the children’s happiness is
so much thought of and so well provided for, Easter Monday is looked
upon as a grand holiday, and all the young people appear in their gala
costumes ready for any fun or frolic that may be going on. It is a
pretty sight when the little peasant-girls, in their quaint gowns and
odd little caps, dance on the green with the boys, whose costumes are
equally as picturesque; and it is also entertaining to watch them as
they play various games with their many-colored eggs.

In Germany, too, we should find that the children believe as sincerely
in the Easter hare as they do in Santa Claus in our country; and the
saying, that “the hares lay the Easter eggs,” is never doubted by the
little ones.

After visiting in imagination all these foreign countries to see their
Easter celebrations, it may prove interesting to turn our eyes toward
home, for, since our country is so large—as large almost as all Europe
put together—perhaps some of our little citizens who have never been in
Washington do not know how, in the capital of the United States, the
children hold high carnival on Easter Monday, nor how the grounds of
the White House and also of the Capitol are given up to them on this
day that they may frolic on the lawns and roll their eggs down the
hills. It would be as novel a sight to some of us as any found abroad,
to see several thousand children rolling and tossing their eggs, while
shells of every hue cover the grass in all directions.

The following newspaper item, cut from the _Evening Star_, Washington,
D. C., April 27, 1886, shows how these rights of the little Americans
are recognized and respected, and how unmolested they enjoy the
privileges of Easter Monday.



    “The crowd in the White House grounds greatly increased
    yesterday afternoon, so that the grounds were literally
    packed with children. The crowd was the largest and
    best appearing that has collected there in many years.
    The President and Colonel Lamont watched the children
    for some time from the library window.

    At the President’s reception at half-past one o’clock
    hundreds of children gave up their sport temporarily
    and thronged the East Room to shake hands with the

=Easter Egg Games.=

In the game they play at Washington, on the hills sloping from the
White House, the child whose egg reaches the foot of the hill in an
unbroken condition takes the one worsted in the journey down. Another
game for two is played by knocking the eggs together; each child holds
an egg firmly in his hand so that only the small end is visible, and
then the two eggs are struck against each other until one is cracked,
when the victorious player adds it to his stock, or devours it on the
spot. I would not like to state the number of eggs eaten on these
occasions, but there is a boy (_not a girl_) who once consumed fourteen
and lived to tell the tale.

Sometimes the egg which breaks another is called “the cock of one,”
and when it has broken two it is “cock of two,” and so on. When an egg
which is cock of one or more is broken, the number of trophies won by
the victim is added to the score of the conquering egg and it becomes
“cock of three” or more. Here is a game which comes from Germany, and
although in that country it is played exclusively by boys, there is no
reason why the girls should not participate in it as well. Two baskets
are necessary for this game, one large and shallow filled with soft
shavings, the other shallow also, but smaller, and filled with eggs.
The plan of the game is that one player is to run a given distance,
while another safely throws the eggs from one basket to the other, she
who completes her task first being the winner. When the baskets are
prepared, and the distance the eggs are to be thrown decided upon, the
two contestants draw lots to determine who shall run and who shall
throw. This settled, the player who throws takes the basket of eggs,
and one after another quickly tosses them the length of the course and
into the basket of shavings, which is placed on the ground at the end
of the course opposite the thrower. In Germany this basket is held by
an assistant, but anyone occupying that position might receive some
severe blows from the hard eggs thrown by unpractised hands, and it
answers the purpose just as well to place the basket on the ground.
Meantime the other player runs the distance (decided beforehand) to an
appointed goal, marks it as a proof of having touched it, and should
she succeed in returning before all the eggs are thrown, the victory
and prize are her reward; otherwise they belong to the thrower.

The game finished, a prize is presented to the successful contestant.
Should any of the eggs pitched by the thrower fail to light in the
basket, they must be gathered up and thrown again before the runner
returns, as the eggs must all be in the basket before the thrower wins
the game.

“Bunching eggs” comes from Ireland, and is played in very much the same
manner as the game played with a slate and pencil, and known to all
children as “tit, tat, toe, three in a row.” A pan or large dish filled
with sand or sawdust is set upon a table, around which the children
stand, each supplied with eggs; the eggs of each player must be all of
one color, and unlike those of any other player. The object of the game
is for each player to so place her eggs, standing them upright in the
sand, or sawdust, as to bring five in a row touching each other.

In turn each player puts down an egg, sometimes filling out a row for
herself, at others cutting off the line of an opponent; and the one who
first succeeds in obtaining the desired row sings out—

    “The raven, chough, and crow,
     Say five in a row.”

Another pretty game from Ireland called “Touch” is played in the
following manner:

Six eggs of the different colors—green, red, black, blue, white, and
gold are placed in a row in the sand used for the other game. One of
the players is blindfolded and given a light wand or stick, with which
she must touch one of the eggs, while at the same time she recites
these lines:

    Peggy, Patrick, Mike, and Meg,
    See me touch my Easter egg;
    Green, and red, and black, and blue,
    Count for six, five, four, and two.
    If I touch an egg of white,
    A forfeit then will be your right;
    If I touch an egg of gold,
    It is mine to have and hold.

As is told in the rhyme, the eggs each have a different value. Green
counts six; red, five; black, four; and blue, two; and the gold egg is
worth more than all put together, for when a player touches that, she
wins the game and a forfeit of an egg from each of the other players.
The white egg is worth less than nothing, since it not only has no
value but whoever touches it with the wand must pay a forfeit.

Each player is in turn blindfolded and makes her trial, keeping account
of the value of the eggs she has touched. When the sum of twenty has
been reached by anyone the game is ended, without the aid of the gold
egg. The position of the eggs are changed after each trial, that the
person about to touch them may not know where it is best to place her

=Easter Egg Dolls.=

In some of the large confectionery stores in New York City may be found
at Easter-tide quaint little Easter offerings, looking at first sight
exactly like dolls’ heads surmounted by pretty little head-dresses. As
dolls are not peculiarly appropriate gifts for Easter, one naturally
examines them closer, to ascertain if there is anything about them
significant of the day, and in so doing quickly discovers that the
heads are not made of wax or china, as was at first supposed, but are
simply egg-shells from which the eggs have been blown, leaving the
shell perfect. Little faces are painted upon these shells, and the
cunning caps or bonnets are made of tissue-paper.

Now it is our purpose to teach the children who do not live in New York
and have never seen these pretty toys, and also those who, having seen,
cannot afford to purchase them, just how to make some of these little
men and women, and how to fashion a variety of head-dresses not to be
found in the stores.

To begin with, select several nice large eggs, those of a pinkish
yellow are preferable, being something of a flesh-tint. These eggs
should be blown, or the shells emptied of their contents; to blow them
make a small hole in each end of the shell, and, taking it gently
between the thumb and forefinger, put one hole to the lips; then blow,
not too hard, but steadily, until the egg has all run out of the other

The face must be painted next, and to those who know nothing of drawing
this will seem no easy task, until by carefully observing the following
direction they will find that it is in the power of anyone to produce
as pretty a face as could be wished for.

[Illustration: =Patterns for Head-dresses.=]

Among picture-cards, or in almost any juvenile book, may be found many
pretty faces of a suitable size which can be transferred to the egg
in this way. Lay a piece of tracing-paper over the head selected, and
with a soft lead-pencil trace carefully all the lines indicating the
features; then place the paper on the shell so that the pencil-marks
are next to it, and with a hard pencil, or ivory knitting-needle, go
over the lines again, thus transferring the soft pencil-marks to the
shell. Touch up and strengthen the features with a fine paint-brush and
india-ink. Anyone understanding painting may color the face in natural
tints, but it looks very nicely done merely in outline.

[Illustration: =The Nun.=]

The simplest arrangement for holding the little head erect is a small
pasteboard box turned upside down, and having a hole cut in the bottom
just large enough to admit the small end of the shell; this will
support the head nicely, and also form the shoulders.

[Illustration: =The Old-fashioned Girl.=]

Make the hair of raw cotton blackened with ink, and fasten it on the
head with mucilage. When all of the foregoing directions have been
carried out it is time to attend to the head-dresses, and we will
begin with the quaint and old-fashioned poke-bonnet. Cut this bonnet
from ordinary brown wrapping-paper after the pattern shown in diagram;
sew together the ends of the “side of crown,” then sew the curved
side (which is cut in slits as shown in pattern, and folded back as
indicated by dotted line) to the smallest part of brim; fold in the
strips marked on the straight “side of crown” and fasten on the “top of
crown” with mucilage. The trimming for the bonnet consists of a fold
and bow of colored tissue paper.

[Illustration: =The Dude.=]

Make the man’s hat of shiny black paper by the pattern in diagram, and
fasten together in the same manner as the bonnet, rolling the sides of
the brim when finished. Black and white tissue-paper folded to fit the
head, as shown by the dotted lines in the pattern, forms the head-dress
of the nun.

By copying the head-dresses of different nations, an odd and curious
assembly of these Easter-egg dolls can be formed; but that must
be worked out at some future time, for we have yet to tell how to
construct some Easter toys that cannot be found in any store. The

=Humpty Dumpty=

who “sat on a wall,” and the “Humpty Dumpty” who “had a great fall,”
must have been like the one I am about to describe, made of an egg; for
it is pretty certain that if he should fall, “all the king’s horses and
all the king’s men couldn’t put” this “Humpty Dumpty together again”
any more than they could the other.

[Illustration: Diagram of Humpty Dumpty.]

The diagram shows the frame of this little fellow and how it is joined
together. A large egg should be chosen; and when the contents have been
blown from the shell, four holes must be pricked in it for the arms and
legs to pass through, as shown in the diagram. These limbs are made
of rather fine bonnet-wire, the piece used for the arms being about
eight inches long. The hand is made by bending up one end of the wire
as in diagram, and with softened beeswax covering the loop thus formed.
When one hand has been finished off in this way, the other end of the
wire, still straight, should be passed through one of the holes near
the small end of the shell and out through the one opposite, then bent
up into a hand and arm in the same manner as described.

[Illustration: =Humpty Dumpty.=]

The wire for the legs and feet must be ten inches long. The diagram
shows how it is bent to form the feet. On this frame, wax can easily be
modelled to look like a foot; a coating of red paint will add to the
appearance, as red boots look well with the costume to be worn. The
wire for the legs should be bent in a curve in the middle (see diagram)
before it is passed through the shell. Again, as with the hands, one
foot must be finished and the legs fastened on before the other foot
can be made.

The figure of Humpty Dumpty being thus prepared, his face must be
painted; water-colors are the best for this purpose. The jollier the
expression of his face, the funnier the little man will look.

Patterns for trousers, jacket, and hat are shown in the diagrams. The
trousers should be cut from white cotton cloth two and a half inches
long and six inches wide. A slit an inch and a half long, cut in the
middle, separates the legs of the trousers, which must, of course,
be sewed up. Dotted lines at top and bottom show where a gathering
thread should be run, the bottom gathers forming ruffles around the
ankles. White should also be used for the jacket, cutting it three and
a half inches long and five inches wide. The shape of the jacket may
be seen in the diagram, dotted lines showing where the sleeves are to
be gathered around the wrist. Collar and pockets of red—the patterns
of which are given—finish the little garment. A white hat four inches
around the brim and two inches high is decorated with a band of red,
which should be sewed on the edge and turned up.

When dressing Humpty Dumpty, fasten his garments on to his body here
and there with glue, which will hold them securely in place. The hat
also should be glued to his head, as it is difficult otherwise to keep
it on.

=Miss Rolly-poly.=

[Illustration: =Miss Rolly-poly.=]

Little Miss Rolly-poly, who decidedly refuses to lie down, always
regaining an upright posture, no matter in what position she is placed,
is made in the following manner: After the contents have been blown
from the shell, the hole of the small end is enlarged gradually until
it is about a half-inch in diameter; the shell is then placed in an
upright position (a box with a hole cut in it just large enough to hold
the egg firmly makes a good stand) and melted sealing-wax is poured in;
on top of this melted lead is poured, all the while care being taken to

the shell perfectly steady, that the weight may fall exactly in
the centre and make a perfect balance. A small quantity of lead is
sufficient for the purpose, as the shell is so very light.

[Illustration: =Diagram of Miss Rolly-poly.=]

Miss Rolly-poly requires no limbs; when her babyish face is painted
she is ready for her costume. The dress is simply made of a strip of
colored cloth, and is two inches long and seven inches wide. The white
apron is fastened to the dress as shown in the diagram. Sleeves are
made of pieces of the dress, material about one inch long and one and a
half inch wide. They are rolled up and fastened with needle and thread,
then sewed on to the dress in the position shown in the diagram.
Pockets are made for the apron, and the ends of the sleeves tucked in
them, which makes it appear as though the hands were hidden in the
pockets. The cap, made of the same material, or of a color harmonizing
with the dress, is four inches round the brim and one inch high; it is
sewed together at the two ends, and gathered into a pompon on top, as
is shown by the dotted lines in the diagram. A little glue should also
be used to fasten this dolly’s dress and cap on.



A pretty little toy mandolin is made of the lengthwise half of an
egg-shell. To separate the shell in this way it is necessary to pierce
holes with a needle along the line where the division is to be made,
which will cause it to break evenly; or the egg may be boiled hard
and then cut in half with a very sharp knife. Fig. 6 is cut from
stiff paper, and the strings drawn with pen and ink; then the shell
is fastened to it on the opposite side by pasting a narrow strip of
white tissue paper over the edges of the shell and frame, joining them
together. The top of the handle is bent down a little and a narrow
ribbon tied to it. To make the mandolin still more complete, paint the
handle mahogany color, with a fine needle stitch on strings of yellow
silk, and paint the egg-shell into pumpkin-like divisions of yellow and

[Illustration: =The Mandolin.=]

=The Owl.=

[Illustration: Wing.]

[Illustration: Diagram of Owl.]

To turn a hen’s egg into an owl has not before, I imagine, been thought
possible; yet it is easy enough, and requires but a very short time to
accomplish the transformation, when one knows just how to go to work.
No incubator is needed to hatch this bird, as only the shell is used,
the contents having been disposed of in the manner before described. We
commence the formation of the little owl by making two holes near the
large end of the shell in the position shown in diagram.

[Illustration: Owl Complete.]

By looking at the next diagram the manner of making the feet and legs
may be seen. A short piece of wire is bent in the shape given, and is
wrapped on to a longer wire with strong thread, thus forming three
toes, which are quite enough for a bird that will never walk. One foot
made, the wire is passed through the shell, having first been bent
into a curve, as in the description of Humpty Dumpty. When the last
foot has been fastened on, the wire should be pushed back into the
shell, allowing but little of the legs to show. The wings are cut by
the pattern given, and are painted to resemble feathers as much as
possible. Brown is the best color to use. By the diagram may be seen
how the head and body are painted.

=Maple-wax Easter Eggs.=

Empty the egg-shell of its contents and open a place at the small end
the size of a silver dime. Stand it in an upright position with the
largest opening on top, and leave it while you prepare the maple-wax,
or candy. Mix enough water with some maple sugar to dissolve it, and
set on the fire to cook; when it will harden in cold water it is done.
Carefully fill the egg-shell with the hot maple-wax, and keeping it
in an upright position, set it on the ice to cool. When the wax is
perfectly cold and hard, paste an artificial daisy over the opening in
the shell. Maple-wax is the nicest kind of candy, and done up in this
way will remain firm and hard for a long while; and therefore these
maple-wax eggs make excellent Easter gifts to send away to one’s friend
at a distance. The best way to pack them is to wrap them in cotton and
then put them in a tin baking-powder box, filling up the interstices
with cotton to keep them from knocking about.

The box, of course, must be wrapped in paper and tied securely with a
string. Packed like this, they may travel safely all over the United
States. The writer sent several the distance of over seven hundred
miles, and they arrived at their destination in as perfect condition as
when they left her hands.

=Bonbon Box.=

Select a box two or three inches high—a round one is best—which has a
lid that covers the entire box. Cut some straw or hay in pieces long
enough to reach from the top to the edge, and glue it on the sides of
the lid, covering them completely. Prepare as many halves of egg-shells
as will cover the top, allowing a space one inch wide around the edge.
Glue the shells down, and fill up the spaces between with straw. Near
the edge, on the opposite sides, glue a loop of narrow white ribbon;
these loops are to lift it with. Then glue straw on all the uncovered
parts of the lid, making it a little thicker and higher at the edges.
When the box is finished it resembles a nest of eggs, and makes an
appropriate and acceptable Easter gift.

=Easter Cards.=

It is a very pretty custom, that of sending Easter cards, altogether
too pretty to be allowed to lapse into disuse, as many customs which
are merely the expression of sentiment are apt to do in this busy,
practical country of ours. One experiences a great deal of pleasure
in selecting from the stock of beautiful cards found in the stores
just before Easter those that seem suitable for one’s friends, but
more pleasure will be derived from home-made Easter cards, both to the
sender and recipient; for it is true that into everything we make we
put a part of ourselves, and into many a home-made article is woven
loving thoughts which make the gift priceless, although the materials
of which it is composed may have cost little or nothing.


Several years ago the writer was visiting a friend in the country
twenty miles from the nearest town where Easter cards could be
purchased, but when Easter approached we sent off our cards, just the
same, and I am sure our friends were as pleased with them, and more
pleased, than if they had been of the most expensive kind. This is how
we made them:

[Illustration: Pattern for the Chicken.]

It was an early spring, and the woods were filled with wild-flowers,
anemones and violets mostly; these we gathered, and arranging them in
small bunches, stuck the stems through little slits cut in cards or
pieces of heavy paper, as they are sometimes fastened in books when
pressed. Underneath the bouquet we wrote the name of the person for
whom it was intended, with some friendly message appropriate to the
season, and signed our own names; then we carefully folded each in
writing paper, taking pains not to crumple the flowers, and enclosing
them in envelopes, sent them to their destination through the mail.
Any kind of flowers can be used for these Easter cards, and instead
of putting the stems through slits in the card, they may be tied to
them with narrow ribbon. A card to be sent only a short distance should
be put in a box just deep enough to leave room for the flowers, and
fastened in some way to keep it from moving about; in this way it will
reach its destination sweet and fresh.

To those who can paint their Easter cards we have no suggestions to
offer, for they have an unlimited supply of designs at their command,
and with their power of decoration, may turn almost anything into an
Easter card, from a piece of satin ribbon, upon which they sketchily
paint a spray of flowers, to an elaborate picture. A few suggestions
are here given which our younger readers may like to carry out, as the
cards we describe are easily made, and adapted to amuse the children.

“Stepping through the White House” the first card is called, and it
represents a little chicken breaking through its shell. The pattern of
the chicken is given in the diagrams. Fig. 7, the head and neck, is cut
from yellow flannel; Figs. 8, 9, and 10, the main part and fragments of
shell, are of white paper, and Fig. 11, the feet, of black paper. These
are pasted to a tinted card, as shown in illustration. The eye and bill
are made black with ink or paint.

=Little Quakeress.=

[Illustration: The Little Quakeress.]

Half an egg-shell, with the face and hair painted on it, forms the
head. The cap is made of white tissue paper cut in four strips; one,
for the crown, is six and a half inches long, and a little over one
and a half wide; another, for the brim, is four and a half inches long
and one inch wide; while the strings are each three and a half inches
long, and one and a half wide. The crown is plaited in the centre, the
brim folded lengthwise through the middle, and sewed to the crown. The
strings are fastened on either side of the cap, and crossed in front;
then the cap is pasted on the head, the surplus paper folded back, and
the whole glued on a card. The ends of the strings are also fastened to
the card, forming a Quaker kerchief.



[Illustration: Lawn-Tennis with Our Own Net.]



LET us see; it was that old medical gentleman, Galen the Greek, who
first wrote upon tennis, speaking of the sport as healthy exercise, was
it not? Well, girls, it really does not matter much to us whether he
was the first to write it up and the Greeks the first to play it, or
whether the game originated in France in the fifteenth century, as some
claim. What _we_ want to know is, can we all learn to play tennis? Does
it cost much? What kind of gowns and shoes must we wear? And is it an
enjoyable game?

There is no doubt, we think, of its being a right royal pastime, as it
has been called both the “king of games” and the “game of kings;” the
latter because it was enjoyed by princes and nobles—so much enjoyed,
that in both England and France edicts were published forbidding the
common people to play it.

Girls, do you wonder if they always had the choice of courts, and so
never took part in the fun of spinning the racket in the air while
the adversary called out “rough” or “smooth;” or whether they played
as we do, taking their defeats pleasantly and wearing their honors
gracefully, while always doing their very best?

They must have played well, for it is said that Louis XI., Henry II.,
and Charles IX., were experts, and that Henry VIII. of England was
extremely fond of the sport.

We can easily learn to play this most popular and exhilarating of
games. But we must be suitably clothed in order to thoroughly enjoy it
and receive all the benefit the recreation brings to both mind and body.

Flannel seems to be the best material for a tennis suit—it is so soft
and yielding, and so well adapted for a defence against either cold
or heat. Then, make your tennis gown of flannel; the skirt in plaits,
without drapery; the postilion basque of Jersey cloth, soft and
elastic, matching the skirt in color.

Sew the skirt of your gown on a sleeveless waist, made of lining or
muslin. The Jersey will fit nicely over this, and you can play better
and feel far more comfortable than when the weight is allowed to drag
on the hips. For it is nonsense to attempt to take part in any athletic
game unless you can have perfect freedom of action; in short, you
should be so dressed as to be utterly unconscious of your clothing.

[Illustration: An Old Game.]

Either crochet a Tam O’Shanter hat or make one of the dress material,
as these are not so apt to fall off while running as a straw hat.
“Last, but not least,” come the shoes. Of course, rubber-soled shoes
are the best. But if these are not to be had, remove the heels from an
old pair of ordinary shoes, and they will do very well; heels roughen
and cut the courts.

The actual cost of a lawn-tennis set need only be the price of the
rackets and balls, and rope and cord necessary when you learn

=How to Make a Lawn-Tennis Net,=

which is not difficult.

First procure two pieces of cotton rope, three-sixteenths of an inch
in size, each thirty-four feet long, costing about twenty-five cents
apiece. Then one and a half pound of hammock twine or macrimé cord, No.
24, which will not cost more than fifty cents. Next, two lengths of
cotton rope for guy-ropes, each five feet, price, both included, ten
cents; making the total amount $1.10 for a strong, firm, tennis net
which will prove serviceable and last many a season.

[Illustration: Stake.]

[Illustration: Peg.]

[Illustration: Runner.]

[Illustration: Runner and Guy-rope.]

[Illustration: The Fid.]

The other materials necessary are all home-made. These consist of two
stakes, each five feet long (Fig. 12). Any kind of a strong pole, when
sharpened at one end and a notch cut at the other, will answer the
purpose. Four pegs, each one foot long (Fig. 13). These may be easily
made of old broomsticks. Four runners (Fig. 14), each five inches long,
one and a quarter wide, and about half an inch thick, with holes bored
near each end large enough to allow the guy-rope (Fig. 15) to pass
through. A fid or mesh-stick of any kind of wood (Fig. 16), about a
foot or ten inches long, with circumference measuring three inches. A
hammock-needle (Fig. 17), nine or ten inches long and one wide, which
may be bought for ten cents, or whittled out of a piece of ash or
hickory by some kind brother. Tassels are not necessary, though it is
much better to have them, as they make the top line of the net more
distinct and add to its appearance. Make about forty bright-colored
tassels of worsted, or bits of flannel cut in very narrow strips, three
inches long, allowing ten or twelve strips to each tassel. Commence
your tennis net by first threading the needle; take it in the left
hand, and use the thumb to hold the end of the cord in place while
looping it over the tongue (see Fig. 18); pass the cord down under the
needle to the opposite side, and catch it over the tongue. Repeat this
until the needle is full.

[Illustration: Hammock-needle.]

[Illustration: Fig 19]

[Illustration: Fig 20]

[Illustration: Needle Threaded.]

[Illustration: Knots.]

Next, take a piece of rope thirty-four feet long, and make a long loop
in one end, tying the knot so that it can readily be untied again.
Throw the loop over some convenient hook or door-knob (Fig. 19) with
the knot at the knob or hook. Tie the cord on the needle to the loop,
place the fid or mesh-stick under the cord close to the loop (Fig. 20),
with the thumb on the cord to hold it in place (Fig. 25), while you
pass the needle around the mesh-stick, and, with its point toward you,
pass it through the loop from the top, bringing it over the mesh-stick.
This will make the first half of the knot (Fig. 21). Pull this tight,
holding it in place with the thumb while you throw the cord over your
hand, which forms the loop as seen in Fig. 22. Then pass the needle
from under through the loop, pulling it tight to fasten the knot. Hold
it in place with the thumb, and repeat these movements for the next
knot. Fig. 23 shows a number of these knots finished. A in Fig. 23 is a
knot before it is drawn tight; B in Figs. 21, 22, 23 is the string that
runs to the needle, C is the rope, and D is the mesh-stick. About two
hundred and sixty-four of these knots or meshes will make the net the
regular length, thirty-three feet.

[Illustration: Fig 24]

In knitting across, the meshes will accumulate on the fid; shove them
off to the left, a few at a time, to make space for others. When the
desired number of meshes are finished to form the first row, shove them
all off the fid, as shown in Fig. 24.

Begin the next row by again placing the fid under the cord (Fig. 24).
Take up the first mesh, drawing it close to the mesh-stick, hold it
in place with the thumb while throwing the cord over your hand, pass
the needle on the left-hand side of the mesh from under through the
loop (Fig. 25); pull this tight, and you will have tied the common
knitting-knot. Repeat this with all the loops until the row is finished.

When it becomes necessary to thread or fill the needle, tie the ends
of the cord with the knot shown in Fig. 26, which, when properly
tightened, cannot slip. Wrap each end of the cord from the knot
securely to the main cord with strong thread, to give the net a neat

Continue netting until the net is three feet wide. Then untie the rope,
and spread the net by sliding the knots apart, and fasten the second
rope to the bottom of the net by tying the rope securely to the first
mesh with the cord on the needle; then carry the rope and cord to the
next mesh, hold the rope, cord, and mesh firmly in place, and throw the
cord over your hand, passing the needle down through the mesh under
the rope and cord out through the loop (Fig. 27). Pull this tight,
and continue in like manner, knitting each successive mesh to the
rope until the net is all fastened on. Turn back the end of the rope
and wrap it down neatly with strong string (Fig. 28). In the same way
secure the other end, and also the ends of the first or top rope.

[Illustration: Fig. 25.]

[Illustration: Fig. 26.]

This completes the lawn-tennis net proper. The bright tassels can now
be tied at intervals along the top of the net, and four pieces of twine
fastened on each end of the net at equal distances apart. These are for
tying the net to the poles (Fig. 29).

[Illustration: Fig. 17]

[Illustration: Fig. 18]

To erect the lawn-tennis net, plant the two poles firmly in the ground
a little over thirty-three feet apart, tie the net to the poles, then
drive in the pegs, two to each pole, about five feet from the pole
(Fig. 30); slide a runner on each end of the two guy-ropes by first
threading the rope through one of the holes in the runner, then pass
the rope over the side down through the other hole and fasten it with
a knot (Fig. 15). Next tie around the notch in the top of the poles the
guy-ropes, with runners attached, and slip each loop made by the runner
over each peg (Fig. 31), allowing the rope to fall in the groove A near
the top of the peg; tighten the rope by pushing up the runners. The
stakes are thus held in position by ropes running out to the pegs in
the ground (Fig. 30).

[Illustration: Fig 27]

[Illustration: Fig. 30.—The Home-Made Net.]

Now we understand how to make and erect a lawn-tennis net; but what
shall we do about the court? Of course, that must be all ready before
we can set up the net. We must now learn how to lay out a

=Lawn-Tennis Court.=

The best ground for this is turf, though it may be of asphalt, or earth
mixed with fine gravel; sometimes wood is used.

The diagram on page 64 (Fig. 32) shows the construction of a
lawn-tennis court for two, three, or four-handed games.

Lay out the court with a hundred-foot measuring-tape, by marking the
lines with whitewash, chalk, paint, or plaster-of-Paris.

First the side line, seventy-eight feet, AB. This gives you one side
of your court. Then the base line, thirty-six feet, AC, which, with
their parallel lines CD and DB, form the boundaries of a court for
four-handed games. Now lay off the side lines of the single court,
EG and FH, which are parallel to the others and four and a half feet
inside of them. Divide the court across the centre by the net, fastened
to the poles O and P. The lines EF and GH are called base lines.
Twenty-one feet from the net, mark the service lines, MN and TV. Then
make the central longitudinal line, IJ, and the court is complete.

[Illustration: Fig. 31]

Now everything is prepared for the game. Hold your racket firmly, and
try to keep the ball flying over the net, back and forth, as often as

For the guidance of those who have had no opportunity of learning to
play lawn-tennis the following rules are given, as adopted by the
United States National Lawn-Tennis Association.

First, however, we would say that it is not necessary always to have an
umpire or a referee, as spoken of in the

=Rules for Lawn-Tennis.=


1. The choice of sides, and the right to serve in the first game, shall
be decided by toss; provided that, if the winner of the toss choose the
right to serve, the other player shall have choice of sides, and _vice
versa_. If one player choose the court, the other may elect not to

2. The players shall stand on opposite sides of the net; the player who
first delivers the ball shall be called the _server_, and the other the

[Illustration: Fig. 32


3. At the end of the first game the striker-out shall become server,
and the server shall become striker-out; and so on, alternately, in all
the subsequent games of the set, or series of sets.

4. The server shall serve with one foot on the base line, and with
the other foot behind that line, but not necessarily upon the ground.
He shall deliver the service from the right to the left courts
alternately, beginning from the right.

5. The ball served must drop between the service line, half-court line,
and side line of the court, diagonally opposite to that from which it
was served.

6. It is a _fault_ if the server fail to strike the ball, or if the
ball served drop in the net, or beyond the service line, or out of
court, or in the wrong court; or if the server do not stand as directed
by law 4.

7. A ball falling on a line is regarded as falling in the court bounded
by that line.

8. A fault cannot be taken.

9. After a fault the server shall serve again from the same court from
which he served that fault, unless it was a fault because he served
from the wrong court.

10. A fault cannot be claimed after the next service is delivered.

11. The server shall not serve till the striker-out is ready. If the
latter attempt to return the service he shall be deemed ready.

12. A service or fault, delivered when the striker-out is not ready
counts for nothing.

13. The service shall not be _volleyed_, _i.e._, taken, before it has
touched the ground.

14. A ball is in play on leaving the server’s racket, except as
provided for in law 6.

15. It is a good return, although the ball touch the net; but a
service, otherwise good, which touches the net, shall count for nothing.

16. The server wins a stroke if the striker-out volley the service,
or if he fail to return the service or the ball in play; or if he
return the service or the ball in play so that it drops outside of his
opponent’s court; or if he otherwise lose a stroke, as provided by law

17. The striker-out wins a stroke if the server serve two consecutive
faults; or if he fail to return the ball in play; or if he return the
ball in play so that it drops outside of his opponent’s court; or if he
otherwise lose a stroke as provided by law 18.

18. Either player loses a stroke if he return the service or the ball
in play so that it touches a post of the net; or if the ball touch him
or anything that he wears or carries, except his racket in the act of
striking; or if he touch the ball with his racket more than once; or if
he touch the net or any of its supports while the ball is in play; or
if he volley the ball before it has passed the net.

19. In case any player is obstructed by any accident, the ball shall be
considered a _let_.

20. On either player winning his first stroke, the score is called
15 for that player; on either player winning his second stroke, the
score is called 30 for that player; on either player winning his third
stroke, the score is called 40 for that player; and the fourth stroke
won by either player is scored game for that player, except as below:
If both players have won three strokes, the score is called _deuce_;
and the next stroke won by either player is scored _advantage_ for that
player. If the same player wins the next stroke, he wins the game; if
he loses the next stroke the score returns to deuce; and so on, until
one player wins the two strokes immediately following the score of
deuce, when game is scored for that player.

21. The player who first wins six games wins the set; except as
follows: If both players win five games, the score is called _games
all_; and the next game won by either player is scored _advantage game_
for that player. If the same player wins the next game, he wins the
set; if he loses the next game, the score returns to games all; and
so on, until either player wins the two games immediately following
the score of games all, when he wins the set. But individual clubs, at
their own tournaments, may modify this rule at their discretion.

22. The players shall change sides at the end of every set; but the
umpire, on appeal from either player, before the toss for choice, may
direct the players to change sides at the end of every game of each
set, if, in his opinion, either side have a distinct advantage, owing
to the sun, wind, or any other accidental cause; but if the appeal be
made after the toss for choice, the umpire can only direct the players
to change sides at the end of every game of the odd or deciding set.

23. When a series of sets is played, the player who served in the last
game of one set shall be striker-out in the first game of the next.

24. The referee shall call the game after an interval of five minutes
between sets, if either player so order.

25. The above laws shall apply to the three-handed and four-handed
games, except as below:

26. In the three-handed game, the single player shall serve in every
alternate game.

27. In the four-handed game, the pair who have the right to serve in
the first game shall decide which partner shall do so; and the opposing
pair shall decide in like manner for the second game. The partner of
the player who served in the first game shall serve in the third, and
the partner of the player who served in the second game shall serve
in the fourth; and the same order shall be maintained in all the
subsequent games of the set.

28. At the beginning of the next set, either partner of the pair which
struck out in the last game of the last set may serve, and the same
privilege is given to their opponents in the second game of the new set.

29. The players shall take the service alternately throughout the
game; a player cannot receive a service delivered to his partner;
and the order of service and striking out once established shall not
be altered, nor shall the striker-out change courts to receive the
service, till the end of the set.

30. It is a fault if the ball served does not drop between the service
line, half-court line, and service side line of the court, diagonally
opposite to that from which it was served.

31. In matches, the decision of the umpire shall be final. Should there
be two umpires, they shall divide the court between them, and the
decision of each shall be final in his share of the court.


A _bisque_ is one point which can be taken by the receiver of the odds
at any time in the set except as follows:

(_a_) A bisque cannot be taken after a service is delivered.

(_b_) The server may not take a bisque after a fault, but the
striker-out may do so.

One or more bisques may be given to increase or diminish other odds.

_Half fifteen_ is one stroke given at the beginning of the second,
fourth, and every subsequent alternate game of a set.

_Fifteen_ is one stroke given at the beginning of every game of a set.

_Half thirty_ is one stroke given at the beginning of the first game,
two strokes given at the beginning of the second game; and so on,
alternately, in all the subsequent games of the set.

_Thirty_ is two strokes given at the beginning of every game of a set.

_Half forty_ is two strokes given at the beginning of the first game,
three strokes given at the beginning of the second game; and so on,
alternately, in all the subsequent games of the set.

_Forty_ is three strokes given at the beginning of every game of a set.

_Half court:_ The players may agree into which half court, right or
left, the giver of the odds shall play; and the latter loses a stroke
if the ball returned by him drops outside any of the lines which bound
that half court.


The balls shall measure not less than 2-15/32 inches, nor more than 2½
inches in diameter; and shall weigh not less than 1-15/16 oz., nor more
than 2 oz.


[Illustration: The May-Pole Dance.]



    Ho! the merrie first of Maie
    Bryngs the daunce and blossoms gaie,
    To make of lyfe a holiday.

IN the merry heart of youth the old song still finds an echo, and this
day, with its relics of pagan customs, celebrating, in the advent of
spring, nature’s renewed fertility, is a festival full of fun for the

Some of the ceremonies of May-day, handed down from generation to
generation, were brought to America in old colonial days by the
English, but owing, perhaps, to the stern puritanical training of most
of the early settlers, the customs did not thrive here as in the mother
country, and many of them have died out altogether.

May-day is one of the many holidays still celebrated, that originated
among the pagans ages ago, and it is said that the practice of
choosing a May-queen and crowning her with flowers is a remnant of the
ceremonies in honor of Flora, the goddess of flowers, which were held
in Rome the last four days of April and the first of May.

There was, at one time, a very pretty custom observed in Merrie
England of fastening bunches of flowering shrubs and branches of
sycamore and hawthorn upon the doors of those neighbors whose good
lives and kindly habits were thus recognized by their friends.

The maids and matrons of England formerly had a way of their own of
observing the day. On the first of May they would all go trooping out
with the earliest rays of the morning sun, to bathe their faces in the
magic dew, which glistened upon the grass once a year only, and was
supposed to render the features moistened with it beautiful for the
next twelve months.

When the writer was a wee little girl there lived next door to her home
two old maiden ladies, who always kept a bottle of May-dew among their
treasures. Although the ladies in question had long since passed that
period when maidens are supposed to be lovely, superstitious persons
might have found confirmation of a belief in the power of the dew, when
they looked upon the sweet and kindly faces of these old maids. Faith
in the fabled efficacy of May-dew will probably lose its last adherents
when the two old ladies, very aged now, leave this world; but other
pretty customs, from which all the superstitious elements seem to have
departed, should not be allowed to die out, and we intend this chapter
on May-day sports as a reminder that May-day is a holiday and should be
fittingly celebrated by the older girls as well as the little children,
who, in these times, seem to be the only ones to remember the day.

=May-day Sports.=

A May-day custom, and a very pretty one, still survives among the
children in our New England States. It is that of hanging upon the
door-knobs of friends and neighbors pretty spring-offerings in the
shape of small baskets filled with flowers, wild ones, if they can be
obtained; if not, the window-gardens at home are heavily taxed to
supply the deficiency. When the dusky twilight approaches, it is time
for the merry bands of young folks to start out on this lovely errand
of going from house to house, leaving behind them the evidence of their
flying visit in these sweetest of May-offerings. Silently approaching
a door, they hang a May-basket upon the knob and, with a loud rap, or
ring of the bell, scamper off, and flee as though for life.

[Illustration: Fig. 33.]

[Illustration: The Straw Basket.]

These little Mayers are sometimes pursued, but few are ever caught,
for the recipients of the baskets know that to capture a child, carry
her into the house and treat her to sweetmeats, usually dear to the
youthful palate, will not compensate the little prisoner for being held
captive and thereby missing the fun going on among the other children.

=How to Make May-baskets.=

The dainty little baskets which are used by the Mayers are generally
of home manufacture. They are made of almost any material, and in a
variety of shapes. Some, constructed of card-board, are covered with
crimped tissue-paper, or with gilt, silver, or colored paper. They are
never large unless flowers are plentiful, and even in that case a small
basket is prettier.

Our first illustration represents a May-basket made of straws. Fig. 33
shows the frame of this basket, for which three straws seven inches
long are required; these are sewed together, two and one-half inches
from the bottom, forming a tripod. For the sides eighteen straws are
necessary, six on each side, of graduating lengths; the three top
straws being five inches long and the lowest ones three and one-half
inches. These are sewed to the frame, log-cabin fashion, one upon

The bottom of the basket is made of a three-cornered piece of
card-board cut to fit; three straws, two and one-half inches long, hold
the base of the frame in position. A handle formed of three ribbons
finishes off this May-basket very prettily; a ribbon is tied to each
corner of the basket; the other ends meeting form a bow, as shown in
the illustration.

=Birch-bark Baskets=

are quite appropriate for wild flowers, and one in the shape of a canoe
can be made from a strip of bark six and one-half inches long and four
inches wide. Fig. 34 gives the pattern of this basket. The dotted lines
show where the ends are to be sewed together; a ribbon sewed to each
end of the canoe serves for a handle.

=Card-board Baskets,=

cut after the pattern Fig. 35, can be covered with gilt, silver, or
crimped tissue-paper as desired; paper lace or fringe is sometimes
placed around the edges of baskets of this kind, as a border to rest
the flowers upon. The card-board basket shown in illustration is joined
together by button-hole stitching of colored-silk floss; slits are cut
in two sides and a ribbon slipped through, the ends of which are tied
in bow-knots to hold them in place.

[Illustration: Fig 34. The Birch-bark Basket.]

=May-day Combat.=

This game, although suggested by the ceremonies which, according to
Waldron, usher in the month of May in the Isle of Man, is entirely new
and bids fair to become popular, as it combines the elements of beauty,
sentiment and mirth.

A number of young people separate into two parties, each having its
queen; one the Queen of May, the other Queen of Winter. The May-queen
and her attendants should be decked with flowers, Winter and her
retinue being without decoration. Equipped with the appropriate
implements of warfare between the two seasons, namely, a wreath of
flowers for spring and a ball of raw cotton, or wool, representing
snow, for winter, the contending forces draw up in opposing lines,
the space between being about twelve feet. Each line is headed by its
respective queen, who holds her missile in her hand.

[Illustration: The Card-board Basket.]

[Illustration: Fig. 35.]

The game is commenced by the two queens simultaneously tossing the
wreath and ball to someone in the opposite line, whose name is called
as the missile is thrown. Should the person to whom it is thrown fail
to catch it, she is made prisoner and must do battle on the other side,
being released only when she succeeds in catching the missile belonging
to her own party.

When the wreath and ball are caught, they are instantly tossed back
to the opposite rank, and so the game goes on. Hostilities must cease
when prisoners are being taken or released, to be recommenced when both
sides announce themselves ready.

If either queen is captured she is ransomed by the return of all the
prisoners taken on her side; should she have no prisoners to release,
the game is ended.

If the May-queen and her forces are defeated, they must strip off their
floral decorations and give them to the victors, who, decked in these
trophies, become the representatives of Spring, and the Queen of Winter
is made Queen of May and is crowned by her vanquished and dethroned
opponent. The former May-queen and her retinue, after offering their
congratulations, must serve as attendants on the triumphant queen and
do her bidding.

When the May-queen proves victorious the programme is reversed, and
Winter and her party become the subjects of May.

=The May-pole.=

An old writer, speaking of the May-games held in England, says, “Their
cheefest jewell is their Maie-poole,” and to leave the May-pole out
of our list of May-sports would indeed deprive the day of one of its
most important and prettiest features. The appropriate place for the
May-pole is, of course, out of doors; yet the climate in most of
our Northern States is so changeable and uncertain it may be found
necessary for comfort to hold the festivities in the house, and in
that case the following directions for erecting the pole in a room of
moderate dimensions will be found useful.

=How to Erect a May-pole in the House.=

A May-pole from ten to twelve feet high is as tall as the ceilings of
most rooms will admit.

The pole should be round, smooth, and about five inches in diameter at
the base, growing gradually smaller toward the top.

[Illustration: Fig. 36.]

For its support a wooden box is necessary, the average size being three
feet long, two feet wide, and one foot high. Remove the top of the
box, and directly in the centre of it cut a hole large enough to admit
the pole. Take two sticks, two inches wide, and long enough to fit
lengthwise in the box, and two shorter ones fitting the box crosswise,
and nail them securely in the position shown in Fig. 36, driving the
nails from the outside of the box. Slip the pole through the hole which
has been cut in the top, and then stand it in an upright position
between the four sticks in the centre of the box (Fig. 37). Be sure
that the pole stands perfectly straight; then, before nailing down the
top, fill the box with sand, bricks, or stones, packing them tightly
around the pole; this will give sufficient weight to prevent its
tipping. Nail the top on, and cover the box with moss or green cloth,
and bank it up with flowers.

=How to Dress a May-pole.=

In olden times the May-poles were painted in alternate stripes
of yellow and black, but a white pole is prettier and shows the
decorations to better advantage. Tack the ends of eight or ten
variously colored ribbons, one and one-half inch wide, around the pole
near the top. For a pole ten feet high the ribbons should be four yards
long. Around where the ribbons are fastened on, suspend a wreath of
flowers, as shown in Fig. 38. Decorate the extreme tip of the pole
with gaily colored streamers, or small flags.

=May-pole Dance.=

An even number of persons are required for this dance; half the number
take the end of a ribbon in the right hand and half in the left; they
then stand facing alternately right and left. When the dance commences,
each dancer facing the right passes under the ribbon held by the one
opposite facing the left; she then allows the next person going to the
left to pass under her ribbon, and so, tripping in and out, under and
over, the ribbons are woven around the pole.

After continuing for a while, according to the above directions, the
dancers separate into two equal divisions, and each party, independent
of the other, plaits a strip which hangs loosely from the pole.

[Illustration: Fig. 37.]

In performing this variation the two parties stand on either side of
the pole, and all those facing the right pass on in that direction,
going in and out as at first, until the last person going to the right
has passed the last person going to the left in her division; then,
transferring the ribbons to their other hands, they all turn and
reverse the order. Thus they continue, going back and forth until the
plait is about a foot in length, when another change is made by the
two parties joining forces again; this time, all those facing the left
proceed in that direction, passing under the ribbons of all the others
who are going to the right, thus forming two circles, one within the
other. After going twice around the pole in this order, the dancers
composing the inner circle take the outside and the others pass beneath
their ribbons, again circling the pole twice; then, after going through
the first figure once more the dance may be ended, or the whole order
may be reversed, and the ribbons, in that way, be unplaited again.

[Illustration: Fig. 38.]

An appropriate song, with words set to a dancing air, should be sung by
those taking part in the May-pole dance.


[Illustration: SUMMER]




IN the minds of most of us, midsummer is associated with dry, dusty
roads, parched vegetation, the shrill cry of the locust,[A] the
shriller notes of the mosquitoes, and the hum of myriads of other
insects; but, girls, midsummer does not come at this time: astronomy
fixes the date at June 21st, the longest day of the year, when the
leaves are still glossy green with the fresh sap circulating through
their veins, giving them that healthy, juicy look so refreshing to the
eye, and the heat of the sun has not yet dried to a white powder the
firm country roads over which we delight to wander.

Ages ago the Pagans used to celebrate the day with rejoicing, because
old Sol’s bright face had broken loose from the clouds of winter, and
the rain and mists of spring. They symbolized the revolution of the
season by rolling great wooden wheels down the hill-sides; sometimes
attaching straw to the outer circle and setting fire to it at night,
making a miniature midnight sun as it dashed down the steep incline.

The people also believed that ill-luck rolled away from them with the
fiery wheel, and to this day you will see Fortune or Misfortune
represented as travelling, like an acrobat at a circus, upon a wheel.

[Illustration: Midsummer-eve Party.]

All the elves, brownies, and fays were supposed to be on hand at
midsummer night, and it is this old superstition that Shakespeare has
so beautifully illustrated in his “Midsummer Night’s Dream.”

It was on midsummer eve that the supposed invisible seeds of the fern
could be gathered which rendered the fortunate possessor invisible
whenever he chose to carry them about with him. Among other strange
and some quite pretty superstitions, there is a tradition that a coal,
found attached to the roots of the mugwort or plantain on midsummer
eve, will keep away misfortune and insure good luck to the finder.

The girls of to-day who, although advanced enough to discard the
superstitious element, can appreciate the poetic ideas symbolized by
these ancient rites, may take hints for the entertainment of themselves
and friends from the old belief in the mysteries and charms of
midsummer eve.

Games can be invented, and pretty keepsakes and souvenirs exchanged
upon this night, that will translate ancient paganism into modern good
feeling and fellowship.

=The New Fern-leaf Game.=

Some one who has charge of the games shows to the assembled girls and
boys a fern-leaf, and explains to them the legend connected with it,
and the power of the seed to render the possessor invisible. Next she
blindfolds them all; then, choosing one from among them, she removes
the bandage from the player’s eyes without allowing the others to
know who has been selected to be the bearer of the magic fern. After
giving the fern-leaf into the keeping of the chosen one, she places the
latter in the centre of a ring formed by the rest of the players, who
take hold of hands and circle round; then, still holding hands, they
forward to the centre and return; letting go hands, they forward again,
this time the fern-bearer joins in the ranks. Once more the ring is
formed and they circle round, singing these lines:

    Round goes the wheel,
    Round goes the year,
    For woe or for weal,
    Midsummer is here.

    To the one who finds
    The seeds of the fern,
    Misfortune and evil
    To good luck will turn.

At the word “turn,” each player seizes another and cries out, “fern,
fern!” at the same time removing the handkerchief from the eyes.

To the one who really has captured the magic fern a pretty card or silk
badge, bearing a pictured fern and some appropriate motto, is given,
as a token that the entire company wish all possible good luck to the

=The Plantain Test.=

To test fortune in this way, fill a large pan or bowl with clean dry
sand; provide as many plantain-plants as there are players, and to
the roots of all but one tie, with a narrow ribbon, a bonbon which
contains within its wrapper a verse indicating that the wrong plant has
been chosen. To the one reserved from the rest attach a small piece
of coal, or charcoal, wrapped in a bonbon paper which also encloses a
verse describing the magic powers of the coal. Place all of the plants
in the sand, making them look as though growing there. All this should
be prepared before the party assembles, that no one may know to which
plant the coal is fastened.

When the appointed time arrives, explain to the company that to the
root of one of the plants in the bowl is fastened a coal which,
according to old superstition, will secure to the finder perfect health
for life. Then let each person in turn pull from the sand one of the
plants. The one who finds the coal should be heartily congratulated,
as she is supposed to have gained the good will of fortune and to be
exempt from all the ills that flesh is heir to. The plantain is not
difficult to secure, as it grows in almost every grass-plot, much to
the annoyance of those who take pride in their lawns. Should the name
be unfamiliar to some of our readers, the accompanying illustration
will help them recognize the weed.

[Illustration: Magic Plantain.]

A pretty charm for the watch-chain can be made of the coal which is to
bring the finder such good luck,[B] by having it cut to a proper size
and shape, and a gold or silver band put around it. This will make it a
souvenir, carrying out the old idea that the magic coal should be worn
upon the person to bring the coveted good fortune.

Rhymes to be enclosed in the paper with the magic coal:

    Where my roots are intertwined
    Lo, the magic coal you find.
    Buried deep beneath the sand,
    Waiting for your favored hand,
    I have held it free from harm;
    Take, and wear the mystic charm.
    From the lightning’s deadly stroke,
    From the fire it may invoke,
    From all illness, pain, and strife,
    May it guard thee safe through life.

Rhymes to be enclosed in bonbons tied to the roots of plantains which
do not bring good luck:

    Though ye seek, ye seek in vain
    Fortune’s favor thus to gain,
    For I bring to you no coal
    To write your name on Fortune’s roll.

    Pity ’tis you thought it best
    To pick out me from all the rest,
    For no root of mine comes near
    The coal that brings good fortune here.

    Chance capricious, captures choice;
    Fickle Fortune favors few;
    When deaf to love, or reason’s voice,
    What makes you think she’ll favor you?

    I am no messenger of fate,
    You find this out, alas! too late;
    I bring no magic coal with me,
    From pains and ills to set you free.

Any bright girl can scribble off little jingles of this sort that will
do very well for the plantain test, or appropriate quotations may be
selected for the purpose.

=Fortune’s Wheel.=

Just where Fortune will fail each member of the company present is
discovered in the following game:

The entire party forms into a circle, standing about two feet apart;
then a wheel or hoop is started around the inside of the ring, and kept
going by each one giving it a gentle push with the hand, sending it to
the person next in the circle. As the wheel goes around the players
sing these lines, pronouncing a word as each player touches the wheel,
as if counting out.

    Fortune’s wheel we speed along
    The while we sing our mystic song.
    Bring happiness, fame, power, and wealth,
    True love, long life, good friends, and health,
    Success in music, poetry, art,
    And with it all a merry heart.

When the wheel drops at the feet of anyone as a gift of Fortune is
being sung, or if they fail to strike it as it passes, or, striking,
they send it into the centre of the ring instead of to their next
neighbor, it denotes that Fortune will withhold that special gift from
them, and they must leave the circle, for good luck has deserted them.

The game continues until only one player remains, and this person, who
has succeeded in keeping the wheel moving, is Fortune’s favorite, and
will possess all the gifts the mythical Goddess can bestow.


[Illustration: Starfish Portière]


[A] _Cicada_, commonly known among children as the locust.

[B] Cannel coal is the best to use, for it is hard, will take a high
polish like jet, and can be carved with a pen-knife.



SIMPLY to enter a house is enough to start some people to planning how
it can, might, or should be decorated. The love of beauty seems to be
inherent in the feminine character, and it is the nature of most girls
to make their surroundings as beautiful as circumstances will permit.
Those who have taste and ability for decoration can see no barren
or homely room without being seized with the desire to banish its
uncomeliness, and substitute grace and beauty in its stead.

The ordinary cottage at the sea-shore is a boon to such natures, for
it is peculiarly well adapted to amateur decoration. Its ceiled walls
offer plain, even, flat tinted surfaces for any kind of ornamentation,
and the absence of plaster makes it possible to drive nails wherever it
is desirable to have them.

During a summer spent in one of these cottages on the coast of Maine,
its many possibilities in the way of decoration were revealed, and
personal experience has demonstrated that even the plainest of these
temporary abiding-places is capable of being greatly beautified in a
short time, and with materials usually close at hand, being obtainable
from the fishermen and from the sea itself.

The windows first claim our attention in any house and our little
cottage is no exception to the rule. With, or without, the regulation
shades, windows should always be draped; the formality of their
straight lines and angles can be subdued in no other way.

[Illustration: Diagram of Ring.]

[Illustration: Looping for Curtains.]

Light, airy curtains are suitable for summer, and the prettiest, most
graceful window-drapery imaginable can be made of ordinary fish-net.
An oar for a pole; rings made of rope (Fig. 39); the looping formed
of a rope tied in a sailor’s knot; and a wooden hoop, such as is used
to attach the sail to the mast on a sail-boat (Fig. 40) are all that
are necessary for the completion of this nautical curtain. Small rings
screwed into the oar, with corresponding hooks in the window-frame
just above the window, will hold the oar securely in place. The
looping should hang from a hook fastened in the wall near the window.
The illustration given here will aid the imagination in picturing
the effect of a window treated in this simple manner. Another pretty
curtain may be made of unbleached cotton, with bands of blue at top and
bottom covered with the ever-decorative fish-net.

Gray linen curtains, with strips of the net set in as insertion at
top and bottom, will also be found extremely pretty and serviceable;
or they may be composed of strips of linen and net, of equal width,
running the length of the curtain. Made up in either way the effect is

[Illustration: Sea-side Cottage Window.]

