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Title: Biographical Anecdotes of William Hogarth - With a Catalogue of his Works
Author: Hogarth, William
Language: English
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  MEMORANDUM.                                         iii
  COLLECTORS OF HOGARTH.                              xvi
  CATALOGUE OF HOGARTH'S PRINTS.                      120
  POSTSCRIPT.                                         455
  ADDITION.                                           460
  APPENDIX NO. 1.                                     461
  NO. 2.                                              492
  NO. 3.                                              502
  GENERAL INDEX TO HOGARTH'S PLATES.                  527


Respect and gratitude having engaged me to compile a memoir of my
deceased Master and Patron Mr. BOWYER, in the same performance I
included anecdotes of all the eminent persons any way connected with
him. A note of about a page's length was allotted to HOGARTH. While it
was printing, Mr. WALPOLE'S Fourth Volume on the subject of English
Painters came out, and was followed by an immediate rage for collecting
every scrap of our Artist's designs. Persevering in my enquiries among
my friends, I had now amassed so much intelligence relative to these
engravings, that it could no longer be crowded into the situation
originally meant for it. I was therefore advised to publish it in the
form of a sixpenny pamphlet. This intended publication, however, grew
up by degrees into a three-shilling book, and, within a year and a
half afterwards, was swelled into almost its present bulk, at the price
of six shillings. Such was the origin and progress of the following
sheets, which, with many corrections, &c. have now reached a Third

                                                  _J. N._

_Nov._ 10, 1785.



The author of these imperfect sheets cannot present them a second time
to the world, before he has expressed his gratitude for the extreme
candour with which they have been treated by the _Monthly Reviewers_.
If _J. N._ has not availed himself of all the corrections designed for
his service, it is because the able critic who proposes them has been
deluded by intelligence manifestly erroneous. _J. N._ received each
particular he has mentioned, in respect to the assistance bestowed
on _Hogarth_ while his _Analysis_ was preparing, from Dr. _Morell_,
a gentleman who on that subject could not easily mistake. Implicit
confidence ought rather to be reposed in a literary coadjutor to the
deceased, than in any consistory of females that ever "mumbled their
wisdom over a gossip's bowl." Authors rarely acquaint domestic women
with the progress of their writings, or the proportion of aid they
solicit from their friends. If it were needful that Dr. _Morell_ should
translate a _Greek_ passage[1] for _Hogarth_, how chanced it that our
artist should want to apply what he did not previously understand? I
must add, that the sentiments, published by the _Reviewer_ concerning
these _Anecdotes_, bear no resemblance to the opinion circulated by
the cavillers with whom he appears to have had a remote connection.
The parties who furnished every circumstance on which he founds his
reiterated charges of error and misinformation, are not unknown. Ever
since this little work was edited, the people about Mrs. _Hogarth_
have paid their court to her by decrying it as "low, stupid, or
false," without the slightest acknowledgement for the sums of money it
has conducted to _The Golden Head_ in _Leicester Fields_. While the
talents of the writer alone were questioned by such inadequate judges
of literary merit, a defence on his part was quite unnecessary. He has
waited, however, with impatience for an opportunity of making some
reply to their groundless reflections on his veracity. This purpose
he flatters himself will have been completely executed after he has
observed that all credentials relative to his disputed assertion
shall be ready (as they are at this moment) for the Reviewer's
inspection. _J. N._ cannot indeed dismiss his present advertisement
without observing, that though the amiable partialities of a wife may
apologize for any contradiction suggested by Mrs. _Hogarth_ herself,
the _English_ language is not strong enough to express the contempt he
feels in regard to the accumulated censure both of her male and her
female Parasites.

                                                   _J. N._

_Nov._ 1, 1782.

[1] Whereabouts is this translation of a _Greek_ passage to be found in
the Analysis? It may have escaped my hasty researches.


When this pamphlet was undertaken, the Author had no thought of
swelling it to it's present bulk; but communicating his design to his
friends, they favoured him with various particulars of information.
Some of these accommodated themselves to his original plan, if he can
be supposed to have had any, but others were more intractable. Still
aware of the value even of disjointed materials, which his profession
would not afford him leisure to compact into a regular narrative,
and conscious that these sheets, rude and imperfect as they are,
may serve to promote a publication less unworthy of its subject,
he dismisses his present work without any laboured apology for the
errors that may be detected in it; claiming, indeed, some merit on
account of intelligence, but not the least on the score of arrangement
or composition. He takes the same opportunity to observe, that many
curious anecdotes of extraordinary persons have been unfortunately
lost, because the possessors of those fugitive particulars had not the
power of communicating them in proper form, or polished language, and
were unwilling to expose them in such a state as these are offered to
the world.

_May_ 9, 1781.

The ingenious Mr. CRAYEN of _Leipzig_ having translated the First
Edition of these Anecdotes, &c. into the _German_ Language, dispatched
a copy of his work to _J. N._ attended by the obliging letter here


 Though I have not the honour of being acquainted with you, I hope
 your goodness will excuse the liberty I take of sending you a
 _German_ translation of the _Biographical Anecdotes of Mr. Hogarth_
 you published. Being convinced of the merits of your production, and
 its usefulness to such collectors of prints and connoisseurs in our
 country as don't understand the _English_ language, I undertook this
 translation, and flatter myself you will be pleased to accept of it as
 a proof of my real esteem for you.

 You will find, that I did not always adhere literally to the original,
 but made some abridgments, alterations, notes, &c. &c. But I hope you
 will do me the justice to consider, that I wrote for my countrymen,
 and therefore left out such passages, poems, anecdotes, &c. &c. as
 would have been entirely uninteresting to them, and have swelled the
 volume to no purpose.

 As to the typographical performance, I think you will be tolerably
 satisfied of it. Though the noble art of printing is of _German_
 origin, your nation has improved and brought it to the highest pitch
 of perfection in point of neatness, elegance, and correctness.

 I remain, with all possible esteem,


 Your most obedient

            and most humble servant,

                          A. CRAYEN.

 _Leipzig_ in _Saxony,_
 the 29th _Jan._ 1783.

       *       *       *       *       *

The following are Translations, by a Friend, from the
Dedication and PREFACE to Mr. CRAYEN'S performance.

       *       *       *       *       *


 To Mr. GOTTFRIED WINKLER, in _Leipzig_;


 Pardon my presumption in offering you the slender fruit of a few
 leisure hours. Receive it with your wonted kindness, and judge of it
 not by the trifling value of the work, but by the intention of its
 Author, whose most zealous wish has long been to find an opportunity
 of publickly offering you, however small, a memorial of his respect
 and friendship.

 If my labour in adding a mite towards the diffusion of the knowledge
 of the Arts, is honoured with the approbation of so enlightened a
 Connoisseur, I shall feel myself completely rewarded.

 Receive at the same time my sincerest thanks for the obliging
 communication of your Copy of _Hogarth's_ prints, of which, in my
 translation, I have more than once availed myself.

 Live, honoured Sir, many days; happy in the bosom of your worthy
 family, in the circle of your friends, and in the enjoyment of those
 treasures of the Arts you have collected with such distinguished
 taste. Remain also a friend of

            Yours, &c.

                       THE TRANSLATOR.

       *       *       *       *       *



Collectors of the Fine Arts were already possessed of _Catalogues_ and
_Memoires Raisonnées_ of the engravings of many great masters, for
which their acknowledgements are due to the industry of a _Gersaint_, a
_Jombert_, a _Hecquet_, a _Vertue_, a _de Winter_, &c. &c.

But a similar illustration of HOGARTH'S copper-plates was still
wanting; though it may be asked what works have a juster claim to
a distinguished place in a compleat collection, than those of this
instructive moral painter, this creative genius?

On this account, it is presumed that the _German_ Lover of the Arts
will deem himself indebted to the Translator, for giving him, in his
own tongue, a concise and faithful version of a book that has lately
made its appearance in _London_, under the title of "Biographical
Anecdotes of _W. Hogarth_, and a Catalogue of his Works chronologically

The Compiler as well as Editor of this work is Mr. JOHN NICHOLS, a
_Printer_ and _Bookseller_ in _London_, who, by much reading, and an
intimate acquaintance with the Arts and Literature of his Country, has
honourably distinguished himself among his professional brethren. How
modestly he himself judges of this his useful performance, appears from
his preface to the work.

It is true, Mr. HORACE WALPOLE, who possesses perhaps the compleatest
collection of the prints of this Master, some years ago published a
Catalogue of them; but this is only to be found in his work, intituled,
"_Anecdotes of Painting in England collected by G. Vertue, and
published by H. Walpole_," a performance consisting of four volumes
in 4to, too costly for many collectors, and inconvenient for others.
Moreover all that is to be found there relative to _Hogarth_, is not
only included in Mr. _Nichols's_ publication, but is also improved by
considerable additions, so that the curious reader has _Walpole's_
Catalogue incorporated with the present work.

The liberty of abridgement, as mentioned in the title, is ventured
only in regard to such diffuse illustrations, repetitions, anecdotes,
and local stories, as would be alone interesting to an _Englishman_;
in a word, in such parts as do not immediately contribute to the
illustration of _Hogarth's_ plates, and would have tired the patience
of the _German_ reader. Of the verses affixed to each copper-plate
the first and last words only are given, as those afford sufficient
indication for a collector who wishes to become acquainted with any
particular print. How far some remarks of the Translator are useful, or
otherwise, is left to the indulgent decision of Judges in the Arts.

He must not however forget it is his duty to acknowledge the goodness
of old Mr. HANSEN of _Leipsig_. This gentleman's readiness in
permitting him to examine his excellent collection of the engravings
of _British_ artists, for the purpose of comparing and illustrating
several passages in the original of this work, claims his warmest
thanks, and a public acknowledgement.

_Leipsig, February_ 1783.

                     THE TRANSLATOR.

List of Gentlemen, Artists, &c. who furnished incidental intelligence
to the Author of this Work.

Mr. _Ashby_.
Mr. _Basire_.
Mr. _Baynes_.
Mr. _Belchier_--dead.
Mr. _Bindley_.
Mr. _Birch_.
Mr. _Bowle_.
Mr. _Braithwaite_.
Mr. _Browning_.
Lord _Charlemont_.
Mr. _Charlton_.
Mr. _Cole_--dead.
Mr. _Colman_.
Mr. _Coxe_.
Mr. _Dodsley_.
Dr. _Ducarel_--dead.
Mr. _Duncombe_.
Mr. _Edwards_.
Mr. _Forrest_--dead.
Mr. _Foster_--dead.
Mr _Goodison_.
Mrs. _Gostling_.
Mr. _Gough_.
Mr. _Hall_.
Sir _John Hawkins_.
Mr. _Henderson_.
Mrs. _Hogarth_.
Dr. _Hunter_--dead.
Mr. _S. Ireland_.
Dr. _Johnson_--dead.
Mr. _Keate_.
Bishop of _Kilala_.
Mr. _Lane_.
Mrs. _Lewis_.
Mr. _Livesay_.
Dr. _Lort_.
Mr. _Lyon_.
Mr. _Major_.
Mr. _Malone_.
Dr. _Monkhouse_.
Dr. _Morell_--dead.
Mr. _Morrison_.
Mr. _Pinkerton_.
Mr. _Rayner_.
Mr. _Reed_.
Sir _Joshua Reynolds_.
Mr. _Richards_.
Mr. _Rogers_--dead.
Mr. _Rumsey_.
Mr. _Steevens_.
Mr. _Thane_.
Mr. _Thomas_.
Mr. _Tyers_.
Mr. _Waldron_.
Mr. _Walker_.
Mr. _J. C. Walker_.
Mr. _Walpole_.
Dr. _Warton_.
Mr. _Way_.
Mr. _Welch_--dead.
Mr. _Whately_.
Mr. _B. White_.
Mr. _H. White_.
Mr. _Wilkes_.
Mr. _Williams_.
Dr. _Wright_.


Mr. AYTON.[1]
Mr. FOSTER.[3]
Mr. ROGERS.[5]

[1] His collection was cut up, and sold at _Dickinson's, New Bond

[2] Died _May_ 29, 1785. His collection devolves to his Nephew and
Heir, Mr. DUCAREL, lately returned from _The East Indies_.

[3] Died _Oct._ 3, 1782. His improved collection sold at _Barford's_
auction rooms, late _Langford's, March_ 4, 1783, for £.105. Mr.
CRICKITT was the Purchaser.

[4] Mr. HENDERSON sold his collection to Sir JOHN ELLIOT for £.126 in
_April_ 1785.

[5] Died _January_ 2, 1784. His collection remains with his Nephew and
Heir, Mr. COTTON, F. S. A.

[6] The Right Hon. _William Windham_, M. P. for _Norwich_.

Extract from the DAILY ADVERTISER, _January_ 27, 1783.


 "As an opinion generally prevails, that the genuine impressions
 of _Hogarth's_ works are very bad, and the plates retouched; Mrs.
 _Hogarth_ is under the necessity of acquainting the public in general,
 and the admirers of her deceased husband's works in particular, that
 it has been owing to a want of proper attention in the conducting this
 work for some years past, that the impressions in general have not
 done justice to the condition of the plates; and she has requested
 some gentlemen most eminent in the art of engraving, to inspect the
 plates, who have given the following opinion:

                                      "_London, Jan._ 21, 1783.

 "We, whose names are underwritten, having carefully examined the
 copper-plates published by the late Mr. _Hogarth_, are fully convinced
 that they have not been retouched since his death.

    WM. WOOLLET.[1]

 "N. B. All[3] the original works are now properly and well printed,
 and to be had of Mrs. _Hogarth_, at her house at _The Golden Head_, in

This is one of the most extraordinary testimonials ever laid before
the public. _Hogarth_ died in 1764. Since that time his plates have
been injudiciously and unmercifully worked, so as to leave no means
of ascertaining, through any observation or process of art, the exact
period when they were last repaired. Notwithstanding this difficulty,
in the year 1783, we find several engravers of eminence declaring their
full conviction on the subject. All we can do is, to suppose their
confidence was grounded on the veracity of Mrs. _Hogarth_. I believe
the parties as to the fact; and yet it was impossible for Messieurs _B.
W._ and _R._ to be adequate judges of the truth to which they have set
their names as witnesses.

[1] Died _May_ 23, 1785.

[2] Executed _Aug._ 29, 1783.

[3] By "_all_ the original works," Mrs. _Hogarth_ means only such
plates as are in her possession. See page xx, where a great number of
others, equally original, are found.

Prints _published by_ Mr. HOGARTH: _Genuine Impressions[1] of which are
to be had at_ Mrs. HOGARTH'S _House in_ Leicester Fields, 1782.

  Size of the plates in inches                                 l. s. d.

  16 by 14         Frontispiece                                0  3  0
  15½ by 12½       Harlot's Progress, six prints               1  1  0
  16 by 14         Rake's Progress, eight prints               2  2  0
  18 by 15         Marriage a-la-mode, six prints              1  11 6
  19 by 15½        Four Times of the Day, four prints          1  1  0
  16½ by 13        Before and After, two prints                0  5  0
  18½ by 13½       Midnight Conversation                       0  5  0
  16 by 14         Distress'd Poet                             0  3  0
  16 by 14         Enraged Musician                            0  3  0
  18 by 14         _Southwark_ Fair                            0  5  0
  20¾ by 16½       _Garrick_ in King _Richard_ III.            0  7  6
  18 by 12         _Calais_, or the Roast Beef
                   of _Old England_                            0  5  0
  20½ by 16        _Paul_ before _Felix_                       0  7  6
  Ditto,           Ditto, with Alterations                     0  6  0
  20½ by 16½       _Moses_ brought to _Pharaoh's_ Daughter     0  7  6
  22 by 17         March to _Finchley_                         0  10 6
  Ditto,           Strolling Actresses dressing in a Barn      0  5  0
  Ditto,           Four Prints of an Election                  2  2  0
  19½ by 12        Bishop of _Winchester_                      0  3  0
  14 by 10½        Idleness and Industry, 12 prints            0  12 0
  14 by 9          Lord _Lovat_                                0  1  0
  10½ by 8½        Sleeping Congregation                       0  1  0
  12 by 8½         Country-Inn Yard                            0  1  0
  14 by 10½        _Paul_ before _Felix, Rembrant_             0  5  0
  9 by 8           Various Characters of Heads                 0  2  6
  6½ by 7½         _Columbus_ breaking the Egg                 0  1  0
  12 by 8½         The Bench                                   0  1  6
  15 by 13         _Beer Street_ and _Gin Lane_,
                   two prints                                  0  3  0
  Ditto,           Four Stages of Cruelty, four prints         0  6  0
  15 by 12½        Two Prints of an Invasion                   0  2  0
  Ditto,           A Cock Match                                0  3  0
  9 by 8           The Five Orders of Periwigs                 0  1  0
  17 by 13         The Medley                                  0  5  0
  12 by 9½         The Times                                   0  2  0
  12¾ by 9         _Wilkes_                                    0  1  0
  10 by 11         Bruiser                                     0  1  6
  9 by 7½          _Finis_                                     0  2  6

_N. B._ Any person purchasing the whole together may have them
delivered bound, at the Price of Thirteen Guineas; a sufficient Margin
will be left for framing.--The ANALYSIS of BEAUTY, in Quarto, may also
be had, with two explanatory Prints, Price 15 Shillings.

[1] _Genuine_ impressions--Query, the meaning of such an epithet in
this place?

_Credite Posteri!_

In the years 1781, 1782, &c. the following Pieces of HOGARTH are known
to have been sold at the prices annexed.

  Lord _Boyne_.                        5  5  0
  Charmers of the Age.                 5  5  0
  _Booth, Wilks_,&c.                   5  5  0
  Discovery.                           3  3  0
  Altar-piece.                         1  11 6
  _Rich's_ Glory.                      4  4  0
  _Beaver's_ Military Pun.             3  3  0
  _Blackwell's_ Figures.               1  16 6
  Boys peeping, &c.                    1  1  0
  _Apuleius._                          1  16 6
  _Cassandra._                         1  11 6
  _Beer Street_ with Variat.           1  1  0
  Large _Hudibras_.                    5  5  0
  March to _Finchley_ Aq.
  F. Proof.                            2  2  0
  Do. finished, without
  letters.                             5  5  0
  Festoon. Rt for _Rich._ III.         1  1  0
  Power of Atty. _F. Hosp._            1  16 9
  Orator _Henley_.                     1  1  0
  _Huggins._                           3  3  0
  Witch.                               3  3  0
  Jacobite's Journal.                  2  11 6
  _Judith_ and _Holophernes_.          1  1  0
  _Sarah Malcolm._                     2  2  0
  Large Masquerade.                    2  2  0
  Small, first impression.             1  16 6
  _Scots_ Opera.                       0  15 0
  Woman swearing, &c.                  1  1  0
  Lady _Byron_.                        1  1  0
  _Hogarth_ with Dog.                  2  2  0
  Do. Serjeant Painter.                2  2  0
  Do. scratched over.                  2  2  0
  _Perseus_ and _Andromeda_.           2  2  0
  First Distrest Poet.                 1  1  0
  Do. Enraged Musician.                1  1  0
  _Motraye._                           2  2  0
  Bench, first impression.             1  1  0
  _Burlington Gate._                   1  1  0
  _Sancho_ at Dinner.                  1  1  0
  First Election.                      3  3  0
  Fair.                                1  1  0
  Farmer's Return.                     0  10 6
  _Gulliver_.                          0  10 6
  _Hen._ VIII. and _A. Bullen_         1  1  0
  _Herring_, proof impression.         1  1  0
  _Hogarth_, Engr, Shop Bill.          1  1  0
  _Morell._                            0  10 6
  _Pine._                              0  10 6
  Coat of Arms, Sir _G.
  Page_,&c.                            2  2  0
  Times, first impression.             1  1  0
  Master of the Vineyard.              2  2  0
  _Turk's_ Head.                       2  2  0
  Harlot's Progress, first
  impression, red.                     10 10 0
  Marriage Alamode.                    3  3  0
  Rake's Progress.                     6  6  0
  Four Times.                          2  2  0
  Prentices, 1st impression.           4  4  0
  Elections, 1st impression.           6  6  0
  _Garrick_ in _Rich._ III.            1  1  0
  Gate of _Calais_.                    0  15 0
  _Paul_ burlesqued.                   1  1  0
  Strolling Actresses.                 1  12 6
  Three additional Prints
  to _Beaver_, &c.                     2  2  9
  _Milward's_ Ticket.                  4  4  0
  Music introduced to
  _Apollo_.                            1  11 6
  _Martin Folkes_, mezzotinto          0  10 6
  _Spiller's_ Ticket.                  5  5  0
  Two plates to _Milton_.              2  2  0
  Frontispiece to _Leveridge's_
  Songs.                               1  12 6
  Concert. St. _Mary's_
  Chapel.                              5  5  0


This great and original Genius is said by Dr. _Burn_ to have been
the descendant of a family originally from _Kirkby Thore_,[1] in
_Westmoreland_: and I am assured that his grandfather was a plain
yeoman, who possessed a small tenement in the vale of _Bampton_, a
village about 15 miles North of _Kendal_, in that county. He had
three sons. The eldest assisted his father in farming, and succeeded
to his little freehold. The second settled in _Troutbeck_, a village
eight miles North West of _Kendal_, and was remarkable for his talent
at provincial poetry.[2] The third, educated at _St. Bee's_, who
had kept a school in the same county, and appears to have a man of
some learning, went early to _London_, where he resumed his original
occupation of a school-master in _Ship Court_ in _The Old Bailey_,
and was occasionally employed as a corrector of the press. A _Latin_
letter, from Mr. _Richard Hogarth_, in 1697 (preserved among the MSS.
in _The British Museum_, N° 4277. 50.) relates to a book which had
been printed with great expedition. But the letter shall speak for

A Dictionary in _Latin_ and _English_, which he composed for the use of
schools,[4] still exists in MS. He married in _London_; and our Hero,
and his sisters _Mary_ and _Anne_, are believed to have been the only
product of the marriage.

WILLIAM HOGARTH[5] is said (under the article THORNHILL in the
_Biographia Britannica_) to have been born in 1698, in the parish
of _St. Bartholomew,[6] London_, to which parish, it is added, he
was afterwards a benefactor. The outset of his life, however, was
unpromising. "He was bound," says Mr. _Walpole_, "to a mean engraver
of arms on plate." _Hogarth_ probably chose this occupation, as it
required some skill in drawing, to which his genius was particularly
turned, and which he contrived assiduously to cultivate. His master, it
since appears, was Mr. _Ellis Gamble_, a silversmith of eminence, who
resided in _Cranbourn-street, Leicester-fields_. In this profession it
is not unusual to bind apprentices to the single branch of engraving
arms and cyphers on every species of metal; and in that particular
department of the business young _Hogarth_ was placed;[7] "but, before
his time was expired, he felt the impulse of genius, and that it
directed him to painting."

During his apprenticeship, he set out one _Sunday_, with two or three
companions, on an excursion to _Highgate_. The weather being hot,
they went into a public-house, where they had not been long, before
a quarrel arose between some persons in the same room. One of the
disputants struck the other on the head with a quart pot, and cut
him very much. The blood running down the man's face, together with
the agony of the wound, which had distorted his features into a most
hideous grin, presented _Hogarth_, who shewed himself thus early
"apprised of the mode Nature had intended he should pursue," with too
laughable a subject to be overlooked. He drew out his pencil, and
produced on the spot one of the most ludicrous figures that ever was
seen. What rendered this piece the more valuable was, that it exhibited
an exact likeness of the man, with the portrait of his antagonist,
and the figures in caricature of the principal persons gathered round
him. This anecdote was furnished by one of his fellow apprentices then
present, a person of indisputable character, and who continued his
intimacy with _Hogarth_ long after they both grew up into manhood.

"His apprenticeship was no sooner expired," says Mr. _Walpole_, "than
he entered into the academy in _St. Martin's Lane_, and studied drawing
from the life, in which he never attained to great excellence. It
was character, the passions, the soul, that his genius was given him
to copy. In colouring he proved no greater a master: his force lay in
expression, not in tints and chiaro scuro."

To a man who by indefatigable industry and uncommon strength of genius
has been the artificer of his own fame and fortune, it can be no
reproach to have it said that at one period he was not rich. It has
been asserted, and we believe with good foundation, that the skill
and assiduity of _Hogarth_ were, even in his servitude, a singular
assistance to his own family, and to that of his master. It happened,
however, that when he was first out of his time, he certainly was poor.
The ambition of indigence is ever productive of distress. So it fared
with _Hogarth_, who, while he was furnishing himself with materials
for subsequent perfection, felt all the contempt which penury could
produce. Being one day distressed to raise so trifling a sum as twenty
shillings, in order to be revenged of his landlady, who strove to
compel him to payment, he drew her as ugly as possible, and in that
single portrait gave marks of the dawn of superior genius.[8] This
story I had once supposed to be founded on certainty; but since, on
other authority, have been assured, that had such an accident ever
happened to him, he would not have failed to talk of it afterwards, as
he was always fond of contrasting the necessities of his youth with
the affluence of his maturer age. He has been heard to say of himself,
"I remember the time when I have gone moping into the city with scarce
a shilling in my pocket; but as soon as I had received ten guineas
there for a plate, I have returned home, put on my sword, and sallied
out again, with all the confidence of a man who had ten thousand pounds
in his pocket." Let me add, that my first authority may be to the full
as good as my second.

How long he continued in obscurity we cannot exactly learn; but the
first piece in which he distinguished himself as a painter, is supposed
to have been a representation of _Wanstead Assembly_.[9] In this are
introduced portraits of the first earl _Tylney_, his lady, their
children, tenants, &c. The faces were said to be extremely like, and
the colouring is rather better than in some of his late and more highly
finished performances.

From the date of the earliest plate that can be ascertained to be the
work of _Hogarth_, it may be presumed that he began business, on his
own account, at least as early as the year 1720.

His first employment seems to have been the engraving of arms and
shop-bills. The next step was to design and furnish plates for
booksellers; and here we are fortunately supplied with dates.[10]
Thirteen folio prints, with his name to each, appeared in "_Aubry
de la Motraye's_ Travels," in 1723; seven smaller prints for
"_Apuleius'_ Golden Ass" in 1724; fifteen head-pieces to "_Beaver's_
Military Punishments of the Ancients," and five frontispieces for the
translation of _Cassandra_, in five volumes, 12°, 1725; seventeen cuts
for a duodecimo edition of _Hudibras_ (with _Butler's_ head) in 1726;
two for "_Perseus_ and _Andromeda_," in 1730; two for _Milton_ [the
date uncertain]; and a variety of others between 1726 and 1733.

"No symptom of genius," says Mr. _Walpole_, "dawned in those plates.
His _Hudibras_ was the first of his works that marked him as a man
above the common; yet, what made him then noticed, now surprises
us, to find so little humour in an undertaking so congenial to his
talents."--It is certain that he often lamented to his friends the
having parted with his property in the prints of the large _Hudibras_,
without ever having had an opportunity to improve them. They were
purchased by Mr. _Philip Overton_,[11] at the _Golden Buck_, near _St.
Dunstan's Church_ in _Fleet-Street_; and still remain in the possession
of his successor Mr. _Sayer_.

Mr. _Bowles_ at the _Black Horse_ in _Cornhill_ was one of his earliest
patrons. I had been told that he bought many a plate from _Hogarth_
by the weight of the copper; but am only certain that this occurrence
happened in a single instance, when the elder Mr. _Bowles_ of _St.
Paul's Church-yard_ offered, over a bottle, half a crown a pound for a
plate just then completed. This circumstance was within the knowledge
of Dr. _Ducarel_.--Our artist's next friend in that line was Mr.
_Philip Overton_, who paid him a somewhat better price for his labour
and ingenuity.

When Mr. _Walpole_ speaks of _Hogarth's_ early performances, he
observes, that they rose not above the labours of the people who are
generally employed by booksellers. Lest any reader should inadvertently
suppose this candid writer designed the minutest reflection on those
artists to whom the decoration of modern volumes is confided, it is
necessary to observe, that his account of _Hogarth_, &c. was printed
off above ten years ago, before the names of _Cipriani, Angelica,
Bartolozzi, Sherwin,_ and _Mortimer_ were found at the bottom of any
plates designed for the ornament of poems, or dramatic pieces.

"On the success, however, of those plates," Mr. _Walpole_ says, "he
commenced painter, a painter of portraits; the most ill-suited
employment imaginable to a man whose turn certainly was not flattery,
nor his talent adapted to look on vanity without a sneer. Yet his
facility in catching a likeness, and the method he chose of painting
families and conversations in small, then a novelty, drew him
prodigious business for some time. It did not last, either from his
applying to the real bent of his disposition, or from his customers
apprehending that a satirist was too formidable a confessor for the
devotees of self-love." There are still many family pictures by Mr.
_Hogarth_ existing, in the style of serious conversation-pieces. He was
not however lucky in all his resemblances, and has sometimes failed
where a crowd of other artists have succeeded. The whole-length of Mr.
_Garrick_ sitting at a table, with his wife behind him taking the pen
out of his hand,[12] confers no honour on the painter or the persons
represented.[13] He has certainly missed the character of our late
_Roscius's_ countenance while undisturbed by passion; but was more
lucky in seizing his features when aggravated by terror, as in the
tent scene of King _Richard_ III. It is by no means astonishing, that
the elegant symmetry of Mrs. _Garrick's_ form should have evaded the
efforts of one to whose ideas _la basse nature_ was more familiar than
the grace inseparable from those who have been educated in higher life.
His talents, therefore, could do little justice to a pupil of Lady

What the prices of his portraits were, I have strove in vain to
discover; but suspect they were originally very low, as the people who
are best acquainted with them chuse to be silent on that subject.

In the Bee, vol. V. p. 552. and also in the Gentleman's Magazine, vol.
IV. p. 269. are the following verses to Mr. _Hogarth_, on Miss _F's_
picture, 1734.

    "To _Chloe's_ picture you such likeness give,
    The animated canvas seems to live;
    The tender breasts with wanton heavings move,
    And the soft sparkling eyes inspire with love:
    While I survey each feature o'er and o'er,
    I turn _Idolater_, and paint adore:
    Fondly I here can gaze without a fear,
    That, _Chloe_, to my love you'd grow severe;
    That in your _Picture_, as in _Life_, you'd turn
    Your eyes away, and kill me with your scorn:
    No, here at least with transport I can see
    Your eyes with softness languishing on me.
    While, _Chloe_, this I boast, with scornful heart
    Nor rashly censure _Hogarth_, or his _art_,
    Who all your _Charms_ in strongest _Light_ has laid,
    And kindly thrown your _Pride_ and _Scorn_ in _Shade_."

At _Rivenhall_, in _Essex_, the seat of Mr. _Western_, is a family
picture, by _Hogarth_ of Mr. _Western_ and his mother (who was a
daughter of Sir _Anthony Shirley_), Chancellor _Hoadly_, Archdeacon
_Charles Plumptre_, the Rev. Mr. _Cole_ of _Milton_ near _Cambridge_,
and Mr. _Henry Taylor_ the Curate there,[14] 1736.

In the gallery of the late Mr. _Cole_ of _Milton_, was also a small
whole-length picture of Mr. _Western_,[15] by _Hogarth_, a striking
resemblance. He is drawn sitting in his Fellow-Commoner's habit, and
square cap with a gold tassel, in his chamber at _Clare Hall_, over the
arch towards the river; and our artist, as the chimney could not be
expressed, has drawn a cat sitting near it, agreeable to his humour, to
shew the situation.

"When I sat to him," says Mr. _Cole_, "near fifty years ago, the custom
of giving vails to servants was not discontinued. On my taking leave
of our painter at the door, and his servant's opening it or the coach
door, I cannot tell which, I offered him a small gratuity; but the man
very politely refused it, telling me it would be as much as the loss of
his place, if his master knew it. This was so uncommon, and so liberal
in a man of Mr. _Hogarth's_ profession at that time of day, that it
much struck me, as nothing of the sort had happened to me before."

It was likewise Mr. _Hogarth's_ custom to sketch out on the spot any
remarkable face which particularly struck him, and of which he wished
to preserve the remembrance. A gentleman still living informs me, that
being once with our painter at the _Bedford Coffee-house_, he observed
him to draw something with a pencil on his nail. Enquiring what had
been his employment, he was shewn the countenance (a whimsical one) of
a person who was then at a small distance.

It happened in the early part of _Hogarth's_ life, that a nobleman,
who was uncommonly ugly and deformed, came to sit to him for his
picture. It was executed with a skill that did honour to the artist's
abilities; but the likeness was rigidly observed, without even the
necessary attention to compliment or flattery. The peer, disgusted at
this counterpart of his dear self, never once thought of paying for a
reflector that would only insult him with his deformities. Some time
was suffered to elapse before the artist applied for his money; but
afterwards many applications were made by him (who had then no need of
a banker) for payment, without success. The painter, however, at last
hit upon an expedient, which he knew must alarm the nobleman's pride,
and by that means answer his purpose. It was couched in the following

"Mr. _Hogarth's_ dutiful respects to Lord ----; finding that he does
not mean to have the picture which was drawn for him, is informed again
of Mr. _H's_ necessity for the money; if, therefore, his lordship
does not send for it in three days, it will be disposed of, with the
addition of a tail, and some other little appendages, to Mr. _Hare_,
the famous wild-beast man; Mr. _H._ having given that gentleman a
conditional promise of it for an exhibition-picture, on his lordship's

This intimation had the desired effect. The picture was sent home, and
committed to the flames.

To the other anecdotes of this comic Painter may be added the
following. Its authenticity must apologize for its want of other merit.

A certain old Nobleman, not remarkably generous, having sent for
_Hogarth_, desired he would represent, in one of the compartments on a
staircase, _Pharaoh_ and his Host drowned in the _Red Sea_; but at the
same time gave our artist to understand, that no great price would be
given for his performance. _Hogarth_ agreed. Soon after, he waited on
his employer for payment, who seeing that the space allotted for the
picture had only been daubed over with red, declared he had no idea
of paying a painter when he had proceeded no further than to lay his
_ground_. "_Ground!_" said _Hogarth_, "there is no _ground_ in the
case, my lord. The red you perceive, is the _Red Sea. Pharaoh_ and his
Host are drowned as you desired, and cannot be made objects of sight,
for the ocean covers them all."

Mr. _Walpole_ has remarked, that if our artist "indulged his spirit
of ridicule in personalities, it never proceeded beyond sketches and
drawings," and wonders "that he never, without intention, delivered
the very features of any identical person." But this elegant writer,
who may be said to have received his education in a Court, perhaps had
few opportunities of acquaintance among the low popular characters with
which _Hogarth_ occasionally peopled his scenes.[16] The Friend to whom
I owe this remark was assured by an ancient gentleman of unquestionable
veracity and acuteness of observation, that almost all the personages
who attend the levee of the Rake were undoubted portraits; and that,
in _Southwark Fair_ and the _Modern Midnight Conversation_, as many
more were discoverable. In the former plate he pointed out _Essex_ the
dancing-master; and in the latter, as well as in the second plate to
the _Rake's Progress, Figg_ the prize-fighter.[17] He mentioned several
others by name, from his immediate knowledge both of the painter's
design and the characters represented; but the rest of the particulars,
by which he supported his assertions, have escaped the memory of my
informant. I am also assured, that while _Hogarth_ was painting the
_Rake's Progress_, he had a summer residence at _Isleworth_; and never
failed to question the company who came to see these pictures, if they
knew for whom one or another figure was designed. When they guessed
wrong, he set them right.

Mr. _Walpole_ has a sketch in oil, given to him by _Hogarth_, who
intended to engrave it. It was done at the time when the House of
Commons appointed a committee to inquire into the cruelties exercised
on prisoners in the _The Fleet_, to extort money from them. "The
scene," he says, "is the committee; on the table are the instruments
of torture. A prisoner in rags, half-starved, appears before them; the
poor man has a good countenance, that adds to the interest. On the
other hand is the inhuman gaoler. It is the very figure that _Salvator
Rosa_ would have drawn for _Iago_ in the moment of detection. Villainy,
fear, and conscience, are mixed in yellow and livid on his countenance;
his lips are contracted by tremor, his face advances as eager to lie,
his legs step back as thinking to make his escape; one hand is thrust
precipitately into his bosom, the fingers of the other are catching
uncertainly at his button-holes. If this was a portrait, it is the
most striking that ever was drawn; if it was not, it is still finer."
The portrait was that of _Bambridge_[18] the warden of _The Fleet_;
and the sketch was taken in the beginning of the year 1729, when
_Bambridge_ and _Huggins_ (his predecessor)[19] were under examination.
Both were declared "notoriously guilty of great breaches of trust,
extortions, cruelties, and other high crimes and misdemeanors;" both
were sent to _Newgate_; and _Bambridge_ was disqualified by act of
parliament.[20] The son[21] of _Huggins_ was possessed of a valuable
painting from this sketch, and also of a scene in the _Beggar's Opera_;
both of them full of real portraits. On the dispersion of his effects,
the latter was purchased by the Rev. Dr. _Monkhouse_ of _Queen's
College, Oxford_. It is in a gilt frame, with a bust of _Gay_ at the
top. It's companion, whose present possessor I have not been able to
trace out, had, in like manner, that of Sir _Francis Page_, one of the
judges, remarkable for his severity;[22] with a halter round his neck.

The Duke of _Leeds_ has also an original scene in the _Beggar's Opera_,
painted by _Hogarth_. It is that in which _Lucy_ and _Polly_ are on
their knees, before their respective fathers, to intercede for the
life of the hero of the piece. All the figures are either known or
supposed to be portraits. If I am not misinformed, the late Sir _Thomas
Robinson_ (as well known by the name of _Long Sir Thomas_) is standing
in one of the side-boxes. _Macheath_, unlike his spruce representative
on our present stage, is a slouching bully; and _Polly_ appears happily
disencumbered of such a hoop as the daughter of _Peachum_ within our
younger memories has worn. His Grace gave 35 _l._ for this picture
at Mr. _Rich's_ auction. Another copy of the same scene was bought
by the late Sir _William Saunderson_; and is now in the possession
of Sir _Henry Gough_. Mr. _Walpole_ has a painting of a scene in the
same piece, where _Macheath_ is going to execution. In this also the
likenesses of _Walker_, and Miss _Fenton_ afterwards Dutchess of
_Bolton_ (the original _Macheath_ and _Polly_), are preserved.

In the year 1726, when the affair of _Mary Tofts_, the rabbit-breeder
of _Godalming_, engaged the public attention, a few of our principal
surgeons subscribed their guinea a-piece to _Hogarth_, for an
engraving from a ludicrous sketch he had made on that very popular
subject. This plate, amongst other portraits, contains that of the
notorious _St. André_, the anatomist to the royal household, and in
high credit as a surgeon. The additional celebrity of this man arose
either from fraud or ignorance, perhaps from a due mixture of both. It
was supported, however, afterwards, by the reputation of a dreadful
crime. His imaginary wealth, in spite of these disadvantages, to the
last insured him a circle of flatterers, even though, at the age of
fourscore, his conversation was offensive to modest ears, and his grey
hairs were rendered still more irreverend by repeated acts of untimely
lewdness.[23] A particular description of this plate will be given in
the future catalogue of _Hogarth's_ works.

In 1727, _Hogarth_ agreed with _Morris_, an upholsterer, to furnish
him with a design on canvas, representing the element of Earth, as a
pattern for tapestry. The work not being performed to the satisfaction
of _Morris_, he refused to pay for it; and our artist sued him for the
money. This suit (which was tried before Lord Chief Justice _Eyre_ at
_Westminster, May_ 28, 1728) was determined in favour of _Hogarth_. The
brief for the defendant in the cause, is preserved below.[24]

In 1730, Mr. _Hogarth_ married the only daughter of Sir _James
Thornhill_,[25] by whom he had no child. This union, indeed, was a
stolen one, and consequently without the approbation of Sir _James_,
who, considering the youth of his daughter, then barely eighteen, and
the slender finances of her husband, as yet an obscure artist,[26] was
not easily reconciled to the match. Soon after this period, however,
he began his _Harlot's Progress_ (the coffin in the last plate is
inscribed _September_ 2, 1731); and was advised by Lady _Thornhill_ to
have some of the scenes in it placed in the way of his father-in-law.
Accordingly, one morning early, Mrs. _Hogarth_ undertook to convey
several of them into his dining-room. When he arose, he enquired from
whence they came; and being told by whom they were introduced, he cried
out, "Very well; the man who can furnish representations like these,
can also maintain a wife without a portion." He designed this remark as
an excuse for keeping his purse-strings close; but, soon after, became
both reconciled and generous to the young couple.

Our artist's reputation was so far established in 1731, that it drew
forth a poetical compliment from Mr. _Mitchell_, in the epistle already

An allegorical cieling by Sir _James Thornhill_ is at the house of the
late Mr. _Huggins_, at _Headley Park, Hants_. The subject of it is the
story of _Zephyrus_ and _Flora_; and the figure of a Satyr and some
others were painted by _Hogarth_.

In 1732 (the year in which he was one of the party who made _A Tour
by land and Water_, which will be duly noticed in the Catalogue) he
ventured to attack Mr. _Pope_, in a plate called "The Man of Taste;"
containing a view of the Gate of _Burlington-house_; with _Pope_
whitewashing it, and bespattering the Duke of _Chandos's_ coach.[27]
This plate was intended as a satire on the translator of _Homer_,
Mr. _Kent_ the architect, and the Earl of _Burlington_. It was
fortunate for _Hogarth_ that he escaped the lash of the former. Either
_Hogarth's_ obscurity at that time was his protection, or the bard was
too prudent to exasperate a painter who had already given such proof of
his abilities for satire. What must _he_ have felt who could complain
of the "pictured shape" prefixed to _Gulliveriana, Pope Alexander's
Supremacy and Infallibility examined,_ &c. by _Ducket_, and other
pieces, had our artist undertaken to express in colours a certain
transaction recorded by _Cibber_?

Soon after his marriage, _Hogarth_ had summer-lodgings at
_South-Lambeth_; and being intimate with Mr. _Tyers_, contributed to
the improvement of _The Spring Gardens_ at _Vauxhall_, by the hint of
embellishing them with paintings, some of which were the suggestions
of his own truly comic pencil. Among these were the "Four parts of the
Day," copied by _Hayman_ from the designs of our artist. The scenes of
"Evening" and "Night" are still there; and portraits of _Henry_ VIII.
and _Anne Bullen_ once adorned the old great room on the right hand of
the entry into the gardens. For his assistance, Mr. _Tyers_ gratefully
presented him with a gold ticket of admission for himself and his
friends, inscribed


This ticket, now in the possession of his widow, is still occasionally
made use of.

In 1733 his genius became conspicuously known. The third scene of his
"Harlot's Progress" introduced him to the notice of the great. At a
board of Treasury which was held a day or two after the appearance of
that print, a copy of it was shewn by one of the lords, as containing,
among other excellencies, a striking likeness of Sir _John Gonson_.[28]
It gave universal satisfaction; from the Treasury each lord repaired
to the print-shop for a copy of it, and _Hogarth_ rose completely
into fame. This anecdote was related to Mr. _Huggins_ by _Christopher
Tilson_, esq. one of the four chief clerks in the Treasury, and at
that period under-secretary of state. He died _August_ 25, 1742, after
having enjoyed the former of these offices fifty-eight years. I should
add, however, that Sir _John Gonson_ is not here introduced to be made
ridiculous, but is only to be considered as the image of an active
magistrate identified.

The familiarity of the subject, and the propriety of it's execution,
made the "Harlot's Progress" tasted by all ranks of people. Above
twelve hundred names were entered in our artist's subscription-book.
It was made into a pantomime by _Theophilus Cibber_; and again
represented on the stage, under the title of _The Jew decoyed, or
a Harlot's Progress_, in a Ballad Opera. Fan-mounts were likewise
engraved, containing miniature representations of all the six plates.
These were usually printed off with red ink, three compartments on one
side, and three on the other.[29]

The ingenious Abbé _Du Bos_ has often complained, that no
history-painter of his time went through a series of actions, and thus,
like an historian, painted the successive fortune of an hero, from
the cradle to the grave. What _Du Bos_ wished to see done, _Hogarth_
performed. He launches out his young adventurer a simple girl upon the
town, and conducts her through all the vicissitudes of wretchedness to
a premature death. This was painting to the understanding and to the
heart; none had ever before made the pencil subservient to the purposes
of morality and instruction; a book like this is fitted to every soil
and every observer, and he that runs may read. Nor was the success of
_Hogarth_ confined to his persons. One of his excellencies consisted
in what may be termed the furniture[30] of his pieces; for as in
sublime and historical representations the fewer trivial circumstances
are permitted to divide the spectator's attention from the principal
figures, the greater is their force; so in scenes copied from familiar
life, a proper variety of little domestic images contributes to throw
a degree of verisimilitude on the whole. "The Rake's levee-room,"
says Mr. _Walpole_, "the nobleman's dining-room, the apartments of
the husband and wife in Marriage Alamode, the Alderman's parlour, the
bed-chamber, and many others, are the history of the manners of the

It may also be observed, that _Hogarth_, both in the third and last
plate of the _Harlot's Progress_, has appropriated a name to his
heroine which belonged to a well-known wanton then upon the town.
The _Grub-street Journal_ for _August_ 6, 1730, giving an account of
several prostitutes who were taken up, informs us that "the fourth was
_Kate Hackabout_ (whose brother was lately hanged at _Tyburn_), a woman
noted in and about the hundreds of _Drury, &c_."

In 1735 our artist lost his mother, as appears by the following extract
from an old Magazine: "_June_ 11, 1735. Died Mrs. _Hogarth_, mother
to the celebrated painter, of a fright from the fire which happened
on the 9th, in _Cecil Court, St. Martin's Lane_, and burnt thirteen
houses;[31] amongst others, one belonging to _John Huggins_, esq. late
Warden of _The Fleet_, was greatly damaged."

The "Rake's Progress" (published in the same year, and sold at
_Hogarth's_ house, the _Golden Head_ in _Leicester Fields_), though
"perhaps superior, had not," as Mr. _Walpole_ observes, "so much
success, from want of novelty; nor is the print of the arrest equal in
merit to the others.[32]

"The curtain, however," says he, "was now drawn aside, and his genius
stood displayed in its full lustre. From time to time our artist
continued to give those works that would be immortal, if the nature of
his art will allow it. Even the receipts for his subscriptions had wit
in them. Many of his plates he engraved himself, and often expunged
faces etched by his assistants, when they had not done justice to his
ideas. Not content with shining in a path untrodden before, he was
ambitious of distinguishing himself as a painter of history; and in
1736 presented to the hospital of _St. Bartholomew_, of which he had
been appointed a governor,[33] a painting of the _Pool of Bethesda_,
and another of the _Good Samaritan_. But the genius that had entered
so feelingly into the calamities and crimes of familiar life, deserted
him in a walk that called for dignity and grace. The burlesque turn
of his mind mixed itself with the most serious subjects. In the _Pool
of Bethesda_, a servant of a rich ulcerated lady beats back a poor
man that sought the same celestial remedy; and in his _Danae_ [for
which the Duke of _Ancaster_ paid 60 guineas] the old nurse tries a
coin of the golden shower with her teeth, to see if it is true gold.
Both circumstances are justly thought, but rather too ludicrous. It
is a much more capital fault that _Danae_ herself is a mere nymph of
_Drury_. He seems to have conceived no higher degree of beauty." Dr.
_Parsons_ also, in his Lectures on Physiognomy, 410. p. 58, says, "Thus
yielded _Danae_ to the Golden Shower, and thus was her passion painted
by the ingenious Mr. _Hogarth_."

The novelty and excellence of _Hogarth's_ performances soon tempted the
needy artist and print-dealer to avail themselves of his designs,[34]
and rob him of the advantages which he was entitled to derive from
them. This was particularly the case with the "Midnight Conversation,"
the "Harlot's" and "Rake's" Progresses,[35] and the rest of his early
works. To put a stop to depredations like these on the property of
himself and others, and to secure the emoluments resulting from his
own labours, as Mr. _Walpole_ observes, he applied to the legislature,
and obtained an act of parliament, 8 _George_ II. chap. 3°, to vest
an exclusive right in designers and engravers, and to restrain the
multiplying of copies of their works without the consent of the

This statute was drawn by his friend Mr. _Huggins_,[37] who took for
his model the eighth of Queen _Anne_, in favour of literary property;
but it was not so accurately executed as entirely to remedy the evil;
for, in a cause founded on it, which came before Lord _Hardwicke_ in
Chancery, that excellent Lawyer determined that no assignee, claiming
under an assignment from the original inventor, could take any benefit
by it. _Hogarth_, immediately after the passing the act, published a
small print, with emblematical devices, and the following inscription
expressing his gratitude to the three branches of the legislature:

                "In humble and grateful acknowledgment
             Of the grace and goodness of the LEGISLATURE,
            In the ACT of PARLIAMENT for the Encouragement
               Of the Arts of Designing, Engraving, &c.
          By the Endeavours, and almost at the sole Expence,
            Of the Designer of this Print in the Year 1735;
                               By which
          Not only the Professors of those Arts were rescued
                From the Tyranny, Frauds, and Piracies
                       Of Monopolizing Dealers,
       And legally entitled to the Fruits of their own Labours;
              But Genius and Industry were also prompted
    By the most noble and generous Inducements to exert themselves;
                        Emulation was excited,
            Ornamental Compositions were better understood;
          And every Manufacture, where Fancy has any concern,
     Was gradually raised to a Pitch of Perfection before unknown;
                 Insomuch, that those of GREAT-BRITAIN
                    Are at present the most Elegant
               And the most in Esteem of any in EUROPE."

This plate he afterwards made to serve for a receipt for subscriptions,
first to a print of an "Election Entertainment;" and afterwards
for three prints more, representing the "polling for members for
parliament, canvassing for votes, and chairing the members." The
royal crown at the top of this receipt is darting its rays on mitres,
coronets, the Chancellor's great seal, the Speaker's hat, &c. &c. and
on a scroll is written, "An Act for the Encouragement of the Arts of
Designing, Engraving, and Etching, by vesting the Properties thereof in
the Inventors and Engravers, during the Time therein mentioned." It was
"Designed, etched, and published as the Act directs, by _W. Hogarth,
March_ 20, 1754." After _Hogarth's_ death, the legislature, by Stat. 7
_Geo._ III. chap. 38. granted to his widow a further exclusive term of
twenty years in the property of her husband's works.

In 1736 he had the honour of being distinguished in a masterly poem of
a congenial Humourist. The Dean of _St. Patrick's_, in his "Description
of the Legion Club," after pourtraying many characters with all the
severity of the most pointed satire, exclaims,

    "How I want thee, humorous _Hogarth!_
    Thou, I hear, a pleasant rogue art!
    Were but you and I acquainted,
    Every monster should be painted:
    You should try your graving tools
    On this odious group of fools;
    Draw the beasts as I describe them;
    Form their features, while I gibe them;
    Draw them like, for I assure ye,
    You will need no _caricatura_.
    Draw them so, that we may trace
    All the soul in every face."

An elegant compliment was soon after paid to _Hogarth_ by _Somervile_,
the author of _The Chace_, who dedicates his _Hobbinol_ to him as to
"the greatest master in the burlesque way." Yet _Fielding_, in the
Preface to _Joseph Andrews_, says, "He who should call the ingenious
_Hogarth_ a burlesque painter, would, in my opinion, do him very
little honour, for sure it is much easier, much less the subject
of admiration, to paint a man with a nose, or any other feature of
a preposterous size, or to expose him in some absurd or monstrous
attitude, than to express the affections of men on canvas. It hath been
thought a vast commendation of a painter, to say his figures seem to
breathe; but surely it is a much greater and nobler applause, that they
appear to think."[38]

_Vincent Bourne_, that classical ornament of _Westminster School_,
addressed the following copy of hendecasyllables

    "Ad GULIELMUM HOGARTH, Παρουνετικόν [Greek: Parounetikon]

    "Qui mores hominum improbos, ineptos,
    Incidis, nec ineleganter, æri,
    Derisor lepidus, sed & severus,
    Corrector gravis, at nec invenustus;
    Seu pingis meretricios amores,
    Et scenas miseræ vicesque vitæ;
    Ut tentat pretio rudem puellam
    Corruptrix anus, impudens, obesa;
    Ut se vix reprimit libidinosus
    Scortator, veneri paratus omni:
    Seu describere vis, facete censor,
    Bacchanalia sera protrahentes
    Ad confinia crastinæ diei,
    Fractos cum cyathis tubos, matellam
    Non plenam modò sed superfluentem,
    Et fortem validumque combibonem
    Lætantem super amphorâ repletâ;
    Jucundissimus omnium ferêris,
    Nullique artificum secundus, ætas
    Quos præsens dedit, aut dabit futura.
    Macte ô, eja age, macte sis amicus
    Virtuti: vitiique quod notâris,
    Pergas pingere, & exhibere coràm,
    Censura utilior tua æquiorque
    Omni vel satirarum acerbitate,
    Omni vel rigidissimo cachinno."

By printed proposals, dated _Jan_. 25, 1744-5, _Hogarth_ offered to
the highest bidder "the six pictures called _The Harlot's Progress_,
the eight pictures called _The Rake's Progress_, the four pictures
representing _Morning, Noon, Evening,_ and _Night,_ and that of _A
Company of Strolling Actresses dressing in a Barn_; all of them his own
original paintings, from which no other copies than the prints have
ever been taken." The biddings were to remain open from the first to
the last day of _February_, on these conditions: "1. That every bidder
shall have an entire leaf numbered in the book of sale, on the top of
which will be entered the name and place of abode, the sum paid by him,
the time when, and for which picture.--That, on the last day of sale,
a clock (striking every five minutes) shall be placed in the room;
and when it hath struck five minutes after twelve, the first picture
mentioned in the sale-book will be deemed as sold; the second picture
when the clock hath struck the next five minutes after twelve; and so
on successively till the whole nineteen pictures are sold. 3. That none
advance less than gold at each bidding. 4. No person to bid on the last
day, except those whose names were before entered in the book.--As Mr.
_Hogarth's_ room is but small, he begs the favour that no persons,
except those whose names are entered in the book, will come to view his
paintings on the last day of sale."

The pictures were sold for the following prices:

  Six Harlot's Progress, at 14 guineas each      £.88  4 0
  Eight Rake's Progress, at 22 guineas each       184 16 0
  Morning, 20 guineas                              21  0 0
  Noon, 37 guineas                                 38 17 0
  Evening, 38 guineas                              39 18 0
  Night, 26 guineas                                27  6 0
  Strolling Players, 26 guineas                    27  6 0
                                                  427  7 0

At the same time the six pictures of _Marriage à-la-mode_ were
announced as intended for sale as soon as the plates then taking from
them should be completed. This set of Prints may be regarded as the
ground-work of a novel called "The Marriage Act," by Dr. _Shebbeare_,
and of "The Clandestine Marriage." In the prologue to that excellent
comedy, Mr. _Garrick_ thus handsomely expressed his regard for the
memory of his friend:

    "Poets and painters, who from nature draw
    Their best and richest stores, have made this law:
    That each should neighbourly assist his brother,
    And steal with decency from one another.
    To-night, your matchless _Hogarth_ gives the thought,
    Which from his canvas to the stage is brought.
    And who so fit to warm the poet's mind,
    As he who pictur'd morals and mankind?
    But not the same their characters and scenes;
    Both labour for one end, by different means:
    Each, as it suits him, takes a separate road,
    Their one great object, _Marriage à la Mode!_
    Where titles deign with cits to have and hold,
    And change rich blood for more substantial gold!
    And honour'd trade from interest turns aside,
    To hazard happiness for titled pride.
    The painter dead, yet still he charms the eye;
    While _England_ lives, his fame can never die:
    But he, 'who struts his hour upon the stage,'
    Can scarce extend his fame for half an age;
    Nor pen nor pencil can the actor save,
    The art, and artist, share one common grave."[39]

_Hogarth_ had projected a _Happy Marriage_, by way of counterpart to
his _Marriage à la Mode_. A design for the first of his intended six
plates he had sketched out in colours; and the following is as accurate
an account of it as could be furnished by a gentleman who, long ago
enjoyed only a few minutes' sight of so imperfect a curiosity.

The time supposed was immediately after the return of the parties from
church. The scene lay in the hall of an antiquated country mansion.
On one side, the married couple were represented sitting. Behind
them was a group of their young friends of both sexes, in the act of
breaking bride-cake over their heads. In front appeared the father of
the young lady, grasping a bumper, and drinking, with a seeming roar
of exultation, to the future happiness of her and her husband. By
his side was a table covered with refreshments. Jollity rather than
politeness was the designation of his character. Under the screen of
the hall, several rustic musicians in grotesque attitudes, together
with servants, tenants, &c. were arranged. Through the arch by which
the room was entered, the eye was led along a passage into the kitchen,
which afforded a glimpse of sacerdotal luxury. Before the dripping-pan
stood a well-fed divine, in his gown and cassock, with his watch in his
hand, giving directions to a cook, drest all in white, who was employed
in basting a haunch of venison.

Among the faces of the principal figures, none but that of the young
lady was completely finished. _Hogarth_ had been often reproached
for his inability to impart grace and dignity to his heroines. The
bride was therefore meant to vindicate his pencil from so degrading
an imputation. The effort, however, was unsuccessful. The girl was
certainly pretty; but her features, if I may use the term, were
uneducated. She might have attracted notice as a chambermaid, but would
have failed to extort applause as a woman of fashion. The parson, and
his culinary associate, were more laboured than any other parts of the
picture. It is natural for us to dwell longest on that division of a
subject which is most congenial to our private feelings. The painter
sat down with a resolution to delineate beauty improved by art; but
seems, as usual, to have deviated into meanness; or could not help
neglecting his original purpose, to luxuriate in such ideas as his
situation in early life had fitted him to express. He found himself,
in short, out of his element in the parlour, and therefore hastened,
in quest of ease and amusement, to the kitchen fire. _Churchill_, with
more force than delicacy, once observed of him, that he only painted
the _backside_ of nature. It must be allowed, that such an artist,
however excellent in his walk, was better qualified to represent the
low-born parent, than the royal preserver of a foundling.

The sketch already described (which I believe is in Mrs. _Garrick's_
possession) was made after the appearance of _Marriage à la Mode_, and
many years before the artist's death. Why he did not persevere in
his plan, during such an interval of time, we can only guess. It is
probable that his undertaking required a longer succession of images
relative to domestic happiness, than had fallen within his notice, or
courted his participation. _Hogarth_ had no children; and though the
nuptial union may be happy without them, yet such happiness will have
nothing picturesque in it; and we may observe of this truly natural and
faithful painter, that he rarely ventured to exhibit scenes with which
he was not perfectly well acquainted.

Let us, however, more completely obviate an objection that may be
raised against the propriety of the foregoing criticism. Some reader
may urge, that perhaps, all circumstances considered, a wedding
celebrated at an old mansion-house did not require the appearance of
consummate beauty, refined by the powers of education. The remark has
seeming justice on its side; but _Hogarth_ had previously avowed his
intent to exhibit a perfect face, divested of vulgarity; and succeeded
so well, at least in his own opinion, that he carried the canvas, of
which we are now speaking, in triumph to Mr. _Garrick_, whose private
strictures on it coincided with those of the person who furnishes this
additional confirmation of our painter's notorious ignorance in what
is styled--THE GRACEFUL. From the account I have received concerning a
design for a previous compartment belonging to the same story, there is
little reason to lament the loss of it. It contained no appeal either
to the fancy or to the heart. An artist, who, representing the marriage
ceremony in a chapel, renders the clerk, who lays the hassocks, the
principal figure in it, may at least be taxed with want of judgement.

Soon after the peace of _Aix la Chapelle_, he went over to _France_,
and was taken into custody at _Calais_, while he was drawing the gate
of that town, a circumstance which he has recorded in his picture,
intituled, "O the Roast Beef of _Old England_!" published _March_ 26,
1749. He was actually carried before the governor as a spy, and, after
a very strict examination, committed a prisoner to _Grandsire_, his
landlord, on his promising that _Hogarth_ should not go out of his
house till it was to embark for _England_. This account, I have good
authority for saying, he himself gave to his friend Mr. _Gostling_ at
_Canterbury_, at whose house he lay the night after his arrival.

The same accident, however, has been more circumstantially related
by an eminent _English_ engraver, who was abroad when it happened.
_Hayman_, and _Cheere_ the statuary, were of the same party.

While _Hogarth_ was in _France_, wherever he went, he was sure to be
dissatisfied with all he saw. If an elegant circumstance either in
furniture, or the ornaments of a room, was pointed out as deserving
approbation, his narrow and constant reply was, "What then? but it is
_French_! Their houses are all gilt and b--t." In the streets he was
often clamourously rude. A tatter'd bag, or a pair of silk stockings
with holes in them, drew a torrent of imprudent language from him. In
vain did my informant (who knew that many _Scotch_ and _Irish_ were
often within hearing of these reproaches, and would rejoice at least
in an opportunity of getting our painter mobbed) advise him to be more
cautious in his public remarks. He laughed at all such admonition, and
treated the offerer of it as a pusillanimous wretch, unworthy of a
residence in a free country, making him the butt of his ridicule for
several evenings afterwards. This unreasonable pleasantry was at length
completely extinguished by what happened while he was drawing the
Gate at _Calais_; for though the innocence of his design was rendered
perfectly apparent on the testimony of other sketches he had about him,
which were by no means such as could serve the purpose of an engineer,
he was told by the Commandant, that, had not the peace been actually
signed, he should have been obliged to have hung him up immediately on
the ramparts. Two guards were then provided to convey him on shipboard;
nor did they quit him till he was three miles from the shore. They
then spun him round like a top, on the deck; and told him he was
at liberty to proceed on his voyage without farther attendance or
molestation. With the slightest allusion to the ludicrous particulars
of this affair, poor _Hogarth_ was by no means pleased. The leading
circumstance in it his own pencil has recorded.

Soon after this period he purchased a little house at _Chiswick_; where
he usually passed the greatest part of the summer season, yet not
without occasional visits to his dwelling in _Leicester Fields_.

In 1753, he appeared to the world in the character of art author,
and published a quarto volume, intituled, "The Analysis of Beauty,
written with a view of fixing the fluctuating Ideas of Taste." In
this performance he shews, by a variety of examples, that a curve is
the line of beauty, and that round swelling figures are most pleasing
to the eye; and the truth of his opinion has been countenanced by
subsequent writers on the subject.

Among the letters of Dr. _Birch_ is the following short one, sent with
the "Analysis of Beauty," and dated _Nov._ 25, 1753; "Sir, I beg the
favour of you to present to the Royal Society the enclosed work, which
will receive great honour by their acceptance of it. I am, Sir, your
most obedient humble servant, WM. HOGARTH."

In this book, the leading idea of which was hieroglyphically thrown
out in a frontispiece to his works in 1745, he acknowledges himself
indebted to his friends for assistance, and particularly to one
gentleman for his corrections and amendments of at least a third part
of the _wording_. This friend, I am assured, was Dr. _Benjamin Hoadly_
the physician, who carried on the work to about a _third_ part, Chap.
IX. and then, through indisposition, declined the friendly office with
regret. Mr. _Hogarth_ applied to his neighbour, Mr. _Ralph_; but it
was impossible for two such persons to agree, both alike vain and
positive. He proceeded no farther than about a sheet, and they then
parted friends, and seem to have continued such. In the _Estimate of
the Manners and Principles of the Times_, vol. I. p. 47, published in
1757 by Dr. _Brown_, that author pays a compliment to Mr. _Hogarth's_
genius. Mr. _Ralph_, animadverting on the work, amongst other things,
says, "It is happy for Mr. _Hogarth_, in my humble opinion, that he
is brought upon the stage in such company, rather for the sake of
fastening some additional abuse upon the public, than of bestowing any
special grace upon him. 'Neither the comic pencil, nor the serious
pen of our ingenious countrymen (so the Estimator or Appraiser's
Patent of Allowance runs) have been able to keep alive the taste of
Nature or of Beauty.' For where he has chosen to be a niggard of his
acknowledgements, every other man would chuse to be a prodigal: Nature
had played the _Proteus_ with us, had invited us to pursue her in every
shape, but had never suffered us to overtake her: Beauty all had been
smitten with, but nobody had been able to assign us a rule by which
it might be defined: This was Mr. _Hogarth's_ task; this is what he
has succeeded in; composition is at last become a science; the student
knows what he is in search of; the connoisseur what to praise; and
fancy or fashion, or prescription, will usurp the hacknied name of
taste no more. So that, whatever may be said in disparagement of the
age on other accounts, it has more merit and honour to claim on this,
than any which preceded it. And I will venture for once to prophesy,
from the improvements already manifested, that we shall have the arts
of designing to value ourselves upon, when all our ancient virtues are
worn out."

The office of finishing the work, and superintending the publication,
was lastly taken up by Dr. _Morell_, who went through the remainder of
the book.[40] The preface was in like manner corrected by the Rev. Mr.
_Townley_. The family of _Hogarth_ rejoiced when the last sheet of the
_Analysis_ was printed off; as the frequent disputes he had with his
coadjutors, in the progress of the work, did not much harmonize his

This work was translated into _German_ by Mr. _Mylins_, when in
_England_, under the author's inspection; and the translation,
containing twenty-two sheets in quarto, and two large plates, was
printed in _London_, price five dollars.

Of the same performance a new and correct edition was (_July_ 1,
1754) proposed for publication at _Berlin_, by _Ch. Fr. Vok_, with an
explanation of Mr. _Hogarth's_ satirical prints, translated from the
_French_; the whole to subscribers for one dollar, but after six weeks
to be raised to two dollars.

An _Italian_ translation was also published at _Leghorn_ in 1761, 8vo,
dedicated "All' illustrissime Signora Diana _Molineux_, Dama _Inglese_."

"This book," Mr. _Walpole_ observes, "had many sensible hints and
observations; but it did not carry the conviction, nor meet the
universal acquiescence he expected. As he treated his contemporaries
with scorn, they triumphed over this publication,[41] and irritated him
to expose him. Many wretched burlesque prints came out to ridicule
his system. There was a better answer to it in one of the two prints
that he gave to illustrate his hypothesis. In the ball, had he confined
himself to such outlines as compose awkwardness and deformity, he would
have proved half his assertion; but he has added two samples of grace
in a young lord and lady, that are strikingly stiff and affected. They
are a _Bath_ beau and a county Beauty."

