By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Moses and Aaron - Civil and Ecclesiastical Rites, Used by the Ancient Hebrews
Author: Goodwin, T. A. (Thomas Aiken)
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Moses and Aaron - Civil and Ecclesiastical Rites, Used by the Ancient Hebrews" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

produced from scanned images of public domain material
from the Google Books project.)

Transcriber’s Note

Don’t expect standard (or even consistent!) spelling. Any apparent
errors are most probably exactly the way they were printed.

Minor punctuation errors have been corrected without note. Ditto
typesetting errors: word spacing; lower for upper case; transposed,
repeated or missing letters; b/d, u/n etc. The original text used long
s (ſ), rendered here as regular s.

The printer’s somewhat idiosyncratic application of italic type has
been changed to more standard usage, e.g. _Moses_, not M_oses_; _Deut.
16. 6._, not _Deut._ 16. 6; for consistency, all footnotes, poetry
and biblical references have been italicised even if not so printed.

^{superscripted text} is thus indicated, normal text within italic
passages ~like this~.

Footnote markers have sometimes been moved a few words left or right,
in order to minimise interruption to the flow of the text and/or help
to clarify which word is being referenced.

Greek: Ligatures are expanded to individual letter glyphs. Accents have
been corrected without note.

Hebrew: Misuse of normal/final letter forms has been corrected without

Beyond that, a number of changes are noted at the end.

                           Moses and Aaron:

                       CIVIL and ECCLESIASTICAL

                Used by the ancient HEBREWS; observed,
               and at large opened, for the clearing of
                   many obscure TEXTS thorowout the
                           whole SCRIPTURE.

           Which Texts are now added to the end of the Book.

                    Wherein likewise is shewed what
                   Customs the HEBREWS borrowed from
               Heathen people: And that many Heathenish
             Customs, originally, have been unwarrantable
                     imitations of the _HEBREWS_.

                        _The Eleventh Edition._

                       By _Thomas Godwyn_, B.D.


     Printed for _S. Griffin_, _R. Scot_, _T. Basset_, _J. Wright_
                        and _R. Chiswel_, 1678.

                                TO THE
                           RIGHT HONOURABLE

    Earle of _Pembrook_, Lord Chamberlain of His Majesties
    Houshold, L. Warden of the Stanneries, Knight of the most Noble
    Order of the Garter, one of His Majesties most Honourable Privy
    Council, and Chancellor of the famous University of _Oxford_.

                      _All Grace and Happiness._

Right Honourable,

_That many have no better acquaintance with Christ and his Apostles,
is, because they are such strangers with ~Moses~ and ~Aaron~: Were
Customes antiquated thorowly known, many difficulties in Scripture
would appear Elegancies; and the places which now (through obscurity)
dishearten the Reader, would then become sweet invitements to an
unwearied assiduity in perusing those sacred Oracles. If my present
labour shall give such light to some obscure passages, that thereby
Gods people shall be drawn on with the greater delight, to the
exercising themselves in reading of Holy Writ, it shall not repent
me of my tedious travels in these Rites and Customes, of Generations
long since past; which whosoever undertaketh, shall find the way long
and thorny, the path over-grown and hardly disernable; the Guides few
to direct, and those speaking in strange Languages; and many apt to
discourage him, because themselves are either lazy, and will not, or
lame and cannot walk the same way. But now (through Gods assistance)
being come to the end of my Journey, the discoveries made on the way,
such as they are (and such some are, as not observed before) humbly
crave your Lordship’s protection._

    _From Kensington,
     Feb. 21. 1624._

                                          Your Honour’s in all duty,
                                                and service devoted,

                                                        THO. GODWYN.


The first Book.

_Of Persons._

Chap. 1. The form of their Common-wealth till Christ, and when the
Scepter departed.

2. Publicans, their Office, who the chief.

3. Prosolytes, who, how made.

4. Kings, Why _Pilate_ clad _Christ_ in Purple; _Herod_ in white.

5. High-Priests, Priests, Levites, Nethinims.

6. Prophets, who, the Wise-man, Scribe, and Disputer, mentioned, _1
Cor. 1. 20._

7. Title of Rabbi, when, how, to whom given.

8. Nazarites and Rechabites.

9. Assideans; difference between the Righteous and Good man, mentioned,
_Rom. 5. 7._

10. Pharisees, whence their name, when they began, what their Dogmata.

11. Sadduces, whence their name, when they began, what their Dogmata.

12. Essenes, whence their name, when they began, what their Dogmata.

13. Gaulonitæ, and Herodians, what they were.

The second Book.

_Of Places._

Chap. 1. Their Temple, how forty six years a building. Why certain
Psalms are entituled _Graduales_ Songs of degrees.

2. Synagogues, Schools, Houses of Prayer; why their School preferred
above their Temple.

3. Gates of Jerusalem.

4. Groves and High-places.

5. Cities of Refuge.

The third Book.

_Of Daies, Times, and Feasts._

Chap. 1. Their daies, hours, weeks, years.

2. Their manner of feasting, salutations, blessing, cup of blessing.

3. Their Sabbath; a Sabbath-daies-journey, how much, and whence.

4. Their Passeover, and feast of unleavened bread: How a soul cut off
from Israel.

5. Their Pentecost, what the second-first Sabbath was, _Luk. 6. 1._

6. Their feast of Tabernacles, Hosanna, and Hosanna-Rabba.

7. Their feast of Trumpets, their New-Moons, Translation of feasts.

8. Their feast of Expiation: what meant by the filth of the world, and
the off-scouring of all things, _1 Cor. 4. 13._

9. Their Sabbatical year.

10. Their Jubilee, their use thereof.

11. Their feast of Purim, and feast of Dedication.

The fourth Book.

_Of their Idolatry._

Chap. 1. The beginnings of Idolatry.

2. Moloch, Adram-Melech, Anam-Melech, Baal, the Tabernacle of Moloch,

3. Baal-Peor, Baal-Tsephon, Baal-Zebub, Baal-Berith, Bel and the Dragon.

4. Dagon.

5. The molten Calf.

6. Astaroth, Ammonia, Juno, the Queen of Heaven, Diana of the Ephesians.

7. Other Idol-gods mentioned in Scripture.

8. Sorts of divine revelation, Urim and Thummim.

9. Teraphim, what they were.

10. Sorts of Divination forbidden.

The fifth Book.

_Of their Consistories._

Chap. 1. Courts of Judgements, their Ecclesiastical Consistory.

2. Sorts of Excommunication.

3. Civil Consistories, what persons necessarily present, what meant by
the Magistrate, Judge, and Officer, _Luk. 12. 58._

4. The number of their civil Courts, what meant by a Council,
Judgement, fire of Gehenna, _Matth. 5._

5. Manner of electing Judges.

6. Ceremonies common in all capital Judgements: whence that phrase
came, his bloud be on us and our children.

7. Their capital punishments what they were.

8. Punishments not capital.

9. Punishments borrowed from other Nations: whether S. _Paul_ fought
with the beasts at _Ephesus_.

The sixth Book.

_Of Miscellaneous Rites._

Chap. 1. Circumcision; whence, the use of Godfathers in Baptism.

2. First-fruits, first-lings, first-born.

3. Sorts of Tithes, manner of paying them.

4. Marriages and divorces, copies of their dowry bill, and bill of
divorce: what meant by power on the Womans head, _1 Cor. 11. 10._

5. Burials, manner of embalming, manner of their Sepulchres, what meant
by baptization of the dead, _1 Cor. 15. 9._

6. Of their Oaths.

7. Of their writing, their Masorites, and their work.

8. Israels pitching of their tents, or of their camps.

9. Their Measures.

10. Their Coyns, first of brazen Coyns, silver Coyns, and gold Coyns.

Moses and Aaron.

The first Book Treateth of Persons.


_Of the form of the ~Hebrewes~ Common-wealth until Christ his coming,
and when the Scepter departed from them._

The form and state of Government hath been subject to change and
variation amongst all Nations, but especially amongst the _Jewes_,
where these changes are observable.

At first, the _Fathers_ of their several Families, and their
_First-born_ after them, exercised all kind of Government, both
_Eclesiastical_ and _Civil_, being both _Kings_ and _Priests_, in their
own houses. They had power over their own Families, to bless, curse,
cast out of doors, disinherit, and to punish with death, as is apparent
by these examples: of _Noah_ towards _Cham_, _Gen. 9. 25._ of _Abraham_
towards _Hagar_ and _Ismael_, _Gen. 21. 10._ of _Jacob_ towards
_Simeon_ and _Levi, Gen. 49. 3._ and of _Judah_ towards _Thamar_, _Gen.
38. 24._

In _Moses_ his days then did this prerogative of primo geniture cease:
and as _Aaron_ and his posterity was invested with the right and title
of _Priests_; so _Moses_, and after him _Joshua_, ruled all the people
with a kind of _Monarchical_ authority. For _Moses_ was among the
righteous as _King_, _Deut. 32. 5._

After _Joshua_ succeeded _Judges_; their Officers were of absolute
and independent authority, like unto _Kings_, when once they were
elected. But there were long vacancies, and chasms commonly between the
cessation of the one, and the election of the other: yea for the most
part, the people never chose a _Judge_, but in time of great troubles,
and imminent dangers; which being over-past, he retired to a private
life. After that _Gideon_ had delivered the people out of the hand of
the _Midianites_, he being offered the _Kingdom_, replyed, I will not
reign over you, neither shall my Child reign over you, _Judg. 8. 23._
That of _Samuel_, that he judged _Israel_ all the days of his life,
_1 Sam. 7. 15._ was[1] extraordinary. In this respect, their _Judges_
symbolize with the _Roman Dictators_. This state of Regiment continued
amongst them by the computation of S. _Augustine_[2], three hundred
twenty nine years. In these vacancies or distances of time between
_Judge_ and _Judge_, the greater and weightier matters were determined
by that great Court of the _Seventy_ called the _Senadrin_; in which
respect the form of Government may be thought _Aristocratical_. _Kings_
succeeded the _Judges_, and they continued from _Saul_ unto the
Captivity of _Babylon_, that is,[3] about 502 years.

    [1] _Zepper lib. 3. leg. Mos. cap. 6._

    [2] _Aug. de Civ. Dei, l. 18 c. 22._

    [3] _Zepper. leg. Mosaic. l. 3. c. 6._

From the Captivity unto the coming of Christ, (which time is thought[4]
to have been five hundred thirty six years) the state of the _Jewes_
became very confused. Sometimes they were ruled by _Deputies_ and
_Vicegerents_, who had not supream authority in themselves, but
as it pleased the _Persian Monarchs_ to assigne them; they were
termed[5] ‎‏ראשי גליות‏‎ _Rasche galiuth_, αἰχμαλωτάρχαι _Heads of the
Captivity_. Of this sort was _Zorobabel_ and his successors, who
are reckoned in the _Hebrew_ Chronicles[6] to be these, _Mesullam_,
_Hananiah_, _Berachiah_, and _Hosadiah_. All which are thought to
have reigned under the _Persian Monarchy_, and to have been of the
Posterity of _David_: as likewise the other succeeding ten chief
Governours after _Alexander_ the Great. In the last of these ten, the
government departed from the House of _David_, and was translated to
the _Macchabees_, who descended from the Tribe of _Levi_. They were
called _Maccabæi_, from _Judas Maccabeus_,[7] and he had this name
‎‏מכבאי‏‎ _Macchabæus_, from the Capital Letters of this Motto, written
in his Ensigne or banner, ‎‏מי כמוך באלים יהוה‏‎ _Quis sicut tu inter
Deos, O Domine?_ Where the first letters are, _M_, _C_, _B_, _A_, _I_.
Among the _Maccabees_, soveraign authority continued until _Herod_
the _Askalonite_ his reign, at what time our Saviour Christ was born,
according to _Jacobs_ prophecy: The Scepter shall not depart from
_Judah_, nor a _Law-giver_ from between his feet, untill _Shiloh_, that
is, the[8] _Messias_ come, _Gen. 49. 10._

    [4] _Vide Funcii Chronol._

    [5] _Maimon. in Iad. lib. vit. tract. Sanedr. in c. 4. sect. 13._

    [6] _Seder Olam minus._

    [7] _Carion chron. lib. 2. p. 144._

    [8] _Targum Uziel. eadem pæne verba habet Targum Jerosolym._

For the right understanding of this Prophecy, We must note two things;
1. The time when the Scepter was given to _Judah_: 2. When taken from
him. But first we must observe how these two words, _Judah_, and the
_Scepter_, are distinguished.

Some take _Judah_,

    1. For the particular _Tribe of Judah_[9]: but this seemeth
    flat contrary to Scripture, for many of the _Judges_ were of
    other Tribes, and all the _Maccabees_ of the Tribe of _Levi_.

    2. For the _Two Tribes_[10] which cleaved to _Rehoboam_;
    because in that division of the People, these Two Tribes alone
    were called _Jews_, and that from _Judah_, and that never
    before this division.

    3. For _all the whole body of Israel_[11], consisting of
    Twelve Tribes; all which (in the judgment of these men) were
    afterwards by the singular providence of God, called _Jews_
    from _Judah_.

    [9] _Origen. hom. 17. in Genes. Epiphan. contra Ebionæos, &c.
    maxima Hebræorum pars._

    [10] _Cunæus de rep. Hebr. lib. 1. cap. 5. p. 81._

    [11] _Euseb. demon. lib. 8. cap. 1. Montacut. in Analect. p.
    72. Casaub. contra Baron. pag. 16._

Some take _Scepter_,

    1. For _legal power_[12], and soveraign authority, residing in
    one man principally.

    2. For the _form of government_[13], and face of a
    Common-wealth, governed and ruled by its own laws, customes,
    and rites: signifying as well the rule and authority of
    _inferiour Magistrates_, yea of _Priests_ also, as of _Kings_
    and _Princes_.

    [12] _Patres plerique omnes._

    [13] _Casaubon advers. Baron. p. 19. It. p. 23. Justinus Mart.
    in Dialog. cum Tryphone. Cunæus lib. 1. de rep. Heb. c. 9. p.

From these different acceptions of these two words, flow four different
acceptions of _Jacobs_ Prophecy.

Some are of opinion[14], that the _Scepter_ taken in the second
acception, began to be given to _Judah_, that is, to the _Two Tribes_
cleaving to _Rehoboam_, at the time of that division of the People:
and that their _Scepter_ was not taken from them until the destruction
of _Jerusalem_; because, that after _Herods_ time until then, their
Laws remained in force, their _Priesthood_ continued, and their
Common-wealth, though it were much defaced, yet not quite overthrown.

    [14] _Cunæus lib. 1. de rep. Heb. cap. 11. pag. 96._

Some are of opinion[15], that the _Scepter_ taken in the second
acception, began to be given to _Judah_, that is, to the _Twelve
Tribes_, from the time of _Moses_; and that this _Scepter_ was not
taken from them until the Destruction of _Jerusalem_: not in _Herod_,
because he was a _Jew_ (in that he was a _Proselyte_) for a _Jew_ is a
name, say they, of _Profession_, not of _Countrey_ or _Nation_.

    [15] _Joseph. Scal. ex quo Casaub. advers. Baron. p. 19. It. p. 39._

Some are of opinion[16], that the _Scepter_ taken in the second
acception, began to be given to _Judah_, that is to the _Twelve
Tribes_, from the time of _Moses_, and that it was taken from them in
_Herods_ time: yet so, that in _Herods_ time, this was but begun, and
inchoate, and at the destruction of _Jerusalem_ it was fulfilled and

    [16] _Montacut. in Analect. p. 74._

Some are of opinion[17], that the _Scepter_ taken in the first
acceptation, began to be given to _Judah_, that is to the _Twelve
Tribes_, from the time of _Moses_, and that it was taken from them
fully in _Herods_ time. The former opinions make the coming of the
_Messias_ to be a fore-runner of the departure of the _Scepter_:
this, makes the departure of the _Scepter_ to be a fore-runner or
token of the _Messiah_ his coming, which I take to be the principal
thing aimed at in the prophecy. This opinion, as it is more generally
received than the others, so upon juster grounds. Now the _Scepter_ was
departed and given to a _Proselyte_, never so before,[18] yea now also
the _Law-giver_ was departed from between _Judahs_ feet, and now the
_Messiah_ born.

    [17] _Augustin. contra Manich. lib. 12. cap. 47. Euseb. demonst. l. 8
Carion. Chron. pag. 143._

    [18] _P. Galatin. l. 4. cap. 6. p. 203. ex. Talmud. Jerusol._


_Of the Publicans._

Wee having seen the most remarkable changes in the Common-wealth of the
Hebrews; we will note the chief Observations concerning the persons
there inhabiting: and first concerning the _Publicans_, who were, in
the latter times, an heterogeneous Member of that Common-wealth. After
that the _Jews_ became Tributary to _Rome_, (which[19] was effected
by _Pompey_ threescore years before the Birth of our Saviour) certain
Offices were appointed by the Senate of _Rome_, unto whom it belonged,
as well among the _Jews_ as in other Provinces, to collect, and gather
up such custome-money or tribute, as was exacted by the Senate. Those
that gathered up these publique payments, were termed _Publicani_,
_Publicans_; and by reason of their covetous exactions, they commonly
were hated by the People of the Provinces:[20] Every Province had his
several _Societie_, or company of _Publicanes_: Every _Society_ his
distinct _Governour_: in which respect it is, that _Zacheus_ is called
by the _Evangelists_, ἀρχιτελώνης _princeps Publicanorum_, _the chief
Receiver of the tribute_, or _chief Publican_, _Luke 12. 2._ And all
the Provincial Governours in these several Societies, had one chief[21]
_Master_ residing at _Rome_, unto whom the other subordinate Governours
gave up their accounts. These _Publicans_ were hated in all Provinces,
because of their exactions; but chiefly in the Commonwealth of the
_Jews_, because though it were chiefly maintained by the _Galileans_,
yet it was generally inclined unto by the _Jews_, That tribute ought
not to be payed by them: this hatred is confirmed by that _Rabbinical_
proverb,[22] _Take not a Wife out of that family wherein there is a
Publican, for such are all Publicans_. Yea a faithful _Publican_ was
so rare at _Rome_ it self, that one _Sabinus_ for his honest managing
of that Office, in an honourable remembrance thereof, had certain
images erected with this superscription[23]; Καλῶς τελωνήσαντι, _For
the Faithful Publican_. And therefore no marvel, if in the Gospel,
_Publicans_ and _sinners_ go hand in hand.

    [19] _Joseph Locutus de Pompeio l. 1. de bello Jud. c. 5. p. 720._

    [20] _Harum societatum frequens mentio facta est apud Ciceron.
    in orat. pro. Sex. Ros. Muræna, in Cn. Plancio._

    [21] _Sigon. de Antiq. jure civium Rom. lib. 2. c. 4._

    [22] _Is. Casaubon exercit. 13. 37._

    [23] _Suet. in Flav. Vespas. cap. 1._

It is now generally received as a truth undoubted, that not only
_Heathen_ people, but sometimes _Jews_ themselves became _Publicanes_.
_Tertullian_ was of another opinion,[24] and thought that all the
_Publicans_ were _Heathens_; but he hath been in that long since
confuted by _Jerome_[25], and reason it self perswadeth the contrary.
First, _Matthew_ who was a _Publican_, was afterwards an _Apostle_, and
therefore unlikely to have been an Heathen. Secondly, _Zacheus_ his
name was a pure _Hebrew_ name having no affinity with _Roman_ names.
Thirdly, the ground or principal argument on which _Tertullian_ built,
was meerly[26] erroneous.

    [24] _Tertul. de pudic. c. 9._

    [25] _Jeronym. epist. ad Damasum._

    [26] _Fraudi fuit acutissimo Pœno Hebraicæ linguæ ignoratio,
    nusquam enim occurrit in fonte spurius ille textus, quo
    Tertullianus potissimum nititur, non erit vectigal, pendens ex
    filiis Israel. Deut. 23._


_Israelites, Prosylites._

The whole Common-wealth of _Israel_ consisted of two sorts of men,
_Hebrews_ and _Prosylites_; he that was born an _Hebrew_, either by
_Fathers_ or _Mothers_ side, was an _Hebrew_; but he that was born so
of both, was an _Hebrew of the Hebrews_; such a one was Saint _Paul_,
_Phil. 3. 5._ He that was born a _Prosylite_ either by _Fathers_ or
_Mothers_ side, was termed _Ben-gar_, the son of an _he-Prosylite_; or
_Ben gara_, The son of a _she-prosylite_; but he that was by _Fathers_
and _Mothers_ side a _Prosylite_, was termed[27] _Bagbag_, that is, the
son of he and she _Prosylites_.

    [27] _Magni quidam nominis Rabbi apud Judæos fuit, quem ex
    Paganismo ad Judaismum conversum ‎‏בגבג‏‎ per sigla appellarunt. i.
    filiis Proselyti, filius proselytæ, Pirk. Aboth. cap. 5._

The _Hebrews_ were of two sorts; some lived in _Palestina_, and used
the _Hebrew_ Text, these were called _Hebrews_ or _Jews_; others
were dispersed in divers places of _Greece_, they used the _Greek_
translation, and thence were termed Έλληνισταὶ[28] _Grecists_. S.
_Luke_ mentioneth both. There arose a murmuring, τῶν Έλληνιστῶν of
the _Græcists_, towards the _Hebrews_, _Acts 6. 1._ Where note the
difference between Ἕλληνες, and Έλληνισταὶ, the _Græcians_, and the
_Græcists_. The _Græcians_ are used by Saint _Paul_, to signifie all
the _Heathen people_, and stand in opposition with _Hebrews_ in the
general acception, containing both _Græcists_, or dispersed _Hebrews_,
and also those of _Palestina_: the _Græcists_ were both by birth and
religion _Hebrews_ standing in opposition with _Hebrews_; in the strict
acception, taken for those of _Palestina_.

    [28] _De Judæis Græciensib. vid. Scal. animad. Euseb. 124. 1. &
    in Can. Isag. 278._

The whole body of _Israel_ was divided into twelve Tribes, and publique
Records were kept, wherein every ones Genealogy was registred, to
manifest unto what particular tribe he belonged. These records _Herod_
burnt, hoping that in after ages he might be thought originally an
_Israelite_, if those publike Monuments might not be produced against
him. Thus much _Eusebius_[29] plainly delivereth of him. I am of
opinion, that another reason might be admitted; namely, That no
distinction either of Tribe or Family, might appear; but, all being
unfounded, and amongst the rest _Davids_, (unto whose Family by a
peculiar right this Scepter belonged) _Herod_ and his posterity might
be the better secured of the Kingdom.

    [29] _Euseb. Eccles. hist. li. 1. cap. 8._

_Prosylites_ were those Heathen people, who disclaiming _Paganism_,
became Converts, and joyned themselves unto the Church of the _Jews_.
They were termed _Prosylites_ ἀπὸ τοῦ προσεληλυθέναι, from their coming
and adjoyning unto the _Jews_. Concerning these _Prosylites_, we will
consider these three things. 1. The several kinds of _Prosylites_; 2.
The manner of making them; 3. In what account or respect they lived
among the _Jews_.

First, the kinds of _Prosylites_ were two; ‎‏גר ברת‏‎ _Ger berith_,
_Prosylitus fœderis_, _A Prosylite of the Covenant_. He submitted
himself unto the Circumcision, and to the whole _Mosaical_
Pædagogy.[30] The _Rabbies_ term such a one ‎‏גר צדק‏‎ _Ger tsedeck_,
_Proselytum justitiæ_, _A Prosylite of righteousness_. Secondly,
‎‏גר שער‏‎ _Ger sahagnar_, _Proselytus portæ_, _A Prosylite_, or _stranger
within thy gates_, _Deut. 14. 21._ Of him also we read in the fourth
Commandment. He was suffered to dwell amongst them; whence he is also
called ‎‏תושב‏‎ _Toschab_, _Incola_, an Inhabitant. He was not circumcised,
neither did he conform himself to the _Mosaical_ rites, and
ordinances, only he was tyed to the obedience of those Commandments,
which among the _Hebrew Doctors_ go under the name of _Noahs_ seven
Commandments;[31] which they reckon thus: 1. Judgements or Punishments
for Malefactours. 2. Blessing the name of God; under this is contained
the keeping of the Sabbath. 3. Disclaiming of Idolatry. 4. Uncovering
ones nakedness. 5. Shedding of blood. 6. Robery. 7. Eating of any
member of a beast, taken from it alive. Of this sort, were _Naaman_ the
_Syrian_, the _Eunuch_, _Cornelius_, and those of whom we read, That
there were dwelling at _Jerusalem_, _Jews_ _Men that feared God_[32] of
every Nation under Heaven, _Acts 2. 5._

    [30] _Rabbi Solomon, Deut. 23. 14._

    [31] _Sheindler in pentaglot. p. 1530._

    [32] _Ἄνδρες εὐλαβεῖς._

Secondly, to the making of one to be a _Prosylite of the Covenant_
according to the difference of sex; and the difference of times the
Rites of initiation varied. To the making of[33] a _Male-Proselyte_, at
first three things were required. 1. _Circumcision._[34] 2. _A kind of
purification by water._ 3. _The blood of Oblation._ This _oblation_ was
commonly two Turtles or Pigeons. To the making of a _Woman Proselyte_,
were required only _purification by water_, and _Oblation_.[35] Now
because the _Jews_ have neither Altar, nor Sacrifice, they say that
for the _Males Circumcision_, and _purification by water_ sufficeth;
and for the _Females_, only _purification by water_.[36] In _Davids_
time, they say that many thousands of _Prosylites_ were joyned unto the
_Church_ without _Circumcision_, by this _purification_.

    [33] _Moses Kotsen. fol. 40. col. 2._

    [34] _‎‏במילה ובטבילה ובהוצאת דמים של קרבן‏‎._

    [35] _Drusius de trib. sect. 2. p. 102._

    [36] _Moses Ægyptius, in Assurebiah, Perek. 13. fol. 137. vide
    Serarium trihæres, l. 2. c. 1._

Hence we may observe, that a kind of _Initiation by water_ was long in
use among the _Jews_, though it were not _Sacramental_ until Christ
his institution: yea therefore it may seem to have been used by them,
because they expected it at the coming of the _Messias_, as appeareth
by their coming unto _John_, questioning not so much his _Baptism_, as
his _Authority_, by what _authority_ he baptized: _Why baptizest thou
them, if thou be not that ~Christ~, nor ~Elias~, neither that Prophet?_
_John 1. 25._

Thirdly, the respect born by the _Jews_ towards _Prosylites_, was
charitable;[37] they used no upbraiding terms towards them, saying
_Remember thy former deeds_. Notwithstanding it was also provided,[38]
No _Prosylite_ should be eligible into the Court of their _Sanhedrim_;
yea in their common commerce, they had an usual proverb, which
admonished them of wariness[39] _Vel ad decimam usq; generationem a
Proselytis cave_; Beware of Prosylites to the tenth generation.

    [37] _P. Fag. Exod. 22. 21._

    [38] _Moses Ægypt. lib. ult. Iad. tract. Sanhedr. c. 2._

    [39] _Casaub. advers. Baron. 27._


_Of their Kings._

We shall read of three sorts of _Kings_ in the Old Testament.
_Melchisedeck_ was King and _Priest_; _David_ _King_ and _Prophet_;
others simply _Kings_. _Melchisedeck_ was _King_ and _Priest_, _David_
_King_ and _Prophet_. The concurrence of _Princely Sovereignty_, and
_Holy Orders_, in the same man, intimates that supreme Authority
should alwayes be accompanied with care of Religion: In which respect
_Joash_, when he was anointed _King_, received the Testimony, or
Book of the Law, _2 King 11. 12._ Neither did these two meet only in
_Melchisedeck_ & _David_, but the same man among the _Heathens_[40]
was oftentimes _King_ and _Priest_. And the _Trismegistus_ had his
name _Ter maximus_,[41] because he was _Philosophus maximus, Sacerdos
maximus, & Rex maximus_. All Kings were not anointed, but onely those
in whom succession was broken; and there the first of the family was
anointed for his Successor, except in case of dissention, where there
was required a renewed unction, for the confirmation of his Authority.
For this reason it was, that _Solomon_ was anointed as well as _David_,
because of the strife between him and _Adonijah_.

    [40] _Rex Anius, Rex idem hominum, Phœbique Sacerdos. Virg.
    Æneid, lib. 3._

    [41] _Alex. Neopolit. lib. 2. Cap. 6._

Furthermore, _Saul_ and _Jehu_ were anointed ‎‏בפך‏‎ _Bepac_, with a
_cruse_ of Oyl, to shew the short continuance of their Kingdoms.
_David_ and _Solomon_ were anointed ‎‏בקרן‏‎ _Bekeren_, with an _horn_ of
Oyl; that is, in a _plentiful measure_, to shew the long continuance of
their Kingdoms.

As Kings were distinguisht from the People by many Ensigns of Honour,
by their Crown, their Scepter, their Throne, _&c._ so likewise were
they distinguished by their Apparel; that was the reason that _Ahab_
entring into battel, changed his apparel, _1 Kings 22. 30._ Though
purple and white colours were not appropriated unto _Kings_,[42] yet
these colours were in chief esteem, and principally used by them,[43]
yea _Purple_ above others was affected by the _Emperours_ and Nobility
of _Rome_; and _white_ by the Nobility of the Jews: whence the
_Hebrews_ term their Noble men, and such as were of best rank ‎‏חורים‏‎
_Chorim_, _Albatos_, men _clad in white_; and on the contrary, men of
meaner rank, ‎‏חשוכים‏‎ _Chaschucim_, _Sordidatos_, men _clad with a foul
garment_. Hence is that of Saint _James_; If there come a man with a
gold ring, and in goody apparel ἐν ἐσθήτι λαμπρᾷ, in a _white garment_,
and there come also a poor man, ἐν ῥυπαρᾷ ἐσθῆτι, in a vile or _foul
raiment_, _James 2. 2._ This may be the reason, why, when the _Jews_
accused Christ of treason, _Pilate_ his Souldiers clad him in _purple,
atth. 27. 28._ and _Herod_ the _Tetrarch_ of _Galilee_ put on him a
_white garment_, _Luke 23. 11._ both therein applying themselves to the
customs of their own Country, and in derision clothing him as a _King_.

    [42] _Valer. Max. lib. 1. cap. 6._

    [43] _Alex. ab. Alex. lib. 1. cap. 20._


_The High-priest, Priests, Levites, and Nethinims._

There were three ranks and degrees of Ministers about the Temple;
_Priests_, _Levites_, and _Nethinims_; they may be paralleld with
_Ministers_, _Deacons_, and _Sub-Deacons_, in the Primitive Church:
Over all these, the _High-priest_ was chief.

In _Aaron_ and his posterity was continued the succession of the
_Priests_; the _High-Priesthood_ was tied to the line of his
first-born; all the rest of his posterity were _Priests_, simply so
called, or called _Priests of the second Order_, _2 Kings 23. 4._

Except _Aaron_, and those that issued from his loines, (in whom the
_series_ of _Priests_ was continued) all the rest of _Levi_ his
posterity were called _Levites_.

Both in the _High-priest_, and the _second_ or _Inferiour Priests_,
there are two things considerable. First, their _Consecration_.
Secondly, their _Office_. In both these, somewhat they _differed_, in
somewhat they _agreed_.

In their _Consecration_ they differed. First,[44] The _High-priest_ was
_anointed_: the materials of this Chrism or oyntment are prescribed,
_Exod. 30. 23._ It was poured upon _Aarons_ head, _Levit. 8. 12._ It
ran down to his beard, and to the border of his garments, _Psalm. 133.
2._ The _Second Priests_ were only _sprinkled_ with this oyle, mixed
with the blood of the Sacrifice, _Levit. 8. 30._ In this was typed
out the unction of our _Saviour_, who was _anointed_ with the oyl of
Gladness above his Fellows, _Psal. 45. 8._ He was _anointed_ above his
Fellows, _Extensive_, and _Intensive_, _Extensive_, for though _Aaron_
was _anointed Priest_, _Saul_ anointed _King_, _Elisha_ anointed
_Prophet_, _Melchisedeck_ _King_ and _Priest_, _Moses_ _Priest_ and
_Prophet_, _David_ _King_ and _Prophet_; yet none save only _Christ_,
_King_, _Priest_, and _Prophet_. _Intensive_, he was _anointed_, we
_sprinkled_. He was _full_ of grace and truth, _John 1. 14._ And
from his _fulness_ we received grace for grace, _ver. 16._ And all
Christians, especially Ministers, are unto _God_ the sweet savour of
_Christ_, _2 Cor. 2. 5._

    [44] _Hinc Sacerdos summus in fonte legitur Sacerdos unctus,
    Levit. 4. 5. Jonathan habet, Sacerdos magnus vel summus.
    Desertè Aben Esra, Sacerdos magnus ipse est Sacerdos unctus.
    Lyranus adhuc clarius Sacerdos unctus est Sacerdos magnus, quia
    inferiores Sacerdotes non ungebantur, &c._

Secondly, they differed in their Garments, which were a necessary
adjunct to their _Consecration_. The _High-Priest_ wore at the time of
his ordinary ministration in the _Sanctuary_, eight Garments, _Exodus
28._ First, _Breeches of linnen_, put next upon his flesh. Secondly,
_A Coat of fine linnen_ put over the breeches. Thirdly, _A girdle
embroidered, of fine linnen, blew purple, & scarlet_, wherewith the
coat was girded. Fourthly, _A Robe all of Blew_, with seventy two
bells of Gold, and as many Pomegranates of blew purple, and scarlet,
upon the skirts thereof; this was put over the coat and girdle.
Fifthly, _An Ephod of gold and of blew purple, scarlet, and fine linnen
curiously wrought_; on the shoulders thereof were two fair _Beryl_
Stones, engraven with the names of the Twelve Tribes of _Israel_.
This _Ephod_ was put over the Robe, and girded thereto with a curious
girdle made of the same. Sixthly, _A Breast-plate wrought of gold,
blew, purple, scarlet, and fine linnen_, which being a span square,
was fastened by gold chains and rings, upon the _Ephod_: herein were
set _twelve_ several Stones, on which the names of the _twelve Tribes_
were engraven: Moreover, in this Breast-plate were the _Urim_ and the
_Thummim_ placed. Seventhly, _A Miter of fine linnen, sixteen cubits
long, wrapped about his head_. Eighthly, _A plate of purple gold,
or holy Crown two fingers broad_, whereon was engraven _Holiness to
the Lord_: this was tyed with a blew lace upon the fore-front of the

These eight Garments the _High-Priest_ used in his ordinary
ministration, and they are termed by the _Rabbies_, ‎‏בגדי זהב‏‎, _Bigde
Zahab_, _Vestimenta aurea_, _Golden Vestments_, because of their
richness in comparison of other extraordinary Garments, which he wore
onely once a year, when he entred into the _Holy of Holies_, upon the
Propitiation day, _Lev. 15. 4. 23._ These latter are called ‎‏בגדי לבן‏‎
_Bigde Laban_, _Vestimenta alba_, _White Garments_; there were in
number four. 1. _A linnen breeches._ 2. _A linnen coat._ 3. _A linnen
girdle._ 4. _A linnen Miter_, _Levit. 16. 4._

In the time of the Second _Temple_,[45] because the _Chrism_ or holy
Oyl could not be found, therefore, as formerly in respect of his
_unction_, the _High-Priest_ was called by the _Talmudists_,
‎‏מתרבה משחה‏‎ _Mithrabe Mischa_, _Auctus unctione_, _The anointed_; so
when the Oyl was lost in regard of his _Garments_, he was termed,
‎‏מתרבה בגדים‏‎ _Mithrabe Begadim_, _Auctus Vestibus_, _The cloathed_.
Those forementioned Garments[46] the _High-Priest_ might not wear
abroad in the City, unless some urgent occasion compelled him, as
_Simeon_ the _just_ did, when he went forth to meet _Alexander_ the

    [45] _Cunæus lib. 2. de rep. Heb. cap. 7. pag. 222._

    [46] _Moses Kotsensis. præcept. affir. 173. f. 212. col. 3._

In his apparel the threefold Office of our _Saviour Christ_ was
shadowed: the _Crown_ signified his _Kingly_ Office; the _Urim_
and _Thummim_, and likewise his _Bells_ and _Pomegranates_, his
_Prophetical_ Office: by _Urim_ and _Thummim_, he answered as from
an _Oracle_; by the _Bells_ was typed the sound of his Doctrine; by
the _Pomgranates_, the sweet savour of an Holy Life; the _Names_ of
the twelve _Tribes engraven_ on the _Ephod_, and the _Brest-plate_,
signified his _Priestly_ Office, presenting unto _God_ the whole
_Church_, for which he maketh intercession. He knoweth his own sheep by
_Name_, _John 10. 3._

The _inferiour Priests_ had onely four Garments, which they used in
their ministration. 1. _A linnen breeches._ 2. _A linnen coat._ 3. _A
linnen Girdle._ 4. _A linnen bonnet_, _Exod. 28._

Thirdly they differed in their _marriage_. The _High-priest_ might
not marry a _Widow_, nor a _divorced Woman_, nor a _Harlot_, but a
_Virgin_, _Levit. 21. 14._ From a _Widow_ he could not expect the
_first love_: from a _divorced Woman_ he could not expect the _first,
or just love_: from an _Harlot_, neither _first_, _just_, nor _only
love_: all which _Christ_ (whom the _High-Priest_ did herein represent)
expecteth from his _Church_. The other _Priests_ might lawfully marry a
_Widow_, _Levit. 21. 7._

The _High-priest_, and the _Inferiour Priests_ agreed in their
_consecration_ in these particulars. It was required first, that both
should be void of bodily blemish, _Levit. 21. 17._ Secondly, that both
should be presented unto the Lord at the door of the _Tabernacle_,
_Exod. 29. 4._ Thirdly, that both should be washed with water, _Exod.
29. 4._ Fourthly, that both should be consecrated by offering up
certain Sacrifices, _Exod. 29._ Fifthly, that both should have of the
blood of the other Ram, put upon the tip of the right ear, the thumb
of the right hand, and the great toe of the right-foot, _Exod. 29. 20._

In the time of their _Consecration_, certain pieces of the sacrifice
were put into the _Priests_ hand, _Exod. 29. 9._ The ceremony in the
_Christian Church_, used by the _Bishop_ unto the _Minister_ in time of
_Ordination_, _that the Bishop_ giveth the _Bible_ into the hands of
the _Minister_, doth much resemble this. And both may signifie, that no
man taketh this honour unto himself, but he that is called of _God_, as
was _Aaron_, _Heb. 5. 4._ Hence _Consecration_ in the _Hebrew_ phrase
is termed, _Filling of the hand_. And contrary to this did _Jeroboams
Priests_, whosoever would, he _Filled his own hand_, _1 King. 13. 33._
that is, _He thrust himself into the Priesthood_.

In the discharge of their offices, the _High-Priest_ differed from the
other _Priests_: First, because he onely, and that but once a year,
entred into the _Holy of Holies_, _Exod. 16. 34._

Secondly, the _High-Priest_ might not mourn for the death of his
neerest kin, _Levit. 28. 10, 11._ The phrases used there to express
mourning are two. First, _uncovering the Head_. Secondly, _Renting
the Cloaths_: Of both these somewhat is spoken in the Chapter of
_Burial_; but concerning the latter it will not be amiss to note, that
the _Talmudists_ determine the matter thus; saying,[47] That it was
lawful for the _High-Priest_ to tear the skirt, or neither part of his
Garment, but from the bosom downward it was unlawful: which if it be
true, then it doth not necessarily follow, that _Caiaphas_ did contrary
to the law in renting his clothes, _Matth. 26. 65._ _The inferiour
Priests_ might mourn for these six; _Father_, _Mother_, _Son_,
_Daughter_, _Brother_, and _Sister, that had no Husband_. _Levit. 21.

    [47] _Vide Cunæum de rep. Heb. lib. 2. cap. 3._

In the discharge of their Offices, the _High-Priest_, and other
_Priests_ agreed in these Particulars: First, they both burnt incense
and offered sacrifices, _1 Chron. 6. 49._ Secondly, they both sounded
the Trumpets, the use whereof was two-fold; sometimes to sound an
alarm in the war, sometimes, to assemble the people and their Rulers,
_Numb. 10._ Thirdly, they both slew the sacrifice, _2 Chron. 29. 22._
Fourthly, they both instructed the people, _Malac. 2. 7._ Fifthly, they
both judged of leprosie, _Levit. 13. 2._

For the more orderly performance of these offices, the _High-Priest_
had his Suffragan,[48] called ‎‏סגן‏‎ _Sagan_, who in case of the
_High-Priest_’s pollution, performed his office. Of this sort was
_Zephaniah_, _Jer. 52. 24._ And of this sort _Annas_ is thought to
have been, when _Caiaphas_ was _High-Priest_.[49] In this sense they
interpret _Annas_ and _Caiaphas_ to have been _High-Priests_ the same
year, _Luk. 3. 2._ The _High-Priest_ and his _Sagan_, resembled our
_Bishop_ and his _Suffragan_: The _Patriarch_ of _Constantinople_ and
his _Primore_ termed _Protosyncellus_, and amongst the _Romans_, the
_Centurion_ and his _Optio_: for the _Lieutenants_ in war, who in case
of necessity supplyed the _Centurions_ place, were termed _Optiones_.

    [48] _Elias Thisbit._

    [49] _Casaub. adver. Baron. p. 242. It. Joseph. Scaliger in
    Proleg. ad Eus._

That every one of the inferiour _Priests_ might equally serve in his
order, King _David_ distributed the whole company of them into twenty
four ranks or courses, called ἐφημερίαι _Turmæ_, _vices_. _Nadab_
and _Abihu_ being dead, there remained onely two sons to _Aaron_,
namely, _Eleazer_ and _Ithamar_; now as the succession of _Priests_
was preserved in these two families, so did _David_ at this time
according to the number of people in each family, make his division.
_Eleazers_ family he divided into sixteen ranks, and _Ithamars_ into
eight: the division was by _Lot_; the first _Lot_ fell to _Jehoiarib_,
the second to _Jedaiah_, the third to _Hairim_, _&c._ _1 Chron. 24._
Every rank or course served weekly in the Temple by turn, and the ranks
received their names from those who at that time were the heads of the
several families, and ever after retained the same names. The chief of
every rank was called, _Summus Sacerdos istius Classis_: _The chief
Priest of that rank_. Hence it is, that we read of many _High-Priests_
assembled together, _Mark 14. 1._ Furthermore we are to note, that as
the weekly course fell out by lot, so did they by lot determine each
particular _Priests_ service; namely, who should burn incense, who
slay the beasts, who lay them on the Altar, who dress the lamps, _&c._
_Zacharias_ was of the _course of Abia_, _Luke 1. 5._ that is, of the
_eighth course_, and his lot was to burn incense, _Luke 1. 9._

The office of the _Levites_ was to pitch, to take down, to bear up and
down the _Tabernacle_, and the vessels thereof. _Levi_ had three sons,
_Gershon_, _Cohath_, and _Merari_: and accordingly the whole company
of the _Levites_ were distinguisht into 3 orders, _Gershonites_,
_Cohathites_, and _Merarites_. The _Gershonites_ charge was to carry
the coverings, and hangings of the _Tabernacle_. The chief things
within the Sanctuary were committed to the _Cohathites_. The Wood-work,
and the rest of the instruments were committed to the charge of the
_Merarites_, _Num. 3._ This was the office of the _Levites_, in _Moses_
his time, whiles they were on their journey, in the Wilderness; but
afterward when they were setled in the promised Land, then _David_
changed their office, appointing them, some to have the charge of the
Treasures of the _Temple_, _1 Chron. 26. 20._ others to be Over-seers
and _Judges_, others to be Porters, others Singers, _1 Chron. 23. 4._
The Singers in time of singing were clad in linnen Robes or Surplesses,
_2 Chron. 5. 12._ The Singers were divided into twenty four _orders_ or
_courses_, _1 Chron. 25. 8._ And the Porters into as many, _1 Chron.
26._ that both might supply their turns weekly by lot, as the _Priests_
did. In _Moses_ time also, their _consecration_ began at the _five and
twentieth_ year of their age: In _Davids_ at the _twentieth_, _1 Chron.
23. 24._ _Ezra 3. 8._ Here we may note the liberty granted unto the
Church in changing Ceremonies: the Office of the _Levites_ in _Davids_
time, was not the same as in _Moses_: and again, _Moses_ and _David_
agreed not in the time of their _consecration_. Again in the Christian
Church we shall find in _Matthias_ his election, the use of _Lots_; not
so in _Pauls_, or any other of the _Apostles_: In their meetings, use
of an _holy-kiss_; and at the Lords Supper, use of their _Love-feasts_:
both now antiquated thoroughout Christendom.

Moreover, there are certain _degrees_ observable among the _Levites_:
First, their _Initiation_, when they were a month old, they were
_Initiated_ and presented unto God, _Numb. 3. 15._ Secondly their
_consecration_, they were _consecrated_ by imposition of hands, when
they were five and twenty years old, _Numb. 8. 24._ From thence for
five years following, they learned their Office. Those that imposed
hands on them are said in the Text, _Numb. 8. 10._ to be the _sons
of Israel_, _Ghazkuni_ interpreteth that place, the _First born of
Israel_. They were the Representive Church; and in allusion to this,
the Church of Christ is called the _Church of the First-born_, _Heb.
12. 23._ At the same time the _Levites_ were _waved_ by the _Priests_,
that is, as the Greek reads it,[50] _Separated_, which word is used
for the _Ministers of Christ_,[51] _Separate me ~Barnabas~ and
~Paul~_, _Act. 13. 2._ Thirdly, their _Ministration_, to carry up and
down the _Tabernacle_, and this was at the thirtieth year of their
age, until the fiftieth, _Numb. 4. 3._ Lastly, their _vacation_, or
_discharge_ from that laborious service of carrying the _Tabernacle_;
notwithstanding even then they were to serve in their charge, to encamp
round about the Tent, to sing, and to beware that no stranger came into
the Temple,[52] and likewise to over-see and instruct younger _Levites_
in the manner of _Bishops_. Unto these degrees the Apostle seemeth to
have respect: They that have ministred well, get themselves a good
_degree_, _1 Tim. 3. 13._ The like kind of[53] _degrees_ are observable
among the _Vestal Virgins_: they remained in their Nunnery thirty
_years_. _Ten years_ they learned the Mysteries of their Profession;
_Ten years_ they exercised them; and _Ten years_ they taught them
others. From this custome of _Imposing hands_ on the _Levites_ hath
flow’d the like custom, used by the _Apostles_ in conferring Orders,
_Acts 6. 6._ _1 Tim. 5. 22._

    [50] _Ἀφοριεῖ ἀαρὼν._

    [51] _Ἀφορίσατε._

    [52] _Francisc. Jun. Analyt. Expos. Numb. 8._

    [53] _Dionys. Halycarnass. lib. 2._

Observe the difference of these three phrases, Χειροθεσία, the
_imposition of hands_. Χειροτονία, the _holding up of hands_, in token
of _elivation_ or _ordination_, _Act. 14. 22._ And ἔκτασις χειρῶν,
_A stretching forth of the hands_. Both the first gestures were used
in _Ordination_, or _conferring Orders_. The first of all, namely,
_imposition of hands_, was borrowed from the _Hebrews_. The second,
namely, the _holding up of hands_, was taken from the[54] _Athenians_,
who had two sorts of Magistrates, Κλήρωται, _Magistrates chosen by
lots_: and Χειροτόνηται, _Magistrates chosen by holding up of hands_.
The third gesture of the hands, called ἔκτασις χειρῶν, _A stretching
forth of the hands_,[55] sometimes is termed τῆς χειρὸς νεῦμα, the
_beckning with the hand_, a gesture used in craving silence; so _Paul_
stretched forth the hand, and answered for himself, _Acts 26. 1._

    [54] _Æschines contra Ctesiphont._

    [55] _Herodian, p. 45._

There were[56] another sort of holy persons termed ‎‏אנשי מעמד‏‎ _Ansche
Magnamad_, _Viri stationarii_; the Law requiring, that whosoever
offered either gift or sacrifice, he should present it unto the Lord
with his own hands, and _stand by_ during the time of his oblation.
Now, because all _Israel_ could not _stand by_, for the narrowness
of the Place, hence when an offering was made for all the people,
certain selected Persons, chosen for that purpose, supplied the stead
of all the People. They were divided, as the _Priests_ and _Levites_,
into twenty four _ranks_ and _orders_, weekly to minister in the
_Temple_, but the choice was not restrained to the _Tribe of Levi_,
but was indifferently made out of the _people_. Every _rank_ had one
_fore-man_, chief above the rest, termed[57] _Stationum Princeps_, the
_Fore-man of the Station_. The _Nethinims_ office was to be hewers
of wood, and drawers of water for the house of _God_, they were not
_Levites_, no nor _Israelites_, but _Gibeonites_, whom because of their
fraudulent dealing, _Joshua_ made in this manner tributary, _Josh. 9.
23._ They were afterward called _Nethinims_, _Ezra 2. 43._ from ‎‏נתן‏‎
_Nathan_, which signifieth to _give_, because they were given to the
service of the _Temple_. Their Office was vile and base, as appeareth
by that proverbial speech; From the hewer of thy wood, unto the drawer
of thy water. _Deut. 29. 11._

    [56] _Moses Kotsen. fol. 211. col. 4._

    [57] _‎‏ראש מעמד‏‎_


_Of the Prophets._

There are divers names given unto the Expositors of the Law; and
although the Particular year or time when each name began, be not
clearly evidenced by Monuments of _Antiquity_, yet in general we may
conceive three distinct periods of time; in which the names altered.
First from _Adam_ until _Moses_; Secondly, from _Moses_, till the
peoples return from _Babylon_. Thirdly, from their _return_, until
the dayes of _Christ_, and after. In the first period, as _Adam_ was
_Prophet_ and _Priest_ in his family, so afterward every _first-born_
supplyed these two offices together with the _princely_ office in
their several families. That they ruled their families as _Kings_
and instructed them as _Prophets_, is clear to any acquainted with
Scripture; the greatest doubt is, what sufficient proof there is for
their _Priest-hood_, _Adams Priest-hood_, is gathered hence,[58]
because that _Gen 4. 3._ and _4._ _Abel_ and _Cain_ are said to have
brought their sacrifices: to have brought them, namely, unto _Adam_,
who offered them unto God in their name. The _Priest-hood_ of the
_first-born_ is gatherable hence, because the _Levites_ were appointed
to the service of the Altar, instead of the first-born, and as the
λύτρον or price of _redemption_, _Num. 3. 41._ In the second period,
though a _private Catechetical exposition_ of the Law belonged to the
_Masters of Families_, yet the _publick Ministerial exposition_ thereof
was appropriated to _Priests_ and _Prophets_. In the third period,
when Prophecy ceased, then the office of expounding Scripture was
more common, and instead of _Prophets_ came in a multitude of other
Expositors; In general we may call them _teachers of Israel_, _Joh. 3.
10._ We may distinguish them into three several sorts. 1. _Wisemen._
2. _Scribes._ 3. _Disputers._ The _Apostle_ compriseth them all, _1
Cor. 1. 20._ Where is the _Wise_? Where is the _Scribe_? Where is the
_Disputer_? Unto any of these, or whatsoever other _Doctor_ eminently
gifted above others, the title _Rabbi_ was prefixed. First, of their
_Prophets_. Secondly, their _Wisemen_. Thirdly, their _Scribes_.
Fourthly, their _Disputers_. Fifthly, their _Rabbies_.

    [58] _Bertram. Polit. Jud. c. 2. p. 17._

To _prophesie_, or to be a Prophet, hath divers acceptions in
Scripture. First, it is taken for the _books_ and writings _of the
Prophets_. They have _Moses_ and the _Prophets_, _Luk. 16. 29._
Secondly, for the whole Word of _God_: no Prophesie in the Scripture
is of any private motion, _2 Pet. 1. 20._ Thirdly, those unto whom God
vouchsafed familiarly to reveal himself, they are called _Prophets_:
_Abraham_ was a _Prophet_, _Gen. 20. 7._ and _Miriam_ a _Prophetess_,
_Exod. 50. 20._ Fourthly, ordinary Interpreters of the Word are called
_Prophets_. He that receiveth a _Prophet_ in the name of a _Prophet_,
_Mat. 10. 14._ Lastly, it is taken for those, who are enabled by Divine
Revelation, to lay open hidden secrets, transcending all possibility
of humane search. Hence it is that _Prophets_ in old time were called
_Seers_, _1 Sam. 9. 9._ And their _Prophecy_ was termed a _vision_,
_Esay. 1. 1._ because _God_ extroardinarily enlightned their minds with
the knowledge of these secrets.

There are three observable names applied to _prophecy_ in _Scripture_.
1. _Verbum Domini_: 2. _Visio_: 3. _Onus_, _The Word of the Lord_:
_Vision_: _A Burthen_. The first importeth the _Lord speaking_, or
revealing his secrets; the second implyeth the _Prophets attending_,
or beholding them; the third being applyed onely to _Judgements_,
signifieth the _burthensomness_ of them on that people against whom
they came forth.

For the propagation of Learning, _Colledges_ and _Schools_ were in
divers places erected for the _Prophets_; their _Scholars_ were
termed[59] _Filii prophetarum_, _children of the Prophets_, _2 Kin. 6.
1._ unto which phrase there is allusion, _Matt. 11. 19._ _Wisdom is
justified of her children_: by reason of this Relation the _Prophet_
sometimes is called a _Father_; _Elisha_ cryed out, My _Father_, my
_Father_, _2 King. 2. 12._ The _Targum_[60] expoundeth that place,
_Rabbi, Rabbi_; as much as to say, my _Master_, my _Master_: And in
truth the _Rabbies_ grew very ambitious of the name _Father_, which
was the reason of our Saviours speech, _Matth. 23. 6._ _Call no man
~Father~ upon earth_.

    [59] _Eodem sensu Græci appellant artis medica candidatos
    ἰατρῶν παῖδας Eras. Ep. dedicatoria Hilario præfix._

    [60] _Targum. 2 Reg. 2. 12._

The _Scripture_[61] sometimes joyneth to the name of the _Prophet_, the
name of his _Father_, as _Hosea the son of Beeri_, _Hos. 1. 1._ And
such a one the _Hebrews_ confess to be both a _Prophet_, and the _son
of a Prophet_. Sometimes it mentioneth the _Prophets_ name, but not the
_Fathers_; such a one they confess to be a Prophet, but not the _son
of a Prophet_: Sometimes it mentioneth with the _Prophet_, the name of
the _City_ where he prophesied, and then it followeth, that he was a
_Prophet of that City_. When a Prophet is mentioned without the _name
of the City_, then he is thought to be a _Prophet of Jerusalem_.

    [61] _Kimchi in præfat. ad Hoscham._

2. _Wisemen_: This title though in it self it be general and common to
all _Doctors_, and _Teachers_ of the Law; yet for many years before our
Saviours Incarnation,[62] it was either arrogated by the Pharisees, or
else by the ignorant multitude appropriated unto them, for an opinion
of their extraordinary _wisdom_, in teaching of Traditions, which they
preferred beyond the Law. Hence the Pharisees were called[63] _Masters
of the Traditions_: And hence was that councel of _R. Eleezer_ to his
Scholars,[64] that they should forbid their children from the study
of the _Bible_, and place them between the knees of their _wisemen_.
Likewise[65] hence, when any of their _Doctors_ did read Lectures,
their saying was, οἱ σοφοὶ ἡμῶν δευτεροῦσι, _Our wisemen do teach
traditions_. The like ambition we shall find among the _Grecians_,
all of them striving to be intituled Σοφοὶ, _Wisemen_: and hence,
whensoever the chief of them had pleased the people in performance of
their Orations, or any other publick business, they were honoured with
a _Grand_ Σοφῶς, that is, with a loud acclamation of σοφῶς, σοφῶς,
_Well done_, or _wisely done_; until _Pythagoras_, in dislike of such
swelling Titles, stiled himself _Philosophus_, _a Lover of wisdom_;
which kind of modesty was afterward practised by the _Hebrew Doctors_;
for they in after times, to avoid the suspicion of arrogancy, refused
the name of ‎‏חכמים‏‎ _Chacamim_, _Wisemen_,[66] and stiled themselves,
‎‏תלמידי חכמים‏‎ _Discipuli sapientium_, _Learners of wisdom_.

    [62] _Gorionid. lib. 4. cap. 20._

    [63] _Drus. de trib. sect. 86._

    [64] _Buxtorf. Recens. operis Talmud, p. 155._

    [65] _Hieronym. ad Algasiam. quæst. 10._

    [66] _Elias Thisbit._

3. _Scribes_: This name was given to two sorts of men, some meerly
_Laicks_, others _Clergy-men_. The body of the _Laick Scribes_, were
those, to whom was committed the instruction of young children in
their minority, especially to teach them to write; we may English them
Scriveners. This office was appropriated to the Tribe of _Simeon_. In
this sense we read not of _Scribes_ in the Scripture, although the
ground of their first institution hath been taken thence, namely,
from those words which _Jacob_ used unto _Simeon_ and _Levi_; I will
divide them in _Jacob_, and scatter them in _Israel_, _Gen. 49. 7._
So that as _Levi_ had no portion, but lived dispersed among the other
Tribes, by the benefit of the Altar.[67] In like manner _Simeon_ had
no portion in the judgement of the _Hebrews_, but lived scattered
among the other tribes, getting their maintenance by teaching and
schooling little children: Whether this office of teaching children was
appropriated to them, I leave to the inquiry of others; certain I am
that the _Simeonites_ had their own inheritance by lot, _Josh. 19. 1._
And the prophecy concerning their being scattered is thought to have
been accomplished in this, that the inheritance of the _Simeonites_,
was taken out of the portion of the children of _Judah_, _Josh. 19.
9._ Furthermore it is certain, that if not all Scriveners, yet those
publick Notaries, who were imployed in drawing Deeds, and writing
Contracts (be they of what Tribe they will) they were called by the
name of _Scribes_. Unto this there is allusion, _Psal. 45. 1._ My
tongue is as the _pen_ of a swift _Writer_, or _ready Scribe_. Out of
the body of these I conceive certain choice men to have been elected
for publick imployments; some to attend the King, as his Secretaries,
termed, γραμματεῖς βασιλέως, the Kings Scribes, _2 Kin. 12. 10._ Such
were _Sheia_, _2 Sam. 20. 25._ And _Shaphan_, _2 Kin. 22. 3._ Others
to attend the publick Courts and Consistories: they much resembled our
_Clarks of Assizes_, these were termed, γραμματεῖς λαοῦ the _Scribes of
the people_, _Mat. 2. 4._ _It._ _1. Mac. 5. 42._

    [67] _Solom. Jarchi. Gen. 49. Vide Ambros. Tom. 4. cap. 2. &
    Targum Hierosol._

The second sort of _Scribes_ belonged to the _Clergy_; they were
Expositors of the Law, and thence are they called γραμματεῖς τοῦ
νόμου, νομικοὶ, & νομοδιδὰσκαλοι, _Scribes of the Law_, _Esra. 7. 9._
_Expounders of the Law_, _Luk. 7. 30._ and _Doctors of the Law_, _Luk.
5. 17._ Their Office was to write, read, and expound the Law of _Moses_
to the people. The name was a name of _Office_, not of _Sect_. Of this
sort was _Esdras_, _Esra 7. 6._ who though he were a _Levite_, yet[68]
others there were of the Tribe of _Judah_, and, as it is thought, they
might indifferently be of any Tribe. The name was of the like esteem
among the _Hebrews_ as the _Magi_ were among the _Chaldeans_; the
_Quindecemviri_ among the _Romans_, for expounding _Sybilla’s Oracles_:
Or the _Canonists_ in the _Church of Rome_. The word ‎‏סופרים‏‎ _Sopherim_,
translated _Scribes_ signifieth _Numberers_, or _Computers_, and is
applyed to the _Masorites_, because they spent their time in reckoning,
and numbring, not onely the verses, but the words also, and letters of
each Book throughout the _Bible_; which, as it is an argument of their
industry,[69] so likewise of _Gods_ providence, in the preservation
of his truth inviolable. As the _Wise men_ in their Preaching pressed
Traditions; so the _Scribes_ clave to the written word, whence they
were termed[70] _Text-men_, or _Masters of the Text_. And to this
purpose it is worth our observing, that whereas both the Scribes and
the Pharisees sought to fasten accusations upon our Saviour, _Mat. 9._
The Scribes accused him of blasphemy, _v. 3._ The Pharisees of eating
with Publicans and sinners, _v. 11._ The Scribes accusation was a
breach of the Law; the Pharisees a breach of Traditions.

    [68] _Drus. de tribus sectis, l. 2. c. 12. ex Chald. Paraphast._

    [69] _Augustin. in Psal. 40._

    [70] _Drusius de trib. sectis l. 20. cap. 13._

3. The _Disputer_.[71] He insisted upon _Allegories_, and searched
out mystical interpretations of the Text. Hence himself was termed
_Durschan_, and his exposition, or Homily, _Midrasch_; and their
School, _Beth Hammidrasch_: They were counted the profoundest
Interpreters, whence that of the _Psalmist_, _Psal. 84. 7._ _They go
from strength to strength_, is interpreted,[72] _from their Temple to
their Beth-Hammidrasch_, from an inferiour to an higher School. Hereby
we see the difference between those three sorts of Predicants mentioned
by Saint _Paul_. The _Wise men_ were teachers of _Traditions_,
the _Scribes_ teachers of the _Text_ according to the literal
interpretation, and the _Disputers_ teachers of _Allegories_ and
_Mysteries_; which fabulous expositions, because they breed questions
and disputations ζητήσεις παρέχουσι, _1 Tim. 4._ Hence is it, that such
an expositor is termed συζητητὴς, A _Disputer_. These three sorts of
Preachers, which S. _Paul_ termeth, the _Wiseman_, the _Scribe_ and the
_Disputer_, _1 Cor. 1. 20._ are by the _Hebrews_ named ‎‏חכם‏‎ _Ghacham_,
‎‏סופר‏‎ _Sopher_, ‎‏דרשן‏‎ _Darschan_.

    [71] _Vide Thisbit. in ‎‏דרש‏‎_

    [72] _Targum, Ps. 84. 7._


_Of their Title Rabbi._

About the time of our Saviour Christ his Nativity, Titles began to be
multiplied; and amongst the rest, these of _Rab_, _Ribbi_, _Rabbi_,
and _Rabban_, were in especial use: they all are derived from ‎‏רבב‏‎
_Rabab_, signifying, _multiplicatus fuit_, and they sound as much as
πολυμαθέστατος, that is, a _Master_, or _Doctor_ eminently gifted with
variety of Knowledge. Concerning these titles, they write thus,[73]
that _Rabbi_ is a more excellent title than _Rab_, and _Rabban_ more
excellent then _Rabbi_; and the simple name without any title, as
_Haggai_, _Zachary_, _Malachy_, was more excellent than _Rabban_.
About this time they used a set form of Discipline in their Schools.
The Scholar was termed ‎‏תלמיד‏‎, _Talmid_, a _Disciple_, in respect of
his Learning; ‎‏קטן‏‎ _Katan_, a _Junior_, in respect of his minority;
‎‏בחור‏‎ _Bachur_, that is, one _chosen_, or _elected_ in respect of his
_election_, or _cooptation_, into the number of Disciples; After he
had proved a good Proficient, and was thought worthy of some degree,
then was he by imposition of hands made a _Graduate_ ‎‏חבר‏‎ _Chaber_, a
_Companion_ to a _Rabbi_. This imposition of hands, they termed ‎‏סמכה‏‎,
_vel_ ‎‏סמיכות‏‎, _Semicah_, or _Semicuth_, which Ceremony they observed
in imitation of _Moses_ towards _Joshua_. The Lord said unto _Moses_,
Take thou _Joshua_ the son of _Nun_, in whom is the Spirit, and _put
thine hand upon him_, _Numb. 27. 18._ At which time he that imposed
hands on him, used this form of words,[74] _I associate thee, and be
thou associated_. After this when he was worthy to teach others, then
was he called _Rabbi_, and whereas in his minority, his own name
being suppressed, he was called onely by his _Fathers name_, _the son
of N._ When he was made _Graduate_ by _imposition of hands_, then
was he called by his _own name_, _N. the son of N._ And afterward
when he was thought worthy to teach, then was the Title _Rabbi_
prefixed, after this manner; _Rabbi N. the son of N._ For example,
_Maimonides_; at first was termed onely _Ben Maimon_, the son of
_Maimon_; after his degree, then was he called by his own name, added
to his fathers, _Moses Ben Maimon_, _Moses the son of Maimon_: at
last being licenced to teach, then was he called ‎‏רמבם‏‎ _Rambam_, which
abbreviature consisting of Capital Letters, signifeth, _Rabbi Moses
Ben Maimon_, _Rabbi Moses the son of Maimon_. So _Rabbi Levi_, the son
of _Gersom_, in his minority was called _the son of Gersom_, afterward
_Levi the son of Gersom_ at last, ‎‏רלבג‏‎ _Ralbag_, _Rabbi Levi the son
of Gersom_. This distinction of _Scholars_, _Companions_, & _Rabbies_,
appeareth by that speech of an ancient _Rabbi_, saying,[75] _I learned
much of my Rabbies, or Masters, more of my companions, most of all
of my Scholars_. That every _Rabbi_ had Disciples, and that his own
Disciples, and other well-wishers stiled him by the name of _Rabbi_, in
the dayes of our Saviour, needeth no proof. _Judas_ came to _Christ_
and said, _God save thee Rabbi_, _Mat. 26. 49._ In like manner _Johns
Disciples_ came and saluted _John_ by the name of _Rabbi_, _John 3.
26._ and _Christ_ by the name of _Rabbi_, _John 1. 38._ But whether
there was such a formal imposition of hands then in use, I much doubt.
The manner of their meetings, when Disputations were had in their
Synagogues, or other Schools, was thus.[76] The chief _Rabbies_ sate in
reserved Chairs; these are those chief seats of the Synagogues, which
the Scribes and Pharises so affected, _Mat. 23. 6._ Their _Companions_
sate upon Benches or lower Forms; their Scholars on the ground at the
feet of their Teachers. Saint _Paul_ was brought up at the feet of
_Gamaliel_, _Act. 22. 2._ And _Mary_ sate at _Jesus feet_, and heard
his word, _Luk. 10. 39._ The positure of their body differed according
to their degrees. The _Rabbi_ is described[77] to be ‎‏יושב‏‎ _Joscheb_,
one that _sitteth_: the _Companion_, ‎‏מוטת‏‎ _Muteth_, the word signifieth
a kind of leaning upon a bed or bench, ones head lying in the others
bosome, in manner of the ancient sitting at table; and it was a
deportment of the body, inferiour to that of _sitting_: The Scholar was
termed[78] ‎‏מתאבק‏‎ _Mithabek_, one that doth lie along in the dust, and
this was a token of the Scholars humility, thus humbling and subjecting
himself even to the feet of his Masters: This same custom it is
thought,[79] Saint _Paul_ laboured to bring into the Christian Church,
_1 Cor. 14._ Their Scholars were not all of equal capacity, whence they
said,[80] some had _conditionem spongiæ_, others _clepsydræ_, others
_sacci fæcinacei_, and others _cribri_. Some resembled the _Sponge_,
and suck’d in all that they heard without judgment; others the
_Hour-Glass_, they took in at one ear, and let out at the other; others
the _Winesack_, through which Wine is so drained from the dregs, that
only the dregs remain behind: Lastly, others the _Rying-sieve_, which
in winnowing lets out the courser seed, and keepeth in the corn.

    [73] _Aruch in voce ‎‏אביי‏‎_

    [74] _‎‏אני סומך אותך תהיה סמוך‏‎ Id est Scaligero interprete: Ego
    tibi impono manum & manus tibi imposita esto. Trihær. c. 5. p.
    264. vide etiam Cunæum de Rep. Heb. cap. 12._

    [75] _Vide P. Fagium in Scholiis suis ad cap. 4. Pirke Aboth._

    [76] _Philo Jud. Quod omnis probus, p. 679._

    [77] _Scaliger in Trihæres. cap. 5. Ex. c. 1. Beracoth._

    [78] _Pirke Aboth. cap. 4._

    [79] _Ambros. 1 Cor. 14._

    [80] _Pirke Aboth. cap. 5._


_Of their Nazarites and Rechabites._

There are two sorts of _Votaries_ mentioned in the Old _Testament_;
_Rechabites_, _Jerem. 35._ and _Nazarites_, _Numb. 6._ I find scarce
any thing warrantable concerning these two, more than what the
Scripture delivereth in the fore-quoted places: therefore concerning
the matter of their Vows, I refer the Reader to the aforesaid Texts of
Scripture; here only we will note the distinction of _Nazarites_. The
first are these _Votaries_, termed so from ‎‏נזר‏‎ _Nazar_, to separate,
because they separated themselves from three things; _First_, from
Wine, and all things proceeding from the Vine. _Secondly_, from the
Razor, because they suffered no Razor to come upon their head, but
let their hair grow all the dayes of their separation. _Thirdly_,
from pollution by the dead: this separation again was twofold,
either for a set number of days, or for a mans whole life; that they
termed _Naziræatum dierum_, this, _Naziræatum seculi_: of that sort
was _Paul_, and those four with him, _Acts 21. 24._ Of this sort
was _Sampson_ _Judges 13._ and _John Baptist_. The just number of
days, how long the former of these two separated themselves, is not
expressed in _Scripture_, but the _Hebrew Doctors_[81] determine them
to be thirty, because it is said, _Num. 6. 5._ _Domino sanctus_, ‎‏יהיה‏‎
_erit_; which word (say they) containing thirty, expresseth the just
number of days to be observed in this voluntary separation. The second
sort of _Nazarites_, were so termed from ‎‏נצר‏‎ _Natsar_, from whence
cometh _Natsareth_, or _Nazareth_, the name of a certain Village
in _Galilee_; where Christ was conceived and brought up: Hence our
Saviour himself was called a _Nazarene_, or _Nazarite_, _Mat. 2. 23._
and those that embraced his Doctrine, _Nazarites_, _Acts 24. 5._
Afterward certain _Hereticks_ sprung up, who as the _Samaritanes_
joyned _Jewish ceremonies_ with _Heathenish_ Rites: so[82] they joyned
together _Christ_ and _Moses_, the _Law_ and the _Gospel_; _Baptism_
and _Circumcision_: of the beginning of these we shall read, _Acts 15.
2._ Then came down certain from _Judæa_, and the brethren, saying,
_Except ye be circumcised after the manner of Moses, ye cannot be
saved_. These Hereticks were called _Nazarites_, either of malice by
the _Jewes_, to bring the greater disgrace upon _Christian_ religion;
or else because at first they were true, though weak _Nazarites_,
that is, _Christians_ mis-led by _Peters Judaizing_ at _Antioch_,
_Gal. 2. 11._ And hence it is[83] that the _Church_ at _Antioch_, in
detestation of this new-bred heresie, fastened upon them by the name
of _Nazarites_, forsook that name, and called themselves _Christians_,
_Acts 11. 26._ _Symmachus_, that famous Interpreter of the _Old
Testament_, was a strong Defender of this heresie, and[84] from him in
after times they were named _Symmachiani_. The _Jews_ had them in as
great hatred as the _Samaritanes_; whereupon[85] three times every day,
at _morning_, _noon-tide_, and _evening_, they closed their Prayers
with a solemn execration, _Maledic Domine Nazaræis_. Lastly, another
sort of _Nazarites_ there were, so termed from ‎‏נזר‏‎ _Nazar_, signifying
to _abolish_ or _cut off_;[86] because they did _abolish_ and _cut off_
the five books of _Moses_, rejecting them as not _Canonical_.