From window-drapery we will turn to that suitable for the door-ways.
Portières, in a room where the prevailing tints are gray and light
wood-color, should not present too violent a contrast to those subdued
tones. A curtain of wood-brown, neither too dark nor too light,
will give the needed strength and decision, without destroying the
harmonious coloring. One can be quickly and easily made of brown
canton flannel and decorated with dried starfish, as shown in the
illustration of the starfish portière. The starfish are soft enough to
admit of being sewed to the curtain, and they should be placed with
the underside out, as that is much prettier than the back, showing as
it does two shades of color. A heavy rope with a knot at each end,
stretched taut across the door-way and held in place with two hooks,
will answer for a pole, and the drapery can be hung from it with iron
rings. If the rope is very heavy the ends will have to be parted into
strands before the knots can be tied. Figs. 41 and 42 show the manner
of tying the knot and fastening the end of a moderately heavy rope.

[Illustration: Diagram of Tying Knot.]

[Illustration: Fastening End of Rope.]

[Illustration: Diagram of Book-shelves.]

[Illustration: Row-boat Book-shelves.]

Book-shelves made of half of a flat-bottomed row-boat is not only an
appropriate piece of furniture for a cottage by the sea, but also a
very useful one. The fact of its shape allowing it to occupy a corner
makes it a welcome addition to the furnishing, since there are so few
things adapted to fill that angle. Fig. 43 shows half of boat with
cleats nailed on to hold the shelves, which must be made to fit the
boat. The shelves, when resting on the cleats, are secure enough,
and need not be fastened in any other way. If the book-shelves, when
finished, are painted black, unvarnished, they will have the appearance
of being ebonized.

The evidence of a womanly presence in the shape of a dainty work-basket
always gives a home-like look to a room, and when this useful trifle
happens to be prettily designed it contributes not a little to the
decorations. The standing work-basket represented here is manufactured
of a crab-net, with the handle removed, fastened to a tripod stand.

[Illustration: Diagram of Crab-net Work-basket.]

The tripod may be made of bamboo, or any kind of straight sticks about
the length of a walking-cane. Upon one of the sticks two notches must
be cut; one exactly in the centre, and the other at one side just below
(see Fig. 44). The second stick needs but one notch, which should match
the upper one on the first stick (Fig. 45). The third stick has no

To fasten them together, Fig. 45 must be laid across Fig. 44 as in Fig.
46, and the two fastened together with screws. The third stick must
then be placed across the others, fitting in the two upper notches;
this must be secured with two screws, one passing through each of the
other sticks (Fig. 47).

[Illustration: Crab-net Work-basket.]

The stand when finished should be painted black, and the crab-net,
which has previously been gilded, fastened in place by tying it on to
each stick with a cord and tassel made of rope and gilded. Notches
cut in the sticks, about three inches from the top, will afford a
resting-place for the cord and keep it from slipping.

[Illustration: Diagram of Hat-rack.]

[Illustration: Hat-Rack.]

The hat-rack, which our drawing represents, makes an excellent and
convenient hall-decoration. The materials used in its construction
are a small mirror, which can be procured at any country store;
four boards, whose length and breadth depend upon the size of the
mirror; two oars, with one-third of each handle sawed off; one dozen
large-sized nails, or small spikes, and a piece of rope about twelve
feet long. The frame is made by nailing the boards together as shown in
illustration, placing the end-boards on top. The opening left in the
centre should be one inch smaller than the mirror. When eight of the
spikes have been driven into the frame at regular distances the mirror
must be fastened on the back with strips of leather or sail-cloth, as
shown in diagram (Fig. 48). The diagram also shows how the oars are
held in place and the rope attached. The knot in which the rope is tied
is called a true-lover’s knot, and can readily be fashioned by studying
the diagram. Small nails driven through the rope where it crosses
the back of the oar will keep the loops from slipping out of place.
The remaining four spikes are to suspend the hat-rack from, and must
be driven into the wall so that two will hold the top loop, and the
others the extreme upper corners of the side loops.

The frame and oars may be painted black and the spikes and ropes
gilded, or the whole will look well painted yellow or brown.

A handsome screen can be made in the following manner: Procure a nice,
firm clothes-horse, saw off the legs close to the bottom cross-piece,
then cover the whole neatly, on both sides, with dark green cambric.
Next tack smoothly on one side of each fold light-brown wrapping-paper,
which comes quite wide, and may be bought by the yard. For the border
use dark-green canton flannel cut in strips eight inches wide. Tack
this around each fold of the screen with gimp-tacks, and paste the
inside edges smoothly over the paper.

The decorations of the screen shown in the illustration are composed
entirely of products of the sea.

Two panels are shown. One is decorated with sea-weed, dried starfish,
and shells. Sea-weed and shells also are used on the other, but a group
of horseshoe crabs take the place of the starfish.

Sea-weed of various kinds suitable for this use can be found along
the coast, and they may be gathered and dried in this way. Loosen
the sea-weed from whatever it is attached to, and while still in the
water slip a piece of stiff paper beneath it and lift it out. Quite a
number can be carried on the same paper, but they should be taken home
as soon as possible and placed in a tub of fresh water. The tub will
give the larger kinds room to spread out, when a smaller vessel would
cramp and rumple them. On sheets of paper, of the kind used for the
screen, carefully lift each sea-weed out of the water, and with a small
camel-hair brush straighten the parts that are too much folded, and
separate those that lie too closely together. Should a plant be very
much crumpled when taken out, quickly replace it in the water and try

[Illustration: Marine Screen.]

When they have all been satisfactorily spread on the paper and have
become partially dry, they must be pressed by laying the paper which
holds the sea-weed on a piece of blotting-paper or folded newspaper,
and over it a piece of linen or fine cotton cloth; then over that
another piece of blotting-, or news-paper; then again the paper with
sea-weed, and so on; when all are finished the entire heap should be
placed between two boards with a moderately heavy weight on top. When
the sea-weed is quite dry—which it will be in three or four days—it
will be found that some varieties will cling closely to the paper on
which they have been spread, while others can readily be removed. Do
not try to separate the first-mentioned kind from the paper, but with
sharp scissors neatly trim off the edges around the weed; the paper
underneath being the same as that of the screen on which it is to be
pasted, it will not show. The other sea-weed can be taken from the
paper and fastened to the screen with mucilage.

[Illustration: Horseshoe Crab Bag.]

Before commencing the decoration some idea of the design, or the effect
to be produced, should be decided upon; then with deft fingers the
articles used can be glued in place. When the glue is dry the whole
must be given a coat of white varnish. This will help to hold things in
place, and will also keep the sea-weed from chipping off.

An odd little bag for holding fancy work is made of two large horseshoe
crab shells, with a satin bag fastened between them and tied at the
top with a bow of ribbon. The main part of the bag can be of cambric
the color of the satin, cut to fit the shells, the puff showing at the
sides being of the satin.

[Illustration: Vase.]

[Illustration: Candlestick.]

A pretty little vase can be made of the shells of three sea-urchins,
of graduating sizes, placed one upon another, the smallest on top. The
small hole in the bottom of the largest one should be filled up with
damp plaster-of-Paris—which will harden very quickly. The other two
shells must have the small holes enlarged to the size of the one at the
top; they can then be joined together with the plaster, and the vase be
used for flowers or vines. A sea-urchin and good-sized starfish make
the prettiest kind of a candlestick, and the addition of a brass-headed
tack on every point but one of the starfish gives it a nice finish
and furnishes feet for it to stand on; the point left without a foot
forms the handle by which it may be carried. The tacks should be
stuck into the fish first, and then the sea-urchin fastened on with
plaster-of-Paris. Not more than ten minutes are consumed in making a
candlestick of this kind, and it will be found to be quite as useful as
it is pretty and unique.

The walls of the cottage can be decorated in many ways with the
beautiful ornaments the sea furnishes. Over one of the doors in the
cottage alluded to at the beginning of this chapter there was an
ornamentation that looked exactly like wood-carving, but was only a
group of starfish arranged and tacked on the wall in a decorative form.
The fish being nearly the exact color of the background, the deception
was almost perfect.

If the walls of a room are divided off into panels, and each panel
decorated in the manner described for the screen, the effect will be
most exquisite.

On entering such a room one might almost imagine oneself to be a
mermaid, and this a lovely chamber beneath the sea.

So much can be done by one’s own hands it depends greatly, if not
entirely, upon the taste or time one is willing to devote to it what
this sea-side habitation shall be; whether the little cottage shall be
in harmony with its surroundings, seemingly a part of the place, or
whether it shall be only a cheap frame-structure, looking as though
it belonged in a country town and had been carried to the coast in a
capricious gale of wind, with decorations, if it has any, inappropriate
and unsuited to the sea-shore.

=How to Dry Starfish.=

Collect the most perfect specimens of all sizes, wash them in fresh
water, and then spread on a board in a dry place (not in the sun) and
leave them undisturbed for a few days, or until thoroughly dried.

=How to Polish Shells.=

Wash your shells in clean, fresh water; procure a small quantity of
muriatic acid and have in readiness two-thirds as much water as acid.
Place the shells in a basin, pour the water upon them, then the acid;
let them remain a few minutes, then take them out and wash again in
clear water. Rub each shell with a soft woollen cloth. A fine enamelled
surface can be given by rubbing them with a little oil and finely
powdered pumice-stone, and then with a chamois-skin.

To bleach fresh-water shells to a snowy whiteness, wash them perfectly
clean and then put them in a jar containing a solution of chloride
of lime, place the vessel in the sun, and, when the shells are
sufficiently bleached, remove and wash them in clear water. Polish them
in the manner before described.




DECORATIONS are seen here, there, and everywhere. How beautifully the
flags and streamers look as they wave in the breeze. All the houses
and streets are gay with bunting. We listen with a thrill of patriotic
excitement to the national airs played by bands of music as the
different parades pass our doors.

The spirit of independence fills the very air we breathe. Whiz! zip!
bang! go the firearms. The noise is enchanting and the smell of powder

This is our grand national holiday, the glorious Fourth, when all the
United States grows enthusiastic, and in various appropriate ways
manifests its patriotism.

[Illustration: The Fourth of July Party.]

The celebration, commencing in the early morn and lasting until late in
the evening, gives ample time for fireworks, games, and illuminations.
And the girls can take active part in, and enjoy these martial
festivities, help to decorate the house and grounds, and in the evening
do their part toward the illumination. Then there are the beautiful
daylight fireworks to be sent off, and games to be played; all adding
to the enjoyment and making up their celebration of Independence Day.


=Interior Decoration=

for the Fourth of July has not been considered as necessary as the
decoration for the outside of the house, still it is appropriate and
used to some extent, especially when the house is thrown open to
guests. Then, with a little thought and care the home may be decked and
adorned in the most attractive manner.

If you chance to be the happy possessor of the portrait of some
revolutionary ancestor, let this form the centre of your decorations.

Bring forward any relics of the colonial times and make them hold
a prominent place, for all such things are historical and of great
interest, though of course they are not essential. Strips of bunting,
cheese-cloth, or tissue-paper, in red and white and blue are necessary,
and must do their part in adding to the gayety of the scene. These can
be arranged in festoons, and made into wreaths, stars etc., to be used
as ornaments on the wall.

There is nothing, perhaps, more appropriate for decoration than flags,
though it requires some ingenuity to decorate with our American flag on
account of the blue being in one corner. However we will try. Take two
flags without staffs and baste them together as in Fig. 49, bringing
the blues side by side; pleat up the top of each to the centre and you
will have Fig. 50 with the stripes at the bottom running from end to

Now take two more flags reversed, the stripes being at the top the
stars at the base, and pleat them in the centre, it gives the same idea
in another form. For this style of adornment use the flags which may
be had at any dry-goods store; they come by the bolt, cost but a few
cents each, and are much softer and fold better than the more expensive
glazed ones. Other modes of draping the stars-and-stripes will suggest
themselves: place the “colors” in different positions until some good
design is found, and you will enjoy it all the more for having made the
combination yourself.

[Illustration: _Fig. 49_]

[Illustration: _Fig. 50_]

Tiny flags fastened to the chandeliers, and pinned in groups on the
curtains give to the room quite a holiday appearance. This is for the
daylight. In the evening we will have

=In-door Illumination,=

which can be made very brilliant by simply using a number of lighted

Should you desire to have it more elaborate, the words Liberty
and Independence can be printed on the windows by cutting the
letters forming the words from thick paper and gumming them to the
window-panes, so when the room is lighted they will show plainly from
the outside.

You may also make of tissue-paper a Liberty-bell, Goddess of Liberty,
American Eagle, and flags. Gum these on the edges and fasten them to
the windows; place a bright light behind them and the tints of the
paper will shine out in all their brilliancy. The Goddess of Liberty’s
face, the feathers on the eagle, and the lettering on the bell must all
be drawn with a paint-brush and ink or black paint.

In making any or all of these, it will be of great assistance if you
secure a picture of the object to copy from.

Having provided for the inside of the house it now behooves us to turn
our attention to

=Out-of-door Decoration=

consisting principally of flags raised on poles, hung from windows, and
disposed in numerous and various ways.

The many devices representative of our country may be used with good
effect. Thus, a large United States shield can be made of colored
paper or inexpensive cloth tacked on a piece of card-board, cut in the
desired shape, and the shield suspended from the window flat against
the house, as a picture is hung on the wall. Other emblems can be
manufactured in the same way.

Small trees or tall bushes covered all over from top to bottom with
flags and streamers look beautiful, and all the gayer, when the wind
blows, causing them to wave and flutter.

Fasten the flags and streamers on the tree with string.

Some girls think that the

=Illumination in the Open Air=

is best of all, for then they can give their fancy free play, and
create all sorts of odd and novel designs.

The bright-colored Chinese lanterns are very decorative. Suppose we
begin with these. Fasten securely here and there, on the lawn, large
paper Japanese umbrellas in upright positions. This is accomplished by
binding the handles of the umbrellas securely to poles which have been
sharpened at one end, and planting the pointed end of the poles firmly
in the ground.

[Illustration: Fig. 51]

[Illustration: Fig. 52]

From every other rib of the umbrella suspend a lighted Chinese lantern
by a wire long enough to prevent any danger of setting the little
canopy on fire. The effect produced is both novel and pretty.

A popular method of arranging the lanterns is stringing them on wires,
stretched from house to house, or from tree to tree, so forming, as it
were, a fringe of lights.

Again, they may be placed at intervals on the ground, fastened to trees
or hung on the piazza, some in groups of twos or threes, others singly,
these being of many odd shapes and sizes. Piazzas are very good sites
for the display of colored umbrellas, which may hang, inverted, from
the ceiling, with a tiny lighted Chinese lantern suspended from each
rib. Let me repeat, be careful not to have the wires so short that the
light is in dangerous proximity to the umbrella.

Another pleasing illumination is to make a large flag of colored-paper
with strong pieces of tape pasted along both top and bottom, the ends
of the tape extending beyond the flag. Tie the tape to two trees,
poles, or pillars of the porch, and place a light back of the flag, to
bring out the colors clearly and distinctly.

Illuminated tents are made by placing poles in the fashion of Fig. 51,
and using large flags, low-priced colored cloth or strong paper as a
covering, Fig. 52. The corners are tied down to pegs in the ground,
and, when two or three candles are set in the tent, the effect is very

All young people delight in the noise and excitement of


and here are some pyrotechnics which any girl can easily make. They are
daylight fireworks, and most of them may be sent off from a balcony or
window, and all with no danger of fire or burns.

One of the simplest to try is the


[Illustration: Parachutes.]

Cut a piece of tissue-paper five inches square, twist each corner and
tie with a piece of thread eight inches long, Fig. 53; wrap a small
pebble in a piece of paper and tie the four pieces of thread securely
to the pebble, Fig. 54. This makes a light airy little parachute,
which, when sent out from the window, will, with a favorable wind,
sail up and off over the house-tops. Make a number of parachutes in
different colors and send them off one after another in succession.
Next we will have what we call


[Illustration: Thunderbolts]

fashioned of bright-colored tissue-paper. Cut the paper in pieces four
inches wide and eight inches long. Then cut each piece into strips
reaching about one-third of the length of the piece of paper (Fig. 55),
pinch the uncut end of the paper together and twist it tightly so that
it will not become undone (Fig. 56). Open the window and throw these
out a few at a time. They will turn heavy end down and dart off with
the fringed end fluttering. Now and then they will waver a moment in
one spot, and then dart off in another direction; so they go whirling,
zigzagging and bowing as if they were alive.

Something different from these are the comical little


made by cutting circular pieces of writing- or common wrapping-paper
into simple spiral forms (Fig. 57). The centre of the spirals are
weighted by small pieces of wood, or other not too heavy substance
gummed on the paper.

[Illustration: Whirls.]

When a number of these are freed in mid-air the weight will draw the
spirals out, and present a curious sight, as with serpentine motion
they all come wriggling and twisting toward the ground (Fig. 58). In
these paper fire-works, we know of nothing prettier than the

=Winged Fancies,=

consisting of birds and butterflies.

The birds may be cut out of wrapping-paper, measuring seven and a half
inches long and ten inches from tip to tip of the wings (Fig. 59), a
burnt match stuck in and out of the neck, will give the bird sufficient
weight. When tossed from a height these paper swallows fly and skim
through the air in the most delightful birdlike fashion.

Both birds and butterflies are folded through the centre lengthwise,
then unfolded and straightened out, this helps to give them form and
they fly better.

The patterns here given are possibly not as graceful in shape as could
be made, but the writer drew the patterns from the best fliers among
an experimental lot of winged fancies, having found them better than
others that could boast of more beauty.

[Illustration: The Bird.]

Butterflies are made of bright colored tissue-paper cut from the
pattern (Fig. 60), and have short pieces of broom-straws as weights.
These also should be lightly thrown from a height, when they will
flutter and fly downward, sometimes settling on a tree or bush as if
seeking the sweets of flowers, and appearing very bright and pretty as
they float hither and thither on the air.

[Illustration: The Butterfly.]

A ring of the ever-twirling


is gay and attractive, just the thing for the lawn on the Fourth of
July. To manufacture one, select a nice firm barrel-hoop, and nail it
securely on one end of a clothes-pole or broom-stick (Fig. 61), sharpen
the other end of the pole to a point; if the hoop seems inclined to
split when nailing, first bore holes with a gimlet or burn them with a
red-hot nail or wire for the nails to pass through.

Cover the barrel-hoop several inches deep with straw, lay the straw on
and tie it down with string.

Prepare a number of pin-wheels by cutting squares of red and white and
blue paper, fold them twice diagonally through the centre and cut the
folds up within a short distance of the middle. Turn over every other
point to meet the centre, pierce the four points and the centre with a
pin, then fasten the pin firmly to the end of a stick. The pin must be
left long enough to allow the paper to turn easily.

Stick the straw wreath full of pin-wheels, then plant the pole securely
in the ground and you will have a ring of Fourth of July pin-wheels
which will look pretty all day long.

[Illustration: Pin-wheel.]

Be sure to place the wreath facing the breeze, so the pin-wheels may be
kept in constant motion. Reserve the


until the last. They are simple in construction, but quite startling
when they go off.

Fasten together two very stiff flat pieces of steel (Fig. 62), those
sold for the back of dress-skirts work well, and use a strong string
many yards long to tie them with. Bring up the four ends of the steels
and tie them with a slip knot (Fig. 63), in order that it may easily
fly open. Place the cage thus formed in the centre of a square piece of

[Illustration: _Fig. 62_]

[Illustration: _Fig. 63_]

Now cut strips of different colored tissue-paper, four inches long, and
twist each piece at one end.

Put these in the centre of the cage and bring up the four corners of
the square of paper, allowing the string to come out of the top. Twist
the corners together and close up the small openings by folding over
the edges of the paper. This makes a bomb somewhat resembling a common
torpedo enlarged to many times its original size.

Pass the string through a screw-eye which has been screwed in the end
of a flag-pole or broomstick, and place the pole out of the window.
Then drop the end of the string down to the lawn below. Fasten one
end of the pole in the window by binding it firmly to a strong, heavy
chair, or secure it in any other way most convenient so there will not
be the slightest danger of its falling.

Everything being ready, descend to the lawn, and pull the string so the
bomb will rise slowly up to the pole.

When it is within a short distance of the screw-eye, give the twine a
sudden sharp jerk which will cause the bomb to come in contact with the
pole with sufficient force to untie the slip-knot, the elastic-metal
ribs will fly back causing the bomb to burst and fill the air with
bright shreds, flying, gliding, and darting everywhere in the most
eccentric manner, making the air brilliant with floating colors.

Let your Fourth of July

=Lawn Party=

partake of the patriotic traditions, and as far as possible help to
celebrate our Nation’s birthday in an appropriate manner.

Paper fire-works may form part of the entertainment, it being optional
with the hostess whether they come before or after the games, or are
interspersed between them.

The party opens with the signing of the

=Declaration of Independence.=

To each guest is given a brown-paper bag, and when all have assembled
on the lawn, the hostess steps forward facing the company, and asks all
to kindly keep quiet and listen for a few moments while she reads or
repeats their Declaration of Independence, she then reads:

We girls are, and of right should be, free and independent of all boys’
sports, having resources and amusements befitting the celebration of
the Fourth of July, independent of all those belonging exclusively to

Then follows the signing of the same, by each in turn writing her name
beneath the declaration. This accomplished, the hostess gives the
signal and each guest fills her bag with air, by holding it close
to her mouth, gathering it tightly around, and blowing into it, then
grasping it firmly in the right hand, being careful not to let any air

At another signal, all simultaneously bring their hands forcibly and
quickly together, striking the paper bags with the left hand, which
bursts the bags and causes a report almost equal to that of pistols.

All the bags exploding at one time, gives a salute worthy of the name
and creates much merriment.

The salute may be varied by bursting the bags in quick succession, so
that it will sound something like a volley of musketry.

This introduction is followed by games to be played on the lawn.

For the new game of


make nine disks of card-board, painted or covered with paper, red and
white and blue, three of each color.

Place in the centre of the lawn a fancy waste-basket, and let each
player in turn stand at a distance of six feet from the basket. It is
better to have the station marked by a stone or stick, at the place

If played by sides, two stations, one on either side of the basket will
be necessary.

The object of the game is to throw the disks into the basket, and they
are valued according to color; red counts one, white two, and blue

If played by sides, each side should play five rounds, ninety being the
highest possible tally for any one player.

This is an easy and pleasant game, and may be played with or without
sides. The hostess keeps account, and at the end of the game gives a
knot of red, white, and blue ribbons as a prize to the one having the
highest score.

We hardly recognize our old friends in the new and gigantic

=Fourth of July Jackstraws.=

These are all in holiday attire, and so much larger than any we have
seen that they are even more attractive, and afford greater amusement
than those which we have hitherto enjoyed.

It does not take long to make them. Cover a number of light slender
sticks, three or four feet long, with paper or cloth, some red, some
white, and others blue. The colors count respectively, red one, white
two, and blue three. Provide another longer stick with a hook in one
end to be used in taking the jackstraws from the pile.

Stand the sticks up so as to meet at the top, and spread out like a
tent at the bottom. Each player then takes the hook in turn and tries
to remove a jackstraw, without shaking or throwing down any of the
others. The one scoring the highest, wins the game and is entitled to
the prize.

Progressive games seem to be very popular, and deservedly so, as they
possess an interest peculiarly their own.

Here is a new and novel one, called

=Progressive Mining.=

[Illustration: _Fig. 64_]

It is played with flower-pots filled with sand or loose earth, called
mines. A small flag on a slender staff is placed upright in the centre
of each flower-pot (Fig. 64). The staff should be stuck down in the
sand only just far enough to keep it steady in its position. Each
player in turn removes a little sand from the mine with a stick called
a wand, taking great care not to upset the flag; for the one causing
the flag to fall loses the game. The number of mines needed will depend
upon the number of persons playing, as one flower-pot is required for
every two players.

Each one taking part in the game, is provided with a wand. Slender
bamboo canes make excellent wands, and may be decorated with red, white
and blue ribbons, tied on the handles. Should the canes be difficult to
procure, then any kind of light slender stick will serve the purpose.

The hostess should prepare blank envelopes, each containing a ribbon
badge, or score sheet, of different colors, two of each; these are
all numbered, the figures being painted or pasted on the ribbons to
designate the place to be taken, thus two reds are marked 1, meaning
that they are to occupy the first or prize mine. The blues are marked
2, showing that they take the second mine, and so on. The last or
lowest place is called the booby mine. Each badge should have a small
pocket attached (Fig. 65), for holding stamps; these are cut in any
desired form from gold and silver paper, which has previously been
covered with mucilage on the under side, like a common postage-stamp.

[Illustration: _Fig. 65_]

The hostess passes around the envelopes, each guest takes one, and upon
opening it discovers where and with whom she is to play.

The preliminaries being settled, and all having taken their places, the
hostess starts the game by ringing a little bell.

When one of the players at the prize mine upsets the flag, the other
calls out _prize_, and if the flags have not already fallen in the
other mines, the couples play as quickly as possible until all the
flags are down.

The winner at the prize mine fastens a gold stamp on her ribbon badge,
while the loser at the booby mine, ornaments hers with silver seal.

The game is now rearranged, the winner at the prize mine remains at her
station, and the loser goes down to the booby mine, while all those
winning at the other mines move up, each one respectively to the next
higher mine, for it is only at the prize mine where the loser moves her
place and the victor remains stationary.

When these details are settled, the flag-staffs are again planted in
the flower-pots and the signal given for a new game.

The player with the largest number of gold stamps on her score-sheet,
receives the victor’s prize, and the one having the most silver stamps
is entitled to the booby prize.

The prizes are given when the game is ended. They should consist
of some pretty little article made by the hostess herself, and, if
practicable, appropriate to the day, such as a delicate satin sachet in
the form of a Liberty bell, with the lettering painted on it.

A pretty pin-cushion, with a cover made of a miniature silken flag, or
a dainty pen-wiper in the shape of Liberty’s cap. Other more expensive
gifts are not in good taste.

The booby prize should be something grotesque or comical.

As the mothers and sisters of 1776 took a full share in the hardships
and trials of the Revolution, and actively assisted in gaining our
independence, it is eminently fit and proper that American girls should
show their appreciation of such bravery and heroism by assisting in the
annual celebration of our famous Independence Day.

Fourth of July seems heretofore to have been considered altogether
too exclusively a boy’s holiday, and it is with a hope of stimulating
a renewed activity, and awakening in the heart of every girl in the
United States a sense of proprietary interest in the day, that we
suggest new methods of celebrating our national holiday.




LAST summer we made some lovely impressions of flowers, leaves, and
sprays; then we tried landscapes and all sorts of beautiful designs.

It is really delightful and fascinating work. You are led on and on,
always with a fancy to try something else to see how it will come out,
and seldom, if ever, is it a disappointment or failure, a new interest
being felt with every fresh print made. Moreover, you are sure of
having your picture original and the only one of its kind, for as no
two flowers or leaves are precisely alike, so no print can be an exact
copy of another. And then it takes only a few moments for the work
which could not be accomplished in thrice the time should a drawing be
made of the same design.

Let me tell you how to make an “Impression Album” a book of printed
flowers and leaves. You who have houseplants will find it a delightful
winter recreation, a novel pleasure, and you can enjoy the pretty
work even more during your summer vacation, with wild flowers at your

[Illustration: Making Prints.]

The “prints” are taken from the natural flowers or leaves themselves.
Girls who have no knowledge at all of drawing or of printing can with
little trouble make these Impression Albums, and students of botany
will find the work supplies valuable memoranda of leaves and plants, as
the print preserves details of the form, fibre and veining of foliage
and petal such as no drawing or photograph can. The printing can be
made wholly accurate, giving all the minutiæ of construction.

[Illustration: Pink Oxalis.]

The tools required to make these print-pictures are simple, and
consist of a piece of glass, a palette-knife or table-knife and some
printers’ ink which comes in small tin boxes and can be procured at any
stationery store, and a pad made of a ball of cotton tied in a piece of
soft silk or satin.

[Illustration: Smilax.]

[Illustration: Evergreen Moss.]

The printers’ pad used by the writer for spreading the ink, was
manufactured of the satin lining taken from a gentleman’s old hat, and
answered the purpose admirably, being a good size, measuring nearly
four inches in diameter. The album itself may be a common blank-book,
with every other leaf cut out, in order to make room for the prints,
which are on pieces of blank unruled paper of uniform size, and small
enough to fit in the album and leave a margin all around the piece
inserted, so that the book when opened may be neat and attractive.
Having all your tools at hand, select the leaves you wish to print.
These must be free from dust or dew and perfectly fresh.

First, with your knife, place a small quantity of printers’ ink on the
piece of glass and smooth it as evenly as possible over the surface.
Then press the printers’ pad down lightly, lifting, and again pressing,
until the ink is evenly distributed on the pad; next, select a leaf and
place it face, or right side, downward on a piece of folded newspaper;
press the inked pad down on the under side of the leaf, which is now,
of course, lying upward, repeating the operation until the leaf is
sufficiently covered with ink. Carefully place the leaf, inked side
down, on the centre of the piece of paper you have previously cut for
the album; over this lay a piece of common yellow wrapping-paper, or
any paper that is not too thick or stiff, and rub the finger gently all
over the covered leaf. Remove the outside paper and very _carefully_
take up the leaf. You will find an exact impress of the natural green
leaf showing every one of the delicate fibres.

[Illustration: Skeleton Geranium Leaves.]

The picture is now ready to be pasted in the album, with a thin,
delicate paste, touching only the corners. It is a good plan to write
under each leaf the name of the plant or tree from which it was taken,
with the date, and such facts as you would like to recall. Very
valuable botanical collections can thus be made. Flowers are more
difficult to print than leaves, owing to less “relief” in the films;
still they make charming pictures when successfully treated, sometimes
having the appearance of photographs of flowers with all the lights and

[Illustration: A Winter Landscape.

Printed from Nature’s Type.]

When printing flowers, proceed in the same manner as with the leaves.
Sweet peas, roses, daisies, wild carrot, clover, and verbenas, all make
beautiful impressions which look like photographs. Grasses of various
kinds also print well.

In making a spray, it is best to have a definite idea of the form you
desire it to take. If possible secure as a copy a natural spray of
the kind you wish to print. Then first print all the leaves in the
positions they are to occupy, and connect them by drawing in the branch
with pen and India-ink.

[Illustration: Maple Leaves.

Printed from Nature’s Type.]

The Winter Landscape is printed from dried twigs, grasses, and little
leafless plants, so arranged as to resemble trees and shrubbery.

Only have a little confidence and you can make etchings from
nature. Should you not understand drawing or composition, do not be
discouraged; obtain a picture to copy, and then hunt up little plants
and soft twigs as nearly as possible corresponding in shape and
character to the trees in the copy; in this way you can produce very
creditable landscapes.

Botanical impressions maybe used for “fancy work” by being printed on
satin, and the decorated satin made up as though it were painted or
embroidered; patches for silk quilts have been prettily decorated by
this process. The printings also make beautiful patterns for outline
work, much truer to nature than those made in any other manner and
afford infinite variety for “borders” and “corners.” Even satin dresses
can be beautifully ornamented with impressions of leaves instead of the
“hand painting” so long in use. You can, of course, see that should
several colors of printers’ ink be used, beautiful combinations and
pleasing variety would be obtained, and that probably some unique and
novel decorations would be secured.

Letter-paper ornamented with a delicate design printed from nature’s
types is very dainty and pretty, and in many other forms can these
simple and beautiful decorations be used.

Then bring leaves and blossoms from the woods or door-yard, and half
an hour may be delightfully spent in printing “impressions” which
will teach a lesson in botany, while the great variety of leaf forms,
difference in texture, fibre, veining and finish cannot fail to attract
your attention and call forth your admiration.


[Illustration: Corn Roast.]



TRACES of foreign ancestors are apparent occasionally in most of us,
true Americans though we be. It is perhaps a spice of gypsy blood in
our veins that sets our pulses throbbing with pleasant excitement when,
seated in an old hay-wagon, we go bumping and thumping down the road
prepared for a delightful holiday.

With camp-kettle swinging beneath, and coffee-pot stowed safely away
within the wagon, do we not feel able to provide as savory dishes for
our picnic dinner as any concocted by the gypsies themselves? Surely no
coffee is ever so delicious as that cooked over the camp-fire, albeit
it tastes somewhat smoky when prepared by hands inexperienced in the
art of out-door cooking; but if the fish we broil is a little burned,
and the baked potatoes rather hard in the middle, who cares? Hearty,
healthy appetites, which the early morning drive through the fresh,
exhilarating air has developed, laugh at such trifles and dinner
is voted a success in spite of sundry mistakes and mishaps in its

There are _picnics_ and _picnics_. When one drives out in a fine
carriage to meet a fine company, and partake of a fine lunch prepared
by fine servants, is one kind.

When one goes with a large party, on a boat, and takes a lunch of
sandwiches, cake, pickles, hard-boiled eggs, etc., which is spread on
the grass at the landing and eaten as quickly as possible, is another
kind; but the picnic most enjoyed by young people who are not afraid
of a little work, which is only play to them, is the one where the raw
materials for the dinner are taken and the cooking, or most of it, is
done, gypsy fashion, by the picnickers themselves.

A pleasant innovation in the ordinary routine of a picnic is

=A Burgoo.=

Thirty or forty years ago the men of Kentucky, in celebration of a
holiday, would get up what they called a burgoo. In character it was
very much like the clam-bake of to-day, but instead of chowder, or
baked clams, the company prepared and partook of a soup or stew made of
almost everything edible. Early in the morning the party would meet at
the appointed place and decide what each should contribute toward the
making of this most delectable stew.

Those who were fond of hunting would go forth in search of birds,
squirrels, rabbits, and game of all kinds, with which the woods were
filled. Some caught fish, and others provided fowl, pork, vegetables,
and condiments.

As the ingredients were brought in, those who had charge of the cooking
prepared and dropped them into an immense pot which, half full of
water, was suspended over a roaring fire.

When everything of which the stew was composed was cooked to shreds,
the burgoo was pronounced done, and was served in tin cups, and eaten
with shell spoons, made by splitting a stick and wedging a mussel-shell
in the opening.

That this was a most appetizing feast I know from an old gentleman who
has frequently attended the burgoos and partaken of the stew. Of course
at a picnic composed of girls and boys, it would not do to depend upon
the game which might be shot and the fish which might be caught, for
the dinner, but the burgoo should be adapted to the ways and means of
the party, and each member should provide something for the stew. The
following recipe will make enough for fifteen or twenty persons.

=Burgoo Stew.=

Two pounds of salt pork, the same of lean beef; two good-sized
chickens, or fowls of any kind; two quarts of oysters, the same
of clams; twelve potatoes, four turnips, one onion, two quarts of
tomatoes, and any other vegetables which may be obtainable. Make a
bouquet of parsley, celery, and a very little bay-leaf, thyme and
hyssop, tied together with thread.

[Illustration: _Fig. 66_]

Put the beef, fowl, pork, oysters, clams and a handful of salt in a
large iron kettle, three-quarters full of water; skim it before it
begins to boil hard, and add the other ingredients; keep the kettle
covered and boil until the bones fall from the meat. Serve hot with
crackers. Wild game and fish may also be added to the recipe. When a
burgoo is decided upon, it is best to prepare a light lunch to be eaten
about eleven o’clock, and have the heartier meal at four or five in the
afternoon, as it requires some time for the stew to cook.

Our illustration shows four ways of suspending the kettle over the
fire. While the girls are preparing the ingredients for the stew, the
boys will build a fire in some such fashion as is shown upon page 135,
and put the kettle on. The best way to boil coffee is to make or build
a kind of little stove of stones and mud, and set the coffee-pot on
top, as shown in Fig. 66; this will prevent the smoky taste it is apt
to have when placed directly on the fire.

=A Corn-roast.=

During the season when green corn is plentiful, there is no better
way of having a real jolly time than by getting up a corn-roast. It
is not as elaborate an affair as the burgoo. Some green corn, a long
pole sharpened at one end, for each member of the party and a large
fire built in some open space where there will be no danger of causing
conflagration makes us ready for the corn-roast.

Several summers ago a gay party of friends from New York and vicinity
took possession of and occupied for a few months a little cottage at a
place on the coast of Maine called Ocean Point.

[Illustration: Then The Boys will Build The Fire In Some Such Fashion
and Put The Kettle on.]

Toward the end of August, when all places of interest had been
explored, when the stock of shells, starfish, and such like treasures
had grown beyond the accommodation of an ordinary trunk, and the minds
of the sojourners were beginning to be filled with thoughts of a speedy
return home, green corn, for the first time that summer, made its
appearance. This was hailed with delight, and a farewell lark, in the
form of a corn-roast, was promptly proposed and almost as promptly
carried into execution.

The place selected on which to build the fire was a large rock jutting
out into a little cove called “Grimes Cove.” Here the party met about
three o’clock in the afternoon, each member bringing only such dishes
as were considered necessary for his or her own use. It is needless to
say that the supply was not very plentiful, many limiting themselves to
a cup and spoon; still as the supper was to consist merely of roasted
corn, bread and coffee, these answered every purpose.

Not only was the corn roasted on the ends of the long poles, but bread
was toasted, and in true American fashion it was eaten piping hot.
One of the gentlemen, much to the amusement of the rest of the party,
produced a piece of breakfast bacon, which he fastened on to the end
of his pole and toasted over the glowing embers, declaring that it was
better cooked in that way than in any other.

Yes, corn-roasts are great fun, and they can be held almost any place
where a large fire can be safely built. It is best to allow the fire to
burn down until it is a glowing pile of coals; then sticking the sharp
end of a pole into an ear of corn (Fig. 67), and standing as far from
the fire as the length of the pole will permit, it can be held close to
the hot embers until thoroughly cooked; then with butter and salt this
roasted corn is excellent eating.

[Illustration: _Fig. 67_]

Enough corn should be provided to allow several ears to each member of
the party, as mishaps are liable to occur, and the tempting ear of corn
may be devoured by the flames, instead of the person for whom it was

The poles, about six feet in length, should be as light as possible,
for if too heavy they will tire the hands and arms of those holding


[Illustration: White Clover Design.]



THERE is a book of most lovely designs open to everyone whose eyes are
open to see.

Grasses, leaves, blossoms, and even buds and seed-vessels supply
material for beautiful patterns.

We need not look far for suggestions. Truly “that is best which lieth
nearest; shape from that thy work of art.”

At your very doorway the wonders of botany may be studied. Carefully
inspect the tree blossoms in the early spring; the maple, willow,
birch, any in fact which happen to be convenient, and you will find
suggestions of rare designs.

Clover, plantain, pepper-grass, dandelions, vines and twigs, offer
ideas which can be adapted to ornamental art.

A love of nature will quicken and stimulate the faculties; take the
flowers and plants for instructors, and they will teach and guide you.

Though there cannot be found an exact duplicate of any blossom or leaf,
still these may be conventionalized by arranging them in all sorts of
symmetrical designs.

There is no mystery about the matter, for all the designs are
conceived upon the most simple of geometric laws. We are now following
in the steps of the old masters, and an unlimited field of new
combinations opens before us.

When making designs for this chapter, the writer did not select the
objects she thought would be most decorative, but anything which
chanced to fall in the way; and what she has done you can do, provided,
of course, that you have ordinary skill with the pencil.

=The Peony Leaf.=

Suppose you do not know how to draw at all! Even then you can design.
Take the first thing you see, which in this case happens to be a peony
leaf (Fig. 68). That is, assuming that you are seated by the side of
the writer.

[Illustration: Fig. 68.]

[Illustration: Fig. 69.]

[Illustration: Fig. 70.]

[Illustration: Fig. 71 Fig. 72 Fig. 73]

Now watch! We will pull it apart thus (Fig. 69). Next with a pair of
scissors, a knife, or fingers snip off the stems, and group the leaves
in any way we chose. We will try this combination (Fig. 70). If you do
not understand drawing, we must fasten the leaves down upon a piece
of paper as they are arranged, and trace around them, following their
edges with a pencil until the outline is complete (Fig. 70). By simply
repeating this figure at regular intervals we have a very pretty border
design and one that is truly original, for the writer had no more idea
than you, what was to be the result of this experiment. In order to
make the pattern exact, draw lines as in Fig. 71, for a guide; then
draw the figure according to the foundation lines (Fig. 72). When
finished, erase the lines and the design stands a conventionalized
peony leaf, Fig. 73. By making a tracing of the first pattern, you can
repeat it any number of times. It requires no great or peculiar genius
to design well, and it is a mistaken, old-fashioned idea to suppose
because you never have done any original work in art that you never
can. Do not slavishly follow other people, but believe that there is
implanted in you the same elements that belong to those whose designs
you admire, then commence and design for yourself. That you may have
a start in your new art, we will try something else, a vegetable this
time, for here comes the green-grocery man with a basket full of as
quaint decorations as are ever painted with bamboo-handled brush by the

=A Bunch of Turnips.=

[Illustration: _Fig. 74_

Bunch of Turnips]

[Illustration: Fig. 75.]

Take the first bunch of vegetables on the top of the basket. What are
they? turnips? Well that requires a little skill as a draughtsman,
but we will sketch this one and you can copy it (Fig. 74). Now repeat
it (Fig. 75), or place the bunches in a row and you will have another
border design. After a few experiments you will see that anything will
make a decoration even the humble kitchen vegetables.

=Decorative Lines.=

[Illustration: Fig. 78. Fig. 76. Fig. 77.]

[Illustration: Fig. 79.]

[Illustration: _Fig 80_]

Figs. 76 and 77 are simply graceful curves, such as anyone can make
with a pen or pencil, and may be used in many ways: cross them and
they form Fig. 78, use this as half the design, duplicating it
for the other half and it gives Fig. 79. We now have graceful and
beautiful foundation lines on which any vine or flower may be placed
as ornamentation. We will select the rose, allowing the lines to form
the stems and using as ornament the bud, flower and seed-vessels,
remembering that one side must be an exact duplicate of the other (see
Fig. 80).

With these curves invent new designs by placing them together in
different ways, and choose for decoration anything which may strike
your fancy.

=Plant Cross-section Designs.=

Have you ever noticed how curiously some leaves are curled before
opening? Watch them as they commence to expand and grow, and you will
be delighted with the great variety and unique designs formed by the
folding and rolling of these leaf-buds.

Cut a bud square across in the centre with a sharp knife, and this will
show the nicety of arrangment of the young leaves. The leaf-bud of
the sage (Fig. 81), rosemary (Fig. 82), apricot (Fig. 83), and still
another variety of pattern (Fig. 84), are all singular natural designs.

[Illustration: _Fig. 81_ _Fig. 82_ _Fig. 83_ _Fig. 84_]

The petals of flower-buds are also folded in many ways, affording odd
designs; if cut in like manner as the leaves, the cross-sections will
be as beautiful. Fig. 85, the lilac bud, and the oleander (Fig. 86),
give some idea of these odd designs. Submit all kinds of buds to the
test by cutting them in halves, and carefully examining the two parts,
observe how nicely and orderly the leaves are folded together. In this
way you will find many natural ornamental patterns.

[Illustration: _Fig. 85_]

[Illustration: _Fig. 86_]

[Illustration: _Fig. 87_]

Nor must we neglect the seed-vessels; when these in their turn are cut
open, they present excellent designs. Fig. 87 is a cross-section of the
seed-vessel of the harebell. Other seeds will furnish queer forms and
figures to be obtained in no other way.

=Flower Sprays.=

The common white clover with its trefoil leaf is very pretty, and if a
few sprays are placed together in a graceful manner it is surprising
how readily they lend themselves to decoration. Experiment with these,
gather a few blossoms and leaves, group them on the centre of a piece
of paper, and make an outline of the group; then trace it off in order
to repeat the copy at equal intervals from the central figure (see
illustration, page 138); this makes a very simple and yet beautiful
design for embroidery, needle-work, or wall-paper pattern. In the same
manner try grasses and different kinds of flowers.

[Illustration: _Fig. 88_]

Conventional designs can also be formed by simply inclosing a natural
spray in a geometrical figure. Fig. 88 is a circle, but a square,
triangle, diamond, oval, or any geometrical figure may take the place
of the circle.

=Changing the Color=

of a natural object gives still another style of ornamental art.
A spray of flowers and leaves in one color on a background of
different tint is an example. The spray may be brown on a yellow
background, or a dull blue on white background, either way it will be
conventionalized. So you see that by merely making natural objects
all in one tint, you can have a great variety of designs suitable
for china, embroidery, wall paper, and many other decorations. It is
instructive to examine the panels, screens, or painted china of the
Japanese. There is a freedom and crispness about their ornamental art,
which is very attractive.

The method the Japanese frequently employ is to diminish the size
of the fruit or flowers while increasing the size of the leaves,
and vice-versa; in this way they invent designs without losing the
character of the object they copy, and it is really a very simple, yet
effective method.

Suppose you try and see what you can make with it. The next time you
have an opportunity, notice how the Oriental artists carry out this
idea in their decorations, and it will help you in making your designs.


The tenacious little burs found clinging to your dress after a country
walk, when grouped together are not without beauty. Fig. 89 is formed
of four of these burs placed at right angles making an ornament, and
when the ornament is repeated at regular intervals as in Fig. 90, it
forms a border design.

[Illustration: _Fig. 89_]

[Illustration: Fig. 90.]

[Illustration: _Fig. 91_]

Seeds with downy or feathery tails are well adapted for decorations;
three grouped together (Fig. 91), is a design of itself, which may
also be re-duplicated (Fig. 92). The horse-chestnut or buckeye is
decorative, and makes an odd design (Fig. 93). Also the seed-vessel of
the Velvet-leaf or Abutilon avicennæ (Figs. 94 and 95).

[Illustration: Fig. 92.]

=The Water-Lily.=

In the illustration of the water-lily, the writer has conventionalized
it by curving the stem around the flower and duplicating the same,
always making the stem meet the next lily, then inclosing the flowers
in two straight lines, so forming a water-lily border. Now, girls, you
can realize how very simple it is to apply botany to art, and make for
yourselves new and original designs.

[Illustration: Fig. 93.]

[Illustration: Fig. 94.]

[Illustration: Fig. 95.]

The knowledge of plants is not only interesting but useful in
connection with art, in selecting and determining appropriate designs
for wood-carving, hammered brass, or any kind of ornamentation or
decoration. The cross-section of some trees will furnish very good
designs and the differently formed roots of plants and flowers will
aid you in ornamental art.

So we find that Nature offers us exquisite designs, in many shapes and
forms, and we have only to stretch out our hand and take what we want.

[Illustration: Fig. 96.]

“Beauty doth truly inhabit everywhere,” for “it is mind alone that is
beautiful, and in perceiving beauty, we only contemplate the shadow of
our own affections.”


    [Illustration: A DOOR-STEP



IN the State of Kentucky, in one of whose towns the writer’s early
childhood was spent, the summers are long, and frequently very
hot spells occur when even in the early morning hours there is no
refreshing coolness in the air. As the sun rises higher and higher in
the heavens, its rays grow fiercer and fiercer, until by afternoon,
the heat is so intense that few persons care to venture out of doors,
unless compelled by business or necessity to do so.

At dusk, however, after the heat of the day is spent, and the air,
although not cool, is a degree or two less hot, the population of the
town makes itself visible. Ladies and children clad in the thinnest of
white and light colored muslin gowns, emerge from the houses to sit
upon piazza and door-step, and there welcome the husband, father, and
brothers of the family upon their return from business; that business
which is never neglected no matter what the thermometer may register.
After tea the door-steps are once more taken possession of, and to
enter the house again until ready to retire for the night, is not to
be thought of. Friends and neighbors making social calls are received
and entertained informally upon the door-steps, and sometimes when the
party becomes too large for the steps to accommodate, chairs are placed
upon the pavement immediately in front of the door, and no one feels,
while occupying one of these seats, that the position is at all public
or conspicuous.

Hatless and bonnetless as all of the ladies and children are, the
warmth of the evenings making all head coverings and extra wraps
unnecessary and uncomfortable, the streets present a gay and fête-like
appearance seldom seen in our eastern towns.

At least this is as it was when, as one of the band of merry children,
I played “Oats-peas-beans” and “Come Philanders,” upon the sidewalk,
and I do not think these customs have changed much since then.

Later, when I and my young friends had outgrown the “ring-around-arosy”
games, we used to gather upon the door-step, and there chatter away
about the day’s doings, or whatever interested us at the time. When
tired of talking, we would amuse ourselves by playing quiet games
or telling stories. Sometimes the thoughtful mother of our young
hostess would add to our enjoyment by serving some light refreshment,
such as ice-cream or fruit. The greatest treat, and the one most
appreciated, was when we were invited to partake of a great crisp
frozen water-melon, whose blood-red core, sweet as sugar and cold as
ice, quickly melted away between the rosy lips of the little guests.
We were not always thus favored, however; the refreshments were ever a
pleasant surprise, but the pleasure of our evening was not marred by
their absence.

The remembrance of what very pleasant times we used to have at these
impromptu little parties, urges me to devote some pages of this book
to the description of a door-step party, that by acting upon the
suggestion, others may enjoy them even as did that group of little
Kentucky girls.

Now is just the time for a door-step party; now when the beauty of the
evening lures us from the lighted parlor to the shadowy piazza whose
coolness is so attractive after the long, hot summer day. Here soft
breezes fan our cheeks, and here, perhaps, the moonlight filtering
through vine and trellis, is carpeting the floor with lacy shadows, and
with its soft mysterious light is casting a glamour over all familiar

It is a modest little fête, this door-step party, a simple way of
entertaining one’s friends of a summer evening when the heat will
not permit of the exertion of active games. The delightful out-door
surroundings give it a novel charm and make it entirely different from
the frolics usually indulged in during the winter season.

Because the entertainment is not noisy it need not be the less
enjoyable, and a party of bright, merry girls will derive plenty of
amusement and fun from the quiet games of a door-step party. The
following will give an idea of what games are suitable for an occasion
of this kind.

=Five Minutes’ Conversation=

is not exactly a game, although there are rules which must be obeyed in
order to make it interesting.

A programme with small pencil attached, like the one shown in Fig. 97,
should be given to each guest upon her arrival. The engagements for
five minutes’ conversation are made by putting your name down on your
friend’s card opposite the time chosen for your conversation with her.

Five minutes only are allowed for one conversation.

Two or more consecutive engagements with one person are not allowable.
When engagements are made and programmes filled, the hostess, or
anyone willing to be time-keeper, must ring a bell giving notice that
the conversation is to begin.

At the end of five minutes the bell is to be rung again, when all
talking must instantly cease, the exchange of positions be quickly
made, and a new conversation be commenced.

[Illustration: _Fig. 97_]

The time-keeper should be strictly attentive to her duties, for the
bell must be rung regularly at the end of every five minutes.

The hour allotted to this new mode of conversation will pass very
quickly, and cannot become in the least tiresome, as the time spent in
talking to any one person is so very short.

=Blind-man’s Singing-school.=

One of the party must be blindfolded to take the part of teacher. The
class composed of the rest of the players should sit in a line facing

The teacher informs her scholars that they will begin the lesson by
singing the scales. Then the head girl, or the one at the top of the
line, sings ah! and the next, ah! a little higher or lower, and so it
goes down the line; each one in turn uttering ah! in any key or note
she please; in a high shrill voice, or the deepest tone a girlish
throat is capable of. The teacher should listen attentively, and when
she thinks she recognizes a voice she must command the class to stop
while she makes some criticism on the manner in which the note is sung,
at the same time calling the singer by name.

When one of the players is named correctly, she must be blindfolded and
become teacher, while the former teacher takes her place in the class.

A general exchange of seats is made before the singing lesson
recommences, that the voices may not be guessed by the direction from
which they come. To give variety to this game the second teacher may
direct the class to sing a song, selecting some well-known nursery
rhyme; then, beginning at the top of the line as before, each player
must sing the word which comes to her to supply. It is the privilege
of each teacher to direct the class to sing whatever she may choose,
either song or exercise.

=A Game of Noted Men,=

is played in this way: The hostess begins the game by saying, I know
a celebrated poet; the first part of his name is very black, and the
last is an elevation. Whoever gives the right name, which is Coleridge
(coal, ridge), in her turn describes the name of some noted person.
She may choose Shakespeare and say, I give the name of a noted author
and poet; the first part is something people are apt to do when they
are cold, the last is a weapon of warfare.

There are quite a number of names which will do nicely for this game; a
few of them are—

    Wordsworth—words, worth.
    Cornwall—corn, wall.
    Howitt—how, it.
    Milman—mill, man.
    Shelley—shell, lea.
    Washington—washing, ton.
    Fillmore—fill, more.
    Longfellow—long, fellow.

When giving a name to be guessed, the profession of the man, whether
poet, author, statesman, or soldier, must be given, but nothing else
should be told about him.

=What will You Take to the Picnic?=

can be played very nicely while the party are enjoying some light

The hostess alone should be in the secret, and these directions are
addressed only to her.

Commence the game by announcing that you propose to give a picnic, that
it depends upon what your guests will bring for lunch whether they
will be allowed to attend, and that each one must furnish two articles
of food. Then ask the person nearest you, What will you take to the
picnic? If the name of neither of the articles she mentions commences
with the initial letter of her Christian name or surname tell her she
cannot go, and put the question to the next person, asking each in
turn, What will you take to the picnic?

For example, we will suppose that the name of one of the party is Susan
Davis, and she says she will take crackers and lemons, she cannot go,
as neither of her names commence with C or L; but if she proposes to
take salmon and doughnuts, she will be doubly welcome, since S and D
are both her initials. Should she say sugar and cream, she could go for
one of her names commences with S.

Continue to put the question to each player until all, or nearly all,
have discovered why their proposed contribution to the lunch secures
them a welcome, or debars them from attending the picnic.

=Assumed Characters.=

In this game some well-known novelist is selected—Dickens, for
instance—and each player chooses one of his characters to personate,
telling no one her choice. Then one of the players relates the life
as though it were her own, and portrays with voice and gesture the
character she has assumed. Of course no names must be mentioned.

The person who first guesses what character is being personated has the
privilege of deciding who shall be the next to tell her story.

The game of Assumed Characters will prove to be very entertaining
if each player does her part and makes her narrative as amusing and
interesting as possible.

=Shadow Verbs.=

A white sheet is fastened tightly across a French window, or doorway
opening upon the piazza, and a large lamp set behind it.