_Hogarth_ had one failing in common with most people who attain
wealth and eminence without the aid of liberal education. He affected
to despise every kind of knowledge which he did not possess. Having
established his fame with little or no obligation to literature, he
either conceived it to be needless, or decried it because it lay out of
his reach. His sentiments, in short, resembled those of _Jack Cade_,
who pronounced sentence on the clerk of _Chatham_, because he could
write and read. Till, in evil hour, this celebrated artist commenced
an author, and was obliged to employ the friends already mentioned
to correct his _Analysis of Beauty_,[42] he did not seem to have
discovered that even spelling was a necessary qualification; and yet
he had ventured to ridicule[43] the late Mr. _Rich's_ deficiency as to
this particular, in a note which lies before the Rake whose play is
refused while he remains in confinement for debt. Previous to the time
of which we are now speaking, one of our artist's common topicks of
declamation was the uselessness of books to a man of his profession. In
_Beer-street_, among other volumes consigned by him to the pastry cook,
we find _Turnbull on ancient Painting_, a treatise which _Hogarth_
should have been able to understand, before he ventured to condemn.
_Garrick_ himself, however, was not more ductile to flattery. A word
in favour of _Sigismunda_, might have commanded a proof print, or
forced an original sketch out of our artist's hands. The furnisher of
this remark owes one of his scarcest performances to the success of
a compliment, which might have stuck even in Sir _Godfrey Kneller's_

The following authenticated story of our artist will also serve to shew
how much more easy it is to detect ill-placed or hyperbolical adulation
respecting others, than when applied to ourselves. _Hogarth_ being at
dinner with the great _Cheselden_, and some other company, was told
that Mr. _John Freke_, surgeon of _St. Bartholomew's Hospital_, a few
evenings before at _Dick's Coffee-house_, had asserted, that _Greene_
was as eminent in composition as _Handel_. "That fellow _Freke_,"
replied _Hogarth_, "is always shooting his bolt absurdly one way or
another! _Handel_ is a giant in music; _Greene_ only a light _Florimel_
kind of a composer."--"Ay," says our artist's informant, "but at the
same time Mr. _Freke_ declared you were as good a portrait-painter as
_Vandyck_."--"_There_ he was in the right," adds _Hogarth_; "and so by
G-- I am, give me my time, and let me choose my subject!"

With Dr. _Hoadly_, the late Chancellor of _Winchester_, Mr. _Hogarth_
was always on terms of the strictest friendship, and frequently
visited him at _Winchester, St. Cross,_ and _Alresford_. It is well
known, that Dr. _Hoadly's_ fondness for theatrical exhibitions was so
great, that few visitors were ever long in his house before they were
solicited to accept a part in some interlude or other. He himself,
with _Garrick_ and _Hogarth_, once performed a laughable parody on
the scene in _Julius Cæsar_, where the _Ghost_ appears to _Brutus.
Hogarth_ personated the spectre; but so unretentive was his memory,
that, although his speech consisted only of two lines, he was unable
to get them by heart. At last they hit on the following expedient in
his favour. The verses he was to deliver were written in such large
letters, on the outside of an illuminated paper-lanthorn, that he could
read them when he entered with it in his hand on the stage. _Hogarth_
painted a scene on this occasion, representing a sutling booth, with
the _Duck of Cumberland's_ head by way of sign. He also prepared the
play-bill, with characteristic ornaments. The original drawing is still
preserved, and we could wish it were engraved; as the slightest sketch
from the design of so grotesque a painter would be welcome to the
numerous collectors of his works.

_Hogarth_ was also the most absent of men. At table he would sometimes
turn round his chair as if he had finished eating, and as suddenly
would return it, and fall to his meal again. I may add, that he
once directed a letter to Dr. _Hoadly_, thus,--"To the Doctor at
_Chelsea_." This epistle, however, by good luck, did not miscarry; and
was preserved by the late Chancellor of _Winchester_, as a pleasant
memorial of his friend's extraordinary inattention.

Another remarkable instance of _Hogarth's_ absence was told me, after
the first edition of this work, by one of his intimate friends. Soon
after he set up his carriage, he had occasion to pay a visit to the
lord-mayor (I believe it was Mr. _Beckford_). When he went, the weather
was fine; but business detained him till a violent shower of rain came
on. He was let out of the Mansion-house by a different door from
that at which he entered; and, seeing the rain, began immediately to
call for a hackney-coach. Not one was to be met with on any of the
neighbouring stands; and our artist sallied forth to brave the storm,
and actually reached _Leicester-fields_ without bestowing a thought on
his own carriage, till Mrs. _Hogarth_ (surprized to see him so wet and
splashed) asked where he had left it.

Mr. _Walpole_, in the following note, p. 69, is willing to expose the
indelicacy of the _Flemish_ painters, by comparing it with the purity
of _Hogarth_. "When they attempt humour," says our author, "it is by
making a drunkard vomit; they take evacuations for jokes; and when they
make us sick, think they make us laugh. A boor hugging a frightful
frow is a frequent incident, even in the works of _Teniers_." Shall we
proceed to examine whether the scenes painted by our countryman are
wholly free from the same indelicacies? In one plate of _Hudibras_,
where he encounters a _Skimmington_, a man is making water against the
end of a house, while a taylor's wife is most significantly attending
to the dirty process. In another plate to the same work, a boy is
pissing into the shoe of _Ralpho_, while the widow is standing by.
Another boy in the _Enraged Musician_ is easing nature by the same
mode; and a little miss is looking earnestly on the operation. In the
_March to Finchley_, a diseased soldier has no better employment; and
a woman is likewise staring at him out of a window. This circumstance
did not escape the observation of _Rouquet_ the enameller, whose
remarks[44] on the plates of our artist I shall have more than once
occasion to introduce. "Il y a," says he, "dans quelques endroits de
cet excellent tableau, des objets peut être plus propres à peindre
qu'à décrire. D'ou vient que les oreilles sont plus chaste que les
yeux? Ne seroit ce pas parce qu'on peut regarder certains objets dans
un tableau, et feindre de ne pas les voir; et qu'il n'est pas si
aisé d'entendre une obscénité, et de feindre de ne l'entendre pas!
L'objet, dont je veux parler, est toutefois peu considérable; il s'agit
seulement d'un soldat à qui le voyage de _Montpelier_ conviendroit
mieux que celui d'_Ecosse_. L'amour lui a fait une blessure, &c."
Was this occurrence delicate or precious enough to deserve such
frequency of repetition? In the burlesque _Paul before Felix_, when
the High Priest applies his fingers to his nose, we have reason to
imagine that his manœuvre was in consequence of some offensive escape
during the terrors of the pro-consul of _Judea_, who, as he is here
represented, conveys no imperfect image of a late Lord Mayor, at the
time of the riots in _London_. In this last instance, indeed, I ought
to have observed that _Hogarth_ meant to satirize, not to imitate,
the painters of _Holland_ and _Flanders_. But I forbear to dwell any
longer on such disgusting circumstances; begging leave only to ask,
whether the canvas of _Teniers_ exhibits nastier objects than those
of the woman cracking a louse between her nails in the fourth plate
of the _Harlot's Progress_; a _Scotch_ bag-piper catching another in
his neck while he is performing at the Election feast; _Aurora_ doing
the same kind office for a _Syren_ or _Nereid_, in the _Strollers_,
&c.; the old toothless _French_ beldams, slobbering (_Venus_ forbid we
should call it kissing) each other in the comic print entitled _Noon_;
the chamber-pot emptied on the Free Mason's head, in the _Rejoicing
Night_; or the _Lilliputians_ giving a clyster to _Gulliver_? In
some of these instances, however, the humour may compensate for the
indelicacy, which is rarely the case with such _Dutch_ pictures as
have justly incurred the censure of Mr. _Walpole_. Let us now try how
far some of the compositions of _Hogarth_ have befriended the cause
of modesty. In the _Harlot's Progress_, Plate VI. we meet with a hand
by no means busied in manner suitable to the purity of its owner's
function. _Hogarth_ indeed, in three different works, has delineated
three clergymen; the one as a drunkard; the second as a glutton; and
the third as a whoremaster, who (I borrow _Rouquet's_ words) "est plus
occupé de sa voisine que de son vin, qu'il repand par une distraction
qu'elle lui cause." He who, in the eyes of the vulgar, would degrade
our professors of religion, deserves few thanks from society. In
the _Rake's Progress_, Plate the last, how is the hand of the ideal
potentate employed, while he is gazing with no very modest aspect on
a couple of young women who pass before his cell numbered 55? and
to what particular object are the eyes of the said females supposed
to be directed?[45] Nay, in what pursuit is the grenadier engaged
who stands with his face toward the wall in Plate 9. of _Industry
and Idleness_? May we address another question to the reader? Is the
"_smile_ of _Socrates_," or the "_benevolence_ of the designer," very
distinguishable in the half dozen last instances? It has been observed
indeed by physiognomists, that the _smile_ of the real _Socrates_
resembled the _grin_ of a _satyr_; and perhaps a few of the particulars
here alluded to, as well as the prints entitled BEFORE and AFTER, ought
to be considered as a _benevolence_ to speculative old maids, or misses
not yet enfranchised from a boarding school. Had this truly sensible
critic, and elegant writer, been content to observe, that such gross
circumstances as form the chief subject of _Flemish_ pictures, are only
incidental and subordinate in those of our artist, the remark might
have escaped reprehension. But perhaps he who has told us that "_St.
Paul's_ hand was once _improperly_ placed before the wife of _Felix_"
should not have suffered more glaring insults on decency to pass
without a censure. On this occasion, though I may be found to differ
from Mr. _Walpole_, I am ready to confess how much regard is due to
the opinions of a gentleman whose mind has been long exercised on a
subject which is almost new to me; especially when I recollect that my
present researches would have had no guide, but for the lights held out
in the last volume of the Anecdotes of Painting in _England_.

_Hogarth_ boasted that he could draw a Serjeant with his pike,
going into an alehouse, and his Dog following him, with only three
strokes;--which he executed thus:

[Illustration: see below]

  B   |
  \   |
   \  |
    \ |
    C |

A. The perspective line of the door.
B. The end of the Serjeant's pike, who is gone in.
C. The end of the Dog's tail, who is following him.
There are similar whims of the _Caracci_.

A specimen of _Hogarth's_ propensity to merriment, on the most trivial
occasions, is observable in one of his cards requesting the company of
Dr. _Arnold King_ to dine with him at the _Mitre_.[46] Within a circle,
to which a knife and fork are the supporters, the written part is
contained. In the center is drawn a pye, with a _mitre_ on the top of
it; and the invitation of our artist concludes with the following sport
on three of the _Greek_ letters--to _Eta Beta Pi_.[47] The rest of the
inscription is not very accurately spelt. A quibble by _Hogarth_ is
surely as respectable as a conundrum by _Swift_.

"Some nicer virtuosi have remarked, that in the serious pieces, into
which _Hogarth_ has deviated from the natural biass of his genius,
there are some strokes of the ridiculous discernible, which suit not
with the dignity of his subject. In his PREACHING OF ST. PAUL, a dog
snarling at a cat;[48] and in his PHARAOH'S DAUGHTER, the figure of
the infant _Moses_, who expresses rather archness than timidity; are
alledged as instances, that this artist, unrivalled in his own walk,
could not resist the impulse of his imagination towards drollery.
His picture, however, of _Richard_ III. is pure and unmixed, without
any ridiculous circumstances, and strongly impresses terror and
amazement." As these observations are extracted from the _first_
edition of Dr. _Warton's_ "Essay on the Genius and Writings of _Pope_,"
it would be uncandid if we did not accompany them with the following
note from a subsequent edition of that valuable performance: "The
author gladly lays hold of the opportunity of this third edition of
his work to confess a mistake he had committed with respect to two
admirable paintings of Mr. _Hogarth_, his PAUL PREACHING, and his
INFANT MOSES; which, on a closer examination, are not chargeable with
the blemishes imputed to them. Justice obliges him to declare the high
opinion he entertains of the abilities of this inimitable artist,
who shines in so many different lights, and on such very dissimilar
subjects; and whose works have more of what the ancients called the
ΗθΟΣ [Greek: Ethos] in them, than the compositions of any other Modern.
For the rest, the author begs leave to add, that he is so far from
being ashamed of retracting his error, that he had rather appear a MAN
OF CANDOUR, than the best CRITIC that ever lived."[49]

In one of the early exhibitions at _Spring Gardens_, a very pleasing
small picture by _Hogarth_ made its first appearance. It was painted
for the earl of _Charlemont_, in whose collection it remains.[50] It
was intituled, _Picquet, or Virtue in Danger,_ and shews us a young
lady, who, during a _tête-à-tête_, had just lost all her money to
a handsome officer of her own age. He is represented in the act of
returning her a handful of bank bills, with the hope of exchanging
them for a softer acquisition, and more delicate plunder. On the
chimney piece is a watch-case and a figure of Time over it, with this
motto--NUNC. _Hogarth_ has caught his heroine during this moment of
hesitation, this struggle with herself, and has marked her feelings
with uncommon success. Wavering chastity, as in this instance, he was
qualified to display; but the graceful reserve of steady and exalted
virtue he would certainly have failed to express. He might have
conveyed a perfect idea of such an _Iphigenia_ as is described by Mr.
_Hayley_, in one of the cantoes of his beautiful poem on the _Triumphs
of Temper_; but the dignity of the same female at the _Tauric_ altar
would have baffled the most vigorous efforts of his pencil.

_Hogarth's_ Picquet, or _Virtue in Danger_, when exhibited at _Spring
Gardens_, in _May_, 1761, produced the following explanation:

    Ye fair, be warn'd, and shun those arts,
    That faithless men do use for hearts:
    Weigh o'er and o'er the destin'd man,
    And oft this little lesson scan;
    If he his character don't fear,
    For yours he'll very little care:
    With scorn repulse the wretch so bold,
    Nor pawn your virtue for his gold!
    Of gaming (cards or not) beware,
    'Tis very often found a snare;
    But, lest my precept still should fail,
    Indulge me--whilst I tell a tale:

    _Dorinda_, chearful, young, and gay,
    Oft shone at Balls, at Park, and Play;
    Blest with a free, engaging air,
    In short, throughout quite debonnair;
    (Excuse me--shall I tell the truth?)
    That bane of misled, heedless youth,
    Gaming--had quite possess'd her mind,
    To this (no other vice) inclin'd:
    She oft would melancholy sit,
    No partner near for dear Picquet!
    "At last a cruel spoiler came,"
    And deeply learn'd in all the game;
    A son of _Mars_, with iron face,
    Adorn'd with impudence and lace!
    Acquaintance with her soon he gains,
    He thinks her virtue worth his pains:
    Cards (after nonsense) came in course,
    By sap advances, not by force.
    The table set, the cards are laid,
    _Dorinda_ dreams not she's betray'd;
    The cards run cross, she fumes and frets,
    Her brilliant necklace soon she betts,
    She fears her watch, but can't resist,
    A miniature can scarce be mist!
    At last both watch and trinkets go,
    A prey to the devouring foe:
    Nay more (if fame but tells us true),
    She lost her di'mond buckles too!
    Her bracelets next became his prize,
    And in his hat the treasure lies.
    Upon her Virtue next he treats,
    And Honour's sacred name repeats:
    Tenders the trinkets, swears and lies,
    And vows her person is a prize!
    Then swears (with hand upon his breast)
    That he without her can't be blest!
    Then plies her with redoubled pains,
    T' exchange her virtue for his gains:
    Shame's purple wings o'ershade her face,
    He triumphs over her disgrace;
    Soon turns to jest her scruples nice,
    In short, she falls!--a sacrifice!
    Spoil'd of her virtue in her prime,
    And, knowing Heaven detests the crime,
    Is urg'd, perhaps, to dare his rod,
    "And rush unsummon'd to her God!"

    Ye fair, if happiness ye prize,
    Regard this rule, Be timely wise.

In the "Miser's Feast," Mr. _Hogarth_ thought proper to pillory Sir
_Isaac Shard_, a gentleman proverbially avaricious. Hearing this, the
son of Sir _Isaac_, the late _Isaac Pacatus Shard_,[51] esq. a young
man of spirit, just returned from his travels, called at the painter's
to see the picture; and, among the rest, asking the _Cicerone_ "whether
that odd figure was intended for any particular person;" on his
replying, "that it was thought to be very like one Sir _Isaac Shard_;"
he immediately drew his sword, and slashed the canvas. _Hogarth_
appeared instantly in great wrath; to whom Mr. _Shard_ calmly justified
what he had done, saying, "that this was a very unwarrantable licence;
that he was the injured party's son, and that he was ready to defend
any suit at law;" which, however, was never instituted.

About 1757, his brother-in-law, Mr. _Thornhill_, resigned the place
of king's serjeant-painter in favour of Mr. _Hogarth_; who soon after
made an experiment in painting, which involved him in some disgrace.
The celebrated collection of pictures belonging to Sir _Luke Schaub_
was in 1758 sold by public auction;[52] and the admired picture of
_Sigismunda_ (purchased by Sir _Thomas Sebright_ for 404. _l._ 5 _s._)
excited Mr. _Hogarth's_ emulation.

"From a contempt of the ignorant virtuosi of the age," says
Mr. _Walpole_, "and from indignation at the impudent tricks of
picture-dealers, whom he saw continually recommending and vending vile
copies to bubble collectors, and from having never studied, indeed
having seen, few good pictures of the great _Italian_ masters, he
persuaded himself that the praises bestowed on those glorious works
were nothing but the effects of prejudice. He talked this language
till he believed it; and having heard it often asserted, as is true,
that time gives a mellowness to colours and improves them, he not only
denied the proposition, but maintained that pictures only grew black
and worse by age, not distinguishing between the degrees in which the
proportion might be true or false. He went farther: he determined
to rival the ancients--and unfortunately chose one of the finest
pictures in _England_ as the object of his competition. This was the
celebrated _Sigismunda_ of Sir _Luke Schaub_, now in the possession
of the Duke of _Newcastle_, said to be painted by _Correggio_,
probably by _Furino_, but no matter by whom. It is impossible to see
the picture, or read _Dryden's_ inimitable tale, and not feel that
the same soul animated both. After many essays, _Hogarth_ at last
produced HIS _Sigismunda_--but no more like _Sigismunda_, than I to
_Hercules_. Not to mention the wretchedness of the colouring, it was
the representation of a maudlin strumpet just turned out of keeping,
and, with eyes red with rage and usquebaugh, tearing off the ornaments
her keeper had given her. To add to the disgust raised by such vulgar
expression, her fingers were bloodied by her lover's heart,[53] that
lay before her, like that of a sheep, for her dinner.[54] None of the
sober grief, no dignity of suppressed anguish, no involuntary tear, no
settled meditation on the fate she meant to meet, no amorous warmth
turned holy by despair; in short, all was wanting that should have been
there, all was there that such a story would have banished from a mind
capable of conceiving such complicated woe; woe so sternly felt, and
yet so tenderly. _Hogarth's_ performance was more ridiculous than any
thing he had ever ridiculed. He set the price of 400 _l._ on it, and
had it returned on his hands by the person for whom it was painted.
He took subscriptions for a plate of it; but had the sense, at last,
to suppress it. I make no more apology for this account than for the
encomiums I have bestowed on him. Both are dictated by truth, and are
the history of a great man's excellencies and errors. _Milton_, it is
said, preferred his _Paradise Regained_ to his immortal poem."[55]

_Hogarth_, however, gave directions before his death that the
_Sigismunda_ should not be sold under 500 _l._ and, greatly as he
might have been mortified by _Churchill's_ invective, and the coldness
with which the picture was received by the rest of the world,[56] he
never wholly abandoned his design of having a plate prepared from it.
Finding abundant consolation in the flattery of self-love, he appealed
from the public judgement to his own, and had actually talked with
the celebrated Mr. _Hall_ about the price of the engraving, which was
to have been executed from a smaller painting,[57] copied by himself
from the large one. Death alone secured him from the contempt such
obstinacy would have riveted on his name. To express a sorrow like
that of _Tancred's_ daughter, few modern artists are fully qualified.
We must except indeed Sir _Joshua Reynolds_, with whose pencil Beauty
in all her forms, and the passions in all their varieties, are equally

Since the preceding paragraph was written, the compiler of this volume
has seen an unfinished plate of _Sigismunda_, attempted after the
manner of _Edelinck_, etched by Mr. _Basire_, but not bit-in, and
from which consequently no proof can have been taken. The size of the
plate is 18 inches by 16½. The outlines in general, and particularly
of the face, were completed under the immediate direction of Mr.
_Hogarth_.[58] It was intended to be published by subscription.[59]
The plate itself is still in the hands of Mr. _Basire_.

This unfortunate picture, which was the source of so much vexation to
Mr. _Hogarth_, at least made a versifier of him, and furnished vent to
his anger in the following lines; which, as I know of no other specimen
of his poetry,[60] may serve to gratify the curiosity of the reader.
The old adage _facit indignatio versum_, seems scarcely to have been
realised in this splenetic effusion, which is intituled "An Epistle to
a Friend," occasioned by Sir _Richard Grosvenor_ (now lord) returning
the picture of _Sigismunda_ on our artist's hands:

    "To your charge, the other day
    About my picture and my pay,
    In metre I've a mind to try,
    One word by way of a reply.

    "To risque, you'll own, 'twas most absurd,
    Such labour on a rich man's word;
    To lose at least an hundred days
    Of certain gain, for doubtful praise;
    Since living artists ne'er were paid;
    But then, you know, it was agreed,
    I should be deem'd an artist dead.
    Like _Raphael, Rubens, Guido Rene,_
    This promise fairly drew me in;
    And having laid my pencil by,[61]
    What painter was more dead than I?
    But dead as _Guido_ let me be,
    Then judge, my friend, 'twixt him and me
    If merit crowns alike the piece,
    What treason to be like in price;
    Because no copied line you trace,
    The picture can't be right, you're sure;
    But say, my critic connoisseur,
    Moves it the heart as much or more
    Than picture ever did before?
    This is the painter's truest test,
    And this Sir _Richard's_ self confess'd.
    Nay, 'tis so moving, that the knight
    Can't even bear it in his sight;
    Then who would tears so dearly buy,
    As give four hundred pounds to cry?
    I own, he chose the prudent part,
    Rather to break his word than heart;
    And yet, methinks, 'tis ticklish dealing,
    With one so delicate--in feeling.

    "However, let the picture rust,
    Perhaps time's price-enhancing dust,
    As statues moulder into earth,
    When I'm no more, may mark its worth;
    And future connoisseurs may rise,
    Honest as ours, and full as wise,
    To puff the piece and painter too,
    And make me then what _Guido's_ now."

"The last memorable event in our artist's life," as Mr. _Walpole_
observes, "was his quarrel with Mr. _Wilkes_, in which, if Mr.
_Hogarth_ did not commence direct hostilities on the latter, he at
least obliquely gave the first offence, by an attack on the friends
and party of that gentleman. This conduct was the more surprizing, as
he had all his life avoided dipping his pencil in political contests,
and had early refused a very lucrative offer that was made to engage
him in a set of prints against the head of a court-party. Without
entering into the merits of the cause, I shall only state the fact. In
_September_ 1762, Mr. _Hogarth_ published his print of _The Times_. It
was answered by Mr. _Wilkes_ in a severe _North Briton_.[62] On this
the painter exhibited the caricatura of the writer. Mr. _Churchill_,
the poet, then engaged in the war, and wrote his epistle to _Hogarth_,
not the brightest of his works,[63] in which the severest strokes fell
on a defect that the painter had neither caused nor could amend--his
age;[64] and which, however, was neither remarkable nor decrepit; much
less had it impaired his talents, as appeared by his having composed
but six months before one of his most capital works, the satire on
the Methodists. In revenge for this epistle, _Hogarth_ caricatured
_Churchill_, under the form of a canonical bear, with a club and a pot
of porter--_et vitulá tu dignus & hic_--never did two angry men of
their abilities throw mud with less dexterity."

The concluding observation of Mr. _Walpole_ is mortifyingly true. It
may be amusing to compare the account given of this squabble, which
long engrossed the attention of the town, with the narrative of it
printed by Mr. _Wilkes_; who states the circumstances of it in the
following manner:

"Mr. _Hogarth_ was one of the first who, in the paper war begun by lord
_Bute_ on his accession to the Treasury, sacrificed private friendship
at the altar of party madness. In 1762, the _Scotch_ minister took a
variety of hirelings into his pay, some of whom were gratified with
pensions, others with places and pensions. Mr. _Hogarth_ was only made
_serjeant-painter_ to his majesty, as if it was meant to insinuate to
him, that he was not allowed to paint any thing but the wainscot of
the royal apartments. The term means no more than _house-painter_,
and the nature of the post confined him to that business. He was not
employed in any other way. A circumstance can scarcely be imagined more
humiliating to a man of spirit and genius, who really thought that he
more particularly excelled in _portrait-painting_.

"The new minister had been attacked in a variety of political
papers. _The North Briton_ in particular, which commenced the week
after _The Briton_, waged open war with him. Some of the numbers
had been ascribed to Mr. _Wilkes_, others to Mr. _Churchill_, and
Mr. _Lloyd_. Mr. _Hogarth_ had for several years lived on terms of
friendship and intimacy with Mr. _Churchill_ and Mr. _Wilkes_. As
the _Buckinghamshire_ militia, which this gentleman had the honour
of commanding, had been for some months at _Winchester_ guarding the
_French_ prisoners, the Colonel was there on that duty. A friend wrote
to him, that Mr. _Hogarth_ intended soon to publish a political print
of _The Times_, in which Mr. _Pitt_, Lord _Temple_, Mr. _Churchill_,
and himself, were held out to the public as objects of ridicule. Mr.
_Wilkes_, on this notice, remonstrated by two of their common friends
to Mr. _Hogarth_, that such a proceeding would not only be unfriendly
in the highest degree, but extremely injudicious; for such a pencil
ought to be universal and moral, to speak to all ages, and to all
nations, not to be dipt in the dirt of the faction of a day, of an
insignificant part of the country, when it might command the admiration
of the whole. An answer was sent, that neither Mr. _Wilkes_ nor Mr.
_Churchill_ were attacked in _The Times_, though Lord _Temple_ and Mr.
_Pitt_ were, and that the print should soon appear. A second message
soon after told Mr. _Hogarth_, that Mr. _Wilkes_ should never believe
it worth his while to take notice of any reflections on himself; but
if his friends were attacked, he should then think he was wounded in
the most sensible part, and would, as well as he was able, revenge
their cause; adding, that if he thought the _North Briton_ would
insert what he sent, he would make an appeal to the public on the very
_Saturday_ following the publication of the print. _The Times_ soon
after appeared, and on the _Saturday_ following [_Sept._ 25, 1762,]
N° 17, of the _North Briton_, which is a direct attack on the king's
_serjeant-painter_.[65] If Mr. _Wilkes_ did write that paper, he kept
his word better with Mr. _Hogarth_, than the painter had done with him.

"It is perhaps worth remarking, that the painter proposed to give a
series of political prints, and that _The Times_ were marked Plate
I. No farther progress was however made in that design. The public
beheld the first feeble efforts with execrations, and it is said that
the caricaturist was too much hurt by the general opinion of mankind,
to possess himself afterwards sufficiently for the execution of such a

"When Mr. _Wilkes_ was the second time brought from the _Tower_ to
_Westminster-hall_, Mr. _Hogarth_ skulked behind in a corner of the
gallery of the Court of _Common Pleas_; and while the Chief Justice
_Pratt_,[66] with the eloquence and courage of old _Rome_, was
enforcing the great principles of _Magna Charta_, and the _English_
constitution, while every breast from him caught the holy flame of
liberty, the painter was wholly employed in caricaturing the _person_
of the man; while all the rest of his fellow citizens were animated
in his _cause_, for they knew it to be their own cause, that of their
country, and of its laws. It was declared to be so a few hours after by
the unanimous sentence of the judges of that court, and they were all

"The print of Mr. _Wilkes_ was soon after published, _drawn from
the life by William Hogarth_. It must be allowed to be an excellent
_compound caricatura_, or a _caricatura_ of what nature had already
_caricatured_. I know but one short apology can be made for this
gentleman, or, to speak more properly, for the _person_ of Mr.
_Wilkes_. It is, that he did not make himself, and that he never was
solicitous about the _case_ of his soul, as _Shakspeare_ calls it, only
so far as to keep it clean and in health. I never heard that he once
hung over the glassy stream, like another _Narcissus_, admiring the
image in it, nor that he ever stole an amorous look at his counterfeit
in a side mirrour. His form, such as it is, ought to give him no pain,
because it is capable of giving pleasure to others. I fancy he finds
himself tolerably happy in the _clay-cottage_, to which he is _tenant
for life_, because he has learnt to keep it in good order. While the
share of health and animal spirits, which heaven has given him, shall
hold out, I can scarcely imagine he will be one moment peevish about
the _outside_ of so precarious, so temporary a habitation, or will even
be brought to own, _ingenium Galbæ male habitat. Monsieur est mal logé._

"Mr. _Churchill_ was exasperated at this _personal_ attack on his
friend. He soon after published the Epistle to _William Hogarth_,[67]
and took for the motto, _ut pictura poesis_. Mr. _Hogarth's_ revenge
against the poet terminated in vamping up an old print of a pug-dog
and a bear, which he published under the title of The Bruiser _C.
Churchill_ (once the Revd.!) in the character of a _Russian Hercules_,

The Editor of the _Monthly Review_ for _November_, 1769, in an account
of Mr. _Wilkes's_ correspondence, remarks, "The writer of this article
had in substance the same relation from the mouth of Mr. _Hogarth_
himself, but a very little while before his death;[68] and the leading
facts appeared, from his candid representation, in nearly the same
light as in this account which our readers have been just perusing."

I have been assured by the friend[69] who first carried and read the
invective of _Churchill_ to _Hogarth_, that he seemed quite insensible
to the most sarcastical parts of it. He was so thoroughly wounded
before by the _North Briton_, especially with regard to what related to
domestic happiness, that he lay no where open to a fresh stroke. Some
readers, however, may entertain a doubt on this subject. A man feels
most exquisitely when the merit of which he is proudest is denied him;
and it might be urged, that _Hogarth_ was more solicitous to maintain
the character of a good painter, than of a tender husband.

One quotation, however, from _Churchill's_ Epistle the warmest admirers
of our matchless artist must be pleased with:

    "In walks of humour, in that cast of style,
    Which, probing to the quick, yet makes us smile;
    In Comedy, his natural road to fame,
    Nor let me call it by a meaner name,
    Where a beginning, middle, and an end,
    Are aptly join'd; where parts on parts depend,
    Each made for each, as bodies for their soul,
    So as to form one true and perfect whole,
    Where a plain story to the eye is told,
    Which we conceive the moment we behold;[70]
    _Hogarth_ unrival'd stands, and shall engage
    Unrival'd praise to the most distant age."

_Hogarth_ having been said to be in his dotage when, he produced his
print of the Bear, it should seem as if he had been provoked to make
the following additions to this print, in order to give a further
specimen of his still existing genius.

In the form of a framed picture on the painter's palette, he has
represented an _Egyptian_ pyramid, on the side of which is a _Cheshire_
cheese,[71] and round it 3000 _l. per annum_; and at the foot a
_Roman_ Veteran in a reclining posture, designed as an allusion to
Mr. _Pitt's_ resignation. The cheese is meant to allude to a former
speech of his, wherein he said that he would rather subsist a week
on a _Cheshire_ cheese and a shoulder of mutton, than submit to the
implacable enemies of his country.

But to ridicule this character still more, he is, as he lies down,
firing a piece of ordnance at the standard of _Britain_, on which is
a dove with an olive-branch, the emblem of peace. On one side of the
pyramid is the City of _London_, represented by the figure of one of
the _Guildhall_ giants, going to crown the reclining hero. On the other
side is the king of _Prussia_, in the character of one of the _Cæsars_,
but smoking his pipe. In the center stands _Hogarth_ himself, whipping
a Dancing Bear (_Churchill_) which he holds in a string. At the side
of the Bear is a Monkey, designed for Mr. _Wilkes_. Between the legs
of the little animal is a mop-stick, on which he seems to ride, as
children do on a hobby-horse: at the top of the mop-stick is the cap
of liberty. The Monkey is undergoing the same discipline as the Bear.
Behind the Monkey is the figure of a man, but with no lineaments of
face, and playing on a fiddle. This was designed for Earl _Temple_.

At the time these hostilities were carrying on in a manner so virulent
and disgraceful to all the parties, _Hogarth_ was visibly declining
in his health. In 1762, he complained of an inward pain, which,
continuing, brought on a general decay that proved incurable.[72]
This last year of his life he employed in retouching his plates
with the assistance of several engravers whom he took with him to
_Chiswick_. On the 25th of _October_, 1764, he was conveyed from
thence to _Leicester-fields_, in a very weak condition, yet remarkably
chearful; and, receiving an agreeable letter from the _American_ Dr.
_Franklin_, drew up a rough draught of an answer to it; but going to
bed, he was seized with a vomiting, upon which he rung his bell with
such violence that he broke it, and expired about two hours afterwards
in the arms of Mrs. _Mary Lewis_, who was called up on his being taken
suddenly ill. To this lady, for her faithful services, he bequeathed
100 _l._ After the death of _Hogarth's_ sister, Mrs. _Lewis_ succeeded
to the care of his prints; and, without violation of truth, it may
be observed, that her good nature and affability recommend these
performances which she continues to dispose of at Mrs. _Hogarth's_
house in _Leicester-square_. Before our artist went to bed, he boasted
of having eaten a pound of beef-steaks for his dinner,[73] and was
to all appearance heartier than he had been for a long time before.
His disorder was an aneurism; and his corpse was interred in the
church-yard at _Chiswick_, where a monument is erected to his memory,
with this inscription, under his family arms:

                         "Here lieth the body
                      Of _William Hogarth_, Esq.
                  Who died _October_ the 26th, 1764;
                            Aged 67 years."

On another side, which is ornamented with a masque, a laurel wreath, a
palette, pencils, and a book, inscribed "Analysis of Beauty," are the
following verses by his friend Mr. _Garrick_:

    "Farewell, great painter of mankind,
      Who reach'd the noblest point of art;
    Whose pictur'd morals charm the mind,
      And through the eye correct the heart.
    If _genius_ fire thee, reader, stay,
      If _nature_ touch thee, drop a tear;
    If neither move thee, turn away,
      For _Hogarth's_ honoured dust lies here."

On a third side is this inscription:

                         "Here lieth the body
                      Of Dame _Judith Thornhill_,
               Relict of Sir _James Thornhill_, knight,
               Of _Thornhill_ in the county of _Dorset_.
                  She died _November_ the 12th, 1757,
                            Aged 84 years."

And on the fourth side:

                         "Here lieth the body
                    Of Mrs. _Anne Hogarth_, sister
                      to _William Hogarth_, Esq.
                   She died _August_ the 13th, 1771,
                            Aged 70 years."

Mr. _Hayley_, in his justly admired _Epistle to an Eminent Painter_
(Mr. _Romney_), has since expressed himself concerning our artist in
terms that confer yet higher honours on his comic excellence:

    "Nor, if her favour'd hand may hope to shed
    The flowers of glory o'er the skilful dead,
    Thy talents, _Hogarth!_ will she leave unsung;
    Charm of all eyes, and Theme of every tongue!
    A separate province 'twas thy praise to rule;
    Self-form'd thy Pencil! yet thy works a School,
    Where strongly painted, in gradations nice,
    The Pomp of Folly, and the Shame of Vice,
    Reach'd thro' the laughing Eye the mended Mind,
    And moral Humour sportive Art refin'd.
    While fleeting Manners, as minutely shown
    As the clear prospect on the mirror thrown;
    While Truth of Character, exactly hit,
    And drest in all the dyes of comic wit;
    While these, in _Fielding's_ page, delights supply,
    So long thy Pencil with his Pen shall vie.
    Science with grief beheld thy drooping age
    Fall the sad victim of a Poet's rage:
    But Wit's vindictive spleen, that mocks controul,
    Nature's high tax on luxury of soul!
    This, both in Bards and Painters, Fame forgives
    Their Frailty's buried, but their Genius lives."

Thus far the encomiast, who seeks only for opportunities of bestowing
praise. A more impartial narrative will be expected from the

It may be truly observed of _Hogarth_, that all his powers of
delighting were restrained to his pencil.[74] Having rarely been
admitted into polite circles, none of his sharp corners had been rubbed
off, so that he continued to the last a gross uncultivated man. The
slightest contradiction transported him into rage. To be member of a
Club consisting of mechanics, or those not many removes above them,
seems to have been the utmost of his social ambition; but even in these
assemblies he was oftener sent to _Coventry_ for misbehaviour, than
any other person who frequented them. To some confidence in himself he
was certainly entitled; for, as a comic painter, he could have claimed
no honour that would not most readily have been allowed him;[75] but
he was at once unprincipled and variable in his political conduct and
attachments. He is also said to have beheld the rising eminence and
popularity of Sir _Joshua Reynolds_ with a degree of envy; and, if I
am not misinformed, frequently spoke with asperity both of him and his
performances. Justice, however, obliges me to add, that our artist was
liberal, hospitable, and the most punctual of pay-masters; so that,
in spite of the emoluments his works had procured to him, he left but
an inconsiderable fortune to his widow. His plates indeed are such
resources as may not speedily be exhausted. Some of his domestics had
lived many years in his service, a circumstance that always reflects
credit on a master. Of most of these he painted strong likenesses on a
canvas still in Mrs. _Hogarth's_ possession.

His widow has also a portrait of her husband, and an excellent
bust of him by _Roubilliac_, a strong resemblance; and one of his
brother-in-law Mr. _Thornhill_, much resembling the countenance of Mrs.
_Hogarth_. Several of his portraits also remain in her possession:
_viz._ a finished portrait of Mrs. _Mary Lewis_; _Thomas Coombes_ of
_Dorsetshire_, aged 108; Lady _Thornhill_; Mrs. _Hogarth_ herself, &c.

A portrait of _Hogarth_ with his hat on, painted for the late Rev. Mr.
_Townley_ by _Weltdon_, and said to be finished by himself, is in the
possession of Mr. _James Townley_, proctor in _Doctors Commons_. A
mezzotinto print from it will be mentioned under the year 1781 in the

Mr. _Edwards_, of _Beaufort Buildings_, has the portrait of Sir _George
Hay, The Savoyard Girl, The Bench,_ and _Mary Queen of Scots,_[76] by

A conversation-piece by him is likewise at _Wanstead_ in _Essex_, the
seat of Earl _Tylney_.[77] And Mrs. _Hoadly_ has a scene of _Ranger_
and _Clarinda_ in _The Suspicious Husband_; and the late Chancellor
_Hoadly_ repeating a song to Dr. _Greene_, for him to compose; both by
_Hogarth_. The first of these is an indifferent picture, and contains
very inadequate likenesses of the persons represented.

One of the best portraits _Hogarth_ ever painted, is at _Lichfield_.
It is of a gentleman with whom he was very intimate, and at whose
houses at _Mortlake_ and in _Ironmongers-Lane_ he spent much of his
time--Mr. _Joseph Porter_, of _London_, merchant, who died _April_ 7,
1749. Mrs. _Porter_ the sister of this gentleman (who was daughter
of Dr. _Johnson's_ wife by a former husband) is in possession of
the picture.--_John Steers_, esq. (of _The Paper Buildings_ in _The
Temple_) has an auction by _Hogarth_, in which Dr. _Chauncey_, Dr.
_Snagg_, and others, are introduced; and the Earl of _Exeter_ has a
butcher's shop, with _Slack_ fighting, &c.

Of _Hogarth's_ lesser plates many were destroyed. When he wanted a
piece of copper on a sudden, he would take any from which he had
already worked off such a number of impressions as he supposed he
should sell. He then sent it to be effaced, beat out, or otherwise
altered to his present purpose.

The plates which remained in his possession were secured to Mrs.
_Hogarth_ by his will, dated _August_ 12, 1764, chargeable with an
annuity of 80 _l._ to his sister _Anne_,[78] who survived him. When,
on the death of his other sister, she left off the business in which
she was engaged (see, in the Catalogue, the first article among the
"Prints of uncertain date,") he kindly took her home, and generously
supported her, making her, at the same time, useful in the disposal of
his prints. Want of tenderness and liberality to his relations was not
among the failings of _Hogarth_.

Of _Hogarth's_ drawings and contributions towards the works of others,
perhaps a number, on enquiry, might be found. An acquaintance of his,
the late worthy Mr. _John Sanderson_, architect, who repaired _Woburn
Abbey_, as well as _Bedford House_ in _Bloomsbury-square_, possessed
several of his curiosities. One was a sketch in black-lead of a
celebrated young engraver (long since dead) in a salivation. The best
that can be said of it is, that it was most disgustingly natural. Even
the coarse ornaments on the corners of the blankets which enwrapped
him, were characteristically expressed. Our artist seems to have
repeated the same idea, though with less force, and fewer adjuncts,
in the third of his Election prints, where a figure swaddled up in
flannel is conveyed to the hustings. Two other works, viz. a drawing in
_Indian_ ink, and a painting in oil colours, exhibited _Bedford House_
in different points of view; the figures only by _Hogarth_. Another
represented the corner of a street, with a man drinking under the spout
of a pump, and heartily angry with the water, which, by issuing out too
fast, and in too great quantities, had deluged his face. Our great
painter had obliged Mr. _Sanderson_ with several other comic sketches,
&c. but most of them had been either begged or stolen, before the
communicator of these particulars became acquainted with him.

In the year 1745, _Launcelot Burton_ was appointed naval officer at
_Deal. Hogarth_ had seen him by accident; and on a piece of paper,
previously impressed by a plain copper-plate, drew his figure with
a pen, in imitation of a coarse etching. He was represented on a
lean _Canterbury_ hack, with a bottle sticking out of his pocket;
and underneath was an inscription, intimating that he was going
down to take possession of his place. This was inclosed to him in a
letter; and some of his friends, who were in the secret, protested
the drawing to be a print which they had seen exposed to sale at the
shops in _London_; a circumstance that put him in a violent passion,
during which he wrote an abusive letter to _Hogarth_, whose name was
subscribed to the work. But, after poor _Burton's_ tormentors had kept
him in suspence throughout an uneasy three weeks, they proved to him
that it was no engraving, but a sketch with a pen and ink. He then
became so perfectly reconciled to his resemblance, that he shewed it
with exultation to Admiral _Vernon_, and all the rest of his friends.

In 1753, _Hogarth_ returning with Dr. _Morell_ from a visit to Mr.
_Rich_ at _Cowley_, stopped his chariot, and got out, being struck by a
large drawing (with a coal) on the wall of an alehouse. He immediately
made a sketch of it with triumph; it was a St. _George and the Dragon_,
all in strait lines.

_Hogarth_ made one essay in sculpture. He wanted a sign to distinguish
his house in _Leicester-fields_; and thinking none more proper than the
_Golden Head_, he, out of a mass of cork made up of several thicknesses
compacted together, carved a bust of _Vandyck_, which he gilt and
placed over his door. It is long since decayed, and was succeeded by a
head in plaster, which has also perished; and is supplied by a head of
Sir _Isaac Newton. Hogarth_ modelled another resemblance of _Vandyck_
in clay; which is likewise destroyed.

It is very properly observed by Mr. _Walpole_, that "If ever an author
wanted a commentary, that none of his beauties might be lost, it is
_Hogarth_; not from being obscure (for he never was that but in two
or three of his first prints, where transient national follies, as
Lotteries, Free-masonry, and the _South Sea_, were his topics) but for
the use of foreigners, and from a multiplicity of little incidents,
not essential to, but always heightening the principal action. Such
is the spider's web extended over the poor's box in a parish church;
the blunders in architecture in the nobleman's seat, seen through the
window, in the first print of _Marriage à la Mode_; and a thousand
in the Strollers dressing in a barn, which, for wit and imagination,
without any other aid, is perhaps the best of all his works; as, for
useful and deep satire, that on the Methodists is the most sublime.
_Rouquet_, the enameller, published a _French_ explanation, though
a superficial one, of many of his prints, which, it was said, he
had drawn up for the use of Marshal _Belleisle_, then a prisoner in

However great the deficiencies in this work may be, it was certainly
suggested by _Hogarth_, and drawn up at his immediate request. I
receive this information from undoubted authority. Some of the
circumstances explanatory of the plates, he communicated; the rest he
left to be supplied by _Rouquet_ his near neighbour, who lived in the
house at which _Gardelle_ the enameller afterwards lodged, and murdered
his landlady Mrs. _King. Rouquet_, who (as I learn from Mr. _Walpole_)
was a _Swiss_ of _French_ extraction, had formerly published a small
tract on the state of the Arts in _England_, and another, intituled
"L'Art de peinture en fromage ou en ramequin, 1755;" 12mo. (V. "La
_France_ litteraire, ou Dictionaire des Auteurs _François_ vivans, par
_M. Formey_, 1757.") On the present occasion he was liberally paid
by _Hogarth_, for having cloathed his sentiments and illustrations
in a foreign dress. This pamphlet was designed, and continues to be
employed, as a constant companion to all such sets of his prints as
go abroad. Only the letter descriptive of the _March to Finchley_ was
particularly meant for the instruction of Marshal _Belleisle_.[79]

It was added after the three former epistles had been printed off, and
before the plate was published. The entire performance, however, in my
opinion, exhibits very strong marks of the vivacious compiler's taste,
country, and prejudices. Indeed many passages must have been inserted
without the privity of his employer, who had no skill in the _French_
language. That our _clergy_ always _affect to ride on white horses_,
and other remarks of a similar turn, &c. &c. could never have fallen
from the pen of _Hogarth_, or any other _Englishman_.

This epistle bears also internal evidence to the suggestions _Rouquet_
received from _Hogarth_. Are not the self-congratulations and
prejudices of our artist sufficiently visible in the following passage?

"Ce Tableau dis-je a le defaut d'etre encore tout brillant de cette
ignoble fraîcheur qu'on decouvre dans la nature, et _qu'on ne voit
jamais dans les cabinets bien célèbres. Le tems ne l'a point encore
obscurci de cette decte fumée, de ce usage sacré, qui le cachera
quelque jour aux yeux profanes du vulgaire, pour ne laisser voir ses
beautés qu'aux initiés._"

The title of this performance, is, "Lettres de Monsieur * * à un
de ses Amis à _Paris_, pour lui expliquer les Estampes de Monsieur
_Hogarth_.--Imprimé à _Londres_: et se vend chez _R. Dodsley_, dans
_Pall Mall_; et chez _M. Cooper_, dans _Paternoster Row_, 1746." (Le
prix est de douze sols.)

I should here observe, that this pamphlet affords only descriptions
of the _Harlot's_ and _Rake's Progress, Marriage à la Mode,_ and the
_March to Finchley_. Nine other plates, viz. the _Modern Midnight
Conversation_, the _Distressed Poet_, the _Enraged Musician,_ the
_Fair, Strolling Actresses dressing in a Barn,_ and the _Four Times of
the Day,_ are enumerated without particular explanation.

I am authorized to add, that _Hogarth_, not long before his death,
had determined, in compliance with the repeated solicitations of his
customers, to have this work enlarged and rendered into _English_, with
the addition of ample comments on all his performances undescribed by

"_Hogarth_ Moralised"[80] will however in some small degree (a very
small one) contribute to preserve the memory of those temporary
circumstances which Mr. _Walpole_ is so justly apprehensive will be
lost to posterity. Such an undertaking indeed, requires a more intimate
acquaintance with fleeting customs, and past occurrences, than the
compiler of this work can pretend to. Yet enough has been done by him
to awaken a spirit of enquiry, and point out the means by which it may
be farther gratified.

The works of _Hogarth_, as his elegant biographer has well observed,
are his history;[81] and the curious are highly indebted to Mr.
_Walpole_ for a catalogue of prints, drawn up from his own valuable
collection, in 1771. But as neither that catalogue, nor his appendix
to it in 1780, have given the whole of Mr. _Hogarth's_ labours, I hope
that I shall not be blamed if, by including Mr. _Walpole's_ catalogue,
I have endeavoured from later discoveries of our artist's prints in
other collections, to arrange them in chronological order. It may not
be unamusing to trace the rise and progress of a Genius so strikingly

_Hogarth_ gave first impressions of all his plates to his late
friends the Rev. Mr. _Townley_ and Dr. _Isaac Schomberg_.[82] Both
sets were sold since the death of these gentlemen. That which was Dr.
_Schomberg's_ became the property of the late Sir _John Chapman_,
baronet; and passed after his death into the hands of his brother, the
late Sir _William Chapman_. I should add, indeed, that our artist never
sorted his impressions, selecting the slight from the strong ones: so
that they who wish to possess any equal series of his prints, must pick
it out of different sets.

A portrait of _Samuel Martin_, esq. the antagonist of Mr. _Wilkes_,
which Mr. _Hogarth_ had painted for his own use, he gave as a legacy to
Mr. _Martin_.

Mrs. _Baynes_, of _Kneeton-Hall_, near _Richmond, Yorkshire,_ has
an original picture by _Hogarth_, four feet two inches long, by two
feet four inches wide. It is a landscape, with several figures; a man
driving sheep; a boat upon a piece of water, and a distant view of a
town. This picture was bought in _London_, by her father, many years

At Lord _Essex's_ sale, in _January_ 1777, Mr. _Garrick_ bought a
picture by _Hogarth_, being the examination of the recruits before
the justices _Shallow_ and _Silence_. For this, it was said in the
news-papers, he gave 350 guineas. I have since been told, that remove
the figure 3, and the true price paid by the purchaser remains. In
private he allowed that he never gave the former of these sums, though
in the public prints he did not think such a confession necessary.
It was in reality an indifferent performance, as those of _Hogarth_
commonly were, when he strove to paint up to the ideas of others.

Mr. _Browning_, of _King's College, Cambridge,_ has a small picture by
_Hogarth_, representing _Clare-Market_. It seems to have been one of
our artist's early performances.

There are three large pictures by _Hogarth_, over the altar in the
church of _St. Mary Redcliff_ at _Bristol_; the sealing of the sacred
Sepulchre, the Ascension, and the three _Maries_, &c. A sum of money
was left to defray the expence of these ornaments, and it found its
way into _Hogarth's_ pocket. The original sketches in oil for these
performances, are now at Mrs. _Hogarth's_ house in _Leicester-fields_.

In Lord _Grosvenor's_ house, at _Milbank, Westminster_, is a small
painting by our artist on the following subject. A boy's paper-kite in
falling become entangled with furze: the boy arrives just as a crow is
tearing it in pieces. The expression in his face is worthy of _Hogarth_.

_Hogarth_ was also supposed to have had some hand in the exhibition
of signs,[83] projected above 20 years ago by _Bonnel Thornton_, of
festive memory; but I am informed, that he contributed no otherwise
towards this display, than by a few touches of chalk. Among the heads
of distinguished personages, finding those of the King of _Prussia_
and the Empress of _Hungary_, he changed the cast of their eyes so as
to make them leer significantly at each other. This is related on the
authority of Mr. _Colman_.

Mr. _Richardson_ ("now," as Dr. _Johnson_ says, "better known by
his books than his pictures," though his colouring is allowed to
be masterly) having accounted for some classical quotations in his
notes on _Milton_, unlearned as he was, by his son's assisting him
as a telescope does the eye in astronomy; _Hogarth_ shewed him with
a telescope looking through his son (in no very decent attitude) at
a _Virgil_ aloft on a shelf; but afterwards destroyed the plate, and
recalled the prints. Qu. if any remain, and what date?--I much question
whether this subject was ever thrown upon copper, or meant for the
public eye.

In the "Nouveau Dictionnaire Historique, _Caen_, 1783," our artist is
thus characterized: "Ses compositions sont mal dessinées & foiblement
colories; mais ce sont des tableaux parlans de diverses scènes comiques
ou morales de la vie. Il avoit négligé le méchanisme de son art, c'est
à-dire, les traits du pinceau, le rapport des parties entr'elles,
l'effèt du clare obscure, l'harmonie du coloris, &c. pour s'élever
jusqu'à la perfection de ce méchanisme, c'est à-dire, au poétique &
au moral de la peinture. 'Je reconnois,' disoit-il, 'tout le monde
pour juge compétent de mes tableaux, excepté les connoisseurs de
profession.' Un seul exemple prouvera combien réussit. Il avoit fait
graver une estampe, dans laquelle il avoit exprimé avec énergie
les différens tourmens qu'on fait éprouver aux animaux. Un charrier
fouettoit un jour ses chevaux avec beaucoup de dureté; un bon homme,
touché de pitié, lui dit, 'Miserable! tu n'as donc pas vu l'estampe
d'_Hogarth_?' Il n'étoit pas seulement peintre, il fut écrivain. Il
publia en 1750 un traité en _Anglois_, intitulé, '_Analyse de la
Beauté_.' L'auteur pretend que les formes arrondies constituent la
beauté du corps: principe vrai à certains égards, faux a plusieurs
autres. _Voy._ sur cet artiste, la sécond volume du 'Mercure de
France,' Janvier, 1770."

Mr. _Peter Dupont_, a merchant, had the drawing of _Paul before
Felix_, which he purchased for 20 guineas, and bound up with a set of
_Hogarth's_ prints. The whole set was afterwards sold by auction, at
_Baker's_, for 17 _l._ to Mr. _Ballard_ of _Little Britain_, in whose
catalogue it stood some time marked at 25 _l._ and was parted with for
less than that sum.

The following original drawings, by _Hogarth_, are now in the
collection of the Rev. Dr. _Lort_:

A coloured sketch of a Family Picture, with ten whole-length figures,
most insipidly employed. A Head of a Sleeping Child, in colours, as
large as life, &c. &c. &c.

When _Hogarth_ designed the print intituled _Morning_, his idea of
an _Old Maid_ appears to have been adopted from one of that forlorn
sisterhood, when emaciated by corroding appetites, or, to borrow
_Dryden's_ more forcible language, by "agony of unaccomplished love."
But there is in being, and perhaps in _Leicester-fields_, a second
portrait by our artist, exhibiting the influence of the same misfortune
on a more fleshy carcase. The ancient virgin[84] now treated of, is
corpulent even to shapelessness. Her neck resembles a collar of brawn;
and had her arms been admitted on the canvas, they must have rivalled
in magnitude the thighs of the _Farnesian_ god. Her bosom, luckily
for the spectator, is covered; as a display of it would have served
only to provoke abhorrence. But what words can paint the excess of
malice and vulgarity predominant in her visage!--an inflated hide
that seems bursting with venom--a brow wrinkled by a _Sardonic_ grin
that threatens all the vengeance an affronted Fury would rejoice
to execute. Such ideas also of warmth does this mountain of quaggy
flesh communicate, that, without hyperbole, one might swear she would
parch the earth she trod on, thaw a frozen post-boy, or over-heat a
glasshouse. "How dreadful," said a bystander, "would be this creature's
hatred!" "How much more formidable," replied his companion, "would be
her love!"--Such, however, was the skill of _Hogarth_, that he could
impress similar indications of stale virginity on features directly
contrasted, and force us to acknowledge one identical character in the
brim-full and exhausted representative of involuntary female celibacy.

Mr. _S. Ireland_ has likewise a sketch in chalk, on blue paper, of
_Falstaff_ and his companions; two sketches intended for the "Happy
Marriage;" a sketch for a picture to shew the pernicious effects of
masquerading; sketch of King _George_ II. and the royal family; sketch
of his present Majesty, taken hastily on seeing the new coinage of
1764; portrait of _Hogarth_ by himself, with a palette; of Justice
_Welsh_;[85] of Sir _James Thornhill_; of Sir _Edward Walpole_;[86]
of his friend _George Lambert_, the landscape-painter; of a boy; of
a girl's head, in the character of _Diana_, finished according to
_Hogarth's_ idea of beauty; of a black girl; and of Governor _Rogers_
and his family, a conversation-piece; eleven Sketches from Nature,
designed for Mr. _Lambert_; four drawings of conversations at _Button's
Coffee-house_; _Cymon_ and _Iphigenia_; two black chalk drawings
(landscapes) given to Mr. _Kirby_ in 1762; three heads, slightly
drawn with a pen by _Hogarth_, to exemplify his distinction between
_Character_ and _Caricature_, done at the desire of Mr. _Townley_,
whose son gave them to Dr. _Schomberg_; a landscape in oil: with
several other sketches in oil.

The late Mr. _Forrest_, of _York Buildings_, was in possession
of a sketch in oil of our Saviour (designed as a pattern for
painted glass), together with the original portrait of _Tibson_ the
Laceman,[87] and several drawings descriptive of the incidents that
happened during a five days tour by land and water. The parties were
Messieurs _Hogarth, Thornhill_ (son of the late Sir _James_), _Scott_
(the ingenious landscape-painter of that name), _Tothall_,[88] and
_Forrest_. They set out at midnight, at a moment's warning, from
the _Bedford Arms_ Tavern, with each a shirt in his pocket. They
had particular departments to attend to; _Hogarth_ and _Scott_ made
the drawings; _Thornhill_ the map; _Tothall_ faithfully discharged
the joint office of treasurer and caterer; and _Forrest_ wrote the
journal. They were out five days only; and on the second night after
their return, the book was produced, bound, gilt, and lettered, and
read at the same tavern to the members of the club then present. Mr.
_Forrest_ had also drawings of two of the members (_Gabriel Hunt_ and
_Ben Read_), remarkable fat men, in ludicrous situations. Etchings from
all these having been made in 1782, accompanied by the original journal
in letter-press, an account of them will appear in the Catalogue under
that year.

A transcript of the journal was left in the hands of Mr.
_Gostling_,[89] who wrote an imitation of it in _Hudibrastic_ verse;
TWENTY COPIES only of which having been printed in 1781, as a literary
curiosity,[90] I was requested by some of my friends to reprint it at
the end of the second edition of this work. It had originally been kept
back, in compliment to the writer of the prose journey; but, as that in
the mean time had been given to the public by authority, to preserve
the Tour in a more agreeable dress cannot, it is presumed, be deemed an
impropriety. See the Appendix, N° III.

[1] History of _Westmoreland_, Vol. I. p. 479.

[2] "I must leave you to the annals of Fame," says Mr. _Walker_, the
ingenious Lecturer on Natural Philosophy, who favoured me with these
particulars, "for the rest of the anecdotes of this great Genius; and
shall endeavour to shew you, that his family possessed similar talents,
but they were destined, like the wild rose,

"'To waste their sweetness in the desart air.'

"Happy should I be to rescue from oblivion the name of _Ald Hogart_,
whose songs and quibbles have so often delighted my childhood! These
simple strains of this mountain _Theocritus_ were fabricated while
he held the plough, or was leading his fewel from the hills. He was
as critical an observer of nature as his nephew, for the narrow
field he had to view her in: not an incident or an absurdity in the
neighbourhood escaped him. If any one was hardy enough to break through
any decorum of old and established repute; if any one attempted to
over-reach his neighbour, or cast a leering eye at his wife; he was
sure to hear himself sung over the whole parish, nay, to the very
boundaries of the _Westmoreland_ dialect: so that his songs were said
to have a greater effect on the manners of his neighbourhood, than even
the sermons of the parson himself.

"But his poetical talents were not confined to the incidents of his
village. I myself have had the honour to bear a part in one of his
plays (I say _one_, for there are several of them extant in MS. in the
mountains of _Westmoreland_ at this hour). This play was called 'The
Destruction of _Troy_.' It was written in metre, much in the manner of
_Lopez de Vega_, or the ancient _French_ drama; the unities were not
too strictly observed, for the siege of ten years was all represented;
every hero was in the piece; so that the Dramatis Personæ consisted of
every lad of genius in the whole parish. The wooden horse--_Hector_
dragged by the heels--the fury of _Diomed_--the flight of _Æneas_--and
the burning of the city, were all represented. I remember not what
Fairies had to do in all this; but as I happened to be about three
feet high at the time of this still-talked-of exhibition, I personated
one of these tiny beings. The stage was a fabrication of boards placed
about six feet high, on strong posts; the green-room was partitioned
off with the same materials; it's cieling was the azure canopy of
heaven; and the boxes, pit, and galleries, were laid into one by the
Great Author of Nature, for they were the green slope of a fine hill.
Despise not, reader, this humble state of the provincial drama; let me
tell you, there were more spectators, for three days together, than
your three theatres in _London_ would hold; and let me add, still more
to your confusion, that you never saw an audience half so well pleased.

"The exhibition was begun with a grand procession, from the village to
a great stone (dropt by the Devil about a quarter of a mile off, when
he tried in vain to erect a bridge across _Windermere_; so the people,
unlike the rest of the world, have remained a very good sort of people
ever since). I say the procession was begun by the minstrels of five
parishes, and were followed by a yeoman on bull-back--you stare!--stop
then till I inform you that this adept had so far civilised his
bull, that he would suffer the yeoman to mount his back, and even to
play upon his fiddle there. The managers besought him to join the
procession; but the bull, not being accustomed to much company, and
particularly so much applause; whether he was intoxicated with praise;
thought himself affronted, and made game of; or whether a favourite
cow came across his imagination; certain it was, that he broke out of
the procession; erected his tail, and, like another _Europa_, carried
off the affrighted yeoman and his fiddle, over hedge and ditch, till
he arrived at his own field. This accident rather inflamed than
depressed the good humour arising from the procession; and the clown,
or jack-pudding of the piece, availed himself so well of the incident,
that the lungs and ribs of the spectators were in manifest danger.
This character was the most important personage in the whole play:
for his office was to turn the most serious parts of the drama into
burlesque and ridicule: he was a compound of Harlequin and the Merry
Andrew, or rather the Arch-fool of our ancient kings. His dress was
a white jacket, covered with bulls, bears, birds, fish, &c. cut in
various coloured cloth. His trowsers were decorated in like manner, and
hung round with small bells; and his cap was that of Folly, decorated
with bells, and an otter's brush impending. The lath sword must be of
great antiquity in this island, for it has been the appendage of a
jack-pudding in the mountains of _Westmoreland_ time out of mind.

"The play was opened by this character with a song, which answered the
double purpose of a play-bill and a a prologue, for his ditty gave the
audience a foretaste of the rueful incidents they were about to behold;
and it called out the actors, one by one, to make the spectators
acquainted with their names and characters, walking round and round
till the whole Dramatis Personæ made one great circle on the stage. The
audience being thus become acquainted with the actors, the play opened
with _Paris_ running away with _Helen_, and _Menelaus_ scampering after
them; then followed the death of _Patroclus_, the rage of _Achilles_,
the persuasions of _Ulysses_,&c. &c. and the whole interlarded with apt
songs, both serious and comic, all the production of _Ald Hogart_. The
bard, however, at this time had been dead some years, and I believe
this Fete was a Jubilee to his memory; but let it not detract from
the invention of Mr. _Garrick_, to say that his at _Stratford_ was
but a copy of one forty years ago on the banks of _Windermere_. Was
it any improvement, think you, to introduce several _bulls_ into the
procession instead of one? But I love not comparisons, and so conclude.
Yours, &c. ADAM WALKER."

However _Ald Hogart_ might have succeeded in the dramatic line, and
before a rustic audience, his poems of a different form are every way
contemptible. Want of grammar, metre, sense, and decency, are their
invariable characteristics. This opinion is founded on a thorough
examination of a whole bundle of them, transmitted by a friend since
the first publication of this work.

[3] Vir Clarissime, Excusso _Malpighio_ intra sex vel plurimum septem
septimanas te tamen per totum inconsulto, culpa est in Bibliopolam
conferenda, qui adeo festinanter urgebat opus ut moras nectere
nequivimus. Utut sit, tamen mihimet adulor me satis recte authoris &
verba & mentem cepisse (diligenter enim noctes atque dies opere incubui
ne tibi vel ulli regiorum tuorum sodalium molestus forem). Rudiora
tamen quorum specimen infra exhibere placuit, & _Italico-Latina_, juxta
præceptum tuum, _similia feci_ aliter si fecissem, totus fere liber
mutationem sul iisset. Authorem tam pueriliter & barbare loquentem
nunquam antehac evolvi quod meminerim; faciat ergo lector, ut solent
nautæ, qui dum fœtet aqua, nares pilissando comprimunt, spretis enim
verbis sensum, si quis est, attendat. Multa (infinita pœnè dixerim)
authoris errata emendavi, quædam tamen non animadversa vereor; _Augeæ_
enim stabulum non nisi _Hercules_ repurgavit. Partem _Italico_ sermone
conscriptam præetermitto, istam enim provinciam adornare suscepit
Doctor _Pragestee Italus_; quam bene rem gessit, ipse viderit.
Menda Typographica, spero, aut nulla, aut levia apparebunt. Tuam
tamen & Regiæ Societatis censuram exoptat facilem, Tibi omni studio

    "RICHARDUS HOGARTH, ...Preli Curator."

[4] He published "Grammar Disputations; or, an Examination of the
eight parts of speech by way of question and answer, _English_ and
_Latin_, whereby children in a very little time will learn, not
only the knowledge of grammar, but likewise to speak and write
_Latin_; as I have found by good experience. At the end is added a
short Chronological index of men and things of the greatest note,
alphabetically digested, chiefly relating to the Sacred and _Roman_
History, from the beginning of the World to the Year of Christ 1640,
and downwards. Written for the use of schools of _Great-Britain_, by
_Richard Hogarth_ Schoolmaster, 1712." This little book has also a
_Latin_ title-page to the same purpose, "Disputationes Grammaticales,
&c." and is dedicated, "Scholarchis, Ludimagistris, _et Hypodidascalis
Magnæ Britanniæ_."

[5] _Hogart_ was the family name, probably a corruption of _Hogherd_,
for the latter is more like the local pronunciation than the first.
This name disgusted Mrs. _Hogart_; and before the birth of her son,
she prevailed upon her husband to liquify it into _Hogarth_. This
circumstance was told to me by Mr. _Walker_, who is a native of
_Westmoreland_. By Dr. _Morell_, I was informed that his real name was
_Hoggard_, or _Hogard_, which, himself altered, by changing _d_ into ð,
the Saxon _th_.

[6] On what authority this is said, I am yet to learn. The registers of
_St. Bartholomew the Great_, and of _St. Bartholomew the Less_, have
both been searched for the same information, with fruitless solicitude.
The school of _Hogarth's_ father, in 1712, was in the parish of _St.
Martin's Ludgate_. In the register of that parish, therefore, the
births of his children, and his own death, may probably be found.[A]

[A] The register of _St. Martin's Ludgate_, has also been searched to
no purpose.

[7] This circumstance has, since it was first written, been verified
by a gentleman who has often heard a similar account from one of the
_last Head Assay-Masters_ at _Goldsmiths-Hall_, who was apprentice to
a silversmith in the same street with _Hogarth_, and intimate with him
during the greatest part of his life.

[8] Universal Museum, 1764. p. 549. The same kind of revenge, however,
was taken by _Verrio_, who, on the cieling of _St. George's Hall_ at
_Windsor_, borrowed the face of Mrs. _Marriot_, the housekeeper, for
one of the Furies.

[9] This picture is noticed in the article _Thornhill_, in the
_Biographia Britannica_, where, instead of _Wanstead_, it is called
the _Wandsworth_ assembly. There seems to be a reference to it in "A
Poetical Epistle to Mr. _Hogarth_, an eminent History and Conversation
Painter," written _June_ 1730, and published by the author (Mr.
_Mitchell_), with two other epistles, in 1731, 4to.

    "Large families obey your hand;
    _Assemblies_ rise at your command."

Mr. _Hogarth_ designed that year the frontispiece to Mr. _Mitchell's_
Opera, _The Highland Clans_.

[10] Of all these a more particular account will be given in the
Catalogue annexed.

[11] Brother to _Henry Overton_, the well-known publisher of ordinary
prints, who lived over against _St. Sepulchre's Church_, and sold many
of _Hogarth's_ early pieces coarsely copied, as has since been done by
_Dicey_ in _Bow Church-yard_.

[12] This conceit is borrowed from _Vanloo's_ picture of _Colley
Cibber_, whose daughter has the same employment.

[13] It appears that Mr. _G._ was dissatisfied with his likeness, or
that some dispute arose between him and the painter, who then struck
his pencil across the face, and damaged it. The picture was unpaid for
at the time of his death. His widow then sent it home to Mr _Garrick_,
without any demand.