    [81] _Sheindler, in Pentaglot._

    [82] _Hieronym. Isai. 8. Idem refert Epiphanius. l. 1. Tom. 2.
    hær. 29._

    [83] _Francisc. Jun. paral. lib. 1. 8._

    [84] _August. l. 19. contra Faustum Manichæum. c. 4._

    [85] _Epiphan. l. 1. Tom. 2. hæres. 29._

    [86] _Epiphan. l. 1. Tom. 1. hæres. 18._


_Of the Assideans._

It is much controverted, whether the _Assideans_ were _Pharisees_ or
_Essenes_, or what they were. Were I worthy to deliver my opinion,
or, as the _Hebrews_ Proverb is, To thrust in my head among the heads
of those wise men; I conceive of the _Assideans_ thus: Before their
captivity in _Babylon_, we shall find the word ‎‏חסידים‏‎ _Chasidim_,
(translated _Assidæi_, _Assideans_) to signifie the same as, ‎‏צדיקים‏‎
_Tsaddikim_, _Just_, or _good men_: both were used promiscuously,
the one for the other, and both stood in opposition to the ‎‏רשעים‏‎
_Reschagnim_, that is, _ungodly_ or _wicked men_. At this time the
whole body of the _Jews_ were distinguished into two sorts, _Chasidim_,
and _Reschagnim_, _good_, and _bad_.

After their captivity, the _Chasidim_ began to be distinguished from
the _Tsadikim_.[87] The _Tsadikim_ gave themselves to the study of the
Scripture. The _Chasidim_ studied how to _add unto the Scripture_.[88]
Secondly, The _Tsadikim_ would conform to whatsoever the Law required.
The _Chasidim_ would be _holy above the Law_. Thus to the repairing
of the Temple, the maintenance of sacrifices, the relief of the poor,
_&c._ they would voluntarily add over and above, to that which the Law
required of them. Whence it is noted, that those were _Chasidim_ who
would say, _What is mine, is thine; and what is thine, is thy own_:
those _Reschagnim_, which would say, _What is thine is mine; and what
is mine, is my own_. And it is probable, that the middle sort mentioned
in the same place, who would say, _what is mine, is mine; what is
thine, is thine own_, were the very _Tsadikim_.

    [87] _D. Kimchi. Psal. 103. 17._

    [88] _Pirke Aboth. c. 5._

At this time the body of the _Jews_ were distinguished into three
sorts, in respect of holiness. First, _Reschagnim_, ἀσεβεῖς, _Wicked_
and _ungodly men_. Secondly, _Tsadikim_, δίκαιοι, _Just_ and _righteous
men_. Thirdly, _Chasidim_, who are sometimes translated ὅσιοι, _Holy
men_, and that for the most part:[89] but sometimes also ἀγαθοὶ,
_Goodmen_: These of all others were best reputed, and beloved of the
people. The Apostle shewing the great love of Christ, dying for us,
amplifieth it by allusion unto this distinction of the people: Christ
died for the _ungodly_. Scarcely for a _righteous man_ will one die,
yet peradventure for a _good man_ some would even dare to die, _Rom.
5. 6, 7._ The gradation standeth thus; Some peradventure would die,
for one of the _Chasidim_, a _good man_: scarcely any, for one of
_Tsadikim_, a _just_, or _righteous man_; for the _Reschagnim_, or
_ungodly_, none would die: Yet Christ dyed for us _ungodly_, being
sinners, and his enemies.

    [89] _Assidæi, de quibus agitur 1 Machab. 7. 13. vocantur à
    Josepho. lib. 12. cap. 16. ἀγαθοὶ καὶ ὅσιοι τοῦ ἔθνους._

Now as long as these Works of supererogation remained arbitrary, and
indifferent, not required as necessary, though preferred before the
simple obedience to the Law; so long the heat of contention was not
great enough to breed Sects and Heresies: But when once the Precepts
and Rules of supererogation were digested into _Canons_, and urged with
an opinion of necessity; then from the _Chasidim_ issued the brood of
_Pharisees_;[90] and also from them (as it is probably thought) the
Heresie of the _Essenes_, both obtruding unwritten Traditions upon the
People, as simply necessary, and as a more perfect rule of sanctity
than the Scripture. At this time the _Tsadikim_ in heat of opposition
rejected not only Traditions, but all Scripture, except only the five
books of _Moses_; for which reason they were called _Karaim_. Some
are of opinion,[91] they rejected only _traditions_, and embraced
all the books of Scripture: Which opinion soever we follow; they had
their name ‎‏קראים‏‎, _Karaim_, _Textuales_, _Scriptuarii_, i. _Text-men_,
or _Scripture-readers_, because they adhered to Scripture alone,
withstanding and gain-saying _Traditions_ with all their might. And if
we follow the latter, then all this while the _Karaim_ were far from
Heresie: but in process of time, when from _Sadock_, and _Baithus_,
these _Karaim_ learned to deny all future rewards for good works, or
punishment for evil, or resurrection from the dead; now the _Karaim_
became compleat _Sadduces_, and perfect _Hereticks_, taking their
denomination from their first Author _Sadok_. The time of each Heresies
first beginning, shall be more exactly declared in their several

    [90] _Joseph. Scalig. Trihæres. c. 22._

    [91] _Joseph. Scalig. ib._


_Of the Pharisees._

There are[92] three Opinions concerning the _Etymology_ of the name
_Pharisee_. The first are those which derive it from ‎‏פרש‏‎ _Parash_,
_Expandere_, _Explicare_; either from the enlarging and laying open
their Phylacteries, or from their _open performance_ of good works
in publick view of the People, as being ambitious of mans praise.
Secondly, from ‎‏פרש‏‎ _Parasch_, _Exponere_, _Explanare_; because they
were of chief repute; and counted the profoundest _Doctors_ for the
_exposition_ of the Law, so that they were termed[93] _Peruschim_,
_quia_ _Poreschim_; _Pharisees_, because they were _Expounders_ of the
Law. Thirdly, others derive the name from the same Verb, but in the
conjugation _Piel_, where it signifieth _dividere_, _separare_, to
_separate_.[94] In this acception, by the _Greeks_ they were termed
ἀφωρισμένοι, we may _English_ them _Separatists_. Their _separation_ is
considerable, partly in the particulars _unto which_, partly in those
_from which_ they _separated_.

    [92] _Quartam etymologiam (cujus fundus & autor putatur
    Hieronymus, Præfat. in Amos) refellit Scriptura Hebraica; si
    enim Pharisæus diceretur a verbo ‎‏פרץ‏‎ Dividere, scriberentur
    Pharisæi ‎‏פריצים‏‎ non ‎‏פרושים‏‎._

    [93] _Gorionides. c. 22._

    [94] _Suidas._

First, They _separated themselves to the study of the Law_, in which
respect they might be called, ἀφωρισμένοι εἰς τὸν νόμον, _Separated
unto the Law_. In allusion unto this, the _Apostle_ is thought[95]
to have stiled himself, _Rom. 1. 11._ ἀφωρισμένον εἰς εὐαγγέλιον,
_Separated unto the Gospel_: when he was called from being a
_Pharisee_, to be a _Preacher of the Gospel_; and now not _separated
unto the Law_, but to the _Gospel_.

Secondly, They _separated_ themselves, or at least pretended a[96]
_separation to an extroardinary sanctity of life above other men_.
God, I thank thee, that I am _not as other men are_, Extortioners,
Unjust, Adulterers _&c._ _Luke 18. 11._

    [95] _Drusius de trib. sectis, l. 2. c. 2._

    [96] _Suidas._

The particulars, _from which they separated themselves_, were these.

First, _From commerce with other people_, as afterward will appear in
their Traditions: whence they called the common people, by reason of
their ignorance, ‎‏עם הארץ‏‎ _populum terræ_, the _people of the earth_. In
the Gospel of Saint _John 7. 49._ they are called ὄχλος. _This people_
who knoweth not the Law are cursed.

Secondly,[97] _From the apparel and habit of other men_: for they used
particular kinds of Habits, whereby they would be distinguished from
the vulgar. Hence proceeded that common speech, _Vestes populi terræ,
conculcatio sunt Pharisæorum_.

    [97] _R. David. Sophon. 1. 8._

Thirdly,[98] _From the customs and manners of the world_. This
heresie of the _Pharisees_ seemeth to have had its first beginning in
_Antigonus Sochæus_. He being a _Pharisee_, succeeded _Simon the Just_;
who was Coetanean with _Alexander_ the Great: he lived three hundred
years before the birth of Christ.

    [98] _Thisbites._

The _Pharisees_ were[99] not tied to any particular Tribe or Family,
but indifferently they might be of any; S. _Paul_ was a _Benjaminite_;
_Hyrcanus_ was a _Levite_.[100] Each Sect had its _Dogmata_, his proper
_Aphorisms_, _Constitutions_, or _Canons_: so the _Pharisees_ had
theirs. My purpose is, both concerning these and the other Sects, to
note onely those _Canons_, or _Aphorisms_, wherein chiefly they were
heretical, and one differing from the other.

    [99] _Chrys. Mat. 15._

    [100] _Flavius Jos. lib. 13. c. 18._

First, The _Pharisees_[101] ascribed _some things_ to _Fate_, or
_Destiny_, and _some things_ to mans _Free-will_.

    [101] _Joseph. l. 13. c. 9._

Secondly, They confessed that there were _Angels_, and _Spirits_, _Acts
23. 8._

Thirdly, Concerning the resurrection of the dead, they acknowledged
it, and taught[102] that the souls of evil men deceased, presently
departed into everlasting punishiment; but the souls, they say, of good
men, passed by a kind of Pythagorean μετεμψύχωσις into other good mens
bodies. Hence it is thought[103] that the different opinions concerning
our Saviour did arise; Some saying that he was _John Baptist_; others,
_Elias_; others, _Jeremias_, _Matth. 16. 14._ As if Christ his body had
been animated by the soul either of _John_, _Elias_, or _Jeremias_.

    [102] _Joseph. de bello Judaic. l. 2. cap. 12._

    [103] _Serar. Trihæres. l. 2 c. 3. It. Drus. in præter._

Fourthly, They did stifly maintain the Traditions of their _Elders_.
For the better understanding what their _Traditions_ were, we must
know that the _Jews_ say the Law was _twofold_,[104] one committed
to writing, which they called ‎‏תורה שבכתב‏‎ _Thorah schebitchtah_, _The
written Law_; the other delivered by tradition, termed by them,
‎‏תורה בעל פה‏‎ _Thorah begnal pe_. They say both were delivered by _God_
unto _Moses_ upon Mount _Sanai_, the latter as an exposition of the
former, which _Moses_ afterward delivered by mouth to _Joshua_, _Joshua
to the Elders, the Elders to the Prophets, the Prophets to those of the
great Synagogue_, from whom successively it descended to after-ages.
These Traditions were one of the chief Controversies between the
_Pharisees_, and the _Sadduces_.[105] The _Pharisees_ said, _Let us
maintain the Law which our fore fathers have delivered into our hands,
expounded by the mouth of the wise men, who expounded it by tradition_.
And lo, the _Sadduces_ said, _Let us not believe or hearken to any
tradition or exposition, but unto the Law of ~Moses~ alone_. The
Traditions which they chiefly urged, were these;

    [104] _Moses Kotsen. in præf. lib. præcept._

    [105] _Gorionides, c. 29._

1. _They would not eat until they washed their hands_, Why do thy
Disciples transgress the Tradition of the _Elders_? for they wash
not their hands when they eat bread, _Mat. 15. 2._ This washing is
said to have been done πυγμῇ _Mar. 7. 3._ that is, _often_, as some
translate the word, taking πυγμῇ in this place, to signifie the same as
πύκα in _Homer_, _frequenter_. Others translate the word _accurate_,
_diligenter_, intimating the great care and diligence they used in
washing: with this the _Syriack_ Text[106] agreeth. Others[107] think
that there is, in the phrase, allusion unto that rite or manner of
washing in use among the _Jews_, termed by them ‎‏נטילת ידים‏‎ _Netilath
iadaim_, the _lifting up of their hands_. The _Greek_ word πυγμὴ is
thought to express this rite, because in this kind of washing, _They
used to joyn the tops of the fingers of each hand together with the
thumb_, so that each hand did after a sort resemble τὴν πυγμὴν i. a
_fist_. This Ceremony was thus performed: First, they washed their
hands clean. Secondly, they composed them into the fore-mentioned form.
Thirdly, they lifted them up, so that the water ran down to the very
elbows. Lastly, they let down their hands again, so that the water
ran from off their hands upon the earth.[108] And that there might be
store of water running up and down, they poured fresh water on them
when they lifted up their hands, and poured water twice upon them
when they hanged them down. Unto this kind of washing _Theophylact_
seemeth to have reference, when he saith, that the _Pharisees_ did[109]
_cubitaliter lavare_, _wash up to their elbows_. Lastly, others[110]
interpret πυγμὴ, to be the fist, or hand closed, & the manner of
washing thereby denoted to be _by rubbing one hand closed in the plain
or hollow of the other_. All imply a diligent and accurate care in
washing: the ceremonious washing by lifting up the hands, and hanging
them down, best expresseth the superstition, which only was aimed at
in the reproof, though all the sorts of washing, to the _Pharisee_ were
superstitious, because they made it not a matter of outward _decency_
and _civility_, but of _religion_, to eat with washt or unwasht hands,
urging such a necessity hereof,[111] that in case a man may come to
some water, but not enough both to wash and to drink, he should rather
chuse to wash than to drink, though he die with thirst. And it was
deemed amongst them as great a sin to eat with unwasht hands, as to
commit fornication. This Tradition of washing hands, though it were
chiefly urged by the _Pharisees_, yet all the _Jews_ maintained it, as
appeareth by the places quoted.

    [106] _‎‏כטילאית‏‎ μετὰ σπουδῆς. Luke 1. 39._

    [107] _Joseph. Scalig. Tribær. c. 7._

    [108] _Munster. in Deut. 8._

    [109] _Theophylact. in Marc. 7. 3._

    [110] _Beza in majoribus suis annotationibus. Marc. 7. 3._

    [111] _Drusius præterit. Mat. 15. in addend. & Buxtorf. synag.
    Judaic. c. 6. p. 93. ex Talmud._

We may observe three sorts of washing of hands in use among the
_Jews_. 1. _Pharisaical_ and _superstitious_, this was reproved.
2. _Ordinary_, for outward _decency_; this was allowed. The third,
in token of _innocency_; this was commanded by the _Elders_ of the
neighbour-Cities, in case of murder, _Deut. 21. 6._ It was practised by
_Pilate_, _Matth. 37. 24._ and alluded unto by _David_, I will _wash my
hands in innocency_, so will I compass thine altar, _Psal. 26. 6._

2. _When they came from the Market they washt_, _Mar. 7. 4._ The reason
thereof was, because they there having to do with divers sorts of
people, unaware; they might be polluted. The word used by Saint _Mark_,
is, βαπτίσωνται, _they baptized themselves_: implying the _washing of
their whole body_. And it seemeth that those _Pharisees_ who were more
zealous than others, did thus _wash_ themselves alwayes before dinner.
The _Pharisee_ marvelled that _Christ_ had not first washed himself
before dinner, _Luke 11. 38._ Unto this kind of superstition St.
_Peter_ is thought to have inclined, when he said, _Lord, not my feet
only, but also my hands, and my head_, _John 13. 9._ Thus finding his
modesty disliked, when he refused to have his feet wash’d by his _Lord_
and _Master_; now he leapeth into the other extream, as if he had said,
Not _my feet only, but my whole body_. Hence proceeded that Sect of the
_Hemerobaptistæ_, i.e. _Daily baptists_, so called[112] because they
did _every day thus wash themselves_.

    [112] _Epith. l. 2. Tom. 1. c. 17._

3. _They wash’d their cups, and pots, and brazen vessels, and tables_,
_Mark 7. 4._

4. _They held it unlawful to eat with sinners_, _Mat. 9. 11._ yea, they
judged it a kind of pollution to be touched by them, _Luke 7. 39._ If
this man were a _Prophet_, he would surely have known who, and what
manner of woman this is which toucheth him, for she is a sinner. Of
such a people the _Prophet_ speaketh: They said, stand a part, come not
near to me, or (as the words may be rendred)[113] _Touch me not_, for I
am holier than thou, _Esay. 65. 5._ The like practice was in use among
the _Samaritanes_,[114] who if they met any stranger, they cryed out,
μὴ πρόσψαυσον, _Ne attingas_, _Touch not_.

    [113] _‎‏אל תגע בי‏‎ Ne attingas me._

    [114] _Scalig. de emend. temp. lib. 7. Idem refert Epiphan.
    lib. 1. Tom. 1. cap. 13._

5. _They fasted twice in the week_, _Luke 18. 12._ Namely,[115]
_Mundays_ and _Thursdays_. Because _Moses_ (as they say)[116] went up
into the Mount _Sinai_ on a _Thursday_, and came down on a _Munday_.

    [115] _Theophylact. in Luke 18. 12. It. Epiph. hær. 16._

    [116] _Drusius in Luc. 18. 13._

6. _They made broad their Phylacteries, and inlarged the borders
of their garments_, _Matth. 23. 5._ Here three things are worthy
our consideration. First, What these _Phylacteries_ were. Secondly,
What was written in them. Thirdly, Whence they were so called.
_Epiphanus_[117] interpreteth these _Phylacteries_ to be πλατέα σήματα
πορφύρας, _purple studs, or flourishes, woven in their garments_: as
if _Epiphanius_ had conceived the _Pharisees_ garment to be like that
which the _Roman Senators_ were wont to wear, termed, by reason of
those _broad-studs_ and _works_ woven in it, _Laticlavium_: but seeing
that these _Phylacteries_ were additaments and ornaments, whereof there
were[118] two sorts, the one tied to their _Fore-heads_, the other to
their _Left-hands_; hence it followeth, that by these _Phylacteries_
could not be meant whole garments, or any embosments, or flourishings
woven in the cloth. Generally they are thought to be schedules or
scroles of parchments, whereof, as I noted, there were two sorts;
_Phylacteries for the Fore-head_, or _Frontlets_, reaching from one
Ear to the other, and tied behind with a thong; and _Phylacteries for
the hand_, fastned upon the Left-arm above the Elbow on the inside,
that it might be near the heart. Both these sorts were worn, not by
the _Pharisees_ only,[119] but by the _Sadduces_ also, but with this
difference; The _Pharisees_, haply for greater ostentation, wore their
_Hand-Phylacteries above their Elbows_: the _Sadduces on the palms of
their Hands_.[120] Nay, all the _Jews_ wore them, our _Saviour Christ_
not excepted. The command was general, _Exod. 13. 9._ It shall be for a
sign unto thee upon thine hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes.
So that it is not the wearing of them which our _Saviour_ condemned,
but the making of them broad, whereby they would appear more holy than

    [117] _Epiph. lib. 1. Tom. 1. cap. 15._

    [118] _Moses Kot. præcept. affirm. 22._

    [119] _Maimon. in Tephillim. c. 4. sect. 3._

    [120] _Scal. Trihæres. p. 258._

In these Parchments they wrote[121] only the _Decalogue_, or Ten
Commandments, in the opinion of _Chrysostome_ and _Hierome_: but
generally, and upon better grounds, it is thought they wrote these four
sections of the Law.

    [121] _Chrysost. & Hieronym. in Mat. 23._

    1. The first began, Sanctifie unto me all the firstborn, _&c._
    _Exod. 13. 2._ to the end of the 10. _verse_.

    2. The second began, And it shall be when the Lord shall bring
    thee, _&c._ _Exod. 13. 11._ to the end of the 16. _verse_.

    3. The third began, Hear O Israel, _Deut. 6. 4._ and continued
    to the end of the ninth _verse_.

    4. The fourth began, And it shall come to pass; if you shall
    hearken diligently, &c. _Deut. 11. 13._ to the end of the one
    and twentieth _verse_.

These four Sections written in scrols of Parchment, and folded up,
they fastned to their _fore-heads_ and their _left-arms_: those that
were for the _fore-head_, they wrote in four distinct pieces of
parchment[122] especially, and if they wrote it in one piece; the
length of every Section ended in one column, and they did put them
into one skin, in which there was the proportion of four houses or
receptacles, and not into four skins: every receptacle was distinct by
it self; and those that were for the hand, were written in one piece
of Parchment principally, the four Sections in four columns; but if
they wrote them in four pieces, it was at length, and they put them in
a skin that had but one receptacle.[123] In time of persecution when
they could not openly wear these _Phylacteries_, then did they tye
about their hands a red thread, to put them in mind of the blood of the
Covenant of the Law.

    [122] _Moses Kotsen. fol. 104. col. 3._

    [123] _Munster. de præcept. affirm._

Touching the name _Moses_ calleth them ‎‏טוטפות‏‎ _Totaphot_, which
word hath almost as many _Etymologies_, as Interpreters; the most
probable in my opinion, is, that they should be so called _per
Antiphrasin_, from ‎‏טטף‏‎ _Incedere_, _to go_ or _move_, because they
were _immoveable_: Hence the _Septuagint_ translate them, ἀσάλευτα
_Immoveable ornaments_. The Rabbins call them _Tephillim_, _Prayer
ornaments_:[124] others call them _Pittacia_, & _Pittaciola_, from
πιττάκιον, which signifieth a piece or parcel of Cloth. In the
Gospel they are called φυλακτήρια, _Phylacteries_, from φυλάττω, to
_conserve_ or _keep_. First, because by the use of them, the _Law_ was
_kept_ and _preserved_ in memory. Secondly, because the _Pharisees_
superstitiously conceited, that by them, as by Amulets, Spells, and
Charms, hanged about their necks themselves might be _preserved from
dangers_. The word φυλακτήριον signifieth a Spell; and _Hierome_
testifieth, that the _Pharisees_ had a such a conceit of these
ornaments: In which place he compareth the _Pharisees_ with certain
superstitious women of his time, who carried up and down, upon the like
ground, _pervula evangelia, & crucis ligna_, short sentences out of
the Gospel, and the reliques of the Cross. The same superstition hath
prevailed with many of latter times, who for the same purpose hang
the beginning of[125] Saint _John_’s _Gospel_ about their necks. And
in the year of our _Lord_ 692. certain Sorcerers were condemned for
the like kind of _Magick_, by the name of[126] φυλακτήριοι, that is,

    [124] _Hieronym. in Mat. 23._

    [125] _Scalig. Tribær. cap. 70._

    [126] _Concil. quini Sexti, Canon 61._

Thus much of their _Phylacteries_: In the same verse is reproved the
_inlarging of their borders_.[127] That which we read borders in the
_Gospel_, is called, _Num. 15. 38._ ‎‏ציצות‏‎ _Tsitsith_, _Fringes_: and
‎‏גדילים‏‎ _Gedelim_, _Deut. 22. 10._ which word we likewise translate in
that place, _Fringes_. They were in the fore-quoted places commanded,
and our _Saviour Christ_ himself did wear them, _Luk. 8. 44._ The
latter Hebrew word signifieth a _large Fringe_, which agravateth the
superstition of the _Pharisees_, in making their Fringes _larger_,
when the Law had allowed them _large_. This literal exposition I take
to be most agreeable with the _Text_, though to _inlarge_ in _Greek_
and _Latine_[128] sometimes, signifieth to _boast, vaunt, or brag of
a thing_; and in this sense it may very well fit a _Pharisee_. The
reason of this command was, to put them in mind of the Commandments,
_Numb. 15._ And for the furtherance of this duty,[129] they used sharp
thorns in in their Fringes, that by the often pricking of the Thorn,
whether they walked or sate still, they might be the more mindful of
the Commandments.

    [127] _Vide D. Kimchi. Radic._

    [128] _Τὸ μεγαλύνεσθαι, apud Euripidem in Bacchis, valet,
    Magnifice jactare, Efferre. Magnificare apud Varronem & Plinium
    eadem significatione usurpatur, Theodor. Beza in Mat. 23._

    [129] _Hieron. in Mat. 23._

There were[130] seven sorts of _Pharises_. 1. _Pharisæus Sichemita._ He
turned _Pharisee_ for gain, as the _Sichemites_ suffered themselves to
be circumcised.

    [130] _Talmud. tract. Suta. cap. 3._

2. _Pharisæus truncatus_, so called, as if he had no feet, because he
would scarce lift them from the ground when he walked, to cause the
greater opinion of his meditation.

3. _Pharisæus inpingens._ He would shut his eyes when he walked abroad,
to avoid the sight of Women, in so much that he often dash’d his head
against the walls, that the blood gush’d out.

4. _Pharisæus, Quid debeo facere, & faciam illud._ He was wont to say,
_What ought I to do? and I will do it._ Of this sort seemeth the man
in the _Gospel_ to have been, who came unto _Christ_, saying, _Good
Master, what shall I do? &c._ and at last replyed, _All these I have
done from my youth upward_, _Luke 18._

5. _Pharisæus mortarius_; so called because he wore a hat in manner of
a deep _Mortar_, such as they use to bray spice in, in so much that
he could not look upward, nor of either side; onely downward on the
ground, and forward or forthright.

6. _Pharisæus ex amore_; Such a one as obeyed the Law for the Love of

7. _Pharisæus ex timore_; Such a one obeyed the Law for fear of
punishment. He that conformed for fear had respect chiefly to the
_negative Commandements_; but he that conformed for love, especially
respected the _Affirmative_.


_Of the Sadduces._

To omit other _Etymologies_ of the name, there are two onely which have
shew of probability. Some[131] derive it from _Sedec_, _Justitia_; as
if they had been _Justitiaries_, such as would justifie themselves
before _Gods_ Tribunal. There are[132] that derive it, and that
upon more warrantable grounds, from _Sadoc_, the first Author of
the heresie; so that the _Sadduces_ were so called from _Sadoc_, as
the _Arrians_ from _Arrius_, the _Pelagians_ from _Pelagius_, the
_Donatists_ from _Donatus_, &c.

    [131] _Epiphan. l. 1. cap. 14._

    [132] _ἀπὸ αἱρεσιάρχου Σαδὼκ ὀνομάζεται. Theophylact._

This _Sadoc_ lived under _Antigonus Sochæus_, who succeeded _Simeon_
the _Just_. He was _Antigonus_ his scholar, and by him brought up
in the Doctrine of the _Pharisees_, but afterwards fell from him,
and broacht the heresie of the _Sadduces_; which heresie, because
it had much affinity with that which the Heretique _Dositheus_
taught, hence are the _Sadduces_ said to[133] be a branch or skirt
of the _Dositheans_, though in truth _Dositheus_ lived not till[134]
after _Christ_; and although these two heresies did agree in many
things; yet in a main point they differed.[135] _Dositheus_ believed
the Resurrection, the _Sadduces_ denyed it; and by consequence the
_Dositheans_ believed all other points necessarily flowing from this.

    [133] _Epiph. hæres. 14. It. Tertul. de præscript. c. 5._

    [134] _Origen. contra Celsum. l. 2._

    [135] _Epiph. hæres. 13._

The occasion of this heresie was this.[136] When _Antigonus_ taught,
that we must not serve God as servants serve their Masters, for hope of
reward, his scholars _Sadoc_ and _Baithus_ understood him, as if he had
utterly denied all future rewards or recompence attending a godly life,
and thence framed their heresie, denying the _resurrection, the world
to come, Angels, Spirits, &c._

    [136] _Aboth. cap. 1._

Their _Dogmata_, _Canons_, or _Constitutions_, were, 1. _They
rejected[137] the Prophets, & all other Scripture save only the five
books of Moses._ Therefore our _Saviour_ when he would confute their
errour, concerning the resurrection of the dead, he proves it not out
of the _Prophets_, but out of _Exod. 3. 6._ _I am the God of Abraham,
the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob_, _Mat. 22. 32._

    [137] _Joseph. Antiq. lib. 13. c. 18._

2. _They rejected[138] all traditions._ Whence, As they were called
‎‏מינין‏‎ _Minæi_, i. _Heretiques_, in respect of the general opposition
between them and _Pharisees_. First, because the _Pharisees_ were in
repute the only _Catholicks_. Secondly, because in their Doctrine,
the _Pharisees_ were much nearer the truth than the _Sadduces_: so in
this respect of this particular opposition, in the ones rejecting, the
others urging of traditions, the _Sadduces_ were termed[139] ‎‏קראים‏‎
_Karaim_, _Biblers_, or _Scripturists_.

    [138] _Elias de ‎‏שרק‏‎._

    [139] _Drusius de trib. sect. c. 8. l. 3 p. 130._

3. _They said there was no reward for good works, nor punishment for
ill, in the world to come._ Hence Saint _Paul_ perceiving that in the
_Councel_ the one part were _Sadduces_, the other _Pharisees_, he cried
out, _Of the hope of the reward expected, and of the resurrection of
the dead, I am called in question_, Act. 23. 6.

4. _They denied the resurrection of the body_, Act. 22. 8. Matth. 22.
23. Luke 20. 27.

5. _They said the souls of men are annihilated[140] at their death._

    [140] _Joseph. de bello Judaic. lib. 2. c. 12._

6. _They denied Angels and spirits_, Act. 23. 8.

7. _They wholly denied[141] Fate or Destiny, and ascribed all to mans

    [141] _Joseph. l. 13. c. 9._

The _Samaritanes_ and the _Sadduces_ are of near affinity: but yet they
differ. First[142] The _Samaritanes sacrificed_ at the Temple built
upon Mount _Gerizim_, but the _Sadduces_ sacrificed at _Jerusalem_.
Secondly, The _Samaritanes_ allowed no commerce with the _Jews_, _John
4. 9._ yea, the mutual hatred between the _Samaritans_ and the _Jews_
was so great, that it was not lawful for the _Jews_ to eat or drink
with the _Samaritans_. How is it that thou being a _Jew_, askest drink
of me which am a woman of _Samaria_, _Joh. 4. 9._ Nay, whereas liberty
was granted unto all Nations of the earth to become _Proselites_ to the
_Jewes_, so did the _Jews_ hate the _Samaritanes_, that they would not
suffer a _Samaritan_ to be a _Prosylite_. This appeareth by that solemn
_Excommunication_,[143] termed _Excommunicatio in secreto nominis
tetragrammati_: the form thereof: as it was applyed (say they) by
_Ezra_ and _Nehemiah_ unto the _Samaritanes_, was thus, _They assembled
the whole Congregation into the Temple of the Lord, and they brought
300 Priests, ~and~ 300 Trumpets, ~and~ 300 books of the Law, and as
many boys, and they sounded their Trumpets and the Levites singing
cursed the Samaritanes by all the sorts of Excommunication, in the
mystery of the name ~Jehovah~, and in the Decalogue, & with the curse
of the superiour house of judgement, and likewise with the curse of the
inferiour house of judgement, that no Israelite should eat the bread of
a Samaritane, (whence they say, he which eateth of a Samaritans bread
is as he who eateth swines flesh) and let no Samaritane be a Prosylite
in Israel, and that they should have no part in the resurrection of the
dead_. _R. Gersom_[144] forbade the breaking open of the Letters, under
the penalty of this _Excommunication_. This proveth what formerly was
said; namely, that between the _Jews_ and the _Samaritanes_ there was
no commerce; but the _Sadduces_ familiarly conversed with the other
_Jews_, even with the _Pharisees_ themselves; yea, both sat together in
the same _Council_, _Acts 23. 6._ Now the _Samaritanes_ and _Sadduces_
agree. 1. _In the rejection of all the others traditions._ 2. _In
the rejection of all other Scriptures, save only the five Books of
~Moses~._ 3. _In the denial of the Resurrection, and the consequences,
as future punishments, and rewards according to mens works._ But the
_Samaritanes_ held that there were _Angels_, which the _Sadduces_
denied. For the proof of these agreements and disagreements between
them, read _Epiphanius, hæres. 9. & 14._

    [142] _Epiphan. Tom. 1. l. 1. hæres. 14._

    [143] _Drusius de trib. sect. l. 2. cap 11. ex Ilmedenu._

    [144] _Buxtorf. Epist. Heb. p. 59._

Touching the _Samaritanes_, there are three degrees of alteration in
their Religion observable. First, the strange Nations, transplanted by
_Salmanesar_ into _Samaria_, when _Israel_ was carried away captive
into _Assyria_, worshipped every one the _God of their own Countries_,
_2 King. 17._ Secondly, when they saw they were devoured by Lyons,
because they feared not the Lord, the _King_ of _Assyria_ sent one of
the _Priests_ which was taken captive, to instruct them in the true
worship of _God_: which manner of worship though they received, yet
they would not lay aside their former Idolatry, but made a mixture of
Religions, worshipping the living _God_, and their own dumb _Idols_.
Thirdly, _Manasses_, brother to _Jaddus_ the _High priest_, in
_Jerusalem_, being married to _Sanballat_, the _Horonite_’s Daughter,
by reason of _Nehemiah_’s charge of putting away their strange Wives,
being driven to that exigent, that he must either put away his Wife,
or forgo the hope of the _Priest-hood_; by _Sanballat_’s means he
obtained leave from _Alexander_ the Great, to build a _Temple_[145]
upon Mount _Gariazim_, one of the highest Mountains in _Samaria_,
whither many other Apostated _Jews_ fled, together with _Manasses_
being made their _High-Priest_; and now the Sect of the _Samaritanes_
(between whom and the _Jews_ there was such hatred) began, now all
those fore-mentioned errors were maintained: And of this Hill it
is, that the woman of _Samaria_ speaketh _John 4. 20._ Our Fathers
worshipped in this _Mountain_, _&c._

    [145] _Joseph. Antiq. lib. 11. cap 8._

By comparing the _Dogmata_ of the _Pharisees_, with these of the
_Sadduces_, we may perceive a manifest opposition between them; yet
both these joyned against _Christ_, _Mark 12._

This heresie, though it were the greatest amongst the _Jews_,
yet was it imbraced and maintained by some of the _High Priests_
themselves:[146] _Joannes Hyrcanus_ was a _Sadducee_, so were his sons,
_Aristobulus_ and _Alexander_,[147] and likewise _Ananus_ the younger;
so that _Moses_ Chair was not amongst them exempted from error; no nor

    [146] _Gorionides, cap. 29._

    [147] _Euseb. hist. l. 2. c. 23. Ex Joseph. Antiq. lib. 20. cap. 8._


_Of the Essenes._

The _Etymologies_ of the names _Essæi_, or _Esseni_, i.e. _Essenes_,
are divers, that which I prefer is from the _Syriake_ ‎‏אסא‏‎ _Asa_,
signifying θεραπεύειν to heal, or cure Diseases. Hence[148] are the men
so often termed, θεραπευταὶ and the women amongst them, θεραπευτρίδες,
that is, _Physicians_. For though they gave themselves chiefly to the
study of the _Bible_ yet withal they studied _Physick_.

    [148] _Joseph. de bello Judaic. lib. 2. c. 12. p. 786._

Of these _Essenes_ there were two sorts, some _Theoricks_, giving
themselves wholly to _speculation_; others _Practicks_, laborious
and painful in the daily exercise of those _handy-crafts_, in which
they were most skilful. Of the latter, _Philo_ treateth in his book
entituled, _Quod omnis vir probus_: Of the former, in the book
following, entituled, _De vita contemplativa_.

Their _Dogmata_, their _Ordinance_, or _Constitutions_, did symbolize
in many things with _Pythagoras_ his, where they do agree. Therefore my
purpose is, first to name _Pythagoras_ his; and then to proceed on with
the _Essenes_. They follow thus.

The[149] _Pythagoreans professed a communion of goods_: _So the
Essenes_.[150] _they had one common purse or stock_, none richer, none
poorer than other; out of this common treasury, every one supplyed
his own wants without leave, and administred to the necessities of
others: only they might not relieve any of their kindred without leave
from their Overseers. They did not buy or sell among themselves, but
each supplyed the others want, by a kind of commutative bartring: yea,
liberty was granted to take one from another what they wanted, without
exchange. They performed Offices of service mutually one to another;
for mastership and service cannot stand with communion of goods:
and servants are commonly injurious to the state of their Masters,
according to that saying of _R. Gamaliel_,[151] _He that multiplyeth
servants, multiplieth thieves_. When they travelled, besides weapons
for defence, they took nothing with them, for in whatsoever City or
Village they came, they repaired to the Fraternity of the _Essenes_,
and were there entertained as members of the same. And if we do
attentively read _Josephus_, we may observe that the _Essenes_ of every
City joyned themselves into one _common Fraternity_ or _Colledge_.
Every Colledge had two sorts of Officers: _First_, _Treasurers_, who
looked to the common stock, provided their diet, appointed each his
task, and other publick necessaries. Secondly, _Others, who entertained
their strangers_.

    [149] _Aul. Gell. l. 1. c. 10. It. Laer. in Pythag. Κοινὰ τὰ
    φίλων εἶναι._

    [150] _Joseph. lib. 18. cap. 2._

    [151] _‎‏מרבה עבדים מרבה גזל‏‎ Marbe gnabadim. Marbe gezel, Pirke
    Aboth. cap. 1._

2. _The Pythagoreans shunned pleasures._[152] _So did the
Essenes_:[153] to this belongeth their avoiding of oyl, which, if any
touched unawares, they wiped it off presently.

    [152] _Justin. lib. 20._

    [153] _Joseph. de bello Judaic. lib. 2. c. 12._

3. _The Pythagoreans garments were white_:[154] _So were the Essenes
white also_,[155] modest, not costly: when once they put on a suit,
they never changed it till it was torn, or worn out.

    [154] _Suid. It. Ælian. de varia hist. l. 18. cap. 32._

    [155] _Joseph. de bello Judaic. lib. 2. cap. 12._

4. _The Pythagoreans forbade Oaths._[156] _So did the Essenes_;[157]
they thought him a noted lyar, who could not be believed without an

    [156] _Laert. in vita Pythagoræ._

    [157] _Philo Judæus._

5. _The Pythagoreans had their Elders in singular respect._[158] _So
had the Essenes._[159] _The body, or whole company of the Essenes_,
were distinguisht εἰς μοίρας τέσσαρας into four _ranks_, or _orders_,
according to their Seniority; and if haply any of the superior ranks
had touched any of the inferior, he thought himself polluted, as if he
had touched an _Heathen_.

    [158] _Suidas. It. Laertius._

    [159] _Joseph. de bello Judaic. lib. 2. cap. 12._

6. _The Pythagoreans drank water._[160] _So did the Essenes only
water_,[161] wholly abstaining from wine.

    [160] _Suidas._

    [161] _Philo de vita contemplativa._

7. _The Pythagoreans used θυσίαις ἀψύχαις inanimate Sacrifices._[162]
_So did the Essenes_:[163] they sent _gifts_ to the Temple, and did
not sacrifice, but preferred the use of their _holy water_ before
_sacrifice_, for which reason the other _Jews_ forbad them all access
unto the Temple.

    [162] _Laertius in vita Pythag._

    [163] _Joseph. Antiq. lib. 18. cap. 2._

8. _The Pythagoreans ascribed all things to fate or destiny._[164] _So
did the Essenes._[165] In this _Aphorism_ all three Sects differed
each from other. The _Pharisees_ ascribed some things to _Fate_, and
other things to _Mans Free-will_. The _Essenes_ ascribed all to _Fate_,
nothing to _mans free will_. The _Sadduces_ wholly deny _Fate_, and
ascribed all things to the _free will of man_.

    [164] _Suidas._

    [165] _Joseph. Antiq. lib. 13. cap. 9._

9. _The Pythagoreans the first five years were not permitted to
speak in the School_:[166] but were initiated _per quinquennale
silentium_,[167] and not until then suffered to come into the presence
of, or sight of _Pythagoras_. To this may be referred the _Essenes
silence at Table_ straightly observed, so that _Decem simul sedentibus,
nemo loquitur invitis novem_; _Drusius_[168] renders it, that ten of
them sitting together, none of them spake without leave obtained of
the nine. When any did speak, it was not their custome to interrupt
him with words, but by nods of the head, or beckenings, or holding
their finger, or shaking their heads, and other such like dumb signs
and gestures, to signifie their doubtings, disliking, or approving the
matter in hand. And to the time of silence amongst the _Pythagoreans_,
that it must be for five years, may be referred the initiation of the
_Essenes_; for amongst them none were presently admitted into their
_society_, with full liberty, but they under went four years of tryal
and probation. The first year they received _Dolabellum,[169] Perizoma,
& vestem albam_, a _spadle_, with which they digged a convenient place
to ease Nature; a _pair of breeches_, which they used in bathing or
washing themselves; a _white garment_, which especially that Sect
affected. At this time they had their commons allowed them, but
without, not in the common dining Hall. The second year they admitted
them to the _participation of holy matters_, and instructed them in
the use of them. Two years after they admitted them in _full manner_,
making them of their _Corporation_, after they had received an Oath,
truly to observe all the Rules and Ordinances of the _Essenes_. If any
brake his oath, an hundred of them being assembled together, expelled
him, upon which expulsion commonly followed death within a short time;
for none having once entred this Order, might receive alms or any meat
from other; and themselves would feed such a one, only with distastful
herbs, which wasted his body, and brought it very low: sometimes they
would re-admit such a one being brought near unto death; but commonly
they suffered him to die in that misery.

    [166] _Quinquennale hoc silentium â Pythagora auditoribus suis
    indictum vocabant ἐχεμυθίαν à cohibendo sermone._

    [167] _Laertius in Pythagor._

    [168] _Drusius de trib. sect. l. 4._

    [169] _Joseph. de bello Judaico lib. 2. cap. 12._

10. _The Essenes worshipped toward the Sun rising._[170]

    [170] _Philo item Joseph._

11. _The Essenes bound themselves in their oath, to preserve the names
of Angels_:[171] The phrase implyeth a kind of worshipping of them.

    [171] _Joseph. de bello Judaic. lib. 2. cap. 12._

12. _They were above all others strict in the observation of the
Sabbath day_;[172] on it they would dress no meat, kindle no fire,
remove no Vessels out of their place; no, nor ease Nature, Yea, they
observed[173] _ἑβδομάδων ἑβδομάδας, every seventh week, a solemn
Pentecost; seven Pentecosts, every year_.

    [172] _Joseph. ib._

    [173] _Philo de vita contemplat._

13. _They abstained from marriage_, not that they disliked marriage in
it self, or intended an end or period to procreation: but partly, in
wariness of womens intemperance; partly, because they were perswaded
that no woman would continue faithful to one man. This avoiding of
marriage is not to be understood generally of all the _Essenes_, for
they disagreed among themselves in this point. Some were of the
opinion before noted: others married for propagation. _Nihilominus
autem cum tanta ipsi moderatione conveniunt, ut per triennium explorent
valetudinem fœminarum; & si constanti purgatione apparuerint idoneæ
partui, ita eas in matrimonia asciscunt. Nemo tamen cum prægnante
concumbit, ut ostendant, quòd nuptias non voluptatis, sed liberorum
causa inierint._ Thus the latter sort preserved their Sect by the
procreation of children: the former sort preserved it by a kind of
adoption of other mens children, counting them as near Kinsmen, and
tutoring them in the Rules of Discipline, as _Josephus_ witnesseth.
_Pliny_[174] addeth also, that many other of the _Jews_, when they
began to be struck in years, voluntarily joyned themselves unto
them, being moved thereunto, either because of the variable state
and troubles of the world, or upon consideration of their own former
licentious courses, as if they would by this means exercise a kind of
penance upon themselves.

    [174] _Plin. hist. l. 5. cap. 17._

Concerning the beginning of this Sect, from whom, or when it began,
it is hard to determine. Some[175] make them as ancient as the
_Rechabites_, and the _Rechabites_ to have differed only in the
addition of some rules and ordinances from the _Kenites_, mentioned
_Judg. 1. 16._ And thus by consequence the _Essenes_ were as ancient,
as the _Israelites_ departure out of _Egypt_: for _Jethro_, _Moses_
father-in-law, as appeareth by the Text, was a _Kenite_: but neither
of these seemeth probable. For the _Kenites_ are not mentioned in
Scripture, as a _distinct order_ or _sect of people_, but as a
_distinct family_, _kindred_, or _Nation_, _Numb. 24. 21._ Secondly,
the _Rechabites_, they neither did build houses, but dwelt in Tents;
neither did they deal in husbandry, they sowed no seed, nor planted
Vineyards, nor had any, _Jer. 55. 7._ The _Essenes_, on the contrary,
they dwelt not in tents, but in houses;[176] and they imployed
themselves especially in husbandry. One of the _Hebrew Doctors_[177]
saith, that the _Essenes_ were _Nazarites_: but that cannot be, because
the Law enjoyned the _Nazarites_, when the time of the Consecration
was out, to present themselves at the door of the _Tabernacle_ or
_Temple_, _Num. 6._ Now the _Essenes_ had no access to the _Temple_.
When therefore, or from what Author this Sect took its beginning, is
uncertain. The first that I find mentioned by the name of an _Essene_,
was one _Judas_,[178] who lived in the time of _Aristobulus_ the Son
of _Joannes Hyrcanus_, before our _Saviours_ Birth about one hundred
years: Howsoever the Sect was of greater antiquity;[179] for all
three, _Pharisees_, _Sadduces_, and _Essenes_, were in _Jonathan_’s
time, the brother of _Judeas Macchabeus_, who was fifty years before
_Aristobulus_. Certain it is, that this Sect continued until the daies
of our _Saviour_, and after; for _Philo_ and _Josephus_ speaks of
them as living in their times. What might be the reason then, that
there is no mention of them in the _New Testament_? I answer; First,
The number of them seemeth not to have been great, in _Philo_ and
_Josephus_ his time,[180] about four thousand, which being dispersed
in many Cities, made the Faction weak: and haply in _Jerusalem_ when
our _Savior_ lived, they were either few or none. Secondly, if we
observe histories we shall find them peaceable and quiet, not opposing
any, and therefore not so liable to reproof as the _Pharisees_ and
_Sadduces_, who opposed each other, and both joyned against _Christ_.
Thirdly, why might they not as well be passed over in silence in the
_New Testament_, (especially containing themselves quietly without
contradiction of others) as the _Rechabites_ in the _Old Testament_,
of whom there is mention only once, and that obliquely, although their
Order continued about three hundred years before this testimony was
given of them by the Prophet _Jeremy_; for between _Jehu_ (with whom
_Jonadab_ was Coetanean) and _Zedekiah_, Chronologers observe the
distance of many years. Lastly, though the name _Essenes_ be not found
in Scripture,[181] yet we shall find in S. _Paul_’s Epistles many
things reproved, which were taught in the School of the _Essenes_.
Of this nature was that advice given unto _Timothy_, _1 Tim. 5. 23._
_Drink no longer water, but use a little wine_. Again, _1 Tim. 4.
3._ _Forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats is a
Doctrine of Devils_; but especially _Coloss. 2._ in many passages the
_Apostle_ seemeth directly to point at them, _Let no man condemn you in
meat and drink_, _v. 16._ _Let no man bear rule over you, by humbleness
of mind, and worshipping of Angels_, _vers. 18._ τί δογματίζεσθε;
_Why are ye subject to Ordinances?_ _ver. 20._ The _Apostle_ useth
the word δόγματα, which was applyed by the _Essenes_ to denote their
_Ordinances_, _Aphorisms_, or _Constitutions_. In the verse following
he gives an instance of some particulars, _Touch not, taste not, handle
not_, _vers. 21._ Now the Junior company of _Essenes_ might not _touch_
their Seniors. And in their diet, their taste was limited to bread,
salt, water, and hyssop. And these ordinances they undertook, διὰ
πόθον σοφίας saith _Philo_, for the _love of wisdom_: but the Apostle
concludeth, _vers. 23._ That these things had only, λόγον σοφίας, a
shew of _wisdom_. And whereas _Philo_ termeth the Religion of the
_Essenes_, by the name of θεραπεία, which word signifieth _religious
worship_, the _Apostle_ termeth in the same verse, ἐθελοθρησκείαν,
_Voluntary-religion_, or _will-worship_: yea, where he termeth their
Doctrine πατρίαν φιλοσοφίαν, a kind of _Philosophy_ received from
their Fore-fathers by Tradition, Saint _Paul_ biddeth them beware of
_Philosophy_, _vers. 8._

    [175] _Serarius Trihæres. l. 3. cap. 5._

    [176] _Joseph. Antiq. lib. 18. c. 7._

    [177] _Scalig. in Trihær. cap. 23._

    [178] _Joseph. l. 13. c. 19._

    [179] _Joseph. l. 13. c. 9._

    [180] _Philo. lib. quod omnis probus, p. 678._

    [181] _Vide Chemnit. exem. conc. Trident. part. quart. pag. 120._

We formerly observed two sorts of _Essenes_; _Practicks_ and
_Theoricks_: both agreed in their _Aphorisms_, or _Ordinances_; but in
certain circumstances they differed.

1. The _Practicks_ dwelt in the Cities; The _Theoricks_ shunned the
Cities, and dwelt in Gardens, and solitary Villages.

2. The _Practicks_ spent the day in manual Crafts, keeping of Sheep,
looking to Bees, tilling of Ground, _&c._ they were τεχνίται,
_Artificers_. The _Theoricks_ spent the day in meditation, and prayers,
whence they were by a kind of excellency, by _Philo_ termed, ἱκέται,

3. The _Practicks_ had every day their dinner and supper allowed them;
the _Theoricks_ only their supper.

The _Practicks_ had for their Commons every one his dish of
Water-gruel, and bread; The _Theoricks_ only bread, and salt: if any
were of a more delicate palate then other, to him it was permitted to
eat Hyssop; their drink for both, was common water.

Some are of Opinion, that these _Theoricks_ were _Christian Monks_; but
the countary appeareth, for these reasons:

1. In that whole Book of _Philo_, concerning the _Theoricks_, there is
no mention either of _Christ_, or _Christians_, of the _Evangelists_,
or _Apostles_.

2. The _Theoricks_, in that Book of _Philo_’s, are not any new Sect of
late beginning, as the _Christians_ at that time were, as is clearly
evidenced by _Philo_ his own words. First, In calling the Doctrine
of the _Essenes_ πατρίαν φιλοσοφίαν, _A philosophy derived unto them
by tradition from their fore-fathers_. Secondly, in saying, _Habent
priscorum commentarios, qui hujus sectæ autores_, &c.

3. The inscription of that Book, is not only περὶ βίου θεωρητικοῦ but
also περὶ ἱκετῶν. Now _Philo_[182] elsewhere calleth the whole Nation
of the _Jews_, τὸ ἱκετικὸν γένος, which argueth, that those _Theoricks_
were _Jews_, not _Christians_.

    [182] _Philo in Prin. lib. de legat. Caium._


_Of the Gaulonitæ, and the Herodians._

Other Factions there were among the _Jews_, which are improperly
termed Sects. Of these there were principally two. First, _Gaulonitæ_.
Secondly, _Herodiani_. The _Gaulonitæ_ had their names from
one _Judas_, who sometimes[183] was called _Judas Gaulonites_,
sometimes[184] _Judas Galilæus_, of whom _Gamaliel_ speaketh, _Acts
5. 37._ _After this man rose up Judas of Galilee in the daies of the
tribute._ The tribute here spoken of, was that made by _Cyrenius_,
sometimes called _Quirinius_: the name in _Greek_ is one and the same,
but differently read by Expositors. This _Cyrenius_ was sent from
_Rome_ by _Augustus_, into _Syria_, and from thence came into _Judæa_,
where _Coponius_ was _President_, and there he raised this Tax; which
taxation is unadvisedly by some confounded with that mentioned,
_Luke 2. 1._ Both were raised under _Augustus_, but they differed.
First, this was only of _Syria_ and _Judæa_; that in Saint _Luke_ was
universal, of the whole world. Secondly, this was, when _Archelaus_,
_Herods_ son, was banished into _Vienna_, having reigned nine years;
that, under _Herod_ the Great: Whence there is an observable Emphasis,
in that Saint _Luke_ saith, it was the _first_ taxing, having reference
unto this _second_.

    [183] _Joseph. Antiq. lib. 8. cap. 21._

    [184] _Jos. l. 18, c. 21._

The occasion[185] of this Faction was thus: When _Cyrenius_ levied this
Tax, and seized upon _Archelaus_, _Herod_’s sons goods; then arose this
_Judas_ opposing this Tribute; and telling the people, that Tribute was
a manifest token of servitude, and that they ought to call none _Lord_,
but only him who was _Lord of Lords_, the God of heaven and earth.
Whence those that adhered unto him were called _Gaulonitæ_; they were
also called _Galileans_.[186] It was their blood that _Pilate_ mixed
with their sacrifices, _Luk. 13. 1._ For _Pilate_ had not authority
over the Nation of the _Galileans_. The reason of this mixture is
thought[187] to be, because the _Galileans_ forbad sacrifices to be
offered for the _Roman Empire_, or for the safety of the _Emperour_;
whereupon, _Pilate_ being incensed with anger, slew them whilst they
were sacrificing.[188] To this faction belonged those murderers, termed
Σικαριοὶ, mentioned, _Acts 21. 18._

    [185] _Joseph. loco superius citato._

    [186] _Oecumenius. Act. 5. 37. Theophylact. Luc. 13. 1._

    [187] _Theophylact. in Luc. 13._

    [188] _Joseph. l. 7. de bello Judaic. cap. 28. p. 985._

Concerning the _Herodians_, those that number them among _Hereticks_,
make the heresie to consist in two things: First, in that they took
_Herod_ the Great for the promised _Messias_; because in his Reign,
he being a stranger, the _Scepter_ was departed from _Judah_; which
was the promised time of the _Messiah_ his coming. Secondly, they
honoured him with superstitious solemnities annually performed upon his
Birth-days. Of _Herod_ his Birth-day the _Poet_ speaketh,

    _---- ---- ---- Cum_
    _Herodis venere dies, unctaque fenestra,_
    _Dispositæ pinguem nebulam vomuere lucernæ,_
    _Portantes violas, rubrumque amplexa catinum,_
    _Cauda natat thynni, tumet alta fidelia vino._

                                   _Pers. Sat. 1._

Now whether this latter may be referred to _Herod_ the Great, I much
doubt; because I find not any Author among the Ancients to speak of
_Herod_ the Great his Birth-day: It was another _Herod_, _Tetrarch
of Galilee_, otherwise called _Antipas_, whose Birth-day we read
celebrated, _Mark 6. 21._ The former point, that the _Herodians_
received _Herod_ as their _Messiah_, though it hath many grave
Authors[189] avouching it, yet others[190] justly question the truth
thereof; for if the _Herodians_ were _Jews_ (as most think) how then
could they imagine, that _Herod_, a stranger, could be the _Messiah_,
seeing that it was so commonly preached by the _Prophets_, and known
unto the People, that the _Messiah_, must be a _Jew_ born, of the Tribe
of _Judah_, and of the house of _David_?

    [189] _Epiph. hæres. 10. & Theophyl. Mat. 22. 16. & alii plures._

    [190] _Hieron. Mat. 22. 17._

Others say,[191] that the _Herodians_ were certain flatterers in
_Herod_ his Court, varying and changing many points of their Religion
with _Herod_ their King.

    [191] _Theodor. Beza, Mat. 22. 16._

To omit many other conjectures utterly improbable, I incline to Saint
_Hierom_, whose Opinion is,[192] that the _Herodians_ were those who
stood stifly for tribute to be paid to _Cæsar_. It concerned _Herod_,
who at first received his Crown from _Cæsar_, to further _Cæsar_’s
tribute, not only in way of thankfulness, but also in way of policy,
to prevent a possible deposing or desceptring; for it was in _Cæsar_’s
power to take away the Crown again when pleased him. Now, in respect
that _Herod_ saught to kill _Christ_, and the _Herodians_ with the
_Pharisees_ took counsel against him; unto this our _Saviour_ might
have reference, saying, _Mar. 8. 15._ _Beware of the leaven of the
Pharisees, and of the leaven of ~Herod~._ Viz. _Of their contagious
Doctrine, and fox-like subtleties._

    [192] _Hieron. Mat. 22. 17._



_Their Temple._

When the _Israelites_ came out of _Ægypt_, _Moses_ was commanded
to build a _Tabernacle_ for the place of _Gods_ publick worship.
Afterward, when they were settled in the promised Land, then _Solomon_
was commanded to build a _Temple_.

These two shadowed the difference between the _Jews Synagogue_, and the
_Christian Church_. The _Tabernacle_ was moveable, and but for a time:
The _Temple_ fixed, and permanent: the state of the _Jews_ vanishing,
to continue in their generations; the state of _Christians_ durable,
to continue unto the worlds end. More principally it shadowed forth
the state of the _Church Militant_ here on earth, and _triumphant_
in heaven: Unto both the _Prophet David_ alludeth; _Lord, Who shall
sojourn in thy Tabernacle? who shall rest in thine holy Mountain?_
_Psal. 15. 1._

There were in the same tract of ground three hills, _Sion_, _Moria_,
and Mount _Calvary_. On _Sion_ was the City and Castle of _David_;
on _Moria_ was the _Temple_, and on Mount _Calvary_ _Christ_ was
crucified. But[193] all these three were generally called by the
name of _Sion_; whence it is, that though the _Temple_ were built on
_Moria_, yet the Scripture speaketh of it commonly, as if it were upon
Mount _Sion_.

    [193] _Genebrard in Chron. lib. 1. Anno mundi 3146._

In their _Temple_ there are these three things considerable: First, the
_Sanctum Sanctorum_, the _Holy of Holies_; answerable to our _Quire_
in the _Cathedral Churches_. Secondly, the _Sanctum_, the _Sanctuary_;
answerable to the _Body_ of the _Church_. Thirdly, the _Atrium_, the
_Court_; answerable to the _Church-yard_.

In the _Holy of Holies_ there were the Golden Censer, and the _Ark_ of
the _Testament_, _Heb. 9. 4._

In[194] the _Ark_ there were three things: First, the _pot of Manna_;
secondly, _Aaron_’s _rod that budded_; thirdly, the _Tables of the
Testament_, _Heb. 9. 4._ Thus they were in _Moses_ his time; but
afterwards in the days of _Solomon_, onely the Tables of the Law were
found in the _Ark_, _1 King. 8. 9._

    [194] _Sunt qui illud ἐν ᾗ apud Apostolum, Heb. 9. 4. referunt
    ad τὴν σκηνὴν ut dicunt in Tabernaculo secundo, quod appellent
    Sanctum Sanctorum, fuisse urnam mannæ & virgam Aaronis, tabulam
    fæderis videl. urnam, & virgam ante arcam: (ita Moses Kotsensis
    210. 1.) tabulam autem in Arca._

The cover of this _Ark_ was called ἱλαστήριον, the _Propitiatory_, or
_Mercy-seat_, because it _covered_ and hid the Law, that it appeared
not before God to plead against man. It was a type of _Christ_, who
likewise is termed ἱλαστήριον, our _Propitiation_, _Rom. 3. 25._ and
ἵλασμος, _a Propitiatory_, _John 2. 2._ At each end of the _Mercy-seat_
stood a golden _Cherub_, each _Cherub_ stretched forth his wings; and
from between them, as from an _Oracle_, God gave his answer, _Exod.
25. 22._ Hence it is, that the _Lord_ is said to sit between the
_Cherubims_, _Ps. 99. 1._ The positure of the _Cherubims_ was such,
that their faces were each towards the other, but both looking down
towards the _Mercy-seat_; they fitly shadowed out the people of the
_Jews_ and _Christians_, both looking toward each other, but both
expecting salvation in _Christ_ only.

In the _Sanctuary_, there was the _Incense-altar_ in the middle, and
the Table, with the twelve Loaves of Shew-bread on it on the one side,
and the Candlestick on the other. The incense-altar was a type of our
prayers, _Psal. 141. 2._ And that this altar must be once every year
sprinkled with the blood of the Sacrifice by the _High-priest_, _Exod.
30. 10._ It teacheth that our very prayers, except they be purified
by the blood of _Christ_ they are unavailable before _God_. The
twelve loaves were a type of the twelve _Tribes_, and the Candlestick
a type of the Word of God. In them all, we may see the necessity of
both Ordinances required, _Prayer_ and _Preaching_, if we would be
presented acceptable unto the _Lord_: The _Candlestick_ was a type of
_Preaching_; _Incense_, of _Prayer_.

In _Moses_ his _Tabernacle_ there was but one _Table_, and one
_Candlestick_: In _Solomon_’s _Temple_ there were ten _Tables_, and
ten _Candlesticks_; as likewise in the _Court_ of the _Tabernacle_,
there was but one brazen Laver, in the _Court_ of the _Temple_ there
were ten, and another great Vessel wherein the _Priests_ washed: in
the _Tabernacle_ there were but _two silver Trumpets_; in the _Temple_
there were an _hundred and twenty Priests sounding Trumpets_.

The _Courts_ of the _Temple_ at the first were but two, _Atrium
Sacerdotum_, the _Priests Court_; and _Atrium populi_, the _Peoples

In the _Priests Court_ were the brazen Altar for Sacrifices, and the
Laver for the washing, both of the _Priests_ and the _Sacrifices_. The
_Laver_, and the _Altar_ scituated in the same Court, signified the
same as the _water_ and _blood_ issued out of _Christ_’s side; namely,
the necessary concurrence of these two Graces in all that shall be
saved, _sanctification_, _justification_; _sanctification_ intimated by
the _Laver_ and _blood_: _justification_ by the _Altar_ and _blood_.

The Court for the _Priests_, and the Court for the _people_ were
separated[195] each from other; by a wall of three Cubits high.

    [195] _Joseph. l. 8. c. 13._

The Court for the _people_ was sometimes called the _outward Court_,
sometimes the _Temple_, sometimes _Solomon_’s _Porch_, because it
was built about with Porches, into which the people retired in rainy
weather: It had _Solomon_’s name, either to continue his memory, or
because the Porches had some resemblance of that Porch which _Solomon_
built before the _Temple_, _1 King. 6. 3._ _Jesus walked in the Temple,
in ~Solomon~’s Porch_, _John 10. 23._ _All the people ran unto the
Porch which was called ~Solomon~’s_, _Acts 3. 11._ That is, this
_outward Court_.

In the midst of the _peoples Court_, _Solomon_ made a brazen Scaffold
for the _King_, _2 Chron. 6. 13._

This _Court of the people_ went round about the _Temple_, and though
it was one entire Court in the days of _Solomon_, yet afterward it was
divided by a low wall, so that the men stood in the inward part of it,
and the women in the outward. This division is thought to have been
made in _Jehosaphat_’s time, of whom we read, that he stood in the
House of the _Lord_, before the _new Court_, _2 Chron. 20. 5._ that is,
before the _Womens Court_.

There was an ascent of fifteen steps or stairs between the _womens
Court_ and the _mens_,[196] upon these steps the _Levites_ sung those
fifteen Psalms immediately following the one hundredth nineteenth,
upon each step one Psalm, whence those Psalms are entituled, _Psalmi
graduales_, _Songs of degrees_.

    [196] _R. David Kimchi. Psal. 120._

In the _Womens Court_ stood their _Treasuries_, or _Alms-box_, as
appeareth by the poor Widows casting her two Mites into it, _Luk. 21.
1._ In _Hebrew_ it is termed ‎‏קרבן‏‎ _Korban_, the _Chest of Oblation_;
the word signifieth barely, an _Oblation_, or _Offering_, and
accordingly S. _Luk. 21. 4._ saith, they all of their superfluities
cast _into the offerings_; that is into, the _Korban_, or _Chest of
offerings_. In Greek it is termed γαζοφυλακεῖον whence cometh the
Latine word, _Gazophylacium_, a _Treasury_. That set up by _Jehoiada_,
_2 King. 12. 19._ seemeth to have been different from this, and to have
been extraordinary, only for the repairing of the _Temple_; for that
stood beside the _Altar_ in the _Priests Court_; and the _Priests_, not
the parties that brought the gifts, put it into the _Chest_. Sometimes
the whole _Court_ was termed _Gazophylacium_, a _Treasury_. These words
speak _Jesus_ in the _Treasury_, _John 8. 20._ It is worth our noting,
that the _Hebrew_ word ‎‏צדקה‏‎ _Tsedaka_, signifying _Alms_, signifieth
properly _Justice_; and thereby is intimated, that the matter of our
alms should be goods justly gotten: And to this purpose they called
their _Alms-box_ ‎‏קופה של צדקה‏‎ _Kupha-Sehel-Tsedaka_, the _Chest of
Justice_; and upon their _Alms-box_ they wrote[197] this abreviature
‎‏מביא‏‎, _A gift in secret pacifieth anger_, _Prov. 21. 14._

    [197] _Buxtorf. de abbrev. in ‎‏מביא‏‎_

In _Herod_’s _Temple_ there were[198] four _Porches_; the meaning is,
four _Courts_, one for the _Priests_, another for _men_, another for
_women_, and a fourth _for such as were unclean by legal pollutions,
and strangers_. This outmost _Court_ for the unclean and strangers, was
separated from the _womens Court_, with a stone wall of three Cubits
high, which wall was adorned with certain pillars of equal distance,
bearing this Inscription:[199] _Let no stranger enter into the holy

    [198] _Iosep. l. 2. contra Apion. 1066._

    [199] _Μὴ δεῖ ἀλλόφυλον ἐντὸς τοῦ ἁγίου παριέναι. In locum
    sanctum transire alienigena non debet. Joseph. de bel. Jud.
    lib. 6. c. 6._

The _Temple_ at _Jerusalem_ was thrice built. First, by _Solomon_:
Secondly, by _Zorobabel_: Thirdly, by _Herod_. The first was built in
seven years, _1 King. 6. 37._ The second in forty six years: It was
begun in the second year of King _Cyrus_, _Ezra 3. 8._ It was finished
in the ninth year of _Darius Hystaspis_.[200] The years rise thus;

    _Cyrus reigned_                                    30 }
    _Cambyses_                                         08 } Years.
    _It was finished in the year of Darius Hystaspis_  09 }

One year deducted from _Cyrus_ his Reign, there remains 46.

    [200] _Joseph. Antiq. lib. 11. c. 4._

_Herod_’s _Temple_ was finished in eight years.[201] It is greatly
questioned among _Divines_, of which _Temple_ that speech of the _Jews_
is to be understood, _John 2. 20._ _Forty and six years was this Temple
in building_. Many interpret it of the second _Temple_, saying, that
_Herod_ did only repair that, not build a new: but these disagree among
themselves in the computation; and the Scripture speaketh peremptorily,
that the house was finished in the sixth year of the Reign of King
_Darius_, _Ezra 6. 15._ and _Josephus_ speaketh of _Herod_’s _building
a new Temple, plucking down the old_.[202] It seemeth therefore
more probable, that the speech is to be understood of _Herod_’s
_Temple_, which, though it were but eight years in building, yet, at
that time, when this speech was used, it had stood precisely _forty
six years_,[203] for so many years there are precisely between the
eighteenth year of _Herod_’s Reign, (at which time the _Temple_ begun
to be built) and the year of _Christ his baptisme_, when it is thought
that this was spoken; all which time the _Temple_ was more and more
adorned, beautified, and perfected, in which respect it may be said to
be so long building.

    [201] _Ioseph. Antiq. lib. 15 cap. ult._

    [202] _Vide Hospini. de Orig. Templ. c. 3._

    [203] _Vide supputationem Funccianam. an. 3747._

The ancient men are said to weep, when they beheld the second, because
the glory thereof was far short of _Solomon_’s, _Ez. 3. 12._ It was
inferiour to _Solomon_’s _Temple_: First, in respect of the building,
because it was lower and meaner.[204] Secondly, in respect of the
Vessels, being now of brass, which before were of pure gold. Thirdly,
in respect of five things, lost and wanting in the second _Temple_,
all which were in the first. First, there was wanting the _Ark of
God_.[205] Secondly, _Urim and Thummim_; _God_ gave no answer by these
two, as in former times. Thirdly, _Fire_, which in the second _Temple_
never descended from heaven to consume their burnt offerings, as it
did in the first. Fourthly, the _Glory of God_ appearing between the
_Cherubims_, this they termed ‎‏שכינה‏‎ _Schecina_, the _habitation_,
or _dwelling of God_, and hereunto the _Apostle_ alludeth, _In him
dwelleth the Fulness of the Godhead bodily_, _Coloss. 2. 9._ _Bodily_;
that is, not in Clouds and Ceremonies, as between the _Cherubims_, but
_essentially_. Lastly, the _Holy Ghost_; namely, enabling them for
the gift of _Prophecy_; for between _Malachy_ and _John the Baptist_,
there stood up no _Prophet_, but only they were instructed _per filiam
vocis_, which they termed ‎‏בת קול‏‎ _Bath Kol_, an _Eccho from heaven_;
and this was the reason why those Disciples, _Act. 19. 2._ said, _We
have not so much as heard whether there be an Holy Ghost_.