The company separates into two parties; one enters the house, while the
other remains seated upon the piazza facing the suspended sheet.

The outside party chooses a verb which the others are to guess and
perform. When their decision is made they call the leader of the inside
party and say, “The verb we have chosen rhymes with rake,” or whatever
it may rhyme with. The leader then joins her followers and consults
with them what the first guess shall be. It is best to take the verbs
which rhyme with the noun given in alphabetical order. Bake would come
first for rake, and if it is decided that they shall act this, several
of the party step before the lamp, which casts their shadows on the
sheet and, without speaking, go through the motions of making and
baking bread. If the guess is right (that is if to bake was the verb
chosen) the spectators clap their hands; if wrong, they cry, No, no.

When they hear the no, no, the actors retire and arrange what to do
next. Make, quake, take, wake are all acted in turn, until the clap of
approval announces that they have been successful in guessing the verb.
Then the actors take the seats vacated by the spectators, who in their
turn enter the house to become shadows and act the verbs chosen by the
other party, and the game goes on as before. A little ingenuity on the
part of the players in producing funny and absurd shadows makes the
whole thing very laughable and causes great amusement.

There are an unlimited number of games that may be played, but the
object of this chapter is not so much to describe the games as it is
to illustrate those that are appropriate to the quiet and delightful
entertainment known as a door-step party.




UNDERNEATH the spreading branches of the cool, shady tree swings our

Through the intertwining boughs the golden sunlight is sifted in bright
little dashes on the leafy foliage below. Lying ensconced in its lacy
meshes idly listening to the hum of the busy bumble-bees at work among
the red clover, or gazing up through the leafy canopy to the blue
heavens where now and then fleecy white clouds float softly past, or
watching a flight of birds skim o’er the distant horizon, who would
not be lulled by the harmony of the summer day! A delightful languor
steals over us and we unconsciously drift into the land of dreams where
perfect rest is found. We awaken refreshed, to again gently swing back
and forth and vaguely wonder who could have first thought of this
most delightful invention. It is said that we owe the luxury to the
Athenian, General Alcibiades, who, in 415 B.C. first made the swinging
bed. The word hammock is taken from hamacas or hamac, an Indian
word which Columbus relates as being used by the Indians to signify
a hanging bed composed of netting. What these uncivilized red men
made with their rude implements, we ought to be able with our modern
facilities to accomplish very easily and quickly.

[Illustration: Home-made Comforts.]

[Illustration: Mesh-sticks.]

It is not difficult to make a hammock; anyone can soon knit one that is
strong and comfortable, and it should not cost more than fifty cents.
The materials required will be one hammock-needle about nine inches
long (this can be whittled out of hickory or ash, or purchased for ten
cents); two iron rings two and one-half inches in diameter, which will
cost about five cents each; two mesh-sticks or fids, one twenty inches
long and eight inches wide bevelled on both edges (Fig. 98): the other
nine inches long and two and one-half inches wide, bevelled on the long
edge (Fig. 99); these you can easily make yourself from any kind of

[Illustration: Fig. 100.—Hammock Needle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 101.—The Loop.]

[Illustration: Fig. 102.—Small Fid and Loop.]

One pound of Macremé cord number twenty-four, or hammock twine of the
same number, which can be had for less than thirty cents; colored cord
comes five cents extra.

Wind the cord in balls, as it is then more convenient to handle, and
begin making your hammock. First, thread the needle by taking it in the
left hand and using the thumb to hold the end of the cord in place,
while looping it over the tongue (Fig. 100); pass the cord down under
the needle to the opposite side and catch it over the tongue; repeat
this until the needle is full.

[Illustration: Fig. 103.—First Half of Knot.]

[Illustration: Fig. 104.—Construction of Knot.]

[Illustration: Fig. 105.—A Number of Knots.]

Next, make a loop of a piece of cord two yards long and fasten this to
any suitable place (Fig. 101)—a door-knob will do very well; then tie
the cord on your needle three inches from the end to this loop. Place
the small fid under the cord, the bevelled edge close to the loop
(Fig. 102). With your thumb on the cord to hold it in place while you
pass the needle around the fid, and with its point toward you, pass it
through the loop from the top, bringing it over the fid, so forming the
first half of the knot (Fig. 103). Pull this taut, holding it in place
with your thumb while throwing the cord over your hand, which forms
the loop as in (Fig. 104). Then pass the needle from under through
the loops, drawing it tight to fasten the knot. Hold it in place with
your thumb, and repeat the operation for the next knot. Fig. 105 shows
a number of these knots finished. A is a loosened knot, making plain
its construction. B, in Figs. 103, 104, and 105, is the cord running
to the needle, and D is the fid. When thirty meshes are finished shove
them off the fid (Fig. 106), as this number will make the hammock
sufficiently wide.

[Illustration: Fig. 106.—Meshes.]

[Illustration: Fig. 107.—Commencing the Second Row.]

Commence the next row by again placing the fid under the cord, and take
up the first mesh, drawing it close to the fid; hold it in place with
your thumb while throwing the cord over your hand; pass the needle
on the left hand-side of the mesh from under through the loop thrown
over your hand (Fig. 107); pull this tight and you will have tied the
common knitting-knot; proceed in like manner with all the loops in
rotation until the row is finished. When it is necessary to thread or
fill your needle, tie the ends of the cord with the fisherman’s knot
shown in Fig. 108, which cannot slip when properly tightened. Wrap each
end of the cord from the knot securely to the main cord with strong
thread to give a neat appearance to the hammock.

[Illustration: Fig. 108.—Fisherman’s Knot.]

Continue knitting until thirty rows are finished.

Then use the large fid, knitting one row on the short side first, next
one on the long side. This accomplished, knit the meshes to the ring
by passing the needle through it from the top, knitting them to the
ring in rotation as if they were on the mesh-stick or fid (Fig. 109).
When finished tie the string securely to the ring, and one end of your
hammock is finished.

Cut the loop on which the first row was knitted, and draw it through
the knots. Tie the end of the cord on your needle to the same piece
used in fastening the end of the first needleful to the loop (Fig.
110), and knit the long meshes to the other ring as described. This
completed, the hammock is finished.

[Illustration: On the Ring.]

[Illustration: _Fig. 110_]

To swing it, secure two pieces of strong rope and fasten them firmly
to the iron rings, the length of the rope depending upon the space
between the two points from which you wish it to hang. These should be
if possible twelve or fifteen feet apart and at least ten feet high, to
give your hammock sufficient room to swing freely.

This suspended bed will furnish a welcome retreat when the weather is
too warm to admit of games, walks, or other amusements. Then, with some
favorite book, or if even reading is too much of an exertion, simply to
lie indolently in the hammock is a comfort, so restful and quiet that
the time quickly passes, and we are made better and brighter for our
short, passive repose.

Very decorative nets, and useful ones of many kinds, including
fish-nets and minnow-seines, are made with the same stitch as that used
in the hammock. The size of the mesh is regulated by the circumference
of the fid, and the twine used is fine or coarse, according to the
style of net desired.

=Barrel Hammock.=

When in the Catskills last summer the writer saw for the first time a
hammock made of a barrel. It was painted red and looked very cheery
and inviting hanging under the green boughs; the two colors, being
complementary, harmonized beautifully.

This hammock was made of a piece of strong rope twenty feet long
threaded in and out of barrel staves, and was substantial and durable.
The construction of such a hammock is very simple. Remove the top
and bottom hoops and nails from a firm, clean barrel. Then before
taking off the remaining hoops draw a pencil-line around both ends of
the barrel, being careful to have the marking three inches from and
parallel to the edges; this is for a guide when making the two holes
in each end of all the staves. Bore the holes with a five-eighth of
an inch augur or a red-hot poker, using the pencil-line as a centre;
leave an equal margin on both sides of the staves, and at the same time
enough space in the centre to preclude all danger of breakage.


Fasten the staves together by threading the rope through the hole from
the out side of the first stave, then across the inside of the stave
down through the other hole (see illustration). Continue threading
until one side is finished, then in like manner thread the other side.
Knock off the remaining hoops and the staves will appear as shown at
bottom of illustration. Tie the two ends of the rope together and
fasten loops of rope on both ends; these should be of sufficient length
to conveniently swing the hammock. When threading the staves let the
rope be loose enough to leave a space of an inch or so between each
stave when the barrel is spread out in the form of a hammock.

In this way you can have a serviceable hammock, the cost of which will
be about twenty-five cents and a little labor.


[Illustration: Grandmamma’s Dolls.]




NO such beautiful dolls as delight the hearts of the children of
to-day, ever peeped forth from the Christmas-stockings of our
grandmothers or great-grandmothers when they were little girls. In
those times there were not, as there are now, thousands of people
doing nothing but making toys for the entertainment and pleasure of
the little ones, and the motherly little hearts were fain to content
themselves with lavishing unlimited affection and care upon a rag,
wooden, or corn-husk baby, made and dressed at home. Since then almost
every child tired of, and surfeited with handsome and expensive
toys, has been glad at times to get grandma to make for her a real
old-fashioned dollie which might be hugged in rapturous moments of
affection without fear of dislocating some of its numerous joints, or
putting out of order its speaking or crying apparatus; and might in
times of forgetfulness be dropped on the floor and suffer no injury
thereby. Such a doll is just the kind to adopt for the summer. The fine
French doll with its delicate wax or china face, silky hair, and dainty
toilets, is more suited to the elegances of the parlor than to the wear
and tear of out-door life, and everyone knows that summer holidays
spent in the country are far too precious to be wasted taking care of
anyone’s complexion, let alone a doll’s; so it is best to leave the
city doll in her city home, safe out of harm’s way, and manufacture,
from materials to be found in the country, one more suited to country

Corn-husks, corn-cobs, and ordinary garden flowers can be made into
dolls which, although not quite so pretty nor so shapely as those
produced from more costly material, yet possess a charm of their own
which the children are not slow to perceive.

Little Indian girls, to whom store babies are unknown, make the most
complete and durable corn-husk dolls, and the following directions tell
just how to construct them:

[Illustration: Head Commenced.]

[Illustration: The Corn Husk.]

[Illustration: Corn-husk Tied.]

[Illustration: Head Finished.]

[Illustration: Head and Arms.]

Provide yourself with the husks of several large ears of corn, and from
among them select the soft white ones which grow closest to the ear.
Place the stiff ends of two husks together, fold a long, soft husk in a
lengthwise strip, and wind it around the ends so placed as in Fig. 111.
Select the softest and widest husk you can find, fold it across the
centre and place a piece of strong thread through it (as in Fig. 112),
draw it in, tie it securely (Fig. 113), place it entirely over the
husks you have wound, then bring it down smoothly and tie with thread
underneath (Fig. 114); this will form the head and neck. To make the
arms, divide the husks below the neck in two equal parts, fold together
two or more husks and insert them in the division (Fig. 115). Hold the
arms in place with one hand, while with the other you fold alternately
over each shoulder several layers of husks, allowing them to extend
down the front and back. When the little form seems plump enough, use
your best husks for the topmost layers and wrap the waist with strong
thread, tying it securely (Fig. 116). Next divide the husks below the
waist and make the legs by neatly wrapping each portion with thread,
trimming them off evenly at the feet. Finally, twist the arms once or
twice, tie, and trim them off at the hands. The features can be drawn
on the face with pen and ink, or may be formed of small thorns from
the rose-bush. Fig. 117 shows the doll complete, minus its costume,
which may be of almost any style or material, from the pretty robe of
a civilized lady to the more scanty garments of its originator, the
Indian. The doll is represented in full Indian costume in Fig. 118. The
war-paint and tomahawk are not necessary here, as he is smoking a pipe
of peace. His apparel is composed of one garment, which is cut from a
broad, soft corn-husk, after the pattern given in Fig. 119. A narrow
strip of husk tied about his waist forms the belt.

[Illustration: Head, Arms, and Body.]

[Illustration: Finished Doll.]

His head-dress is made of small chicken feathers stuck at regular
intervals into a strip of husk. The corn-silk hair is placed on his
head, and on top of that one end of the head-dress is fastened with a

A small twig is used for the stem of his pipe, and two rose-bush thorns
form the bowl. Instead of using a thorn for his mouth, a round hole is
punched in the face and the stem of the pipe inserted.

[Illustration: A Real Indian Doll.]

[Illustration: The Indian’s Dress.]

=Mary Jane.=

Here is another way of making a doll which is very easy and simple.
First find a young ear of corn, one on which the silk has not turned
brown; then with a crab-apple for a head and a leaf of the corn to
dress her with, you have your material. Cut off squarely that end of
the ear where the husks are puckered, to join the stalk, and carefully
take the silk from the other end, disturbing as little as possible the
closely wrapped husks.

Roll part of the leaf (as indicated in Fig. 120) for the arms, then
with a small twig fasten the head to the arms; stick the other end of
the twig into the small end of the corn-cob, and the doll is ready for
dressing. Her bonnet is made of the leaf just where it joins the stalk
(Fig. 121), and is fastened to her head with a thorn. Before adjusting
the bonnet, however, the silk must be placed on the head to form the

[Illustration: Material and Parts of Doll.]

[Illustration: Mary Jane.]

Make the scarf of part of the leaf (Fig. 122), fold it around the
shoulders, and secure it with thorns.

The features also are made of thorns.

When her toilet is complete, you can but acknowledge that this
rosy-cheeked little maid, peeping from beneath her poke-bonnet, is very
cunning indeed.

=Flower Dolls.=


The flower lady with the baby is made of a yellow gourd flower; the
small gourd attached, which has just begun to form, serves for her
head; a green gourd leaf is used for her shawl, and her bonnet is made
of a smaller leaf folded to fit her head. The baby is a white gourd
bud, with a cap made of a leaf. A small twig stuck through part of the
lady’s shawl, through the baby, and into the lady doll, holds the child
in place and makes it appear as though clasped in the mother’s arms.

The features of both dolls are scratched on with a pin and then inked.
To make the lady stand erect, a small twig is stuck into the heart of
the flower, and the other end into the top of a small paste-board-box

The other flower doll is made of the common garden flowers. The
underskirt is a petunia; a Canterbury-bell forms the over-skirt and
waist; small twigs, or broom-straws stuck through buds of the phlox,
are the arms, and the head is a daisy with the petals cut off to look
like a bonnet. The features are made with pen and ink on the yellow
centre. A reversed daisy forms the parasol.

If the flowers named are not at hand, those of a similar shape will
answer just as well.

Gaily dressed little ladies can be made of the brilliantly tinted
hollyhocks, and many other flowers can also be transformed into these
pretty though perishable dolls.




    “That graceful toy whose moving play
    With gentle gales relieves the sultry day.”

A FAN is only a pretty trifle, yet it has been made rather an important
one. To manage a fan gracefully was some time ago considered very
essential by fair dames of society, and in the dainty hand of many
a famous beauty it has played a conspicuous part. Queen Elizabeth
regarded it with so much favor that she was called the “Patron of
Fans,” and she made a rule that no present save a fan should be
accepted by English queens from their subjects.

Although held in such high esteem, it is only since the influx of any
and every thing Japanese that we have had fans in such profusion,
and have discovered how effective they are when used for decorative

A brilliantly tinted fan is of equal value in giving just the right
touch of color to a costume or the decorations of a room, and this
chapter will show how the girls can make the fans themselves, and
have for use or for the adornment of their rooms those of various
shapes, sizes, and colors. The first fan represented here is made in
the form of a butterfly. The principal articles necessary for its
manufacture are a strip of smooth, brown wrapping-paper, stiff enough
to keep its folds, and two sticks for handles. The ribbon which, in
the illustration, ties the handles together looks pretty, but is not
indispensable; an elastic band, or one made of narrow ribbon, slipped
over the sticks will do as well.

[Illustration: Butterfly Fan.]

The paper must be twenty-eight inches long and five and one-half inches
wide. In order to fold it evenly it should be ruled across with lines
one-half inch apart, as shown in diagram of butterfly (page 179). When
the paper is prepared the pattern can be copied from the diagram,
which is half of the butterfly. By counting the lines and using them
as guides for obtaining the proportions, an exact reproduction of
this pattern can be made. The outlines being drawn, the paper must be
plaited, one fold on top of another, until twenty-seven plaits have
been laid. Smoothing out the paper again, the butterfly should be
painted with water-colors in flat, even tints.

[Illustration: Diagram of one-half of Butterfly Fan.]

The lower part of diagram is the body of the insect and is of a
light-brown color, also the space just below the head, which is
surrounded by a strip of black.


    Fig. 123.   Fig. 125.

Folded Fans.]

[Illustration: Handle.]

The head and eyes are black, the eyes having a half-circle of white
to separate them from the head. The main part of the wings are a
brownish purple, next to which comes a border of very dark purple with
light-blue spots. The outer border is light yellow. When the paint
is quite dry the extra paper at the top of the butterfly is to be
cut away. Again the fan must be plaited in the folds already formed,
and the plaits fastened together at one end with a strong needle and
thread, as shown in diagram (Fig. 123). Fig. 124 shows the shape of the
handles, two of which are required; they should be about nine inches
long, one-third of an inch wide, and one-eighth of an inch thick. A
handle must be glued to the last fold at each end of the fan (see Fig.
125). The fan should be kept closed until the glue is dry, when it may
be opened and used at pleasure.

[Illustration: The Mikado Fan.]

Our next sketch is that of the Mikado fan, and represents a Japanese
lady who, with her fan held aloft, is making a bowing salutation.

This fan is made of the same paper as that used for the butterfly, and
is cut the same width; there are, however, twenty-nine plaits instead
of twenty-seven, as in the other. The diagram gives the pattern in two
parts, and the colors it is to be painted; the face and hands should
be of a flesh-tint and the features done with black in outline. The
directions for putting together the butterfly apply as well to the
Mikado fan.

[Illustration: Pattern of Mikado Fan.]

The third illustration shows a fan made in the shape of a daisy.
Diagram on page 183 shows a section of the pattern.

White paper should be used, and it must be laid in thirty-four plaits,
which will give the flower fifteen whole and two half petals, the half
petals being at each end.

The tinted part of pattern indicates where it is painted yellow to form
the centre of the daisy.

For a plain round fan no pattern is needed. It is made simply of a
strip of paper, of the width used for the other fans, and has about
thirty plaits. When fans of this kind are made of colored paper in
solid tints they are very pretty. Pieces of bright, figured wall-paper
left from papering a room can be utilized, and quite effective fans be
made of them to use for decoration.

[Illustration: Daisy Fan.]

Another style of fan is represented in our last illustration. It is
made of twenty slats of cardboard cut after pattern Fig. 126. These
slats are joined together at the top and centre with narrow ribbon
passed through the slits cut for it, as shown in Fig. 127. Over the
ribbon where it passes through the top slits, on the wrong side of the
fan, square pieces of paper are pasted, which hold the ribbon down
securely at these points. The paper is pasted only at each end of the
ribbon in the middle row. It is best to leave one end of this ribbon
loose until the fan is joined at the bottom; then opening the fan, and
drawing the ribbon until it fits the fan smoothly, it can be cut the
right length and the loose end fastened down. A ribbon is also used to
hold the slats together at the bottom; a bow at each side keeps them
in place (see Fig. 128). When a large fan for decoration is desired,
the slats should be about eighteen inches long, two and a half inches
wide at the top, and one and a half inch wide at the bottom. The fan
may be larger still, in which case it can be used as a screen to set
before an empty fire-place. For this purpose the slats have to be two
feet long, four inches wide at the top, and two and a half inches wide
at the bottom.

[Illustration: Pattern for Daisy Fan.]

The proportions of the slats for a small hand-fan are eight and a half
inches long, one and a half inch wide at the top, and one inch wide
at the bottom. The large fans should be made of heavier cardboard or
pasteboard than that used for smaller ones.

[Illustration: Construction of Cardboard Fan.]

Colored cardboard, which can be bought at almost any stationer’s, is
the best to use, but the slats of ordinary white cardboard may be
covered with colored paper if more convenient.

These fans may be varied to suit the taste of the girls who make them.
Instead of a solid color, one can be made with alternate slats of red
and white, blue and yellow, or any other colors that harmonize. Another
may show all the tints of the rainbow, and for use on the Fourth of
July one might display the red, white, and blue.

[Illustration: Cardboard Fan.]

Some will look especially handsome if prettily painted. A dark-red fan
with a branch of dogwood-blossoms painted across it makes a charming
wall decoration, as does also one of light blue with pine-branch and
cone painted in brown or black.

A gilt fan lightens up a dusky corner beautifully; it can be curved
around to fit the place, and catching and reflecting the light at all
angles, as it does, it is quite effective.


[Illustration: AUTUMN.]




RADIANT and beautiful October, whose changing color heralds the
approach of winter, gives us our first autumn holiday, if Halloween can
now be called a holiday.

Before the Christian era, in the days of the ancient Celts and their
priests, the Druids, the eve of the first of November was the time for
one of the three principal festivals of the year. The first of May was
celebrated for the sowing; the solstice on the twenty-first of June for
the ripening, and the eve of the first of November for the harvesting.
At each of these festivals great fires were built on the hill-tops
in honor of the sun, which the people worshipped. When Christianity
took the place of the heathen religion, the Church, instead of
forbidding the celebration of these days, gave them different meanings,
and in this way the ancient harvest-festival of the Celts became
All-Hallow-Eve, or the eve of All-Saints-Day, the first day of November
having been dedicated to all of the saints.

[Illustration: Kaling.]

For a long while most of the old customs of these holidays were
retained; then, although new ceremonies were gradually introduced,
Hallow-Eve remained the night of the year for wild, mysterious, and
superstitious rites. Fairies and all supernatural beings were believed
to be abroad at this time, and to exercise more than their usual power
over earthly mortals. Because the fairy folk were believed to be so
near us on Halloween, it was considered the best evening of the
season for the practice of magic, and the customs observed on this
night became mostly those of divination, by the aid of which it was
thought the future might be read.

Before proceeding further with this subject we desire our readers
to appreciate and fully understand that we are far from wishing to
inculcate any superstitious belief in the power of charms to forecast
future events; that we regard all fortune-telling as nonsense, pure and
simple, and only insert it here, as we would any other game, for the
sake of the amusement it affords. Although, to make our descriptions
more intelligible, we announce the results of charms as facts, we would
not have it understood that they are to be taken as such.

Nowadays, so practical has the world become, no fairy, witch, or geni
could we conjure up, were we to practice all the charms and spells
ever known to soothsayer or seer. Our busy, common-sense age allows
no fairies to interfere with its concerns, and these creatures, who
existed only in the belief of the people, must needs vanish, to return
no more, when that belief is gone.

A few fortune-telling games are all that now remain of the weird
ceremonies that once constituted the rites of Halloween, and the
spirit of this old heathen holiday is once more changed, for it is now
considered only an occasion for fun and frolic.

It was the custom for quite a number of years of some friends of the
writer to give a Halloween party on each recurring Halloween; and
merrier, jollier parties than those were, it would not be easy to
devise. The home which opened wide its hospitable doors to the favored
few on this night is a country-house, large and spacious; there is a
basement under the whole lower floor, which is divided into kitchen,
laundry, and various store-rooms intersected with passages, and this
basement, deserted by the servants, was given up to the use of the
Halloween revellers. The rooms and passage-ways were decorated with
and lighted by Chinese lanterns, which produced a subdued glow in their
immediate vicinity, but left mysterious shadows in nooks and corners.

Putting aside conventionality and dignity as we laid aside our wraps,
ready for any fun or mischief that might be on hand, we proceeded
down-stairs and into the kitchen, where a large pot of candy was found
bubbling over the fire. This candy, poured into plates half-full of
nuts, was eaten at intervals during the evening, and served to keep
up the spirits of those who were inclined to be cast down by the
less pleasing of Fortune’s decrees. With plenty of room and no fear
of breaking or destroying anything, which is apt to put a check upon
frolics in the parlor, the company could give full vent to their high
spirits. Now in this room, now in that, again flitting through the dim
passages and around dark corners, each person seemed to be everywhere
at once, and although the party was limited to about twenty-five, there
appeared to be at least twice that number present. Bursts of merry
laughter and little screams of pretended terror would announce, now
and then, that some charm was being gone through with and someone’s
fortune being told. All sorts of games were played, and the variety of
our entertainment made the evening pass very quickly. All too soon the
hands of the kitchen clock warned the guests that to reach home at a
seasonable hour they must put an end to their Halloween festivities. A
number of the following methods of telling fortunes were tried at these
parties, one might say with success, for we certainly succeeded in
accomplishing our main object, which was, to have a good time. By

=Melted Lead=

we used to ascertain what the occupation of one’s future husband would
be. The fortune is told in this way: Each girl, in turn, holds a
door-key in one hand, while with the other hand she pours the melted
lead, from an iron spoon or ladle, through the handle of the key into a
pan of cold water.


In the fanciful shapes the lead assumes can be traced resemblances to
all sorts of things. Sometimes it is a sword or gun, which indicates
that a soldier will win the fair prize; again, traces of a ship may
be seen: then the favored one is to be a sailor; a plough suggests a
farmer; a book, a professor, or perhaps a minister; and when the lead
forms only drops, it seems to mean that the gentle inquirer will not
marry, or if she does, her husband will be of no profession.

=Nutshell Boats=

foretell in a general way what their owner’s future life will be.
They should be prepared beforehand in this manner: Split an English
walnut directly in half, remove the kernel, and clear away any of the
partitions which may remain in the shell; then place a short piece of
heavy cotton string in the shell and pour around it melted beeswax.
Mould the wax into a cone shape around the string, as shown in Fig.
129, allowing the end to come out at the top. Fig. 130 shows what it is
like when finished.

[Illustration: _Fig. 129_]

[Illustration: _Fig. 130_]

The tapers first being lighted, several of these little craft are
launched at the same time, by their respective owners, upon the sea of
life, or, in other words, in a tub of water.

When a light burns steadily until the wax is all melted, and the frail
bark safely rides the waves (which are occasioned by stirring the water
with a stick, or shaking the tub from side to side), a happy life is
predicted, and a long one.

When two boats come in contact, it means that their owners will meet
and have mutual interests some time during their lives.

If one boat crosses another’s path, it denotes that their owners will
do the same.

If two boats come together and continue to sail about side by side,
their owners will in some way pass much of their lives together.

When a boat clings closely to the sides of the tub, refusing to sail
out into the centre, it shows that its owner will be a stay-at-home.

Touching often at the side of the tub is indicative of short voyages;
and extended travel is predicted when a boat seldom touches the tub.

It depends a good deal upon the fancy and imagination of those testing
their fate how the antics of the little fleet are interpreted, and the
meanings given to the movements of the boats create no end of fun.

“=Three Luggies.=”[C]

    “In order, on the clean hearth-stane,
       The luggies three are ranged,
     And ev’ry time great care is ta’en
       To see them duly changed.”

The three bowls, or dishes, one containing clear water, one milky, and
the other nothing at all, are placed in a row on the hearth-stone or
table, and the girl wishing to try her fortune is blindfolded and led
up to where the dishes stand. She is then told to put her left hand
into one of the bowls. If she dips her fingers in the clear water,
she will marry a bachelor; if in the milky water, a widower; and if
into the empty bowl, it is a sure sign that she will live in single
blessedness all her days.

This ceremony must be gone through with three times, and the hand be
dipped twice in the same bowl, in order to make the prediction of any

=Roasting Nuts=

is the charm by which the friendship of anyone may be tested. The
applicant for knowledge on this point names two nuts, one for her
friend and the other for herself, and then places them side by
side upon the grate, or a shovel held over the fire. If they burn
quietly, it is prophetic of a long and happy friendship kept up by
both parties; but if in roasting they burst with a loud report and
fly apart, they are decidedly uncongenial, and should not seek much
intercourse. The movements of the nuts while heating are closely
watched, for the tempers of the persons for whom they are named is said
to be thus revealed.


is a mode of telling one’s fortune not as well known, perhaps, as
the foregoing methods. The ceremony is carried out in the following
manner: Two girls are blindfolded and started off on the path to the
kitchen-garden and cabbage-patch, where each pulls up the first stalk
she finds. They then return at once to the house, where the bandages
are removed and the mysterious stalks examined.

According to the state of the stalk, so will be the gatherer’s fate. If
it is straight or crooked, large or small, so will the future husband
be; if it has a pleasant taste, or the reverse, the character of the
person will correspond, and the quantity of earth clinging to the roots
denotes whether their riches will be little or great.

When there are no cabbages at hand, almost any other garden vegetable
will answer; and if there be objections to going out-of-doors,
vegetables of various kinds, such as turnips, beets, and parsnips, may
be placed on a table, and the persons blindfolded can choose from them.
No doubt the charm will work as well with the plants upon a table as
when they are pulled from a kitchen-garden.

=The Magic Mirror,=

which is simply a hand-glass on ordinary occasions, and gains its
mysterious power only on Halloween, divulges, under certain conditions,
the delightful secret of how many bits of good-fortune will fall to
one’s share during the ensuing year. The conditions are that the
person wishing to know how bright her prospects are shall go to an open
window or door from which the moon is visible, and, standing with her
face in-doors, hold her mirror so that the moon will be reflected in
it. The number of moons she sees there betokens the number of times
something pleasant will happen to her before the advent of another

=Three Tin Cups=

partially filled with water are balanced on the small ends of three
funnels, which are placed in a row on the floor, about two feet apart.
Over these cups, one after another, each member of the party must
leap in turn. Whoever succeeds in leaping over all three cups without
knocking any of them off will make an early marriage. The person who
knocks over one will marry when not so young. The marriage of the one
who tips over two cups will be deferred until late in life, and she who
leaps none of them safely will not be married at all.

To guard against wet feet very little water should be put in the
cups—only enough to make the players careful about tipping them over.

=The Ring Cake=

is always an object of interest at Halloween parties. The cake itself
is made like the ordinary kind, but before it is baked a plain gold
ring is hidden in the dough, not to be taken out until the cake is cut
and it falls to the share of the fortunate person in whose slice it
happens to be found. The ring is sometimes put in a flour-cake, which
is simply flour packed into a cake-mould so firmly that when it is
turned out it retains the shape of the mould and can be sliced off with
a knife. Each member of the party cuts her or his own section of flour,
and whoever secures the ring, it is confidently stated, will be the
first of the group to marry.

Some Halloween games apparently have no particular meaning attached to
them, but seem to be devised for the purpose of creating as much fun as

=Bobbing for Apples=

is, perhaps, familiar to most of our readers, but we give a description
of it here for the benefit of the few who may not know the game so well.

In a large tub full of fresh, cold water several apples are placed, and
it is the object of the participators to take them out of the water
with their teeth.

As the rosy-cheeked, tempting fruit bobs about within easy reach, it
looks simple enough to secure a prize; but the apples are so round and
slippery, so aggravatingly illusive, that, unless you thrust your head
and neck beneath the cold water, regardless of consequences, and drive
an apple to the bottom, the feat cannot be accomplished. The girls can
seldom be induced to try their luck in this game, but usually content
themselves with looking on, immensely enjoying the frantic endeavors of
the boys to succeed at any cost.

=The Apple and Candle Game=

is another favorite sport for Halloween, and is played as follows:
From the ceiling is suspended a stout cord, the lower end of which is
securely tied to the centre of a stick about a foot and a half long.
On one end of the stick is fastened an apple, on the other a lighted
candle. The string is set in motion, swinging back and forth like a
pendulum, and the contestants for the prize stand ready, each in turn,
to make a grab for the apple, which must be caught in the teeth before
it can be won. Frequently the candle is caught instead of the apple,
which mishap sends the spectators off into shouts of merriment; but
although funny, it is at the same time a little dangerous to catch a
lighted candle in one’s teeth, and we would suggest that a bag made of
cheese-cloth, or like thin material, be filled with flour and tied to
the stick in place of the candle. When the person essaying to snatch
the fruit is struck in the face with the bag, and is covered with flour
instead of the glory anticipated, as much mirth will result as can
possibly arise when the old and dangerous practice of using a candle is
clung to.

=The Ghostly Fire=

should not be lit unless all of the party have strong nerves, for the
light it produces is rather unearthly, and may affect some members
unpleasantly. We, at our Halloween parties, never omitted this rite,
however, its very weirdness proving its strongest attraction. Salt and
alcohol were put in a dish, with a few raisins, and set on fire. As
soon as the flame leaped up we clasped hands and gayly danced around
the table, upon which burned our mystic fire. The laughing eyes and
lips looked in strange contrast to the pale faces of their owners, from
which the greenish light had taken every vestige of color. The dance
was not prolonged, for it was our duty, before the fire was spent, to
snatch from the flames the raisins we had put in the dish. This can be
done, if one is careful, without as much as scorching the fingers, and
I never knew of anyone burning themselves while making the attempt.

=Trying for a Raisin=

is a very laughable performance. The raisin, which must be a good-sized
one, is strung on and pushed exactly to the middle of a soft cotton
string about one yard long. Two aspirants for the prize then take each
an end of the string, which they put in their mouths and commence to
chew, taking it up as fast as they can—the raisin falling to the share
of the person who succeeds in reaching it first.

=A Lighted Candle=

is again used in a game which is exceedingly amusing. The candle is
placed upon a table in full view of everyone; then one of the players
is blindfolded, turned around several times, and set free to seek for
the candle and blow out the light, if possible.

To see girls, with their hands clasped behind them, going crazily
about the room, blowing at anything and everything, is very ludicrous.
They seldom find the candle, and even when the table is reached it is
difficult to blow in such a direction as to extinguish the flame.

=The Fairy’s Gifts=

are suggested as a new and original ending of a Halloween frolic.

The Fairy Godmother, in Mother Hubbard costume, carries a large basket
under her cloak or shawl. She enters the room and announces that she
has a certain number of gifts which she proposes to distribute among
the company. After cautioning all that the contents must be kept
secret, she passes to each person a folded paper. On one is written
“_Wealth_,” on another “_Honor_,” on the third “_Fame_,” etc., and some
of the papers are left blank.

Those whose papers contain the names of gifts are then blindfolded,
preparatory to receiving their behests.

The first is led up and made to kneel before the Fairy Godmother, to
whom she repeats these words:

    Most gracious Fairy, the gift you give
    I shall treasure and keep as long as I live.

Then the paper containing the name of the gift is handed the Fairy, who
reads it aloud very solemnly: “_Wealth_”—and, turning to her basket,
she takes from it a new dust-pan, to which is attached a ribbon-loop,
at the same time reciting these lines:

    Your choice is bad when you intrust
    Your happiness where moth and rust,
    In time, turn all your wealth to dust.

From a paper-bag the Fairy pours a small amount of dust over the
kneeling girl, and hangs the dust-pan around her neck.

The next person who has drawn a prize is then brought forward and
the performance is repeated, only altering the Fairy’s speech. For
“_Honor_,” she will say:

    Your honor crowds shall loud declare,
    But in your heart, no crowd is there,
    You’ll find, like _Falstaff_, “honor’s air.”

The present here is a pair of bellows, from which the Fairy blows a
blast on the bowed head before her as she utters the word _air_. The
bellows, like the dust-pan, are hung by a ribbon around the recipient’s

For “_Fame_,” the Fairy gives a wreath of roses, and says, as she
adjusts the crown:

    When Fame doth weave a laurel-wreath,
    He weaves this subtle charm beneath;
    “For every evil thought that’s born
    The laurel grows a prickly thorn;
    But where pure thought and love reposes,
    The laurel-wreath’s a wreath of roses.”


[Illustration: Buckeye Portière.]


[C] Dishes.



THESE beautiful decorations are free to all who care to possess them.
Every autumn comes to us laden with ornaments which no skilled workman
can rival. The graceful golden-rod, so rich in color, sways and bends
over the low stone walls, and in the fields wild flowers of all kinds
grow in great profusion. White, spreading wild carrot, yellow and white
daisies, light and dark purple asters, and sumach, with its varied
hues, give color to the landscape on our bright fall days. There are
also the queer-shaped pods and feathery, silky seeds peculiar to some
wild plants; among others the poor “vagabond thistle,” which has donned
its robe of glistening white, although some of its tribe still wear
their faded purple gowns. The latter may be gathered for thistle-puffs,
and all the objects mentioned can be used in home decorations.

We cannot pass by unnoticed the brown milk-weed pods, for within
the shells, full well we know, are hidden the silvery, downy seeds
which make such pretty milk-weed balls. Here, too, we notice the
rich coloring of bark as well as foliage, the bright scarlet berries
contrasting with the brown, yellow, and green leaves. The vine, once a
fresh green, is now changed to deep crimson; even the tiny leaves of
the wild strawberry and some grasses have touches of red on their edges.

How the rich coloring of autumn differs from the delicate tints of
spring, when the promise was made in bud and leaf, which is now
realized in the bountiful harvests!

Having such a wealth to glean from, we scarcely know what to take
first; but for decorations to last only a few hours it would be
difficult to imagine anything more brilliantly appropriate than

=Fresh Autumn Wild Flowers=

and small branches of brilliant fall leaves. At the time of this
writing wild flowers are very popular; one of our daily papers records
a wedding which recently took place, where the display of wild flowers
was beautiful in the extreme. Curtains of wood-ferns were caught back
with golden-rod, and a bower of holly and oak was fringed with clusters
of scarlet bitter-sweet berries. Daisies were also used in abundance,
while the beauty of the little church was enhanced by the masses of
white blossoms and oak-branches.

This idea can be used advantageously in decorating the house for
evening parties and receptions, or afternoon teas and coffees. Have the
flowers and foliage in masses, the effect is much better; and if you
gather very large, hardy ferns with their roots attached they will make
exceedingly graceful decorations, and placed in water or wet sand they
will remain fresh for days.

When golden-rod is gathered in its prime it will keep nearly all winter
without fading. Do not put it in water; all that is necessary is to
keep it dry. The rich brown cat-tails should be treated in the same
manner; these must be gathered at their best, before they are too ripe.
Bitter-sweet berries will last for months and retain a bright red. The
old-fashioned honesty, with its white, satiny pods, keeps perfectly
for any length of time. The wild rose-bush in the fall is decked with
seed-coverings, which closely resemble scarlet berries; these will last
for many weeks. The wild clematis, with its festoons of hazy fluff,
will keep for a long time, and always looks well when thrown over and
on the top corner of a portière and allowed to hang naturally down a
little on one side, or arranged in a similar manner over the tops of
windows, doors, pictures, or wherever it will look graceful. It should
hang out of harm’s way, as it is brittle and easily broken when dry.

[Illustration: A Young Decorator.]

For entertainments, the more elaborate and bountiful the decorations
of fresh wild flowers the more beautiful will the house appear; but
for every-day life during the cold weather, when we have only the
dried fall plants, we may almost make up for the lack of fresh flowers
by using judgment and taste in arranging the dried ones. Though wild
flowers are beautiful, you must use taste in their arrangement and not
mingle them together promiscuously, but make a judicious selection, for
where a light bunch of golden-rod would be the very thing needed to
give color to a particular spot, should the dark cat-tails be placed
there the effect might be lost. There are places where some high, stiff
decoration would look best, and others where the soft, swaying clematis
seems to belong. As with everything else, so with our decorations, we
must seek to have harmony.

Who has not admired the dark-brown, glossy buckeyes and
horse-chestnuts, and wondered what use could be made of them? Children
love to gather them and come home with their pockets and baskets full,
only to play with them for awhile, and then the pretty dark balls, each
marked with a spot of light cream-color, are thrown away or lost.

Now, the next time the buckeyes are collected save every one and make a

=Buckeye Portière.=

The writer assures you that you will find it much easier to do this
than she did to make a picture of the curtain, for it is difficult with
a pen-and-ink drawing to give an idea of the richness of color in the
handsome hangings these horse-chestnuts make when properly fashioned
into a portière for hall or doorway. Two full bushels of buckeyes will
be needed to make a curtain two yards and a half long and one yard and
a quarter wide.

Take a very large, long needle and a strong, waxed thread a little
longer than you desire to have your curtain, make a large knot in the
end of the thread, and commence to string your buckeyes in the same
way as stringing beads or buttons. Continue until the thread in the
needle is exhausted, then tie the thread in a large knot close to the
last buckeye, leaving a length of three inches of thread. Make your
other strands in the same way. When all are finished, fasten as many
small screw-eyes in a straight line on a curtain-pole, or a rustic
pole if desired, as there are strands of buckeyes, and tie securely to
each screw-eye one string of buckeyes. When all are fastened on, your
portière is finished and ready to be hung. This is easily accomplished
if the pole used is a regular curtain-pole, as they always come with
brackets; but should your pole be rustic, it must be supported by bands
of strong birch-bark, or leather, as in Fig. 131. Our illustration
shows over the portière a

[Illustration: Birch-Bark Support for Pole.]

=Panel of Fall Decorations.=

These also look handsome over windows and doors, and you are at liberty
to use ornaments of all styles, for the panels are placed where there
is no danger of anything coming in contact with them to break off the
decorations or mar their beauty. Any kind of board will do for the
panel, rough or smooth, as you like. Paint the board a pure white, then
decide on your ornaments, which may be a chestnut-branch with bursting
burs attached, sprays of common wayside velvet-leaf with clusters of
pods clinging to them, a piece of black-berry vine with its twigs,
thorns, and dried berries, or branches of buckeyes with some of the
nuts falling from their horned shells.

Select according to your fancy, and gild the decorations chosen, then
tack them on the panel. It is best to place the ornaments on the board
while the paint is soft and wet, for then it will help to fasten the
decoration more securely; if the paint be put on thick where the
ornaments are to be placed, they will lie partially embedded in the
paint, and when it dries they will appear as if carved from the wood.[D]

A white and gold panel made in this way is very pretty and inexpensive.

The fall decorations also enable us to make a very effective

=Louis Quinze Screen.=

[Illustration: Hinge for Louis Quinze Screen.]

[Illustration: Hoops Fastened Together for Louis Quinze Screen.]

For this it is necessary to have two small wooden hoops, such as
children roll along the streets; fasten these together with a strong
piece of white tape, two or three inches wide, cut the end of the
tape bias, tack this on the side of one of the hoops, bring it around
between and over the other hoop, and tack it again, repeat the
operation and the hinge will be finished (Fig. 132). If you look at
the hinge on a wooden clothes-horse you will understand how to make
one. Fig. 133 shows the hoops fastened together. Now cut two pieces of
coarse, strong cotton cloth, a little larger around than the hoops,
and place one of the pieces smoothly over one of the hoops; tack it
down, driving the tacks in far apart, and so that they can be easily
extracted; if the cloth wrinkles, keep changing it until the surface is
perfectly even; when this is accomplished carefully tack the covering
securely down, keeping it smooth and without wrinkles. In like manner
tack the remaining piece of cloth on the other hoop. Next get four
broomsticks and cut a notch on each one, at exactly the same distance
from the top, for the hoops to fit in. Then measure where you wish
the hoops to be placed and cut another notch on each stick a certain
distance from the bottom; all the sticks must be of the same length and
have the notches cut in the same places, so each one may be a duplicate
of the others. Mark the hoops where the sticks are to fit, and then
fasten them firmly on with small screws. Make the screen strong, so
that there will not be any danger of its coming apart. Give each cloth
a sizing of common flour-paste on both sides, then scrape off all the
paste with a knife; in this way the cloth will be starched and prepared
to receive the paint. When the screen is thoroughly dry, sew a branch
across one of the disks and some waxed fall leaves in the places
where they would naturally lie on the branch; when these are securely
attached, decorate the other disk with something different; acorns can
be used if cut in halves; but never place any ornaments on the screen
which will not lie flat, for if they stand out they will be broken off
or injured by persons passing and brushing against them. Now give the
screen a coat of white paint all over, including the branch and leaves,
but do not paint the hinge. Set the screen away until it is perfectly
dry, then gild the branches and leaves, connecting the latter with the
twigs by painting a line of gold between the two. Gild a ring around
each pole near the top and another near the bottom, and cover the edges
of the hoops where the cloth has been fastened on by tacking white gimp
around each one, using fancy brass-headed tacks and placing them at
equal distances apart; this completes the ornamental screen.

[Illustration: Louis Quinze Screen.]

Should you desire it, the screen can be painted black or any other
color, and the decorations bronzed instead of gilded. The bronzes come
in different shades, and the color of real bronze can be easily copied.

=A Panel of Field-Corn=

As an ornament for the dining-room is very decorative and easy to
make. When the corn ripens, select some nice, firm, golden ears, with
husks and without; then break off pieces of cornstalk and group them
together, as in the illustration; cover a board of requisite size with
a piece of old black velvet; if you have no velvet, paint the board
black, and after tying the corn firmly together, tack it securely on
the board, and the dark background will bring out the many yellow tints
of the decoration beautifully; fasten two screw-eyes in the back of the
board, by which to attach the wire, and the panel will be ready to hang
on the wall.

The corn can also be fastened to a rough board of the desired size and
the panel and decoration bronzed, using green bronze for the background
and portions of the group, while all the edges and prominent points
should be of copper-colored bronze.

Early in November the many varieties of gourds ripen, and their odd
and fantastic forms seem like nature’s suggestions of the unique
in ornamentation. So suggestive are they that it needs but little
originality to make them into many useful and beautiful articles. As
a decoration for looping over the poles of portières, and for holding
back draperies, these

=Ornamental Gourds=

are convenient. They must first be allowed to become perfectly dry;
then they can be made into tasselled festoons. Take six mock-oranges,
which imitate so closely our real oranges in color, size, and form,
and cut a hole about the size of a silver dime in the top and bottom
of each one; then shake out the seeds. To make the openings in the
gourds, first bore a small hole with the point of a large needle, then
twist the needle around and around until it will easily pass through.
Next, carefully enlarge the opening with a sharp penknife until it is
of the stated size. Make a rope two yards and a half long of Persian
colored wools or worsted; on the end fasten a slender tassel, six or
seven inches long, made of the same worsted; now string one of the
bright orange-gourds on the rope down against the tassel, which should
be large enough to prevent the gourd from slipping off; make another
similar tassel, and attach it to the rope about twelve inches from
the first one, and thread another gourd on the rope, bringing it down
against the second tassel; proceed in like manner with the remaining
gourds, making a tassel for each one, and you will have a decoration
unlike any to be found elsewhere.

We are all more or less familiar with the


so common in the South, where, in olden times, scarcely a spring
bubbled in a rustic nook that was not supplied with its drinking-gourd.
These dippers are made by sawing an opening in the large part of the
gourd, scraping out the contents, and making the inside as smooth as
possible with sand-paper. They need no ornamentation.

The kind of gourds resembling flattened globes can be made into
graceful and unique


The gourds must be sawed into two parts, with the inside of each
sand-papered, and flowers painted, with oil-colors, on the outside.
After they have thoroughly dried, give a coat of white varnish to both
the inside and outside. A pretty


can be fashioned of one of these gourds. Saw off the top, which will
serve as a lid, and fasten it to the bowl with narrow ribbons tied
through holes at the back of each; line both lid and box with satin by
gluing it along the edges with stiff glue put on sparingly, and cover
the raw edge of the satin with chenille; this is also put on with a
little glue. Do not allow the chenille to interfere with the closing of
the box, but place it along the inside edge of the box and lid.

Another form is the


Ornament this with ivy-leaves painted as if twined around bowl and
neck, and when the paint is dry varnish the gourd all over; if you wish
it for use as well as decoration, saw off the top about two or three
inches deep, shake out the seeds, then fit a cork in the piece cut off,
and so glue it in that the cork may extend an inch downward to fit in
the bottle.

The large egg-shaped gourds look well as


[Illustration: Wire Twisted for Feet of Gourd-Vase.]

[Illustration: Foot Bent Down.]

[Illustration: Finished Wire Feet for Gourd-Vase.]

[Illustration: Ornamental and Useful Gourds.]

Select a deep-colored gourd, saw off the top and scrape out the inside;
then varnish the vase and mount it on feet of twisted wire, made
according to Fig. 134; bend down the feet, as in Fig. 135, when the
wire will be formed into Fig. 136. To fasten this on the vase, first
bore holes in the bottom of the gourd, then sew the feet firmly on,
passing the needle through the holes previously made and bending the
wire a little to fit to the gourd. Gild the wire feet, and your vase is
finished. Another way is to save the top sawed off, fasten an ornament
of twisted wire on the top of it, and then, after making the vase as
the one just described, add bands of gilded cardboard made to fit
the gourd, fastening them to the vase with glue. Handles can also be
fashioned of cardboard and sewed to the upper band before it is glued
to the vase, as in the illustration.

There are many other ways of utilizing gourds, but we will leave it to
your ingenuity to think up new and pretty conceits.

Pine-cones, large and small, acorns, and balls from the sweet-gum tree,
can be used as

=Small Decorations.=

Never try to fasten them by the natural stems, for these will soon
break off, but place in each one a small screw-eye, and when tied in
groups they form ornaments for waste-baskets and fancy baskets of all
kinds. We have seen chandeliers with gilded cones hanging from the
different points, and being the identical color of the chandelier, they
seemed of the same metal, and added novelty and grace to its appearance.

There are some varieties of the tree-fungi which make dark, rich-colored


Use heavy cardboard or thin board as a covering for the back; have this
fit the fungus perfectly, and fasten it securely in position with very
stiff glue or nails. Paint the back the same color as the fungus, and
on either side of the upper edge place screw-eyes by which to fasten up
the bracket.

Many of the curiously formed galls and oak-apples to be found on
different trees can also be employed as ornaments.

Nothing can be finer than our brilliant autumn season, which is said
to be more beautiful in this than in other countries, with its crisp
mornings and bright sunny afternoons.

When the weather is too lovely to remain in-doors, and all nature
invites us out, then is the time to gather our fall decorations.


[Illustration: The Little Brown Squirrel.]


[D] For this work the staple-tacks used for tacking down matting will
be found very convenient.



OFF they go with bright, laughing eyes and glowing cheeks, each one
carrying a light little basket or fancy bag slung carelessly on her
arm. The girls are full of life and spirits as they walk briskly along
toward the woods in the delightful fall weather, talking and laughing
in a happy, thoughtless fashion, now telling where the best nuts are
to be found, the shortest route to take, or where the prettiest walks
lead, and again lingering or stopping to admire the many wonderful
beauties of autumn. Leaving the road they enter the woods, where the
dry leaves rustle pleasantly beneath their feet, and in some places the
gold and brown leaves through which they walk lie ankle-deep.

All this is fully enjoyed by the party as they proceed on their way
discussing the best place for lunch, which consideration is quite
important, as it is necessary, if possible, to be near a clear, cool
spring; otherwise the water must be transported.

Arriving at the selected spot about noon, all bring forward their
baskets and bags to contribute the contents to their “nutting-dinner.”
Soon the white cloth is laid and the tempting feast spread, when the
hungry but merry maidens gather around to relish their repast in the
forest, where, all about, are seen sure signs of coming winter.

The airy dining-hall is carpeted with the softest moss, and the
gorgeous coloring of the surrounding foliage is far more beautiful than
the most costly tapestry, while the sky forming the roof is of the
serenest blue.

Now and then the sound of falling nuts is heard as they drop from the
trees. This is music in the ears of the girls, and they hurry through
their lunch, collect the empty baskets, and are soon busy gathering the
glossy brown chestnuts, which are thrashed down from the branches by
some of the party, who use long poles for the purpose. Down comes the
shower of nuts and burs, and away the party scamper to patiently wait
until it is over, as the prickly burs are things to be avoided. Some
wise girls have brought tweezers to use in pulling open these thorny
coverings. Others have their hands well protected by heavy gloves which
cannot easily be penetrated with the bristling spikes.

It does not take long to fill their bags, and the one who first
succeeds in the feat receives the title of “Little Brown Squirrel.”
Then all the others, for the rest of the day, obey her wishes. Nor is
this difficult, for their Little Brown Squirrel is blithe and gay,
generous and kind, and does all in her power to render her subjects

As they turn their faces homeward the girls plan for another
nutting-party to come off soon, for they wish to make the most of the
glorious Indian summer, which belongs, we claim, exclusively to our
country, and which may last a week or only a few days.

The chestnuts are brought home, where in the evening some are eaten
raw, others have the shells slit and are then roasted or boiled, making
a sort of chestnut festival, as in the North of Italy, only of course
on a very much smaller scale, for there the peasants gather chestnuts
all day long and have a merry-making when the sun goes down. This
harvest lasts over three weeks and is a very important one to the
dark-eyed Italians, who dry the nuts and grind them to flour, which is
used for bread and cakes during the barren season. The harvest in the
Apennines is quite an event, as the trees are plentiful, the fruit is
good, and the people gladly celebrate the season.

Our thin, white-shelled shag-bark hickory-nut is peculiarly American,
and many a nutting-party have found its delicate and agreeable flavor
very welcome when, gathered around a large rock, they crack a few to
sample their fruit before returning home. These nuts are only cooked
by covering the kernels with hot candy, and thus prepared, they make a
delicious sweetmeat.

[Illustration: Blossom and Fruit of the Chestnut-Tree.]

When cracking hickory-nuts, hold each nut firmly by the flat sides,
bringing uppermost one of the narrow sides; strike this and the nut
will open so that the halves fall out, or may be easily extracted,
and occasionally the kernels will come out whole. We have seen quaint
little figures, with the heads made of hickory-nuts, the pointed end
forming the nose, and the eyes and mouth marked with ink, giving a
comical expression to the peaked face.

The neat little three-cornered beech-nut is easy and pleasant to
gather, making a desirable change for the “nutters” after going for
other kinds, and the trees with their beautiful foliage render the
scene very attractive. But not more so than do the lofty and stately
walnut-trees with their rich, brown fruit encased in such rough shells,
whose outside covering is so juicy that, unless we are very cautious,
it will stain our hands its own dark color. The black-walnut tree
(J. nigra) is indigenous to the United States, and we are informed
that a celebrated specimen is still standing at Roslyn, L. I., where
the seed was planted in 1713. The tree measures twenty-five feet in
circumference at three feet from the ground.

Butter-nuts, so significant during our civil war, also belong to
America; the meat, though quite oily, is sweet and agreeable.

Butter-nuts will repay anyone for gathering them, though, like the
walnut, the outer husk is apt to stain the fingers; but this may be
avoided by wearing gloves while handling the fruit. The cross-sections
of the shells, when properly polished, make pretty ornaments.