[14] Afterwards rector of _Crawley_ in _Hampshire_; author of "_Ben
Mordecai's_ Letters," "Confusion worse confounded," and many other
celebrated works.

[15] He died of the small-pox, Aug. 12, 1729, and is said, in the
"Political State," to have possessed 5000 l. a year. He married a
sister of lord _Bateman_, by whom he left a son and two daughters.

[16] I have heard that he continually took sketches from nature as
he met with them, and put them into his works; and it is natural to
suppose he did so.

[17] See the Catalogue at the end of these Anecdotes. A very
considerable number of personalities are there pointed out under the
account of each plate in which they are found.

[18] The late Mr _Cole_, of _Milton_, in his copy of these Memoirs, had
written against the name of _Bambridge_, "Father to the late attorney
of that name, a worthy son of such a father. He lived at _Cambridge_."
And in a copy of the first edition on occasion of a note (afterwards
withdrawn) which mentioned "Mr. _Baker's_ having quarrelled with
_Hearne_;" Mr. _Cole_ wrote, "Mr. _Baker_ quarrelled with no man: he
might coolly debate with Mr. _Hearne_ on a disputable point. It is,
therefore, a misrepresentation of Mr. _Baker's_ private character,
agreeable to the petulance of this age."

[19] The wardenship of _The Fleet_, a patent office, was purchased of
the earl of _Clarendon_, for 5000 _l._ by _John Huggins_, esq. who
was in high favour with _Sunderland_ and _Craggs_, and consequently
obnoxious to their successors. _Huggins's_ term in the patent was for
his own life and his son's. But, in _August_ 1728, being far advanced
in years, and his son not caring to take upon him so troublesome an
office, he sold their term in the patent for the same sum it had cost
him, to _Thomas Bambridge_ and _Dougal Cuthbert. Huggins_ lived to the
age of 90.

[20] Mr. _Rayner_, in his reading on Stat. 2 _Geo._ II. chap. 32.
whereby _Bambridge_ was incapacitated to enjoy the office of warden
of _The Fleet_, has given the reader a very circumstantial account,
with remarks, on the notorious breaches of trust, &c. committed
by _Bambridge_ and other keepers of _The Fleet-Prison_. For this
publication, see _Worral's_ Bibliotheca Legum by _Brooke_, 1777, p. 16.

"A report from the Committee appointed to enquire into the State of the
Gaols of this Kingdom, relating to the _Marshalsea_ prison; with the
Resolutions of the House of Commons thereupon," was published in 4to.
1729; and reprinted in 8vo, at _Dublin_ the same year. It appears by
a MS. note of _Oldys_, cited in _British Topography_, vol. I. p. 636,
that _Bambridge_ cut his throat 20 years after.

[21] _William Huggins_, esq. of _Headly Park, Hants,_ well-known by
his translation of the _Orlando Furioso_ of _Ariosto_. Being intended
for holy orders, he was sent to _Magdalen College, Oxford,_ where he
took the degree of M. A. _April_ 30, 1761; but, on the death of his
elder brother in 1756, declined all thoughts of entering into the
church. He died _July_ 2, 1761; and left in MS. a tragedy, a farce,
and a translation of _Dante_, of which a specimen was published in the
_British Magazine_, 1760. Some flattering verses were addressed to
him in 1757, on his version of _Ariosto_; which are preserved in the
_Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. XXVII. p. 180; but are not worth copying.
The last Mr. _Huggins_ left an estate of 2000 _l._ a year to his two
sons-in-law _Thomas Gatehouse_, Esq; and Dr. _Musgrave_ of _Chinnor_.

[22] Sir _Francis Page's_, "Character," by _Savage_, thus gibbets him
to public detestation:

    "Fair Truth, in courts where Justice should preside,
    Alike the Judge and Advocate would guide;
    And these would vie each dubious point to clear,
    To stop the widow's and the orphan's tear;
    Were all, like _Yorke_,[A] of delicate address,
    Strength to discern, and sweetness to express,
    Learn'd, just, polite, born every heart to gain,
    Like _Comyns_[B] mild; like _Fortescue_[C] humane,
    All-eloquent of truth, divinely known,
    So deep, so clear, all Science is his own.

    "Of heart impure, and impotent of head,
    In history, rhetoric, ethics, law, unread;
    How far unlike such worthies, once a drudge,
    From floundering in low cases, rose a Judge.
    Form'd to make pleaders laugh, his nonsense thunders,
    And on low juries breathes contagious blunders.
    His brothers blush, because no blush he knows,
    Nor e'er 'one uncorrupted finger shows.'[D]
    See, drunk with power, the circuit-lord exprest!
    Full, in his eye, his betters stand confest;
    Whose wealth, birth, virtue, from a tongue so loose,
    'Scape not provincial, vile, buffoon abuse.
    Still to what circuit is assigned his name,
    There, swift before him, flies the warner--Fame.
    Contest stops short, Consent yields every cause
    To Cost; Delay endures them, and withdraws.
    But how 'scape prisoners? To their trial chain'd,
    All, all shall stand condemn'd, who stand arraign'd,
    Dire guilt, which else would detestation cause,
    Prejudg'd with insult, wondrous pity draws.
    But 'scapes e'en Innocence his harsh harangue?
    Alas!--e'en Innocence itself must hang;
    Must hang to please him, when of spleen possest,
    Must hang to bring forth an abortive jest.

    "Why liv'd he not ere Star-chambers had fail'd,
    When fine, tax, censure, all but law prevail'd;
    Or law, subservient to some murderous will,
    Became a precedent to murder still?
    Yet e'en when portraits did for traitors bleed,
    Was e'er the jobb to such a slave decreed,
    Whose savage mind wants sophist-art to draw,
    O'er murder'd virtue, specious veils of law?

    "Why, Student, when the bench your youth admits,
    Where, though the worst, with the best rank'd he sits;
    Where sound opinions you attentive write,
    As once a _Raymond_, now a _Lee_ to cite,
    Why pause you scornful when he dins the court?
    Note well his cruel quirks, and well report.
    Let his own words against himself point clear,
    Satire more sharp than verse when most severe."

Nor was _Savage_ less severe in his prose. On the trial of this
unfortunate poet, for the murder of _James Sinclair_ in 1727, Judge
_Page_, who was then on the bench, treated him with his usual insolence
and severity; and, when he had summed up the evidence, endeavoured
to exasperate the jury, as Mr. _Savage_ used to relate it, with this
eloquent harangue: "Gentlemen of the Jury, you are to consider that
Mr. _Savage_ is a very great man, a much greater man than you or I,
gentlemen of the jury; that he wears very fine cloaths, much finer
cloaths than you or I, gentlemen of the jury; that he has abundance
of money in his pocket, much more money than you or I, gentlemen of
the jury: but, gentlemen of the jury, is it not a very hard case,
gentlemen of the jury, that Mr. _Savage_ should therefore kill you or
me, gentlemen of the jury?"

_Pope_ also, _Horace_, B. II. Sat. r, has the following line:

    "Hard words or hanging, if your judge be _Page."_

And _Fielding_, in _Tom Jones_, makes _Partridge_ say, with great
_naiveté_, after premising that judge _Page_ was a very brave man, and
a man of great wit, "It is indeed charming sport to hear trials on life
and death!"

[A] Sir _Philip Yorke_, chief justice of the King's Bench, afterwards
lord-chancellor and earl _Hardwicke_.

[B] Sir _John Comyns_, chief baron of the Exchequer.

[C] Hon. _William Fortescue_, then one of the justices of the court of
Common Pleas, afterwards master of the Rolls.

[D] "When _Page_ one uncorrupted finger shows." D. of WHARTON.

[23] The truth and propriety of these strictures having been disputed
by an ingenious correspondent in the _Public Advertiser_, his
letter, with remarks on it, is subjoined by way of appendix to the
present work. In this place performances of such a length would have
interrupted the narrative respecting _Hogarth_ and his productions. See
Appendix I.

[24] In co'i Banco.



The Plaintiff declares, that on the 20th of _December_, 1727, at
_Westminster_ aforesaid, Defendant was indebted to him 30 _l_. for
painter's work, and for divers materials laid out for the said work;
which Defendant faithfully promised to pay when demanded.

Plaintiff also declares, that Defendant promised to pay for the said
work and other materials, as much as the same was worth; and Plaintiff
in fact says the same was worth other 30 _l_.

Plaintiff also declares for another sum of 30 _l_ for money laid out
and expended for Defendant's use, which he promised to pay.

The said Defendant not performing his several promises, the Plaintiff
hath brought this action to his damage 30 _l_. for which this action is

To which the Defendant hath pleaded _non assumpsit_ and thereupon issue
is joined.


The Defendant is an upholsterer and tapestry-worker, and was
recommended to Plaintiff as a person skilful in painting patterns
for that purpose; the Plaintiff accordingly came to Defendant, who
informing him that he had occasion for a tapestry design of the Element
of Earth, to be painted on canvas, Plaintiff told Defendant he was
well skilled in painting that way, and promised to perform it in a
workmanlike manner; which if he did, Defendant undertook to pay him for
it twenty guineas.

Defendant, soon after, hearing that Plaintiff was an engraver, and no
painter, was very uneasy about the work, and ordered his servant to go
and acquaint Plaintiff what he had heard; and Plaintiff then told the
said servant, 'that it was a bold undertaking, for that he never did
any thing of that kind before; and that, if his master did not like it,
he should not pay for it.'

That several times sending after Plaintiff to bring the same to
Defendant's house, he did not think fit so to do; but carried the same
to a private place where Defendant keeps some people at work, and there
left it. As soon as Defendant was informed of it, he sent for it home,
and consulted with his workmen whether the design was so painted as
they could work tapestry by it, and they were all unanimous that it was
not finished in a workmanlike manner, and that it was impossible for
them to work tapestry by it.

Upon this, Defendant sent the painting back to Plaintiff by his
servant, who acquainted him, 'that the same did not answer the
Defendant's purpose, and that it was of no use to him; but if he would
finish it in a proper manner, Defendant would take it, and pay for it.'

Defendant employs some of the finest hands in _Europe_ in working
tapestry, who are most of them foreigners, and have worked abroad as
well as here, and are perfect judges of performances of this kind.

The Plaintiff undertook to finish said piece in a month, but it was
near three months before he sent to the Defendant to view it; who,
when he saw it, told him that he could not make any use of it, and was
so disappointed for want of it, that he was forced to put his workmen
upon working other tapestry that was not bespoke, to the value of 200
_l._ which now lies by him, and another painter is now painting another
proper pattern for the said piece of tapestry.

To prove the case as above set forth, call Mr. _William Bradshaw_.

To prove the painting not to be performed in a workmanlike manner, and
that it was impossible to make tapestry by it, and that it was of no
use to Plaintiff, call Mr. _Bernard Dorrider_, Mr. _Phillips_, Mr. _De
Friend_, Mr. _Danten_, and Mr. _Pajon_.

By the counsel's memoranda on this brief it appears, that the witnesses
examined for the Plaintiff were _Thomas King, Vanderbank, Le Gard,
Thornhill,_ and _Cullumpton_.

[25] _James Thornhill_, esq. serjeant-painter and history-painter
to King _George_ I. In _June_ 1715, he agreed to paint the cupola
of _St. Paul's_ church for 4000 _l._ and was knighted in _April_
1720. In a flattering account given of him immediately after his
death, which happened _May_ 13, 1734, in his 57th year, he is said to
have been "the greatest history-painter this kingdom ever produced,
witness his elaborate works in _Greenwich-Hospital_, the cupola of
_St. Paul's_, the altar-pieces of _All-Souls College_ in _Oxford_,
and in the church of _Weymouth_, where he was born; a cieling in the
palace of _Hampton-Court_, by order of the late Earl of _Halifax:_ his
other works shine in divers noblemens' and gentlemens' houses. His
later years were employed in copying the rich cartoons of _Raphael_
in the gallery of _Hampton-Court_, which, though in decay, will be
revived by his curious pencil, not only in their full proportions,
but in many other sizes and shapes, he in a course of years had drawn
them. He was chosen representative in the two last parliaments for
_Weymouth_, and having, by his own industry, acquired a considerable
estate, re-purchased the seat of his ancestors, which he re-edified
and embellished. He was not only by patents appointed history-painter
to their late and present majesties, but serjeant-painter, by which
he was to paint all the royal palaces, coaches, barges, and the royal
navy. This late patent he surrendered in favour of his only son _John
Thornhill_, Esq. He left no other issue but one daughter, now the wife
of Mr _Wm. Hogarth_, admired for his curious miniature conversation
paintings. Sir _James_ has left a most valuable Collection of pictures
and other curiosities."

[26] He was called on this occasion, in the Craftsman, "Mr. _Hogarth_,
an ingenious designer and engraver."

[27] "_Pope_ published in 1731 a poem called _False Taste_, in which he
very particularly and severely criticises the house, the furniture, the
gardens, and the entertainments of _Timon_, a man of great wealth and
little taste. By _Timon_ he was universally supposed, and by the Earl
of _Burlington_, to whom the poem is addressed, was privately said to
mean the Duke of _Chandos_; a man perhaps too much delighted with pomp
and shew, but of a temper kind and beneficent, and who had consequently
the voice of the publick in his favour. A violent outcry was therefore
raised against the ingratitude and treachery of _Pope_, who was said
to have been indebted to the patronage of _Chandos_ for a present of
a thousand pounds, and who gained the opportunity of insulting him by
the kindness of his invitation. The receipt of the thousand pounds
_Pope_ publickly denied; but from the reproach which the attack on a
character so amiable brought upon him, he tried all means of escaping.
The name of _Cleland_ was employed in an apology, by which no man was
satisfied; and he was at last reduced to shelter his temerity behind
dissimulation, and endeavour to make that disbelieved which he never
had confidence openly to deny. He wrote an exculpatory letter to the
Duke, which was answered with great magnanimity, as by a man who
accepted his excuse without believing his professions. He said, that
to have ridiculed his taste, or his buildings, had been an indifferent
action in another man; but that in _Pope_, after the reciprocal
kindness that had been exchanged between them, it had been less easily
excused." _Dr. Johnson, in his Life of Pope._

[28] That Sir _John Gonson_ took a very active part against the Ladies
of Pleasure, is recorded by more than one of their votaries: In "A
View of the Town, 1735," by Mr. _T. Gilbert_, a fellow of _Peter House
Cambridge_, and an intimate companion of _Loveling_,[A] I meet with
these lines:

    "Though laws severe to punish guilt were made,
    What honest man is of these laws afraid?
    All felons against judges will exclaim,
    As harlots startle at a _Gonson's_ name."

The magistrate entering with his myrmidons was designed as the
representative of this gentleman, whose vigilance on like occasions is
recorded in the following elegant Sapphic Ode, by Mr. _Loveling_. This
gentleman was educated at _Winchester-school_, became a commoner of
_Trinity College, Oxford_, was ordained deacon, lived gaily, and died
young. His style, however, appears to have been formed on a general
acquaintance with the language of _Roman_ poetry; nor do any of his
effusions betray that poverty of expression so conspicuous in the poems
of _Nicholas Hardinge_, esq. who writes as if _Horace_ was the only
classic author he had ever read.

        Ad _Johannem Gonsonum_, Equitem.

    Pellicum, _Gonsone_, animosus hostis,
    Per minus castas _Druriæ_ tabernas
    Lenis incedens, abeas _Diones_
                            Æquus alumnis!
    Nuper (ah dictu miserum!) _Olivera_
    Flevit ereptas viduata mœchas,
    Quas tuum vidit genibus minores
                             Ante tribunal.
    Dure, cur tantâ in _Veneris_ ministras
    Æstuas irâ? posito furore
    Huc ades, multà & prece te vocantem
                            Gratior audi!
    Nonne sat mœchas malè feriatas
    Urget infestis fera sors procellis?
    Adderis quid tu ulterior puellis
                            Causa doloris?
    Incolunt, eheu! thalamos supernos,
    Nota quæ sedes fuerat Poetis;
    Nec domum argento gravis, ut solebat,
                            Dextra revertit.
    Nympha quæ nuper nituit theatro,
    Nunc stat obscuro misera angiportu,
    Supplici vellens tunicam rogatque
                            Voce _Lyæum_.
    Te voco rebus _Druriæ_ mentis;
    Voci communi _Britonum_ Juventus
    Te vocat, nunc ô! dare te benignum
                            Incipe votis.
    Singulum tunc dona feret lupanar:
    Liberum mittet _Rosa_ Lusitanum,
    Gallici _Haywarda_ et generosa mittet
                            Munera _Bacchi_.
    Sive te forsan moveat libido,
    Aridis pellex requiescet ulnis,
    Callida effœtas renovare lento
                            Verbere vires.

The same poet, speaking of the exhilarating effects of Gin, which had
just been an object of Parliamentary notice, has the following stanza:

    Utilis mœchae fuit & Poetæ;
    Sprevit hinc Vates Dolopum catervas,
    Mœcha _Gonsonum_ tetricâ minantem
                             Fronte laborem.

Thus, between the poet and the painter, the fame of our harlot-hunting
Justice is preserved. But as a slave anciently rode in the same
chariot with the conqueror, the memory of a celebrated street-robber
and highwayman will descend with that of the magistrate to posterity,
_James Dalton's_ wig-box being placed on the tester of the Harlot's
bed. I learn from the _Grubstreet Journal_, that he was executed on
the 12th of _May_, 1730. Sir _John Gonson_ died _January_ 9, 1765. He
was remarkable for the charges which he used to deliver to the grand
juries, which are said to have been written by Orator _Henley_. The
following puffs, or sneers, concerning them, are found in the first
number of the _Grubstreet Journal_, dated _January_ 8, 1730. "Yesterday
began the General Quarter Sessions, &c. when Sir _John Gonson_, being
in the chair, gave a most _incomparable, learned,_ and _fine_ charge to
the Grand Jury." _Daily Post_.

"The _Morning Post_ calls Sir _John's_ charge _excellent, learned_ and
_loyal_. The _Evening Post_ calls it an _excellent lecture_ and _useful

Three of these performances had been published in 1728.[B] Sir _John's_
name is also preserved in Mr _Pope's_ works:

    "Talkers I've learn'd to bear: _Motteux_ I knew;
    _Henley_ himself I've heard, and _Budgell_ too.
    The Doctor's wormwood style, the hash of tongues
    A pedant makes, the storm of _Gonson's_ lungs."
                     Fourth Sat. of Dr. _Donne_ versified.

[A] In the collection of _Loveling's_ Poems, 1741, are two by _Gilbert.
Loveling_ also addressed a poem, not printed in his works, "_Gilberto
suo_," and in _Gilbert's_ Poems, published 1747, is "A familiar Epistle
to my friend _Ben Loveling_."

[B] One charge by Sir _John Gonson_ is in the Political State, vol.
XXXV. p. 50; and two others in vol. XXXVI. pp 314. 333.

[29] It was customary in _Hogarth's_ family to give these fans to the

[30] Among the small articles of furniture in the scenes of _Hogarth_,
a few objects may speedily become unintelligible, because their
archetypes, being out of use, and of perishable natures, can no longer
be found. Such is the _Dare for Larks_ (a circular board with pieces
of looking-glass inserted in it), hung up over the chimney-piece of
the _Distress'd Poet_; and the _Jews Cake_ (a dry tasteless biscuit
perforated with many holes, and formerly given away in great quantities
at the Feast of Passover), generally used only as a fly-trap, and
hung up as such against the wall in the sixth plate of the _Harlot's
Progress_. I have frequently met with both these articles in mean

[31] The fire began at the house of Mrs. _Calloway_, who kept a
brandy-shop. This woman was committed to _Newgate_, it appearing
among other circumstances, that she had threatened "to be even with
the landlord for having given her warning, and that she would have
a bonfire on the 20th of _June_, that should warm all her rascally

[32] _Hogarth_ attempted to improve it, but without much success. The
additional figures are quite episodical. See the Catalogue.

[33] In _Seymour's_ history of _London_, vol. II. p. 883. is the
following notice of our artist:

"Among the Governors of _St. Bartholomew's Hospital_, was lately chosen
Mr. _William Hogarth_ the celebrated printer, who, we are told, designs
to paint the stair-case of the said hospital, and thereby become a
benefactor to it, by giving his labour gratis."

[34] He bought up great quantities of the copies of his works; and
they still remain in possession of his widow. The "Harlot's" and the
"Rake's" Progress, in a smaller size than the original, were published,
with his permission, by _Thomas Bakewell_, a printseller, near the
_Horn Tavern, Fleet-street_.

[35] Of the _Harlot's Progress_ I have seen no less than eight
piratical imitations.

[36] _Lord Gardenston_, one of the lords of session in _Scotland_, on
delivering his opinion in the court of session upon the question of
literary property, in the cause of _Hinton_ and _Donaldson_ and others,
all booksellers, in _July_ 1773 thus introduced the works of _Hogarth_:
"There is nothing can be more similar than the work of engraving is to
literary composition. I will illustrate this proposition by the works
of Mr _Hogarth_, who, in my humble opinion, is the only true original
artist which this age has produced in _England_. There is hardly any
character of an excellent author, which is not justly applicable
to his works. What composition, what variety, what sentiment, what
fancy, invention, and humour, we discover in all his performances!
In every one of them an entertaining history, a natural description
of characters, and an excellent moral. I can read his works over and
over, _Horace's_ characteristic of excellency in writing, _decies
repetita placebit_; and every time I peruse them, I discover new
beauties, and feel fresh entertainment: can I say more in commendation
of the literary compositions of a _Butler_ or a _Swift_? There is
great authority for this parallel; the legislature has considered the
works of authors and engravers in the same light; they have granted
the same protection to both; and it is remarkable, that the act of
parliament for the protection of those who invent new engravings, or
prints, is almost in the same words with the act for the protection
and encouragement of literary compositions." This is taken from a 4to
pamphlet, published in 1774 by _James Boswell_, esq. advocate, one of
the counsel in the cause.

[37] "That _Huggins_ penned the statute, I was told by Mr. _Hogarth_
himself. The determination of Lord _Hardwicke_ was thus occasioned.
_Jefferys_, the printseller at the corner of _St. Martin's Lane_,
had employed an artist to draw and engrave a print representing the
_British_ Herring Fishery; and, having paid him for it, took an
assignment of the right to the property in it accruing to the artist
by the act of parliament. The proprietors of one of the magazines
pirated it in a similar size, and _Jefferys_ brought his bill for an
injunction, to which the defendants demurred: and, upon argument of the
demurrer, the same was allowed, for the reason abovementioned, and the
bill dismissed. _Hogarth_ attended the hearing; and lamented to me that
he had employed _Huggins_ to draw the act, adding, that, when he first
projected it, he hoped it would be such an encouragement to engraving
and printselling, that printsellers would soon become as numerous
as bakers' shops; which hope, notwithstanding the above check, does
at this time seem to be pretty nearly gratified." _For this note my
readers are indebted to Sir_ John Hawkins.

[38] "What Caricatura is in painting," says _Fielding_, "Burlesque
is in writing; and in the same manner the comic writer and painter
correlate to each other. And here I shall observe, that as in the
former the painter seems to have the advantage; so it is in the latter
infinitely on the side of the writer: for the Monstrous is much easier
to paint than describe, and the Ridiculous to describe than paint.
And though perhaps this latter species doth not in either science so
strongly affect and agitate the muscles as the other; yet it will be
owned, I believe, that a more rational and useful pleasure arises to us
from it."

[39] This idea originally occurred in _Colley Cibber's Apology_.
From thence it was transplanted by _Lloyd_ into his celebrated poem
intituled _The Actor_. Lying thus in the way of _Garrick_, he took
it up for the use of the _prologue_ already quoted. Lastly, Mr.
_Sheridan_, in his beautiful _Monody_, condescended to borrow it, only
because it spared him the labour of unlocking the richer storehouse of
his own imagination.

I may however remark that _Cibber_, when he suggested this mortifying
reflection, had more reason on his side than some of his successors
who have indulged themselves in the same dolorous strain of complaint.
To whatever oblivion the celebrated actors of the last age have been
resigned, the pencil of _Hogarth, Dance, Zoffani,_ and _Reynolds_,
had left Mr. _Garrick_ not the slightest reason to be apprehensive
that, in his own particular case, the art and the artist would alike
be forgotten. Meanwhile, let our heroes of the stage be taught to
moderate their anxiety for posthumous renown, by a recollection that
their peculiar modes of excellence will, at least, be as well preserved
to futurity as those of the lords _Chatham_ and _Mansfield_, whose
talents, perhaps, might support an equal claim to perpetuation.

[40] Dr. _M._ once observed to _J. N._ in a letter on this subject, "In
the 13th chapter I was somewhat puzzled with the _flat_ and _round_, or
the _concave_ and _convex_, appearing the reverse; till the sun happily
shining in upon the cornice, I had a fair example of what he intended
to express. The next chapter, with regard to _colouring_, did not go
on quite so smooth; for, if I satisfied _him_, I was not satisfied
_myself_ with his peculiar principles; nor could I relish his laying
the blame on the _colourmen_, &c."

[41] One exception to this remark occurs in the _Gentleman's Magazine_
for 1754, p. 14; where the reviewer of the Analysis observes, that it
is "a book written with that precision and perspicuity which can only
result from a perfect knowledge of his subject in all its extent. His
rules are illustrated by near two hundred figures, engraved by himself;
the knowledge which it contains is universally useful, and as all
terms of art are avoided, the language will be universally understood.
The player and the dancing-master, whom others consider as patterns
of just action and genteel deportment, are not less instructed than
the statuary and the painter; nor is there any species of beauty or
elegance that is not here investigated and analysed.

"A book, by which the author has discovered such superiority, could
scarce fail of creating many enemies; those who admit his Analysis
to be just, are disposed to deny that it is new. Though in the year
1745, having drawn a serpentine line on a painter's pallet, with
these words under it, 'the line of beauty,' as a frontispiece to his
prints, no _Egyptian_ hieroglyphic ever produced greater variety of
speculation; both painters and sculptors then came to enquire the
meaning of a symbol, which they soon pretended to have been their old
acquaintance; though the account they could give of its properties were
scarce so satisfactory as that of a day-labourer, who constantly uses
the _lever_, could give of that instrument, as a mechanical power. The
work, however, will live when these cavils are forgotten; and except
the originals, of which it is pretended to be a copy, are produced,
there is no question but that the name of the author will descend to
posterity with that honour which competitors only can wish to withhold."

It should be observed, however, that the general decision on
_Hogarth's_ performance may be just. Certain we are, that it has not
been reversed by the opinion of the First of our Modern Painters.

[42] The _Analysis_ itself however affords sufficient specimens of
inaccuracy in spelling. Thus we have (pref. p. xix.) _Syclamen_ instead
of _Cyclamen_; (p. 44.) calc_i_donian for C_h_alc_e_donian; (p. 65.)
nuckles for _k_nuckles; (p. 97.) Iris_h_-stitch for Iris-stitch, &c.
&c. In the sheets that contain these errors, it is easy to conceive
that _Hogarth_ must have been his own corrector of the press.

[43] It is so extraordinary for an illiterate person to ridicule
inaccuracy of spelling, that this might probably be a real blunder.

[44] Some account of this work will be given in a future page.

[45] See a note on _Marriage-a-la-Mode_ (under the year 1745); from
whence it sufficiently appears, that _indelicacies_, &c. had been
imputed to _Hogarth's_ performances, and that, therefore, when he
advertised the six plates of _Marriage-a-la-Mode_, he thought it
necessary to assure the public that no _indelicacy, indecency,_ or
_personality_, would be found in any of these representations.

[46] The exigence of this card having been doubted, it is engraved in
our title-page, from the original now in _Charles Street, Grosvenor
Square_, in the possession of Dr. _Wright_.

[47] This pun reminds us of a similar one from _Garth_ to _Rowe_, who
making repeated use of his snuff-box, the _Doctor_ at last sent it to
him with the two _Greek_ letters written on the lid, Φ, ρ, (_Phi, Ro_).
At this the sour _Dennis_ was so provoked, as to declare, that "a man
who could make such a vile pun, would not scruple to pick a pocket."

[48] The cat spitting at the dog is a circumstance in the fourth plate
of _Industry and Idleness_, where it is naturally introduced. The dog
attends on a porter who is bringing in goods; and the warehouse cat,
who considers this animal as an invader, is preparing to defend her
person and premises.

[49] When this ample, nay, redundant, apology by Dr. _Joseph Warton_
first made its appearance, _Hogarth_ was highly delighted with as much
of it as he understood. But, not knowing the import of the word ΗθΟΣ
[Greek: Ethos], he hastened to his friends for information. All, in
their turn, sported with his want of skill in the learned languages;
first telling him it was Greek for one strange thing, and then for
another, so that his mind remained in a state of suspence; as, for
aught he knew to the contrary, some such meaning might lie under these
crooked letters, as would overset the compliments paid him in the
former parts of the paragraph. No short time, therefore, had passed
before he could determine whether he ought to retract or continue his
charge against his adversary: but it was at last obliterated. For
several months afterwards, however, poor _Hogarth_ never praised his
provision or his wine, without being asked what proportion of the ΗθΟΣ
[Greek: Ethos] he supposed to be in either.

[50] An engraving from this picture may be expected from Mr. _Livesay_.

[51] A polite gentleman, of great learning, and much esteemed. He had
some good pictures, and a very fine library, in the great house at
_Peckham_ (formerly inhabited by Lord _Trevor_), which, together with
a considerable estate there, was bequeathed to him by his aunt Mrs.

[52] See the names of the purchasers, and prices of this collection, in
the _Gentleman's Magazine_, 1758, p. 225.

[53] He painted the heart from an injected one provided for him
by _Cæsar Hawkins_ the surgeon; and, on the authority of repeated
inspection, I venture to affirm, that the fingers of _Sigismunda_ are
unstained with blood, and that neither of her hands is employed in
rending ornaments from her head, or any other part of her person. In
this instance Mr. _Walpole's_ memory must have failed him, as I am
confident that his misrepresentation was undesigned. It is whispered
(we know not with how much truth) that Mrs. _H._ was hurt by this
description of the picture, and that she returned no thanks for the
volume that contains it, when it was sent to her as a present by its
author. It should seem that she still designs to dispose of this
ill-fated performance, and thinks that its reputation required no
additional blast.

I have reprinted this note, without correction, that I might thereby
obtain the fairer opportunity of doing justice to Mr. _Walpole_,
concerning the faithfulness of whose memory I had ventured to express
a doubt. Genuine information is not always to be had; nor shall
I hesitate a moment to apologize for the fallaciousness of mine.
The fingers of _Sigismunda_ were _originally_ stained with blood.
This indelicate and offensive circumstance was pointed out by some
intelligent friend to _Hogarth_, who reluctantly effaced it.

A correspondent, however, on reading this work, has furnished an
additional reason why the lady already mentioned may be offended by
the severity of Mr. _Walpole's_ strictures on _Sigismunda_. "It has
been whispered that Count _Guiscard's_ widow was a copy from the
_daughter of Sir James Thornhill_. If this circumstance be true, the
very accomplished Critick of _Strawberry Hill_ will own at least that
her wrath and _Juno's_ had the same provocation, '_Judiciam Paridis,
spretæque injuria formæ_.' Impartiality, however, obliges us to add,
that Mrs. _Hogarth_, though in years, is still a very fine woman; and
that Mr. _Walpole's_ idea of what a picture of _Sigismunda_ ought to
express, is poetically conceived, and delivered with uncommon elegance
and force of language. The _sober grief_, the _dignity of suppressed
anguish_, the _involuntary tear_, the _settled meditation on the fate
she meant to meet_, and the _amorous warmth turned holy by despair_,
are words that fill the place of colours, supply all the imperfections
of _Hogarth's_ design, and succeed even where a _Furino_ or a
_Correggio_ may have failed."

[54] This circumstance was ridiculed in a grotesque print, called _A
Harlot blubbering over a bullock's heart. By William Hogart._

[55] "Many causes may vitiate a writer's judgement of his own works.
On that which has cost him much labour he sets a high value, because
he is unwilling to think that he has been diligent in vain; what has
been produced without toilsome efforts is considered with delight, as a
proof of vigorous faculties and fertile invention; and the last work,
whatever it be, has necessarily most of the grace of novelty. _Milton_,
however it happened, had this prejudice, and had it to himself." Dr.

[56] _Sigismunda_, however, though she missed of judicious admirers,
had, at least, the good fortune to meet with a flatterer in the late
Mr. _Robert Lloyd_, whose poem intituled _Genius, Envy,_ and _Time,_
addressed to _William Hogarth_, esq. has the following lines. _Time_ is
the speaker.

    "While _Sigismunda's_ deep distress
    Which looks the soul of wretchedness,
    When I, with slow and softening pen,
    Have gone o'er all the tints agen,
    Shall urge a bold and proper claim,
    To level half the ancient fame;
    While future ages, yet unknown,
    With critic air shall proudly own
    Thy _Hogarth_ first of every clime
    For humour keen, or strong sublime, &c."

It is but justice, on one hand, to add, that when _Lloyd_ wrote this
eulogium, he was not yet enlisted under the banners of fashion; but
impartiality, on the other hand, requires we should observe that,
having, like _Hogarth_, seen few pictures by the best masters, he was
treating of an art he did not understand.

The authors of the _Monthly Review_ are of opinion, that _Mr. Walpole_
speaks too contemptuously of _Sigismunda_, and that there is no
ground for the insinuation that the person for whom it was painted
thought meanly of it. "We have in our possession (say they) a letter
to _Hogarth_ from the noble person referred to, in which he expresses
himself in the following terms;--_I really think the performance so
striking and inimitable, that the constantly having it before one's
eyes, would be often occasioning melancholy ideas to arise in one's
mind, which, a curtain being drawn before it, would not diminish in
the least._" Surely this epistle, if genuine, was ironical. Or shall
we suppose that, afterwards, his lordship only saw the picture through
the disgusting medium of the price? Mr. _Wilkes's_ opinion of the piece
will be best conveyed in his own words, which are therefore copied in
p. 81.

Dr. _Morell_, an intimate friend of Mr. _Hogarth_, who was applied to
for information, returned for answer: "His excellencies, as well as his
foibles, are so universally known, that I cannot add to the former,
and would not, if I could, to the latter. I should think we lived in
a very ill-natured world, if the whims and follies in a man's life
were to be exposed, and his oddities and mistakes, _ubi plura nitent_,
seriously condemned. But the unhappy affair of _Sigismunda_ requires
animadversion. And I will venture to say that even this _Sigismunda_
would not have deserved so many hard things as have been said of it, if
Mr. _Hogarth_ had timely and properly observed the caution--_Manum de
Tabula_. But it was so altered, upon the criticism of one Connoisseur
or another; and especially when, relying no longer upon strength of
genius, he had recourse to the _feigned_ tears and _fictitious_ woe of
a female friend; that, when it appeared at the exhibition, I scarce
knew it again myself, and from a passable picture it became little
better than the wretched figure here represented. In my opinion, I
never saw a finer resemblance of flesh and blood, while the canvas was
warm, I mean _wet_; but, like that of real flesh, as soon as it was
chilled, the beauty wore off. And this, he said, could not be helped,
as no colours, but those of pure nature, as _ultramarine_, &c. would
keep their natural brightness. But it is granted that colouring was not
Mr. _Hogarth's_ forte; and the subject we are upon is a disagreeable

[57] The first sketch in oil for _Sigismunda_, and a drawing from the
finished picture, are in the possession of Mr. _Samuel Ireland_.

[58] At the Club of Artists, it was not unusual to reproach _Hogarth_
with want of due attention to the Ancients, whom he always affected to
despise. It accidentally happened that Mr. _Basire_, whilst this plate
was in hand, was employed likewise in engraving, for the Society of
Antiquaries, two plates of an antique bronze from the collection of
Mr. _Hollis_, so remarkably grotesque, that Mr. _Hogarth_ very readily
consented that his plate should be postponed, and declared, "he could
not have imagined that the Ancients had possessed so much humour."

[59] Some subscriptions were actually received, and the money returned.
The munificient Mr. _Hollis_, who was one of the subscribers, refused
to take back what he had paid; and it was given by Mr. _Basire_ to a
public charity.

[60] Two other little pieces are ascribed to him; the distich under the
subscription-ticket for his _Sigismunda_, 1761,

    'To Nature and yourself appeal;
    Nor learn of others how to feel.'

And the following well-known Epigram:

      "Your servant, Sir," says surly _Quin_,
      "Sir, I am yours," replies _Macklin_,
      "Why, you're the very _Jew_ you play,
        Your face performs the task well."
      "And you are _Sir John Brute_, they say,
        And an accomplished _Maskwell_."
    Says _Rich_, who heard the sneering elves,
      And knew their horrid hearts;
      "Acting too much your very selves,
        You overdo your parts."[A]

[A] The censure contained in these poor lines is eminently unjust.
_Macklin_ is known to have been an anxious and affectionate parent, and
_Quin_ a benevolent and liberal friend.

[61] On what account I know not, but he had then forborn painting for
more than a year.

[62] See hereafter, p. 81.

[63] In the Beauties of all the Magazines, 1773, p. 440, is a droll
"Epistle from _Jacob Henriques_, born anno Domini, &c. to Messieurs
_Hogarth_ and _Churchill_ greeting."

[64] For this the Satirist unmercifully apologizes in the conclusion of
his poem, which may be seen in the Catalogue, under the year 1763, in a
note on N° 2.

[65] As much of this paper as relates to our artist is here subjoined:

"The humourous Mr. _Hogarth_, the _supposed_ author of the _Analysis
of Beauty_, has at last entered the list of politicians, and given us
a print of _The Times. Words are man's province_, says _Pope_; but
they are not Mr. _Hogarth's_ province. He somewhere mentions his being
indebted to a friend for a third part of the _wording_: that is his
phrase. We all titter the instant he takes up a _pen_, but we tremble
when we see the _pencil_ in his hand. I will do him the justice to
say, that he possesses the rare talent of gibbetting in colours, and
that in most of his works he has been a very good moral satirist. His
forte is there, and he should have kept it. When he has at any time
deviated from _his own peculiar walk_, he has never failed to make
himself perfectly ridiculous. I need only make my appeal to any one
of his _historical_ or _portrait_ pieces, which are now considered
as almost beneath all criticism. The favourite _Sigismunda_, the
labour of so many years, the boasted effort of his art, was not
_human_. If the figure had a resemblance of any thing ever on earth,
or had the least pretence to meaning or expression, it was what he
had seen, or perhaps made, in real life, his own wife in an agony
of passion; but of what passion no connoisseur could guess. All his
friends remember what tiresome discourses were held by him day after
day about the transcendent merit of it, and how the great names of
_Raphael, Vandyke,_ and others, were made to yield the palm of beauty,
grace, expression, &c. to him, for this long laboured, yet still,
_uninteresting_, single figure. The value he himself set on this, as
well as on some other of his works, almost exceeds belief; yet from
politeness or fear, or some other motives, he has actually been paid
the most astonishing sums, as the price, not of his merit, but of his
unbounded vanity.

"The darling passion of Mr. _Hogarth_ is to shew the _faulty_ and
_dark_ side of every object. He never gives us in perfection the _fair
face of nature_, but admirably well holds out her deformities to
ridicule. The reason is plain. All objects are painted on his _retina_
in a grotesque manner, and he has never felt the force of what the
_French_ call _la belle nature_. He never caught a single idea of
beauty, grace, or elegance; but, on the other hand, he never missed the
least flaw in almost any production of nature or of art. This is his
true character. He has succeeded very happily in the way of humour, and
has miscarried in every other attempt. This has arisen in some measure
from his head, but much more from his heart. After _Marriage à la
Mode_, the public wished for a series of prints of a _happy_ marriage.
_Hogarth_ made the attempt, but the rancour and malevolence of his
mind made him very soon turn with envy and disgust from objects of so
pleasing contemplation, to dwell and feast a bad heart on others of a
hateful cast, which he pursued, for he found them congenial, with the
most unabating zeal, and unrelenting gall.

"I have observed some time his _setting sun_. He has long been very
_dim_, and almost _shorn of his beams_. He seems so conscious of this,
that he now glimmers with _borrowed light. John Bull's house in flames_
has been hackney'd in fifty different prints; and if there is any merit
in the figure on stilts, and the mob prancing around, it is not to
be ascribed to _Hogarth_, but to _Callot_. That spirited _Italian_,
whom the _English_ painter has so carefully studied, has given us in
the _Balli di Sfessania di Jacomo Callot_, the very same ideas, but
infinitely more ludicrous in the execution. The piece is _Smaraolo
cornuto. Ratsa di Boio. The Times_ must be confessed destitute of
every kind of original merit. The print at first view appears too
much crouded with figures; and is in every part confused, perplexed,
and embarrassed. The _story is not well told to the eye_; nor can
we any where discover the faintest ray of that genius, which with a
few strokes of the pencil enabled us to penetrate into the deepest
recesses of thought, and even caprice, in a _rake_, a _harlot_, and a
_profligate young man of quality_.

"I own too that I am grieved to see the genius of _Hogarth_, which
should take in all ages and countries, sunk to a level with the
miserable tribe of party-etchers, and now, in his rapid decline,
entering into the poor politics of the faction of the day, and
descending into low personal abuse, instead of instructing the
world, as he could once, by manly moral satire. Whence can proceed
so surprizing a change? Is it the frowardness of old age? Or is it
that envy and impatience of resplendent merit in every way, at which
he has always sickened? How often has he been remarked to droop at
the fair and honest applause given even to a friend, though he had
particular obligations to the very same gentleman! What wonder then
that some of the most respectable characters of the age become the
objects of his ridicule? It is sufficient that the rest of mankind
applaud; from that moment he begins the attack, and you never can be
well with him, till he hears an universal outcry against you, and
till all your friends have given you up. There is besides a silly
affectation of singularity, joined to a strong desire of leading the
rest of the world: when that is once found impracticable, the spleen
engendered on such an occasion is discharged at a particular object, or
ends in a general misanthropy. The public never had the least share of
_Hogarth's_ regard, or even good-will. _Gain_ and _vanity_ have steered
his little bark quite through life. He has never been consistent but
with respect to those two principles. What a despicable part has he
acted with regard to the society of _Arts and Sciences_! How shuffling
has his conduct been to the whole body of _Artists_! Both these useful
societies have experienced the most ungenteel and offensive behaviour
from him. There is at this hour scarcely a single man of any degree of
merit in his own profession, with whom he does not hold a professed
enmity. It is impossible the least degree of friendship could ever
subsist in this intercourse of the arts with him; for his insufferable
vanity will never allow the least merit in another, and no man of
a liberal turn of mind will ever condescend to feed his pride with
the gross and fulsome praise he expects, or to burn the incense he
claims, and indeed snuffs like a most gracious god. To this he joins
no small share of jealousy; in consequence of which, he has all his
life endeavoured to suppress rising merit, and has been very expert
in every mean underhand endeavour, to extinguish the least spark of
genuine fire. Rut all _genius_ was not born, nor will die, with Mr.
_Hogarth_: and notwithstanding all his ungenerous efforts to damp or
chill it in another, I will trust to a discerning and liberal spirit in
the _English_ nation, to patronize and reward all real merit. It will
in the end rise superior to the idle laugh of the hour, which these
triflers think it the highest praise to be able to raise. For my part,
I scarcely know a more profligate principle, than the indiscriminately
sacrificing every thing, however great or good, to the dangerous talent
of ridicule; and a man, whose sole object is _dummodo risum excutiat_,
ought to be avoided as the worst pest of society, as the _enemy_ most
to be feared, I mean a treacherous _friend_. Such a man will go all
lengths to raise a laugh at your expence, and your whole life will be
made miserable from his ambition of diverting the company for half an

"I love to trace the ideas of a Genius, and to mark the progress of
every art. Mr. _Hogarth_ has heard much of the _cobwebs_ of the law,
and the _spinning fine spider-webs_, &c. This is thrown on paper, and
the idea carefully treasured. Lord _Hardwicke_ being at the head of
the law, and deservedly in as high esteem with his countrymen as any
man who ever held the seals, unspotted in life, and equally revered
by prince and people, becomes an excellent subject for the satirical
pencil of a malevolent painter. He is accordingly emblematically
represented by Mr. _Hogarth_ as a great spider in a large, thick web,
with myriads of the carcases of _flies, clients_ I suppose, sucked to
death by the gloomy tyrant. Mr. _Hogarth_ had heard of Mr. _Pitt's_
being _above_ all his fellow-citizens, and of his superior virtue
having _raised_ him to an envied and dangerous _height_ of grandeur.
Now this he has taken literally, and, with the kind aid of _Callot_,
has put Mr. _Pitt_ on stilts, and made the people _look up_ to him;
which, after all this insipid ridicule, they will continue to do,
as a kind of tutelar deity, from whom they expect that security and
those blessings they despair of from others. As to the conceit of the
_bellows_, to signify, I suppose, Mr. _Pitt's_ endeavours to blow up
the flames of war and discord, it is at once very poor and very false.
His whole conduct the last session in parliament, and out of the house
ever since, has demonstrated the contrary: _neque vero hoc_ oratione
_solum, sed multo magis_ vitâ _et_ moribus _comprobavit._ Cic. de Fin.

"Lord _Temple_ is a nobleman of fine parts and unsullied honour, who
has shewn a thorough disinterestedness, a great love of liberty,
and a steady attachment to the public, in every part of his conduct
through life. It was impossible such a character could be missed by
the poisonous shafts of envy, which we see pointed at all superior
virtue.... Mr. _Hogarth's_ wit on this noble lord is confined to the
wretched conceits of the _Temple Coffee-house_, and a _squirt_ to
signify the _playing on_ the ministry. I really believe this wit is all
Mr. _Hogarth's_ own.

"When a man of parts dedicates his talents to the service of his
country, he deserves the highest rewards: when he makes them
subservient to base purposes, he merits execration and punishment.
Among the _Spartans_, music and poetry were made to serve the noblest
purposes of the _Lacedemonian_ state. A manly courage and great
contempt of death were inspired by them; and the poet, musician,
soldier, and patriot, were often the same good citizen, who despised
the low _mechanic lucre_ of the profession, and was zealous only for
the glory of his country. In the year 1746, when the _Guards_ were
ordered to march to _Finchley_, on the most important service they
could be employed in, the extinguishing a _Scottish_ rebellion, which
threatened the intire ruin of the illustrious family on the throne,
and, in consequence, of our liberties, Mr. _Hogarth_ came out with a
print to make them ridiculous to their countrymen and to all _Europe_;
or perhaps it rather was to tell the _Scots_ in his way how little the
Guards were to be feared, and that they might safely advance. That
the ridicule might not stop here, and that it might be as offensive
as possible to his own _sovereign_, he dedicated the print to the
king of _Pru[s]ia[A] as an encourager of arts_. Is this patriotism!
In old _Rome_, or in any of the _Grecian_ states, he would have been
punished as a profligate citizen, totally devoid of all principle. In
_England_ he is rewarded, and made _serjeant_ painter to that very
king's grandson. I think the term means the same as what is vulgarly
called _house_-painter; and indeed he has not been suffered to
_caricature_ the royal family. The post of portrait-painter is given to
a _Scotsman_, one _Ramsay_. Mr. _Hogarth_ is only to paint the wainscot
of the rooms, or, in the phrase of the art, may be called their
_pannel-painter_. But how have the _Guards_ offended Mr. _Hogarth_, for
he is again attacking them in _The Times_? Lord _Harrington's_ second
troop of grenadier guards is allowed to be very perfect in every part
of military discipline; and _Hogarth's_ friend, the king of _Prussia_,
could have shewn him the real importance of it. He had heard them much
applauded, and therefore must abuse them. The ridicule ends however
in airs composed by _Harrington_, and in a piece of _clock-work_; but
he ought to have known, that though _l'homme machine_ is not sound
philosophy, it is the true doctrine of tactics.

"The _Militia_ has received so many just testimonies of applause, both
from their king and country, that the attack of envy and malevolence
was long expected. But I dare say this poor jester will have Mr.
_George Townshend's_ free consent to vent his spleen upon him and the
gentlemen of _Norfolk_. I believe he may ever go on in this way almost
unnoticed; at one time ridiculing the _Guards_ for a _disorderly_,
and at another the _Militia_ for an exact and _orderly_ march. Mr.
_Townshend_ will still have the warm applause of his country, and the
truest satisfaction, that of an honest heart, for his patriot labours
in establishing this great plan of internal defence, a _Militia_, which
has delivered us from the ignominy of _foreign hirelings_, and the
ridiculous fears of invasion, by a brave and well-disciplined body of
_Englishmen_, at all times ready and zealous for the defence of their
country, and of its laws and constitution."

[A] This is the orthography of Mr. _Hogarth_. See the print.

[66] The present Lord _Camden_.

[67] This gave rise to a catchpenny, intituled, "_Pug's_ Reply to
Parson _Bruin_; or, a Political Conference, occasioned by an Epistle to
_William Hogarth_, Esq;" 4to.

[68] "Which was probably accelerated by this unlucky (we had almost
said unnatural) event; for _Wilkes, Churchill,_ and _Hogarth_, had been
intimate friends, and might have continued such as long as they lived,
had not the dæmon of politics and party sown discord among them, and
dissolved their union."

[69]--the friend----Dr. _Morell_. The conduct of this gentleman cannot
fail to put the reader in mind of _Sir Fretful Plagiary's_ complaint in
Mr. Sheridan's _Critic_: "--if it is abuse, why one is always sure to
hear of it from one damn'd good-natured _friend_ or another."

    "While thinking figures from the canvas start,
    And _Hogarth_ is the _Garrick_ of his art,"

is a couplet in _Smart's Hilliad_.

The compliment from the _Hilliad_ to Mr. _Hogarth_, Mr. _Smart_
observes, "is reciprocal, and reflects a lustre on Mr. _Garrick_,
both of them having similar talents, equally capable of the highest
elevation, and of representing the ordinary scenes of life with the
most exquisite humour."

[71] The pyramid, &c. This stroke of satire was retorted on _Hogarth_,
and employed to express his advanced age and declining abilities; while
the _Cheshire_ cheese, with 3000 _l._ on it, seemed to imply that he
himself merited an annual pension.

I received this explanation from an ingenious friend.--The late Mr.
_Rogers_ explained it thus: "Mr. _Pitt_ is represented in it sitting
at his ease [in the position of the great Sir _Isaac Newton_ in
_Westminster-Abbey_], with a mill-stone hanging over his head, on which
is written 3000 _l._ in allusion to his saying, that _Hanover_ was a
mill-stone round the neck of _England_, on account of the expences
attending it; and his afterwards adding himself to the public expences
by accepting a pension of 3000 _l._ a year. He is firing a mortar-piece
levelled at a Dove bearing an olive-branch (the symbol of peace)
perched on the standard of _England_; and is supported by the City of
_London_, denoted by the two Giants in _Guildhall. Hogarth_ is flogging
_Wilkes_ and _Churchill_, and making them dance to the scrapings
of a fidler; designed to represent a Nobleman [Earl _Temple_], who
patronized them in 1763, and who, for his unmeaning face, has ever been
described without a feature. See _Trusler's_ Preface, p. vii."

[72] It may be worth observing, that in "Independence," a poem which
was not published by _Churchill_ till the last week of _September_,
1764, he considers his antagonist as a departed Genius:

    "_Hogarth_ would draw him (Envy must allow)
    E'en to the life, WAS HOGARTH LIVING NOW."

How little did the sportive Satirist imagine that the power of pleasing
was so soon to cease in both! _Hogarth_ died in four weeks after the
publication of this poem; and _Churchill_ survived him but nine days.
In some lines which were printed in _November_ 1764, the compiler of
these Anecdotes took occasion to lament that

    "----Scarce had the friendly tear,
    For _Hogarth_ shed, escap'd the generous eye
    Of feeling Pity, when again it flow'd
    For _Churchill's_ fate. Ill can we bear the loss
    Of Fancy's twin-born offspring, close ally'd
    In energy of thought, though different paths
    They sought for fame! Though jarring passions sway'd
    The living artists, let the funeral wreath
    Unite their memory!"

[73] The _Monthly Reviewer_ unintentionally reads _supper_, instead of
_dinner_. As to this article of minute intelligence, whether it be true
or false, it was communicated by Mrs. _Lewis_.

[74] Mr. _Walpole_ once invited _Gray_ the Poet and _Hogarth_ to
dine with him; but what with the reserve of the one, and a want of
colloquial talents in the other, he never passed a duller time than
between these representatives of _Tragedy_ and _Comedy_, being obliged
to rely entirely on his own efforts to support conversation.

[75] The most solid praise, perhaps, that ever was given to our artist,
was a legacy of 100 _l._ "for the great pleasure the testator had
received from his works."

[76] Originally begun for a portrait of Mrs. _Cholmondeley_, but
altered, after one or two sittings, to the Queen.

[77] See p. 9.

[78] To whom, in case of Mrs. _Hogarth's_ marrying again, he gave the
plates of Marriage à la Mode, and of the Harlot's and Rake's Progress.

[79] Whilst the Marshal was a prisoner in _England_, Monsieur
_Coetlagon_ opened a subscription at two guineas, one to be paid on
subscribing, the other on the delivery of "A Dictionary of Arts and
Sciences," in two large folio volumes. Many of the nobility, as well
as gentry subscribed; but very few of them made good their second
payments, or had the work; and the author dedicated it (in gratitude,
it is supposed, for the generous patronage he received from the
_English_) to Marshal _Belleisle_; whose place of confinement was in
_The Round Tower_ at _Windsor Castle_; where the large dining-room is
still ornamented with a variety of humourous _French_ engravings; and a
small library of _French_ books.

[80] In the year 1768 was published a work, intituled, "_Hogarth_
Moralised. Being a complete Edition of _Hogarth's_ Works. Containing
near Fourscore Copper-Plates, most elegantly engraved. With an
Explanation, pointing out the many Beauties that may have hitherto
escaped Notice, and a Comment on their Moral Tendency, &c. With the
Approbation of _Jane Hogarth_, Widow of the late Mr. _Hogarth_."

The history of the work is as follows: The Rev. _John Trusler_ engaged
with some engravers in this design, after _Hogarth's_ death, when they
could carry it into execution with impunity. Mrs. _Hogarth_, finding
her property would be much affected by it, was glad to accept an offer
they made her, of entering into partnership with them; and they were
very glad to receive her, knowing her name would give credit to the
publication, and that she would certainly supply many anecdotes to
explain the plates. Such as are found in the work are probably all
hers. The other stuff was introduced by the editor to eke out the book.
We are informed, that, when the undertaking was completed, in order to
get rid of her partners, she was glad to buy out their shares, so that
the whole expence which fell on her amounted to at least 700 _l._

[81] "They abound," says an excellent judge, "in true humour; and
satire, which is generally well-directed: they are admirable moral
lessons, and afford a fund of entertainment suited to every taste: a
circumstance, which shews them to be just copies of nature." We may
consider them too as valuable repositories of the manners, customs, and
dresses of the present age. What amusement would a collection of this
kind afford, drawn from every period of the history of _Britain!_--How
far the works of _Hogarth_ will bear a critical examination, may be
the subject of a little more enquiry. In design _Hogarth_ was seldom
at a loss. His invention was fertile, and his judgement accurate. An
improper incident is rarely introduced; a proper one rarely omitted. No
one could tell a story better; or make it, in all its circumstances,
more intelligible. His genius, however, it must be owned, was suited
only to low, or familiar subjects. It never soared above common life:
to subjects naturally sublime, or which from antiquity, or other
accidents, borrowed dignity, he could not rise. In composition we see
little in him to admire. In many of his prints, the deficiency is so
great, as plainly to imply a want of all principle; which makes us
ready to believe, that when we do meet with a beautiful group, it is
the effect of chance. In one of his minor works, the Idle Prentice, we
seldom see a crowd more beautifully managed, than in the last print.
If the sheriff's officers had not been placed in a line, and had been
brought a little lower in the picture, so as to have formed a pyramid
with the cart, the composition had been unexceptionable: and yet the
first print of this work is so striking an instance of disagreeable
composition, that it is amazing, how an artist, who had any idea of
beautiful forms, could suffer so unmasterly a performance to leave his
hands. Of the distribution of light _Hogarth_ had as little knowledge
as of composition. In some of his pieces we see a good effect; as in
the execution just mentioned; in which, if the figures at the right
and left corners had been kept down a little, the light would have
been beautifully distributed on the fore-ground, and a little fine
secondary light spread over part of the crowd: but at the same time
there is so obvious a deficiency in point of effect, in most of his
prints, that it is very evident he had no principles. Neither was
_Hogarth_ a master in drawing. Of the muscles and anatomy of the head
and hands he had perfect knowledge; but his trunks are often badly
moulded, and his limbs ill set on. I tax him with plain bad drawing;
I speak not of the niceties of anatomy, and elegance of outline: of
these indeed he knew nothing; nor were they of use in that mode of
design which he cultivated: and yet his figures, upon the whole, are
inspired with so much life and meaning, that the eye is kept in good
humour, in spite of its inclination to find fault. The author of the
Analysis of Beauty, it might be supposed, would have given us more
instances of grace, than we find in the works of _Hogarth_; which
shews strongly that theory and practice are not always united. Many
opportunities his subjects naturally afford of introducing graceful
attitudes; and yet we have very few examples of them. With instances
of picturesque grace his works abound. Of his expression, in which
the force of his genius lay, we cannot speak in terms too high. In
every mode of it he was truly excellent. The passions he thoroughly
understood, and all the effects which they produce in every part of
the human frame: he had the happy art also of conveying his ideas with
the same precision with which he conceived them.--He was excellent too
in expressing any humorous oddity, which we often see stamped upon the
human face. All his heads are cast in the very mould of nature. Hence
that endless variety, which is displayed through his works: and hence
it is, that the difference arises between his heads, and the affected
caricaturas of those masters, who have sometimes amused themselves
with patching together an assemblage of features from their own ideas.
Such are _Spagniolet's_; which, though admirably executed, appear
plainly to have no archetypes in nature. _Hogarth's_, on the other
hand, are collections of natural curiosities. The _Oxford-heads_, the
physicians-arms, and some of his other pieces, are expressly of this
humorous kind. They are truly comic; though ill-natured effusions of
mirth: more entertaining than _Spagniolet's_, as they are pure nature;
but less innocent, as they contain ill-directed ridicule.--But the
species of expression, in which this master perhaps most excels, is
that happy art of catching those peculiarities of air, and gesture,
which the ridiculous part of every profession contract; and which, for
that reason, become characteristics of the whole. His counsellors, his
undertakers, his lawyers, his usurers, are all conspicuous at sight. In
a word, almost every profession may see, in his works, that particular
species of affectation which they should most endeavour to avoid. The
execution of this master is well-suited to his subjects, and manner
of treating them. He etches with great spirit; and never gives one
unnecessary stroke. For myself, I greatly more value the works of his
own needle, than those high-finished prints on which he employed other
engravers. For as the production of an effect is not his talent; and as
this is the chief excellence of high finishing; his own rough manner
is certainly preferable; in which we have most of the force and spirit
of his expression. The manner in none of his works pleases me so well
as in a small print of a corner of a play-house. There is more spirit
in a work of this kind, struck off at once, warm from the imagination,
than in all the cold correctness of an elaborate engraving. If all
his works had been executed in this style, with a few improvements in
the compositions, and the management of light, they would certainly
have been a much more valuable collection of prints than they are.
The Rake's Progress, and some of his other works, are both etched and
engraved by himself: they are well done; but it is plain he meant
them as furniture. As works designed for a critick's eye, they would
certainly have been better without the engraving, except a few touches
in a very few places. The want of effect too would have been less
conspicuous, which in his highest-finished prints is disagreeably
striking." _Gilpin, Essay on Prints,_ p. 165.

[82] To whom _Hogarth_ bequeathed ten guineas for a ring.

[83] It having been requested in the Catalogue of this exhibition
(which was in _Bow-Street, Covent-Garden_) that all remarks on the
artists, or their performances, might be sent to _The St. James's
Chronicle_; the compiler of these Anecdotes transmitted a few hasty
lines, which were printed in that paper _April_ 29, 1762. They are not
worth transcribing: but a short extract will preserve the ASSUMED names
of some of the artists--

    "And _Masmore, Lester's, Ward's_, and _Fishbourne's_ name,
    With thine, _Vandyck_, shall live to endless fame;
    In your collection Wit and Skill combine,
    And Humour flows in every well-chose Sign."

[84] She is still living, and has been loud in abuse of this work, a
circumstance to which she owes a niche in it.

[85] Among the compliments _Hogarth_ was disposed to pay his own
genius, he asserted his ability to take a complete likeness in three
quarters of an hour. This head of Mr. _Welsh_ was painted within the
compass of the time prescribed, but had afterwards the advantage of a
second sitting.

[86] Mr. _Walpole_ is now possessed of the portrait of his brother Sir

[87] This, and the preceding article, are now in the possession of
_Peter Coxe_, esq. of _College Hill_, in the city, executor to Mr.
_Forrest_, and brother to the Rev. _William Coxe_, who has obliged the
world with his Travels through _Poland, Russia,_ &c.

[88] The following brief Memoirs of Mr. _William Tothall_, F. A. S.
were communicated by Dr. _Ducarel_, who was personally acquainted
with Mr. _Tothall_, and received the intelligence in a letter from
the Rev. Mr. _Lyon_, Minister of _St. Mary's_ at _Dover_, to whom the
particulars in it were related by Captain _Bulstrode_ of that town.

 "_Dover, June_ 11, 1781.


 "The following narrative of your friend _Tothall_ may be depended
 upon, as Captain _Bulstrode_ informs me he frequently heard it from
 _Tothall_ himself. His father was an apothecary in _Fleet-street_; but
 dying, as Captain _Bulstrode_ thinks, while his son was young, and
 in but indifferent circumstances (as his mother afterwards practised
 as a midwife), he was taken by an uncle, who was a fishmonger. He
 lived with his uncle some time; but, not approving of the business,
 ran away from him, and entered on board a merchant-ship going to _The
 West Indies_. He also went several times to _Newfoundland_. During
 the time of his being in _The West Indies_, though so early in life,
 he was indefatigable in the collecting of shells, and brought home
 several utterly unknown in _England_. He continued at sea till he was
 almost 30 years of age. In one of his voyages he was taken by the
 _Spaniards_, and marched a considerable way up the country, without
 shoe or stocking, with only a woollen cap on his head, and a brown
 waistcoat on, with a large staff in his hand. He had afterwards his
 picture drawn in this dress. He continued a prisoner till exchanged.

 "When he was about 30 years of age, he went as shopman to a
 woollen-draper at the corner of _Tavistock Court, Covent Garden,_ with
 whom he continued some years; and his master, finding him a faithful
 servant, told him, 'as he dealt only in cloth, and his customers were
 taylors, he would lend him money to buy shalloons and trimmings, and
 recommend him to his chapmen, if he liked to take the trouble and the
 profit of the branch upon himself.' He readily accepted the proposal.

 "About the same time an acquaintance in _The West Indies_ sent him a
 puncheon of rum. Before he landed it, he consulted his master what he
 should do with it; who advised him to sell it out in small quantities,
 and lent him a cellar in his house. He followed this advice; and,
 finding the profits considerable, wrote to his correspondent in
 _The West Indies_ to send him another supply; and from this time he
 commenced rum, brandy, and shalloon merchant.

 "I cannot learn how long he continued in this way; but his master
 having acquired a fortune, and being desirous of retiring from
 business, left him in possession of his whole stock at prime cost, and
 he was to pay him as he sold it. He now commenced woollen-draper, and
 continued in this business till he acquired a sum sufficient, as he
 thought, to retire upon; and he left his business to his shopman, the
 late Mr. _Job Ray_, on the same conditions his master left it to him.

 "During his residence in _Covent Garden_, he became a member of the
 club at the _Bedford Coffee-house_, and of course contracted an
 acquaintance with _Hogarth, Lambert,_ and other men eminent in their
 way; and _Hogarth_ lived some time in his house on the footing of a
 most intimate friend.

 "On quitting his business (being troubled with an asthmatical
 complaint) he came and settled at _Dover_; where, soon becoming
 connected with certain persons in the smuggling branch, he fitted
 out a bye-boat, which was designed (as is supposed) to promote their
 business; but in this branch Fortune, which had hitherto smiled upon
 his endeavours, now frowned upon his attempts. The vessel, in going
 over with horses either to _Ostend_ or _Flushing_, was lost. This,
 with some other losses, so reduced him, that he was rather straitened
 in his circumstances, and he could not live as he had done previous to
 the losses he sustained.

 "His residence was near the Rope-walk at _Dover_ (since pulled down),
 where his old friend _Hogarth_ frequently visited him: but being in
 a decline, and his asthma increasing, he bought a very small cottage
 at _West Langdon_, about three miles from _Dover_, to which he used
 to go on horseback. Digging in a very small garden belonging to this
 cottage, he had the good fortune to find some valuable fossils; which
 to a man of his taste was a singular treasure. He died _January_ 9,
 1768, at the age of 70 (possessed of about 1500 _l._), and was buried
 at _St. Mary's Church_ at _Dover_. His collection of shells and
 fossils were sold by auction at _Longford's_, the following year.

 "The foregoing is the substance of what I have gathered from Capt.
 _Bulstrode_. If there should be any other particular which you are
 desirous of knowing, I shall be happy to make the inquiry, and to
 communicate it; and am, Sir, your most obedient humble servant,

 "J. LYON."

[89] _William Gostling_, M. A. a minor canon of _Canterbury_ cathedral
for fifty years, and vicar of _Stone_ in the isle of _Oxney, Kent_,
well known to all lovers of antiquity by his truly original "Walk in
and about _Canterbury_," first printed in 1774, of which there have
been three editions. He died _March_ 9, 1777, in the 82d year of his
age. Of his father, who was first a minor canon of _Canterbury_, and
afterwards one of the priests of the chapel-royal and sub-dean of _St.
Paul's_, there are several anecdotes, communicated by his son, in Sir
_John Hawkins's_ "History of Music." To which may be added what King
_Charles_ II. is reported to have said of him, "You may talk as much
as you please of your nightingales, but I have a _Gostling_ who excels
them all." Another time, the same merry monarch presented him with a
silver egg filled with guineas, saying, "that he had heard that eggs
were good for the voice."

[90] See the Catalogue, under the year 1782.


I am now engaged in an undertaking, which from its nature will be
imperfect. While _Hogarth_ was yet an apprentice, and worked on his
master's account, we may suppose he was not at liberty to affix his
name to his own performances. Nay, afterwards, when he appeared as an
independent artist, he probably left many of them anonymous, being
sometimes obliged to measure out his exertions in proportion to
the scanty prices paid for them. For reasons like these, we may be
sure that many of his early plates must have eluded search; and, if
gradually discovered, will serve only to swell the collections they
will not adorn.--The judicious connoisseur, perhaps, would be content
to possess the pictures of _Raffaelle_, without aiming at a complete
assemblage of the Roman _Fayence_ that passes under his name.

In settling the dates of his pieces there is also difficulty.
Sometimes, indeed, they have been inferred from circumstances almost
infallible; as in respect to the _Rabbit-breeder_,&c. which would
naturally have been published in the year 1726. On other occasions they
are determined within a certain compass of time. Thus the _Ticket for
Milward_, then a player at _Lincoln's-Inn Fields_, must have preceded
1733, when he removed with _Rich_ to _Covent Garden_; and it is equally
sure, that _Orator Henley christening an Infant_, and _A Girl swearing
a child to a grave citizen_, came out before 1735, in which year we
know that _J. Y. Schley_, one of _Picart's_ coadjutors, had re-engraved
them both for the use of the fourth volume of the _Religious
Ceremonies_, published at _Amsterdam_ in 1736. But how are we to guess
at the period that produced _Sancho at Dinner_, or _The Discovery_?