    [204] _Hospinian. ex Talmudistis, de Orig. Templ. c. 3._

    [205] _D. Kimchi in Hagg. 1. 8. Eadem scribit Rabbi Solomon ibid._

Here it may be demanded, How that of the _Prophet Haggai_ is true;
_The glory of this last house shall be greater then the first_, _Hag.
2. 10._ I answer, _Herod_’s _Temple_ which was built in the place of
this, was of statelier building than _Solomon_’s, and it was of greater
glory, because of _Christ_ his Preaching in it.

_Herod_’s _Temple_ was afterwards so set on fire by _Titus_ his
souldiers,[206] that it could not be quenched by the industry of man:
at the same time[207] the _Temple_ at _Delphos_, being in chief request
among the Heathen people, was utterly overthrown by earth-quakes and
thunder-bolts from Heaven, and neither of them could ever since be
repaired. The concurrence of which two Miracles evidently sheweth,
that the time was then come, that God would put an end both to _Jewish
Ceremonies_, and _Heathenish Idolatry_; that the Kingdom of his son
might be the better established.

    [206] _Genebrard. Chro. l. 2. anno Christi 69._

    [207] _Theodoret. l. 3. c. 11. Sozomenus, l. 5. c. 19. 20, 21._


_Their Synagogues, Schools, and Houses of Prayer._

The word _Synagogue_ is from the Greek, συνάγω to _gather-together_;
and it is applyed to all things whereof there may be a _collection_, as
συναγωγὴ γάλακτος, _copia lactis_, συναγωγὴ πολέμοιο; _collectio quæ
sunt ad bellum necessaria_. God standeth in _Synagoga Deorum_, _the
Assembly of Judges_: but _Synagogues_ are commonly taken for houses
dedicated to the worship of God, wherein it was lawful to _pray_,
_preach_, and _dispute_, but _not to sacrifice_. In _Hebrew_ it was
called, ‎‏בית הכנסת‏‎ _Beth Hacneseth_, the _House of Assembly_. The
_Temple at Jerusalem_ was the _Cathedral Church_; the _Synagogues_, as
petty _Parish Churches_ belonging thereunto.

Concerning the time when _Synagogues_ began, it is hard to determine.
It is probable that they began when the Tribes were settled in the
promised Land. The _Temple_ being then too far distant from those which
dwelt in remote places, it is likely that they repaired unto certain
_Synagogues_ instead of the _Temple_. That they were in _David_’s time
appeareth; _They have burnt all the Synagogues of God in the land_,
_Psal. 74. 8._ And _Moses_ of old time had in every City, them that
preached him, being read in the _Synagogues_ every Sabbath day, _Act.
15. 21._

In _Jerusalem_ there were[208] four hundred eighty _Synagogues_,
besides the _Temple_; partly for _Jews_, partly for _strangers_: one
for strangers was called the _Synagogue of the Libertines_, _Act. 6.
9._ Whence it had that name, whether from the _Roman Libertines_, such
as had served for their freedom, being opposite to the _Ingenui_,
those that were free-born; (for many of those _Libertines_ became
_Proselites_, and had their _Synagogues_[209]) or whether it were from
_Lubar_,[210] signifying an _high-place_; (for as their _Temple_,
so their _Synagogues_ and _Schools_ were built on _hills_ and
_high-places_) because it is said, _Prov. 1. 21._ _Wisdome calleth in
high-places_: I leave to the judgment of the Reader.

    [208] _Sigonius de rep. Hebr. l. 2. cap. 8._

    [209] _Philo in legat. ad Caium._

Out of _Jerusalem_, in other Cities and Provinces, were many
_Synagogues_: there were _Synagogues_ in _Galilee_, _Mat. 4. 23._
_Synagogues_ in _Damascus_, _Acts 9. 2._ _Synagogues_ at _Salamis_,
_Act. 13. 5._ _Synagogues_ at _Antiochia_, _Acts 13. 14._ Yea, their
tradition is that[211] _Wheresoever ten men of ~Israel~ were, there
ought to be built a Synagogue_.

    [210] _Vide Tremel. Acts 6. 9._

    [211] _Maimon. in Tephilla. c. 11. Sect. 1._

Their _Synagogues_ had[212] many Inscriptions; _over the gate_ was
written that of the _Psal. 118. 20._ _This is the gate of the Lord, the
righteous shall enter into it._ In the _walls_, these and the like
sentences; _Remember thy Creator, & enter into the house of the Lord
thy God in humility_. And _prayer without attention is like a body is
like a body without a soul_. And _silence is commendable in time of

    [212] _Buxtorf. de abbreviatur. pag. 23. 81. 174._

As the _Courts_ of the people before the _Temple_ were distinguished
by a wall into two rooms, the one for men, the other for women: so in
the _Synagogues_, the women were separated from the men,[213] by a
partition of Lattice, or wire-work.

    [213] _Talmud in tract. Suta cap. ult. vi. Buxtorf. Synag. c.
    9. p. 240._

In the _Synagogues_ the Scribes ordinarily taught, but not only they,
for _Christ_ himself taught in them, _&c._ He that gave liberty to
preach there, was termed ἀρχισυναγώγος. _The Ruler of the Synagogue._
There was also a _Minister_ who gave the book unto the _Preacher_,
and received it again, after the Text had been read. _Christ closed
the book, and gave it again unto the Minister_, _Luke 4. 20._ This
is probably he, whom they called ‎‏שליח צבור‏‎ _Sheliach Tsibbur_, the
_Minister_ or _Clerk_ of the _Synagogue_.

Their _Schools_ were different from their _Synagogues_. _Paul_ having
disputed for the space of three months in the _Synagogue_, because
divers believed not, but spake evil of that way, he departed from them,
and separated his Disciples, disputing daily in the _School_ of one
_Tyrannus_; _Act. 19. 8, 9, 10._

Their School sometimes is called ‎‏בית‏‎ _Beth_, an _house_, simply, as
appeareth by that saying;[214] _Octodecim res de quibus contentio fuit
inter domum Sammai, & domum Hillel, ne Elias quidem abolere posset_.
Those 18 matters controverted between the _house_ of _Sammai_, and
the _house_ of _Hillel_, _Elias_ himself could not decide; that is,
between their two _Schools_. Sometime it is called ‎‏בית המדרש‏‎ _Beth
Hammidrasch_, an house of subtle and acute exposition. Here points
were more exactly and punctually discussed, than in the _Synagogue_, or
_Temple_; whence they held it a profounder place for exposition, than
the Temple: To this purpose tend those sayings,[215] _They might turn
a Synagogue into a School, but not a School into a Synagogue, for the
sanctity of a School is beyond the sanctity of a Synagogue_. And that
groweth from _Vertue to vertue_, _Psa. 84. 7._ they interpret[216] a
kind of _promotion_, or _degree_, in removing _from their Temple to
their School_. In their _Temple_, their Sermons were, as it were, _Ad
populum_; in their Schools, _Ad Clerum_.

    [214] _Drusius de tribus sect. l. 2. c. 10._

    [215] _Maimon. Tephilla. c. 11. Sect. 14._

    [216] _Paraphrast. Chal. in hunc locum._

As they had _Synagogues_, so likewise _Schools_, in every City and
Province; and these were built also upon hills. There is mention of the
hill _Moreb_, _Judg. 7. 1._ that is, _the hill of the Teacher_.

The _Masters_ when they taught their Scholars, were said to _give_:
_Give unto the wise, and he will be wiser_, _Prov. 9. 9._

The _Scholars_ when they learned any thing, were said to _receive it_:
_Hear my Son, and receive my words_, _Prov. 4. 10._ Hence is that of
the Apostle: _This is a true saying, and by all means worthy to be
received_, _1 Tim. 1. 15._ that is, _learned_. The like phrase of
speech are in use among the _Latines_.[217]

    [217] _Da, si grave non est. Hor. l. 2. Satyr. 8. Sed tamen
    iste Deus qui sit, da Tytere nobis Virg. Bucol. Accipe nunc
    Danaum insidias. Virg. Æneid l. 2._

Whether their _Oratories_ or places of prayer called _Proseuchæ_, were
different places from their _Schools_, or _Synagogues_, I have not
yet learned. That some of these were without the City, that proveth
nothing, for so might _Synagogues_ and _Schools_ too. _Epiphanius_
treateth of those _Oratories_,[218] but there he speaketh not one word
to shew the lawfulness of civil businesses to be done in them: could
that be proved, a difference would easily be shewn. Some say[219] they
were _Synagogues_, others[220] _Schools_. Of this _house of prayer_,
mention is made, _Acts 16. 13._ in which S. _Paul_ sate down and spake
unto the woman: which gesture intimateth rather preaching than praying:
true, all gesture was in use for prayer; standing, kneeling, sitting:
_Abraham stood before the Lord_, _Gen. 18. 22._ that is, _he prayed_.
_The Publican stood afar off and prayed_, _Luke 18. 13._ Whence by way
of Proverb they say,[221] _Sine stationibus non subsisteret mundus_;
Were it not for standing, the World could not stand, _Stephen kneeled_,
_Acts 7. 60._ _David_ sate before the _Lord_, and said, _2 Sam. 7. 18._
Yet _sitting_, when the _speech_ is to the _people_, not to the _Lord_,
implieth _preaching_, not _prayer_. It is probable, that as at the
gate of the _Temple_, so at the gate of these _Oratories_, the poorer
sort of people assembled to expect alms: Whence some use the word[222]
_Proseucha_, to signifie an _Hospital_.

    [218] _Epiphan. Tom. 2. l. 3. c. 80._

    [219] _Beza. Act. 16. 13._

    [220] _Philo Jud. de vita Mosis, p. 530._

    [221] _R. Juda. in lib. Musar. vide Drus. præs. Matth. 6. 5._

    [222] _Qua te quæro Proseucha? Juven. Sat. 3._

The[223] _Talmudists_ taxed the peoples negligence in prayer, saying
they used three sorts of _Amen_, and all faulty. _A faint Amen_, when
they prayed without fervency. _A hasty Amen_, when they said _Amen_,
before the prayer was done. _A lazy Amen_, when they pronounced it at
length, as if they were asleep, dividing the word _A-men_. The first
they termed ‎‏יתומה‏‎ _Jethoma_, _pupillum_. The second ‎‏חטופה‏‎
_Chetupah_, _Surreptitium_. The third, ‎‏קטועה‏‎ _Ketugna_, _Sectile_,
_quasi in duas partes sectum per oscitantiam_.

    [223] _Caninius de locis N. Testam. cap. 5. p. 38._


_Of the Gates of Jerusalem._

The gates of the whole circuit of the[224] wall about _Jerusalem_
were nine: The _Sheep-gate_, _Neh. 3. 1._ This was near the _Temple_,
and thorow it were led the _Sheep_ which were to be sacrificed,
being washed in the Pool _Bethsada_ near the gate: _The Fish-gate_
_Nehem. 3. 3._ before this _Judas_ is thought to have hanged himself.
Some[225] think that these two Gates, and likewise the _Horse gate_,
_Nehem. 3. 28._ were so called, because they were in manner of three
several _Market places_, and at the one Gate, _Sheep_, at the other,
_Fish_, and at the third, _Horses_ were sold. The _Old gate_ was so
called, because it was supposed to have remained from the time of
the _Jebusites_, and not to have been destroyed by the _Assyrians_;
it was near _Calvary_, and without this Gate _Christ_ was crucified.
Concerning the other Gates little is spoken.

    [224] _Scheindler pentaglot._

    [225] _Stukius conviv. l. 2. c. 11._

Touching the Gates of the _Temple_, there were[226] two of principal
note, both built by _Solomon_, the one for those that were new married,
the other for mourners and excommunicate persons. The mourners
were distinguished from the excommunicate persons, by having their
lips covered with a skirt of their garment; none entered that gate
with their lip uncovered, but such as were excommunicate. Now the
_Israelites_ which one the _Sabbath_ days sate between those Gates
said unto the _new married_: _He, whose Name dwelleth in this house,
glad thee with children_. Unto the mourner, _He, which dwelleth in
this house, glad and comfort thee_. Unto the excommunicate, _He, which
dwelleth in this house, move thy heart to harken to the words of thy

    [226] _R. Juda in l. Musar. vid. Dru. præterit. Joan. 9. 22._

Among the _Jews_, the gates were places of chiefest _strength_, so that
they being taken or defended, the whole City was taken, or defended:
and they were chief places of _Jurisdiction_, for in them _Judges_
were wont to sit, and to decide controversies. Hence proceeded those
phrases: _The gates of Hell shall not prevail against thee_, &c. And,
_Thy seed shall possess the gates of his Enemies_.


_Of their Groves, and high Places._

The ancient _Heathens_ did not only not build _Temples_,[227] but they
held it utterly unlawful so to do. The reason of this might be, because
they thought no _Temple_ spacious enough for the _Sun_, which was their
chief God. Hence came that saying,[228] _Mundus universus est Templum
Solis_; _The whole world is a Temple for the Sun_. Moreover, they
thought it unfit to straiten, and confine the supposed Infiniteness of
their fancied _Deities_ within walls; and therefore when after-times
had brought in the use of _Temples_, yet their _God Terminus_, and
divers others of their _Gods_ were worshipped in _Temples_ open roofed,
which were therefore called ὕπαιθρα. This I take to be the reason why
they made choice of _Hills_ and _Mountains_, as the convenientest
places for their Idols. These _consecrated Hills_, are those _high
places_ which the _Scripture_ so often forbids. Afterwards, as the
number of their _Gods_ encreased; so the number of their _consecrated
hills_ was multiplied, from which their _Gods_ and _Goddesses_ took
their names; as _Mercurius Cyllenius_, _Venus Erycina_, _Jupiter
Capitolinus_. At length to beautifie these _holy hills_, the places of
their idolatrous worship they beset them with trees, and hence came
the _consecration of Groves, and Woods_, from which their Idols many
times were named.[229] At last some choice and select Trees began to
be _consecrated_.[230] Those _French Magi_, termed _Dryadæ_, worshipped
the _Oak_, in _Greek_ termed Δρῦς, and thence had their names. The
_Etrurians_ worshipped an _Holm-tree_; and[231] amongst the _Celtæ_, a
_tall Oak_ was the very Idol or Image of _Jupiter_.

    [227] _Hospin. de Ori. Templ. pag. 1._

    [228] _Alex ab Alex. lib. 2. cap. 2._

    [229] _Populus Alcidæ gratissima, vitis Iaccho. Formosæ myrtus
    Veneri, sua Laurea Phœbo Virg. Eclog. 7._

    [230] _Plin. Nat. Hist. l. 16. c. 44._

    [231] _Maximus Tyrius, Ser. 38. fol. 225. edit. Steph._

Among the _Israelites_, the Idolatry began under the Judges, _Othniel_
and _Ehud_, _Judg. 3. 7._ and at the last it became so common in
_Israel_, that they had peculiar _Priests_, whom they termed _Prophets
of the Grove_, _1 King. 18. 19._ and _Idols_ of the _Grove_; that is,
_peculiar Idols_, unto whom their _Groves_ were _consecrated_, _2 King.
21. 7._ _2 Chron. 15. 16._ As Christians in the consecration of their
_Churches_, make special choice of some peculiar Saints, by whose name
they call them, as Saint _Peter’s Church_, S. _Paul_’s, S. _Andrews_,
&c. So they consecrated their _Groves_ unto particular _Idols_; whence
in prophane Authors we read of _Diana Nemorensis_, _Diana Arduenna_,
_Albunea Dea_; all receiving their names from the _Groves_ in which
they were worshipped: yea, the _Idol_ it self is sometimes called by
the name of a _Grove_: _~Josiah~ brought out the Grove from the House
of the Lord_, _2 King. 23. 6._ It is probable, that in this Idol was
pourtraited the form and similitude of a _Grove_, and thence it was
called a _Grove_, as those silver similitudes of _Diana_’s _Temple_
made by _Demetrius_, were termed _Temples of Diana_, _Acts 19. 24._


_The Cities of Refuge._

These places of _Refuge_, appointed by God, differed from those of
_Hercules_, and _Romulus_, and other _Heathens_; because God allowed
safety only to those, who were guiltless in respect of their intention:
but the others were common Sanctuaries, as well for the guilty as the
guiltless. If any man did fortuitously or by chance kill another man,
in such a case liberty was granted unto the offender to fly; at first,
unto the _Altar_ for refuge, as is implied by that text of Scripture,
_If any man come presumptuously unto his Neighbour, to slay him with
guile, thou shalt take him from mine Altar_, _Exod. 21. 14._ Yea,
we may conjecture this custome of refuge to have continued in force
always, by the practice of _Joab_, _1 King. 2. 28._ Notwithstanding,
lest the Altar might be too far distant from the place where the fact
might be committed, it is probable that therefore God ordained certain
_Asyla_, or _Cities of Refuge_, which for the same reason are thought
to have been[232] equally distant one from the other in _Canaan_:
The Cities were in number six; _Bezer_ of the _Reubenites_ Country,
_Ramoth_ of _Gilead_, in the _Gadites_, and _Golan_ in _Bashan_, of the
_Manassites_: these three _Moses_ separated beyond _Jordan_, _Deut.
4. 41, 43._ The other three, appointed by _Joshua_ in the Land of
_Canaan_, were _Cadesh_ in _Galilee_ in Mount _Naphthali_; _Schechem_
in _Ephraim_, and _Kiratharba_ (which is _Hebron_) in the Mountain of
_Judah_, _Josh. 20. 7._ There are other Cities of like nature: _God_
promised the _Israelites_, upon condition of their obedience, after
their Coasts were inlarged; but it seemeth that disobedience hindred
the accomplishment thereof, for the Scripture mentioneth not the
fulfilling of it.

    [232] _Rab. Salom. Iarchi. Deut. 19._

Concerning these Cities, the _Hebrews_ note from these words,
_Thou shalt prepare the way_, _Deut. 9. 3._ That the _Senate_, or
_Magistrate_ in _Israel_, were bound to prepare the ways to the _Cities
of Refuge_, and[233] to make them fit, and broad, and to remove out
of them all stumbling-blocks and obstacles: and they suffered not any
Hill or Dale to be in the way, nor water-streams, but they made a
Bridge over it, that nothing might hinder him that fled thither. And
the breadth of the way to the _Cities of Refuge_, was not less than
two and thirty Cubits, and at the partitions of the ways, they set up
in writing, _Refuge, Refuge_: that the man-slayer might know and turn
thitherward. On the fifteenth of the moneth _Adar_, or _February_,
every year the _Magistrates_ sent messengers to prepare the ways.

    [233] _Maimon. in Rotsach. cap. 8. sect. 5._

Furthermore it was provided, that two or three wise men should be
imployed, to perswade the _Avenger of blood_, if haply he did pursue
the man-slayer on the way, that he should offer no violence, until the
Cause were heard and examined. The manner of examination was thus; The
Consistory or Bench of _Justices_, who lived in that quarter where the
murder was committed,[234] placed the party being brought back from
the _City of Refuge_, in the Court, or Judgment-Hall, and diligently
enquired and examined the cause, who if he were found guilty of
voluntary murder, then was he punished with death, but if otherwise
the Fact were found casual, then did they safely conduct the party
back again to the _City of Refuge_, where he enjoyed his liberty, not
only within the walls of the City, but within certain Territories and
bounds of the City, being confined to such and such limits, until the
death of the _High Priest_, that was in those days, at what time it
was lawful for the offender to return and come into his own City, and
unto his own house, even unto the City from whence he fled, _Josh. 20.
6._ By this means the offender, though he was not punished with death,
yet he lived for the time a kind of exile, for his own humiliation,
and for the abatement of his wrath, who was the _avenger of blood_.
The _Areopagitæ_[235] had a proceeding against mans slaughter not much
unlike, punishing the offender ἀπενιαυτισμῷ, with a _years banishment_:
Why the time of this exilement was limited to the death of the _High
Priest_ at that time, is not agreed upon by Expositors. But it is most
probably thought, that the offender was therefore confined within that
City as within a Prison, during the _High Priest_’s life,[236] because
the offence did most directly strike against him, as being amongst men,
ἄρχηγος, _Ac princeps sanctitatis_, _The chief God on earth_.

    [234] _Paul. Fag. Num. 35. 6._

    [235] _Masius in Jos. cap. 20._

    [236] _Masius ibid._



_Days, Hours, Weeks, and Years._

Before we treat of their Feasts, it will be needful, by way of Preface,
to understand somewhat concerning the divisions of their _Days_,
_Hours_, _Weeks_, &c.

Their _Day_ was two-fold; _Natural_, containing _day_ and _night_, and
consisting of 24 hours; or _Artificial_, beginning at _Sun-rising_ and
ending at _Sun-set_. Of this is that, _Are there not twelve hours in
the day?_ _John 11. 9._

The _Natural day_ was again two-fold: _Civil_, _a working-day_,
which was destined for civil businesses and works: this began at
_Sun-rising_, and held till the next _Sun-rising_, _Mat. 28. 1._ or
_Sacred_, a Festival or Holy-day, destined for holy exercises: this
began at _Sun-set_, and continued till the next _Sun-set_.

Their night was divided into four _quarters_, or _greater hours_,
termed four _Watches_, each _Watch_ containing three _lesser hours_.
The first they called _Caput vigiliarum_, the beginning of the watches,
_Lam. 2. 19._ the second was the middle watch, _Judg. 7. 19._ not so
termed, because there were only three _watches_, as _Drusius_[237]
would perswade, but because it dured till _midnight_. The _third
watch_, began at _midnight_, and held till three of the clock in the
morning. If he come in the _second_, or _third watch_, _Luk. 12. 38._
The _last_, called the _morning watch_, _Exod. 14. 24._ began at three
of the clock, and ended at six in the morning. In the _fourth watch_ of
the night, _Jesus_ went out unto them, _Mat. 14. 25._ These _Watches_
also were called by other names, according to that part of the night
which closed each watch. The _first_ was termed ὀψὲ, the _even_.
The _second_, μεσονύκτιον _Midnight_. The _third_ ἀλεκτοροφωνία,
_Cock-crowing_. The _fourth_ πρωῒ, the _Dawning_. _Ye know not when
the Master of the house will come, at Even, or at Midnight, or at
Cock-crowing, or at the Dawning_, _Mark 13. 35._

    [237] _Drus. Judic. 7. 19._

The day was likewise divided into four _quarters_, as appeareth by the
Parable of the Labourers hired into the Vineyard, _Mat. 20._ The _first
quarter_ began at six of the clock in the morning, and held till nine.
The _second quarter_ ended at twelve of the clock. The _third quarter_
at three in the after-noon. The _fourth quarter_ at six of the night.
The first _quarter_ was called the _third hour_, _vers. 3._ The second
_quarter_, the _sixth hour_, _vers. 5._ The third _quarter_, the _ninth
hour_, _vers. 5._ The last _quarter_, the _eleventh hour_, _vers. 6._

Where note, that the three first quarters had their names from the
hour of the day, which closed the quarter (for they began their count
of their lesser hours, from six a clock in the morning, and our 6,
7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. was their 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
8, 9, 10, 11, 12.) only the last was called the _eleventh hour_, by
our _Saviour Christ_; whereas among the common people, it either was
called, or should have been called, by proportion with the rest, the
_twelfth hour_; to intimate unto us, that though _God_ in his mercy
accept _labourers_ into his Vineyard _eleven hours_ of the day, yet he
seldome calleth any of the _twelfth_; for that is rather an hour to
discharge servants, than to admit new.

Some Expositors finding mention of the dawning of the day, in this
Parable, _vers. 1._[238] They reckon the 4 _quarters_ of the day after
this manner. _Hora prima_, _Hora tertia_, _Hora sexta_, _Hora nona_.
Where first they err, in taking the _dawning_ of the day for the _first
hour_ of the day; for πρωὶ the _dawning_, signifieth the _last quarter
of the night_, called the _Morning watch_. Secondly, they err in making
the _last quarter of the day_ to be the _ninth hour_, for what then
shall become of the _eleventh hour_, mentioned in the same Parable?

    [238] _Erat autem primus ternarius à prima usq; ad tertiam, &
    dicebatur prima hora, secundus erat à tertia, usq; ad sextam
    & dicebatur hora tertia, tertius erat à sexta usq; ad nonam,
    & dicebatur sexta; quartus à nona usq; ad ultimam quæ erat
    duodecima, & dicebatur nona. Refellit hanc opinionem Toletus,
    receptam licet à multis recensionem (ut ipse ait) quoniam de
    undecima cujus meminit parabola, altum apud hos silentium.
    Jure vapulant à te, Tolete, qui excludunt undecimam constanter
    tamen asserenda est contra te quadripartita diei divisio, in
    hoc potissimum illorum error consistit, quod horam primam
    faciunt, non inveniunt; horam undecimam inveniunt excludunt
    tamen, nihil à mente Evangelistarum magis alienum, quam ut ὁ
    πρωιὴ verteretur hora prima diei, quæ in illorum scriptis sonat
    quartam noctis vigiliam. Vid. Tolet. in Joan. cap. 19. Annot.

By this division of the day into these four _quarters_, or _greater
hours_, the _Evangelists_ are reconciled touching our _Saviour_’s
Passion. He was crucified at the third hour, _Mark 15. 25._ S. _John_
intimateth his examination before _Pilate_, to have been _Hora quasi
sexta_, _about the sixth hour_, _John 19. 14._ In the first place,
understand by his crucifying, not _his hanging on the Cross_, which was
not till the _sixth hour_, _Luk. 23. 44._ nor his _expiration_, which
was not till the _ninth hour_, _Mar. 15. 34._ but his _examination_
under _Pilate_, at which time the people cried out, _Crucifie him,
Crucifie him_; and then the third and sixth hour will easily be
reconciled, for these two hours immediately following one another, what
was done on the third hour, might truly be said to be done about the

Lastly, This sheweth that the hours among the _Jews_ were of two sorts;
some lesser, of which the day contained twelve: others _greater_, of
which the day contained four, as hath been above shewn: the lesser
are termed _hours of the day_, _Are there not twelve hours of the
day?_ _John 11. 9._ The greater, some term _hours of the Temple_, or
_hours of prayer_. _Peter_ and _John_ went up into the _Temple_, at
the _ninth hour of prayer_, _Acts 3. 1._ But in truth there are but
three hours of prayer, the _third_, the _sixth_, and the _ninth_.[239]
The _third_ instituted by _Abraham_, the _sixth_ by _Isaac_, and the
_ninth_ by _Jacob_. The _third hour_ the _Holy Gost_ descended upon
the _Apostles_, _Acts 2. 15._ About the _sixth_ _Peter_ went up to the
house-top to pray, _Acts 10. 9._ At the _ninth_, _Peter_ and _John_
went into the _Temple_, _Acts 3. 1._

    [239] _Drusius in præterit. Act. 3. 1. Non fuisse ultra tres
    horas precationis in die apud Judæos, clare testatur David

From these greater hours of the day and night, the _Canonical
hours_,[240] in use in the _Roman Church_, had their beginning; each
_Canonical_ hour containeth three lesser hours, so that in the whole
night and day there are eight _Canonical hours_. At six of the clock in
the evening began the first, and that is termed _Hora vespertina_; or
_vespertinum_ simply, (_officium_ being understood) their _Vespertine_.
At nine of the clock at night began the second, and that is termed
_Completorium_, their _Completory_. At midnight began the third,
_Nocturnum_, their _Nocturn_. At three of the clock in the morning,
began their _Matutinum_, their _Matines_. The Canonical hours for their
day-service were named, _Hora prima_, _tertia_, _sexta_, _nona_. Their
first hour began from six of the clock in the morning, and held till
nine: the third from nine till twelve, the sixth from twelve till
three, the ninth from three till six at night.

    [240] _Vide Bellarm. de bonis oper. in part. 1. cap. 10._

The Dial in use among the ancient _Jews_, differed from that in use
among us: theirs were a kind of stairs; the time of the day was
distinguished, _not by lines_, but by _steps_, or _degrees_; the shade
of the Sun every half hour moved forward to a new _degree_. In the
Dial of _Ahaz_, the _Sun_ went back ‎‏מעלות‏‎ _Magnoloth_, _degrees_, or
_steps_, not _lines_, _Isai. 38. 8._

Their weeks were two-fold; the one was _ordinary_ consisting of _seven
daies_, the other _extraordinary_ and _Prophetical_, consisting of
_seven years_. _Dan. 9. 24._ The first is termed _Hebdomas diaria_, _a
week of daies_; the second, _Hebdomas annalis_, _a week of years_.

The _Hebrews_ at first measured their moneths according to the course
of the _Sun_, whence they are called _Menses solares_; and then every
moneth consisted of thirty daies. The waters prevailed from the
seventeenth day of the second moneth, _Gen. 17. 13._ unto the seventh
day of the seven moneth, _Gen. 8. 4._ that is, full five moneths. If we
will number the daies, they were an hundred and fifty, _Gen. 7. 24._
Whereby it appeareth, that every moneth contained full thirty daies.
After the _Israelites_ departure out of _Egypt_, then they measured
their moneths by the course of the Moon; they are termed _Menses
Lunares_: they contained either thirty daies, and then they were called
_Menses pleni_, _full moneths_: or twenty nine daies, and then they
were called _Menses cavi_, _Deficient Moneths_.

The _Sun_ exceedeth the _Moon_ in her course eleven daies, hence[241]
every third or second year, one month was inserted. Now because the
twelfth moneth in the _Hebrew Kalender_ was called _Adar_, hence when a
month was inserted, the last was called _Ve-adar_,the second _Adar_.

    [241] _Vide Kalendarium Hebraicum Munsteri pag. 62._

Before their captivity in _Babylon_, they counted their moneths without
any name, according to the number. The _First, Second, Third moneth,
&c._ After their return from _Babylon_, they called them by these names:

    1. _Nisan_; it was also called              |   | 1 { March.
    ‎‏אביב‏‎ _Abib_, which signifieth              |   |   { April.
    an _ear of Corn_. in this month             |   |
    Barley began to be _eared_.                 |   |
                                                |   |
    2. _Iiar_, it was also called               | T | 2 { April.
    ‎‏זיו‏‎ which signifieth _beauty_:             | h |   { May.
    then the Trees began to be                  | e |
    _beautified_ with Buds and                  | y |
    Blossoms.                                   |   |
                                                | a |
    3. _Sivan._                                 | n | 3 { May.
                                                | s |   { June.
                                                | w |
    4. _Thamuz._                                | e | 4 { June.
                                                | r |   { July.
                                                | e |
    5. _Ab._                                    | d | 5 { July.
                                                |   |   { August.
                                                |   |
    6. _Elul._                                  | t | 6 { August.
                                                | o |   { September.
                                                |   |
    7. _Tisri_, otherwise called                | p | 7 { September.
    _Ethanim_.                                  | a |   { October.
                                                | r |
    8. _Marchesuan_, it was called              | t | 8 { October.
    _Bull_.                                     |   |   { November.
                                                | o |
    9. _Chisleu._                               | f | 9 { November.
                                                |   |   { December.
                                                |   |
    10. _Tebeth._                               |   | 10 { December.
                                                |   |    { January.
                                                |   |
    11. _Shebeth._                              |   | 11 { January.
                                                |   |    { February.
                                                |   |
    12. _Adar._                                 |   | 12 { February.
        _Ve-adar._                              |   |    { March.

Before their coming out of _Egypt_, they began their year in the moneth
of _Tisri_,[242] and thus they continued it always after, for civil
affairs, for their date of buying, selling, their _Sabbatical years_,
years of _Jubile_, _&c._ After their coming out of _Egypt_, they
began their year in the moneth _Nisan_, and so continued it for the
computation of their greatest Feasts.

    [242] _Ἐν μηνὶ δευτέρῳ Δὶῳ μὲν ὑπὸ Μακεδόνων λεγομένῳ
    Μαρσουάνῃ δὲ ὑπὸ Ἑβραίων, οὕτω γὰρ Αἰγύπτιοι τὸν ἐνίαυτον ἦσαν
    διατεταχότες. Μωυσῆς δὲ τὸν Νισὰν, ὅς ἐστι ξανθικὸς, μήνα
    πρῶτον ἐπὶ ταῖς ἑορταῖς ὥρισεν. Joseph. Antiq. l. 1. c. 4.
    Mendose ponitur Μαρσουάνη pro αρχασουὰν qui mensis erat olim
    secundus apud Hebræos, sicut et Dius apud Macedones._


_Of their Feasts._

Before we descend to their particular _Feasts_; First we will see
their manner of Feasting in general. Their ordinary meals, as they
were not many in a day, so neither were they costly. They were called
_Arucoth_,[243] which word signifieth properly, such fare as Travellers
and Way-faring men use on their journeys. The word is used, _Jer. 40.
5._ _So the chief Steward gave him victuals, and a reward, and let him
go._ Likewise, _Pro. 15. 17._ _Better is a dinner of green herbs where
love is_. The extroardinary and more liberal kind of entertainment,
by way of Feasting, was commonly called _Mischte_,[244] from their
liberal drinking at such meetings. There was also another kind of
feasting, wherein they made merry together, eating the remainders of
their Sacrifices; this they termed _Chag_.[245] From this custom of
having a feast at the end of their Sacrifices, the _Christians_ of
the _Primitive Church_ instituted their _Love-feasts_ to succeed the
_Lords Supper_:[246] In both these greater and more solemn _Feasts_,
there were some Ceremonies used by them, as _preparatory to the Feast_,
others in their giving thanks, others in _their gesture at Table_.

    [243] _ab ‎‏ארח ארוחות‏‎ Iter facere, significat viaticum._

    [244] _‎‏משתה‏‎ Convivium, compotatio dicitur à potendo sive
    bibendo, ut Græcè συμπόσιον, ab altera ejus parte._

    [245] _‎‏חג‏‎, Festum, celebris solemnitas à radice ‎‏חגג‏‎, Festum

    [246] _Chrysostom. 1 Cor. 11. Hoc autem præcipio._

The _Ceremonies preparatory_ were principally these three: 1.
_Salutations._ 2. _Washing the feet of the guests._ 3. _Pouring Oyl on

Their _Salutations_ were testified either _by words_, or some _humble
gesture of the body_. By _words_, and then these were the usual forms;
_The Lord be with you_: or _The Lord bless you_, _Ruth. 2. 4._ From the
last of these, _blessing_ is often taken in Scripture for _saluting_.
If thou _meet_ any,[247] _bless_ him not, or if any _bless_ thee,
answer him not again, saith _Elisha_ to _Gehazi_, _2 King. 4. 29._ The
sense is, as our _English_ renders it, _Salute him not_. Sometimes
they said, _Peace be unto thee_; _peace be upon thee_, _Go in peace_,
and such like: _When ye come into an house salute the same; and if the
house be worthy, let your peace come upon it, but if it be not worthy,
let your peace return to you_, _Matth. 10. 12, 13._ By _gesture_;
their _salutations_ were signified sometimes by _prostrating the whole
body_; sometimes by _kissing the feet_, _Luke 7. 38._ commonly by an
_ordinary kiss_.[248] _Moses_ went out to meet his father-in-law, and
did obeysance, and _kissed him_, _Exod. 18. 7._ Moreover, _Joseph
kissed_ all his Brethren, and wept upon them, _Gen. 45. 15._ This Saint
_Paul_ calleth an _holy kiss_, _1 Cor. 16. 20._ S. _Peter_, a _kiss of
charity_, _1 Pet. 5. 14._ _Tertullian_[249] calleth it _Osculum pacis_,
_A kiss of peace_. These were _kisses_ which a _Cato_ might give, and
a _Vestal_ receive: Of this sort the _Jews_ had three kinds;[250] _A
kiss of salutation_,[251] which hath been specified by some of those
former instances. _A kiss of valediction_:[252] Wherefore hast thou not
suffered me to kiss my sons and my daughters, _Gen. 31. 28._ _A kiss of
homage_;[253] the word signifieth a _kiss of state_ or _dignity_, but
it was to testifie their _homage_, and acknowledgment of their _Kings_
Soveraignty. Then _Samuel_ took a Vial of Oyl, and poured it upon
_Saul_’s head, and _kissed_ him, _1 Sam. 10. 1._ And unto this they
refer that in the second _Psalm_, _Kiss the son, least he be angry_.
These _salutions_, howsoever they were such as were used mutually,
sometimes in their meetings abroad upon the way, yet were they such, as
were used also in their entertainment, as clearly appeareth by many of
those fore quoted examples.

    [247] _Tertul. lib. 6. advers. Marcion._

    [248] _Xenophon. de institut. Cyr. lib. 1. pag. 17. It. lib. 5.
    pag. 113._

    [249] _Tertul. de orat. cap. 14._

    [250] _Vide Drusium ad difficiliora loca, Exod. c. 12._

    [251] _‎‏נשיקות פרקים‏‎ Neshikoth pharukim, Oscula propinquorum._

    [252] _‎‏נשיקות פרושות‏‎ Neshikoth parusoth, Oscula separationis._

    [253] _‎‏נשיקות גדולה‏‎ Neshikoth gedola, Oscula magnitudinis._

The second _Ceremony preparatory_ was _washing their feet_.[254] And
the man brought the men into _Joseph_’s house, and gave them water, and
they did _wash their feet_, _Gen. 43. 34._ This office was commonly
performed by servants, and the meanest of the family, as appeareth by
our _Saviour Christ_, who to leave an example of humility behind him,
_washed his Disciples feet_, _Joh. 13. 5._ And _Abigail_, when _David_
took her to wife, said Behold, let thine hand-maid be a servant to
_wash the feet_ of the servants of my _Lord_, _1 Sam. 25. 41._ For this
purpose they had certain Vessels in readiness for such imployments:
that which our _Saviour_ used, we translate a _Basin_, _John 13. 5._ He
poured out water into a _Basin_. The word νιπτὴς there used signifieth
in general a _Washpot_, and is there used for that which in strict
propriety of speeches, the _Grecians_ termed ποδόνιπτρον, (_i._) _A
Washpot for our feet_; Some may here make the question, whence this
water was poured? I see no inconvenience, if we say, that there were
usually in their Dining-rooms greater vessels, from which they poured
out into lesser, according as they needed; of which sort it is not
improbably thought[255] that those Water-pots were mentioned, _John 2.
6._ There were set there _six Water-pots_ of stone, after the manner
of the _purifying_ of the _Jews_. By _purifying_ there, understand
this complemental _washing_ of which we treat: Now if we consider
the washing of their hands, usual and commendable in it self, though
superstitiously abused by _Scribes_ and _Pharisees_, and the washing
of their feet, before and after meal, (for our _Saviour_ washed his
Disciples feet after supper) which second washing, the _Hebrews_ say
it was in use only at the _Passover_, there must needs be use of grate
store of water in their greater Feasts; and therefore no marvel, if
many and capacious vessels stood in readiness. Farther, we are to
note, that as the office was servile and base, so the vessel: which
observation giveth light to that, _Psal. 60. 8._ _Moab is my wash pot_;
that is, the _Moabites_ shall be basely subject unto me, as the pot in
which _I wash my feet_.

    [254] _Lotio pedum ante discubitum non solum Judæis, sed &
    gentibus ipsis erat usitata. Locus hic tuus est, hic occumbe,
    ferte aquam pedibus. Plautus. Pers._

    [255] _Stukius. lib. conviv._

The third _Ceremony preparatory_, was _pouring out of oyl_. A woman
in the City brought an Alabaster box of oyntment, and stood at his
feet behind him weeping, and begun to wash his _feet with tears_, and
did wipe them with the _hairs of her head_, and kissed his feet, and
_anointed them with the ointment_, _Luk. 7. 37, 38._ It was also poured
_upon the head_, whence in the same place, _Christ_ challengeth the
_Pharisee_ which entertained him, _Mine head with oyl thou didst not
anoint_, _vers. 46._ _Psal. 23. 5._ _Thou anointest mine head with oyl._

After these _ceremonies of preparation_ had been performed, than they
proceeded to _giving thanks_. The _Master of the house_ sitting down
together with his Guests, took _a cup full of wine_ in his right hand,
and therewith begun his _consecration_, after this manner;[256]
_Blessed be thou, O Lord our God, the King of the world, which createst
the fruit of the Vine._ Having said thus, he first lightly tasted
of the Wine, and from him it pass’d round the Table. This grace of
thanksgiving, they call[257] _Bircath haiaiin_, _the blessing of the
cup_. With this _Christ_ himself seemeth to have begun his supper; _He
took the cup and gave thanks, and said, Take this and divide it among
your selves, for I say unto you I will not drink of the fruit of the
Vine, until the Kingdom of God shall come_, _Luk. 22. 17, 18._ After
_the blessing of the cup, the Master of the house took the bread_,
which they did _Scindere_, but not _Abscindere_, lightly cut for the
easier breaking thereof, but not cut in sunder; and holding this in
both his hands, he _consecrated_ it, with these words; _Blessed be
thou, O Lord our God, the King of the world, which bringest forth bread
out of the earth_. This _consecration of bread_ they termed,[258]
_Bircath halechem_. After the _consecration_, he _brake the bread_,
whence the _master of the house_, or he who performed these blessings
in his stead, was termed[259] _Habotsagn_, (_i._ _the breaker_:) the
bread being broken, he distributed to every one that sat at the table
a morsel, which being done, then they began to feed upon the other
dishes that were provided. This Rite of blessing both the Cup and the
Bread, they observed only in their solemn Festivales; otherwise they
consecrated the Bread alone, and not the Cup. In their Feast time,
they seasoned their meat with good conference, such as might either
yield matter of instruction, or exercise their wits; which practice
was also observed in their _Christian love feasts_.[260] Of the first
sort, was that Parable proposed by our blessed _Saviour_ at a Feast,
_Luk. 14. 7._ Of the second, was _Sampson_’s Riddle, which he proposed
unto his Companions, _Judg. 14. 12._ At the end of the Feast, they
again gave thanks, which was performed in this manner, either by the
_Master_ of the _house_ himself, or by some guest, if there were any of
better note at the table: He taking a cup of Wine in both his hands,
began thus: _Let us bless him who hath fed us with his own, and of
whose goodness we live_: Then all the guests answered; _Blessed be
he of whose meat we have eaten, and of whose goodness we live_. This
_grace_ they called[261] _Bircath Hamazon_. And this is thought[262]
to be the Cup wherewith Christ after Supper commended the Mystery of
his Blood to his Disciples: After this he which began the Thanksgiving
proceedeth, _Blessed be he, and blessed be his name_, &c. annexing a
longer prayer, in which he gave thanks: First, for their present food.
Secondly, for their deliverance from the _Egyptian_ servitude. Thirdly,
for the Covenant of Circumcision. Fourthly, for the Law given by the
Ministry of _Moses_. Then he prayed, that _God_ would have mercy: 1. On
his people _Israel_. 2. On his own City _Jerusalem_. 3. On _Sion_ the
Tabernacle of his Glory. 4. On the _Kingdom_ of the House of _David_
his Anointed. 5. That he would send _Elias_ the Prophet. Lastly, That
he would make them worthy of the daies of the _Messiah_, and of the
life of the world to come.

    [256] _‎‏ברוך אתה יי אלוהנו מלך העולם בורא פרי הגפן‏‎ Benedictus
    sis tu Domine Deus noster rex mundi, qui creas fructum vitis._

    [257] _‎‏ברכת היין‏‎_

    [258] _‎‏ברכת הלחם‏‎ Benedictionem panis Drusius in N. T. part.
    altera p. 78._

    [259] _‎‏הבוצע‏‎_

    [260] _Non tam cœnam cœnant quam disciplinam Tertul. Apolog. c.

    [261] _‎‏ברכת המזון‏‎_

    [262] _Vid. P. Fag. in præc. Hebr._

This prayer being ended, then all the Guests which sate at the Table,
with a soft and low voice, said unto themselves in this manner, _Fear
the Lord all ye his holy ones, because there is no penury to those
that fear him: The young Lyons do want and suffer hunger, but those
that seek the Lord want no good thing_. Afterward, he which began the
thanksgiving, _blessing the cup_ in the same form of words as he used
at the first sitting down saying; _Blessed be thou, O Lord God, the
King of the world, which createst the fruit of the Vine_: and therewith
he drank a little of the Wine, and so the cup passed round the table.
Thus they began and ended their Feast, with the _blessing of a cup_:
this cup they termed ‎‏כוס הלל‏‎ _Cos hillel_, _Poculum_ ὑμνήσεως, _A
cup of thanksgiving_; and _both these cups_ are mentioned by Saint
_Luke_; and, which is worth our observation, the word of _Consecration_
whereby it was instituted, as part of the Blessed Sacrament in the
_New Testament_, were added only to the last cup. _This cup is the New
Testament in my blood, which it is shed for you._ After all this, they
sung[263] Hymns and Psalms, which also was practised by our blessed
Saviour, _Mark 14. 26._ So that howsoever he used not any superstitions
either then practised, or since added by after _Jewes_, (as the
drinking of four cups of wine,[264] or the breaking of the bread with
all ten fingers,[265] in allusion to the ten Commandments, &c.) yet in
the beginning, and ending, we see his practice suitable with theirs.
If any desire a larger discourse of these Blessings, noted out of the
_Rabbines_, let him read _P. Fagius_[266] his Comment on _Deut. 8. 10._
From whom I have borrowed a great part of what herein I have delivered.
If any shall here object, that I seem to make the _blessed Sacrament_
of our Lords Body and Blood, a _Jewish Ceremony_; I answer, no: For
as a kind of initiatory purification by water, was used before by the
_Jews_ of old, and no _Proselite_ was admitted into the _Church_ of the
_Jews_, without this purification: yet it was no more a _Sacrament_ to
them, than _Circumcision_ was to _Turks_ and _Saracens_. Thus, neither
was breaking the bread _Sacramental_ to the _Jew_, but then it became
a _Sacrament_, when _Christ_ said of it; This is my body. This cup is
the _New Testament_ in my blood, _&c._ _Luke 22. 19._ The _Jews_ could
not say, The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the Communion of
the Blood of Christ? _1 Corinthians 10. 16._

    [263] _Scalig. de emend. Temp. lib. 6. p. 273._

    [264] _Moses Kotsensis fol. 118. col. 1._

    [265] _Sebastian Munster. Mat. 26._

    [266] _It. præc. Hebr. per Fagium editas._

The last thing considerable in their Feasts, is their _gesture_. In
the days of our _Saviour_ it is apparent,[267] that the gesture of
the _Jews_ was such as the _Romans_ used. The table being placed in
the middest, round about the table were certain beds, sometimes two,
sometimes three, sometimes more, according to the number of the guests;
upon these they lay down in manner as followeth. Each bed contained
three persons, sometimes four, seldom or never more. If one lay upon
the bed, then he rested the upper part of his body upon the left
elbow, the lower part lying at length upon the bed: but if many lay
on the bed, then the uppermost did lie at the beds head, laying his
feet behind the second’s back: in like manner the third or fourth did
lye, each resting his head in the others bosom. Thus _John_ leaned on
_Jesus bosom_, _John 13. 23._ This first is an argument of _special
love_ towards him whom the _Master of the house_ shall take into
his own _bosome_, John, _he was the beloved Disciple_. Secondly, an
argument of _parity_, amongst others, resting in one anothers bosom.
_Many shall come from the East and West; and shall sit down with
Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob_, _Mat. 8. 11._ And where shall they
sit? In _Abraham_’s _bosom_, _Luke 16. 22._ that is, they shall all
sit at the same table, be partakers of the same glory. Thus _Christ_,
he was in the _bosom of his Father_, _John 1. 18._, that is, in the
_Apostles_ phrase, _He thought it no robbery to be equal with his
Father_. Their tables were perfectly circular, or round, whence their
manner of sitting was termed[268] _Mesibah_, _a sitting round_; and
their phrase of inviting their guests to sit down, was, _Sit round_:
We will not sit round until he come hither, _1 Sam. 16. 11._ Again,
Thy children shall be as Olive-plants _round_ about thy table, _Psal.
128. 3._ This custom of lying along upon a _bed_, when they took
their meat, was also in use in _Ezekiel_’s time; Thou satest upon a
stately _bed_, and a table prepared before it, _Ezek. 23. 41._ And[269]
whether this were the custome of the ancient _Hebrews_, I leave to be
discussed by others. But unto this also doth _Amos_ allude; They laid
themselves down upon cloaths laid to pledge by every Altar, _Amos 2.
8._ that is, the _garments_[270] taken to pledge they use in stead of
_beds_, when at their Altars they eat things sacrificed to Idols: Yea,
the plucking off their shooes when they went to table, implieth this
custom of lying at the Table, to have been very ancient. The plucking
off their shooes seemeth to have been generally received, when they
were in _Egypt_; for this cause is it that they had a strict charge in
eating the _Passover_, to have their shooes on their feet, for greater
expedition. The reason why they usually pluckt them off, was, for the
clean keeping of their Beds on which they lay. Here, seeing the rule
of observing the _Passover_ requireth, that it should be eaten with
their shooes on their feet, which argueth rather _standing_ than _lying
upon a bed_: it may be demanded, Whether _Christ transgressed_ not
against the first Institution thereof, in the manner of his sitting at
the table? _Tremelius_ answereth thus; and, in my mind, fully:[271]
We must know, saith he, that _Exod. 12._ it was commanded, after what
manner they, ready to depart out of _Egypt_, should eat the _Passover_
at that time; for the necessity of that time so required, namely, an
hasty eating thereof; but afterward, in the Law, where it is commanded
that this Ceremony of the _Paschal_ should be renewed every year, those
words are not added. Wherefore all the _Hebrew Doctors_, both ancient
and modern, do teach with one joynt consent, that the Commandment of
_sprinkling the door-posts with blood_, of _having on their shooes_, of
_girding their loyns_, of _taking staves in their hands_, and _eating
the Lamb in hast_; did not extend it self to the generations following,
but only to have concerned that very night, wherein they departed out
of _Egypt_:[272] Yea, it was an ancient tradition amongst them, that
when they did in after-times eat the _Passover_, they would sit down,
or lean upon a bed, as our _Saviour_ and his Disciples did, in token of
their deliverance obtained.

    [267] _Voces quibus usi sunt Evangelistæ sonant accubitum
    non sessionem, ἀναπίπτειν, Luk. 22. ἀνακεῖσθαι; Mat. 26.
    Κατακεῖσθαι, Luc. 14. ἀνακλιθήναι, Mat. 14._

    [268] _‎‏מסבה‏‎ Discubitus, cujus radix est ‎‏סבב‏‎ circumivit,

    [269] _Philo. Jud. p. 383._

    [270] _Vetustissimus mos erat, super lanatis pellibus
    discumbere. Qui poterat pelles addere dives erat. Ovid._

    [271] _Tremel. in Mat. 26. 20._

    [272] _Talmud. tract. de Paschate vid. Tremel. loco superius

The parties that gave entertainment at their _Feasts_ were two:[273] 1.
The _Master of the house_. 2. The _Master of the Feast_; they differed
thus: The _Master of the house_ was termed ‎‏בעל הבית‏‎ _Baal habeth_,
ὀικοδεσπότης, _Pater familias_. The _Master of the Feast_ was termed
‎‏בעל משתה‏‎ _Baal mischte_, ἀρχιτρίκλινος, _Triclinii Præfectus_. The
_Master of the Feast_ was the chief servant, attending the _Master of
the house_ in time of the Feast. Others[274] add a third sort, whom
they would have to be _Præfecti morum_, in Greek they were termed
ὀινόπται. Their Office was thought to have been the inspection of the
Guests, that none should disorder themselves by drinking too much;
whence they were called ὀφθαλμοὶ _the eyes of the Feast_. Such kind
of Officers were in use in _Ahasuerosh_ his Court, _Esth. 1. 8._ and
likewise among the _Athenians_;[275] but whether any such belonged unto
the _Jews_ is justly doubted.

    [273] _Vid. Casaubon exercit. p. 278._

    [274] _Gaudentius Brixianus. vid. Casaubon. ibid._

    [275] _Athenæus, l. 10._

The ancient _Jews_, they were both Hospital, ready to entertain, and
also liberal in their entertainment: Their Hospitality is commended
throughout the Scripture, though now it be grown out of use among them,
as appeareth by that Proverbial speech concerning the entertainment of
a friend:[276] _That the first day he is Oreach, a guest_: _the second
Toreach, a burden_: _the third Barach, a runnagate_. Their liberality
appeared by remembring the poor at their Feasts, by sending them
portions. Send portions unto them for whom nothing is prepared, _Neh.
8. 10._ This[277] was afterwards practised by Heathens, who in their
solemn Feasts did not onely entertain their Guests for the present,
but did also allow them certain junkets to carry away with them. These
they termed ἀποφόρητα: and likewise, unto their friends who were absent
they sent portions, which they termed μερίδας. This observation giveth
light to that _Canon_ in the _Laodicean Counsel_, which forbiddeth the
_Christians_ in their love feasts, μέρη αἴρειν, to _send portions_, the
reason of which prohibition, I conceive to be three-fold. First, that
_Christians_ might not symbolize with _Heathen_ people. Secondly, That
none presuming that their portions should be sent them, might absent
themselves. Thirdly, that those present (especially the poorer sort, as
it often falleth out) might not be injured, by having the best of their
provision sent away in such portions.

    [276] _‎‏ארוח‏‎ Hospes ‎‏טרוח‏‎ Onus ‎‏ברוח‏‎ Profugus Buxtorf.
    Synag. cap. 32. p. 493._

    [277] _Moris erat veteribus in conviviis μερίδας mittere
    absentibus amicis. Theophrastus cap. περὶ μεμψιμορίας. Idem
    testatur Plut. in Agesilao. διέπεμπε μερίδας τοῖς φίλοις ἀπὸ
    τῶν τεθυμένων. Eundem morem Judæis in usu fuisse testantur
    sacræ literæ Nehem. 8. 10. ἀποστείλατε μερίδας._

Here we may note, for conclusion, that as the time of their supper was
towards the evening, and then they gave greatest entertainment; So the
time of their dinner was about the sixth hour of the day; that is, as
we count, about Noon. Kill meat and make ready, for the men shall eat
with me at _Noon, en. 43. 16._ _~Peter~ went up upon the house to pray
about the sixth hour; than waxed he and hungred, and would have eaten,
but whiles they made something ready, he fell into a trance_, Acts 10.
9, 10.

Moreover we may here note the difference between those _three cups_
mentioned in Scripture, ποτήριον τῆς εὐλογίας, _1 Cor. 10. 19._ The
_cup of blessing_, and this is applied to those several cups used
in their solemn Feasts, because of those blessings or thanksgiving
annexed. Secondly, ποτήριον εἰς παράκλησιν, _Jer. 16. 7._ The _cup
of consolation_; this was so called, because it was sent by special
friends in time of mourning, as intending by this drinking to put away
sorrow and grief from the mourner. Thirdly, ποτήριον σωτηρίας, _Psal.
116. 13._ _The cup of salvation_: this was used commonly after their
_Peace-offerings_, which were vowed in way of thankfulness for benefits
obtained. Whence the _Seventy Elders_ commonly translate _a Peace
offering_, σωτήριον, _A sacrifice of salvation_, or _salvation it self_.


_Of their Sabbath._

The word ‎‏שבת‏‎ _Schabbath_, from whence our _English_ word _Sabbath_ is
derived, signifieth _Rest_, and is applied to all _solemn Festivals_.
_They polluted my Sabbaths_, _Ezek. 20. 21._ that is, my _Feasts_.
Sometimes it is applyed to the _whole week_, _Jejuno bis in Sabbato_,
_I fast twice in the week_. Sometimes, and that most frequently, it
is used for that 7th day which God had set apart for his own service.
This last was holy, either by a simple holiness which belonged to it,
as was the seventh day; or else by a double holiness occasioned by
some solemn Feast upon the same day, and then it was called, _Sabbatum
magnum_, _a great Sabbath_, _John 19. 36._ For on that _Sabbath day_ of
which S. _John_ speaketh, the _Feast of the Passover_ hapned that year.

The week days are termed by the _Hebrew_, ‎‏חולים‏‎ _Cholim_, _prophane
days_; by the Greek ἐνεργοὶ, _working days_: but when they speak of
them altogether, τὸ μεταξὺ σαββάτων, _the space of time between two
Sabbaths_.[278] This was the time upon which the _Gentiles_ desired
to hear _Paul_ _Act. 13. 42._ In respect of the different degrees
of holiness on days, the _Sabbath-day_ is not unfitly compared to a
_Queen_, or rather to those whom they termed _Primary wives_; other
_Feast days_ to _Concubines_, or _half wives_; _working-days_, to

    [278] _Scalig. de emend. Temp. l. 6 p. 261. Item Beza in hunc

The _Sabbaths_ began at[279] six a clock the night before: this
the _Grecians_ called παρείσοδον σαββάτου the _Hebrew_[280] _Biath
haschabbath_, the _enterance of the Sabbath_.

    [279] _Scalig. de emend. Temp. l. 6. p. 269._

    [280] _‎‏באת השבת‏‎_

The _preparation_ to the _Sabbath_ begun at[281] three of the clock in
the afternoon; the _Hebrews_ called this ‎‏ערב השבת‏‎ _Gnereb haschabbath_,
the _Sabbath eve_. By the ancient _Fathers_ it was called[282] _cœna
pura_; the phrase is borrowed from _Pagans_, whose Religion taught them
in their Sacrifices to certain of their _Gods_ and _Goddesses_, to
prepare themselves by a strict kind of holiness; at which time of their
preparation they did pertake of a certain Supper, which as it consisted
of choice meats, such as those _Heathens_ deemed more holy than others:
so it was eat with the observation of _Holy Rites_ and _Ceremonies_:
Hence they themselves were said at this time of their preparation to be
in _In casto_, and their preparatory Supper termed, _Cœna pura_. Thus
we see the reason why the _Fathers_ called the _Sabbath-eve_, _Cœnam
puram_. By the _Evangelists_ it was called παρασκευὴ, _A preparation_,
_Mark 15. 42._ For distinction sake, we may call that fore-time of the
day προπαρασκευὴ, _A fore-preparation_. For the whole day was a kind of
preparation, as will appear by the particulars then forbidden. First
on this day they might go no more than three _Parsas_; now a _Parsa_
contained so much ground as an ordinary man might go ten of them in
a day. Secondly, Judges might not then sit in Judgment upon life and
death, as is shewn in the Chapter of Translation of Feasts.[283]
Thirdly, all sorts of Artificers were forbidden to work, only three
excepted, _shoomakers_, _Taylors_, and _Scribes_; the two former for
repairing of apparel, the other for fitting themselves by study to
expound the Law the next day, and these were permitted but half the
preparation time to work.

    [281] _Joseph. Antiq. l. 16. c. 10._

    [282] _In ritibus Paganorum cœna pura appellabatur; cœna illis
    apponi solita, qui in casto erant quod Græci dicunt ἁγνεύειν,
    vel προαγνεύειν. Isaac Casaubon, Exercit. 16, p. 662._

    [283] _Casaubon. Exercit. 16. p. 479. ex Michlol. Kimchi._

The best and wealthiest of them,[284] even those that had many
servants, did with their own hands further the _preparation_; so that
sometimes the Masters themselves would chop herbs, sweep the house,
cleave wood, kindle the fire, and such like.

    [284] _Buxtorf. Synagog. Jud. cap. 10. ex Talmud._

In old time[285] they proclamed the _Preparation_ with noise of
Trumpets, or Horns; but now the modern _Jews_ proclaim it by the
_Sexton_, or some under Officer of the Church, whom they call ‎‏שליח צבור‏‎
_Scheliach tsibbur_, The _Messenger of the Congregation_.

    [285] _Buxtorf Synagog. Judaic. ibid._

Concerning the sanctification of the _Sabbath_ day it self, in
corrupter times some things the _Jews_ added over and above that
which God commanded. In other things they took liberty where _God_
granted none. In the first they were _superstitious_, in the second

They took liberty: There were two thousand Cubits between the _Ark_
and the _Camp_, when they marched; _Josh. 3. 4._ and in probability the
same proportion was observed when they rested: this distance of ground
some interpret to be one mile, some two; some measuring it according
to a lesser, others according to a longer Cubit, which they term a
_Geometrical Cubit_: But all agree in this, that these two thousand
cubits was a _Sabbath_ days journey, though none, as I know, have
observed the reason why it was so called, which I take to be this:
On the _Sabbath_ day they were all to repair to the place of _God_’s
publike worship, which was two thousand cubits distant from those
who camped nearest: Hence follow four Propositions. First, That two
thousand Cubits any where, by proportion, might be called a _Sabbath
dayes journy_. Secondly, That to those who dwelt in the Camps more
remote from the _Ark_, a _Sabbath daies journy_ was more than two
thousand Cubits. Thirdly, That it is now lawful on the _Sabbath day_,
to joyn with the Congregation in the place of _God_’s publick worship,
though remote. Fourthly, That it was unlawful for the _Jews_ hereupon
to take liberty to walk idlely whither they would, if it were not more
then two thousand Cubits, pretending it to be but a _Sabbath daies

They added unto that which God commanded, 1. God said, _Remember to
keep holy a seventh day_: in which words, _God_ sanctified one day
to be _Sabbatum_,[286] they added _Sabbatulum_, so they termed that
additament of time which they annexed to the _Sabbath_. This addition
of time was _two-fold_: some began the _Sabbath_ sooner than others;
this was done by the _Jews_ dwelling at _Tiberias_, because they
dwelling in a Valley, the Sun appeared not to them so soon as it did
to others. Some again continued the _Sabbath_ longer than others: this
was done by those dwelling at _Tsepphore_, a City placed upon the top
of a Mountain, so that the Sun shined longer to them, than it did to
others. Thus both of these did _Addere de profano ad sacrum_; add
somewhat of the working day, immediately going before, or immediately
following after: none diminished of the _Sabbath_. Hence[287] _R. Jose
wished that his portion might be with those that began the Sabbath,
with those of ~Tiberias~, and ended with those of ~Tsepphore~_.

    [286] _Hospinian. de Orig. fest. c. 3._

    [287] _Buxtorf. Comment. Masoret. cap. 4, ex Musar._

2. God said, _To morrow is the rest of the holy Sabbath unto the Lord,
bake that ye will bake, and seethe that ye will seethe_, _Exod. 16.
23._ This Command was proper to the time of _Manna_:[288] the reason
is there alledged, why they should prepare that day for the morrow,
because upon the _Sabbath_ day they should not find it in the field.
The _Jews_ extend this Command to all Ages; and therefore they dressed
no meat this day: this haply was the reason, that the _Heathen_ people
thought they fasted[289] on the _Sabbath_, though I deny not but this
error might be occasioned in part from that phrase, _Jejuno bis in

    [288] _Jun. & Tremel. in Exod. 16._

    [289] _Sueton. August. c. 76 de jejun. Sabbat. Vid. Martial. l.
    4. Epig. 4._

3. God said, _Ye shall kindle no fire throughout your habitations on
the Sabbath day_, _Exod. 35. 3._ This commandment was only concerning
fire for the furtherance of the work of the _Tabernacle_,[290] for
therefore is the _Sabbath_ mentioned in that _Chapter_, to shew, that
the work of the _Tabernacle_ ought to give place to the _Sabbath_. The
_Jews_ hence gather, that it is unlawful to kindle any fire at all on
this day.

    [290] _Vatablus in hunc locum Item. Trem. & Junius._

4. God said, _In it thou shalt do no manner of work_. This the _Jews_
understood without any manner of exception.[291] Hence they held it
unlawful, to _roast an apple, to tuck an herb, to clime a tree,
to kill or catch a flea_. Hence they thought it unlawful to defend
themselves, being assaulted by their enemies on the _Sabbath_ day:
By this means, twice they became a prey unto the enemy.[292] First,
unto _Antiochus_; whereupon _Mattathias_ made a Decree, that it should
be lawful upon the _Sabbath_ to resist their enemies; which Decree
again they understanding strictly, as if it did only give leave to
resist,[293] when they were actually assaulted, and not by any labour
that day to prevent the enemies raising of Rams, settling of Engines,
underminings, _&c._ they became a prey, the second time, to _Pompey_.
For the right understanding therefore of this Command, we are to know,
that three sorts of servile works were allowed.

    [291] _Hospinian. de Orig. fest. c. de Sabbato._

    [292] _Joseph. l. 12. cap. 8._

    [293] _Joseph. l. 14: cap. 8._

1. _Works of Charity_: _God_, that allowed them to lead their Oxe and
Ass to water on the _Sabbath_, _Luke 13._ to make their lives more
comfortable, much more allowed man liberty to dress convenient food for
himself and his Family, that they might the more comfortably perform
holy duties. _Christ_ healed on the _Sabbath_, therefore, visiting the
sick, and the use of the _Physitian_, was both then and now lawful.

2. _Works tending directly to Gods Worship_: not only killing of
sacrifices, and circumcising of children on that day was allowed; but
the _Priests_ might lawfully blow their Trumpets and Horns on the
_Sabbath_ day; for the assembling of the people, _Numb. 20. 2._ And
the people might warrantably go from their Houses to the place of Gods
publick worship. By proportion it is now warrantable for _Christians_,
to ring bells to assemble the people together on the Lords day; to take
journeys, to joyn with the publick Congregation, or Preach the Word. Of
these we may say, though they are in their own natures bodily labors,
yet the _Temple_ which was sanctified did change the nature of them,
and make them holy, _Mat. 23. 17._ Or as the _Jews_ say concerning the
overthrow of _Jericho_, which according to their writings fell on the
_Sabbath day_:[294] _He which commanded the Sabbath to be sanctified,
commanded it also to be prophaned_.

    [294] _‎‏מי שצות על השבת צות לחלל שבת‏‎ R. D. Kimchi in Josh. 6._

3. _Works of absolute necessity_, as the defending ones self against
his enemy, and others of like nature: concerning which the _Jews_
have a saying,[295] _Peril of life drives away the Sabbath_. And the
_Christians_ with a little change of a more common Proverb, say,
_Necessitas non habet ferias_; _Necessity hath no Holy days_.

    [295] _‎‏מסכנות נפש דוחה שבת‏‎_


_Of their Passover, and their Feasts of Unleavened Bread._

Some of the _Fathers_ have derived[296] the word _Paschal_, from
a Greek Verb, signifying to suffer, because the _sufferings_ and
_Passion_ of our _Saviour_; are celebrated about that time. This
Opinion _Augustine_ justly confuteth,[297] for the word is originally
an _Hebrew_ word, signifying to _pass by_, _to leap_, or _pass over_.
The _Etymology_ is _God_’s own. It is the sacrifice of the _Lord_’s
_Passover_, which _passed over, &c._ _Exod. 12. 27._

    [296] _Tertul. advers. Judaic. c. 10 It. Ambros. lib. de
    Myster. Pasch. cap. 1._

    [297] _Aug. in titul. Psal. 68._

The word _Passover_ in Scripture hath three acceptions. First, it
is taken for that yearly solemnity which was celebrated upon the
fourteenth day of _Nisan_,[298] otherwise called _Abib_; you may call
it the _Passover of the Lamb_, because on that day toward the evening,
the _Israelites_ were commanded according to their Families to roast
a _Lamb_, and eat it in their private houses. Secondly, it signifieth
that yearly Festivity which was celebrated on the fifteenth of _Nisan_:
it may be called the _Passover_ of _sheep and Bullocks_, _Deut. 16. 2._
Otherwise we may call it the _Feast of the Passover_; as the fourteenth
of _Nisan_ was called simply the _Passover_. In the fourteenth day of
the first moneth, is the _Passover of the Lord_, and in the fifteenth
day of this moneth is the _Feast_, _Num. 28. 16, 17._ Toward this
Feast we are to understand that _Josiah_ gave unto the people such a
multitude of Sheep, Lambs, Kids, and Bullocks. Thirdly, it is taken for
the whole solemnity, beginning the Fourteenth of _Nisan_, and ending
the one and twentieth of the same moneth. Now the _Feast of unleavened
bread drew nigh, which is called the Passover_, _Luk. 22. 1._ So that
in this acception is contained the _Feast of unleavened bread_ also,
notwithstanding, in proper speaking, the _Feast of unleavened bread_
was a distinct _Feast_ from the _Passover_.

    [298] _E Theologia non pauci omnia quæ ad 14. noctem pertinent
    15. attribuunt quem errorem hauserunt ex turbidis Rabbinorum
    lacunis qui hodie eundem errorem errant, teste Scaliger. de
    emend. Temp. l. 6 p. 270._

First, the _Passover_ was to be kept on the _fourteenth day of the
first month, at even_. This was their second Sacrament, in which
although they were enjoyned to eat unleavened bread with the Lamb,
yet the _Feast of the unleavened bread_ began not till the morrow
following, being the _fifteenth day of the same moneth_, and lasted
seven daies of which only the first and last were holy Convocations,
wherein they might do no servile work, _Levit. 23. 5, 6, 7, 8._

Secondly, the _Passover_, in the age following its first institution,
might not be killed and eaten in any other place, save only where
the _Lord_ did choose to place his name, which afterward was at
_Jerusalem_: but the _feast of unleavened bread_, the _Hebrews_
thought themselves bound to keep in every place wheresoever they dwelt,
if they could not be at _Jerusalem_: and _eating of it_, they say,[299]
_depended not upon the eating of the Passover, but it was a commandment
by it self_.