Although we are all fond of the round little hazel-nut, they do not
seem to be as plentiful as could be wished, and it is seldom we have
the pleasure of going hazel-nutting, yet when the opportunity occurs,
it is rare sport and an event to be talked of afterward.

Nuts are to be found in all portions of the country, and the varieties
depend upon the section in which you live.

=Rules for Nutting-Parties.=

1. In selecting the members of a nutting-party be careful to choose
only those on whom you can safely depend for cheerfulness, kindly
feeling, and a willingness on their part to do all in their power to
assist, should occasion arise, in letting down the bars of a fence,
going for water, or anything which might happen to require their

[Illustration: Pea-Nut Vine and Fruit.]

2. Decide by majority any case of controversy in regard to destination,
the best place and way of crossing a brook, which route to take, or in
fact any question concerning the comfort and pleasure of the party,
until the “Little Brown Squirrel” wins her title. Then she rules
absolutely and settles all questions according to her best judgment,
giving council and friendly advice to those who ask it. All differences
being referred to her, the decision is considered final, and the party
must obey when their Little Brown Squirrel directs.

3. The one who gathers the greatest quantity of nuts in a given time
wins, and receives the above much-desired title. The standard of
measure being previously decided upon by the party, the time may be
either long or short, as desired.

4. The badge given to the successful competitor may consist of fall
leaves or nuts tied with a brown ribbon. This she keeps in remembrance
of the delightful day spent nutting in the woods when she was a Little
Brown Squirrel.

Select, if possible, a day in Indian summer for your nutting-party, and
it is well to wear a gown that will not easily tear, catch the dust,
or spot—not that these accidents are always to be met with on such
excursions, but they might happen, and we must be on the safe side, so
that no thought or anxiety need be given to the clothing.

If your party contemplates a series of nutting-picnics, propose that
they shall go for different varieties each time. This will add novelty
and zest to the excursions; and should the distance in some cases be
too great for a walk, secure a vehicle with a good reliable driver, and
the ride will be particularly enjoyed. This mode of travelling procures
another change in the programme, which should be as varied as you can
make it. Let the plates for your dinner be of wood or paper, to avoid
the necessity of carrying them home. A table-cloth made of large sheets
of white paper is a good substitute for damask, and after doing service
the paper may be thrown away, leaving your baskets entirely empty to be
filled with nuts.

There grows a nut, highly prized, that is never gathered by
nutting-parties. Nor could they see it if they examined every tree
throughout the country. Yet it flourishes in this climate, and may be
seen any day at the fruit-stores and corner-stands. The shells of these
furnish odd fancies for little trifles made by girlish fingers. Cut
in the shape of slippers and glued to a card, they seem suitable for a
wood-nymph, and the card is used as a birthday or _menu_ card. Strung
together with needle and thread, and dressed in costume with black
thread for hair, they make quite a good-looking Japanese.

Glued on a twig and marked with ink in representation of the birds,
they look not unlike owls perched on a limb. When divided in halves the
shells are transformed into tiny boats with tissue-paper sails. This
nut boasts of four names: gouber, pindar, ground-nut, and the familiar
name of pea-nut.




HELLO! Hello! What is it you say? You can really make a telephone? What
fun! How far will it work? You think it can be heard a long distance?
Very good. Could we manage to construct such a one? How, pray tell us?

The answer which came back over the line we give in a more concise
form, as follows:

The best way to make a simple telephone is to procure two round,
medium-sized tin baking-powder boxes, and remove the bottoms with a
pair of pinchers; then soak two pieces of Whatman’s drawing-paper, or
any other strong paper, in a basin of water for a few moments, and when
thoroughly wet take them out and place one smoothly over the end of
each box. Fasten these down by winding a waxed cotton twine securely
over the paper and box, and tying it tightly (Fig. 137). This done,
allow the drums to become wholly dry, when they should be firm, even,
and without wrinkles. Next cut away that portion of the paper which
stands out, frill-like, beyond the string, and paste a narrow strip of
paper around over the twine (Fig. 138). Wax a piece of string of the
desired length, and with a large needle or pin carefully punch a hole
in the centre of each drum; thread one end of the waxed string through
one of the holes and make a large knot in the end, then cautiously pull
the string until the knot rests on the inside surface of the paper.
Connect the other box to the string in like manner, so that the twine
will have a box fastened on each end.

[Illustration: _Fig. 137_]

[Illustration: _Fig. 138_]

[Illustration: _Fig. 139_]

The telephone is now ready for use; and if the distance is short, the
line may be stretched taut from point to point. But should the space be
great, supports will be needed and loops must be made of the twine and
fastened at intervals on trees, corners of the houses, or any available
points, with the connecting cord passed through these loops (Fig. 139),
which act as supports. Keep the course of the waxed string as straight
as possible, and, as far as practicable, avoid sharp angles. This
style of telephone we know, from personal experience, works perfectly
at the distance of fifty yards, and doubtless it will do as well when
the line is stretched much farther. Be particular, in selecting the
tin baking-powder boxes, to have them round and even; if they are old
and battered the experiment may not prove satisfactory. We find the
telephone very useful and convenient, besides affording any amount of
amusement and fun; with its aid we converse with acquaintances, even
though they be at a distance. The friendly little instrument carries
the voice all along the slender line to the very ears of our best
friend, and we can chat away as freely and almost as easily as if side
by side. What a comfort to be able, when seated in your own room, to
listen to the voice of some companion, living perhaps blocks away, and
it is such a pleasure, too, to have questions answered immediately,
which is impossible in communications made by letter. Nor is this a
pleasure to be enjoyed at rare intervals, for as long as the telephone
lasts it can be used at any time for a short or long talk, as one may
feel inclined. The consultations, the plans, the sport, and merriment
to be had with the telephone can scarcely be appreciated by one who is
not the happy possessor of such an instrument.

[Illustration: Listening.]

When the weather will not permit of a walk or a visit, the telephone
brings us, if not face to face, at least within speaking distance of
those to whom we desire to talk.

There are many other easy methods of making telephones. They can be
manufactured as described without waxing the string, or the boxes may
be used unaltered, in which case the tin bottoms serve as drums, and
the holes for the string are made in the centre of each by driving a
small tack through. With these instruments the voice cannot be sent a
great distance, but when only a short line is needed they succeed very

More complicated telephones are made with the drums of bladder and the
line of soft, flexible wire. Though good and serviceable, they are more
difficult to make and require more time and labor.

[Illustration: Speaking.]

The two beef-bladders used for such a telephone must first be blown up,
tied, and left about thirty hours, or until they are stretched, but not
dried. When in proper condition, cut off the necks and portion of the
ends, then soak them in warm water, and they will become very pliable
and light in color. Having previously prepared two square pieces of
board by very carefully cutting out a perfect circle in the centre of
each, about as large as a medium-sized pie-pan or a tea-plate, place
the bladders smoothly but not tightly over the openings, allowing the
outside of the bladder to come on the bottom, and fasten it all around
the circle, a little distance from the edge, with tacks so driven in
that they may be easily removed.

Try the drums with your finger; if they stretch evenly they are
correct, if they wrinkle, change them until they stretch perfectly
smooth. Then tack a piece of firm tape securely around the edge of
the circle, and cut off the bladder reaching beyond the tape. Next
fasten four feet of soft, flexible wire to a large-sized gutta-percha
button by threading it through the two opposite holes in the centre of
the button; pass the other end of the wire through the middle of the
bladder, bringing the button flat against its surface.

After attaching a weight of about seven pounds to the end of the wire,
place the drum in the sun until perfectly dry. Proceed with the other
in the same manner, and when both are well dried, fasten one on each
end of the line and attach the drum-wires to the principal wire by
loops; then stretch it firm and tight. This telephone will also need
loops for supports, which should be of wire. When the instrument is
carefully and properly made it will carry the voice three or four miles
or more, giving every word and tone distinctly and clearly.




WOULD you like to learn to draw, to sketch from nature? Don’t you think
that it would be delightful to be able to take out your pencils and
paper and copy some scene you want to remember, or produce a likeness
of any bird or animal which strikes your fancy?

Many will say, “I’d like it very well, but I _can’t_ draw.”

You can write, can hold a pencil, and trace lines upon the paper;
and if you can do this, you can draw a little. A girl who can learn
anything can learn to draw if she will give the same attention to it
that she gives to other things.

[Illustration: _Fig. 140_]

Now we are not going to talk about copying pictures which someone
else has already drawn, for there is not much satisfaction in making
imitations of other people’s work; it is much more gratifying to make
the original drawings ourselves; but to do this we need some direction.

The reason it is easier to copy a picture than to draw the real object
is because the lines to be copied are all laid out on the flat surface
of the picture; but to draw the object we must find out where to trace
the lines for ourselves.

[Illustration: _Fig. 141_]

For instance, suppose we are to draw a flower-pot and plant. If we
have the picture before us, we can readily see where all the lines are
placed upon the paper, but in viewing a real plant and pot we are apt
to become confused in trying to discover the directions and proportions
of the lines.

[Illustration: _Fig. 142_]

Therefore we must learn _to see things as they appear_, not as they
really are. This may seem strange to you, because one is apt to think
that a thing must appear as it is; but let us look into the matter.

We will take a square box (Fig. 140). Now, we know that all the sides
are the same size, that the top is as large as the side, and that one
side is as large as another; but if you try to draw it so, you will
find it impossible, because, although you know that the top and sides
are the same size as the front, they do not look so, and you draw
things as they look, not as they really are.

What would our cube look like if we tried to make the sides K and H
just like the side I? Why, like Fig. 141. Don’t you see that would be
no box at all?

Take another example. We all know that a man’s leg is longer than his
arm, but it doesn’t always appear so. Measure the arms and legs of Fig.
142, and you will see by actual measurement the arms are longer than
the legs, and yet it looks right, because the legs are projected toward
you; in other words, the legs are _fore-shortened_.

The great secret of drawing from nature is to train the eye to see a
real object just like a picture.

Now let us return to our flower-pot again. We will suppose we are
drawing from a real flower-pot and plant. We determine how large we
will make our sketch, and begin operations by drawing a vertical
line (a straight upright line). Along this line we will mark out the
proportions of the plant and pot, as in Fig. 143.

[Illustration: _Fig. 143_]

We may easily discover that the plant is longer than the pot. This can
be done by holding the pencil upright before the eye at arm’s length,
as in Fig. 144, so that it will cover the pot, and measuring by the
thumb the height of the pot, then raising the arm so as to cover the
plant, and comparing the measurement of the pot with the plant. The
lines drawn from the eye (Fig. 144) show how the pencil makes the
measurement on the object.

[Illustration: _Fig. 144_]

After settling the question of the height of the flower-pot and plant,
we will mark the measurements on the line. And now we will draw in the
pot, leaving the straight line through its centre.

On observing the plant we will see that it is not exactly straight, and
here again the straight line will be of assistance.

By holding up our pencil, which represents the straight line, we
will discover that the main stem of the plant leans considerably to
the left. Guided by the line, we can get the curve of the stem about
right. Now we sketch the stem. Along the straight line we again measure
the distance from the top of each leaf and flower to the pot, as in
Fig. 145. We can see several leaves, each reaching a certain height.
Observing the same plan of measurement, we find that the top of the
lowest leaf is about the same height from the pot as the height of the
pot itself, and again from the top of the lowest leaf to the top of the
plant measures the same distance.

[Illustration: _Fig. 145_]

By drawing another vertical line just touching the right side of the
pot, we find that it touches the extreme edge of the leaf. Thus we find
the exact situation of the leaf. By the same method we find the right
places for the other leaves and flowers, and after we know just where
they belong, we draw them in, and find that we have produced a very
creditable outline from nature.

We need not confine ourselves to one or two guiding lines in sketching
an object; in fact, we may use as many straight lines as will help us
to get the correct proportions; not only vertical and horizontal lines,
but slanting lines will also assist us in most cases.

The sketch of a dog (Fig. 146) will give an idea of the way to employ
all lines necessary in sketching from nature. A few words will be all
that is necessary to explain this illustration.

There lies the dog on the floor, and we seat ourselves at a little
distance from it with pencil and paper. We will start off with a
horizontal line (A); then we can form some idea as to whether the
little dog lies along a straight line, or in case the bottom line
slants, how much it slants. Then draw the vertical line (B E). Now
suppose we hold our pencil upright, in such a position as to touch
the back of the knee-joint of the foreleg, we will find that it passes
through the middle of the dog’s back, as represented by the line (B E);
so we have found the places for these parts.

[Illustration: _Fig. 146_]

Another horizontal line (C D) drawn above the first will touch just
over the right eye, pass through the middle of the left ear, through
the middle of the neck, cut off the foreleg, and run along the top of
the two hind legs, passing through the knee of the left one. This will
show us that the top of the right eye, the ear, and the top of both
hindlegs are on a line. It will also help us to get the proportions
above and below the line; then by drawing a line from D to the point F
on the horizontal line A, we find that the lower edges of the left hind
and fore legs are on the same line, which, if extended a little farther
down, will touch the edge of the dog’s mouth. With these lines to guide
us we cannot go far astray in our proportions.

[Illustration: _Fig. 147_]

One of the chief difficulties in following this method of drawing from
nature is to hold our measuring-stick exactly vertical or horizontal.
This difficulty can be overcome by providing yourself with a T-square
(Fig. 147) and attaching to it, at the point P, a string with a weight
tied on the other end so that it will hang plumb. By using this we can
be sure whether we hold it straight or not, for in case we tip it too
much on one side or the other the string will swerve from the middle of
the upright stick. Of course, whenever we hold the T-square perfectly
straight, the string will fall straight down the middle of the upright,
and the top of the T will then give us a true horizontal line. A little
thought and practice will lead you to thoroughly understand this
method, and when you really understand it you will have an unerring
guide to assist you. Of course, as the eye and hand become more
trained, with practice and observation, the work will become easier,
and you will not need the T-square.

In beginning the practice of drawing from nature, we had better
confine our first efforts to things that will stand still, for without
a practised hand it will be almost impossible to sketch a restless
subject; but if we attempt to do so, we should follow the methods
before taught as nearly as possible.

Now, suppose we step out of doors in search of something to sketch. The
first moving object our eyes rest upon is a goose, and we decide to use
him as a model.

But he is so restless, will not keep still an instant. First we have a
front view, then a side view, and again he turns his back upon us. If
we really must have his picture, the only way is to catch him and tie
him up.

Yet even now he is a difficult subject, twisting and turning, and
bobbing his head about. Determined on sketching him, however, we
observe the position in which he remains the longest time, or assumes
oftenest, and begin our work.

We first note the general proportions. Is his body as thick as it is
long? Is his neck as long as his body? Are his legs nearest the head or
tail? Is the head as long as the neck? What part reaches the highest,
or what part the lowest? We hastily but carefully consider these
questions and determine in our own mind the answers, for we must get an
idea of the proportions before we begin our sketch.

Now we draw a horizontal line along our paper, and then hold up our
pencil horizontally, so that it will answer for a straight line drawn
across the body of the real goose (Fig. 148). This will represent the
horizontal line on the paper. Noticing then the directions the outlines
of the goose take from the horizontal line (represented by the pencil),
we sketch them in on the paper, remembering that one of the most
important things is to get the right directions of the lines.

[Illustration: _Fig. 148_]

Observe that in Fig. 149 the line G is directed to too high a point,
and makes the body too thick and out of proportion.

[Illustration: _Fig. 149_]

[Illustration: _Fig. 150_]

In sketching it is best to make all lines straight instead of curves,
for in this way we are more likely to get the right directions.
Our first rough sketch of the goose ought to have something of the
appearance of Fig. 150, and as we work it up more carefully it will
become as nicely rounded as we could desire.

One of the most common faults a beginner is apt to commit is to try to
do too much, either by choosing too great a subject, such as a large
landscape, or by putting too many little things into the composition.
Take care of the large things, and the little things will take care of

If our subject be a clump of trees at some distance, we should not
attempt to draw in separate leaves, but endeavor to get the true shape
of the tree, simply indicating the leaves by a few lines. Neither must
we attempt, in our first sketches, to put in all the shadows we see;
the strong principal ones are all that are necessary. A background of
hills and trees should be merely suggested by a few lines, because the
light striking upon them gives a very light appearance.

Draw as simply as possible. Ten pictures are spoiled by putting in too
much work, where one is spoiled by too little.

Don’t be discouraged. Every effort will show improvement, if you really
put your mind and heart in your work. As for


a sheet of drawing-paper, a No. 2 lead-pencil, and a piece of soft
rubber are all you really need to commence with. Later it will be well
to have a drawing-pad and several more pencils.



[E] The material for this chapter is from an article written by
Professor Frank Beard for Harper’s Young People. By permission of
Harper & Brothers.



THERE is a certain charm in water-color painting—a charm distinctly its
own—which lies, as Penley says, “in the beauty and truthfulness of its
aerial tones.” Without this quality a water-color, as a water-color, is
a failure.

This transparency of effect does not depend alone upon the manner of
painting or the colors employed, but much rests with the paper we use.
In the days when our mothers and grandmothers were taught painting at
school, the finest, smoothest cardboard was thought necessary; but we
have since learned that the flat, smooth paper tends decidedly toward
producing a flat, smooth effect in the picture painted upon it, while
the rough, uneven surface of the paper now in use helps to produce
depth and atmosphere. Therefore it is always best to have rough paper
to paint upon. We give below the

=Materials for Water-Color Painting.=

1. A block of rough drawing or water-color paper.

It is better to buy it in blocks than by the sheet, as it is much more
easily handled, and is always ready for use.

2. Brushes. The best brushes are made of sable, and although costing
more to begin with, it is really more economical to purchase them than
to choose the less expensive camel’s-hair; for the sable are by far the
most satisfactory, and will last much longer. Three or four brushes are
sufficient. As Devoe & Co. number them, they should range between No.
3, which is small enough for ordinary painting, and No. 19, for clouds,
backgrounds, etc.

3. Colors. A tin sketching-box of moist colors, which also contains a
palette, is very useful, but the colors can be bought separately in
tubes or pans.

Water-color painting seems by its qualities to be especially adapted to
flowers and landscapes, and as this is to be a chapter, not a book, on
water-colors, we will confine ourselves to the principal points to be
observed in these two departments, and will commence with the


Few oil-paintings, however well executed, give the delicate, exquisite
texture of a flower as nearly as water-colors. The semitransparency of
a rose-petal, the juicy, translucent green of the young leaf, it is
difficult to truthfully represent in other than these colors, whose
essential quality is transparency. To preserve this transparency of
color, everything about the painting must be kept exceedingly neat. The
brushes must be thoroughly washed before using them for a different
tint from that already upon them, and plenty of water, changed
frequently, is necessary.

Having arranged your materials conveniently upon a table, place
your paper so that it will lie at an angle slanting toward you, not
perfectly flat upon the table; this can be done by putting books under
the edge farthest from you, thus raising it up. Stand the flowers you
wish to copy in such a position that the light will fall upon them only
from one direction and produce decided shadows; the effect will then
be much better than when the light is more diffused.


Always arrange your model exactly as you want to paint it, and leave
nothing to your idea of how it ought to look. If you do not intend to
have any background other than the white paper, place something white
behind your flowers. If you want a colored background, arrange the
color you have chosen behind the flowers, and paint it as you see it.
Commence your work by sketching lightly, as correctly and rapidly as
you can, the outline of your flower. Try something simple at first;
say a bunch of heart’s-ease or pansies, and when drawing them try to
get the character of both flower and leaf. Observe how the stem curves
where it is attached to the flower, and at what angles the stems of the
flowers and the leaves join the main stalk. Given character, an outline
drawing painted in flat tints will closely resemble nature; without it,
the most beautifully finished painting will not look like the flower it
is intended to represent.

[Illustration: Painting in Water-Colors.]

When your outline is drawn in, dip your largest brush in clear water,
and go over the whole surface of your paper, then place a piece of
blotting-paper over the paper to soak up the water, leaving it simply
damp, not wet.

If you are using tube colors, have ready on a porcelain palette, or
ordinary dinner-plate, these colors: crimson lake, cobalt blue, indigo,
Prussian blue, and gamboge. Put in your lightest tints first, leaving
the white paper for the highest light; then paint in your darker tints
and shadows, and get the effect.

If your flower is what we call the johnny-jump-up, the lowest petal
will be yellow. Paint this in with a light wash of gamboge, leaving, as
we have said, the white paper for touches of high light. The two upper
petals will probably be a deep claret-color; this is made by mixing
crimson lake and cobalt blue, the crimson lake predominating. The two
central petals may be a bluish lavender, and this color is made by
mixing a little crimson lake with cobalt blue. Use plenty of water; but
do not let it run, and keep the colors of the petals distinct.

Paint the stems and leaves, where they are a rich green, with a mixture
of gamboge and Prussian blue, and where they appear gray as the light
touches them, a pale wash of indigo will give the desired effect.

Keep your shadows broad and distinct, and your tints as flat as you
can. Leave out details altogether in your first paintings, and add them
afterward only when you can do so without spoiling the effect.

When a tinted background is desired, put it in quickly in a flat tint,
before commencing the flowers. It is best not to bring the tint quite
up to the outline, as a narrow edge of white left around the flower
gives a pleasant, sketchy look to the painting.


In your first studies from nature keep to simple subjects, and treat
them simply, without any attempt at elaboration. Choose, for instance,
a picturesque corner of an old fence, with perhaps a bit of field
and sky for the background. Sketch in the principal features in the
foreground in outline, and indicate the horizon, if it comes in the

Penley says, in his “System of Water-Color Painting,” “White paper is
too opaque to paint upon without some wash of color being first passed
over it,” and he recommends a thin wash of _yellow ochre_ and _brown
madder_, which should be put all over the surface of the paper except
on the high lights in the foreground, which are best left crisp and

Notwithstanding what Penley says in this matter, it must be borne in
mind that some artists do not believe in successive washes, but claim
that the color desired should be put upon the white paper at once.

If the yellow tint is used, let it become quite dry and then wash it
over with a large brush and _clean_ water; then, as in the flower
painting, soak up the water with blotting-paper; the blotting-paper
must also be quite clean. While the paper is damp, not wet, begin with
a blue tint—a light wash of cobalt will give it—and put in the sky _in
a flat tint_; bring the same color down all over your sketch except in
the high lights. The blue tint gives atmosphere and distance. Let your
paper again become quite dry, and then wash it over as before, in clear

The process of laying on color and lightly washing over it afterward
should be repeated several times, “and the result will be a transparent
aerial tone.”

Keep your extreme distance bluish, your middle distance warmer in tone,
but not too strong, and the principal objects in your foreground strong.

Leave out small objects, and with light and shade seek to obtain the

Keep your colors pure or your sketch will be dull.

Contrast has much to do in producing strength and character. Phillips
says that, “in aiming at opposition of color, we must select that
which gives force to the foreground, and consequently communicates
the appearance of air in the distance. Thus, if the general tone of
the light be warm and yellow, we should have blues and purples in the
foreground; if the lights be cool, reds and yellows in the foreground
give atmosphere to distance, as neither of these colors in a positive
state is found in the middle or remote distance.”

The three principal contrasts are blue opposed to orange, red to green,
and yellow to purple; and “a good first lesson in sketching in color
will be to put in your shadows with color opposite to the object in
light; and by carrying out this principle of opposition throughout
the scale you will obtain an endless variety of contrasts.” It is the
general rule in most painting to have cool shadows to warm lights, and
warm shadows to cool lights. We all know that a _green_ picture is
very disagreeable, and although a green field _is_ green, it must not
be made intensely so. An untrained eye will not see how nature tones
down the vivid color with shadows, and softens it with the atmosphere;
but when the eye has learned to look at nature in the right way this
difficulty will be overcome. Howard says, “green must be sparingly
used, even in landscapes, whose greatest charm consists of vegetation.”

Foliage in some form will present itself in almost every landscape, and
it is therefore necessary to have a few general principles to guide
you in this important feature. In sketching trees be sure to get the
character of their trunks, limbs, branches, and general form; also the
texture of the bark, rough or smooth. You will see that the foliage
appears in layers, one above another. Sketch in the outlines of the
principal layers, where they are tipped with light; then go over the
whole tree with a local color, and afterward separate the light from
shadow. Each mass is edged with light, while its base is in shadow, as
a rule. Omit _details_, and keep to your _masses_ of light and shade.
If your tree is in the foreground, leave the white paper for crisp
touches of high light. The tone of your fence will probably be gray,
but do not take it for granted that it is _all_ gray; look for other
colors, and you will find brown, blue, green, and sometimes red. Put
these in as you see them, letting the edges melt into each other, as
they will do when the paper is damp; but have each color pure, and do
not try to mix them.

=Painting from Notes=

is not as difficult as one might imagine. With a little practice it
is easily learned. The following directions will tell how to paint a
sunset on the meadows, from notes made at sunset on the meadows on Long

[Illustration: How to Paint a Sunset in Water-Colors.]

Take a piece of Whatman’s rough drawing-paper, or a kind that is
termed egg-shell cartoon, the size decided upon for your picture.
Have ready a large dish of clean water, brushes, and paints. Draw a
pencil-line along the centre of your paper for your horizon, Fig.
151; then directly on the line paint a streak of vermilion. Put the
color on quite damp, and make it about half an inch broad, extending
one-fourth of an inch on either side of the horizon-line, Fig. 152.
Next, quickly paint a yellow streak above and below the red one, making
each streak of the same size and parallel, and leaving a little white
paper between the different colors, Fig. 153. With a clean brush dipped
in clean water carefully moisten the paper between the streaks, and
allow the edges of the colors to mingle, Fig. 154. Before this has time
to dry, paint a blue streak above and below, about half an inch from
the yellow, Fig. 155; then with the clean brush dampen the white paper
between, being careful not to get it too wet; there should be just
enough moisture to enable the colors to flow and mingle at the edges,
Fig. 156. This may be aided by holding the paper first one side up and
then the other, until the edges are evenly blended. Now, before the
horizon is quite dry, while it is still damp enough to cause the paint
to spread, fill a brush with Payne’s gray, which should be rather dark
and not too wet, touch the point of your brush here and there along the
horizon, now a little above and now a little below, and you will find
that the paint will spread and make excellent trees for the distance,
Fig. 157.

[Illustration: _Fig. 159_]

When your work is dry enough to paint over without spreading the color,
mix some green and black, and green and brown; paint in the meadow,
using the color made of green and black for the extreme and middle
distance, the color made of green and brown for the foreground, leaving
spaces for streams and ponds, and your sunset upon the meadow is
finished. A pretty little sketch it is, too, Fig. 158.

[Illustration: Leaf from an Artist’s Note-Book.]

A different composition can be made by proceeding as directed as far as
Fig. 156 and then, instead of putting in trees on the horizon, hills
running to points in the water can be painted in a flat tint with the
Payne’s gray, and a vessel with masts painted in the foreground, as in
Fig. 159. This also makes a pretty and effective little sketch.

Fig. 160 shows sunset notes taken while aboard a ferryboat in the
winter of 1886-87. From these you can see just how the notes are
made; but you must make _your own notes_, because what is perfectly
intelligible to the writer of the sunset memoranda is an enigma to
another person. For example, in Fig. 160, “Rose-tinted sky” may mean
almost any shade of red, or blue and red mixed, but “Rose-tinted sky”
no doubt brings before the mind’s eye of the writer of the notes the
exact color of the sky at the time the notes were made.


[Illustration: A Study in Oil.]



THE difference between oil- and water-color painting lies in the
fact that, although especially well adapted to the portrayal of some
subjects, water-color has its limitations, while with oil-colors
any subject, from the simplest study in still-life to the grandest
conception of a great artist, can be represented, and no limit has yet
been reached in its possibilities.

But there are first steps to be taken in all things, and the
greatest artist who ever lived had to make a beginning and learn the
preliminaries of painting before he could produce a picture. To these
steps, then, we will turn our attention, and the first will be the


The following list of colors, with their combinations, will be found
sufficient for most purposes.

    YELLOWS.         REDS.          BLUES.            GREENS.

    Yellow Ochre,    Vermilion,     Permanent Blue,   Terre Verte,
    Naples Yellow,   Light Red,     Cobalt,           Emerald Green,
    Light Cadmium,   Indian Red,    Antwerp Blue.     Light Zinnober Green.
    Orange Cadmium.  Venetian Red,

        Burnt Sienna,                     Rose Madder.
    Silver White,    Raw Umber,     Vandyke Brown,    Ivory Black.

Winsor & Newton’s colors are acknowledged by most artists to be the
best, but the writer personally prefers German white, as in her opinion
it is not so stiff, and mixes better with other colors than the Winsor
& Newton.

=The Easel=

may be simply a pine one, which can be purchased from any dealer at the
cost of about one dollar. More elaborate easels are, of course, more
expensive; but as the merits of a picture do not depend upon the easel
which holds it, a common pine one will do.

=The Palette=

should be light in weight and not too small; oiled and not varnished. A
very light-colored wood is not desirable; one of walnut or cedar, about
eighteen inches long, is the best to use, and will cost from thirty to
sixty cents.


both of sable and bristles, are used, but we would advise a beginner
to work with bristle brushes only, for the first attempt should be to
obtain a broad style of painting, without the finished details which
the sable brushes are used for.

About four different sizes of flat bristle brushes are needed to
commence with; there should be two of each size, the largest one inch
wide, and the smallest not more than a quarter of an inch in width.

=The Palette-Knife=

is used for taking up color on the palette, for cleaning the palette,
and sometimes for scraping a picture after its first painting.
It should be flexible, but not too limber. The cost will be from
twenty-five cents upward.


are fastened on to the palette, and are used for oil and turpentine.
The double ones range in price from eight cents to twenty. The single
ones, without cover, can be bought for five cents.

=A Paint-Box=

for holding colors, palette, and brushes will cost from one dollar and
twenty-five cents up. It is convenient to have one, and necessary when
going out sketching, but for painting at home any kind of tin box will
answer for the paints. The palette can be hung up, and the brushes put
in a vase or jar, handles downward, which will keep them nicely.


Boiled linseed-oil or poppy-oil, siccatif Courtray, and turpentine.


In selecting canvas choose that of a warm-gray or creamy tone, for it
is difficult to give warmth to a picture painted on a cold-gray canvas.
The German sketching-canvas is quite cheap, and does very well to
commence on. It is best to buy it on the stretcher, as a girl’s fingers
are seldom strong enough to stretch the canvas as tight as it should
be. A very good sketching-canvas, 18 × 24, can be bought in New York
City for twenty-five cents.

Several clean pieces of old white cotton-cloth are necessary for wiping
brushes, cleaning knife and palette, etc.

=The Light=

in the studio, or room in which you paint, should come from one
direction only, and fall from above. This can be managed by covering
the lower sash of the window with dark muslin, or anything that will
shut out the light. A shawl will answer for a temporary curtain.

Most artists prefer that while painting the light should come from
behind over the left shoulder.

Our advice to beginners in all the departments of art is the same:
commence with simple subjects.

Your first study should be from still-life (which means any inanimate
object used for artistic study), and let the object selected be of a
shape that requires but little drawing; for your aim now is to learn
to handle your colors, and it is not desirable to have your mind
distracted by complicated drawing. A vase placed on a piece of drapery,
which is also brought up to form the background, is a good subject;
the drapery should be of one color, and of a tone that will contrast
agreeably with the vase and give it prominence.

Arrange whatever object you have decided to paint so that it will show
decided masses of light and shade; place your easel at a sufficient
distance from it to obtain the general effect of shape and color
without seeing too much detail; arrange your canvas on the easel so
that you will neither have to look up nor down upon it, but straight
before you; then sketch in the object you are about to copy in outline.
Observe the edges of the heaviest shadows, and draw them also in
outline. Charcoal is better than a pencil for sketching on canvas,
as it can be easily rubbed off with a clean cloth if the drawing is
incorrect. When the sketch is finished, dust off the charcoal lightly
and go over the lines again with a camel’s-hair brush and India ink.

=Setting the Palette=

is a term used for arranging the colors in a convenient manner upon the
palette. The colors should always occupy the same position, so that,
the places once learned, you will never be at a loss to find the color
you want. Fig. 161 shows a convenient arrangement of colors, as well as
the position of the oil-cans.

[Illustration: Fig. 161.—Manner of Arranging Colors on Palette.]

Fill one of your oil-cans one-third full of turpentine, to which add
enough siccatif Courtray to turn it the color of strong coffee. Dip one
of your good-sized brushes in this mixture and scrape it off on the
edge of the can, that the brush may not be too wet; then take up some
burnt sienna on the brush and put it on your palette about an inch or
so below the terre verte, add some terre verte, and mix the two with
your brush. Lay in all the shadows of the vase, or whatever object you
are about to paint, in a flat, even tone with the color thus formed,
keeping it thin with the turpentine and siccatif.

Mix a tint as near the required color as you can, and go over the whole
background without regard to light or shade; cover all the background;
do not leave any white or bare canvas showing.

The general effect being thus obtained, it is easier to see what colors
are needed for further painting.

Select a medium tint between the high lights and half-tones, and paint
in the lights of the vase in a flat, even tint; then go over the
shadows again with a medium tone, still keeping them in one flat, even
mass. Should you lose the outline at any time, dip a rag in turpentine
and wash off the paint that covers it.

Having progressed this far, the painting should be left to dry.

The turpentine and siccatif Courtray have such drying properties that
by the next day you may work again on the study.

Begin the second painting by putting in the half-tints. These unite the
decided light and shade, and should be dragged over their edges, but
not blended with them. Once more go over the shadows, strengthening
them and putting in the reflected lights.

Add more color in the lights where it is needed, and put in the high
lights with clear, crisp touches. Work on your background in this
second painting. Indicate the shadows, but do not make them strong,
except the one which will probably be cast by the object; that can be
strengthened, as it helps to set the object out from the background and
gives the idea of space. Do not make the background strong; keep it
toned down, that it may not become too prominent. Drag the background
a little over the edges of the vase, or whatever it may be you are
painting, and then paint over it again with the colors of the vase. Do
this while working around the edges of the vase, or object, to prevent
its looking flat, as if it were pasted on.

These directions are to be applied to painting any subject; but after
you have learned how to manage the colors and wish to really paint
a picture, the medium must be changed from turpentine and siccatif
Courtray to oil, either linseed or poppy, using the turpentine only for
the first effect of shadow.

When oil is used it will require two or three days for the picture to
dry. Many advise the use of but little oil, and there are artists who
dissapprove of any medium at all.

Before commencing the second painting, a coating of poppy-oil should be
put all over the canvas with a large, flat camel’s-hair brush. Every
bit should be covered without touching the brush twice to the same
spot. This softens the first coat of paint sufficiently to allow of its
blending with the next. If a raw potato be cut in half and rubbed over
the painting before the oil is put on, it will prevent the oil from
crawling, or separating into drops on the canvas.

Do not use the same brushes for dark and light tints, but keep them
separate. Mix your tints on your palette, the dark tint below the dark
colors, and the light tint below the light colors.

In putting away your work after painting, be sure that the tops are
screwed on to all your color-tubes, and arrange them neatly in their
box. Clean your palette with the palette-knife, and then wipe it off
with a rag. Dip your brushes, one by one, in turpentine and wipe them
on a rag; this removes most of the paint and makes them easier to wash.
Warm, not hot, water should be used for washing the brushes. The best
way is to hold several brushes in the right hand, their sticks being
in an upright position, dip them in the water, rub them on a piece of
common soap, and then scrub them round and round on the palm of the
left hand; rinse them in clear water, and wipe dry with a clean rag.

Our limited space will not allow of our going more fully into the
details of painting; but we hope that these directions will give some
idea of how to make a beginning as a painter in oil-colors, and after
you have made a start you will find two good professors at your elbow
to help you along and encourage you—Prof. Judgment and Prof. Experience.




AN eminent artist once remarked within the writer’s hearing that,
should he bring into his studio the first dozen boys he happened to
meet on the street, taking them as they came, he would probably be able
to teach at least half of them to model within six months, whereas
there might not be one of them who could be taught to paint at all.
Possibly none of these boys would ever become great sculptors, but they
could learn to model moderately well. If that is the case with boys,
who are apt to be so awkward and clumsy, how quickly could a girl’s
deft fingers learn to mould and form the plastic clay or wax into
life-like forms. In some of the institutions for the blind, deaf and
dumb, modelling is taught with great success. Quickly the sensitive
fingers of the young inmates run over the object to be copied, and
skilfully they reproduce in their clay the form conveyed to them by
touch alone. It is pleasant to think that these silent little workers
have this new pleasure added to their somewhat limited stock; but at
the same time the fact puts to shame some of us who, having all our
faculties, the use of all our senses, and not infrequently artistic
ability in addition, do so little with the talents intrusted to our

Let us to work then, girls, and see if we cannot accomplish at least as
much as our unfortunate sisters, who have neither sight nor hearing to
guide them.

[Illustration: Modelling in Clay.]

The great difficulty we encounter in learning to draw—which is
representing things as they appear, not as they really are—will not
trouble us in this other department of art, for in modelling it must be
our aim to do precisely the reverse, and reproduce an object exactly
_as it is_, not as it appears.

Modelling, besides its own worth, is of value as an aid to drawing,
for it teaches form, and the shadows on an object can be drawn more
intelligently and correctly when it is known just what formations
produce them.

A great deal can be done in modelling without the aid of a teacher.
So, not waiting to look up a professor, suppose we commence by
ourselves and see what we can do. It is very fascinating work, and if
a few failures are the result of our first attempt, we need not be
discouraged, for what others can do, we also can accomplish.

The writer has lately been initiated into the mysteries of this art,
and since, as they say, the person just graduated from a primary
department is best fitted to teach in that department, perhaps the
hints given here may be better suited to the understanding of beginners
than if they were written by a great sculptor, who might forget that
everyone does not know, as well as he does himself, the preliminary
steps necessary even in accomplishing the grandest results.

Instead of entering into the later and more artistically finished
processes we will confine ourselves to the prelude or introduction to
modelling; and then, girls, with the object before you, your only guide
and instructor, you must work out the rest for yourselves.

The first thing to do is to provide your


and here is a list of all you will need:

1. Clay, such as is used by potters, perfectly free from grit.

2. Modelling-tools. These can be bought at any artists’ material store,
and the simplest ones might be made at home of hard wood. Only a few
tools are necessary for a beginner; Fig. 162 shows those most useful.
The fingers and thumbs are the best of all tools, and a great deal can
be done with them, though for fine, delicate modelling tools must be

[Illustration: Modelling Tools]

3. Modelling-stand. A regular modelling-stand with rotary platform will
cost from eight to twelve dollars and the expense may be an objection;
but the writer has found that an ordinary high office-stool with
revolving seat makes a good substitute. If the stool is not high enough
it can be raised by placing on the seat a drawing- or pastry-board, and
on top of that a square wooden box about one foot high and broad enough
to allow sufficient room for a good-sized head and bust.

4. Basin of water and towel for washing and drying the hands.

=How to Manage Clay.=

Clay costs, near New York, from one to three cents per pound, and about
fifty pounds will be required. If possible buy it moist, but if dry,
put it into an earthenware jar, or anything that will hold water, and
cover with clear water. Let it remain until thoroughly moistened; then
with a stick stir the clay around as, when a small girl, you did the
mud while making mud-pies, until it is free from lumps and is perfectly
smooth; clear away from the sides of the jar and pile it up in the

When it is dry enough not to be muddy and is still pliable, it is
in a fit condition to work with. It is necessary to keep your hands
perfectly clean and conveniences for washing them should be handy.

Do not use muddy water or a dusty towel.

Use any tools that will produce the result desired with the greatest
ease; a little experience will soon determine what they are, but as a
rule the largest are best.

When leaving unfinished work cover it with a damp cloth to keep it
moist. If you are working on a head, and the features have been
commenced, stick a small wooden tool in the head just above the
forehead to hold the cloth away from the face, for it is liable to
soften the nose and push it out of shape if it rests upon it.


A frame made of laths (Fig. 163) covered with oil-cloth or rubber (an
old gossamer water-proof will be just the thing), placed over the
modelling, will keep it better than the cloth, as it excludes the air
and prevents its drying (Fig. 164). When using the frame, sprinkle your
work by dipping a clean whisk-broom into water and shaking it over the
clay. Remember, the clay must always be kept moist and pliable and
never allowed to dry. If it does become dry and hard there is nothing
to do but to put it back into the jar, and go through the process of
damping it again.


Keep your tools clean, and do not allow the metal ones to become rusty,
as they will if carelessly left on the modelling-stand when not in use.
To avoid trouble of this kind it is best to put your tools in a box
where they will be perfectly dry. Unless you wish to go through one of
the writer’s first experiences, when she was obliged to let her tools
lie in a pan of kerosene oil for two days, and then clean them with

=How to Preserve Modelled Clay.=

If terra-cotta clay is used, it can be baked in a kiln, which will,
while hardening, turn it a fine buff terra-cotta color, and make the
object, if well modelled, ornamental enough for almost any use.

From the other clay, plaster casts can be taken, and the article
reproduced in plaster as many times as desired.

=Hints for Modelling a Head.=

Always work from a model, and it is best to try copying plaster casts
before attempting to model from life.

[Illustration: How to Model a Head.]

Place on the centre of your stand a wooden or tin box (a cigar-box will
do) to form the base; cover this with clay in the form of Fig. 165, and
stick a support in the middle, as shown in diagram. The support may be
a piece of kindling-wood eight inches long and about one inch thick.

Build up the clay around this stick, as in Fig. 166, and with your
hands mould the clay, piecing it out here, and cutting off there, until
it bears some resemblance to a head, as in Fig. 167.

Still using your hands, get the general proportions of the head, and
then commence the features. Begin with the profile, using tools when
necessary, and try for character without detail; then turn the head
a little and work from that point of view; always look at your model
from the same point of view as you do your work. Turn the head in the
opposite direction and model the other side, keeping the face evenly
balanced. Continue turning your work little by little, until each
outline it presents is as near as you can get like the corresponding
outline of your model, and then work up the detail.

In modelling any object the same process, of viewing the model from all
points, must be gone through with.

Do not strive to obtain a likeness at first, but be careful to have all
of your outlines correct, and the likeness will come of itself.

=How to Model in Wax.=

Modelling-wax prepared at home is much better than any that can be
purchased. The following recipe is a very good one:


    1 pound pure yellow beeswax.
    ½ pound corn-starch.
    4 ounces Venice turpentine.
    1½ ounce Venetian red powder.
    ½ ounce sweet-oil.

Put the wax on the stove in a saucepan and let it melt; _take off_ and
pour in the turpentine. Never attempt to add this while the wax is near
the fire, as it is extremely dangerous. It is a good idea, when buying
the ingredients, to have the oil and turpentine put in the same bottle
(which should have a wide neck), then they can be poured into the wax
at the same time. Warm the bottle of oil and turpentine in hot water to
soften before mixing with the wax. Keep stirring all the time. Pour in
the corn-starch and Venetian red. When the corn-starch is dissolved the
wax is ready for use.

[Illustration: Bas-relief Figure in Wax.]

Modelling-wax is much more expensive than clay; it is used principally
for small objects and those that require fine workmanship. It is quite
useful for sketchy work, as it may be carried about almost like a
sketchbook, and being so much cleaner than clay, it can be used even in
the parlor without damage to table or carpet. With the wax on a small
board one can sit at a table and work very comfortably. The tools for
clay modelling may also be used for wax; probably the smallest will be
most useful.

[Illustration: Bas-relief Head in Wax.]

As cold weather advances, we like to pass the evenings in some
agreeable occupation, that may be carried on without disturbing the
family group around the fireside. For such occasions, modelling in
wax will make a pleasant pastime. Sitting quietly, taking part in the
general conversation, or listening while someone reads aloud, one may
model the wax into many pretty forms to be preserved afterward in
plaster, or, obtaining a profile view, a likeness of one of the group
may be done in bas-relief. If a slate is used to work on, it will make
a good foundation, and the head can first be drawn on it in outline
and the wax built over it, using the drawing as a guide. The slate is
smooth and firm, and it is a good idea to use it as a foundation for
all wax bas-relief, especially when plaster casts are to be taken from
the modelling, for in that case the panel forming the background must
be perfectly even.


[Illustration: Making Plaster Casts.]



IT is not at all difficult; anyone can succeed in it who will take the
pains to follow carefully the directions given here for making plaster
casts. Without the knowledge of drawing or modelling you can in this
way reproduce almost any article in a very short time.

Casting in plaster is really so simple a process that even a child can
soon learn to manage it nicely.

You will need a board, about a foot and a half square, upon
which to work, fifteen or twenty pounds of clay, five pounds of
plaster-of-Paris, a cup of warm melted lard, and several small wooden
pegs; these can be made of wooden tooth-picks or matches broken in two.

Select an object with few angles and a smooth surface to experiment on;
a firm round apple will do. Rub the lard all over the apple until every
particle is greased; then lay it in the centre of your board. Take some
clay and pack it around it just as high as the middle of the apple,
forming a square, as in Fig. 168. Smooth the clay off on the edges and
stick pegs in diagonal opposite corners (Fig. 168); then with more clay
build a wall close around the apple and its case, making the sides
one inch higher than the top of the apple (Fig. 169). Put a cupful of
clear water into a pan or dish, and stir in enough plaster of Paris to
make it like batter; pour the plaster over the apple, filling the clay
box to the top. This makes a half mould of clay and a half mould of


When the plaster is hard, which will be in a very short time, pull away
your clay wall, and take out the apple and half plaster mould together,
lifting the apple from its half clay mould.

Remove the clay from your board and set the plaster mould containing
the apple in the centre. Rub lard over the apple and upper edge of the
mould, build around it the clay wall, as you did the first time; roll a
small piece of clay into a slender conical shape and stand it upright
on top of the apple, as in Fig. 169. This will make a hole through
which to pour the plaster when filling the completed mould, and it must
stand high enough to reach above the top of the clay wall.

Pour the plaster over the apple as at first, and let it set or harden.
Take away the wall of clay once more, and carefully separate the two
parts of the mould with the blade of a table-knife; remove the apple,
and all is ready for the final cast which is to produce your plaster
fruit (Fig. 170).

Thoroughly grease the inside of your mould, fit the two parts together,
and wrap and tie them with string to hold them in place.

Pour in the plaster, through the hole left in one-half of the mould,
until it is quite full; then gently shake it to send the plaster into
all small crevices.

Let your mould stand without moving again until sufficient time has
elapsed for the plaster to harden; then gently separate the two parts
and you will find a perfect cast of the apple.

The ridge made by the joining of the mould you must scrape off with a
sharp knife, or rub with sand-paper.

In taking casts of almost any object not too complicated, this same
method must be employed. The only difficulty lies in deciding just
where to place the dividing-line, which must be exactly at the broadest
part of your model, otherwise you will break your mould in taking the
object out.

In casting a hand the clay must be built up around each finger to
precisely its widest part; therefore it is a good plan, before
commencing, to mark on the hand, with a fine paint-brush and ink, the
line that is to be observed.

When making casts of long objects, or those that are larger at one end
than the other, such as vases, always lay them on one side, as a much
better mould can be obtained in that way.

I have read that if milk-and-water is used for mixing the plaster, or,
after the cast has hardened, if a little oil, in which wax has been
dissolved, be applied to the surface, it will take a high polish; and
if left for a while in a smoky room it will acquire the look of old

The same writer also states, without giving the proportions, that
liquid gum-arabic and sufficient alum in solution, mixed and put into
the slip or soft plaster, will make the cast so hard that it can be set
as a panel in a cabinet.

The dead white of plaster-casts is frequently objected to when they are
wanted for ornaments; but that difficulty is easily overcome by mixing
dry colors with the plaster before wetting it.


A small quantity of yellow ochre will make the plaster creamy or
ivory-like; brown will give a wood color, and red a terra-cotta.

Plaster-casts can also be bronzed with gold, red, or green bronze,
which makes quite handsome ornaments of them. A plaster panel in
bass-relief, bronzed with gold bronze and mounted on black or
dark-colored velvet, is an exceedingly rich wall decoration.

To mount a panel of this kind you must first secure a smooth, flat
piece of board, not more than half an inch thick, and just large enough
to allow about four inches of the background to show all around the
panel when it is mounted. Cover the board with velvet or velveteen,
bringing it smoothly over the edges, and tacking it down at the back.
Fasten on it a small brass hook. Fig. 171 is the best kind to use,
which is tacked to the board with small, brass tacks.

Make a ring or loop for hanging the panel in this way:

Take a piece of wire about three inches long, form a small loop in the
middle, and give the wire several twists; then bend the ends out on
each side.

Scrape a narrow place in the top edge of the panel, just long enough
to admit the wire, and about half an inch deep; then place the wire in
this little ditch and fill up the hole to the top with soft plaster.
When this hardens the ring will be quite secure. Fig. 172.




CERTAINLY you can paint on china; have confidence, and do not hesitate
because you may never have studied art, but select the china you wish
to decorate and we will go to work. First, take what is needed for
present use from the following

=List of Materials.=


A common square, white china tile is the best palette for mineral
colors; but in case you have no tile, an old white plate will answer
the purpose.


These are of camel’s-hair, Figs. 173 and 174, are broad and flat, and
are used in placing the color on the china when the surface is to be
tinted. Fig. 175 is for blending the color after it is on the china; it
is called a blender, and is useful where borders and surfaces are to
be tinted. Figs. 176 and 178 are for general use. Fig. 177, with its
long, slender point, is for gilding, another similar brush is needed
for India-ink. Mark the two brushes in some way to distinguish them
one from the other, and never use either for any paint except that for
which it is intended. Fig. 179 is a stipple for blending the colors
when painting a face, a fish, the sky of a landscape, or wherever
delicate, fine blending is needed.

[Illustration: Brushes for China Painting (about one-half actual size).]

To clean the brushes after using: dip them in turpentine and wipe off
the paint on a cotton cloth, repeating the operation until the brushes
are perfectly clean; then dip them in fat oil, and bring them out
smooth to a fine point. Do not allow the brushes to become bent over,
if the box is not long enough for them to lie out straight, remove the
quills from the wooden handles and they can easily be replaced when
needed. Should the brushes seem a little stiff at the next painting,
immerse them in turpentine; this will make them soft and pliable.

To save the expensive gold paint, the gilder should be kept exclusively
for gilding, and need not be cleaned, as it will not be injured if the
hairs are carefully straightened out and the brush put away with the


Fig. 180 is a horn palette-knife for mixing Lacroix white, the yellows,
and all such colors as are injured by contact with metal. It is the
only knife used with the mat paints for Royal Worcester decoration.
Fig. 181 is a steel palette-knife for general use. Fig. 182 is a steel
scraper for removing paint from the china when necessary. Always clean
the knives after mixing one color, before using them for another.

[Illustration: Horn Palette-knife. Steel Palette-knife. Steel Scraper.

(Reduced sizes.)]


This is made of a ball of cotton tied in a piece of soft lining-silk,
fine linen, or cotton-cloth (Fig. 183) and is used for tinting.

[Illustration: Printer’s Pad.]


are Lacroix’s colors; they come in tubes and should be squeezed out
on the palette and used as in oil painting, with a little turpentine
and fat oil when desired. To moisten the colors while painting dip
your brush, carefully, without shaking or moving it around, into the
turpentine or oil, and then in the color. Allow the paint to lie on the
palette as it comes from the tube, except when two colors are mixed,
or when using the stipple for blending one tint with another, or when
tinting, then the paint must be mixed and rubbed down with oil and
turpentine. Keep the colors in a _cool_ place, and when returning them
to the box, after you have finished painting, do not lay them back on
the same side. Always remember to turn them over so that the color
will not separate from the oil. If you are careful and follow these
hints, your colors will keep in a good condition. We would advise
you to purchase the paints as they are needed, thereby avoiding all
unnecessary expenditure.


Fat oil is for general use in painting. Clove oil is used in its place
when two or more tints are to be blended together, as in painting a
face, etc. Capavia oil is always mixed with the colors for grounding.


is in constant demand in china painting. It is used with all the
different oils, paints, bronzes, and gilt, and should be poured in a
small cup or any little vessel, and kept convenient while painting.


comes in bottles, and is used to take the color off of tinted
backgrounds, in order to leave a clean surface of the china in which to
paint the design in different colors. The paste should be rubbed down
smooth on the tile with the palette-knife; if it is too hard, a little
tar oil may be added. A small brush is best to use for the paste in
covering the design you wish to wash out; but be very careful to keep
within the outlines, for this mixture will take off the color wherever
it touches. When the tint is light the paste may be wiped off in a few
moments; but when it is dark, the paste must be allowed to remain on
for perhaps hours before the paint will be sufficiently softened to

Use small balls of raw cotton-batting in wiping off the paste, and take
a fresh piece for every stroke. If any of the tar paste is left on the
tile after using, scrape it off with your palette-knife, and return it
to the bottle.


is for gilding, and can be either burnished or highly polished. It
comes on a little square of glass inclosed in a box. This gold can
also be used as solid ornamentation or for delicate tracery, and is
sometimes used over colors, greens excepted, but is then never so
bright as when on the plain white china.

The gold is prepared for painting on a tile kept expressly for the
purpose, and which must not be used for any other paint. Place some
of the gold on the palette with your palette-knife, and mix a little
turpentine with it by dipping your palette-knife in the turpentine and
rubbing down the gold with the turpentine on the knife. If more is
needed, again dip your knife in the liquid, and do so as often as it is
necessary; but you must use the utmost care not to have the gold too
thin; gild with it as stiff as it can be smoothly applied.

Should any gold remain on the palette after the gilding is
finished, mix in a little turpentine and scrape it all up with your
palette-knife, then replace the gold on the square of glass.

Silver is used the same as gold.

The bronzes are for handles and conventional flowers or figures; they
are rich and pleasing in effect.


cannot be employed for gilding plain white china. It also comes on a
little square of glass and is used for gilding over colors. It can
be applied over any mineral paint or relief, and may be polished or
burnished as desired.