The merits and demerits of his performances would prove deceitful
guides in our researches. As our artist grew older, he did not
regularly advance in estimation; for neither the frontispieces to
_Tristram Shandy_, the _Times_, the _Bathos_, or the _Bear_, can
be said to equal many of his earliest productions.--Under such
difficulties is the following chronological list of our author's pieces

The reader is likewise entreated to observe, that throughout the
annexed catalogue of plates, variations, &c. _J. N._ has mentioned
only such as he has seen. Alike unwilling to deceive or be deceived,
he has suppressed all intelligence he could not authenticate from
immediate inspection. He might easily have enlarged his work by
admitting particulars of doubtful authority, sometimes imperfectly
recollected by their several communicators, and sometimes offered as
sportive impositions on an author's credulity. Of this weakness every
one possesses some; but perhaps no man more than he who ambitiously
seeks opportunities to improve on the labours of another. _J. N._ is
sure, however, that Mr. _Walpole_, whom none can exceed in taste and
judgment, will be little concerned about the merits of a performance
that founds its claim to notice only on the humbler pretences of
industry and correctness.

[1] It is proper to acknowledge, that all such short strictures and
annotations on these performances as are distinguished by being printed
both in _Italics_ and between inverted commas, are copied from the list
of _Hogarth's_ works published by Mr. _Walpole_.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. _W. Hogarth_, engraver, with two figures and two _Cupids, April_ 28,

       *       *       *       *       *


1. An emblematic print on the _South Sea. W. Hogarth inv. & sc. Sold
by Mrs. Chilcot in Westminster-hall, and B. Caldwell, Printseller in
Newgate-street. "Persons riding on wooden horses. The Devil cutting
Fortune into collops. A man broken on the wheel, &c. A very poor
performance."_ Under it are the following verses:

    See here the causes why in _London_
    So many men are made and undone;
    That arts and honest trading drop,
    To swarm about the Devil's shop (A),
    Who cuts out (B) Fortune's golden haunches,
    Trapping their souls with lots and chances,
    Sharing 'em from blue garters down
    To all blue aprons in the town.
    Here all religions flock together,
    Like tame and wild fowl of a feather,
    Leaving their strife religious bustle,
    Kneel down to play at pitch and hustle (C):
    Thus when the shepherds are at play;
    Their flocks must surely go astray;
    The woeful cause that in these times
    (E) Honour and Honesty (D) are crimes
    That publickly are punish'd by
    (G) Self-Interest and (F) Vilany;
    So much for mony's magic power,
    Guess at the rest, you find out more.
                  _Price One Shilling._[1]

It may be observed, that _London_ always affords a set of itinerant
poets, whose office it is to furnish inscriptions for satirical
engravings. I lately overheard one of these unfortunate sons of the
Muse making a bargain with his employer. "Your print," says he, "is a
taking one, and why won't you go to the price of a half-crown Epigram?"
From such hireling bards, I suppose, our artist purchased not a few of
the wretched rhimes under his early performances, unless he himself be
considered as the author of them.

Of this print emblematic of the _South Sea_, there are, however, two
impressions. The second, printed for _Bowles_, has been retouched.

[1] For some further account of this design, see the article _Man of
Taste_, under the year 1732, N° 7.

2. The Lottery.[1] _W. Hogarth inv. & sculp. Sold by Chilcot and
Caldwell. "Emblematic, and not good."_ This plate is found in four
different states. In one there is no publisher's name under the title.
Another was _sold by Chilcot, &c._ A third was printed and sold by S.
_Sympson_, in _Maiden-lane_, near _Covent Garden_. A fourth was printed
for _John Bowles_, in whose possession the plate, which he has had
retouched, remains. The following explanation accompanies this plate:
"1. Upon the pedestal, National Credit leaning on a pillar, supported
by Justice. 2. _Apollo_ shewing _Britannia_ a picture representing
the Earth receiving enriching Showers drawn from herself (an emblem
of state lotteries). 3. Fortune drawing the blanks and prizes. 4.
Wantonness drawing the numbers. 5. Before the pedestal, Suspence
turned to and fro by Hope and Fear. 6. On one hand, Good Luck being
elevated is seized by Pleasure and Folly, Fame persuading him to raise
sinking Virtue, Arts, &c. 7. On the other hand, Misfortune oppressed
by Grief, _Minerva_ supporting him points to the sweets of Industry.
8. Sloth hiding his head in the curtain. 9. On the other side, Avarice
hugging his money. 10. Fraud tempting Despair with money at a trap-door
in the pedestal." _Price One Shilling._--Had not _Hogarth_, on this
occasion, condescended to explain his own meaning, it must have
remained in several places inexplicable.

[1] It appears, from the following notice in the _General Advertiser,
Dec._ 12, 1751, that this and the foregoing print were re-published by
_Bowles_ during the life of _Hogarth_.

"Lately reprinted, designed, and engraved by Mr. _William Hogarth_.

"Two Prints on the Lottery. One of them showing the drawing of the
Lottery by Wantonness and Fortune; and by suitable emblems represents
the suspence of the adventurers, the situation of the fortunate and

"The other print is a burlesque representation of the folly and madness
which inspires all ranks of people after lottery-gaming, with the
pernicious consequences thereof. _Price One Shilling._

"Sold by _J. Bowles_, at the _Black-horse_, in _Cornhill_."

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Fifteen plates to _Aubry de la Motraye's_ "Travels through _Europe,
Asia,_ and Part of _Africa_." _W. Hogarth sculp._ on fourteen of them;
viz. plates V. IX. X.[1] XI. XV. XVII. b. XVIII. XXVI. XXX.[2] XXXII.
XXXIII. 1. XXXIII. 2. XXXV. XXXVIII. One of these (viz. XXX.) contains
a portrait of _Charles_ the XIIth of _Sweden_. Several of the pictures,
from which the Seraglio, &c. were engraved, are still in being, and are
undoubtedly authentic, being painted in _Turkey_, and brought home by
_De la Motraye_, at his return from his travels. They were sold about
twenty-five years ago at _Hackney_, for a mere trifle, together with
the plates to the present work. The latter, in all probability, are
destroyed. This book was originally published in _English_ at _London_,
1723; afterwards in _French_ at _The Hague_, in 1727; and again in
_English_[3] at _London_, revised by the author; with the addition of
two new cuts, in 1730. In the _French_ edition, Plate V. Tom. I. is
engraved by _R. Smith_, instead of _Hogarth_, so that this intermediate
copy contains only fourteen plates by him. It is probable also, that
some other anonymous ones, in all the editions, were by the same
engraver. His reputation, indeed, will save more than it loses by the
want of his signature to establish their authenticity.

[1] At the bottom of this plate, in one copy of the _English_ edition,
the name of _Hogarth_, though erased, is sufficiently legible.

[2] In some of the _English_ copies of this work, instead of Plate XXX.
by _Hogarth_, we only find a very small and imperfect copy of it by
another hand.

[3] This, strictly speaking, was not a re-publication; it is the
identical edition of 1723, with the addition of a Preface and an
Appendix. New title-pages were again printed to it, and a third volume
added, in 1732.

2. Five _Muscovites_. This small print appears at the corner of one
of the maps to the second volume of the foregoing work. It has no
intelligible reference; but, in the _English_ copy now before me, is
the last plate but one, and is marked. C--T. II. In a former edition
of the present catalogue, it was enumerated as a separate article,
but must now be reckoned as one of the fifteen plates to _Motraye's_

To these I might add three plates more. If _Hogarth_ engraved the
_Muscovites_ at the corner of the map already mentioned, he likewise
furnished the figures in the corner of another, marked T. I.--B. And
Plate T. I.--XVI. and T. I.--XXXVII. I have likewise reason to suppose
were the works of our artist; eighteen plates in all; though the three
latter being only conjectural, I have not ventured to set them down as
indisputed performances. Of the _Muscovites_ there is a modern copy.[1]

I have just been assured by a gentleman of undoubted veracity, that
he was once possessed of a set of plates engraved by _Hogarth_ for
some treatise on mathematicks; but, considering them of little value,
disposed of them at the price of the copper. As our artist could have
displayed no marks of genius in representations of cycloids, diagrams,
and equilateral triangles, the loss of these plates is not heavily to
be lamented.

[1] Mr. _Walpole_ enumerates only 12 plates.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Seven small prints to "The New Metamorphosis of _Lucius Apuleius_ of
_Medaura. London_, printed for _Sam. Briscoe_, 1724." 12mo. 2 vol. I.
Frontispiece. II. Festivals of Gallantry, which the noblemen of _Rome_
make in the churches for the entertainment of their mistresses. III.
The banditti's bringing home a beautiful virgin, called _Camilla_, from
her mother's arms, the night before she was to have been married. Vol.
I. p. 113. No name to this plate. IV. _Fantasio's_ arrival at the house
of an old witch, who is afterwards changed into a beautiful young lady.
V. The provincial of the Jesuits' recovery of his favourite dog from
the cooper's wife. VI. _Psyche's_ admission of her unknown husband in
the dark, who always departed before the return of light. VII. Cardinal
_Ottoboni_ and his niece's visit to an Hermitage in the holy desart,
called _Camaldule_; the Cardinal's discourse against solitude to the
hermit, who had not been out of his cell, nor spoke a word, for forty
years together. Plate IV. is the only one that has the least trait of
character in it.

2. Masquerades and operas. _Burlington-gate. W. Hogarth inv. & sculp._
Of the three small figures in the center of this plate, the middle
one is Lord _Burlington_, a man of considerable taste in Painting and
Architecture, but who ranked Mr. _Kent_ (an indifferent artist) above
his merit. On one side of the peer is Mr. _Campbell_, the architect;
on the other, his lordship's postilion. On a show-cloth in this plate
is also supposed to be the portrait of King _George_ II. who gave
1000 _l._ towards the masquerade; together with that of the Earl of
_Peterborough_, who offers _Cuzzoni_, the _Italian_ singer, 8000
_l._ and she spurns at him.[1] Mr. _Heidegger_, the regulator of the
Masquerade, is also exhibited, looking out at a window, with the letter
_H._ under him. The substance of the foregoing remarks is taken from a
collection lately belonging to Captain _Baillie_,[2] where it is said
that they were furnished by an eminent Connoisseur.[3] A board is
likewise displayed, with the words--"Long Room. _Fawks's_ dexterity of
hand." It appears front the following advertisement in _Mist's Weekly
Journal_ for _Saturday, December_ 25, 1725, that this artist was a
man of great consequence in his profession. "Whereas the town hath
lately been alarmed, that the famous _Fawks_ was robbed and murdered,
returning from performing at the Dutchess of _Buckingham's_ house
at _Chelsea_; which report being raised and printed by a person to
gain money to himself, and prejudice the above mentioned Mr. _Fawks_,
whose unparalleled performances have gained him so much applause from
the greatest of quality, and most curious observers: We think, both
in justice to the injured gentleman, and for the satisfaction of his
admirers, that we cannot please our readers better than to acquaint
them he is alive, and will not only perform his usual surprizing
dexterity of hand, posture-master, and musical clock; but for the
greater diversion of the quality and gentry, has agreed with the famous
_Powell_ of _The Bath_ for the season, who has the largest, richest,
and most natural figures, and finest machines in _England_, and whose
former performances in _Covent Garden_ were so engaging to the town, as
to gain the approbation of the best judges, to show his puppet-plays
along with him, beginning in the _Christmas_ holidays next, at the
old _Tennis-court_ in _James-Street_, near _The Haymarket_; where any
incredulous persons may be satisfied he has not left this world, if
they please to believe their hands, though they can't believe their
eyes."--"_May_ 25," indeed, "1731, died Mr. _Fawkes_, famous for his
dexterity of hand, by which he had honestly acquired a fortune of
above 10,000 _l._ being no more than he really deserved for his great
ingenuity, by which he had surpassed all that ever pretended to that
art." Political State, vol. XLI. p. 543.

This satirical performance of _Hogarth_, however, was thought to be
invented and drawn at the mitigation of Sir _James Thornhill_, out of
revenge, because Lord _Burlington_ had preferred Mr. _Kent_ before him
to paint for the king at his palace at _Kensington_. Dr. _Faustus_
was a pantomime performed to crowded houses throughout two seasons,
to the utter neglect of plays, for which reason they are cried about
in a wheel-barrow.[4] We may add that there are three prints of this
small masquerade, &c. one a copy from the first. The originals have
_Hogarth's_ name within the frame of the plate, and the eight verses
are different from those under the other. It is sometimes found without
any lines at all; those in the first instance having been engraved on
a separate piece of copper, so that they could either be retained,
dismissed, or exchanged, at pleasure. In the first copy of this print,
instead of _Ben Jonson's_ name on a label, we have _Pasquin_, N°
XI. This was a periodical paper published in 1722-3, and the number
specified is particularly severe on operas, &c. The verses to the first
impression of this plate, are,

    Could now dumb _Faustus_, to reform the age,
      Conjure up _Shakespear's_ or _Ben Johnson's_ ghost,
    They'd blush for shame, to see the _English_ stage
      Debauch'd by fool'ries, at so great a cost.
    What would their manes say? Should they behold
      Monsters and masquerades, where useful plays
    Adorn'd the fruitfull theatre of old,
      And rival wits contended for the bays.
                    _Price_ 1 _shilling_ 1724.

To the second impression of it:

    O how refin'd, how elegant we're grown!
    What noble Entertainments charm the town!
    Whether to hear the Dragon's roar we go,
    Or gaze surpriz'd on _Fawks's_ matchless show,
    Or to the Operas, or to the Masques,
    To eat up ortelans, and t' empty flasques,
    And rifle pies from _Shakespear's_ clinging page,
    Good gods! how great's the gusto of the age.

In this print our artist has imitated the engraving of _Callot_.

To the third impression, i. e. the copy:

    Long has the stage productive been
      Of offsprings it could brag on,
    But never till this age was seen
      A Windmill and a Dragon.

    O _Congreve_, lay thy pen aside,
      _Shakespear_, thy works disown,
    Since monsters grim, and nought beside,
      Can please this senseless town.

I should have observed, that the idea of the foregoing plate was stolen
from an anonymous one on the same subject. It represents _Hercules_
chaining follies and destroying monsters. He is beating _Heidegger_,
till the money he had amassed falls out of his pocket. The situation of
the buildings, &c. on the sides, &c. has been followed by our artist.
_Mercury_ aloft sustains a scroll, on which is written "The Mascarade
destroy'd." The inscription under this print is "Hei Degeror. O! I am
undone." _Price One Shilling._

[1] She is rather drawing the money towards her with a rake.

[2] This collection, consisting of 241 prints, in three portfeuilles,
was sold at _Christie's, April_ 7, 1781, for 59 guineas, to Mr. _Ingham
Foster_, a wealthy ironmonger, since dead. A set, containing only 100
prints, had been sold some time before, at the same place, for 47
guineas. The Hon. _Topham Beauclerk's_ set, of only 99 prints, was sold
in 1781 (while this note was printing off for the first edition) for
34_l._ 10_s._

[3] It is not, indeed, inconvenient for the reputation of this famous
connoisseur, that his name continues to be a secret. Either he could
not spell, or his copier was unable to read what he undertook to
transcribe. _Postilion_ must be a mistake for some other word. The
whole note, in the original, appears to have been the production of
a male _Slip-slop_, perhaps of high fashion. His petulant invective
against Lord _Burlington_ is here omitted.

[4] Dr. _Faustus_ was first brought out at _Lincoln's-Inn Fields_ in
1723, and the success of it reduced the rival theatre to produce a
like entertainment at their house in 1725. From a scarce pamphlet in
octavo, without date, called "Tragi-comical Reflections, of a moral
and political Tendency, occasioned by the present State of the two
Rival Theatres in _Drury-Lane_ and _Lincoln's-Inn Fields_, by _Gabriel
Rennel_, Esq." I shall transcribe an illustration of these plates:
"A few years ago, by the help of _Harleykin_, and Dr. _Faustus_, and
_Pluto_ and _Proserpine_, and other infernal persons, the New-House
was raised to as high a pitch of popularity and renown as ever it
had been known to arrive at. Tho' the actors there consisted chiefly
of _Scotch_, and _Irish_, and _French_ Strollers, who were utterly
unacquainted with the _English_ Stage, and were remarkably deficient in
elocution and gesture: yet so much was the art of juggling at that time
in vogue, and so extreamly was the nation delighted with Raree-Shows,
and foreign representations, that all people flocked to the New-House,
whilst the Old one was altogether deserted, tho' it then could glory
in as excellent a set of _English_ actors as ever had trod upon any
stage. In the midst of this joyful prosperity and success, the Managers
of the New-House were not without secret uneasiness and discontent,
whenever they considered how slippery a ground they stood upon, and
how much a juster title their rivals had to the favour and affections
of the people. They were therefore always intent upon forming designs
and concerting measures for the entire subversion of the Old-House.
For this purpose, they constantly kept in pay a standing army of
Scaramouches, who were sent about the town to possess it with aversion
and resentment against the Old Players, whose virtues had rendered
them formidable, and whose merit was their greatest crime. These
Scaramouches, in so corrupt and degenerate a time, when blindness and
folly, and a false taste every where reigned, were every where looked
on as men of a superior skill to all other actors, and consequently
had a greater influence than the rest, and could lead after them a
larger number of followers. It was by means of the incessant clamour
and outcry that these miscreants raised, and of the lies and forgeries
which they scattered about the nation, that the common people were
spirited up to commit the most extravagant acts of insolence and
outrage on the Managers of the Old-House. They were made the sport and
derision of fools, and were delivered up to an enraged and deluded
populace, as a prey to the fury of wild beasts. Their enemies were
continually plotting and conspiring their destruction, and yet were
continually prosecuting them for Sham-Plots and pretended Conspiracies,
and suborning witnesses to prove them guilty of attempts to undermine
and blow up the New-House.

"During the course of those violent and illegal proceedings, the
New Actors were not wanting in any pains or expence to gratify and
increase the then popular taste for Raree-Shows, and Hocus-Pocus
Tricks. Scenes and Machines, and Puppets, and Posture-Masters, and
Actors, and Singers, with a new set of Heathen Gods and Goddesses, and
several other foreign Decorations and Inventions, were sent for from
_France_ _and Italy_, and were ready to be imported with the first
fair wind. But quarrels falling out among the Managers of the House,
and one or two of the principal Actors happening to quit the Stage,
and the people growing tired with so much foul play, and with the same
_deceptio visus_ so often repeated, the scene changed at once, the
_vox populi_ turned against the New-House, which sunk under a load of
infamy and contempt, and was deserted not only by the Spectators, but
even by its Actors, who, to save themselves from the justice of an
abused and enraged people, were forced to fly out of the nation, and to
beg for protection and subsistence from their wicked Confederates and
Fellow-Jugglers abroad."

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Five small prints for the translation of _Cassandra_, in five
volumes duodecimo. _W. Hogarth inv. & sculp._

2. Fifteen head pieces for "The _Roman_ Military Punishments, by _John
Beaver_, Esq. _London_. From the happy Revolution, Anno xxxvii." (i.
e. 1725.) Small quarto, pp. 155. From the preface it should seem
that the author had been Judge Advocate. The book is divided into
seventeen chapters, each of which, except the second, third, seventh,
and twelfth, have small head-pieces prefixed, of ancient military
punishments, in the manner of _Callot's_ Small Miseries of War. _W.
Hogarth inv. & sculp._ In 1779, were first sold by a printseller ten of
these prints, together with two others not in the book, being scenes
of modern war; a pair of drums being in one, and a soldier armed with
a musket in the other. Thus are there three prints in the book not in
this set; viz. Chap. 9. Soldiers sold for slaves. 10. Degradation.
16. Banishment. There is also in the title-page a little figure of a
_Roman_ General sitting; probably done by _Hogarth_, though his name is
not under it.

In the year 1774, these plates were in the possession of a
Button-manufacturer at _Birmingham_. There are only eleven, one of
them being engraved on both sides. They were given by him, however,
to my informant, who parted with them to _S. Harding_ an engraver,
who sold them to _Humphry_ the printseller near _Temple-Bar_, their
present proprietor. How they fell into the hands of the _Birmingham_
manufacturer (who took off a few impressions from them), is unknown.

Query. Does the plate engraved on both sides contain the two modern

In a Catalogue of Books sold by _W. Bathoe_, was included "Part of the
Collection of the late ingenious _W. Hogarth_, Esq. Serjeant Painter to
his Majesty;" in which was _Beaver's_ "_Roman_ Military Punishments,"
with _twelve plates_ by _Hogarth_.

The plate to Chap. XVII. viz. "Pay stopt wholly, or in part, by way
of punishment"--"Barley given to offenders instead of wheat, &c."
differs in many instances from that sold with the set. At the bottom
of the former, in the book, we read, "_W. Hogarth, Invent. sculpt."_
The latter has "_W. Hogarth, invent. & fec._" The former has a range
of tents behind the pay-table. These are omitted in the latter; which
likewise exhibits an additional soldier attendant on the measuring out
of the corn, &c.

I do not mean to say that the plate sold with the set is spurious.
Had it been a copy, it would naturally have been a servile one. Some
reason, now undiscoverable, must have prevailed on our artist to
re-engrave it with variations.

N. B. The two "scenes of modern war," mentioned also in p. 134, were
designed for a continuation of the same work, which was never printed,
as I guess from the conclusion of the Author's preface. "This regularly
divided my book into two parts; one treating of the _Roman_, the
other of the _Modern Military Punishments_. The first I now send into
the world, as a man going into the water dips his foot to feel what
reception he is like to meet with; by that rule resolving, either
to publish the second part, or sit down contented with the private
satisfaction of having, by my studies, rendered myself more able
worthily to discharge the duties of my office."

I have since been assured, that our Author's heir was a pastry-cook,
who used all the copies of this book for waste-paper.

3. A burlesque on _Kent's_ altar piece at _St. Clement's_, with
notes. "_It represents angels very ill drawn, playing on various
instruments._" Speaking of this print, Mr. _Walpole_ in one place calls
it a _parody_; and in another, a _burlesque_ on _Kent's_ Altar-piece.
But, if we may believe _Hogarth_ himself, it is neither, but a very
fair and honest representation of a despicable performance. The
following is our artist's inscription to it, transcribed _verbatim &

"This Print is exactly Engraiv'd after ye celebrated Altar-Piece
in St. _Clements_ Church which has been taken down by Order of ye
Lord Bishop of _London_ (as tis thought) to prevent Disputs and Laying
of wagers among the Parrshioners about ye Artists meaning in it.
for publick Satisfaction here is a particular Explanation of it humbly
Offerd to be writ under the Original, that it may be put up again by
which means ye Parish'es 60 pounds which thay nifely gave for it,
may not be Entirely lost.

"1st. Tis not the Pretenders Wife and Children as our weak brethren

"2dly. Nor St. _Cecilia_ as the Connoisseurs think but a choir of
Angells playing in Consort.

  "A | an Organ
  B  | an Angel playing on it
  C  | the shortest Ioint of the Arm.
  D  | the longest Ioint
  E  | An Angel tuning an harp
  F  | the inside of his Leg but whether right or Left
     | is yet undiscover'd
  G  | a hand Playing on a Lute
  H  | the other leg judiciously Omitted to make
     | room for the harp
  I& | 2 Smaller Angells as appears by their
   K | wings"

This picture produced a tract, intituled, "A Letter from a Parishioner
of _St. Clement Danes_ to _Edmund [Gibson]_ Lord Bishop of _London_,
occasion'd by his lordship's causing the picture over the altar
to be taken down: with some observations on the use and abuse of
Church-paintings in general, and of that picture in particular, 1725."
8vo. See Appendix II. The proofs of this plate are commonly on blue
paper, though I have met with more than one on white. The original,
after it was removed from the church, was for some years one of the
ornaments of the music-room at _The Crown and Anchor_ in the _Strand_.
As this house has frequently changed its tenants, &c. I am unable to
trace the picture in question any further. There is a good copy of this
print by _Livesay_.

4. A scene in _Handel's_ opera of _Ptolomeo_, performed in 1728, with
_Farinelli, Cuzzoni,_ and _Senesino_, in the characters of _Ptolemy,
Cleopatra,_ and _Julius Cæsar_. Those who are inclined to doubt
the authenticity of this performance, will do well to consult the
representation on a painted canvas in the small print on masquerades
and operas, where the same figures occur in almost the same attitudes.
I do not, however, vouch for the genuineness of this plate. In
_Southwark Fair_, our artist has borrowed the subject of his show-cloth
from _Laguerre_; and might, in the present instance, have adopted it
from another hand.

The appearance _Farinelli_ makes on this occasion may be justified by
the following quotation from a Pamphlet, intituled, _Reflections upon
Theatrical Expression in Tragedy, &c._ printed for _W. Johnston_, &c.
1755. "I shall therefore, in my further remarks upon this article, go
back to the _Old Italian Theatre_, when _Farinelli_ drew every body
to the _Haymarket_. What a pipe! what modulation! what extasy to the
ear! But, heavens! what clumsiness! what stupidity! what offence to
the eye! Reader, if of the city, thou mayest probably have seen in the
fields of _Islington_ or _Mile-end_, or if thou art in the environs
of _St. James's_, thou must have observed in the park, with what ease
and agility a Cow, heavy with Calf, has rose up at the command of the
Milk-woman's foot. Thus from the mossy bank sprung up the _Divine
Farinelli_. Then with long strides advancing a few paces, his left hand
settled upon his hip, in a beautiful bend like that of the handle of
an old-fashioned caudle-cup, his right remained immoveable across his
manly breast, till numbness called its partner to supply its place;
when it relieved itself in the position of the other handle to the
caudle-cup." p. 63, &c.

Under a copy of the print abovementioned, which must have been made
soon after its publication, appear the following inscription, and
wretched ungrammatical lines:

    The three most Celebrated Singers at the Opera.

       _Scire tuum nihil est, nisi te scire hoc sciat alter._

    _Sigra_ the great, harmoniously inclin'd,
    Who charms the ear and captivates the mind.


    Thou little slave an emblem is of those
    Whose hearts are wholly att ye worlds dispose.

    Great _Barrenstadt_[1] encomiums great and true
    is very short of whats your right and due.

The characters in the print under consideration, might have been
new-christen'd by the copier of it.

Either the dignity of _Senesino_ must have been wonderful, or the
following passage in Dr. _Warburton's_ "Enquiry into the Cause of
Prodigies and Miracles," (printed in 1727) affords a most notorious
example of the Bathos. "Observe," says he, p. 60. "Sir _Walter
Raleigh's_ great manner of ending the _first part of the History of the
World_. 'By this which we have already set down is seen the beginning
and end of the Three first Monarchies of the World; whereof the
founders and erectors thought that they could never have ended: that
of _Rome_, which made the fourth, was also at this time almost at the
highest. We have left it flourishing in the middle of the field; have
rooted up, or cut down, all that kept it from the eyes and admiration
of the world; but after some continuance, it shall begin to lose the
beauty it had; the storms of ambition shall beat her great boughs and
branches one against another; her leaves shall fall off; her limbs
wither, and a rabble of barbarous nations enter the field and cut her
down.' What strength of colouring! What grace, what nobleness of
expression! With what a majesty does he close his immortal labour! It
puts one in mind of the so much admired exit of the late famed ITALIAN

[1] _Berenstadt_; a castrato engaged by _Handel_ in the operas.

5. A just View of the _British_ Stage, or three heads better than
one, scene _Newgate_, by _M. D. V--to_.[1] This print represents the
rehearsing a new farce, that will include the two famous entertainments
_Dr. Faustus_ and _Harlequin Shepherd_.[2] To which will be added,
_Scaramouch Jack Hall_ the Chimney-sweeper's Escape from _Newgate_
through the Privy, with the comical Humours of _Ben Johnson's Ghost_,
concluding with the Play Dance, performed in the air by the figures
A. B. C. [_Wilks, Booth,_ and _Cibber_] assisted by ropes from the
Muses. Note, there are no Conjurors concerned in it, as the Ignorant
imagine. The Bricks, Rubbish, &c. will be real; but the Excrements upon
_Jack Hall_ will be made of chewed Gingerbread, to prevent Offence.
_Vivat Rex. Price Sixpence._ Such is the inscription on the plate;
but I may add, that the _ropes_ already mentioned are no other than
_halters_, suspended over the heads of the three managers;[3] and
that labels issuing from their respective mouths have the following
characteristic words. The airy _Wilks_, who dangles the effigy of
_Punch_, is made to exclaim--"Poor _R-ch_! faith I pitty him." The
laureat _Cibber_, with _Harlequin_ for his playfellow, invokes the
Muses painted on the cieling--"Assist, ye sacred Nine;" while the
solemn _Booth_, letting down the image of _Jack Hall_ into the forica,
is most tragically blaspheming--"Ha! this will do, G-d d-m me." On a
table before these gentlemen lies a pamphlet, exhibiting a print of
_Jack Shepherd_, in confinement; and over the forica is suspended a
parcel of waste paper, consisting of leaves torn from _The Way of the
World--Hamlet--Macbeth_, and _Julius Cæsar. Ben Jonson's_ Ghost, in the
mean while, is rising through the stage, and p----g on a pantomimic
statue tumbled from its base. A fidler is also represented hanging
by a cord in the air, and performing, with a scroll before him, that
exhibits--_Music for the What_--[perhaps the _What d' ye call it]
entertainment_. The countenances of Tragedy and Comedy, on each side of
the stage, are hoodwinked by the bills for _Harlequin Dr. Faustus_ and
_Harlequin Shepherd_, &c. &c. There is also a dragon preparing to fly;
a dog thrusting his head out of his kennel; a flask put in motion by
machinery, &c. _Vivetur Ingenio_ is the motto over the curtain. In Mr.
_Walpole's_ catalogue the description of this plate is, "_Booth, Wilks,
and Cibber, contriving a pantomime. A satire on farces. No name._"

[1] Mr. _Devoto_ was scene-painter to _Drury-Lane_ or _Lincoln's-Inn
Fields_, and also to _Goodman's Fields_ Theatre. There is a mezzotinto
of him with the following title: "_Johannes Devoto_ Historicus
Scenicusque Pictor." _Vincenso Damini_ pinxit. _J. Faber_ fecit, 1736.

[2] Dr. _Faustus_ and _Harlequin Shepherd_ were pantomimes contrived by
_Thurmond_ the dancing-master, and acted at _Drury-Lane_ in 1725.

[3]--_Halters_, &c.; The same idea is introduced in the 9th plate of
the apprentices.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Frontispiece to _Terræ-filius. W. Hogarth fec._ This work was
printed in two volumes 12°, at _Oxford_, and is a satire on the Tory
principles of that University. It was written by _Nicholas Amherst_,
author of _The Craftsman_, and was originally published in one volume.

2. Twelve prints for _Hudibras_; the large set. _W. Hogarth inv.
pinx. et sculp._ Under the head of _Butler_: "The basso relievo of
the pedestal represents the general design of Mr. _Butler_, in his
incomparable poem of _Hudibras_; viz. _Butler's_ Genious in a Car
lashing around Mount _Parnassus_, in the persons of _Hudibras_ and
_Ralpho_, Rebellion, Hypocrisy, and Ignorance, the reigning vices of
his time." This set of prints was published by subscription, by _P.
Overton_ and _J. Cooper_. Mr. _S. Ireland_ has seven of the original
drawings; three others are known to be preserved in _Holland_; and two
more were lately existing in this kingdom. The plates, as has been
mentioned already in p. 11, are now the property of Mr. _Sayer_, whose
name, as publisher, is subjoined. The Rev. Mr. _Bowle_, F. A. S. had a
set with the list of the subscribers, which he purchased at the Duke of
_Beaufort's_ sale in _Wiltshire_. The printed title to them is, "Twelve
excellent and most diverting Prints; taken from the celebrated Poem
of _Hudibras_, wrote by Mr. _Samuel Butler_. Exposing the Villany and
Hypocrisy of the Times. Invented and Engraved on Twelve Copper-plates,
by _William Hogarth_, and are humbly dedicated to _William Ward_, Esq.
of _Great Houghton_ in _Northamptonshire_; and Mr. _Allan Ramsay_, of

    "What excellence can Brass or Marble claim!
    These Papers better do secure thy Fame:
    Thy Verse all Monuments does far surpass,
    No Mausoleum's like thy _Hudibras_.

"Printed and sold by _Philip Overton_, Print and Map-seller, at the
_Golden Buck_ near _St. Dunstan's Church_ in _Fleet-street_; and _John
Cooper_, in _James-street, Covent Garden_, 1726."

_Allan Ramsay_ subscribed for 30 sets. The number of subscribers in
all amounts to 192. On the print of _Hudibras_ and the _Lawyer_ is _W.
Hogart delin. et sculp._ a proof that our artist had not yet disused
the original mode in which he spelt his name. In the scene of the
_Committee_, one of the members has his gloves on his head. I am told
this whimsical custom once prevailed among our sanctified fraternity;
but it is in vain, I suppose, to ask the reason why. In plate XI.
(earliest impressions) the words "Down with the Rumps" are wanting
on the scroll.--Memorandum. At the top of the proposals for this
set of Prints, is a small one representing _Hudibras_ and _Ralpho_,
engraved by _Pine_. The original drawing for it by _Hogarth_ is in the
possession of Mr. _Betew_, Silversmith, in _Compton-street, Soho_.

3. Seventeen small prints for _Hudibras_, with _Butler's_ head. There
certainly must have been some mistake concerning this portrait. It
never could have been designed for the author of _Hudibras_; but more
strongly resembles _John Baptist Monnoyer_, the flower-painter. There
is a print of him by _White_, from a picture of Sir _Godfrey Kneller_.
This I suppose to have been the original of _Hogarth's_ small _Butler_.

The same designs engraved on a larger scale, and with some slight
variations, by _J. Mynde_, for _Grey's_ edition of _Hudibras_,
published in 1744.

Previous, however, to both, appeared another set of plates, eighteen in
number, for an edition in _eighteens_ of this celebrated poem. To these
it is manifest that _Hogarth_ was indebted for his ideas of several of
the scenes and personages both in his larger and smaller performances
on the same subject. That the collector may know the book when he meets
with it, the following is a transcript of the title-page. "_Hudibras._
In three Parts. Written in the time of the late Wars. Corrected and
amended, with Additions. To which is added, Annotations to the third
Part, with an exact Index to the whole; never before printed. Adorned
with cuts. London. Printed for _R. Chiswel, J. Tonson, T. Horne,_ and
_R. Willington_, 1710."

Copies from the smaller plates are likewise inserted in _Townly's_
translation of _Hudibras_ into _French_, with the _English_ on the
opposite page. He was, I believe, an officer in the _Irish_ brigade.
The following is the title-page to his work. "_Hudibras_, Poeme
ecrit dans les tems des troubles d'_Angleterre_; et traduit en
vers _François_, avec des remarques et des figures. 3 tom. 12mo. A
_Londres_, 1757." It seems rather to have been printed at _Paris_. The
plates have no name subscribed to them.

4. _Cunicularii_, or the Wise Men of _Godliman_ in Consultation.

    "They held their talents most adroit
    For any mystical exploit."  HUDIB.

This print was published in the year 1726, i. e. about the same time
that Lord _Onslow_ wrote the following letter:

 "To the Honble. Sir _Hans Sloane_. To be left at the _Grecian_
 Coffe House, in _Devereux Court_ near _Temple Bar London_.

 "Sir, The report of a woman's breeding of rabbits has almost alarmed
 _England_, and in a manner persuaded several people of sound judgt
 of that truth. I have been at some pains to discover the affair, and
 think I have conquerd my poynt, as you will se by the Depotition taken
 before me, which shall be published in a day or two. I am

 "Yr humble Servant,


 "_Clandon, Dec._ 4_th_, 1726."

Soon after, Mr. _St. André_ also addressed this note to Sir _Hans

 "Sir, I have brought the woman from _Guilford_ to ye Bagnio in
 _Leicester-fields_, where you may if you please have the opportunity
 of seeing her deliver'd. I am Sr Your Hum Servt

 "ST. ANDRÉ.[1]

 "To Sir _Hans Sloane_ in _Bloomsbury Square_."

In the plate already mentioned, figure A represents _St. André_.
[He has a kitt under his arm, having been at first designed by his
family for a fencing and dancing-master, though he afterwards attached
himself to music of a higher order than that necessary for one of the
professions already mentioned.] B is Sir _Richard Manningham_, C Mr.
_Sainthill_ a celebrated surgeon here in _London_, D is _Howard_ the
surgeon at _Guildford_, who was supposed to have had a chief hand in
the imposture. The rest of the characters explain themselves.

Perhaps my readers may excuse me, if I add a short account of another
design for a print on the same subject; especially as some collectors
have been willing to receive it as a work of _Hogarth_.

In _Mist's Weekly Journal, Saturday, Jan._ 11th, 1726-7, was the
following advertisement:

"The Rabbit affair made clear in a full account of the whole matter;
with the pictures engraved of the pretended Rabbit-breeder herself,
_Mary Tofts_, and of the Rabbits, and of the persons who attended her
during her pretended deliveries, shewing who were and who were not
imposed on by her. 'Tis given gratis no where, but only up one pair of
stairs at the sign of the celebrated Anodyne Necklace recommended by
Doctor _Chamberlen_ for Children's teeth, &c."

The original drawing from which the plate promised in _Mist's_ Journal
was taken, remained in the possession of Mr. _James Vertue_, and was
probably designed by his brother _George_. It was sold in 1781 in the
collection of _George Scott_, Esq. of _Chigwell_ in _Essex_, together
with eight tracts relative to the same imposture, for three guineas,
and is now in the collection of Mr. _Gough_.

_St. André's Miscarriage_, a ballad, published in 1727, has the
following stanza on this subject:

    "He dissected, compar'd, and distinguish'd likewise
    The make of these rabbits, their growth and their size.
    He preserv'd them in spirits, and--a little too late
    Preserv'd (_Vertue sculpsit_) a neat copper plate."

There is also a copper-plate, consisting of twelve compartments, on the
same story. It exhibits every stage throughout this celebrated fraud.
_St. André_ appears in the habit of a _Merry-Andrew_. The general title
of it is, "The Doctors in Labour; or a new Whim-wham from _Guilford_.
Being a representation of the frauds by which the _Godliman_ woman
carried on her pretended Rabbit breeding; also of the simplicity of our
Doctors, by which they assisted to carry on that imposture, discovered
their skill, and contributed to the mirth of his Majesty's liege

In _Mist's_ Journal for _Saturday, Dec._ 17, 1726, is also the
following paragraph, which shews that the playhouse joined in the
general ridicule of _St. André_. "Last week the entertainment called
_The Necromancer_ was performed at the Theatre in _Lincoln's-Inn
Fields_, wherein a new _Rabbit-scene_ was introduced by way of episode;
by which the Public may understand as much of that affair, as by
the present controversy among the Gentlemen of the faculty, who are
flinging their bitter pills at one another, to convince the world that
none of them understand any thing of the matter." I am told by one
of the spectators still alive, that in this new scene, _Harlequin_,
being converted into a woman, pretended to be in labour, and was first
delivered of a large pig, then of a sooterkin, &c. &c.

From the same paper of _Saturday, Jan._ 21, 1727, we learn, that "The
pretended Rabbit-breeder, in order to perpetuate her fame, has had her
picture done in a curious mezzotinto print by an able hand." It was
painted by _Laguerre_, and scraped by _Faber_. She has a rabbit on her
lap, and displays a countenance expressive of the utmost vulgarity. In
_Hogarth's_ comic representation, the remarkable turn-up of the nose
is preserved. This, perhaps, was the only feature in her face that
could not be altered by the convulsions of her pretended agony, or our
artist would have given her resemblance with greater exactness.

Mr. _Dillingham_, an apothecary in _Red-Lion-Square_, laid a wager of
ten guineas with _St. André_, that in a limited time the cheat would
be detected. The money was paid him, and he expended it on a piece of
plate, with three rabbits engraved by way of arms.

I learn from _The Weekly Miscellany_, for _April_ 19, 1740, that a few
days before, "The celebrated Rabbit-woman of _Godalmin_ in _Surry_ was
committed to _Guildford Gaol_, for receiving stolen goods."

In _The Gazetteer, or Daily London Advertiser, Jan._ 21, 1763, was this
paragraph, which closes the story of our heroine: "Last week died at
_Godalming_ in _Surry, Mary Tofts,_ formerly noted for an imposition of
breeding Rabbits."

[1] Both these letters are in _The British Museum_. See MS. Sloan.
3312. XXVI. G. and MS. Sloan. 3316. XXVI. G.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Music introduced to _Apollo_ by _Minerva. Hogarth fecit.
"Frontispiece to some book of music, or ticket for a concert."_ I can
venture to affirm, on unquestionable authority, that this print is a
mere copy from the frontispiece to a more ancient book of music. The
composer's name has escaped my memory.

2. Masquerade Ticket. A. a sacrifice to _Priapus_. B. a pair of
Lecherometers shewing the companys inclinations as they approach em.
Invented for the use of ladies and gentlemen, by the ingenious Mr.
_H----r [Heidegger]._ Price One Shilling. "_There is much wit in
this print._" The attentive observer will find, that _Hogarth_ has
transplanted several circumstances from hence into the first plate to
the _Analysis of Beauty_, as well as into his Satire on the Methodists.
See the ornaments of an altar composed of a concatenation of different
periwigs, and the barometers expressing the different degrees of animal
heat. At the corners of the dial on the top of this print is the date
of the year (1727), and the face of _Heidegger_ appears under the
figure XII. In the earliest impressions, the word Provocatives has,
instead of V the open vowel U. This incorrectness in spelling was
afterwards amended, though in a bungling manner, the round bottoms of
the original letters being still visible.[1]

Concerning _John James Heidegger_, whose face has been more than once
introduced by our artist, the reader may express some curiosity. The
following account of him is therefore appended to the foregoing article.

"This extraordinary man, the son of a clergyman, was a native of
_Zurich_ in _Switzerland_, where he married, but left his country in
consequence of an intrigue. Having had an opportunity of visiting
the principal cities of _Europe_, he acquired a taste for elegant
and refined pleasures, which, united to a strong inclination for
voluptuousness, by degrees qualified him for the management of
public amusements. In 1708, when he was near 50 years old, he came
to _England_ on a negotiation from the _Swiss_ at _Zurich_; but,
failing in his embassy, he entered as a private soldier in the guards
for protection.[2] By his sprightly, engaging conversation, and
insinuating address, he soon worked himself into the good graces of
our young people of fashion; from whom he obtained the appellation of
'the _Swiss_ Count.'[3] He had the address to procure a subscription,
with which in 1709 he was enabled to furnish out the opera of
'_Thomyris_,'[4] which was written in _English_, and performed at the
Queen's theatre in the _Haymarket_. The music, however, was _Italian_;
that is to say, airs selected from sundry of the foreign operas by
_Bononcini, Scarlatti, Stefani, Gasparini,_ and _Albinoni_. Most of the
songs in '_Thomyris_' were excellent, those by _Bononcini_ especially:
_Valentini, Margarita,_ and Mrs. _Tofts_ sung in it; and _Heidegger_ by
this performance alone was a gainer of 500 guineas.[5] The judicious
remarks he made on several defects in the conduct of our operas in
general, and the hints he threw out for improving the entertainments
of the royal theatre, soon established his character as a good critic.
Appeals were made to his judgement; and some very magnificent and
elegant decorations, introduced upon the stage in consequence of his
advice, gave such satisfaction to _George_ II. who was fond of operas,
that, upon being informed to whose genius he was indebted for these
improvements, his majesty was pleased from that time to countenance
him, and he soon obtained the chief management of the Opera-house
in _The Haymarket_. He then set about improving another species of
diversion, not less agreeable to the king, which was the masquerades,
and over these he always presided at the king's theatre. He was
likewise appointed master of the revels. The nobility now caressed him
so much, and had such an opinion of his taste, that all splendid and
elegant entertainments given by them upon particular occasions, and all
private assemblies by subscription, were submitted to his direction.[6]

"From the emoluments of these several employments, he gained a regular
considerable income, amounting, it is said, in some years, to 5000 _l._
which he spent with much liberality: particularly in the maintenance
of perhaps a somewhat too luxurious table; so that it may be said, he
raised an income, but never a fortune. His foibles, however, if they
deserve so harsh a name, were completely 'covered' by his 'charity,'
which was boundless.[7]

"That he was a good judge of music, appears from his opera: but this
is all that is known of his mental abilities;[8] unless we add, what
we have good authority for saying in honour to his _memory_, that he
walked from _Charing-Cross_ to _Temple-bar_, and back again; and when
he came home, wrote down every sign on each side the _Strand_.

"As to his person, though he was tall and well made, it was not very
pleasing, from an unusual hardness of features.[9] But he was the first
to joke upon his own ugliness; and he once laid a wager with the earl
of _Chesterfield_, that, within a certain given time, his lordship
would not be able to produce so hideous a face in all _London_. After
strict search, a woman was found, whose features were at first sight
thought stronger than _Heidegger's_; but, upon clapping her head-dress
upon himself, he was universally allowed to have won the wager.
_Jolly_, a well-known taylor, carrying his bill to a noble duke, his
grace, for evasion said, 'Damn your ugly face, I never will pay you
till you bring me an uglier fellow than yourself!' _Jolly_ bowed and
retired, wrote a letter, and sent it by a servant to _Heidegger_; saying,
'his grace wished to see him the next morning on particular business.'
_Heidegger_ attended, and _Jolly_ was there to meet him; and in
consequence, as soon as _Heidegger's_ visit was over, _Jolly_ received
the cash.

"The late facetious duke of _Montagu_ (the memorable author of
the bottle-conjuror at the theatre in _The Haymarket_) gave an
entertainment at _The Devil-tavern, Temple-bar_, to several of
the nobility and gentry, selecting the most convivial, and a few
hard-drinkers, who were all in the plot. _Heidegger_ was invited,
and in a few hours after dinner was made so dead drunk that he was
carried out of the room, and laid insensible upon a bed. A profound
sleep ensued; when the late Mrs. _Salmon's_ daughter was introduced,
who took a mould from his face in plaster of Paris. From this a mask
was made, and a few days before the next masquerade (at which the
king promised to be present, with the countess of _Yarmouth_), the
duke made application to _Heidegger's_ valet de chambre, to know what
suit of cloaths he was likely to wear; and then procuring a similar
dress, and a person of the same stature, he gave him his instructions.
On the evening of the masquerade, as soon as his majesty was seated
(who was always known by the conductor of the entertainment and the
officers of the court, though concealed by his dress from the company),
_Heidegger_, as usual, ordered the music to play 'God save the King;'
but his back was no sooner turned, than the false _Heidegger_ ordered
them to strike up '_Charly_ over the Water.' The whole company were
instantly thunderstruck, and all the courtiers, not in the plot,
were thrown into a stupid consternation. _Heidegger_ flew to the
music-gallery, swore, stamped, and raved, accused the musicians of
drunkenness, or of being set on by some secret enemy to ruin him. The
king and the countess laughed so immoderately, that they hazarded a
discovery. While _Heidegger_ stayed in the gallery, 'God save the
King' was the tune; but when, after setting matters to rights, he
retired to one of the dancing-rooms, to observe if decorum was kept
by the company, the counterfeit stepping forward, and placing himself
upon the floor of the theatre, just in front of the music-gallery,
called out in a most audible voice, imitating _Heidegger_, damned
them for blockheads, had he not just told them to play '_Charly_ over
the Water.' A pause ensued; the musicians, who knew his character,
in their turn thought him either drunk or mad; but, as he continued
his vociferation, '_Charly_' was played again. At this repetition of
the supposed affront, some of the officers of the guards, who always
attended upon these occasions, were for ascending the gallery, and
kicking the musicians out; but the late duke of _Cumberland_, who could
hardly contain himself, interposed. The company were thrown into great
confusion. 'Shame! Shame!' resounded from all parts, and _Heidegger_
once more flew in a violent rage to that part of the theatre facing the
gallery. Here the duke of _Montagu_, artfully addressing himself to
him, told him, 'the king was in a violent passion; that his best way
was to go instantly and make an apology, for certainly the music were
mad, and afterwards to discharge them.' Almost at the same instant,
he ordered the false _Heidegger_ to do the same. The scene now became
truly comic in the circle before the king. _Heidegger_ had no sooner
made a genteel apology for the insolence of his musicians, but the
false _Heidegger_ advanced, and, in a plaintive tone, cried out,
'Indeed, Sire, it was not my fault, but that devil's in my likeness.'
Poor _Heidegger_ turned round, stared, staggered, grew pale, and could
not utter a word. The duke then humanely whispered in his ear the sum
of his plot, and the counterfeit was ordered to take off his mask. Here
ended the frolick; but _Heidegger_ swore he would never attend any
public amusement, if that witch the wax-work woman did not break the
mould, and melt down the mask before his face.[10]

"Being once at supper with a large company, when a question was
debated, which nationalist of _Europe_, had the greatest ingenuity; to
the surprise of all present, he claimed that character for the _Swiss_,
and appealed to himself for the truth of it. 'I was born a _Swiss_,
said he, 'and came to _England_ without a farthing, where I have found
means to gain 5000 _l._ a year, and to spend it. Now I defy the most
able _Englishman_ to go to _Switzerland_, and either to gain that
income, or to spend it there.' He died _Sept._ 4, 1749, at the advanced
age of 96 years, at his house at _Richmond_ in _Surrey_, where he was
buried. He left behind him one natural daughter, Miss _Pappet_, who was
married _Sept._ 2, 1750, to Captain (afterwards Sir _Peter) Denis_.[11]
Part of this lady's fortune was a house at the north west corner of
_Queen-square, Ormond-street_, which Sir _Peter_ afterwards sold to
the late Dr. _Campbell_, and purchased a seat in _Kent_, pleasantly
situated near _Westram_, then called _Valence_, but now (by its present
proprietor, the earl of _Hillsborough_) _Hill Park_."

[1] In this print our artist has likewise imitated the manner of

[2] See N° 48, among the prints of uncertain date.

[3] See Sir _John Hawkins's_ History of Music, Vol. V. p. 142. He is
twice noticed under this title in the "Tatler," Nos. 12. and 18.; and
in Mr. _Duncombe's_ "Collection of Letters of several eminent Persons
deceased," is a humourous dedication of Mr. _Hughes's_ "Vision of
_Chaucer_," to "the _Swiss_ Count."

[4] There was another opera of the same name, by _Peter Motteux_, in

[5] "_Thomyris_" and "_Camilla_" were both revived in 1726; but neither
of them then succeeded.

[6] _J. N._ has been favoured with the sight of an amethyst snuff-box
set in gold, presented to _Heidegger_ in 1731, by the duke of
_Lorrain_, afterwards emperor of _Germany_, which _Heidegger_ very
highly valued, and bequeathed to his executor _Lewis Way_, esq. of
_Richmond_, and which is now (1785) in the possession of his son
_Benjamin Way_, esq.

[7] After a successful masquerade, he has been known to give away
several hundred pounds at a time. "You know poor objects of distress
better than I do," he would frequently observe to Mr. _Way_, "Be so
kind as to give away this money for me." This well-known liberality,
perhaps, contributed much to his carrying on that diversion with so
little opposition as he met with.

[8] _Pope_ (Dunciad, I. 289.) calls the bird which attended on the

    "--------------a monster of a fowl,
    Something betwixt a _Heidegger_ and owl."

and explains _Heidegger_ to mean "a strange bird from _Switzerland_,
and not (as some have supposed) the name of an eminent person, who was
a man of parts, and, as was said of _Petronius_, Arbiter Elegantiarum."

The author of _The Scandalizade_ has also put the following description
of our hero into the mouth of _Handel_:

    "Thou perfection, as far as e'er nature could run,
    Of the ugly, quoth _H--d-l_, in th' ugliest baboon,
    Human nature's, and even thy Maker's disgrace,
    So frightful thy looks, so grotesque is thy face!
    With a hundred deep wrinkles impress'd on thy front,
    Like a map with a great many rivers upon't;
    Thy lascivious ridottos, obscene masquerades,
    Have unmaided whole scores ev'ry season of maids."

_Fielding_ also has introduced him in the Puppet-show, with which the
_Author's Farce_ (acted at the _Haymarket_ 1729), concludes, under the
title of _Count Ugly_.

    "_Nonsense._  Too late, O mighty Count, you came.
    _Count._      I ask not for myself, for I disdain
                  O'er the poor ragged tribe of bards to reign.
                  Me did my stars to happier fates prefer,
                  Sur-intendant des plaisirs d'_Angleterre_.
                  If masquerades you have, let those be mine,
                  But on the Signor let the laurel shine.
    _Tragedy_.    What is thy plea? Half written?
    _Count_.      No nor read.
                  Put it from dulness any may succeed,
                  To that and nonsense I good title plead,
                  Nought else was ever in my masquerade."

[9] In a Dedication to "The Masquerade, a Poem, inscribed to Count
_Heidegger_," (which is the production of Mr. _Fielding_, though
foisted into the works of Dr. _Arbuthnot_,) the facetious writer says,
"I cannot help congratulating you on that gift of Nature, by which you
seem so adapted to the post you enjoy. I mean that natural masque,
which is too visible a perfection to be here insisted on----and, I
am sure, never fails of making an impression on the most indifferent
beholder. Another gift of Nature, which you seem to enjoy in no small
degree, is that modest confidence supporting you in every act of your
life. Certainly, a great blessing! For I always have observed, that
brass in the forehead draws gold into the pocket. As for what mankind
calls virtues, I shall not compliment you on them: since you are so
wise as to keep them secret from the world, far be it from me to
publish them; especially since they are things which lie out of the
way of your calling. Smile then (if you can smile) on my endeavours,
and this little poem, with candour----for which the author desires no
more gratuity than a ticket for your next ball." There is a mezzotinto
of _Heidegger_ by _J. Faber_, 1742, (other copies dated 1749) from a
painting by _Vanloo_, a striking likeness, now (1785) in the possession
of _Peter Crawford_, esq. of _Cold Bath Fields_.

[10] To this occurrence the following imperfect stanzas, transcribed
from the hand-writing of _Pope_, are supposed to relate. They were
found on the back of a page containing some part of his translation,
either of the "Iliad" or "Odyssey," in the _British Museum_.

    "Then he went to the side-board, and call'd for much liquor,
    And glass after glass he drank quicker and quicker;
        So that _Heidegger_ quoth,
        Nay, faith on his oath,
    Of two hogsheads of Burgundy, _Satan_ drank both.
    Then all like a ---- the Devil appear'd,
    And strait the whole tables of dishes he clear'd;
        Then a friar, then a nun,
        And then he put on
    A face all the company took for his own.
    Even thine, O false _Heidegger!_ who wert so wicked
    To let in the Devil----"

[11] Who died _June_ 12, 1778, being then vice-admiral of the red. See
Memoirs of him in Gent. Mag. 1780, p. 268.

3. Frontispiece to a Collection of Songs, with the Music by Mr.
_Leveridge_, in two vols. 8vo. _London_, engraved and printed for
the author, in _Tavistock-street, Covent-Garden_, 1727. This design
consists of a _Bacchus_ and a _Venus_ in the Clouds, and a figure with
musical instruments, &c. on the earth, soliciting their attention,
&c. The ornaments round the engraved title-page seem likewise to be

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Head of _Hesiod_, from the bust at _Wilton_. The frontispiece to
_Cook's_ translation of _Hesiod_, in 2 vols. 4to. printed by _N.
Blandford_ for _T. Green_.

2. _Rich's_ Glory, or his Triumphant Entry into _Covent Garden. W. H.
I. Et. SULP. Price Sixpence._

The date of the print before us has been conjectured from its reference
to the _Beggar's Opera_, and _Perseus_ and _Andromeda_,[1] both of
which were acted in the year already mentioned.

This plate represents the removal of _Rich_ and his scenery, authors,
actors, &c. from _Lincoln's-Inn Fields_ to the _New House_; and
might therefore be as probably referred to the year 1733, when that
event happened. The scene is the area of _Covent Garden_, across
which, leading toward the door of the Theatre, is a long procession,
consisting of a cart loaded with thunder and lightning; performers,
&c. and at the head of them Mr. _Rich_ (invested with the skin of the
famous dog in _Perseus_ and _Andromeda_) riding with his mistress in a
chariot driven by _Harlequin_, and drawn by Satyrs. But let the verses
at bottom explain our artist's meaning:

    Not with more glory through the streets of _Rome_,
    Return'd great conquerors in triumph home,
    Than, proudly drawn with Beauty by his side,
    We see gay _R---_[2] in gilded chariot ride.
    He comes, attended by a num'rous throng,
    Who, with loud shouts, huzza the Chief along.
    Behold two bards, obsequious, at his wheels,
    Confess the joy each raptur'd bosom feels;
    Conscious that wit by him will be receiv'd,
    And on his stage true humour be retriev'd.
    No _sensible_ and _pretty_ play will fall[3]
    Condemn'd by him as not theatrical.
    The players follow, as they here are nam'd,
    Dress'd in each character for which they're fam'd.
    _Quin_ th' _Old Bachelour_, a _Hero Ryan_ shows,
    Who _stares_ and stalks majestick as he goes.
    _Walker_,[4] in his lov'd character we see
    A Prince, tho' once a fisherman was he,
    And _Massanelo_ nam'd; in this he prides,
    Tho' fam'd for many other parts besides.
    Then _Hall_,[5] who tells the bubbled countrymen
    That _Carolus_ is _Latin_ for _Queen Anne_.
    Did ever mortal know so clean a bite?
    Who else, like him, can copy _Serjeant Kite!_
    To the _Piazza_ let us turn our eyes,
    See _Johnny Gay_ on porters shoulders rise,
    Whilst a bright Man of Tast his works despise.[6]
    Another author wheels his works with care,
    In hopes to get a market at this fair;
    For such a day he sees not ev'ry year.

By the _Man of Taste_, Mr. _Pope_ was apparently designed. He is
represented, in his tye-wig, at one corner of the _Piazza_, wiping his
posteriors with the _Beggar's Opera_. The letter P is over his head.
His little sword is significantly placed, and the peculiarity of his
figure well preserved.

The reason why our artist has assigned such an employment to him,
we can only guess. It seems, indeed, from Dr. _Johnson's_ Life of
_Gay_, that _Pope_ did not _think_ the _Beggar's Opera_ would succeed.
_Swift_, however, was of the same opinion; and yet the former supported
the piece on the first night of exhibition, and the latter defended it
in his _Intelligencer_ against the attacks of Dr. _Herring_,[7] then
preacher to the Society of _Lincoln's-Inn_, afterwards archbishop of
_Canterbury. Hogarth_ might be wanton in his satire; might have founded
it on idle report; or might have sacrificed truth to the prejudices
of Sir _James Thornhill_, whose quarrel, on another occasion, he is
supposed to have taken up, when he ridiculed _The Translator of Homer_
in a view of "The Gate of _Burlington-house_."

There are besides some allusions in the verses already quoted, as
well as in the piece they refer to, which I confess my inability
to illustrate. Those who are best acquainted with the theatric and
poetical history of the years 1728, &c. would prove the most successful
commentators on the present occasion; but not many can possibly be now
alive who were at that period competent judges of such matters.

This print, however, was not only unpublished, but in several places is
unfinished. It was probably suppressed by the influence of some of the
characters represented in it. The style of composition, and manner of
engraving, &c. &c. would have sufficiently proved it to be the work of
_Hogarth_, if the initials of his name had been wanting at the bottom
of the plate.

[1] The _Perseus_ and _Andromeda_, for which _Hogarth_ engraved the
plates mentioned in p. 170, was not published till 1730; but there was
one under the same title at _Drury-Lane_ in 1728. As both houses took
each other's plans at that time, perhaps the _Lincoln's-Inn Fields
Perseus_ might have been acted before it was printed.

[2] _Rich._

[3] No _sensible_ and _pretty_ play, &c. This refers to _Cibber's_
decision on the merits of some piece offered for representation, and,
we may suppose, rejected. In a copy of verses addressed to _Rich_ on
the building of _Covent Garden_ Theatre, are the following lines, which
seem to allude to the rejection already mentioned:

    "Poets no longer shall submit their plays
    To learned _Cibber's_ gilded withered bays;
    To such a judge the labour'd scene present,
    Whom _sensible_ and _pretty_ won't content:
    But to thy theatre with pleasure bear
    The comic laughter and the tragic tear."

[4] The original _Macheath_. He used, however, to perform the
heroes, particularly _Alexander_. From these lines it appears that
_Massanello_, was a favourite part with him. From _Chetwood's_ History
of the Stage, p. 141, I learn that _Walker_ had contracted the two
parts of _Durfey's Massanello_ into one piece, which was acted with
success at _Lincoln's-Inn Fields_.

[5] The original _Lockit_, who was also celebrated for his performance
of Serjeant _Kite_.

[6] The grammar and spelling of this line are truly _Hogarthian_.

[7] "A noted preacher near _Lincoln's-Inn_ playhouse has taken notice
of the _Beggar's Opera_ in the pulpit, and inveighed against it as a
thing of very evil tendency." _Mist's Weekly Journal, March_ 30, 1728.

3. The Beggar's Opera. The title over it is in capitals uncommonly

    _Brittons_ attend--view this harmonious stage,
    And listen to those notes which charm the age.
    Thus shall your tastes in _sounds_ and _sense_ be shown,
    And _Beggar's Op'ras_ ever be your own.

No painter or engraver's name. The plate seems at once to represent
the exhibition of _The Beggar's Opera_, and the rehearsal of an
_Italian_ one. In the _former_, all the characters are drawn with the
heads of different animals; as _Polly_, with a Cat's; _Lucy_, with a
Sow's; _Macheath_, with an Ass's; _Lockit_, and Mr. and Mrs. _Peachum_,
with those of an Ox, a Dog, and an Owl. In the _latter_, several
noblemen appear conducting the chief female singer forward on the
stage, and perhaps are offering her money, or protection from a figure
that is rushing towards her with a drawn sword. Harmony, flying in the
air, turns her back on the _English_ playhouse, and hastens toward the
rival theatre. Musicians stand in front of the former, playing on the
Jew's-harp, the salt-box, the bladder and string, bagpipes, &c. On
one side are people of distinction, some of whom kneel as if making
an offer to _Polly_, or paying their adorations to her. To these are
opposed a butcher, &c. expressing similar applause. _Apollo_, and
one of the Muses, are fast asleep beneath the stage. A man is easing
nature under a wall hung with ballads, and shewing his contempt of such
compositions, by the use he makes of one of them. A sign of the star, a
gibbet, and some other circumstances less intelligible, appear in the
back ground.

4. The same. The lines under it are engraved in a different manner from
those on the preceding plate. Sold at the Print-Shop in _The Strand_,
near _Catherine Street_.

5. A copy of the same, under the following title, &c.

    The Opera House, or the _Italian_ Eunuch's Glory. Humbly inscribed to
    those Generous Encouragers of Foreigners, and Ruiners of _England_.

    From _France_, from _Rome_ we come,
    To help Old _England_ to _to_ b' undone.

Under the division of the print that represents the _Italian Opera_,
the words--_Stage Mutiny_--are perhaps improperly added.

On the two sides of this print are scrolls, containing a list of the
presents made to _Farinelli_. The words are copied from the same
enumeration in the second plate of the Rake's Progress.[1]

At the bottom are the following lines:

    "_Brittains_ attend--view this harmonious stage,
      And listen to those notes which charm the age.
        How sweet the sound where cats and bears
        With brutish noise offend our ears!
        Just so the foreign singers move
        Rather contempt than gain our love.
        Were such discourag'd, we should find
        Musick at home to charm the mind!
        Our home-spun authors must forsake the field,
        And _Shakespear_ to the _Italian Eunuchs_ yield."[2]

Perhaps the original print was the work of _Gravelot, Vandergucht,_
or some person unknown.[3] The idea of it is borrowed from a _French_
book, called _Les Chats_, printed at _Amsterdam_ in 1728. In this work,
facing p. 117, is represented an opera performed by cats, superbly
habited. The design is by _Coypel_; the engraving by _T. Otten_. At the
end of the treatise, the opera itself is published. It is improbable
that _Hogarth_ should have met with this _jeu d'esprit_; and, if he
did, he could not have read the explanation to it.

[1] The following paragraph appeared in the _Grub-street Journal_ for
_April_ 10, 1735; and to this perhaps _Hogarth_ alluded in the list of
donations already mentioned: "His Royal Highness the Prince hath been
pleased to make a present of a fine wrought gold snuff-box, richly set
with brilliants and rubies, in which was inclosed a pair of brilliant
diamond knee buckles, as also a purse of 100 guineas, to the famous
Signor _Farinelli_, &c."

[2] These two last lines make part of _Addison's_ Prologue to _Phædra_
and _Hippolytus_, reading only "the soft _Scarlatti_," instead of
_Italian Eunuchs_.

[3] At the back of an old impression of it, in the collection of
the late Mr. _Rogers_, I meet with the name of _Echerlan_, but am
unacquainted with any such designer or engraver.----I have since
been told he came over to _England_ to dispose of a number of
foreign prints, and was himself no mean caricaturist. Having drawn
an aggravated likeness of an _English_ nobleman, whose figure was
peculiarly unhappy, he was forced to fly in consequence of a resentment
which threatened little short of assassination.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. King _Henry_ the Eighth, and _Anna Bullen_. "_Very indifferent._"
This plate has very idly been imagined to contain the portraits of
_Frederick_ Prince of _Wales_ and Miss _Vane_;[1] but the stature and
faces, both of the lady and _Percy_, are totally unlike their supposed
originals. Underneath are the following verses by _Allan Ramsay_:

    Here struts old pious _Harry_, once the great
    Reformer of the _English_ church and state:
    'Twas thus he stood, when _Anna Bullen's_ charms
    Allur'd the amorous monarch to her arms;
    With his right hand he leads her as his own,
    To place this matchless beauty on his throne;
    Whilst _Kate_ and _Piercy_ mourn their wretched fate,
    And view the royal pair with equal hate,
    Reflecting on the pomp of glittering crowns,
    And arbitrary power that knows no bounds.
    Whilst _Wolsey_, leaning on his throne of state,
    Through this unhappy change foresees his fate,
    Contemplates wisely upon worldly things,
    The cheat of grandeur, and the faith of kings.

Mr. _Charlton_, of _Canterbury_, has a copy of this print, with the
following title and verses: "King _Henry_ VIII. bringing to court _Anne
Bullen_, who was afterwards his royal consort." _Hogarth design. &.

    See here the great, the daring _Harry_ stands,
      Peace, Plenty, Freedom, shining in his face,
    With lovely _Anna Bullen_ joining hands,
      Her looks bespeaking ev'ry heav'nly grace.

    See _Wolsey_ frowning, discontent and sour,
      Feeling the superstitious _structure_ shake:
    While _Henry's_ driving off the _Roman_ whore,
      For _Britain's_ weal, and his _Lutherian's_ sake.

    Like _Britain's_ Genius our brave King appears,
      Despising Priestcraft, Avarice, and Pride;
    Nor the loud roar of _Babel's_ bulls he fears,
      The Dagon falls before his beauteous bride.