    [299] _‎‏לא תלה אבי לת זר בקרבן הפסח אלא זו מצות עצמה‏‎ Maimon.
    de fermento & Azymo c. 6. sect. 1._

The _Rites_ and _Ceremonies_ observed by the _Jews_ in the eating
of this Sacrament, their _Paschal Lamb_, agreed with those general
Ceremonies used in their solemn Feasts. They _blessed the cup_, and
_blessed the bread_, and _divided_ amongst the guests, and _washed the
feet_ of those that sate at the table, as is shewn in the Chapter of
_Feasts_. The particulars in which it differed from other Feasts, are
delivered in those interrogatories, or questions proposed in way of
_Catechism_, by some child, at the time of eating their _Passover_,
or rather in the answer made unto the child by him that blessed the
table. The question was thus: What meaneth this service? The form of
the answer was,[300] How different is this night from all other nights,
for all other nights we wash but once, in this twice (thus _Christ_
when supper was ended washed his Disciples feet.) In all other nights
we eat either leavened or unleavened bread, in this only unleavened: In
other nights we eat any sort of herbs, in this night bitter herbs: In
all other nights we eat and drink either sitting or lying, but in this
we lye along. Then he proceeded to declare, that the _Passover_ was
in respect that the _Lord passed over_ the houses of their Fathers in
_Egypt_. Secondly, He held up the bitter herbs in his hand, and said;
These bitter herbs which we eat, are in respect that the _Egyptians_
made the lives of our _Fathers bitter in Ægypt_. Thirdly, he held up
the unleavened bread in his hand, and said, This unleavened bread
which we eat, it is in respect that the dough of our Fathers had not
time to be leavened, when the Lord appeared unto them, and redeemed
them out of the hand of the enemy. This kind of _Catechising_ they
say, is commanded, _Exod. 12. 26._ They called it ‎‏הגדה‏‎ _Haggada_, (i.)
_Annunciatio_, the _declaration_ or _shewing forth_ of the _Passover_.
Hence the _Apostle_ borroweth this phrase; _As often as ye shall eat
this bread, and drink this cup, ye shall declare, ~or~ shew forth, the
Lord’s death_, _1 Cor. 11. 26._

    [300] _Scalig. de emend. Temp. l. 5. p. 270._

Concerning this Lamb they are charged thus: _Upon the tenth of ~Abib~
every one shall take a Lamb for an house, a male of the first year,
without blemish, and this be kept until the fourteenth day of the
same month_, _Exod. 12. 3. &c._ The _Lamb_, it was either of _Sheep_
or _Goats_. For an _house_, the whole body of the _Israelites_, was
divided into twelve _Tribes_, the _Tribes_ into _Families_, the
_Families_ into _Houses_: if the _House_ were too few for the eating
of the _Lamb_, then the next Neighbour joyned with them in the eating
thereof. The whole Company was termed φρατρία, in the same sense
S. _Mark_ useth συμπόσια, and πρασιαὶ, _Mark_ the sixth. All these
words signifie a _society_, or _company of guests_, _so many as can
sit at the same table_: the latter word properly signifieth, _a bed
in a Garden_; and thus in the _Gospel_, the whole multitude sitting
on the grass, seem to be compared unto a _Garden_; and their several
_societies_ or _companies_, unto so many _beds in the Garden_. The
number of _Communicants_ in this _Paschal society_ was never less
than ten, nor more than twenty.[301] It followeth in the Text, _A
male_, to note the masculine and peerless vertue of our _Saviour_,
whom it did typically shew forth. _Of the first year_;[302] which
phrase they interpret thus, That the lamb, after it was eight daies
old and forward, was allowable to be offered for the _Passover_,
but not before; because it is said, _When a bullock, or a sheep, or
a goat is brought forth, then it shall be seven daies under the dam,
and from the eighth day, and thenceforth, it shall be accepted for an
offering made by fire unto the Lord_, _Levit. 22. 27._ And the reason
of this Law, some of the _Hebrews_ have thought to be,[303] because
in their Opinion nothing in the world was absolutely perfect, until
a _Sabbath_ had past over it. Moreover if it were an hour elder then
a year, it was unlawful, because it is said, _A male of the first
year, without blemish_, as well to admonish the _Israelites_ of their
own personal integrity, as to signifie the absolute perfection of
him who was in truth the _Lamb of God_. And this he kept till the
_fourteenth day of the same month_. The _Rabbines_ affirm[304] four
causes of this: _First_, because otherwise through the multitude of
businesses, at the time of their departure, they might forget the
_Paschal Lamb_. _Secondly_, that in this four daies space they might
have the more certain knowledge of the Lamb’s perfection. _Thirdly_,
that by beholding the Lamb so long before their eyes, they might have
the better occasion, in that space, both to recount with themselves
_Gods_ mercy in their deliverance from _Ægypt_, and also to instruct
and _Catechise_ their children in that point: for which respect it
was a received Tradition amongst the _Jews_, that during the space of
these four daies, their Lamb was tyed to their bed-posts. _Lastly_,
that in this time of preparation, they might throughly sit and address
themselves for the Oblation.

    [301] _Ioseph. de bello Jud. l. 7 c. 17._

    [302] _Hebraice ‎‏בן שנה‏‎ Filium anni. Sunt qui distinguunt inter
    Filium anni & Filium anni sui, filium anni interpretantur,
    qui annum unum agit, nec minor, nec major. Filium vero anni
    sui, qui est in anno primo, licet eum nondum absolverit. Sed
    Aben Esra negat absque Cabala posse sciri quis sit filius anni
    sui, nam fieri potest, inquit, ut sit Vau addititium sive
    paragogicum, quale in ‎‏חיתו‏‎ & similibus._

    [303] _Vid. Munster ad Levit. 22._

    [304] _Hospinian. de Orig. fest. cap. 5._

The time when the _Paschal Lamb_ was to be slain, was at the _Evening_,
_Exod. 12. 6._ Or, as the Original reads, _between the two evenings_.
Here _Divines_ move the question, what part of the day should be
understood by this phrase. Some distinguish the _two evenings_
thus,[305] That there was _Vespera Solis_, the _evening of the Sun_;
namely, when the body of the Sun setteth: and _Vespera luminis_,
_the evening of the light_, when the beams and shining of the _Sun_
is also gone from off the earth; The space or interim between these
_two Evenings_, is thought to be one hour, and the third part of an
hour; in which space of time, they say, the _Paschal Lamb_ was slain.
Others[306] admit a greater latitude, and distinguish thus: There is
say they, _Vespera declinationis_, the _Evening of the Sun declining_;
and _Vespera occasus_, the _Evening of the Sun setting_; and their
meaning is, that their _Passover_ was offered in this intermediate
time, between noon and night. This latter answer seemeth most agreeable
to the truth. First because by this speech we must understand a
latitude of time wherein might be offered not only the _Passover_,
but the _daily Evening Sacrifice_ also, for even that likewise was
commanded, _Inter duas Vesperas_, _between the two evenings_, _Num. 28.
4._ Now this might be offered in the former part of the after-noon.
The manner of their sacrificing, in regard of this time, we find
thus registred,[307] if we count the hours according to our usual
computations: the _daily sacrifice of the evening Lamb_ was usually
_slain_ between _two_ and _three_, it was _offered_ between _three_
and _four_: upon the _Passover Eve_ it was slain between _one_ and
_two_, it was _offered_ about half an hour before _three_; but if their
_Passover Eve_ hapned to be the same with their _Sabbath Eve_, then the
daily _Evening Sacrifice_ was _slain_ between _twelve_ and _one_, it
was offered half an hour before _two_; and afterward the _Passover_.
Secondly, this agreeth with the Oblation of the true _Paschal Lamb_;
for, as the time of his crucifying began in the third hour of the day,
with the _daily morning sacrifice_, _Mark 15. 25._ so it ended at
the ninth hour, _Mark 15. 34._ which was the time of their ordinary
_evening sacrifice_: but upon their _Passover Eve_, it was the time
when their _Paschal Lamb was slain_.

    [305] _Aben Ezra, Exod. 12._

    [306] _R. David. in Radic. Hoc etiam colligi potest ex Pirk.
    Aboth. c. 5._

    [307] _Talmud. tract. de paschate. c. 1. in initio._

Furthermore, the _Lamb was to be eaten with bitter herbs_: the reason
of this command is, that thereby they might be moved to thankfulness
towards _God_, for their deliverance from the _Egyptian bondage_, in
which their lives were made bitter unto them, _Ex. 1. 14._

These _bitter herbs_ they dipt in a certain sauce thick like Mustard,
called _Charoseth_,[308] which thick sauce (say they)[309] was a
memorial of the _day_ wherein they _wrought_ in _Egypt_. This is
thought of some[310] to be that wherein _Christ_ diped the sop which
he gave to _Judas_. Of this sauce the _Hebrews_ write thus;[311] they
used to dip the _unleavened bread_ in that sauce _Charoseth_, and to
eat; then they dipt the bitter herbs in the _Charoseth_, and did eat
them. It was made[312] of the Palm-tree branches, or of dry Figs, or of
Raisins, which they stamped and put Vinegar thereto, and seasoned it,
and made it like Clay; and brought it unto the Table in the night of
the _Passover_.

    [308] _‎‏חרוסת‏‎_

    [309] _Moses Kotsensis, fol. 118_

    [310] _Scalig. de emend. temp. l. 6. p. 272._

    [311] _Maim. de fermento. c. 8. sect. 7._

    [312] _Maimon. in ‎‏חמץ ומצה‏‎ c. 7. sect, 11._

The other seven daies following the fourteenth of _Nisan_, were in
strictness of speech a distinct Feast, as is above-shewed; namely, _the
Feast of unleavened bread_ because in that space of time, no _leavened
bread_ ought to be found in their houses;[313] their degrees[314] of
_preparation to this feast_ are _four_. 1. _Expurgatio fermenti_,
_the cleansing of_ all their _houshold stuff_ and _vessels_, unto
which _leaven_ might haply cleave; and this was done two or three
daies before the _Passover_. 2. _Inquisitio fermenti_, the _searching
after leaven_ throughout all the rooms of their houses, even to the
Mouse-holes: this they did with a waxen Candle, and as _Buxtorfus_
noteth, upon the night before the _Passover_: and _Scaliger_ delivereth
it in other words to the same purpose, namely,[315] that this search
was made, _Ineunte quarta decima, usque ad quartam horam post ortum
solis_. _At the beginning of the fourteenth day, until the fourth hour
after the rising of the Sun._ Now, the beginning of the fourteenth
day was the night going before; for the _Jews_, in the computation of
their Holy-daies, counted their day from even to even. 3. There was
_Exterminatio_, or _Conflagratio fermenti_, _A burning of the leaven_;
and this was done from the fourth to the sixth hour, about dinner-time;
at which time followed the last degree, which _Scaliger_ hath ommitted,
namely, _Execratio fermenti_, the _cursing of the leaven_, in this
form:[316] _Let all that leaven, or whatsoever leavened thing is in my
power, whether it were seen of me, or not seen, whether cleansed by me,
or not cleansed; let all that be scattered, destroyed, and accounted as
the dust of the earth_.

    [313] _Huius moris vestigia quædam sunt reperta in Roman.
    Flamine Diali. A. Gell. noct. Attic. lib. 10. c. 15._

    [314] _Buxtorf. Synag. Judaic. c. 12. p. 317._

    [315] _Scalig. de emend. Temp. in prolegom._

    [316] _Buxtorf. Synag. c. 12. p. 325._

In case any did eat leavened bread those seven daies, the penalty was,
that such a _soul_ should be _cut off from Israel_, _Exod. 12. 15._
Which penalty hath amongst Expositors a three-fold interpretation.[317]
Some understand thereby such a man to be _cut off from his heavenly
inheritance_: others, that _God_ would _cut off such from the living
by an untimely death_: others, that he should _die without children_,
leaving no posterity behind him: To this purpose their Proverb is,[318]
_A man childless is lifeless_.

    [317] _Vid. P. Fag. in Exod. 12._

    [318] _Vid. P. Fag. ibid._

Of these three, the first is most probable in this place, though
the same Text may admit the second interpretation in other places
of Scripture, as is declared in the Chapter of Circumcision.
Notwithstanding here let the judicious Reader determine, whether these
words do not imply, besides the secret actions of God touching the soul
of such a Delinquent, a direction unto the Church how to deal with
parties thus offending by censuring them with Excommunication, which
kind of censure elsewhere the Scripture calleth, _A casting out of the
Synagogue_, _John 16. 2._ A speech much like this, _A cutting off from

Three things may be here demanded. First, who killed the _Paschal
Lamb_? Secondly, where it was killed? Thirdly, where it was eaten?
First, it was killed by the _Priests_, _2 Chron. 35. 6._ Secondly,
it was killed after the first time in the _Court of the Temple_, the
place which _God_ had chosen. _Deut. 16. 6._ Thirdly, the owner of
the Lamb took it of the _Priest_, and did eat it in his own house
at _Jerusalem_, _Christ with his disciples kept the Passover in an
upper-chamber at Jerusalem_.[319]

    [319] _Maimon. in Korban Pesach c. 1. sec. 6._

It may further be demanded, whether the Passover consisted of two
suppers, one immediately succeeding the other? Some affirm it, and
their reasons are these: First, say they, the _Passover_ was eaten
_standing_, but _Christ_ used another gesture. This argument of all
other is the weakest, for _Christ_ used the gesture of lying on his
body, as well in the eating of the _Passover_, as at the consecration
of the _Sacrament_, and the _Jews_, generally after the first
institution, in all their _Passovers_, used rather this posture of
their body, than the other of standing, in token of rest and security,
as appeareth in the _Chapter of Feasts_. Secondly, they say, the
_Paschal Lamb_ was wont to be rosted; but in the last _Passover_ which
our _Saviour_ celebrated, there was _Jus cui intingebatur panis_,
_Broth into which he dipped the bread_. This reason is as weak as the
former, because though there was a command to eat the _Paschal Lamb
rosted_; yet there was no prohibition to joyn their ordinary supper
with the eating thereof, and that might admit broth: but, as it is
shewn above, the matter into which the sop was dipped, was thought to
be the sauce _Charoseth_. Thirdly, they urge _John 13. 2._ That the
first supper was done, when _Christ_ arose and washed his Disciples
feet, and after that he gave _Judas_ the sop, which must argue a
second sitting down. This foretelling his _Disciples_, that one of
them should betray him, is likewise by Saint _Luke_ recited after the
consecration of the _Sacrament_. This is the strongest argument, and
yet not of sufficient validity, because by a kind of _Prolepsis_, or
anticipation of time, it is not unusual, in the Scripture, to relate
that first, which according to the truth of the History, should be
last. Thus _John 11._ mention is made of _Mary_ which anointed the
_Lord_, yet her anointing of him followeth in the next _Chapter_. And
this same History of betraying _Christ_, Saint _Matthew_, and Saint
_Mark_ recite it before the consecration of the _Sacrament_. Whence
the _Jews_ have a Proverb,[320] _Non esse prius aut posterius in
scriptura_; That _first_ and _last_, must not be strictly urged in
Scripture. Together with these answers, consider how improbable it
is, that ten persons (for sometimes they were so few) should eat a
second supper, after they had eaten _A Lamb of the first year_, which
might be an year old. It is evident also by that of _Barabbas_, that
it was a received custom on the _Passover_, to let loose and enlarge
one Prisoner or other. Concerning the reason hereof, the conjecture
is three-fold, Some think this custom to have been used in memory of
_Jonathan_ the son of _Saul_, when the people rescued him from the
hands of his Father. Others say that the reason hereof was, that the
Feast might be celebrated with the greater joy and gladness. Others
more probably think, it was done in remembrance of their deliverance
from the _Egyptian bondage_.

    [320] _‎‏אין מוקדם ומאוחר בתורה‏‎ Salom. Iarchi. in Gen. 6. 3._

Again, here is to be observed, that the _Jews_, speaking of their
_Passover_, did sometimes speak according to their _civil computation_,
wherein they measured their days from _Sun-rising_ to _Sun-rising_:
sometimes according to their _sacred computation_, which was from
_Sun-set_ to _Sun-set_. This serveth for the reconciliation of that,
_Numb. 12. 18._ which seemeth to make the fourteenth day of the first
month, the first day of unleavened bread. And _Josephus_[321] telleth
us that they numbered _eight days_ for that Feast. In like manner the
Disciples are said to come unto _Christ_ the _first day of unleavened
bread_, saying unto him, _Where wilt thou that we prepare for thee to
eat the Passover?_ _Mat. 26. 17._ as if the _first day of unleavened
bread_, were before the _Passover_. All these are true according to the
computation of their _civil days_, though according to the computation
of their _Holy-days_, the _feast of unleavened bread_ began the
fifteenth day, and continued seven days only, and the _Passover_ was
before the _feast of unleavend bread_.

    [321] _Joseph. Antiq. l. 2. c. 5. p. 65._

In the last place we must know, that there was permitted a _second
Passover_ to those who could not be partakers of the _first_, by reason
either of their uncleanness by a dead body, or of their far distance
from the place where it was to be offered. This was to be observed in
the second month, the fourteenth day thereof, according to all the
Ordinances of the first _Passover_, _Numb. 9._ Touching that permission
of a _second Passover_, to those that were in a journey _far off_: the
_Hebrew_ of this word _far off_, hath extraordinary pricks over it,
for special consideration. Hereby the Lord might intimate, that we
Gentiles which were unclean, even dead in trespasses and sins, and _far
off_, _Ephes. 2. 13._ should be made _nigh_ by the blood of _Christ_,
and so partakers of him, the _second Passover_. Of this legal Ordinance
the _Hebrews_ say,[322] What is this journey _far off_? fifteen miles
without the walls of _Jerusalem_, who so is distant from _Jerusalem_,
on the fourteenth day of the first month, fifteen miles or more, when
the Sun riseth, Lo, this is a journey _far off_; if less than this,
it is not a journey _far off_, for he may come to _Jerusalem_ by
after midday, though he go on foot, easily. The Agreement between the
_Paschal Lamb_ and _Christ_ standeth thus,

    [322] _Maimon. in Korban. Pesach c. 5. sect. 8, 9._

_Christ is our Passover_, _1 Cor. 5._

    The Paschal Lamb was,           Christ was,

     1  One of the flock.            1  _Perfect man_, _John 1._
     2  Without blemish.             2  _Without sin._
     3  To be sacrificed and         3  _Suffered and died._
     4  His bones were not           4  _They brake not his legs_,
        broken.                         _John 19. 33._
     5  About the Evening.           5  _In the end of the world_,
                                        _Heb. 9. 26._
     6  Their door-posts were        6  _The Blood of Christ purgeth
        to be sprinkled with            our consciences._
        the blood.
     7  That the punishing           7  _That sin and death might
        Angel might pass over           not prevail against us._
     8  It was eaten in their        8  _He is applied by Faith._
        several families.
     9  The whole Lamb.              9  _According to all the Articles
                                        of the Creed._
    10  Without Leaven.             10  _Without Hypocrisie_,
                                        _1 Cor. 5._
    11  With bitter herbs.          11  _With patience under the
    12  In haste, and in the        12  _With an earnest and
        manner of Travellers.           longing expectation of life
    13  Only by the Circumcised.    13  _Only by the faithful_,
                                        _1 Cor. 11._


_Of their Pentecost_

This Feast was called πεντεκοστὴ, _the Pentecost_; which word
signifieth the _fiftieth day_, because it was observed upon the
_fiftieth day after the second of the Passover_, which was the
_sixteenth of Nisan_. Here in the first place we must note, that the
fourteenth of _Nisan_ was τὸ πάσχα, the _Passover_; the _fifteenth_
ἑορτὴ τοῦ πάσχα, the _Feast of the Passover_: or πρώτη τοῦ πάσχα,[323]
the _first of the Passover_: the sixteenth was δευτέρα τοῦ πάσχα, the
_second of the Passover_; or _the morrow after the Passover_, _Levit.
23. 11._ which is all one, as if it had been said, the _morrow after
the feast of the Passover_; for in those feasts which consisted in many
daies, the _first_ and the _last_ were termed _Sabbaths_. Now these
fifty daies were in truth the appointed time of their Harvest, their
Harvest, being bounded as it were, with two remarkable daies, the one
being the _beginning_, the other the _end_ thereof: the _beginning_
was δευτέρα τοῦ πάσχα the _second of the Passover_; the _end_ was
πεντεκοστὴ, the _fiftieth day after_, called the _Pentecost_. Upon
the δευτέρα, then they offered[324] a _sheaf of the same fruits of
their harvest_, _Levit. 23. 10._ Upon the _Pentecost_, then they
offered two _wave loavs_, _Levit. 23. 17._ the _sheaf_ being an
Oblation offered in the name of the whole Congregation, whereby all
the after-fruits throughout the Land were sanctified,[325] it being
from thence afterward lawful, and not before, to reap the Corn, the
_two loavs_ being not only an _Eucharistical Oblation_, but also a
token of the Harvest finished and ended. In the second place we are to
know, that they did count these fifty daies by numbring the _Weeks_
from the δευτέρα, whence it was called a _Feast of weeks_. The manner
how they counted the _weeks_, was, according to the number of the
_Sabbaths_ following the δευτέρα. Thus the first _Sabbath_ following
they called δευτερόπρωτον σάββατον: the second, δευτεροδεύτερον: the
third δευτερότριτον, _&c._ So that[326] all the _Weeks_ and _Sabbaths_,
during the time of the _Pentecost_; as the _first_, _second_, _third_,
and _fourth_, _&c._ took their denomination from δευτέρα, which
observation giveth light to that of S. _Luke_, _Luke 16. 1._ where
there is mention of a _Sabbath_ termed δευτερόπρωτον, that is, the
_second first Sabbath_, and by it is meant the _Sabbath next after the
sixteenth of Nisan_, which was the δευτέρα. Seeing that these _fifty
daies_ did measure out the time of their Harvest, it will not be amiss
to observe the difference betwixt their Harvest and ours, which chiefly
consisted in their anticipation of time; for both the _Canaanites_ and
the _Ægyptians_ began their Harvest about the first of _April_,[327] it
was quite finished in _May_.

    [323] _Seniores appellabant hunc diem, πρώτην τῶν σαββάτων.
    Lev. 23. 11._

    [324] _Scalig. de emend. temp. l. 6._

    [325] _Καὶ τότε λοιπὸν δημοσίᾳ ἔξεστι πᾶσι καὶ ἰδίᾳ θερίζειν,
    Joseph. Antiq. l. 3. c. 10._

    [326] _Scalig. lib. 6. de emend. temp. p. 260._

    [327] _Plin. l. 18. cap. 18. Illud ipsum confirmat Leo Afr.
    testis αὐτόπτης Descript. Afr. lib. 8. c. 4._


_The Feast of Tabernacles_

The _Greek_ word used to express this Festivity, properly signifieth
the _making of Tabernacles_:[328] the _Hebrew_ word, a _Feast of
Tabernacles_.[329] The reason of both is, because all the time of
this _Feast_, which was full seven daies, (from the fifteenth of
_Tisri_, untill the one and twentieth thereof) the people remained in
_Tabernacles_ and _Booths_ made of Boughs, in manner of Arbors and
Bowers; yet so, that the first day of those seven, and the last, were
after a more special manner to be observed as _holy Convocations_.

    [328] _Jansen. Concord. cap. 73. Item Tollet. in Joan. 7.
    σκηνοπαγία, non σκηνοφαγία._

    [329] _‎‏חג הסכות‏‎ Chag hasuccoth._

Concerning these Booths, the _Jews_ write thus:[330] They ought to be
made in the open Air, not within doors, nor under the shelter of a
Tree; they ought not to be covered with cloaths, nor to be made too
close with the thickness of the Boughs, but with such holes that the
Sun and the Stars might be seen thorow them, and the rain likewise
descend thorow them. In these they ought to dwell those seven days,
as in their houses; they ought to furnish them with houshold-stuff
to ly under them, and sleep under them; only in rainy weather, then
they had liberty to eat and sleep in their houses, untill the rain was
over-past. Feeble persons also, which could not endure the smell of the
earth, were permited to stay at home. In _Nehemiah_’s time they made
their Booths, some upon the roof of their houses (for their houses were
made flat above) _Deut. 22. 8._ Some in their Courts, some in their
streets, _Nehem. 8. 15._

    [330] _Munster Levit. 23._

_Plutarch_ making mention of this Festivity, saith,[331] that these
_Booths_ were made principally of Ivy boughs: but the Scripture
reckoneth up _four distinct kinds_, _Levit. 23. 40._ which are thought
to be, 1. _The Cittern tree._ 2. _The Palm-tree._ 3. _The Myrtle
tree._ 4. _The willow of the brook._ The _Rabbins_ teach,[332] that
every man brought every morning his burden of the boughs of these four
Trees, otherwise he fasted that day. And this burden they termed[333]
_Hosanna_: in allusion unto this the people cutting down branches from
the Trees, and strewing them in the way when our _Saviour_ did ride
into _Jerusalem_, cried, saying, _Hosanna_ to the _Son of David_, _Mat.
21. 9._ _Plutarch_ scoffing the _Jews_, compares this Feast with that
drunken Festival in the honour of _Bacchus_, in which the _Bacchides_
ran up and down with certain Javelings in their hands, wrapped about
with Ivy, called θυρσοὶ and in this respect he termeth this feast of
the _Jews_ θυρσοφορίαν _A bearing about of these Thyrsi_. That feast
which the _Athenians_ term Εἰρεσιώνη, was not much unlike.

    [331] _Plutarch. Sympos. 4. Problem. 5._

    [332] _P. Fag. Levit. 23._

    [333] _Elias Thisbit._

Moreover on the next day after this feast, they compassed the
Altar[334] _seven times_ with Palm-boughs in their hands, in the
remembrance of the overthrow of _Jericho_: for which reason, or else
because that Palm branches were the chief in the bundle, it was called
_Dies Palmarum_, _Palm Feast_.

    [334] _Hospinian. de Orig. fest. cap. 7. It. Munst. in
    Calendar. p. 150._

Concerning the reason of this Feast; some are of opinion, that it was
instituted in memory of that protection which the Lord vouchsafed the
_Israelites_ by the Cloud, when they travelled thorow the Wilderness,
under the shadow of which they travelled, as under a _safe Booth_ or
_Tent_. _Onkelos_ in his _Chaldee Paraphrase_, seemeth to incline to
this opinion. Where the _Hebrew_ readeth; _That your posterity may
know, that I have made the children of Israel to dwell in Booths_,
_Lev. 23. 43._ The _Chaldee_ rendereth it, _That your posterity may
know that I have made the children of Israel to dwell in the shadow
of Clouds_.[335] Others think[336] it was instituted as a solemn
thanksgiving unto _God_ for their Vintage, which was gathered in at
that time of the year; thence it is that they conceive those Psalms
of _David_, which are entituled ‎‏על הגתית‏‎ _pro torcularibus_, to have
been composed for this feast. Others speak more probably, who assign
the cause to be in memory of their Fore-fathers _dwelling in Tents and
Tabernacles_; the Text is clear, _Levit. 23. 43._

    [335] _‎‏במטלת עננין‏‎_

    [336] _Theophylact. John 5._

The Sacrifices which were offered these seven daies, are prescribed:
_Numb. 29._ from the thirteenth verse to the thirty fourth, where we
shall read every day the like Sacrifice, but only with this difference,
that upon the first day they offered _thirteen_ young bullocks, upon
the second _twelve_, upon the third _eleven_, and so forward, ever
diminishing the number by one. The reason of which diminution, the
_Jews_ deliver to be this:[337] the whole number of bullocks to be
offered at this solemnity was _seventy_, according to the Languages of
the _seventy Nations_, (for whom, as they teach, these sacrifices were
performed) signifying thereby, that there should be a diminution of
those Nations, until all things were brought under the government of
the _Messias_ who was the expectation and Hope of the _Gentiles_.

    [337] _Hospinian. de Orig. hujus fest._

The two and twentieth of the month _Tisri_, was in truth a distinct
feast, as appeareth, _Neh. 8. 18._ but yet because this immediately
followed the Feast of _Tabernacles_, it hath been always counted the
last day of that Feast. And not only the _boughs_, but the _days_ of
this whole _feast of Tabernacles_ were termed[338] _Hosannoth_, from
the usual acclamations of the people, whiles they carried _Boughs_ up
and down. And this eighth day was called _Hosanna Rabba_, the _great
Hosanna_, or the _great day of the feast_. _John 7. 37._ Upon this
day[339] they did read the last Section of the Law, and likewise began
the first, least they might otherwise seem more joyful in ending their
Sections, than willing to begin them. Upon this day also,[340] by the
Institution of the Prophet _Haggæus_ and _Zachary_, and such like
_Prophetical_ men, they did with great solemnity and joy, bring great
store of water from the River _Shiloah_ to the Temple, where it being
delivered unto the _Priests_, it was poured upon the Altar, together
with Wine, and all the people sung that of the _Prophet_ _Esay. 12.
13._ _With joy shall ye draw water out of the Wells of salvation_. Our
Saviour is thought to have alluded unto this, in that speech which he
used on this very day, _John 7. 38._ _He that believeth in me, out of
his belly shall flow rivers of waters of life._

    [338] _Talmud. tract. de fest. Tabernaculorum, cap. ‎‏הלול‏‎ Vid.
    Tremel. John 7. 37._

    [339] _Buxtorf. in abbreviatur. p. 253._

    [340] _Tremel. Joh. 7. 37. ex Talmud._

It is worth our noting also, that whereas God commanded the Observation
of this Feast on the fifteenth of the seventh month _Tisri_;
_Jeroboam_, that he might work in the people a forgetfulness of the
true Worship of God, appointed[341] the celebration of a Feast in the
eighth month, on the fifteenth day thereof, which is thought to be this
very feast of _Tabernacles_.

    [341] _Hospinian. de Orig. hujus fest. p. 24._


_Of the Feast of Trumpets, and their New Moons._

For the understanding of the time when this Feast was to be observed,
we must note, the month _Tisri_ was the _seventh month_, according
to their _sacred Computation_; and therefore it is commanded to be
celebrated the first day of the _seventh month_, _Levit. 23. 24._ But
according to their _Civil Computation_ it was their _first month_, so
that this Feast may be termed their _New-years-day_.

The first day of every month had its solemnities. First, when they
repaired to the _Prophets_ for the hearing of the word, as on other
_Sabbaths_. Wherefore wilt thou go to him to day? It is neither _New
Moon_, nor _Sabbath day_, _2 Kings 4. 23._ Secondly, It was then
unlawful to buy and sell: When will the _New Moon_ be gone, that we may
sell corn? _Amos 8. 4._ Thirdly, They had then special sacrifices over
and above their daily sacrifices.

Notwithstanding, this feast of _Trumpets_ differed from other _New
Moons_. First, in respect of their sacrifices; in their _ordinary
New Moons_ they offered (besides the daily sacrifice) _two Bullocks,
one Ram, seven Lambs, for burnt-offerings_; with their meat and
drink-offering, and a _Goat for a sin-offering_, _Num. 28. 11, 15._
But at this _New-Moon_, which was the beginning of their year, they
offered all the aforesaid sacrifices, and over and besides them, _one
Bullock, one Ram, and seven Lambs, for burnt-offerings_, and a _Goat
for a sin-offering, umb. 29. 1, 6._ Secondly, in _Other New Moons_
they blowed no _Trumpets_: In _this_ they blowed[342] from the _Sun
rising till night_: whence we learn what _New Moon_ it is that _David_
speaketh of, _Psal. 81. 3._ _Blow the Trumpet in the New Moon, in the
time appointed, at our feast day._

    [342] _Sheindler, in voce ‎‏שפר‏‎_

The reason in general of this blowing, and great _noise of Trumpets_, I
take to have been, to make their _New-years-day_ the more remarkable,
because from it all their deeds and contracts bore date, and their
_Sabbatical years_ and _Jubilees_ were counted thence: But why it
should be made remarkable by the sound of _Trumpets_, or _Cornets_,
there are three conjectures.

_First_, the _Hebrews_ think[343] it was done in memory of _Isaac_ his
deliverance, and that they did therefore sound _Rams horns_, because
a _Ram_ was sacrificed instead of him. _Secondly_, _Basil_[344] is of
opinion, that the people were hereby put in mind of that day, wherein
they received the Law in Mount _Sinai_ with _blowing of Trumpets_.
_Thirdly_, others think it was to put them in rememberance of the
_Resurrection_, which shall be with the _sound of Trumpets_; _He shall
send his Angels with a great sound of a Trumpet_, _Mat. 24. 31._

    [343] _P. Fag. Levit. 23._

    [344] _Basil. in Psal. 80._

There are three things considerable in _New Moons_.[345] _First_,
σύνοδος, the _conjunction of the Moon with the Sun_. _Secondly_,
ἐξαυγασμὸς, the _waxing of the Moon_. _Thirdly_, σχῆμα μηνοειδὲς, the
_prime of the Moon_. In the first it was _quite dark_; in the second it
_did open it self to receive the Sun-beams_: In the last it did appear,
_corniculata_, _horned_.

    [345] _Scalig. de emend. temp. pag. 26. It. p. 105._

Because in all these three degrees of the change, there was a kind of
mutual participation both of the _Old and New Moon_: Hence the _Jews_
observe two daies,[346] namely, the _last of every moneth_, and the
_first day of the next following_. Now because the _thirtieth_ was the
last in their longest months; Hence _Horace_ calleth these _last days_,
_Tricesima Sabbata_: The _first days_ they termed, _Neomenias_, _new

    [346] _Hospin. de Orig. fest. c. 4. p. 15. Eadem ratio tenet
    etiam in illis mensibus qui constant 29. diebus._

For certain reasons the _Jews_ used a kind of change, or _translation_
of daies; which _translation_, though it were of use in other months
also, yet the greatest care was had in translating the beginning of
their year, or their first day in their month _Tisri_; and he that
shall diligently calculate these changes, shall find, that all other
translations depended on this first.

_Translation of daies_ was threefold.[347] _First_, _Lunary_:
_Secondly_, _Politik_: _Thirdly_, _Mixt_.

    [347] _Scalig. de emend. temp. l. 2. p. 85._

The reason of _Lunary translation_, was, that they might not observe
the Feast of the _New Moon_, until the old were quite over-past. For
the understanding of this, note these three rules.

First, The _Hebrews_ counted their Holy-daies from night to night,
beginning at six of the clock; so that from six of the clock the first
night, till the next noon, were just eighteen hours.

Secondly, Always before the _New Moon_, there is a _conjunction_
between the _Sun_ and the _Moon_; during this _conjunction_ she is
called _Luna silens_, by reason of her darkness, and all this time
there is a participation of the _New Moon_.

Thirdly, When the conjunction was over past before noon-tide, namely,
in any of those first 18 hours, then the _New Moon_ was celebrated the
same day.[348] But if it continued but one minute after twelve of the
clock at noon, then the feast was _translated_ to the day following,
because otherwise they should begin their Holy-day in the time of the
old Moon. And this translation they noted with this abbreviation ‎‏יה‏‎,
that is, 18, because of those eighteen hours which occasioned it.

    [348] _Munster. Calend. Heb. p. 46._

The reason of _Politick translation_, was, that two _Sabbaths_, or
feast-days might not immediately follow each other: because say
they,[349] it was unlawful those two daies to dress meat, or bury the
dead; and it was likewise inconvenient to keep meat dressed, or the
dead unburied two daies. Yet here two exceptions must be remembred,
when the meeting of two Sabbaths could not be avoided.

    [349] _Munst. Calend. p. 139._

First, When the _Passover_, or the fifteenth day of _Nisan_, fell on
_Saturday_; for then the _Pentecost_ must needs fall on _Sunday_.

Secondly, When the _Passover_ fell on _Sunday_; for then their
_Passover_ immediately followed their _weekly Sabbath_.

The first Author of this _Politick translation_ was a certain chief
man amongst them, named _Eleazar_;[350] three hundred and fifty years
before _Christ_ his _Nativity_.

    [350] _Hospinian. de Orig. fest. p. 6._

The several species or kinds of _Politick translation_, were five. The
first, ‎‏אדו‏‎ _Adu_. The second, ‎‏בדו‏‎ _Badu_. The third, ‎‏גהז‏‎
_Gahaz_. The fourth, ‎‏זבד‏‎ _Zabad_. The fifth, ‎‏אגו‏‎ _Agu_. For
the understanding of these abbreviatures, we must know, that in these
made words the letters only stand for numbers, and are applied to the
seven daies of the week, thus ‎‏א‏‎ 1. _Sunday_. ‎‏ב‏‎ 2. _Munday_.
‎‏ג‏‎ 3. _Tuesday_. ‎‏ד‏‎ 4. _Wednesday_. ‎‏ה‏‎ 5. _Thursday_. ‎‏ו‏‎ 6.
_Friday_. ‎‏ז‏‎ 7. _Saturday_: which was the _Jews Sabbath_.

Their rules touching _Politick translation_, stood thus.[351] First,
that neither their _New-years-day_, which was the first of the month
_Tisri_, neither their _Feast of Tabernacles_, which was the fifteenth
day of the same month, should be celebrated on _Adu_, that is on
_Sunday_, or _Wednesday_, or _Friday_. Not on _Sunday_, or _Friday_,
because then the _weekly Sabbath_ must needs concur with it, either
going immediately before, or following after: not on _Wednesday_,
because then the _Feast of expiation_, which is the tenth of that
month, would fall on _Friday_ the day going immediately before their
_weekly Sabbath_. This instance is only concerning the first of
_Tisri_, which is called the _Feast of Trumpets_: but it holdeth also,
by way of consequence, in the _fifteenth day_, which is the _Feast of
Tabernacles_, because the fifteenth must always necessarily be of the
same day of the week that the first is. Therefore if the first be not
_Adu_, the fifteenth cannot be _Adu_.

    [351] _Adu._

The second rule was,[352] that the _Passover_ should not be observed on
_Badu_; that is on _Munday_, _Wednesday_, or _Friday_.

    [352] _Badu._

The third rule is,[353] that _Pentecost_ was not observed on _Gahaz_;
that is, on _Tuesday_, _Thursday_, or _Saturday_.

    [353] _Gahaz._

The fourth rule is,[354] that the _Feast of Purim_, or _casting lots_,
was not observed on _Zabad_, that is, on _Munday_, _Wednesday_, or

    [354] _Zabad._

The fifth rule is,[355] that the _Feast of expiation_ was not observed
on _Agu_; that is, on _Sunday_, _Tuesday_, or _Friday_.

    [355] _Agu._

_Mixt translation_ is, when both the _Lunary_ and the _Politick_ meet
in the changing of daies. And the _translation_ occasioned by this
mixture or meeting of both these two, is twofold. First, _Simple_. And
secondly, _Double_.

_Simple translation_ is, when the Feast is translated to the next day
following. For examples sake, If the _Moon_ changed after noon-tide on
_Sunday_, here the _Feast_ must be translated, for two reasons: the
first is _Lunary_, because the point of the change was after _eighteen
hours_; the second, _Politick_, because the rule _Adu_ forbids _Sunday_
to be kept: notwithstanding, in as much as the very next day, namely
_Munday_, was observed; I term this translation _simple_. Of this sort
was that translation which they called _Batu takphat_.

‎‏בטו תקפט‏‎ _Batu Takphat_,[356] is a word invented for help of
memory; each letter is a numeral, and may be thus resolved, ‎‏ב‏‎ 2. ‎‏טו‏‎
15. ‎‏תקפט‏‎ 589. The meaning is, that in the year following _Annum
Embolymæum_ (wherein one whole month was ingrafted) if the point of
the change happened upon the second day of the week, that is, _Munday_
not before the fifteenth hour, and the 589 moment, the Feast of the
_New Moon_ was _translated unto Tuesday_. How both the _Lunary_ and
_Politick_ translation work in this change, read _Scaliger, de emend.
temp. lib. 2. pag. 87_.

    [356] _Batu takphat._

_Double Translation_, is, when the Feast is translated not to the next,
but to some further day: as if the first day of the month _Tisri_
should happen upon _Saturday_; here, if the Moon hath not overpast her
conjunction before the afternoon, _Lunary translation_ removeth this
_Feast_ till _Sunday_, because of ‎‏יח‏‎, that is, the _eighteen hours_:
_Politick translation_ removeth it till _Munday_, as appeareth by the
rule _Adu_, forbidding _Sunday_; of this sort is _Gatrad_.

‎‏גטרד‏‎ _Gatrad_, is a made word, each letter is a numeral, and it may
be thus resolved, ‎‏ג‏‎ 3. ‎‏ט‏‎ 9. ‎‏רד‏‎ 204. The meaning thereof is
thus: In their common year (when a whole month is not inserted) if the
point of the change happen upon the _third day_ of the week, that is,
_Tuesday_, not before the ninth hour, and the 204 moment of an hour,
then the _New Moon_ shall be translated to _Thursday_.

Note in the last place, that 1080 _moments_ make an _hour_.[357]

    [357] _Munst. Calend. pag. 45._

The _Feast of Tabernacles_ was observed in the month _Tisri_, and
therefore that could not be observed the morrow after the _Sabbath_,
as appeareth by the rule _Adu_. The _Passover_ was observed in the
month _Nisan_, and therefore that might be observed the morrow after
the _Sabbath_, as appeareth by the rule _Badu_. If any ask the reason
why the _Passover_ might be observed the next day after the _Sabbath_,
seeing the _Feast of Tabernacles_ might not? I take it to be thus;
All the _after translations_ depended upon the _first translation_ of
the _first New Moon in Tisri_; but that could not be so changed, as
to prevent all concurrence of two _Feasts_; and thus to have their
_Passover_ sometimes to follow their _Sabbath_, they thought the most
convenientest ordering of the year, because though not all meetings of
two _Sabbaths_, yet most were hereby prevented.

This tract of translation of Feasts, it serveth partly to open the
customs of the _Jews_: partly to give light for the understanding
of that great dispute among _Divines_, whether our _Saviour_ did
anticipate the _Passover_. The _Greek Church_ holds,[358] that he kept
a _Passover_ by himself with his _Disciples_, on the thirteenth day of
the month, when _unleavened bread_ was not yet to be used; and thence
they do both use and urge a necessity[359] of _leavened bread in the
Lords supper_: But this opinion we reject. First, because it accordeth
not with the truth of _Evangelical History_. Secondly, because it
plainly maketh _Christ_ to be a transgressor, not a fulfiller of the
Law. Others say,[360] that because that year their _Passover_ fell
on _Friday_, hence the feast was translated unto _Saturday_ by the
rule _Badu_. Their inference is that _Christ_ kept the fourteenth day
of the month, which was _Friday_, and the _Jews_ kept _Saturday_. He
kept Gods Command, they the _tradition of the Elders_. Lastly, others
more probably hold,[361] that both _Christ_ and the _Jews_ did eat
the _Passover_ the same day and hour; namely, on _Friday_, or the
fourteenth day of the month, if we count the beginning of _Friday_
according to the manner of the _Jews_, from six a clock at night on
_Thursday_. _Friday_ morning he was judged, and crucified; and in the
afternoon, about three of the clock, when the _preparation of the
Sabbath_ began, he was buried; _There laid they Jesus, because of the
Jews preparation_, _John 19. 24._

    [358] _Epiph. l. 2. Tom. 1. c. 51. p. 147._

    [359] _Usum fermentati panis in cœna Dominica Ecclesia Romana
    olim non damnavit. Casaubon. exercit. 16. p. 65._

    [360] _Munster. in Mat. cap. 26._

    [361] _Joseph. Scalig. de emend. temp. lib. 6. p. 266._

For reconciling the _Evangelists_ in this point, we must note these
particulars, which are more at large proved in the _Chapter of the
Passover_. 1. The _fourteenth_ day of the month, on which the _Paschal
Lamb_ was eaten, was called the first day of _unleavened bread_; the
Feast of _unleavened bread_ drew near, which is called the _Passover_,
_Luke 22. 1._

The _fourteenth_ day was not holy, but the _fifteenth_ was. In the
_fourteenth_ day of the first month is the _Passover_ of the _Lord_,
and in the _fifteenth_ day of this month is the Feast, _Numb. 28. 16,
17._ Some of them thought, because _Judas_ had the bag, that _Jesus_
had said unto him, Buy those things that we have need of against the
Feast, _John 13. 29._

The _Sheep and Bullocks_ offered upon this day, are called the
_Passover_, _Deut. 16. 2._ And of this we are to understand S. _John_,
_Joh. 18. 28._ They themselves went not into the common Hall, lest they
should be defiled, but that they might eat the _Passover_. So that
this eating of the _Passover_ is not understood of the _Paschal Lamb_.
But some may question, How they should have been defiled by entring
into the common Hall? The answer is,[362] that upon _Holy-day-eves_,
which they termed _days of preparation_, they held it unlawful for
their _Judges to sit on life and death_. Hence it is that they brought
_Jesus to Pilate_ the _Roman Deputy_. _Secondly_, they withdrew
themselves out of the common Hall. _Thirdly_, for this reason they
said, _It is not lawful for us to put any man to death_, _Joh. 18.
31._ that is, upon this, or such like day;[363] for though their high
Court of _Sanedrim_ were put down at this time, yet all power in cases
of life and death was not taken from them, as is implied in the words
following; It was that the word of _Jesus_ might be fulfilled, which
he spake signifying what death he should die, _ver. 32._ Which text
intimateth, that that unlawfulness was urged by the special providence
of God, that he might be crucified, being judged by _Pilat_: for if the
_Jews_ had judged, they used no such kind of death towards Malefactors.
Again, _Stephen_ was condemned by them to be stoned, _Act. 7._ And they
complained before _Felix_, that when they were about to proceed against
_Paul_ according to their own Law, the chief Captain _Lysias_ with
violence took him out of their hands, _Acts 24._ Which argueth, that
all power in causes capital was not taken from them: But of this see
the _Chapter, Of their capital punishments_.

    [362] _‎‏אין דנין דיני נפשות לא בערב שבת ולא בערב יום טוב‏‎ Moses
    ben Maimon. li. ult. Iad. c. Sanedrin. Sect. 11._

    [363] _August. tract. 114. In Ioann. ita hunc locum exponunt
    etiam Cyrill. lib. 12. in Ioan. c. 6. Chrys. hom. 12. in Joan.
    Beda in c. 18. Joan._


_The Feast of Expiation._

Upon the tenth day of the month _Tisri_, answering to _September_ with
us, the _Feast of Expiation_ was commanded to be celebrated, _Levit.
13._ It was called the _Feast of Expiation_, because the _High-priest_
did then confess unto _God_ both his own sins, and the sins of the
people: and by the performance of certain Rites and Ceremonies expiate
them, and make an attonement unto _God_ for them.

The _Ceremonies_ at this time to be performed, concerned either the
_People_ and the _Priest_, or the _Priest alone_. Those which concerned
the _People and the Priest_, consisted in the afflicting of their souls
by _fasting_. Whence this Feast was also called[364] _Dies Jejunii_,
_the Fasting Day_, _Jer. 36. 6._ Which serveth for the understanding
of that, _Act. 27. 9._ _Sailing was now dangerous, because the Feast
was already past_; that is, the _Feast of Expiation_ was now past, and
Winter was at hand.

    [364] _Joseph. de bel. Jud. pag. 43._

Those _Ceremonies_ which concerned the _Priest alone_, were two: First,
then the _High-priest_ entred into the _Holiest of Holies_, which
was peculiar unto this day. Secondly, he being about to sacrifice
for himself and his house, he took unto him a _young Bullock for
a sin-offering, and a Ram for a burnt offering_, putting on his
Priestly Robes: After he had washed himself in water; he took of
the Congregation _two He-goats for a sin-offering, and a Ram for a
burnt offering_. The _two He-goats_ he presented before the _Lord_ at
the door of the _Tabernacle_, casting lots which of them should be
sacrificed, which let _scape alive_. This last was termed[365] the
_scape Goat_, because the other being slain, this was sent alive into
the Wilderness. The Greek Interpreters call this Goat ἀποπομπαῖον,
_Malorum depulsorem_, _A defender from evils_; which name the Heathens
applied to their _Tutelar Gods_. They intimated, that when the _scape
Goat_ carried away the sins of the people into the Wilderness, he
likewise carried away all those _evils_ which belonged unto those sins.
And for the securing the people in this point, the _Lord_ commanded
the _High priest_ to confess in the name of all the people, and to
disburden the sins of the whole Congregation upon the head of the
_scape Goat_. The form of _Confession_, according to the relation of
the _Hebrew Doctors_, was this:[366] _O Lord, thy People, the House
of Israel, they have sinned, they have done wickedly, they have
transgressed before thee; I beseech thee now, O Lord, pardon the sins,
iniquities, and transgressions, with which the People, the House of
Israel have sinned, done wickedly, and transgressed before thee, as it
is written in the Law of thy servant_ Moses: _that in that day he shall
make Attonement for you, that he might cleanse you, and that you might
be clean from all your iniquities before the Lord._

    [365] _‎‏עזאזל‏‎ Gnaz azl. ex ‎‏עז‏‎ Gnez. capra & ‎‏אזל‏‎
    Azal, abiit R. D. Kimchi in Radic._

    [366] _P. Fag. Lev. 16._

The _modern Jews_ now (because there can be no proper sacrifice, the
_Temple_ of _Jerusalem_ being destroyèd) the men they take a _white
Cock_ on this day, the women a _Hen_.[367] This _Cock_ they swing
three times about the _Priests_ head, saying, _Gallus Gallinaceus hic
commutatio erit pro me_: that is, _This Cock shall be a propitiation
for me_. After that they kill the _Cock_; acknowledging themselves
worthy of death; and then they cast the intrals upon the top of the
house, that some Raven or Crow might carry both them, and together
with them, their sins into the Wilderness. And least they might seem
to be mad without reason, they assign the cause why they make choice
of a _Cock_, at this time, to be this: This word[368] _Gebher_ in the
Holy Language signifieth a Man, in their _Talmud_ it signifieth a Cock.
Now, say they, the Justice of _God_ requires, that as _Gebher_ sinned,
so _Gebher_ should make satisfaction. From this _Feast of Expiation_
it is probable, that the _Grecians_ used a yearly _Expiation_ of
their Cities, which was performed on this manner: Certain condemned
persons were brought forth with Garlands upon their heads, in manner of
sacrifices, these they would tumble from some steep place into the Sea,
offering them up to _Neptune_, using this form of words,[369] περίψημα
ἡμῶν γενοῦ, _Sis pro nobis peripsema_: As if he had said, _Be thou a
Reconciliation or Propitiation for us_. The like kind of Expiation was
used among them in time of any Pestilence, or contagious infection;
for removal of such diseases, they then sacrificed certain men unto
their _Gods_, such men they termed καθάρματα.[370] These two words are
used by the _Apostle_, _1 Cor. 4. 13._ and they are translated _filth
and off-scouring_: We are made as the _filth of the World, and as the
off-scouring of all things_. The words signifie properly the _filth or
dirt scraped off mens shooes_, or from the _pavement of the ground_:
But in _Budæus_ his opinion,[371] the _Apostle_ had allusion unto those
kinds of Expiations in use amongst the _Heathens_. As if he had said,
We are as despicable and as odious in the sight of the people, as much
loaded with the revilings and cursings of the multitude, as those
condemned persons, who were offered up by way of publick Expiation.

    [367] _Buxtorf. Synagog. cap. 20._

    [368] _‎‏גבר‏‎_

    [369] _Suidas in voce περίψημα._

    [370] _Καθάρματα ἐλέγοντο οἱ ἐπὶ καθάρσει λιμοῦ τινὸς ἤ
    τινὸς ἑτέρας νόσου θυόμενοι τοῖς θεοῖς, Vetus Scholiast. in
    Aristophan. Plut. pag. 48._

    [371] _Budæus annot. reliq. in Pandect. De pœnis, p. 334._

Now, seeing at this Feast principally the _High-Priest_ was a _Type of
Christ_, it will not be amiss to note the agreement between the _Type_
and the _Truth_.

       Aaron.                          Christ.

    1. The _High-priest_ went      1. _Christ_ our _High-Priest_
       into the _Holiest of all_,     went into the _Holy place_,
       _Levit. 16. 3._                namely, the Heavens,
                                      _Heb. 9. 12._

    2. He went once a year,        2. He entered once, _Heb.
       _Exod. 30. 10._                9. 12._

    3. He with the blood of        3. He by his own blood,
       Goats and Calves,              _Heb. 9. 12._
       _Heb. 9. 12._

    4. He alone, _Heb. 9._         4. He alone hath trodden
                                      the Wine-press, _Isay.
                                      63. 3._

    5. He, clothed with his        5. He, ordained and sealed
       Priestly Robes, _Levit.        to this Office, by his
       16. 4._                        Father from all Eternity.

    6. He took two Goats,          6. He took _two natures_:
       _Levit. 16._                   the _impassibility of his
                                      God-head_ was shadowed
                                      by the _Scape goat_: his
                                      _sufferings in his Manhood_,
                                      by the _Goat that
                                      was sacrificed_, _Theod. Qu.
                                      12._ in Lev.

    7. The _Goat_ did bear the     7. _Christ_ was made sin
       Peoples iniquities.            for us, _2 Cor. 5. 22._


_The Sabbatical year, or Seventh years rest_

As every seventh day was a _Sabbath day_, so every seventh year was
a _Sabbatical year_, _Levit. 25._ And as the _Sabbath day_ signified
that they themselves were the _Lords_, and therefore they abstained
from their own work to do the _Lords_: So the _Sabbatical year_ was to
signifie, that both they and their land was the _Lords_.

The observation of this Feast consisted chiefly in two things. First,
in the not tilling or manuring of their ground, whence it was called
_Scabath Haarets_,[372] the _Sabbaths of the Land_, _Levit. 25. 6._
Secondly, in the Creditors discharging their debtors, and releasing
their debts, and thence it was called _Shemita laihova_,[373] _The
Lords release_, _Deut. 15. 2._

    [372] _‎‏שבת הארץ‏‎_

    [373] _‎‏שמיטה ליהוה‏‎_

Seeing they were that year forbid to till their ground, here a question
might be made; what they should eat in the time of this intermission?

Answ. _I will command my blessing upon you in the sixth year, and it
shall bring forth fruit for three years_, _Levit. 25. 20, 21._ saith
the Lord.

Seeing every seventh year, debts, according to Gods Command were to be
remitted, some might demand whether this might not much endamage their
Estates if they did lend? or harden their hearts not to lend?

_Answ._ It could not endamage their Estates, for it is a most
infallible _Maxime_: _No man is a loser by serving God_. Whence
the _Hebrews_ themselves interpret this to be rather _Mandatum
probationis_, _A command of tryal_, such as _Abrahams_ offering up
of _Isaac_ was, which _God_ commanded, not intending that he should
be sacrificed, but that _Abrahams_ love might be tryed; rather than
_Mandatum obedientiæ_, _A command of obedience_. To this purpose
speaketh _Aben Ezra_, interpreting these words, _Save when there shall
be no poor among you_. _Deut. 15. 4._ That is, saith he,[374] as if the
_Lord_ had said, _Know that that which I have commanded thee, that thou
shouldest not exact of thy Brother, will be needless. If all Israel,
or the greater part obey the voice of God, then there shall be no poor
amongst you, to whom it shall be needful for thee to lend; yea, all of
you shall be able to lend to many Nations._

    [374] _Aben Ezra. Deut. 15. 4._

The reasons why this Feast was instituted, are thought to be: First,
to teach the people to depend upon _Gods_ providence by faith; for
though the owner of the field might gather, even on that year, for
the maintenance of himself and his family, _Levit. 25. 6._ yet he was
neither to sow his field, thereby to make his Harvest the greater; nor
to hedge his field, or lock up his Corn-yard, thereby to enjoy the
propriety, but to let all be common, and every mans hand equal in every
place. Secondly, they were hereby put in mind of that happy estate
which _Adam_ enjoyed in his Innocency, when the earth brought forth her
encrease without manuring. Lastly, it shadowed forth that _everlasting
Sabbath_ which we expect in the Heavens. And some conjecture[375] this
to be the ground of _Rabbi Elias_ his opinion,[376] that the _world
should continue for six thousand years, but the seventh thousand should
be the ~great~ Sabbatical year_. The six thousand years answered the
six working daies of the week, the seventh answered our Sabbath,
according to that, A thousand years are but as one day with the Lord,
_2 Pet. 3. 8._ _Elias_ his words are these; _Six thousand years the
world shall be, and again it shall be destroyed: Two thousand shall
be void, two thousand under the Law, and two thousand under the
Messias._[377] The substance of this Prophecy, howsoever we reject it
as too curious, yet seeing that a _Jew_ spake it, it may serve to prove
against them: First, That the _Messias_ is already come: Secondly, That
_Moses_ his Law ceased at his coming.

    [375] _Vid. Hospin. de Orig. hujus festi._

    [376] _Talmud. in Sanedrin. c. Hiel._

    [377] _‎‏ב אלפי חוהו ב אלפי תורה ב אלפי ימות המשיח‏‎ Duo millia
    inanitatis, duo millia dierum Messiæ, Talmud. in Sanedrin. c.


_Of their Jubilee._

This is the last Festival which _God_ commanded the _Jews_, it was
celebrated every _fiftieth year_. It is commanded, _Lev. 25. 8._ Thou
shalt number seven _Sabbaths_ of years unto thee, _&c._ The _English_
word _Jubilee_ is derived from the _Hebrew_ ‎‏יובל‏‎ _Jobel_, signifying a
_Ram_; it signifieth a _Rams horn_. Seven _Priests_ shall bear before
the _Ark_ seven _Trumpets of Rams horns_, _Josh. 6. 4._ Where the
word _Jobelim_ is used, and is expounded by the _Chaldee Paraphrast_,
_Rams-horns_. _Marbachius_ is of opinion, that this year was called
their _Jubilee_, from _Jubal_,[378] the first inventer of musical
instruments, of whom we read, _Gen. 4. 21._ _Jubal was the Father of
all such as handle the Harp and Organ_. Other Authors deliver other
reasons of the name, but it is most probable that this year was termed
the year of _Jubilee_ from _Jobelim_, the _Rams-horns_ then sounded.
There were five main uses of this Feast.

    [378] _Marbach. in Levit. 25._

First, for the general release of Servants. Secondly, for the restoring
of Lands and Tenements unto their first Owners, who formerly sold them.
Thirdly, hereby a true distinction of their Tribes was preserved,
because Lands returned unto their Owners in their proper Tribe, and
Servants to their own _Families_. Fourthly, some are of opinion,[379]
that as the _Grecians_ did compute their times by the number of
_Olympiads_, the _Romans_ by their _Lustra_, the _Christians_ by
their _Indictions_: So the _Jews_ by their _Jubilees_. Lastly, it did
mystically shadow forth that spiritual _Jubilee_, which _Christians_
enjoy under _Christ_, by whose blood we have not only a re-entry into
the _Kingdom of Heaven_, which we had formerly forfeited by our sins
(and this was haply signified by the _Israelites_ re-entry upon their
Lands formerly sold) but also the _sound of the Gospel_, which was in
this Feast typed out unto us by the _noise of the Trumpets_, is gone
thorowout the world. And thus the _Lord God hath blown the Trumpet_,
as _Zacharies_ phrase is, _Zach. 9. 14._ But neither this release
of servants, nor restoring of Lands, was until the tenth day of the
first month _Tisri_,[380] at which time it was proclaimed by the sound
of Trumpets, or Rams horns; the nine first daies of this month the
Servants feasted and made merry, and wore Garlands, in token of their
liberty approaching.

    [379] _Hospinian. de Orig. fest. c. 9._

    [380] _Moses Ægyptius in Halacha Schemit. Veiobel, c. 10._


_The Feast of Purim, and the Feast of Consecration or Dedication._

_Pur_ is a _Persian_ word, and signifieth a Lot, whence this _Feast
of Lots_ is called _Purim_, i.e. κληρωτήρια, _A Lottery_: It began on
the fourteenth of _Adar_, and continued till the end of the fifteenth,
_Esth. 9. 21._ It was instituted by _Mordecai_, in remembrance of the
_Jews_ delivery from _Haman_, before whom lots were cast day by day,
and month by month, for the destruction of them. In these two daies
they read the History of _Hester_ in their _Synagogues_; and as often
as they hear mention of _Haman_, they do with their fists and hammers
beat upon the benches and boards, as if they did knock upon _Hamans_

    [381] _Hospin. de fest. fol. 33. ex Antonio Margarita in. l. de
    ceremoniis Judæorum._

The Feast of _Dedication_, termed in the _New Testament_, Ἐγκαίνια[382]
a Feast wherein something is renewed; because those things only are
reputed consecrated, which are separated from their common use, and
dedicated to some new and holy use. We shall read of many _things
consecrated_ in the _Old Testament_; the _Tabernacles_, the _Temple_,
_Priests_, _Altars_, _Vessels_ and _Garments_: but there was no
anniversary or yearly solemnity appointed to be observed in remembrance
of their _Consecration_. The _Consecration_ therefore which we now
speak of, being a yearly Festival, was the _Consecration of the altar
appointed by Judas Maccabæus_ to be observed from year to year, for the
space of eight days, from the five and twentieth of the month _Cisleu_,
which answereth in part to our _December_, _1 Macchab. 4. 59._ Of this
Saint _John_ speaketh; and as he mentioneth our _Saviours_ presence
there, so he intimateth the time to be about _December_. _It was at
Jerusalem the feast of the Dedication, and it was winter_, _John 10.
22. &c._

    [382] _Ἐγκαίνια ἑορτὴ καθ’ ἣν ἐκαινουργήθη τὶ, Suidas._

The reason of this Feast was in remembrance of that great mercy which
God shewed unto his people, in delivering them from the tyranny of
_Antiochus_, and the _Idolatry_ which he had forced upon them, setting
up the _Idol of Jupiter_ in the _Temple of God_, and abolishing the
true worship of _God_.

These two _Feasts_ are of _humane institution_, and others might be
added unto them; but little is to be added, or nothing at all, to that
which is delivered concerning them, in the places of Scripture where
they are mentioned.




_The beginnings of Idolatry._

The Infiniteness of _Gods_ Majesty far transcendeth the capacity of
created Natures; and if we consult not with _Gods_ own _Oracles_,
though the sense of a _Deity_ may be imprinted even in an _Atheists_
heart, yet so far shall he be from all right understanding of _God_,
that he will adore the _creature_ instead of the _Creator_: and when
he hath multiplied the number of his _gods_, according to the number
of the Stars in heaven, and creeping things on earth; yet still his
heart will be doubtful, whether he hath worshipped the true _God_,
nay whether the true God be not utterly unknown. For this reason the
Marriners in _Jonahs_ ship cried every man unto his _God_, _Jonah
1. 5._ Every man to his _own God_; and lest they might all mistake
the _true God_, they awaken _Jonah_ to call upon _his God_. This
uncertainty[383] attending _Idolatry_, caused the _Heathens_ to
close their Petitions with that general, _Dii deæque omnes_.[384]
The _Arabians_ perceiving the insufficiency of their _known Gods_,
dedicated their _Altars_, _Ignoto Deo_, _To the unknown God_. At
_Athens_, Saint _Paul_ found an Altar with the same inscription, _Acts
17. 23._ Hence other Neighbour-Countries were wont to swear[385] _by
him that was unknown at Athens_. From this doubt and distrust among the
_Athenians_, what _God_ was, and who he was, sprang another uncertainty
amongst them, as dangerous as the other, dividing and sharing that
undividable Unity of the _Godhead_, between I know not what Compeers
and Equals, so that they had other Altars mentioning a plurality of
gods:[386] the inscription being θεῶν ἀγνώστων, _the Altar of the
unknown Gods_, yea, the compleat and entire inscription of that Altar
which Saint _Paul_ saw, is thought to have been thus,[387] _To the gods
of ~Asia~, ~Europe~, and ~Africa~; to the unknown and strange, God_.
Which observation implieth their practice to have symbolized with other
_Heathens_ in that forementioned closure; _Dii Deæque omnes_, _O all
ye Gods and Godesses, help_. This distrust I think to be the chief
reason why they worshipped the _unknown God_; though I deny not but the
Altars might bear this Title, to conceal the name of their _Tutelar
God_, unto whose protection they had committed themselves: because the
_Heathen_ people generally conceited,[388] that if the _gods_ name,
to whom they dedicated a City, were known, then the Enemies might
by some magical incantation or charm, call him forth, and cause him
to foresake the City: For the better preventing of which manner of
evocations, the _Tyrians_, the _Lacedemonians_, and other Nations[389]
fettered and chained their _gods_, that they might not depart. Again,
it might be done in imitation of the _Jews_, who about the time of our
_Saviour_ his Incarnation, held it unlawful to pronounce that Essential
Name of God, _Jehovah_, and instead thereof would read _Adonai_. The
occasion of this concealment of the name _Jehovah_, I take to have
been originally, to prevent the blaspheming of that holy Name among
the _Heathens_, who had learned from that name to denominate their
_Idols_, _Jove_ Ἰαὼ _Iaoth_, Ἰαώια, _&c._[390] Hence afterward the
forbearing the Name became superstitious, and so far prevailed, that
they corrupted the Text for the defence thereof, _Ex. 3. 15._ This
is my name ‎‏לעולם‏‎ _legnolam_, _for ever_: they read ‎‏לעלם‏‎ _legnalem_,
_to be concealed_.[391] Though I deny not but that name was always
in some sense ineffable: namely, as _Pliny_ saith,[392] the names of
the _African_ people and Towns were ineffable, that is, such as other
Languages could not express without circumlocutions.

    [383] _Serv. in Georgic. lib. 1._

    [384] _Gyrald. Syntagm. 17._

    [385] _Νὴ τὸν ἐν Ἀθήναις ἀγνώστον. Lucian in Philopatride._

    [386] _Pausanias in Atticis._

    [387] _Θεοῖς Ἀσίας, καὶ Εὐρώπης, καὶ Λιβύης, θεῷ ἀγνώστῳ καὶ
    ξένῳ. Theophyl. in Act. Apost. 17. 23. It. Hieron. Tit. 1. 12._

    [388] _Alex. ab. Alex. lib. 6. cap. 4. Tyraquel. in illum

    [389] _Macrob. Saturn. l. 3. c. 9._

    [390] _Vid. Macrob. Satur. l. 1. c. 18. It. Irenæum, lib. 2.
    cap. ult. Item, Origen. contra Celsum. l. 6. fol. 76. col. 3._

    [391] _Vid. P. Galatin. lib. 2. c. 10._

    [392] _Plin. in Proem. lib. 5. Hist. Natur._

As those forementioned _Idolatrous_ names were nothing else but so
many depravations of the name _Jehovah_: so the Original of many other
ensuing kinds of _Idolatry_ proceeded at first from a misconstruction
of Scripture. They have learned by Tradition, that the Sun, Moon, and
Stars, had a kind of Lordship and rule over day and night, times and
seasons: Hence the superstitious ignorance of those people Deified
those lights of Heaven, and worshipped them as _gods_. Afterward
corruption prevailing, their _Apotheosis_, or _god-making Ceremonies_,
were extended to sublunary creatures, partly as _Symbola_, or
representative signs of those greater and more glorious lights; for
this reason the _Chaldeans_ worship _fire_: ‎‏אור‏‎, and _Ur_, of the
_Chaldeans_, mentioned, _Gen. 11._ which signifieth _fire_ or light,
is thought to be the very _god_ of the _Chaldeans_, though in that
place the name _Ur_ be applyed to some chief City, from the name of
the Idol. Yea, the _god of_ Nahor, _Gen. 31. 53._ is thought to be no
other; partly, also the inferiour creatures were canonized for _gods_,
in way of thankfulness for the benefits received from them, for which
reason the _Sea_, the _Winds_, the _Air_, the _Earth_, and _fruits_
of the earth, _became deified_. At last, _well deserving men_; nay,
_Crocodiles_, _Serpents_, _Rats_, _Cats_, _Dogs_, _Garlick_, and
_Onions_, were reputed _gods_.


_Of ~Moloch~, ~Adram-Melech~, ~Anam-Melech~, ~Baal~, The Tabernacle of
~Molech~, ~Chiun~, ~Rempham~, Horses consecrated to the Sun, ~Thamuz~._

Of the _Idol Moloch_ we read in divers places of Scripture, _1 King.
11._ _2 King. 23. 10._ _Leviticus 18. 21._ He is sometimes called
_Moloch_, sometimes _Molech_, sometimes _Milcom_. He was the _reputed
god_, not only of the _Ammonites_, but of the _Moabites_ also.[393] He
had his name from ‎‏מלך‏‎ _Melac_, signifying to rule or reign. The Seventy
_Elders_ translate him, ἄρχων, βασιλεὺς, a _Prince_, or _King_. Such
_King-Idols_ were _Adram-melech_, and _Anam-melech_, the _gods_ of
_Shephervaim_, unto whom that people burnt their Children in fire.

    [393] _Lorin. in Act. 7. ex Oecumen._

I take _Moloch_ and _Baal_ to be one and the same _Idol_, they were
both names of supremacy and rule, ‎‏בעל‏‎ _Baal_ signifieth a _Lord_ or
_Master_. And ‎‏מלך‏‎ _Moloch_, a _King_ or _Prince_. They had both the
same manner of sacrifice, they burnt their Sons for burnt-offerings
unto _Baal_ likewise, _Jer. 19. 5._ yea, they built the high places of
_Baal_, which are in the Valley of _Benhinnom_, to cause their Sons and
their Daughters to pass thorow the fire unto _Moloch_, _Jer. 32. 35._
In which Text the place of sacrifice is noted to be one and the same,
common to both Idols, and _Moloch_ put into the end of the verse, to
explain _Baal_ in the beginning thereof.

Some think them to be different, because the _Planet Jupiter_ was
worshipped under the name of _Baal_;[394] but the _Planet Saturn_ is
probably thought to have been worshipped under the name of _Moloch_. If
we diligently observe Histories, we shall find such a _confusion of the
Planets_, that the _Sun_, as it was sometimes called _Baal_, sometimes
_Moloch_: so it was sometimes called _Jupiter_,[395] sometimes
_Saturn_;[396] and concerning _Baal_ this is evident: Hence _Jupiter_
was called by the _Phœnicians_, _Baal-samen_, which name is derived
from the _Hebrew_, and soundeth as much as _Jupiter Olympicus_, _the
Lord of Heaven_. For _Baal_ signifieth _Lord_, and _Shamaim_, _Heaven_.
And what is this _Lord of Heaven_ in the theology of the _Heathens_,
other than the _Sun_? who may as well be stiled the _King of Heaven_,
as the _Moon_ _the Queen_. Yea, _Sanchoniatho_, as _Eusebius_ in the
forequoted place relates him, taketh all these three for one, namely,
the _Sun_, _Jupiter_, and _Baal-samen_.