This gold is mixed with turpentine, for use in the same manner as mat


The best is mat relief, which comes in a powder, and is used for both
tube and mat colors. It is prepared by mixing with a very little fat
oil and turpentine, and should be applied stiff enough to make a raised
line. It is useful where a small raised surface is desired, as on
the edge of a leaf or the petals of flowers. A fish-net is much more
effective if the gilt be put on over the relief. Should the relief dry
and become too stiff while using, soften it from time to time with a
little turpentine, always using the horn knife for mixing, as the steel
knife should never be used with the relief, and the relief must always
be fired before the gilt is applied.

Enamel white can be mixed with delicate tints, turpentine, and a very
little fat oil for raised flowers; or the white alone may be used for
pearls, imitation of lace, or embroidery, but its use is limited and it
will not stand two firings, so should always be the last paint applied.


are for Royal Worcester decorations. They come in powders, and when
mixed with a little oil and turpentine are used in the same way as the
Lacroix tube paints.


Select a light wooden box, or one of strong pasteboard; have the box of
a convenient size to contain all your painting materials.


torn in different sizes, and plenty of them, are very essential for
cleaning brushes and rubbing paint off the tile or china; the demand
for clean pieces will be constant while painting.


Have this of the very finest French ware, without spots or other
imperfections of the surface, and never attempt to decorate china after
it has been used, for it seldom proves satisfactory.

=A Monochrome Painting.=

For this we will need a tile, a pad, a broad flat brush (Fig. 173),
some turpentine, capavia, two tubes of paint—one copper-water green,
the other brown green—a palette-knife, and some pieces of cotton cloth.
Now be sure your china is perfectly clean and dry, then mix your
copper-water green for


Place enough color on your palette to cover the entire surface to be
tinted; dip your palette-knife in the capavia oil and tap it off the
knife on the tile; in the same way place turpentine on the tile with
the oil, and use your palette-knife to _thoroughly_ mix the paint, oil,
and turpentine. If the mixture seems too stiff add a little more oil
and turpentine, but be careful not to have the paint too thin so that
it will run; test its consistency with a brush on a clean place on the

As a rule, the proportions for tinting should be five drops of paint to
three of capavia, mixed with a little turpentine.

The paint being prepared, take the flat brush and begin to paint;
rapidly cover the entire surface with color. Then go over the tinting
with a pad, touching lightly and gently, not letting the pad rest
a moment on the paint, nor touching it twice in the same place in
succession. Continue going over and over it until the grounding is even
and of a uniform tint. Then set the china away to dry, in a safe place,
where it will be free from dust. Always make a fresh pad every time
you tint, and a separate one for each color used, as a pad cannot do
service more than once.

All tinted grounds and borders are made in this way, the capavia oil
and turpentine being mixed with any of the grounding colors you may
wish to use. Tinting is very easily and quickly done; but should
anything happen to spot or mar the evenness of the grounding, the paint
must all be washed off with turpentine, and the china tinted over again.

When your green-tinted china is perfectly dry, gather some maple leaves
and with the brown-green paint try a

=New Method of Decorating China.=

The leaves must be free from dust and moisture and perfectly fresh.
Place a small quantity of paint on the palette, do not mix the paint
with oil or turpentine, but rub it down well on the tile as it comes
from the tube; make the paint perfectly smooth, now press a small
clean pad down lightly, lifting and again pressing until the paint is
smoothly distributed on the pad; next select a leaf and place it face
or right side downward on a piece of folded newspaper, then press the
pad down on the under side of the leaf, which is now lying upward,
repeating the operation until the leaf is sufficiently covered with
paint. This done, carefully place the leaf painted side downward on
the china, over it lay a piece of common wrapping-paper, and rub your
finger gently all over the covered leaf. Then remove the outside paper
and very carefully take up the leaf, when an exact impress of the
natural leaf will be printed on the china. Repeat the operation with
another leaf either larger or smaller, and still another, using as many
as you wish; connect the leaves to a central branch by making the stems
and branch in the same color with a small paint-brush. To do this paint
a long line for the branch and other smaller ones for the stems of the
leaves. Set the china away to dry, and it will be ready for firing.
Very pretty effects may be secured by using two shades of one color for
the tinting and designs. First tint the china, and when it is perfectly
dry, ornament it with the same paint in the manner described, making
the ground of a lighter tint than the decorations. The colors of fall
leaves can be used on white china, or you may make the combinations and
designs of whatever is most pleasing.

It is well to have some idea of what your decoration is to be like
before commencing with the leaves. If you desire a spray, try to place
the leaves as they are on the natural spray, or as represented in
some picture taken for a guide. The prints also look well used in a
conventional style. As any kind of leaves or grasses that will print
can be employed, your decorations will always be original and true to

Flowers are more difficult to print, yet when the impressions are
successful they are very beautiful.

You will find this new idea an interesting method of ornamenting china,
while the decorations may be made in much less time than is usually
required. The style is suitable for dinner-sets, vases, tiles, plaques,
and lamps, and it requires no knowledge of drawing or painting to
decorate china in this simple yet effective manner.


Lay a piece of tracing-paper over the design to be copied and trace
the outlines very carefully with a hard lead-pencil. Then have your
china perfectly clean and dry, and give it a wash all over with a
clean cotton cloth wet with clear turpentine. Place a piece of red
transfer-paper on the china, and having determined exactly where you
wish the design, lay the tracing-paper over the transfer-paper on the
space for decoration. Use bits of gummed paper on the corners of the
transfer- and tracing-paper to hold them in place, and carefully go
over the lines with a lead-pencil, remove the papers, and the design
will be clearly outlined on the ware. Now rub a little India-ink on a
common individual butter-plate of white china, and using a fine brush,
very carefully paint over the red marks with the India-ink, making your
lines as distinct and delicate as possible. When this is finished,
again wash the china with turpentine to remove any of the red coloring
which may be apparent on its surface. Thus prepared the design can be
painted, or the china may first be tinted and allowed to dry, when the
outlines will be plainly visible through the tinting, and the color can
be removed from the design with tar paste. Use the scraper to take the
grounding off of minute spaces. For those skilled in drawing it will
not be necessary to trace the design, as it can readily be sketched on
the china with a lead-pencil after the ware has first received a coat
of turpentine, and when tinted the decoration can be drawn on after the
grounding has thoroughly dried, and the color may be removed as before.

=Mottled Grounds.=

Prepare the paint as for tinting, only make it more moist, and dab it
lightly over the china by means of a piece of cotton cloth on the end
of your finger; this will give the china a mottled appearance which in
some cases is preferred to the plain grounding.

=Snow Landscape.=

We will take for example Fig. 184.

[Illustration: _Fig. 184_]

After tracing the design, paint a streak across the sky, just back
and a little above the trees, with carnation No. 1 mixed with clove
oil and turpentine, then another narrow streak above it of a lighter
shade, and another still lighter of the same color, allowing each
tint to meet. Next mix light sky-blue with clove oil and turpentine,
and paint as deep a tint as it will make across the sky at the top of
the plate, graduating it down to the red; use the stipple immediately
while the paint is wet to blend the colors and tints; this finished,
make the reflections on the ice, beginning with carnation No. 1 for
the ice nearest the castle, and ending near the bottom of the plate
with the deepest shade of light sky-blue, using the colors mixed for
the sky. Paint the foliage in the background with neutral gray and
sky-blue mixed with turpentine and fat oil for the darker tones, and
turquoise-blue with neutral gray, turpentine and fat oil for the
lighter parts, also for shading the darker portions of the snow. Then
take brown No. 4 as it comes from the tube, with a little turpentine
when necessary, for the shading of the trees in the foreground, the
outlining of the castle, and the tufts of grass and edges of the ice in
places where the copy requires it.

Leave the white china for the high lights and the white snow on the
roof of the castle, on the trees, and here and there on the ground.

Paint the castle with neutral gray and yellow ochre mixed with
turpentine and fat oil, and its windows with brown No. 4, using the
color as it comes from the tube. Now allow the plate to dry and then
have it fired, after which mix carnation No. 1 with clove oil and
turpentine, and touch up the sky and reflections on the ice, using
the stipple if necessary; then mix light sky-blue with clove oil and
turpentine and paint the sky where that color is required and the light
shadows on the snow; then take yellow ochre for portions of the trees,
places in the foreground, and touching up the castle; mix this color
with fat-oil and turpentine.

Again strengthen the trees and other places, where the painting
requires it, with brown No. 4, unmixed, except with a little turpentine
when necessary; for the last touches mix relief-white with fat oil and
clean turpentine, using the horn-palette knife always when mixing the
white; this is to be laid on, in little raised places, where the snow
is whitest on the ground and where the snow has lodged in the trees.

Now inclose the snow scene with a gilt band, using the stipple to make
an uneven edge of gilt on the surrounding white rim; the gold next to
the picture must be perfectly smooth and even; put this on with your
fine long-haired brush; then make a similar band on the edge of the
plate and it will be finished and ready for its last firing.

Almost any snow landscape with a sunset sky may be painted in this way.

Often you can find Christmas cards which will furnish very good copies.

[Illustration: _Fig. 185_]

=How to Paint a Head on China.=

Select a pretty copy from some photograph, as in Fig. 185; very
carefully trace the head on a plate and go over the lines with Indian
ink; next give the plate another wash with turpentine, to remove all
remains of the color from the transfer-paper; then mix thoroughly
two parts of carnation No. 2 with one part of ivory-yellow, adding a
little turpentine and clove oil; give the face and neck a wash with
this color and touch up the cheeks with carnation No. 1 mixed with
clove oil and turpentine; now lay on the shadows with neutral gray,
five parts, mixed with deep chrome-green, one part, using clove oil and
turpentine in mixing the colors; last, the deepest shadows with brown
No. 4, two parts, to one of ivory-black, mixed together with clove oil
and turpentine, and immediately before any of the paint dries use the
stipple to blend the colors, making the face round out and have the
blending soft and true to nature; set your copy before you and try to
have the shadows on the face you paint correspond exactly with those in
the copy.

Now leave the face and neck, and place some brown No. 4 on the tile;
do not mix it with anything; use it as it comes from the tube, dipping
your brush in turpentine when it becomes necessary to thin the paint a
little; with this paint the shading of the hair and follow with your
brush, as nearly as possible, the sway of the masses. That finished,
paint the eyes, eyebrows, and nostrils with brown No. 4 and ivory-black
mixed together as they come from the tubes, using when necessary a
little turpentine; then mix a little carnation No. 1 with fat oil for
the lips. Next turn your attention to the drapery; shade the white
material with gray No. 1, unmixed, and gray No. 2 for the deeper
shadows, mixed with fat oil and turpentine.

For the handkerchief on the head mix emerald-green with fat-oil and
turpentine; put it on in a light tint, so that the handkerchief can be
shaded, when dry, with the same color.

When the plate is dry, it is ready to be fired. After it has been fired
touch up the shading on the face and neck with two parts of carnation
No. 2 mixed with one of brown No. 4, using clove oil and turpentine
while mixing; and for the deepest shadows mix two parts of brown and
one of ivory-black together with clove oil and turpentine. This must
be put on carefully, so that the shadows will not be too dark. Use the
stipple to blend the shadows; then give the hair a wash of yellow ochre
all over, and touch up the handkerchief on the head with emerald green,
the same you used before.

For the background of the head mix light coffee, turpentine, and
capavia oil; make it an even tint with the blender (Fig. 175); the
brush must be clean and dry, and used in the same manner as the pad in
tinting, then, for the outer border, mix celestial-blue with capavia
and turpentine, and with your large flat brush paint the border and
blend it to an even tint with your pad. When this is finished wipe off
the paint around the edge as evenly as possible, so that the bare china
may be left to receive a band of gold. Roll up a piece of white cotton
cloth into a small point and with this remove the paint around the
inner edge of the blue border, making an even narrow white band; this
is also to be gilded.

On a clean tile mix the mat gold with turpentine, and using the
slender, fine, long-haired brush, carefully cover the white bands of
china with gold; when this is finished the plate is ready for the
second and last firing. If a fairer complexion be desired, make the
flesh-tints of the same colors, only lighter in tint; try the paint on
the edge of the tile until the tint is correct. Always try your colors
this way when painting any design. For blue eyes use sky-blue shaded
with black; the high light of the eye may be left the white of the
china. If you wish the hair very light, take ivory-yellow and shade
with sepia and black.

Once more we say, be _very_ careful in tracing not to get the head or
features out of drawing, as so much depends upon the correct outlines.
Before sending china to be fired, paint in small figures the date on
which it was decorated and add your name or initials.

=How to Paint a Carp, Sea-weed, and Fish-net on China.=

Having traced in your design very carefully, mix one part of neutral
gray with two parts of sky-blue, some clove oil, and turpentine; with
this paint the upper edge of the back of the fish dark, graduating to
white along near the centre of the fish; stipple this so that it will
look even, soft, and rounding, keeping it dark on the edge and tinting
down to the white china; paint the tail and dorsal fins a flat tint
of gray No. 2 mixed with fat oil and turpentine; then mix carnation
No. 2 with fat oil and turpentine for a flat tint on gills, mouth, and
ventral fin; shade the mouth with the same color and paint the anal and
pectoral fins a flat tint of carnation No. 2 mixed with sepia; when dry
shade with the same color, and also shade the gills and fins painted
carnation with carnation, and the dorsal fins and tail shade with
ivory-black mixed with fat oil and turpentine; try the paint with your
brush until you get rather a gray tint instead of black, and use this
for the shading; now paint the rows of spots along the back of the fish
ivory-black, making the dots smaller as they approach the tail; and
with your eraser take the paint off of the eye, leaving a clean white
spot of china; paint a fine circle around this in ivory-black; then
paint a portion of the eye black, leaving the white china for the high
lights; in painting the scales and lower part of the fish use gray No.
1 as it comes from the tube, mark an outline of gray along the lower
edge of the fish and stipple it off in the white, remembering this gray
must occupy only a narrow line along the lower edge of the fish.

[Illustration: _Fig. 186_]

[Illustration: _Fig. 187_]

Commence to mark the scales in gray No. 1 by making a line of them
with a fine-pointed brush downward across the body of the fish (Fig.
186) and this will be a guide to build out from (Fig. 187); after the
painting has thoroughly dried begin again by marking, on the head and
around the eye, the tiny scales in gray No. 2, with a little fat oil
and turpentine, and paint a line along the upper edge of the head and
back with brown No. 4, and another lighter line of the same color
along the back just below and adjoining the first one; paint the eye
and markings on the head brown and strengthen the tail and dorsal fins
with gray No. 2; touch up around the gills with sky blue, also with
yellow ochre where the copy requires it. Then turn your attention to
the sea-weeds; mark the thread-like branches of these in different
colors, using carnation, brown No. 4, gray No. 2, and brown-green;
paint each weed in one color, place the sea-weeds on one side or corner
of the plate, making them branch out this way and that, as in nature.
Now clean off your palette and mix some mat relief for the fish-net,
which is to be placed over and across a portion of the plate; with a
lead-pencil mark the netting on the plate, but do not touch the fish;
then with a very fine brush follow the markings with the relief, when
it is necessary to paint across the fish, your eye and the copy must
be your guides, as it would take the paint off the fish to attempt any
marking on it. The relief on the fish cannot be altered, so be careful
to have it correct the first time. Should the line of relief be too
broad in other places, remove it with your scraper and make another
trial. When the plate is perfectly dry it must be fired, after which
put in a background of warm gray mixed with capavia and turpentine;
bring this to an even tint with the blender, and if any paint blends
over on the fish wipe it off while the color is damp; also remove
the paint from the netting and set the china away to allow the color
to thoroughly dry; next paint broad sweeps across the plate, but not
over the fish, with gray No. 2 mixed with fat oil and turpentine, to
represent the different tints of the water, and again remove the paint
from the net; now touch up the sea-weed and the fish where they need
strengthening, then give the fish a very light wash of gray No. 1.

Here and there along the upper edges of the water colored gray No. 2
make a very fine line with enamel or relief-white mixed with a little
fat oil and turpentine; gild the fish-net, using either pure gold or
mat gold, cover the relief carefully with the gold, and put it on thick
but in fine lines; this accomplished, finish by gilding the edges of
the plate with mat gold, and when dry send it to be fired. To avoid
mistakes when sending china to be fired, state whether you wish the
gold burnished, dull, or polished.

=Foliage on China Made With a Sponge.=

Prepare the paint with fat oil and turpentine, rub it down smooth, then
with a small sponge apply the colors, using different shades as the
first dry, and touching up afterward with a brush; in this way you can
also paint backgrounds which cannot be made with the brush.

=Mixing Colors.=

The best way to paint with safety when you are in doubt what colors
will mix, is to test them yourself. For this purpose take a French
china plate and make experiments with different colors on the plate;
at the same time write down a memorandum of the paints used and of
those mixed, have the plate fired; then paste your memorandum on the
back. Use this for reference, and with experience will come the full
knowledge of the use of all the paints.

=Royal Worcester Ware=

is very delicate and dainty and something quite novel for amateurs in
the way of china decorations.

Very beautiful pieces of this ware may be seen now in all the leading
china establishments in New York City, and so choice is it that even
some of the largest jewelry stores have rare Royal Worcester vases
among their most valuable articles on exhibition.

We know of no book that teaches this art of decoration, and although we
have seen some amateur work which only an expert could distinguish from
the genuine article itself, we think our exposition of the method is
the first of its kind printed in this country; and girls, if you would
know the secret, so that you also may be able to paint and gild in this
beautiful fashion, you have only to listen while the writer tells how
to decorate a Royal Worcester vase as she did; then you will have a
practicable and detailed method which we know to be good, having tried

[Illustration: Fig. 188.—Royal Worcester Vase.]

Select a vase of the finest French china, and be sure that it is
perfectly clean, dry, and free from dust. Then with a clean white
cotton cloth give the vase a wash all over with clear turpentine,
and having chosen your design, make a tracing of it on the vase, and
it will be ready for grounding. Mix enough mat lemon-yellow to cover
the entire surface of the vase. First place a little of the powder on
the tile, then dip your palette-knife in the capavia oil and tap it
off on the tile; in the same way drop turpentine on the tile with the
oil. Use a horn palette-knife and _thoroughly_ mix the paint, oil, and
turpentine; if the mixture seems too stiff, add a little more oil and
turpentine, but be careful not to have the paint too thin, so that it
will run; try the paint with a brush on a clean place on the tile to
see if it is of the right consistency and shade; do not let the color
be too intense; it should be of a delicate tint, and if it is too dark
add a very little more oil. Take a broad, flat brush and begin to paint
at the top of the vase, passing around with short strokes rapidly over
its whole surface; go over the tinting with a pad, touching lightly and
gently; then set the vase away to dry in a dry place free from dust.
The Indian-ink outlines will be plainly visible through the paint, and
when the grounding or tinting has _thoroughly_ hardened, to remove the
color from the design, mix a little of the tar paste upon a clean tile
by working it with your palette-knife until it is smooth. Use a small
brush and go over the design with this mixture, covering every part
except the stems and fine grasses; be very careful not to go outside of
the lines. When the design is all painted with the paste, begin at that
first covered and wipe off the tar paste with small pieces of cotton
batting rolled into little balls, using a fresh wad for each stroke;
clean it all off carefully and the vase will present vacant white china
spots where the flowers, leaves, and bird are soon to appear. For a
guide we will take Fig. 188. Now mix a little mat pink with fat oil and
turpentine in the same way you prepared the grounding yellow, only this
time fat oil takes the place of capavia; use the horn palette-knife as
before; the steel knife should never be used with the Royal Worcester
colors, as the metal is apt to rub in with the paint, dulling and
spoiling the colors. Paint all the flowers a flat tint of light pink.
Always try the color first on the tile until you have the desired
shade. By the time all the flowers have received their tint of color,
those first painted will be dry enough for shading. Observe attentively
the copy, and notice where the different flowers are shaded; then shade
yours with the same color, following as nearly as possible the copy
before you.

For painting the leaves, mix separately with turpentine and fat oil,
mat light yellow-green, mat dark-green, and mat blue green. These
colors can be used separately or any two mixed if desired. Shade the
leaves with mat yellow-brown mixed with the different greens. Paint
the body of the bird a flat tint of mat gold-yellow and the top of its
head and back green; the edges of wing and tail and eye must be of mat
black. When the bird is dry, shade its breast with broad sweeps of mat
gold-yellow, according to the copy; then mix black with yellow-brown
for the other shading on the bird’s breast, and mix black with blue for
painting and shading the wings and tail.

While the paint is drying on the vase mix the mat relief for the raised
edges of bird, flowers, and stems. Mix the relief with turpentine
and fat oil, making it as stiff as it can be used. With a very fine
brush outline the bird, its wings, and tail; also a few strokes on its
breast, tail, and back; be sure the relief is stiff enough to make a
fine raised line; then outline the flowers and the stems; the leaves
are not raised on the edges. When this is finished the vase is ready
for its first firing. Allow the ware to become perfectly dry before
sending it to the firers.

As great care should be taken with the firing of royal Worcester china,
send your vase to the most reliable firers you know of, and when it is
fired and returned, all that remains to be done is to carefully gild
the vase. Mix pure gold with turpentine, but do not have it too thin,
as the gold should be applied as thick as possible. For fine gilding
use a fine small brush with long hairs; this will make a distinct
thread-like line; first cover all the relief with the gold, next
outline the leaves, veining them if necessary; then with thick gold
make your grasses according to the copy. When the gold becomes too
stiff work in a little more turpentine. After you have finished this
gilding, mix some mat gold with turpentine and gild the top rim of the
vase; use the small stipple brush cut off square at the end (Fig. 179),
and bring the border down unevenly along its lower edge, making it the
same way on the inside of the vase; then with the fine long-haired
gilder cover the upper edge of the vase thick with gold. This finished,
gild the bottom of the vase in like manner and make the handle solid
gilt; after it is all dry the vase is ready for its second and last
firing, and when it returns again from the firers you will have a piece
of beautiful Royal Worcester ware similar to that seen at Tiffany’s.

The mat colors used, remove all the gloss from the china, and when
mat lemon-yellow forms the grounding, the china comes from the firing
having the appearance of beautiful decorated ivory without any glaze.

This ware must be seen to be appreciated, and is suitable for vases
and ornaments, but the Royal Worcester colors cannot be used on table
china, for any grease coming in contact with the colors would spoil

Exquisite little vases of all shapes are decorated in this manner; the
delicate gold tracery and outlining brings the designs out effectively.
In this style of painting the decoration is more conventional, and does
not require the same amount of working up and shading, but is as a
rule, treated simply, flat tints with a little shading being all that
is required. Almost any floral design can be used on royal Worcester,
when outlined with relief and gold; there are, however, copies which
come expressly for the purpose.




AFTER the foregoing chapters on drawing and painting, it is surely our
duty to provide the means of framing the various pictures which we hope
will be the result of their teachings. Unframed, a picture is apt to
be tucked away out of sight, or it becomes rumpled and spoiled when
left lying about, and a picture-frame, as a rule, is quite an expensive
article; but with a little ingenuity and good taste almost any girl may
manufacture frames, if not of equal finish, at least as durable and
quite as artistic as any the dealer can produce.

The cost? The cost is the price of a wooden stretcher and a bottle of
gold paint.

The first sketch shown here (Fig. 189) will give some idea of the
appearance of a frame decorated appropriately for a marine picture. The
articles necessary for this frame are a stretcher, some rope, a piece
of fish-net, several dried starfish, and gold paint. The stretcher
must first be gilded; then the rope, upon which the fish-net has been
strung, should be fastened with small tacks around the outer edge,
joining it at the corner, where the starfish will hide the ends. The
net must be large enough to drape gracefully across one corner, along
the top, and fall a short distance down the other side of the frame.
When the starfish, graduating in size, are tacked around the draped
corner, and they, as well as the rope and net, are given a coat of
gilt, a pretty, unique, and substantial frame is the result.

If starfish are not to be had, sea-shells may be used instead (these of
course will have to be glued in place), and if fish-net is also out of
reach, a piece of fine netted hammock can be used as a substitute.

[Illustration: Original Design—Marine Picture Frame.]

For the benefit of those who spend their summers at the sea-shore where
such things are obtainable, I would advise that a small collection be
made of the quaint and pretty products of the place, as they will be
found useful in various ways for decorative purposes.

[Illustration: Fig. 190.—Section of Decorated Frame.]

The next sketch (Fig. 190) shows a corner section of frame especially
appropriate for a flower piece. The open lattice-like border is cut
with a sharp penknife from stiff pasteboard and tacked along the edge
of the frame.

The pattern shown in diagram (Fig. 191) is simple, quite easily made,
and well suited for a border, though other and more elaborate ones may
be used. This border must, of course, be made in sections. The edges to
be connected should be cut to fit exactly, then after tacking them upon
the frame the whole may be laid upon a table, face downward, and strips
of paper pasted across the joints (see Fig. 192), which will hold them
securely together. If the work is neatly done, when the gilt is applied
all traces of the joints will disappear. The decorations of this frame
consist of a spray of artificial rosebuds and leaves, gilded and tacked
on the upper left-hand corner. A few scattered rosebuds look well upon
the lower part of the frame near the right-hand side.

[Illustration: Section of Border for Decorated Frame.]

Figure 193 is the section of a frame which will look well on almost any
kind of picture. It is made by tacking a small rope around the inside
edge and then covering it and the frame with crumpled tin-foil, which,
after it is pressed to fit the rope, is brought around and tacked on
the wrong side of the frame, joining that edge which is turned over the
top. Care should be taken while handling the tin-foil not to flatten
it, as its beauty depends upon its roughness. The pieces are joined by
simply lapping one edge over the other, the uneven surface hiding all
seams. This frame like the others must be gilded.

[Illustration: Fig. 193.—Section of Frame covered with Tin-foil.]

A very effective rough surface on a frame can be produced by dabbing
on it with a palette-knife the scrapings of the palette. Of course
this frame cannot be made in a day, but if every time the palette is
cleaned the paint is used in this way it will not be long before the
surface is covered and ready for gilding.

The cork paper used in packing bottles makes quite a handsome frame
for black and white pictures or photographs (Fig. 194). This paper is
sprinkled all over with small bits of cork, making a rough surface and
one admirably suited to the purpose.

[Illustration: Cork Frame.]

First the foundation of the frame is cut of stiff pasteboard exactly
the size and shape desired; then the cork paper is cut the width of
the frame and glued securely to it, the corners being joined as in
Fig. 195. The frame is very pretty when left its natural color, as it
resembles carved wood at a little distance, but it can be gilded if

The inside mat is made of white or gray-tinted cardboard, cut with the
open space for the picture, from half an inch to an inch smaller than
the opening of the frame. The mat is pasted to the back of the frame
and then the entire back is covered with strong paper pasted at the
top and two side edges, and left open at the bottom until the picture
is shoved in place, when the lower edge is fastened also. The mat will
look well if the inside edge is gilded.

Another frame is made in the same manner as the one just described,
only instead of using cork paper a thick coating of glue is put
all over the face of the foundation, and sand or small pebbles are
sprinkled over the entire surface. This must be quickly done before the
glue has time to harden.

[Illustration: Fig. 195.]

The writer has in her possession a pretty little winter landscape done
in water-colors. It is a snow scene, and its light effect is well set
off by the frame, which is made simply of two pieces of heavy brown
strawboard or pasteboard. The two pieces are cut exactly the same size;
then the centre is cut out of one, leaving a broad frame of equal width
on all sides. The picture is placed between these two boards, which are
then glued together. The cord for hanging it is fastened to two small
brass rings which are attached to pieces of tape glued to the back
of the frame, as in Fig. 196. Fig. 197 shows how a piece of paper is
pasted over the tape to hold it more securely.

[Illustration: _Fig. 196_]

[Illustration: _Fig. 197_]

When making a frame of this kind the picture to be framed should first
be measured and the width of the frame decided upon; then cutting a
piece of paper the size the open space is to be, or one-half inch
smaller all round than the picture, it must be laid upon the pasteboard
and a mark drawn around it showing its exact size and proportion (Fig.
198). The width of the frame can then be measured from these lines,
which will place the opening exactly in the centre (Fig. 199). The
lines must be perfectly straight and the measurements correct or a
lop-sided frame will be the result.

In cutting out the frame a sharp knife should be used, and it will be a
great help in keeping the lines straight if a ruler is held down firmly
close to the line to be cut, and the knife guided by that.

[Illustration _Fig. 198_]

[Illustration _Fig. 199_]




NOT to Pagan ancestors in far-away countries, but to our own Pilgrim
Fathers do we trace the origin of Thanksgiving Day—as purely American
as our Independence Day. Instituted by William Bradford, the Governor
of Plymouth, and first observed by the Puritans, who, suffering from
hunger and privation, were truly thankful when the first harvest
brought them the means of support for the approaching winter, it has
come to us as “the religious and social festival that converts every
family mansion into a family meeting-house.” The pleasant New England
custom of the gathering together of families to celebrate Thanksgiving
is now observed in most of our States. From far and near they come,
filling the cars with merry family parties, who chatter away of
anticipated pleasures to be found in the old home. Little children
taught to lisp grandma and grandpa are instructed by their mammas not
to be afraid of the old gentleman who will meet them at the depot, nor
the dear old lady who waits with open arms at the door of grandpa’s

Children old enough to know what a Thanksgiving at grandpa’s is like
are wild with delight at the prospect before them. Their eyes brighten
at the thought of the great pantry where grandma keeps her doughnuts
and cookies; of the cellar with its bins of sweet and juicy apples; of
the nuts and popcorn, all of which taste so much nicer at grandma’s
than anywhere else. And then what fun the games will be which they will
play with cousins, who, though rather shy at first, will soon make
friends. The lovely young aunties, too, who help grandma entertain all
these guests, will join in the games and suggest and carry out schemes
of amusements which the children would never think of.

[Illustration: One Little Indian.]

What a happy holiday it is, how social and pleasant and comfortable and
easy! How near and dear all the bright faces gathered around the long
table at the Thanksgiving-dinner, seem to be. Truly, we should all be
thankful that we have a Thanksgiving.

However, this chapter is not written merely to generalize upon the
pleasures of the day, but in order that we may offer something new, in
the way of amusement, which will add to the fund of merriment on this
occasion. The series of

[Illustration: Pilgrim’s Spectacles.]

[Illustration: Patterns of Pilgrim Father’s Hat and Collar.]

=Impromptu Burlesque Tableaux=

illustrating some of the principal events in our history will be
appropriate for this national holiday, and will prove a mirth-provoking

When two rooms are connected by folding-doors, a whole room may be used
for the stage. In this case no curtains are necessary, as the doors
take their place, and, for impromptu tableaux, answer very well. When
there are no such connecting rooms, one end of a large room can be
curtained off with sheets, or any kind of drapery, suspended from a
rope or wire stretched from one wall to the other. It is best to keep
the audience as far away from this improvised stage as the room will
admit of, for distance greatly assists the effect.

=Landing of the Pilgrims.=

TABLEAU 1.—The good ship Mayflower has just touched Plymouth Rock.
Pilgrim Father stands upon the rock, and reaches down to help
Pilgrim Mother to land. A number of Indians sit upon the edge of
the rock, fishing unconcernedly over the side, while the Pilgrims
take possession. In the ship Pilgrim children are standing, with
outstretched arms, waiting to be taken ashore.


PILGRIM FATHER.—Cape, a broad-brimmed, high-crowned hat and large,
white collar, over ordinary boy’s dress, spectacles—cut from black
paper (Fig. 200). The cape may be of any material, so that it is of a
dark color.

[Illustration: Costume of Pilgrim Father.]

The hat can be made by cutting from stiff brown paper a crown (Fig.
201), fitting it around the crown of an ordinary flat-brimmed hat,
bringing it into a conical shape, and pinning it in place (Fig. 202).
The brim should be cut from the same paper in a large circle (Fig.
203), the hole in the centre being just large enough to fit nicely
around the crown, over which it is slipped, and pushed down until it
rests upon the real hat-brim (Fig. 204). The paper brim should be about
seven inches wide, and the crown nine inches high. Figure 205 is the
pattern of collar, which can be made of white paper or muslin.

PILGRIM MOTHER.—Full, plain skirt, white kerchief, small white cap, and
large spectacles. A gentleman’s linen handkerchief, put around the neck
and crossed over the bosom, answers for a kerchief. The cap, too, can
be made of a large handkerchief in this way.

Fold the handkerchief in the manner shown in Fig. 206; lay it flat upon
a table, and turn the folded corners over as in Fig. 207; turn up the
bottom edge over the other, and roll over about three times (Fig. 208);
take the handkerchief up by the ends and the cap (Fig. 209) is made.

[Illustration: Manner of Making Pilgrim Mother’s Cap.]

[Illustration: Costume of Pilgrim Mother.]

CHILDREN.—The young Pilgrims’ costumes are like the others, on a
smaller scale, but they wear no spectacles.

INDIANS.—Bright-colored shawls for blankets, and feather-dusters for
head-dresses. The duster is tied on to the back of the Indian’s neck
with a ribbon which passes under the chin, and the shawl is placed over
the handle, partially covering the head and enveloping the figure.


The ship is a large wash-tub, which is placed in the centre of the
stage; its sail is a towel, fastened with pins to a stick, the stick
being tied to a broom, as shown in illustration. It is held aloft by
one of the children in the tub.

[Illustration: The Good Ship Mayflower.]

Plymouth Rock is a table, occupying a position near the tub. On top of
it is a chair, placed on its side to give an uneven surface, and over
both chair and table is thrown a gray table-cover. The fishing-poles of
the Indians are walking-canes with strings tied to the ends.

=First Harvest.=

TABLEAU 2.—Pilgrim families, grouped in the centre of the stage,
examining an ear of corn and rejoicing over their first harvest.


A broom, upon which is tied one ear of dried corn, or popcorn, it
doesn’t matter which, and if neither is to be had, an imitation ear of
corn can be made by rolling paper into the shape of Fig. 210, cutting
husks after the pattern Fig. 211, and putting them together like Fig.
212. The broom is held erect, with the handle resting on the floor, by
Pilgrim Father.

[Illustration: Fig. 210.—Paper Ear of Corn.]

[Illustration: Fig. 211.—Pattern for Outside Husks of Corn.]

[Illustration: Fig. 212.—Ear of Corn Finished.]

[Illustration: The Corn-field.]

=Devastation by the Indians.=

TABLEAU 3.—A long table reaches across centre of stage; upon it are
empty dishes, and the remains of a feast.

At each end and at back of table are grouped the Indians, who are
gnawing large turkey-bones and eating huge pieces of bread and pie. The
Pilgrim family stand at each side, and view with horror the destruction
of their dinner.


The table is a board placed across the backs of two chairs. In the
centre of the table is a large pie-plate, with only a very small piece
of pie remaining in it; most of the other dishes are empty.

=The Revolution.=

TABLEAU 4.—This is represented by the revolution of a wheel. Pilgrim
Mother stands in the centre of the stage, at a spinning-wheel, which is
set in motion just as the curtain is parted.

[Illustration: The Spinning-wheel.]


If a real spinning-wheel cannot be obtained, a velocipede,
baby-carriage, or child’s wagon, turned upside down, will answer the
purpose. In the illustration the curtain has been made transparent, to
show how the two back wheels of a velocipede are disposed of. A broom
is fastened in an upright position to the velocipede, and on the handle
is tied a piece of gray linen (a handkerchief will do), to represent
flax. A string tied to the linen is held by Pilgrim Mother. The curtain
must be dropped before the wheel ceases to revolve.


TABLEAU 5.—Pilgrim Mother is bending over a wash-tub, with sleeves
rolled up to shoulders, washing; a great pile of clothes lies on the
floor at her side; she looks angrily at the Pilgrim Father, who sits
opposite to her with his legs crossed, calmly reading a newspaper.[F]


The tub used for the ship, placed on two chairs; a washboard and a pile
of clothes, white predominating. A rocking-chair for the Pilgrim Father.


TABLEAU 6.—Pilgrim Mother stands in defiant attitude, facing Pilgrim
Father, who has just arisen from his chair.

The tub and one of the chairs upon which it stands are tipped over, and
the clothes are scattered about.


Same as in preceding tableau.

=Peace and Plenty.=

TABLEAU 7.—Table extending across the centre of stage is heaped with
all sorts of edibles—whole pumpkins, vegetables, fruit, and flowers.
At one end of the festive board stands Pilgrim Father, at the other
Pilgrim Mother, smiling at each other. Pilgrim Father holds a long
carving-knife, as though about to carve a large pumpkin in front of
him. Pilgrim Mother is in the act of cutting a huge pie. At the back of
the table are ranged the Pilgrim children, each holding outstretched
an empty plate, waiting to be served, and all smiling. At each side of
the stage, extending to the front, is a line of Indians sitting on the
floor, smoking the pipes of peace. The Indians also are smiling.

[Illustration: The Festive Board.]


    Side View.      Back View.      Front View.

Fig. 213.—Pumpkin Lantern.]


Table same as in Tableau 3: Dishes, fruit, and vegetables. The Indians’
pipes are canes with bent handles.

If, in arranging the stage, clothes-horses, with drapery thrown over
them, are placed at the back, they will not only form a background for
the pictures presented, but the space behind makes a nice dressing-room
or retiring-place for those taking part.

Pumpkin lanterns, set in a row on the floor just inside the curtain,
will be funny substitutes for footlights. They will decorate the stage
appropriately, and at the same time be quite safe. Fig. 213 shows
how they are made. The face is not cut through, but the features are
scraped thin enough to allow the light inside to make them visible. If
they were cut, as in ordinary pumpkin lanterns, the light would shine
out from instead of on to the stage.

[Illustration: Silhouette of the Headless Turkey.]

=The Game of the Headless Turkey.=

A large silhouette, representing a headless turkey, is cut from black,
or dark colored paper-muslin, and fastened upon a sheet stretched
tightly across a door-way. To each member of the party is given a pin
and a muslin head, which, if rightly placed, will fit the turkey.
Then, one at a time, the players are blind-folded and placed at the
end of the room opposite the sheet. After turning them around three
times one way, then three times the other, they are started off to
search for the turkey, that they may pin the head where they suppose
it belongs. When the person going blindly about the room comes in
contact with anything, no matter what, be it chair, table, wall, door,
or another player, she must pin the turkey-head to the object touched.
To the person who comes nearest to placing the head in its true place,
a prize of a gilded wish-bone, tied to a card with a ribbon, is given.
And she who makes the least successful effort is presented with a
turkey-feather, which she must stick in her hair and wear for the
remainder of the evening.

=A Suggestion.=

Amid all these bright and happy thoughts of feasting and merrymaking,
comes an idea, so gently, yet persistently, forcing itself upon my
notice, that it finally assumes the form of a definite plan which I
will put to you in the form of a suggestion.

At this time, when, thinking over the numerous blessings, that most of
you find to be thankful for, how would it do, girls, to form a society
among yourselves, to be called the Thanksgiving Society, whose object
will be to provide a real Thanksgiving for other and less fortunate
girls, by giving them something to be thankful for before next year’s
Thanksgiving shall arrive?

There need be no formality about the society. The only necessary
officer will be a secretary, to keep a record of what is done by the
society, individually and collectively; which report the secretary will
read at the grand annual meeting on Thanksgiving Day.

Many girls, young, like yourselves, to whom it is just as natural to
be glad and happy, have little to make them so, and to bring some
brightness into their lives would indeed be worth forming a society for.

There are various ways in which kindness may be done these girls, and
so many avenues will open to those seeking to benefit them, that it is
needless to attempt any instruction as to what work may be performed by
the society; if this suggestion is adopted, I know it will be safe to
leave it to the quick sympathy and warm hearts of the girls to do the
right thing at the right moment. What think you, girls, would it not be
worth while to make of this last Thursday of November a Thanksgiving
for others as well as for yourselves? and would not your own pleasures
be doubly enhanced when sweetened with the thought of having done what
you could to make someone else happy?

[Illustration: Four Little “Injun” Boys]


[F] Of course we all know that our Pilgrim fathers did not have the
daily papers, but this fact makes it the more absurd.

[Illustration: Winter]




AMONG all the days we celebrate Christmas stands first and foremost in
our thoughts, the holiday of holidays. Coming in the season of frost
and snow it brings a cheering warmth to our hearts that defies the
icy atmosphere, and the feeling of kindliness and good will toward
everyone, which it awakens, seems in response to the words the angels
sang on our first Christmas, “On earth peace, good will toward men.”

Christmas is not merely a day set apart for feasting, giving and
receiving presents, and for merrymaking. The day on which we celebrate
the birth of our Lord is a time of rejoicing for rich and poor alike,
and Christmas is Christmas still, although we may receive and can offer
no presents and our feast is humble indeed.

Feeling this, let us keep the Christmas festival as it should be kept,
right happily and merrily. Let us decorate our homes to the best of our
ability in honor of the day, and supply all deficiencies with happy
hearts and smiling faces.

A friend of the writer’s once remarked, as she busied herself with
some Christmas-cards she was preparing to send to the hospitals, “I
always like to tie a sprig of evergreen on each card; it looks and
smells so Christmasy.” And so it does. Even a few pieces of evergreen,
tacked over doorways or branching out from behind picture-frames, give
a room a festive, Christmas-like appearance that nothing else can, and
as evergreens are so plentiful here in America there are few houses
that need be without their Christmas decorations. Holly, too, with
its brilliant red berries peeping cheerily forth from their shelter
of prickly leaves, adds brightness to the other adornments, and when
the white-berried mistletoe can also be obtained all the time-honored
materials for the Christmas decorations are supplied.

Though we are Americans, our ancestors came from many nations, and we
have therefore a right and claim to any custom we may admire in other
countries. We may take our Christmas celebrations from any people who
observe the day and combining many, evolve a celebration which in its
variety will be truly American.

From Germany we have already taken our Christmas-tree; from Belgium our
Christmas-stocking; Santa Claus hails from Holland, and old England
sends us the cheery greeting, Merry Christmas!

The custom the French children have of ranging their shoes on the
hearth-stone on Christmas-Eve for the Christ-child to fill with toys
or sweetmeats, is too much like our own Christmas stocking to offer
any novelty. The Presepio, or Holy Manger, of the Roman Catholic
countries, which represents the Holy Family at Bethlehem, with small
wooden or wax figures for the characters, is more suitable for the
church celebration, but in Sweden and Denmark they have a peculiar
method of delivering their Christmas-presents which we might adopt to
our advantage, for it would be great fun to present some of our gifts
in their novel manner.

Instead of describing this custom we will tell you just how to carry it
out and will call it the


which in Denmark and Sweden means Christmas-box or gift.

Before Christmas-Day arrives all the presents intended for the Julklapp
delivery must be prepared by enclosing them in a great many wrappings
of various kinds, none of which should in any way suggest their

If one of the presents is a pretty trinket, wrap it up in a fringed
tissue paper, such as is used for motto candy or sugar-kisses; place
it in a small box, and tie the box with narrow ribbon; then do it up
in common, rough brown paper, and wrap the package with strips of
cloth until it is round like a ball; cover the ball with a thin layer
of dough, and brown in the oven. Pin it up in a napkin, wrap in white
wrapping paper and tie with a pink string.

The more incongruous the coverings, the more suitable they are for
the Julklapp. You may enclose others gifts in bundles of hay, rolls
of cotton or wool, and use your own pleasure in choosing the inner
wrappings. It will be the wisest plan to always use something soft for
the outside covering, the reason of which you will understand when the
manner of delivery is explained. Each package must be labelled with
the name of the person for whom it is intended, and if an appropriate
verse, epigram, or proverb be added it will be the cause of fresh mirth
and laughter.

The Julklapp delivery may, and probably will commence very early
Christmas morning, for the little folks, always early risers on this
day, will no doubt be up betimes, and ready for the business of the
day. The first intimation the less enterprising members of the
family will have that Christmas has dawned, will be a loud bang at
the chamber door, followed by a thump of something falling on the bed
or the sleeper’s chest. Then springing up and opening startled eyes,
from which all sleep has been thus rudely banished, one will probably
discover a large bundle of _something_ on the bed or lying on the floor
close beside it. It will be useless to rush to the door to find from
whom or where this thing has come, for although a suppressed giggle may
be heard outside the door just after feeling the thump, nothing will be
met upon opening it, but dead silence, and nothing seen but the empty

At any time during the day or evening the Julklapps may arrive and when
all look toward the door, as a loud rap is heard, whizz! something
comes through the window and lands in the middle of the room. A sharp
tap at the window is followed by the opening and closing of a door, and
a bundle of straw, wool, paper, or cloth, as the case may be, lands
in someone’s lap. In short the Julklapps may come from any and every
direction, and when one is least expecting them, and so the surprises
and excitement are made to last until, weary with the fun and gayety of
the day, the tired merrymakers seek their beds on Christmas-night.

If it has not been made plain enough who, or what causes the mysterious
arrivals of the Julklapps we will say that the whole household join in
the conspiracy, and the packages come from the hands of each of its
members. The

=Polish Custom=

of searching for Christmas gifts, which have previously been hidden in
all manner of places in the house, is one the children will delight in,
and one that, introduced at a Christmas party, will provoke no end of
merriment and fun.

=The Bran Pie=

is an English dish, but is quite as well suited to the American taste.
It is an excellent means of distributing trifling gifts and may be new
to some of you.

Use a large, deep brown dish for the pie. Put in it a gift for everyone
who will be at the Christmas dinner, and cover them over thickly with
bran, ornament the top by sticking a sprig of holly in the centre.
After dinner have the bran pie put on the table with a spoon and plates
beside it, and invite everyone to help her or himself, each spoonful
bringing out whatever it touches. Comical little articles may be put in
the pie, and the frequent inappropriateness of the gift to the receiver
of it, helps to create laughter.

The Bran Pie should be the secret of not more than two persons,
for, like all things pertaining to Christmas gifts, the greater the
surprise, the more pleasure there will be in it.

=The Blind Man’s Stocking=

may also be used for small gifts, or it may hold only candy and
bonbons. Make the stocking of white or colored tissue-paper like the
pattern given in Fig. 214.

[Illustration: Fig. 214.—Paper Stocking.]

First cut out one piece like the pattern, making the foot thirteen
inches long and six inches from the sole to the top of the instep, and
the leg of the stocking sixteen inches from the heel to the top; then
cut another, one inch larger all around than the first. Place the two
together fold the edge of the larger over the smaller piece and paste
it down all around except at the top (Fig. 214). Fill the stocking
with small gifts or sweetmeats, tie a string around the top to keep
it fast, and suspend it from the centre of a doorway. Blindfold each
player in turn, put a long, light stick in her hand, a bamboo cane will
do, and lead her up within reach of the stocking and tell her to strike
it. When anyone succeeds in striking the stocking and a hole is torn in
it, the gifts or candy will scatter all over the floor to be scrambled
for by all the players. Each player should be allowed three trials at
striking the stocking.

Young children are always delighted with this Christmas custom, and the
older ones by no means refuse to join in the sport.

=Home-made Christmas Gifts.=

That the children may do their share toward filling the Christmas
stockings, adding to the fruit of the Christmas tree, helping with
the Julklapps, contributing to the Bran Pie or Blind Man’s Stocking,
we give these hints on home-made Christmas gifts, all of which are
inexpensive and easily constructed.

=Chamois for Eye-glasses.=

Cut out two circular pieces of chamois-skin about the size of a silver
half-dollar, bind the edges with narrow ribbon, and fasten the two
pieces together with a bow of the same. Print with a lead pencil on
one piece of the chamois-skin, “I Make all Things Clear,” and go over
the lettering with a pen and India ink, or you may paint the letters
in colors to match the ribbon. Fig. 215 shows how it should look when

[Illustration: Fig. 215.—Chamois for Eye-glasses.]

=Glove Pen-wiper.=

Cut four pieces from thin, soft chamois-skin, like the outline of Fig.
216. Stitch one with silk on the sewing-machine, according to the
dotted lines. Cut two slits at the wrist through all the pieces as
shown in Fig. 216, and join them together by a narrow ribbon passed
through the openings, and tied in a pretty bow, Fig. 217.

[Illustration: Fig. 216.—Pattern of Pen-wiper.]

[Illustration: Fig. 217.—Pen-wiper.]


[Illustration: Fig. 218—Sachet.]

Open out an envelope, and cover it with white or cream-colored silk,
refold carefully, joining the edges with stiff mucilage, using as
little as possible. In place of a letter enclose a layer of cotton
sprinkled with sachet-powder, fasten the envelope with sealing-wax as
in an ordinary letter. Address it with pen and ink, to the one for whom
it is intended. Print on it, like a stamp, “Christmas, December 25,”
and fasten a cancelled stamp, taken from an old letter, on one corner.
The finished sachet is shown in Fig. 218.

=A Book-mark.=

Cut out the corner of a full-sized, linen-lined envelope, making the
piece four inches long, and one and a half inches wide. Write on one
side with pen and ink, or paint the lettering in color, “A Fresh Mind
Keeps the Body Fresh.” The book-mark will fit over the book-leaf like a
cap, and is excellent for keeping the place. Fig. 219.

[Illustration: Fig. 219—Book-mark.]

=A Scrap-bag.=

[Illustration: Fig. 220.—Pattern of Scrap-bag.]

Scrap-bags have been fashioned in many shapes and sizes, and of
all sorts of material, still it remains to be shown in what manner
Christmas cards may add in decoration and beauty to these useful
articles. From your collection choose four cards of the same size,
then on a piece of bright silk or cloth sew the cards at equal
distances apart, as in Fig. 220, stitching them around the edges on the
sewing-machine. At the dotted line fold over the top of the bag as if
for a hem, making the narrow fold lap just cover the upper edge of the
card; stitch this down to form a binding.

[Illustration: Fig. 221.—Scrap-bag.]

After joining the bag at the dotted lines on the sides, gather the
bottom up tight and fasten to it a good-sized tassel; then sew on each
side a heavy cord with tassels placed where the cord joins the bag,
as seen in Fig. 221. The cord and tassels of the example were made of
scarlet worsted.

=A Walnut-shell Turtle.=

For an ornament to be used on a pen-wiper, or simply as a pretty toy,
the little turtle is appropriate. It is made of half an English walnut,
which forms the turtle’s back or shell, glued on a piece of card-board
cut after the diagram given in Fig. 222. Paint the card-board as nearly
as possible the color of the shell, and the eyes black. When perfectly
dry glue the shell securely to the card-board, bend down and out the
feet a little, in order to make the turtle stand; bend the head up, and
the tail down, as in Fig. 223.

[Illustration: Fig. 222.—Pattern of Turtle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 223.—Walnut-shell Turtle.]

Here are some home-made toys which the children can make to give to one

=Miss Nancy.=

Miss Nancy (Fig. 226) is fashioned from a piece of pith taken out of
a dried cornstalk. Cut away the stalk until the pith is reached; then
take a piece of the pith, about six inches long and whittle out one
end to resemble a head as in Fig. 224, draw a face on the head with
pen and ink, and glue half of a lead bullet on the lower end of the
pith (Fig. 225). Make Miss Nancy’s costume of a skirt, composed of some
bright-colored Japanese paper, a shawl made of a piece of soft ribbon
or silk, and a cap of white swiss. The peculiarity of the little lady
is that she insists upon always standing upright, no matter in what
position she is placed.


    Fig. 224.      Fig. 225.

Manner of Making Miss Nancy.]

[Illustration: Fig. 226.—Miss Nancy.]

=A Soft Ball.=

A very pretty and safe return ball for the little ones to play with may
be made of paper (Fig. 227), which, being soft, precludes all danger of
“thumps and bumps.”

[Illustration: Fig. 227.—Paper Ball.]

Take a piece of newspaper, and, using both hands, roll it and fold it
into something of the required shape. Then place it in the centre of
a square piece of bright-colored tissue paper; take the four corners
of the tissue-paper up to the centre of the top of the ball, fold them
over, also fold and smooth down what fulness there may be; next place
a small round piece of gold, silver, or some contrasting colored paper
on the top of the ball. Secure all by winding a string around the ball,
making six or eight divisions; tie a piece of elastic to the string
where it crosses on the top of the ball, then paste over this a small
artificial flower. In the other end of the elastic, make a loop to fit
over the finger, or tie on it a small brass ring.

If a tiny sleigh-bell be placed in the centre when the ball is being
made, it will give a cheerful little tinkling noise whenever the ball
is thrown.

[Illustration: Fig. 228.—The Rooster.]


    Fig. 229
    Fig. 230
    Fig. 231
    Fig. 232.
    Fig. 233.—The Weight.

Pattern of Rooster.]

=A Lively Rooster.=

To make the rooster (Fig. 228), cut out of stiff cardboard Figs. 229,
230, 231, and 232. Tie on Figs. 229 and 230 each a piece of string
seven and one-half inches long. Then attach the head and tail to the
body by running a string through holes at A in Fig. 230 and A in Fig.
231, and another through B in Fig. 229 and B in Fig. 231. Bring the
head and tail up close to the body and fasten the ends of the strings
down securely with court-plaster or pieces of paper pasted over them.
Bend Fig. 231 at dotted line C; then on the space marked E, paste the
portion of Fig. 232 marked E after bending it at dotted line O. Again
bend Fig. 232 in the same direction at dotted line P, and paste it
across the space marked P, on Fig. 231. When all is fastened together,
and the paste perfectly dry, paint the rooster to look as life-like as
possible. Tie the strings of Figs. 229 and 230 together four inches
from where they are fastened on, then again about three inches lower
down, and attach a weight to the ends. A common wooden top, with a tack
in the head (Fig. 233), will answer the purpose nicely. To bring the
rooster to life, place him on the mantel-piece, with a book serving as
a weight on the projection of Fig. 232, swing the top and he will move
his head and tail in the most amusing manner.

[Illustration: Fairy Dancers.]

=Fairy Dancers.=

[Illustration: Fig. 234.—A Fairy Dancer.]

[Illustration: Fig. 235.—Pattern of Fairy Dancer.]