    Like _England's_ Church, all sweetness and resign'd,
      The comely queen her lord with calmness eyes;
    As if she said, If goodness guard your mind,
      You ghostly tricks and trump'ry may despise.

[1] To the fate of this lady Dr. _Johnson_ has a beautiful allusion in
his _Vanity of Human Wishes_:

    "Yet _Vane_ could tell what ills from beauty spring,
    And _Sedley_ curs'd the form that _pleas'd a king_."

Perhaps the thought, that suggested this couplet, is found in
_Loveling's_ Poems, a work already quoted:

    -------nec _Gwynnam_ valebat
      _Angliaco placuisse regi_.

    Mersa est acerbo funere sanguinis
    _Vanella_ clari: nec grave spiculum
      Averteret fati _Machaon_,
        Nec madido _Fredericus_ ore.

2. The same plate without any verses, but with an inscription added
in their room. _Ramsay_ seems to have been particularly attached to
_Hogarth_. He subscribed, as I have already observed, for thirty copies
of the large _Hudibras_.

The original picture was at _Vauxhall_, in the portico of the old great
room on the right-hand of the entry into the garden. See p. 29.

3. Frontispiece to the "Humours of _Oxford_," a comedy by _James
Miller_; acted at _Drury-Lane_, and published in 8vo, 1729.[1] _W.
Hogarth inv. G. Vandergucht sc._ The Vice-chancellor, attended by
his beadle, surprizing two Fellows of a College, one of them much
intoxicated, at a tavern.

[1] It met with but moderate success in the theatre; but drew on
Mr. _Miller_ the resentment of some of the heads of the colleges in
_Oxford_, who looked on themselves as satirized in it.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. _Perseus_, and _Medusa_ dead, and _Pegasus_. Frontispiece to
_Perseus_ and _Andromeda. W. H. fec._

2. Another print to the same piece, of _Perseus_ descending. Mr.
_Walpole_ mentions only one.

3. A half-starved boy. (The same as is represented in the print of
_Morning_.) _W. H. pinx. F. Sykes sc. Sykes_ was a pupil of _Thornhill_
or _Hogarth_. This print bears the date of 1730; but I suspect the
0 was designed for an 8, and that the upper part of it is wanting,
because the aqua fortis failed; or, that the pupil copied the figure
from a sketch of his master, which at that time was unappropriated. No
one will easily suspect _Hogarth_ of such plagiarism as he might justly
be charged with, could he afterwards have adopted this complete design
as his own; neither is it probable that any youth could have produced
a figure so characteristic as this; or, if he could, that he should
have published it without any concomitant circumstances to explain its
meaning. The above title, which some collector has bestowed on this
etching, is not of a discriminative kind. Who can tell from it whether
he is to look for a boy emaciated by hunger, or shivering with cold?
It is mentioned here, only that it may be reprobated. If every young
practitioner's imitation of a single figure by _Hogarth_ were to be
admitted among his works, they would never be complete.

4. _Gulliver_ presented to the Queen of _Babilary. W. Hogarth inv.
Ger. Vandergucht sc. "It is the frontispiece to the Travels of Mr._
John Gulliver," son of Capt. _Lemuel Gulliver_, a translation from the
_French_ by Mr. _Lockman_. There is as much merit in this print as in
the work to which it belongs.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Two frontispieces to a translation of two of _Moliere's_ plays,
viz. _L'Avare_[1] and _Le Cocû imaginaire_. These are part of a select
collection of _Moliere's_ Comedies in _French_ and _English_. They were
advertised in _The Grub-street Journal_, with designs by "Monsieur
_Coypel_, Mr. _Hogarth_, Mr. _Dandridge_, Mr. _Hamilton_," &c. in eight
pocket volumes.

[1] Of this one, Mr. _S. Ireland_ has the original drawing.

2. Frontispiece to "The Tragedy of Tragedies, or the Life and Death of
_Tom Thumb_," in three acts;[1] by _Henry Fielding. W. Hogarth inv.
Ger. Vandergucht sc. "There is some humour in this print."_

[1] This piece had before made its appearance in 1730 in one act only.

3. Frontispiece to the Opera of _The Highland Fair, or the Union of the
Clans_, by _Joseph Mitchell. W. Hogarth inv. Ger Vandergucht sculp._

    "Forsan et hæc olim meminisse juvabit." VIRG.

The date of this piece is confirmed by the following paragraph in _The
Grub-street journal, March_ 4, 1731: "We hear from the Theatre-Royal
in _Drury-lane_, that there is now in rehearsal, and to be performed
on _Tuesday, March_ 16, a new _Scots_ Opera, called _The Highland
Fair, or Union of the Clans,_ &c." The subject being too local for the
_English_ stage, it met with little or no success.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. _Sarah Malcolm_,[1] executed _March_ 7, 1732, for murdering Mrs.
_Lydia Duncombe_ her mistress, _Elizabeth Harrison_, and _Anne Price_;
drawn in _Newgate. W. Hogarth (ad vivum) pinxit & sculpsit._[2] Some
copies are dated 1733, and have only _Hogarth pinx_. She was about
twenty-five years of age.[3] "_This woman put on red to sit to him for
her picture two days before her execution._"[4] Mr. _Walpole_ paid
_Hogarth_ five guineas for the original. Professor _Martyn_ dissected
this notorious murderess, and afterwards presented her skeleton, in
a glass case, to the Botanic Garden at _Cambridge_, where it still

[1] On _Sunday_ morning, the 4th of _February_, Mrs. _Lydia Duncombe_,
aged 80, _Elizabeth Harrison_, her companion, aged 60, were found
strangled, and _Ann Price_, her maid, aged 17, with her throat
cut, in their beds, at the said Mrs. _Duncombe's_ apartments in
_Tanfield-Court_ in _The Temple. Sarah Malcolm_, a chare-woman, was
apprehended the same evening on the information of Mr. _Kerrol_, who
had chambers on the same stair-case, and had found some bloody linen
under his bed, and a silver tankard in his close-stool, which she
had hid there. She made a pretended confession, and gave information
against _Thomas Alexander, James Alexander,_ and _Mary Tracey,_ that
they committed the murder and robbery, and she only stood on the stairs
as a watch; that they took away three hundred pounds and some valuable
goods, of which she had not more than her share; but the coroner's
inquest gave their verdict _Wilful Murder_ against _Malcolm_ only.--On
the 23d her trial came on at _The Old Bailey_: when it appeared that
Mrs. _Duncombe_ had but 54 _l._ in her box, and 53 _l._ 11 _s._ 6 _d._
of it were found upon _Malcolm_ betwixt her cap and hair. She owned her
being concerned in the robbery, but denied she knew any thing of the
murder till she went in with other company to see the deceased. The
jury found her guilty of both. She was strongly suspected to have been
concerned in the murder of Mr. _Nesbit_ in 1729, near _Drury-lane_,
for which one _Kelly_, alias _Owen_, was hanged; the grounds for his
conviction being only a bloody razor found under the murdered man's
head that was known to be his. But he denied to the last his being
concerned in the murder; and said, in his defence, he lent the razor
to a woman he did not know.--On _Wednesday, March_ 7, she was executed
on a gibbet opposite _Mitre-court, Fleet-street_, where the crowd
was so great, that a Mrs. _Strangways_, who lived in _Fleet-street_,
near _Serjeant's-Inn_, crossed the street, from her own house to Mrs.
_Coulthurst's_ on the opposite side of the way, over the heads and
shoulders of the mob. She went to execution neatly dressed in a crape
mourning gown, holding up her head in the cart with an air, and looking
as if she was painted, which some did not scruple to affirm. Her corpse
was carried to an undertaker's upon _Snow-hill_, where multitudes of
people resorted, and gave money to see it: among the rest a gentleman
in deep mourning, who kissed her, and gave the people half a crown. She
was attended by the Rev. Mr. _Pedington_, lecturer of _St. Bartholomew_
the Great, seemed penitent, and desired to see her master _Kerrol_;
but, as she did not, protested all accusations against him were false.
During her imprisonment she received a letter from her father at
_Dublin_, who was in too bad circumstances to send her such a sum as 17
_l._ which she pretended he did. The night before her execution, she
delivered a paper to Mr. _Pedington_ (the copy of which he sold for 20
_l._), of which the substance is printed in _The Gentleman's Magazine_,
1733, p. 137. She had given much the same account before, at her trial,
in a long and fluent speech.

[2] The words "_& sculpsit_" are wanting in the copies. In the three
last of them the figure also is reversed.

[3] "This woman," said _Hogarth_, after he had drawn _Sarah Malcolm_,
"by her features, is capable of any wickedness."

[4] "_Monday Sarah Malcolm_ sat for her picture in _Newgate_, which
was taken by the ingenious Mr. _Hogarth_: Sir _James Thornhill_ was
likewise present." _Craftsman, Saturday, March_ 10, 1732-3.

2. An engraved copy of ditto.

3. Ditto, mezzotinto.

4. Ditto, part graven, part mezzotinto.

The knife with which she committed the murder is lying by her.

5. Another copy of this portrait[1] (of which only the first was
engraved by _Hogarth_), with the addition of a clergyman holding a ring
in his hand, and a motto, "No recompence but Love."[2]

In _The Grub-street Journal_ of _Thursday, March_ 8, 1732, appeared the
following epigram:

    "To _Malcolm Guthrie_[3] cries, confess the murther;
    The truth disclose, and trouble me no further.
    Think on both worlds; the pain that thou must bear
    In that, and what a load of scandal here.
    Confess, confess, and you'll avoid it all:
    Your body shan't be hack'd at _Surgeons Hall_:
    No _Grub-street_ hack shall dare to use your ghost ill,
    _Henly_ shall read upon your post a postile;
    _Hogarth_ your charms transmit to future times,
    And _Curll_ record your life in prose and rhimes.

    "_Sarah_ replies, these arguments might do
    From _Hogarth, Curll,_ and _Henly_, drawn by you,
    Were I condemn'd at _Padington_ to ride:
    But now from _Fleet-street Pedington's_ my guide."

The office of this _Pedington_[4] may be known from the following
advertisement in _The Weekly Miscellany_, N° 37. _August_ 25,
1733. "This day is published, Price Six-pence, (on occasion of the
Re-commitment of the two _Alexanders_; with a very neat effigies of
_Sarah Malcolm_ and her _Reverend Confessor_, both taken from the
Life) The Friendly Apparition: Being an account of the most surprising
appearance of _Sarah Malcolm's_ Ghost to a great assembly of her
acquaintance at a noted Gin-shop; together with the remarkable speech
she then made to the whole company."

[1] A copy of it in wood was inserted in _The Gentleman's Magazine_,
1733, p. 153.

[2] This print was designed as a frontispiece to the pamphlet
advertised in _The Weekly Miscellany_. (See text, above.)

[3] The Ordinary of _Newgate_.

[4] Mr. _Pedington_ died September 18, 1734. He is supposed to have
made some amorous overtures to _Sarah_.

6. The Man of TASTE. The Gate of _Burlington-house. Pope_ white-washing
it, and bespattering the Duke of _Chandos's_ coach. "_A satire on_
Pope's _Epistle on Taste. No name._" It has been already observed that
the plate was suppressed; and if this be true, the suppression may be
accounted for from the following inscription, lately met with at the
back of one of the copies.

"Bot this book of Mr. _Wayte_, at _The Fountain Tavern_, in _The
Strand_, in the presence of Mr. _Draper_, who told me he had it of the
Printer, Mr. _W. Rayner._[1]

"J. Cosins."

On this attested memorandum a prosecution seems meant to have been
founded. _Cosins_ was an attorney, and _Pope_ was desirous on all
occasions to make the law the engine of his revenge.

[1] _Rayner_ was at that time already under prosecution for publishing
a pamphlet called, "_Robin's_ Game, or Seven's the Main." Neglecting to
surrender himself, he was taken by a writ of execution from the crown,
and confined to the _King's Bench_; where he became connected with Lady
_Dinely_, whole character was of equal infamy with his own.

7. The same, in a smaller size; prefixed to a pamphlet, intituled, "A
Miscellany of Taste, by Mr. _Pope_," &c. containing his Epistles, with
Notes and other poems. In the former of these Mr. _Pope_ has a tie-wig
on, in the latter a cap.

8. The same, in a size still smaller; very coarsely engraved. Only one
of them is noted by Mr. _Walpole_.

A reader of these Anecdotes observes, "That the total silence of
_Pope_ concerning so great an artist, encourages a suspicion that his
attacks were felt though not resented. The thunders of the poet were
usually pointed at inglorious adversaries; but he might be conscious
of a more equal match in our formidable caricaturist. All ranks of
people have eyes for pencil'd ridicule, but of written satire we have
fewer judges. It may be suspected, that the 'pictured shape' would
never have been complained of, had it been produced only by a bungler
in his art. But from the powers of _Hogarth, Pope_ seems to have
apprehended more lasting inconvenience; and the event has justified
his fear. The frontispiece to _Smedley's Gulliveriana_ has been long
forgotten; but the _Gate of Burlington house_ is an object coveted by
all who assemble prints of humour.--It may be added, that our painter's
reputation was at the height ten years before the death of _Pope_,
who could not therefore have overlooked his merit, though, for some
reason or other, he has forborne to introduce the slightest allusion
to him or his performances. Yet these, or copies from them, were to
be met with in almost every public and private house throughout the
kingdom; nor was it easy for the bard of _Twickenham_ to have mixed in
the conversation of the times, without being obliged to hear repeated
praises of the author of _The Harlot's Progress_."

The sheet containing this page having been shewn to a friend, produced
from him the following remark: "That _Pope_ was silent on the merits
of _Hogarth_ (as one of your readers has observed) should excite
little astonishment, as our artist's print on the _South Sea_ exhibits
the translator of _Homer_ in no very flattering point of view. He is
represented with one of his hands in the pocket of a fat personage,
who wears a hornbook at his girdle. For whom this figure was designed,
is doubtful. Perhaps it was meant for _Gay_, who was a fat man, and
a loser in the same scheme."--"_Gay_," says Dr. _Johnson_, "in that
disastrous year had a present from young _Craggs_ of some _South-sea_
stock, and once supposed himself to be master of twenty-thousand
pounds. His friends persuaded him to sell his share; but he dreamed
of dignity and splendour, and could not bear to obstruct his own
fortune. He was then importuned to sell as much as would purchase an
hundred a year for life, which, says _Fenton_, will make you sure of
a clean shirt and a shoulder of mutton every day. This counsel was
rejected; the profit and principal were lost, and _Gay_ sunk under the
calamity so low that his life became in danger.--The Hornbook appended
to his girdle, perhaps, refers to the Fables he wrote for the Duke of
_Cumberland_. Some of your ingenious correspondents, or Mr. _Walpole_,
who is _instar omnium_, may be able to give a further illustration.
The conclusion to the inscription under this plate--_Guess at the
rest, you'll find out more_--seems also to imply a consciousness of
such personal satire as it was not prudent to explain. I may add,
that the print before us exhibits more than one figure copied from
_Callot_. Among the people going along the gallery to raffle for
husbands, the curious observer will recognize the _Old Maid_ with
lappets flying, &c. afterwards introduced into the scene of _Morning_.
Dr. _Johnson_, however, bears witness to the propriety of our great
poet's introduction into a satire on the 'disastrous year of national
infatuation, when more riches than _Peru_ can boast were expected from
the _South Sea_; when the contagion of avarice tainted every mind; and
_Pope_, being seized with the universal passion, ventured some of his
money. The stock rose in its price; and he for a while thought himself
_The Lord of Thousands_. But this dream of happiness did not last long:
and he seems to have waked soon enough to get clear with the loss only
of what he once thought himself to have won, and perhaps not wholly

It appears from _Pope's_ correspondence with _Atterbury_, that the
stock he had was at one time valued at between twenty and thirty
thousand pounds; and that he was one of the lucky few who had "the good
fortune to remain with half of what they imagined they had."--"Had you
got all you have lost beyond what you ventured," said the good Bishop
in reply, "consider that your superfluous gains would have sprung from
the ruin of several families that now want necessaries."[1]

[1] Letters to and from Bishop _Atterbury_, 1782, vol. I. p. 71.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. The Laughing Audience. "1733. Recd. _Decbr._ 18 _of the Right
Honnble. Lord Biron_ Half a Guinea being the first Payment for nine
Prints 8 of which Represent a Rakes Progress and the 9th a Fair,
Which I promise to Deliver at Michaelmass Next on Receiving one Guinea
more. Note the Fair will be Deliver'd next Christmass at Sight of this
receipt the Prints of the Rakes. Progress alone will be 2 Guineas
each set after the Subscription is over."

The words printed in _Italicks_ are in the hand-writing of _Hogarth_.

2. The _Fair_[1] [at _Southwark_]. _Invented, painted, and engraved by
W. Hogarth._. The show-cloth, representing the Stage Mutiny, is taken
from a large etching by _John Laguerre_ (son of _Louis Laguerre_,
the historical painter), who sung at _Lincoln's-Inn Fields_ and
_Covent-Garden_ Theatres, painted some of their scenes, and died in
1748. _The Stage-Mutineers_, or _A Playhouse to be let_, a tragi-comi
farcical-ballad-opera, which was published in 1733, will throw some
light on the figures here represented by _Hogarth_. See also the
_Supplement_ to _Dodsley's_ Preface to his Collection of Old Plays, and
the "Biographia Dramatica, 1782."

It is remarkable that, in our artist's copy of this etching, he has
added a paint-pot and brushes at the feet of the athletic figure _with
a cudgel in his hand_, who appears on the side of _Highmore_.[2] From
these circumstances it is evident that _John Ellis_ the painter (a
pupil of Sir _James Thornhill_, a great frequenter of _Broughton's_
gymnasium, the stages of other prize-fighters, &c.) was the person
designed. _Ellis_ was deputy-manager for Mrs. _Wilks_, and _took up
the cudgels_ also for the new patentee. Mr. _Walpole_ observes that
_Rysbrack_, when he produced that "exquisite summary of his skill,
knowledge, and judgment," the _Hercules_ now in Mr. _Hoare's_ Temple at
_Stourhead_, modelled the legs of the God from those of _Ellis_. This
statue was compiled from the various limbs and parts of seven or eight
of the strongest and best-made men in _London_, chiefly the bruisers,
&c. of the then famous amphitheatre in _Tottenham Court road_.

In _Banks's_ Works, vol. I. p. 97. is a Poetical Epistle on this print,
which alludes to the disputes between the managers of _Drury-Lane_,
and such of the actors as were spirited up to rebellion by _Theophilus
Cibber_, and seceded to _The Haymarket_ in 1733. _Cibber_ is
represented under the character of _Pistol_;[3] _Harper_ under that of
_Falstaff_. The figure in the corner was designed for _Colley Cibber_
the Laureat, who had just sold his share in the play-house to Mr.
_Highmore_, who is represented holding a scroll, on which is written
"it cost £.6000." A monkey is exhibited sitting astride the iron that
supports the sign of _The Rose_, a well-known tavern. A label issuing
from his mouth contains the words: "_I am a gentleman._"[4] _The Siege
of Troy_, upon another show-cloth, was a celebrated droll, composed
by _Elkanah Settle_, and printed in 1707; it was a great favourite at
fairs. A booth was built in _Smithfield_ this year for the use of _T.
Cibber, Griffin, Bullock,_ and _H. Hallam_; at which the Tragedy of
_Tamerlane_, with _The Fall of Bajazet_, intermixed with the Comedy
of _The Miser_, was actually represented. The figure vaulting on the
rope was designed for Signor _Violante_, who signalized himself in the
reign of _Geo._ I.; and the tall man exhibited on a show-cloth, was
_Maximilian_, a giant from _Upper Saxony_. The man flying from the
steeple was one _Cadman_, who, within the recollection of some persons
now living, descended in the manner here described from the steeple of
_St. Martin's_ into _The Mews_. He broke his neck soon after, in an
experiment of the like kind, at _Shrewsbury_, and lies buried there in
the churchyard of _St. Mary Friars_, with the following inscription on
a little tablet inserted in the church-wall just over his grave.[5]
The lines are contemptible, but yet serve to particularize the accident
that occasioned his death.

    Let this small monument record the name
    Of _Cadman_, and to future times proclaim
    How, by an attempt to fly from this high spire
    Across the _Sabrine_ stream, he did acquire
    His fatal end. 'Twas not for want of skill,
    Or courage, to perform the task, he fell:
    No, no,--a faulty cord, being drawn too tight,
    Hurry'd his soul on high to take her flight,
    Which bid the body here beneath, good night.

A prelate being asked permission for a line to be fixed to the steeple
of a cathedral church, for this daring adventurer, replied, the man
might fix _to_ the church whenever he pleased, but he should never
give his consent to any one's flying _from_ it. It seems that some
exhibitor of the same kind met with a similar inhibition here in
_London_. I learn from _Mist's_ Journal for _July_ 8, 1727, that a
sixpenny pamphlet, intituled, "The Devil to pay at _St. James's_,
&c."[6] was published on this occasion, Again, in _The Weekly
Miscellany_ for _April_ 17, 1736. "_Thomas Kidman_, the famous Flyer,
who has flown from several of the highest precipices in _England_, and
was the person that flew off _Bromham_ steeple in _Wiltshire_ when it
fell down, flew, on _Monday_ last, from the highest of the rocks near
_The Hot-well_ at _Bristol_, with fire-works and pistols; after which
he went up the rope, and performed several surprising dexterities on
it, in sight of thousands of spectators, both from _Somersetshire_
and _Gloucestershire_." In this print also is a portrait which has
been taken for that of Dr. _Rock_, but was more probably meant for
another Quack, who used to draw a crowd round him by seeming to eat
fire, which, having his checks puffed up with tow, he blew out of his
mouth.[7] Some other particulars are explained in the notes to the
poetical epistle already mentioned.

[1] In the Craftsman, 1733, was this advertisment; "Mr. _Hogarth_ being
now engraving nine copper-plates from pictures of his own painting,
one of which represents the Humours of a Fair, the other eight the
Progress of a Rake, intends to publish the prints by subscription, on
the following terms: each subscription to be one guinea and a half:
half-a-guinea to be paid at the time of subscribing, for which a
receipt will be given on a new-etched print, and the other payment of
one guinea on delivery of all the prints when finished, which will be
with all convenient speed, and the time publicly advertised. The Fair,
being already finished, will be delivered at the time of subscribing.
Subscriptions will be taken in at Mr. _Hogarth's_, the _Golden Head_,
in _Leicester Fields_, where the pictures are to be seen."

[2] _Highmore_ was originally a man of fortune; but _White's_
gaming-house, and the patent of _Drury-Lane_ theatre, completely
exhausted his finances. Having proved himself an unsuccessful actor as
well as manager, in 1743 he published _Dettingen_, a poem which would
have disgraced a Bell-man. In 1744 he appeared again in the character
of _Lothario_, for the benefit of Mrs. _Horten_. From this period his
history is unknown. If _Hogarth's_ representation of him, in the print
entitled _The Discovery_, was a just one, he had no external requisites
for the stage.

[3] In a two-shilling pamphlet, printed for _J. Mechell_ at _The King's
Arms_ in _Fleet street_, 1740, entitled "An Apology for the life of
Mr. _T---- C----_, comedian; being a proper sequel to the apology for
the life of Mr. _Colley Cibber_, comedian; with a historical view of
the stage to the present year; supposed to be written by himself in
the stile and manner of the Poet Laureat," but in reality the work of
_Harry Fielding_; the following passages, illustrative of our subject,
occur. "In that year when the stage fell into great commotions, and
the _Drury Lane_ company, asserting the glorious cause of liberty and
property, made a stand against the oppressions in the patentees--in
that memorable year when the Theatric Dominions fell in labour of a
revolution under the conduct of _myself_, that revolt gave occasion
to several pieces of wit and satirical flirts at the conductor of the
enterprize. I was attacked, as my father had been before me, in the
public papers and journals; and the burlesque character of _Pistol_
was attributed to me as a real one. Out came a _Print_ of _Jack
Laguerre's_, representing, in most vile designing, this expedition of
ours, under the name of _The Stage Mutiny_, in which, gentle reader,
_your humble servant_, in the _Pistol_ character, was the principal
figure. This I laughed at, knowing it only a proper embellishment for
one of those necessary structures to which persons out of necessity
repair." p. 16, &c.--Again, p. 88.--"At the Fair of _Bartholomew_, we
gained some recruits; but, besides those advantages over the enemy, I
myself went there in person, and publickly _exposed_ myself. This was
done to fling defiance in the Patentee's teeth; for, on the booth where
I exhibited, I hung out _The Stage Mutiny_, with _Pistol_ at the head
of his troop, our standard bearing this motto,--_We eat._"--Whether
this account which _Cibber_ is made to give of his own conduct is
entirely jocular, or contains a mixture of truth in it, cannot now be
ascertained. _Hogarth_ might have transplanted a circumstance from
_Bartholomew_ to _Southwark_ Fair; or _Fielding_, by design, may have
misrepresented the matter, alluding at the same time to _Hogarth's_

[4] Mr. _Victor_, speaking of this transaction, observes, that "the
general observation was, what business had _a gentleman_ to make the

[5] In _The Gentleman's Magazine_ for 1740, p. 89, is no bad copy
of verses "on the death of the famous _Flyer_ on the Rope at
_Shrewsbury_". It is therefore here inserted.

    _-----------Magnis tamen excidit ausis._
    Fond _Icarus_ of old, with rash essay,
    In air attempted a forbidden way;
    Too thin the medium for so cumb'rous freight,
    Too weak the plumage to support the weight.
    Yet less he dar'd who soar'd on waxen wing,
    Than he who mounts to æther on a string.
    Just as _Arachne_, when the buzzing prey
    Entangled flutter, and would wing away,
    From watchful ambuscade insidious springs,
    And to a slender twine, ascending, clings.
    So on his rope, th' advent'rer climbs on high,
    Bounds o'er cathedral heights, and seeks the sky;
    Fix but his cable, and he'll tell you soon,
    What sort of natives cultivate the moon.
    An army of such wights to cross the main,
    Sooner than _Haddock's_ fleet, shou'd humble _Spain_.
    As warring cranes on pigmies thund'ring fall,
    And, without scaling ladders, mount the wall,
    The proudest spire in _Salop's_ lofty town
    Safely he gains, and glides as safely down;
    Then soars again aloft, and downward springs,
    Swift as an eagle, without aid of wings;
    Shews anticks, hangs suspended by his toe;
    Undazzled, views th' inverted chasm below.
    Invites with beat of drum brave voluntiers,
    Defies _Jack Spaniard_, nor invasion fears,
    Land when they will, they ne'er cou'd hurt _his ears_.
    Methink I see as yet his flowing hair
    And body, darting like a falling star:
    Swifter than what "with fins or feathers fly
    Thro' the ærial or the wat'ry sky."
    Once more he dares to brave the pathless way,
    Fate now pursuing, like a bird of prey;
    And, comet-like, he makes his latest tour,
    In air excentric (oh! ill-omen'd hour!)
    Bar'd in his shirt to please the gazing crowd,
    He little dreamt, poor soul! of winding shroud!
    Nothing could aught avail but limbs of brass,
    When ground was iron, and the _Severn_ glass.
    As quick as lightning down his line he skims,
    Secure in equal poize of agile limbs.
    But see the trusted cordage faithless prove!
    Headlong he falls, and leaves his soul above:
    The gazing town was shock'd at the rebound
    Of shatter'd bones, that rattled on the ground;
    The broken cord rolls on in various turns,
    Smokes in the whirl, and as it runs it burns.
    So when the wriggling snake is snatch'd on high
    In eagle's claws, and hisses in the sky,
    Around the foe his twirling tail he flings,
    And twists her legs, and writhes about her wings.
    _Cadman_ laid low, ye rash, behold and fear,
    Man is a reptile, and the ground his sphere.
    Unhappy man! thy end lamented be;
    Nought but thy own ill fate so swift as thee,
    Were metamorphoses permitted now,
    And tuneful _Ovid_ liv'd to tell us how;
    His apter Muse shou'd turn thee to a daw,
    Nigh to the fatal steeple still to kaw;
    Perch on the cock, and nestle on the ball,
    In ropes no more confide, and never fall. _J. A._

[6] Supposed to have been written by Dr. _Arbuthnot_, and as such
preserved in the Collection of his Works. The full title is, "The
Devil to pay at _St. James's_: or, a full and true Account of a most
horrid and bloody Battle between Madam _Faustina_ and Madam _Cuzzoni_.
Also of a hot Skirmish between Signor _Boschi_ and Signor _Palmerini_.
Moreover, how _Senesino_ has taken Snuff, is going to leave the Opera,
and sings Psalms at _Henley's Oratory_. Also about the Flying Man,
and how the Doctor of _St. Martin's_ has very unkindly taken down the
Scaffold, and disappointed a World of good Company. As also how a
certain Great Lady is gone mad for the Love of _William Gibson_, the
Quaker. And how the _Wild Boy_ is come to Life again, and has got a
Dairy Maid with Child. Also about the great Mourning, and the Fashions,
and the Alterations, and what not. With other material Occurrences, too
many to insert."

In this pamphlet our artist is incidentally mentioned, but in such a
manner as shews that he had attained some celebrity so early as 1727.
Speaking of some _Lilliputian_ swine, supposed to be in the possession
of Dean _Swift_, Dr. _Arbuthnot_ adds, "But _Hogarth_ the Engraver is
making a print after them, which will give a juster idea of them than I

[7] Perhaps he was only a fire-eater.

3. _Judith_ and _Holofernes_. "Per vulnera servor, morte tuâ vivens."
_W. Hogarth inv. Ger. Vandergucht sc._ A frontispiece to the Oratorio
of _Judith._--Our heroine, instead of holding the sword by its handle,
grasps it by its edge, in such a manner as should seem to have
endangered her fingers. (_Judith_ was an Oratorio by _William Huggins_,
Esq. set to musick by _William De Fesch_[1] late Chapel-master of the
cathedral church of _Antwerp_. This piece was performed with scenes and
other decorations, but met with no success. It was published in 8vo,
1733.)--The original plate of the frontispiece is in the possession
of Dr. _Monkhouse_. This design has little of _Hogarth_; yet if he
furnished other engravers with such slight undetermined sketches as he
himself is sometimes known to have worked from, we cannot wonder if
on many occasions his usual characteristics should escape our notice.
Whoever undertakes to perfect several of his unpublished drawings, will
be reduced to the necessity of inventing more than presents itself for

[1] _William Defesch_, a _German_, and some time chapel-master at
_Antwerp_, was in his time a respectable professor on the violin, and
leader of the band for several seasons at _Marybone-gardens_. His head
was engraved as a frontispiece to some musical compositions published
by him; and his name is to be found on many songs and ballads to which
he set the tunes for _Vauxhall_ and _Marybone-gardens_. He died, soon
after the year 1750, at the age of 70.

The following lines were written under a picture of _Defesch_, painted
by _Soldi_, 1751.

    Thou honor'st verse, and verse must lend her wing,
    To honor thee, the priest of _Phœbus'_ quire,
    That _tun'st_ her happiest lines in hymn or song.  MILTON.

_Defesch_ was the patriotic Mr. _Hollis's_ music-master.

4. Boys peeping at Nature. "_The subscription-ticket to the Harlot's
Progress._" A copy in aqua-tinta from this receipt was made by _R.
Livesay_ in 1781, and is to be had at Mrs. _Hogarth's_ house in

       *       *       *       *       *

1733 and 1734.

1.[1] The Harlot's Progress,[2] in six plates. In the first is a
portrait of Colonel _Chartres_. "Cette figure de viellard (says
_Rouquet_) est d'aprés nature; c'est le portrait d'un officier très
riche, fameux dans ce tems-là pour de pareilles expéditions, grand
séducteur de campagnardes, et qui avoit toujours à ses gages des femmes
de la profession de celle qui cajole ici la nouvelle débarquée." Behind
him is _John Gourlay_ a Pimp, whom he always kept about his person. The
next figure that attracts our notice, is that of Mother _Needham_. To
prove this woman was sufficiently notorious to have deserved the satire
of _Hogarth_, the following paragraphs in _The Grub-street Journal_ are

_March_ 25, 1731. "The noted Mother _Needham_ was yesterday committed
to _The Gatehouse_ by Justice _Railton_."

Ibid. "Yesterday, at the quarter-sessions for the city and liberties of
_Westminster_, the infamous Mother _Needham_, who has been reported to
have been dead for some time, to screen her from several prosecutions,
was brought from _The Gatehouse_, and pleaded not guilty to an
indictment found against her for keeping a lewd and disorderly house;
but, for want of sureties, was remanded back to prison."

Ibid. _April_ 29, 1731. "Oh _Saturday_ ended the quarter-sessions for
_Westminster_, &c. The noted Mother _Needham_, convicted for keeping a
disorderly house in _Park Place, St. James's,_ was fined One Shilling,
to stand twice in the pillory, and find sureties for her good behaviour
for three years."

Ibid. _May_ 6, 1731. "Yesterday the noted Mother _Needham_ stood in the
pillory in _Park Place_, near _St. James's-street_, and was roughly
handled by the populace. She was so very ill that she lay along,
notwithstanding which she was so severely &c. that it is thought she
will die in a day or two."--Another account says--"she lay along on
her face in the pillory, and so evaded the law which requires that her
face should be exposed."--"Yesterday morning died Mother _Needham_.
She declared in her last words,[3] that what most affected her was
the terror of standing in the pillory to-morrow in _New Palace-yard_,
having been so ungratefully used by the populace on _Wednesday_."

The memory of this woman is thus perpetuated in _The Dunciad_, I. 323.

    "To _Needham's_ quick the voice triumphal rode,
    But pious _Needham_ dropt the name of God."

The note on this passage says, she was "a matron of great fame, and
very religious in her way; whose constant prayer it was, that she might
'get enough by her profession to leave it off in time, and make her
peace with God.'[4] But her fate was not so happy; for being convicted,
and set in the pillory, she was (to the lasting shame of all her great
Friends and Votaries) so ill used by the populace, that it put an end
to her days."

_Rouquet_ has a whimsical remark relative to the clergyman just arrived
in _London_. "Cet ecclesiastique monté sur un cheval blanc, _comme ils
affectent ici de l'être_."--The variations in this plate are; shade
thrown by one house upon another; _London_ added on the letter the
parson is reading; change in one corner of the fore-ground; the face of
the Bawd much altered for the worse, and her foot introduced.

Plate II. _Quin_ compared _Garrick_ in _Othello_ to the black boy
with the tea-kettle,[5] a circumstance that by no means encouraged
our _Roscius_ to continue acting the part. Indeed, when his face was
obscured, his chief power of expression was lost; and then, and not
till then, was he reduced to a level with several other performers. In
a copy of this set of plates, one of the two small portraits hanging
up in the _Jew's_ bedchamber, is superscribed, _Clarke_; but without
authority from _Hogarth. Woolston_ would likewise have been out of
his place, as he had written against the _Jewish_ tenets. Of this
circumstance, _Hogarth_ was probably told by some friend, and therefore
effaced a name he had once ignorantly inserted.

In Plate III.[6] (as already observed) is the portrait of Sir _John
Gonson_. That Sir _John Gonson_ was the person intended in this print,
is evident from a circumstance in the next, where, on a door in
_Bridewell_, a figure hanging is drawn in chalk, with an inscription
over it, "Sir _J. G._" as well as from the following explanation by
_Rouquet_: "La figure, qui paroit entrer sans bruit avec une partie de
guet, est un commissaire qui se distinguoit extrêmement par son zèle
pour la persecution des filles de joye."

Respecting another circumstance, however, in the third plate, _Rouquet_
appears to have met with some particular information that has escaped
me. "L'auteur a saisi l'occasion d'un morceau de beurre qui fait
partie du déjeuné, pour l'enveloper plaisamment dans le titre de la
lettre pastorale qu'un grand prelat[7] addressa dans ce tems-là à son
diocese, & dont plusieurs exemplaires eurent le malheur d'être renvoyés
à l'epicier."--The sleeve of the maid-servant's gown in this plate is
enlarged, and the neck of a bottle on the table is lengthened.

For variations in Plate IV. see the roof of the room. Shadow on the
principal woman's petticoat, and from the hoop-petticoat hanging up in
the back ground. The dog made darker. The woman next the overseer has a
high cap, which in the modern impressions is lowered.

In Plate V. Roof of the room. Back of the chair. Table. Dr.
_Misaubin's_ waistcoat. Name of Dr. _Rock_ on the paper lying on the
close-stool. Dish at the fire.

In a despicable poem published in 1732, under the fictitious name of
_Joseph Gay_, and intituled "_The Harlot's Progress_, which is a key
to the six prints lately published by Mr. _Hogarth_," the two quacks
in attendance on the dying woman are called _Tan--r_ and _G--m_. It
is evident from several circumstances, that this Mr. _J. Gay_ became
acquainted with our author's work through the medium of a copy.

In Plate VI. the woman seated next the clergyman was designed for
_Elizabeth Adams_, who, at the age of 30, was afterwards executed for
a robbery, _September_ 10, 1737. The common print of her will justify
this assertion.

If we may trust the wretched metrical performance just quoted, the Bawd
in this sixth plate was designed for Mother _Bentley_.

The portrait hanging up in the _Jew's_ apartment was originally
subscribed "Mr. _Woolston_." There was a scriptural motto to one of the
other pictures; and on the cieling of the room in which the girl is
dying, a certain obscene word was more visible than it is at present.
The former inscription on the paper now inscribed Dr. _Rock_, was also
a gross one. I should in justice add, that before these plates were
delivered to the subscribers, the offensive particulars here mentioned
were omitted.

The following paragraph in _The Grub-street Journal_ for _September_
24, 1730, will sufficiently justify the splendid appearance the Harlot
makes in _Bridewell_. See Plate IV. Such well-dressed females are
rarely met with in our present houses of correction.

"One _Mary Muffet_, a woman of great note in the hundreds of
_Drury_, who, about a fortnight ago, was committed to hard labour in
_Tothill-fields Bridewell_, by nine justices, brought his Majesty's
writ of _Habeas Corpus_, and was carried before the right honourable
the lord chief justice _Raymond_, expecting to have been either
bailed or discharged; but her commitment appearing to be legal, his
lordship thought fit to remand her back again to her former place of
confinement, where _she is now beating hemp in a gown very richly laced
with silver_."

_Rouquet_ concludes his illustration of the fifth plate by observing,
that the story might have been concluded here. "L'auteur semble avoir
rempli son dessein. Il a suivi son heroine jusques au dernier soupir.
Il l'a conduite de l'infamie à la pauvreté, par les voies séduisantes
du libertinage. Son intention de tâcher de retenir, ou de corriger
celles qui leur foiblesse, ou leur ignorance exposent tous les jours à
de semblables infortunes, est suffisament executée; on peut donc dire
que la tragedie finit à cette planche, et que la suivante est comme le
petite piece. C'est une farce done la defunte est plustôt l'occasion
que le sujet."--Such is the criticism of _Rouquet_; but I cannot
absolutely concur in the justness of it. _Hogarth_ found an opportunity
to convey admonition, and enforce his moral, even in this last plate.
It is true that the exploits of our heroine are concluded, and that she
is no longer an agent in her own story. Yet as a wish prevails, even
among those who are most humbled by their own indiscretions, that some
respect should be paid to their remains, that they should be conducted
by decent friends to the grave, and interred by a priest who feels for
the dead that hope expressed in our Liturgy, let us ask whether the
memory of our Harlot meets with any such marks of social attention, or
pious benevolence. Are not the preparations for her funeral licentious,
like the course of her life, as if the contagion of her example had
reached all the company in the room? Her sisters in iniquity alone
surround her coffin. One of them is engaged in the double trade of
seduction and thievery. A second is admiring herself in a mirror. A
third gazes with unconcern on the corpse. If any of the number appear
mournful, they express at best but a maudlin sorrow, having glasses
of strong liquor in their hands. The very minister, forgetful of
his office and character, is shamefully employed; nor does a single
circumstance occur, throughout the whole scene, that a reflecting
female would not wish should be alienated from her own interment.--Such
is the plate which our illustrator, with too much levity, has styled a
farce appended to a tragic representation.

He might, however, have exercised his critical abilities with more
success on _Hogarth's_ neglect of propriety, though it affords him
occasion to display his wit. At the burial of a wanton, who expired in
a garret, no escutcheons were ever hung up, or rings given away; and I
much question if any bawd ever chose to avow that character before a
clergyman, or any infant was ever habited as chief mourner to attend a
parent to the grave.--I may add, that when these pictures were painted
(a time, if news-papers are to be credited, when, having no established
police, every act of violence and licentiousness was practised
with impunity in our streets, and women of pleasure were brutally
persecuted in every quarter of the town), a funeral attended by such
a sisterhood would scarcely have been permitted to reach the place of
interment. Much however must be forgiven to the morality of _Hogarth's_
design, and the powers with which it is executed. It may also, on the
present occasion, be observed, that in no other scene, out of the many
he has painted, has he so widely deviated from _vraisemblance_.

The following verses, however wretched, being explanatory of the set
of plates already spoken of, are here re-printed. They made their
appearance under the earliest and best of the pirated copies published
by _Bowles. Hogarth_, finding that such a metrical description had its
effect, resolved that his next series of prints should receive the same
advantage from an abler hand.

        PLATE I.
    See there, but just arriv'd in town,
    The _Country Girl_ in home-spun gown,
    Tho' plain her dress appears, how neat!
    Her looks how innocent and sweet!
    Does not your indignation rise,
    When on the bawd you cast your eyes?
    Fraught with devices to betray;
    She's hither come in quest of prey;
    Screens her designs with godly airs,
    And talks of homilies and pray'rs,
    Till, by her arts, the wretched Maid
    To vile _Francisco_ is betray'd.
    And see, the lewd old rogue appears,
    How at the fresh young thing thing he leers!
    In lines too strong, too well exprest
    The lustful satyr stands confest.

    On batter'd jade, in thread-bare gown,
    The _Rural Priest_ is come to town--
    Think what his humble thought engages;
    Why--lesser work and greater wages.

        PLATE II.
    Debauch'd, and then kick'd out of doors,
    The fate of all _Francisco's_ whores,
    Poor _Polly's_ forc'd to walk the streets,
    Till with a wealthy _Jew_ she meets.
    Quickly the man of circumcision
    For her reception makes provision.
    You see her now in all her splendour,
    A Monkey and a Black t' attend her.
    How great a sot's a keeping cully,
    Who thinks t' enjoy a woman solely!
    Tho' he support her grandeur, Miss
    Will by the bye with others kiss.
    Thus Polly play'd her part; she had
    A _Beau_ admitted to her bed;
    But th' _Hebrew_ coming unexpected,
    Puts her in fear to be detected.
    This to prevent, she at breakfast picks
    A quarrel, and insulting kicks
    The table down: while by her _Maid_
    The _Beau_ is to the door convey'd.

        PLATE III.
    _Molly_ discarded once again,
    Takes lodgings next in _Drury-lane_;
    Sets up the business on her own
    Account, and deals with all the town.
    At breakfast here in deshabille,
    While _Margery_ does the tea-pot fill,
    Miss holds a watch up, which, by slight
    Of hand, was made a prize last night.
    From chandler's shop a dab of butter,
    Brought on his lordship's _Pastoral Letter_,
    A cup, a saucer, knife, and roll,
    Are plac'd before her on a stool.
    A chair behind her holds a cloak,
    A candle in a bottle stuck,
    And by't a bason--but indecent
    T'would be in me to say what is in't.
    At yonder door, see there Sir _John's_
    Just ent'ring with his _Myrmidons_,
    To _Bridewell_ to convey Miss _Molly_,
    And _Margery_ with her to Mill Dolly.[8]

        PLATE IV.
    See _Polly_ now in _Bridewell_ stands,
    A galling mallet in her hands,
    Hemp beating with a heavy heart,
    And not a soul to take her part.
    The _Keeper_, with a look that's sourer
    Than _Turk_ or Devil, standing o'er her:
    And if her time she idles, thwack
    Comes his rattan across her back.
    A dirty, ragged, saucy Jade,
    Who sees her here in rich brocade
    And _Mechlin_ lace, thumping a punny,
    Lolls out her tongue, and winks with one eye.
    That other _Maux_ with half a nose,
    Who's holding up her tatter'd cloaths,
    Laughs too at Madam's working-dress,
    And her grim Tyrant's threat'ning face,
    A _Gamester_ hard by _Poll_ you see,
    In coat be-lac'd and smart toupee.
    _Kate_ vermin kills--chalk'd out upon
    A window-shutter, hangs _Sir John_.

        PLATE V.
    Released from _Bridewell, Poll_ again
    Drives on her former trade amain;
    But who e'er heard of trading wenches
    That long escap'd disease that _French_ is?
    Our _Polly_ did not--Ills on ills,
    Elixirs, boluses and pills,
    Catharticks and emeticks dreary,
    Had made her of her life quite weary;
    At last thrown into salivation
    She sinks beneath the operation.
    A snuffling whore in waiting by her
    Screams out to see the wretch expire.
    The _Doctors_ blame each other; _Meagre_,
    With wrath transported, hot and eager,
    Starts up, throws down the chair and stool,
    And calls her brother _Squab_ a fool.
    Your pills, quoth _Squab_, with cool disdain,
    Not my elixir, prov'd her bane.
    While they contend, a muffled Punk
    Is rummaging poor _Polly's_ trunk.

        PLATE VI.
    The sisterhood of _Drury-lane_
    Are met to form the funeral train.
    _Priss_ turns aside the coffin lid,
    To take her farewell of the dead.
    _Kate_ drinks dejected; _Peggy_ stands
    With dismal look, and wrings her hands.
    _Beck_ wipes her eyes; and at the glass
    In order _Jenny_ sets her face.
    The ruin'd _Bawd_ roars out her grief;
    Her bottle scarcely gives relief.
    _Madge_ fills the wine; his castle-top
    With unconcern the _Boy_ winds up.
    The _Undertaker_ rolls his eyes
    On _Sukey_, as her glove he tries:
    His leering she observes, and while he
    Stands thus, she picks his pocket slily.
    The _Parson_ sits with look demure
    By _Fanny's_ side, but leaning to her.
    His left hand spills the wine; his right--
    I blush to add--is out of sight.

Over the figure of the _Parson_ is the letter A, which conducts to
the following explanation underneath the plate. "A. The famous
_Couple-Beggar_ in _The Fleet_, a wretch who there screens himself from
the justice due to his _villainies_, and daily repeats them."

All but the first impressions of this set of plates are marked thus
†. None were originally printed off except for the 1200 subscribers.
Immediately after they were served, the plates were retouched, and some
of the variations introduced.

[1] In _The Craftsman_ of _Nov._ 25, 1732, we read, "This day is
published, six prints in chiaro oscuro, of _The Harlot's Progress_,
from the designs of Mr. _Hogarth_, in a beautiful green tint, by Mr.
_E. Kirkall_, with proper explanations under each print. Printed and
sold by _E. Kirkall_, in _Dockwell-court, White-Fryars; Phil. Overton_,
in _Fleet-street; H. Overton_ and _J. Hoole_, without _Newgate; J.
King_, in the _Poultry_; and _T. Glass_, under the _Royal Exchange_."

Lest any of our readers should from hence suppose we have been guilty
of an innacuracy in appropriating this set of prints to the year 1733,
&c. it is necessary to observe, that the plates advertised as above,
were only a pirated copy of _Hogarth's_ work, and were published before
their original.

[2] In _The Grub-street Journal_ for _December_ 6, 1733, appeared the
following advertisement: "Lately published, (illustrated with six
prints, neatly engraven from Mr. _Hogarth's_ Designs,) _The Lure of
Venus_; or a Harlot's Progress. An heroi-comical Poem, in six Cantos,
by Mr. _Joseph_ Gay.

 "To Mr. _Joseph_ Gay.


 "It has been well observed, that a great and just objection to the
 Genius of Painters is their want of invention; from whence proceeds so
 many different designs or draughts on the same history or fable. Few
 have ventured to touch upon a new story; but still fewer have invented
 both the story and the execution, as the ingenious Mr. _Hogarth_
 has done, in his six prints of a _Harlot's Progress_; and, without
 a compliment, Sir, your admirable Cantos are a true key and lively
 explanation of the painter's hieroglyphicks.

 "I am, Sir, yours, &c.


This letter, ascribed to _Ambrose Phillips_, was in all probability a
forgery, like the name of _Joseph Gay_.

[3] "Mother _Needham's_ Lamentation," was published in _May_ 1731,
price 6d.

[4] It seems agreed on by our comic-writers, not to finish the
character of a Bawd without giving her some pretence to Religion. In
_Dryden's_ Wild Gallant, _Mother du Lake_, being about to drink a
dram, is made to exclaim, "'Tis a great way to the bottom; but heaven
is all-sufficient to give me strength for it." The scene in which
this speech occurs, was of use to _Richardson_ in his _Clarissa_, and
perhaps to _Foote_, or _Foote's_ original of the character of Mother

[5] So in _Hill's Actor_, pp. 69, 70. "If there be any thing that
comes in competition with the unluckiness of this excellent player's
figure in this character, it is the appearance he made in his new habit
for _Othello_. We are used to see the greatest majesty imaginable
expressed throughout that whole part; and though the joke was somewhat
prematurely delivered to the publick, we must acknowledge, that
his appearance in that tramontane dress made us rather expect to
see a tea-kettle in his hand, than to hear the thundering speeches
_Shakspeare_ has thrown into that character, come out of his mouth."

[6] See the back ground of this plate, for a circumstance of such
unpardonable grossness as admits of no verbal interpretation.

[7] Bishop _Gibson_.

[8] Beat hemp.

2. Rehearsal of the Oratorio of _Judith_. Singing men and boys. Ticket
for "A Modern Midnight Conversation." This Oratorio of _Judith_, which
was performed in character, was written by Mr. _Huggins_, as has been
already observed in p. 187; and the line taken from it,

    "The world shall bow to the _Assyrian_ throne,"

inscribed on the book, is a satire on its want of success.--The corner
figure looking over the notes, was designed for Mr. _Tothall_.

3. A Midnight Modern Conversation. _W. Hogarth inv. pinx. & sculp.
Hogarth_ soon discovered that this engraving was too faintly executed;
and therefore, after taking off a few impressions in red as well as
black, he retouched and strengthened the plate. Under this print are
the following verses:

    Think not to find one meant resemblance here,
    We lash the Vices, but the Persons spare.
    Prints should be priz'd, as Authors should be read,
    Who sharply smile prevailing Folly dead.
    So _Rabilaes_ laught, and so _Cervantes_ thought,
    So Nature dictated what Art has taught.

Most of the figures, however, are supposed to be real portraits. The
Divine and the Lawyer,[1] in particular, are well known to be so.

A pamphlet was published about the same time, under the same title as
this plate. In _Banks's_ Poems, vol. I. p. 87. the print is copied as
a head-piece to an Epistle to Mr. _Hogarth_, on this performance. In
a note, it is said to have appeared after _The Harlot's Progress_;
and that in the original, and all the larger copies, on the papers
that hang out of the politician's pocket at the end of the table, was
written _The Craftsman_, and _The London Journal_.

Of this print a good, but contracted copy, was published (perhaps with
_Hogarth's_ permission), and the following copy of verses engraved
under it.

    The Bacchanalians; or a Midnight Modern Conversation. A Poem
    addressed to the Ingenious Mr. _Hogarth_.

    Sacred to thee, permit this lay
    Thy labour, _Hogarth_, to display!
    Patron and theme in one to be!
    'Tis great, but not too great for thee;
    For thee, the Poet's constant friend,
    Whose vein of humour knows no end.
    This verse which, honest to thy fame,
    Has added to thy praise thy name!
    Who can be dull when to his eyes
    Such various scenes of humour rise?
    Now we behold in what unite
    The Priest, the Beau, the Cit, the Bite;
    Where Law and Physick join the Sword,
    And Justice deigns to crown the board:
    How _Midnight Modern Conversations_
    Mingle all faculties and stations!

    Full to the sight, and next the bowl,
    Sits the physician of the soul;
    No loftier themes his thought pursues
    Than Punch, good Company, and Dues:
    Easy and careless what may fall,
    He hears, consents, and fills to all;
    Proving it plainly by his face
    That cassocks are no signs of grace.

    Near him a son of _Belial_ see;
    (That Heav'n and _Satan_ should agree!)
    Warm'd and wound up to proper height
    He vows to still maintain the fight,
    The brave surviving Priest assails,
    And fairly damns the first that fails;
    Fills up a bumper to the Best
    In Christendom, for that's his taste:
    The parson simpers at the jest,
    And puts it forward to the rest.

    What hand but thine so well could draw
    A formal Barrister at Law?
    _Fitzherbert, Littleton,_ and _Coke,_
    Are all united in his look.
    His spacious wig conceals his ears,
    Yet the dull plodding beast appears.
    His muscles seem exact to fit
    Much noise, much pride, and not much wit.

    Who then is he with solemn phiz,
    Upon his elbows pois'd with ease?
    Freely to speak the Muse is loth--
    Justice or knave--he may be both--
    Justice or knave--'tis much the same:
    To boast of crimes, or tell the shame,
    Of raking talk or reformation,
    'Tis all good _Modern Conversation_.

    What mighty _Machiavel_ art thou,
    With patriot cares upon thy brow?
    Alas, that punch should have the fate
    To drown the pilot of the state!
    That while both sides thy pocket holds,
    Nor _D'Anvers_ grieves, nor _Osborne_ scolds,
    Thou sink'st the business of the nation
    In _Midnight Modern Conversation_!

    The Tradesman tells with wat'ry eyes
    How Credit sinks, how Taxes rise;
    At Parliaments and Great Men pets,
    Counts all his losses and his debts.

    The puny Fop, mankind's disgrace,
    The ladies' jest and looking-glass;
    This he-she thing the mode pursues,
    And drinks in order--till he sp--s.

    See where the Relict of the Wars,
    Deep mark'd with honorary scars,
    A mightier foe has caus'd to yield
    Than ever _Marlbro'_ met in field!
    See prostrate on the earth he lies;
    And learn, ye soldiers, to be wise.

    Flush'd with the fumes of gen'rous wine
    The Doctor's face begins to shine:
    With eyes half clos'd, in stamm'ring strain,
    He speaks the praise of rich champaign.
    'Tis dull in verse, what from thy hand
    Might even a _Cato's_ smile command.
    Th' expiring snuffs, the bottles broke,
    And the full bowl at four o'clock.

_March_ 22, 1742, was acted at _Covent-Garden_, a new scene, called _A
Modern Midnight Conversation_, taken from _Hogarth's_ celebrated print;
in which was introduced, _Hippisley's Drunken Man_, with a comic tale
of what really passed between himself and his old aunt, at her house on
_Mendip-Hills_, in _Somersetshire_. For Mr. _Hippisley's_ benefit.

[1] These, in my first edition, I had ventured, on popular report, to
say were parson _Ford_, and the first Lord _Northington_, when young.
But I am now enabled to identify their persons, on the authority of
Sir _John Hawkins_: "When the Midnight Modern Conversation came out,
the general opinion was, that the Divine was the portrait of Orator
_Henley_; and the Lawyer of _Kettleby_, a vociferous bar orator,
remarkable, though an utter barrister, for wearing a full-bottom'd wig,
which he is here drawn with, as also for a horrible squint."

In that once popular satire, _The Causidicade_, are the following lines
on this lawyer:

    "Up _Kettleby_ starts with a _horrible stare!_
    'Behold, my good Lord, your old friend at the bar,
    Or rather old foe, for foes we have been,
    As treason fell out, and poor traitors fell in.
    Strong opposites e'er, and not once of a side,
    Attornies will always great counsel divide.
    You _for_ persecutions, I always _against_,
    How oft with a joke 'gainst your law have I fenc'd?
    How oft in your pleadings I've pick'd out a hole,
    Thro' which from your pounces my culprit I've stole;
    I've puzzled against you now eight years or nine,
    You, my Lord, for your King, I a ----l for mine.
    But what is all this? Now your Lordship will say,
    To get at the office this is not the way.
    I own it is not, so I make no request
    For myself, still firm to my party and test:
    But if 'tis your pleasure to give it my son,
    He shall take off his coif t'accept of the boon;
    That coif I, refusing, transferr'd upon him,
    For who'd be a serjeant where _P----r_ was Prime?
    That my son is a lawyer no one can gainsay,
    As witness his getting off _W----te_ t'other day.'
    Quo' my Lord, 'My friend _Abel_, I needs must allow
    You have puzzled me oft, as indeed you do now;
    Nay, have puzzled yourself, the court and the law,
    And chuckled most wittily over a flaw;
    For your nostrums, enigmas, conundrums, and puns,
    Are above comprehension, save that of your son's.
    To fling off the coif! Oh fye, my friend _Abel_,
    'Twould be acting the part of the Cock in the Fable!
    'Tis a badge of distinction! and some people buy it;
    Can you doubt on't, when _Skinner_ and _Hayward_ enjoy it?
    Tho' I own you have spoil'd (but I will not enlarge on't)
    A good Chancery draftsman to make a bad Serjeant.'"

Lord _Northington_ did not come into notice till many years after the
publication of this print.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. The Rake's Progress, in eight plates.

Extract from the _London Daily Post, May_ 14, 1735:

"The nine prints from the paintings of Mr. _Hogarth_, one representing
a Fair, and the others a Rake's Progress, are now printing off, and
will be ready to be delivered on the 25th of _June_ next.

"Subscriptions will be taken at Mr. _Hogarth's_, the _Golden-Head_, in
_Leicester-fields_, till the 23d of _June_, and no longer, at half a
guinea to be paid on subscribing, and half a guinea more on delivery of
the prints at the price above-mentioned, after which the price will be
two guineas.

"N. B. Mr. _Hogarth_ was, and is, obliged to defer the publication
and delivery of the abovesaid prints till the 25th of _June_ next, in
order to secure his property, pursuant to an act lately passed both
houses of parliament, now waiting for the royal assent, to secure all
new invented prints that shall be published after the 24th of _June_
next, from being copied without consent of the proprietor, and thereby
preventing a scandalous and unjust custom (hitherto practised with
impunity) of making and vending base copies of original prints, to the
manifest injury of the author, and the great discouragement of the arts
of painting and engraving."

In _The Craftsman_, soon afterwards, appeared the following

"Pursuant to an agreement with the subscribers to the Rake's Progress,
not to sell them for less than two guineas each set after publication
thereof, the said original prints are to be had at Mr. _Hogarth's_,
the _Golden-Head_, in _Leicester-fields_; and at _Tho. Bakewell's_,
print-seller, next _Johnson's Court_, in _Fleet-street_, where all
other print-sellers may be supplied.

"In four days will be published, copies from the said prints, with the
consent of Mr. _Hogarth_, according to the act of parliament, which
will be sold at 2 _s._ 6 _d._ each set, with the usual allowance to
all dealers in town and country; and, that the the publick may not be
imposed on, at the bottom of each print will be inserted these words,
_viz._ 'Published with the consent of Mr. _William Hogarth_, by _Tho.
Bakewell_, according to act of parliament.'

"N. B. Any person that shall sell any other copies, or imitations
of the said prints, will incur the penalties in the late act of
parliament, and be prosecuted for the same."

This series of plates, however, as Mr. _Walpole_ observes, was pirated
by _Boitard_ on one very large sheet of paper, containing the several
scenes represented by _Hogarth_. It came out a fortnight before the
genuine set, but was soon forgotten. The principal variations in these
prints are the following:

Plate I. The girl's face who holds the ring is erased, and a worse is
put in.[1] The mother's head, &c. is lessened. The shoe-sole, cut from
the cover of an ancient family Bible, together with a chest, is added;
the memorandum-book removed into another place; the woollen-draper's
shop bill,[2] appended to a roll of black cloth, omitted; the contents
of the closet thrown more into shade.

In Plate II. are portraits of _Figg_, the prize-fighter;[3]
_Bridgeman_, a noted gardener; and _Dubois_, a master of defence,
who was killed in a duel by one of the same name, as the following
paragraphs in _The Grub-street Journal_ for _May_ 16, 1734, &c. will
testify: "Yesterday (_May_ 11) between two and three in the afternoon,
a duel was fought in _Mary-le-bone Fields_, between Mr. _Dubois_ a
_Frenchman_, and Mr. _Dubois_ an _Irishman_, both fencing-masters, the
former of whom was run through the body, but walked a considerable way
from the place, and is now under the hands of an able surgeon, who has
great hopes of his recovery."

_May_ 23, 1734, "Yesterday morning died Mr. _Dubois_, of a wound he
received in a duel."

The portrait of _Handel_ has been supposed to be represented in the
plate before us; but "this," as Sir _John Hawkins_ observes to me, "is
too much to say. Mr. _Handel_ had a higher sense of his own merit than
ever to put himself in such a situation; and, if so, the painter would
hardly have thought of doing it. The musician must mean in general
any composer of operas." On the floor lies a picture representing
_Farinelli_, seated on a pedestal, with an altar before him, on which
are several flaming hearts, near which stand a number of people with
their arms extended, offering him presents: at the foot of the altar
is one female kneeling, tendering her heart. From her mouth a label
issues, inscribed, "One God, one _Farinelli_;" alluding to a lady of
distinction, who, being charmed with a particular passage in one of
his songs, uttered aloud from the boxes that impious exclamation. On
the figure of the captain, _Rouquet_ has the following remark: "Ce
caractere ne paroit plus _Italien_ qu'_Anglois_." I am not sufficiently
versed in _Alsatian_ annals to decide on the question; but believe that
the bully by profession (not assassin, as _Rouquet_ seems to interpret
the character) was to be found during the youth of our artist. More
have heard and been afraid of these vulgar heroes, than ever met
with them. This set of prints was engraved by _Scotin_ chiefly; but
several of the faces were touched upon by _Hogarth_. In the second
plate the countenance of the man with the quarter-staves was wholly
engraved by _Hogarth_. In some early proofs of the print, there is
not a single feature on this man's face; there is no writing either
in the musician's book, or on the label; nor is there the horse-race
cup, the letter, or the poem that lies at the end of the label, that
being entirely blank. I mention these circumstances to shew that our
artist would not entrust particular parts of his work to any hand but
his own; or perhaps he had neither determined on the countenance or the
inscription he meant to introduce, till the plate was far advanced.
With unfinished proofs, on any other account, this catalogue has
nothing to do. As the rudiments of plates, they may afford instruction
to young engravers; or add a fancied value to the collections of

In the third plate is _Leather-coat_,[4] a noted porter belonging to
_The Rose_ Tavern, with a large pewter dish in his hand, which for
many years served as a sign to the shop of a pewterer on _Snow-Hill_.
In this utensil the posture-woman, who is undressing, used to whirl
herself round, and display other feats of indecent activity: "II
suffit" (I transcribe from _Rouquet_, who is more circumstantial) "de
vous laisser à deviner la destination de la chandelle. Ce grand plat
va servir a cette femme comme à une poularde. Il sera mis au milieu
de la table; elle s'y placera sur le dos; et l'ivresse et l'esprit
de débauche feront trouver plaisant un jeu, qui de sang-froid ne le
paroit guères." _Rouquet_, in his description of an _English_ tavern,
such as that in which our scene lies, mentions the following as
extraordinary conveniencies and articles of magnificence: "Du linge
toujours blanc[5]--de tables de bois qu'on appelle ici mahogani--grand
feu et gratis." Variations: _Pontac's_ head is added in the room of
a mutilated _Cæsar_. Principal woman has a man's hat on. Rake's head
altered. Undrest woman's head altered. Woman who spirts the wine, and
she who threatens her with a drawn knife, have lower caps, &c.

So entirely do our manners differ from those of fifty years ago, that
I much question if at present, in all the taverns of _London_, any
thing resembling the scene here exhibited by _Hogarth_ could be found.
That we are less sensual than our predecessors, I do not affirm;
but may with truth observe, we are more delicate in pursuit of our
gratifications.--No young man, of our hero's fortune and education,
would now think of entertaining half a score of prostitutes at a
tavern, after having routed a set of feeble wretches, who are idly
called our Guardians of the Night.

Plate IV. _Rakewell_ is going to court on the first of _March_,
which was Queen _Caroline's_ birth-day, as well as the anniversary
of _St. David_. In the early impressions a shoe-black steals the
Rake's cane. In the modern ones, a large group of blackguards[6] [the
chimney-sweeper peeping over the poll boy's cards, and discovering that
he has two honours, by holding up two fingers, is among the luckiest
of _Hogarth's_ traits] are introduced gambling on the pavement; near
them a stone inscribed BLACK'S, a contrast to _White's_ gaming-house,
against which a flash of lightning is pointed. The curtain in the
window of the sedan chair is thrown back. This plate is likewise found
in an intermediate state;[7] the sky being made unnaturally obscure,
with an attempt to introduce a shower of rain, and lightning very
aukwardly represented. It is supposed to be a first proof after the
insertion of the group of black-guard gamesters; the window of the
chair being only marked for an alteration that was afterwards made
in it. _Hogarth_ appears to have so far spoiled the sky, that he was
obliged to obliterate it, and cause it to be engraved over again by
another hand.[8] Not foreseeing, however, the immense demand for his
prints, many of them were so slightly executed, as very early to stand
in need of retouching. The seventh in particular was so much more
slightly executed than the rest, that it sooner wanted renovation, and
is therefore to be found in three different states. The rest appear
only in two.

In Plate V. is his favourite dog _Trump_. In this, also the head of the
maid-servant is greatly altered, and the leg and foot of the bridegroom

From the antiquated bride, and the young female adjusting the folds
of her gown, in this plate, is taken a _French_ print of a wrinkled
harridan of fashion at her toilet, attended by a blooming coëffeuse.
It was engraved by _L. Surugue_ in 1745, from a picture in crayons by
_Coypel_, and is entitled, _La Folie pare la Decrepitude des ajustemens
de la Jeunesse_. From the _Frenchman_, however, the _Devonshire-square_
dowager of our artist has received so high a polish, that she might be
mistaken for a queen mother of _France_.

Mr. _Gilpin_, in his remarks on this plate, appears not to have fully
comprehended the extent of the satire designed in it. Speaking of the
church, he observes, that "the wooden post, which seems to have no use,
divides the picture disagreeably." _Hogarth_, however, meant to expose
the insufficiency of such ecclesiastical repairs as are confided to
the superintendance of parish-officers. We learn, from an inscription
on the front of a pew, that "This church was beautified in the Year
1725. _Tho. Sice, Tho. Horn,_ Churchwardens."[9] The print before us
came out in 1735 (i. e. only ten years afterwards), and by that time
the building might have been found in the condition here exhibited, and
have required a prop to prevent part of its roof from falling in.--As
a proof that this edifice was really in a ruinous state, it was pulled
down and rebuilt in the year 1741.

Fifty years ago, _Marybone_ church was considered at such a distance
from _London_, as to become the usual resort of those who, like our
hero, wished to be privately married.

In Plate VI. the fire breaking out, alludes to the same accident which
happened at _White's, May_ 3, 1733. I learn from a very indifferent
poem descriptive of this set of plates (the title is unfortunately
wanting), that some of the characters in the scene before us were real

    "But see the careful plain old man,
    _M----_[10], well-known youth to trepan,
    To _C------sh_[11] lend the dear bought pence,
    _C------sh_ quite void of common sense,
    Whose face, unto his soul a sign,
    Looks stupid, as does that within.
    A quarrel from behind ensues,
    The sure retreat of those that lose.
    An honest _'Squire_ smells the cheat,
    And swears the villain shall be beat:
    But _G----dd_ wisely interferes,
    And dissipates the wretch's fears."