    [394] _August. super Judic. q. 10. Vide sis Eusebium de præpar.
    lib. 1. cap. 7._

    [395] _Plato apud. Macrob. Satur. l. 1. c. 23. ubi mendosè
    citatur è Timæo Platonis, quod est in Phædro._

    [396] _Assyrios Saturnum (quem & Solem dicunt) Junonemq;
    coluisse constat. Servius in Eneid. 1._

Concerning _Saturn_, it is apparent that the _Sun_ was worshipped
under his name: But I find some Expositers to interpret _Moloch_ to be
_Mercury_,[397] others _Mars_:[398] these are but few, and the grounds
weak. It is therefore more generally and more probably thought that
he was _Saturn_, because as to _Moloch_, so to _Saturn_, the _Heathen_
people did sacrifice their _Sons_ and _Daughters_.[399] Secondly,
_Saturns_ Image differed not much from _Moloch_’s. Of _Saturns_ thus
we read,[400] _It was made of brass, wonderfull for its greatness,
whose hands reaching towards the earth, were so hollow (ready to clasp)
that the youths which were compelled to come unto him, did fall as it
were into a mighty ditch full of fire._ You shall read in a manner the
same description of _Moloch_. _Jalkut_ commenting on _Jeremy_, writeth
thus:[401] _Though all other houses of Idolatry were in Jerusalem, yet
~Moloch~ was without Jerusalem, in a place apart. How was he made? He
was an Image of brass; he had seven Chappels, and he was placed before
them, having the face of a Bullock, and hands spread abroad, like a man
that openeth his hands to receive somewhat from another: and they set
it on fire within, for it was hollow: and every man severally entred,
according to his offering. After what manner? Whosoever offered a
Fowl went into the first Chappel; he that offered a Sheep, into the
second; a Lamb, into the third; a Calf, into the fourth; a Bullock,
into the fifth; an Ox, into the sixth; and whosoever offered his Son,
into the seventh._ Thus _Moloch_ and _Saturn_ agree: _First_, in
their sacrifice: _Secondly_, in the form of their Images. Now these
_seven chappels_ built for _Moloch_, may well resemble those _seven
gates_[402] with which the _Persians_ honored the _Sun_; and as the
_seven gates_ did, so might the _seven chappels_ mystically express
the _seven Planets_, whereof the _Sun_ was _Moloch_, i. _the King and
Prince_. When they sacrificed their sons unto this _Idol_, they did
beat upon _Tabrets_ and _Drums_, that the cry of the Child might not
be heard by the Father. Thereupon was the place called ‎‏תפת‏‎ _Tophet_,
from ‎‏תף‏‎ signifying a _Drum_, as likewise from the cry of the Children,
it was called _Gehenna_, ‎‏גיא‏‎ signifying a valley, and ‎‏נהם‏‎
roaring or crying. Some may make the question, whether that the phrase,
_The fire of Gehenna_, _Matth. 5. 22._ had its original from this fire,
wherewith the children were burnt unto _Moloch_? I answer, that in this
phrase there was not respect only unto this fire, though by the bitter
cries and ejulations of poor infants, the restless torments in Hell
might be shadowed, yet the perpetuity and everlastingness of hellish
pains I take to be signified herein by allusion unto that other fire,
kept continually burning for the consuming of dead carkasses, and
the filth brought out of _Jerusalem_.[403] For _Gehenna_ was reputed
a contemptible place without the City, in the which they burnt, by
means of a fire continually preserved there, the carkasses, filth and
garbidge of the City. The _Cabalists_[404] treating of _Gehenna_,
in this metaphorical sense, as it is applied to the pains of hell,
do distinguish of it, saying, That there is _Gehenna superiour_;
and _inferiour_, by the first they understand _bodily torments
inflicted upon the bodies of sinners in this world_: by the second
they understand the _pains of the soul in the world to come_. They
say likewise[405] that there are _Septem Gehennæ mansiones_, _Seven
degrees or mansion places in Gehenna_. 1. _Infernus._ 2. _Perditio._ 3.
_Profundum._ 4. _Taciturnitas._ 5. _Umbra mortis._ 6. _Terra inferior._
7. _Terra sitiens._ Of these _seven receptacles_, he that will mispend
his time may read according to the quotation.

    [397] _‎‏מלך‏‎ Molech dici volunt quasi ‎‏מלאך‏‎ Malach, (~i.~)
    Angelus, Nuncius. Proindè interpretantur Molech Mercurium
    Deorum nuncium._

    [398] _R. Levi. Lev. 18. 21._

    [399] _Macrob. Saturn. l. 1. c. 7._

    [400] _Euseb. de præpar. l. 4. c. 7._

    [401] _Jalkut. Jer. 7. fol. 97. Colum. 1._

    [402] _Orig. contra Celsum. l. 6. f. 75. col. 4. It. Gyrald. in
    Deorum Syntag. 7. p. 223._

    [403] _D. Kimchi. Psal. 27. 13._

    [404] _Capnio de Cabala p. 644._

    [405] _P. Galatinus l. 12. c. 6._

It is much controversed among Expositors, whether the children in this
sacrifice _were burnt in the fire_ or only _initiated and consecrated
to ~Moloch~, passing in the middest of two fires in sign of their
consecration_? It is probable, that both were in use. _First_, the
Scripture speaketh of both. _Secondly_, the _Hebrew Doctors_ shew the
manner of both. That they were _burnt_, _Jalkut_ expressly teacheth,
and with him others accord,[406] saying, _That Molech is the name of
an Image; and the wise men of blessed memory interpret Molech to be an
universal name, denoting any whom they made to rule over them: And it
is agreed upon, that this is the abomination of the Sons of Ammon, and
this phrase, to cause to pass thorow, is as much as, to burn._ Others
say,[407] _This Idols name was Molech, and this was his worship: That
he (namely, the Father) delivered his son unto the Priests, and they
made two great fires; and they made his son pass on his feet between
both these fires._

    [406] _Aben Ezra. Lev. 18, 21._

    [407] _Rabbi Solomon. Lev. 18. 21._

Notwithstanding, we must not think that there were no other oblations
unto _Molech_, besides sacrificing of children: For what use then
served those other six Chappels? No: I take this oblation of
children not to have been forced on them by any superstitious law,
or tradition, binding them thereunto; but to have been reputed a
work more meritorious, because it was meerly voluntary. This I note,
because otherwise there were an apparent difference between _Baal_
and _Moloch_. For the _Baalites_ offered unto their fancied Deity a
Bullock, in that contention between them and _Eliah_, _1 Kings 18._
Bullocks, and Calves, and Lambs, were their ordinary sacrifices, the
sacrificing of their children, _extraordinary_. Yet their ordinary
sacrifices, were not always altogether void of mans blood, but
sometimes the _Priests_ would lance and cut their own flesh: which
custome, whence it had its original, I find not: only we find the like
to have been practised by the _Heathenish Priests_ in their sacrifices
to _Bellona_: _Tertullian_[408] toucheth it, but _Lactantius_[409]
treating of _Bellona_ and her _Priests_, speaketh more clearly, saying,
_They sacrificed not with any other mans blood, but with their own;
their shoulders being lanced, and with both hands brandishing naked
swords, they run and leaped up and down like mad men_. Who would not
take these _Bellonites_ to be the very _Baalites_, spoken of, _1 Kings
18._ _They leapt upon the Altar which was made ---- and cut themselves
as their manner was, with knives and lances, till the blood gushed out
upon them._

    [408] _Ter. Apol. c. 9._

    [409] _Lactant. c. 40._

That the opinion of pleasing _God_ by sacrificing their children
sprang from _Abraham_’s offering of _Isaac_, seemeth very probable,
and is intimated by _R. Solomon_, who bringeth in _God_ speaking
concerning _Moloch_ after this manner: _I never commanded that they
should offer up their sons for an oblation, and I never spake it unto
any of my Prophets:[410] and when I spake to_ Abraham _to sacrifice
his son, it entred not into my heart that he should sacrifice him,
but to make known his righteousness_, Yea _Porphyry_[411] treating of
_Saturn_, (who seemeth to have been this very _Moloch_) saith, that
the _Phœnicians_ called him _Israel_, and that he had by _Anobreth_
one only son called _Jeud_ in the _Phœnician_ language, (no doubt from
the _Hebrew_ _Jechid_, signifying an _only begotten_, and applied to
_Isaac_, _Gen. 22. 2._) which he offered upon an _Altar_ purposely
prepared. Who seeth not the History of _Abraham_ and _Sarah_ under the
names of _Israel_ and _Anobreth_? and the immolation of _Isaac_ under
the name of _Jeud_? and the original of this Son-sacrificing Divinity,
to have been the unwarrantable imitation of _Abraham_?

    [410] _Solomon Iarchi Jer. 7. 31._

    [411] _Euseb. præpar. Evang. l. 1. c. 7, p. 17._

But what! Was the _Sun_ worshipped _Idolatrously_, no otherwise? Yes,
except I am deceived, we find another manner of worship described
by _Amos_, _Chap. 5. 26._ _But ye have born the Tabernacle of your
Moloch_, and _Chiun_ your Images, the _star of your God_, which ye
made to your selves. This translation I prefer before others. First,
because the _Hebrew_ word[412] signifieth a _Tabernacle_. Secondly, it
is rendred the Tabernacle of _Moloch_, not _Siccuth_ your King, by the
_Seventy_. Thirdly, it is so repeated by Saint _Stephen_[413] _Act. 7.
43._ _Ye took up the Tabernacle of Moloch_, and the _star of your God
Remphan_, figures which ye made to worship them.

    [412] _‎‏ונשאתם את סכות מלככם‏‎_

    [413] _Καί ἀνελάβετε τὴν σκηνὴν τοῦ Μολὸχ, καὶ τὸ ἄστρον τοῦ
    θεοῦ ὑμῶν ῥαιφὰν τοὺς τύπους οὓς ἐποιήσατε ἑαυτοῖς._

Three things are to be enquired for the understanding of this
parrallel. First, what the _bearing or taking up of this Tabernacle
is_. Secondly, what Idol was pointed out by these names of _Chiun_ and
_Remphan_. Thirdly, what is meant by the _star of this God_.

_The taking up of this Tabernacle_ denoteth their worship which they
exhibited unto their Idol, by carrying him up and down in _Tabernacles_
and _Pageants_, after a solemn manner of procession: By the _Romans_
this solemnity was termed _pompa_, and the _Tent_ or _Pageant_ in which
the Idol was carried, _Thensa_, according to that, _Thensa Deorum
vehiculum_. This kind of Idolatry may seem to have had its original
among the _Heathens_ from an unwarrantable imitation of _Moses_’s
_Tabernacle_, which was nothing else but a _portable Temple_[414] to
be carried from place to place, as need required. For it cannot be
denied, but that many superstitions were derived unto the _Heathens_
from the true worship of _God_, which he himself had prescribed unto
his people. Thus, as _God_ had his _Tabernacle_, _Priests_, _Altars_,
and _Sacrifices_, so the _devil_ had his _Tabernacles_, _Priests_,
_Altars_ and _Sacrifices_. As _God_ had his _Fire ever burning upon
the Altar_, so had the _devil_ his _fire preserved burning by those
Vestal Votaries_. As _God_ had his _Propitiatory_ or Mercy seat:[415]
so had the _devil_ his _Sacros tripodas_, his _Oracles_, from which
he would speak unto them that served him. This solemn procession was
performed by the _Romans_ in the honour of the _Sun_.[416] It was
performed by the _Israelites_ in honour of their _Moloch_, who formerly
was interpreted, the _Sun_. To add unto the pomp and state of this
solemnity, both the _Romans_ and the _Israelites_ caused _great Horses_
and _Chariots_ to be led up and down. _Horses_ were consecrated to the
_Sun_ by the _Romans_, and their _Cirque place_ was sometimes called
τὸ ἱππικὸν, and ἱπποδρόμιον, an _Horse-race_.[417] And that _Chariots_
was commonly used in those pompous shewes is evident.[418] Concerning
the people of _Judah_, doth not the like practice plainly appear? _2
Kings 23._ _Josiah_ did put down the _Horses_ given to the _Sun_, and
the _Chariots of the Sun_. This kind of Idolatrous worshipping the
_Sun_ seemeth to have had its beginning from the _Persians_, who also
accounted _Horses_ holy to the _Sun_:[419] And the _Persian King_, when
he would shew himself in great state, caused an exceeding great _Horse_
to be led up and down, the which was called _Equus solis_.

    [414] _οὐδὲν ναοῦ μεταφερομένου διέφερεν. Joseph. Ant._

    [415] _Lev. 6. 3._

    [416] _Solis honore novi grati spectacula Circi. Antiqui dixere
    Patres Corrip. Afric. l. 1. num. 17. vi. Dempst._

    [417] _Alex. ab Alex. lib. 3. cap. 12._

    [418] _Hic illius arma, Hic currus fuit. Virgil, Æneid. 1._

    [419] _Cœl. Rhodig. antiq. l. 8. c. 2._

The second inquiry is, What _Idol_ was meant by _Chiun_ and _Remphan_,
otherwise in ancient Copies called _Repham_. Not to trouble the Reader
with the various interpretations of _Expositors_, much less with the
bold adventures of others in correcting the text: by _Chiun_ we are
to understand _Hercules_, who in the _Egyptian_ language was called
_Chon_: by _Repham_ we are to understand the same _Hercules_, for
‎‏רפאים‏‎ _Rephaim_, in the holy tongue signifieth _Gyant_: By _Hercules_
we may understand the Planet of the _Sun_: There are _Etymologists_
that derive _Hercules_ his name from the _Hebrew_ ‎‏האיר כל‏‎, _Heircol_,
_illuminavit omnia_: the _Greek Etymology_,[420] holds correspondency
with the _Hebrew_ and both signifie that universal light which
floweth from the _Sun_ as water from a fountain. Add hereunto, that
_Porphyry_[421] interpreteth _Hercules his twelve labours_, so often
mentioned by the _Poets_, to be nothing else but the _twelve signs
of the Zodiack_, thorow which the _Sun_ passeth yearly. But some
may question, whether the name of _Hercules_ was ever known to the
_Jews_? It is probable the name was; for _Hercules_ was the _god_ of
the _Tyrians_, from whom the _Jews_ learned much _Idolatry_, as being
their near Neighbours: Yea, it is apparent, that in the time of the
_Maccabees_ the name was commonly known unto them: for _Jason_ the
_High-Priest_ sent three hundred drachmes of silver to the sacrifice of
_Hercules_, _2 Mac. 4. 19._

    [420] _Heracles quid aliud est quam ἧρας κλέος (~i.~) aeris
    gloria: quæ porro alia est aeris nisi solis illuminatio?
    Macrob. Satur. l. 1. c. 20._

    [421] _Euseb. de præp. l. 3. c. 4. p. 71._

_Thirdly_, it followeth that we should enquire, what this _star of
Remphan_ was, it is probably thought[422] that it was a certain
_star painted in the forehead of Molech_; Neither was it unusual
for the Heathen people to paint their _Idols_ with such _Symbolica
Additamenta_. _Julius Cæsar_ his Image had a _star_ depicted on the
_crown of his head_.[423]

    [422] _Oecumenius. Act. 7. 43._

    [423] _Sueton. in Jul. c. 88. It. Plin. hist. l. 2. c. 25.
    Horat. l. 1. Od. 12._

The _Sun_ was also worshipped by the house of _Judah_, under the name
_Tamuz_; for _Tamuz_, saith _Hierom_,[424] was _Adonis_, and _Adonis_
generally interpreted the _Sun_,[425] from the _Hebrew_ _Adon_,
signifying _Dominus_, the same as _Baal_, or _Moloch_ formerly did,
namely, the _Lord_ or _Prince_ of the _Planets_. The month which we
call _June_, was by the _Hebrews_ called _Tamuz_; and the entrance of
the _Sun_ into the sign _Cancer_ was, in the _Jews Astronomy_, termed
_Tekuphu Tamuz_, the _revolution_ of _Tamuz_. Concerning _Adonis_
whom sometime ancient Authors called _Osiris_; there are two things
remarkable, ἀφανισμὸς, the _death or loss of Adonis_ and εὕρησις, the
_finding of him again_. As there was great lamentation[426] at his
loss, especially amongst the Women;[427] so was there great joy at his
_finding_. By the death or _loss of Adonis_, we are to understand the
departure of the _Sun_; by his _finding again_, we are to understand
his return. Now he seemeth to depart twice in the year: First, when
he is in the _Tropick of Cancer_, in the farthest degree Northward.
Secondly, when he is in the _Tropick of Capricorn_, in the farthest
degree Southward: answerable unto these two departures, which may be
termed ἀφανισμοὶ, _disparitions_, or _losses of the Sun_, there are two
returns immediately succeeding, which may be termed likewise εὑρήσεις,
the _findings_ or new appearings of the _Sun_. Hence we may note,
that though the _Egyptians_ celebrated their _Adonia_ in the moneth
of _November_, when the _Sun_ began to be farthest _Southward_; and
the house of _Judah_ theirs, in the month of _June_, when the _Sun_
was farthest _Northward_, yet both were for the same reasons, and in
substance they agreed. And of this the Prophet _Ezekiel_ is thought to
have spoken, _Ezek. 8. 14._ _There sate women weeping for ~Tamuz~._

    [424] _Hieron. comment. 3 in Ezek._

    [425] _Pier. Hierogl. l. 9. p. 68._

    [426] _Nunquamq; satis quæsitus Osiris. Semper enim perdunt,
    semper & inveniunt. Lucan._

    [427] _Plutarch. in Alcibiade._

These solemnities were chiefly observed, between the _Byblienses_ and
the _Alexandrini_, the manner was thus:[428] When the _Byblienses_
solemnized the death or loss of _Adonis_, at that time the
_Alexandrini_ wrote a letter, this letter was inclosed in an _Ark of
Bulrushes_, therein they signified, that _Adonis_, whom they lamented,
was found again, this Ark, being after the performance of certain rites
and ceremonies, committed to the Sea, forthwith it was carried by the
stream to _Biblus_; upon the receit whereof, the lamentation of the
Women was turned into joy. Others say,[429] that this lamentation
was performed over an Image in the night season, and when they had
sufficiently lamented, a Candle was brought into the room (which
Ceremony might mystically signifie the return of the Sun) then the
Priest with a soft voice muttered this form of words[430] _Trust ye in
God, for out of pains salvation is come unto us._ There are likewise
of the _Jews_ that say[431] their _Tamuz_ was an Image whose eyes they
filled with Lead, which Lead being molten by the means of fire under
it, the Image it self seemed to weep.

    [428] _Procopius in Isaiam. ad c. 18. It. Cyrillus l. 2. Tom.
    2. in Isaiam._

    [429] _Julius Maternus Firmicus. l. de errore profan. Religion._

    [430] _Θαῤῥεῖτε τῷ θεῷ, ἐστὶ γὰρ ἡμῖν ἐκ πόνων σωτηρία.
    Firmicus ibid._

    [431] _‎‏הסיר עושים צלם ים מלאים עיניו עופרח יחיו אש מתחתיו‏‎ R. Dav.
    Kimchi. radic._

There are that think[432] the _Prophet_ alludeth unto those letters
inclosed in those fore-mentioned _Bull-rush Arks_, _Isa. 18. 2._ When
he speaketh of Ambassadors sent by the Sea even in _Vessels of Reeds_
upon the waters. But I rather approve the literal sense, for by reason
of the Shelves and dangerous Rocks in the River _Nilus_, it was not
unusual for men to sail in Hulks, and _Vessels made of a kind of great
Bull-rush_, which by the _Egyptian_s was termed _Papyrus_ and these
kind of Ships _Papyraceæ naves_.[433]

    [432] _Procop. in Isai. 18._

    [433] _Plin. Hist. lib. 6. cap. 22._


_Of Baal-Peor, Baal-Tsephon, Baal-Zebub, Baal-Berith, Bell and the

Whom the _Hebrews_ called _Baal_, the _Babylonians_ called _Bell_; and
although the _Planet of the Sun_ only at first might be worshipped
under that name, yet at last it became a common name to many other
Idols, according to that, _There are many Gods, many Baalims or Lords_,
_1 Cor. 8. 5._ As the same Idol _Jupiter_ had different names, and
different Rites of worship, occasioned sometimes from the different
places, as _Jupiter Olympius_, from the Hill _Olympus_; _Jupiter
Capitolinus_, from the _Capitol hill_; _Jupiter Latialis_, from that
part of _Italy_ which is called _Latium_. Sometimes from the different
benefits which he was supposed to bestow on men, as _Jupiter Pluvius_
because he gave _Rain_; _Jupiter Lucetius_, because he gave _Light_;
_Jupiter Altitonans_, from _thundring_; So _Baal_ had his distinctive
Titles, and different Rites of worship, sometimes occasioned by the
place, as _Baal-Peor_, _Numb. 25. 3._ sometimes from the benefit
obtained, as _Baal-Tsephon_, _Exod. 14. 1._ and _Baal-Zebub_, _2 King.
1. 2._ sometimes for some other reason, as _Baal-Berith_, _Judg. 8. 33._

_Baal-Peor_ is thought[434] to be that _Priapus_, that obscene _Idol_,
so famous in prophane Authors. He was called _Peor_, from the Hill
_Peor_, mentioned, _Numb. 23. 28._ as likewise his Temple wherein he
was worshipped, standing upon the same Hill, was called _Beth-Peor_,
_Deut. 3. 29._ He was worshipped by the _Moabites_ and _Midianites_:
the _Idol Chemish_, _Jer. 48. 7._ is thought to be the same,[435] and
I take it to be applied to _Baal Peor_, by way of contempt, as if one
should say, their _blind god_, according to that in the Psalm, _They
have eyes and see not_. For the first letter[436] _Caph_, signifieth
_quasi_; and ‎‏מוש‏‎ _Musch Palpare_, to _grope_ or _feel about, in manner
of blind men_.

    [434] _Hieronym. ad Hos. c. 9. Idem. prodidit Isidor. Orig. l. 8._

    [435] _Hieron. in Isai. l. 5. c. 15._

    [436] _Philo Jud. lib. 2. Allegor. p. 79._

_Baal-Tsephon_ is thought by the _Hebrews_,[437] to have been an
_Idol_ made by the _Ægytian Magicians_, and placed in the Wilderness,
to observe and stop the _Israelites_ in their departure from _Ægypt_;
whence it was termed ‎‏צפן‏‎ _Tsephon_, from ‎‏צפה‏‎ _Tsapha_,
signifying to _watch_, & observe in manner of a _watchman_: because
we may call him _Baal speculator_, as, among the _Romans_; because
_Jupiter_ stayed the _Romans_ when they were flying, he was called
_Jupiter stator_.[438]

    [437] _P. Fag. Exod. 14. 1._

    [438] _Rosin. lib. 2. antiq. Rom. cap. 5._

_Baal-Zebub_, soundeth as much as the _Lord of the Flies_, or a
_Master fly_,[439] which hath power and authority over the rest, in
which respect the _Prince of the Devils_ in the _Gospel_ is termed
_Beel-Zebub_, ‎‏זבוב‏‎ _Zebub_ signifieth a _Fly_. This _Idol_ was
worshipped by the _Cyrenians_,[440] but principally by the _Ekronites_,
because whensoever they sacrificed unto him, the swarms of _flies_
which at that time molested the Country, died. But it is certain, that
this was not the alone reason, for they were wont to repair to him,
as to an Oracle, _2 King. 1. 2._ We may call him _Jupiter muscarius_,
or _Hercules muscarius_:[441] for the Inhabitants of the City _Elis_
sacrificed to _Jupiter_ under the name ἀπομύιος, (_i._) _A driver
away of flies_: and the _Romans_ to _Hercules_, under the same name.
Some _Greek Copies_ in the _Gospel_ read Βεελζεβοὺλ, _Beelzebul_:
which change is interpreted to be, for to shew the greater contempt of
the _Idol_, as if they should say _Jupiter stercoreus_, ‎‏זבל‏‎ _Zebel_
signifieth _stercus_, and _Beel_, or _Baal_, signifieth _Dominus_.

    [439] _Ζητήσουσι μυῖαν Θεὸν Ἀκκαρῶν. Gregor. Nazianz. orat. 2.
    contr. Julian. p. 102._

    [440] _Plin. l. 10. c. 28._

    [441] _Clemens Alexand. in protrep._

_Baal-berith_ was the _Idol_ of the _Shechemites_; of his Temple we
read, _Judges 9. 4._ ‎‏ברית‏‎ _Berith_ signifieth a _Covenant_; so that
_Baal-berith_ may be translated _Jupiter fœderatus_,[442] _The God
unto whom they bound themselves by Covenant_. Concerning _Bel_ and
the _Dragon_, little is spoken, besides what we read in that off the
_Apocrypha_, where the History is described.

    [442] _Ἔθηκαν ἑαυτοῖς τῷ βάαλ διαθήκην, τοῦ εἶναι αὐτοῖς αὐτὸν
    εἰς θεὸν. Septuagint. interp. Jud. 8. 33._


_Of Dagon._

The _Hebrew Doctors_ say[443] this Idol _Dagon was made from the Navel
downward in form of a Fish, but from the Navel upward in form of a
Man_. This they collect from _1 Sam. 5. 4._ The _two palms of his hands
were cut off upon the threshold_. And furthermore they say, The Idol
_Dagon_ had his name from the _Hebrew_ ‎‏דג‏‎ _Dag_, signifying in the
Holy Language, a _fish_, according to which description we may English
him, the _Philistians Neptune_, or _Triton_.[444] Others derive the
name from ‎‏דגן‏‎ _Dagon_, signifying _Corn_: and they say,[445] that he
first invented the use of the _Plow_, and _Corn_; whence they translate
him _Jupiter aratrius_. In this respect we call him the _Philistians
Saturn_, because Antiquity[446] makes _Saturn_ the _first Inventer
of Husbandry_, and therefore paints him with an _Hook_ or _Sithe_ in
his hand, as being the fittest _Hieroglyphick_ for _Husbandry_. Both
opinions have their Authors, and no sufficient proof hath been produced
to overthrow either. Yea, they are not wanting among the _Jews_
themselves, that say,[447] this Image of _Dagon was made in the form of
a man_. Notwithstanding _Scaliger_ his conjecture is not improbable,
that those who interpret _Dagon_, _Jupiter aratrius_, or Ἀγροτὴς,
might mistake and read ‎‏שדי‏‎ _Shadai_, signifying _Ager_, _A field_, for
‎‏שדי‏‎ _Shaddai_ being the very Name of God, signifying _Omnipotens_,

    [443] _R. Dav. 1 Sa. 5._

    [444] _Triton non absimilem habuisse figuram fingitur; Frons
    hominem præfert, in piscem desinit alvus, Pier. Hierogl. lib.
    1. p. 28._

    [445] _Phylo Byblius apud Euseb. de præpar. lib. 1. c. 7._

    [446] _Pier. Hierogl. l. 32. p. 228. Id. lib. 56._

    [447] _R. Levi. 1 Sam. 5._


_Of the molten Calf._

The History of the _Molten Calf_ is at large set down, _Exod. 32._,
where we read, that by reason of _Moses_ his long absence, the people
desired of _Aaron_, _gods_ to be made; whereupon _Aaron_ made for them
the _molten Calf_. The reason why they worshipped _God_ rather in
the similitude of a _Calf_, than of any other Creature, is generally
by _Expositors_ conceived to be from the corruptions learned among
the _Egyptians_, who worshipped their Idol _Apis_,[448] otherwise
called _Serapis_,[449] in a living _Oxe_, and otherwise in an Image
made in the form and similitude of an _Oxe_, with a bushel on his
head. This _Oxe_ was remarkable for certain notes and marks, whereby
it was differenced from all others. It was _black bodied_, it had
a _white fore-head_, and _white spot behind_, and a _knot_ under
his tongue: for the more curious fashioning and pollishing of these
marks in the _molten Calf_, _Aaron_ may seem to have made use of his
_graving tool_.[450] The _Egyptians_ repaired unto this _Oxe_ for
the resolution of matters doubtful, as to an _Oracle_,[451] and the
manner of consulting with him, was thus. The party that repaired unto
him, tendred a bottle of Hay, or Grass; which if he received, then
it betokened a good and happy event; if otherwise he refused it,
then it did portend some evil to come. _Thus they turned their glory
into an Oxe that eateth grass_, _Psalm 106. 20._ The _Hebrew_ word
in the _Psalm_, translated an _Oxe_, is, _Shar_;[452] which I note,
because in my opinion, it giveth light to one of the names by which
this _Idol_ was denoted. Sometimes it was called _Apis_, from the
_Hebrew_ word _Ap_,[453] signifying a _face_: sometimes _Serapis quasi
Shor-apis_, which is nothing else but _Bovis caput_, an _Ox-head_;
the very name used by the _Fathers_[454] to express this _Idolatry_.
It is commonly known that this _Idolatry_ was derived to _Israel_
from the _Egyptians_; but whence the _Egyptians_ first learned it few
have taught. They do not conjecture amiss, who interpret the first
Institution hereof to have been in the memory of _Joseph_, who by his
providence relieved both _Egypt_, and other Neighbour Countries, in the
seven years of famine. Besides the testimony of no slight Authors,[455]
there are strong inducements to perswade it. _First_, both the years
of plenty and famine were foresignified by the apparition of _Oxen_.
_Secondly_, what fitter Emblem, (if it had not afterward proved an
_Idol_) to continue the remembrance of a _Joseph_, (by whose alone
care and industry, corn and victual was provided in an extream famine)
than an _Ox_, the true and lively Hieroglyphick of an industrious
Husbandman? _Thirdly_, in this _Suidas_ agreeth with others, that
_this Ox was pourtrayed with a bushel on his head_, though others do
more clearly express the reason of this portraiture, namely, because
of the great quantity of Corn measured out by _Joseph_ in that extream
dearth. Concerning the sin of the _Israelites_ in making this _Calf_ or
_Ox_, the modern _Jews_ do transfer the fault upon certain _Prosylite
Egyptians_ who came forth with them: and they say, that when _Aaron_
cast their Jewels into the fire, these _Egyptians_, contrary to his
expectation, by their Art _Magick_ produceth a Calf, to which purpose
they urge _Aarons_ own words, _Exod. 32. 34._ I did cast the Gold into
the fire, and _thereof came this Calf_, as if his art or will went
not with the making thereof, but _of it self it made it self_. But
this answer of his sheweth rather, how vain the wit of man is in the
excuse of sin; and as his ingraving instrument writes down _Aaron_’s
sins; so the confession of others, more ingenuous _Jews_ proclaims the
_Israelites_, saying,[456] that _No punishment befalleth thee ~Israel~,
in which there is not an ounce of this Calf_. I conclude this with the
analogy between the _Egyptian Apis_, and the _molten Calf_: and this
consisteth in three things. _First_, As there were some _special marks
in the Egyptians Ox_; so is it probable that _Aaron_ with his ingraving
Tool made the like. _Secondly_, As the _Egyptians_ in honor of their
_Ox_ celebrated a _solemn Feast_, with much singing and mirth.[457]
So the _Israelites_ proclaimed a feast in honor of their _Calf_: _The
people sate down to eat and drink, and rose up to play_. _Thirdly_, As
the _Egyptians Ox_ was at last drowned in the River, so _Moses_ burnt
the _molten Calf_, and beat it to powder, and cast it upon the face
of the water, _Exod. 32. 10._ _Deut. 9. 21._ _Jeroboam_ afterward,
though upon other inducements, committed the same sin; he thought in
his heart, that if the people go up to _Jerusalem_, and do sacrifice in
the _house of the Lord_, they would revolt from him, and return to the
King of _Judah_: whereupon he set up _two Calves of gold_, the one in
_Bethel_, the other in _Dan_; saying unto the people, It is too much
for you to go up to _Jerusalem_, _1 King. 12. 28._

    [448] _Plin. Nat. hist. l. 1. c. 46. Herod. l. 1. Setin. c. 35.
    aut aliorum distinctione 45._

    [449] _Alex. Genial. dier. l. 6. cap. 2._

    [450] _‎‏בחרט‏‎ stylo sculptorio_

    [451] _Plin. Hist. lib. 8. c. 46. It. Alex. Genial. dier. l. 6.
    c. 2._

    [452] _‎‏שר‏‎_

    [453] _Vultus facies ‎‏אף‏‎_

    [454] _Cyprian. de bono patient. p. 318. vid. etiam August. p.
    73. It. Tertul. adv. Jud. cap. 1._

    [455] _Suidas in Ζάραπις. Ruffinus lib. 2. hist. Eccles. cap.
    23. Pier. Hierog. lib. 3. p. 25._

    [456] _‎‏אין לך ישראל פורענות שאין בה אנקיא מעון העגל‏‎ Moses
    Gerund, vid. Munst. Exod. 32._

    [457] _Suid. in voce Ἄπιδες._


_Of ~Astaroth~, ~Ammonia~, ~Juno~, the Queen of Heaven, ~Diana~ of the

As the _Sun_ was worshipped under many names, so likewise the _Moon_.
_Astaroth_ was the _Idol_ chiefly of the _Zidonians_, _1 King. 11.
5._ _2 King. 23. 13._ she had her _Temple_, called the house of
_Astaroth_, in which the _Philistims_ hanged up _Saul_’s Armor[458]
after his death, _1 Sam. 31. 10._ That the _Moon_ was worshipped under
these names needs not proof;[459] only some say,[460] that _Astarte_
was _Juno_: and why may we not say, that _Juno_ was often used to
express the _Moon_? Both the _Moon_ and _Juno_ are often called by the
name of _Urania_.[461] And as the _Moon_ in respect of her light is
called _Urania_; so in regard of the lesser lights in the heaven, she
is called _Astroarche_ that is, the _Queen of the Planets_;[462] or
as _Horace_ speaketh of the _Moon_, _Siderum Regina_, the _Queen of
the Stars_: Or lastly, as _Virgil_ speaketh of _Juno_; _Divum incedo
regina_, the _Queen of the Gods_. It seemeth very probable, that this
is that _Queen of Heaven_, of which the _Prophet_ speaketh, _Jer. 7.
18._ _Jer. 44. 17._ Again, unto whom may we imagine those ancient
Heathens to have performed that solemn worship, which they did on the
_Calends_, or first day of every month (was it not to the _Moon_?) And
yet notwithstanding it is ascribed to _Juno_ whence she is called _Juno
Calendaris_.[463] Lastly, As _Jupiter Ammon_ was no other than the
_Sun_,[464] and worshipped him in form of a _Ram_; so for ought I see,
the _Moon_ might be called _Juno Ammonia_, and worshipped in the form
of a _sheep_.[465] Sure I am, that the _Hebrew Doctors_[466] describe
the Images of _Astaroth_, to have been made in the form of _sheep_; and
the word _Astaroth_, in the Original, signifieth a _flock of sheep_,
and the _Moon_ might as well be called _Ammonia_, as the _Sun_ _Ammon_,
both being so called from their _heat_, which in the Holy Tongue is
called _Hammah_,[467] and from thence likewise those Images (of which
we read, _Levit. 26. 30._ _Isa. 17. 8._ _Isa. 27. 9._) are called
_Hammianim_,[468] because they were certain Idols placed upon the house
top, and so alwayes exposed to the _Sun_. Furthermore, as _Jupiter
Ammon_ was painted with _horns_,[469] so likewise was the _Moon_:[470]
why they should be thus painted, many reasons might be produced, but
chiefly three; the _first_ peculiar to the _Sun_, the other common both
to _Sun_ and _Moon_. First, the _Sun_ was painted with _Rams horns_,
because with the Astronomers the sign _Aries_ in the _Zodiack_ is
the beginning of the year.[471] Secondly, because as the strength of
_horned beasts_ consists in their _horns_, so the virtue and influence
of the _Sun_ and _Moon_ is derived into sublunary creatures by their
beams. Thirdly, because the light of the _Sun_ and _Moon_ makes the
reflection _cornute_, or _horn-like_. When _Moses_ came down from
God, _Aaron_ and the people saw that his face shined, _Exod. 34._ the
_Latine_ reads it, _Facies ejus erat cornuta_: and hence it is, that
_Moses_ is painted with _horns_, which some of the _Rabbines_ have
interpreted[472] _horns of magnificence_. The errour grew from the
doubtful signification of the _Hebrew_ word signifying _splendor_ or
_brightness_ and also _horns_.

    [458] _Horum Anathematum oblationem primo didicerunt ab
    Israelitis, Num. 7. 1 Sam. 21._

    [459] _Ἀστάρτην δὲ ἐγὼ δοκέω σεληναίαν ἔμμεναι. Astarten lunam
    esse opinor. Lucian. de dea Syria._

    [460] _August. super. Judic. quæst. 16._

    [461] _Astarte Urania idem omnino valet apud Phœnicas, quod
    Juno Lucina apud Latinos. Deducitur, Urania ab Hebræo ‎‏אור‏‎ Nun
    in fine adjecto aut per se solum, aut cum Jod quod passim fit
    Syris, quasi ‎‏אורן‏‎ vel ‎‏אורני‏‎ in fœminino vero ‎‏אורניא‏‎ (~i.~)
    Lucidus & Lucida, aut Lucinus & Lucina. Et hinc Græci suum
    ὀυρανὸν mutuati sunt._

    [462] _Αστροάρχη dicitur, παρὰ τὴν τῶν ἄστρων ἀρχὴν ab imperio
    quod in astra exercet. vid. Herodian. l. 5._

    [463] _Macrob. Sat. l. 1. c. 15._

    [464] _Macrob. Sat. l. 1. c. 21._

    [465] _Cœl. Rhodig. l. 18. c. 58._

    [466] _D. Kimchi. 1 Sam. 31. 10. It. Jud. 2. 13._

    [467] _‎‏המה‏‎ Calor. Sol._

    [468] _R. Solomon in Levit. 26. 30._

    [469] _… stat corniger illis Jupiter. Lucan, l. 9. v. 514._

    [470] _Syderum regina bicornis, audi, Luna, puellas. Horat.
    car. sæcular._

    [471] _Pier. hierogl. l. 10._

    [472] _‎‏קרני ההוד‏‎ cornua magnificentiæ, R. Solom. porro
    Hebraicum ‎‏קרן‏‎ (unde Κέρας & cornu emanarunt) significat in
    morem cornuum splendorem radiosq; emittere._

The _Moon_ was also worshipped under the name of _Diana_,[473] who
although she were worshipped thorowout all _Asia_, yet she was had
in principal esteem among the _Ephesians_, whence arose that cry,
_Great is Diana of the Ephesians_, _Act. 19. 28._ Her greatness among
the _Ephesians_ appeareth partly by her _Temple_; which in one place
_Pliny_ saith[474] was two hundred and twenty years abuilding, but
elsewhere[475] he saith 400 years: partly from the great gain procured
unto the Silver-smiths in making and selling _silver Temples of Diana_.
_Act. 19. 24._ It is much disputed what those _silver Temples_ were;
some think them to be _little houses_, or _shrines_ (such as were for
their smallness portable) in form representing the _Temple of Diana_,
and within having the Image of _Diana_ inclosed, and in this sense
ναίδια is sometimes used, to signifie _closets_ or _shrines wherein
Images were kept_: Others think, certain coyns or pieces of money
to be called by the name of _Diana_’s _Temple_, from the similitude
of _Diana_’s _Temple_ engraven or stamped upon those coyns: as in
_England_ we call some pieces of gold the _George_, others the _Angel_,
others the _Thistle_, from the impression which they bear. The like
custom of naming coyns from their Sculpture or impression was not
unusual among the Ancients;[476] neither were such coyns unusual on
which the _Temple of Diana_ was engraven, and these capital letters
added, DIAN. EPHE. _Theodorus Beza_ in his major Annotations upon the
_Acts_, reporteth that he hath seen two of these himself.

    [473] _Macrob. Saturn. l. 1. c. 15._

    [474] _Plin. l. 36. 14._

    [475] _Plin. l. 16. 40._

    [476] _Simili prorsus ratione Atheniensium nummos
    quosdam, boves: eorundem Atheniensium alios quosdam Κόρας
    (~i.~) puellas, alios Corinthiorum πώλους pullos: alios
    Peloponnesiorum χελώνας testudines; alios Romanorum naves

We read[477] of another kind of Idolatrous Worship towards the _Moon_,
to have been that men sacrificed to her in womans apparel, and women in
mens apparel, because they thought the _Moon_ to be both _male_ and
_female_, whence the _Moon_ is called by old Authors as well _Lunus_
as _Luna_: And _Venus_, whom _Philocorus_ affirms to be the _Moon_, is
termed _Deus Venus_, as well as _Dea Venus_. Some have thought[478]
that God had respect unto this kind of _Idolatry_, _Deut. 22. 5._ Where
men are forbidden to wear womens apparel, _& è contra_; but it is more
generally, and upon better grounds thought, that the promiscuous use
of apparel (whereby the distinction of sex is taken away) is there

    [477] _Macrob. Saturn. l. 3. c. 8. Non absimilem idololatriam
    in cultu Veneris prodidit Julius Firmicus de errore profan.
    religion. c. 4._

    [478] _Maimonid. in more Nebochim part. 3. cap. 38._


_Of other Gods mentioned in Scripture._

The _Sun_ and _Moon_, which are the greater lights in the Heaven,
I take to have been the chiefest Idols worshipped by the _Heathen_
people. Notwithstanding, their blind devotion deified also the other
_Planets_, and that numberless number of lesser lights, called in
Scripture, _Militia Cœli_, The Host of Heaven, whose several natures,
properties and influences, are not distinctly known. In like manner
there is an _Host of Idols_ mentioned in Holy Writ, of whom little
or nothing is spoken to the purpose by Authors, more than their very
names. Of this nature are those _Chambers of Imagery_, wherein all
forms of creeping things were pourtrayed on the walls, _Ezek. 8._ It
may be termed their _Pantheon_.

In those Colonies which the _King_ of _Ashur_ transplanted into
_Samaria_, every one worshipped the _god_ of his own Nation. The men
of _Babel_ made _Succoth Benoth_, the men of _Cuth_ made _Nergal_, the
men of _Hamath_ made _Ashima_, the _Avims_ made _Nibhaz_ and _Tartak_;
the _Sepharvaims_ burnt their Children in the fire to _Adram-melech_,
and _Anammelch_ the _gods of Sepharvaim_, _2 King. 17. 30, 31._ The
_Hebrew Doctors_ say,[479] that _Succoth Benoth_ was the picture of an
_Hen with her Chicken_: _Nergal_ they interpret _Gallum Sylvestrem_,
_Asima_ a Goat, _Nibhaz_ a Dog, _Tartak_ an Ass, _Adrammelech_ a Mule,
_Anammelech_ an Horse: that such brute beasts should be worshipped
as _gods_, may seem ridiculous; but the like to have been practised
among the _Heathens_, profane Authors abundantly testifie. The _Cock_
was worshipped as a _god_ among the _Syrians_,[480] A _Goat_ by the
_Mendesii_;[481] A _Dog_ by others:[482] Yea, they have adopted
into the number of their _gods_ &c. _Oxen, Lyons, Eagles, Wolves,
Crocodiles, Cats, Rats_,[483] Nay, they have digged their _gods_ out
of their gardens, _Garlick, Leeks, Onions, &c._[484] To these may be
added _Nisroch_, which was the _god_ of the _Assyrians_, and, as it
seemeth, had his _Temple_ at _Nineve_, _2 King. 19. ult._ and _Esay.
37. ult._ Secondly, ‎‏רמון‏‎ _Rimmon_, the word signifieth a _Pomegranate_.
Concerning this Idol it is much controverted, whether _Naaman_ sinned
not in saying, _The Lord be merciful unto thy servant, that when my
Master goeth into the house of Rimmon_, &c. _2 King. 5. 18._ Read the
words in the _Præter tense_ (when my _Master_ went into the house of
_Rimmon_) the sense appears to be a pardon craved for sins past, not
afterward to be committed. The same word ‎‏בבוא‏‎ _Bebbo_, _in going_,
is put to express the time past, in the titles of the _Psalms 52._
and _Psalm 54._ Thirdly, _Nebo_ otherwise called _Nabo_, an Idol
of the _Assyrians_, _Jer. 48. 1._ He had his name from _Prophecy_,
‎‏נביא‏‎ _Nahbi_, signifying a _Prophet_, he seemeth not much to differ
from Ζεὺς βουλαῖος, or Ζεὺς μητιέτης, so often mentioned in _Homer_,
_Diodorus Siculus_[485] maketh them both one, and we may render
_Nebo_, the _Assyrians Ammon_, or _Jupiter Vaticinus_, the _god of
their Oracles_.

    [479] _R. Jarchi. 2 King. 17. R. David non dissentit._

    [480] _Lucian l. 16. de Syr. Dea._

    [481] _Herodotus in Euterp._

    [482] _Cic. de legib. l. 1. vid. Tiraquel. in Alex._

    [483] _Neopol. l. 6. c. 26._

    [484] _Porrum & cepe, nefas violare & frangere morsu. O sanctas
    gentes quibus hæc nascuntur in hortis Numina. Juvenal. satyr.

    [485] _Diod. Sicul. l. 5. c. 27._


_The several manners of Divine Revelation._

As _Idolatry_ originally sprang from mistaking of Scripture; so
Witch-craft and Sorcery, (which holdeth near affinity with _Idolatry_)
seemeth to have had its first beginning from an imitation of _Gods
Oracles_. _God spake in divers manners_, _Heb. 1. 1._ _By dreams, by
Urim, by Prophets_, _1 Sam. 28. 6, 7._ when the Lord would by none of
these answer King _Saul_, then he sought to a Witch. To these might be
added _Gods_ speaking from between the _Cherubims_, his answering by
_Visions_, _Angels_, and _Voices_: but the chief manners of revealing
himself, observed by the _Hebrew_ Writers, are four, which they
term[486] _four degrees of Prophecy_, or _Divine Revelation_: somewhat
therefore being spoken of these, I purpose to explain the several sorts
of unlawful divinations mentioned in Scripture.

    [486] _P. Fagius in Exod. 28._

The first _degree_ was ‎‏נבואה‏‎ _Nebuah_, _Prophecy_. This was when _God_
by certain visions and apparitions revealed his Will.

The second was ‎‏רוח הקדש‏‎ _Ruach Hacodesch_, _The inspiration of the Holy
Ghost_, whereby the party was inabled without Visions or Apparitions,
to prophesie: some shewing the difference between those two add,[487]
that the gift of Prophecy did cast a man into a trance or extasie, all
his senses being taken from him; but the inspiration of the Holy Ghost
was without any such extasie, or abolition of the senses, as appeareth
in _Job, David, Daniel_. Both these degrees, as likewise _Urim_ and
_Thummim_ ceased in the second Temple, whence their ancient _Doctors_
say, [488] that after the _latter Prophets Haggai_, _Zachary_, and
_Malachy_ were dead, the _Holy Ghost went up or departed from_ Israel.
Howbeit, they had the use of a _voice_ or _eccho_ from _Heaven_. In
which speech we are not to understand that the _Holy Ghost_ wrought
not at all upon the creatures, or that it wrought not then in the
sanctification of men, as in former times, but that this _extraordinary
enabling men to prophesie by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost_, then
ceased; and in this sense the _Holy Ghost was said to have departed
from ~Israel~._ Unto this common received opinion, that passage might
have reference, _Acts 19._ _We have not so much as heard whether there
hath been an Holy Ghost or no._ That they did not doubt the distinction
of persons, appeareth clear, if that be true which some have
noted,[489] that the ancient _Jews_ before _Christ_ were so catechised
in that point, that they observed the _Mystery of the Trinity_ in the
name ‎‏יהוה‏‎ _Jehovah_, for though the name consisted of four letters in
number, whence it was called τετραγράμματον _Quadriliterum_, yet there
were but _three sorts of Letters in the name_: ‎‏י‏‎ _Jod_ signified the
_Father_, who was the beginning of all things: ‎‏ו‏‎ _Vau_ is a conjunction
copulative, and denoted the _third person in Trinity_, which proceedeth
from the _Father_ and the _Son_, ‎‏ה‏‎ _He_ signifieth the _Son of God_.
The _Rabbines_ have a saying, that God made all things, _in litera ‎‏ה‏‎
He_. They may allude to this, that he made all things by his Word: he
said, Let there be thus and thus, and it was so: but they may also
allude to the _second person in Trinity_. And furthermore, they note
that ‎‏ה‏‎ _He_, is doubled in this name, to demonstrate both Natures of
our blessed Saviour.

    [487] _D. Kimchi. Præfat. in Psal._

    [488] _Talmud. in Sanhedrin, c. 1._

    [489] _P. Fagius in Exod. 28._

The _third degree_, was _Urim_ and _Thummim_. _Urim_ signifieth
light, and _Thummim_ perfection. That they were two ornaments in the
_High-priests brest-plate_, is generally agreed upon: but what manner
of ornaments, or how they gave answer, is hard to resolve. Some[490]
think them to be the four rows of stones in the brest-plate, the
_splendour and brightness_ of which foreshewed victory; and by the
rule of contraries, we may gather, that the _darkness of the stones_
not shining presaged evil. Others[491] say it was the name _Jehovah_
put in the doubling of the brest-plate, for that was double _Exod.
28. 16._ Others[492] declare the manner of consulting with _Urim_ and
_Thummim_ thus: First, they say[493] that only the _King_, or else the
_Father of the Consistory_ had power to consult, or to propose the
matter unto the _Priest_, and the _Priest_ only had power to resolve.
_Secondly_, that the matter proposed must not be trivial, but of moment
and great difficulty. _Thirdly_, that this holy writing, termed _Urim_
and _Thummim_, consisted of all the _Tribes names_, and likewise of
the _Patriarchs_, _Abraham_, _Isaac_ and _Jacob_; so that no letter of
the _Alphabet_ was wanting. The question being proposed, some say that
the letters which gave the answer were ‎‏כולמות‏‎ (_i._) _they did arise_
and _eminently appear above the others_. An example they take from _2
Sam. 2. 1._ When _David_ asked the Lord, Shall I go up into any of the
Cities of _Judah_? the Lord answered, ‎‏עלה‏‎ _Gnaleh_, _go up_. Here, say
they, ‎‏ע‏‎ appeared out of the name of ‎‏שמעין‏‎ _Schimeon_, ‎‏ל‏‎
out of the name of ‎‏לוי‏‎ _Levi_, ‎‏ה‏‎ out of the name of ‎‏יהודה‏‎
_Jehudah_. Others say, that the letters which represented the Oracle
were ‎‏מצטדפות‏‎ (_i._) that they did after a strange manner _joyn
themselves into perfect syllables_ and entire words, and made the
answer compleat. Many other opinions might be reckoned up, but he spoke
best, who ingenuously confessed that he knew not what _Urim_ and
_Thummim_ was.[494]

    [490] _Joseph. Antiq. l. 3. c. 9._

    [491] _R. Solom. quemadmodum refert D. Kimchi in radic._

    [492] _Talmud. in Jonah c. 6. vid. P. Fagium in Exod. 28._

    [493] _Abbeth din._

    [494] _R. David in Radic._

The fourth degree was ‎‏בת קול‏‎ _Bath Kol_, _filia vocis_, _the Daughter
of a Voice_, or an _Eccho_; by it is meant a _voice from heaven
declaring the will of God_; it took place in the _second Temple_, when
the three former degrees of Prophecy ceased: it gave testimony of our
Saviour; Lo, a _voice from heaven_, saying, _This is my beloved Son in
whom I am well pleased_ _Mat. 3. 17._ It was in truth the _Prologue_,
_Preface_, or _type of that true voice of the Father_, that _eternal
word which revealed his Fathers will unto mankind_.

These were the extraordinary means by which _God_ revealed himself to
his people of old: ordinarily, he revealed himself by his written word.
Notwithstanding the _Hebrews_ say, that the Law, even from the first
time of its delivery unto _Moses_, was twofold: the one committed to
writing, which they call ‎‏תורה שבכתב‏‎ _Thora Schebictab_, the written
Law: the other delivered by tradition, ‎‏תורה בעל פה‏‎ _Thora begnal pe_,
it was also termed their _Kabbala_, from ‎‏קבל‏‎ _Kibbel_, signifying
_Accipere_, to receive or learn. They say both were delivered by
_God_ unto _Moses_ in Mount _Sinai_, but this latter was delivered
from _Moses to ~Joshua~, from ~Joshua~ to the Elders, from the Elders
to the Prophets, from the Prophets to those of the great Synagogue,
and so successively to after-ages, till at last it was digested
into one Book, containing principally precepts and directions for
those Israelites which inhabited the holy Land. It is called ~Talmud
Hierosolymitanum~. It was composed in the year of our Lord 230._ This
because it containeth but a few constitutions, is but of little use.
About 500 _years after Christ_, then was there a more full and exact
collection of their constitutions, for direction of those _Jews_ which
dwelt in _Babylon_, and other forreign places; this is termed _Talmud
Babylonicum_, and is of greatest use among Authors; it containeth the
body of _their Civil and Canon Law_. This traditional law they hold to
be as authentick as their written word, and that _Moses_ received it
from God, when he received the Law; for, say they, were it not for this
exposition, the _Decalogue_ it self might have been delivered _In hora
veloci_, _in less than an hour_.[495]

    [495] _‎‏אלח כ שעח‏‎ Moses Kotsen. in præf._

Here we must note that the word _Kabbala_, when it is applied to the
_Kabbalists_, to difference them from the _Talmudists_, is taken in a
stricter sense, and signifieth those subtleties or mysteries which are
observed from the different writing of some letters in the Scripture,
from the _transposing of them_, from a _mystical kind of Arithmetick_,
&c. This was never wholly committed to writing, of some instances we
have, _Gen. 23. 2._ _Abraham came_ ‎‏לבכתה‏‎ _to weep for Sara_. Here
because the letter _Caph_ is less than the rest, they note[496] that
_Abraham wept but little for Sara_, because she was old. Again, the
letter _Aleph_ is found six times in the first verse of _Genesis_:
Hence R. _Elias_ collected that the world should endure but _six
thousand years_: because _Aleph_ in the _Hebrews computation_ standeth
for a thousand. From the transposition _of letters_ they conclude after
this manner; ‎‏חרם‏‎ _Cherem_ signifieth _Anathema_ or _Excommunication_,
by a _Metathesis_ or _transposition of letters_, it is made ‎‏רחם‏‎
_Rachem_ signifying _mercy_; by another _transposition_ it is made ‎‏רמח‏‎
_Ramach_, which letters in the _Jews computation_ make 248, which in
their Anatomy, they find to be the just number of members in a mans
body: their conclusion hence is, that if _an excommunicated person
do truly repent then his ~Cherem~ is turned into ~Rachem~, his curse
turned into a blessing: if he do not repent, then his ~Cherem~ entreth
into ~Ramach~, the curse entreth into all his members_, to the utter
destroying of the whole man. Again, ‎‏איש‏‎ _Isch_, signifieth _a man_.
‎‏אשה‏‎ _Escha_, _a woman_. Hence they note, that in the _name of the man_
here is ‎‏י‏‎ _Jod_ which is not in the _name of the woman_; in the _name
of the woman_ there is ‎‏ה‏‎ _He_, which is not in the _name of the man_:
both these make ‎‏יה‏‎ _Jah_, one of the names of God: these being taken
away, in both names there remains ‎‏אש‏‎ _Esch_ signifying _fire_, to shew,
that as long as man and wife agree, _God is with them_: but when they
disagree, _fire is between them_: Thus we see what vain mysteries their
_Kabbalists_ observe.

    [496] _Baal Turin._


_Their Teraphim._

Concerning the _Teraphim_, two things are especially to be enquired.
_First_, what they were? _Secondly_, for what use? the word ‎‏תרף‏‎
_Taraph_, signifieth in general the _compleat Image of a man_. _Michal_
took an _image_, (_a Teraphim_) and laid it in the bed, _1 Sam. 19.
13._ More particularly it signifieth an _Idol_ or _image made for mens
private use in their own houses_, so that these images seem to have
been their _Penates_ or _Lares_, their houshould _gods_; wherefore hast
thou stoln my _gods? my Teraphim_, _Gen. 31. 30._ And this man _Michal_
had _an house of gods_, and made an _Ephod_ and _Teraphim_, _Jud. 17.
5._ Because of the worship exhibited to these _Idols_: Hence from the
_Hebrew_ _Taraph_, as some read it, _Tharaph_, cometh the _Greek_
θεραπεύειν, _To worship_.[497] The manner how these _Images_ were made,
is fondly conceived thus among the _Rabbines_;[498] _They killed a man
that was a first-born son, and wrung off his head, and seasoned it with
salt, and spices, and wrote upon a plate of gold the name of an unclean
spirit, and put it under the head upon a wall, and lighted Candles
before it, and worshipped it_. With such _Laban_ spake, say they. But,
without controversie, the _Teraphim_ which _Michal_ put in the bed,
was a _compleat statur, or Image of a man_. The use of these _Images_
was, to consult with them as with _Oracles_, concerning things for the
present unknown, or future to come. To this purpose they were made by
_Astrologers_[499] under certain constellations, capable of heavenly
influences, whereby they were enabled to speak. The _Teraphims have
spoken vanity_, _Zach. 10. 2._ And among other reasons why _Rachel_
stole away her Fathers Images, this is thought to be one, that _Laban_
might not by consulting with these Images discover what way _Jacob_
took in his flight.

    [497] _οὐδ’ ἀθανάτους θεραπεύειν ἤθελον. Hesiod. Ἔργ. καὶ ἡμέρ._

    [498] _R. Eliezer. vid. Eliam Thisbit._

    [499] _Aben. Ezra. Gen. 31._


_The several sorts of Divination forbidden._

We shall find, _Deut. 18. 10, 11._ those _Diviners_, which are by the
Law forbidden, distinguished into _seven kinds_; not because there
were no other, but they were the most usual. 1. _An observer of times._
2. _An Inchanter._ 3. _A Witch._ 4. _A Charmer._ 5. _A consulter with
familiar spirits._ 6. _A Wizard._ 7. A _Nigromancer._ To these we may
add an eighth, out of _Hos. 4. 12._ _Consulting with the staff._ and
a ninth out of _Ezek. 21. 21._ A _consulter with entrails_. 1. The
first is ‎‏מעונן‏‎, an _observer of times_,[500] one that distinguisheth
times and seasons, saying _Such a day is good, or such a day is naught;
such an hour, such a week, such a month is luckie, and such and such
unluckie for such and such businesses_: whence those[501] that derive
the word from ‎‏עין‏‎ _Gnajin_, signifying an _eye_ (as if hereby we meant
a _Jugler, or Imposter, who deceived the eyes of his spectators by
casting a mist before them_) utterly mistake: more pertinently they
speak, who derive it from ‎‏עונה‏‎ _Gnona_, signifying _Time_. But of all
I approve those who derive it[502] from ‎‏ענן‏‎ _Gnanan_, A _Cloud_, as if
the Original signified properly a _Planetary_, or _Star-gazer_. Hereby
he is distinguished from the second sort of unlawful _Diviners_, for
he also was an Observer of times; _the first_ drawing his conclusions
from the _colour or motion of the Clouds: the second from his own
superstitious observation of good and evil events, happening on such
and such dayes, such and such times_: the _first_ seemeth to have drawn
his conclusions, _a priori_, from the _Clouds_ or _Planets, causing
good and bad events_: the second, _a posteriori, from the events
themselves, happening upon such and such times_. This _Planetary_,
when he observed the _clouds_, seemeth to have stood _with his face
Eastward, his back Westward, his right hand towards the South, and
his left hand towards the North_: except it was from this positure of
the _Star-gazers body_ in time of observing, I find no reason why the
_Hebrews_ should term the _Eastern_ part of the world ‎‏קדים‏‎, _Kadim_
i. The _former part of the world_: the _Western part_ ‎‏אחור‏‎, i. e. The
_back part_; the _South part_ ‎‏ימין‏‎ _Jamin_, i. e. The _right hand_;
the _North part_ ‎‏שמאל‏‎ _Shemol_, i. e. The _left hand_. That the reason
of these denominations is, because _Adam_ was created with his face
toward the _East_, is as vain, as hard to prove.

    [500] _Jarchi. Lev. 19. 26._

    [501] _D. Kimchi. in rad._

    [502] _Aben. Esra. Levit. 19. 26._

2. The second is ‎‏מנחש‏‎, _Menachesch_, rendred an _Inchanter_; it
importeth rather an _Augur_, or _Soothsayer_. The Original signifieth
such an one _who out of his own experience draweth observations to
foretell good or evil to come_, as _Soothsayers_ do, by observing such
and such events, by such and such flying of Birds, screechings, or
kawings. The _Rabbines_ speak in this wise:[503] _He is Menachesch, a
Soothsayer, who will say, because a morsel of bread is fallen out of
his mouth, or his staff out of his hand, or his son called him back, or
a Crow kawed unto him, or a Goat passed by him, or a Serpent was on his
right hand, or a Fox on his left hand, therefore he will say, Do not
this or that to day._ This word is used, _Gen. 30. 27._ I have _learned
by experience_, saith _Laban_, that the Lord hath blessed me for thy
sake. Again, _Gen. 44. 5._ _Is not this the cup in which my Lord
drinketh, and whereby indeed he divineth?_ that is, _proveth, or maketh
tryal or experience what manner of men ye are_: The _Heathen_ people
were very superstitious in these observations: Some daies were _Atri_,
others _Albi_, some _unlucky_, others _lucky_; on some daies they
accounted it unfortunate to begin battel, on some months unfortunate to

    [503] _D. Kimchi. radic._

    _Mense malum Maio nubere vulgus ait._

                            _Ovid. Fast._

And as they were _superstitious in observing unlucky signs_, so
likewise in the means used to _avert the evil_ portended: the means
were either _words_ or _deeds_.[504] _Deeds_; thus if any unlucky Bird,
or such like came in their way, _they would fling stones at it_; and
of this sort is _the scratching of a suspected Witch_, which among the
simple sort of people is thought to be a means to cure _Witch-craft_.
By _words_, they thought to elude the evil, signified by such signs,
when they say, Εἰς κεφαλὴν σοὶ, _In caput tuum recidat hoc omen_; _This
evil light on thy own head_.

    [504] _Plura istiusmodi ἐνόδια σύμβολα vide apud Theophrastum
    Character. περὶ Δεισιδαιμ._

The third is ‎‏מכשף‏‎ _Mecascheph_, _a Witch_, properly a _Jugler_. The
Original signifieth such a kind of _Sorcerer who bewitcheth the
senses and minds of men, by changing the forms of things, making them
appear otherwise than indeed they are_. The same word is applied to
the Sorcerers in _Egypt_, who resisted _Moses_ _Exod. 7. 11._ Then
_Pharaoh_ also called _Mecaschphim_, the Sorcerers. Now the _Magicians_
in _Egypt_; they also did in like manner with their _Inchantments_.
This latter part of the Text explaineth what those Sorcerers were.
In that they are called _Magicians_, it implieth their learning,
that they were _wise men_, and _great Philosophers_: the word
_inchantments_ declareth the _manner of the delusion_, and it hath
the signification of such a _slight whereby the eyes are deluded_,
for ‎‏להטים‏‎ _Lahatim_, there translated _inchantments_, importeth the
_glistering flame of a fire or sword, wherewith the eyes of men are
dazled_. The _Greek_ version doth not unfitly term them φαρμακοὺς,
_Unguentarios_, _Syplasiarios_, _Compounders of Medicines_, or if you
please _complexion-makers,[505] such Artisans who mask men and womens
faces with paintings and false complexions_. Hence it is that the
_Apostle_ compareth such false teachers, _who under a form and shew
of godliness_, lead captive silly women, to the _Egyptian_ Sorcerers
_Jannes ~and~ Jambres, who resisted ~Moses~,_ _2 Tim. 3. 8._ These
two were of chief note: In the _Talmud_[506] they are all called
_Johanne_ and _Mamre_; by _Numenius_,[507] a _Pythagorean_, _Jannes_
and _Mambres_; by _Pliny_,[508] _Jamnes and Jotape_.

    [505] _φαρμακὸς δέ ἐστι μύρεψος. Suidas._

    [506] _Talmud. tract. Menachoth. c. 9._

    [507] _Origen. contra Celsum. lib. 4._

    [508] _Plin. nat. hist. lib. 30, cap. 1._

The fourth is ‎‏חובר‏‎ _Chober_, _a Charmer_. The _Hebrew_ word signifies
_conjoyning_ or _consociating_; either from the league and fellowship
which such persons have with the devil, or as _Bodine_ thinketh[509]
_because such kind of Witches have frequent meetings, in which they
dance and make merry together_. _Onkelos_ translateth such a charmer
‎‏רטין‏‎ _Raten_, _a mutterer_, intimating the manner of these Witcheries
to be by the muttering, or soft speaking of some spell or charm. The
description of a _Charmer_ is thus delivered:[510] _He is a character
who speaketh words of a strange language, and without sense, and he
in his foolishness thinketh that these words are profitable: that if
one say so or so unto a Serpent or Scorpion, it cannot hurt a man, and
he that saith so or so unto a man, he cannot be hurt_, &c. _He that
whispereth over a wound, or readeth a verse out of the Bible, likewise
he that readeth over an Infant, that it may not be frighted, or that
layeth the book of the Law, or the Phylacteries upon a child that it
may sleep, such are not only among Inchanters, or Charmers, but of
those that generally deny the law of God, because they make the word of
the Scripture medicine for the body, whereas they are not, but medicine
for the soul._ As it is written, _Prov. 3. 22._ _They shall be life
unto thy soul_. Of this sort was that whereof _Bodinus_[511] speaketh,
_That a child by saying a certain verse out of the Psalms, hindred a
woman that she could not make her butter; by reciting the same verse
backward, he made her butter come presently_.

    [509] _Bodin. Mag. dæmon. l. 1. c. 6._

    [510] _Maimon. tract. Idolol. c. 11. sect. 10. 12._

    [511] _Bodin. Mag. dæmon. l. 2. c. 1._

The fifth, ‎‏שאל אוב‏‎ _Schoel Ob_, _a consulter with Ob_, or _with
familiar spirits_. _Ob_ signifieth properly a _bottle_, and is
applied in divers places of Scripture to _Magicians_, because they
being possessed with an evil spirit, speak with a soft and hollow
voice, _as out of a bottle_. The _Greek_ calleth them Ἐγγαστριμύτης
_Ventriloquos_; _such whose voice seemeth to proceed out of their
belly_.[512] Such a _Diviner_ was the Damosel, _Acts 16. 16._ in
St. _Augustines_ judgement,[513] and is probably thought so by most
Expositors, who are of opinion, that the _spirit_ of _Python_ with
which this Damosel was possessed, is the same which the _spirit of Ob_
was amongst the _Hebrews_. Hence the _Witch of Endor_, whom _Saul_
requested to raise up _Samuel_, is said in _Hebrew_ to have consulted
with _Ob_; but among the _Latine_ Expositors she is commonly translated
_Pythonissa_, _one possessed with the spirit of Python_.

    [512] _Chrysostom. 1 Cor. 12. Tert. adv. Marcion. l. 4. c. 25._

    [513] _August. 1. de doct. Christ. c. 23._

The sixth is, ‎‏ידעני‏‎ _Iiddegnoni_, a _Wizard_; in the _Greek_, he is
translated sometimes Γνώστης, a _cunning-man_. In both Languages he had
his name from _knowledge_, which either the _Wizard_ professed himself
to have, or the common people thought him to have. The _Rabbies_
say,[514] he was so called in _Hebrew from a certain beast named by
them ~Jadua~, in shape resembling a man, because these Wizards when
they did utter their Prophecies, held a bone of this Beast between
their teeth_. This haply might be some _Diabolical Sacrament or
Ceremony_, used for the Confirmation of the league between _Satan_ and
the _Wizard_. _Prophane_ History[515] mentioneth Divinations of the
like kind, as that _Magicians_ were wont to eat the principal parts
and members of such beasts which they deemed _Prophetical_, thinking
thereby, that by a kind of μετεμψύχωσις the Soul of such Beasts would
be conveyed into their bodies, whereby they might be enabled for

    [514] _P. Fag. Levit. 19. Verum Athenæus bestiam hanc vocat
    καταβλεπάδα. Vid. Bodin. Mag. dæmon. l. 1. c. 6. p. 18._

    [515] _Perer. de Mag. p. 57._

The seventh is ‎‏דורש אל המתים‏‎ _Doresch el hammethim_; the _Greek_
answereth word for word, ἐπερωτῶν τοὺς νεκροὺς, _An enquirer of the
Dead, a Necromancer_. Such Diviners consulted with _Satan in the shape
of a dead man_. A memorable example we find recorded, _1 Sam. 29._
There, King _Saul_ about to war with the _Philistines_ (God denying to
answer him either by _dreams_, or by _Urim_, or by _Prophets_) upon
the fame of the _Witch of Endor_, he repaired to her, demanding that
_Samuel might be raised up from the dead_, to tell him the issue of the
war. Now that this was not in truth _Samuel_, is easily evinced, both
by testimonies of the learned, and reasons. _First_, it is improbable,
that God who had denied to answer him by any _ordinary means_, should
now deign him an answer so extraordinary. _Secondly_, no Witch or Devil
can disturb the bodies or Souls of such as die in the Lord, because
they rest from their labors, _Rev. 14. 13._ _Thirdly_, if it had been
_Samuel_, he would doubtless have reproved _Saul for consulting with

The eighth is ‎‏שאל מקלו‏‎ _Scoel maklo_, _A Consulter with his Staff_.
_Hos. 4. 12._ _Jerome_ saith the manner of this divination was thus:
_That if the doubt were between two or three Cities, which first should
be assaulted; to determin this, they wrote the names of the Cities upon
certain staves or arrows, which being shaked in a quiver together the
first that was pulled out determined the City._ Others[516] deliver
the manner of this consultation to have been thus: _The consulter
measured his staff by spans or by the length of his finger, saying, as
he measured, I will go, I will not go, I will do such a thing, I will
not do it, and as the last span fell out, so he determined_: This was
termed by the Heathens ῥαβδομαντεία or βελομαντεία, _Divination by rod
or arrows_.