Among the gifts made by little hands, a box, containing a set of fairy
dancers, will be a most novel and welcome addition. These little
figures, when placed on the piano, will move as soon as the keys are
touched, dancing fast or slow in perfect time to the music. They may
all be made to resemble fairies as in Fig. 234, or a famous collection
of figures in the costumes of different periods in history will be
equally pretty and perhaps more interesting. Ladies in kirtles and
tunics, gentlemen in slashed doublet and hose of the Tudor times, Queen
Elizabeth’s starched ruffs and farthingales, etc. All these dresses
can be more easily copied from pictures of the period than from any
written description of them. The materials used for the costume must
be of the lightest kind, for a heavy dress will weigh down the dancer
and hamper its movements. To make the fairy (Fig. 234) trace Fig. 235
on cardboard and cut it out, sew a piece of bonnet-wire down the back,
as shown in diagram. Mark the slippers on the feet with ink or black
paint, select a Christmas or advertising card representing a child,
with a head of a suitable size, cut the head out and paste it on the

[Illustration: Fig. 236.—Pattern of Chinaman.]

[Illustration: Fig. 237. Fig. 238. Chinaman’s Queue.]

[Illustration: Fig. 239.—The Chinaman.]

Gather two short skirts of tarlatan, make a waist of the same, sew
with a few stitches to the doll, and cover the stitches with a
sash of bright colored tissue paper; add a strip of tarlatan for a
floating scarf, gluing it to the uplifted hands. Bend back the piece
of cardboard projecting from the foot, and glue to it a small piece
of bristle brush. The wire on the doll should be long enough to pass
tightly around the brush, thus making it more secure.

If you would like to have the Chinaman (Fig. 239) in your troupe of
dancers, trace on cardboard Fig. 236, draw a face with slanting eyes,
or paint it; then take several strands of black thread and tie them
together in the centre with another piece of thread (Fig. 237), bring
the ends down together (Fig. 238), braid them and sew the braid to the
back of the Chinaman’s head (239). Cut a loose sacque from pattern Fig.
240, fold at the waved lines and sew together at the dotted lines;
cut an opening for the head as seen in pattern. Make the hat of dark
green paper cut in the form of Fig. 241, and crimp it from the centre
(Fig. 242). Sew the hat to the back of the Chinaman’s head, bend the
cardboard projection at the feet and glue it to a piece of brush.

[Illustration: Fig. 240.—Chinaman’s Sacque.]

[Illustration: Fig. 241.—Pattern of Chinaman’s Hat.]

[Illustration: Fig. 242.—Chinaman’s Hat.]


    _Fig. 243_

    _Fig. 244_

    _Fig. 245_

    _Fig. 246_

Butterfly Pattern.]

[Illustration: _Fig. 247_


Butterflies of brilliant hues, all hovering and circling, may take
the place of the fairies, or they may mingle with them in the dance,
presenting a scene indeed fairy-like. To make a butterfly, trace the
pattern given in Fig. 243, on brilliantly colored paper. Form a body by
rolling a small piece of beeswax between the fingers until it assumes
the desired shape (Fig. 244); then attach the wings to the body by
softening the wax and sticking them to it. Wax a piece of black thread
to stiffen it, and make a knot in each end (Fig. 245), bend this in
the middle and stick it on to the head to form the antennæ (Fig. 246).
Fasten one end of a very fine wire securely in the middle of the wax
body, and wrap the other end around a small piece of brush as seen in
Fig. 247. A number of these butterflies placed on the pianoforte will
move, bend and sway with the music as if endowed with life.

Toys, also, which are small and light enough, can be made to “trip the
light fantastic” in time to the music.

Select those most suitable and glue them to pieces of brush in the way
described for the other dancers.

The children, generous little souls, always long to do their part
towards making Christmas presents, and we hope that the suggestion we
have offered will help them to manufacture, without other aid, many
little gifts which their friends will prize the more highly for having
been made by the loving little hands.




A WINTER passed in-doors would be irksome indeed for a healthy, hearty
girl, and even the most delicate are the better for an outing now and
then. The keen northwest wind, the biting frosts, the crisp atmosphere
and the glistening ice and snow are not without their attractions, and
we hope that no American girl will neglect the opportunities this time
of the year affords for healthy, enjoyable out-door pastime. It is well
to follow the example of our Canadian sisters, and, clad in garments
warm and appropriate, indulge in coasting, tobogganing, skating,
sleighing, and walking.

The country, wrapped in its winter mantle, is very attractive. Many
of our small animals and birds that city people are apt to associate
only with a summer landscape, are to be found abroad in mid-winter,
and upon a bright sunny day the birds are not only to be seen, but
heard twittering and even singing in the hedges; they do not feel
the cold and are enjoying themselves heartily. The reason the birds
and wild creatures are so comfortably content, is because they are
prepared for the weather, their clothing is not only soft and warm, but
fits them perfectly, without interfering with their movements. Take a
lesson from them, girls, dress as becomingly as you choose, the birds
always do that, but do not wear thin-soled shoes or anything that is
uncomfortable; wrap up warm and you can enjoy yourself out of doors in
the coldest weather just as well as the birds. The cold winds will only
bring the roses to your cheeks, and the keen, invigorating air, health
and suppleness to your body.

We do not think any person ever learned to skate, coast, or walk on
snow-shoes from reading the directions that can be given in a book. It
is for that reason we have no chapter devoted to these sports and not
because we do not believe in, and enjoy them, too. Therefore we will
direct our attention to indoor sports, for they can be learned in this
way and are quite as important as the others in filling out the list of
winter amusements.

There are a great many days in winter when it is so stormy and
disagreeable out-doors, one is glad enough to have the shelter of a
roof and the warmth of a fire; these are the days and evenings when
in-doors games are in demand, and during the holiday season, when work
has been put aside, and you have nothing to do but enjoy yourself, any
new diversion is always welcome. It is here then that we will insert the

=New Game of Bubble Bowling.=

When the game of Bubble Bowling was played for the first time, it
furnished an evening’s entertainment, not only for the children, but
for grown people also; even a well known general and his staff, who
graced the occasion with their presence, joined in the sport, and
seemed to enjoy it equally with their youthful competitors. Loud was
the chorus of “Bravo!” and merry the laugh of exultation when the
pretty crystal ball passed safely through its goal; and sympathy was
freely expressed in many an “Oh!” and “Too bad!” as the wayward bubble
rolled gayly off toward the floor, or, reaching the goal, dashed itself
against one of the stakes and instantly vanished into thin air.

[Illustration: Bubble Bowling.]

The game should be played upon a long, narrow table, made simply of
a board about five feet long and eighteen inches wide, resting upon
high wooden “horses.” On top of the table, and at a distance of twelve
inches from one end, should be fastened in an upright position, two
stakes, twelve inches high; the space between the stakes should be
eight inches, which will make each stand four inches from the nearest
edge of the table. When finished, the table must be covered with some
sort of woollen cloth; an old shawl or a breadth of colored flannel
will answer the purpose excellently. Small holes must be cut at the
right distance for the stakes to pass through. The cloth should be
allowed to fall over the edge of the table, and must not be fastened
down, as it will sometimes be necessary to remove it in order to let it
dry. It will be found more convenient, therefore, to use two covers, if
they can be provided, as then there can always be a dry cloth ready to
replace the one that has become too damp. The bubbles are apt to stick
when they come upon wet spots, and the bowling can be carried on in a
much more lively manner if the course is kept dry. Each of the stakes
forming the goal should be wound with bright ribbons of contrasting
colors, entwined from the bottom up, and ending in a bow at the top.
This bow can be secured in place by driving a small brass-headed tack
through the ribbon into the top of the stake. If the rough pine legs of
the table seem too unsightly, they can easily be painted, or a curtain
may be made of bright-colored cretonne—any other material will do as
well, provided the colors are pleasing—and tacked around the edge of
the table, so as to fall in folds to the floor. The illustration shows
the top of the table, when ready for the game.

For an impromptu affair, a table can be made by placing a leaf of a
dining-table across the backs of two chairs, and covering it with a
shawl; lead pencils may be used for the stakes, and they can be held in
an upright position by sticking them in the tubes of large spools. This
sort of table the children can arrange themselves, and it answers the
purpose very nicely. The other things to be provided for the game are
a large bowl of strong soapsuds, made with hot water and common brown
soap, and as many pipes as there are players.

The prizes for the winners of the game may consist of any trinkets or
small articles that fancy or taste may suggest.

Bubble Bowling can be played in two ways. The first method requires
an even number of players, and these must be divided into two equal
parties. This is easily accomplished by selecting two children for
captains, and allowing each captain to choose, alternately, a recruit
for her party until the ranks are filled, or, in other words, until all
the children have been chosen; then, ranked by age, or in any other
manner preferred, they form in line on either side of the table. A pipe
is given to each child, and they stand prepared for the contest. One
of the captains first takes her place at the foot of the table, where
she must remain while she is bowling, as a bubble passing between the
stakes is not counted unless blown through the goal from the end of the

The bowl of soapsuds is placed upon a small stand by the side of the
bowling-table, and the next in rank to the captain, belonging to the
same party, dips her pipe into the suds and blows a bubble, not too
large, which she then tosses upon the table in front of the captain,
who, as first bowler, stands ready to blow the bubble on its course
down through the goal. Three successive trials are allowed each player;
the bubbles which break before the bowler has started them, are not

The names of all the players, divided as they are into two parties, are
written down on a slate or paper, and whenever a bubble is sent through
the goal, a mark is set down opposite the name of the successful bowler.

When the captain has had her three trials, the captain on the other
side becomes bowler, and the next in rank of her own party blows the
bubbles for her. When this captain retires, the member of the opposite
party, ranking next to the captain, takes the bowler’s place and is
assisted by the one whose name is next on the list of her own side;
after her the player next to the captain on the other side; and so on
until the last on the list has her turn, when the captain then becomes
assistant and blows the bubbles.

The number of marks required for either side to win the game, must be
decided by the number of players; if there are twenty—ten players on
each side—thirty marks would be a good limit for the winning score.

When the game has been decided, a prize is given to that member of the
winning party who has the greatest number of marks attached to her name
showing that she has sent the bubble through the goal a greater number
of times than any player on the same side. Or, if preferred, prizes may
be given to every child belonging to the winning party. The other way
in which Bubble Bowling may be played is simpler, and does not require
an even number of players as no sides are formed.

Each bowler plays for herself, and is allowed five successive trials;
if three bubbles out of the five be blown through the goal the player
is entitled to a prize. The child acting as assistant becomes the next
bowler, and so on until the last in turn becomes bowler, when the one
who began the game takes the place of assistant.

When the evening lamps are lighted and the young folks, gathered
cosily around the cheerful fire, begin to be at a loss how to amuse
themselves, let them try the game of

=Biographical Nonsense.=

A paper must be written by one of the players which will read like the

    The name of a noted man.
    A date between the flood and the present year.
    The name of a noted man.
    A country.
    The name of some body of water or river.
    Some kind of a vessel.
    A country.
    A country.
    The name of a school.
    A city.
    A city, town, or country.
    A city, town, or country.
    A number.
    The names of two books.
    The name of one book.
    A wonderful performance.
    The name of a well-known person.
    A profession or trade.
    A term expressing the feeling entertained for another person.
    A term descriptive of someone’s appearance.
    A word denoting size.
    A term describing form.
    A color.
    A word denoting size.
    The name of an article of some decided color.
    The name of any article.
    The name of any article.
    A number of years.

This paper is to be passed to each member of the party who in turn will
fill up the blanks left, with the words, terms, and names indicated.

When the blanks have been filled, one player must read the following,
and another supply the words, when she pauses, from the paper just
prepared, being sure to read them in their true order.


—— was born in —— the same year when —— discovered ——, by sailing
through the —— in a ——. His father was a native of ——; his mother of
——. He was educated at ——, in the city of ——. His first voyage, which
was a long one, was from —— to ——. He wrote three books before he was
—— years of age. They are ——, and ——. He performed the miraculous
feat of —— with ——. He was a great ——, and one we shall ever ——. In
appearance he was —— being rather —— of stature. His nose was ——, his
eyes ——, his mouth ——, and hair the color of —— adorned his head. He
invariably carried in his hand a —— and a ——, by which he was always
known, and with which he is represented to this day. He died at the
advanced age of ——-.

The ridiculous combinations found in this game make it very funny.

=Comic Historical Tableaux=

are very amusing, and being impromptu require no preparation beforehand.

As in charades, the company must divide into two parties. But instead
of acting as in charades, one party decides what event in history they
will represent, and then they form a tableau to illustrate the event,
making it as ridiculous as possible. The other party must try and
guess what the tableau is; if they are successful, it is their turn to
produce a tableau, if not, the first party must try another subject,
and continue to do so until the subject of their tableau is correctly

We will give a few suggestions for the tableaux.


Place a pan of water on the floor in plain sight of the audience; then
let someone dress up in a long cloak and high-crowned hat to personate
Balboa, and stand on a table in the middle of the floor, while the rest
of the performers, enveloped in shawls, crouch around. When the curtain
is drawn aside, Balboa must be seen looking intently through one end of
a tin horn, or one made of paper, at the pan of water.


Nero, in brilliant robes made of shawls, sits on a table, surrounded
by his courtiers, who are also in fantastic costumes. Nero is in the
act of fiddling, his fiddle being a small fire shovel, and the bow a
poker. On the floor in front of the group is placed a large shallow pan
or tray, in which is set a small house, which has been hastily cut from
paper. A lighted match is put to the paper house just as the curtains
are parted.

These two suggestions will no doubt be sufficient to show what the
tableaux should be like and we need give no further illustrations.

=Living Christmas Cards.=

To impart seeming life to the little figures painted on the Christmas
cards, is a performance intensely amusing to the little ones. A moving
toy whose actions are life-like is always of great interest; but when
a little flesh-and-blood head is seen nodding and twisting upon the
shoulders of a figure painted on a card, the children fairly shout with

[Illustration: Fig. 248.—Manner of Holding Card.]

Here is the method of bringing life into the bits of pasteboard.

Select cards with pretty or comical figures, whose faces are the size
of the ends of your first or second finger. Carefully cut the face out
of a card; then with ink mark the features on your finger, and put it
through the opening, as in Fig. 248. Place on this little live head
a high peaked tissue-paper cap, and the effect will be exceedingly
ludicrous (Fig. 249). A little Santa Claus who can really nod and bow
to the children will be very amusing, and there are quite a number of
Christmas cards which portray the funny, jolly little fellow.

Floral cards may have nodding fairies peeping out from among the petals
of the flowers, whose heads are crowned with queer little fairy caps,
as in Fig. 250. If among your collection you have a card with a picture
of a house on it, it will be amusing to thrust a little head wearing a
night-cap, out of one of the windows. Round holes will, of course, have
to be cut in the cards wherever the heads are to appear.

[Illustration: Fig. 249.—Live Head with Peaked Cap.]

Still another way of managing these living puppets is to cut in a
piece of cardboard, five inches long and two inches wide, three round
holes a little more than half an inch apart. Sew around the edge of
the cardboard a gathered curtain of any soft material six inches deep.
Sketch faces on three of your fingers, pass them under the curtain and
through the holes in the cardboard. The curtain will fall around and
conceal your hand, leaving the three heads appearing above (Fig. 251).
On these heads place any kind of head-dress you choose, making them of
paper; or caps of white swiss look quaint, and wee doll hats may be

[Illustration: Fig. 250—Nodding Fairies.]

It is best to use a little mucilage or paste in fastening the hats on,
that there may be no danger of their falling off with the movement of
the fingers.

The hair may be inked, or little wigs made of cotton can be used.

[Illustration: Fig. 251.—Living Puppets.]

If the little faces are painted with water colors, giving color to the
cheeks and lips, the life-like appearance will be enhanced.

These little personages can be made to carry on absurd conversations,
and a great deal of expression be given to the bobbing and turning
of their heads. One person can easily manage the whole thing, and
entertain a roomful with the performance of the living puppets.


[Illustration: Happy New Year]



MY earliest recollection of New Year’s day is of being awakened at
midnight by the clangor of the fire bells, and the ringing of the
church bells, as they swung and rocked in their high steeples and
cupolas, shouting, Happy New Year! from their brazen throats to all the
sleeping town. Not being thoroughly conversant with bell language, I
was very much alarmed because they seemed to say “Come, get up—Come,
get up—House on fire—House on fire!” but, upon opening my eyes, I was
assured that they were ringing in the New Year, and, as I again fell
asleep, the bells were saying distinctly, “Wish you Happy New Year—Wish
you Happy New Year.”

Next day the table was decked with flowers, and was laden with roast
turkey, fruits, salads, and mince-pies. Oh, my! what delicious
mince-pies they were! None since have ever tasted as good as those made
and baked by my grandmother.

I often wonder if the next generation of grandmammas will make such
cookies, mince pies, and doughnuts as ours did; but this was in
Kentucky, and you know that we still observed the old-fashioned
customs, and all day long the gentlemen came dropping in by twos and
fours, and such handshaking and laughing, and such courtly compliments,
and such a bowing and a wishing of Many Happy New Years, it does me
good to think of. Who knows but that so many kind wishes of a long and
happy life, sincerely given, may really help to bring it to pass.

Small as I was at the time, and little as I understood the customs or
conversation, the spirit of the whole day was intelligible and appealed
to the little child, perhaps more forcibly than to the grown-up people.

It is really too bad that the crowded states of our large cities tend
to lead to the gradual decline of the custom of New Year’s calls, so
that now many people confine themselves to sending and receiving cards,
making the always stiff and formal bits of engraved pasteboard, do all
the calling and receiving; but

=New Year’s Parties=

are not out of date, so we will have one on New Year’s Eve, because
then young and old are privileged to sit up all night, that is, until
after twelve o’clock midnight, and have all the fun possible. Let us
begin our frolic with a

=Pantomime of an Enchanted Girl.=

For this a damp sheet must be fastened up across the room or between
the folding doors of the parlor. First, fasten the corners of the
sheet, next, the centre of each of the four sides, in order that the
cloth may be perfectly smooth; then place a lighted candle on the
floor, about four or five feet from the centre of the curtain. When the
lights in the room occupied by the audience are turned out, leaving it
in total darkness, so the shadows of the actors behind the curtain may
be seen on the screen, someone, standing outside of the curtain and
facing the audience, should explain or relate the story of the play:
of how a young girl, while walking out on the last day in November,
meets Halloween, who presents her with three gifts to try her fortune,
and how, when she is about to do so, a witch enchants her, etc. After
the story is finished, and a lively overture has been performed on some
musical instrument, the pantomime is played as follows:

The young girl personating the enchanted one, comes gayly forward from
the side, when almost across the curtain she meets Halloween, who
approaches from the opposite side, arrayed in short dress, with wings
made of newspaper folded fan fashion, and fastened on the shoulders;
in her hand she carries a cane with a silhouette of a cat, or two or
three stars and a crescent cut of stiff, brown paper and pasted on the
end; the cane is so held that the profiles of the figures are kept
toward the curtain. Seeing this queer being the young girl clearly
demonstrates, by her actions, that she is alarmed. When Halloween
quiets her fears, by surely and plainly indicating with slow movements
of the head, and downward motions of the arms that no harm is intended,
they shake hands; then Halloween shows the maiden three gifts, an
apple, a hand-mirror, and an unlighted candle. Before presenting them
she illustrates by gestures, the use to be made of each. Holding the
mirror in front of her face, she bites the apple, then looks quickly
around, as if expecting to see someone, and, again holding up the
mirror in one hand and the candle in the other, she takes a few steps
backward, when a boy enters by jumping over the light, which gives the
appearance of his having fallen down from the sky, Halloween looks
around, and the boy quickly disappears in the same manner as he came.

All this time the girl stands transfixed, with her hands raised and
all the fingers spread out in astonishment; she receives the presents
which are given with many nods and gestures. As Halloween walks away
the fortune-seeker turns and watches her with a telescope made of
a roll of paper she finds at her feet on the floor. The maiden then
proceeds to examine the gifts; as she takes up the apple and mirror,
her hand is stayed by a witch with flowing hair, who has approached
unperceived, carrying under one arm a broom, and wearing on her head an
ordinary hat with a piece of newspaper rolled up and pinned on to form
a peaked crown. She motions to the girl to be seated; then stands over
her and makes passes in the air, and taking up her broom from the floor
makes grand flourishes and departs walking back towards the candle,
which causes her shadow to grow larger and larger. The poor girl looks
anxiously around and discovers she has been enchanted, for there are
three girls instead of one; this effect is produced by two more lighted
candles being placed on the floor on either side of the first candle,
and every movement the girl makes is mimicked by her other selves. The
candles are removed and the Old Year instantly appears, his figure
bent, a piece of fringed paper pasted on his chin for a flowing beard,
and carrying in his hand a cane with a piece of stiff paper fastened
on to represent a scythe. Discovering him the girl runs forward to
tell her sorrows, and finds that it is only when alone that she is
enchanted, for when she attempts to point out her other selves they
have disappeared; making many gestures she looks here and there for
them, but in vain, then as the Old Year leaves she bids him a sorrowful
adieu. Again alone, the facsimiles reappear and she grows desperate,
so do the other two selves, she throws her arms about, skips, jumps,
and dances wildly around, the other selves do likewise, and at the same
time they are made to pass and repass her, by two persons taking up the
two extra lights, and, keeping the lights facing the curtain, walking
back and forth, passing, and repassing each other but never stepping
in front of the candle on the floor. In the midst of the dancing the
two extra candles are taken away and immediately the little New Year
enters, crowned with a paper star and wearing wings of paper. The young
girl rushes to meet the New Year with a hearty greeting, she then tells
him of her enchantment, counting the three selves by holding up the
first finger of the right hand three times in succession, and while the
New Year makes gestures that indicate advice the maiden listens with
her hand to her ear, and, promising by signs to be a good girl, she
kneels down, and the little New Year raises both hands above her head,
then, kissing her hand to the maiden, departs.

The glad New Year has disenchanted her, she carefully looks this way
and that, but seeing all is well she tosses her head, dances around,
makes a courtesy, kisses both hands to the audience and disappears.

When the play is over, and just as the clock strikes twelve, the party
can instantly change its character if it is leap-year and become a

=Leap-Year Party=

for the remaining hour or so, thereby creating a great deal more
merriment and sport; the novelty of the fact that the girls exchange
places with the boys makes everything appear strange. And when the
music commences for dancing the girls look from one to another, no
one at first having the courage to invite a partner to dance, so
unaccustomed are they to even the thought of such a thing. The boys of
course laugh, and make no move to assist their timid, would-be partners
in the part they must play, but quietly await the expected invitation.
When, however, someone takes the initiative step, the others follow,
and all goes merrily.

The supper presents a new phase, but here the girls do their part
perfectly, providing all the boys with a plentiful repast, and each one
is made to feel that his presence is necessary to the success of the
party, thereby insuring a happy, pleasant time for all.

In giving a leap-year party it is very essential that all the guests
understand perfectly that the idea of the entertainment is to have
the girls take upon themselves all the duties and courtesies properly
belonging to the boys, and that the boys shall wait for an invitation
before dancing, promenading, or partaking of refreshments, and that
a boy should not cross the floor unattended, but wait for some fair
friend to escort him. The girls are at liberty to go and come as they
like, though they must remember not to leave a partner standing after
the dance is over, but politely conduct him to a seat, and the girls
must also endeavor to make the party pleasant and agreeable to all.
The chaperons, of course, should have charge of the boys during the

The leap-year party need not necessarily be a dancing party, as any
social gathering can take the form of a leap-year party.

When an entertainment is given on the eve of a new leap-year, with a
view to dancing the old year out and the new year in, just as the clock
strikes twelve the party can immediately change into a leap-year party
as described, or should the New Year be a common year, then as the time
flies and the hands of the clock approach the hour of twelve all are
on the qui vive to be the first to have the pleasure of greeting their
friends with a Happy New Year.




EVERYONE _must_ exercise to keep healthy and strong, for life is motion
and activity. It is natural to be well and happy, and to keep so we
must exercise all our muscles, as well as our moral and intellectual
faculties, or they will dwindle and wither. The arm of the Hindoo
devotee, not being used, at length becomes completely paralyzed, and
fish in the Mammoth Cave having no use for eyes pass their life without
them; so we find that _use_ is the foundation of all things, otherwise
they would cease to exist; then, girls, it lies within your power to
become stronger and more graceful each day by regular and graduated
bodily exercise, which will bring life and energy to every part of your
system by causing the blood to circulate freely through all the body.

There are some simple methods of carrying this into effect in the most
agreeable and salutary manner, but the exercises must be very light at
first, and as you advance they may be increased a little each time, but
always stop before you feel fatigued, for when the calisthenics cease
to give pleasure it is doubtful if they are beneficial.


The best time for exercising is in the morning after having partaken
of some light refreshments, though any time will do except directly
after hearty meals. Try and have a regular time set apart each day for
your physical culture. Commence by exercising five or ten minutes,
then for a little longer period next time, and so on until you can
exercise with ease for half an hour or longer. You will feel refreshed,
invigorated, and better prepared for the duties and pleasures which
await you. Your clothing must not incommode the free action of the
body, and it is essential that it be comfortable. What is suitable
for lawn tennis is also well adapted for the gymnasium. An ordinary
bathing-dress answers the purpose very well, as it is made for exercise.

The Egyptian water-carrier, with the jug of water poised so prettily
on her head, and her figure so straight and beautiful, has always
challenged admiration; her carriage is dignified, erect, and graceful,
something worth striving for, especially when we have the certainty of
success if we will only be faithful and persevering. The peasantry of
foreign countries who carry all their burdens balanced on their heads
have their reward in healthy, strong, straight figures, even in old age
they do not stoop. Witness the emigrants landing at Castle Garden who
carry their possessions done up in huge bundles on their heads with the
utmost ease; of this class, three generations—a grandmother, mother,
and grown daughter—with baggage of the same weight on their heads, were
lately seen at a New York ferry, each equally upright, strong, and

A good straight back is an excellent thing; and when the head is
properly carried and all the movements are buoyant and elastic, then
we may walk as it was intended we should, every step bringing a glow
to the cheek and a sparkle to the eye. It requires only a few minutes’
regular daily exercise for any girl to attain a carriage equal to that
of the Egyptian water-carrier, and the only apparatus needed for

=Exercise First=

is a roll of paper. Now stand with your heels together, toes out, and
shoulders well back; then place on your head the roll of paper; if
your position is not perfectly erect the roll will fall off; keep your
chin straight and back against your neck, for it is the _chin_ which
determines the poise of the body. You cannot stand straight unless the
chin is straight; throw out your chin and your shoulders will stoop
forward, have your chin straight and your back will be straight; bear
this in mind in all your exercises. Now walk, keeping the roll balanced
on your head (Fig. 252). Practice this walking back and forth until
you can do so without the paper rolling off; then try a tin cup full
to the brim with water. Walk erect or the water will wash over, down
on your head, and it will feel cold as it trickles through your hair;
soon, however, you will be able to carry the cup of water with ease
and no danger of its spilling. But do not discontinue the practice on
that account; try something else in its place, until you are able to
carry anything you wish on your head with no fear of it falling. The
exercise affords amusement, and at the same time you will be acquiring
a beautiful, dignified, and graceful carriage.

[Illustration: Fig. 252.—Balancing a Roll of Paper.]

=Exercise Second=

is for gaining agility, suppleness, quickness of eye, hand, and foot.
Standing as far from the wall as possible, take a common rubber
hand-ball and toss it against the wall, catching it as it rebounds
(see illustration), and again toss it against the wall. Vary this by
allowing the ball to strike the floor, catching it on the rebound;
then try keeping the ball in constant motion by using first one hand
and then the other as a bat for returning the ball to the wall. The
exercise can also be changed by striking the ball against the floor,
and on its return bound again striking it, thus keeping it in motion.
You will find that activity is necessary, and the work so quick that it
will keep you on the jump all through the exercise.

=Exercise Third=

is with a broom-handle. Saw or cut off the broom and smooth down the
sharp ends of the handle, and it will be ready for use. Stand erect,
heels together, toes out, chin well back and straight, so as to throw
out and expand the chest. Now grasp firmly each end of the broomstick
and bring it up over the head (Fig. 253); repeat this motion six or
seven times; then change by carrying the broomstick over back of the
head down across and back of the shoulders; then up above the head
again, repeating this, and all other motions in your calisthenics, half
a dozen times. Another exercise is holding the stick down in front of
you with both hands and bringing it up over the head and down back of
the shoulders without stopping.

[Illustration: Fig. 253.—Broom-handle Exercise.]

The side motion is made by grasping the broomstick at each end, holding
it down in front of you, and swinging it sideways, thus bringing the
right hand up when the left is down, and _vice versa_. Another way is
to hold the stick by both ends above your head and swing it from one
side to the other, which will cause the right arm to come in contact
with the right side of the head, while the left arm is extended out
horizontally to the left. Next carry the stick back of and against the
shoulders; then swing it from right to left, which gives another side
movement. Vary all the movements in as many different ways as you can
think of.

=Exercise Fourth.=

Stand erect always when in position for exercising, according to the
directions given—heels together, toes out, etc. Now allow your arms to
hang naturally down at your sides, raise your heels, and stand on your
toes; now lower the heels and repeat the motion; then close your hands
tightly and raise your arms out sideways at right angles with your
body, next up straight above your head, and down again to the level of
the shoulders, then back down to your sides as at first.

Again take position, close your hands tightly, and raise them up under
the arms, bringing the elbows out to a level with the shoulders; then
bring your hands down at your sides again and repeat the movement
vigorously; resume position, firmly close your hands and carry them up
to the shoulders, next extend them up straight above your head, down
again to your shoulders, and back to the first position. A very good
exercise is to extend both arms straight out in front of you, close
your hands and bring them back to your chest, which will cause the bent
elbows to project beyond your back.

=Exercise Fifth.=

Assume position, close your hands, and take one long step forward
with your right foot, bend the right knee and stand with your weight
resting on the right foot; then extend your arms out sideways straight
from the shoulders, now bring your hands together in front of you,
still keeping the arms on a level with the shoulders, and while doing
so throw the body back, straightening the right knee and bending the
left so the weight of the body will rest on the left foot; repeat this
and vary it by taking one step forward with the left foot and going
through with the same motions.

Resume position, and place your hands on your hips, with your thumbs
turned forward and fingers backward. Now take a long step forward with
your right foot, throwing the weight on that foot, then back again in
position, and in the same manner step forward with your left foot and
back again; next take a step backward with your right foot, resume
position, and then with your left.

Again stand with your hands on your hips, thumbs turned forward, and
without bending your knees move the body, first bending it forward,
then backward, and resuming an upright position, bend over to the right
and to the left.

[Illustration: Fig. 254.—Balancing Broom-handle.]

=Exercise Sixth.=

In this the broomstick is used for balancing; hold it in an upright
position, and first try balancing it on the palm of your hand; then
on the back of your hand, next on each of the fingers in succession,
commencing with the first finger (Fig. 254); be cautious, and when
the stick wavers do not let it fall, but catch it with the other hand,
and again balance it. This is an interesting, light, and diverting
exercise, requiring all your attention, and, for the time being, your
thoughts are concentrated on the effort to keep the broomstick properly

=Exercise Seventh.=

Pure blood means good health, and to purify the blood and keep the
complexion clear it is essential that you breathe a sufficient quantity
of _pure_ air, and you cannot take in a proper amount of air unless
your lungs are wholly extended. So take position with your hands
correctly placed on your hips; then very slowly draw in your breath
until your chest and lungs are fully expanded; next slowly exhale your
breath, and repeat the exercise.

=Exercise Eighth.=

Screw in two large, _strong_ hooks in the woodwork on each side of the
doorway; place the hooks as far above your head as you can conveniently
reach; slide the broomstick in so that it will extend across the
doorway and be supported by the hooks; have the apparatus on that side
of the doorway where it will not interfere with the opening and closing
of the door, and be sure that it is perfectly secure before attempting
to exercise; each time before commencing a new movement examine the
stick, and be certain that it is not in any danger of slipping from
the hooks. Unless you can be perfectly safe from liability to hurts or
falls, do not include this in your list of exercises.

For the first movement grasp the bar firmly with both hands and swing
the body forward and backward, standing first on the toes, then on the
heels; next, still grasping the bar, raise up on your toes, then back
again. Change the movements in as many ways as you like, but do not
try anything that may strain or hurt you. Now screw in two more hooks,
on either side of the woodwork, below the first ones, placing them
about two feet and eight inches from the floor; take the stick from
its elevated position and slide it across the doorway so it will rest
securely on the two lower hooks. Standing in front of it, grasp the bar
firmly with both hands and try to raise yourself up, feet and all, from
the floor by bearing your weight down on the bar; then let yourself
gently back again. When you have finished exercising, remove the stick
and put it away.

[Illustration: Fig. 255.—The Swing.]

=Exercise Ninth.=

In the top part of the framework of the doorway fasten a very strong
hook by screwing it into the wood; then take a broomstick and, after
shortening it so that when held in a horizontal position it will
readily pass through the doorway, cut notches in each end and securely
tie the two ends of a rope across the notches; suspend this swing by
slipping the centre of the rope over the hook in the doorway (Fig.
255); have the apparatus strong and firm, capable of any amount of wear
and tear. Stand facing the stick, which should be at the height of the
chest, and take hold of it with both hands; now bend the knees until
they are within a short distance of the floor, then rise and repeat
the exercise. Next, with both hands on the stick, take a long step
forward with the right foot, throwing the weight on that foot; return
to your position and go through the same exercise with your left foot.
Try different movements which suggest themselves, and select those you
like best. When not in use the swing can be slipped off the hook and
put out of the way.

=Exercise Tenth.=

To develop a weak voice and make it clear and sweet, and to strengthen
the lungs, reading aloud is an excellent exercise; as it requires both
mental and muscular exertion and performs a double duty, it should
receive a full share of time and attention. Begin with something you
are interested in, then you will find it much easier to read aloud than
if you undertook a book or an article which might be full of merit,
but lack interest for you. When commencing this exercise read only ten
minutes or less at a sitting, increasing the time as you practise and
the reading grows less difficult. Do not be discouraged if your voice
sounds a little husky while reading; stop a moment, and then go on
again. After a few trials you will have no more trouble in that way,
for your voice will grow clear and distinct, and the exercise will
become a great pleasure as well as an attractive, useful accomplishment.

Let your reading matter be very choice and of the best; do not
condescend to waste your time on other writings.

From the ten different exercises given, select those best adapted to
your size, age, and liking, and practise them for a short time daily;
you can hardly realize the great advantage they will prove to be. In
this way all parts of the system may be strengthened and harmoniously
developed. But the constitution cannot be hurried: all must be
accomplished little by little. Allow yourselves to be happy and merry;
be ready to enjoy the little pleasures of life, and this, with kind
and generous feelings for others, will do a great deal toward keeping
you well and strong.

Out-of-door exercise is always to be preferred to in-door when one has
a choice. Walking, tennis, archery, horseback, and swimming are some
of the athletic sports for girls, and they all have their attractions.
But there are times when we are denied the pleasure of these pastimes,
and then we are glad of a little exercise in-doors, which also affords
enjoyment and recreation.




WHEN in olden times the warriors went around the country dressed in
suits of clothes made by a blacksmith instead of a tailor, their hats
were manufactured at the forge also, and had _iron front doors_ that
moved upon hinges. When danger was nigh these doors were closed,
locked, and barred over the poor men’s heads, leaving only a loop-hole
or two for them to peep through. At such times in meeting Mr. Brown it
was impossible to distinguish him from Mr. Smith, who was arrayed in
like manner, and it might happen that Mr. Smith was the last man in
the world that one cared to meet, not being on speaking terms or some
such reason. Well, as we were saying, there was no chance whatever of
telling one man from another unless he wore a distinguishing mark of
some kind.

So to prevent such uncomfortable mistakes and to distinguish friend
from foe, every gentleman had to be marked and labelled, like an
express package, so one might read as he ran, “I am Earl Jenkins,
of Thunderland, who married a Rhazor, of Stropshire.” These names
and addresses were not painted in words on their owners with a
marking-brush, but worked and embroidered in translatable designs on
cloaks, saddle-housings, and silken banners, or emblazoned on the
shield they carried with which to meet the advances of their neighbors.
Since that time our more recent ancestors in England have taken great
pride in preserving and handing down from generation to generation
these distinguishing marks, as a guarantee to their children that they
came of gentle birth, which is very interesting and gratifying for
European girls, but American girls need nothing of the kind; it is
sufficient that we are Americans.

Of course, some of us do take pleasure in knowing that our
great-great-grandparents came over in the Mayflower, or that the
name of an ancestor is among the signatures upon that Declaration of
Independence which made such a stir a century ago, for that proves us
to be Columbia’s daughters.

When there was no other method of distinguishing a man his label became
a very important item; so these family devices were reduced to a
science and protected by law.

The old countries’ coats of arms may remain abroad, where they belong,
but the ingenious scheme, that was gradually evolved, of picturing
ideas, mottoes, and pretty sentiments we will adopt as our inheritance,
with many thanks to our mediæval ancestors with the metallic clothes,
who bequeathed them to us.

We propose to revive enough of this neglected knowledge of chivalry to
serve our purpose in suggesting a method of designing devices which
will not only be artistic decorations, but to the initiated can be made
to portray almost any sentiment or set of principles the artist may

The many uses to which these designs can be applied will, we hope,
at once be seen by the quick-witted American girls, and we trust
will interest the reader as much as they do the writer, who in this
chapter can only give a few necessary, brief hints upon the subject,
sufficient, however, to explain the application that can be made of
this beautiful and perfect system of

=Decorative Language.=

In the following directions anyone can learn how to make a device which
will not only be a decoration, artistic in form and color, but will at
the same time express the peculiar traits, characteristics, and virtues
of the friend for whom it is intended, or the precept, code, proverb,
or creed of the designer. All technical terms, as far as practicable,
are discarded, but the rules of heraldry strictly adhered to, with such
simplifications as are necessary to render it intelligible.

=The Field.=

The surface on which the design is portrayed is called the field.
This may be of any shape; originally it was supposed to represent a
warrior’s shield, but you may use a circle, oval, square, diamond, or
any other form.

[Illustration: Fig. 256.—The Field.]

=The Points=

on the surface of the shield locate the exact spot where a design or
object in heraldry may be placed. Refer by numbers to Fig. 257.

[Illustration: Fig. 257.—Points.]

    1. Fess point.
    2. Honor point.
    3. Nombril point.
    4. Dexter chief point.
    5. Middle or chief point.
    6. Sinister chief point.
    7. Dexter base point.
    8. Middle base point.
    9. Sinister base point.

If you desire to place a flower on the fess point, you find that it
means the exact centre of the shield, and so on.

The devices take significance in accordance with the more or less
importance of their position on the shield; the honor point holds the
highest grade, next to it the middle or chief point, and the right or
dexter side is of more importance than the left or sinister.

The field may be divided, if desired, in any of the following


each of which has a significance, suggested generally by the form:

Fig. 258, the Chief, occupying the top or head of the shield, indicates
pre-eminence, main object, intelligence, first principle.

[Illustration: Fig. 258.—Chief.]

[Illustration: Fig. 259.—Fess.]

[Illustration: Fig. 260.—Parted per Fess.]

Fig. 259, the Fess, denotes cause and effect, the central band
containing the means by which the ends, in the other spaces, are

[Illustration: Fig. 261.—Pale.]

[Illustration: Fig. 262.—Parted per Pale.]

[Illustration: Fig. 263.—Bend.]

Fig. 260 is a partition, and partakes of the meaning of the division,
it is denoted by the term, parted per fess.

Fig. 261, the Pale, represents rectitude, uprightness; also union, the
object in the central division uniting whatever occupies the dexter and
sinister sides.

Fig. 262 is parted per pale.

[Illustration: Fig. 264.—Parted per Bend.]

[Illustration: Fig. 265.—Chevron.]

[Illustration: Fig. 266.—Cross.]

Fig. 263, the Bend, is auspicious, meaning prosperity, success.

Fig. 264 is parted per bend.

Fig. 265, the Chevron, is indicative of aid, assistance, support.

Fig. 266, the Cross, suggests humility, devotion, patience,

[Illustration: Fig. 267.—Saltire.]

[Illustration: Fig. 268.—Pile.]

[Illustration: Fig. 269.—Canton.]

Fig. 267, the Saltire, a variation of the cross, is recognized as
order, discipline.

Fig. 268, the Pile, being in the form of a wedge, means penetration,
incision, entering to divide or distribute.

Fig. 269, the Canton, denotes an additional, separate idea or
principle; also some characteristic that is added to the original


These also have symbolical meanings.

Fig. 270.—Gold or yellow is expressed in black and white by means of
dots, and is used in the sense of wealth, ability, or knowledge.

[Illustration: Fig. 270.—Gold.]

[Illustration: Fig. 271.—Silver.]

[Illustration: Fig. 272.—Red.]

Fig. 271.—Silver or white is represented by a plain white surface,
and being the color of light, signifies brightness, purity, virtue,

Fig. 272.—Red, represented by perpendicular lines, means ardent
affection, love.

Fig. 273.—Blue is represented by horizontal lines; like the color in
the heavens, it is truth, freedom, eternity.

[Illustration: Fig. 273.—Blue.]

[Illustration: Fig. 274.—Purple.]

[Illustration: Fig. 275.—Green.]

Fig. 274.—Purple, represented by diagonal lines from sinister chief to
dexter base, being the royal color, is understood as authority, power,

Fig. 275.—Green is represented by lines running diagonally across the
shield from dexter chief to sinister base. Like spring foliage, it
suggests hope, life, vitality, youth, freshness.

Fig. 276.—Orange is represented by horizontal lines crossed by diagonal
lines from dexter base to sinister chief. It is the color of the king
of beasts and signifies strength, honor, generosity.

[Illustration: Fig. 276.—Orange.]

[Illustration: Fig. 277.—Crimson.]

[Illustration: Fig. 278.—Black.]

Fig. 277.—Crimson, or blood-color, is represented by diagonal lines
from dexter chief and sinister chief, crossing each other. It denotes
boldness, enthusiasm, impetuosity.

Fig. 278.—Black is represented by horizontal and perpendicular lines
crossed. It means darkness, doubt, ignorance, uncertainty.

To the principal design portrayed on the shield can be added such
appendages as are appropriate—crest over the top and a scroll with a
motto beneath the shield—but they are supplementary, and not of great
importance; their colors should be those of the shield.

Thus far our plans have followed the exact science of heraldry, but
at this point comes a departure, for in the place of other armorial
devices we shall place Dame Nature’s sweetest thoughts—flowers.

If we now add to the significance of the forms and colors already
given the accepted and authentic language of flowers, we shall have a
possibility of combinations practically inexhaustible, and with such
a dictionary of symbols to draw upon, we can successfully translate
almost any terse sentiment into a unique decorative design.

In order to give all the assistance in our power we have culled from
the most generally accepted authorities and authentic sources a short
floral vocabulary, and now that we have the material at hand let us
test the system and learn

=How to Make a Design in Decorative Language.=

Suppose our Natural History Society desires an appropriate pin or badge.

First we turn to the floral vocabulary and there find that the magnolia
means love of nature. The flower has a good decorative form, its
sentiment is exactly appropriate, and we unhesitatingly adopt it.

[Illustration: Fig. 279. TRUE LOVE OF NATURE]

After trying various forms for the shield, we select a very plain one
that the effect of the decorative form of the magnolia may not be
lessened by too ornate surroundings, and to show the large size of the
blossom we must have it occupy the entire field without any divisions.
Next, as to color; let us think. White, meaning brightness, purity,
etc.? No. Yellow or gold, signifying wealth, ability, or—ah! here we
have it—_knowledge?_ Yes, that will do nicely—a love of nature on a
field of knowledge; that certainly is appropriate. But the top of
the shield being so square and plain gives the device an unfinished
appearance. Suppose we try a bar over it, and something not a flower.
As we wish this design to remain simple, a leaf of some kind would be
best; so we return to the floral vocabulary, and after trying many and
almost taking several, finally decide that the oak leaf is just the
form needed to give a finish to the top, and its meaning, strength,
will be an excellent element in the society. There, our insignia is
complete, good in form, attractive in color, and appropriate in its
meaning; but some of us prefer having the motto written out in plain
English, so we will add a decorative scroll, with the meaning of the
design inscribed “True Love of Nature.” (See Fig. 279.)

To familiarize ourselves with the working of the method let us try
another experiment, and take the sentiment, “Wealth is the Reward of
Industry,” to illustrate.

After deciding on the form of the shield, we turn to the divisions, and
running them slowly over for something suitable, stop at Fig. 259, the
Fess, meaning cause and effect. That sounds promising. Industry is the
means by which the end, wealth, is accomplished. Good so far. We can
now see that a floral emblem to represent industry should be placed in
the central division, and whatever signifies wealth on the other two
spaces. Among our legends of flowers we find industry portrayed by the
bee orchid, and wealth and prosperity are symbolized by wheat. That
is plain and easy. Now we have only to decide upon appropriate colors
for the field to complete the design. Gold would mean wealth, but that
we have in the wheat; besides the yellow of the wheat would not show
well on the gold background, while on white or silver the contrast
is strong and the appearance agreeable. Silver denotes innocence and
virtue, which are so necessary that without them wealth would be
undesirable. Therefore silver or virtue shall be the groundwork for
our wealth, and for industry we will select purple as meaning power.
Industry possesses the power to acquire wealth. Thus we complete the
emblematical design, as seen in Fig. 280.

[Illustration: Fig. 280. Wealth is the Reward of INDUSTRY]

The following is a problem given to us for solution: On a gold chevron
in a black field is a scarlet lily, to which is added as a crest a
sunflower, and under all a blank scroll. On this we must write a motto
that will be appropriately symbolized by the design.

It would be excellent practice for the student in this new motif in
decorative art to try, by application of the foregoing instructions, to
decipher the meaning of this design before reading the analysis.

SOLUTION OF FIG. 281. —We do not think this is put together as
scientifically as the system would admit of, but still it can be

[Illustration: Fig. 281.]

The scarlet lily (high-souled aspirations) on a gold (knowledge)
chevron, which is aid, assistance, in a field of black (ignorance),
surmounted by the sunflower (pure and lofty thoughts), freely
translated, might be read: Aspirations after knowledge help to illumine
the darkness of ignorance with pure and lofty thoughts. Aspirations
(lily) after knowledge (gold) help (chevron) to illumine (the gold
chevron and lily brighten up the dulness of the black field) the
darkness of ignorance (black) with pure and lofty thoughts (sunflower).

[Illustration: Fig. 282.]

For younger girls the plain shield of one color with an appropriate
flower had best be used, which they may vary _ad infinitum_. A simple
yet pretty shield can be made by placing a four-leaved clover,
symbolical of good-luck, on a shield of one color, silver, meaning
purity, innocence, showing that innocence, combined with the language
of the clover, expresses good-fortune.

[Illustration: Fig. 283.]

[Illustration: Fig. 284]

We might go on forming innumerable designs, each more beautiful than
the last, but enough hints have been given to enable the young people
to make any style of design in this decorative language which may
best suit their purpose. Young girls can decorate menu cards, having
each motto exactly suited to every separate guest, the sentiment
being indicative of some feeling or quality peculiar to each person.
Invitations for parties, also orders of dances or games, may be
designed in the same way.

[Illustration: Fig. 285.]

This beautiful combination of flowers and heraldry is appropriate for
ornamental needlework, to be embroidered on chairs, worked on screens,
painted on velvet, wrought on scarfs, and adapted in innumerable ways
to add to the refinement and attractiveness of home.

[Illustration: Fig. 286.]

The idea can be utilized in stained-glass effects and in china

[Illustration: Fig. 287.]

[Illustration: Fig. 288.]

The chosen motto may be a decoration in marking personal possessions,
such as table china (Figs. 282, 283, 284), fan (Fig. 285), chair-back
(Fig. 286), travelling satchel (Fig. 287), tidy (Fig. 288),
handkerchief (Fig. 289), and sofa-cushion (Fig. 290).

[Illustration: Fig. 289.]

[Illustration: Fig. 290.]

These are only a few examples of the many articles which can be
beautified and stamped with your individual mark. Portières offer a
good ground for applique or embroidery in decorative language.


seem to be regaining their popularity and usefulness. These book-plates
are tablets in any style, which, when gummed inside on the front covers
of books, have been used for many years to designate to whom the books

There is a certain book-plate more interesting to us than all others.
To the design on it we are indebted for our national shield and our
Stars and Stripes. It was used by the Father of our Country, and we are
glad to be able to give a print of the original in Fig. 291.

[Illustration: Fig. 291.]

In the decorative language any style of book-plate can be designed,
which, when pasted in a favorite book, will add to the value of the
already treasured volume.

=Floral Vocabulary.=

    Apple-blossom                   Preference.
    Almond                          Hope.
    Acanthus                        Art.
    Arbor vitæ                      Unchanging friendship.
    Bulrush                         Docility.
    Balm                            Social intercourse.
    Balsamine                       Impatience.
    Blue violet                    Faithfulness.
    Bay wreath                     Glory.
    Box                            Constancy.
    Broom                          Humility.
    Buttercup                      Riches.
    Camellia japonica              Unpretending excellence.
    Cherry                         A good education.
    Canterbury-bell                Gratitude.
    Chestnut                       Do me justice.
    China aster                    Love of variety.
    Cabbage                        Profit.
    Coreopsis                      Always cheerful.
    Clover, red                    Industry.
    Cowslip                        Winning grace.
    Clover, white                  I promise.
    Daffodil                       Uncertainty.
    Dahlia                         Elegance and dignity.
    Dandelion                      Coquetry.
    Fennel                         Strength.
    Geranium                       Gentility.
    Grass                          Submission.
    Heliotrope                     Devotion.
    House-leek                     Domestic economy.
    Hollyhock                      Ambition.
    Ivy                            Dependence.
    Laurestine                     A token.
    Lichen                         Solitude.
    Lettuce                        Cold-hearted.
    Lemon-blossom                  Discretion.
    Lilac, purple                  Fastidiousness.
    Lily, white                    Purity.
    Mullein                        Good-nature.
    Mignonette                     Worth.
    May-flower                     Welcome.
    Nasturtium                     Patriotism.
    Oats                           Music.
    Olive                          Peace.
    Ox-eye                         Patience.
    Poppy, white                   Dreams.
    Snowdrop                       Consolation.
    Straw                          United.
    Sensitive-plant                Sensitiveness.
    Star of Bethlehem              Reconciliation.
    Sweetbrier                     Simplicity.
    Thyme                          Thriftiness.
    Thorn-apple                    Disguise.
    Tulip-tree                     Fame.
    Witch-hazel                    A spell.
    Winged seeds of all kinds      Messengers.
    White violet                   Modesty.
    White rose                     Silence.




“COME around early this afternoon and bring your fancy-work; we will
have a nice, cosey time; all the girls will be there, and we can read
that last new book.” Such is the familiar and welcome invitation given
and received, from time to time, by most young girls, and they find
quiet but real recreation in these informal meetings, where, while
listening to a friend read aloud, they believe it much easier to keep
their minds on the subject if their hands are employed with dainty
needle-work. Then, too, sewing is a real pleasure when one becomes
interested in the work, and anyone who thoroughly understands plain
sewing can with ease learn fancy stitches of all kinds, for good

=Plain Sewing=

is the foundation—the A B C—of all the more elaborate drawn work,
embroideries, and some of the laces. As a rule we think


comes first on the list of plain stitches; this is exactly the same
as sewing over and over. Hold the two edges of the material firmly
together between the first finger and thumb of the left hand, while
with the right hand you take the stitches very close together and as
near the edge as possible, sewing from right to left (Fig. 292). It is
well to keep the edge nearest to you a little tighter than the outer
edge, to prevent its puckering. Always baste the seam before sewing,
and when the seam is finished open it and flatten out the stitches
(Fig. 293), so that the edges of the material will not overlap, but
just meet together and lie smooth and flat.

[Illustration: Fig. 292.—Overhanding; or Sewing over and over.]

[Illustration: Fig. 293—Overhanding. The seam opened with stitches
flattened out.]


is the same as overhanding, except the stitches slant, are farther
apart, taken down deeper in the material, and the seam is not opened.


First turn in the raw edge four or five threads, according to the kind
of goods to be hemmed, then turn it down again to the desired width;
this done, baste the hem down evenly and neatly—it must be of the same
width throughout—hold the sewing over the first finger of your left
hand, and have the stitches small, even, and very near the edge of the
hem (Fig. 294).

[Illustration: Fig. 294.—Hemming.]


Pass the needle in and out of the material in a straight line (Fig.
295), making all the stitches the same size. We believe the rule is to
take up two threads and leave two; but the length of the stitch should
be regulated by the kind of material used.

[Illustration: Fig. 295.—Running.]


is to take long stitches in the same manner as running.


does not differ much from running; the stitches are taken on the needle
in the same manner, but in this case two threads are taken up and four
left; the line should be kept perfectly straight.

If you wish to gather an apron or a skirt divide it into halves, then
into quarters, in order to make the fulness even on each half of the
band; mark the four places and gather on the right side; when finished
draw the stitches tightly together on the thread and stroke down
evenly with a needle. To sew in the gathers, back-stitch each one in


Take two threads back of the needle and two before, having each stitch
meet the last one, as in Fig. 296; keep the stitches even and in a
straight line.

[Illustration: Fig. 296.—Stitching.]


Proceed as in stitching, only make the stitches longer and do not have
them meet.


First baste up the seam, allowing the upper edge to extend five threads
beyond the lower edge (Fig. 296); then back-stitch or stitch the two
edges together; next turn the upper edge down over the lower one and
lay open the seam so that the fell will lie down flat like a hem (Fig.
297); then hem it down neatly.

[Illustration: Fig. 297.—Felling.]


Fig. 298 shows how to take the proper stitch. Be careful in cutting
button-holes to make the slit even to a thread and cut the outer corner
rounded; bar the inner corner by taking two stitches across it, and
overcast the button-hole around three or four threads deep from the
edge, or if the material is not inclined to ravel run it with thread,
either double or single, drawing it a trifle tight; then begin at the
left-hand corner to work the button-hole, leaving one thread between
each stitch; keep the stitches exactly the same depth and the loop or
pearl of the button-hole on the upper edge.

[Illustration: Fig. 298.—Button-hole Stitch.]


is used to keep the seams in flannel spread open and fastened neatly
down. Fig. 299 shows how to take the stitch; make the stitches all even
and of the same size.

[Illustration: Fig. 299.—Herring-bone Stitch.]