The original sketch in oil for this scene is at Mrs. _Hogarth's_ house
in _Leicester-fields_. The principal character was then sitting,
and not, as he is at present, thrown upon his knees in the act of

The thought of the losing gamester pulling his hat over his brows is
adopted from a similar character to be found among the figures of the
principal personages in the court of _Louis_ XIV. folio. This work has
no engraver's name, but was probably executed about the year 1700.

Plate VII. The celebrated _Beccaria_, in his "Essay on Public
Happiness," vol. II. p. 172, observes, "I am sensible there are
persons whom it will be difficult for me to persuade: I mean those
profound contemplators, who, secluding themselves from their
fellow-creatures, are assiduously employed in framing laws for them,
and who frequently neglect the care of their domestic and private
concerns, to prescribe to empires that form of government, to which
they imagine that they ought to submit. The celebrated _Hogarth_ hath
represented, in one of his moral engravings, a young man who, after
having squandered away his fortune, is, by his creditors, lodged in a
gaol. There he sits, melancholy and disconcerted, near a table, whilst
a scroll lies under his feet, and bears the following title: 'being a
new scheme for paying the debt of the nation. By _T. L._ now a prisoner
in _The Fleet_.'"

The Author of the poem already quoted, intimates that the personage in
the night-gown was meant for some real character:

    "His wig was full as old as he,
    In which one curl you could not see.
    His neckcloth loose, his beard full grown,
    An old torn night-gown not his own.
    _L------_, great schemist, that can pay,
    The nation's debt an easy way."

In Plate VIII. (which appears in three different states) is a
half-penny reversed (struck in the year 1763) and fixed against
the wall, intimating, that _Britannia_ herself was fit only for a
mad-house. This was a circumstance inserted by our artist (as he
advertises) about a year before his death. I may add, that the man
drawing lines against the wall just over the half-penny, alludes to
_Whiston's_ proposed method of discovering the Longitude by the firing
of bombs, as here represented. The idea of the two figures at each
corner of the print appears to have been taken from _Cibber's_ statues
at _Bedlam_. The faces of the two females are also changed. That of the
woman with a fan, is entirely altered; she has now a cap on, instead of
a hood, and is turned, as if speaking to the other.

Mr. _Gilpin's_ opinion concerning this set of prints is too valuable
to be omitted, and is therefore transcribed below.[12] The plates were
thus admirably illustrated by Dr. _John Hoadly_.

        PLATE I.
    O Vanity of _Age_, untoward,
    Ever spleeny, ever froward!
    Why these Bolts, and massy chains,
    Squint suspicions, jealous Pains?
    Why, thy toilsome Journey o'er,
    Lay'st thou in an useless store?
    _Hope_ along with _Time_ is flown,
    Nor canst thou reap the field thou'st sown.

    Hast thou a son? in time be wise--.
    He views thy toil with other eyes.
    Needs must thy kind, paternal care,
    Lock'd in thy chests be buried there?
    Whence then shall flow that friendly ease,
    That social converse, home-felt peace,
    Familiar duty without dread,
    Instruction from example bred,
    Which youthful minds with freedom mend,
    And with the _father_ mix the _friend_?

    Uncircumscrib'd by prudent rules,
    Or precepts of expensive schools
    Abus'd at home, abroad despis'd,
    Unbred, unletter'd, unadvis'd;
    The headstrong course of youth begun,
    What comfort from this darling son?

        PLATE II.
    _Prosperity_ (with harlot's smiles,
    Most pleasing when she most beguiles)
    How soon, sweet foe, can all thy train
    Of false, gay, frantic, loud, and vain,
    Enter the unprovided mind,
    And Memory in fetters bind;
    Load _Faith_ and _Love_ with golden chain,
    And sprinkle _Lethe_ o'er the brain!

    _Pleasure_, in her silver throne,
    Smiling comes, nor comes alone;
    _Venus_ comes with her along,
    And smooth _Lyæus_ ever young;
    And in their train, to fill the press,
    Come apish _Dance_, and swol'n _Excess_,
    Mechanic _Honour_, vicious _Taste_,
    And _Fashion_ in her changing vest.

        PLATE III.
    O vanity of youthful blood,
    So by misuse to poison _good!
    Woman_, fram'd for social love,
    Fairest gift of powers above;
    Source of every houshold blessing,
    All charms in innocence possessing--
    But turn'd to Vice, all plagues above,
    Foe to thy Being, foe to Love!
    Guest divine to outward viewing,
    Ablest Minister of Ruin!

    And thou, no less of gift divine,
    "Sweet poison of misused wine!"
    With freedom led to every part,
    And secret chamber of the heart;
    Dost thou thy friendly host betray,
    And show thy riotous gang the way
    To enter in with covert treason,
    O'erthrow the drowsy guard of reason,
    To ransack the abandon'd place,
    And revel there in wild excess?

        PLATE IV.
    O vanity of youthful blood,
    So by misuse to poison _good!_
    Reason awakes, and views unbarr'd
    The sacred gates he watch'd to guard;
    Approaching sees the harpy, _Law_,
    And _Poverty_, with icy paw,
    Ready to seize the poor remains--
    That Vice has left of all his gains.
    Cold _Penitence_, lame _After-thought_,
    With fears, despair, and horrors fraught,
    Call back his guilty pleasures dead,
    Whom he hath wrong'd, and whom betray'd.

        PLATE V.
    New to the School of hard _Mishap_,
    Driven from the ease of Fortune's lap,
    What schemes will Nature not embrace
    T' avoid less shame of drear distress!
    _Gold_ can the charms of youth bestow,
    And mask deformity with show:
    Gold can avert the sting of _Shame_,
    In winter's arms create a flame;
    Can couple youth with hoary age,
    And make antipathies engage.

        PLATE VI.
    _Gold_, thou bright son of _Phœbus_, source
    Of universal intercourse;
    Of weeping Virtue soft redress,
    And blessing those who live to bless!
    Yet oft behold this sacred truth,
    The tool of avaricious Lust:
    No longer bond of human kind,
    But bane of every virtuous mind.

    What chaos such misuse attends!
    Friendship stoops to prey on friends;
    Health, that gives relish to delight,
    Is wasted with the wasting night;
    Doubt and mistrust is thrown on _Heaven_,
    And all its power to _Chance_ is given.
    Sad purchase of repentant tears,
    Of needless quarrels, endless fears,
    Of hopes of moments, pangs of years!
    Sad purchase of a _tortur'd mind_
    To an _imprison'd body_ join'd!

        PLATE VII.
    Happy the man, whose constant thought
    (Though in the school of hardship taught)
    Can send _Remembrance_ back to fetch
    Treasures from life's earliest stretch;
    Who, self-approving, can review
    Scenes of past virtues, which shine through
    The gloom of age, and cast a ray
    To gild the evening of his day!

    Not so the guilty wretch confin'd:
    No pleasures meet his conscious mind;
    No blessings brought from early youth,
    But broken faith and wrested truth,
    Talents idle and unus'd,
    And every trust of Heaven abus'd.

    In seas of sad reflection lost,
    From horrors still to horrors toss'd,
    _Reason_ the vessel leaves to steer,
    And gives the helm to mad _despair_.

        PLATE VIII.
    _Madness!_ thou chaos of the brain;
    What art, that pleasure giv'st and pain?
    Tyranny of Fancy's reign!
    Mechanic _Fancy!_ that can build
    Vast labyrinths and mazes wild,
    With rule disjointed, shapeless measure,
    Fill'd with _horror_, fill'd with _pleasure!_
    Shapes of _horror_, that would even
    Cast doubt of mercy upon Heaven!
    Shapes of _pleasure_, that but seen
    Would split the shaking sides of _spleen_.

    O vanity of age! here see
    The stamp of Heaven effac'd by thee!
    The headstrong course of youth thus run,
    What comfort from this darling son?
    His rattling chains with terror hear;
    Behold Death grappling with despair;
    See him by thee to ruin sold,
    And curse _Thyself_, and curse thy _Gold_.

On this occasion also appeared an 8vo pamphlet, intituled, "The Rake's
Progress, or the Humours of _Drury-Lane_, a poem in eight canto's, in
_Hudibrastick_ verse, being the ramble of a modern _Oxonian_, which is
a compleat key to the eight prints lately published by the celebrated
Mr. _Hogarth_." The second edition with additions, particularly an
"epistle to Mr. _Hogarth_" was "printed for _J. Chetwood_, and sold at
_Inigo Jones's-Head_ against _Exeter Change_ in _The Strand_, 1735."
This is a most contemptible and indecent performance. Eight prints
are inserted in some copies of it; but they are only the designs of
_Hogarth_ murdered, and perhaps were not originally intended for the
decoration of the work already described.

The original paintings, both of the Rake's and Harlot's Progress, were
at _Fonthill_, in _Wiltshire_, the seat of Mr. _Beckford_,[13] where
the latter were destroyed by a fire, in the year 1755; the former set
was happily preserved. Mr. _Barnes_, of _Rippon_, in _Yorkshire_,
has the Harlot's Progress in oil. It must, however, be a copy. Mr.
_Beckford_ has also twenty-five heads from the Cartoons by _Hogarth_,
for which he paid twenty-five guineas.

There is reason to believe that _Hogarth_ once designed to have
introduced the ceremony of a _Marriage Contract_ into the Rake's
Progress, instead of the _Levee_. An unfinished painting of this scene
is still preserved. We have here the Rake's apartment as now exhibited
in Plate II. In the anti-room, among other figures, we recognize that
of the poet who at present congratulates our hero on his accession to
wealth and pleasure. The bard is here waiting with an epithalamium
in his hand. The Rake has added connoisseurship to the rest of his
expensive follies. One of his purchases is a canvas containing only the
representation of a human foot. [Perhaps this circumstance might allude
to the dissection of _Arlaud's Leda_. See Mr. _Walpole's_ Anecdotes,
&c. vol. IV. p. 39.] A second is so obscure, that no objects in it
are discernible. [A performance of the same description is introduced
in our artist's _Piquet, or Virtue in Danger_.] A third presents us
with a _Madona_ looking down with fondness on the infant she holds
in her arms. [This seems intended as a contrast to the grey headed
bride who sits under it, and is apparently past child-bearing.] The
fourth is emblematical, and displays perhaps too licentious a satire
on transubstantiation. The Blessed Virgin is thrusting her Son down
the hopper of a mill, in which he is ground by priests till he issues
out in the shape of the consecrated _wafer_, supposed by Catholicks
to contain the _real presence_. At a table sits a toothless decrepit
father, guardian, or match-maker, joining the hand of the rake with
that of the antiquated female, whose face is highly expressive of
eagerness, while that of her intended husband is directed a contrary
way, toward a groom who is bringing in a piece of plate won at a
horse-race.[14] On the floor in front lie a heap of mutilated busts,
&c. which our spendthrift is supposed to have recently purchased at
an auction. The black boy, who is afterwards met with in Plate IV.
of Marriage Alamode, was transplanted from this canvas. He is here
introduced supporting such a picture of _Ganymede_ as hangs against the
wall of the lady's dressing-room in the same plate of the same work.

[1] The face of this female has likewise been changed on the last
plate. In the intermediate ones it remains as originally designed. To
give the same character two different casts of countenance, was surely
an incongruity without excuse.

[2] The inscription on this bill is--"_London_, bought of _William
Tothall_, Woollen-draper in _Covent-Garden_." See the corner figure
looking over the music in the _Rehearsal of the Oratorio of Judith_;
and note, p. 116.

[3] Of whom a separate portrait, by _Ellis_, had been published by
_Overton. Figg_ died in the year 1734. As the taste of the publick is
much changed about the importance of the _noble_ Science of Defence,
as it was called, and as probably it will never again revive, it may
afford some entertainment to my readers, to see the terms in which this
celebrated prize-fighter is spoken of by a professor of the art. "FIGG
was the _Atlas_ of the Sword; and may he remain the gladiating statue!
In him strength, resolution, and unparalleled judgement, conspired to
form a matchless master. There was a majesty shone in his countenance,
and blazed in all his actions, beyond all I ever saw. His right leg
bold and firm, and his left, which could hardly ever be disturbed, gave
him the surprising advantage already proved, and struck his adversary
with despair and panic. He had that peculiar way of stepping in I spoke
of, in a parry; he knew his arm, and its just time of moving; put a
firm faith in that, and never let his adversary escape his parry. He
was just as much a greater master than any other I ever saw, as he was
a greater judge of time and measure." _Captain John Godfrey's Treatise
upon the Useful Science of Defence_, 4to, 1747, p. 41. "Mr. _Figg_,"
says _Chetwood_, History of the Stage, p. 60, "informed me once, that
he had not bought a shirt for more than twenty years, but had sold some
dozens. It was his method, when he fought in his amphitheatre (his
stage bearing that superb title), to send round to a select number of
his scholars, to borrow a shirt for the ensuing combat, and seldom
failed of half a dozen of superfine Holland from his prime pupils (most
of the young nobility and gentry made it a part of their education to
march under his warlike banner). This champion was generally conqueror,
though his shirt seldom failed of gaining a cut from his enemy, and
sometimes his flesh, though I think he never received any dangerous
wound. Most of his scholars were at every battle, and were sure to
exult at their great master's victories, every person supposing he
saw the wounds his shirt received. Mr. _Figg_ took his opportunity
to inform his lenders of linen of the chasms their shirts received,
with a promise to send them home. But, said the ingenious courageous
_Figg_, I seldom received any other answer than D-mn you, keep it!" A
Poem by Dr. _Byrom_, on a battle between _Figg_ and _Sutton_, another
prize-fighter, is in the 6th Volume of _Dodsley's_ Collection of Poems.

[4] _Fielding_ has introduced this porter, under the name of
_Leathersides_, into _The Covent-Garden Tragedy_, acted in 1732.

    Two whores, great Madam, must be straight prepar'd,
    A fat one for the Squire, and for my Lord a lean.

    Thou, _Leathersides_, best know'st such nymphs to find,
    To thee their lodgings they communicate.
    Go thou procure the girl.

[5] The cleanliness of the _English_ seems to have made a similar
impression on the mind of M. _De Grosley_, who, in his "Tour to
_London_," observes, that "The plate, hearth-stones, moveables,
apartments, doors, stairs, the very street-doors, their locks, and
the large brass knockers, are every day washed, scowered, or rubbed.
Even in lodging-houses, the middle of the stairs is often covered with
carpeting, to prevent them from being soiled. All the apartments in the
house have mats or carpets; and the use of them has been adopted some
years since by the _French_;" and that "The towns and villages upon
the road have excellent inns, but somewhat dear; at these an _English_
lord is as well served as at his own house, and with a cleanliness
much to be wished for in most of the best houses of _France_. The
innkeeper makes his appearance only to do the honours of his table to
the greatest personages, who often invite him to dine with them."

[6] The chief of these, who wears something that seems to have been
a tie-wig, was painted from a _French_ boy, who cleaned shoes at the
corner of _Hog-Lane_.

[7] In the collection of Mr. _Steevens_ only.

[8] He had meditated, however, some additional improvements in the
same plate. When he had inserted the storm, he began to consider the
impropriety of turning the girl out in the midst of it with her head
uncovered; and therefore, on a proof of this print, from which he
designed to have worked, he sketched her hat in with _Indian_ ink.

[9] It appears, on examination of the Registers, &c. that _Tho. Sice_
and _Tho. Horn_ are not fictitious names. Such people were really
churchwardens when the repairs in 1725 were made. The following
inscription on the pew, denoting a vault beneath, is also genuine, and,
as far as can be known at present, was faithfully copied in regard to
its obsolete spelling.


Part of these words, in raised letters, at present form a pannel in the
wainscot at the end of the right-hand gallery, as the church is entered
from the street.--No heir of the _Forset_ family appearing, their vault
has been claimed and used by his Grace the Duke of _Portland_, as lord
of the manor. The mural monument of the _Taylors_, composed of lead
gilt over, is likewise preserved. It is seen, in _Hogarth's_ print,
just under the window. The bishop of the diocese, when the new church
was built, gave orders that all the ancient tablets should be placed,
as nearly as possible, in their former situations.

[10] Old _Manners_, brother to the late _Duke of Rutland_.

[11] The old Duke of _Devonshire_ lost the great estate of _Leicester_
abbey to him at the gaming-table. _Manners_ was the only person of his
time who had amassed a considerable fortune by the profession of a

[12] "The first print of this capital work is an excellent
representation of a young heir, taking possession of a miser's effects.
The passion of avarice, which hoards every thing, without distinction,
what is and what is not valuable, is admirably described.--The
_composition_, though not excellent, is not unpleasing. The principal
group, consisting of the young gentleman, the taylor, the appraiser,
the papers, and chest, is well shaped: but the eye is hurt by the
disagreeable regularity of three heads nearly in a line, and at equal
distances.--The _light_ is not ill disposed. It falls on the principal
figures: but the effect might have been improved. If the extreme parts
of the mass (the white apron on one side, and the memorandum-book on
the other) had been in shade, the _repose_ had been less injured.
The detached parts of a group should rarely catch a strong body of
light.--We have no striking instances of _expression_ in this print.
The principal figure is unmeaning. The only one, which displays the
true _vis comica_ of _Hogarth_, is the appraiser fingering the gold.
You enter at once into his character.--The young woman might have
furnished the artist with an opportunity of presenting a graceful
figure; which would have been more pleasing. The figure he _has_
introduced, is by no means an object of allurement.--The _perspective_
is accurate, but affected. So many windows, and open doors, may shew
the author's learning; but they break the back ground, and injure the
simplicity of it.

"The second print introduces our hero into all the dissipation of
modish life. We became first acquainted with him, when a boy of
eighteen. He is now of age; has entirely thrown off the clownish
school-boy; and assumes the man of fashion. Instead of the country
taylor, who took measure of him for his father's mourning, he is now
attended by _French_ barbers, _French_ taylors, poets, milleners,
jockies, bullies, and the whole retinue of a fine gentleman.--The
_expression_, in this print, is wonderfully great. The dauntless front
of the bully; the keen eye, and elasticity of the fencing-master;
and the simpering importance of the dancing-master, are admirably
expressed. The last is perhaps a little _outré_. The architect[A] is
a strong copy from nature.--The _composition_ seems to be entirely
subservient to the expression. It appears, as if _Hogarth_ had
sketched, in his memorandum-book, all the characters which he has here
introduced; but was at a loss how to group them; and chose rather to
introduce them in detached figures, as he had sketched them, than to
lose any part of the expression by combining them.--The _light_ is ill
distributed. It is spread indiscriminately over the print; and destroys
the _whole_--We have no instance of _grace_ in any of the figures.
The principal figure is very deficient. There is no contrast in the
limbs; which is always attended with a degree of ungracefulness.--The
_execution_ is very good. It is elaborate, and yet free.--The satire on
operas, though it may be well directed, is forced and unnatural.

"The third plate carries us still deeper into the history. We meet
our hero engaged in one of his evening amusements. This print, on
the whole, is no very extraordinary effort of genius.--The _design_
is good; and may be a very exact description of the humours of a
brothel.--The _composition_ too is not amiss. But we have few of
those masterly strokes which distinguish the works of _Hogarth_. The
whole is plain history. The lady setting the world on fire is the
best thought: and there is some humour in furnishing the room with
a set of _Cæsars_; and not placing them in order.--The _light_ is
ill managed. By a few alterations, which are obvious, particularly
by throwing the lady dressing into the shade, the disposition of it
might have been tolerable. But still we should have had an absurdity
to answer, whence comes it? Here is light in abundance; but no visible
source.--_Expression_ we have a little through the whole print. That
of the principal figure is the best. The ladies have all the air of
their profession; but no variety of character. _Hogarth's_ women are,
in general, very inferior to his men. For which reason I prefer the
_Rake's Progress_ to the _Harlot's_. The female face indeed has seldom
strength of feature enough to admit the strong markings of expression.

"Very disagreeable accidents often befall gentlemen of pleasure. An
event of this kind is recorded in the fourth print; which is now
before us. Our hero going, in full dress, to pay his compliments at
court on St. _David's_ day, was accosted in the rude manner which is
here represented.--The _composition_ is good. The form of the group,
made up of the figures in action, the chair, and the lamp-lighter, is
pleasing. Only, here we have an opportunity of remarking, that a group
is disgusting when the extremities of it are heavy. A group in some
respect should resemble a tree. The heavier part of the foliage (the
_cup_ as the landscape painter calls it) is always near the middle;
the outside branches, which are relieved by the sky, are light and
airy. An inattention to this rule has given a heaviness to the group
before us. The two bailiffs, the woman, and the chairman, are all
huddled together in that part of the group which should have been the
lightest; while the middle part, where the hand holds the door, wants
strength and consistence. It may be added too, that the four heads, in
the form of a diamond, make an unpleasing shape. All regular figures
should be studiously avoided.--The _light_ had been well distributed,
if the bailiff holding the arrest, and the chairman, had been a
little lighter, and the woman darker. The glare of the white apron is
disagreeable.--We have, in this print, some beautiful instances of
_expression_. The surprise and terror of the poor gentleman is apparent
in every limb, as far as is consistent with the fear of discomposing
his dress. The insolence of power in one of the bailiffs, and the
unfeeling heart, which can jest with misery, in the other, are strongly
marked. The self-importance too of the honest _Cambrian_ is not ill
portrayed; who is chiefly introduced to settle the chronology of the
story.--In point of _grace_, we have nothing striking. _Hogarth_
might have introduced a degree of it in the female figure: at least
he might have contrived to vary the heavy and unpleasing form of her
drapery.--The _perspective_ is good, and makes an agreeable shape.--I
cannot leave this print without remarking the _falling band-box_.
Such representations of quick motion are absurd; and every moment the
absurdity grows stronger. You cannot deceive the eye. The falling body
_must_ appear _not_ to fall. Objects of that kind are beyond the power
of representation.

"Difficulties crowd so fast upon our hero, that at the age of
twenty-five, which he seems to have attained in the fifth plate, we
find him driven to the necessity of marrying a woman, whom he detests,
for her fortune. The _composition_ here is very good; and yet we have a
disagreeable regularity in the climax of the three figures, the maid,
the bride, and the bride-groom.--The _light_ is not ill distributed.
The principal figure too is _graceful_; and there is strong
_expression_ in the seeming tranquillity of his features. He hides his
contempt of the object before him as well as he can; and yet he cannot
do it. She too has as much meaning as can appear thro' the deformity
of her features. The clergyman's face we are all well acquainted with,
and also his wig; tho' we cannot pretend to say, where we have seen
either. The clerk too is an admirable fellow.--The _perspective_ is
well understood; but the church is too small;[B] and the wooden post,
which seems to have no use, divides the picture very disagreeably.--The
creed lost, the commandments broken, and the poor's-box obstructed by a
cobweb, are all excellent strokes of satirical humour.

"The fortune, which our adventurer has just received, enables him
to make one push more at the gaming-table. He is exhibited, in the
sixth print, venting curses on his folly for having lost his last
stake.--This is upon the whole, perhaps, the best print of the set.
The horrid scene it describes was never more inimitably drawn. The
_composition_ is artful, and natural. If the shape of the whole be
not quite pleasing, the figures are so well grouped, and with so much
ease and variety, that you cannot take offence.--In point of light,
it is more culpable. There is not shade enough among the figures to
balance the glare. If the neck-cloth and weepers of the gentleman in
mourning had been removed, and his hands thrown into shade, even that
alone would have improved the effect.--The _expression_, in almost
every figure, is admirable; and the whole is a strong representation
of the human mind in a storm. Three stages of that species of madness,
which attends gaming, are here described. On the first shock, all is
inward dismay. The ruined gamester is representing leaning against
a wall, with his arms across, lost in an agony of horror. Perhaps
never passion was described with so much force. In a short time this
horrible gloom bursts into a storm of fury: he tears in pieces what
comes next him; and, kneeling down, invokes curses upon himself. He
next attacks others; every one in his turn whom he imagines to have
been instrumental in his ruin.--The eager joy of the winning gamesters,
the attention of the usurer, the vehemence of the watchman, and the
profound reverie of the highwayman, are all admirably marked. There
is great coolness too expressed in the little we see of the fat
gentleman at the end of the table. The figure opposing the mad-man is
bad: it has a drunken appearance; and drunkenness is not the vice of a
gaming table.--The principal figure is _ill-drawn_. The _perspective_
is formal; and the _execution_ but indifferent: in heightening his
expression, _Hogarth_ has lost his spirit.

"The seventh plate, which gives us the view of a jail, has very little
in it. Many of the circumstances, which may well be supposed to
increase the misery of a confined debtor, are well contrived; but the
fruitful genius of _Hogarth_, I should think, might have treated the
subject in a more copious manner. The episode of the fainting woman
might have given way to many circumstances more proper to the occasion.
This is the same woman, whom the rake discards in the first print; by
whom he is rescued in the fourth; who is present at his marriage; who
follows him into jail; and, lastly, to _Bedlam_. The thought is rather
unnatural, and the moral certainly culpable.--The _composition_ is bad.
The group of the woman fainting is a round heavy mass: and the other
group is very ill-shaped. The _light_ could not be worse managed, and,
as the groups are contrived, can hardly be improved.--In the principal
figure there is great _expression_; and the fainting scene is well
described. A scheme to pay off the national debt, by a man who cannot
pay his own; and the attempt of a silly rake, to retrieve his affairs
by a work of genius; are admirable strokes of humour.

"The eighth plate brings the fortune of our hero to a conclusion. It
is a very expressive representation of the most horrid scene which
human nature can exhibit.--The _composition_ is not bad. The group,
in which the lunatic is chained, is well managed; and if it had been
carried a little further towards the middle of the picture, and the
two women (who seem very oddly introduced) had been removed, both
the composition, and the distribution of light, had been good.--The
_drawing_ of the principal figure is a more accurate piece of anatomy
than we commonly find in the works of this master. The _expression_
of the figure is rather unmeaning; and very inferior to the strong
characters of all the other lunatics. The fertile genius of the artist
has introduced as many of the causes of madness, as he could well have
collected; but there is some tautology. There are two religionists, and
two astronomers. Yet there is variety in each; and strong _expression_
in all the characters. The self-satisfaction, and conviction, of him
who has discovered the longitude; the mock majesty of the monarch; the
moody melancholy of the lover; and the superstitious horror of the
popish devotee; are all admirable.--The _perspective_ is simple and

"I should add, that these remarks are made upon the first edition of
this work. When the plates were much worn, they were altered in many
parts. They have gained by the alterations, in point of _design_; but
have lost in point of _expression_."

[A] The _architect_. Mr. _Gilpin_ means--the _gardener_.

[B] I am authorized to observe, that this is no fault in our artist.
The old church at _Marybone_ was so little, that it would have
stood within the walls of the present one, leaving at the same time
sufficient room for a walk round it.

[13] Afterwards twice lord mayor of _London_. See p. 44.

[14] The same as that introduced in Plate II.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Two prints of Before and After. The two pictures, from which these
prints are taken, were painted at the particular request of a certain
vicious nobleman, whose name deserves no commemoration. The hero of
them is said to have been designed for Chief Justice _Willes. Hogarth_
repented of having engraved them; and almost every possessor of his
works will wish they had been with-held from the public, as often
as he is obliged to shew the volume that contains them to ladies.
To omit them, is to mutilate the collection; to pin the leaves, on
which they are pasted, together, is a circumstance that tends only to
provoke curiosity; and to display them, would be to set decency at
defiance. The painter who indulges himself, or his employers, in such
representations, will forfeit the general praise he might have gained
by a choice of less offensive subjects. We have an artist of no common
merit, who has frequently disgraced his skill by scenes too luxuriant
to appear in any situation but a brothel; and yet one of the most
meretricious of his performances, but a few years ago, was exhibited
by the Royal Academy. These prints, however, display almost the only
instance in which _Hogarth_ condescended to execute a subject proposed
to him; for I am assured by one who knew him well, that his obstinacy
on these occasions has often proved invincible. Like _Shakspeare's

    "----he would never follow any thing
    That other men began."

In the later impressions from these plates, the scroll-work on the
head-cloth, &c. of the bed, is rendered indistinct, by an injudicious
attempt to strengthen the engraving. Mr. _S. Ireland_ has the first
sketch in oil of "Before."[1]

[1] The originals of both are at the earl of _Besborough's_ seat at

2. The Sleeping Congregation. The preacher was designed as the
representative of Dr. _Desaguliers_. This print was first published in
1736. It was afterwards retouched and _improved_[1] by the author in
1762, and is found in three different states. In the first, _Dieu & Mon
Droit_ is wanting under the King's Arms; the angel with one wing and
two pair of thighs, that supports this motto, is smoking a pipe; and
the lion has not his present magnificent genitals. In the second, the
words already mentioned are added; the angel's pipe is obliterated;
the insignia of the lion's sex rendered ostentatiously conspicuous;
and the lines of the triangle under the angel are doubled. The other
distinctions are chiefly such as a reiteration of engraving would
naturally produce, by adding strength to the fainter parts of the
composition. Changes of this slender kind are numberless in all the
repaired prints of our artist. There is also a pirated copy of this
plate. It is not ill executed, but in size is somewhat shorter than its
predecessor, and has no price annexed. In the original picture, in the
collection of Sir _Edward Walpole_, the clerk's head is admirably well
painted, and with great force; but he is dozing, and not leering at the
young woman near him, as in the print.

[1] I wish, for the sake of some future edition of the present work,
these _improvements_ could be ascertained. To me they are invisible,
like those in the re-published _March to Finchley_.

3. The Distressed Poet.[1] In a back ground, a picture of _Pope_
threshing _Curll_. Over the head of _Pope_ we read, _Pope's Letters_;
out of his mouth comes _Veni, vidi, vici_; and under _Curll_ lies
a letter, directed--_to Curll_. The distressed bard is composing
_Poverty_, a poem. At the bottom of the plate are the following lines
from _The Dunciad_, I. iii.

    Studious he sate, with all his books around,
    Sinking from thought to thought, a vast profund!
    Plung'd for his sense, but found no bottom there;
    Then writ, and flounder'd on in mere despair.

In the subsequent impressions, dated _December_ 15, 1740, the triumphs
of _Pope_ are changed to a view of the gold mines of _Peru_; and our
hero of the garret is employed in celebrating the praise of _Riches_.
The lines already quoted are effaced. The original painting is at lord
_Grosvenor's_ house at _Milbank, Westminster_.

[1] In _The Craftsman, March_ 12, 1736-7, occurs, "This day is
published, price 3s. a print representing a _Distressed Poet_. Also,
five etchings, of different characters of heads in groups, viz. a
Chorus of Singers; a pleased Audience at a Play; Scholars at a Lecture;
and Quacks in Consultation; price 6d. each. To be had either bound
together with all Mr. _Hogarth's_ late engraved works (except the
Harlot's Progress), or singly, at the _Golden Head_, in _Leicester
Fields_; and at Mr _Bakewell's_, printseller, next the _Horn Tavern,
Fleet-street_." And _April_ 2 and 9, 1737, "Just published, price 3s.
A print representing a _Distressed Poet_. Designed and engraved by Mr.
_Hogarth_. Also four etchings, viz. A pleased Audience; a Chorus of
Singers; Scholars at a Lecture; and a Consultation of Quacks, price 6d.
each. To be had at the _Golden Head_, in _Leicester Fields_; and at Mr.
_Bakewell's_, print-seller, next the _Horn Tavern_, in _Fleet-street_.
Where may be had, bound or otherwise, all Mr. _Hogarth's_ late engraved
works, viz. A _Midnight Conversation; Southwark Fair_; the _Rake's
Progress,_ in eight prints; a sleepy Congregation in a Country Church;
Before and After, two prints."

4. Right Hon. _Frances_ Lady _Byron_. Whole length, mezzotinto. _W.
Hogarth pinxit. J. Faber fecit._ The most beautiful impressions of this
plate were commonly taken off in a brown colour.

5. The same, shortened into a three-quarters length.

6. Consultation of Physicians. Arms of the Undertakers. In this plate,
amongst other portraits, is the well-known one of Dr. _Ward_[1]
(who was called _Spot Ward_, from the left side of his face being
marked of a claret colour); and that of the elder _Taylor_,[2] a noted
oculist, with an eye on the head of his cane; Dr. _Pierce Dod_,[3] Dr.
_Bamber_;[4] and other physicians of that time. The figure with a bone
in its hand, between the two demi-doctors (i. e. _Taylor_ and _Ward_),
is said to have been designed for Mrs. _Mapp_, a famous masculine
woman, who was called the bone-setter, or shape-mistress. I am told,
that many of her advertisements may be found in _Mist's Journal_,
and still more accounts of her cures in the periodical publications
of her time. Her maiden name was _Wallin_. Her father was also a
bone-setter at _Hindon, Wilts_; but quarrelling with him, she wandered
about the country, calling herself _crazy Sally_. On her success in
her profession she married, _August_ 11, 1736,[5] one _Hill Mapp_, a
servant to Mr. _Ibbetson_, mercer on _Ludgate-Hill_. In most cases her
success was rather owing to the strength of her arms, and the boldness
of her undertakings, than to any knowledge of anatomy or skill in
chirurgical operations. The following particulars relative to her are
collected from the _The Grub-street Journal_, &c. and serve at least
to shew, that she was a character considerable enough to deserve the
satire of _Hogarth_.

_August_ 19, 1736, "We hear that the husband of Mrs. _Mapp_, the famous
bone-setter at _Epsom_, ran away from her last week, taking with him
upwards of 100 guineas, and such other portable things as lay next

"Several letters from _Epsom_ mention, that the footman, whom the
female bone-setter married the week before, had taken a sudden journey
from thence with what money his wife had earned; and that her concern
at first was very great: but soon as the surprize was over, she grew
gay, and seemed to think the money well disposed of, as it was like to
rid her of a husband. He took just 102 guineas."

The following verses were addressed to her in _August_ 1736.

    "Of late, without the least pretence to skill,
    _Ward's_ grown a fam'd physician by a pill;[6]
    Yet he can but a doubtful honour claim,
    While envious Death oft blasts his rising fame.
    Next travell'd _Taylor_ fill'd us with surprize,
    Who pours new light upon the blindest eyes;
    Each journal tells his circuit thro' the land;
    Each journal tells the blessings of his hand:
    And lest some hireling scribbler of the town
    Injures his history, he writes his own.
    We read the long accounts with wonder o'er;
    Had he wrote less, we had believ'd him more.
    Let these, O _Mapp!_ thou wonder of the age!
    With dubious arts endeavour to engage:
    While you, irregularly strict to rules,
    Teach dull collegiate pedants they are fools:
    By merit, the sure path to fame pursue;
    For all who see thy art, must own it true."

_September_ 2, 1736, "On _Friday_ several persons, who had the
misfortune of lameness, crowded to _The White-hart Inn_, in
_White-chapel_, on hearing Mrs. _Mapp_ the famous bone-setter was
there. Some of them were admitted to her, and were relieved as they
apprehended. But a gentleman, who happened to come by, declared Mrs.
_Mapp_ was at _Epsom_, on which the woman thought proper to move off."

_September_ 9, 1736. "Advertisement.

"Whereas it has been industriously (I wish I could say truly) reported,
that I had found great benefit from a certain female bone-setter's
performance, and that it was to a want of resolution to undergo the
operation, that I did not meet with a perfect cure: this is therefore
to give notice, that any persons afflicted with lameness (who are
willing to know what good or harm others may receive, before they
venture on desperate measures themselves) will be welcome any morning
to see the dressing of my leg, which was sound before the operation,
and they will then be able to judge of the performance, and to whom I
owe my present unhappy confinement to my bed and chair.

"_Thomas Barber_, Tallow-chandler, _Saffron-hill_."

_September_ 16, 1736. "On _Thursday_, Mrs. _Mapp's_ plate of ten
guineas was run for at _Epsom_. A mare, called 'Mrs. _Mapp_,' won the
first heat; when Mrs. _Mapp_ gave the rider a guinea, and swore if he
won the plate she would give him 100; but the second and third heat was
won by a chestnut mare."

"We hear that the husband of Mrs. _Mapp_ is returned, and has been
kindly received."

_September_ 23, 1736. "Mrs. _Mapp_ continues making extraordinary
cures: she has now set up an equipage, and on _Sunday_ waited on her

_Saturday, October_ 16, 1736. "Mrs. _Mapp_, the bone-setter, with
Dr. _Taylor_, the oculist, was at the play-house, in _Lincoln's-Inn
Fields,_ to see a comedy called 'The Husband's Relief, with the Female
Bone-setter and Worm Doctor;' which occasioned a full house, and the
following epigram:

    "'While _Mapp_ to th'actors shew'd a kind regard,
    On one side _Taylor_ sat, on the other _Ward_:
    When their mock persons of the Drama came,
    Both _Ward_ and _Taylor_ thought it hurt their _fame_;
    Wonder'd how _Mapp_ cou'd in good humour be--
    Zoons! cries the manly dame, it hurts not me;
    Quacks without art may either blind or kill;
    But[7] _demonstration_ shews that mine is _skill_.'

"And the following was sung upon the stage:

    "'You surgeons of _London_, who puzzle your pates,
    To ride in your coaches, and purchase estates,
    Give over, for shame, for your pride has a fall,
    And the doctress of _Epsom_ has outdone you all.
                _Derry down_, &c.

    "'What signifies learning, or going to school,
    When a woman can do, without reason or rule,
    What puts you to nonplus, and baffles your art?
    For petticoat-practice has now got the start.

    "'In physics, as well as in fashions, we find,
    The newest has always the run with mankind;
    Forgot is the bustle 'bout _Taylor_ and _Ward_;
    Now _Mapp's_ all the cry, and her fame's on record.

    "'Dame Nature has given her a doctor's degree,
    She gets all the patients, and pockets the fee;
    So if you don't instantly prove it a cheat,
    She'll loll in her chariot, whilst you walk the street.
                 _Derry down_, &c.'"

_October_ 19, 1736, _London Daily Post._ "Mrs. _Mapp_, being present at
the acting of _The Wife's Relief_, concurred in the universal applause
of a crowded audience. This play was advertised by the desire of Mrs.
_Mapp_, the famous bone-setter from _Epsom_."

_October_ 21, 1736, "On _Saturday_ evening there was such a concourse
of people at the Theatre-royal in _Lincoln's-Inn Fields_, to see the
famous Mrs. _Mapp_, that several gentlemen and ladies were obliged to
return for want of room. The confusion at going out was so great, that
several gentlemen and ladies had their pockets picked, and many of the
latter lost their fans, &c. Yesterday she was elegantly entertained by
Dr. _Ward_, at his house in _Pall-Mall_."

"On _Saturday_ and yesterday Mrs. _Mapp_ performed several operations
at _The Grecian Coffee-house_, particularly one upon a niece of Sir
_Hans Sloane_, to his great satisfaction and her credit. The patient
had her shoulder-bone out for about nine years."

"On _Monday_ Mrs. _Mapp_ performed two extraordinary cures; one on a
young lady of _The Temple_, who had several bones out from the knees
to her toes, which she put in their proper places: and the other on
a butcher, whose knee-pans were so misplaced that he walked with his
knees knocking one against another. Yesterday she performed several
other surprizing cures; and about one set out for _Epsom_, and carried
with her several crutches, which she calls trophies of honour."

_November_ 18, 1736, "Mrs. _Mapp_, the famous bone-setter, has taken
lodgings in _Pall-Mall_, near Mr. _Joshua Ward's_, &c."

_November_ 25, 1736,

    "In this bright age three wonder-workers rise,
    Whose operations puzzle all the wise.
    To lame and blind, by dint of manual slight,
    _Mapp_ gives the use of limbs, and _Taylor_ sight.
    But greater _Ward_, &c."

_December_ 16, 1736, "On _Thursday, Polly Peachum_ (Miss _Warren_, that
was sister to the famous Mrs. _Mapp_) was tried at _The Old Bailey_
for marrying Mr. _Nicholas_; her former husband, Mr. _Somers_, being
living, &c."

_December_ 22, 1737, "Died last week, at her lodgings near _The Seven
Dials_, the much-talked-of Mrs. _Mapp_, the bone-setter, so miserably
poor, that the parish was obliged to bury her."

The plate is thus illustrated by the engraver: "The Company of
Undertakers beareth Sable, an Urinal proper, between twelve Quack Heads
of the second, and twelve Cane Heads, Or, Consultant. On a Chief,[8]
Nebulæ,[9] Ermine, one compleat Doctor[10] issuant, checkie, sustaining
in his right hand a baton of the second. On his dexter and sinister
sides two _demi-_doctors issuant of the second, and two Cane Heads
issuant of the third; the first having one eye couchant, towards the
dexter side of the escutcheon; the second faced per pale proper and
gules, guardant, with this motto--_Et plurima mortis imago._"

[1] _Joshua Ward_ was one of the younger sons of an ancient and
respectable family settled at _Guisborough_ in _Yorkshire_, where
he was born some time in the last century. He seems, from every
description of him, to have had small advantages from education, though
he indisputably possessed no mean natural parts. The first account we
have of him is, that he was a associated in partnership with a brother
named _William_, as a dry-salter, in _Thames-street_. After they had
carried on this business some time, a fire broke out in an adjoining
house, which communicated itself to their warehouses, and entirely
destroyed all their property. On this occasion Mr. _Ward_, with a
gentleman from the country who was on a visit to him, escaped over the
tops of the houses in their shirts. In the year 1717 he was returned
member for _Marlborough_; but, by a vote of the House of Commons, dated
_May_ 13, was declared not duly elected. It is imagined that he was in
some measure connected with his brother _John Ward_ (who is stigmatized
by Mr. _Pope_, Dunciad III. 34.) in secreting and protecting illegally
the property of some of the _South Sea_ directors. Be this as it may,
he soon after fled from _England_, resided some years abroad, and
has been frequently supposed to have turned _Roman_ Catholic. While
he remained in exile, he acquired that knowledge of medicine and
chemistry, which afterwards was the means of raising him to a state
of affluence. About the year 1733 he began to practise physic, and
combated, for some time, the united efforts of Wit, Learning, Argument,
Ridicule, Malice, and Jealousy, by all of which he was opposed in
every shape that can be suggested. At length, by some lucky cures,
and particularly one on a relation of Sir _Joseph Jekyl_ Master of
the Rolls, he got the better of his opponents, and was suffered to
practise undisturbed. From this time his reputation was established:
he was exempted, by a vote of the House of Commons, from being visited
by the censors of the college of physicians, and was even called in to
the assistance of King _George_ the Second, whose hand he cured, and
received, as a reward, a commission for his nephew the late General
_Gansel_. It was his custom to distribute his medicines and advice, and
even pecuniary assistance, to the poor, at his house, _gratis_; and
thus he acquired considerable popularity. Indeed, in these particulars
his conduct was entitled to every degree of praise. With a stern
outside, and rough deportment, he was not wanting in benevolence.
After a continued series of success, he died _Dec._ 21, 1761, at
a very advanced age, and left the secret of his medicines to Mr.
_Page_, member for _Chichester_, who bestowed them on two charitable
institutions, which have derived considerable advantages from them. His
will is printed in _The Gentleman's Magazine_, 1762, p. 208.

[2] I was assured by the late Dr. _Johnson_, that _Ward_ was the
weakest, and _Taylor_ the most ignorant, of the whole empiric tribe.
The latter once asserted, that when he was at _St. Petersburg_, he
travelled as far as _Archangel_ to meet Prince _Herculaneum_. Now
_Archangel_ being the extreme point from _European Asia_, had the
tale been true, the oculist must have marched so far backwards out
of the route of Prince _Heraclius_, whose name he had blundered into

The present likeness of our oculist, however, we may suppose to have
been a strong one, as it much resembles a mezzotinto by _Faber_,
from a picture painted at _Rome_ by the Chevalier _Riche_. Under it
is the following inscription: "_Joannes Taylor_, Medicus in Optica
expertissimus multisque in Academiis celeberrimis Socius." Eight
_Latin_ verses follow, which are not worth transcription. _Taylor_ made
presents of this print to his friends. It is now become scarce.

[3] One of the physicians to _St. Bartholomew's_ Hospital. He died
_August_ 6, 1754. His merits were thus celebrated by Dr. _Theobald_, a
contemporary physician:

    "O raro merito quem juncta scientia dudum
    Illustrem sacris medico stellam addidit orbi
    Auspiciis, pura nunquam non luce corusce!
    Utcunque incolumem virtutum aversa tueri
    Gens humana solet, non ni post fata corona
    Donandam merita, potitus melioribus astris,
    Invidia major, tu præsens alter haberis
    _Hippocrates_, pleno jam nunc cumulatus honore.
    Te seu, corporea tandem compage soluta,
    Accipiet, doctis clarescentem artibus, alta
    _Coi_ sphæra senis; seu tu venerabilis aureo
    _Romani Celsi_ rite effulgebis in orbe;
    O sit adhuc tarda illa dies, sit tarda, precamur,
    Illa dies, nostris et multum ferior annis,
    Cum tua mens, membris seducta fluentibus, almas
    Advolet, angelicis immixta cohortibus, arces!
    Hic potius Musas, thematis dulcedine captas,
    Delecta, atque audi laudes vel _Apolline_ dignas."

[4] A celebrated anatomist, physician, and man-midwife, to whose estate
the present _Gascoyne_ family succeeded, and whose surname has been
given as a Christian name to two of them.

[5] Some indifferent verses on this event were printed in _The
Gentleman's Magazine_, 1736, p. 484.

[6] General _Churchill_ was "the primary puffer of _Ward's_ pill at
court;" and Lord Chief Baron _Reynolds_ soon after published "its
miraculous effects on a maid servant," as I learn by some doggrel
verses of Sir _William Browne_, addressed to "Dr. _Ward_, a Quack,
of merry memory," under the title of "The Pill-Plot. On _The Daily
Courant's_ miraculous Discovery, upon the ever-memorable 28th day
of _November_ 1734, from the Doctor himself being a Papist, and
distributing his Pills to the poor _gratis_, by the hands of the
Lady _Gage_ also a Papist, that the Pill must be beyond all doubt a
deep-laid Plot, to introduce popery."

[7] "This alludes to some surprizing cures she performed before Sir
_Hans Sloane_ at _The Grecian Coffee-house_ (where she came once a
week from _Epsom_ in her chariot with four horses): viz. a man of
_Wardour-street_, whose back had been broke nine years, and stuck out
two inches; a niece of Sir _Hans Sloane_ in the like condition; and a
gentleman who went with one shoe heel six inches high, having been lame
twenty years of his hip and knee, whom she set strait, and brought his
leg down even with the other." _Gent. Mag._ 1756, p. 617.

[8] A chief betokeneth a senator, or honourable personage borrowed from
the _Greeks_, and is a word signifying a head; and as the head is the
chief part of a man, so the chief in the escutcheon should be a reward
of such only whose high merits have procured them chief place, esteem,
or love amongst men.

[9] The bearing of clouds in armes (saith _Upton_) doth import some

[10] Originally printed _docter_, but afterwards altered in this print.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. The Lecture. "Datur vacuum." The person reading is well known to
be the late Mr. _Fisher_, of _Jesus College, Oxford_, and Registrar
of that University. This portrait was taken with the free consent of
Mr. _Fisher_; who died _March_ 18, 1761. There are some impressions in
which "Datur vacuum" is not printed, that leaf being entirely blank;
published _January_ 20, 1736-7; the other _March_ 3, 1736. _Hogarth_
at first marked these words in with a pen and ink.

2. _Æneas_ in a Storm. The following advertisement appeared in _The
London Daily Post, January_ 17, 1736-7.

"This day is published, price sixpence, a hieroglyphical print called
_Æneas in a Storm_.

    "Tanta hæc mulier potuit suadere malorum.

"Sold by the booksellers and printsellers in town and country. Of
whom may be had, a print called _Tartuff's Banquet_, or _Codex's_
Entertainment. Price one shilling.

    "--populus me sibilat, at mihi plaudo
    Ipse domi."

The same paper mentions the King's arrival at _Loestoff_ on the 16th of
_January_, and afterwards at _St. James's_ on the 17th.

The author of this print, whoever he was, did not venture to put his
name to so ludicrous a representation of the tempest which happened
on King _George_ the Second's return from _Hanover_. His Majesty
is supposed to have kicked his hat overboard. This, it seems, was
an action customary to him when he was in a passion. To the same
circumstance _Loveling_ has alluded in his Sapphic Ode ad _Carolum

    Concinet majore poeta plectro
    _Georgium_,[2] quandoque calens furore
    Gestiet circa thalamum ferire
                             Calce galerum.

I have been told, that Mr. _Garrick_, when he first appeared in the
character of _Bayes_, taking the same liberty, received instantly such
a message from one of the stage boxes, as prevented him from practising
so insolent a stroke of mimickry a second time.

In spite of the confidence with which this plate has been attributed
to _Hogarth_, I by no means believe it was his performance. It more
resembles the manner of _Vandergucht_, who was equally inclined to
personal satire, however his talents might be inadequate to his
purposes. Witness several scattered designs of his in the very same
style of engraving. I may add, that he always exerted his talents in
the service of the Tory faction. Besides, there is nothing in the plate
before us which might not have been expected from the hand of any
common artist. The conceit of the blasts issuing from the posteriors of
the _Æolian_ tribe, is borrowed from one of the prints to _Scarron's
Travesty of Virgil_; and the figure of _Britannia_ is altogether
insipid and unworthy of _Hogarth_. Our artist also was too much
accustomed to sailing parties, and too accurate an observer of objects
on _The Thames_, not to have known that our Royal Yachts are vessels
without three masts, &c.

[1] _Bunbury_.

[2] The author had here left a blank, which I have ventured to fill up
with the royal name.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. The Four Parts of the Day.[1] _Invented, painted, engraved, and
published by W. Hogarth._ Mr. _Walpole_ observes that these plates,
"except the last, are inferior to few of his works." We have been told
that _Hogarth's_ inclination to satire once cost him a legacy. It
seems that the figure of the Old Maid, in the print of _Morning_, was
taken either from an acquaintance or relation of his. At first she was
well enough satisfied with her resemblance; but some designing people
teaching her to be angry, she struck the painter out of her will, which
had been made considerably in his favour. This story we have heard
often related by those whom, on other occasions, we could readily
believe. In the same print is a portrait of Dr. _Rock_, who formerly
attended _Covent-Garden_ market every morning.

To the propriety of _Hogarth's_ having introduced a scene of riot
within _King's Coffee-house_, the following quotation from _The Weekly
Miscellany_ for _June_ 9, 1739, bears sufficient testimony: "_Monday_
Mrs. _Mary King_ of _Covent-Garden_ was brought up to the King's Bench
Bar at _Westminster_, and received the following sentence, for keeping
a disorderly house; viz. to pay a fine of £.200, to suffer three months
imprisonment, to find security for her good behaviour for three years,
and to remain in prison till the fine be paid." As it was impossible
she could carry on her former business, as soon as the time of her
imprisonment was ended, she retired with her savings, built three
houses on _Haverstock_ hill, near _Hampstead_, and died in one of them,
_September_ 1747. Her own mansion was afterwards the last residence
of the celebrated _Nancy Dawson_;[2] and the three together are still
distinguished by the appellation of _Moll King's Row_. Perhaps the
use of the mirror in reversing objects was not yet understood by our
engravers, for in _Hogarth's_ painting the late Mr. _West's_ house (now
_Lowe's_ Hotel) is properly situated on the left of _Covent-garden_
church. In the print it appears on the contrary side.

The _Crying Boy_ in _Noon_ was sketched by _Hogarth_ from a picture
by _N. Poussin_ of the Rape of the _Sabines_, at Mr. _Hoare's_ at
_Stourhead_. The school boy's kite lodged on the roof of a building,
was introduced only to break the disagreeable uniformity of a wall.

Our artist, in the scene of _Evening_, inserted the little girl with
the fan, as an after-thought, some friend having asked him what the
boy cried for. He therefore introduced the girl going to take the
play-thing from her brother. Nothing is more common than to see
children cry without reason. The circumstance, however, shews that
this great Genius did not always think himself above advice, as some
have alledged to have been the case with him. In the early impressions
of this plate, the face and neck of the woman are coloured with red,
to express heat; and the hand of her husband is tinged with blue, to
intimate that he was by trade a _Dyer_. The purchasers of the plate,
intituled _Evening_, are hereby cautioned against imposition. In a
modern copy of it, sold to the late Mr. _Ingham Foster_, the face of
the woman had been washed over with vermilion, that it might pass (as
it chanced to do) for a first impression. In the true ones, and none
but these, the face and bosom were _printed_ off with red, and the
hand with blue ink. Only the traces of the graver, therefore, ought to
be filled by either colour, and not the whole surface of the visage,
&c. as in the smeary counterfeit. I have been told that a few copies
of plate III. were taken off before the fan was inserted, but have
not hitherto met with one of them. In _Night_, the drunken Free-mason
has been supposed to be Sir _Thomas de Veil_; but Sir _John Hawkins_
assures me, it is not the least like him. The _Salisbury Flying-Coach_
implies a satire on the right honourable inventor of that species
of carriage. The two first of these pictures were sold to the Duke
of _Ancaster_, for 57 Guineas; the remaining pair to Sir _William
Heathcote_ for 64.

[1] _Hogarth_ advertises in _The London Daily Post, January_ 20,
1737-8, five copper plates, viz. Morning, Noon, Evening and Night, and
a Company of Strolling Actresses dressing in a barn, for _one guinea_,
half to be paid at the time of subscribing, half on the delivery. After
the subscription, to be raised to five shillings a plate.

[2] A hornpipe dancer at _Covent Garden_. She was mistress to _Shuter_
the comedian, &c. &c. &c.

2. Strolling Actresses[1] dressing in a Barn. _Invented, painted,
engraved, and published by W. Hogarth_. Mr. _Walpole_ observes that
this piece, "for wit and imagination, without any other end," is the
best of all our artist's works. Mr. _Wood_ of _Littelton_ has the
original, for which he paid only 26 Guineas.

Dr. _Trusler_, in his explanation of this plate, is of opinion, that
some incestuous commerce among the performers is intimated by the names
of _Oedipus_ and _Jocasta_ appearing above the heads of two figures
among the theatrical lumber at the top of the barn. But surely there
is no cause for so gross a supposition. Painted prodigies of this
description were necessary to the performance of _Lee's Oedipus_.
See Act II. where the following stage direction occurs; "The cloud
draws, that veiled the heads of the figures in the sky, and shews them
crowned, with the names of _Oedipus_ and _Jocasta_ written above, in
great characters of gold." The magazine of dragons, clouds, scenes,
flags, &c. or the woman half naked, was sufficient to attract the
notice of the rustick peeping through the thatch he might be employed
to repair. Neither is the position of the figures at all favourable
to the Doctor's conceit. Incest was also too shocking an idea to have
intruded itself among the comic circumstances that form the present
representation. When this plate was retouched a second time, a variety
of little changes were made in it. In the two earliest impressions the
actress who personates _Flora_, is greasing her hair with a tallow
candle, and preparing to powder herself, after her cap, feathers, &c.
were put on. This solecism in the regular course of dress is removed
in the third copy, the cap and ornaments being there omitted. The
coiffure of the female who holds the cat, is also lowered; and whereas
at first we could read in the play-bill depending from the truckle-bed,
that the part of _Jupiter_ was to be performed by Mr. _Bilk-village_,
an additional shade in the modern copy renders this part of the
inscription illegible. Several holes likewise in the thatch of the barn
are filled up; and the whole plate has lost somewhat of its clearness.
The same censure is due to the reparations of the _Harlot's_ and
_Rake's Progresses_. Had _Hogarth_ lived, he would also have gradually
destroyed much of that history of dress, &c. for which his designs have
been justly praised by Mr. _Walpole_. In the first and last scenes of
the _Rake's Progress_, he began to adorn the heads of his females in
the fashion prevalent at the time he retraced the plates. In short,
the collector, who contents himself with the later impressions of his
work, will not consult our artist's reputation. Those who wish to be
acquainted with the whole extent of his powers, should assemble the
first copies, together with all the varieties of his capital works.

[1] I know not why this print should have received its title only
from its female agents. Not to dwell on the _Jupiter_ pointing with
_Cupid's_ bow to a pair of stockings, whoever will examine the linen[A]
of the weeping figure receiving a dram-glass from the _Syren_, and look
for the object that attracts her regard, may discover an indication
that the other sex has also a representative in this theatrical

[A] Non sic præcipiti carbasa tensa noto.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Several children of _The Foundling Hospital_; the boys with
mathematical instruments; the girls with spinning wheels. Over the
door of the house they come out of, are the King's-arms. A porter
is bringing in a child, followed by Capt. _Coram_, whose benevolent
countenance[1] is directed towards a kneeling woman. On the right
hand is a view of a church; near it a woman lifting a child from the
ground; at a little distance another infant exposed near a river. In
the back of the picture, a prospect of ships sailing. _W. Hogarth inv.
F. Morellon la Cave sculp. London._

This is prefixed to an engraved Power of Attorney, from the trustees
of _The Foundling Hospital_, to those gentlemen who were appointed to
receive subscriptions towards the building, &c. The whole together is
printed on a half sheet.

[1] See p. 261.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. The Enraged Musician, _Designed, engraved, and published by W.
Hogarth._ "Mr. _John Festin_,[1] the first hautboy and _German_ flute
of his time, had numerous scholars, to each of whom he devoted an
hour every day. At nine in the morning he attended Mr. _Spencer_,
grandfather to the earl of that name. If he happened to be out of
town on any day, he devoted that hour to another. One morning at that
hour he waited on Mr. _V----n_, afterwards Lord _V----n_. He was not
up. Mr. _Festin_ went into his chamber, and opening the shutter of a
window, sat down in it. The figure with the hautboy was playing under
the window. A man, with a barrow full of onions, came up to the player,
and sat on the edge of his barrow, and said to the man, 'if you will
play the _Black Joke_, I will give you this onion.' The man played it.
When he had so done, the man again desired him to play some other tune,
and then he would give him another onion. 'This,' said _Festin_ to me,
'highly angered me; I cried out, Z----ds, sir, stop here. This fellow
is ridiculing my profession: he is playing on the hautboy for onions.'
Being intimate with Mr. _Hogarth_, he mentioned the circumstance to
him; which, as he said, was the origin of 'The enraged Musician.'
The fact may be depended upon. Mr. _Festin_[2] was himself the
Enraged Performer." The story is here told just as he related it to a
clergyman, in whose words the reader now receives it.

Of this print[3] it has been quaintly said, that it deafens one to look
at it. Mr. _Walpole_ is of opinion that it "tends to farce." _Rouquet_
says of it, "Le Musicien est un _Italien_ que les cris de _Londres_
font enrager." The wretched figure playing on a hautbois, was at that
time well known about the streets. For variations, see the horse's
head, originally white, but now black.--Sleeve of the child with a
rattle, at first smaller, as well as of a lighter hue--the milk-woman's
face, cloak, &c. boy's dragg, cutler's hatchet, dog, &c. &c. more
darkened than in the first impressions. These, however, can scarcely be
termed varieties, as they were occasioned only by retouching the plate,
and adding a few shadows.

_Hogarth_, however, made several alterations and additions in this
plate when it appeared to be finished. He changed in some measure
all the countenances, and indeed the entire head and limbs of the
chimney-sweeper, who had originally a grenadier's cap on. Miss had
also a _Doll_, significantly placed under the trap composed of bricks,
near which some sprigs from a tree are set in the ground, the whole
contrivance being designed by some boy for the purpose of taking birds;
but when occupied by Miss's Play-thing, became emblematic of the art
of catching men. What relates, however, to this young lady from a
boarding-school, was gross enough without such an amplification. The
play-bill, sow-gelder, cats, dragg, &c. were not introduced, nor the
pewterer's advertisement, nor the steeple in which the ringers are
supposed. It is remarkable that the dustman was without a nose. The
proofs of the plate in this condition are scarce. I have seen only one
of them.[4] Mr. _S. Ireland_ has the original sketch.

[1] "Mr. _Festin_ has not been dead ten years. He was brother to the
_Festin_ who led the band at _Ranelagh_."

[2] In the second edition of these anecdotes, I had said "the musician
was undoubtedly _Castrucci_;" though one gentleman assured me it was
_Veracini_. The error is here acknowledged, to shew the danger of
receiving information upon trust. In the first edition, I had fallen
into a less pardonable mistake, by supposing it was _Cervetto_, whom
I described to be then lately dead. But "_Hogarth's_ musician," as
a friend on that occasion suggested to me, "is represented with
a violin; whereas _Cervetto's_ instrument was the violoncello;
but, however that may be, he is now certainly living. He lodges at
_Friburg's_ snuff-shop, in _The Haymarket_, and may be seen every
day at _The Orange Coffeehouse_, although he completed his 101st.
year in _November_ 1781." This extraordinary character in the musical
world came to _England_ in the hard frost, and was then an old man.
He soon after was engaged to play the bass at _Drury-lane_ theatre,
and continued in that employment till a season or two previous to Mr.
_Garrick's_ retiring from the stage. He died _June_ 14, 1783, in his
103d year. One evening when Mr. _Garrick_ was performing the character
of Sir _John Brute_, during the drunkard's muttering and dosing till
he falls fast asleep in the chair (the audience being most profoundly
silent and attentive to this admirable performer), _Cervetto_ (in the
orchestra) uttered a very loud and immoderately-lengthened yawn! The
moment _Garrick_ was off the stage, he sent for the musician, and with
considerable warmth reprimanded him for so ill-timed a symptom of
somnnolency, when the modern _Naso_, with great address, reconciled
_Garrick_ to him in a trice, by saying, with a shrug, "I beg ten
tousand pardon! but I alvays do so ven I am _ver much please_!" Mr.
_Cervetto_ was distinguished among his friends in the galleries by the
name of _Nosey_. See _Gentleman's Magazine_, 1783, p. 95.

[3] _London Daily Post, November_ 24, 1740. "Shortly will be published,
a new print called _The Provoked Musician_, designed and engraved by
Mr _William Hogarth_; being a companion to a print representing a
_Distressed Poet_, published some time since. To which will be added, a
_Third on Painting_, which will compleat the set; but as this subject
may turn upon an affair depending between the right honourable the L--d
_M---r_ and the author, it may be retarded for some time."

Query to what affair does _Hogarth_ allude? _Humphrey Parsons_ was then
Lord Mayor.

[4] In the collection of Mr. _Crickitt_.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. _Martin Folks_, Esq. half length. _W. Hogarth pinxit & sculpsit_. An
engraving. To some impressions of this print, which are not proofs, the
name of _Hogarth_ is wanting.

2. The same, half length mezzotinto. _W. Hogarth pinx._ 1741; _J. Faber
fecit._ 1742. The original of both is now in the meeting-room of the
Royal Society, in _Somerset Place_.

3. Charmers of the Age.[1] "_A sketch. No name._" It was intended
to ridicule Mons. _Desnoyer_[2] and Signora _Barberini_, the two
best dancers that ever appeared in _London_. This plate exhibits the
internal prospect of a theatre. The openings between the side scenes
are crowded with applauding spectators. The two performers are capering
very high. A sun over head (I suppose the emblem of public favour) is
darting down its rays upon them. The representatives of Tragedy and
Comedy are candle-holders on the occasion. Underneath is the following
inscription: "The prick'd lines show the rising height." There are
also a few letters of direction, so situated as to convey no very
decent innuendo. The whole is but a hasty outline, executed, however,
with spirit, and bitten uncommonly deep by the aqua fortis. I ascribe
it to _Hogarth_ without hesitation. Of this print there is a copy by

All the three pieces of our artist that satirize the stage, &c. are
peculiarly scarce. We may suppose them, therefore, to have been
suppressed by the influence of the managers for the time being, who
were not, like our present ones, become callous through the incessant
attacks of diurnal criticks in the news-papers.

[1] _Hogarth_ designed to have published this print, with some
explanation at the bottom of it in 1741-2.--See the inscription almost
effaced, a circumstance to which the copier did not attend.

[2] I learn from _The Grub-street Journal_ for _October_ 17, 1734,
that Monsieur _Desnoyer_ was just arrived from _Poland_, together with
Mademoiselle _Roland_ from _Paris_ (this lady is still alive). Again,
from the same paper, _August_ 19, 1756, that "Monsieur _Desnoyer_, the
famous dancer at _Drury-lane_, is gone to _Paris_, by order of Mr.
_Fleetwood_, to engage Mademoiselle _Sallee_ for the ensuing winter."
In some future expedition, we may suppose, he prevailed on Signora
_Barberini_ to come over for the same purpose.

4. Taste in High Life. A beau, a fashionable old lady, a young lady,
a black boy, and a monkey. Painted by Mr. _Hogarth_. It was sold by
Mr. _Jarvis_, in _Bedford-street, Covent-Garden. Published May 24th,
[no year]._ The original picture is in the possession of Mr. _Birch_,
surgeon, _Essex-street_, in _The Strand_.

It displays (as we learn from an inscription on the pedestal under a
_Venus_ dressed in a hoop-petticoat) the reigning modes of the year
1742. It was painted for the opulent Miss _Edwards_, who paid our
artist sixty guineas for it. Her reason for choosing such a subject
was rather whimsical. By her own singularities having incurred some
ridicule, she was desirous, by the assistance of _Hogarth_, to
recriminate on the publick. As he designed after her ideas, he had
little kindness for his performance, and never would permit a print to
be taken from it. The present one was from a drawing made by connivance
of her servants. The original was purchased by the father of its
present owner, at her sale at _Kensington_.

The figure of the beau holding the china-saucer is said to have
been that of Lord _Portmore_, dressed as he first appeared at court
after his return from _France_. The young female was designed for a
celebrated courtezan, who was the _Kitty Fisher_ of her time. Her
familiarity with the black boy alludes to a similar weakness in a
noble duchess, who educated two brats of the same colour. One of them
afterwards robbed her, and the other was guilty of some offence equally
unpardonable. The pictures with which the room is adorned, contain many
strokes of temporary satire. See the _Venus_ with stays, a hoop, and
high-heel'd shoes; _Cupid_ burning all these parts of dress, together
with a modish wig, &c.; a second _Cupid_ paring down a plump lady to
the fashionable standard; and [in a framed picture classed with a
number of insects] the figure of _Desnoyer_ the dancing-master in a
grand ballet. The ridicule on the folly of collecting old china, &c.
&c. are alike circumstances happily introduced, and explanatory of the
fashions then in vogue. The colouring is better than that in most of
_Hogarth's_ pictures. The plate is now the property of Mr. _Sayer_.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. _Benjamin Hoadly_, bishop of _Winchester. W. Hogarth pinx. B. Baron
sculp._ The plate belongs to Mrs. _Hoadly_.

2. Captain _Thomas Coram_, who obtained the charter[1] for _The
Foundling Hospital_. Mezzotinto; a three-quarters. The first print
published by _M'Ardell_. The original is a whole length. The captain
has the seal of the charter in his hand. Before him is a globe; at
a distance a prospect of the sea. This is perhaps the best of all
_Hogarth's_ portraits, and is thus described in the _Scandalizade_, a
satire published about 1749.

    "Lo! old Captain _Coram_,[2] so round in the face,
    And a pair of good chaps plump'd up in good case,
    His amiable locks hanging grey on each side
    To his double-breast coat o'er his shoulders so wide," &c.