    [516] _Vid. Drus. in Deut. p. 592._

The ninth was ‎‏ראה בכבד‏‎ _Roe baccabed_, _a diviner by intrales_, _Ezek.
22. 21._ _Nebuchadnezzar_ being to make war both with the _Jews_, and
the _Ammonites_, and doubting in the way, against whether of these he
should make his first on-set: First he consulted with his _Arrows and
Staves_, of which hath been spoken immediately before: _Secondly_, he
consulted with the _intrals of beasts_. This practice was generally
received among the _Heathens_, and because the _liver_ was the
principal member observed, it was called ἡπατοσκοπία, _Consultation
with the liver_. Three things are observed in this kind of divination.
First, the colour of the intrals, whether they were all well
_coloured_. Secondly, their _place_, whether none were _displaced_.
Thirdly, the _number_, whether none were wanting; among those that were
wanting, the want of the liver, or the heart chiefly presaged ill: That
day _Julius Cæsar_ was slain, it is storied, that in two fat Oxen then
sacrificed, the heart was wanting in them both.




_Their Courts of Judgment, especially their Ecclesiastical Consistory._

There were in _Israel_ distinct _Courts_, consisting of distinct
_persons_, the one principally for _Church-businesses_, the other for
_affairs in the Commonwealth_; the one an _Ecclesiastical Consistory_;
the other a _Civil Judicatory_:[517] Of these, and their several
censures, and punishments, it remaineth now to be spoken.

    [517] _Junius Analys. Expos. Deut. 17._

These different Consistories, or _Courts_ of Justice, we find first
distinguisht, _Deut. 17. 12._ _He which will not hearken unto the
Priest, nor unto the Judge_. Where the people of _Israel_ are directed,
in what cases, and to what persons they should make their Appeals from
inferiour _Courts_; namely, the _Priests_, _in matters spiritual_, or
_ceremonial_, and to the _Judges_, _in matters civil or criminal_.
These two Courts are more plainly distinguished, _2 Chron. 19._ where
_Jehosaphat_, reforming many abuses in _Church_ and _Commonwealth_,
first appointed thorow-out all the fenced Cities of _Judah_, _secular
Judges_ to determine criminal causes, _ver. 5._ And at _Jerusalem_ he
appointed a _Spiritual Court_, consisting of _Levites, Priests, and
the chief Fathers of Israel_, _vers. 8._ And in causes spiritual for
the Lord, _Amariah_ the _High priest_ was chief: in causes criminal
for the King, _Zebadiah_ was chief, _ver. 11._ Likewise the _Prophet
Jeremiah_ is condemned to die by the _Consistory of Priests_, _Jer. 26.
8._ But by the _Consistory of Princes, or secular Judges sitting in the
gate_, he was absolved and discharged, _vers. 16._ Yea, although the
tyranny of _Antiochus_, and the troublesome times insuing had bred such
a confusion in matters of Government among the _Jews_, that an evident
distinction can hardly be found in the _New-Testament_, yet some
foot-steps, and imperfect tokens of both Courts are there observable,
principally, _Matth. 21. 23._ _It._ _Matth. 26. 3._ The _Chief
Priests_ and the _Elders_, of the people, are named as two distinct
_Consistories_: and each Consistory seemeth to be differenced by its
proper name: The _secular Consistory_ termed συνέδριον, A _Councel_:
the _spiritual_ termed συναγωγὴ, _a Synagogue_. _They will deliver you
up to the Councels, and they will scourge you in their Synagogues_,
_Matth. 10. 17._ Hence that great Assembly of _Prophets_ and holy men
called together by _Esra_, for the reformation of the _Church_, after
their return from _Babylon_, is called _Synagoga magna_, _A great

The Office of the _Ecclesiastical Court_, was to put a difference
between things _holy_ and _unholy_, and between _clean_ and _unclean_,
_Levit. 10. 10._ and to _determine Appeals in controversies of
difficulty_. It was a _representative Church_. Hence is that _Dic
Ecclesiæ_, _Mat. 18. 16._ _Tell the Church_, because unto them belonged
the _power of Excommunication_, the several sorts of which censure
follow in the next Chapter.

Only here take notice, that as in the _Civil Consistories_, consisting
of _seventy Judges_, which was the supreme Court, there were two
sate as Chief; namely, one whom they termed _Nasi_, _The Lord Chief
Justice_; and the other whom they termed _Abbeth din_, the _Father of
the Senate_: so in the _Ecclesiastical Consistory_ the _High-priest_
and his _Sagan_, or _second High priest_ sate chief there, _2 King.
23. 4._ That the _High priest_ sate in the _Sanhedrim_ necessarily,
is an errour;[518] for he was not elected into that Company, except
he were a man of extraordinary wisdome. Again, note, that sometimes
both _Consistories_ assembled together, as often as the matters to be
determined were partly _ceremonial_, partly _civil_, partly belonging
to the _Church_, partly to the _Commonwealth_: which being not noted,
causeth the Courts not to be distinguished by many Expositors. This
meeting and joyning of both _Consistories_ often appeareth in the
_Gospel_. The _chief Priests_ and _Elders_ meet together.

    [518] _Moses Kotsen. in Sanhedrin._


_Of their Excommunication._

They had three _Degrees of Excommunication_. The first was called
in the _N. T._ _a casting out of the Synagogue_, _John 9. 22._ by
the _Jews_[519] _Niddui_ i. _a separation_ or _putting away_. It
signified[520] _a separation from all commerce or society either with
man or woman_ for the distance of _four Cubits_; also _from eating or
drinking with any; from the use of the marriage-bed, from shaving,
washing, or the like_, according to the pleasure of the _Judge_, and
the quality of the offence. It was of force 30 days, yet so that they
might be shortened upon repentance. He that was thus _excommunicated_,
had power to _be present at divine service, to teach others, and learn
of others; he hired servants, and was hired himself_, but always on
condition of the aforesaid _separation_. If he remained impenitent,
according to the pleasure of the Judge, his punishment was increased,
either to the doubling or the tripling of the time, or to the extending
of it to their lives end; his male-children were not circumcised; if he
died without repentance, then, by the sentence of the Judge, a stone
was cast upon his Coffin or Bier, to shew that he was worthy to be
stoned. They mourned not for such a one with solemn lamentation, they
followed him not unto the grave, nor buried him with common burial.

    [519] _‎‏נודי‏‎ Significat hæc vox Separationem, Elongationem;
    deducitur à verbo ‎‏נדה‏‎ Separavit. Hinc etiam Proscriptus,
    profligatus, aut separatus quispiam dicitur ‎‏מיודה‏‎_

    [520] _Buxtorf. ex Rabbinis Epist. Heb. pag. 55._

The second was called in the _N. T._ _a giving one over to Satan_, _1
Cor. 5. 5._ By the _Jews_ ‎‏חרם‏‎ _Cherem_. For the better understanding
of this word, we must know that it is not used in this sense in the
_Old Testament_; there we shall find it applied to _persons_, or to
_things_; if to _persons_, then it signifieth _a devotion of them
to God by their death_, _Levit. 27. 29._ If to _things_, then it
signifieth _a devotion of them unto God_, by separating them from
ordinary use. Hence it is that _Achan_ is punisht for stealing the
_devoted_ thing, _Josh. 7._ _Persons_ thus _devoted_, were termed
by the _Greeks_ ἀναθέματα; and _devoted things_, ἀναθήματα.[521]
Notwithstanding, in the _Apostles_ time, both _Cherem_ and ἀνάθεμα,
signified a _second degree of Excommunication_, differing from the
former. First because it was not done in a _private Court_, but
published in the audience of the _whole Church_: Secondly, maledictions
and curses were added out of the Law of _Moses_, At the publishing
hereof Candles were kindled; and when the curses were ended, they put
out the candles, in token that the excommunicate person was _deprived
of the light of heaven_. This kind of _excommunication_ was exercised
against the _incestuous person_, and against _Hymenæus_,[522] and

    [521] _Budæus ἀναθέματα dici tradit, homines sacros, (~i.~)
    quorum capita inferis dicata sunt & devota; ἀναθήματα vero
    donaria diis consecrata._

    [522] _1 Cor. 5. 5._

    [523] _Tim. 20. 1._

The third was called in the _New Test._ by the _Syriack_ name
_Maranatha_, _1 Cor. 16._ that is, _the Lord cometh_; _Maran_
signifieth _the Lord_, and _Atha_ _cometh_ and this they say was
instituted by _Enoch_, _Judg. 11._ The _Jews_ called it _Schammatha_,
the Etymology of which word I find to be twofold. Some say[524] it
soundeth as much as _Maran Atha_ _the Lord cometh_. _Schem_ signifieth
the _Lord_, and _Atha_ _cometh_: others say[525] it soundeth _there is
death_, _Schem_ signifying _there_ and _Mitha_ _death_. Hence we may
render it an _excommunication to death_. And this is thought[526] to be
the reason of that phrase, _1 John 5. 16._ _There is a sin unto death_,
i. which deserveth _excommunication to death_. _R. Gersom_[527] forbade
the breaking open of letters, under the penalty of all three sorts
of _excommunication_. And this was termed _Excommunicatio in secreto
nominis tetragrammati_: see the form thereof in the _Chapter of the

    [524] _‎‏שם‏‎ Dominus ‎‏אתא‏‎ venit._

    [525] _Elias Thisbites. in radice ‎‏שמתא‏‎_

    [526] _Betram. de Politia Judaic. c. 2. p. 21._

    [527] _Buxtorf. Epi. Hebr. p. 59 in dorso Epistolæ subjici
    solebat hæc abbreviatura ‎‏כהרג מת אסור‏‎ ~i.~ prohibitum est per
    anathema. R. Gersom luminis captivitatis (scil. resignare has

In the _Greek Church_ there were[528] _four degrees of this censure_.
1. Σύστασις. Those were censured with this _degree_, who were only
_debarred the Lords Table_: as for enterance into the _Church_, hearing
the Word, praying with the Congregations, they enjoyed equal liberty
with _other Christians_, they might stand by and behold others receive
the _Sacrament_, but themselves did not partake thereof, whence they
were called _Stantes_. 2. ὑπόπτωσις, concerning this censure, all that
I read of it is thus; that he that is _thus censured_ hath admittance
into the Church.[529] But his place must be _behind the Pulpit_, and
he must depart with the _Catechumeni_, that is such _Pagans_ who were
gained to the _Christian Faith_, but not fully admitted into the
_Church_, because they wanted Baptism, and therefore that they might
not pray promiscuously with other _Christians_, there was a place
behind the _Quire of the Church_ in manner of Cloysters, allotted to
them, and was from them called _Catechumenum_:[530] This I take to be
the place of this _second degree of Excommunication_, so that the force
of this censure I think to consist in these three things. First, they
were _barred the Lords Table_. Secondly, they might _not stand by at
the administration of the Lords supper_ (which was allowed in the first
degree) and this appeareth clearly, because the _Catechumeni departed
always at the celebration of the Communion_, for to them principally it
was said, _Ite missa est_. Thirdly, though they might ὑποπεσεῖν _fall
down on their knees and pray_, and were thence called _Succumbents_,
yet this they might not do in the Congregation, but only in that place
_behind the quire or pulpit_, which was allotted to the _Catechumeni_,
and in this also this _second degree_ differeth from the _first_.
The third sort of censure was ἀκρόασις, the party thus censured was
permitted to come no further than the _Church Porch_, where it was
lawful for him to hear the Scriptures read, but not to joyn in prayer,
not to approach the _Lords Table_, whence such were termed _Audients_.
The Fourth, and last sort, was πρόκλαυσις, persons under this censure
stood quite without the Church, requesting those that entered in, with
tears and weeping to petition the _Lord_ for mercy toward them, whence
they were called _Plorantes_.

    [528] _Vid. Justelli not. in codicem canonum Eccl. univers. ad
    canon 55. Bellar. de pœnit. l. 1. c. 22. & Casaub. Exercit. p.
    52. observant quintum gradum quem ille μέστωστιν aliter μέθεξιν

    [529] _Vid. Iustel. loco citato._

    [530] _Hospin. de Templis. p. 88._

Seeing it is commonly thought, that _Cain_ was censured by the first
degree of _Excommunication_, called _Niddui_, and that the last called
_Schammmatha_ was of _Enochs constitution_; both these being of such
antiquity, I dare not say that the _three degrees of Excommunication_
were borrowed from the _three sorts of uncleanness_, which excluded
people out of the _three Camps_, though there was an observable
proportion between them.[531] _Niddui_ may be parrallel’d with the
exclusion out of the _Camp of God alone_, which befel those that
were defiled by touch of the dead: _Cherem_ may be compared to the
exclusion out of the _Camp of God, and the Camp of Levi_, which befel
those that were defiled of an issue. _Schammatha_ may be compared with
the exclusion out of _all three Camps, the Camp of God, the Camp of
Levi, and the Camp of Israel_, this befel those that were defiled with
leprosie; and from the _Jews_, it is probable that the _Greek_ and
_Latine Churches_ borrowed their _degrees of Excommunication_.

    [531] _De quibus. P. Fagius, in Num. 5. 2._


_Their Civil Consistories, what persons were necessarily present in

In many things men might be sinful in respect of _Gods Law_, though
not liable to punishment, in respect of mans; _thou shalt not avenge,
nor be mindful of wrong_, _Levit. 19. 18._ which the _Hebrews_ explain
thus, _To avenge_, is to deny a good turn to one who formerly denied
him. To _be mindful of a wrong_, is to do a good turn to one who
formerly would not do so much for him; but at the doing thereof, to
upbraid the other of his unkindness. They illustrate it thus: when
_Reuben_ said to _Simeon_, Lend me thy Hatchet; he answereth, I will
not lend him: Afterward _Simeon_ had need to borrow an Hatchet of
_Reuben_, and saith unto him, lend me thy Hatchet: _Reuben_ saith unto
him, I will not lend him, thou wouldst not lend me thine: this is ‎‏נקימה‏‎
_Nekima_, _Avengement_. Now when _Reuben_ saith to _Simeon_, Lend me
thy Hatchet: he answereth, I will not lend him: afterwards _Simeon_
borroweth a Hatchet of _Reuben_: _Reuben_ saith, lo, I will lend it
thee, I will not deal with thee as thou dealedst with me, this is ‎‏נטירה‏‎
_Netira_, _Mindfulness_: both these were sinful, but not liable to mans

In all civil Courts, five sorts of persons were alwayes present. 1.
_Judges._ 2. _Officers._ 3. _Pleaders._ 4. _Notaries._ 5. _Witnesses._
In the _supreme Court_, there was one that was chief over all the other
_Judges_, they called him in _Hebrew_ _Nasi_, in _Greek_ ἄρχοντα, _The
Prince_. His leave was craved for the tryal of actions. The _Witnesses_
were at least two, _Deut. 29. 15._ If they were false, they punish’d
them with a _Talio_, the same punishment which he intended against his
brother, _Deut. 19. 19._ The _Notaries_ were two,[532] one stood on the
_right hand to write the sentence of Absolution_, and what was spoken
in defence of the party; the other stood on the _left hand, to write
the sentence of condemnation_, and the objections against the party.
_Drusius_[533] thinks that _Christ_ speaking of the last Judgment had
reference to this, _He shall set the sheep on the right hand, and on
the left the goats_, _Matth. 25. 23._ The _Officers_ were in manner of
_Sheriffs_, they were present to execute what the _Judges_ determined;
whence they carried up and down their _staves_ and _whips_,[534] as
the _Consuls_ of _Rome_ had _Rod_ and _Axes_, carried before them for
the readier execution of justice. In _Hebrew_ they are called ‎‏שוטרים‏‎
_Schoterim_, by the Septuagint sometimes γραμματεῖς, in our _English_
translation commonly _Officers_, and by Saint _Luke_ πράκτορες: for,
doubtless there is allusion unto them, _Luke 12. 58._ When thou goest
with thine adversary, (ἄρχοντι) to the _Magistrate_, as thou art in the
way, give diligence that thou maist be delivered from him, lest he hale
thee to the _Judge_, and the _Judge_ deliver thee to the _Officer_,
_&c._ The _Pleader_ was called ‎‏בעל ריב‏‎ _Baal rib_, he stood on the
_right hand_ of the party cited into the _Court_, whether he pleaded
for or against him. The _Lord_ shall stand on the right hand of the
poor, to save him from those that judge his soul, _Psa. 109. 31._ that
is, _The Lord shall plead his cause_. And _Satan_ stood at the _right
hand of_ Joshua, _Zach. 3. 1._ that is _to accuse him, or plead against
him_. When S. _John_ speaking, _If any man sin, we have an Advocate_,
_1 John 2. 1._ he alludeth unto this _Baalrib_, or _Pleader_. The
_Judges_, they examined and determin’d matters and after examination,
sentence was pronounced by the _Judge_ in this manner: _Tu N. justus,
Tu. N. reus_, _Thou ~Simon~ art just: Thou ~Reuben~ art guilty_: at the
pronunciation of which the guilty person was dragged to the place of
execution. _When he shall be judged, let him be condemned_, _Ps. 109.
7._ the _Hebrew_ is, _Let him go out wicked_.

    [532] _Moses Kotsen. in Sanhedrim._

    [533] _Drus. præter. Matth. 25._

    [534] _Moses Kotsen. in Sanhedrim._

The manner of sentencing persons, varied in most Countries. The _Jews_
by a simple pronunciation of sentence, both absolved men, and condemned
them. The _Romans_[535] gave sentence by calling in Tables into a
certain box or urne prepared for the purpose: if they absolved any,
they wrote the letter _A_ in the table, it being the first letter of
_Absolvo_: if they would condemn any, they cast in a table with _C_
written in it, which is the first letter of _Condemno_: if the matter
were hard to determine, they would cast in other tables with _N L_,
signifying _Non Liquet_. The _Græcians_[536] in like manner used three
letters: Θ was a token of _condemnation_, which occasioned that of

    _Et potis es nigrum, vitio præfigere Theta._

    [535] _Rosin. Antiq. Rom. l. 9. c. 25._

    [536] _Eras. Adag. Θ præfig._

Τ was a token of _absolution_; Α, of _ampliation_. Others signified
_condemnation_, by giving _a black stone_; and _absolution_ by giving a
_white stone_.

    _Mos erat antiquis, niveis atrisque lapillis,_
    _Hos damnare reos, illos absolvere culpa._

                            _Ovid. Metamorph. 15._

To this there seemeth to be allusion, _Rev. 2. 17._ To him who
overcometh I will give a _white stone_; that is, I will absolve and
acquit him in the day of judgement.

Note these three phrases, ἀναστῆναι είς κρίσιν, _To rise up to
judgment_; ἀναστῆναι ἐν κρίσει, _To rise up in judgment_; ἐξελθεῖν
καταδεδικασμένος, _To depart guilty_. The first is applied to the
_Judge_ in the execution of Justice, _When God rose up to Judge_,
_Psalm 76. 10._ that is, to _execute judgement_. The second is applied
_to the party prevailing in judgment_. _The men of Nineveh shall
rise up in judgement with this generation_, _Mat. 12. 41._ that is,
_shall be justified before this generation_. The last is applied to
the _party condemned_, _Psal. 109. 7._ _Let him depart guilty or
wicked: the ungodly shall not stand in judgment_, _Psal. 1._ The
like phrases were in use among the _Romans_, _Stare in Senatu_, to
prevail in the _Senate_; _Causa cadere_, _to be cast in ones suit_.
But these phrases among the _Romans_ I think to have been taken out
of their Fence-Schools, where the set posture of the body, by which a
man prepareth himself to fight and grapple with his enemy, is termed
_Status_, or _Gradus_, as _cedere de Statu_, _to give back_; _Gradum
vel statum servare_, _to keep one’s standing_: and from thence have
those elegancies been translated into places of Judgment.


_The number of their Civil Courts._

Their Civil Courts were two, ‎‏סנהדרים גדולה‏‎ _Sanhedrim gedola_, _the
great Consistory_, or _Supreme Senate_, ‎‏סנהדרים קטנה‏‎ _Sanhedrim
Ketanna_, _the lesser and inferiour Court_. Thus I find them divided
generally by the _Rabbins_: And although the latter was subdivided,
as will after appear; yet in old time there were onely two first
branches: which division our _Saviour Christ_ seemeth to have followed,
calling the lesser Court κρίσιν, by the name of _Judgement_: the
greater συνέδριον, by the name of a _Counsel_. Whosoever is angry with
his brother unadvisedly, shall be culpable of _Judgement_. Whosoever
saith unto his brother _Raca_, shall be worthy to be punished by the
_Counsel_: Whosoever shall say _Fool_, shall be worthy to be punished
with the _fire of Gehenna_, _Mat. 5. 22._ In which words, as there is a
_gradation of sin_, 1. _Anger_, a passion of the mind. 2. _Raca_,[537]
scornful, or slighting speech, as _Tut, Tush, &c._ 3. _Fool_,
reproachful and opprobrious names: so likewise there is a _gradation
of punishment_. 1. _Judgement_, a lesser Court. 2. _Councel_, the
greater Court. 3. The _fire of Gehenna_: Now _Gehenna_ was a Valley,
terrible for two sorts of fires in it: First, for that wherein men
burnt their children unto _Moloch_.[538] Secondly, for another fire
there continually burning, to consume the dead carcasses, and filth of
_Jerusalem_; partly for the terribleness of the first, and partly for
the contemptibleness of the place by reason of the second fire, it was
a _type of hell fire it self_. We may resolve that text thus, _anger_
deserved the punishments of the _lesser Court_; _Raca_, the punishments
of the _greater_: and _Fool_ deserved punishments beyond all Courts,
even the _fire of_ Gehenna.

    [537] _Raca non grandis alicujus est sermo convitii, sed magis
    è contemptu natum est, & neglectu dicentis Chrysost. homil. 16.
    in Mat._

    [538] _David Kimchi. Ps. 27. 13._

The _greater Court_, by way of excellency, was called the _Sanhedrim_,
which word came from the _Greek_, συνέδριον, _a place of Judgement_:
It was also called ‎‏בית דין‏‎ _Beth din_, _the house of Judgment_.[539]
It was distinguished from the other _Courts_; first, in respect of the
number of the _Judges_, which were _seventy one_, according to the
command of _God_ to _Moses_ at their first institution, _Numb. 11. 16._
_Gather unto me ~seventy~ men of the ~Elders~ of ~Israel~, whom thou
knowest that they are the ~Elders~ of the people, the Governours over
them, and bring them unto the Tabernacle of the Congregation, and let
them stand there with thee_. From the latter words of this Text, it
is observed, that there were _seventy_ besides _Moses_; and therefore
after his decease they alwaies chose one _chief Judge_ in his room,
not reckoning him among the _seventy_; they called him _Nasi_, the
_Prince_ or _chief over the seventy_. These _seventy_ are thought[540]
to be chosen _six_ out of every _Tribe_, save the _Tribe of Levi_,
out of which only _four_ were chosen. Others think[541] the manner of
their choice was thus; six of every Tribe had their names written in
little scrolls of paper: in _seventy_ of these scrolls was written ‎‏זקן‏‎
_Zaken_, _Senex_, _an Elder_, in the two other ‎‏חלק‏‎ _Cheleck_, _pars_,
_A part_; these scrolls they put into a pitcher or urn, and those that
pluck’d out a scroll wherein _Elder_ was written, were counted amongst
the number of the _Judges_; those that pluck’d out the other scrolls,
in which a _Part_ was written, they were rejected, _Numb. 11. 26._ The
senior of these _seventy_ was called ‎‏אב בית דין‏‎ _Ab beth din_, the
_Father of the Judgment Hall_. The whole Set[542] or _Bench of Judges_,
sate in manner of an half circle, the _Nasi_ sitting in the midst
above the rest, the other sitting round about beneath, in such manner
that the _Father of the Judgement Hall_ sate next to the _Nasi_ on the
right hand. The _lesser Consistory_ was subdivided into two sorts,
one consisted of _twenty three Aldermen_, and two such _Consistories_
there were in _Jerusalem_, the one at the _door of the Court before
the Temple_, the other at the _door of the Mountain of the Temple_:
yea, in every City throughout _Israel_ where there were sixscore
housholders, such a Consistory was erected: the other sort of _lesser
Courts_ consisted only of a _Triumvirate_, _three Aldermen_; and this
was erected in the lesser Cities, which had not the number of sixscore

    [539] _Moses Kotsen. fol. 186. col. 2._

    [540] _Fran. Junius. Analyt. expos. Num. 11._

    [541] _Solom. Jarchi._

    [542] _Moses Kot. f. 185. col. 2._

The second difference[543] between the _greater Consistory_ and the
_lesser_, was in respect of the place. The _seventy_ sate only at
_Jerusalem_, within the _Court of the Temple_, in a certain house
called ‎‏לשכת הגזית‏‎ _Lischath hegazith_, _the paved Chamber_, because of
the curious cut stones wherewith it was _paved_: by the _Greeks_ it was
called λιθόστρωτον, the _Pavement_. _Pilate_ sat down in the Judgement
Seat, in a place called the _Pavement_, _John 19. 13._ The other
Consistory sate all in the _gates of the Cities_. Now because the gates
of the City are the strength thereof, and in their gates their Judges
sate: Hence is that, _Mat. 16. 18._ _The gates of Hell_ shall not
overcome it, that is, neither the _strength_ nor _policy_ of _Satan_.

    [543] _Moses Kotsen. ibid._

_Lastly_, they differed in respect of their _Power_ and _Authority_:
the _Consistory of seventy_ received _appeals_ from the other
_inferiour Courts_,[544] from that there was no appeal: Again, the
_Consistory of three_ sate not on life and death, but onely on petty
matters, as whipping, pecuniary controversies, and such like; the other
of twenty three sate on life and death, but with a restrained power;
they had not authority to judge an _whole tribe, the High-priest, false
Prophets_, and other such weighty matters: this belonged only to the
_seventy in Jerusalem_:[545] Hence is that, _O Jerusalem, Jerusalem,
which killest the Prophets_, _Luk. 3. 34._ The means how they tryed
the false _Prophet_ was thus; they observed the judgements which he
threatned, and the _good_ which he prophesied to a place: if the
judgements took not effect, this did not argue him a _false Prophet_,
because God was merciful, as in the case of _Hezekiah_, and the people
might repent, as the _Ninivites_ did: but if he prophesied _good_, and
that came not to pass, they judged him a _false Prophet_. The ground
of this tryal they make the words of _Jeremiah the Prophet, which
prophesied of peace when the word of the Lord shall come to pass, then
shall the Prophet be known that the Lord hath truly sent him_, _Jer.
28. 9._

    [544] _Deut. 17. 8._

    [545] _Cunæus de rep. Hebr. p. 109._

The _Colledge_ or company of these seventy, exercised judgment, not
only under the _Kings_ and _Judges_,[546] but their authority continued
in times of vacancies, when there was neither _Judge_ nor _King_ to
rule _Israel_, and it continued until[547] _Herod_ put them down, and
destroyed them, to secure himself of the Kingdome.

    [546] _P. Galat. l. 4. cap. 5._

    [547] _Joseph. Antiq. l. 14. c. 17._

Here some may object, that there were no such _Courts_, or their
liberty much infringed in _Samuels time_: for he went from year to year
in circuit to _Bethel_, and _Gilgal_, and _Mizpeh_, _and judged Israel
in all those places_, _1 Sam. 7. 16._ To which, I take it, we may say,
that as the _Emperours_ of _Rome_ had power to ride Circuits, and keep
Assises, which was done without any infringement of the liberties of
their _Senate_: So the _Kings_ and _Judges_ in _Israel_ had the like
power, and yet the authority of their Courts stood firm. This kind of
judging by keeping Assises, the _Romans_ termed βουλὴν κυρίαν, the
other βουλὴν σύγκλητον.


_Properties required in Judges, and the manner of their election._

The Law of _God_ required these _properties_ in _Judges_: 1. _Wisdom._
2. _Understanding._ 3. _Integrity._ 4. _Courage._ _Deut. 1. 13._ Others
are reckoned, _Exod. 18. 21._ namely, 5. _The fear of God._ 6. _Love of
Truth._ 7. _Hating of coveteousness_: to these may be added the eighth,
namely, _having no respect of persons_, _Deut. 1. 17._ These two
last especially, the _Heathens_ required in their Judges: whence the
_Thebans_[548] painted _Justice without hands, and without eyes_, to
intimate that Judges should receive no gifts, nor be swayed with sight
of persons.

    [548] _Plut. de Iside._

The _Jews_[549] added many more. 1. _That they should be free from
all blemish of body._ 2. _That they should be skilled in the seventy
Languages, to the intent that they might not need an Interpreter in
the hearing of Causes._ 3. _That they should not be far stricken in
years; which likewise was required by the Romans in their Judges, as
appeareth by that common adage, Sexagenarius de ponte._ 4. _That they
should be no Eunuchs, because such commonly were cruel._ 5. _That they
should be Fathers of children, which they thought was a special motive
to mercy._ 6. _That they should be skilful in Magick, without the
knowledge of which, they were not able to judge of Magicians._

    [549] _Moses Kotsen. in Sanhedrim._

That there might be a sufficient supply of able men to succeed in the
room of the _Judges_ dying, there sate[550] three benches of others
beneath, whom they called[551] _Talmidi Chacamim_, _Scholars of the
wise men_: out of these they made their Election, and two of these
always accompanied the condemned person to the place of execution.

    [550] _Moses Kotsen. ibid._

    [551] _‎‏תלמידי חכמים‏‎ Discipuli sapientum._

Their _Inauguration of Judges was two fold_: At first, by _imposition
of hands_ upon the head of the party, after the example of _Moses_
laying hands on _Joshua_: this _imposition of hands_ was not held
lawful,[552] except it were in the presence of five or three _Judges_
at the least. Afterwards, it was by _saying a certain verse_[553] Lo,
_thou art associated, and power is given thee to judge of penalties_.
Hence is that saying of _Galatinus_ out of the _Talmud_, _Institutio
Judicum, aut manu fiebat, aut nomine tantum_.

    [552] _Petr. Galatin. lib. 4. cap. 5._

    [553] _‎‏הרי את סמוך ויש לך רשות לדון אפילו דיני קנסות‏‎ Maimon. in
    Sanhedrin, c. 4._

Observe here, that _Samuc_, which I render _associated_, doth not
alwayes signifie a man licensed to the discharge of some publik office
by the _imposition of hands_; for here it is applied to those who were
_not admitted by imposition of hands_. Now the reason why these words
_Semica_, and _Semicuth_, are generally by all Expositors, _Jews_ and
_Christians_, translated the _imposition of hands_, is, because this
solemn kind of licensing, termed _Semica_, or _Semicuth_, was in old
time used only towards two sorts of men in their admission, towards
_Rabbies_ and towards _Judges_; which kind of permission, because
it was not performed towards either of them without this ceremony
of _imposing hands_: hence these two words have been translated the
_imposition of hands_; whereas properly they signifie nothing else,
but _an association, an approximation, or conjoyning of one into the
same corporation or company, of which he that doth associate and give
admission is a member_.


_Ceremonies common in all capital Judgments._

In their greater punishments, which deprived of life, some _ceremonies_
were _common_ to them all.

First, _The Judges were to use deliberation in all causes_, but
especially in matters capital. There were four causes, saith _Jonathan_
in his _Targum_,[554] that came before _Moses_ ( he mentioneth none
in particular, but what they were, we shall presently learn out
of other records.) _Two_ of these were not _weighty_; in these he
_hastened_: _Two more material_, concerning life and death; in these he
delayed.[555] _Cæterum tam de his quam de illis dicebat, Non audivi_;
_Of both the lighter and weightier causes, ~Moses~ said I have not
heard_, to wit, from the _Lord:_ to shew, that a deliberation and
consultation as it were with God, ought to be in all _judgements_,
before sentence be pronounced. These four causes are named in other
_Records_:[556] The _two lightest are_, 1. _The matter of uncleanness
debarring the people from the Passover_, _Num. 9. 9._ Secondly, _the
case of ~Zelophehads~ daughters_, _Num. 36. 10._ _The 2 weightier
are_, 1. _The cause of the blasphemer_, _Lev. 24. 13._ _Secondly, The
case of him that gathered Sticks on the Sabbath_, _Numb. 15. 35._ In
all these judgments there is, _The Lord spake unto Moses_. And in the
first, which was counted among the lighter causes (because it was not
on life and death) even there doth _Moses_ in a solemn manner bespeak
the people to stand still, _Et ego audiam_, _And I will hear what the
Lord will command_. Notwithstanding, _wilful delays in Justice_ maketh
the _Judge unrighteous_. In that _unrighteous Judge_, from whom the
Widow wrested sentence by importunity; we read not of any other fault
in him, but delay, _Luke 18. 6._

    [554] _Targum Jonath. Num. 9. 8._

    [555] _‎‏ובאלין ובאלין אמר משת לא שמעית‏‎ Jonath._

    [556] _Targum. Hierosol. Num. 9. 8._

_Secondly_, The party accused was placed on some _high place_, from
whence he might be seen and heard of all the people: _Set Naboth_, _in
capite populi_, _on high among the people_, _1 Kings 21. 9._

_Thirdly_,[557] The _Judges_ and the _Witnesses_ did (when sentence was
pronounced) put their hands upon the condemned persons head, and said;
_Sanguis tuus super caput tuum_, _Thy blood be upon thine own head_:
unto this the people had reference, saying, _His blood be on us, and on
our children_, _Mat. 27. 25._

    [557] _Drus. præteri. Matth. 27._

_Fourthly_, The place of execution was _without the gates_, the
malefactors were had thither by _two Executioners_, termed by the
_Rabbines_[558] ‎‏חזני הכנסת‏‎ _Chazani hacceneseth_, _Spectators of the
Congregation_, which is a _periphrasis_ of those whom S. _Mark_ calleth
σπεκουλάτωρες, _Mark 6. 27._ which word, though it be used by the
_Greeks_ and _Chaldee Paraphrasts_,[559] yet it is a meer _Latine_,
derived _à speculando_; because in the _Court_ the _Executioners_ were
only Spectators, to behold and attend what the _Judges_ would command

    [558] _Moses Kotsen. in Sanhedrim. It. Talmud. it. Maccoth. cap. 3. in

    [559] _‎‏ספוקל טריא‏‎ Uziel. & Targum Hierosol. Gen. 37. 36._

_Fifthly_, When the malefactor was led to execution, a _publick cryer_
went before,[560] saying, _Such a one is going to be punisht with such
a death, because he hath committed such, or such an offence, at such a
time, in such a place; and these ~N. N.~ are witnesses thereof: If any
therefore knoweth any thing which may do him good, let him come and
make it known_. For this purpose one was appointed to stand at the door
of the Consistory, with an handkerchief or linnen cloth in his hand,
that if any person should come for his defence, he at the door swinged
about his handkerchief, upon the sight whereof, another standing in
readiness a pretty distance off with an horse, hastened and called back
the condemned person: yea, if the Malefactor had any further plea for
his own purgation, he might come back four or five times, except he
spake vainly; for the discerning whereof, two of those whom they termed
_Scholars of the wise men_, were sent with him to observe his speech on
the way.

    [560] _Moses Kotsen. in loco superius citato._

_Sixthly_, He was exhorted to _confess_, that he might have his portion
in the world to come: Thus _Joshua_ exhorted _Achan_, _Josh. 7. 19._
_My son, give I pray thee glory unto the Lord God of Israel, and make
confession unto him_: unto whom _Achan_ answered, _vers. 20._ _Indeed I
have sinned against the Lord God of Israel, and thus have I done_.

_Seventhly_, In the time of execution, they gave the Malefactor
_Granum thuris in calice vini_, _A grain of Frankincense in a cup of
Wine_:[561] this they did give to cause a giddiness in the condemned
persons head, that thereby he might be less sensible of the pain.
St. _Mark_ calleth this cup ἐσμυρνισμένον οἶνον, _Wine mingled with
Myrrhe_, Mark 15. 23. This was done after the _manner of the Jews_,
but the _Souldiers in mockery_ mingled Vinegar and Gall with it, _Mat.
27. 34._ As likewise they gave him a second cup in _derision_, when
they took a spunge, and filled it with Vinegar, and put it on a reed,
_Matth. 27. 48._ S. _Mark_ in the first cup mentioneth the custome
of the _Jews_, which in it self had some shew of compassion; for the
ground of this custom was taken from that, _Prov. 31. 6._ _Give strong
drink unto him that is ready to perish_. S. _Matthew_ mentioneth onely
their wicked mixture, contrary to the _receiv’d custom_; so that one
Evangelist must expound the other. This first _cup_ was so usually
given before execution, that the word _Calix_ _a cup_, is sometimes in
the Scripture put for _death it self_. _Father, if it may be, let this
cup pass from me._

    [561] _‎‏קורט לבונה בכוס של יין‏‎ Corat. lebona becorschel iaijn
    Maimon. in Sanhedrin cap. 13. It. Moses Kotsen. in Sanhedrim._

Lastly,[562] The _Tree_ whereon a man was hanged, and the _Stone_
wherewith he was stoned, and the _Sword_ wherewith he was beheaded,
and the _Napkin_ wherewith he was strangled, they were all buried,
that there might be no evil memorial of such a one, to say: _This is
the Tree, this is the Sword, this is the Stone, this is the Napkin,
whereon, or wherewith, such an one was executed_.

    [562] _Casaub. exercit. p. 654. ex Maimonid._


_Their capital punishments._

The _Jews_ of old had only _four sorts of death_[563] in use among
them. 1. _Lapidatio_,[564] stoning. 2. _Combustio_,[565] burning. 3.
_Decollatio_,[566] beheading. 4. _Suffocatio_,[567] strangling. Of
these, _stoning was counted the most grievous, burning worse than
beheading, beheading worse than strangling, and strangling was the
easiest of all_.

    [563] _Paraphrast. Cald. Ruth. 1. 17. Mikkotsi. fol. 188. col. 3._

    [564] _‎‏סקילה‏‎ Sekila, Lapidatio._

    [565] _‎‏שריפה‏‎ Sheripha, combustio._

    [566] _‎‏הרג‏‎ Hereg. decollatio._

    [567] _‎‏חנק‏‎ Chenek. Suffocatio._

They have a rule,[568] that wheresoever the Scripture saith of an
offender, _Morte plectetur_, _he shall be punish’d with death_, not
expressing the kind of death, there it ought to be interpreted of
_Strangling_. For example, the Law saith of the Adulterer, _Lev. 20.
19._ _Morte plectatur_, _let him be punished with death_: because the
kind of death is not here mentioned, they interpret it _strangling_.
The reason of this rule is, because strangling was the easiest death of
the four; and where the Law determineth not the punishment, there they
say, _Ampliandi favores_, The favourablest exposition is to be given.

    [568] _‎‏כל מיתה האמורה בתורה סתם חנק היא‏‎ Omnis mors quæ
    absolutè in lege usurpatur, strangulatio est. R. Solom. Exod.
    21. 16._

The rule is not generally true; for in former times _Adultery was
punish’d with stoning_. I will judge thee after the manner of them that
are _Harlots_, saith the _Lord_, _Ezek. 16. 38._ And in the fortieth
verse the judgment is named, _They shall stone thee with stones_:
likewise the _Scribes_ and _Pharisees_ said unto Christ, _Moses_ in the
Law commanded us, that such should be stoned, _John 8._

Before we treat in particular of these four punishments it may be
questioned, _Whether the Jews had any power to judge of life and death,
at that time when they crucified our blessed Saviour?_ The _Jews said
to ~Pilate~, Is it not lawful for us to put any man to death_; _Joh.
18. 31._ Latter _Jews_ say[569] that _all power of capital punishments
was taken from them forty years before the destruction of the second
Temple_, and of this opinion are many _Divines_.

    [569] _Moses Kotsen. in Sanhedrim._

_Answer._ First, the _Jews_ speech unto _Pilate_, that it was not
lawful for them to put any man to death, cannot be understood, as if
they should have said, we have no power to put any man to death; for
admit, that power in criminals were, in the _general_, taken from them,
yet in this _particular_ power was permitted them at that time from
_Pilate_, _Take ye him, and judge him according to your Law_, _Joh. 18.
31._ Neither can it be said, that their Law could not condemn him, if
he had been a transgressor thereof; or that they had not out of their
law to object against him: for they say, _They had a law, and by their
law he ought to die_, _John 19. 7._ It was not then want of _Power_,
but the _holiness of that time_, made them say _it was unlawful_.
For they held it _unlawful_ upon their _days of preparation_ to sit
on life and death, as hath been shewn in the _Chapter of translating
Feasts_. And _Friday_, on which our _Saviour_ was condemned, was the
_preparation of their Sabbath_.

_Secondly_, in the questions, whether power of judging capital crimes
were taken from them by the _Romans_? We are to distinguish between
_crimes_. _Some crimes were transgressions of the Romans law_, as
theft, murder, robberies, _&c._ power of judging in these was taken
from them: _other crimes were transgressions only against the law of
Moses_, as blasphemy, and the like: in these, power of judging seemeth
to have remained with them. When _Paul_ was brought by the _Jews_
before _Gallio_, _Gallio_ said unto them, if it were a matter of
_wrong_ or _wicked lewdness_, O ye _Jews_, reason would, that I should
bear with you: but if it be a _question of words_, and _names of your
law_, look ye to it, _Acts 18. 14._

In handling these four punishments: First observe the _offenders_, whom
the _Jews_ make liable to each punishment, and then the _manner of the

The _persons_ to be _stoned_ were _eighteen_.[570] 1. _He that lieth
with his own mother_, 2. _Or with his fathers wife_, 3. _Or with his
daughter-in-law_, 4. _Or with a betrothed maid_, 4. _Or with the male_,
6. _Or with the beast_. 7. _The woman that lieth down to a beast._
8. _The blasphemer._ 9. _He that worshippeth an Idol._ 10. _He that
offereth of his seed to Moloch._ 11. _He that hath a familiar spirit._
12. _The Wizard._ 13. _The private enticer to Idolatry._ 14. _The
publique withdrawer to Idolatry._ 15. _The Witch._ 16. _The prophaner
of the Sabbath._ 17. _He that curseth his Father or his Mother._ 18.
_The Rebellious Son._ The _manner of stoning_ was thus: The offender
was led to a place without the gates, two cubits high, his hands being
bound: from hence one of the Witnesses tumbled him by a stroke upon
the loins; if that killed him not, the Witnesses lifted up a stone,
being the weight of two men, which chiefly the other Witnesse cast upon
him; if that killed him not, _all Israel threw stones upon him_. _The
hands of the Witnesses shall be first upon him to put him to death, and
afterwards the hands of all the people_, _Deut. 17. 7._

    [570] _Moses Kotsen. fol. 188. col. 4._

Hence the opinion of _R. Akiba_[571] is commonly received, that such
an Idolater (it holdeth in all others condemned to this death) was
reserved until one of the common feasts, at which _all the multitude of
Israel came to Jerusalem_. The party thus executed being quite dead,
was afterward for greater ignominy hanged on a tree, till towards the
_Sun-set_, at which time he and the tree were both buried.

    [571] _Paul. Fagius. Deut. 17. 7._

Malefactors adjudged to _burning_ were _ten_:[572] 1. _The Priests
daughter which committed whoredome._ 2. _He which lieth with his
own daughter._ 3. _Or with his daughters daughter._ 4. _Or with his
sons daughter._ 5. _Or with his wives daughter._ 6. _Or with her
sons daughter._ 7. _Or with her daughters daughter._ 8. _Or with his
Mother-in-law._ 9. _Or with the Mother of his Mother-in-law._ 10. _Or
with the Mother of his Father-in-law._

    [572] _Moses Kotsen. loco superius citato._

The _manner of burning_ was _two fold_. Some they burnt with wood
and faggots; this was termed[573] by them _Combustio corporis_, _the
burning of the body_: Others they burnt by pouring in scalding hot lead
in at their mouths, which descending into their bowels killed them,
the bulk of their body remaining whole, and this was termed therefore
_Combustio animæ_, _the burning of their soul_. This last was most in
use, and alone described by most of their Writers.

    [573] _Rab. Levi. Levit. 20._

Malefactors condemned to _beheading_, were _of two sorts_,[574] 1. _The
Murderer_, 2. _Those of any City, who were drawn to Idolatry_. The
manner thereof is at this day in use.

    [574] _Moses Kotsen. in Sanhedrim._

Malefactors _strangled_, were six,[575] 1. _He that smiteth his father
or his mother_, 2. _He that stealeth a soul of Israel_, 3. _An Elder
which contradicteth the Consistory_, 4. _A false Prophet, and he that
prophesieth in the name of an Idol_, 5. _He that lieth with another
mans wife_, 6. _He that abuseth the body of the Priests daughter_.

    [575] _Moses Kotsen. ibid._

The manner of _strangling_ was thus. The malefactor was put in
dung up to the loins, a towel being cast about his neck; which two
Executioners, one on each side, plucked to and fro until he was dead.


_Punishments not capital._

The _lesser punishments, not capital_, in use among the _Hebrews_,
are chiefly four. 1. _Imprisonment_, 2. _Restitution_, 3. _Talio_, 4.

_Imprisonment._ Under this are comprehended the _Prison, Stocks,
Pillory, Chains, Fetters, and the like_: all which sorts of punishment,
seeing they differ very little or nothing at all from those which are
now in common use with us, they need no explication.

The _keepers of the Prison_, if they let any committed unto them
escape, were liable to the same punishment which should have been
inflicted on the party escaped. This is gatherable from that, _1 Kings
20. 39._ _Keep this man, if by any means he be missing, then shall thy
life be for his life_.

Concerning that _Liberia Custodia_, which _Drusius_[576] proveth to
have been in use among the _Romans_, I much doubt whether any such
custome were in use among the _Hebrews_. That some kind of prisoners
at _Rome_ did go abroad with a lesser kind of fetters in the day time
to their work, and so return at night to their prison, hath elsewhere
been observed by me. And[577] _Eadem catena & custodiam & militem
copulabat_, _The same chain tyed both the prisoner and the keeper_.
Observe the unusual significations of these two words, _Custodia_ a
prisoner, and _Miles_ a keeper. So that _Drusius_ delivered _Seneca_
his meaning, but not his words, when he repeats them thus: _Eadem
catena tam reum quam militem tenet_. Observe further, that the prisoner
was tyed by his _right arm_, and the _keeper_ by the _left_, because
the right arm is the stronger, and therefore justly remaineth free
rather to the _keeper_, than to the _prisoners_. Hence is that,[578]
_Tu forte leviorem in sinistra putas catenam_; because the _keeper_
tyed himself unto the same chain, not in way of punishment, but
voluntarily for the safer keeping of the _prisoner_.

    [576] _Drus. præter. 2 Tim. 1. 18._

    [577] _Senec. Epist. 5. Non in lib. de tranquil. c. 10.
    quemadmodum citato à Drusio._

    [578] _Sen. de tranquil. cap. 10._

_Restitution._ This was commanded when goods were _unjustly gotten_, or
_wrongfully detained_, _Exod. 22._ it was threefold.[579]

    [579] _Tho. Aquin. secunda secundæ q. 62._

Restitution is threefold.

    _Secundum idem_, _in identitie_, when the _very same thing_ is
    restored which is wrongfully gotten.

    _Secundum æquale_, when there is _so much for so much_ in
    quantity restored, the goods unjustly gotten being sold or lost.

    _Secundum possibile_, when restitution is made according to
    that which a man hath, not being able to satisfie the whole.

_Restitution in identitie_, was, and is principally required. Whence
it is, that if the theft, whether Ox or Sheep, were found alive upon a
man, he restored but _double_, _Exod. 22. 4._ but if they were killed
or sold, then _five Oxen_ were restored for an _Ox_, and _four sheep_
for a sheep, _Exod. 21. 1._ The _Jews_ were so precise in this kind,
that if they had built an house with a beam or piece of Timber unjustly
gotten, they would pull down the house, and restore the _same beam or
piece to the owner_.[580] From this the Prophet _Habakkuk_ doth not
much dissent: _The stone shall cry out of the wall, and the beam out of
the timber shall answer it_, _Habak. 2. 11._

    [580] _David Kimchi._

Among the _Jews_ he ought to be sold that was not of sufficient worth
to make restitution, _Exod. 22. 3._ And _Augustine_[581] saith of
Christians, _That he which doth not make restitution according to
his ability, never repented_. And, _Non remittetur peccatum, nisi
restituatur ablatum_.

    [581] _Aug. Epist. 54._

_Talio._ This was a punishment in the _same kind_, _an eye for an eye,
and a tooth for a tooth, hand for hand, and foot for foot_, Deut. 19.

_Talio_ is twofold.

    _Talio identitatis_, or _Pythagorica_, which was according to
    the letter of the Law, when the offender was punisht with the
    _loss of an eye_, for putting out another eye, _&c._

    _Talio similitudinis_, or _analogica_, which was when the
    _price of an eye_, or some proportionable mulct is paid for an
    eye put out, or any other member spoiled.

The _Hebrews_ understand[582] _Talio similitudinis_, that the _price of
a maim_ should be paid; not _Talio identitatis_, not that the offender
should be punisht with the like _maim_; because to punish like for like
_in identitie_, is in some cases impossible, as if a blind man put out
anothers eye, or one toothless strike out anothers tooth.

    [582] _Oculum pro oculo, id est, pretium oculi. Targum Jonath.
    Deut. 19. 21. It. R. Solomon. ibid._

In case of bodily maims therefore, the _Hebrew Doctors_ say,[583] that
the party offending was bound to a _five fold satisfaction_: first, for
the hurt in the loss of the member. Secondly, for the _damage_, in loss
of his labour. Thirdly, for his pain or grief arising from the wound.
Fourthly, for the _charge_ in curing it. Fifthly, for the _blemish_
or deformity thereby occasioned. _Munster_ rendreth those five
thus: _Damnum, læsio, dolor, medicina, confusio_. The _Romans_[584]
likewise had a _Talio_ in their Law, but they also gave liberty to the
offender to make choice, whether he would by way of _commutation_ pay
a proportionable mulct, or _in identitie_ suffer the like maim in his

    [583] _Vid. Munster. Exod. 21._

    [584] _A. Gellius lib. 11. cap. 1._

_Scourging._ This was _two fold_; either _Virgis_, with rods; or
_flagellis_, with scourging. This latter was more grievous than the
former, as appeareth by that _Ironical_ speech;[585] _Porcia lex virgas
ab omnium civium corpore amovit, hic misericors flagella retulit_.
Both were in use among the _Romans_, but only the latter among the
_Hebrews_. This beating or _scourging_ was commanded, _Deut. 25. 2, 3._
where the number of stripes was limited, which the _Judge_ might not
exceed. _Forty stripes_ shall he cause him to have, and _not past_.
The _Jews_ in many things laboured to seem _holy above the Law_. For
example, where the Lord commanded a _Sabbath_ to be sanctified, they
added their _Sabbatulum_, that is, they began their _Sabbath_ about
an hour sooner, and ended about an hour later than the law required:
where the Lord forbade them to _eat or drink things sacrificed to
Idols_, they prohibited _all drinking with Heathens_,[586] because it
is doubtful whether it were offered to Idols or no. The Lord commanded
them in the time of the _Passover_ to _put away leaven out of their
Houses_, they would not take the _name into their mouths_[587] all the
time of that Feast. The Lord commanded them to abstain from _eating
Swines flesh_; they would not so much as name it, but in their common
talk[588] would call a _Sow_ ‎‏דבר אחר‏‎ _Dabar Acher_, _Another thing_.
In like manner the Lord commanded chief Malefactors which deserved
beating, to be punisht with _forty stripes_; they in their greatest
corrections would give but _thirty nine_. _Of the_ Jews _five times
received I forty stripes save one_, _2 Cor. 11. 24._ For this purpose
the _scourge_ consisted of _three thongs_, so that at each blow he
received _three stripes_; and in their greatest corrections were given
_thirteen blows_, that is, _forty stripes save one_. Whether these
thongs were made[589] the one of a Bulls hide, the other of an Asses
hide, or all three of a Calves,[590] the matter is not material, both
opinions have their Authors.

    [585] _Cic. pro Rabirio._

    [586] _Thisbites in ‎‏נסך‏‎_

    [587] _Thisbites in ‎‏דבר‏‎_

    [588] _Elias Thisbit. ibid._

    [589] _Talmud. lib. Maccoth. cap. 3. in Mischna._

    [590] _Baalturim. vid. Drus. 2 Cor. 10. 24._

The manner of correcting such, was thus. The malefactor had both his
hands tyed to _a post_, one cubit and half high, so that his body
_bowed upon it_. The _Judge_ shall cause him to _bow down_, _Deut.
25. 2._ This _post_ or _stake_ on which the Malefactor leaned in time
of whipping, was termed ‎‏עמוד‏‎ _Gnammud_, _Columna_, _a Pillar_. His
cloaths were plucked off from him downward unto the thighs, and this
was done[591] either by _renting_ or _tearing_ of them. The _Governours
rent_ Paul _and_ Silas _their cloaths, and commanded them to be beaten
with rods_, _Acts 16. 22._

    [591] _Talmud, ibid._

That the _Beadle_ should inflict a number of stripes proportionable
unto the transgression, this correction was performed in the _sight of
the Judge_. The _Judge_ shall cause him to be beaten _before his face_,
_Deut. 25. 2._ The _chief Judge of the three_, during the time of the
correction, did either read or recite _Deut. 28. 58, 59._[592] _If thou
wilt not keep, and do all the words of this law_, &c. _Then the Lord
will make thy plagues wonderful_, &c. The _second Judge_ he numbred the
stripes, and the _third_ he bade the _Beadle smite_. The _chief Judge_
concluded all, saying, _Yet he being merciful forgave their iniquity_,
&c. _Psal. 78. 38._

    [592] _Talmud. ibid._

Sometimes in notorious offences, to augment the pains, they tyed
certain huccle-bones or plummets of lead, or sharp thorns to the end
of the thongs, and such scourges the Greeks termed[593] ἀστραγαλωτὰς
μάστιγας _Flagra taxillata_ in the Scripture they are termed[594]
_Scorpions_. My father hath chastised you with _rods_, but I will
correct you with _Scorpions_, _1 King. 12. 12._

    [593] _Eustathius. Item. Athenæus lib. 4._

    [594] _Tholosan. synt. jur. univers. l. 31._


_Punishments borrowed from other Nations._

The punishments borrowed from other Nations are principally six: 1.
_Crux_, _The death on the Cross_. 2. _Serrâ dissectio_, _the cutting
one asunder with a saw_. 3. _Damnatio ad bestias_, _The committing
one to fight for his life with wild beasts_. 4. τροχὸς, _the wheel_.
5. καταποντισμὸς, _Drowning one in the sea_. 6. τυμπανισμὸς, _Beating
one to death with cudgels_. The first and the third were meerly _Roman
punishments_; the second was likewise used by the _Romans_, but whether
originally taken from them is doubtful: the fourth and the last were
meerly _Greek punishments_; the fifth was for the substance in use
among _Hebrews_, _Greeks_ and _Romans_, but in the manner of drowning
them, they differed. It will be needful to speak somewhat of all these.

1. _Crux._ This word is sometimes applied to _any tree or stake on
which a man is tortured to death_, but most properly it is applied
to a _frame of wood consisting of two pieces of timber compacted
cross-wise_. The first is termed _Crux simplex_, the last _Crux
compacta_. This latter is threefold. 1. _Decussata._ 2. _Commissa._ 3.

_Crux decussata._ This was made of two equal pieces of timber obliquely
crossing one the other in the middle, after the manner of the _Roman_
X, and thence it is called _decussata_.[595] _Decussare, est per medium
secare. Veluti si duæ regulæ concurrant ad speciem literæ_ X, _quæ
figura est crucis._ This kind of cross is by the common people termed
_Crux Andræana_, Saint _Andrews-cross_, because on such an one he is
reported to have been crucified.

    [595] _Hieron. in Jerem. c. 31._

_Crux commissa._ This was, when a piece of timber erected, was joyned
in the middle to a traverse, of over-thwart top; somewhat shorter
than the piece erect, in manner of a _Roman_ T. This is called _Crux
Antoniana_, S. _Anthony his Cross_, because he is often painted with
such a _Cross_.

_Crux immissa._ This was when a short traverse somewhat obliquely
crossed the stake erect, not quite in the middle, as _Crux decussata_,
nor quite on the top as _Crux commissa_, but near the top, in this
manner †. This is thought[596] to have been _Crux Christi_, _the Cross
on which our Saviour Christ suffered_.

    [596] _Lipsius de cruce lib. 10. cap. 10._

The _Ceremonies_ used by the _Romans_ towards those whom they crucified
were these: First, they _scourged_ them, and sometimes tyed them to a
_Piller_ in time of scourging. _Artemidorus_[597] is clear in this,
Προσδεθεὶς κίονι, πολλὰς ἔλαβε πληγὰς, that is, being tyed to the
_Piller_, he received many stripes. _Plautus[598] is thought to have
alluded_ to the same.

    _------Abducite hunc_
    _Intro, atque adstringite ad columnam fortiter._

    [597] _Joseph. excid. lib. 5. cap. 32. Philo contra Flaccum.
    It. Liv. lib. 1._

    [598] _Plaut. Bacch._

The ancient _Fathers_[599] report that our _Saviour_ was whipt thus
_ad columnam_: but the Scripture is silent, both touching the place
and manner of this whipping, only that he was whipt is testified. _He
scourged Jesus_, and delivered him to be crucified, _Mat. 27. 26._

    [599] _Prudentius; Hieron. Beda vid. Lip. de cruce, lib. 2. cap. 4._

_Secondly_, They caused them to _bear their own Cross_,[600] _Malefici
cùm ad supplicium educuntur, quisq; suum effert crucem_. Thus _Christ
bore his own Cross_, _John 19. 17._ To this there is allusion, _He that
taketh not his Cross, and followeth after me, he is not worthy of me_,
_Mat. 10. 38._

    [600] _Plutarch. de sera num. vind._

_Thirdly_,[601] That the equity of the proceeding might clearly appear,
the cause of the punishment was written in a table, and so carried
before the condemned person; or else it was proclamed by a publick
Cryer. This cause was termed by the _Romans_ commonly _Titulus_, by
some[602] it is called _Elegium_. Thus Pilate _wrote in Hebrew, Greek,
and Latine, Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews_.

    [601] _Euseb. Eccl. hist. lib. 5. cap. 1. It. Suet. Domit. cap. 10._

    [602] _Tertul. Apol. cap. 2. Sueton. in Calig._

_Fourthly_,[603] They _pluckt off their cloaths_ from such as were to
be crucified. Thus _Christ suffered naked_.

    [603] _Artemidor. l. 2. c. 58._

_Serra dissectio_, _A sawing one in sunder_. They sawed them from the
head downward. The _Romans_[604] they used this kind of punishment, so
likewise did the _Hebrews_. Thus _Manasses_ is thought to have punisht
the _Prophet Isaiah_, and the Apostle to have alluded unto it, _They
were sawn a-sunder_, _Heb. 11. 37._

    [604] _Sueton. in Calig. cap. 27._

_Damnatio ad bestias._ Those who were condemned to wild beasts, are
properly termed _Bestiarii_. Whether S. _Paul_ did, according to the
letter, fight with beasts at _Ephesus_, _1 Cor. 15. 32._ is much
controversed. Some[605] understand by _Beasts_, _Demetrius_, and others
that opposed him at _Ephesus_, others[606] more probably understand
the word _literally_. And this kind of punishment was commonly
exercised against _Christians_ in the _Primitive Church_, insomuch
that the _Heathens_ imputing the cause of all publick calamities unto
the _Christians_, would call out,[607] _Christianos ad Leones!_ _Let
the Christians be haled to Lyons_: yea, the litteral interpretation
of the words, is a stronger argument that Saint _Paul_ believed the
Resurrection (which is the scope of the text) than to understand the
words of a metaphorical fight, against the enemies of his doctrine.

    [605] _Theophylact. Anselm._

    [606] _Chrysostom. Ambros. & alii._

    [607] _Tertullian. Apol. cap. 40._

Τροχὸς, _The Wheel_: A wise _King_ bringeth the _wheel_ over the
wicked, _Prov. 20. 26._ I take the words to imply no more but this,
that _as the wheel turneth round, so by the wisdom of a King the
mischief intended by wicked men, is brought upon their own head_.
That hereby should be understood, the grinding of wicked men under a
cart-wheel, as the husband brake some sort of grain under the wheel,
is the meer conceipt of Expositors on this place; for no Records make
mention of any such punishment in use among the _Jews_. Among the
_Greeks_ there was a punishment went under this name:[608] it was
called τροχὸς, A _Wheel_, not because a wheel was _brought over the
wicked_, but because they bound fast the offender to the _spokes of a
wheel_, and there scourged him, to inforce a confession.

    [608] _Ἐπὶ τοῦ τροχοῦ γ’ ἕλκοιτο μαστιγούμενος, Aristoph. in
    Iren. De eadem pœna loquuntur Demosth. 3. in Aphob. & Suidas._

Καταποντισμὸς, _Drowning in the Sea_. This was in use among many
Nations, but the manner differed. The _Romans_[609] they sewed up a
Parricide into a leather budget, sewing up together with him into the
same budget, _a Serpent_, _a Cock_, and _an Ape_, and so cast them
all into the Sea. The _Grecians_[610] when they judged any to this
kind of punishment, they wrapt him up in lead. The _Hebrews_ tyed a
milstone about his neck. Thus, in respect of the manner those are to be
understood, who say,[611] this kind of punishment was peculiar to the

    [609] _Senec. lib. 5. controv. 4. Juvenal Satyr 8. Modestus,
    Digest. l. 48. ad legem Pomp. de parric. vid. Cæl. Rhod. l. 11.
    c. 21._

    [610] _Athenæus l. 14._

    [611] _Hier. Mat. 18. 6._

Τυμπανισμὸς. It is rendred by the general name of _torturing_, _Heb.
11. 35._ _2 Mac. 6. 19._ But the word signifieth a special kind
of torturing, by beating one with cudgels unto death. It hath its
denomination from τύμπανον, which signifieth a _Drum_ usually: and
hence some[612] have parallel’d this torture with that among the
_Romans_ termed _Equuleus_; as if the person thus tortured, were rackt,
and stretched out in manner of a _drum head_: but it signifieth
also a _drum stick_, and thence[613] cometh the punishment to be
termed _Tympanismus_, that is, a _Tabring, or beating one to death
with cudgels_, as if it were with _drum-sticks_. This is evident
by _Eleazar_; he came willingly, ἐπὶ τὸ τύμπανον, _to this kind of
torment_, _2 Macab. 6. 19._ and in the thirtieth verse, where he gave
up the Ghost, there is mention of his strokes, not of his _racking or

    [612] _Magius in lib. de Equuleo, vid. Drus. præter. l. 8._

    [613] _Scholiastes Aristophanis τύμπανα scribit esse ξύλα οἷς
    τύπτονται ἐν τοῖς δικαστηρίοις οἱ τιμωρούμενοι in Pluto p. 50._

_Junius_[614] reckoneth another kind of punishment termed by the
_Hebrews_, ‎‏צינק‏‎ _Tsinok_, which he would have to be a compound word:
doubtless his meaning is that it would be compounded of ‎‏צי‏‎ _Tsi_,
_Navis_, _a ship, or boat_, and ‎‏ינק‏‎ _Janack_, _Sugere_, _to suck_: for
he saith that thereby is meant a certain punishment, termed _Navicula
sugentis_ which _Plutarch_[615] describeth in this manner; _That the
offender should be inclosed between two boates, as in a prison, or, as
his phrase is_ (_quasi in vagina_) _as in a sheath; and, to preserve
life in him, milk and honey tempered together was forcibly put into his
mouth, whether he would or no_. And hence, from this _sucking in of
milk and honey_, this punishment hath been termed _Navicula sugentis_.
But the _Hebrews_[616] say, that _Tsinock_ was nothing else but
_manacles_, or _cords_, wherewith prisoners hands were tyed. I leave it
indifferent to the Reader to follow which interpretation he please.

    [614] _Junius. Jer. 29. 26._

    [615] _Plutarch. in Artaxerxe._

    [616] _‎‏כלי מסגר לידים‏‎ Instrumentum constringens manus. D.
    Kimch. Jer. 29. 26._




_Of Circumcision._

Their _Sacraments_ were two. First, the _Passover_ of which there hath
been a set Chapter. Secondly, _Circumcision_, of which now.

_Circumcision_, was a cutting off the foreskin, as a sign and seal of
_Gods_ Covenant made with the People of the _Jews_. It is called a
_sign_ by _God_ in its first institution, _Gen. 17._ and a _seal_ by
the _Apostle_, _Rom. 4. 11._ Yea, it is called a _sign_ and a seal, by
a _Doctor_ of the _Jews_,[617] more ancient than their _Talmud_.

    [617] _Zohar. Gen. 17._

It was used (though not as a _Sacrament_) by many other Nations:[618]
by the inhabitants of _Colchis_, the _Æthiopians_, the _Trogloditæ_,
and the _Egyptians_.

    [618] _Alex. ab Alex. lib. 2. cap. 25. Herodo. l. 2. Diodor.
    Sicul. l. 2. c. 1. It. l. 4. c. 3._

In a figurative sense, alluding unto this _Sacramental Rite_, we read
of three other sorts of _Circumcision_ in the _Scripture_; so that in
all there are four mentioned. 1. _This of the flesh._ 2. _Another of
the heart._ 3. _A third of the lips._ 4. And a _fourth of the ears_.
We are to consider it in its proper acception, and here to observe:
First, the _time when_ it was administred. Secondly, the _manner how_.
Thirdly, the _penalty in case it was omitted_.

The _time_ was the _eighth day_; yea, the _eighth day_ was so precisely
observed, that if it fell on the _Sabbath_, yet they _circumcised the
~Child~_; whence rose that saying among them, _Circumcisio pellit
Sabbatum_ _Circumcision driveth away the Sabbath_; or, the _Sabbath_
giveth place to _Circumcision_. And with this accordeth that of our
Saviour, _Ye on the Sabbath day circumcise a man_, _John 7. 22._ The
_Jews_ superstitiously conceiting that each creatures perfection
depended upon the sanctification of one _Sabbath_ day at least, say
that _God_ did therefore enjoyn the _eighth day_, that one _Sabbath_
might first pass over each male, before he should be partaker of this
Sacrament. But more probably we may say, that the reasons why God would
not suffer them to anticipate the _eighth day_, were first to shew,
that _God_ in the matter of Salvation, neither was, nor is _simply tyed
to Sacraments_; for then there had been no less cruelty in _forbidding
Circumcision until the eighth day_, than there was love in _permitting
it upon the eighth_. Secondly, because in this time of the _Mosaical
Pedagogie_, there was a kind of _legal uncleanness_, in which the
creatures were thought to be, as remaining in their blood, for the
first _seven daies_ after their birth, _Levit. 22. 27._ _It. 12. 2, 3._
Notwithstanding, _God_ thought it not convenient to defer it longer
than eight daies, for the comfort of the Parents, which they received
by a mature and seasonable initiation of their children.

The manner how Circumcision was administred, I find thus recorded:
Some of those that were present held a vessel full of dust,[619] into
which they did cast the foreskin being cut off. Again, they prepared
in the room, a certain _void chair for Elias_;[620] which was done,
partly in honour of him, for which respect also, as often as they fell
on any difficult place in Scripture they would say[621] _Veniet Elias,
& omnia enodabit_; _We know that Elias will come, and he will tell us
all things_: But chiefly it was done, because they thought _Elias_ to
be present there in spirit, whose bodily coming they did, and do daily
expect. These ceremonies are meerly _Jewish_, practised by the latter
_Jews_, but utterly unknown in our _Saviour Christ_ his time, and,
as it appeareth by the _Samaritan woman_ her speech, that proverbial
saying applyed now to _Elias_, was of old applyed to _Christ_, _John 4.
25._ _Thirdly_, he which supplyed the place of the _Witness_, or as we
phrase it, of the _Godfather_,[622] held the Child in his arms whiles
it was _Circumcised_: this _Godfather_ they called _Baal Berith_, and
_Sandack_; that is, the _Master of the Covenant_. Uriah _the Priest_,
and _Zachariah_ the son of _Jeberechia_, are thought[623] to have been
_Godfathers_ at the Circumcision of _Maher-shalal-hash-baz_, _Esay. 8.
2._ and from them the custome of having _Godfathers_ in _Baptisme_, to
have taken its original. _Fourthly_, the Parents named the Child, and
in _Zacharies_ time, it seemeth that in the naming of the Infant, they
had respect to some name of his Ancestors. _They said unto her, there
is none of thy kindred that is named with this name_, _Luk. 1. 61._
Other Nations had their set daies also after the birth, for the naming
of their Children. The _Romans_[624] gave names to their male-children
on the ninth day, to the female on the eighth. The _Athenians_[625]
gave names on the tenth. Others[626] on the seventh. These daies
_Tertullian_[627] called _Nominalia_. The _Grecians_ besides the tenth
day on which they named the Child, they observed also the _fifth_,[628]
on which day the Midwives took the Child, and ran about a fire made
for that purpose, using that Ceremony as a purification of themselves
and the Child: on this day the Neighbours also sent in _gifts_, or
_small tokens_, _Munera natalitia_;[629] from which custom that amongst
_Christians_, of the _Godfathers_ sending gifts to the baptized Infant,
is thought to have flown. But to return again to the Rites of the
_Jews_. After the Child had been _circumcised_, the Father said:[630]
_Blessed be our Lord God, who hath sanctified us with his precepts, and
hath commanded us, that we should cause this child to enter into the
Covenant of Abraham_. After this, the whole Church or company present
replyed in this manner,[631] _As thou hast made him to enter into the
Covenant, so make him also to enter into the Law, into Matrimony, and
into good works_.