We have now given all the stitches which properly belong to plain
sewing, and our next step will be

=Darning and Mending.=

“A stitch in time saves nine;” this much most of us know from
experience, and it is wise to devote a little time on a certain day
each week to looking over the wardrobe and making any repairs that may
be needed; the little care and time thus bestowed will prove a true
economy, and it is a real comfort to have all one’s clothing in perfect


With a needle and thread carefully draw out the uneven ravelled edges
of the hole, in order to diminish its size as much as possible, and
bring the loops and ends back in their proper places; then place under
it a wooden egg or anything that will answer the purpose, and using
thread of the same texture and shade of color as the garment to be
mended, run back and forth across the hole as far as the material is
worn thin, leaving a loop at the end of each turn. In crossing the
threads, take up every other thread alternately each way (Fig. 300),
and make the darn of an irregular shape, as one of an even outline does
not wear well; when the weaving or darning is finished the loops can be
cut off.

[Illustration: Fig. 300.—Jersey or Stocking Darn.]

[Illustration: Fig. 301.—Tear Darn.]


Carefully bring the ragged edges together and baste the tear as nearly
as possible in its original position; then, if it is delicate muslin
or dress material to be mended, use ravellings of the same instead of
thread to darn with, and weave it in and out across the edges of the
rent, as in Fig. 301; if the darn needs strengthening, baste a piece
of the same material under the rent before darning, and catch down
the edges of the piece on the under side of the goods. In mending
broadcloth or like material, darn it on the wrong side, and when the
darn is finished, ruff up the nap with the point of the needle at the
edges of the tear on the right side to cover the stitches; then dampen
the darn, and after laying a thin clean cloth over it, press with a
moderately hot flat-iron; this should make the darn almost, if not
quite, imperceptible.

=How to Patch.=

If possible cut the piece intended as a patch of the same goods as the
garment to be mended, and if there is a pattern be careful to so cut
and place the patch that it will match exactly; baste and hem down the
patch on the right side of the worn part of the garment; then cut out
the old material on the wrong side, leaving enough edge to form a firm
hem; sew this to the patch, taking care that the stitches do not show
on the right side.

=How to Sew on a Button.=

Should much strain come on the button, as in little children’s clothes,
first hem down a small double piece of muslin, on the wrong side of
the garment, at the exact spot where the button is to be placed, and
with strong thread take a stitch on the right side; then sew the button
through about four times, being careful not to let the stitches spread
on the wrong side; wind the thread three times around the shank of the
button formed by the stitches, drawing the thread a little tight, pass
the needle through and fasten the thread neatly on the wrong side; the
extra piece of muslin can be omitted when not needed.

=To Mend a Kid Glove.=

If the glove is merely ripped, and there is no strain on the portion
to be mended, sew the two edges together over and over on the right
side with fine thread or sewing-silk matching in color the glove to
be mended; if, however, there _is_ liability of its tearing out again,
strengthen the edges by first working a button-hole stitch on each;
then sew them together over and over, passing the needle in and out of
the loops of the button-hole stitch, so forming a narrow net-work of
thread between the two pieces of kid. Should the glove need a patch,
carefully cut a piece of kid out of the best part of an old kid glove
corresponding in color to the one needing repairs; make the patch
exactly the shape and size of the hole, and button-hole stitch all
around the edge of the hole and the edge of the patch; then sew in the
patch over and over, catching together the loops of the button-hole
stitches; this makes the mending firm, neat, and strong.

=Fancy Stitches.=

These are in many varieties of style; one of the most useful is known
as the


Fig. 302 gives the position of the needle and the manner of taking
the stitch. Remember to make all the stitches of an exact length and
the same distance apart, first one on this side and then one on that,
keeping them in a straight, even line.

[Illustration: Fig 302.—Feather Stitch.]


sometimes takes the place of braiding; it is the same stitch as
that used in the old-fashioned tambouring (Fig. 303); many Persian
embroideries are made in silk with the chain-stitch.

[Illustration: Fig. 303.—Chain Stitch.]


The stitch (Fig. 304) is used for outline embroidery, and when made
with fine black sewing-silk resembles pen-and-ink work. We have seen
figures outlined on linen with the drapery worked in colors, while the
face, hands, and feet were simply in black and white; being finely
outlined, the effect was novel and artistic, for in this way the
features were made as true as if drawn on paper with a pencil.

For filling in the solid colors take the common running stitch, but
make the stitches long on the right side of the embroidery and very
short on the wrong side, so as to give the appearance of the colored
fabric copied.

[Illustration: Fig. 304.—Outline Stitch.]

Use filo-silk; and English or French embroidery cottons, when colors
are needed in the work. Always soak the silks and cottons in strong
salt and water before using; this sets the color and keeps it from
running when washed.


Decide upon the width of the hem and the width of the space for drawn
threads; carefully draw out the thread at one edge of the space, then
the thread at the other edge; next all the intervening threads; this
finished, fold and baste down the hem, allowing it to meet the edge
of the drawn work, and taking five threads running lengthwise in the
space, bind them together at the edge of the hem; at the same time
stitch them to the hem, as in Fig. 305.

[Illustration: Fig. 305.—Hem-stitching.]

=Drawn Work=

always looks well and is very serviceable when made of linen.
Scarfs for buffets, bureaus, or tables, and tea-cloths, tidies, or
chair-backs, can be made of crash, butchers’ linen, and linen sheeting;
it is better to have doylies of very fine linen.

[Illustration: Fig. 306.—Fagotting Stitch.]

In making drawn work, if the article is to be fringed, first draw out
a few threads to measure the depth of the fringe, and at the opening
thus made hem-stitch all around the edge of the material, leaving the
ravelling out of the fringe until the drawn work is finished; proceed
to draw the threads wherever spaces are desired, and before working the
pattern always hem-stitch both edges of the spaces. In Fig. 306 the
pattern marked B shows the stitch called fagotting, made by crossing
every other group of threads back over the one preceding and drawing
the linen thread through in such a way as to keep the groups twisted;
the two lines marked A, in the Fig. 306, are intended more as a finish
to some elaborate design than as a pattern in themselves; these are
made by hem-stitching down a number of threads to each group. Fig.
307 gives a favorite pattern; for this count the threads, so that the
spaces may be equal and regular; draw the threads in all the spaces
running one way first; then draw the threads in the spaces crossing
the first one and run linen threads diagonally across from the top of
the right-hand corner to the bottom of the left, dividing each linen
square into two equal parts; cross these by threads also running
diagonally across from the top of the left-hand corner to the bottom of
the right, again dividing the linen squares, making four equal parts;
then weave threads through all the spaces running both horizontally
and perpendicularly, using the fagotting stitch (Fig. 306), and when
crossing the threads in the open spaces tie the centres of each in
turn, as in Figs. 308, 309; finish the pattern by running a thread in
and out several times around the knots in the centres of the wheels and
fasten the ends by tying neatly. Another pattern is given in Fig. 310.

[Illustration: Fig. 307.—Drawn Work.]

[Illustration: Fig. 308.—First Knot.]

[Illustration: Fig. 309.—Second Knot.]

[Illustration: Fig. 310.—Border in Drawn Work.]

Outline work is often combined with drawn work; fast colors, in
either cotton, linen or silk, are used for the outline design. When
the article worked is intended for daily use and must frequently be
laundried, it is better to substitute in place of the fringe a wide
hem-stitched hem edged with firm linen lace.

Very dainty fancy aprons are made of common scrim with spaces drawn
and narrow ribbons of different colors simply woven in and out of the
threads, running crosswise through the spaces.

=Applique and Original Designs for Portières.=

The pattern in this work is cut from one material and sewed on another.

Almost any kind of fabric can be used as either applique or foundation;
velvet and plush are suitable for applique, but make poor groundwork,
owing to the long nap; both materials in dark rich colors are handsome
when used as a border on portières or table-covers. To applique a
pattern of velvet or plush cut the design very exact and cover the
wrong side with a slight coating of gum, being careful to have the
gum thin on the edges so that it will not spread on the groundwork;
then lay the velvet on the place it is to occupy, and after pressing
it down very gently and lightly with your hand, allow it to dry; this
accomplished, the edges of the pattern may be hemmed down neatly on
the foundation. If a further finish is desired, outline the design by
sewing all around the edge a small gold or silken cord.


We give an original applique design for a portière in Fig. 311,
representing Day. The foundation is of soft dark-blue momie-cloth, the
sun a round piece of bright yellow or orange satin, and the rays are
of gold or heavy yellow silk thread merely run in stitches of various
lengths; the cloud is of light blue crape or crazy cloth, and the bird
is one of those which come prepared expressly for applique by the
Japanese, and can be purchased at almost any Japanese or fancy store;
if possible a lark should be selected in preference to other birds.
The border is a band of old gold velvet. Our other design (Fig. 312)
represents Night; the foundation and band are the same as those for the
“Day” portière; the star is of white silk, the moon of very pale Nile
green silk, and the cloud of dark pearl gray crape or crazy cloth, much
darker than the blue momie-cloth.

[Illustration: Fig. 311.—Portière. Day.]

[Illustration: Fig. 312.—Portière. Night.]

The applique work must be done very carefully. First cut out the
designs, next turn in the raw edges evenly and smoothly, and with a
very fine thread and needle baste the edges down; then baste the
designs carefully on the foundations, and, with a fine needle and
sewing-silk matching in color the piece to be appliqued, hem each one
down neatly, making the stitches almost invisible. The band of velvet
can be sewed on the bottom edge of the momie-cloth, then turned up like
a hem and hemmed down.


Very beautiful lace is made by cutting out the heavy patterns which
are still perfect, from old and worn laces and embroideries, and
transferring the designs to new fine wash-net. After first basting them
on, hem them down to the netting with a fine needle and thread; in this
way the embroideries last as long again and look as well as when new.

=Ribbon Embroideries.=

We can give a clearer idea of this work by means of an example, and we
will take the common white daisy as an illustration.

Thread a long-eyed coarse needle with very narrow white ribbon, and
beginning at the centre of the flower, pass the needle from the wrong
side up through your material, drawing the ribbon out nearly its full
length and leaving only a short piece on the wrong side to be fastened
down; now take a stitch straight out the length of a daisy petal and
pass the needle through to the wrong side; then, taking a very short
stitch, draw the needle out through on the right side; next take
another long stitch back to the centre of the daisy, thus forming the
second petal; continue in the same manner, making the petals radiate
out in a circle from the centre of the flower. Work the centres of the
daisies with yellow silk and the stems in dark-green silk; the leaves
can be either worked or appliqued. For half-blown daisies make only
about a quarter of a circle of petals, and in place of the yellow
centre, work a green calyx. Ox-eyed daisies can be made in the same
way with soft, thin yellow ribbon, a little broader than the ribbon
used for white daisies. The work is rapid and pleasing, and almost any
flower can be imitated very perfectly with ribbon embroidery.




THE fashion of collecting pictured advertising cards, so much in vogue
among the children a few years ago, seems to have run its course,
and dying out, it has left on the young collectors’ hands more cards
than they know well what to do with. Many of the collections have
been pasted in scrap-books, of which the children have long since
tired. While examining one of these volumes with its row after row of
cards, it occurred to me that these advertisements might be utilized
in a new way by dividing and combining them. The experiment proved a
success, and I will now try to show you how, with the aid of scissors
and mucilage, the pictures which have become so familiar may be made
to undergo changes that are indeed wonderful, and how from them may be
formed a

=Mother Goose Scrap-book.=

The nursery scrap-books made of linen or paper cambric are, perhaps,
familiar to most of our readers; but for the benefit of those who
may not yet have seen these durable little books, we will give the
following directions for making one: Cut from a piece of strong linen,
colored paper cambric, or white muslin, four squares twenty-four
inches long by twelve inches wide. Button-hole stitch the edges all
around with some bright-colored worsted, then place the squares neatly
together and stitch them directly through the centre with strong thread
(Fig. 313). Fold them over, stitch again, as in Fig. 314, and your book
is finished and ready for the pictures.

It is in the preparation of these pictures that you will find the
novelty of the plan we propose. Instead of pasting in those cards
which have become too familiar to awaken much interest, let the young
book-makers design and form their own pictures by cutting special
figures, or parts of figures, from different cards, and then pasting
them together so as to form new combinations.

[Illustration: Fig. 313.—Scrap-book Opened and Stitched through the

[Illustration: Fig. 314.—Scrap-book Folded and again Stitched.]

Any subject which pleases the fancy can be illustrated in this way,
and you will soon be deeply interested in the work and delighted at
the strange and striking pictorial characters that can be produced by
ingenious combinations.

Stories and little poems may be very nicely and aptly illustrated; but
the “Mother Goose Melodies” are, perhaps, the most suitable subjects
with which to interest younger children, as they will be easily
recognized by the little folk. Take, for instance, the “Three Wise Men
of Gotham,” who went to sea in a bowl. Will not Fig. 315 serve very
well as an illustration of the subject? Yet these figures are cut from
advertising cards, and no two from the same card. Fig. 316 shows the
materials, Fig. 315 the result of combining them.

[Illustration: Fig. 315.—“Three Wise Men of Gotham.”]

Again, the little man dancing so gayly (Fig. 317) is turned into
“Little Jack Horner” eating his Christmas pie (Fig. 318), by merely
cutting off his legs and substituting a dress-skirt and pair of feet
clipped from another card. The Christmas pie in his lap is from still
another card.

[Illustration: Fig. 316.—Figures cut from Advertising Cards.]

[Illustration: Fig. 317.—Figures cut from Christmas Cards.]

[Illustration: Fig. 318.—“Little Jack Horner.”]

In making pictures of this kind, figures that were originally standing
may be forced to sit; babies may be placed in arms which, on the cards
they were stolen from, held only cakes of soap, perhaps, or boxes
of blacking; heads may be ruthlessly torn from bodies to which they
belong, and as ruthlessly clapped upon strange shoulders; and you will
be surprised to see what amusing, and often excellent, illustrations
present themselves as the result of a little ingenuity in clipping and
pasting. Another kind, which we shall call the

=Transformation Scrap-Book,=

will be found exceedingly amusing on account of the various and
ever-changing pictures it presents.

Unlike any other, where the picture once pasted in must remain ever the
same, the transformation scrap-book alters one picture many times. To
work these transformations a blank book is the first article required;
one eight inches long by six and a half or seven wide is a good size.

[Illustration: Fig. 319.—Transformation Scrap-book with Pages cut.]

Cut the pages of this book across, one-third of the way down. Fig. 319
shows how this should be done. The three-cornered piece cut out near
the binding allows the pages to be turned without catching or tearing.
Leave the first page uncut; also the one in the middle of the book.

Cut from picture-cards, or old toy-books which have colored
illustrations, the odd and funny figures of men and women, boys and
girls, selecting those which will give a variety of costumes and

Paste a figure of a woman or girl on the first page, placing it so that
when the lower part of the next page is turned, the upper edge of it
will come across the neck of the figure where it is joined on to the

[Illustration: Leaves from a Transformation Scrap-book.]

Cut the heads from the rest of the pictured women, and choosing a
body as different as possible from the one just used, paste it upon
the lower part of the next page, directly under the head belonging to
the first body. Upon the upper part of the same page paste any one
of the other heads, being careful to place it so that it will fit the
body. Continue in this way, pasting the heads upon the upper, and the
bodies on the lower, part of the page, until the space allowed for the
women is filled up; then, commencing at the page left in the middle of
the book, paste upon it the figure of a man, and continue in the same
manner as with the woman, until the spaces are all used and the book is

The combinations formed in this way are very funny. Old heads with
young bodies; young heads with old bodies; then one head with a great
variety of bodies, and so on.

The first picture may represent a man, tall and thin, dressed in a
rowing costume, as shown in the illustration. Turn the lower part of
the next page, and no longer is he thin and tall, but short and stout,
the position of this body giving the expression of amazement, even to
the face. The next page turned shows him to be neither tall nor short,
thick nor thin, but a soldier, well-proportioned, who is looking over
his shoulder in the most natural manner possible.

The figures in the illustration were cut from advertising cards, and
the head belongs to none of the bodies.

A curious fact in arranging the pictures in this way is that the heads
all look as though they might really belong to any of the various
bodies given them.

Instead of having but one figure on a page, groups may be formed of
both men and women, and in the different arrangement of the figures
they can be made very ludicrous indeed.

A scrap-book for older girls, which might be termed more fitly

=An Album,=

can be made by mounting engravings, wood-cuts, photographs, and
water-colors on pieces of thin card-board all of the same size. If any
one subject be chosen, and such pictures selected as tend in some way
to illustrate that subject, the book will prove more interesting in the
making, and will be quite valuable when finished.

There will be no difficulty in mounting the pictures; simply paste
them on the card-board with good flour-paste, and press under a heavy
weight, keeping them perfectly neat and free from smears of paste on
the edges. When two or more are mounted at the same time, place clean
pieces of blotting-paper between, pile one upon another, and put the
heavy weight on top.

Such a scrap-book should be bound in a

=Home-made Book-cover,=

which is made in this way:

[Illustration: Fig. 320.—One Side of Book-cover with Holes cut near the

[Illustration: Fig. 321.—Book-cover Tied with Ribbons.]

[Illustration: Fig 322.—Book-cover Laced together with Silk Cord.]

Take two pieces of heavy card-board a trifle larger than the book you
wish to cover, make three holes near the edge of each (Fig. 320) and
corresponding holes in the edges of the book, which must not be too
thick—that is, contain too many leaves; pass narrow ribbons through
these holes and tie in bow-knots, as in Fig. 321. If the leaves of the
book are thin, more holes can be made in the back and the covers laced
together with silk cord (Fig. 322).

These book-covers may be beautifully decorated by anyone who can paint
in water-colors, and tinted card-board can also be used for them. They
are pretty, and suitable as covers for manuscript poems or stories, or
for a collection of autographs.

In making any kind of scrap-book it is very necessary that the paste
used should be good. If the paste is poor, the pictures will peel off
or the paste turn sour. The recipe given below we can recommend as an
excellent one for


Mix one-half cup of flour with enough cold water to make a very thin
batter, which must be smooth and free from lumps; put the batter on
top of the stove—not next to the fire—in a tin sauce-pan, and stir
continually until it boils; then remove from the stove, add three drops
of oil of cloves, and pour the paste into a cup or tumbler. This will
keep for a long time and will not become sour.




IN almost every house there is an attic, and in almost every attic
may be found a room where trunks are stored, where broken toys and
disabled furniture are put out of sight, and where all articles not
worth selling or giving away gradually accumulate until this attic
room contains, literally, a heap of rubbish. Entering one of these
lumber-rooms not long ago, and glancing over the medley which comprised
so much, from a tin can to a piece of broken bric-à-brac, the thought
occurred to me that something might be done with it, some use be made
of at least a few of the articles consigned to the place as utterly

That was rather a thrifty thought. Do you not think so, girls? Then let
us make the most of it and together venture back into that mysterious
and somewhat dusty chamber, and see if there really is anything there
worth the making over.

In imagination we will stand in our attic lumber-room and begin to look
about us with eyes and mind open to perceive possibilities.

On one side of the room, leaning against the wall, we see what was once
a handsome old-fashioned mirror, quite large and of heavy plate-glass.
It’s poor dusty face, reflecting dimly its barren surroundings, is
shattered in many pieces, and at first sight it seems hopeless to
attempt to restore it to the plane of beauty or usefulness; but do
not let us be hasty; we will examine it more closely. Yes, here is a
piece of glass large enough to frame. Never mind its uneven shape and
rough edges; we will work out that problem later. Now we must put it
carefully aside and continue our investigations.

Here is a large tin can, which can be made into a lantern to hang in
the hall, and this baking-powder can may be of some use, so we will
take it also.

The tops of three cheese-boxes; something should be done with them.
Perhaps they can be used for a table; put them with the other chosen

A croquet-ball! That will make a fine key-rack. This box of silks and
ribbons we may need, and the large pasteboard-box will do for the
foundation of our mirror frame.

We must have this piece of old brass chain, this handful of large
nails, the pasteboard roll which has been used for sending engravings
through the mail, and that old broad-brimmed straw hat; also these
three broomsticks and the piece of nice dark-gray hardware paper.

Now, seated in our own room, let us see what we can do with this rather
unpromising array of objects spread around us. First we will try

=The Mirror,=

and must cast about us for the ways and means of framing it. The large
pasteboard-box we have already decided will make a good foundation.
After tearing off the sides, we will cut an even square from the
bottom, which is smooth and unwarped.

[Illustration: Fig. 323.—Brown Paper Pasted on Mirror and Pasteboard
for Home-made Mirror-frame.]

[Illustration: Fig. 324.—Bevel of Hardware Paper on Frame.]

[Illustration: Fig. 325.—The Outside Covering for Mirror-frame.]

[Illustration: Fig. 326.—Back of Frame with Tape Attached.]

Next laying the piece of mirror on the square of pasteboard we must
cut, out of ordinary brown wrapping-paper, a square two inches larger
all around than the pasteboard, make a hole in the centre as large as
the shape of the mirror will allow, and paste it down on the mirror
and pasteboard (Fig. 323). Then, after clipping out the corners, we
will turn the edges over on to the back of the pasteboard foundation
and paste them down. Cutting four strips of the hardware paper, about
two inches wide, we will fold them through the centre lengthwise and
paste them around the glass, lapping them just a little over the edge
of the other paper, the folded side being next to the glass (Fig. 324).
This will form a bevel for our frame. From the same paper we will now
cut a square, three inches larger on all sides than the foundation;
then, exactly in the centre, mark a square half an inch larger all
around than the square of mirror showing. In the centre of the square
marked out we must insert our scissors, cut it like Fig. 325, and after
clipping off the points, as indicated by the dotted lines L, M, O, N,
turn back the four pieces at the dotted lines, P, Q, R, S, leaving an
open square. Then placing it over the mirror so that the same width of
bevelled edge shows on all sides of the mirror, we must paste it down.
Clipping out the corners, as shown in diagram, we will bring the edges
over and paste them down securely to the back of the frame. A piece of
hardware paper, cut in a square one inch smaller than the frame, we
will paste on the back to finish it off and hide the edges of the paper
where they have been turned over (Fig. 326).

We must fasten on a piece of tape by which to hang the mirror, by
pasting down the ends of the tape on the frame (letter T, Fig. 326),
and pasting over each a strip of the hardware paper (letter U, Fig.
326). When the frame is quite dry we will paint a branch of dog-wood or
some light-colored flower across it, and have as pretty a little mirror
as anyone could wish for.

[Illustration: Home-made Mirror-frame.]

The next thing to commence will be

=The Table,=

which you can make yourselves by following these directions:

The three cheese-box lids will answer nicely as shelves for a work- or
bric-à-brac table, and the broomsticks, which are all the same length,
will do for the legs.

[Illustration: Fig. 327.—Narrow Grooves Cut around Broomstick for

[Illustration: Fig. 328.—Holes Bored in a Box-lid Used as a

[Illustration: Fig. 329.—Manner of Fastening a Shelf to Table-leg.]

[Illustration: Fig. 330.—Table-shelf and Leg Fastened securely together
by Wire.]

[Illustration: Bric-à-brac Table.]

Upon each broomstick mark the distances for placing the shelves,
allowing six inches from each end of the stick for the top and bottom,
and the exact centre between these points for the middle shelf. With a
pocket-knife cut narrow grooves around each stick, one-half inch on
either side of the points marked on them (Fig. 327). This will make
six grooves on each stick. Now measure the box-lids to find their
circumferences, and divide them into thirds, marking the distances on
the rim to obtain the true position for the legs. At these points bore
four holes with a gimlet, one inch apart, two above and two below (Fig.
328). Through one of the top holes pass a piece of pliable wire, place
one of the broomsticks against the rim of the lid, pass the wire back
through the other upper hole (Fig. 329), fit it into the upper groove
of the stick, and draw it tight. Twice the wire must be put through the
upper holes and around the stick in the top groove; then, bringing it
down on the inside of the lid, you must put it twice through the lower
holes and around the stick in the lower groove; then twist the ends and
tuck them under the wire on the inside of the lid (Fig. 330). In this
way each leg will have to be fastened to each shelf. When the table
is all put together paint it black, and, as soon as it is dry, tie a
bright ribbon on one of the sticks at the top, and a charming little
bric-à-brac table will be the result of your labor.

You can make a very pretty


of the old tin can; but first you must have some tools to work with;
not many, only a piece of wood, rounded on one side to fit into the
can, a hatchet or heavy hammer, and a few wrought iron nails. If the
piece of wood is not large enough to fit the can, another stick can
be put in to hold the first one firmly against the can. That being
arranged, you must decide upon some kind of a pattern to be made by the
holes, and indicate it on the can with a small paint-brush and paint or
ink; then, laying the can on its side, the rounded piece of wood being
at the top, with one of the wrought iron nails puncture the holes where
you have indicated the pattern. With the hammer drive the nail through
the tin into the wood; then draw it out, make another hole, and so on
until all the holes you wish are driven through that part of the can
held in place by the rounded piece of wood.

This wood, you see, keeps the can from bending when the nail is being
driven through. In moving the wood as the work progresses, you must
always keep it under that part of the can being punctured. To make the
large hole, you will have to put a number of the small holes close
together, and then drive the nail through the partitions, cutting them
away. The pattern being completed, puncture three holes, close to the
top of the can, at equal distances apart. These are for the chains to
pass through, by which to suspend the lantern. In the cover of the
baking-powder can make three holes at equal distances; then divide the
chain, which is about one yard and a quarter long, into three equal
lengths, separating the pieces by prying open the links. Put an end of
each piece through the holes made for them at the top of the can, and
fasten them by hooking the open links through the links of the chain a
little farther up, and hammering them together again.

Now pass the ends of the chains through the holes made in the lid of
the baking-powder can, and, bringing the ends together, fasten them by
joining the links.

[Illustration: Fig. 331. Fig. 332.—Stand in Lantern, with Nails for
Holding Candle.]

Paint the lantern, chain and all, black, and while it is drying make a
stand for the candle which is to furnish the light. A square piece of
thin board, just large enough to fit into the can without touching the
sides will do for the stand. Drive four small nails in the centre to
hold the candle (Fig. 331).

Make handles for lifting the stand in and out of the lantern, by
bending two pieces of wire like Fig. 331, and fastening them to the
board with staple tacks (Fig. 332).

[Illustration: Lantern.]

When the paint on the lantern is dry, paste red tissue-paper all around
the inside to give a cheerful red glow to the light, which will shine
through it. If you would like it to resemble a jewelled lantern, paste
different colored papers over the large holes and leave the small ones
open. An S hook passed through the loop made by the three chains will
serve to connect them to the chain which should suspend the lantern
from the ceiling.

=A Music-Roll=

can be made of the pasteboard roll.

Cut a round piece of pasteboard just the size to fit into one end of
the roll; then cut out another round piece, this time of paper, one
inch larger than that made of pasteboard. Clip the edges (Fig. 333) and
paste it over the end of the roll which is filled in with the round of
pasteboard (Fig. 334).

[Illustration: Fig. 333.—Paper Covering for End of Music-roll.]

[Illustration: Fig. 334.—Paper Pasted over End of Music-roll.]

Among the scraps of silk and ribbons you will, perhaps, find a
good-sized piece of dark-green or brown silk; use this for the case,
which must cover the roll neatly. To make the case fit the end of the
roll you have just filled up, mark on a piece of the silk a circle the
size of that end of the roll. This can be done by standing the roll
on the silk, and running a pencil around the edge. When cutting out
the silk leave a margin of a quarter of an inch on the outside of the
pencil-mark for the seam. Cut the silk for covering the roll three
inches longer than the roll, and wide enough to allow for a quarter of
an inch seam. Sew up the long seam, and then sew the round of silk into
the end of the case. Hem the other end of the case, and run in a narrow
ribbon about an inch from the edge. This is for a draw-string.

[Illustration: Music-roll.]

When the roll is fitted snugly in its case, tie a ribbon, matching it
in color, around the roll, making a loop to form the handle. Fasten the
ribbon by taking a few stitches under the bows, catching them on to the

The old straw hat can be transformed into a dainty


It is stiff and harsh at present, but pour boiling water over it and
the straw will become soft and pliable, and can be bent into any shape
you like. When dry, it will be again stiff, and will retain the form
you have given it. After scalding the hat bend the brim in toward the
centre, in four different places, at equal distances apart. This will
make a fluted basket. You must tie it in shape (Fig. 335) and leave
until perfectly dry; then bronze the basket, line it with silesia,
and sew silk or satin around the top to form a bag. Run a draw-string
of narrow ribbon near the top of the bag, and the pretty little
work-basket is finished.

[Illustration: Fig. 335.—Straw Hat Tied in Shape for a Work-basket.]

[Illustration: Work-basket.]

The croquet ball you can make into a

=Key and Button-Hook Rack.=

First you must gild it, and then around the middle of the ball, at
regular intervals, insert small brass hooks. A yellow ribbon and bow,
tacked on the top with small tacks, will serve to suspend it by, and
completes the rack.

With the gilt left from gilding the ball, and a piece of bright ribbon
you can make a


of six of the large nails. Gild each nail separately, let them dry, and
then tie them securely together with a piece of ribbon.

[Illustration: Key Rack.]

[Illustration: Paper-weight.]

All the articles brought from the attic have now been turned to some
use, but there are many other things to be found there which we
have not space to mention, and which with little trouble can be so
transformed that no one would ever suppose they were taken originally
from a heap of rubbish.




DECIDING to have our fair unlike those which have preceded it, we must
do away with monotony and introduce not only variety, but originality
as well. New ideas, something different from that which has served us
heretofore, is what we strive for. Novelties are always attractive, let
them be decorative also, and help to make the room or hall as inviting
as possible.

[Illustration: The Fair.] [Illustration: Fig. 336.—Framework for the
Canopy of a Booth at a Fair.]

[Illustration: Fig. 337.—Block of Wood Fastened on the side of Table.]

=The Tables=

being the most important item, we will give them our first attention.
Have each table or booth canopied in a style differing from all others,
and make the canopy extend up as high as practicable, in order to
avoid the flat, blank appearance so common in small fairs. If tables
are arranged in this fashion, they will go far toward decorating the
hall. Fig. 336 shows one style in which a framework for the roof or
covering may be constructed. At the four corners of the table, where
the top projects over the sides, fit in blocks of wood according to
Fig. 337; the dotted lines represent the block. Nail the wood fast
to the table, so that the uprights may stand perfectly straight. Use
laths or similar sticks for the four uprights, and screw or nail them
at the corners of the table according to Fig. 336; then with small
screws fasten a stick across the top of the laths at each side, and at
the top of the sticks on the front of the table tie the two ends of a
barrel-hoop to form the arch; also attach another hoop at the back to
the other two uprights, and connect the top centre of each by a wire
running across. The hoops are fastened to the laths by binding the
ends of the hoops to the ends of the laths with strong twine, or wire,
wound around in notches which have previously been cut in the ends of
both sticks and hoops. Should the barrel-hoops be too short for the
arch, take children’s large-sized toy wooden hoops, and fasten them up
in the same manner. Fig. 338 is another way to arrange the framework.
The four upright sticks are attached to the table as described in
Fig. 336; then in the top of each is driven a very large-sized tack,
and a strong flexible wire is stretched from lath to lath and wound
around each tack, thus connecting the four uprights together.[G] Flags,
shawls, drapery curtains, sheets, and inexpensive cheese-cloth make
good canopies; undressed cambric and canton flannel in desirable colors
drape nicely, and can also be used for the purpose. Where you wish to
produce light, airy effects, tarlatan, in one or more colors, will be
found useful; again, let some of the tables have only a suggestion of
a roof, made by ornamenting the framework with flowers, or whatever is
most suitable, according to the style of table and the place it is to

Try and have a variety of shapes and sizes in the booths, and avoid
sombre dulness and monotony. Let the room fairly sparkle and shine with
light and color.

[Illustration: Fig. 338.—Construction of Framework for the Canopy of a
Table at a Fair.]

To make a tent-like covering, firmly bind a large-sized Japanese
umbrella to a pole, and fasten the pole in the centre of the table.
To hold it securely, make a bench of two pieces of board, with a hole
through the centre of each, and join them together by a block of wood
nailed in each end (Fig. 339). The bench can be made fast to the table
by screws put through from the under side of the top of the table

[Illustration: Fig. 339.—Bench for Holding a Pole as a Support for a
Canopy of a Booth.]

In erecting the canopy place the end of the pole in the bench and it
will be steady and firm. Attach pieces of string to several ribs on
each side of the umbrella, stretch the strings down and fasten the
ends securely to the table; paste over the strings bright-colored
tissue-paper fringe (Fig. 340). Cut the paper four or six thicknesses,
and when pasted on turn the fringe part uppermost, so it will look
fluffy and not hang down in a tame, fringe fashion. When a red umbrella
is used, and the strings are covered with fringe of the same hue, it
looks very pretty. Be extremely careful that no light comes dangerously
near the tissue-paper, or any other inflammable material; all the
decorations must be arranged with a view to perfect safety from contact
with gas, lamp, or candle.

In decorating the room remember to mass your color so the effect may be
broad. If the colors are too much mingled the effect will be weakened,
and in some cases lost entirely.

[Illustration: Fig. 340.—Tissue-paper Fringe.]

Paper-flowers and plants in great abundance will be needed, and if you
can persuade all your friends, as well as those actively interested
in the fair, to make paper-flowers or plants, they will prove very
acceptable, and after the fair is over the floral decorations can be
safely stored away to do service again on like occasion. Large, showy
flowers, like peonies, dog-wood, and magnolias, as well as large-leaved
plants, are best to use, though the smaller ones look well in a few

In making

=Flowers for Decorations=

we aim at general effect, with less regard to detail than if the
blossoms were to be used in other ways. Fig. 341 is a pattern of the
dog-wood. Cut the flowers of white writing paper and make them quite
large. Use wire to fasten them to a natural branch, and imitate nature
as nearly as possible in the arrangement of the blossoms.

[Illustration: Fig. 341.—Dog-wood.]

If you fold the paper a number of times and then place your pattern
over it, you can cut out six or eight flowers at once, and save both
time and labor.

Peonies are made of white, pink, or red tissue-paper, cut in squares
of about eight inches each and pinked on the two opposite edges.
Twelve squares are needed for one flower. With your fingers gather the
squares up in the centre (Fig. 342); then fold over the pieces, as in
Fig. 343; when all are ready string them on a wire and shape the bunch
to resemble a peony; twist the wire up tight and fasten the petals
together, leaving a length of wire for a stem.

[Illustration: Fig. 342.—Peony Petal Gathered through the Centre.]

Make the cherry-blossoms (Fig. 344) in clusters of five or seven each,
and attach green leaves (Fig. 345) cut in different sizes. Fig. 346
shows the method of giving the leaf a pretty, crimped appearance. By
holding the point of the leaf firmly under the head of the pin with
your left hand, and with the right hand pushing the leaf up toward the
head of the pin, you can crimp the leaves very rapidly, and they look
much more natural than when left plain.

[Illustration: Fig. 343.—Peony Petal Folded over.]

All the materials necessary for the manufacture of flowers for fair
decorations will be paper, wire, and paste. The buds of different
flowers can be imitated by pinching together the petals of open
blossoms. Figs. 347, 348, 349 are the petals of the magnolia; the
inside petals are five and one-half inches long, the others in
proportion. Cut three of each size. No. 347 forms the innermost petals,
No. 348 the next, and No. 349 the outermost; these last should be
double; make the outside of pink tissue-paper and the inside white, all
the other petals are white; cut three, from Fig. 350, of green paper to
form the calyx.

[Illustration: Fig. 344.—Cherry Blossom.]

[Illustration: Fig. 345.—Green Leaf of Cherry Tree.]

[Illustration: Fig. 346.—Method of Crimping Leaf.]

Other ornamental flowers may be manufactured from these hints. Patterns
can be cut from any natural flowers, and they may be made without the
aid of further directions. When natural blossoms can be obtained, they
are far preferable, though the paper plants make splendid substitutes
and at a little distance cannot be distinguished from the natural ones.

[Illustration: Fig. 347.]

[Illustration: Fig. 348.]

[Illustration: Fig. 349.]

[Illustration: Fig. 350.]

If the fair comes off in the season when the trees are leafless, bare
branches with green paper leaves wired on will help very much where
foliage is needed.

An excellent scheme in the arrangement of a fair is to divide the
tables into twelve separate booths and let each one represent one month
in the year. They should contain articles appropriate only to the month
represented, and when planned in this way each month should be of
appropriate color. For example:


can be all white, with tufts of cotton scattered about for snow, and
mica or isinglass sprinkled around and over places to represent frost
and ice. Icicles, varying in size, depending from the arch or canopy,
add to the effect. The icicles are made of strips of paper first rolled
up like paper-lighters, then completely covered with tallow from the
dripping of a lighted candle; the tallow being allowed to harden on in
raised places makes the twisted paper resemble in form a real icicle;
the tallow icicle is next covered with a wash of mucilage, and powdered
mica or isinglass is sprinkled all over it, so that it sparkles and

In place of the usual grab-bag at this booth, there should be a
Christmas-tree without lights and burdened with little gifts tied up in
colored tissue-paper. Santa Claus must have charge of the tree.


calls for flags and decorations of red, white, and blue, as well as
flowers, fruits, and green foliage; the table should be presided over
by Columbia.


Deck this table in spring blossoms and make the canopy of a slender
May-pole. Pass the pole through the holes in the bench (Fig. 339) and
screw the bench tight on the centre of the table; fasten a wreath of
flowers and the ends of a number of ribbons at the top of the pole;
bring the ribbons down and tack them to the sides of the table. Give
the Queen of May care of the booth.


may be gay with late fall leaves and berries, and a very large pumpkin,
which has been previously scraped out and lined with paper, can serve
as a receptacle for odds and ends. A little Puritan maid should be in
charge of the booth.


is all rose color, with the queen of flowers, the rose, holding the
post of honor. This month is very suitable for the flower-table, and
Flora, the Goddess of Flowers, may preside over it.

We have chosen these few months only as suggestions of the manner in
which the idea can be carried out.

Those in charge of the different booths might wear as a badge a
conspicuous sign of the zodiac appropriate to the month represented.

=The Five Senses=

can be illustrated by five booths, each one bearing its proper symbol
as a sign. To represent


make a large pasteboard ear-trumpet and cover it with silver paper;
fasten this on the highest point of the booth and place the word
Hearing in large letters under the trumpet; have these signs in plain
sight, where none can fail to see and read. The articles on the table
should consist of everything pertaining to the sense of hearing, such
as sheet-music, musical instruments, telephones, and suitable toys.

It would be a great addition if a phonograph could be rented or
borrowed for the occasion, and a certain sum charged to each one
speaking in the instrument and hearing the echo of his own words and
tones ground out to him again.

An oracle would be a capital thing at this table, each person
consulting it paying so much a question.


likewise must be labelled with a sign in the shape of a very large pair
of spectacles cut out of stiff pasteboard and placed over the lettering.

The goods offered here for sale should pertain to the sense of
sight; and could be such articles as pictures, decorated candles,
kaleidoscopes, and common blue glasses. All things pleasing to look
upon may find place at the Seeing Table. Any kind of a peep-show can be
used, five cents being required from every curious person wishing for a
peep behind the curtain.


is more difficult to portray. Perhaps an ordinary riding-whip will
answer the purpose, with the word Feeling in large type under it.

Sofa-cushions, quilts, mittens, canes, muffs, fancy toilet articles,
and almost anything adding to our personal comfort, or pleasant to
handle, are suitable for the Feeling booth.


As an emblem for this booth make a huge cornucopia for candy, with the
sign “Tasting” beneath, and the booth can be the candy-table.


naturally suggests perfumes and sweet-scented flowers. This sense will
most fitly be represented by an immense bouquet fastened up over the
table. The booth, of course, must be the flower-table.

If you have only a few tables, make four booths of them, and let each
booth represent a season. They should be decorated in keeping with the
time represented, and the idea fully carried out in all the details.

When the booths stand for different nations there is a great field for
variety and beautiful decoration. But in this, as in all cases where an
attempt is made to carry out an idea, it must be faithfully adhered to,
or the effect will not be that intended.

When it is necessary to decorate the


use flags, bright, soft draping cloth, and large palm leaves; also
branches of leaves, showy flowers, and anything that can be arranged to
look well. As rooms differ so much in size and style, it is impossible
to give any but general directions, leaving it to the taste of the
decorator to carry out the details.

[Illustration: Fig. 351.—Grab-bag of a Sheet with Holes Cut for Face
and Arms.]

[Illustration: Fig. 352.—Apron Skirt Sewed on Sheet.]


On a narrow sheet hung up in a door-way, and fastened securely at the
sides, or attached to a frame, cut a hole large enough to allow of a
false face being fitted in (Fig. 351 A). The flaps of the cloth are
left for pasting inside the face; now cut two more holes for the arms
to pass through (Fig. 351 B). In these holes sew sleeves of the same
material as the skirt, which is made of bright-colored cambric in the
form of an apron, and sewed on the sheet (Fig. 352). The sides of the
skirt are basted down on the sheet. When pasting in the false face,
first cover the flaps, left at the opening for the face with stiff
paste; then paste these flaps down into the inside of the false face,
which will bring it up close against the sheet. If small openings are
left, or the sheet puckers a little after the face is fastened on,
never mind, as all defects can be covered by sewing on a thin white
frill all around the face, to form a cap, and making a collar of the
same material (Fig. 353).

[Illustration: Fig. 353.—Grab-bag.]

[Illustration: Fig. 354.—Inside of Sheet for Grab-bag.]

Leave an opening, or pocket-hole, through the sheet at one side of the
dress, so that the hand can be slipped through to get the packages,
which are placed within reach at the back of the curtain. Fig. 354
shows the inside of the sheet, and C the opening for the hand. Someone
must stand or be seated behind this curtain, and slip her arms into
the sleeves, then she can look out through the mask and see with whom
she is talking. In one hand she may hold a package, while she receives
the money with the other.

On the sheet print these words: “Five cents for what is in my pocket.”

=The Lady of the Lake.=

You will need a tin bath-tub for the lake, the longest one you can
find, and a toy boat which will not easily tip or turn over. Place tiny
flags in the bow and stern, and in one end of the boat glue a doll
dressed like the “Lady of the Lake” in Scott’s poem. Attach a pulley to
each end of the tub, and fasten the string to the boat, as it must be
run back and forth by means of the pulleys. Fill the tub nearly full
of water, then cover the edges with moss and vines. The bath-tub must
be completely disguised, and surrounded by plants and foliage, with
an opening left at one end for purchasers, and another small one near
the other end for the boat to pass through to those stationed behind
the shrubbery, who have charge of the boat, and where the parcels are
kept. At the store-room end the screen of vines or leaves should be
so arranged that those in charge can see all that is going on outside
without being seen themselves.

The boat should be stationed at the farther end of the lake, and
whoever wishes to make a purchase must give the doll five cents; then
the boat may immediately leave, sail across the lake, and disappear
behind the screen, only to emerge again laden with a parcel in place
of the money, and lightly skimming over the water arrive at her
destination, when the purchaser can relieve the “Lady of the Lake” of
her package.

The Bubble Range described on page 335 can be used in a fair with
advantage. Unless the fair is very small, it is better to have two
Bubble Ranges, to prevent the tiresome waiting for a turn, and give
all who wish to try their skill the opportunity to enjoy the sport.

=Fortune’s Wheel.=

Cut of stiff pasteboard a large circle (Fig. 355) with a point on the
edge at the end of one of the spokes, for the circle must be painted
to resemble a wheel. With a large round nail fasten the wheel through
the centre to a board, which has previously had numbers painted on in a
circle somewhat larger than the circumference of the wheel (Fig. 356);
the wheel should turn around easily on the nail. Hang the board up flat
against the wall. The gypsy in charge of the Fortune’s Wheel should
be stationed by its side, holding a basket filled with many envelopes
numbered to correspond to the figures on the board, each envelope
containing some appropriate fortune-telling lines; and when the people
come to seek their fortunes the gypsy must allow each in turn to give
the wheel a twirl, sending it around rapidly, and then hand to the
fortune-seeker an envelope whose number corresponds with the figure at
which the wheel pointed when it stopped turning.

[Illustration: Fig. 355.—Circle for Fortune’s Wheel.]

[Illustration: Fig. 356.—Fortune’s Wheel.]


Prepare a number of carpet-rag balls with a small gift in the centre of
each one. These sell rapidly, and it is very amusing to see the buyers
unwinding their balls to discover the contents, which may prove to be
a thimble, a bundle of jackstraws, a grotesque Japanese toy, or any
little comical conceit which can be hidden in the odd receptacle.

The same idea might be applied to the always pleasing popcorn balls;
then the knick-knacks must be first wrapped in soft paper to protect
them from the candy used in making the balls.

Pleasant mysteries and surprises are always popular at fairs, and the
more that can be invented the better.


[Illustration: Window Decorated with Imitation Stained Glass and Dutch


[G] If the uprights seem to need it, brace them with cross-sticks in
place of wire.



NOW, girls, we must have practicable ideas in regard to our
decorations; they should consist of something which we _know_ will be
easy to make and at the same time look well; the materials employed
must be within possible reach of all, and nothing expensive or
difficult to obtain allowed to enter into their manufacture. What
are commonly called Dutch curtains are very popular; they are short
curtains of some thin, transparent fabric, fastened with rings to a
slender rod of bamboo, and when drawn, cover the lower part of the
window without intercepting the light. The curtains are very useful,
but, while they do not obstruct the light, they do obstruct the vision.

We all know that the front window is just the place to sit when sewing
or doing fancy-work, and although few ladies care to be seen by every
passer-by, yet they all like to see what is going on outside, and
while their deft fingers ply the needle their bright eyes take in the
landscape out of doors and derive amusement and entertainment from the
birds and flowers, if it be in the country, or the ever-moving throng,
if in the city.

An ornamental screen, therefore, that will shield one and yet not
interfere with the view is desirable. What might be termed the

=Oriental Window-Shade=

not only comes up to the above requirements, but is inexpensive, and
not difficult to construct.

[Illustration: Fig. 357.—Manner of Making Fringe for Oriental

[Illustration: Fig. 358.—Fringe of Macaroni and Beads.]

Make a small lawn-tennis net, long enough to reach across the width of
the window and about eight inches deep; make loops of the rope on the
ends for hanging the screen to knobs or hooks screwed in the framework
of the window; spread the net out and fasten it up on a door, between
two chairs, or any convenient place; then cut a number of pieces of
fine twine, about four feet long, and attach them, a quarter of an inch
apart, along the bottom rope (Fig. 357); A shows a loosened loop and
B the tightened ones. The ends of the twine hang free. On each double
strand string glass beads and slender pieces of bamboo, reeds, painted
clay pipe-stems, or macaroni broken in pieces of equal length and used
in their natural color, or painted with oil-paints to any desired tint.
Have the reeds four inches long, and thread them on alternately with
the beads (Fig. 358); or you can form a design by cutting the reeds
into different lengths; at the end of each strand fasten a large bead
or glass button. A very simple


is of red, blue, yellow, and black ribbons all cut the same length and
sewed, a quarter of an inch apart, on a narrow strip of black cloth
long enough to reach across the window. The strip may be used as a
band, or attached to a slender pole by means of small brass rings. The
ribbons should be silk, and thin enough to admit of the light shining
through; they hang down fringe-like, with three glass beads fastened on
the end of each ribbon (Fig. 359 or Fig. 360). If you prefer to have
the shade all one color make it yellow, which gives a pleasant, mellow
light. Any pattern you choose can be made by taking short pieces of
ribbon and joining them together with glass beads. In this way bits
of ribbon could be utilized, but those used must be semi-transparent,
showing the color when held up to the light. Even smooth pieces of silk
with their edges neatly hemmed might do service, only be very careful
to join either ribbon or silk with the beads in such a manner as to
prevent its twisting; the beads must be heavy enough to keep the fringe

[Illustration: Fig. 359.]

[Illustration: Fig. 360.—Beads on the Ends of Ribbons.]

Nearly all homes have their bags of silk and worsted pieces, and from
these can be made a handsome

=Drapery of Very Small Scraps.=

Cut the pieces of silk or worsted into squares about an inch each way,
using any and all colors; then take a piece of twine of the length
you desire your curtain, and with a large needle string the bright
bits on the twine until the whole string is completely and closely
covered; next fasten the twine well to prevent its slipping, and with
a large pair of scissors trim off the rough edges of the silken strand
until the surface is rounded and even; on one end attach a small brass
curtain-ring, and on the other a heavy bead or button; make as many
strands as you will need to hang across the window and fasten them to
a pole in which small hooks have been screwed.

This drapery resembles chenille; it is rich in color, will wear well,
and is best adapted for full-length curtains.

As a substitute for stained glass we give directions for

=Painting Window-Panes.=

These are very pretty and satisfactory. If good designs are chosen the
window will surpass in beauty your expectations.

The materials necessary are: some of Winsor & Newton’s transparent
colors, such as rose-madder, Prussian blue, raw and burnt umber, burnt
sienna, ultramarine, gamboge, ivory-black, viridian green, and orient
yellow. Any transparent color can be used. For purple, mix rose-madder
with Prussian blue.

Prepare the paints to be used by mixing each color separately with a
little oil and siccatif Courtray. Almost any brush will do to paint
with, but one of medium size made for oil-colors is the best, and
another smaller one is necessary for the outlining, which takes the
place of leading in stained glass. The dabber is a ball of raw cotton
tied in a piece of fine cotton-cloth, and the manner of tinting or
grounding is exactly the same as in china-painting; lac-varnish will be
needed as a wash after the painting has dried.

When you have an opportunity, carefully examine real stained-glass
windows, and you will see that each window is one complete design. The
corners and borders are usually in rich, dark colors, while the central
portion is of lighter tints or clear glass.

[Illustration: Fig. 361.—Border Pattern.]

[Illustration: Fig. 362.—Cracked Glass.]

Always make your corners and borders first, and if you desire a
centre-piece, it should be placed in position next, and the space
between it and the border filled in afterward. A Gothic window may be
imitated by painting the corners black, thus making it arched at the
top. Very often good patterns can be found in the many art and fashion
papers. One copy may serve for an entire border, if it be pasted at
the four corners to one pane of glass, and, when that is outlined,
removed and gummed to the next, and so on until the border is finished.
Fig. 361 is intended as a border. Fig. 362 is a very simple pattern
of cracked glass, which you can readily make without any copy. Place
a ruler across the woodwork of the window-pane, first one way, then
another, and with its aid paint your straight lines, being careful not
to have any two run parallel. A conventional design is always to be
preferred. Should any mistakes occur during the progress of the work,
remove the paint with a cloth dampened with turpentine and try again.
The painting is not difficult, and the only delays are in waiting for
the colors to dry.

First decide on your design, then trace it, making the outlines heavy
and black; gum the pattern by the four corners to the outside of
the window-pane, which it is essential to have perfectly clean and
dry; close the window, and with a small brush dipped in black paint
follow the outlines of your copy, keeping the lines of equal thickness
throughout; when this is finished remove the pattern. In the same
manner go over all the outlines you wish to make on the window, then
leave the color to harden and dry, which will probably require hours.
Begin again by laying on flat washes of paint to match the prevailing
colors of the copy, and use the dabber in tinting each color as it is
applied, so the surface may be even and uniform. While the decoration
is drying it is best to protect it from dust by pinning up a newspaper
or a large piece of cloth on the window-frame. When dry, the painting
can be touched up if necessary.

After the last color has entirely dried apply a wash of white
lac-varnish; when this is dry give the window another coat of
lac-varnish and then it will be finished. Should your copies be in
black and white, use your own taste in coloring the glass.

Another method of imitating stained glass is

=Painting on Lawn,=

batiste, or any kind of sheer white muslin. For this you will need the
same paints that are used for painting on glass; these are mixed only
with turpentine and the color put on as a stain.

Cut a piece of new thin white batiste large enough to cover a
window-sash, with a margin left for turning in, and make an outline on
it of the exact size of the sash; then select your pattern and place
the lawn over it, when the outlines should show through; trace these
carefully with gum-arabic dissolved, but made _very_ stiff, and when
the entire design has been traced let the gum dry; then go over it with
ivory-black unmixed; this latter makes the leading; be careful to keep
the lines even and of the same size. When the outlines have dried fill
in the spaces with the stains made of paint and turpentine; the gum
prevents the colors from spreading. When the paint has dried you may
add a few touches where they are needed, and the stained-glass design
will be ready to place on the window. Use stiff mucilage or tiny tacks
to keep it in place, having first turned in the margin left for the

An attractive window can be made with the upper sash of imitation
stained glass, while the lower one is screened by a Dutch curtain, as
in the illustration.

For the benefit of those who prefer sewing to painting we now tell how

=Imitate Stained Glass=

with a piece of stiff white rice-net, such as is commonly used for
bonnet-frames, and some pieces of thin batiste, or lawns, of the
requisite colors. Cut the rice-net the proper size and lay it over your
design; then carefully trace off the pattern; when all the outlines
are finished cut the different-colored lawns of the shape and size to
correspond to the different portions of the design; baste these on
in the places they must occupy; then sew them on with the Automatic
Sewing-machine, following with coarse black thread the outlines on the
wrong side of the foundation, so that the chain-stitch will appear on
the right side to form the leading; or the stitching may be made by
hand, or a very narrow black braid can be used as leading. When all the
batiste is sewed on, cut out the net back of the design to allow the
light to shine through.

We have seen such an imitation of stained glass, and when placed up
against the window it was very good; but care must be taken to have the
colored lawns thin and of the right shades; if too heavy they obstruct
the light and the colors do not look bright.

For full-length window-drapery of inexpensive material there may be
had at any of the leading dry-goods stores beautiful soft fabrics, in
yellows and different colors, the designs of which equal those of much
higher-priced goods. These draperies hang in graceful folds and come
as low as ten cents a yard; some of them are also well adapted for the
useful Dutch curtains.

[Illustration: Fig. 363.—Imitation of Ground Glass.]

[Illustration: Fig. 364.—Folded Paper with Diamond Pattern for
Imitation of Ground Glass.]

[Illustration: Fig. 365.—Paper Marked with Design for Imitation of
Ground Glass.]