[1] In which the name of _William Hogarth_ stands enrolled as one of
the earliest governors of the charity.

[2] Mr. _Coram_ was bred to the sea, and spent the first part of
his life as master of a vessel trading to our colonies. While he
resided in that part of the metropolis which is the common residence
of seafaring people, business often obliging him to come early into
the city and return late; he had frequent occasions of seeing young
children exposed, through the indigence or cruelty of their parents.
This excited his compassion so far, that he projected _The Foundling
Hospital_; in which humane design he laboured 17 years, and at last, by
his sole application, obtained the royal charter for it.[A] He died at
his lodgings near _Leicester-Square, March_ 29, 1751, in his 84th year:
and was interred under the chapel of the _Foundling Hospital_, where
the following inscription perpetuates his memory:

                        "Captain THOMAS CORAM,
                 whose Name will never want a Monument
        so long as this Hospital shall subsist, was born about
           the year 1668; a Man eminent in that most eminent
                     Virtue, the Love of Mankind;
         little attentive to his private Fortune, and refusing
      many Opportunities of encreasing it, his Time and Thoughts
        were continually employed in endeavours to promote the
                           public Happiness,
           both in this Kingdom and elsewhere, particularly
         in the Colonies of North America; and his Endeavours
         were many Times crowned with the desired Success. His
      unwearied Solicitation, for above Seventeen Years together,
      (which would have battled the Patience and Industry of any
                    Man less zealous in doing Good)
     and his Application to Persons of Distinction of both Sexes,
          obtained at Length the Charter of the Incorporation
              (bearing Date the 17th of _October_, 1739)
       by which many Thousands of Lives may be preserved to the
         Public, and employed in a frugal and honest Course of
          Industry. He died the 29th of _March_, 1731, in the
      84th Year of his Age, poor in worldly Estate, rich in good
          Works; was buried, at his own Desire, in the Vault
                        underneath this Chapel;
                      (the first here deposited)
            at the East End thereof; many of the Governors
           and other Gentlemen attending the Funeral, to do
                         Honour to his Memory.
        Reader, thy Actions will shew whether thou art sincere
      in the Praises thou may'st bestow on him; and if thou hast
          Virtue enough to commend his Virtues, forget not to
                   add also the Imitation of them."

[A] For his other charitable projects, see Biog. Dict. 1784, vol. IV.
p. 120.

3. The same engraving, for the _London Magazine_.

4. Characters and Caricaturas, "_to show that Leonardo da Vinci
exaggerated the latter._" The subscription-ticket to Marriage à la Mode.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Marriage à la Mode.[1] Six plates. In 1746 was published, "Marriage
à la Mode: an Humourous Tale, in Six Canto's, in Hudibrastic Verse;
being an Explanation of the Six Prints lately published by the
ingenious Mr. _Hogarth. London_: printed for _Weaver Bickerton_,
in _Temple-Exchange Passage_, in _Fleet-Street_, 1746. Price One
Shilling." Of this pamphlet it will be sufficient to extract the
Preface and the arguments of the several Canto's; the poem itself (if
such it may be called) being extended to the length of 59 pages.

"The prints of Marriage à la Mode, being the latest production of
that celebrated Artist who had before obliged the town with several
entertaining pieces, have, ever since their publication, been very
justly admired; the particular vein of humour, that runs through the
whole of his works, is more especially preserved in this.

"If the Comic Poet who draws the characters of the age he lives in, by
keeping strictly up to their manners in their speeches and expressions;
if satirizing vice and encouraging virtue in dialogue, to render it
familiar, is always reckoned amongst the liberal arts; and the authors,
when dead, dignified with busts and monuments sacred to their memory;
sure the master of the pencil, whose traits carry, not only a lively
image of the persons and manners, but whose happy genius has found the
secret of so disposing the several parts, as to convey a pleasing and
instructive moral through the history he represents, may claim a rank
in the foremost class, and acquire, if the term is allowable, the
appellation of the Dramatic Painter.

"The Modish Husband, incapable of relishing the pleasures of true
happiness, is here depicted in his full swing of vice, 'till his
mistaken conduct drives his wife to be false to his bed, and brings him
to a wretched end; killed in revenging the loss of that virtue which he
would never cherish. The Lady is equally represented as a true copy of
all the fine ladies of the age, who, by indulging their passions, run
into all those extravagances, that at last occasion a shameful exit.
If the gentlemen of the long robe, who ought to know the consequences,
are guilty of committing such a breach of hospitality as is here
described, they are properly reprimanded: the penurious Alderman, and
the profligate old Nobleman, are a fine contrast; the Quack Doctor,
the _Italian_ Singer, &c. are proofs of the Inventor's judgement and
distinction, both in high and low life.

"Though these images are pleasing to the eye, yet many have complained
that they wanted a proper explanation, which we hope will plead an
excuse for publication of the following Canto's, as the desire to
render these pieces more extensive may atone for the many faults
contained in this poem, for which the _Hudibrastic_ style was thought
most proper."

            THE ARGUMENTS.

        CANTO I.
    "The joys and plagues that wedlock brings,
    The Limner paints, the Poet sings;
    How the old dads weigh either scale,
    And set their children up to sale;
    How, void of thought, the Viscount weds
    The nymph, who such a marriage dreads;
    And, whilst himself the Fop admires,
    _M----y_ with love her soul inspires."

        CANTO II.
    "The wedding o'er, the ill-match'd pair
    Are left at large, their fate to share;
    All public places he frequents,
    Whilst she her own delight invents;
    And, full of love, bewails her doom,
    When drunk i'th' morning he comes home;
    The pious stew'rd, in great surprize,
    Runs from them with uplifted eyes."

        CANTO III.
    "My Lord now keeps a common Miss,
    Th' effects describ'd of amorous bliss,
    Venereal taints infect their veins,
    And fill them full of aches and pains;
    Which to an old _French_ Doctor drives 'em,
    Who with his pill, a grand p--x gives 'em;
    A scene of vengeance next ensues,
    With which the Muse her tale pursues."

        CANTO IV.
    "Fresh honours on the Lady wait,
    A Countess now she shines in state;
    The toilette is at large display'd,
    Where whilst the morning concert's play'd,
    She listens to her lover's call,
    Who courts her to the midnight-ball."

        CANTO V.
    "The dismal consequence behold,
    Of wedding girls of _London_ mould;
    The Husband is depriv'd of life,
    In striving to detect his Wife;
    The Lawyer naked, in surprize,
    Out of the Bagnio window flies:
    Whilst Madam, leaping from the bed,
    Doth on her knee for pardon plead."

        CANTO VI.
    "The Lawyer meets his just reward,
    Nor from the triple tree is spar'd;
    The Father takes my Lady home,
    Where, when she hears her Lover's doom,
    To desperate attempts she flies,
    And with a dose of poison dies."

In these plates only a single variation is detected. In the very first
impressions of the second of them (perhaps a few only were taken off)
a lock of hair on the forehead of the lady is wanting. It was added by
our artist, after _Baron_ had finished the plate. In the early copies
he inserted it with _Indian_ ink. A passage in the _Analysis_[2]
will perhaps account for this supplemental ornament: "A lock of hair
falling cross the temples, and by that means breaking the regularity of
the oval, has an effect too alluring to be strictly decent." The room
represented in this plate is adorned with a _melange_ of pictures on
wanton and devotional subjects.

Mr. _Walpole_ has remarked, that the works of _Hogarth_ have little
obscurity. This position is true in general, though _Marriage à la
Mode_ may supply an exception to it; no two persons, perhaps, having
hitherto agreed in their explanation of Plate the third.[3]

When this set of plates was to be engraved, _Ravenet_, a young artist,
then just coming into employ, was recommended to Mr. _Hogarth_; and
a hard bargain was made. _Ravenet_ went through two of the plates,
but the price proved far inadequate to the labour. He remonstrated,
but could obtain no augmentation. When the _Sigismunda_ was to be
engraved, Mr. _Ravenet_ was in a different sphere of life. The
painter, with many compliments, solicited his assistance as an
engraver, but _Ravenet_ indignantly declined the connexion.

In the fourth of these plates[4] are the following portraits: Mrs.
_Lane_ (afterwards Lady _Bingley_) adoring _Carestini_; her husband
_Fox Lane_ asleep. _Rouquet_ only calls him "Un gentilhomme campagnard,
fatigué d'une course après quelque renard ou quelque cerf, s'endort."
This idea seems to be countenanced by the whip in his hand. The same
explainer adds, speaking of the two next figures, "Ici on voit en
papillotes un de ces personages qui passent toute leur vie à tâcher
de plaire sans y reüssir; la, un eventail au poing, on reconnoît un
de ces hérétiques en amour, un sectateur d'_Anacreon_." The former of
these has been supposed to represent Monsieur _Michel_, the _Prussian_
ambassador. _Weideman_ is playing on the _German_ flute.--The pictures
in the room are properly suited to the bed-chamber of a profligate
pair--_Jupiter_ and _Io, Lot_ with his Daughters, _Ganymede_ and the
Eagle, and the Young Lawyer who debauches the Countess. The child's
coral, hanging from the back of the chair she sits in, serves to shew
she was already a mother; a circumstance that renders her conduct
still more unpardonable. Some of her new-made purchases, exposed on
the floor, bear witness to the warmth of her inclinations. These will
soon be gratified at the fatal masquerade, for which her paramour is
offering her a ticket.

The pompous picture on the right hand of the window in the nobleman's
apartment, Plate I. also deserves attention. It appears to be designed
as a ridicule on the unmeaning flutter of _French_ portraits, some of
which (particularly those of _Louis_ XIV.) are painted in a style of
extravagance equal at least to the present parody by _Hogarth_. This
ancestor of our peer is invested with several foreign orders. At the
top of one corner of the canvas, are two winds blowing across each
other, while the hero's drapery is flying quite contrary directions.
A comet is likewise streaming over his head. In his hand he grasps
the lightning of _Jove_, and reposes on a cannon going off, whose
ball is absurdly rendered an object of sight. A smile, compounded of
self-complacency and pertness, is the characteristic of his face.

On the cieling of this magnificent saloon is a representation
of _Pharaoh_ and his Host drowned in the Red Sea. The pictures
underneath are not on the most captivating subjects--_David_
killing _Goliath--Prometheus_ and the Vulture--the Murder of the
_Innocents--Judith_ and _Holofernes_--St. _Sebastian_ shot full of
Arrows--_Cain_ destroying _Abel_--and St. _Laurence_ on the Gridiron.

Among such little circumstances in this plate as might escape the
notice of a careless spectator, is the Thief in the Candle, emblematic
of the mortgage on his Lordship's estate.

When engravings on a contracted scale are made from large pictures, a
few parts of them will unavoidably become so small, as almost to want
distinctness. It has fared thus with a number of figures that appear
before the unfinished edifice,[5] seen through a window in the first
plate of this work. _Hogarth_ designed them for the lazy vermin of
his Lordship's hall, who, having nothing to do, are sitting on the
blocks of stone, or staring at the building;[6] for thus _Rouquet_ has
described them, "Une troupe de lacquais oisifs, qui sont dans le cour
de ce batiment, acheve de caracteriser le faste ruineux qui environne
le comte." The same illustrator properly calls the _Citizen_ Echevin
(i. e. sheriff) of _London_, on account of the chain he wears.

Plate II. From the late Dr. _Ducarel_ I received the following
anecdote; but there must be some mistake in it, as _Herring_ was not
archbishop till several years after the designs for _Marriage à la
Mode_ were made.

"_Edward Swallow_, butler to Archbishop _Herring_, had an annuity
of ten pounds given to him in his Grace's will. For the honesty and
simplicity of his physiognomy, this old faithful servant was so
remarkable, that _Hogarth_, wanting such a figure in _Marriage à la
Mode_, accompanied the late dean of _Sarum_, Dr. _Thomas Greene_, on
a public day, to _Lambeth_, on purpose to catch the likeness. As they
were coming away, he whispered, 'I have him!' And he may now be seen to
the life preserved in the old steward, in Plate II. with his hands held
up, &c."

In Plate V. the back ground, which is laboured with uncommon delicacy
(a circumstance that will be remarked by few except artists), was the
work of Mr. _Ravenet's_ wife. _Solomon's_ wise judgement is represented
on the tapestry. When _Ravenet's_ two plates were finished, _Hogarth_
wanted much to retouch the faces,[7] and many disputes happened between
him and the engraver on this subject. The first impressions, however,
escaped without correction. Those who possess both copies, may discover
evident marks of _Hogarth's_ hand in the second. See particularly the
countenance of the dying nobleman, which is fairly ploughed up by his
heavier burin.

I have been told that our artist took the portrait of the female, who
is so placed, that the legs of a figure in the tapestry supply the want
of her own, from a coarse picture of a woman called _Moll Flanders_.

Plate the sixth of this set, affords _Rouquet_ an opportunity of
illustrating the following remark, which he had made at the outset of
his undertaking: "Ce qu'un _Anglois_ lit, pour ainsi dire, en jettant
les yeux sur ces estampes, va exiger de vous la lecture de plusieurs
pages." Speaking of our citizen's parsimony, says he--"Voyez-vous ces
pipes conservées dans le coin d'un armoire? Vous ne devineriez pas,
vous qui n'êtes pas jamais venu en _Angleterre_, qu'elles sont aussi
une marque d'economie; mais il faut vous dire que les pipes sont si
communes ici, qu'on ne fume jamais deux fois dans la même. La païsan,
l'artizan le plus vil prend une pipe gratis dans le premier cabaret où
il arrête: il continue son chemin en achevant de la fumer, et la jette
à ses pieds."

As _Rouquet_ observes, "Ce qui sert à garnir cet apartement ne
contribue pas à l'orner. Tout y indique une économie basse." The
scarcity of the real dinner--the picture exhibiting plenty of
provision--the starved dog--the departing physician--the infected and
ricketty condition of the child who is brought to take a last kiss of
its dying mother--are circumstances too striking to be overlooked.

_The Daily Advertiser_ of 1750 affords the following illustration
of our artist's history: "Mr. _Hogarth_ proposes to publish by
subscription two large prints, one representing _Moses_ brought to
_Pharaoh's_ daughter; the other _Paul_ before _Felix_; engraved after
the pictures of his painting which are now hung up in _The Foundling
Hospital_ and _Lincoln's-Inn Hall_. Five Shillings to be paid at the
time of subscribing, and Five Shillings more on the delivery of the
print. On the first payment a receipt will be given, which receipt
will contain a new print (in the true _Dutch_ taste) of _Paul_ before
_Felix_. Note, The above two prints will be Seven Shillings and Six
Pence each after the subscription is over; and the receipt-print
will not be sold at a less price than One Guinea each. Subscriptions
are taken in till the 6th of _June_ next, and no longer, at _The
Golden-Head_ in _Leicester-Fields_, where the drawings may be seen; as
likewise the author's six pictures of _Marriage-à-la-Mode_, which are
to be disposed of in the following manner: That every bidder sign a
note with the sum he intends to give. That such note be deposited in
the drawer of a cabinet, which cabinet shall be constantly kept locked
by the said _William Hogarth_; and in the cabinet, through a glass
door, the sums bid will be seen on the face of the drawer, but the
names of the bidders may be concealed till the time of bidding shall
be expired. That each bidder may, by a fresh note, advance a further
sum if he is outbid, of which notice shall be sent him. That the sum
so advanced shall not be less than Three Guineas. That the time of
bidding shall continue till twelve o'clock the 6th of _June_ next, and
no longer. That no dealer in pictures will be admitted a bidder.

"As (according to the standard of judgement, so righteously
and laudably established by picture-dealers, picture-cleaners,
picture-frame-makers, and other connoisseurs) the works of a painter
are to be esteemed more or less valuable as they are more or less
scarce, and as the living painter is most of all affected by the
inferences resulting from this and other considerations equally
uncandid and edifying; Mr. _Hogarth_, by way of precaution, not puff,
begs leave to urge, that, probably, this will be the last suit or
series of pictures he may ever exhibit, because of the difficulty of
vending such a number at once to any tolerable advantage, and that the
whole number he has already exhibited of the historical or humourous
kind does not exceed fifty, of which the three sets called _The
Harlot's Progress, The Rake's Progress,_ and that now to be sold, make
twenty; so that whoever has a taste of his own to rely on, not too
squeamish for the production of a Modern, and courage enough to own
it, by daring to give them a place in his collection (till Time, the
supposed finisher, but real designer of paintings, has rendered them
fit for those more sacred repositories where Schools, Names, Heads,
Masters, &c. attain their last stage of preferment), may from hence be
convinced that multiplicity at least of his (Mr. _Hogarth's_) pieces
will be no diminution of their value."

Mr. _Lane_, of _Hillingdon_ near _Uxbridge_, bought the six original
pictures for 120 guineas, at _Hogarth's_ auction.[8]

[1] _London Daily Post, April_ 7, 1743. "Mr. _Hogarth_ intends to
publish by subscription Six Prints from copper plates, engraved by the
best masters in _Paris_, after his own paintings (the heads, for the
better preservation of the characters and expressions, to be done by
the author), representing a variety of modern occurrences in high life,
and called _Marriage a-la-mode_.

"Particular care is taken that the whole work shall not be liable to
exception on account of any _indecency_ or _inelegancy_, and that none
of the characters represented shall be _personal_. The subscription
will be one guinea; half, &c."

[2] See p. 325.

[3] In the third plate of this work, the figure of the female
unclasping a penknife, is said to have been designed for the once
celebrated _Betty Careless_. This remark is supposed to be countenanced
by the initials E. C. on her bosom. From being in a state to receive
company, this woman had been long reduced to show it, and, after
repeated confinements in various prisons, was buried from the poor's
house of St. _Paul, Covent Garden, April_ 22, 1752, about seven years
after this set of prints had been published. Such a representation
of her decline from beauty, as may be given in the plate before us,
is justified by various passages in _Loveling's_ poems, _Latin_ and
_English_, written about the year 1738, and published in 1741. Thus in
his ode, "Ad _Sextum_,"

    _Carlesis_ turpis macies decentem
    Occupat vultum----

Again more amply in his Elegiac Epistle, "Ad _Henricum_:"

    Nympha _Coventini_ quæ gloria sulferat Horti,
      Cui vix vidisset _Druria_ vestra parem,
    Exul, inops, liquit proprios miseranda Penates,
      Fortunæ extremas sustinuitque vices,
    Nunc trahit infaustam tenebroso in carcere vitam,
      Et levat insolito mollia membra toro.
    _Carlesis_, ah! quantum, quantum mutaris ab illâ,
      _Carlese_, quæ _Veneris_ maxima cura fuit!
    Æde tua risêre olim Charitesque Jocique,
      Hic fuerant _Paphiæ_ currus & arma Deæ;
    Arsèrunt Cives, arsit _Judæus Apella_,
      Et te Bellorum deperiêre chori.
    Jam sordes, pallensque genas, & flaccida mammas,
      Non oculi, quondam qui micuere, micant.
    Heu! ubi formosæ referentes lilia malæ!
      Labra ubi purpureis quæ rubuére rosis!
    Te puer _Idalius_, te fastiditque juventus
      Tam marcescentem, dissimilemque tui.
    Siccine tam fidam curas _Erycina_ ministram?
      Hæccine militiæ praemia digna tuæ?
    O _Venus!_ ô nimium, nimiumque oblita tuarum!
      _Carlesis_ an meruit sortis acerba pati?
    Quæ posthàc arisve tuis imponet honorem,
      Ardebit posthàc vel tua castra sequi?
    Omnigenas æquo circumspice lumine mœchas
      Quas tua pellicibus _Druria_ dives alit,
    Quæ cellas habitant, vicos peditesve peragrant,
      Aut quæ _Wappinios_ incoluêre lares;
    Invenienda fuit nusquam lascivior, artus
      Mobilior, sacris vel magis apta tuis.
    _Carlesis_ ah nostris & flenda & fleta Camœnis!
      Accedat vestris nulla medela malis?
    Te vereor miseram fortuna tenaciter anget,
      Nec veniet rebus mollior aura tuis.

Again in his Ode, "Ad _Carolum B......._"

    _Carlesis_ quondam miseræ Penates
    _Douglasa & Johnson_, duo pervicacis
                           Fulmina linguæ.

Again in a "Copy of Verses on _Betty Close's_ coming to Town, &c."

    _Roberts_ will curse all whores--
    From worn-out _Careless_ to fair _Kitty Walker_.

Again in an Ode intituled "Meretrices _Britannicæ_."

    Alma scortorum _Druriæque_ custos
    Orta _Neptuno!_ tibi cura pulchræ;
    _Carlesis_ satis data, tu secundà
                      _Carlesis_ regnes.

These lines will serve to enforce the moral of _The Harlot's Progress_,
while they aim at the illustration of a single circumstance in
_Marriage à la Mode_; where if this female is introduced at all,
it seems to be in the character of an opulent procuress, either
threatening the peer for having diseased her favourite girl, or
preparing to revenge herself on the quack whose medicines had failed
to eradicate his lordship's disorder. That heroine must have been
notorious, who could at once engage the pencil of _Hogarth_ and the
pens of _Loveling_ and _Fielding_, who in the sixth chapter of the
first book of _Amelia_ has the following story: "I happened in my youth
to sit behind two ladies in a side-box at a play, where, in the balcony
on the opposite side was placed the inimitable _Betty Careless_,
in company with a young fellow of no very formal, or indeed sober,
appearance. One of the ladies, I remember, said to the other--'Did you
ever see any thing look so modest and so innocent as that girl over
the way? What pity it is such a creature should be in the way of ruin,
as I am afraid she is, by her being alone with that young fellow!' Now
this lady was no bad physiognomist; for it was impossible to conceive
a greater appearance of modesty, innocence, and simplicity, than what
nature had displayed in the countenance of that girl; and yet, all
appearances notwithstanding, I myself (remember, critic, it was in
my youth) had a few mornings before seen that very identical picture
of those engaging qualities in bed with a rake at a bagnio, smoaking
tobacco, drinking punch, talking obscenity, and swearing and cursing
with all the impudence and impiety of the lowest and most abandoned
trull of a soldier." We may add, that one of the mad-men in the last
plate of _The Rake's Progress_ has likewise written "charming _Betty
Careless"_ on the rail of the stairs, and wears her portrait round
his neck. Perhaps between the publication of _The Rake's Progress_
and _Marriage à la Mode_, she sunk from a wanton into a bawd. Mrs.
_Heywood's Betsey Thoughtless_ was at first entitled _Betsey Careless_,
but the name was afterwards changed for obvious reasons.

_The London Daily Post, Nov._ 28, 1735, contains the following
advertisement from this notorious female:

"Mrs. _Careless_, from the _Piazza_ in _Covent-Garden_, not being
able to make an end of her affairs so soon as she expected, intends
on _Monday_ next to open a coffee-house in _Prujean's-Court_, in _The
Old Bailey_, where she hopes her friends will favour her with their
company, notwithstanding the ill situation of the place; since her
misfortunes oblige her still to remain there.

"N. B. It is the uppermost house in the court, and coaches and chairs
may come up to the door."

Again in _The London Daily Post, Oct._ 21, 1741, Mrs. _Careless_
advertises _The Beggar's Opera_, at the theatre in _James-Street,
Haymarket_, for her benefit, _Oct._ 27. At the bottom of the
advertisement she says, "Mrs. _Careless_ takes this benefit because she
finds a small pressing occasion for one: and as she has the happiness
of knowing she has a great many friends, hopes not to find an instance
to the contrary by their being absent the above-mentioned evening; and
as it would be entirely inconvenient, and consequently disagreeable, if
they should, she ventures to believe they won't fail to let her have
the honour of their company." In the bill of the day she says--"N. B.
Mrs. _Careless_ hopes her friends will favour her according to their
promise, to relieve her from terrible fits of the vapours proceeding
from bad dreams, though the comfort is they generally go by the

"Tickets to be had at Mrs. _Careless's_ Coffee-house, the
_Playhouse-Passage, Bridges-Street_."

Would the public, at this period of refinement, have patiently endured
the familiar address of such a shameless, superannuated, advertising

The reader will perhaps smile, when, after so much grave ratiocination,
and this long deduction of particulars, he is informed that the letters
are not E. C. but F. C. the initials of _Fanny Cock_, daughter to the
celebrated auctioneer of that name, with whom our artist had had some
casual disagreement.

The following, somewhat different, explanation has also been
communicated to me by _Charles Rogers_, esq. who says it came from
_Sullivan_, one of _Hogarth's_ engravers: "The nobleman threatens to
cane a quack-doctor for having given pills which proved ineffectual
in curing a girl he had debauched; and brings with him a woman, from
whom he alledges he caught the infection; at which she, in a rage, is
preparing to stab him with her clasp knife. This wretch is one of the
lowest class, as is manifest by the letters of her name marked with
gunpowder on her breast. She, however, is brought to the _French_
barber-surgeon for his examination and inspection, and for which
purpose he is wiping his spectacles with his coarse muckender."

The explanation given by _Rouquet_, however, ought not to be
suppressed, as in all probability he received it from _Hogarth_. "Il
falloit indiquer la mauvaise conduite du héros de la piece. L'auteur
pour cet effet l'introduit dans l'appartement d'un empirique, où il ne
peut guères se trouver qu'en consequence de ses débauches; il fait en
même tems rencontrer chez cet empirique une de ces femmes qui perdues
depuis long-tems, font enfin leur métier de la perte des autres. Il
suppose un démêlé entre cette femme et son héros, dont le sujet paroît
être la mauvaise santé d'un petite fille, du commerce de laquelle il ne
s'est pas bien trouvé. La petite fille au reste fait ici contraste par
son âge, sa timidité, sa douceur, avec le caractère de l'autre femme,
qui paroît un composé de rage, de fureur, et de tous les crimes qui
accompagnent d'ordinaire les dernières débauches chez celles de son

"L'empirique et son appartement sont des objets entièrement
épisodiques. Quoique jadis barbier,[A] il est aujourdhui, si l'on
en juge par l'etalage, non seulment chirurgien, mais naturaliste,
chimiste, mechanicien, medecin, apoticaire; et vous remarquerez
qu'il est _François_ pour comble de ridicule. L'auteur pour achever
de le caracteriser suivant son idée, lui fait inventer des machines
extrèmement composées pour les opérations les plus simples, comme
celles de remettre un membre disloqué, ou de déboucher une bouteille.

"Je ne deciderai pas si l'auteur est aussi heureux dans le choix des
objets de sa satire, quand il les prend parmi nous, que lorsqu'il les
choisit parmi ceux de sa nation; mais il me semble qu'il doit mieux
connoître ceux-ci; et je crois que cette planche vous en paroîtra un
exemple bien marqué. Il tourne ici en ridicule ce que nous avons de
moins mauvais; que deviendroit le reste s'il étoit vrai qu'il nous
connût assez pour nous depeindre?"

[A] This circumstance seems to be implied by the broken comb, the
pewter bason, and the horn so placed as to resemble a barber's pole,
all which are exhibited either above, or within the glass case, in
which the skeleton appears whispering a man who had been exsiccated
by some mode of embalming at present unknown. About the time of the
publication of this set of prints, a number of bodies thus preserved
were discovered in a vault in _Whitechapel_ church.--Our Quack is
likewise a virtuoso. An ancient spur, a high-crowned hat, old shoes,
&c. together with a model of the gallows, are among his rarities.--On
his table is a skull, rendered carious by the disease he is professing
to cure.--These two last objects are monitory as well as characteristic.

[4] _Scotin_ engraved the first and sixth; _Baron_ the second and
third; _Ravenet_ the fourth and fifth.

[5] The blunders in architecture in this unfinished nobleman's seat, on
the same account, are seen to disadvantage.

[6] This edifice seems at a stand for want of money, no workman
appearing on the scaffolds, or near them.

[7] In his advertisement for this set of plates, he had engaged to
engrave all the faces with his own hand. See note 1 above.

[8] The account given in a former edition of this volume concerning the
sale of the original pictures of _Marriage-à-la-mode_, being somewhat
erroneous, I am happy in the present opportunity of acknowledging my
obligations to Mr. _Lane_ abovementioned, who has corrected my mistakes
by a communication of the following particulars relative to the

"Some time after they had been finished, perhaps six or seven years,
during which period Mr. _Hogarth_ had been preparing and publishing
prints from them, in the year 1750 he advertised the sale of the
originals by a kind of auction not carried on by personal bidding, but
by a written ticket on which every one was to put the price he would
give, with his name subscribed to it. These papers were to be received
by Mr. _Hogarth_ for the space of one month; and the highest bidder, at
twelve o'clock on the last day of the month, was to be the purchaser:
and none but those who had in writing made their biddings were to be
admitted on the day that was to determine the sale. This nouvelle
method of proceeding probably disobliged the public; and there seemed
to be at that time a combination against poor _Hogarth_, who perhaps,
from the extraordinary and frequent approbation of his works, might
have imbibed some degree of vanity, which the town in general, friends
and foes, seemed resolved to mortify. If this was the case (and to me
it is very apparent), they fully effected their design; for on the
memorable sixth of _June_ 1750, which was to decide the fate of this
capital work, about eleven o'clock Mr. _Lane_, the fortunate purchaser,
arrived at the _Golden Head_: when, to his great surprize, expecting
(what he had been a witness to in 1745, when _Hogarth_ disposed of
many of his pictures) to have found his painting-room full of noble
and great personages, he only found the painter and his ingenious
friend Dr. _Parsons_, secretary to the Royal Society, talking together,
and expecting a number of spectators at least, if not of buyers. Mr.
_Hogarth_ then produced the highest bidding, from a gentleman well
known, of £120. Nobody coming in, about ten minutes before twelve, by
the decisive clock in the room, Mr. _Lane_ told Mr. _Hogarth_ he would
make the pounds guineas. The clock then struck twelve, and _Hogarth_
wished Mr. _Lane_ joy of his purchase, hoping it was an agreeable one.
Mr. _Lane_ answered, Perfectly so. Now followed a scene of disturbance
from _Hogarth's_ friend the Doctor, and, what more affected Mr. _Lane_,
a great appearance of disappointment in the painter, and truly with
great reason. The Doctor told him, he had hurt himself greatly by
fixing the determination of the sale at so early an hour, when the
people at that part of the town were hardly up. _Hogarth_, in a tone
and manner that could not escape observation, said, Perhaps it may be
so! Mr. _Lane_, after a short pause, declared himself to be of the
same opinion, adding, that the artist was very poorly rewarded for his
labour, and, if he thought it would be of service to him, would give
him till three o'clock to find a better purchaser. _Hogarth_ warmly
accepted the offer, and expressed his acknowledgements for the kindness
in the strongest terms. The proposal likewise received great encomiums
from the Doctor, who proposed to make it public. This was peremptorily
forbidden by Mr. _Lane_, whose concession in favour of our artist was
remembered by him to the time of his death.--About one o'clock, two
hours sooner than the time appointed by Mr. _Lane, Hogarth_ said he
would no longer trespass on his generosity, but that, if he was pleased
with his purchase, he himself was abundantly so with the purchaser.
He then desired Mr. _Lane_ to promise that he would not dispose of
the pictures without previously acquainting him of his intention, and
that he would never permit any person, under pretence of cleaning, to
meddle with them, as he always desired to take that office on himself.
This promise was readily made by Mr. _Lane_, who has been tempted more
than once by _Hogarth_ to part with his bargain at a price to be named
by himself. When Mr. _Lane_ bought the pictures, they were in Carlo
Marratt frames which cost the painter four guineas apiece."

The memory of this occurrence ought always to attend the work which
afforded Mr. _Lane_ an opportunity of displaying so much disinterested

Another correspondent begins the same story as follows--A little
time before the auction, _Hogarth_ publickly declared, that no
picture-dealer should be allowed to bid. He also called on his friends,
requesting them not to appear at the sale, as his house was small, and
the room might be over crowded. They obeyed his injunctions. Early in
this mortifying day he dressed himself, put on his tye-wig, strutted
away one hour, and fretted away two more, no bidder appearing, &c. &c.

2. A small print of Archbishop _Herring_, at the head of the speech he
made to the clergy of _York, September_ 24, 1745. _William Hogarth
pinx. C. Moseley sculp._

3. The same head cut out of the plate, and printed off without the

4. The Battle of the Pictures. "_Ticket to admit persons to bid for his
works at an auction._" On the plate called _The Battle of the Pictures_
is written, "The bearer hereof is entitled (if he thinks proper) to be
a bidder for Mr. _Hogarth's_ pictures, which are to be sold on the last
day of this month [_February_, 1744-5.]."

5. A festoon, with a mask, a roll of paper, a palette, and a laurel.
Subscription ticket for _Garrick_ in _Richard_ the Third. A very
faithful copy from this receipt was made by _R. Livesay_, 1781. It is
to be sold at Mrs. _Hogarth's_ house in _Leicester-square_.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. _Simon_ Lord _Lovat.[1] Drawn from the life, and etched in
aquafortis by William Hogarth.--Hogarth_ said himself, that Lord
_Lovat's_ portrait was taken (at the _White-Hart_, at _St. Alban's_)
in the attitude of relating on his fingers the numbers of the rebel
forces.--"Such a general had so many men, &c." and remarked, that the
muscles of _Lovat's_ neck appeared of unusual strength, more so than
he had ever seen. When the painter entered the room, his lordship,
being under the barber's hands, received his old friend with a salute,
which left much of the lather on his face.--The second impressions are
marked, _Price One Shilling_. When _Hogarth_ had finished this plate,
a printseller offered its weight in gold for it. The impressions could
not be taken off so fast as they were wanted, though the rolling-press
was at work all night for a week together. For several weeks afterwards
he is said to have received at the rate of 12 _l._ per day.

[1] "This powerful laird, it has been observed, was one of the last
Chieftains that preserved the rude manners and barbarous authority of
the early feudal ages. He resided in a house which would be esteemed
but an indifferent one for a very private, plain country gentleman in
_England_; as it had, properly, only four rooms on a floor, and those
not large. Here, however, he kept a sort of court, and several public
tables; and had a numerous body of retainers always attending. His own
constant residence, and the place where he received company, even at
dinner, was in the very same room where he lodged; and his lady's sole
apartment was her bed-room; and the only provision for the lodging of
the servants, and retainers, was a quantity of straw, which they spread
every night, on the floors of the lower rooms, where the whole inferior
part of the family, consisting of a very great number of persons, took
up their abode." See Mr. _King's_ observations on ancient Castles, in
the _Archæologia_, vol. IV.

Sir _William Young_, one of the managers appointed by the Commons of
_Great Britain_, for conducting the prosecution against this Nobleman
for High Treason, in the year 1745, makes the following observation:
"Your Lordships have already done national justice on some of the
principal traitors, who appeared in open arms against his Majesty, by
the ordinary course of law; but this noble Lord, who, in the whole
course of his life, has boasted of his superior cunning in wickedness,
and his ability to commit frequent treasons with impunity, vainly
imagined that he might possibly be a traitor in private, and rebel
only in his heart, by sending his son and his followers to join the
Pretender, and remaining at home himself, to endeavour to deceive his
Majesty's faithful subjects; hoping _he_ might be rewarded for his
son's services, if successful; or his _son_ alone be the sufferer
for _his_ offences, if the undertaking failed: diabolical cunning!
monstrous impiety!" See _State Trials_, vol. IX. p. 627.

2. Mr. _Garrick_[1] in the character of _Richard_ III. _Painted by
Wm. Hogarth; engraved by Wm. Hogarth and C. Grignion._ The late Mr.
_Duncombe_, of _Duncombe Park_ in _Yorkshire_, gave 200 _l._ for the
original picture, which is now in the possession of his family. The
expression of the countenance is happily hit off, but the figure is
abundantly too large and muscular. This print was afterwards, by
_Hogarth's_ permission, copied for a watch-paper.

[1] "Mr. _Garrick_ had several of _Hogarth's_ paintings; and the latter
designed for him, as president of the _Shakespeare_ club, a mahogany
chair richly carved, on the back of which hangs a medal of the poet
carved by _Hogarth_ out of the mulberry-tree planted at _Stratford_
by _Shakespeare_." Anecdotes of Painting, vol. IV. p. 180. edit. 8vo,

3. A stand of various weapons, bag-pipes, &c. and a pair of scissars
cutting out the arms of _Scotland_. A subscription-ticket for the March
to _Finchley_; of which the original price was only 7 _s._ 6 _d._ It
was to be raised to 10 _s._ 6 _d._ on closing the subscription. The
additional three shillings afforded the subscriber a chance for the
original picture.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Stage-coach. An election procession in the yard. _Designed and
engraved by William Hogarth._ In this plate there is a variation.
The early impressions have a flag behind the wheel of the coach,
inscribed NO OLD BABY, which was the cry used by the opponents of the
honourable _John Child Tylney_ (then Viscount _Castlemain_ and now Earl
_Tylney_[1]) when he stood member for the county of _Essex_, against
Sir _Robert Abdy_ and Mr. _Bramston_. The figure still carries a
horn-book, and a rattle in its hands. At the election, a man was placed
on a bulk with an _infant_ in his arms, and exclaimed, as he whipt the
child, "What, you little _Child_, must you be a member?" The family
name was changed from _Child_ to _Tylney_ by an act of parliament in
1735. In this disputed election, it appeared from the register-book of
the parish where Lord _Castlemain_ was born, that he was but 20 years
of age. Some pains have been taken to ascertain the particular inn-yard
in which the scene is laid, but without success, so many of the
publick-houses between _Whitechapel_ and _Chelmsford_ in _Essex_ having
been altered, or totally rebuilt.

[1] Since dead.--_Inter Socraticos notissima fossa cinædos_.

2. Industry and Idleness, in twelve plates.[1] Mr. _Walpole_ observes,
that "they have more merit in the intention than execution." At first
they were printed off on very thin paper. Plate V. The scene is
_Cuckold's Point_, below _London Bridge_. Plate VI. In a few first
impressions, "_Goodchild_ and _West_" is written under the sign,
instead of "_West_ and _Goodchild_." _Hogarth_ had inadvertently
placed the name of the junior partner first. Some mercantile friend,
however, pointing out the mistake, when as yet only a few copies
were taken off, our artist corrected it, to avoid the criticisms of
_Cheapside_ and _Cornhill_. In this plate is a figure of _Philip
in the Tub_, a well-known beggar and cripple, who was a constant
epithalamist at weddings in _London_, and had visited _Ireland_ and
_The Seven Provinces_. The _French_ clergyman in Plate VIII. was
designed for Mr. _Platell_, curate of _Barnet_. Plate XI. The scene
is in a cellar of a noted house that went by the name of "The Blood
Bowl House," from the various scenes of blood that were there almost
daily exhibited, and where there seldom passed a month without the
commission of a murder. _Blood Bowl-alley_ is down by the fishmonger's,
near _Water-lane, Fleet-street_; and I am assured, that the house and
event, that gave rise to the name, were there. In Plate XI. is _Tiddy
Doll_, the well-known vender of gingerbread. Just behind him, in a
cart, to bring away the body of the criminal, is his mother. Though her
face is concealed, she is distinguished by her excess of sorrow, and
the black hood she has worn throughout the foregoing representations
of her. Plate XII. _Frederick_ Prince of _Wales_, and the Princess
of _Wales_, in the balcony. The standards of the Blacksmiths' and
Stationers' Companies appear in the procession. The flag, at the corner
of one of the stands, belongs to the Pinners and Needlers. The hint
for this series of prints was evidently taken from the old comedy
of _Eastward-hoe_, by _Jonson, Chapman,_ and _Marston_, reprinted
in _Dodsley's_ Collection of Old Plays. "The scenes of _Bedlam_ and
the gaming-house," as Mr. _Walpole_ well observes, "are inimitable
representations of our serious follies, or unavoidable woes; and the
concern shown by the lord-mayor, when the companion of his childhood
is brought before him as a criminal, is a touching picture, and big
with humane admonition and reflection." The late comedian Mr. _James
Love_ (otherwise _Dance_, and brother to the painter of that name)
dramatized this series of prints; and Mr. _King_, now deputy-manager
of _Drury-lane_, performed the character of the Good 'Prentice.

These Plates were retouched by _Hogarth_; but, as usual, whatever they
gained in respect to force, they lost in the article of clearness.
They offer no variations, except such as are occasioned by his having
thrown a few of the figures into shade, that others might appear more
prominent. Dr. _Ducarel_ informed me, that the passages of Scripture
applicable to the different scenes were selected for Mr. _Hogarth_, by
his friend the Rev. Mr. _Arnold King_.

In the following year was published, price one shilling (being an
explanation of the moral of twelve celebrated prints lately published,
and designed by the ingenious Mr. _Hogarth_), "The Effects of Industry
and Idleness, illustrated in the Life, Adventures, and various Fortunes
of Two Fellow 'Prentices of the City of _London_: shewing the different
Paths, as well as Rewards of Virtue and Vice; how the good and virtuous
'Prentice, by gradual Steps of Industry, rose to the highest Pitch
of Grandeur; and how, by contrary Pursuits, his Fellow-'Prentice,
by Laziness and Wickedness, came to die an ignominious Death at the
Gallows. ¶ This little book ought to be read by every 'Prentice in
_England_, to imprint in their hearts these two different examples, the
contrary effects each will produce on their young minds being of more
worth than a hundred times the price, _i. e._ an abhorrence of the vice
and wickedness they perceive in the one boy, and, on the contrary, an
endeavour after an imitation of the actions of the other. And is a more
proper present to be given to the Chamber of _London_, at the binding
and enrolling an apprentice, than any other book whatever. Printed by
_Charles Corbett_, at _Addison's_ Head in _Fleet street_."

[1] The following description of _Hogarth's_ design is copied from his
own hand-writing: "Industry and Idleness exemplified in the conduct
of two Fellow 'Prentices: where the one, by taking good courses, and
pursuing points for which he was put apprentice, becomes a valuable man
and an ornament to his country; the other, by giving way to idleness,
naturally falls into poverty, and ends fatally, as is expressed in the
last print. As the prints were intended more for use than ornament,
they were done in a way that might bring them within the purchase of
whom they might most concern; and, lest any print should be mistaken,
the description of each print is engraved at top."

3. _Jacobus Gibbs_, architectus. _W. Hogarth delin. B. Baron sculp._

4. _Jacobus Gibbs_, architectus. _W. Hogarth delin. J. Mc Ardell
fec._ Partly mezzotinto, partly graved. No date.

5. To this period may be referred the arms of _The Foundling Hospital_,
printed off on the tops of the indentures; together with

6. The same, but smaller; employed as a frontispiece to "Psalms, Hymns,
and Anthems; for the Use of the Children of the Hospital for the
Maintenance and Education of exposed and deserted Young Children."

They are both classed here, because the original drawing (see under the
year 1781) is dated in 1747.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. A monk leading an ass with a _Scotch_ man and woman on it, &c.
A wooden cut. Head-piece to the "Jacobite's Journal." This was a
news-paper set up and supported by _Henry Fielding_, and carried on for
a few months with some success. The wooden-cut was only prefixed to six
or seven of the papers. Being faintly executed, it was soon worn out,
and has lately been copied in aqua tinta by Mr. _Livesay_.

2. Pool of _Bethesda_, from the picture[1] he painted for _St.
Bartholomew's Hospital. Engraved by Ravenet for S. Austen_, as a
frontispiece for _Stackhouse's_ Bible. In this plate, I am assured by
an old acquaintance of Mr. _Hogarth_, is a faithful portrait of _Nell
Robinson_, a celebrated courtezan, with whom, in early life, they had
both been intimately acquainted.

[1] Of this picture Mr. _S. Ireland_ has a large sketch in oil.

       *       *       *       *       *


1.[1] The Gate of _Calais_.[2] Engraved by C. _Mosley_ and _W.
Hogarth. "His own head sketching the view. He was arrested when he was
making the drawing, but set at liberty when his purpose was known."_
See above, p. 49. Mr. _Walpole_ also observes, that in this piece,
though it has great merit, "the caricatura is carried to excess." Mr.
_Pine_ the engraver sat for the portrait of the Friar, a circumstance
of which he afterwards repented;[3] for, thereby obtaining the
nick-name of _Friar Pine_, and being much persecuted and laughed at, he
strove to prevail on _Hogarth_ to give his Ghostly father another face.
Indeed, when he sat to our artist, he did not know to what purpose his
similitude would afterwards be applied. The original picture is in the
possession of the Earl of _Charlemont_. Soon after it was finished,
it fell down by accident, and a nail ran through the cross on the top
of the gate. _Hogarth_ strove in vain to mend it with the same colour,
so as to conceal the blemish. He therefore introduced a starved crow,
looking down on the roast-beef, and thus completely covered the defect.

The figure of the half-starved _French_ centinel has since been copied
at the top of more than one of the printed advertisements for recruits,
where it is opposed to the representation of a well-fed _British_
soldier. Thus the genius of _Hogarth_ still militates in the cause of
his country.

A copy of this print was likewise engraved at the top of a Cantata,
intituled, _The Roast Beef of Old England_. As it is probable that the
latter was published under the sanction of our artist, I shall, without
scruple, transcribe it.

    'Twas at the Gates of _Calais, Hogarth_ tells,
    Where sad Despair and Famine always dwells,
    A meagre _Frenchman_, Madam _Grandsire's_ cook,
    As home he steer'd his carcase, that way took,
    Bending beneath the weight of fam'd _Sir-loin_,
    On whom he often wish'd in vain to dine.
    Good Father _Dominick_ by chance came by,
    With rosy gills, round paunch, and greedy eye;
    Who, when he first beheld the greasy load,
    His benediction on it he bestow'd;
    And while the solid fat his finger press'd,
    He lick'd his chaps, and thus the knight address'd:

      _A lovely Lass to a Friar came_, &c.
    O rare _Roast Beef!_ lov'd by all mankind,
      If I was doom'd to have thee,
    When dress'd and garnish'd to my mind,
      And swimming in thy gravy,
    Not all thy country's force combin'd
      Should from my fury save thee.

    Renown'd _Sir-loin_, oft-times decreed
      The theme of _English_ ballad,
    E'en kings on thee have deign'd to feed,
      Unknown to _Frenchman's_ palate;
    Then how much more thy taste exceeds
      Soup-meagre, frogs, and sallad.

    A half-starv'd soldier, shirtless, pale and lean,
    Who such a sight before had never seen,
    Like _Garrick's_ frighted _Hamlet_, gaping stood,
    And gaz'd with wonder on the _British_ food.
    His morning's mess forsook the friendly bowl,
    And in small streams along the pavement stole;
    He heav'd a sigh, which gave his heart relief,
    And then in plaintive tone declar'd his grief.

    Ah, sacre Dieu! vat do I see yonder,
      Dat looks so tempting, red and white?
    Begar I see it is de _Roast Beef_ from _Londre_,
      O grant to me one letel bite.
    But to my guts if you give no heeding,
      And cruel Fate dis boon denies,
    In kind compassion to my pleading,
      Return, and let me feast my eyes.

    His fellow guard, of right _Hibernian_ clay,
    Whose brazen front his country did betray,
    From _Tyburn's_ fatal tree had hither fled,
    By honest means to get his daily bread;
    Soon as the well-known prospect he espy'd,
    In blubbering accents dolefully he cried:

      _Ellen a Roon_, &c.
    Sweet _Beef_, that now causes my stomach to rise.
    Sweet _Beef_, that now causes my stomach to rise,
        So taking thy sight is,
        My joy that so light is,
    To view thee, by pailfuls runs out at my eyes.

    While here I remain, my life's not worth a farthing,
    While here I remain, my life's not worth a farthing,
        Ah! hard-hearted _Lewy_,
        Why did I come to ye?
    The gallows, more kind, would have sav'd me from starving.

    Upon the ground hard by poor _Sawney_ sate,
    Who fed his nose, and scratch'd his ruddy pate;
    But when _Old England's_ bulwark he descry'd,
    His dear-lov'd mull, alas! was thrown aside.
    With lifted hands he bless'd his native place,
    Then scrub'd himself, and thus bewail'd his case:

      _The Broom of Cowdenknows_, &c.
    How hard, O _Sawney!_ is thy lot,
      Who was so blyth of late,
    To see such meat as can't be got,
      When hunger is so great!
    _O the Beef, the bonny bonny Beef!
      When roasted nice and brown,
    I wish I had a slice of thee,
      How sweet it would gang down._
    Ah, _Charley!_ hadst thou not been seen,
      This ne'er had hapt to me:
    I would the De'el had pickt mine eyne
      Ere I had gang'd with thee.
        _O the Beef_, &c.

    But see! my Muse to _England_ takes her flight,
    Where _Health_ and _Plenty_ chearfully unite.
    Where smiling _Freedom_ guards great _George's_ throne,
    And chains, and racks, and tortures are not known;
    Whose _Fame_ superior bards have often wrote.--
    An ancient fable give me leave to quote.

      _The Roast Beef of Old England._
    As once on a time a young _Frog_, pert and vain,
    Beheld a large _Ox_ grazing on the wide plain,
    He boasted his size he could quickly attain.
        _Oh! the Roast Beef,_ &c.

    Then eagerly stretching his weak little frame,
    Mamma, who stood by, like a knowing old dame,
    Cried, "Son, to attempt it you're greatly to blame."
        _Oh! the Roast Beef,_ &c.

    But, deaf to advice, he for glory did thirst,
    An effort he ventured, more strong than the first,
    Till swelling and straining too hard, made him burst.
        _Oh! the Roast Beef,_ &c.

    Then, _Britons_, be valiant; the moral is clear:
    The _Ox_ is _Old England_, the _Frog_ is _Monsieur_,
    Whose puffs and bravadoes we need never fear.
        _Oh! the Roast Beef,_ &c.

    For while by our commerce and arts we are able
    To see the brave _Ox_ smoaking hot on our table,
    The _French_ must e'en croak, like the _Frog_ in the fable.
        _Oh! the Roast Beef,_ &c.

Printed for _R. Sayer_, at the _Golden Buck_ in _Fleet-street_; and _J.
Smith_, at _Hogarth's Head_ in _Cheapside_.

At the end of a pamphlet which I shall have occasion to mention under
the year 1755, was announced, as speedily to be published under the
auspices of our artist, "A Poetical Description of Mr. _Hogarth's_
celebrated print, _The Roast Beef of Old England_, or the _French_
surprized at the Gate of _Calais_."

[1] In _The General Advertiser, March_ 9, 1748-9, appeared the

"This day is published, price 5_s._ A Print, designed and engraved by
Mr. _Hogarth_, representing a PRODIGY which lately appeared before the
Gate of _Calais_.

"O the Roast Beef of _Old England!_

"To be had at the _Golden-Head_, in _Leicester-Square_, and at the
Print Shops."

[2] The following lines were written by the Rev. Mr. _Townley_, Master
of _Merchant Taylors' School_, and spoken by one of the Scholars,
_October_ 22, 1767,


    Littore in opposito, quâ turrim _Dubris_ in altum
      Ostentans, undas imperiosa regit,
    Ferrea stat, multo cum milite, porta _Calesi_:
      (Ingenium pinxit talia, _Hogarthe_, tuum).
    Eo! sudans carnis portat latus ille bovile,
      Quem, trepidis genibus, grande fatigat onus;
    Obstupet hic fixis oculis atque ore patenti,
      Et tenue, invitus, jus cito mittit humi:
    Accedit monachus, digito tangente rubentem
      Carnem, divinum prodigiumque colit.
    Omnia visa placent animum; non pascis inani
      Picturâ, pariter quæ placet atque docet.
    Egregius patriæ proprios dat pictor honores;
      Et palmam jussa est ferre bovina caro.

[3] Mr. _Walpole's_ new edition of his "Anecdotes of Painting" having
been published whilst the present page was preparing for the second
edition, I took the earliest opportunity of letting that admirable
writer speak for himself, in answer to a particular in which I had
presumed to differ from him. "If _Hogarth_ indulged his spirit of
ridicule in personalities," (I now use the words of Mr. _Walpole_)
"it never proceeded beyond sketches and drawings; his prints touched
the folly, but spared the person. Early he drew a noted miser, one of
the sheriffs, trying a mastiff that had robbed his kitchen, but the
magistrate's son went to his house and cut the picture in pieces.[A]
I have been reproved for this assertion," continues our agreeable
Biographer, "and instances have been pointed out that contradict me.
I am far from persevering in an error, and do allow that my position
was too positive. Still some of the instances adduced were by no means
caricaturas. Sir _John Gonson_ and Dr. _Misaubin_ in the _Harlot's
Progress_ were rather examples identified than satires. Others, as Mr.
_Pine's_, were mere portraits, introduced by their own desire, or with
their consent."

[A] See above, p. 69.

2. Portrait of _John Palmer_, esq. lord of the manor of _Cogenhoe_ or
_Cooknoe_, and patron of the church, of _Ecton_ in _Northamptonshire.
W. Hogarth pinx. B. Baron sculp._ This small head is inserted under a
view of _Ecton_ Church.

3. His own head in a cap, a pug-dog, and a palette with the line of
beauty, &c. inscribed _Gulielmus Hogarth. Seipse pinxit & sculpsit._
Very scarce, because _Hogarth_ erased his own portrait, and introduced
that of Mr. _Churchill_, under the character of a bear, in its room.
See under the year 1763.

On this print, in its original state, the _Scandalizade_, a satire
published about 1749, has the following lines. The author represents
himself as standing before the window of a print-shop.

    "There elbowing in 'mong the crowd with a jog,
    Lo! good father _Tobit_, said I, with his dog!
    But the artist is wrong; for the dog should be drawn
    At the heels of his master in trot o'er the lawn,--
    To your idle remarks I take leave to demur,
    'Tis not _Tobit_, nor yet his canonical cur,
    (Quoth a sage in the crowd) for I'd have you to know, Sir,
    'Tis _Hogarth_ himself and his honest friend _Towser_,
    Inseparate companions! and therefore you see
    Cheek by jowl they are drawn in familiar degree;
    Both striking the eye with an equal eclat,
    The biped _This_ here, and the quadruped _That_--
    You mean--the great dog and the man, I suppose,
    Or the man and the dog--be't just as you chuse.--
    You correct yourself rightly--when much to be blam'd,
    For the worthiest person you first should have nam'd,
    Great dog! why great man I methinks you should say.
    Split the difference, my friend, they're both great in their way.
    Is't he then so famous for drawing a punk,
    A harlot, a rake, and a parson so drunk,
    Whom _Trotplaid_[1] delivers to praise as his friend?
    Thus a jacknapes a lion would fain recommend.--
    The very self same--how boldly they strike,
    And I can't forbear thinking they're somewhat alike.--
    Oh fie! to a dog would you _Hogarth_ compare?--
    Not so--I say only they're alike as it were,
    A respectable pair! all spectators allow,
    And that they deserve a description below
    In capital letters, _Behold we are Two_."

[1] The name under which _Fielding_ wrote a news-paper called _The
Jacobite's Journal_, the frontispiece by _Hogarth_.

4. Portrait of _Hogarth_, small circle. Mr. _Basire_ (to whom this
plate has been ascribed) says it is much in our artist's manner.
On enquiry, however, it appears to be no other than a watch-paper
"Published according to Act of Parliament by _R. Sayer_, opposite
_Fetter-lane, Sept._ 29, 1749," and certainly copied from the small
portrait of our artist introduced in _The Roast Beef of Old England_.
Another head of him, with a fur cap on, was also edited by the same
printseller, at the same time. There is likewise a third head of
_Hogarth_, in an oval, prefixed as a frontispiece to "A Dissertation"
on his six prints, &c. _Gin Lane_, &c. which appeared in 1751.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. _Thomas Herring_, Archbishop of _Canterbury. W. Hogarth p. B. Baron
sculp._ Of this picture (which is preserved in _Lambeth-Palace_) the
Archbishop, in a letter to Mr. _Duncombe_, says, "None of my friends
can bear _Hogarth's_ picture;" and Mr. _Duncombe_, the son, in a note
to this epistle, observes, that "this picture (as appears by the print
engraved by _Baron_ in 1750) exhibits rather a caricature than a
likeness, the figure being gigantic, the features all aggravated and
_outrés_, and, on the whole, so far from conveying an idea of that
_os placidum, moresque benigni_, as Dr. _Jortin_ expresses it, that
engaging sweetness and benevolence, which were characteristic of this
prelate, that they seem rather expressive of a _Bonner_, who could burn
a heretic.

    "_Lovat's_ hard features _Hogarth_ might command;
    A _Herring's_ sweetness asks a _Reynolds'_ hand."

_Hogarth_ however made the following observation while the Archbishop
was sitting to him: "Your Grace, perhaps, does not know that some of
our chief dignitaries in the church have had the best luck in their
portraits. The most excellent heads painted by _Vandyck_ and _Kneller_,
were those of _Laud_ and _Tillotson_. The crown of my works will be the
representation of your Grace."

2. _Jacobus Gibbs_, Architectus, A. M. and F. R. S. _Hogarth delin.
Baron sculp._ The same face as that in 1747, but in an octagon frame,
which admits more of the body to be shewn, as well as some architecture
in the back ground. There is also a smaller head of _Gibbs_, in
a circle, &c. but whether engraved by _Baron_ from a picture by
_Hogarth_, or any other hand, is uncertain. Perhaps it was designed as
a vignette for some splendid edition of _Gibbs's_ works.

3. The March to _Finchley_,[1] dedicated to the King of _Prussia_[2][as
"an Encourager of the Arts,"] "_in resentment for the late king's
sending for the picture to St. James's, and returning it without
any other notice._" This print is _engraved by Luke Sullivan_ but
afterwards, as we learn from a note at the bottom of it, was "Retouched
and _improved_ by _Wm. Hogarth_, and republished _June_ 12, 1761." The
_improvements_ in it, however, remain to be discovered by better eyes
than mine.

I am authorized to add, that soon after the lottery described in a note
at the beginning of this article, our artist waited on the treasurer
to the _Foundling Hospital_, acquainting him that the trustees were at
liberty to dispose of the picture by auction. Scarce, however, was the
message delivered, before he changed his mind, and never afterwards
would consent to the measure he had originally proposed. The late Duke
of _Ancaster_ offered the hospital 300 _l._ for it. The following
complete explanation of it is in _The Student_, vol. II. p. 16. It is
supposed to have been written by the ingenious Mr. _Bonnel Thornton_.

"The scene of this representation is laid at _Tottenham Court
Turnpike_; the _King's-Head, Adam_ and _Eve_, and the _Turnpike-house_,
in full view; beyond which are discovered parties of the guards,
baggage, &c. marching towards _Highgate_, and a beautiful distant
prospect of the country; the sky finely painted. The picture,
considered together, affords a view of a military march, and the
humours and disorders consequent thereupon.

"Near the center of the picture, the painter has exhibited his
principal figure, which is a handsome young grenadier, in whose face is
strongly depicted repentance mixed with pity and concern; the occasion
of which is disclosed by two females putting in their claim for his
person, one of whom has hold of his right arm, and the other has
_seized_ his left. The figure upon his right hand, and perhaps placed
there by the painter by way of preference (as the object of love is
more desirable than that of duty), is a fine young girl in her person,
debauched, with child, and reduced to the miserable employ of selling
ballads, and who, with a look full of love, tenderness, and distress,
casts up her eyes upon her undoer, and with tears descending down her
cheeks, seems to say----_sure you cannot----will not leave me_! The
person and deportment of this figure well justifies the painter's
turning the body of the youth towards her. The woman upon the left
is a strong contrast to this girl; for rage and jealousy have thrown
the human countenance into no amiable or desirable form. This is the
wife of the youth, who, finding him engaged with such an _ugly slut_,
assaults him with a violence natural to a woman whose person and beauty
is neglected. To the fury of her countenance, and the dreadful weapon
her tongue, another terror appears in her hand, equally formidable,
which is a roll of papers, whereon is wrote, _The Remembrancer_; a
word of dire and triple import; for while it shews the occupation the
_amiable bearer_ is engaged in, it reminds the youth of an unfortunate
circumstance he would gladly forget: and the same word is also a
cant expression, to signify the blow she is meditating. And here, I
value myself upon hitting the true meaning, and entering into the
spirit of the great author of that celebrated _Journal_ called _The
Remembrancer_, or, _A weekly slap on the face for the Ministry_.

"It is easily discernible that the two females are of different
parties. The ballad of _God save our noble King_, and a print of the
_Duke of Cumberland_, in the basket of the girl, and the cross upon the
back of the wife, with the implements of her occupation, sufficiently
denote the painter's intention: and, what is truly beautiful, these
incidents are applicable to the march.

"The hard-favoured serjeant directly behind, who enjoys the foregoing
scene, is not only a good contrast to the youth, but also, with other
helps, throws forward the principal figure.

"Upon the right of the grenadier is a drummer, who also has his _two
Remembrancers_, a woman and a boy, the produce of their kinder hours;
and who have laid their claim by a violent seizure upon his person. The
figure of the woman is that of a complainant, who reminds him of her
great applications, as well in sending him clean to guard, as other
kind offices done, and his promises to make her an honest woman,
which he, base and ungrateful, has forgot, and pays her affection with
neglect. The craning of her neck shews her remonstrances to be of the
shrill kind, in which she is aided by the howling of her boy. The
drummer, who has a mixture of fun and wickedness in his face, having
heard as many reproaches as suit his present inclinations, with a bite
of his lip, and a leering eye, applies to the instrument of noise in
his profession, and endeavours to drown the united clamour; in which he
is luckily aided by the _ear-piercing fife_ near him.

"Between the figures before described, but more back in the picture,
appears the important but meagre phiz of a _Frenchman_, in close
whisper with an _Independent_. The first I suppose a spy upon the
motion of the army, the other probably drawn into the croud, in order
to give intelligence to his brethren, at their next meeting, to
commemorate their noble struggle in support of _Independency_. The
_Frenchman_ exhibits a letter, which he assures him contains positive
intelligence, that 10000 of his countrymen are landed in _England_, in
support of _liberty_ and _independency_. The joy with which his friend
receives these glorious tidings, causes him to forget the wounds upon
his head, which he has unluckily received by a too free and premature
declaration of his principles.

"There is a fine contrast in the smile of innocency in the child at the
woman's back, compared with the grim joy of a gentleman by it; while
the hard countenance of its mother gives a delicacy to the grenadier's

"Directly behind the drummer's quondam spouse, appears a soldier
pissing against a shed; and some distortions in his countenance
indicate a malady too indelicate to describe; this conjecture is aided
by a bill of Dr. _Rock's_ for relief in like cases. Directly over him
appears a wench at a wicket, probably drawn there to have a view of the
march; but is diverted from her first intention by the appearance of
another object directly under her eye, which seems to ingross her whole

"Behind the drummer under the sign of the _Adam_ and _Eve_ are a
group of figures; two of which are engaged in the fashionable art of
bruising: their equal dexterity is shewn, by _sewed-up peepers_ on one
side, and _a pate well-sconced_ on the other. And here the painter
has shewn his impartiality to the merit of our _noble youths_, (whose
minds, inflamed with love of glory, appear, not only encouragers
of this truly laudable science, but many of them are also great
proficients in the art itself,) by introducing a youth of quality,
whose face is expressive of those boisterous passions necessary for
forming a hero of this kind; and who, entering deep into the scene,
endeavours to inspire the combatants with a noble contempt of bruises
and broken bones. An old woman, moved by a foolish compassion,
endeavours to force through the croud and part the fray, in which
design she is stopped by a fellow, who prefers fun and mischief to
humanity. Above their heads appears a little man[3] of meagre frame,
but full of spirits, who enjoys the combat, and with fists clenched, in
imagination deals blow for blow with the heroes. This figure is finely
contrasted, by a heavy sluggish fellow just behind. The painter, with a
stroke of humour peculiar to himself, has exhibited a figure shrinking
under the load of a heavy box upon his back, who, preferring curiosity
to ease, is a spectator, and waits in this uneasy state the issue of
the combat. Upon a board next the sign, where roots, flowers, &c. were
said to be sold, the painter has humorously altered the words, and
wrote thereon, _Tottenham-Court Nursery_; alluding to a bruising-booth
in this place, and the group of figures underneath.

"Passing through the turnpike, appears a carriage laden with the
implements of war, as drums, halberts, tent-poles, and hoop-petticoats.
Upon the carriage are two old women-campaigners, funking their pipes,
and holding a conversation, as usual, in fire and smoke. These
grotesque figures afford a fine contrast to a delicate woman upon the
same carriage, who is suckling a child. This excellent figure evidently
proves, that the painter is as capable of succeeding in the graceful
style as in the humorous. A little boy laes at the feet of this
figure; and the painter, to shew him of martial breed, has placed a
small trumpet in his mouth.

"The serious group of the principal figures, in the center, is finely
relieved by a scene of humour on the left. Here an officer has seized
a milk-wench, and is kissing her in a manner excessively lewd, yet
not unpleasing to the girl, if her eye is a proper interpreter of her
affections: while the officer's ruffles suffer in this action, the girl
pays her price, by an arch soldier, who in her absence of attention
to her pails, is filling his hat with milk, and, by his waggish eye,
seems also to partake of the kissing scene. A chimney-sweeper's boy
with glee puts in a request to the soldier, to supply him with a
cap full, when his own turn is served; while another soldier points
out the fun to a fellow selling pyes, who, with an inimitable face
of simple joy, neglects the care of his goods, which the soldier
dexterously removes with his other hand. In the figure of the pye-man,
the pencil has exceeded description----here the sounding epithets of
_prodigious--excellent--wonderful_--and all the other terms used by
Connoisseurs (when speaking of the beauties of an old picture, where
the objects must have lain in eternal obscurity, if not conjured out
to the apprehension of the spectator, by the magic of unintelligible
description) are too faint to point out its real merit.

"The old soldier divested of one spatter-dash, and near losing the
other, and knocked down by all-potent gin, upon calling for t'other
cogue, his waggish comrade, supporting him with one hand, endeavours
to pour water into his mouth with the other, which the experienced
old one rejects with disdain, puts up his hand to his wife who bears
the arms and gin-bottle, and who, well acquainted with his taste, is
filling a quartern. And here the painter exhibits a sermon upon the
excessive use of spirituous liquors, and the destructive consequences
attending it: for the soldier is not only rendered incapable of his
duty, but (what is shocking to behold) a child begot and conceived in
gin, with a countenance emaciated, extends its little arms with great
earnestness, and wishes for that liquor, which it seems well acquainted
with the taste of. And here, not to dwell wholly upon the beauties
of this print, I must mention an absurdity discovered by a professed
connoisseur in painting--'Can there,' says he, 'be a greater absurdity
than the introducing a couple of chickens so near such a croud--and not
only so--but see--their direction is to go to objects it is natural
for 'em to shun--is this is knowledge of nature?--absurd to the last
degree!'----And here, with an air of triumph, ended our judicious
critic. But how great was his surprize, when it was discovered to him,
that the said chickens were in pursuit of the hen, which had made her
escape into the pocket of a sailor.

"Next the sign-post is an honest tar throwing up his hat, crying 'God
bless King _George_.' Before him is an image of drunken loyalty; who,
with his shirt out of his breeches, and bayonet in his hand, vows
destruction on the heads of the rebels. A fine figure of a speaking
old woman, with a basket upon her head, will upon view tell you what
she sells. A humane soldier perceiving a fellow hard-loaded with a
barrel of gin upon his back, and stopped by the croud, with a gimblet
bores a hole in the head of the cask, and is kindly easing him of a
part of his burthen. Near him, is the figure of a fine gentleman in the
army. As I suppose the painter designed him without character, I shall
therefore only observe, that he is a very pretty fellow, and happily
the contemplation of his own dear person guards him from the attempts
of the wicked women on his right hand. Upon the right hand of this
_petit maitre_ is a licentious soldier rude with a girl, who screams
and wreaks her little vengeance upon his face, whilst his comrade is
removing off some linen which hangs in his way.