    [619] _Paul. Fag. Deut. 10._

    [620] _Christoph. Cast. in Malac. c. 3._

    [621] _Mercerus in abreviaturis. ‎‏היקו‏‎_

    [622] _‎‏נוהגין לקרא למי שמחזיק בן חברו למולו סנדק והלועזים
    קורין לו בעל ברית‏‎ Elias Thisb. in ‎‏סנדק‏‎_

    [623] _Jun. & Trem. Es. 8. 2._

    [624] _Plutarch. prob. 102. Macrob. Sat. l. 1. c. 16._

    [625] _Cœl. Rhodig. l. 22. cap. 12._

    [626] _Arist. hist. anim. lib. 7. c. 12._

    [627] _Tertul. de Idol. cap. 16._

    [628] _Scholiast. Aristoph. in Lusistrat. p. 886. It. Suidas in

    [629] _Stukius de conviv. l. 1. c. 16._

    [630] _‎‏ברוך אתה יהוה אלהינו מלך אשר העולם אשר קדשנו במצותיו
    וצונו לכניסו בבריתו של אברהם אבינו‏‎ Moses Kotsen. in tractat.
    circumcis. fol. 115._

    [631] _‎‏כשם שהכנסתו לברית כן תכניסהו לתורה ולחופה ולמעשים טובים‏‎
    Moses Kotsen. ibid._

The _penalty_ for the omission of _Circumcision_ running in this
form; _That soul shall be cut off from his people_, _Gen. 17. 14._ I
understand the _penalty_ to be pronounced against such an omission;
which proceeded either from _contempt_ or _wilful neglect_. In this
case the question is, what is meant by this phrase, _His soul shall be
cut off from the people_. Secondly, _who ought thus to be punisht?_
whether the child, or the _parents_, and such who _supply the place
of parents_? For the first, besides _Gods_ secret action in punishing
such Delinquents, methinks there is a rule of direction for the Church,
how to proceed against such in her Discipline: If any understand here,
by _cutting off such a mans soul from his people_, the sentence of
_excommunication_, or _casting him out of the Synagogue_, I shall not
oppose it; though I rather incline to those, who understand hereby a
_bodily death_ inflicted upon such an offender, in which sense the
phrase is taken, _Exod. 31. 14._ _Whosoever doth any work on the
Sabbath, that soul shall be cut off from among his people_. And it is
very remarkable, that when _Moses_ his child was _uncircumcised, the
Lord sought to kill Moses_: which as it intimated the punishment of
this fault to be a _bodily death_ so it clearly evinceth, that not the
_child_ till he cometh to years of discretion, but the _parents_ were
liable to punishment. The opinion of the _Rabbines_ concerning this
latter point is thus delivered:[632] _If the Father circumcise him not,
then the Judges are commanded to circumcise him: and if it be unknown
to the Judges, and they circumcise him not, when he is waxen great,
he is bound to circumcise himself, and every day that passeth over
him, after he is waxen great, and, he circumciseth not himself, lo he
breaketh the Commandment._

    [632] _Moses Kots. tract. circumcis. fol. 114. col. 4._

Here it may be demanded, how it is possible for a man, after once he
hath been marked with the sign of _Circumcision_, to blot out that
character and become _uncircumcised_? for thus some _Jews_, for fear
of _Antiochus_, made themselves uncircumcised, _1 Mac. 1. 16._ Others
for shame, after they were gained to the knowledge of Christ, and to
entertainment of the _Christian faith, uncircumcised themselves_, _1
Cor. 7. 18._ The answer is,[633] that this was done by _drawing up
the foreskin_ with a Chirurgion his instrument; and unto this the
_Apostle_ in the fore quoted place alludeth, μὴ ἐπισπάσθω, _Ne attrahat
præputium_. This wicked invention is ascribed unto _Esau_, as the first
_Author_ and practiser thereof.

    [633] _Epiphan. lib. de mens. & pond. p. 415. It. Celsus l. 7.
    c. 25._


_Of their first fruits and their firstlings, or first-born._

The use and end of their _first-fruits_, was that the _after-fruits_
might be _consecrated in them_. To this purpose they were enjoyned
to offer the _first fruits of their trees_, which served for food,
_Levit. 19. 23, 24._ In which this order was observed; the _three
first years_ after the tree had been planted, the fruits were counted
_uncircumcised_ and _unclean_: it was unlawful to _eat them, sell them,
or make any benefit of them_: on the _fourth year_, they were accounted
_holy_, that is, either they were given to the _Priests_,[634] _Num.
18. 12, 13._ or the owners did eat them before the _Lord at Jerusalem_,
as they did their _second tithe_: and this _latter_ is the common
opinion of the _Hebrews_.[635] After the _fourth year_, they returned
to the use of the owner: we may call these πρωτογεννήματα, _simply the

    [634] _‎‏והכהן יאכול‏‎ Sacerdos ea comedebat. Aben Ezra in hunc

    [635] _Talmud. Bab. in Magnasher sheni cap. 1._

_Secondly_, they were enjoyned to pay yearly the _first-fruits of
every years increase_, and these we may call, ἀπαρχὰς, and of them
there were many sorts. _First, first-fruits in the sheaf_, _Lev. 23.
10._ _Secondly, first-fruits in two wave-loaves_, _Levit. 23. 17._
These two bounded their harvest, _that in the sheaf_ was offered
in the _beginning of harvest_, upon the fifteenth of _Nisan_,
_the other of the loavs at the end_, upon their _Penticost_: and
_Levit. 23._ they are both called ‎‏תנופות‏‎ _Thenuphoth_, that is,
_shake-offerings_. _Thirdly_, there was a _first of the dough_. _Num.
15. 20._ namely,[636] a _four and twentieth part thereof_, given unto
the _Priests_: which kind of offering was observed, even when they
were returned out of _Babylon_, _Nehem. 10. 37._ Unto this St. _Paul_
hath reference, _Rom. 11. 16._ _If the first fruits be holy, the
lump is holy_. _Fourthly_, they were to pay unto the _Priests_ the
_first-fruits of the threshing floor_, _Numb. 15. 20._ These two last
are called ‎‏תרומות‏‎ _Therumoth_, that is, _heave offerings_: this the
_heave-offering of the threshing floor_; the other the _heave-offering
of the dough_, _Numb. 15. 20._ Under the name of _first-fruits_,
commonly Authors treat of no others but this last, and wholly omit all
the former sorts. Before we proceed to the explaining of the last,
note with me the difference of these two words, _Thenuphoth_, and
_Therumoth_: both signifie _shake-offerings_, _heave-offerings_, or
_wave offerings_, but with this difference;[637] the _Therumoth_ was
by a _waving of elevation_, lifting the oblation upward and downward,
to signifie, that _God_ was _Lord_ both of Heaven and Earth. The
_Thenuphoth_ was by a waving of _agitation_, waving it to and fro, from
the right hand to the left, from the _East_ to the _West_, from the
_North_ to the _South_: by which kind of _agitation_, they acknowledged
_God_ to be _Lord_ of the whole world. Now, that we may know what
these _first-fruits of the threshing floor were_, the _Rabbies_, and
the others following them, distinguish them into _two sorts_: the
first of these, was _first-fruits_ of seven things only: 1 _Wheat._ 2
_Barley._ 3 _Grapes._ 4 _Figs._ 5 _Pomgranates._ 6 _Olives._ 7 _Dates._
For all which the Promised Land is commended, _Deut. 8. 8._ These
the _Talmudists_[638] term ‎‏בכורים‏‎ _Biccurim_; and when they treat of
_first-fruites_ they treat of them under this name, and understand
by the name of _Biccurim_ no other. These, they say, are the _first
fruits_, which the people are so often in the Law commanded to bring
up unto the _Sanctuary_, at the _Feast of Pentecost_, which was the end
and closure of their harvest, as was signified both by this oblation,
and likewise by that of the two _wave-loaves_, _Lev. 23. 17._

    [636] _‎‏עשרין וארבעה תרומו‏‎ Uziel Numb. 15. 20._

    [637] _P. Fagius in Pentat._

    [638] _R. Solom. Deut. 26. 2. It. Moses Kotsens. fol. 201. Col. 4._

The second was paid of _Corn, Wine, Oyl, and the Fleece_, _Deut. 18.
4._ _Numb. 18. 12._ yea, of all things else that the earth brought
forth of mans food. Thus their _Doctors_ are to be understood, where
they say,[639] _Quicquid eduliorum ex terra incrementum capit,
obnoxium est primitiis, Therumæ, & decimis_. This they call, ‎‏תרומה‏‎
_Theruma_, an _heave-offering_: the _Greek_ renders it, ἀφωρίσμος, _A
separation_, because this was a _consecration, or setting apart of
the Lords portion_. In allusion unto this, I take S. _Paul_ to have
termed himself ἀφωρισμένον ἐς ἐυαγγέλιον, _separated unto the Gospel_,
_Rom. 1. 1._ ἀφοριεῖ Ἀαρὼν, _Aaron shall separate the Levites_, so
the _Greek_ renders it; but the Original is, _Aaron shall wave the
Levites_, _Numb. 8. 11._ Again, ἀφορίσατε _Separate me Barnabas and
Saul_, _Acts 13. 2._ _Drusius_ delivereth another reason, as hath been
said in the _Chapter_ of the _Pharisees_. But to proceed: the _Hebrews_
called this second payment, not only _Theruma_, _simple_, but sometimes
_Theruma gedola_,[640] the _great heave offering_, in comparison of
that _Tithe_ which the _Levites_ payed unto the _Priests_: for that was
termed _Theruma magnasher_, the _heave offering of the Tithe_, _Numb.
18. 26._ which though it were _one of ten_, in respect of that portion
which the _Levites_ received; yet it was but _one of an hundered_, in
respect of the Husbandmans stock, who payed the _Levites_: and thus
it was a great deal less than the _great heave offering_, as will
presently appear. This (the _Hebrews_ say) the owners were not bound to
bring up to _Jerusalem_.

    [639] _Moses Egypt. in. Jud. part. 3. tract. de Therumoth. cap. 2._

    [640] _‎‏תרומה גדולה‏‎_

The _law_ prescribed no set quantity to be paid, either in the
_Biccurim_ or in the _Theruma_; but, by _tradition_, they were taught
to pay at least the _sixtieth_ part in both, even in those _seven
things_, also paid under the name of _Biccurim_, or _first fruits_, as
well as in their _heave-offering_ termed _Theruma_, or _Theruma gedola_.

Thus the _Talmudists_ do distinguish the _Biccurim_ from the _Theruma
gedola_: but in my opinion the _Biccurim_ may be contained under
_Theruma gedola_; and in truth, both of them are nothing else but the
_heave-offering of the floor_, formerly mentioned out of _Num. 15.
20._ My reasons are these: 1. _Scripture_ giveth no such leave to keep
any part of their _first-fruits_ at home; if that could be proved, the
distinction were warrantable. 2. _Scripture_ doth not limit _first
fruits_ unto those _seven kinds_, which alone go under the name of
_Biccurim_. 3. Themselves confound both members; for their _Biccurim_,
they say, they paid, 1. _Wheat._ 2. _Barley._ In their _Theruma_,
they say, they paid _Corn_; as if under _Corn_; _Wheat_ and _Barley_
were not contained. Some may say, they paid their _Biccurim in the
Ear_, while the harvest was yet standing and their _Theruma in Wheat
and Barley ready threshed and winnowed_. My reasons why it cannot
be so, are these: 1. Because then they should pay _twice a sixtieth
part_ in their corn. 2. Because the corn offered in the sheaf was but
a little quantity, and it was offered not at their _Pentecost_ when
their harvest ended, but at their _Passover_ when their harvest began,
_Levit. 23. 10._ Whereas their _Biccurim_, or _first fruits_, were
alwayes offered at their _Pentecost_.

But omitting further proofs, I proceed to shew the ground, why in
this _heave-offering of the floor_, at least a _sixtieth part_ was
prescribed: it is grounded upon that of the Prophet _Ezek._ This is
the oblation that ye shall offer, _the sixth part of an Ephah out
of an Homer_, _Ezek. 45. 13._ that is, _the sixtieth part of the
whole_, because an _Homer_ containeth ten _Ephahs_. Hence they took
that distinction of these offerings. Some[641] they say, gave the
_fortieth part of their encrease_: this, because it was the greatest
quantity given in this kind of oblations, they termed _Theruma oculi
boni_,[642] _The oblation of a fair eye_: others (though they were not
so liberal as the former, yet they might not be reputed niggardly)
gave a _fiftieth part_, and this they termed _Theruma mediana_,[643]
_The oblation of a middle eye_: others, whom they reputed sordid,
gave just a _sixtieth part_, less then which they could not give,
this they termed _Theruma oculi mali_,[644] _The oblation of an evill
eye_; so that the payment of these was bounded by the tradition of
the _Elders_, between the _sixtieth_ and the _fortieth part_: But the
_Pharisees_[645] that they might be _holy above others_, made their
bounds the _fiftieth_ and the _thirtieth part_; so that he was reputed
_sordid_ with them that paid the _fiftieth part_; and none liberal
except he paid the _thirtieth_. The manner how these first-fruites
termed _Biccurim_ were paid, is at large set down, _Deut. 26._ But in
time of the _Prophets_ other _Ceremonies_ seem to have been received,
of which the _Hebrew Docters_ say thus:[646] _When they carried up
their first-fruits, all the Cities that were in a county gathered
together to the chief City of the county to the end that they might not
go up alone: for it is said, In the multitude of people is the Kings
honour_, _Prov. 14. 28._ _And they came and lodged all night in the
streets of the City, and went not into houses, for fear of pollution:
and in the morning the Governor said, Arise, and let us go up to Sion,
the City of the Lord our God. And before them went a Bull which had his
horns covered with Gold, and an Olive Garland on his head, to signifie
the first fruits of the seven kinds of fruits. There was likewise a
pipe struck up before them, untill they came near to Jerusalem and all
the way as they went, they sung, I rejoyced in them that said unto me,
we will go into the house of the Lord_, &c. _Psal. 122._ Unto this, and
other like manner of solemn Assemblies the _Prophet_ hath reference,
saying, _Ye shall have a song as in a night when a holy solemnity is
kept, and gladness of heart, as when one goeth with a pipe to come unto
the mountain of the Lord_, _Esay. 30. 29._

    [641] _Solom. Jarchi. Deut. 18. 4. Item Hieron. in Ezek. 45. fol. 260._

    [642] _‎‏תרומה עין יפה‏‎ Theruma gnaiin jopha._

    [643] _‎‏תרומה בינונית‏‎ Theruma benonith._

    [644] _‎‏תרומה עין רעה‏‎ Theruma gnajin ragna._

    [645] _Epiphan. contr. Pharis. pag. 11._

    [646] _Maimon. in Biccurim. cap. 4. sect. 16._

The _firstlings_, or _first-born_ of man and beast, the _Lord_
challenged as his own, _Exod. 13._ The ground of this Law was, because
_God smote all the first-born in Egypt from man to beast, but spared
the Israelites_; for a perpetual memory of which benefit, he commanded
them to sanctifie all their _first-born males_ unto him. Now the _first
born men, and unclean beasts_, were redeemed for five silver shekels
of the _sanctuary_, paid unto the _Priests_ for each of them, _Numb.
18. 15, 16._ Unto this S. _Peter_ alludeth saying, _We are not redeemed
with corruptible things, as silver and gold_, _1 Pet. 1. 18._ The
_firstlings of a clean beasts_ ought to be sacrificed, their blood to
be sprinkled on the Altar, their fat to be burnt for a burnt-offering,
and their flesh to return to the _Priests_.

Observe how _God_ would be honoured by the _firstlings of men and
cattel_; by the _first-fruits of trees, and of the earth, in the sheaf,
in the threshing-floor, in the dough, in the loavs_: All which teach us
_to consecrate the first and prime of our years unto the Lord_.


_Of Tithes._

We are here to enquire: First, _what things_ in general were titheable:
_Secondly_ how many _kind of Tithes_ there were: Thirdly, the _time_
when each sort of _tithes_ began to be _titheable_.

First, their yearly encrease was either _Cattel_, _fruits of the
trees_, or _fruits of the land_; of _all these_[647] they payed
_tithes_, even to mint, anise, and cumine, _These things they ought not
to leave undone_, _Mat. 23. 23._

    [647] _Vid. Sixtin. Amama de decimis._

Secondly, the _sorts of tithes_ payed out of the fruits, both of the
trees and the land, by the Husbandman, were two, payd in this manner:
When the Harvest had been ended, and all gathered, then the Husbandman
laid aside his _great Theruma_, otherwise called the _first-fruits of
his threshing floor_, of which it hath been spoken in the _Chapter of
the first fruits_. This being done, then out of the remainder he paid
a _tenth part_ unto the _Levites_, and this they termed _Magnasher
rischon_,[648] _the first tithe_, _Tob. 1. 7._ This was always paid in
kind, and as it seemeth to me, it was not brought up to _Jerusalem_
by the husbandman, (others[649] think otherwise) but payed unto the
_Levites_ in the several Cities of tillage, _Neh. 10. 37._ out of this
_first tithe_ the _Levites paid a tenth portion_ unto the _Priests_;
this they termed _Magnasher min hammagnasher_,[650] _the tithe of the
Tithes_, _Neh. 10. 38._ and _Decima sanctitatum_, the _tithe of holy
things_, _2 Chron. 31. 6._ this the _Levites_ brought up to the house
of _God_, _Neh. 10. 38._ When the _Levites_ had paid this tenth portion
unto the _Priests_, then the _Levites_ and their Families might eat
the remainder of the first tithe in any place, even out of _Jerusalem_,
_Num. 18. 31._

    [648] _‎‏מעשר ראשון‏‎_

    [649] _Decimæ primæ necessario aut à colono ipso aut ejus
    vicario Hierosolymas deportandæ erant. Sixtin. Amama de

    [650] _‎‏מעשר מין המעשר‏‎_

This first tithe being paid, the Husbandman paid out of that which
remained a second tithe; this the Husbandman might pay in kind if he
pleased, or if he would, he might by way of commutation pay the worth
thereof in money; but when he payed in money, he added a fifth part; so
that what in kind was _ten in the hundred_, that changed into money,
was _twelve in the hundred_. This the Husbandman brought up unto
_Jerusalem_, and made a kind of Love-feast therewith, unto which he
invited the _Priests_ and _Levites_, only every _third year_ he carried
it not to _Jerusalem_, _but spent it at home within his own gates_,
upon the _Levites, the fatherless, the widows, & the poor_, _Deut. 14.
28._ They reckoned[651] their third year from the _Sabbatical year_,
on which the land rested: so that the first and second _Tithe_ was
payed by the Husbandman; the _first, second, fourth and fifth years
after the Sabbatical year_: but upon the third and sixth years only,
the first _Tithe_ was paid to the _Levites_, and the second was spent
at home. Hence in respect of the _kinds_, this is called _Magnasher
scheni_,[652] the second _tithe_, _Tobit. 1. 7._ in respect it was paid
to the poor every third year: it is called _Magnasher gnani_[653],
πτωχοδεκάδαι, _the poor mans tithe_, and _Magnasher schelischi_[654],
_the third tithe_, _Tob. 1. 1._ On those years on which it was carried
up to _Jerusalem_, it ought of necessity to be eaten within the _Court
of the Temple_, _Deut. 14. 26._ and by the _third tithe_ we are to
understand the _poor mans tithe on the third year_, which year is
termed _a year of tithes_, _Deut. 26. 12._

    [651] _Moses Kotsen. tract. de decima secundo. fol. 199._

    [652] _‎‏מעשר שני‏‎_

    [653] _‎‏מעשר עני‏‎_

    [654] _‎‏מעשר שלישי‏‎_

They likewise tithed their cattel. _Of their bullocks, & their sheep,
and all that passed under the rod, the tenth was holy to the Lord_,
_Lev. 27. 32._ Some Expositors understand by this phrase of _passing
under the rod_, that all cattel are _titheable_ which live under the
_custody of a keeper_, as if there were allusion to the _shephards
staff_, or _keepers rod_, which they use in keeping their cattel.
The _Hebrews_ more probably understand hereby, the _manner of their
decimation_ or _tithing_ their cattel, which was as followeth.[655] _He
that hath Lambs (or Bullocks) thus separateth his tenth, he gathereth
all his lambs and all his bullocks into a fold to which he maketh a
little door, that two cannot go forth together; their dams are placed
without the door, to the end, that the lambs hearing them bleating,
might go forth one after another in order. Then one beginneth to number
with his rod, one, two, three, ~&c.~ and the tenth which cometh forth,
whether it be male or female, perfect, or blemished, he marketh it
with a red mark, saying this is for tithe._ At this day the _Jews_,
though they are not in their own Country, neither have any _Levitical
Priesthood_, yet those who will be reputed religious among them, do
distribute in lieu of tithes, the tenth of their encrease unto the
poor, being perswaded that _God_ doth bless their estates the more: for
their usual Proverb is,[656] _Thegnasher, bischebil sche thegnasher_;
that is, _Pay tithes, that thou mayst be rich_.

    [655] _Solomon Jarchi, Lev. 27. 32. & Maimon. de primogen. c.
    7. Sect. 1. 5._

    [656] _‎‏תעשר בישביל שתעשר‏‎_

The _time_ of the year from which they reckoned _tithes_, was
different. For _beasts_[657] they counted the year from _Elul_ to
_Elul_, that is, from _August_ to _August_, for _grain_, _pulse_, and
_herbs_,[658] from _Tisri_ to _Tisri_, that is, from _September_ to
_September_: for the _fruit of trees_, from _Schebat_ to _Schebat_,
that is, from _January_ to _January_.

    [657] _Talmud tract. de novo anno ad initium, Buxt. Synag. Jud. c. 12._

    [658] _Moses Kotsen. in præcept. affirm. 136._

In this _Synopsis_ following (which _Sixtinus Amama_ hath taken out of
_Scaliger_) the manner of _Israels_ tithings is set down.

                     | 6000 | Bushels in one year.
                     |  100 | Bushels was the least that
                     |      |   could be paid by the Husbandman
                     |      |   to the _Priests_ for
                     |      |   the first-fruits of the threshing
                     |      |   floor.
                     | 5900 | Bushels remained to the Husbandman,
                     |      |   out of which he
                     |      |   payed two Tythes.
                     |  590 | Bushels were the first Tithe to
                     |      |   the _Levites_.
                     |   59 | Bushels the _Levites_ paid the
    The Husbandman   |      |   _Priests_, which was called
    had growing      |      |   the _Tithe of the Tithes_.
                     | 5310 | Bushels remained to the Husbandman,
                     |      |   out of which he
                     |      |   paid his second tithe.
                     |  531 | Bushels were the second
                     |      |   Tithe.
                     | 4779 | Bushels remained to the Husbandman
                     |      |   as his own, all being
                     |      |   paid.
                     | 1121 | Bushels are the sume of both
                     |      |   Tithes joyned together,
                     |      |   which is above a sixth part
                     |      |   of the whole, namely _nineteen_
                     |      |   out of an hundred.

We are to know moreover, that through the corruption of the times, in
time of _Hezekiah_’s reign, Tithes began generally to be neglected,
insomuch that then _Overseers_ were appointed to look to the true
payment thereof, _2 Chr. 31. 13._ Notwithstanding, partly through the
_negligence_ of the _Overseers_, partly through the _covetousness_ of
the _people_, about one hundred thirty years before our _Saviours
Incarnation_, corruption so prevailed, that the people in a manner
_neglected all tithes_, yea none or very few payed either their
first, second, or _poor manns tithe_, only they paid the _great
heave-offering_ justly. For this reason (saith _Moses Kotsensis_[659])
_in the daies of_ John _the Priest, who succeeded_ Simeon _the just_,
(I take it he meaneth _Johannes Hyrcanus_) their great Court, termed
their _Sanhedrim_, made a Decree, that more faithful _Overseers_
should be appointed for the _Tithes_. At this time many things became
questionable, whether they were tithable or no; whence the high
Court of their _Sanhedrim_ decreed, that in the _things doubtful_
(which they termed ‎‏דמאי‏‎ _Demai_)[660] though they paid neither first,
nor _poor mans tithe_, yet they paid a second _tithe, and a small
heave-offering_; namely, ‎‏אחד ממאה‏‎ _one part of an hundred_: _Mint_,
_Anise_ and _Cummin_, seemeth to have been of these _doubtful things_;
in which, though the decree of their _Sanhedrim_ required but _one in
the hundred_, yet the _Pharisees_ would pay a just tenth, _Mat. 23.
23._, and hence it is that they boasted, _They gave tithes of all that
they possessed_, _Luk. 18. 12._ In which they outstripped the other
_Jews_, who in these payments took the liberty granted them by the

    [659] _Moses Kotsen. fol. 199. col. 3._

    [660] _Moses Kotsen. ibid._


_Of their Marriages._

In this Chapter of their _Marriages_, we are to consider: First,
the _distinction of their wives_. Secondly, the _manner of their
betrothings_. Thirdly, the _rites and ceremonies of their marriage_.
Lastly, the _forme of their divorce_. The _Patriarchs_ in the _Old
Testament_ had many of them, _two sorts of wives_: both of them were
_reputed lawful_, and _true wives_, and therefore the children of both
were accounted _legitimate_. The _Hebrews_ commonly call the one ‎‏נשים‏‎
_Naschim_; _Primary-wives_, married with nuptial ceremonies and rites
requisite. Some derive the word from ‎‏נשה‏‎ _Nischa_, _Oblitus fuit, quasi
Obliviosæ dictæ_, because for the most part, _womens memory is not so
strong as mens_: but they think not amiss, who say that women are so
called from _oblivion_, or _forgetfulness_, because the Fathers family
is _forgotten_, and in a manner _extinct in their daughters when they
are married_. Hence proceeds that common saying of the _Hebrews_,[661]
_Familia matris non vocatur familia_: and for the contrary reason,
a _male child_ is called ‎‏זכר‏‎ _Zacar_, from his memory, _because the
memory of the Father is preserved in the Son_,[662] according to that
speech of Absolom, _I have no Son to keep my name in remembrance_, 2
Sam. 18. 18.

    [661] _‎‏משפחת אם אינה קרויה משפחה‏‎ Aben Ezra. Numb. 1. 2._

    [662] _Eandem prolis masculæ rationem habitam apud Græcos
    testatur Euripides. Στύλοι γὰρ οἰκῶν παῖδες ἄρσενες._

The other sort of wives they call[663] _Pillagshin_, _secondary wives_,
or _half wives_; the _English_ translates them _Concubines_, and that
not unfitly, for sometimes the _Hebrew_ word it self denoteth an
_infamous Strumpet_, or _common Harlot_.

    [663] _‎‏פלגש‏‎ Vxor secundaria vocem compositam esse aiunt ex ‎‏פלג‏‎
    Dividere, & ‎‏אשה‏‎ uxor, quasi uxor divisa & dimidia._

The differences between these _Concubines_, and the _chief_ or
_primary wives_, are many. 1. A _disparity_ in their authority, or
houshold government: the _Wife_ was a _Mistress_, the _Concubine_ as
an _hand-maid_ or _servant_. She had only _Jus thori_, a true and
lawful _right unto the marriage bed_ as the chief wife had; otherwise
she was in all respects inferiour. And this appeareth in the history
of _Sarah_ and _Hagar_. Secondly, the _betrothing_ was different:
the _chief wife_ at her espousals received from her Husband certain
_Gifts_ and _Tokens_, as pledges and ceremonies of the contract. Thus
_Abrahams_ steward (who is probably thought to be _Eliezer_, of
whom we read, _Gen. 15. 2._) gave in _Isaacs_ name unto _Rebecca_,
_jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment_, _Gen. 24. 53._
This custome was in use also among the _Grecians_, who calleth these
gifts Ἕδνα.[664] Moreover[665] _the chief wife_ likewise received from
her husband _a bill of writing_, or _matrimonial_ letters, whereas
the _Concubine_ received neither _such gifts_, nor such _letters_.
_Thirdly_, only _the children of the chief wife succeeded the father
in his inheritance; the children of the Concubine received gifts or
legacies_: _Abraham gave all his goods to Isaac_, but unto the _sons of
the Concubines_ which _Abraham_ had, _Abraham gave gifts_, _Gen. 25.
5, 6._ And here, by the way we may take notice, that _the first-born_
by right of primogeniture, received a _double portion of his fathers
goods_, _the father shall give him a double portion of all that he hath
for he is the first of his strength_, _Deut. 21. 17._ Unto this custome
the _Prophet Elisha_’s speech alludeth, when he prayeth _Elijah_, that
his spirit might be _double_ upon him, _2 King. 2. 9._ that is that
he might have a _double portion of his spirit, in comparison of the
other Prophets_, or rather the _sons of the Prophets_, amongst whom
he obtained the place of an _elder brother_, and therefore prayeth
for the _right of primogeniture_: so that we are not to understand
him, as if he did ambitiously desire a greater measure of the spirit
than rested upon his _Master_, but that he desired to excel the other
_remaining Prophets_, unto whom afterward he became a _father_. The
_Hebr._ phrase[666] is in both places the same. _Secondly_, in their
_betrothing_ we are to consider, 1. The _distance of time_ between
the _espousals_, and the _confirmation_ of their marriage, which some
have conceited to have been a _full year_, at least ten months; and
this they observe from _Rebecca_, her brother and mothers answer unto
_Abrahams_ servant, desiring that the Maid might not depart presently,
but remain after the Espousals at least ten dayes, _Gen. 24. 55._ Which
Text they interpret[667] _ten months_, understanding thereby that which
elsewhere is phrased[668] _an year of dayes_, _Gen. 41. 1._ But if we
should yield this interpretation (although our _English_ _at least ten
dayes_ is more agreeable unto the _Septuagint_ and the _Original_) yet
it followeth not, that this time was craved for the fulfilling of any
prescribed distance between the Espousals and the marriage, but rather
it implieth the tender affection of the mother towards her daughter,
as being loath so suddenly to part with her: Notwithstanding, it is
not unlikely that there was a competent distance of time between the
first affiancing, and the confirmation of the _marriage_, though not
prescribed, or _limited to any set number of dayes_, _weeks_, or
_months_. The second thing considerable in their betrothings, is to
enquire the _manner of their contracting_, which might be done in
_Israel_ three ways.[669] First, _By a piece of money_. Secondly, _By
writing_. Thirdly, _By copulation_, _and all these in the presence of
witnesses_. _By a piece of money_, though it were but a farthing, or
the worth thereof, at which time the man used this, or the like form
of words;[670] _Lo thou art betrothed unto me_: and he gave her the
mony before witnesses. _By bill_, and then he wrote the like form of
words; _Be thou betrothed unto me_, which he gave her before witnesses;
and it was written with her name in it, else it was no betrothing. _By
copulation_, and then he said likewise, _Lo thou shalt be betrothed
unto me by copulation_, and so he was united unto her before two
witnesses, after which copulation she was his betrothed wife. If
he lay with her by way of _fornication_, and not by the _name of
betrothing_; or if it were by themselves, without the fore-acquainting
of _Witnesses_, it was no betrothing: however he might not lye with her
the second time, before the marriage was accomplished. And though the
betrothing might be _any of these three wayes_, yet usually it was by a
_piece of money_; and if they would, they might do it by _writing_, but
betrothing by copulation was forbidden by the wise men of _Israel_, and
who so did it was chastised with rods: howbeit the _betrothing_ stood
in force. These solemnities in _betrothing_ were performed by the man
and woman under a Tent or Canopy made for the purpose, called in their
language _Chuppa_,[671] _a Tabernacle or Tent_: to this the Psalmist
alludeth, _Psal. 19. 4, 5._ _In them hath he set a Tabernacle for the
Sun which as a Bridegroom coming out of his Chamber, rejoyceth as a
strong man to run a Race._

    [664] _Τάων ἧν κ’ ἐθέλῃσι φίλην ἀνάεδνον ἀγέσθω. Hom. Iliad. 9.
    vid. etiam Suid. in Ἕδνα._

    [665] _D. Kimchi. 2 Sam. 5. 13._

    [666] _‎‏פי שנים‏‎ partem duorum._

    [667] _Onkelos & R. Solom._

    [668] _‎‏שנתים ימים‏‎ Duorum annorum dierum._

    [669] _‎‏בכסף או בשטר או בביאה וכולן בעדים‏‎ Moses Kotsen. fol.

    [670] _‎‏הרי את מקודשת לי‏‎ Maimon. in Ischoth, c. 3. s. 1._

    [671] _‎‏חופה‏‎ Elias Thisbit._

_Thirdly_, the rites and ceremonies of their marriage were performed in
the assembly of _ten men_ at least, with blessings and thanksgivings
unto _God_, whence the house it self was called _Beth hillula_,[672]
the _House of praise_ and their marriage song _Hillulim_,[673]
_praises_. The _Bridegrooms intimate friends_ which accompanied him
& sung this _Epithalamium_ or _marriage song_, were termed υἱοὶ
τοῦ νυμφῶνος, _children of the Bride-chamber_, _Mat. 9. 15._ Such
I conceive those _thirty companions_ to have been which _Sampson_
associated to himself, _Judg. 14. 11._ The form of this _phrase_ or
_blessing_ is at large described by _Genebrard_, and the sum thereof
is this: The chief of these companions taketh a cup, and blesseth it
saying _Blessed art thou O Lord our God, the King of the world, w^{ch}
createst the fruit of the vine_: afterward then he saith, _blessed be
the Lord our God the King of the world, who hath created man after his
own Image, according to the image of his own likeness, & hath therby
prepared unto himself an everlasting building, blessed be thou, O
Lord, who hast created him_. Then followeth again, _Blessed art thou,
O Lord our God, who hast created joy and gladness, the Bridegroom and
the Bride, charity and brotherly love, rejoycing and pleasure, peace
and society: I beseech thee, O Lord, let there suddenly be heard in
the Cities of Judah, and the streets of Jerusalem the voice of joy
& gladness, the voice of the bridegroom & the Bride: the voice of
exultation in the bride-chamber is sweeter than any feast: and children
sweeter than the sweetness of a song_: and this being ended, he
drinketh to the married couple.

    [672] _‎‏בית הלולא‏‎_

    [673] _‎‏הלולים‏‎_

This custome _of praising God_ at such times was not needless or
superfluous, for the _fruit of the womb_ was expected as a _special
blessing_ from God, and so acknowledged by them in that saying, that
_four keys_ were in the hand of him who was the _Lord_ of the whole
world, which were committed neither to _Angel_ nor _Seraphim_; namely
_Clavis pluviæ, clavis cibationis, clavis sepulchrorum, & clavis
sterilitatis_.[674] Concerning the _key of Rain_, thus speaketh the
Scripture, _the Lord will open to thee his good treasure_, _Deut. 28._
Concerning the _key of food_, _thou openest thy hands_, Psal. 145.
Concerning the _key of the grave_, _when I shall open your sepulchres_,
_Ezek. 37._ Concerning the _key of barrenness_, _God remembred_ Rachel
_and opened her womb_, _Gen. 30._ Whereby it is intimated, that these
four things _God hath reserved in his own hand and custody_: namely,
_Rain, food, the raising of our bodies and the procreation of children_.

    [674] _‎‏מפתח מטרא מפתח פרנסה מפתח קבריא מפתת עקרתא‏‎ Targum
    Hieros. Gen. 30. 21._

The time _of their marriage feast_ appeareth clearly to have been
_usually seven daies_.[675] _Sampson_ continued his _feast seven
daies_, _Judg. 14. 10, 11._ And of this _seven daies feast_,
_Divines_[676] do understand that speech of _Labans unto Jacob_,
concerning _Leah_, _fulfill her weak_, and we will also give thee this,
_Gen. 29. 27._ in which speech, it is thought that _Laban_ did desire
_Jacob_, not to reject and turn away _Leah_, but to confirm the present
_marriage_, by fulfilling the _usual days of her marriage feast_. From
this custom, together with the practise of _Joseph_, mourning seven
dayes for his father, _Gen. 50. 10._ arose that usual proverb among the
_Jews_, _Septem ad convivium, Septem ad luctum_. The chief governor of
the feast was called _Baal mischte_;[677] which name is fitly expressed
by being called the _ruler of the feast_,[678] _Joh. 2. 9._ The _modern
Jews in Italy_, when they invite any to a _marriage feast_, use this
form of words, _Such a one, or such a one entreateth you to credit his
daughters marriage with your presence at the feast, &c._ Then he which
is invited replieth, _Mazal tob_[679] which some interpret to be the
wishing of _good luck_ in general, but I rather think, that hereby was
wished to the married parties, _a special blessing in the procreation
of children_: whence the _wedding ring_, given unto the Bride-wife, had
this inscription or posie _Mazal tob_;[680] and the _Hebrews_ call the
Planet _Jupiter_, _Mazal_, whose influence they thought to be of great
efficacy and force for generation: but in truth, _Mazal_, signifieth
any other Planet or Star in the Heaven, according to that _Hebrew_
Proverb,[681] _There is no herb in the earth, that hath not a Mazal or
Star in the Firmament answering it, and striking it, saying grow_. Now
_tob_ signifieth good; so that the phrase soundeth as much as, _be it
done in a good hour_, or _under a good Planet_.

    [675] _Vid. Thisbit. in ‎‏חתן‏‎_

    [676] _Augustin. quæst. super Genes. 88._

    [677] _‎‏בעל משתה‏‎_

    [678] _Αρχιτρίκλινος._

    [679] _‎‏מזל טוב‏‎ i. Stukius. de conviv. l. 2. c. 3._

    [680] _Munster. Gen. 30._

    [681] _Non est tibi ulla herba inferius cui non sit Mazal in
    firmamento, & ferit ipsam τὸ Mazal, & dicit ei, Cresce._

At the time of the marriage also, the man gave his wife a _dowery
bill_, which the _Scrivener_ wrote, and the Bride-groom paid for,
whereby he endowed his spouse, if she were a _Virgin_, with 300
Deniers, (that is fifty shekels) and if she had been married before
with an hundred _Deniers_, that is twenty five shekels and this was
called the _root_ or _principal of the dowry_: the _dowry_ might not
be less, but more, so much as he would, though it were to a talent of
gold. There is mention of a contract between _Tobias_ and _Sarah_,
and that was performed, _not by a Scrivener_, but by _Raguel_, the
womans father; where we may observe, that before the writing of this
bill there was a _giving of the woman unto her husband_. The form
of words there used is, _Behold, take her after the Law of Moses_,
_Tobit. 7. 14._ A copy of this Dowry-bill is taken by _Bertram_ out
of the _Babylon Talmud_. The words thereof are _thus_:[682] _Upon the
sixth day of the week, the fourth of the month Sivan, in the year
five thousand two hundred fifty four of the creation of the world,
according to the computation which we use here at ~Massilia~, a City
which is scituate near the Seashore, the Bridegroom ~Rabbi Moses~, the
son of ~Rabbi Jehuda~, said unto the Bridewife ~Clarona~, the daughter
of ~Rabbi David~, the son of ~Rabbi Moses~, a Citizen of ~Lisbon~;
Be unto me a wife according to the law of ~Moses~ and ~Israel~: and
I according to the word of God, will worship, honour, maintain, and
govern thee according to the manner of the husbands among the ~Jews~,
which do worship, honour, maintain, and govern their wives faithfully,
I also do bestow upon thee the dowry of thy Virginity, 200 Deniers in
silver, which belong unto thee by the law: and moreover, thy food, thy
apparel, and sufficient necessaries; as likewise the knowledge of thee,
according to the custom of all the earth_. Thus _Clarona_ the _Virgin_
rested and became a _wife_ to _Rabbi Moses_ the son of _Jehuda_, the

    [682] _Talmud. Bab. vid. Buxtorf. Grammatic. Chald. p. 38. 9._

After the marriage was finished, then the wife might challenge from
her Husband three things as debt. 1. _Food._ 2. _Apparel._ 3.
_Cohabitation_, or _the right of the bed_; which they note from _Exod.
21. 10._ where it is said, If he take him another wife, _her food, her
raiment, and her duty of marriage shall he not diminish_. And unto this
the _Apostle_ alludeth, calling it _Due benevolence_, _1 Cor. 7. 3._

The Wife, when she was first presented unto her Husband, covered her
Head with a _veil_, in token of _subjection_. _Rebecca_ took a _veil_,
and covered her self, (_Gen. 24. 65._) and for this cause (namely in
_sign of subjection_) ought the woman to have power on her head, _1
Cor. 11. 10._ where by _Power_ the _Apostle_ understandeth a _veil_.
Do any ask the question, why he should denote this _veil_ by the name
of _power_, especially seeing it was in _token of subjection_? The
_Apostle_ being an _Hebrew_ of the _Hebrews_, might have respect to
the _Hebrew_ word _Radid_,[683] signifying a _veil_, which cometh from
the root _Radad_, to bear _rule and authority_, and so might use the
Greek word,[684] signifying _power_ in the same sense as the _Hebrews_
did. And, in truth, what was this subjection to the husband but a kind
of _power_ and _protection_ derived unto the _Wife_, in comparison of
her former state, being a _Virgin_? and therefore in case her husband
was jealous of her, among other tokens of sorrow, she was commanded
to stand at her tryal with her _head uncovered_,[685] _Numb. 5. 18._
intimating thereby, that if she could not then clear her self, she
was from thenceforward deprived of all _power_, which heretofore she
enjoyed by the means of her Husband.

    [683] _‎‏רדיד‏‎ Velamen mulieris, à verbo ‎‏רדד‏‎ Subjecit._

    [684] _Ἐξουσία._

    [685] _‎‏בלא רדיד‏‎ Sine Radid. ἄνευ ἐξουσίας. Sic ego interpretor
    verba Maimon. in Sota. 12. c. 3. sect. 5._

After the marriage was finished, sometimes there was permitted a _Bill
of Divorce_: this the _Hebrews_ called _Sepher Kerithuth_,[686] _a
Bill of cutting off_, because the woman is by this means _cut off from
her Husbands family_. _Ten things were_ thought[687] requisite as the
_root_ and foundation of a divorce. 1. _That a man put her not away
but of his own will._ 2. _That he put her away by writing, not by any
other thing._ 3. _That the matter of the writing be to divorce her,
and put her away, out of her possession._ 4. _That the matter of that
divorcement be between him and her._ 5. _That it be written by her
name._ 6. _That there be no action wanting, after the writing thereof,
save the delivery of it unto her._ 7. _That he give it unto her._ 8.
_That he give it her before witnesses._ 9. _That he give it her by
the law of divorces._ 10. _That it be the Husband or his deputy that
delivereth it unto her._ The form or copy of this _bill of divorcement_
was as followeth,[688] _Upon such a day of the week, such and such
of the month N. such or such an year of the Creation of the world,
according to the computation which we use here in this City N. scituate
near the River N. that I of the Country N. the son of Rabbi N. of the
Country N. But now I dwelling in such or such a place, near such or
such a river, have desired of my own free will, without any coaction,
and have divorced dismissed and cast out thee, thee I say, thee my wife
N. of the country N. the daughter of Rabbi N. dwelling in such or such
a country, and dwelling now in such or such a place, scituate near
such or such a river, which hast been my wife heretofore, but now I do
divorce thee, dismiss thee, and cast thee out, that thou mayst be free,
and have the rule of thy self, and to depart, and to marry with any
other man whom thou wilt, and let no man be refused by thee for me from
this day forward for ever. Thus be thou lawful for any man, and this
shall be to thee from me, a bill of separation, a bill of divorce, and
a letter of dismission, according to the law of ~Moses~ and ~Israel~._

                                          N. _the son of_ N. _witness_.
                                          N. _the son of_ N. _witness_.

    [686] _‎‏ספר כריתות‏‎ Græce βιβλίον ἀποστασίου._

    [687] _Maimon. de divort. c. 1. sect. 5._

    [688] _Hæc forma reperitur apud Mosem Kotsensem. fol. 133.
    Aliud exemplar ibidem habetur. It. in Mose Egyptio. part.
    2. fol. 59. unde desumpta est hæc testium subscriptio quam

This _bill_ was written by a _Scrivener_, or _publick Notary_.[689] And
furthermore,[690] a woman being _divorced_, or otherwise a _widow_, it
was not lawful for her to marry again, till she had _tarried ninety
days, besides the day of her divorce, or of her husbands death, and her
last espousals: to the end it might be known, whether she were with
child or no, & that there might be proof, whether it were the seed of
her first husband, or of her second_.

    [689] _Solomon Jarchi. Hos. c. 1. 10._

    [690] _Maimon. de divort. cap. 11. sect. 18._

It was a common custome among the _Romans_, about the time of our
_Saviours_ birth, even for the women to _divorce their Husbands_, and
to marry again at their pleasure. Of this, _Heathen_ Authors speak:

    _----Sic fiunt octo mariti,_
    _Quinque per autumnos._

    _Juvenal. Satyr 6. verse 230._

    _Et nubet decimo jam Thelesina viro._

                       _Martial. lib. 8._

_Non consulum, sed maritorum numero annos suos computant, &c._[691]
The bill tendred by the woman, was termed[692] Γράμματα ἀπολείψεως,
_letters of forsaking_; _not letters of cutting off, or putting
away_. This same practise was in use also among the _Hebrews_.
Hence is that saying of our Saviour: _If a woman shall put away her
husband, and be married to another_, &c. Mark 10. 12. Now although,
at that time, humane laws forbad not _marriages renewed with others
upon such divorce_, yet _Gods_ law condemned both such _divorces_, &
such _marriages_, and, _before God_, persons _marrying_ after such
divorcements were reputed _digamites_, that is, to have _two husbands,
or two wives_. For this reason, a _Minister_ above others is commanded
to be μιᾶς γυναικὸς ἀνὴρ; _The husband of one wife_, _1 Tim. 3. 2._ And
the _woman_ she is commanded to be ἑνὸς ἀνδρὸς γυνὴ, _The wife of one
husband_, _1 Tim. 5. 9._ In which text, _second marriages_ (in case
of the Husbands or Wives death) are no more forbidden, than the Poet
forbade them in the like phrase.

    _Unico gaudens mulier marito._

           _Horat. Carmin. 3. 14._

    [691] _Senec. 3. de Benef. 16._

    [692] _Plutarch. in Alcibiade._

Note in the last place, that among the _Jews_ the Bride-woman also
brought a _dowry_ to her husband; it was sometimes _more_, sometimes
less; it was called by the _Rabbins_[693] ‎‏נדוניא‏‎ _Nedunia_: _Raguel
gave with his daughter_ Sarah _half his goods, servants and cattel, and
money_, _Tob. 10. 10._

    [693] _Elias Thisbit. It. Solom. Jarchi. Gen. 31. 15._


_Of their Burials._

At the time of a mans death, before his Burial, many ceremonies were
observed. _First_, the next of the kin closed the eyes of the deceased
body. _Joseph shall put his hands upon thy eyes_, _Genes. 46. 4._ This
was likewise practised both by the _Romans_ and the _Græcians_.

    _Ille meos oculos comprimat, Ille tuos._


    _ὄσσε καθαιρήσουσι θανόντι πέρ._

                 _Homer. Iliad. 11._

_Secondly_, they washed the body being dead. _Tabitha died, and when
they had washed her, they laid her in an upper-chamber_, _Act. 9.
37._ The _baptization_ or _washing_ at such a time was threefold. The
first was βαπτισμὸς ἀπὸ νεκρῶν, _Eccles. 34. 26._ _A washing from the
pollution contracted by the touch of a dead carkass_; that if haply
any ignorantly and unawares became thus unclean, then was he by a
kind of washing to be made clean again. The second was βαπτισμὸς τῶν
νεκρῶν, _a baptization or washing of the dead Corps it self_. Thus
_Tabitha_ was _washed_: neither is the word βαπτισμὸς, unusually
applied to _common washings_, as _Mar. 7. 4._ we read of the _washing
of cups, pots, vessels, tables_, the _Greek is_ βαπτισμὸς. The _first_
of these washings was proper to the _Jews_: this second in use with
_Jews_ _Christians_,[694] and _Heathens_:[695] the _third_ (which
was βαπτισμὸς ὑπὲρ τῶν νεκρῶν, _a baptization for the dead_, _1 Cor.
15. 9._) proper to some _amiss-led Christians_. It may be demanded,
what manner of _Baptism_ this was? with submission of my judgment,
I understand this place with S. _Ambrose_[696] of a _Sacramental
washing_, applied unto some living man in the name and behalf of his
friend, dying without _Baptism_, out of a superstitious conceit,
that the Sacrament thus conferred to one alive, in the name of the
deceased, might be available for the other dying _unbaptized_. As if
the Apostle did wound those superstitious _Corinthians_ with their own
quills, and prove the Resurrection of the dead from their own erroneous
practice, telling them in effect, that their superstitious custome of
_baptizing_ the living for the dead, were vain and bootless, if there
were no resurrection, and therefore the Apostle useth an emphatical
_distinction of the persons_, in the next immediate verse, saying,
why are we also in jeopardy every hour? he inferreth the resurrection
by force of a _double_ argument; the _first_ drawn from their
superstitious _baptization_ for the dead: the _second_, from the hourly
jeopardy and peril wherein we, that is, himself and other _Christians_
are. So that as that _Father_ noteth, the Apostle doth not hereby
_approve_ their doing, but evinceth their hope of the resurrection
from their own practice, though erroneous. That there was _Vicarium
tale Baptisma_ (as _Tertullian_[697] calleth it) in use among the
_Marcionites_, is evident, yea, and among the _Corinthians_[698] also:
the manner thereof is thus described:[699] _When any Catechumenist
died, some living person placed under the bed of the deceased, they
came unto the deceased party, and asked him whether he would be
baptized: then he replying nothing, the party under the bed answered
for him, saying that he would be baptized: and thus they baptized him
for the dead, as if they acted a play upon the Stage_.

    [694] _Tertullian. Apolog. c. 47. It. Euseb. hist. lib. 7. c. 17._

    [695] _Corpusque lavant frigentis & ungunt Virg. lib. 6. Æneid._

    [696] _Ambros. 1 Cor. 16. 29._

    [697] _Tertul. lib. de resur. carnis._

    [698] _Epiphan. de Corinthian. hæres. 28._

    [699] _Chrysost. 1 Cor. 15._

The _third_ ceremony used by the _Jews_ towards the dead party, was the
_embalming_ of the corps, which for the main thereof, it is probable
they learned from the _Egyptians_, for we find _Joseph_ to be the first
that practised it, _Gen. 50. 2._ The _Egyptian_ manner of _embalming_
was thus:[700] _they took out the bowels of the dead, they cleansed
them and washed them with the wine of Dates, and after that again with
odors: then filled they the bowels with pure Myrrh beaten, and Cassia,
and other Odors (except Frankincense) and sewed them up. After this
they seasoned the corps hidden in Nitre seventy days, not longer: after
seventy days they washed the corps, and wrapped it in fine linnen
cloth gummed, which gum the Egyptians often used instead of glew._
The _Greeks_ termed this ταριχεύειν. And the use thereof was for the
_preservation_ of the body, that it might not putrifie; and therefore
when the Funeral Obsequies were not long delayed, they used another
kind of _embalming_, namely, an external and outward application of
Spices and Odours, without the unbowelling of the corps. This the
_Greeks_ termed ἐνταφιάζειν.[701] This was used toward our _Saviour
Christ_, _John 19. 40._

    [700] _Herodot. Euterp._

    [701] _Usurpatur tamen τὸ ἐνταφιάζειν in scripturis, lata
    significatione, ad denotandum utramque condituram. Imo ἔθαψαν.
    occurrit. Gen. 50. 26. pro eo, quod in Hebr. ‎‏ויחנטו‏‎ Et
    aromatibus condiverunt._

Sometimes they did use to _burn the corps_, preserving onely the bones
in some urn or pitcher, _Amos 6. 10._ But commonly they interred the
whole body, and buried it in the earth. The ancient _Jews_ if they
received not from their Ancestors, then would they purchase a _burial
place_ themselves, for the burial of them and their family. The form
of that place was thus: It was a _vault_ hewed out in a rock,[702] six
cubits long, and four broad, in which eight other cells or lesser holes
(or as some say, thirteen) were made, as so many distinct receptacles,
or _tombs_ for the dead bodies to be laid in: as often as they buried
any, they were wont to _roll a great stone to the mouth of the cave_.
The _cave_ or _vault_ it self they termed from the act of burial,
_Keber_,[703] which signifieth a place of burial, or from its form,
_Magnara_,[704] _a den or cave_. These several cells or receptacles in
which the body was laid, they called _cucim_,[705] _graves, tombs_:
and the _stone_ they named _Golel_,[706] _a rolling stone_. This
giveth great light to that in the _Gospel_. _Joseph_ took the body of
_Christ_, and wrapped it in a clean linnen cloth, and put it in his
_new tomb_, which he had hewen out in a rock, and _rolled a great stone
to the door of the Sepulchre_, _Mat. 27. 59, 60._ These _caves_ or
_vaults_ the wealthier sort would _paint_, _garnish_, and _beautifie_
at the mouth or enterance of them: hence cometh that phrase, _Sepulchra
dealbata_, _painted tombs_. As often as they had an occasion to mention
or speak of any friend deceased, they used that in the _Proverbs_,
_The memory of the just is blessed_, _Prov. 10. 7._ Hence the
_Rabbies_,[707] in their quotations of any worthy Author deceased,
usually subjoyn this honourable commemoration, _N. Benedictæ memoriæ_,
_N. such or such a one of blessed memory_.

    [702] _‎‏ד אמות על שש‏‎ Talmud Seder. Nez. in Bavabathra. cap. 6._

    [703] _‎‏קבר‏‎_

    [704] _‎‏מערה‏‎_

    [705] _‎‏כוכים‏‎_

    [706] _‎‏גלל‏‎_

    [707] _‎‏זכר צדיק לברכה‏‎ Memoria ejus sit in benedictione._

But their usual Epitaph or inscription upon their Sepulchers, was,[708]
_Let this soul be bound up in the Garden of Eden, or in the bundle of
the living, Amen, Amen, Amen, Selati_.

    [708] _‎‏נשמתה תהא צרורה בגן עדן א א א סלת‏‎ Sheindler in ‎‏נדר‏‎_

The latter _Jews_ have been strangely conceited concerning the place
of burials, and are perswaded that if an _Israelite_ be buried in any
strange country, out of the promised Land, he shall not be partaker so
much as of Resurrection, except the Lord vouchsafe to make him _hollow
passages_, under the earth, thorow which his body by a continual
volutation and rolling, may be brought into the land of _Canaan_.
The ground hereof is taken from the charge of _Jacob_ unto his son
_Joseph_, that he should not bury him in the land of _Egypt_, but in
_Canaan_. For which charge they assign three reasons.[709] _First_,
because he foresaw by the spirit of Prophecy, that the dust of that
land should afterward be turned into lice. _Secondly_, because those
who died out of the holy Land should not rise again without a painful
rolling and tumbling of their bodies thorow those hollow passages.
_Thirdly_, that the _Egyptians_ might not idolatrously worship him.

    [709] _Solom. Jarchi. Gen. 47. 29._

They made a feast at their burials, which is stiled _The bread of men_,
_Ezek. 14. 17._ And a _cup of consolation_, _Jer. 16. 7._ because
it was administred to comfort those that were sad of heart. It much
resembled the _Roman Silicernium_.

From those two places last quoted, we may observe, that at the burial
of their friends, they used these ceremonies which follow; some to
_testifie_, some to _augment_ their grief. 1. _Cutting themselves_,
that is, wounding or cutting any part of their body, with any kind
of Instrument. This practice was learned from the _Heathens_,[710]
who were wont not only to scratch their face, but to punch and prick
certain parts of their body with a needle, and then cover it over with
ink, which they used as a special ceremony in their superstitious
worship, and therefore it is forbid, _Deut. 14. 1._ _Secondly, making
themselves bald_,[711] which was done divers manner of ways; either
by _shaving their hair_, or _plucking it off_ with their hands, or by
_impoisoned plaister to make it fall off_. Other Nations were wont to
shave off the hair of their head, and to offer it in the behalf of the
dead: they did sometimes shave their cheeks, sometimes their eye-lids:
and this also, being an _Heathenish_ custome, was likewise forbidden in
_Israel_, _Deut. 14. 1._ _Thirdly, going bare headed_, that they might
cast dust or ashes upon their heads, signifying thereby that they _were
unworthy the ground on which they went. Fourthly, going barefooted_
for their greater humiliation. _Fifthly, the covering of their lips_,
for that was a special sign of sorrow and shame, _The Seers shall be
ashamed_, &c. they shall all cover their lips, for they have no answer
of God, _Mich. 3. 7._ If it be demanded, how they covered their lips?
It is thought[712] they did it _by casting the skirt of their cloak,
or garment over them. Sixthly,[713] renting their cloaths. Seventhly,
putting sackcloth about their loyns_, _Gen. 37. 34._ These were general
tokens of grief, used upon all extroardinary occasions of sorrow. Two
other there were, more proper to burials, to augment their grief.
_First, Minstrels_, who with their sad tunes inclined the affections
of the people to mourning.[714] Of these there were _two sorts_: Some
playing on _pipes_, others sounding _trumpets_. At the funeral of
Noblemen, or old men, they used a _trumpet_: at the funeral of the
common people, or children, they used a _pipe_.[715] In this respect
it is said; _That Jesus, when he raised_ Jairus _his daughter, cast
out the Minstrels_, Mat. 9. 23. _Secondly_, women hired to sing at
burials for the same purpose, and likewise by outward significations
of sorrow, to move the company, and more strongly to affect them,
_Call for the mourning women_, &c. _and send for skilful women_, _Jer.
9. 17._ These the _Romans_ called, _Præficas, quasi in hoc ipsum
præfectas_, _Chief or skilful mourners_.

    [710] _Gentes, quasdam corporis partes acu vulnerabant, vel
    alias incidebant atramentumque superponebant, quod in cultum
    dæmonum suorum fiebat, præcipietur ergo ne ullo pacto sicut
    gentes ferirent carnes suas; quemadmodum sacerdotes Cybeles &
    deæ Sororum, ut refert Lucianus. P. Fag. Deut. 14. 1. Unguibus
    ora soror fædans & pectora pugnis. Virg. lib. 4. Æneid._

    [711] _Sectis fratri imposuere capillos. Ovid. Met. 3._

    [712] _D. Kimchi & Aben. Esra P. Fag. Lev. 14. 45._

    [713] _Scissâque Polyxena pallâ. Juvenal. Satyr. 10._

    [714] _Majoris ætatis funera ad tubam proferre solebant:
    minoris vero ætatis ad tibias. Servius. Æneid. lib. 5._

    [715] _Tibia cui teneros suetum deducere manes Lege Phrygum
    mesta. Statius. Theb. lib. 6, ver. 121._


_Of their Oaths._

The manner of _swearing_ was sometimes by _lifting up their hands
towards heaven_; _Abraham_ said to the _King of Sodom_, _I have
lifted up my hand unto the Lord_; that is, I have _sworn_, that I
will not take from a thred, even to a shoe-latchet, _Gen. 14. 22._
Unto which custome the Psalmist seemeth to allude, _Psal. 106. 26._
_He lifted up his hand_, that is, _he swore_. Sometimes he that took
the Oath _did put his hand under the others thigh_, which administred
the Oath. We read this manner of administration to have been used by
_Abraham_, _Gen. 24. 2._ and _Jacob_, _Gen. 47. 29._ Which ceremony
some[716] interpret to be as a _token of subjection_; others[717] as
a _mystery of circumcision_; the sign wherof they bore about that
place of their body: Others[718] more probably think it to be a
_mysterious signification of Christ the promised seed_, who was to
come out of _Abrahams loyns_, or _thigh_; as the like phrase is used,
_Gen. 46. 26._ the souls that came out of _Jacobs thigh_. Sometimes
also the manner of deposing, was to _stand before the Altar_, _1
Kings 8. 31._ Which was also the custome of the _Athenians_,[719] the
_Carthaginians_,[720] and the _Romans_.[721]

    [716] _Aben Esra. Gen. 24. 2._

    [717] _Solomon Jarchi, ibid._

    [718] _August. quæst. super Gen. 62._

    [719] _Alex. ab. Alex. lib. 5. cap. 10._

    [720] _Livius dec. 3. lib. 1. It. Valer. Max. l. 9. c. 3._

    [721] _Jures licet & Samothracum, & nostrorum aras. Juvenal.
    Satyr. 3._

The object of a lawful Oath was, and is, _onely the Lord_: whence he
that took the Oath was said to _confess unto God_, compare _Isa. 45.
23._ with _Rom. 14. 11._ And the ancient form of imposing an Oath was
this, _Give glory to God_, _Josh. 7. 19._ _John. 9. 24._ Now God was
glorified by an Oath, because thereby there was a solemn confession
and acknowledgement of _Gods Omni-presence_, that he is present in
every place: of his _Omniscience_, that he knoweth all secrets: of
his _truth_, that he is _a maintainer of truth_, and _an avenger of
falshood_: of his _justice_, that he is willing; and his _omnipotency_,
that he is able to punish those that by swearing shall dishonour him,
And as the _object of a lawful oath_ was onely _God_: so it is implied,
that it was not rashly or unadvisedly to be undertaken, but by a kind
of necessity _imposed_; for the _Hebrew_ word ‎‏נשבע‏‎ is a Passive, and
signifieth _to be sworn_, rather than to _swear_.

In corrupter times they were wont to swear by the _creatures_,[722]
but the _Jews_ chiefly by _Jerusalem, by the Temple, by the gold of
the Temple, by the Altar, and the gift on the Altar_. This _gift_ in
_Hebrew_ was termed _Corban_,[723] and it was one of those oaths which
in our _Saviour Christs_ time the _Scribes_ and _Pharisees_ accounted
principally obligatory. If any swore _by the Altar_, it was nothing:
but if any swore by the _oblation of the Altar_, he was bound to
perform it, _Matth. 23. 18._ Yea, although _Gods law_ enjoyned honour,
and relief toward parents; yet if they had bound themselves by this
oath _Corban_, that they would not help or relieve their parents, they
taught they were discharged. Whence, saith their _Talmud_,[724] _Every
one ought to honour his father and mother, except he hath vowed the
contrary_. And it is evident[725] that the _Jews_ did often by solemn
vows and _oaths bind themselves, that they would never do good to
such, or such a man_. We must furthermore know that usually to their
oaths there was an _execration_, or _conditional curse_ annexed, which
sometimes was expressed, as, _if I do not do thus and thus, then the
Lord do so to me, and more also_, _1 Sam. 14. 44._ Also _1 Kin. 20.
10._ Sometimes it is _understood_, as, _I have sworn, if I take from
a thred to a shoo-latchet_, _Gen. 14. 22._ _then let the Lord do so
to me, and more also_; this, or the like, is _understood_ and maketh
the former part of the oath to sound negatively; as if _Abraham_ had
said, _I have sworn, I will not take from a thread to a shoo-latchet_.
In like manner, _Psal. 95._ I have sworn, _if they shall enter into
my rest_; that is, _They shall not enter into my rest_, _Heb. 3. 18._
This helpeth the exposition of that difficult place, _Mat. 15. 5._
which we read,[726] _By the gift that is offered by me thou maist have
profit_: but if we conceive it thus, according to the form of the oath
_Corban_, _By Corban if thou receive any profit by me_, and understand
the execration implyed: _Then let God do thus, and much more to me_;
the sense will be thus; _By Corban thou shalt receive no profit by
me_. This exposition is as agreeable to the scope of the place, as it
is to their form of swearing, and plainly sheweth how the _Pharisees_
by their traditions transgressed the Commandment of God. For God
commanded, saying, _Honour thy father and Mother._ But the _Scribes_
and _Pharisees_ said; Whosoever should say to father or mother seeking
relief, _By Corban thou shalt receive no profit from me_, he was

    [722] _Allium, porrum & cepas inter deos jure jurando habuerunt
    Egyptii, Plin. lib. 19. c. 6. Item. Juvenal. Sat. 15._

    [723] _ἐν οἷς μετά τινων ἄλλων καὶ τὸν καλούμενον ὅρκον Κορβάν
    καταριθμεῖ. Inter quæ sacramenta, cum quibusdam aliis etiam
    jusjurandum quod Corban appellatur, enumerat Joseph. contra
    Appion. l. 1. p. 147._

    [724] _Talmud. Hierosolymit. tract. de votis cap. 10._

    [725] _Ὅρκῳ πιστοῦνται, τῷ δεῖνι μὴ παρέξειν ὠφέλειαν τινα.
    Jurejurando se obstringunt huic vel illi homini nihil se
    commodi præstituros! Philo Jud. de specialibus legib. p. 595._

    [726] _Δῶρον, ὃ ἐὰν ἐξ ἐμοῦ ὠφεληθῇς, Per Corbam, si quicquam
    tibi prodero: interpretor ὃ ἐὰν, Si quicquam quemadmodum ὃς
    ἐὰν. Si quisquam, Mat. 10. 14. & Mat. 23. 18. Et execratione
    subaudita sensus emergat, Per Corbam nihil tibi prodero,
    Cæterum, si quis urgeat, quod in fonte sit κορβᾶν, non per
    Corban, vel ἐν κορβὰν, sciendum quod similis ellipsis in
    jurandi formulis non est inusitata, hinc ‎‏המעון הזה‏‎ valet
    ‎‏במעון הזה‏‎ ~per domicilium hoc~. Vide Drusium de tribus sectis l. 2.
    cap. 17._


_Of their Writing, Masorites, and their Work._

_Writing_ in no Nation came to its perfection on a sudden, but by
degrees: The Opinions of the Ancients concerning the Authors and
Inventers of letters are different. Some say[727] _Cadmus_ brought
the use of letters into _Greece_: others say,[728] _Palamedes_: some
say,[729] _Radamanthus_ brought them into _Assyria_: _Memnon_ into
_Egypt_: _Hercules_ into _Phrygia_: and _Carmenta_ into _Latium_.
Likewise some say the _Phœnicians_ had first the knowledge and use of

    _Phœnices primi (famæ si credimus) ausi_
    _Mansuram rudibus vocem signare figuris._


    [727] _Plin. l. 7. c. 56. Diodor. Sicul. l. 6. c. 5._

    [728] _Servius. lib. 2. Æneid._

    [729] _Alex. Genial. l. 1. c. 30._

Others say the _Ethiopians_:[730] others the _Assyrians_.[731] But upon
better grounds it is thought,[732] that _Moses first taught the use of
letters to the Jews_, and that the _Phœnicians_ learned them from the
_Jews_, and the _Grecians_ from the _Phœnicians_.

    [730] _Diodor. Sicul. l. 4._

    [731] _Plin. l. 7. c. 56._

    [732] _Euseb. præpar. Evang. lib. 18._

In like manner, the matter upon which men wrote, in ruder times was
different. Some wrote on _rinds of trees_, whence _Liber_, signifying
originally a _rinde of a tree_, is now used for _a book_:[733]
some wrote on _tile-stone_ with a _bone_ instead of a _pen_; some
on _Tables_; this last was chiefly in use among the _Jews_, the
_Decalogue_ was was written in two _tables_. Again, write these things
upon a _table_, _Esay. 30. 8._ ἐπὶ πυξίου, saith the _Septuagint_, as
if the writing-tables at that time were made of _Box-trees_. They used
not then _pens_ or _quills_, but a certain instrument or _punch_,
made of Iron or Steel, called _Stylus_, it was sharp at one end, for
the more convenient indenting or carving of the characters, and broad
at the other, for the scraping or blotting out what had been written:
whence sprang that Proverbial speech:[734] _Invertere stylum_, _to
unsay what he had said_, or _to blot out what he hath written_: _Scribe
stilo hominis_: _write with the pen of man_, _Esay. 8. 1._ Afterward
before they came to bind up books in manner as now we have them, they
wrote in a roll of _Paper_ or _Parchment_, which sometimes was _ten
cubits_ broad, and _twenty_ long, _Zac. 5. 2._ This they called ‎‏מגלה‏‎
_Megilla_, in _Hebrew_, from _Galal_, _to roll_, _Volumen_ _in Latine_,
in _English a volumn_, from _volvo_, _to roll_. In the _volumn of the
book_ it is written, _Psal. 40. 7._ And _Christ closing_ the Book, gave
it to the Minister, _Luk. 4. 20._ the word is πτύξας, _complicans_
_folding_, or rolling it up: and _vers. 17._ ἀναπτύξας, _explicans_,
_unfolding_, or opening it.[735] These _volumns_ were written not with
one entire continued writing, but the writing was distinguished into
many _spaces_, _columns_ or _platforms_, like unto so many _Areæ_:
these _platforms_, filled with writing, were instead of so many _pages_
in a book: and thus we are to understand that _Jer. 36. 23._ When
_Jehudi_ had read three or four _leaves_, he cut it with a pen-knife,
_&c._ These _leaves_ were nothing else but such _spaces_, and platforms
in the _roll_. After this manner the _Jews_ reserve the Law written in
such _rolls_, and with such _spaces_, in their _Synagogues_ at this day.

    [733] _Diogen. Laert. in vitæ Cleanthis._

    [734] _Erasm. in Adag._

    [735] _Buxtorf. institut. epist. p. 4._

It is much controversed, whether the _Jews_ did from the beginning
write with _vowels_ and _accents_, or whether they were added by the
_Masorites_; for the understanding of which, it will be needful,
_First_, to enquire who the _Masorites_ were: _Secondly_, what their
work was; and then to deliver in a proposition what may be probably
thought in this point.

First, concerning the _Masorites_, we are to know that ‎‏מסר‏‎ _Masar_
signifieth _tradere_, _to deliver_, and _Masor_ _a tradition_,
delivered from hand to hand to posterity without writing, as the
_Pythagoreans_ and _Druides_ were wont to do; but by the figure
_Synecdoche_, it signifieth those _critical notes_ or _Scholion_,
written in the margine of the Bible, and those that were the Authors
of those _critical observations_ were termed _Masoritæ_, _Masorites_.
Concerning these Authors, who they were there are two opinions.
Some[736] think that they were certain learned _Jews_ living in the
City _Tiberias_, they termed them _Sapientes Tiberiadis_, _the wise
men of Tiberias_. These _wise men_ are thought to have added these
_marginal notes_ unto the _Hebrew Bibles_[737] some time after the
finishing of the _Babylon Talmud_, which was about the year of our
_Lord_, 506. This opinion is unlikely for these two reasons. 1.[738]
Because we cannot find in Histories, the continuance of any Colledg or
School in _Tiberias_ so long, but rather that _degrees in learning_
ceased there within four hundred years after our _Saviour his birth_.
2.[739] In both _Talmuds_ mention is made of the _Masora_, and the
things contained therein. Others therefore more probably say,[740] that
the _Masorites_ were that _Ecclesiastical Senate_ or _Council_ held by
_Esra, Haggai, Zachary, Malachi_, and divers others assembled for the
reformation of the Church after their return from _Babylon_; they are
called _Viri Synagogæ magnæ_. This _Council_ continued at least forty
years: for _Simeon the just_, who went out in his _Priestly robes_,
to meet and pacifie _Alexander the Great_, coming in hostile manner
against _Jerusalem_,[741] was the last of that _Council_, and that was
above three hundred years before the birth of our _Saviour_. _Esra_ was
the _President_ or Chief of this _Council_; he was of such repute among
the _Jews_, that they parallel’d him with _Moses_, saying,[742] _Dignus
erat_ Esra, _quod data fuisset lex per manus ejus_ Israeli, _si non
præcessisset eum_ Moses.