=Windows of Imitation Ground Glass=

can be made of white tissue-paper, cut in simple patterns and fastened
on the inside of the glass with white lac-varnish. The window must be
perfectly clean and dry. If possible have the pieces of tissue-paper
exactly the same size as the window-panes, fold and refold the paper
lengthwise until it is an inch or so in width; then cut from stiff
cardboard your pattern. If it be a diamond, as in Fig. 363, have it
exact, and cut it in halves; use one-half as a pattern, place this on
the edge of the paper, as in Fig. 364, and with a lead pencil draw a
line around it; remove the pattern and place it lower down about a
quarter of an inch from the first tracing, and again mark around the
edge. Continue in the same way until you have the pattern marked on the
entire length of the tissue-paper. Make the same pattern on the other
edge of the paper (Fig 365). Cut out the pattern, then unfold the paper
and smooth it free of wrinkles; give the window-pane a thin coating of
white lac-varnish, and apply the paper, being very careful to have it
_perfectly_ smooth when on the glass. Sometimes it is necessary to join
two or more pieces of paper, but if you are careful to make the edges
come _exactly_ together, the joins will not be noticeable.

Lac-varnish dries very quickly, and it takes only a short time to
decorate a window in this manner.

When all the panes of glass are covered with tissue-paper, finish by
varnishing each one with the white lac-varnish; at a little distance it
is difficult to distinguish a window so covered from one really formed
of ground glass.

For bath-rooms, or where the window is rather out of the way and the
outlook not agreeable, the imitation of ground glass is suitable and




ONLY the other day we were appealed to by a friend for suggestions on
how to furnish a room prettily, and at the same time inexpensively,
and we know that there are many girls like this friend who, loving to
surround themselves with beauty and comfort, have not the means of
doing so in the ordinary way; but must depend largely upon their own
skill and ingenuity for the gratification of this taste. After all,
there is more real pleasure in planning and contriving the furnishing
of one’s room, even with only a small sum for outlays, than there
is in ordering a set from the furnishers which is exactly like a
hundred others. In the former case we make our room expressive of our
individuality; in the latter we walk in the beaten track of those who
have little or no individuality to express.

So much for the sentiment of the idea. Now let us turn to the practical
side, and find the best way of carrying it out, and putting our
theories into practice.

In mentioning old furniture in the heading of this chapter, we do not
allude to the antiques in such high favor just now; they are unique
and handsome enough in themselves, requiring no contriving to beautify
them; but there are few families who do not possess furniture that
is out of date, old-fashioned without being antique; furniture that
time and hard usage has reduced to a state of shabbiness anything but
beautiful, yet not worth sending to the cabinet-makers to be furbished
up. It is the renovation of such furniture that will help much toward
making a room pretty and attractive.

We need not attempt to restore the furniture to its original state,
that would be impracticable. But we can work wonders in transforming
it; in turning a homely article into one that will be an adornment
instead of a blemish.


Take, for instance, an old bureau belonging to a cottage set. The
mirror, perhaps, is broken, or if it is not it can be used to better
advantage elsewhere. Removing that, there is left merely a chest of
drawers, which we will proceed to convert into a bookcase by the
addition of shelves placed on top. If you have a brother who is handy
with his tools the matter is simple enough; without him a carpenter
may have to be employed to make the shelves, or, by taking the plan
and measurements to a carpenter-shop the materials can be obtained
ready for use, and all you will have to do will be to put them
together. Although there is a saying that “a girl can never drive
a nail straight,” we have reason to believe the contrary, and feel
sure that a little practice will enable most girls to do many bits of
light carpentry work as well as the boys. Three feet is the height
of a bureau belonging to an ordinary set of cottage furniture, so we
will take that as our standard for measurement, and make our shelves
according to it.

[Illustration: Fig. 366.—Diagram of Book-shelves.]

Fig. 366 is the diagram for the frame of the shelves. The side pieces
are made of boards three feet four inches long and nine inches wide;
the top of each of these boards is sawed into a point as shown in
diagram. Four cleats made of sticks eight inches long and one inch
thick are nailed to the side of each board, the distance between being
nine inches.

The frame at the back is composed of two boards five and one half feet
long and seven inches wide, and two, three feet three inches long
(the width of the bureau) and seven inches wide. One of these short
boards is nailed across the top ends of the long boards, and the other
twenty-four inches below. The side pieces are nailed to the back as
shown in diagram, the nails being driven through the back board into
the edge of the side piece.

When the frame is made it is placed on the bureau, the sides resting on
the top and the long back boards reaching down behind where they are
nailed or screwed to the bureau. The shelves are thirty-seven inches
long and nine inches wide. They rest on the cleats and are not nailed
to the frame.

Screws may in some places, answer better than nails.

When the shelves have been adjusted, the whole is painted a dark olive

If the knobs are removed from the drawers before the bureau is painted,
and brass handles substituted afterward, it will add materially to its

The bookcase shown in our illustration is finished off with curtains,
which hang by brass rings from a slender bamboo pole. The pole is
slipped through brass hooks screwed into the side pieces near the top.

Curtains of canton-flannel, or any soft material, are suitable for this
bookcase. The colors may be a combination of olive green with old blue,
yellow, cherry, copper color, dark red, or light brown.

=The Chair=

in the same illustration is an ordinary rocking-chair painted olive
green, with cushions at the back and in the seat stuffed with
excelsior, covered with bright cretonne, and tied to the chair with

[Illustration: Bureau Transformed into a Bookcase.]

Chairs of this kind look well painted almost any color; one of yellow,
with yellow cushions and ribbons, is exceedingly pretty.

If the chair to be remodelled is bottomless, reseat it in this way: Cut
some strips of strong cotton cloth about one inch wide and sew them
together, lapping one piece over another, as in Fig. 367; fasten an end
on to the edge of the chair with a tack, and then pass the cloth back
and forth across, each time putting it under and bringing it over the
edge of the chair.

[Illustration: Fig. 367.]

When the seat is filled up with the strips going one way, cut the cloth
and tack the end to the chair; then, commencing at the side, cross
these strips, passing the cloth in and out as if darning. Fig. 368
shows just how it is done. Be sure to draw the strip as tightly as you
can every time it crosses the chair, for if too loose it will sag as
soon as the chair is used. The edge of the chair may be covered with
the cretonne, or a ruffle which is sewed around the cushion.

[Illustration: Fig. 368.—How to Reseat a Chair.]

Fig. 369 is an old settee fitted up with cushions, and a sociable,
comfortable seat it is. It offers plenty of room for two, and ensconced
thereon the girls may rock and talk to their hearts’ content.

These settees are not often seen in the city, but are to be found in
many a farm-house and country town. The one from which our sketch is
taken is painted black, but, like the chair, it would look well any

Fresh, dainty prettiness should be the principal feature of a young
girl’s room, and this can be obtained at very little expense, much less
than most persons suppose.

[Illustration: Fig. 369.—Come and Sit Here.]

Fig. 370 shows what can be done with the commonest kind of furniture.
This can be bought at the manufacturer’s unpainted, and may be left its
natural color and simply varnished, or, following the present fashion,
it can be painted white, and decorated with slender bands or circles of

As in the illustration,

=The Bedstead=

should have drapery suspended over it. This gives a soft, pretty
effect, and takes away its stiffness. Dotted swiss or thin cottage
drapery answers the purpose nicely.

Ten yards of material cut in two breadths of five yards each are
required for these curtains. The breadths must be sewed together
lengthwise and then passed through a small wooden hoop which has been
gilded or painted white.

When the hoop is directly in the middle of the breadths, the material
must be brought together close to the hoop and two of the edges sewed
or basted together. This seam is to go at the back and keep the curtain
from parting and hanging in two strips.

A ruffle of the same material, or lace, sewed on the edge and across
the ends of the drapery gives it a soft, lacy effect. The ribbons which
loop the curtains at either side should be of the prevailing colors of
the room. If the furniture is white and gold, they should be yellow.

The hoop can hang from a brass chain fastened to a hook in the ceiling.

The bureau belonging to this style of furniture is too clumsy for our
use, although without the mirror it will be convenient as a chest of
drawers. Brass handles in place of knobs will improve it.

=A Dressing-table=

to take its place, like the one shown in Fig. 370, can be made of a
small kitchen-table. The mirror suspended over it should have a broad
flat frame of white pine, varnished or painted to match the furniture.
Almost any cabinet-maker can frame a mirror in this way. Bracket
candlesticks made of brass, which are very inexpensive, should be
fastened to the frame on either side of the glass with brass nails or
brass-headed tacks.

[Illustration: Fig. 370.—What can be done with Common Unpainted

With a brass handle on the drawer, a pretty scarf of linen crash,
ornamented with drawn work or outline, thrown over the table and
hanging down at each end, and the addition of pin-cushion and toilet
articles, this toilet-table looks very attractive and readily
challenges admiration.


A piece of white matting bound at top and bottom, with yellow
cotton cloth for a splasher, as in Fig. 371, and a pretty scarf and
toilet-set, presents this most ordinary washstand in a new light.

Three common kitchen-chairs and one rocker, when painted white or
varnished, as the case may be, and cushioned in pretty light-colored
cretonne, completes this novel, pretty, and remarkably inexpensive set
of furniture.

[Illustration: Fig. 371.—The Ordinary Unpainted Washstand in a New

The curtains next to the windows should be of the same material as
that used for the bed-drapery, with the inner one of cretonne like the

White matting is suitable for the floor in summer, and during the cold
weather it can be mostly covered with a pretty ingrain rug or art
square, as it is called.

Instead of using gilt, the rings and bands on the furniture may be blue
or red, in which case the trimmings of the room should correspond.

[Illustration: Fig. 372.—Hall Seat Made of a Common Wooden Bench.]

=A Hall Seat.=

As another illustration of what can be done with the most ordinary
piece of furniture, we have chosen a common wooden bench, and by
painting it black and giving it a dark-red cushion with tassels at each
corner, have transformed it into quite an elegant hall-seat. Fig. 372
gives the effect.

[Illustration: Fig. 373.—Window Seat and Book-shelves Combined, Made of

Fig. 373 shows a

=Window Seat and Book-shelves Combined,=

made of boxes. Eight soap-boxes of the same size are required for the
shelves, and a packing-box about two feet high, two feet in width, and
as long as the window is wide, for the seat.

Remove the tops and two sides of the soap-boxes, and bore holes with a
red-hot poker in one corner of the bottoms of six of the boxes, and in
two of the tops which have been removed, making the holes one inch from
either edge (Fig. 374). In the other two boxes bore in the same place,
but not entirely through, making the holes about half an inch deep.

Place these last two on the floor and pile the others on top of them,
three on each, nailing the bottom of each box to the top edge of the
one beneath it. On the two upper boxes nail the tops in which the holes
have been made.

Have ready two slender bamboo rods about four feet long. Insert a rod
in the hole in the top of an upper box and let it pass down, slipping
it through the holes in the bottoms of the other boxes and fitting it
in the cavity in the lower box.

[Illustration: Fig. 374.—Hole in Corner of Box for Book-shelves.]

In like manner put the other rod in place through the other pile of

If the packing-box has a cover, it should be fastened on with hinges,
so that it may be used for a shoe-box as well as a seat; if it has not,
turn it upside down, place the soap-boxes at each end and nail them to

Paint the shelves black or the color of the wood-work in the room, and
upholster the seat and the boxes on either side of it with cushions
made of strong muslin stuffed with excelsior and covered with cretonne.

Fasten the edges of the side cushions to the boxes with gimp braid and
tacks. Make a deep plaiting of the cretonne and tack it across the
front of the large box. When there is a lid a narrow plaiting must be
tacked across its front edge, which will, when the box is closed, lap
over the top of the deeper plaiting.

That this combination of window-seat and shelves is both comfortable
and convenient, one may easily imagine, and that it adds not a little
to the furnishing of a room, we leave to our illustration to show.




THE spirit of hospitality and comfort presides over the ruddy blaze
of an open fire; yet, as we gather cosily around and bask in the
delightful warmth and radiance, its cheerful influence is too often
retarded by its very unattractive surroundings. This lovely household
spirit should have a more fitting habitation than the one frequently
accorded it. The fire-place should at least be pleasant to look upon,
and not depend wholly upon the bright fire to make it inviting.

The ordinary marble and marbleized slate or iron mantel-pieces are the
reverse of beautiful, but they may be very much improved at the expense
of a small outlay of money, time, and trouble.

The examples we give here of the treatment of commonplace mantel-pieces
are simple, and can easily be managed by the girls themselves, with but
trifling aid from a carpenter.

In a room occupied at one time by a young friend of the writer,
there was an old-fashioned white-pine mantel-piece. It was stiff and
plain, with no attempt at ornamentation, and the border of white
marble, about five inches wide around the fire-place, was apparently
inserted to protect the wood from the heat of the fire, and not for
beauty. A hint from the writer was sufficient to set this girl’s brain
and fingers to work. Soon the white-marble border was transformed
into a row of blue and white tiles, which were not only pretty and
appropriate, but were also the means of dispelling the impressions of
coldness and hardness the marble gave.

[Illustration: Fig. 375.—Shelves over Mantel-Piece.]

The manner of effecting this transformation was simple enough. First
the marble was divided into squares, the lines being painted black;
then conventional patterns were sketched with a pencil on the squares
and painted in blue, oil-paints being used for the purpose.

How the mantel-piece was otherwise reformed, the writer never saw, but
it might have been greatly improved and altered by the addition of
shelves above, or a suitable lambrequin upon the mantel-shelf. However
that may or might have been, the tiles were a successful bit of work,
and the painting of them within the capabilities of almost anyone. Then
why should we long in vain for a tiled mantel-piece, when we have it in
our power to gratify the wish?

On a plain white-marble mantel a border around the fire-place may be
marked out, and a set of tiles painted, which will look just as pretty
as any that can be bought.

If the rest of the marble is painted black or brown, the tiles will
look as though they were set in, and the contrast will make them more

Fig. 375 illustrates our suggestion of putting shelves over the
mantel-piece. The braces can be bought at any hardware-store, and the
shelves may be of black-walnut or pine boards, stained or painted to
match the mantel-piece.

Fig. 376 shows the effect of a mantel-shelf covered with enamel-cloth
made in imitation of leather. The color of the material used for
the one from which our sketch is taken is dark red, and has a dull,
soft finish like Russian leather. It is ornamented with small brass
curtain-rings sewed on in points or pyramids; a strip of enamel-cloth
is also put behind the shelf, and at the top edge a piece of narrow
gilt moulding is tacked.

[Illustration: Fig. 376.—Mantel-Shelf covered with Enamel-Cloth
ornamented with Brass Curtain-Rings.]

A mantel-board of pine, two inches longer and two inches wider than the
shelf, is always necessary when there is to be a lambrequin, for upon
this the lambrequin is tacked.

First, the board must be neatly covered with the material, enamel-cloth
or whatever is used, the edges of the cloth being brought over and
tacked under the edge of the shelf; then the strip composing the
lambrequin must be turned in at the top edge and tacked across the
front and two ends of the board with brass-headed tacks. It looks
better if the corners of the board are rounded as shown in illustration.

The piece at the back of the shelf should be about eighteen inches deep
and must be tacked at top and bottom with small tacks, the edge at each
end being turned in and tacked to the wall with brass-headed tacks.

Fig. 377 is the diagram of enamel-cloth ornamented with brass rings,
and shows a section of the pattern. The bottom row of rings should be
sewed on first, and the edge of the cloth turned up as the rings are
fastened on. The stitches which hold the rings catch the hem also. This
first row of rings should extend half way below the edge of the cloth,
as shown in Fig. 377. Strong yellow embroidery-silk or saddlers’ silk
is the best to sew them on with.

[Illustration: Fig. 377.—Enamel-Cloth ornamented with Brass Rings.]

The gilt moulding can be bought by the foot and small headless nails
are furnished to tack it with.

Another mantel is treated in very much the same manner as Fig. 376,
the difference being that, instead of enamel-cloth, the covering for
the shelf and the piece at the back are dark-red canton-flannel, and
around the edge of the shelf is tacked a worsted fringe, about six
inches deep, matching the canton-flannel in color. This has a warm,
comfortable look and is quite appropriate for a bedroom, while the
other should be used only in a library or dining-room.

[Illustration: Fig. 378.—Shelves around Projecting Chimney.]

The writer was once invited into a young girl’s room which was very
attractive in its daintiness. It was not pretty in shape, and an
uncompromising chimney, in which there was no fire-place, projected
into the room; but taste had overcome these difficulties, and the
effect produced was decidedly pleasing.

Pretty wall-paper and the arrangement of the furniture helped very
much, but the greatest triumph was in subduing the awkwardness of that
chimney by surrounding it with a set of shelves for holding pretty bits
of bric-à-brac.

In case another girl may have the same difficulty to surmount in
decorating her room, we give an outline drawing of the shelves (Fig.
378) that she may see and profit thereby.




WE have noticed that in none of the books we have seen, which were
written especially for the amusement and entertainment of girls, has
there been any directions or recipes for making candy. Knowing by
experience that most girls consider candy-making one of their prime
winter enjoyments, we consider the omission to be quite an important
one, and we will in this chapter endeavor to supply the much-wished-for

Though cooking in general may not be regarded with much favor by the
average school-girl, she is always anxious to learn how to make candy,
and hails a new recipe as a boon.

The following recipes for peanut-candy, butter-scotch, and
molasses-candy were obtained from a friend who makes the best home-made
candy it has ever been our good-fortune to taste, and as she recommends
them, we may rely upon their being excellent. We give them, with her
comments, just as she wrote them.

    =Delicious Peanut-Candy.=

    Shell your peanuts and chop them fine; measure them in
    a cup, and take just the same quantity of granulated
    sugar as you have peanuts. Put the sugar in a skillet,
    or spider, on the fire, and keep moving the skillet
    around until the sugar is dissolved; then put in the
    peanuts and pour into buttered tins.

    This is _delicious_, and _so_ quickly made.


    2 cups of brown sugar.
    ½ cup of butter.
    4 tablespoonfuls of molasses.
    2 tablespoonfuls of water.
    2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar.

    Boil until it hardens when dropped into cold water,
    then pour into buttered tins.


    2 cups of brown sugar.
    ½ cup of New Orleans molasses.
    ⅔ cup of vinegar and water mixed.
    A piece of butter half the size of an egg.

    When the candy hardens in cold water, pour into shallow
    buttered tins, and as soon as it is cool enough
    to handle, pull it until it is of a straw-color.

Here are two recipes which another friend has kindly sent us:


    To the white of 1 egg add an equal quantity of cold
    water. Stir in 1 pound of confectioner’s sugar. Flavor
    with vanilla. Stir until fine and smooth; then mould
    into balls and drop into melted chocolate.

To melt the chocolate, scrape and put it in a tin-cup or small
sauce-pan over a kettle where it will steam. Let the chocolate be
melting while the cream is being prepared.


    Make the cream as for chocolate-drops and mould into
    larger balls. Place the half of an English walnut on
    either side and press them into the cream.

The cream prepared in this way, we have found, can be used for various
kinds of candy.

Small pieces of fruit of any kind and nuts can be enclosed in the
cream, making a great variety. Chocolate may be mixed with it; and if
strong, clear coffee is used in place of the water, the candy will have
the coffee flavor and color which some people like.

=Walnut and Fruit Glacé.=

Put 1 cup of sugar and ½ cup of water in a sauce-pan and stir until the
sugar is all dissolved; then place it over the fire and let it boil
until it hardens and is quite crisp when dropped in cold water. Do not
stir it after it is put on the fire.

When cooked sufficiently, dip out a spoonful at a time and drop in
buttered tins, leaving a space of an inch or so between each spoonful.
Place on each piece of candy the half of a walnut, or the fruit which
has previously been prepared, and pour over them enough candy to cover
them, always keeping each piece separate.

Any kind of fruit can be made into glacé. When using oranges, quarter
them and remove the seeds. Strawberries, in their season, and peaches
also make delicious glacé.

The remainder of our recipes have been taken from family recipe-books,
and although we have not tested them ourselves, we think it may be
safely said that they are good ones.

=Marsh-mallow Paste.=

Dissolve 1 pound of clean white gum-arabic in one quart of water;
strain, add 1 pound of refined sugar, and place over the fire. Stir
continually until the syrup is dissolved and the mixture has become of
the consistency of honey. Next add gradually the beaten whites of 8
eggs; stir the mixture all the time until it loses its thickness and
does not adhere to the finger. Flavor with vanilla or rose. Pour into
a tin slightly dusted with powdered starch, and when cool divide into
squares with a sharp knife.

=Toasted Marsh-mallows.=

Tie a string on the end of a cane or stick, fasten a bent pin on the
end of the string, and stick the pin into a marsh-mallow-drop. Hold the
marsh-mallow suspended over an open fire and let it gradually toast.
When it begins to melt and run down it is done.

For a small party toasting marsh-mallows will be found quite a merry
pastime, and a great many persons consider the candy much better for
being thus cooked the second time.

=Molasses Peanut-Candy.=

    2 cups of molasses.
    1 cup of brown sugar.
    1 tablespoonful of butter.
    1 tablespoonful of vinegar.

While the candy is boiling remove the shells and brown skins from the
peanuts, lay the nuts in buttered pans, and when the candy is done pour
it over them. While it is still warm cut in blocks.


    2 cups of sugar.
    1 cup of molasses.
    1 cup of milk.
    1 tablespoonful of butter.
    1 tablespoonful of flour.
    ½ pound of Baker’s chocolate.

Grease your pot, put in sugar, molasses, and milk; boil fifteen
minutes, and add butter and flour stirred to a cream. Let it boil five
minutes, then add the chocolate, grated, and boil until quite thick.
Grease shallow pans and pour in the candy half an inch thick, marking
it in squares before it becomes hard.

=Pop-Corn Balls.=

    6 quarts of popped corn.
    1 pint of molasses.

Boil the molasses about fifteen minutes; then put the corn into a large
pan, pour the molasses over it, and stir briskly until thoroughly
mixed. Then, with clean hands, make into balls of the desired size.


[Illustration: Saint Valentine.]


Saint Valentine’s Day.

Did it never occur to any of you to wonder who Saint Valentine was,
and why we should commemorate his day by sending cards or letters
containing all sorts of nonsense, like true-lovers’ knots, hearts
pierced with arrows, etc.?

It is easy enough to tell you about the saint, but what he had to do
with the popular observances of the day dedicated to him is a matter
for conjecture.

Saint Valentine, they say, was a grave and earnest bishop, who was put
to death in Rome on the fourteenth day of February, about the year 270
A.D., for his too zealous efforts in converting the heathen. When he
was canonized, the day of the month on which he died was dedicated to

The customs of Saint Valentine’s Day are, no doubt, derived from those
practised at some of the Pagan festivals, for they are of very ancient
origin. In olden times, in England, it was kept as a great gala day,
and all the houses were decked with evergreen in honor of it. Ben
Jonson says:

    “Get some fresh hay, then, to lay under foot,
     Some holly and ivy to make fine the posts;
     Is’t not Saint Valentine’s Day?”

The principal feature of the ceremonies was always the choice of a
valentine for the ensuing year. The cavalier was expected to wait upon
his lady, execute all of her commands, and act as her escort at all
social gatherings.

The choice of a valentine was generally left to chance, one of the
methods being that the first unmarried member of the opposite sex a
person saw on Saint Valentine’s morning should be his or her valentine.

Of course you have all had some experience in sending and receiving
valentines, and perhaps consider that the only way of celebrating the
day; but don’t you think it would be a good idea to invite some friends
to your house and have a


We will give several suggestions upon what to do at a valentine-party,
that you may have some idea how the affair should be conducted.

In the first place, let each guest, upon his or her arrival, deposit
a valentine in a large bag placed in the hall for that purpose. The
valentines must be addressed to no particular person, but the girls
should write on theirs, “To my cavalier,” and the boys address the
ones they send, “To my lady.” On one corner of each valentine (not the
envelope) the sender’s name must be written.

When all the guests have assembled, someone disguised as Saint
Valentine, in a skull-cap, long white beard, made of cotton or wool,
and long cloak, should enter the parlor, carrying on his back the sack
of valentines. He must stand in the centre of the room and auction off
each valentine as he takes it from his pack.

All sorts of bids can be made, such as the promise of a dance, a
necktie, her share of ice-cream at supper, by a girl. A compliment,
the first favor asked of him, a paper of bonbons, by a boy. To make fun
the bids should be as ridiculous as possible. Saint Valentine is to be
at liberty to accept whatever bid he chooses. The payment of the debt
must be rigidly exacted by the sender of a valentine, whose identity is
revealed when the valentine is opened.

[Illustration: Fig. 379.—Cupid’s Bow and Arrow.]

If unable to comply immediately with the demand, the debtor must give
the creditor a card or slip of paper on which is written “I O U a
favor,” or whatever it may be that is owed. This I O U entitles the
creditor to claim payment of the debt at any time during the year.

Another feature of the party should be Cupid’s bow and arrow, which
must be suspended from the chandelier or placed in some prominent
position. The device is to be used for delivering such valentines as
may be addressed to particular persons. The valentine must be stuck
onto the point of the arrow, and no one may remove it save the person
to whom it is addressed. At any time during the evening the arrow may
be found to bear a missive, and we would advise the hostess to provide
a valentine, to be delivered in this way, for each of her guests, that
none may feel neglected. The rest of the party can, to be sure, send as
many valentines as they like.

[Illustration: Fig. 380.—Notch in End of Feather.]

Make Cupid’s bow and arrow of heavy pasteboard, like Fig. 379. Let the
bow measure about sixteen inches from tip to tip. Make the arrow twelve
inches long, with a point or head three inches, and the feathers two
inches, in length on the outside edge. Cut a notch in the feathered
end, as shown in Fig. 380. Strengthen the arrow by gluing a thin stick
of wood along it to within one inch of the point. Gild both the bow and
arrow, tie a silk cord to the tips of the bow, leaving it slack, and
force the head of a worsted-needle into the point of the arrow (Fig.
381). Adjust the arrow by fitting the cord in the notch and pulling it
back until the cord is taut; then fasten it to the bow by taking a few
stitches with yellow silk through the bow and over the arrow. Fig. 382
shows how it should appear when in place.

[Illustration: Fig. 381.—Manner of fastening Needle in Arrow-head.]

To determine how the guests shall be paired off for supper, place the
names of all the girls, written on slips of paper, in a bag; then let
each boy in turn take out a slip, and the girl whose name it bears he
shall escort to the supper-room and serve like a true cavalier.

At a valentine-party the valentines should, if possible, all be
original, or at least contain appropriate quotations. The more absurd
the rhyme, the more fun it will create, and when one is unable to make
a rhyme a bit of prose can be made to serve. As funny as you please let
the valentines be, but remember to omit anything that is in the least
rude, or calculated to hurt another’s feelings.

[Illustration: Fig. 382.—Cupid’s Bow with Arrow in Position.]

With Saint Valentine’s Day ends our vacation-calendar and with it we
also bring this book to a close, for a whole year of holidays, sports,
and entertainments are now contained within its covers. If we may hope
that our work has not been without profit, as well as entertainment,
if we have been successful in opening any new avenues of enterprise and
enjoyment for you, we are satisfied. If we have done more, and with any
of our suggestions have prompted the thought of adding to the comfort
and happiness of others, we have achieved a success, and the mission of
the AMERICAN GIRL’S HANDY BOOK is accomplished.




    Album, an, 400

    All-Hallow-Eve; see Halloween

    Appliqué designs, 391

    April, first of, 3;
      April-fool’s Day party, 5;
      games, 6 et seq.


    Back-stitching, 383

    Ball, soft, 327

    Balls, lawn-tennis, 69

    Basket, May, 74;
      birch-bark, ib.;
      cardboard, ib.;
      crab-net, 97

    Basting, 382

    Bedstead, 444

    Beech-nuts, 220

    Biographical nonsense, 339

    Bladder telephone, 227

    Blind, taught modelling, 257

    Blind-man’s singing-school, 155

    Blind-man’s stocking, 321

    Bombs, 115

    Bonbon box, 49

    Bookcase, 439

    Book-covers, home-made, 401

    Book-mark, 324

    Book-shelves, marine, 94

    Booths at a fair, 413;
      tables for, ib.;
      flowers for, 417;
      arrangement of, 420

    Botany as applied to art, 139;
      conventionalizing plant forms, ib.;
      the peony-leaf, 140;
      a bunch of turnips, 142;
      decorative lines, 143;
      cross-section plant designs, 144;
      flower-sprays, 146;
      changing color and form, 147;
      burs, ib.;
      water-lily conventionalized, 148;
      fern-leaf, 85

    Bouquets, to preserve fresh, 25

    Brackets, 214

    Bradford, Governor William, 302

    Bran pie, 321

    Brushes for oil-colors, 250;
      for china painting, 270

    Bubble-blowing, 335

    Buckeye Portière, 204

    “Bunching eggs,” 37

    Burgoos, 132

    Butter-Scotch, 459

    Butter-nuts, 220

    Button, how to sew on a, 386

    Button-holes, 383

    Bureau transformed into a bookcase, 441


    Candlestick, marine, 103

    Candy, home-made, 458

    Canvas for painting, 251

    Cards, Easter, 50

    Cards, living Christmas, 342

    Chair, 441;
      how to reseat, 442

    Chestnuts, 218

    China-painting, 272;
      materials, 273;
      China, 278;
      monochrome painting, ib.;
      tinting, 273;
      new method of decorating china, 279;
      tracing, 280;
      mottled ground, 281;
      snow landscape, ib.;
      head-painting, 284;
      sea-weed, fish, etc., 287;
      mixing colors, 289;
      painting royal Worcester ware, 290

    Chocolate-caramels, 461

    Chocolate-creams, 459

    Christmas festivities, 317;
      customs, 318

    Clay, for modelling, 259;
      how to manage, 261;
      how to preserve, 262

    Clover, four-leaved, 23

    Color painting, 241, 244, 246

    Conventionalized plant forms, 141

    Court, for lawn-tennis, 62

    Cross-section plant designs, 144

    Crystallizing flowers, 21

    Curtain fixtures, marine, 92


    Dancers, fairy, 330

    Darning and mending, 384

    Declaration of Independence, 117

    Decoration, sea-side cottage, 92

    Decorations, natural, 201;
      of autumn wild flowers, 202;
      buckeye portière, 204;
      of horse-chestnuts, ib.;
      of corn, 209;
      ornamental gourds, 210

    Decorative language, 365;
      how to make a design in, 371

    Dolls, corn-husk, 169;
      with crab-apple heads, 173;
      flower, 175

    Drapery of small scraps, 431

    Draw, how to, 229

    Drawing plant forms, 141

    Drawn work, 389

    Dressing-table, 444


    Easel, 250

    Easter, 33;
      how celebrated in England, ib.;
      in Russia, ib.;
      in Ireland, 34;
      in Germany, 35;
      in Washington, D. C, ib.

    Easter cards, 50

    Easter eggs, 33;
      games with, 36;
      dolls made of, 39;
      toys formed of, 42;
      maple wax eggs, 49;
      bonbon box, ib.

    Enchanted girl, pantomime of, 348

    Exercising, best time for, 353;
      balancing weights on the head, 356;
      broom-handle exercise, 357


    Fairy dancers, 330

    Fan, how to make a, 177;
      butterfly fan, 178;
      Mikado fan, 180;
      daisy fan, 182;
      card-board fan, 183

    Felling, 383

    Ferns for decoration, 19

    Fid, 57, 161

    Five minutes’ conversation, 154

    Fish-painting on china, 286

    Floral vocabulary, 377

    Flowers, wild, 14;
      transplanting, ib.;
      how to keep cut, 15;
      sending by mail, 16;
      preserving, in sand, 16;
      pressed, 18;
      herbariums of, 19;
      for decoration, ib.;
      color of, changed, ib.;
      waxed, 20;
      to freshen cut, ib.;
      crystallized, 21;
      frosted, ib.;
      perfume of, preserved, ib.;
      spring flowers in winter, 23;
      preserving, in alcohol, 24;
      in an empty bottle, ib.;
      under glass, ib.;
      to keep bouquets fresh, 25;
      to keep flowers or fruit fresh for a year, ib.;
      painting, in water-colors, 239

    Fortune-telling, by melted lead, 190;
      by nutshell boats, 192;
      by “three luggies,” 193;
      by roasting nuts, ib.;
      Kaling, 194;
      by the magic mirror, ib.;
      by three tin cups, by the ring cake, 195

    Fortune’s wheel, 88, 426

    “Fore-shortening,” 231

    Fourth of July, celebration, interior decoration for, 107;
      indoor illumination, 108;
      out-door decoration and illumination, 109;
      fireworks for girls, 111;
      parachute, 112;
      thunderbolts, ib.;
      whirls, 113;
      winged fancies, ib.;
      pin-wheels, 114;
      bombs, 115;
      lawn party, 117;
      declaration of independence, ib.;
      game of toss, 118;
      jackstraws, 119;
      progressive mining, ib.

    Frames for pictures, 295;
      designs for, 296;
      decorated, 297;
      cork frame, 299

    Furniture, old and new, 438


    Game of headless turkey, 312

    Game and fish stew, 133

    Games, quiet, for hot weather, 151;
      door-step party, 152;
      five minutes’ conversation, 153;
      blind-man’s singing-school, 155;
      game of noted men, ib.;
      what will you take to the picnic? 156;
      assumed characters, 157;
      shadow verbs, ib.;
      Halloween games, 196 et seq.

    Games for Christmas holidays, bubble-bowling, 335;
      biographical nonsense, 339;
      comic historical tableaux, 341;
      living Christmas cards, 342

    Gathering, 382

    Glass, stained, imitated, 435

    Glove pen-wiper, 323

    Glove, to mend a kid, 386

    Gold, mat, 276;
      pure, ib.

    Gourds, ornamental, 210

    Grab-bags, 423

    Ground glass, imitation of, 436

    Gymnasium, home, 353


    Hall seat, 447

    Halloween, 187;
      origin of, ib.;
      party, 189;
      fortune-telling on, 190 et seq.;
      games, 196 et seq.

    Hammock, how to make a, 159;
      materials required, 161;
      barrel hammock, 165

    Hat-rack, sea-side, 98

    Hazel-nuts, 220

    Headless turkey, game of, 312

    Hemming, 381

    Heraldry, 366;
      field of, 266;
      the points, ib.;
      divisions, 267

    Herbariums, 19

    Herring-bone stitch, 384

    Hickory-nuts, 219

    Historical tableaux, 341

    Home gymnasium, 353

    Home-made candy, 458

    Horseshoe crab-bag, 101

    “Huli Fool,” 4


    Impression album, how to make an, 123;
      tools required, 125;
      printing from leaves, 126;
      from flowers, 127;
      landscapes, 128;
      other uses for botanical impressions, 129


    Jackstraws, Fourth of July, 119

    Julklapp, 319


    Kaling, 194

    Key-rack, 412


    Lace, 393

    Lady of the Lake, 425

    Landscape painting in water-colors, 241

    Language, a decorative, 364

    Lantern, 408

    Lawn, painting on, 434

    Lawn party, 117

    Lawn-tennis, 55;
      lawn-tennis suits, 56;
      how to make a lawn-tennis net, 57;
      materials for, ib.;
      court, 62;
      rules for the game, 63

    Leap-year party, 351

    Leaves and ferns for decoration, 19

    Light, 252


    Mailing parcels, directions for, 16

    Mantle-cloth, 454

    Mantle-piece, 451

    Maple-wax Easter eggs, 49

    Marsh-mallow paste, 460;
      toasted, 461

    Mat colors, 277

    May Day, 71;
      sports, 72;
      May baskets, 74;
      May-pole, 77;
      May-pole dance, 79

    Midsummer Eve, 83;
      the games of, 85 et seq.

    Mirror tableau, 6

    Mirror, the, 404

    Model, arrangement of, in water-color painting, 240

    Modelling in clay and wax, 257;
      value of, 259;
      much can be learned without a teacher, ib.;
      materials, ib.;
      clay, 260;
      general directions, 261

    Modelling wax, 263

    Modelling stand, 260

    Molasses candy, 459

    Monochrome painting, 278

    Music-roll, a, 410


    Nancy, Miss, 326

    Nature’s types, 125

    Needle, hammock, 58; 161

    Needle-work, 380

    Net, lawn-tennis, 57

    New Year’s Day, 347;
      New Year’s parties, 348

    Noah’s ark peep-show, 8

    Nutting parties, 218;
      rules for, 221


    Overhanding, 380

    Oil-cups, 251

    Oils for china-painting, 275

    Overcasting, 380


    Paint-box, 251

    Painting in water-colors, 238;
      materials for, ib.;
      flower-painting, 239;
      model, 240;
      landscapes, 241;
      general directions, 242;
      painting from notes, 244

    Painting in oil-colors, 249;
      materials, ib.;
      the light, 252;
      setting the palette, 253

    Painting on lawn, 434

    Painting window-panes, 432

    Paints, for china-painting, 274

    Palette, 250;
      setting the, 253

    Palette-knife, 250;
      of horn, 273

    Panel decorations, 205, 209, 270

    Panel of field-corn, 209

    Pantomime of an enchanted girl, 348

    Paper-weight, 412

    Parachute, 112

    Party, First of April, 5;
      Fourth of July, 117;
      door-step, 151;
      Halloween, 189;
      nutting, 218

    Paste, how to make, 402

    Patch, how to, 386

    Peanut-candy, 458

    Peanuts, 223

    Perfumes, to prepare from flowers, 21

    Picnics, burgoos and corn-roasts, 131;
      how to make a burgoo stew, 133;
      a corn-roast, 134

    Picture-frames, 295

    Pilgrims, landing of, tableau, 305 et seq.

    Pin-wheels, 114

    Plain sewing, 380;
      overhanding, ib.;
      overcasting, 381;
      hemming, ib.;
      running, 382;
      basting, ib.;
      gathering, ib.;
      stitching, 383;
      back-stitching, ib.;
      felling, ib.;
      button-holes, ib.;
      herringbone, or cat’s-tooth stitch, 384

    Plantain test, 86

    Plaster casts, 268;
      to harden, 270;
      to color, ib.

    “Poisson d’Avril,” 4

    Pop-corn balls, 462

    Portières, designs for, 391;
      buckeye, 204

    Postal regulations for packages, 16

    Progressive mining, 119


    Rag-balls, 427

    Ribbon embroideries, 393

    Ribbon curtain, 430

    Rooster, a lively, 327

    Rose-water, recipe for, 26

    Rubbish, what to do with, 403

    Running, 382


    Sachet, 323

    Saint Valentine’s Day, 464

    Scrap-bag, 324

    Scrap drapery, 431

    Scrap-book, 395

    Screen, marine, 99;
      Louis Quinze, 206

    Settee, 442

    Shells, how to polish, 104

    Shelves around chimney, 456

    Siccatif Courtray, 253

    “Silly mackerel,” 4

    Spring flowers in winter, 23

    “Squirrel, little brown,” 218, 221, 222

    Stained glass, imitation of, 435

    Starfish, candlestick made of, 102;
      ornaments of, 103;
      how to dry, 104

    Stitches, fancy, 387

    Stitching, 383


    T-square, 234

    Table, a bric-à-brac, 406;
      at a fair, 413

    Tableau, mirror, 6

    Tableaux, burlesque, 304;
      historical, 341

    Tar paste, 275

    Telephone, how to make a, 224

    Tent, illuminated, 111

    Thanksgiving, celebration of, 302

    Thunderbolts, 112

    Tiles, painted on marble mantle, 453

    Tin telephone, 225

    Tints in water-color painting, 242

    Toss, 118

    Tracing, 280

    Transformation scrap-book, 398


    Urchin, sea, vase made of, 102


    Valentine party, 465

    Vase, marine, 102


    Walking Club, the, 27;
      membership of, 30;
      length of walks, ib.;
      rules to be observed, 31

    Walnuts, 220

    Walnut creams, 459;
      glacé, 460

    Walnut-shell turtle, 325

    Washstand, 446

    Water-colors, 238

    Wax-modelling, home-made, 263

    Wedding decorations, wild flowers for, 202

    Whirls, 113

    Wild flowers, 13

    Window decorations, 92

    Window-panes, decoration of, 432

    Window-seat, 448

    Winged fancies, 113

    Work-basket, crab-net, 97

    Work-basket, 411

    Worcester, royal, ware, 290




By KIRK MUNROE. With 8 full-page illustrations by W. S. STACEY. 12mo,

A powerful and fascinating historical story, the scene of which is laid
in Mexico when Cortez made his famous conquests. The story possesses
a peculiar interest in that it is related from the stand-point of
the native races, the hero, Huetzin, being not one of the “White
Conquerors,” but a native, the son of Tlahuicol, a Toltec, and a war
chief of the Tlascalan race. In warring against Montezuma, King of
the Aztecs, Tlahuicol is captured, and after a long imprisonment,
is cruelly put to death. His son is also ordered to be killed, but
effects a miraculous escape, and makes his way to the army of Cortez,
which is advancing against Montezuma. Animated by a Toltec’s hatred
for the Aztecs, who have murdered his father, he effects an alliance
between Cortez and his own race, and the united forces march against
the Aztec King. In the various engagements he distinguishes himself by
his valor, several times narrowly escaping death, and is prominent in
the final overthrow of the Aztecs, and in the triumph that follows. The
book is full of the life and color of a most interesting and romantic
period, and the narrative fairly glows with thrilling battle scenes and
incidents of exciting adventure.




FRANCES G. ATTWOOD. 12mo., $1.25.

“A better book for boys has never been written. It is pure, clean, and
healthy, and has throughout a vigorous action that holds the reader
breathlessly.”—_Boston Herald._

“A capital story for boys, wholesome and interesting. It reminds one of
Tom Brown.”—_Boston Transcript._


MERRILL. 12mo., $1.25.

“A clever book for boys. It is the story of the camp life of a lot of
boys, and is destined to please every boy reader. It is attractively
illustrated .”—_Detroit Free Press._

“An ideal story of out-door life and genuine experiences.”—_Boston


For the season of 1893-94 Mr. Henty adds to his list of fascinating
stories of adventure three new books—THROUGH THE SIKH WAR, A TALE OF

_“No country nor epoch of history is there which Mr. Henty does not
cover, and what is really remarkable is that he always writes well and
interestingly. Boys like stirring adventures and Mr. Henty is a master
of this method of composition.”_—NEW YORK TIMES.

HENTY. With 12 full-page illustrations by HAL HURST, and a map. Crown
8vo, handsomely bound, olivine edges, $1.50.

Percy Groves, a plucky, high spirited boy, the son of an English
officer, loses his parents at an early age, and joins his uncle
residing on his estate in India, situated in the very center of the
troubles that developed later into the Sikh war. The hero and his uncle
become involved in the dangers and intrigues that surround them, and
take active part in the war, passing through many thrilling experiences
and adventures during the two notable campaigns that resulted in the
conquest of the Punjaub. It is one of Mr. Henty’s most interesting and
powerful stories.

With 12 full-page illustrations by H. J. DRAPER, and a map. Crown 8vo,
handsomely bound, olivine edges, $1.50.

A story of a lad of English birth but Huguenot parentage, who visits
relatives in France at the time when the feeling between the Catholics
and Huguenots was bitterest, and the country was disturbed by religious
strife and dissension. His relatives being leaders in the Huguenot
party, the hero devotes himself heart and soul to the Protestant cause,
following it faithfully through the varied and exciting scenes that
preceded and led up to the terrible massacre of St. Bartholomew’s day.
No boy could resist the fascination of this strong, vivid narrative. It
is intense and absorbing, while presenting a true picture of the times,
full of life and color.

=A JACOBITE EXILE.= Being the Adventures of a young Englishman in the
service of Charles XII of Sweden. By G. A. HENTY. With 8 full-page
illustrations by PAUL HARDY, and a map. Crown 8vo, handsomely bound,
olivine edges, $1.50.

The events of the present story take place during the reign of William
of Orange. The father of the hero is a Jacobite gentleman who, to
avoid arrest, is compelled to flee to Sweden. Here the hero, Charlie
Carstairs, and a young companion, engage in the service of Charles
XII, taking part in the wars between Sweden and Poland. The hero,
acting as a scout, falls into the hands of Polish bandits. After
numerous exciting adventures and hair-breadth escapes, he finally
secures his release and returns to Sweden. Then he serves for a time
under Marlborough in France, and distinguishes himself signally. A
final return to England, where his father is pardoned, supplies a
satisfactory close to a story remarkable for its thrilling adventures,
its varied scenery, and its interesting historical pictures.

12 full-page illustrations by W. PARKINSON. Crown 8vo, $1.50.

“It is a powerful and fascinating romance founded on the Roman invasion
of England, and abounds with the prowess of valiant warriors and the
triumphs of magnanimous victors, with war and war-like scenes, and with
women like Boadicea, as heroic as their brothers.”—_Boston Post._

(1821-1827). By G. A. HENTY. With 12 full page illustrations by W. S.
STACEY, and a map. Crown 8vo, $1.50.

“It reproduces the spirit and describes many of the events of the Greek
War, so that no boy can fail to remember considerable about it which
is worth knowing. Moreover it is a stirring narrative, wholesome and

HENTY. With 8 full-page illustrations by WALTER PAGET. Crown, 8vo,

“Godfrey Bullen, the young hero, suspected of Nihilism, is sent with
convicts to Siberia. His final escape from prison life, after many
exciting adventures, affords material for a narrative absorbing and
thrilling. The scenes of Siberian prison life give the book a peculiar
value.”—_Christian Advocate._

With 12 full-page illustrations by ALFRED PEARSE. Crown 8vo, $1.50.

“This book is said to be founded on the experiences of a young English
friend of the author, and though it is full of hair-breadth escapes
none of the incidents are improbable. It is needless to say that the
English lad’s adventures are well told.”—_San Francisco Chronicle._

With 10 full-page illustrations by JOHN SCHÖNBERG and J. NASH, and 4
plans. Crown 8vo, $1.50.

“The author has provided a stirring book for young readers, and
the episodes of battle, capture, rescue, deeds of daring, and
other exciting features in which boys delight, are in great
abundance.”—_Boston Saturday Evening Gazette._

HENTY. With 8 full-page illustrations by GORDON BROWNE. Crown 8vo,

“It is an historical novel, the siege of Gibraltar by the combined
forces of France and Spain, in the latter part of the eighteenth
century, being the foundation on which Mr. Henty’s clever fiction
rests. It is a story of pluck and adventure on sea and land.”—_Newark

*** _The above are Mr. Henty’s latest books. A full descriptive list
containing all of Mr. Henty’s books—now 41 in number—will be sent to
any address on application. They are all attractively illustrated and
handsomely bound._



24 illustrations by E. H. BLASHFIELD, W. A. ROGERS, D. C. BEARD and
others. Square 8vo, $1.50.

“His books for boys and girls are classics. In this one we have seven
of the most delightful tales imaginable.”—_Newark Daily Advertiser._

“Short tales in Mr. Stockton’s usual clever, distinctive style. They
are all extremely entertaining.”—_The Churchman._

“Marked by that attractive originality which is the author’s peculiar
possession, and in which quaint and piquant humor and simple pathos
are deftly and fascinatingly mingled. It is charming reading. It is
beautifully printed and illustrated.”—_Boston Saturday Evening Gazette._

by JOSEPH PENNELL, ALFRED PARSONS and others. One volume, square 8vo,

“In Frank Stockton, the boys and girls have a cicerone skilled in the
art of conversation, a traveler conversant with all the curious and
characteristic things of the Old World, and a story teller renowned for
the audacity of his stories.”—_Critic._


=The Story of Viteau.= With 16 full-page illustrations by R. B. BIRCH.
12mo, extra cloth, $1.50.

“It is as romantic and absorbing as any boy could wish for, full of
adventure and daring, and yet told in excellent spirit and with a true
literary instinct.”—_Christian Union._

=A Jolly Fellowship.= With 20 illustrations. 12mo, $1.50.

“We can think of no book published the present season which will more
delight the wide-awake, adventure-loving boy. It is, to borrow the
adjective from the title, just ‘jolly.’”—_Boston Transcript._

=The Floating Prince and Other Fairy Tales.= With illustrations. Square
8vo, $1.50.

“These tales are full of the quaintest conceits and the oddest
fancies, and the strange adventures in which the different characters
engage are just the kind to excite the intense interest of
children.”—_Philadelphia Bulletin._

=The Ting-A-Ling Tales.= With numerous illustrations. 12mo, $1.00.

“It would be difficult to find anything more dainty, fanciful and
humorous than these tales of magic, fairies, dwarfs and giants. There
is a vein of satire in them, too which adult readers will enjoy.”—_N.
Y. Herald._

=Roundabout Rambles in Lands of Fact and Fiction.= With 200
illustrations. Square 8vo, $1.50.

=Tales Out of School.= With nearly 200 illustrations. Square 8vo, $1.50.

“The volumes are profusely illustrated and contain the most
entertaining sketches in Mr. Stockton’s most entertaining
manner.”—_Christian Union._



The volume consists of legends and folk-tales communicated to the
explorer by his native followers during his long and perilous journeys
through the great forests of the Dark Continent. They are fascinating
stories of strange scenes and incidents among the tribes of Central
Africa, and are narrated in the authors’ well-known, graphic,
picturesque style, and attractively illustrated.


PRINCE, KING AND SLAVE. A story of Central Africa. By HENRY M. STANLEY.
One volume, 12mo., new edition, with many illustrations, $1.50.

“A fresh, breezy, stirring story for youths, interesting in itself and
full of information regarding life in the interior of the continent in
which its scenes are laid.”—_The New York Times._


By JAMES BALDWIN. Three volumes, 12mo., each beautifully illustrated.
Singly, $1.50. The set, $4.00.


“It is redolent with the spirit of the Odyssey, that glorious primitive
epic, fresh with the dew of the morning of time. It is an unalloyed
pleasure to read his recital of the adventures of the wily Odysseus.
Howard Pyle’s illustrations render the spirit of the Homeric age with
admirable felicity.”—PROF. H. H. BOYESEN.


“Mr. Baldwin has culled from a wide range of epics, French, Italian and
German, and has once more proved his aptitude as a story teller for the
young, while conveying information for which many of their elders will
be thankful.”—_The Nation._


“The story of ‘Siegfried’ is charmingly told. The author makes up the
story from the various myths in a fascinating way which cannot fail to
interest. It is as enjoyable as any fairy tale. The writer’s style is
simple and very attractive, and the book is in every way an excellent
one for young readers.”—_Hartford Courant._


=THE HOOSIER SCHOOL-BOY.= 12mo. With full-page illustrations, $1.00.

“‘The Hoosier School-Boy’ depicts some of the characteristics of boy
life years ago on the Ohio. The story presents a vivid and interesting
picture of the difficulties which in those days beset the path of the
youth aspiring for an education. These obstacles, which the hero of the
story succeeds by his manliness and force of character in surmounting,
are just such as a majority of the most distinguished Americans,
including Lincoln and Garfield, have had to contend with, and which
they have made the stepping-stone to their future greatness.”—_Chicago


“A very bright and attractive little volume for young readers. The
stories are fresh, breezy and healthy, with a good point to them and a
good sound American view of life and of the road to success. The book
abounds in good feeling and good sense and is written in a style of
homely art.”—_Independent._


Mr. Beard has added sixty new drawings to his “American Boy’s Handy
Book,” to illustrate the new games, sports, and mechanical contrivances
which he has incorporated in this latest edition. The Misses Beard’s
companion volume, “The American Girl’s Handy Book,” is reduced in
price, all the features being retained. Both are profusely illustrated
with hundreds of pictures and designs.

DANIEL C. BEARD. With over 360 illustrations by the Author. One volume,
square 8vo, $2.00.

“The book has this great advantage over its predecessors, that most of
the games, tricks, and other amusements described in it are new. It
treats of sports adapted to all seasons of the year; it is practical,
and it is well illustrated.”—_N. Y. Tribune._

By LENA and ADELIA B. BEARD. With over 500 illustrations by the
Authors. One volume, square 8vo, $2.00.

GRACE GREENWOOD WROTE:—“It is a treasure which, once possessed, no
practical girl would willingly part with. It is an invaluable aid in
making a home attractive, comfortable, artistic and refined. The book
preaches the gospel of cheerfulness, industry, economy and comfort.”


=THE EXPLORATION OF THE WORLD.= The three vols. in a set, $7.50;
singly, $2.50.

“M. Verne’s scheme in this work is to tell fully how man has made
acquaintance with the world in which he lives, to combine into a single
work in three volumes the wonderful stories of all the great explorers,
navigators and travellers who have sought out, one after another, the
once uttermost parts of the earth.”—_New York Evening Post._

=Famous Travels and Travellers.= With over 100 full-page illustrations,
maps, etc., 8vo, $2.50.

=The Great Navigators of the XVIIIth Century.= With 96 full-page
illustrations and nineteen maps. 8vo, $2.50.

=The Great Explorers of the XIXth Century.= With over 100 full-page
illustrations, fac-similies, etc. 8vo, $2.50.

“The Prince of Story Tellers.”—_London Times._


_Uniform Illustrated Edition._ 9 vols., 8vo, extra cloth, with over 750
full-page illustrations. Price, per set, in a box, $17.50. Sold also in
separate volumes.

=Michael Strogoff; or, the Courier of the Czar.= $2.00. =A Floating
City and the Blockade Runners.= $2.00. =Hector Servadac.= $2.00. =A
Journey to the Centre of the Earth.= $2.00. =From the Earth to the Moon
Direct in Ninety-seven Hours, Twenty Minutes; and a Journey Around it.=
$2.00. =Dick Sands.= $2.00. =The Steam House.= $2.00. =The Giant Raft.=
$2.00. =The Mysterious Island.= $2.50.

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber’s Notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired. Text spells the more usual macramé
as both Macremé and macrimé.

Page 30, repeated word “for” deleted from text (even for those who)

Page 69, “drop” changed to “drops” (by him drops outside)

Page 157, “proproses” changed to “proposes” (proposes to take salmon)

Page 338, word “the” added to text (to the same party)

Page 406, “Bric-a-brac” changed to “Bric-à-brac” on illustration
caption (Bric-à-brac table)

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The American Girl's Handy Book - How to Amuse Youself and Others" ***

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