    [736] _Aben Esra vid. Buxt. commen. Masor. c. 3._

    [737] _Elias Levita in præfat. tertia l. Masoreth hammasoreth._

    [738] _Buxtorf. in comment. Masor. c. 7._

    [739] _Buxtorf. in comment. Masor. c. 8._

    [740] _R. Asarias. R. Gedalia. Buxtor. in comment. Masor. c. 11._

    [741] _Pirke Aboth. c. 1._

    [742] _Talmud. Sanhedrim. c. 2. fol. 21._

In the second place we are to consider the _work_, what the men of
this great _Synagogue_, being the true _Masorites_, did: their work
may be reduced to these particulars. 1. When this great _Council_ was
assembled, they, among whom _Ezra_ was chief (who was assisted with
the inspiration of _Gods Spirit_)[743] determined what _Books_ were
_Canonical_, what _spurious_ and _Apocryphal_. _Secondly_,[744] the
_authentick_ and _Canonical Books_, were purged by them, of all errors
crept into the Text in time of their captivity. _Thirdly_,[745] they
digested the _Old Testament_ into _twenty two books_, according to the
number of the _Hebrew letters_. _Fourthly_, they distinguisht it into
great _Sections_ and _Verses_; for though the Law was not so confusedly
written, without any space or note of distinction between word and word
that it seemed all one _continued verse_, or as the _Kabbalists_ speak,
‎‏תיבה אחת‏‎ _Theba achath_, _one word_, until the time of the _Masorites_;
yet it was not so distinguisht into _Sections_ and _Verses_, as
now we have it. _Fifthly_, they added their censures and _critical
observations_, concerning the irregularity of many words, in respect
of the _vowels_ and _accents_. _Sixthly_, they numbered the _verses_,
_words_, and _letters_ of every Book, to prevent all possibility of
corrupting the Text in future times; for now they say, the gift of
Prophesie should cease. _Lastly_, they noted the _different writing_,
and _different reading_, for the understanding of which we must know,
that in the _Hebrew_ Text many words are written with more, many with
_fewer letters_, than they are pronounced; many words _written_ in the
Text which are not _pronounced, &c._[746] In the margin the difference
is expressed: whence the difference in the Text they term ‎‏כתב‏‎ _Cethib_,
_Scriptionem_, the writing; the difference in the margin they term ‎‏קרי‏‎
_Keri_, _Lectionem_, the Reading: because they do read according to
that in the margin. This difference is thought by some[747] to be a
correction of the Bible, according to several copies after their return
from _Babylon_: but, that it is of _Divine Authority_, containing many
mysteries known to _Moses_, and the _Prophets_ successively (though
many of them unknown to our Age) and that it was not any correction,
but the difference it self primarily and purposely was intended by
the _Prophets_, and holy Penmen of the Scripture, evidently appeareth
by the diversity of readings in those books which were written by
_Haggai_, _Zachary_, _Malachi_, _Daniel_, and _Esra_: They being the
Authors of their own books, needed no _correction_ at that time,
themselves being present, yet in them this _different reading_ is used.

    [743] _Buxtorf. in comment. Masor. c. 11._

    [744] _Tertull. l. de habit. muliebr. Chrysost. hom. 8. ad
    Hebræos. Irenæus adver. hæres. lib. 3. c. 25. August. de mirab.
    sacræ, script. l. 2. circa finem._

    [745] _Genebrard. l. 2. Chronolog._

    [746] _Sunt octo voces quæ scriptæ sunt in textu, sed non
    leguntur quas adducit. Masora, Ruth. 3. 12._

    [747] _Contra hos disputat Elias Levita in præfat. 3. l.
    masoreth hammasoreth._

In the third place, the Proposition followeth; namely, _Seeing
that the_ Masorites _passed their censure on many words for their
irregularity in their vowels and accents_; therefore, _the vowels
originally were not from the_ Masorites, _but of the same antiquity
with their words_; and in truth, otherwise they had been a _body or
carkass without a soul_.


_Of Israels pitching their Tents, or of their Camps._

Whiles the _Israelites_ wandred thorow the Wilderness, their _Church_
was a _Tabernacle_; and their _habitations_, _Tents_: so that their
whole _Camp_ might be termed a _moveable City_. It was divided into
three parts. In the centre or middle of all was the _Tabernacle_ it
self, with its _Courts_, this they termed the _Camp of the Divine
Majesty_. Next round about, pitcht the _Priests_ and _Levites_, to whom
the charge of the _Tabernacle_ belonged, (and therefore the nearest
adjoyning place of habitation might be the convenientest for them) this
was called the _camp of Levi_. In the utter parts, round about _Levi_,
the _twelve Tribes_ pitcht their Tents; this they termed the _Camp of
Israel_. The first _Camp_ resembled a great _Cathedral Church_, with
its _Church-yard_. The _second_ a Priviledg-place _about the Church_,
as it were for _Colledges_ for the habitation of the _Clergy_. The
_third_, the _body of a City_, wherein the _Towns-men_ or _Laity_
dwelt. The form of the whole, is probably thought to be _four-square_,
some say _twelve miles long_, and _twelve miles broad_.[748]

    [748] _Uziel. Num. 2. 3._

In the Eastern part pitched these three Tribes, _Judah_, _Issachar_,
and _Zebulon_. On the South-side, _Reuben_, _Simeon_, and _Gad_. On
the West, _Ephraim_, _Manasses_, and _Benjamin_. On the North, _Dan_,
_Asher_, and _Napthali_: and these made up the _outward Camp_, termed
the _Camp of Israel_. Between each Tribe, in every one of those four
quarters, there were distant spaces like Streets, where there was
buying and selling as in a market, and tradesmen in their shops in
manner of a City leading to and fro.[749] This _Camp_ is thought[750]
to be round a _mile distant_ from the _Tabernacle_, that is _a Sabbath
daies journey_; and this is gathered from _Josh. 3. 4._ where the
distance between the _People_ and the _Ark_ is commanded to be _two
thousand cubits_.

    [749] _Οὐδενί τε ἄλλῳ ἢ πόλει μετανισταμένῃ καὶ καθιδρυμένῃ
    ἐῴκει. Joseph. l. 3. Antiq. c. 11. p. 97._

    [750] _Tradunt Hebræi, filios Israelita castrametatos fuisse
    in circuitu tabernaculi ut unum milliare interfuerit (~i.~)
    spacium mille passuum, & hoc erat iter Sabbati. P. Fag. Num. 2.

After this, pitched the _Camp of Levi_: in the Eastern part _Moses_,
_Aaron_, and the _Priests_; in the South the _Cohathites_; in the West
the _Gershonites_; in the North the _Merarites_.

In the _middle_ was the _Camp of the Divine Majesty_. Unto this _David_
alludeth: God is in the middest of her, she shall not be moved, _Psal.
46. 5._

After the same manner the parts of the City _Jerusalem_ were
distinguished, when the Commonwealth was setled.[751] From the _gate of
Jerusalem, to the mountain of the Temple_, was the _Camp of Israel_;
from the _gate of the mountain of the Temple, to the gate of the Court_
(which was otherwise called _Nicanors gate_) was the _Camp of Levi_:
from the _gate of the Court_, and forward, was the _Camp of the Divine

    [751] _Maimon. in Bethhabchirab. c. 7. sect. 11._

Furthermore we are to know, that the _twelve Tribes_ had between
them four principal _Banners_, or _Standards_; _three Tribes to one
Standard_: for which reason, the _Church_ is said to be terrible as an
Army with _banners_, _Can. 6. 4._ The _Hebrew_ word _Banner_, _Numb. 2.
2._ the _Greek_[752] translateth _Order_ and so the _Caldee_ calleth it
_Tekes_[753] (a word borrowed of the _Greek_ τάξις) _order_: Whence the
_Apostle_ taketh his phrase, Every man in his own _order_, _1 Cor. 15.

    [752] _Ἄνθρωπος ἐχόμενος κατὰ τάγμα αὐτοῦ._

    [753] _‎‏גבר על טקסיה‏‎ Quisque juxta ordinatam suam aciem._

Every _banner_ was thought to be of _3 colours_,[754] according to
the colours of the precious stones in the brest-plate, bearing the
names of their _Patriarchs_. But this proportion will not hold in
all, seeing _Levi_ (who is not here among the other _Tribes_) was in
the breast-plate one of the _twelve_: and _Joseph_ there graved on the
_Beril_ hath here _two Tribes, Ephraim and Manasses_, unto whom _two
colours_ cannot be allowed from the breast plate.

    [754] _Jonathan Uzel. Num. 2. 3._

Each _Banner_ had its several _motto_, or inscription. In the _first
Standard_ was written, from _Num. 10. 25._ _Rise up, Lord, and
let thine enemies be scattered, and let them that hate thee flee
before thee_. It is moreover taught by the _Hebrews_,[755] that each
_Standard_ had a distinct _sign_ engraven in it. _Reubens Standard_ had
the _Image of a Man_: _Judahs_ the _Image of a Lion_: _Ephraims_ the
_Image of an Ox_: and _Dans_ the _Image of an Eagle_.

    [755] _Dicunt in vexillo Reuben fuisse imaginem hominis: in
    vexillo Jehudah imaginem leonis: in vexillo Ephraim imaginem
    bovis: in vexillo Dan, imaginem aquilæ P. Fag. Numb. 2. Aben
    Esra, ibidem._

These same _four creatures_ are used by _Ezekiel_, _Ez. 1. 10._ to
describe the nature of _Angels_. Every _Cherubim_ is said to have _four
faces_: _the face of a man_; to shew his understanding; _of a Lion_,
to shew his power; _of an Ox_, to shew his ministratory office; _of an
Eagle_ to shew his swiftness in the execution of _Gods_ will.[756] The
same description of _Angels_ you may find, _Rev. 4. 6._

    [756] _Angeli ex hoc versu definiri possunt; sunt enim spiritus
    intelligentes, ut homo, potentes ut Leo, ministratorij ut Bos,
    & celeres ut aquila. Tremel. in Ezek. 1._

By the same _four_, in the opinion of many of the _Fathers_,[757] are
shadowed forth the _four Evangelists_. The _man_ shadowed S. _Matthew_,
because he begins his _Gospel_ with the Generation of _Christ_,
according to his humanity: The _Lyon_ S. _Mark_, because he beginneth
his _Gospel_, from that voice of the _Lion_ roaring in the Wilderness,
_Vox clamantis in deserto_: The _Ox_ S. _Luke_, because he beginneth
with _Zacharias the Priest_: and the _Eagle_ S. _John_, who soaring
aloft beginneth with the _Divinity of Christ_.

    [757] _Hieronym. ad initium sui commentarii in Mat. It. Gregor.
    homil. 4. in Ezek. ab Hieronim. dissentit. D. Augustinus in
    Matthæo & Marco, nam in Leone Mattheum, Marcum, in homine putat
    adumbratum. August. de consensu Evangelist. l. 1. c. 6._

Thus have we seen how they pitch’d their _camps_, their _marching_
followeth: and here we are to consider, first, their _marching in their
journeys_ thorow the Wilderness. Secondly, their _marching in their

Concerning their _marching in their journeys_, they either _moved
forward_, or _abode still_, according to the moving or standing of the
Cloud, which conducted them: the manner thereof is described, _Numb.
10._ and summarily we may view it thus: when _God_ took up the Cloud,
_Moses_ prayed, and the _Priests_ with Trumpets blew an alarm, then
_Judah_ the first Standard rose up, with _Issachar_ and _Zebulon_,
and they _marched foremost_: then followed the _Gershonites_ and
_Merarites_, bearing the boards and coverings of the _Tabernacle_ in
wagons; the Trumpets sounded the second alarm, then _Reuben_, _Simeon_,
and _Gad_ rose up and _followed the Tabernacle_, and after them went
the _Kohathites_, in the midst of the _twelve Tribes_, bearing on their
shoulders the _Ark, Candlestick, Table, Altar_, and other holy things.
At the third alarm rose up the _Standard of Ephraim_, _Manasses_, and
_Benjamin_, and these followed the _Sanctuary_: unto this _David_ hath
reference, when he prayeth, _Psa. 80. 2._ _Before Ephraim, Benjamin,
and Manasses_, stir up thy strength, and come and save us. At the
fourth alarm, arose the _Standard of Dan_, _Asher_, and _Napthali_: and
to these was committed the care of gathering together the lame, feeble,
and sick, and to look that nothing was left behind: whence they are
called the _gathering Host_, _Josh. 6. 9._ unto this _David_ alludeth:
when my Father and my Mother forsake me, the _Lord_ will _gather_ me,
_Psal. 27. 10._

Concerning their _marching in War_: _First_, the _Priests_ sounded the
alarm with Trumpets, _Num. 10. 9._ this they termed: _Therugnah_.[758]
_Secondly_, one _Priest_ was selected out of the rest, to stir up the
hearts of the people, and by a kind of hortatory Oration, to encourage
them to the war, _Deut. 20. 2._ him they called _Unctum belli_, _the
anointed of the battel_. _Thirdly_, they marched on by five and five
in battel-array, _Exo. 13. 18._ so the Original signifieth in that

    [758] _‎‏תרועה‏‎ Clangor, Vociferatio. Hebræi duplicem clangorem
    esse statuunt alterumque vocari ‎‏תקיעה‏‎ alterum ‎‏תרועת‏‎ quorum
    ille æquabilis est vox, hic citus concisusque fragor, ille ad
    convocandos cætus, hic ad accendendos millitum animos facit._

    [759] _‎‏חמושים‏‎_

In the last place, we are to consider how they were to deal in
besieging a Town; for the conceiving whereof, note these two

1. _They were to offer peace unto all Forreigners, and Canaanites_,
_Deut. 20. 10._ And this is clearly signified _Josh. 11. 19._ There
was not a City that made peace with the Children of _Israel_, save the
_Hivites_, the inhabitants of _Gibeon_, all other they took in battel.
For it was of the _Lord_ to harden their hearts. Yet here _Moab_ and
_Ammon_ are excepted; _Israel must not seek their peace_, _Deut. 23. 6._

2. _They were to make covenant with none of the seven Nations_, _Deut.
7. 2._ _Exod. 23. 32. & 34. 14._ With _Forreigners they might_, _Josh.
9. 17._ peradventure you _dwell among us_, and how shall we _make a
covenant_ with you? Not, how shall we _make peace with you_?

Some may question, what the difference was between _making peace_, and
_making a covenant_? I answer, _two fold_. 1. The _making of peace_
was a naked stipulation, or promise, mutually made for the laying
aside of all hostile affections towards each other; whereby life on
both sides might be secured. _Making a covenant_, was a solemn binding
of each other, to performance of this mutual promise by outward
ceremonies,[760] of cutting a beast in twain, and passing between the
parts thereof, _Jer. 34. 18._ as if they would say; _Thus let it be
done to him, and thus let his body be cut in two, who shall break this
covenant_? Secondly, peace was not concluded by the _Israelites_, but
only upon these terms, _That the People should become tributary unto
them_, _Deut. 20. 11._ The _making of a covenant_ was upon equal
terms, without any condition either of tribute or service, as is
gatherable from the _Covenant_ made by _Joshua_ with the _Gibeonites_,
where there is no mention of any condition at all, _Josh. 9._

    [760] _Hæc est causa cur Hebræi Fœdus facere dicant ‎‏כרות הברית‏‎
    (~i.~) Dividere, aut dissecare fœdus, quemadmodum apud Latinos,
    dicitur percutere fœdus, quæ locutio fluxit ab antiquo fœderis
    faciendi more: Sacerdos enim feriebat porcum silice, dicens,
    Sic à Jove feriatur is, qui sanctum hoc fregerit fœdus, ut ego
    hunc porcum ferio. Livius. Decad. 1. l. 1. p. 17._

This difference seemeth to me warrantable, and serveth to reconcile
many places of Scripture, as where _God_ saith, _Offer peace to all_,
and _make a covenant with none_. _Secondly_, It sheweth the fraud
of the _Gibeonites_ to be greater than is commonly conceived, for
they sought not _peace simply_, but _a covenant_. _Make a league
with us_, _Josh. 9. 6._ _Thirdly_, It salveth that common Objection
made in defence of _unadvised Oaths_, to prove them _obligatory_,
though _unlawful_. The Argument is framed thus; _The covenant which
~Joshua~ made with the Gibeonites unadvisedly, was unlawful: but that
was observed by him, and the breach thereof, when ~Saul~ slew the
Gibeonites, punished by God_, _2 Sam. 21. 1._ _Therefore, &c._ I say
it salveth that Objection: because if we diligently observe _Joshua_’s
practise, we shall find _unadvised Oaths_ to be so far, and _only
so far binding_, as they agree with _God_’s _words_. _God_’s _word_
required the _Gibeonites_ should have their lives secured, because they
accepted _peace_; Thus far therefore the _covenant was still of force_.
_God_’s _word_ required, that the _Canaanites_, after the acceptation
of peace, should become _tributary_; here the _covenant was not of
force_, and therefore _Joshuah_ made them _hewers of wood, and drawers
of water_, which is a kind of tribute in the language of the Scripture,
a tribute of the _body_, though not of the _purse_: in which sense the
_Ægyptian Task-Masters_ are in the Original called _Tribute-masters_,
_Exod. 1. 11._


_Their Measures._

_Measures_ in use among the _Hebrews_, and so among all other
_Nations_, are of _two sorts_: some _Mensuræ applicationis_, _measures
of application_, as, a span, a cubit, a yard, and the like. Secondly,
_Mensuræ capacitatis_, _measures of capacity_, as pints, quarts, pecks,
bushels, _&c._ _Measures of application_, mentioned in Scripture, are
these that follow (in which there might be no deceit; the ground of
these measures was the breadth of so many, or so many barley corns
middle sized, laid by one another) ‎‏אצבע‏‎ _Etsbang_, _Digitus_, _a
finger, an inch_.[761] It containeth the breadth of six barley corns
joyned together where they are thickest: though in round-reckoning it
goeth for an inch, yet in accurate speaking _four fingers make three
inches_.[762] Of this there is mention, _Jer. 52. 21._

    [761] _Arias Mont. Thubal Cain._

    [762] _Quatuor digiti constituunt tres pollices. Fran. Iunius
    in Ezek. 40. 5._

_Palmus_, This was two fold; _Palmus minor_, and _Palmus major_. The
lesser containeth the breadth of _four fingers_, (i.) _three inches_,
the _Hebrews_ term it, ‎‏טפח‏‎ _Tophach_, the _Greeks_ παλαιστίδα: the
greater is termed ‎‏זרת‏‎ _Zereth_, by the _Greeks_ σπιθαμὴ; in Latine
_Spithama, & Dodrans_. It containeth the measure that is between the
thumb and the little finger stretcht out, a _span_.

‎‏פעם‏‎, _Pagnam_, _Pes_, _a foot_. It containeth _twelve inches_.[763]

    [763] _Quatuor Palmos; scil. minores. Pet. Martyr. 1. Reg. c. 6._

‎‏אמה‏‎ _Amma_, _Cubitus_, _a Cubit_. We shall find in Authors mention
of _four kinds of Cubits_. 1. _Cubitus communi_, this was the measure
from the elbow to the fingers end. It contained a foot and half, or
_half a a yard_, it is called the _common Cubit_. 2. _Cubitus sacer_,
_An holy Cubit_, this was a full _yard_, containing _two of the common
Cubits_, as appeareth by comparing _1 Kin. 7. 15._ with _2 Chron.
3. 15._ In the first place, the pillars are reckoned each of them
_eighteen cubits_ high: in the second place they are reckoned _five
and thirty cubits_ high; which, together with the basis, being one
ordinary cubit high, _doubleth the number_: so that the first Text is
to be understood of _holy cubites_; the second of _common cubits_. 3.
_Cubitus regis_, the _Kings cubit_; this was _three fingers longer than
the common cubit_:[764] Whereas the common cubit is termed _cubitus
viri_, the _cubit of a man_, _Deut. 3. 11._ _Onkelos_ doth improperly
term it, _cubitum regis_, the _Kings cubit_. _Lastly_, there was
_cubitus geometricus_, _A geometrical cubit_, it contained _six common
cubits_,[765] and according to _these cubits_, it is thought that
_Noah’s Ark was built_.

    [764] _Herodot. lib. 2. in descrip. Bab._

    [765] _Orig. hom. 2. in Genes. It. Aug. de Civitat. Dei, lib.
    15. cap. 27._

Some make the difference between the _cubit of the sanctuary_, and _the
common cubit_, to be thus; _The common cubit_, they say, contained
_fifteen inches_,[766] the _holy cubit_ _eighteen inches_.[767]
But that the _holy cubit_ contained _two common cubits_, hath been
evidently proved; and it is probable, that those who make the
difference to be only three _inches_, have mistaken the _Kings cubit_,
for the _holy cubit_.

    [766] _Quinos palmos._

    [767] _Sex palmos._

‎‏חבל‏‎ _Chebel_, _Funiculus_, _a line or rope_. The just length thereof
is unknown: the use thereof was to measure grounds; whence it is
sometimes taken for the inheritance it self. _The lines are fallen to
me in pleasant places_, _Psal. 16. 6._ That is, mine _inheritance_.

‎‏קנה‏‎ _Kaneh_, _Arundo_, the _Reed_. The use of this was to measure
buildings; the length thereof was _six cubits and an hand-breadth_,
_Ezek. 40. 5._ The cubits in this place are interpreted[768] _Kings
cubits_: it was less liable to deceipt than the _Rope_, because
it could not be _shortened_ or _lengthened_, by _shrinking_ or
_stretching_: hence the _Canon_ or _rule_ of the _holy Scripture_ is
mystically typed out by this _Reed_, _Ezek. 40._ and _Revel. 21. 15._

    [768] _Tremelius in hunc locum._

To these may be added other _measures_, wherewith they measured their
_wayes_ and _walks_. The least of these was ‎‏צגד‏‎ _Tsagad_, _passus_, _a

Στάδιον, _Stadium_, _a furlong_. It is often mentioned in the _New
Testament_, not at all in the _Old_. It contained _one hundred twenty
five paces_,[769] which is the eighth part of our mile. Some think it
to be called so, ἀπὸ τῆς στάσεως, from _standing_, because _Hercules
ran so much ground before he stood still_.

    [769] _Isidor._

_Milliarium_, _a mile_; It containeth with us a _thousand paces_, but
much more among the _Hebrews_. Their word ‎‏ברה‏‎ _Barah_, translated often
_Milliarium_, properly signifying a _dinner_ or _meal_, and being
applyed unto _journeys_, _walks_ or _ways_, it signified so much ground
as usually is gone, or conveniently may be travelled in half a day,
between _meal_ and _meal_, or _bait_ and _bait_. The word is read,
_Gen. 35. 16._ When there was (‎‏כברת הארץ‏‎ _Cibrath haarets_) _about half
a daies journey of ground_. The _Greek_ in that place hath an uncouth
word χαβραθὰ; doubtless it was made from the _Hebrew_’s _Cibrath_, and
signifieth _half a daies journey_.

Their _measures of capacity_, termed _Mensuræ capacitatis_, were of
_two sorts_; some for _dry things_ as Corn, Seed, _&c._ Some for
_liquid things_, as Wine, Oyl, _&c._ In both, that there might be a
just proportion observed, all their measures were designed by a set
number of _Hens eggs-shells of a middle size_.

In my parallelling of them with our measures, where I speak of
_Bushels, half Bushels, Pecks_, &c. I am to be understood according to
_Winchester measure_, as we phrase it: such a bushel contained _eight
gallons_. Where I speak of _gallons, pottles, quarts_, &c. I am to be
understood according to our Ale-measure, thereby I avoid fractions of

‎‏קב‏‎, _Kab_, _Kabus_, _a Kab_.[770] This contained _twenty four eggs_,
it held proportion with our _Quart_. The least measure mentioned in
Scripture, is the _fourth part of a Kab_, _2 Kings 6. 25._ The famine
in _Samaria_ was so great, that a _fourth part of a Kab of Doves dung_
was sold for five pieces of silver. The _Rabbines_ have a Proverb, that
_ten Kabs of speech descended into the world, and the women took away
nine of them_.[771]

    [770] _Arias Mont. Thubal Cain._

    [771] _‎‏עשרה קבין שיחה ירדו לעולם תשעה נטלו נשים‏‎ Vid. Buxtorf.
    Lexic. in ‎‏חיה‏‎_

‎‏עמר‏‎ _Omer._ It contained[772] _one Kab and an half, and a fifth part
of a Kab_, that is, _three pints and a half pint_, and a fifth part of
an half pint. It was the tenth part of an _Ephah_, _Exod. 16. 36._

    [772] _Alsted. præcog. theol. l. 2. p. 588._

‎‏סאה‏‎ _Seah_, σάτον, _a Satum_; The _Latine_ Interpreters commonly
render it by _Modius_. It contained[773] _six Kabs_, that is a _Gallon
and half_. We translate the word in general, _a measure_: To morrow
this time, a _measure_ (that is, a _Satum_) of fine flower shall be
sold for a Shekel, _2 Kings 7. 1._

    [773] _Vide Buxtorf. Lexic. in ‎‏קבב‏‎ ex opere R. Alphes.
    tractat. de Pasch. chap. 5. fol. 176._

‎‏אפה‏‎ _Ephah._ It contained[774] _three Sata_, that is, _half a bushel,
and a pottle_.

    [774] _Arias Mont. Thubal Cain._

‎‏לתך‏‎ _Lethec._ It contained[775] _fifteen Modios (i.) Sata_; that is,
_two bushels, six gallons, and a pottle_. Mention of this is made,
_Hos. 3. 2._ It is there rendred in _English_, _half an Homer_.

    [775] _Epiph. de mensur. & Ponderib._

‎‏חמר‏‎ _Homer._ It is so called from ‎‏חמור‏‎ _Chamor_, _Asinus_, _an
Ass_, because this measure contained so much grain or corn as an Ass
could well bear. It contained _ten Ephahs_, _Ezek. 45. 11._ that is,
_forty five gallons_ or _five bushels, and five gallons_.

‎‏כור‏‎ _Cor_, _Corus_. The _Cor_, and the _Homer_, were of the same
quantity, _Ezek. 45. 14._ It was not only of liquid things, _Luke 16.

These measures of which we have spoken hitherto, the _Hebrews_ used in
measuring _dry things_: Three other measures there were, which they
used for liquid or _moist things_.

‎‏לוג‏‎ _Log_. It contained[776] _six egg-shells_. It was of the same
quantity as the _fourth part of a Kab, half a pint_.

    [776] _Buxtorf. in loco superius citato._

‎‏הין‏‎ _Hin_. It contained[777] the quantity of _seventy two egg-shells_,
so that it was of our measure _three quarts_.

    [777] _Buxtorf. ib._

‎‏בת‏‎ _Bath_; βάτος, _Bathus_, the _Bath_. It was of the same capacity
with the _Ephah_, the tenth part of an _Homer_, _Ezek. 45. 14._ The
_Latine_ Interpreters commonly render it _Cadus_. _Hieron_[778] writing
upon _Ezekiel_, renders it _Vadus_. _Decima pars Cori, inquit, in
speciebus liquidis vocatur Bathus, sive Vadus._ I sometimes thought
there had been some error in the print, namely, _Vadus_, put for
_Cadus_: But now I find the _Greeks_ to use both βάτος, and βάδος, for
this measure, and from the last of these _Greek_ words, that ancient
_Father_ reads it, _Vadus_. Sometimes our _English_ renders it, in
general, _a measure_, _Luk. 16. 6._ It contained _four gallons and a

    [778] _Hieron. Ezek. 45._

All these measures were proper to the _Hebrews_: I find three others
mentioned in the _N. T._ taken from other Nations.

Σεστός; _Sextarius_. We _English_ it, in general, _a Pot_, _Mar. 7.
4._ It was of the same quantity with the _Log_,[779] if we understand
it of the _Roman Sextarius_. It was somewhat more, if we understand it
of the _Attick Sextarius_: _undecim Attici sextarii æquabant Romanos
duodecim_. In probability we are to understand the _Roman_ measure, so
that it contained _six eggs_, that is, _half a pint_.

    [779] _Alsted. præcog. Theol. p. 561._

Χοῖνιξ, _Chenix_, _a measure_, _Rev. 6. 6._ It signifieth properly
that measure of corn, which was allowed servants for their maintenance
every day. Whence was occasioned that speech of _Pythagoras_: _Super
Chænice non sedendum_. That is, _we must not rest upon the provision
which sufficeth for a day, but we must take care for the morrow_. It
contained[780] _four Sextarii_, that is, _a Quart_.

    [780] _Budæus de asse. lib. 5._

Μετρητὴς, _Metretes_, _Joh. 2. 6._ It is translated a _Firkin_. It was
a measure in use among the _Athenians_. It was of the same quantity
with _Cadus_,[781] and _Cadus_ (as before was noted) was equal to the
_Hebrew_ _Bath_, so that it contained _four Gallons and an half_.

    [781] _Budæus de asse. lib. 5._


_Their Coyns. First of brazen Coyns._

That they might have just _Coyns_ and _Weights_ they weighed both them
and their weights by _Barley-corns_.

Λεπτὸν, _Minutum_, _a Mite_, _Luk. 21. 2._ _Mar. 12. 42._ The latter
_Hebrews_ call it ‎‏פרוטה‏‎, the _Syriack_ ‎‏שמונא‏‎ (i. _Octava_, _the
eighth part of Assarium_,) It weighed _half a barly-corn_.[782] It
valued of our mony, _three parts of one ~c~_.

    [782] _‎‏פרוטה משקל חצי שעורה‏‎ Moses Kotsens. f. 124. col. 4._

Κοδράντης _Quadrans_, _a Farthing_. It was a _Roman coyn_, weighing _a
grain of barly_; it consisted of _two mites_. The poor Widow threw in
_two mites which makes a farthing_, _Mark. 12. 42._ By consequence it
valued of ours c. ½.

Ἀσσάριον, _Assarius, vel assarium_. It was a _Roman coyn_, weighing
_four grains_. The _Rabbins_ call it ‎‏איסור‏‎ _Isor_, and say, that it
containeth[783] _eight mites_. Of this we read, _Mat. 10. 29._ Are not
two Sparrows sold for (an _Assarium_?) our _English_ readeth it, for a
_farthing_? It valueth of ours, in precise speaking, q^{a.}--q.

    [783] _Drusius in præter. Luc. 12. 59._

_Their silver Coyns._

‎‏גרה‏‎ _Gerah_. It was the twentieth part of the shekel of the Sanctuary;
_A shekel is twenty Gerahs_, _Exod. 30. 13._ It was the least silver
coyn among the _Hebrews_; it valued of ours 1 _d. ob._

‎‏אגורת‏‎ _Agorath_: We English it in general, _a piece of silver_, _1
Sa. 2. 36._ But it _appeareth_ by the _Chaldee paraphrase_, that it is
of the _same_ value with _Gerah_; that _paraphrase_ renders both ‎‏מעא‏‎
_Megna_; by the _Greek_ they are both rendred ὄβολος the value therof
therfore is 1 _d. ob._

‎‏קשיטה‏‎ _Keshitah_. The word signifieth a _lamb_, and is used for a
certain _coyn_ among the _Hebrews_, on the one side whereof the Image
of a _lamb_ was stamped; our _English_ reads it in general, _a piece
of mony_. _Jacob_ bought a parcel of a field for an hundred _pieces of
mony_, _Gen. 33. 19._ In the original it is, for an hundred _lambs_.
But it is apparent, that _Jacob_ paid _mony_; for S. _Stephen_
saith, he bought it for _mony_, _Act. 7. 16._ In the judgment of the
_Rabbines_,[784] it was the same that _Obolus_, _twenty of them went to
a shekel_;[785] so that the value thereof was 1 _d. ob._

    [784] _R. Solom. Gen. 33. 19. It. R. David. in lib. radic. It.
    Levi ben Gers. Gen. 33. 19._

    [785] _Drus. ad diffic. loca, Gen. p. 119._

‎‏כסף‏‎ _Ceseph_, ἀργύριον _Argenteus_, _a piece of silver_: as the
_Romans_ numbred their sums by _Sesterces_, insomuch that _Nummus_
is oftentimes put absolutly to signifie the same as _Sestertius_: So
the _Hebrews_ counted their sums by _shekels_, and the _Grecians_ by
_Drachmæ_: Hence _Argenteus_, _a piece of silver_, being put absolutely
in the _Bible_, if mention in that place be of the _Hebrew_ coyns, it
standeth for a _shekel_, and valueth 2 _s._ 6 _d._ if it stand for the
_shekel of the sanctuary_: if it stand for a _common shekel_, then it
valueth 1 _s._ 3 _d._ But if mention be of the _Greek coyns_, as _Acts
19. 19._ then it signifieth the _Attick Drachma_, which valueth of our
money 1 _d. ob._

Δραχμὴ, _Luk. 15. 8._ It was a _quarter of a shekel_,[786] and thus by
consequence it valued of ours 7 _d. ob._

    [786] _Breerwood de nummis._

Δίδραχμον, _Didrachmon_; _Mat. 17. 24._ We _English_ it _tribute
money_: The _Syriack_ readeth _Duo Zuzim_;[787] now that coyn which was
termed _Zuz_ by the _Hebrews_, was answerable to the _Roman Denair_;
whence it appeareth, that it valued of ours 1 _s._ 3 _d._

    [787] _‎‏תרין זוזין‏‎_

Στατὴρ, _Stater_. We English it a _piece of money_ at large, but it
contained precisely _two didrachmas_. For the _tribute money_ to be
paid for each person, was _Didrachmum_, as is evident, _Mat. 17. 24._
and this _Stater_ was paid for _two_, namely, for _Christ_ and _Peter_,
the value of it therefore was, 2 _s._ 6 _d._

Δενάριον, _Denarius_, _a peny_. This was their _tribute money_, _Mat.
22. 19._ There were _two sorts of pence_[788] in use among them: the
_common peny_, which valued of ours 7 _d. ob._ And the _peny of the
Sanctuary_, which valued 1 _s._ 3 _d._ For it was answerable to their
_Didrachmum_; and of this last we must understand S. _Matthew_ in this
place, for their _tribute mony_ was _Didrachmum_, as before hath been
noted out of _Mat. 17. 24._ This _Didrachmum_ or _half shekel_ was
formerly paid by the _Isrælites_ every year after they were 20 years
old;[789] towards their _Temple_, _Exod. 30. 13._ _Cæsar_ by taking
away this _money_ from the _Temple_, and changing it into a _tribute_
for his _own Coffers_, did in truth take away from _God_ that which was
_God_’s. Hence in that question proposed unto _Christ_, _Is it lawful
to give tribute unto ~Cæsar~, or not?_ _Christ_ answereth, _Render unto
~Cæsar~ the things that are ~Cæsar’s~, and unto God the things that
are God’s_. This very _tribute_ afterward was paid by the _Jews_[790]
toward the _Roman capital_, by vertue of a Decree made by _Vespasian_.

    [788] _Tremel. Mat. 22. 19._

    [789] _Aben Esr. Nehem. 10. 32._

    [790] _Joseph. de bello, lib. 7. cap. 26._

‎‏זוז‏‎ _Zuz_, It was the _fourth part of a shekel of silver_:[791] it
valued therefore of ours, 7 _d. ob._

    [791] _‎‏זוז רבע שקל כסף‏‎ Elias Thisbit._

‎‏שקל‏‎ _Shekel_, _Siclus_, _a shekel_: it was twofold; _Siclus regius_,
_the Kings shekel_, of common use in buying and selling, it valued 1
_s._ 3 _d._ And _Siclus Sanctuarii_; _the shekel of the Sanctuary_, it
valued 2 _s._ 6 _d._

The _shekels of the Sanctuary_ were of _two stamps_. The one was always
in use among the _Jews_: the _thirty pieces of silver which ~Judas~
received, are thought to be 30 shekels of the Sanctuary_. It had stampt
on the one side, the _pot of Manna_, or as others think, _Aarons censer_
or _Incense-cup_: the inscription on this side was ‎‏שקל ישראל‏‎ _Shekel
Israel_, _The shekel of Israel_: on the reverse side was stampt _Aarons
Rod budding_, with this inscription about the Coyn ‎‏ירושלים הקדושה‏‎
_Jeruschalaiim hakeduscha_. After the coming of our _Saviour_, the
_Jews_ which were converted to the _Christian Faith_, changed their
_shekel_,[792] and on the first side stampt the _Image of Christ_, with
‎‏יש‏‎ at the mouth of the Image, and ‎‏ו‏‎ in the pole, which three
letters made his name _Jesu_. On the reverse side there was no picture,
but the whole rundle was filled with this inscription, ‎‏משיח מלך בא
בשלום ואור מאדם עשוי חי‏‎ (i.) _Messias rex venit cum pace, & lux de
homine facta est vita_. In some Coyns, for the latter clause of that
inscription is read ‎‏אדם עשוי אלהים‏‎ (i.) _Deus homo est factus_.

    [792] _Alsted præcog. Theol. p. 550._

The _King’s shekel_, in _David_ and _Solomon_’s time, had stampt on
the one side, a kind of a Tower standing between ‎‏ירו‏‎ and ‎‏שלם‏‎, and
underneath was ‎‏עיר הקדש‏‎. The whole inscription was, _Jerusalem urbs
sanctitatis_: On the reverse side, the rundle was filled with this
_Hebrew_, ‎‏דוד המלך ובנו שלמה המלך‏‎ (i.) _David rex, & filius ejus
Solomon rex_.

The _shekel_ again was divided into lesser Coyns, which had their
denomination from the parts thereof. Thus we read of the half
_shekels_, _Exod. 30. 13._ The _third part of a shekel_, _Nehem. 10.
32._ The _quarter of a shekel_, _1 Sam. 9. 8._

_Their Gold Coyns._

‎‏זהב‏‎ _Zahab_. The _English_ reads it, _a piece of gold_, _2 Kin. 5.
5._ By it is meant, that which elsewhere is called _Siclus auri_,
_a shekel of gold_, _1 Chron. 21. 25._ Hence the one thousand seven
hundred _pieces of gold_ mentioned, _Judg. 8. 26._ the _Greek_ renders
1700, _shekels of gold_.[793] The weight of this Coyn was two _attick
drams_,[794] the value 15 _s._

    [793] _Σίκλοι χίλιοι, &c._

    [794] _Breerwood de nummis._

‎‏אדרכון‏‎ _Adarcon_, of this we read, _Esra 8. 27._ It was also called
‎‏דרכמון‏‎ _Drachmon_, of which we read _Esra 2. 69._ Both these names seem
to denote the same coyn; if not, yet both were of the same weight. The
_Greek_ interprets them both by δραχμὴ, and our _English_ accordingly
renders both, a _dram_, which must be understood of the _drams_ in use
among the _Hebrews_, weighing two _Attick drams_. From the _Greek_
δραχμὴ, _Drachmon_ seemeth to have had its name. He conjectureth not
amiss, who thinketh[795] that _Adarcon_ was so called, _quasi Daricon_,
which was a certain coyn of gold in use among the _Persians_ and from
King _Darius_ (whose Image one side thereof bore) was named _Daricon_,
and ‎‏א‏‎ amongst the _Chaldæans_, is often prefixed before a word, as
‎‏ה‏‎ is amongst the _Hebrews_. The value of this Coyn was of ours 15

    [795] _Breerwood de nummis._

_Their sums._

Their sums were _two_ ‎‏מנה‏‎ _Maneh_, μνᾶ _Mina_, a _Pound_. In _gold_
it weighed _one hundred shekels_. This appeareth by comparing these
Texts, _1 Kin. 10. 17._ _Tres_ ‎‏מנים‏‎ _Manim_ _three pound_ of gold went
to one shield. Now we read, _2 Chron. 9. 16._ _Three hundred shekels_
of gold went to one shield. The name _shekels_ is not expressed in
the Original, but necessarily understood, as appeareth in that which
was spoken of _Zahab_. For it is a received rule, that in Scripture,
_Aurum_ being put with a _numeral_ signifieth so many _shekels of
gold_; and so _Argentum_ in like manner. The weight thereof then being
_100 shekels_, it followeth, that the value was 75 _l._ In _silver_,
their _Maneh_ weighed _60 shekels_, _Ezek. 45. 12._ so that it valued
7 _l._ 10 _s._ Note, that _Sheindler_[796] was deceived, in saying,
that the price or value of the _Maneh_ was changed in _Ezekiels_ time,
because it then valued 60 _shekels_: for the difference is not between
the sacred & profane _Maneh_, as _Sheindler_ conceives, but _between_
the _Maneh_ of gold, which was valued at _100 shekels_ always, and
the _Maneh_ of silver, which weighed _60 shekels_, according to the
forequoted place in _Ezekiel_.

    [796] _Sheindler in ‎‏מנה‏‎_

The second sum was ‎‏ככר‏‎ _Cicar_, _Talentum_, _A Talent_. This, if it
were of _silver_, it contained in weight _3000 shekels_. For, those two
verses being compared together, _Exod. 38. 25, 26._ sheweth, that _six
hundred thousand_ men paying every man _half a shekel_, the whole sum
amounted to an _hundred talents_; whence it followeth, that a _talent
of silver_ amongst the _Hebrews_ was 375 _l._ But a _talent of gold_
(the proportion of gold to silver being observed) was twelve times as
much, so that it valued of ours 4500 _l._

In this tract of their Coyns we are to know _three things_. First,
that as the _Romans_, in the former ages, used _Æs grave_, _Bullion
money_, unstampt, which in the _Mass_ or _Billot_ they weighed out in
their payments, and afterward _Æs signatum_, _coyned metals_: so the
_Hebrews_ though at last they used, _coyned money_, yet at first they
_weighed their mony uncoyned_; _Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver_,
_Gen. 23. 6._ Hence the _shekel_ had its _name from_ ‎‏שקל‏‎ _Shakal_,
_ponderare, librare_, _to weigh_, or _put in the ballance_. _Secondly_,
as the coyned _shekel was twofold, one_ for the use of the _Sanctuary_;
the other for the use of the _Commonwealth_; and that of the
_Sanctuary_ was double the price of the _other_; so the _weight of the
shekel_ to be distinguisht after the same manner; the _shekel of the
Sanctuary weighed half an ounce Troy weight; the common shekel_ weighed
_a quarter of an ounce_. For example, _Goliahs spears head weighed 600
shekels of the Sanctuary_ _1 Sam. 17. 7._ that is, _twenty five pound
weight_: _~Absalom’s~ hair weighed two hundred shekels after the Kings
weight_, _2 Sam. 14. 26._ that is, _four pound weight and two ounces_.
Yea, the sums which I have reckoned only _according to the Sanctuary_,
in common use, _according to the King’s weight_, they abate half their

3. The lesser coyns were in general termed κέρματα or in the singular
number κέρμα, _Joh. 2. 15._ The word signifieth properly a small
quantity or little piece of metal, such as may be clipt off from coyns.
_Upon the first of the mon. ~Adar~, Procla. was made throughout Israel,
that the people shold provide their half shekels, w^{ch} were yearly
paid toward the service of the Temple_, according to the commandment
of _God_, _Ex. 30. 13._[797] On the 25. of _Adar_,[798] then they
_brought tables_ into the _Temple_ (that is, into the _outward Court_
where the _people stood_) on these _tables_ lay these κέρματα, or
_lesser coyns_, to furnish those _who_ wanted _half shekels_ for their
offrings, or that wanted _lesser pieces of mony_ in their payment for
_oxen, sheep, or doves_, which likewise stood there in a readiness
in the same _court_ to be sold for _sacrifices_: but this _supply of
lesser coynes_ was not without an _exchange_ for other _mony or other
things_ in lieu _of mony_, and that upon advantage. Hence those that
sat at these _tables_, as chief _bankers_ or _masters of the exchange_,
they were termed Κερματισταὶ, in respect of the _lesser coyns_ which
they exchanged: in respect of the _exchange it self_, they were termed
Κολλυβισταὶ, for Κόλλυβος signifieth the same in _Greek_ as _Cambium_
in _Latine_,[799] whence those _Letters of exchange_, which the
_Latines_ call _Literas Cambii_, the _Greek_ call σύμβολα κολλυβιστικὰ,
_Tickets of exchange_: in respect of the _Tables_ at which they sate,
they are termed by the _Talmudists_ ‎‏שולחנים‏‎, _Schulcanim_ from
‎‏שולחן‏‎ _Schulchan_ _Mensa_; for the same reason they are sometimes
termed by the _Greeks_ τραπεζίται, and by the _Latines Mensarii_. These
are those _changers of money_ which our _Saviour_ drove out of the

    [797] _Moses Kotsens. de Siclis. fol. 122. col. 2._

    [798] _Moses Kotsens. ibid._

    [799] _Κόλλυβος, inquit Pollux, est ἀργυρίου ἀλλαγὴ vid. Dru.
    Annot. in N. T. part. alter._


.‎‏תהלה לאל חי‏‎

The Names of Authors cited in this BOOK.


    _Aben Esra._

    _Aboth._ _vid._ _Pirke Aboth._


    _Alexander Neopol._





    _Arias Montanus._

    _Aristophanes_, _Aureliæ Allobrogum_, 1607



    _Augustinus_, _Coloniæ Agrippinæ_, 1616













    _Capnio_, _vi._ _Reuchlin._



    _Cœlius Rhodiginus._



    _Chimchi_, _alias_, _R. David Kimchi._


    _Clem. Alexandrinus._


    _Concilium quintum, sextum._



    _Cunæus_, _Lugduni Batavorum_, 1617


    _Demosthenes_, _Venitiis_, 1554

    _Diodorus Siculus._

    _Dionysius Halicarnas._

    _Drusius_, _de tribus sectis_, _Franekeræ_, 1619.


    _Elias Thisbites._











    _Galatinus_, _Francofurti_, 1612




    _Gregor. Nazianzen._






    _Hieronymus_, _Basileæ_, 1516



    _Hospinianus_, _Tiguri_, 1611


    _Jalcut_, _Cracoviæ_, 1595


    _Josephus_, _Aureliæ Allobrog._, 1611



    _Justin Martyr._

    _Justin, histor._




    _Kimchi._ _vid._ _Chimchi._




    _Levi ben Gersom._









    _Maimonides_, _lib. Jad._ _Venetiis_, 1574


    _Maximus Tirius._


    _Moses Kotsensis._ _Venetiis_, 1557










    _Philo Judæus_, _Coloniæ Allobrog._, 1613

    _Pirke Aboth._



    _Pierius_, _Basileæ_, 1575





    _Reuchlinus_ (_pro quo citatur Capnio perperam_) _Francofurti_, 1612




    _Seder-olam minus._

    _Septuaginta interpretes._


    _Scaliger_, _De emend. temp. Lutetiæ_, 1583
                _Trihæres. Franekeræ_, 1619



    _Scholiastes Aristophanis._

    _Solomon Jarchi._







    _Syrius interpres._


    _Talmud Babylonicum._

    _Talmud Hierosolymitanum._

    _Targum Uzielidis sive Jonathanis._

    _Targum Onkelos._

    _Targum Hierosolymitanum._

    _Tertullianus_, 1609











    _Valerius Max._




    _Xenophon_, _Basileæ_, 1569




A TABLE OF THE Several TEXTS of SCRIPTURE Explained in the Six Books.

    Chap.        Vers.                Pag.
      4          3, 4                   23
      4            21                  136
      7            24                   84
      8             4                ibid.
      9            25                    1
     11            31                  143
     14            22             245, 247
     15             2                  230
     17                                213
     17            14                  216
     18            22                   73
     20             7                   24
     21            10                    1
     22             2                  148
     23             2                  169
     23            16                  269
     24             2                  245
     24            53                  230
     24            55                  231
     24            56                  236
     25          5, 6                  230
     29            27                  234
     30            27                  173
     30                                133
     31            28                   87
     31            30                  170
     31            53                  143
     35            19                  265
     35            16                  261
     37            34                  244
     38            24                    2
     41             1                  231
     43            16                   97
     43            24                   88
     44             5                  173
     45            15                   87
     46             4                  239
     46            26                  245
     47            29                  245
     49             3                    2
     49             7                   26
     49            10                    3
     50             2                  241
     50            10                  234
      1            11                  248
      1            14                  109
      3             6                   47
      3            15                  142
      7            11                  174
     12             6                  107
     12            15                  110
     12         26, 3                  106
     12            27                  103
     13                                223
     13      2, 9, 11               42, 43
     13            18                  257
     14             1                  154
     14            24                   81
     15            20                   24
     16            23                  101
     16            34                   17
     16            36                  262
     18             7                   87
     18            21                  193
     21            10                  236
     21            14                   77
     22       1, 2, 4             203, 204
     23   32 & 34, 14                  257
     25            22                   63
     28                             14, 16
     28            16                  167
     29      4, 9, 20               16, 17
     30            10              64, 133
     30            13   265, 266, 267, 270
     30            23                   13
     31            14                  217
     32                                157
     32            20                  158
     32        34, 10             158, 159
     34                                161
     35             3                  101
     38        25, 26                  269
      6             3                  146
      8        12, 30               13, 14
     10            10                  180
     12          2, 3                  214
     13                                130
     13             2                   18
     15         4, 23                   15
     16         3, 41              15, 133
     18            21                  143
     19            18                  185
     19        23, 24                  218
     20            10                  199
     21     2, 10, 11                   17
     21     14, 7, 17                   16
     22            27             107, 214
     23                                118
     23    5, 6, 7, 8                  104
     23    10, 11, 17        115, 116, 118
     23            17             218, 220
     23            24                  121
     23            40                  118
     23            43                  119
     24            13                  196
     25     6, 10, 21                  134
     25             8                  136
     26            30                  161
     27            29                  218
     27            32                  226
      2             2                  254
      3                                 19
      3            15                   20
      4            41                   23
      5             3                   23
      5            18                   26
      6                                 31
      6             5                   32
      8            10                   20
      8            11                  220
      8            24                   20
      9                                113
      9             9                  195
     10                            18, 256
     10             2                  102
     10             9                  256
     10            25                  255
     11        16, 26             190, 191
     12            18                  113
     15                                 45
     15            20             218, 219
     15            35                  196
     15            38                   44
     18            12                  220
     18        12, 13                  218
     18        15, 16                  223
     18            26                  220
     18            31                  225
     23            28                  154
     24            21                   55
     25             3                  154
     27            18                   29
     28             4                  108
     28        11, 15                  121
     28        16, 17             104, 128
     29                                119
     29          1, 6                  122
     36            10                  195
      1        13, 17                  193
      3            11                  260
      3            29                  154
      4        41, 43                   77
      6             4                   43
      7             2                  257
      8             8                  219
      9             3                   78
      9            21                  159
     11            13                   43
     14            21                    8
     14            12                  244
     14            18                  225
     14            26                ibid.
     15          2, 4             134, 135
     16             2             104, 128
     16             6                  111
     17             7                  201
     17            12                  179
     18             4                  220
     18        10, 11                  171
     19             3                   78
     19        15, 19                  186
     19            21                  204
     20            10                  257
     20            11                ibid.
     21             6                   40
     21            17                  230
     22             5                  163
     22             8                  117
     22            12                   44
     23             6                  257
     25             2                  207
     25          2, 3                  206
     26                                222
     26            12                  225
     28                                233
     28        58, 59                  207
     29            11                   23
     29            15                  186
     33             5                    2
      3             4             100, 154
      6             4                  136
      6             9                  256
      7                                182
      7            19                  246
      7        19, 20                  197
      9             6                  258
      9             7                  257
      9            23                   22
     11            19                  257
     19          1, 9                   27
     20             6                   79
     20             7                   77
      1            16                   55
      3             7                   76
      7             1                   72
      7            19                   81
      8            23                    2
      8            26                  268
      8            33                  154
      9             4                  155
     13                                 32
     14                                183
     14        10, 11             232, 233
     14            12                   90
     17             5                  170
      2             4                   87
                  1 SAMUEL.
      2            36                  265
      5             4                  156
      7            15                    2
      7            16                  193
      9             8                  267
      9             9                   24
     10             1                   88
     14            44                  247
     16            11                   94
     17             7                  269
     19            13                  170
     25            41                   88
     28                                177
     28          6, 7                  165
     31            10                  160
                  2 SAMUEL.
      2             1                  167
      7            18                   73
     14            26                  270
     18            18                  219
     20            25                   27
     21             1                  258
                   1 KINGS.
      2            28                   77
      6             3                   65
      6            37                   67
      7            15                  260
      8             9                   63
      8            31                  245
     10            17                  268
     11                                143
     11             5                  160
     12            12                  207
     12            28                  159
     13            33                   17
     18                                147
     18            19                   76
     20            10                  247
     20            39                  203
     21             9                  196
     22            30                   12
                   2 KINGS.
      1             2             154, 155
      2             9                  230
      2            12                   25
      4            23                  121
      4            29                   87
      5             5                  267
      5            18                  164
      6             1                   25
      6            25                  262
      7             1                ibid.
     11            12                   11
     12            10                   27
     12            19                   66
     17        30, 31                  164
     17            33                   49
     19            37                  164
     21             7                   76
     22             3                   27
     23             4              13, 181
     23             6                   76
     23            10                  143
     23            11                  150
     23            13                  160
                   1 CHRON.
      6            49                   18
     21            25                  268
     23             4                   19
     23            24                   20
     24                                 19
     25             8                   20
     26                                ib.
     26            20                   19
                   2 CHRON.
      3            15                  260
      5            12                   20
      6            13                   65
      9            16                  268
     15            16                   76
     19      5, 8, 11                  180
     20             5                   65
     29            22                   18
     31             6                  224
     31            13                  226
     35             6                  111
      2            43                   22
      2            69                  268
      3             8               20, 67
      3            12                   68
      6            15                   67
      7             6                   27
      7             9                  ib.
      8            27                  268
      3             1                   73
      3         3, 28                   74
      8            10                   96
      8            15                  118
      8            18                  119
     10            32                  267
     10            37                  219
     10        37, 38                  224
      1             8                   95
      9            21                  138
      1                                188
     15             1                   62
     16             6                  260
     19             1                   63
     19          4, 5                  232
     23             5                   89
     26             6                   40
     27            10                  256
     40             7                  249
     45             1                   27
     45             8                   14
     46             5                  254
     52                                164
     54                                ib.
     60             8                   89
     74             8                   70
     76            10                  188
     78            38                  207
     80             2                  256
     81             3                  122
     84             7               28, 72
     95                                247
     99             1                   63
    106            20                  157
    106            26                  245
    109             7                  188
    116            13                   97
    118            20                   70
    109            31                  187
    122                                223
    128             3                   94
    133             2                   14
    141             2                   64
    145                                233
      1            21                   70
      3            22                  175
      4            10                   73
      9             9                   72
     10             7                  242
     14            28                  222
     15            17                   86
     20            26                  211
     21            14                   66
     31             6                  198
      6             4                  254
      1             1                   24
      8             1                  249
      8             2                  215
     12             3                  120
     17             8                  161
     18             2                  153
     27             9                  161
     30             8                  248
     30            29                  223
     37            38                  164
     38             8                   84
     45            23                  246
     63             3                  133
     65             5                   41
      7            18                  160
      9            17                  245
     16             7              97, 243
     19             5                  144
     26         8, 16                  180
     28             9                  192
     32            35                  144
     34            18                  257
     35                                 31
     35             7                   56
     36             6                  130
     36            23                  249
     40             5                   86
     44            17                  160
     48             1                  164
     48             7                  157
     52            21                  259
     52            24                   18
      2            19                   81
      1            10                  255
      8                                163
      8            14                  152
     16            38                  199
     20            21                   97
     21            21             172, 177
     22            41                   94
     24            17                  243
     37                                233
     40             5                  261
     45            11                  262
     45            12                  268
     45            13                  222
     45            14                  263
      9            24                   84
      1             1                   25
      3             2                  262
      4            12             171, 177
      2             8                   94
      5            26                  149
      6            10                  241
      8             4                  121
      1             5                  110
      3             7                  244
      2            11                  204
      2            10                   68
      3             1                  187
      5             2                  249
      9            14                  137
     10             2                  171
      2             7                   18
      1             7                  224
      1          7, 8                  225
      7            14                  235
     10            10                  139
     34            26                  223
                  1 MACCHAB.
      1            16                  217
      4            59                  123
      5            42                   27
                  2 MACCHAB.
      4            19                  151
      6            19                  211
      2             4                   27
      2            23                   32
      3            17                  168
      4            23                    7
      5                                189
      5            22                  146
      8            11                   93
      9         3, 11                   28
      9            15                  232
      9            23                  244
     10        12, 13                   87
     10            17                  180
     10            29                  264
     10            38                  209
     10            41                   24
     11            19                   25
     12            41                  188
     14            25                   81
     15             2                   39
     15             5                  247
     16            14                   38
     16            18                  192
     17            24                  265
     18            16                  181
     20       3, 5, 6                   81
     21             9                  118
     21            23                  180
     22            19                  266
     22        23, 32                   47
     23             5                   41
     23             6                   30
     23             9                   25
     23            17                  103
     23            18                  246
     23            23             224, 226
     24            31                  122
     25            23                  186
     26             3                  180
     26            17                  113
     26            49                   30
     26            65                   17
     27            24                   40
     27            25                  196
     27            26                  209
     27            28                   13
     27        34, 38             197, 198
     27        59, 60                  242
     28             1                   80
      6            21                   61
      6            27                  196
      7             3                   39
      7             4                   40
      7             4             240, 263
      8            15                   61
     10            12                  238
     12                                 50
     12            42                  264
     13            35                   81
     14             1                   19
     14            26                   92
     15            23                  197
     15        25, 34              82, 109
     15            42                   99
      1          5, 9                   19
      1            61                  215
      2             1                   59
      3             2                   18
      3    37, 38, 46                   89
      4        17, 20                  249
      4            20                   71
      5            17                   27
      7            30                ibid.
      7            38                   87
      7        37, 38               46, 89
      7            39                   41
      8            44                   44
     10            39                   31
     11            38                   40
     12             2                    7
     12            38                   81
     12            58                  187
     13             1                   60
     13            15                  102
     13            34                  192
     14             7                   90
     15             8                  265
     16             1                  116
     16          6, 7                  263
     16            22                   93
     16            29                   24
     18                                 45
     18             6                  196
     18            11                   37
     18            12                   41
     18            13                   73
     20            27                   47
     21          1, 4                   66
     21            20                  264
     22             1             104, 128
     22        17, 18                   90
     22            19                   93
     23            11                   13
     23            44                   82
      1        14, 16                   14
      1            18                   99
      1            25                   11
      1            38                   30
      2             6              89, 264
      2             9                  234
      2            15                  270
      2            20                   67
      3            10                   23
      3            26                   30
      4             9                   47
      4            20                   50
      4            25                  215
      7            22                  214
      7            37                  120
      7            38                ibid.
      7            49                   37
      8             5                  199
      8            20                   66
      9            22                  181
      9            24                  246
     10             3                   16
     10            22                  139
     10            23                   65
     11             9               80, 83
     13             2                  112
     13             5                   88
     13             9                   41
     13            23                   93
     13            29                  128
     16             2                  112
     18        28, 31             128, 129
     19             7                  200
     19            13                  191
     19            14                   82
     19            17                  209
     19            24                  128
     19            33                  114
     19            36                   98
     19            40                  241
      2             5                   10
      2            15                   83
      3             1                ibid.
      3            11                   65
      5            37                   59
      6             1                    8
      6             6                   21
      6             9                   70
      7            16                  265
      7            43                  149
      7            60                   73
      9             2                   70
      9            37                  239
     10             9                   83
     10         9, 10                   97
     11            26                   33
     13             2              21, 220
     13         5, 14                   70
     13            42                   98
     14            23                   21
     15             2                   32
     15            21                   70
     16            13                   73
     16            16                  176
     17            23                  141
     18            14                  200
     19                                166
     19             2                   68
     19      8, 9, 10                   71
     19            19                  265
     19            24                   76
     19        24, 28                  162
     21            24                   32
     21            38                   60
     22             3                   13
     23             6               47, 49
     23             8                   47
     23             8                   37
     24                                129
     24             5                   32
     26             1                   22
     27             9                  130
      1             1                  227
      1            11                   36
      3            25                   63
      4            11                  213
      5          6, 7                   34
     11            16                  219
     14            11                  246
                 1 CORINTH.
      1            20               24, 28
      4            13                  132
      5                                114
      5             5                  182
      7             3                  236
      7            18                  217
      8             5                  153
     10            16                   93
     10            19                   97
     11                                115
     11            10                  236
     11            26                  106
     14                                 31
     15             9                  240
     15            23                  254
     15            32                  210
     16                                183
     16            20                   87
                2 CORINTH.
      2            15                   14
      5            22                  133
                  2 CORINTH.
     11            24                  206
      2            11                   33
      2            13                  114
      3             5                    8
      2     8, 16, 18                   64
      2    20, 21, 23                  ib.
      2             9                   68
                  1 TIMOTHY.
      1             4                   28
      1            15                   72
      3             2                  238
      3            13                   21
      4             3                   57
      5             3                  238
      5            22                   21
      5            23                   57
                  2 TIMOTH.
      3             8                  174
      1             1                  165
      3            18                  247
      5             4                   17
      9             4                   63
      9            12                  133
      9            26                  114
     11            35                  211
     11            37                  210
     12            23                   20
      2             2                   12
                  1 PETER.
      1            18                  223
      5            14                   87
                  2 PETER.
      1            20                   24
      3             8                  136
                  1 JOHN.
      2             2                   63
      5            16                  183
                  2 JOHN.
      2             1                  187
      2            17                  188
      4             6                  255
      6             6                  264
     14            14                  177
     21            15                  261


List of changes made

Source of corrections: comparison with other editions of the same work,
and with the author’s original source materials.

The corrections are to be read:

as found in this e-text;
as printed in the original


3. Baal-Peor;
3. Baal-Poor


Page 3

ἂιχμαλως ὰρχαι

‎‏מי כמוך באלים יהוה‏‎;
‎‏יהוה מי כמוך באלים‏‎ (word order error)

Page 8


Page 15

Bigde Zahab;
Bidge Zahab

Page 18


Page 22

Ansche Magnamad, Viri stationarii;
Ansche, Magnamad, Vire stationarii

Page 26

‎‏תלמידי חכמים‏‎;
‎‏חכמים חכלמוי‏‎ (as best possible to make out from the printing)

Page 33



Page 39

said to have been done;
said to have bin done


Syriack Text;
Syriack Texth

Page 42

Phylacteries for the hand;
Phylacteries for the head

Page 43

‎‏טוטפות‏‎ Totaphot;
‎‏מטפות‏‎ Mitaphoth


Page 44


Page 50


Page 52

they put on a suit;
they put one a suit

could not be believed;
could not believed

Page 57

τί δογματίζεσθε;
τὸ δογματίζεσθε

The Apostle useth the word;
The Apostle useth the wound

Page 58


Page 59

τὸ ἱκετικὸν γένος;
τὸ ἐυχητικὸν γενός

Page 61

Herod, Tetrarch;
Herod, Tetartch

Page 64

with the twelve Loaves;
which the twelve Loaves

Page 66

‎‏קופה של צדקה‏‎;
‎‏קיפ שהל צדקה‏‎

Page 80

Natural, containing day and night;
Matural, containing day and night

Page 84

‎‏מעלות‏‎ Magnoloth;
‎‏מעלוח‏‎ Magnoloch

Menses cavi;
Menses cravi

Page 86


Mendose ponitur Μαρσουάνη pro Μαρχασουὰν;
Mendose ponitur μαρσουάνη pro μαρχασουὰν

Page 90


Page 92


Page 93

The table being placed in the middest;
The table thing placed in the middest

Page 97

τῆς εὐλογίας;
τῆς ὀυγαλίας

ποτήριον σωτηρίας;
ποτήριον σωτηρία

Page 98



Page 105

‎‏לא תלה אכילה זו בקרבן הפסח אלא זו מצוה בפני עצמה‏‎;
“‎‏בפני‏‎” omitted

Page 106

this be kept;
this he kept

Page 110

from the fourth to the sixth hour;
from the fourth of the sixth hour

Page 118




Page 122


Page 124



Page 131

which name the Heathens applied;
with name the Heathens applied

in the name of all the people;
in the name of the all people

Page 132

περίψημα ἡμῶν γενοῦ;
περίψημα ἑμτων γενοῦ


Page 148


Page 150


‎‏האיר כל‏‎, Heircol;
‎‏האר כל‏‎, Hiercol

Page 154


Page 157

graving tool;
graving Stool

Page 172

‎‏קדים‏‎, Kadim;
‎‏צדים‏‎, Tzadim

Page 173


Page 184


Page 188

ἀναστῆναι είς κρίσιν;
ἀναστῆναι ρίς κρίσιν


Page 189

to keep one’s standing;
to keep’s one standing

‎‏סנהדרים גדולה‏‎;
‎‏גדולה סנהדרים‏‎ (word order error)

Page 193


Page 213

the Æthiopians, the Trogloditæ, and the Egyptians;
the Æthiopians, the Tragloditæ, and the Egyptians

Page 215


Page 217


Page 220


ἀφοριεῖ Ἀαρὼν;
ἀφωριεῖ Ααρῶν


Page 227

Bushels in one year;
Bushels in own year

Page 228

Mint, Anise and Cummin;
Mint, Anise and Cummim

Page 241


Page 250

that the Masorites were;
that the Nasorites were

Page 251

Theba achath;
Theba agnath

Page 253

for the habitation of the Clergy;
for the habition of the Clergy

twelve miles long;
twelves miles long

Page 254

In the middle was the Camp of the Divine Majesty;
In the middle was Camps of the Divine Majesty

Page 263

Paragraph on “Bath”, rearranged lines, which were printed out of order.

Page 266


Page 267


‎‏ירו‏‎ and ‎‏שלם‏‎;
‎‏ירו‏‎ and ‎‏מלם‏‎

‎‏דוד המלך ובנו שלמה המלך‏‎;
‎‏ובנו שלמה המלך דוד המלך‏‎


Footnote 26

in fonte spurius ille textus;
in fonte spurius illo textus

Footnote 29


Footnote 34

‎‏במילה ובטבילה ובהוצאת דמים של קרבן‏‎;
‎‏במילת ובטבילה ובהוצאה דמים של קרבן‏‎

Footnote 44

magnus ipse est;
magnus ipsa est

Footnote 59

Eodem sensu Græci appellant artis medica candidatos;
Eodom sensu Græci appellant artis medica condidatos

Footnote 74

‎‏אני סומך אותך תהיה סמוך‏‎;
‎‏סומך תהיה אני אותך סמתך‏‎ (as best possible to make out from the

Footnote 113

‎‏אל תגע בי‏‎;
‎‏אל תגש בי‏‎

Footnote 126

Concil. quini Sexti;
Concil. quinti Sexti

Footnote 128

Magnifice … Varronem;
Magnifico … Varonem

Footnote 138

Elias de ‎‏שרק‏‎ is given in other editions as ‎‏שוק‏‎.

Footnote 139

l. 3 p. 130;
l. 34. 130.

Footnote 238


Footnote 251

‎‏נשיקות פרקים‏‎;
‎‏נשיקית פרקים‏‎

Footnote 252

‎‏נשיקות פרושות‏‎ Neshikoth parusoth, Oscula separationis.;
‎‏נשיקות פרישות‏‎ Neshekoth parishuth, Oscula seseparationis.

Footnote 329

‎‏חג הסכות‏‎;
‎‏חגו הסות‏‎

Footnote 362

‎‏אין דנין דיני נפשות לא בערב שבת ולא בערב יום טוב‏‎;
‎‏אין דנין ביני נפשות לא ערב שבת ולא ערב יום מובי‏‎

Footnote 382

Ἐγκαίνια ἑορτὴ καθ’ ἣν ἐκαινουργήθη τὶ;
Ἐγκαίνια ἑωρτὴ καθ’ ἣν ἐοαινουρτήθυ τὶ

Footnote 387


Footnote 414

οὐδὲν ναοῦ;
ὀδὲν ναοῦ

Footnote 439


Footnote 456

‎‏אין לך ישראל פורענות שאין בה אנקיא מעון העגל‏‎;
‎‏אין לך ישראל פורעפות שאין בה אנקיא טשין העגל‏‎

Footnote 514

κατα βλεπάδα

Footnote 534

Moses Kotsen;
Moses Kimchi

Footnote 553

‎‏הרי את סמוך ויש לך רשות לדון אפילו דיני קנסות‏‎;
‎‏הו את סמוך ויש לך רשות לדון אפולד דיני קנסות‏‎

Footnote 555

‎‏ובאילין אמר משת לא שמעית‏‎;
‎‏ובאלינ ובאלינ אמר משת לא שמעית‏‎

Footnote 616

‎‏כלי מסגר לידים‏‎;
‎‏מלי מסגר לידים‏‎

Footnote 621


Footnote 631

‎‏כשם שהכנסתו לברית כן תכניסהו‏‎;
‎‏כשם שהכנסתו לברית כן נבניסגו‏‎

Footnote 636

‎‏וארבעה עשרין תרומו‏‎;
‎‏וארבעה עשרין תר מו‏‎

Footnote 663

‎‏אשה‏‎ uxor;
‎‏עשה‏‎ uxor

Footnote 685

Sine Radid;
Sinie Radid

Footnote 701


Footnote 707

‎‏זכר צדיק לברכה‏‎;
‎‏זכר נגר לברכה‏‎

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Moses and Aaron - Civil and Ecclesiastical Rites, Used by the Ancient Hebrews" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.