"You will pardon the invention of a new term--I shall include the whole
_King's Head_ in the word _Cattery_, the principal figure of which is
a noted fat _Covent Garden_ lady,[4] who, with pious eyes cast up to
heaven, prays for the army's success, and the safe return of many of
her babes of grace. An officer offers a letter to one of this lady's
children, who rejects it; possibly not liking the cause her spark is
engaged in, or, what is more probable, his not having paid for her
last favour. Above her, a charitable girl is throwing a shilling to a
cripple, while another kindly administers a cordial to her companion,
as a sure relief against reflection. The rest of the windows are full
of the like cattle; and upon the house-top appear three cats, just
emblems of the creatures below, but more harmless in their amorous

There is likewise another explanation in _The Old Woman's Magazine_,
vol. I. p. 182. To elucidate a circumstance, however, in this justly
celebrated performance, it is necessary to observe, that near
_Tottenham Court Nursery_ was the place where the famous _Broughton's_
amphitheatre for boxing was erected. It has been since taken down,
having been rendered useless by the justices not permitting such kind
of diversions. This will account for the appearance of the Bruisers
at the left hand corner of the print. One of _Hogarth's_ ideas in
this performance also needs the assistance of colouring, to render
it intelligible. The person to whom the _Frenchman_ is delivering a
letter, was meant for an old _Highlander_ in disguise, as appears from
the plaid seen through an opening in his grey coat; a circumstance
in the print that escaped me, till after I had seen the picture, and
perused _Rouquet's_ explanation of this particular circumstance,
which I shall add in his own words, with his reflections at the end
of it. "A droite du principal group paroit une figure de _François_,
qu'on a voulu representer comme un homme de quelque importance, afin
de lui donner plus de ridicule; il parle à un homme dont la nation est
indiquée par l'etoffe de sa veste, qui est celle dont s'habillent les
habitans des montagnes _d'Ecosse_: le _François_ semble communiquer
à l'_Ecossois_ des lettres qu'il vient de reçevoir, & qui ont
rapport à l'evenement qui donne lieu à cette marche. Les _Anglois_
ne se réjouissent jamais bien sans qu'il en coute quelque chose aux
_François_; leur theatre, leur conversation, leurs tableaux, et sur
tout ceux de notre peintre, portent toujours cette glorieuse marque
de l'amour de la patrie; les romans même sont ornés de traits amusans
sur cet ancien sujet; l'excellent auteur de _Tom Jones_ a voulu aussi
lâcher les siens. Mais le pretendu mépris pour les _François_ dont le
peuple de ce pais-ci fait profession, s'explique selon moi d'une façon
fort équivoque. Le mépris suppose l'oubli; mais un objet dont on médit
perpetuèllement est un objet dont on est perpetuèllement occupé: la
satire constitue une attention qui me feroit soupconner qu'on fait aux
_François_ l'honneur de les haïr un peu."

All the off tracts from the faces in the original picture of the March
to _Finchley_, in red chalk on oiled paper, are still preserved.

This representation may be said to contain three portraits, all of
which were acknowledged by the artist: a noted _French_ pye-man; one of
the young fifers then recently introduced into the army by the Duke of
_Cumberland_; and a chimney-sweeper with an aspect peculiarly roguish.
The two latter were hired by _Hogarth_, who gave each of them half a
crown, for his patience in sitting while his likeness was taken. Among
the portraits in the _March to Finchley_ (says a correspondent) that of
_Jacob Henriques_ may also be discovered. I wish it had been pointed

With this plate (of which the very few proofs in aqua-fortis, as well
as the finished ones, are highly valuable) no unfair stratagems have
been practised, that a number of the various impressions, taken off
at different times, might be mistaken for the earliest. On copper
nothing is more easy than to cover, alter, efface, or re-engrave an
inscription, as often as temporary convenience may require a change in
it.[5] Witness, the several copies of _The Lottery_, three of which
exhibit the names of three different publishers: the fourth has none at

The possessors of this March to _Finchley_ need not vehemently lament
their want of the original. The spirit of it is most faithfully
transfused on the copper. As to the colouring, it will hardly delight
such eyes are are accustomed to the pictures of _Steen_ or _Teniers_.
To me the painting of the _March to Finchley_ appears hard and heavy,
and has much the air of a coloured print.

I should not, on this occasion, omit to add, that Mr. _Strange_, in his
_Inquiry into the Rise and Establishment of the Royal Academy of Arts
in London_, observes, that "the donations in painting which several
artists presented to _The Foundling Hospital_," first led to the idea
of those Exhibitions which are at present so lucrative to our Royal
Academy, and so entertaining to the publick. _Hogarth_ must certainly
be considered as a chief among these benefactors.

[1] _General Advertiser, April_ 14, 1750. Mr _Hogarth_ is publishing,
by subscription, a print representing the march to _Finchley_ in the
year 1746, engraved on a copper-plate, 22 inches by 17. The price 7
_s._ 6 _d._

Subscriptions are taken in at _The Golden Head_ in _Leicester-Fields_,
till the 30th of this instant, and not longer, to the end that the
engraving may not be retarded.

Note. Each print will be half a Guinea after the Subscription is over.

In the Subscription-book, are the particulars of a proposal whereby
each subscriber of three shillings, over and above the said seven
shillings and sixpence for the print, will, in consideration thereof,
be entitled to a chance of having the original picture, which shall
be delivered to the winning subscriber as soon as the engraving is

_General Advertiser, May_ 1, 1750.

Yesterday Mr. _Hogarth's_ subscription was closed. 1843 chances being
subscribed for, Mr. _Hogarth_ gave the remaining 157 chances to _The
Foundling Hospital_. At two o'clock the box was opened, and the
fortunate chance was N° 1941, which belongs to the said Hospital; and
the same night Mr. _Hogarth_ delivered the picture to the Governors.

[2] PRUSIA, in the earliest impressions. I have been assured that
only twenty-five were worked off with this literal imperfection, as
_Hogarth_ grew tired of adding the mark ~ with a pen over one S, to
supply the want of the other. He therefore ordered the inscription
to be corrected before any greater number of impressions were taken.
Though this circumstance was mentioned by Mr. _Thane_, to whose
experience in such matters some attention is due, it is difficult to
suppose that _Hogarth_ was fatigued with correcting his own mistake in
so small a number of the first Impressions. I may venture to add, that
I have seen, at least, five and twenty marked in the manner already
described: and it is scarce possible, considering the multitudes of
these plates dispersed in the world, that I should have met with all
that were so distinguished.

[3] The real or nick name of this man, who was by trade a cobler, is
said to have been _Jockey James_.

[4] This figure is repeated in the last print but one of _Industry_.
and _Idleness_, and was designed for Mother _Douglas_ of the Piazza.

[5] _Proofs_ were anciently a few impressions taken off in the course
of an engraver's process. He _proved_ a plate in different states, that
he might ascertain how far his labours had been successful, and when
they were complete. The excellence of such early impressions, worked
with care, and under the artist's eye, occasioning them to be greedily
sought after, and liberally paid for, it has been customary among our
modern printsellers to take off a number of them, amounting, perhaps,
to hundreds, from every plate of considerable value; and yet their
want of rareness has by no means abated their price. On retouching a
plate, it has been also usual, among the same conscientious fraternity,
to cover the inscription, which was immediately added after the first
proofs were obtained, with slips of paper, that a number of secondary
proofs might also be created. This device is notorious, and too often
practised, without discovery, on the unskilful purchaser. A new print,
in short, is of the same use to a crafty dealer, as a fresh girl to a
politic bawd. In both instances _le fausse pucelage_ is disposed of
many times over.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. _Beer-street_;[1] two of them, with variations, (the former price
1 _s._ the latter 1 _s._ 6 _d._), and _Gin Lane_. The following verses
under these two prints are by the Rev. Mr. _James Townley_, Master of
_Merchant Taylors School_:

    Beer, happy product of our isle,
      Can sinewy strength impart,
    And, wearied with fatigue and toil,
      Can chear each manly heart.

    Labour and Art, upheld by thee,
      Successfully advance;
    We quaff thy balmy juice with glee,
      And water leave to _France_.

    Genius of Health, thy grateful taste
      Rivals the cup of _Jove_,
    And warms each _English_ generous breast
      With Liberty and Love.

    Gin, cursed fiend! with fury fraught,
      Makes human race a prey;
    It enters by a deadly draught,
      And steals our life away.

    Virtue and Truth, driven to despair,
      Its rage compels to fly,
    But cherishes, with hellish care,
      Theft, Murder, Perjury.

    Damn'd cup! that on the vitals preys,
      That liquid fire contains,
    Which madness to the heart conveys,
      And rolls it thro' the veins.

Mr. _Walpole_ observes, that the variation of the butcher lifting
the _Frenchman_ in his hand, was an after-thought;[2] but he is
mistaken. This _butcher_ is in reality a _blacksmith_; and the violent
hyperbole is found in the original drawing, as well as in the earliest
impressions of the plate. The first copies of _Beer-street, Gin Lane,_
and _The Stages of Cruelty,_ were taken off on very thin paper; but
this being objected to, they were afterwards printed on thicker. The
painter, who in the former of these scenes is copying a bottle from one
hanging by him as a pattern, has been regarded as a stroke of satire on
_John Stephen Liotard_, who (as Mr. _Walpole_ observes) "could render
nothing but what he saw before his eyes."[3]

It is probable that _Hogarth_ received the first idea for these two
prints from a pair of others by _Peter Breugel_ (commonly called
_Breugel d'enfer_, or _Hellish Breugel_), which exhibit a contrast
of a similar kind. The one is entitled _La grasse_, the other _La
maigre Cuisine_. In the first, all the personages are well-fed and
plump; in the second, they are starved and slender. The latter of them
also exhibits the figures of an emaciated mother and child, sitting
on a straw-mat upon the ground, whom I never saw without thinking on
the female, &c. in _Gin Lane_.[4] In _Hogarth_, the fat _English_
blacksmith is insulting the gaunt _Frenchman_; and in _Breugel_, the
plump cook is kicking the lean one out of doors. Our artist was not
unacquainted with the works of this master, as will appear by an
observation on the _Lilliputians_ giving _Gulliver_ a clyster.

On the subject of these two plates, and the four following ones,
was published a stupid pamphlet, intituled, "A Dissertation on Mr.
_Hogarth's_ Six Prints lately published, viz. _Gin-Lane, Beer-street,_
and _The Four Stages of Cruelty_, Containing, I. A genuine narrative
of the horrible deeds perpetrated by that fiery dragon, _Gin_; the
wretched and deplorable condition of its votaries and admirers; the
dreadful havock and devaluation it has made amongst the human species;
its pernicious effects on the soldiers, sailors, and mechanicks of
this kingdom; and its poisonous and pestilent qualities in destroying
the health, and corrupting the morals of the people. II. Useful
observations on wanton and inhuman cruelty, severely satirizing the
practice of the common people in sporting with the lives of animals.
Being a proper key for the right apprehension of the author's meaning
in those designs. Humbly inscribed to the Right Honourable _Francis
Cockayne_, Esq; Lord Mayor of the City of _London_, and the worshipful
Court of Aldermen, who have so worthily distinguished themselves in the
measures they have taken to suppress the excessive use of spirituous
liquors. _London_: Printed for _B. Dickinson_ on _Ludgate-Hill_. 1751.
Price one shilling;" and eleven pence three farthings too dear, being
compiled out of _Reynolds's_ "God's Revenge against Murder," &c.

[1] _General Advertiser, February_ 13, 1750-51.

On _Friday_ next will be published, price one shilling each.

Two large Prints designed and etched by Mr. _Hogarth_, called
_Beer-street_ and _Gin-lane_.

A number will be printed in a better manner for the Curious at 1 _s._ 6
_d_. each.

And on _Thursday_ following will be published,

Four Prints on the subject of Cruelty. Price and size the same.

_N. B._ As the subjects of these Prints are calculated to reform some
reigning vices peculiar to the lower class of people, in hopes to
render them of more extensive use, the author has published them in the
cheapest manner possible.

To be had at the _Golden Head_ in _Leicester Fields_, where may be had
all his other works.

[2] I am sorry to perceive that this observation remains in the octavo
edition of the "Anecdotes of Painting," vol. IV. p. 147.

[3] The opinion which _Hogarth_ entertained of the writings of
Dr. _Hill_ may be discovered in his _Beer-Street_, where _Hill's_
critique upon the Royal Society is put into a basket directed to the
Trunk-Maker, in _St. Paul's Church-Yard_.

[4] This emaciated figure, who appears drunk and asleep at the corner
of this print, was painted from nature.

2. The Stages of Cruelty, in four prints. _Designed by Wm. Hogarth,
price_ 4 _s._ Of the two latter of these there are wooden plates[1] on
a large scale, _Invd. and published by Wm. Hogarth, Jan._ 1, 1750.
_J. Bell sculp._ They were done by order of our artist, who wished
to diffuse the salutary example they contain, as far as possible, by
putting them within the reach of the meanest purchaser; but finding
this mode of executing his design was expensive beyond expectation, he
proceeded no further in it, and was content to engrave them in his own
coarse, but spirited manner. Impressions from the wooden blocks are
to be had at Mrs. _Hogarth's_ house in _Leicester-fields_. This set of
prints, however, is illustrated with the following verses:

    While various scenes of sportive woe
      The infant race employ,
    And tortur'd Victims bleeding shew
      The tyrant in the boy;
    Behold! a _youth_ of gentler heart,
      To spare the Creature's pain,[2]
    O take, he cries--take all my tart,
      But tears and tart are vain.
    Learn from this fair example--you,
      Whom savage sports delight,
    How Cruelty disgusts the view,
      While pity charms the sight.

    The generous _steed_, in hoary age,
      Subdu'd by labour lies;
    And mourns a cruel master's rage,
      While _Nature_ strength denies.
    The tender _Lamb_, o'erdrove and faint,
      Amidst expiring throes,
    Bleats forth it's innocent complaint,
      And dies beneath the blows.
    Inhuman wretch! say whence proceeds
      This coward Cruelty?
    What int'rest springs from barb'rous deeds
      What joy from misery?

    To lawless _Love_ when once betray'd,
      Soon crime to crime succeeds;
    At length beguil'd to _Theft_, the _maid_
      By her _beguiler_ bleeds.
    Yet learn, seducing man, not night
      With all its sable cloud,
    Can skreen the guilty _deed_ from sight:
      Foul Murder cries aloud.
    The gaping wounds, the blood-stain'd steel,
      Now shock his trembling _soul_:
    But oh! what pangs his breast must feel,
      When Death his knell shall toll.

    Behold, the _Villain's_ dire disgrace
      Not death itself can end:
    He finds no peaceful _burial-place_;
      His breathless corse, no friend,
    Torn from the root, that wicked _Tongue_,
      Which daily swore and curst!
    Those eye-balls, from their sockets wrung,
      That glow'd with lawless lust.
    His heart, exposed to prying eyes,
      To pity has no claim;
    But, dreadful! from his bones shall rise
      His monument of shame.[3]

[1] N. B. The first of these wooden cuts differs in many circumstances
from the engraving. In the former, the right hand of the murderer is
visible; in the latter it is pinioned behind him. Comparison will
detect several other variations in this plate and its fellow.

[2] The thrusting an arrow up the fundament of a dog, is not an idea of
_English_ growth. No man ever beheld the same act of cruelty practised
on any animal in _London. Hogarth_, however, met with this circumstance
in _Callot's Temptation of St. Antony_, and transplanted it, without
the least propriety, into its present situation.

[3] In the last of these plates, "how delicate and superior," as Mr.
_Walpole_ observes, "is _Hogarth's_ satire, when he intimates, in
the College of Physicians and Surgeons that preside at a dissection,
how the legal habitude of viewing shocking scenes hardens the human
mind, and renders it unfeeling. The president maintains the dignity
of insensibility over an executed corpse, and considers it but as the
object of a lecture. In the print of the Sleeping Judges, this habitual
indifference only excites our laughter." To render his spectacle,
however, more shocking, our artist has perhaps deviated from nature,
against whose laws he so rarely offends. He has impressed marks of
agony on the face of the criminal under dissection; whereas it is
well known, that, the most violent death once past, the tumult of the
features subsides for ever. But, in _Hogarth's_ print, the wretch who
has been executed, seems to feel the subsequent operation. Of this
plate Mr. _S. Ireland_ has the original drawing.

3. Boys peeping at Nature, with Variations.

Receipt for _Moses brought to Pharaoh's Daughter_, and St. _Paul before

The burlesque _Paul_, &c. being the current receipt for these two
prints, I know not why our artist should have altered and vamped up his
_Boys peeping at Nature_ (see p. 188.) for the same purpose. This plate
was lately found at Mrs. _Hogarth's_, but no former impressions from
it appear to have been circulated. It might have been a first thought,
before the idea of its ludicrous successor occurred. _Hogarth_,
however, with propriety, effaced all the wit in his original design,
before he meant to offer it as a prologue to his uninteresting serious

4. _Paul_ before _Felix_, designed and scratched in the true _Dutch_
taste, by _W. Hogarth_. This was the receipt for _Pharaoh's_ daughter,
and for the serious _Paul_ and _Felix_; and is a satire on _Dutch_
pictures. It also contains, in the character of a serjeant tearing his
brief, a portrait of _Hume Campbell_, who was not over-delicate in the
language he used at the bar to his adversaries and antagonists. This,
however, is said by others to be the portrait of _William King_,[1]
LL. D. Principal of _St. Mary Hall, Oxford_. In a variation of this
print, the Devil is introduced sawing off a leg of the stool on which
_Paul_ stands. In the _third_ impression, as is noted in the collection
sold last at _Christie's_, "_Hogarth_ has again taken out the Devil.
By these variations of _Devil and no Devil_, he glances at Collectors,
who give great prices for such rarities; and perhaps he had in his
eye the famous print of the Shepherd's Offering by _Poilly_, after
_Guido_, which sells very dear, without the Angels." This, however, is
erroneous. After the dæmon was once admitted, he was never discarded.
The plate in Mrs. _Hogarth's_ keeping confirms my assertion. In the
first proof of _Poilly's Shepherd's Offering_, the angels are lightly
sketched in; in the finished proof they are totally omitted; but were
afterwards inserted. There are similar variations relative to the arms
at the bottom of it.

Of this burlesque _Paul_, &c. none were originally intended for sale;
but our artist gave them away to such of his acquaintance, &c. as
begged for them. The number of these petitioners, however, increasing
every day, he resolved at last to part with no copies of it at a less
price than five shillings.[2] All the early proofs were stained by
himself, to give them that tint of age which is generally found on
the works of _Rembrandt_. Of this plate, however, there are _two_
impressions. The inscription under the _first_ is "_Paul_ before
_Felix_. Design'd and scratch'd in the true _Dutch_ taste by &c."
Under the _second_, "Designed and etch'd in the ridiculous manner of
_Rembrant_, &c." From the former of these _Hogarth_ took off a few
reverses. He must have been severely mortified when he found his
ludicrous representation of _Paul_ before _Felix_ was more coveted and
admired than his serious painting on the same subject.

[1] Of Dr. _King_, who was "a tall, lean, well-looking man," there is
a striking likeness in _Worlidge's_ View of the Installation of Lord
_Westmoreland_ as chancellor of _Oxford_ in 1761. Some particulars of
his life and writings may be seen in the "Anecdotes of Mr. _Bowyer_,"
p. 594.

[2] Mr. _Walpole_ has honoured a passage in the first edition of this
hasty work, with the following stricture: (see Anecdotes of Painting,
vol. IV. p. 149).

"I have been blamed for censuring the indelicacies of _Flemish_ and
_Dutch_ painters, by comparing them with the _purity_ of _Hogarth_,
against whom are produced many instances of indelicacy, and some
repetitions of the same indelicacy. I will not defend myself by
pleading that these instances are thinly scattered through a great
number of his works, and that there is at least humour in most of the
incidents quoted, and that they insinuate some reflection, which is
never the case of the foreigners--but can I chuse but smile when one of
the nastiest examples specified is from the burlesque of _Paul_ before
_Felix_, professedly in ridicule of the gross images of the _Dutch_?"

In consequence of private remarks from Mr. _W._ this questionable
position, as well as a few others, had been obviated in my second
impression of the trifling performance now offered to the public: but
as our author cannot _chuse but smile_, when the occasion of his mirth
was no longer meant to be in his way, I would ask, in defence of my
former observation, if moralists usually attempt to reform profligates
by writing treatises of profligacy? or, if painters have a right to
chastise indelicacy, by exhibiting gross examples of it in their own
performances? To become indecent ourselves, is an unwarrantable recipe
for curing indecency in others. The obscenities of _Juvenal_ have
hitherto met with no very successful vindication: "Few are the converts
_Aretine_ has made." According to our critic's mode of reasoning, a
homicide might urge that the crime of which he stands accused was
committed only as a salutary example of the guilt of murder; nay,
thus indeed every human offence might be allowed to bring with it its
own apology.--I forbear to proceed in this argument, or might observe
in behalf of our "foreigners," that their incidents insinuate some
reflections as well as _Hogarth's_. The evacuations introduced in
_Dutch_ pictures, most certainly inculcate the necessity of temperance,
for those only who eat and drink too much at fairs, or in ale-houses,
are liable to such public and unseemly accidents as _Heemskirk,
Ostade,_ and _Teniers,_ have occasionally represented. If we are to
look for "Sermons in stones, and good in everything," this inference
is as fair as many which Mr. _W._ seems inclined to produce in honour
of poor _Hogarth_, who, like _Shakspeare_, often sought to entertain,
without keeping any moral purpose in view. But was there either wit or
morality in _Hogarth's_ own evacuation against the door of a church,
a circumstance recorded by Mr. _Forrest_ in his MS. tour, though
prudently suppressed in his printed copy of it? Perhaps, following
Uncle _Toby's_ advice, he had better have wiped the whole up, and said
nothing about the matter. Our worthy Tour-writer, however, was by no
means qualified to be the author of a Sentimental Journey. He rather
(and purposely, as we are told) resembles _Ben Jonson's_ communicative
traveller, who says to his companion,

    ----I went and paid a moccinigo
    For mending my silk stockings; by the way
    I cheapen'd sprats, and at _St. Mark's_ I urin'd.
    Faith, these are politic notes!

       *       *       *       *       *


1. _Paul_ before _Felix_, from the original painting in _Lincoln's-Inn
Hall_, painted by _W. Hogarth._ "_There is much less Dignity in this,
than Wit in the preceding._" Under the inscription to the first
impressions of this plate is "Published _Feb._ 5, 1752. Engraved by
_Luke Sullivan._" To the second state of it was added the quotation
which, in p. 64, I have printed from Dr. _Joseph Warton's_ Essay on the
Genius of _Pope_. It was covered with paper in the third impression,
and entirely effaced in the fourth.

2. The same, "_as first designed, but the wife of_ Felix _was
afterwards omitted, because St_. Paul's _hand was very improperly
placed before her._" I have seen a copy of it, on which _Hogarth_ had
written, "A print off the plate that was set aside as insufficient.
Engraved by _W. H._" On the appearance of Dr. _Warton's_ criticism on
this plate, _Hogarth_ caused the whole of it to be engraved under both
this and the next mentioned print, without any comment.

3. _Moses_ brought to _Pharaoh's_ daughter, from a picture at _The
Foundling Hospital. Engraved by W. Hogarth and Luke Sullivan._

In the early impressions from this plate (exclusive of its necessary
and usual inscription) the words "Published _February_ 5, 1752,
according to Act of Parliament," and "_W. Hogarth pinxit_," are found.
In subsequent copies they are obliterated; and we have only "Published
as the Act directs" in their room. These were left out, however,
only to make room for the quotation from Dr. _Warton's_ book already

[1] It should here be remarked, that the heads of several of the
figures in the original, differ widely from those in the engraving.
The daughter of the _Egyptian_ Monarch appears to more advantage
in the print than on the canvas, for there she resembles a wanton
under-actress, who, half-undrest, and waiting for her keeper, employs
the interval of time in settling accounts with a washerwoman, who has
her bastard at nurse, and has just brought him home to convince her
that young _Curl-pated Hugh_ has no shoes to his feet. The colouring
of this piece is beneath criticism. I have just been told the head
of _Pharaoh's_ daughter was copied from one _Seaton_, a smock-faced
youth of our artist's acquaintance: a proper model, no doubt, for an
_Eastern_ Princess! _Hogarth_ could not, like _Guido_, draw a _Venus_
from a common porter.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. _Columbus_ breaking the egg. "_The subscription-ticket to his
Analysis._" First payment 5 _s. Hogarth_ published this print as a
sarcasm on those artists who had been inclined to laugh at his boasted
line of beauty, as a discovery which every one might have made.

2. Analysis of Beauty. Two plates. Mr. _Walpole_ observes, that
_Hogarth's_ "samples of grace in a young lord and lady are strikingly
stiff and affected. They are a _Bath_ beau and a county beauty." The
print is found in three different states. "In the original plate
the principal figure represented the present king, then prince, but
_Hogarth_ was desired to alter it. The present figure was taken from
the last duke of _Kingston_; yet, though like him, is stiff, and far
from graceful."[1] In Plate I. Fig. 19. the fat personage drest in a
_Roman_ habit, and elevated on a pedestal, was designed, as _Hogarth_
himself acknowledged, for a ridicule on _Quin_ in the character of
_Coriolanus. Essex_ the dancing-master is also represented in the act
of endeavouring to reduce the graceful attitude of _Antinous_ to modern
stiffness. Fig. 20. was likewise meant for the celebrated _Desnoyer_,
dancing in a grand ballet.

Dr. _Beattie_, speaking of the modes of combination, by which
incongruous qualities may be presented to the eye, or the fancy, so
as to provoke laughter, observes "A country dance of men and women,
like those exhibited by _Hogarth_ in his Analysis of Beauty, could
hardly fail to make a beholder merry, whether he believed their union
to be the effect of design or accident. Most of those persons have
incongruities of their own in their shape, dress, or attitude, and
all of them are incongruous in respect of one another; thus far the
assemblage displays contrariety or want of relation: and they are
all united in the same dance; and thus far they are mutually related.
And if we suppose the two elegant figures removed, which might be
done without lessening the ridicule, we should not easily discern any
contrast of dignity and meanness in the group that remains.

"Almost the same remarks might be made on _The Enraged Musician_,
another piece of the same great master, of which a witty author
quaintly says, that it deafens one to look at it. This extraordinary
group forms a very comical mixture of incongruity and relation; of
incongruity, owing to the dissimilar employment and appearances of the
several persons, and to the variety and dissonance of their respective
noises; and of relation, owing to their being all united in the same
place, and for the same purpose of tormenting the poor fidler. From
the various sounds co-operating to this one end, the piece becomes
more laughable, than if their meeting were conceived to be without any
particular destination; for the greater number of relations, as well as
of contrarieties, that take place in any ludicrous assembly, the more
ludicrous it will generally appear. Yet, though this group comprehends
not any mixture of meanness and dignity, it would, I think, be allowed
to be laughable to a certain degree, merely from the juxta-position of
the objects, even though it were supposed to be accidental." Essay on
Laughter and Ludicrous Composition, 4to Edit. 608.

"I have no new books, alas! to amuse myself or you; so can only return
yours of _Hogarth's_ with thanks. It surprized me agreeably; for I had
conceived the performance to be a set of prints only, whereas I found
a book which I did not imagine _Hogarth_ capable of writing; for in
his pencil I always confided, but never imagined his pen would have
afforded me so much pleasure. As to his not fixing _the precise degree
of obliquity_, which constitutes beauty, I forgive him, because I think
the task too hard to be performed literally: but yet he conveys an idea
between his pencil and his pen, which makes one conceive his meaning
pretty well." Lady _Luxborough's_ Letters, p. 380.

I shall here transcribe as much from the _Analysis_ as is necessary to
communicate our artist's design relative to the various figures that
compose the country-dance in the second plate. The reader who neither
possesses the book, nor wishes to accompany the author throughout his
technical explanations, may desire some intelligence concerning the
present subject.

     "CHAP. XIV.


 "--As two or three lines at first are sufficient to shew the intention
 of an attitude, I will take this opportunity of presenting my reader
 with the sketch of a country-dance, in the manner I began to set out
 the design; in order to shew how few lines are necessary to express
 the first thoughts as to different attitudes [see fig. 71. T. p. 2.],
 which describe, in some measure, the several figures and actions,
 mostly of the ridiculous kind, that are represented in the chief part
 of plate II.

 "The most amiable person may deform his general appearance by throwing
 his body and limbs into plain lines; but such lines appear still in
 a more disagreeable light in people of a particular make; I have
 therefore chose such figures as I thought would agree best with my
 first score of lines, fig. 71.

 "The two parts of curves next to 71, served for the old woman and her
 partner at the farther end of the room. The curve and two strait lines
 at right angles gave the hint for the fat man's sprawling posture. I
 next resolved to keep a figure within the bounds of a circle, which
 produced the upper part of the fat woman between the fat man and the
 aukward one in a bag-wig, for whom I had made a sort of an X. The
 prim lady, his partner, in the riding habit, by pecking back her
 elbows, as they call it, from the waist upwards, made a tolerable D,
 with a straight line under it, to signify the scanty stiffness of her
 petticoat; and a Z stood for the singular position the body makes with
 the legs and thighs of the affected fellow in the tye-wig; the upper
 part of his plump partner was confined to an O, and this, changed into
 a P, served as a hint for the straight lines behind.[2] The uniform
 diamond of a card was filled by the flying dress, &c. of the little
 capering fellow in the Spencer wig; whilst a double L marked the
 parallel position of his poking partner's hands and arms [_N. B. This
 figure was copied from that of an uncouth young female whom_ Hogarth
 _met with at_ Isleworth _assembly_]: and, lastly, the two waving lines
 were drawn for the more genteel turns of the two figures at the hither

 "The drawing-room is also ornamented purposely with such statues
 and pictures as may serve to a farther illustration. _Henry_ VIII.
 [Fig. 72. P. 2] makes a perfect X with his legs and arms; and the
 position of _Charles_ [Fig. 51. P. 2.] is composed of less-varied
 lines than the statue of _Edward_ VI. [Fig. 73. P. 2.]; and the
 medal over his head is in the like kind of lines; but that over Q.
 _Elizabeth_, as well as her figure, is in the contrary; so are also
 the two other wooden figures at the end. Likewise the comical posture
 of astonishment expressed by following the direction of one plain
 curve, as the dotted line in a _French_ print of _Sancho_, where Don
 _Quixote_ demolishes the puppet-show [Fig. 75. R. P. 2], is a good
 contrast to the effect of the serpentine lines in the fine turn of
 the _Samaritan_ woman [Fig. 75. L. p. 2.] taken from one of the best
 pictures _Annibal Carache_ ever painted."

Respecting the plate numbered I. there are no variations. In its
companion the changes repeatedly made as to the two principal figures
are more numerous than I had at first observed. It may, however, be
sufficient for me to point out some single circumstance in each, that
may serve as a mark of distinction. In the first, the principal female
has scarce any string to her necklace; in the second it is lengthened;
and still more considerably increased in the third. In the first and
second editions also of this plate, between the young lord and his
partner (and just under the figure of the man who is pointing out the
stateliness of some of K. _Henry_ VIIIth's proportions to a lady), is
a vacant easy chair. In the third impression this chair is occupied by
a person asleep. I have lately been assured that this country-dance
was originally meant to have formed one of the scenes in the _Happy
Marriage_. The old gentleman hastening away his daughter, while the
servant is putting on his spatter-dashes, seems to countenance the
supposition; and having since examined the original sketch in oil,
which is in Mr. _Ireland's_ possession, I observe that the dancing-room
is terminated by a large old-fashioned bow-window, a circumstance
perfectly consistent with the scenery of the wedding described in p.
46, &c.

I may add, that in this picture, the couple designed for specimens of
grace, appear, not where they stand in the print, but at the upper end
of the room: and so little versed was our painter in the etiquette
of a wedding-ball, that he has represented the bride dancing with the

When _Hogarth_ shewed the original painting, from which this dance has
been engraved, to my informant, he desired him to observe a pile of
hats in the corner, all so characteristic of their respective owners,
that they might with ease be picked out, and given to the parties for
whom they were designed.

[1] Anecdotes of Painting, 8vo. vol. IV. p. 166.

[2] The idea of making human figures conform to the shape of capital
letters, is by no means new. Several alphabets of this kind were
engraved above 150 years ago.

[3] As different fashions, however, prevail at different times, this
observation may be wrong.

3. The Political Clyster. _Nahtanoi Tfiws.[1] Dr. O'Gearth sculp. Nll
Mrrg. Cht Nf. ndw Lps ec ple &c. &c. shd b. Prgd. See Gulliver's Speech
to the Honble. House of Vulgaria in Lilliput._

This was originally published about 1727, or 1728, under the title
of "The punishment inflicted on _Lemuel Gulliver_, by applying a
_Lilypucian_ Fire Engine to his posteriors for his urinal profanation
of the Royal Pallace at _Mildendo_; which was intended as a
Frontispiece to his first volume, but omitted. _HogEarth sculp._" The
superiority of the impressions thus inscribed is considerable.[2]

More than the general idea of this print is stolen from another by
_Hellish Breugel_, whom I have already mentioned in a remark on
_Beer-street_, and _Gin-lane_. The _Dutchman_ has represented a number
of pigmies delivering a huge giant from a load of fæces. His postern
is thrust out, like that of _Gulliver_, to favour their operations.
_Breugel_ has no less than three prints on this subject, with
considerable variations from each other.

"When _Hogarth's_ topics were harmless," says Mr. _Walpole_, "all his
touches were marked with pleasantry and fun. He never laughed, like
_Rabelais_, at nonsense that he imposed for wit; but, like _Swift_,
combined incidents that divert one from their unexpected encounter, and
illustrate the tale he means to tell. Such are the hens roosting on the
upright waves in the scene of the Strollers, and the devils drinking
porter on the altar." The print now before us is, however, no very
happy exemplification of our critick's remark.

[1] Originally mistaken by Mr. _Walpole_ for the name of a _Lilliputian_
painter, but put right in his new edition.

[2] The present unmeaning title of this plate, was bestowed on it by
its owner, Mr. _Sayer_.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Crowns, mitres, maces, &c. A subscription-ticket for the Election
entertainment. This print has been already described. See p. 39. The
engraved forms of a receipt annexed to it do not always agree. In one
copy (which I suppose to be the eldest) it contains an acknowledgement
for "Five Shillings, being the first payment for a print representing
an Election Entertainment, which I promise to deliver, when finished,
on the receipt of five shillings and sixpence more." The second is for
"one guinea, being the first payment for four prints of an Election,
which I promise, &c. on the receipt of one guinea more." The third for
"fifteen shillings, being the first, &c. for three prints, &c. on the
payment of sixteen shillings and sixpence more."

2. Frontispiece to _Kirby's_ Perspective.[1] Engraved by _Sullivan_.
Satire on false perspective. Motto, "Whoever maketh a design without
the knowledge of Perspective, will be liable to such absurdities as are
shewn in this frontispiece." The occasion of engraving the plate arose
from the mistakes of Sir E. _Walpole_, who was learning to draw without
being taught perspective. To point out in a strong light the errors
which would be likely to happen from the want of acquaintance with
those principles, this design was produced. It was afterwards given to
_Kirby_, who dedicated Dr. _Brook Taylor's_ Method of Perspective to
Mr. _Hogarth_. The above anecdote is recorded on the authority of the
gentleman already mentioned. The plate, after the first quantity of
impressions had been taken from it, was retouched, but very little to
its advantage. Mr. _S. Ireland_ has the original sketch.

[1] "This work is in quarto, containing 172 pages, and 51 plates, in
the whole; with a frontispiece designed and drawn by Mr. _Hogarth_.
'Tis a humourous piece, shewing the absurdities a person may be liable
to, who attempts to draw without having some knowledge in perspective.
As the production of that great genius, it is entertaining; and, though
abounding with the grossest absurdities possible, may pass and please;
otherwise I think it is a palpable insult offered to common sense,
and tacitly calling the artists a parcel of egregious blockheads.
There is not a finished piece in the book, but the mason's yard and
the landscapes; so that I question if the whole of the plates were
forty pounds expence. It was first printed for himself at _Ipswich_,
dedicated to Mr. _Hogarth_, and published in the year 1754."

_Malton_, Appendix to Treatise on Perspective, p. 106.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Four prints of an Election.[1] These, by _Hogarth_, came out at
different times, _viz._ Plate I. _Feb._ 24, 1755 (inscribed to the
Right Hon. _Henry Fox_); Plate II. _Feb._ 20, 1757, (to his Excellency
Sir _Charles Hanbury Williams_, Ambassador to the Court of _Russia_);
Plate III. _Feb._ 20, 1758, (to the Hon. Sir _Edward Walpole_, Knight
of the Bath); Plate IV. _Jan._ 1, 1758, (to the Hon. _George Hay_,[2]
one of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty). The original
pictures are now in the possession of Mrs. _Garrick_, at _Hampton_.
The inscription on the banner, "Give us our eleven days," alludes
to the alteration of the Style in 1752; in which year, from the 2d
to the 14th of _September_, eleven days were not reckoned by act of
parliament. In the election-dinner, Mr. _Hogarth_ assured the writer
of this paragraph, that there is but one at table intended for a real
portrait and that is the _Irish_ gentleman [the present Sir _John
Parnell_, nephew to the poet, and remarkable for a very flat nose], who
is diverting the company by a face drawn with a burnt cork upon the
back of his hand, while he is supposed to be singing--_An old woman
cloathed in grey_. This gentleman (then an eminent attorney) begged it
as a favour; declaring, at the same time, he was so generally known,
that the introduction of his face would be of service to our artist
in the sale of his prints at _Dublin_. Notwithstanding _Hogarth's_
assertion, the handsome candidate is pronounced to be the late _Thomas
Potter_, esq. and the effigy, seen through the window, with the
words "_No Jews_" about its neck, to be meant for the late Duke of
_Newcastle_. Of yet another real personage we receive notice, from
a pamphlet intituled "The last Blow, or an unanswerable vindication
of the Society of _Exeter College_, in reply to the Vice-chancellor
Dr. _King_, and the writers of _The London Evening Post_." 4to. 1755.
p. 21.--"The next character, to whose merits we would do justice, is
the Rev. Dr. _C--ff--t (Cofferat)_. But as it is very difficult to
delineate this fellow in colours sufficiently strong and lively, it is
fortunate for us and the Doctor, that _Hogarth_ has undertaken that
task. In the print of an Election Entertainment, the publick will see
the Doctor represented sitting among the freeholders, and zealously
eating and drinking for the sake of the New Interest. His venerable
and humane aspect will at once bespeak the dignity and benevolence
of his heart. Never did alderman at _Guildhall_ devour custard with
half such an appearance of love to his country, or swallow ale with
so much the air of a patriot. These circumstances the pencil of
Mr. _Hogarth_ will undoubtedly make manifest; but it is much to be
lamented, that his words also cannot appear in this print, and that
the artist cannot delineate that persuasive flow of eloquence which
could prevail upon Copyholders to abjure their base tenures, and
swear themselves Freeholders. But this oratory (far different from
the balderdash of _Tully_ and Dr. _King_, concerning liberty and our
country) as the genius of mild ale alone could inspire, this fellow
alone could deliver."--The very paper of tobacco, inscribed "_Kirton's_
Best," has its peculiar significance. This man was a tobacconist
by St. _Dunstan's_ Church in _Fleet-street_, and ruined his health
and constitution, as well as impaired his circumstances, by being
busy in the _Oxfordshire_ election of 1754. Plate II. In the painted
cloth depending from the sign-post, the height of _The Treasury_ is
contrasted with the squat solidity of _The Horse-Guards_, where the
arch is so low, that the state-coachman cannot pass through it with
his head on; and the turret on the top is so drawn as to resemble
a beer-barrel. _Ware_ the architect very gravely remarked, on this
occasion, that the chief defect would have been sufficiently pointed
out by making the coachman only stoop. He was hurt by _Hogarth's_
stroke of satire. Money is likewise thrown from _The Treasury_ windows,
to be put into a waggon, and carried into the country. _George
Alexander Stevens_, in his celebrated "Lecture on Heads," exhibited
the man with a pot of beer, explaining, with pieces of a tobacco-pipe,
how _Porto Bello_ was taken with six ships only. In Plate III. Dr.
_Shebbeare_, with fetters on, is prompting the idiot; and in Plate IV.
the old Duke of _Newcastle_ appears at a window. A happy parody in the
last of these plates may, perhaps, have escaped the notice of common
observers. _Le Brun_, in his battle of the _Granicus_, has represented
an eagle hovering above the laurel'd helmet of _Alexander. Hogarth_
has painted a goose flying over the periwig'd head of the successful
candidate. During the contested _Oxfordshire_ election in 1754, an
outrageous mob in the Old Interest had surrounded a post-chaise,
and was about to throw it into the river; when Captain _T----_,
within-side, shot a chimney-sweeper who was most active in the assault.
The captain was tried and acquitted. To this fact _Hogarth_ is supposed
to allude in the Monkey riding on the Bear, with a cockade in his hat,
and a carbine by his side, which goes off and kills the little sweep,
who has clambered up on the wall. The member chaired is said to bear
more than an accidental resemblance to Mr. _Dodington_, afterwards Lord

In 1759 appeared "A Poetical Description of Mr. _Hogarth's_ Election
Prints,[3] in four Cantos. Written under Mr. _Hogarth's_ sanction and
inspection," which I shall with the less scruple transcribe at large
below,[4] as it was originally introduced by the following remarkable
advertisement, dated _Cheapside, March_ 1, 1759. "For the satisfaction
of the reader, and in justice to the concealed author, I take the
liberty, with the permission of Mr. _Hogarth_, to insert in this manner
that gentleman's opinion of the following Cantos, which is, 'That the
thoughts entirely coincide with his own; that there is a well-adapted
vein of humour preserved through the whole; and that, though some of
his works have been formerly explained by other hands, yet none ever
gave him so much satisfaction as the present performance.' JOHN SMITH."

In the second state of the first of these plates few variations are
discoverable. The perspective in the oval over the stag's horns is
improved. A shadow on the wainscot, proceeding from a supposed window
on the left side, is effaced; the hand of the beldam kissing the young
candidate, is removed from under her apron, and now dangles by her
side: a saltseller is likewise missing from the table. In the first
impression also, the butcher who is pouring gin on the broken head of
another man, has _For our Country_ on his cockade; in the second we
find _Pro Patria_ in its stead. The lemons and oranges that once lay
on a paper, by the tub in which the boy is making punch, are taken
away; because _Hogarth_, in all probability, had been informed that
vitriol, or cream of tartar, is commonly used, instead of vegetable
acids, when a great quantity of such liquor is prepared at public
houses on public occasions. In the third impression a hat is added to
those before on the ground, and another on the bench. The whole plate
has also lost much of its former clearness. The original inscription
at one corner of it was--"Painted, and _the whole_ engraved by _Wm.
Hogarth_."[5] The two Words in _Italicks_ were afterwards effaced.

I may here observe, that this performance, in its original state, is
by far the most finished and laborious of all _Hogarth's_ engravings.
Having been two years on sale (from 1755 to 1757) it was considerably
worn before the publication of Plate the second; and was afterwards
touched and retouched till almost all the original and finer traces
of the burin were either obliterated or covered by succeeding ones.
In short, there is the same difference between the earliest and latest
impressions, as there was between the first and second state of Sir
_John Cutler's_ stockings, which, by frequent mending, from silk
degenerated into worsted.

I learn also, on the best authority, that our artist, who was always
fond of trying to do what no man had ventured to do before him,
resolved to finish this plate without taking a single proof from it as
he proceeded in his operation. The consequence of his temerity was,
that he almost spoiled his performance. When he discovered his folly,
he raved, stamped, and swore he was ruined, nor could be prevailed on
to think otherwise, till his passion subsided, and a brother artist
assisted him in his efforts to remedy the general defect occasioned by
such an attempt to perform an impossibility.

In Plate II. we meet with a fresh proof of our artist's inattention
to orthography; _Party-tool_ (used as a proper name) being here spelt
parti-tool. This plate was engraved by _C. Grignion_, and has been
retouched, as the upper-row of the lion's teeth are quite obliterated
in the second impression.

Plate III. The militia (or, as _Hogarth_ spells it, milicia) bill
appearing out of the pocket of the maimed voter, is only found in
the second impression. This print was engraved by _Hogarth_ and _Le

The dead man, whom they are bringing up as a voter, alludes to an
event of the same kind that happened during the contested election
between _Bosworth_ and _Selwyn_. "Why," says one of the clerks, "you
have brought us here a dead man."--"Dead!" cries the bringer; "dead as
you suppose him, you shall soon hear him vote for _Bosworth_." On this,
a thump was given to the body, which, being full of wind, emitted a
sound that was immediately affirmed to be a distinct, audible, and good
vote for the candidate already mentioned.--This circumstance, however,
might have reference to the behaviour of the late Dr. _Barrowby_, who
persuaded a dying patient he was so much better, that he might venture
with him in his chariot to go and poll for Sir _George Vandeput_ in
_Covent-Garden_. The unhappy voter took his physician's advice, but
expired in an hour after his return from the hustings. "If _Hogarth_,"
says Mr. _Walpole_, "had an emblematic thought, he expressed it with
wit, rather than by a symbol. Such is that of the whore setting fire to
the world in _The Rake's Progress_. Once indeed he descended to use an
allegoric personage, and was not happy in it. In one of his Election
prints [plate III.] _Britannia's_ chariot breaks down, while the
coachman and footman are playing at cards on the box."

In the second impressions of Plate IV.[7] (which was engraved by _W.
Hogarth_ and _F. Aviline_) the shadow on the sun-dial, denoting the
hour, and the word indintur (commonly spelt indenture) on the scroll
hanging out at the attorney's window, are both added. The fire from
the gun is also continued farther; the bars of the church-gate are
darkened; and the upper sprigs of a tree, which were bare at first, are
covered with leaves.

By these marks, the unskilful purchaser may distinguish the early from
the later impressions. I forbear therefore to dwell on more minute
variations. The ruined house adjoining to the attorney's, intimating
that nothing can thrive in the neighbourhood of such vermin, is a
stroke of satire that should not be overlooked.

The publick were so impatient for this set of prints, that _Hogarth_
was perpetually hastening his coadjutors, changing some, and
quarrelling with others. Three of the plates therefore were slightly
executed, and soon needed the reparations they have since received.

The following curious address appeared in the _Public Advertiser_ of
_Feb._ 28, 1757.

"Mr. _Hogarth_ is obliged to inform the subscribers to his Election
Prints, that the three last cannot be published till about _Christmas_
next, which delay is entirely owing to the difficulties he has met with
to procure able hands to engrave the plates; but that he neither may
have any more apologies to make on such an account, nor trespass any
further on the indulgence of the public by encreasing a collection
already sufficiently large, he intends to employ the rest of his time
in portrait-painting; chiefly this notice seems more necessary, as
several spurious and scandalous prints[8] have lately been published in
his name.

"All Mr. _Hogarth's_ engraved works are to be had at his house in
_Leicester-fields_, separate or together; as also his Analysis of
Beauty, in 4to. with two explanatory prints, price 15_s._ With which
will be delivered gratis, an eighteen-penny pamphlet published by
_A. Miller_, called _The Investigator_, written in opposition to the
principles laid down in the above Analysis of Beauty, by _A. R._,[9] a
friend to Mr. _Hogarth_, an eminent portrait-painter now of _Rome_."

The foregoing advertisement appears to have been written during the
influence of a fit of spleen or disappointment, for nothing else could
have dictated to our artist so absurd a resolution as that of quitting
a walk he had trod without a rival, to re-enter another in which he had
by no means distinguished himself from the herd of common painters.

[1] I learn from _The Grub-street Journal_ for _June_ 13, 1734, that
the same subject had been attempted by an earlier hand, under the title
of _The Humours of a Country Election_. The description of some of the
compartments of this work (which I have not seen) bears particular
resemblance to the scenes represented by _Hogarth_. "The candidates
very complaisant to a _Country Clown_, &c."--"The candidates making an
entertainment for the electors and their wives.--At the upper end of
the table the _Parson_ of the Parish, &c."

[2] The intimate friend of _Hogarth_, at that time a Commissioner
of the Admiralty; afterwards Sir _George Hay_, knight, Dean of the
Arches, Judge of the Prerogative Court, and also of the High Court of
Admiralty, who died _October_ 6, 1778, aged 63. He was possessed of
several of _Hogarth's_ paintings, which are now the property of Mr.
_Edwards_, and have been mentioned in p. 98. Our honourable Judge has
the following character in a work of great authority.

On the trial of her Grace the Duchess of _Kingston_, for bigamy, before
the House of Lords, in _April_ 1776, the present Lord Chancellor
_Thurlow_ (then Attorney-General) thus speaks of Sir _George_ as a
judge:--"The most loose and unconsidered notion, escaping in any manner
from that able and excellent judge, should be received with respect,
and certainly will; if the question were my own, with the choice of my
court, I should refer it to his decision." State Trials, XI. 221.

[3] "Things unattempted yet in prose or rhime." MILTON.


        CANTO  I.
    Oh, born our wonder to engage!
    HOGARTH, thou mirror of the age!
    Permit a Bard, though screen'd his name,
    To court the sanction of your fame;
    Pursue your genius, taste, and art,
    And knowledge of the human heart:
    Just as your pencil, could my pen
    But trace the various ways of men;
    Express the tokens of the mind,
    The humours, follies, of mankind;
    Then might Thyself this verse regard,
    Nor deem beneath the task the bard:
    Yet, though unfit, perhaps unknown,
    I supplicate thy aid alone:
    Let others all the Nine inspire,
    Do Thou, O _Hogarth_, tune my lyre!
    Let o'er my thoughts thy spirit shine,
    And thy vast fancy waken mine:
    I feel the genuine influence now!
    It glows!--my great _Apollo_ Thou!

    The Writs are issued:--to the Town
    The future Members hasten down;
    The merry bells their welcome sound,
    And mirth and jollity abound,
    The gay retinue now comes in,
    The crouds, with emulative din,
    Proclaim th' arrival, rend the sky,
    And _Court_ and _Country's_ all the cry.
    Each joyous house, of free access,
    For patriot plebeians, more or less,
    Is now reveal'd, in printed bills;
    So quacks contrive to vend their pills.
    So _Bayes_ makes Earth, and Sun, and Moon,
    Discourse melodiously in tune;
    And, full of wit and complaisance,
    Cry, "First of all we'll have a dance!"
    So at Elections 'tis discreet
    Still first of all to have a treat;
    The pulse of every man to try,
    And learn what votes they needs must _buy_;
    No freeman well can tell his side,
    Unless his belly's satisfied.

    Behold the festive tables set,
    The Candidates, the Voters met!
    And lo, against the wainscot plac'd,
    Th' escutcheon, with three guineas grac'd,
    The motto and the crest explain,
    Which way the gilded bait to gain.
    There _William's_ mangled portrait tells
    What rage in party bosoms dwells;
    And here the banner speaks the cry
    For "Liberty and Loyalty."
    While scratches dignify his face,
    The tipsy Barber tells his case;
    How well he for his Honour fought!
    How many devilish knocks he got!
    While, forc'd to carry on the joke,
    The 'Squire's just blinded with the smoke;
    And gives his hand (for all are free)
    To one that's cunninger than he:
    With smart cockade, and waggish laugh,
    He thinks himself more wise by half.
    See _Crispin_, and his blouzy _Kate_,
    Attack the other Candidate!
    What joy he feels her head to lug!
    "Well done, my _Katy!_ coaxing pug!"
    But who is this pray?--_Abel Squatt_--
    What has the honest Quaker got?
    Why, presents for each voter's lady,
    To make their interest sure and steady:
    For right and well their Honours know
    What things the Petticoat can do.
    Discordant sounds now grate the ear,
    For music's hir'd to raise the cheer;
    And fiddling _Nan_ brisk scrapes her strings,
    While _Thrumbo's_ bass loud echoing rings,
    And _Sawney's_ bagpipes squeaking trill
    "God save the King," or what you will.
    Music can charm the savage breast,
    And lull the fiercest rage to rest;
    But _Sawney's_ face bespeaks it plain,
    That vermin don't regard the strain;
    A creature, well to _Scotchmen_ known,
    Now nips him by the collar-bone:
    Ah, luckless louse! in ambush lie,
    Or, by St. _Andrew_, you must die!

    Ye vers'd in men and manners! tell
    Why Parsons always eat so well!
    Catch they the spirit from the Gown,
    To cram so many plate-fulls down?
    The feast is o'er with all the rest,
    But Mayor and Parson still contest:
    I'll hold a thousand!--Lay the bett--
    The odds are on the Parson yet:
    Huzza! the Black-gown wins the day!--
    The Mayor with oysters dies away!--[A]
    But softly, don't exult so fast,
    His spirit's noble to the last;
    His mouth still waters at the dish;
    His hand still holds his favourite fish:
    Bleed him the Barber-surgeon wou'd;
    He breathes a vein, but where's the blood?
    No more it flows its wonted pace,
    And chilly dews spread o'er his face:
    The Parson sweats; but be it told,
    The sweat is more from heat than cold:
    "Bring me the chafing-dish!" he cries;
    'Tis brought; the savoury fumes arise:
    "My last tit-bit's delicious so;
    Can oysters vie with venison?"--No.

    Behold, through sympathy of face,
    (In life a very common case)
    His Lordship gives the fidler wine!
    "Come, brother _Chinny!_ yours and mine:"
    And o'er a pretty girl confest,
    The Alderman, see! toasts "the best."
    Ye hearty cocks! who feel the gout,
    Yet briskly push the glass about,
    Observe, with crutch behind his chair,
    Your honest brother _Chalkstone_ there!
    His phiz declares he seems to strain;
    Perhaps the gravel gives him pain:
    But be it either that or this,
    One thing is certain--he's at * * * *,
    A wag, the merriest in the town,
    Whose face was never meant to frown,
    See, at his straining makes a scoff!
    And, singing, takes his features off;
    While clowns, with joy and wonder, stare,
    "Gad-zookers! _Roger_, look ye there!"
    The busy Clerk the Taylor plies,
    "Vote for his Honour, and be wise:
    These yellow-boys are all your own!"
    But he, with puritanic tone,
    Cries, "_Satan!_ take thy bribes from me;
    Why this were downright perjury!"
    His wife, with all-sufficient tongue,
    For rage and scandal glibly hung,
    Replies, "Thou blockhead! gold refuse,
    When here's your child in want of shoes!"

    But hark! what uproar strikes the ear!
    Th' opposing mob, incens'd, draw near:
    Their waving tatter'd ensigns see!
    Here "Liberty and Property:"
    A label'd _Jew_ up-lifted high;
    There "Marry all, and multiply."
    These, these, are patrotic scenes!
    But not a man knows what he means.
    The jordan drives their zeal to cool,
    With added weight of three-legg'd stool;
    But all in vain; and who can't eat,
    Now sally out the foe to beat;
    For glory be the battle try'd;
    Huzza! my boys, the _yellow_ side.
    Observe the loyal work begin,
    And stones and brick-bats enter in!
    That knocks a rustic veteran down;
    This cracks the Secretary's crown;
    His minute-book, of special note,
    For every sure, and doubtful vote,
    Now tumbles; ink the table dyes,
    And backward poor Pill-Garlick lies.
    The Butcher, one who ne'er knew dread,
    A Surgeon turns for t'other's head;
    His own already broke and bound,
    Yet with _pro patria_ decked around.
    Behold what wonders gin can do,
    External and internal too!
    He thinks a plaster but a jest;
    All cure with what they like the best:
    Pour'd on, it sooths the patient's pain;
    Pour'd in, it makes him fight again.
    His toes perchance pop out his shoe,
    Yet he's a patriot through and through;
    His lungs can for his party roar,
    As loud as twenty men, or more.
    Ye courtiers! give your _Broughton_ praise;
    The hero of your eleven days,
    'Tis his to trim th'opposers round,
    And bring their standard to the ground.
    The waiting-boy, astonish'd, eyes
    What gin the new-turn'd quack applies;
    And fills a tub, that glorious punch
    May make amends for blow and hunch.
    But stop, my lad, put in no more,
    For t'other side are near the door;
    Nor will their conscience deem it sin,
    To guzzle all, if once they're in.

    Reader, perhaps thy peaceful mind
    Is not to noise or blood inclin'd;
    Then, lest some hurt should happen quick,
    For see a sword! and many a stick!
    We'll leave this inn, with all my heart,
    And hasten to the second part.

        CANTO  II.
    Free'd from the madness of the throng,
    Now, gentle Reader, come along;
    A broken head's no clever joke--
    Sir, welcome to _The Royal Oak_;
    Together let us look about----
    We'll find that Show-cloth's meaning out.

    Satire! 'tis thine, with keenest dart,
    To shoot the follies of the heart;
    And, issuing from the press or stage,
    Reclaim the vain, the culprit age!
    From _Rich's_ dome, of grand renown,
    To thatch-torn barn, in country town;
    From _Garrick_, monarch of his art,
    To _Punch_, so comical and smart;
    Satire delights, in every sphere,
    To make men laugh at what they _are_:
    "Walk in, the only show in town;
    _Punch_ candidate for _Guzzle-down_!"
    There see the pile, in modern taste,
    On top with tub-like turret grac'd!
    Where the cramp'd entrance, like some shed,
    Knocks off the royal driver's head;
    Lives there a Wit but what will cry,
    "An arch so _low_ is mighty _high_!"
    See from the Treasury flows the gold,
    To shew that those who're _bought_ are _sold_!
    Come, Perjury, meet it on the road,
    'Tis all your own; a waggon-load.
    Ye party-tools, ye courtier-tribe,
    Who gain no vote without a bribe,
    Lavishly kind, yet insincere,
    Behold in _Punch_ yourselves appear!
    And you, ye fools, who poll for pay,
    Ye little great men of a day;
    For whom your favourite will not care,
    Observe how much bewitch'd you are!

    Yet hush!--for see his Honour near;--
    Truly, a pretty amorous leer:
    The ladies both look pleasant too;
    "Purchase some trinkets of the _Jew_."
    One points to what she'd have him buy;
    The other casts a longing eye;
    And _Shylock_, money-loving soul,
    Impatient waits to touch the cole:
    But here's a Porter; what's the news?--
    Ha, ha, a load of billet-doux!
    Humbly to sue th' Electors' favour,
    With vows of _Cato_-like behaviour;
    And how the Borough he'll espouse,
    When once a Member of the House:
    Though wiser folks will lay a bet,
    His promises he'll then forget.
    But pray your Honour condescend
    An eye on kneeling _Will_ to lend;
    Grant to the fair the toys they chuse,
    And what the letter says, peruse:
    "To _Timothy Parti-tool_, Esquire."--
    Your title may in time be higher.

    Ha, who stands here?--'Tis Farmer _Rye_,
    A man of cunning, by the bye;
    In times like this a mighty stirrer,--
    Of some small interest in the Borough.
    Which side? you ask--the question's well,
    But more, as yet, than he can tell.
    The _hosts_ of either party try;
    To both he casts a _knowing_ eye.
    "Sir, I'm commission'd by the 'Squire--
    Your company they all desire:
    My house contains near half the town--
    'Tis just at hand, Sir;--'tis _The Crown._"
    Then t'other cries, "Sure I first spoke--
    This inn is mine!--_The Royal Oak_--
    Sir, here's his Honour's invitation;
    The greatest Patriot in the nation."

    Which party shall the voter take,
    Since both the same pretentions make?
    The same?--sure not--for see each hand!
    Aye, now he seems to understand:
    _The Crown_ Host fees him o'er his arm;
    But t'other tips the stronger charm.
    One, two, three, four--the jobb is done--
    Troth, cunning _Fatty_, you have won;
    Success in that sly glance is shown;
    The honest Farmer's all your own:
    But don't exult; for, being loth
    To disoblige, he takes from both.

    Oh, _Britain_! favourite Isle of Heaven,
    When to thy Sons shall Peace be given?
    The treachery of the _Gallic_ shore
    Makes even thy wooden lions roar.
    That royal beast, who many a league
    At sea hath sail'd with vengeance big!
    And oft has scar'd the hostile coast,
    Tho' fix'd in _Inn-Yard_, like a post,
    Still keeps his furious power in use;
    Devouring of the _Flower-de-luce_.
    How certain those expanded paws!
    How dreadful those extended jaws!
    Behind him sits the Hostess fair,
    Counting her cash with earned care;
    While at the door the Grenadier
    Inspects her with a cunning leer;
    As who should say, "When we're alone,
    Some part of that will be my own!"

    But who are those two in the Bar?
    Guttlers I fancy--that they are;
    The fowl to Him's a noble feast;
    He sure makes mouths, to mock the beast;
    And t'other hopes to find relief,
    By eating half the round of beef.

    From _George_, who wears the _British_ crown,
    To the remotest country clown,
    The love of politics extends,
    And oft makes foes of nearest friends.
    The Cobler and the Barber there,
    That born to frown, and this to stare,
    Both positive, you need not doubt,
    Will argue till they both fall out.

    "Well," says the Tonsor, "now we'll try,
    Who's in the right, yourself or I:
    One moment let your tongue be still,
    Or else be judg'd by _Johnny Hill:
    Vernon_ he thought a glorious fellow,
    Which made him put up _Porto Bello_.
    I'll teach you reason, if I can--
    I should though shave the Gentleman;
    But never mind it, let him wait;--
    These bits of pipe the case shall state"--

    "Drink," cries the Cobler, "I'm adry;
    Pshaw, damn your nonsense, what care I?
    I told you first, and all along,
    I'll lay this cole you're in the wrong;
    I hope his worship will excuse,
    I should, though, carry home his shoes."

    "Well, well," the Barber makes reply,
    "Election-time puts business by:
    Only six ships our Admiral had;
    A very slender force, egad;
    What then? our dumplings gave them sport:--
    Here stood one castle; there the fort."--

    "'Sblood," cries the Cobler, "go to school,
    You half-learn'd, half-starv'd, silly fool!
    I tell you, Barber, 'tis not true;
    Sure I can see as much as you."

    But hark, what noise our ears assails!
    A distant, loud huzza, prevails;
    Ha, ha, they're at their wonted sport;
    That was a gun, by the report:
    Behold the rabble at _The Crown_!
    "Damn, damn, th' Excise; we'll have it down."
    And all the while, poor simple elves,
    They little think 'twill crush themselves.
    Danger again may wait our stay,
    So, courteous Reader, come away.

        CANTO  III.
      POLLING _at the_ HUSTINGS.
    _Swift_, reverend wag, _Ierne's_ pride,
    Who lov'd the comic rein to guide,
    Has told us, "Gaolers, when they please,
    Let out their flock, to rob for fees."
    From this sage hint, in needful cases,
    The wights, who govern other places,
    Let out their crew, for private ends,
    _Ergo_, to serve themselves and friends.
    Behold, here gloriously inclin'd,
    The Sick, and Lame, the Halt, and Blind!
    From Workhouse, Gaol, and Hospital,
    Submiss they come, true Patriots all!

    But let's get nearer, while we stay,--
    Good Master Constable, make way!
    "Hoi! keep the passage clear and fair;--
    I'll break your shins!--stand backward there;
    What! won't you let the Pollers come:"--
    Reader, they think us so--but _mum_.

    Now praise and prejudice expand,
    In printed bills, from hand to hand;
    One tells, the 'Squire's a man of worth;
    Generous and noble from his birth:
    Another plainly makes appear,
    "Some circumstance, in such a year."
    The voice of Scandal's sure to wait,
    Or true, or false, each Candidate.
    Observe the waving flags applied,
    To let Free-holders know their side!
    Hark, at each vote exult the crew!
    "_Yellow!_ Huzza!--Huzza! the _Blue!_"

    Whoe'er has walk'd through _Chelsea_ town,
    Which Buns and Charity renown,
    Has many a College Veteran seen,
    With scar-seam'd face, and batter'd mien,
    But here's a theme for future story!
    Survey that Son of _Mars_ before ye!
    Was ever Pensioner like him?--
    What, almost robb'd of every limb!
    Only one arm, one leg, one thigh;
    Gods! was that man design'd to die?
    Inspect his ancient, war-like face!
    See, with what surly, manly grace,
    He gives the Clerk to understand
    His meaning, with his wooden hand!
    Perhaps in _Anna's_ glorious days,
    His courage gain'd immortal praise:
    _Britons_, a people brave and rough,
    That time lov'd fighting well enough;
    And, glad their native land to aid,
    Leg-making was a thriving trade;
    But now we from ourselves depart,
    And war's conducted with new art;
    Our Admirals, Generals, learn to run,
    And Leg-makers are all undone.
    Still he's an open, hearty blade,
    Pleas'd with his sword, and gay cockade:
    Unbrib'd he votes; and 'tis his pride;
    He always chose the honest side.
    You think he seems of man but half,
    But, witty Clerk, suppress your laugh;
    His heart is in its usual place,
    And that same hook may claw your face.
    How learnedly that Lawyer pleads!
    "A vote like this, Sir, ne'er succeeds;
    The naked hand should touch the book;
    Observe h'as only got a hook."
    "Sir," cries the other, "that's his hand;"
    (Quibbles, like you, I understand)
    "And be it either flesh or wood,
    By Heavens! his vote is very good."
    Wise Counsellor! you reason right,
    You'll gain undoubted credit by't;
    But please to turn your head about,
    And find that Idiot's meaning out;
    Dismiss the Whisperer from his chair,
    'Tis quite illegal, quite unfair;
    Though shackles on his legs are hung,
    Those shackles can't confine his tongue;
    Methinks I hear him tell the Nisey,
    "Be sure to vote as I advise ye;
    My writings shew I'm always right;
    The nation sinks; we're ruin'd quite
    _America's_ entirely lost;
    The _French_ invade our native coast;
    Our Ministers won't keep us free;---
    You know all this as well as me.
    All men of parts are out of place;
    'Tis mine, 'tis many a wise man's case;
    And though so _Cato_-like I write,
    I ne'er shall get a farthing by't."
    Good Clerk, dispatch them quick, I pray:
    How easy fools are led astray!
    He thinks th' insinuation's true,
    As all the race of Idiots do.
    But who comes here? Ha, one just dead,
    Ravish'd from out th' infirmary's bed;
    Through racking follies sad and sick,
    Yet to the cause he'll ever stick;
    Tie the groat favour on his cap,
    And die True Blue, whate'er may hap.

    Oh, Vice! through life extends thy reign:
    When Custom fixes thy domain,
    Not _Wesley's_ cant, nor _Whitfield's_ art,
    Can chace thee from th' envelop'd heart!
    Behold that wretch! whom _Venus_ knows
    Has in her revels lost his nose;
    Still with that season'd Nurse he toys;
    As erst indulges sensual joys;
    Can drink, and crack a bawdy joke,
    And still can quid, as well as smoke.
    But, Nurse, don't smile so in his face;
    Sure this is not a proper place;
    Take from your duggs his hand away,
    And mind your sick-charge better, pray;
    Consider, if his faithful side
    Should hear that in their cause he died,
    They'd be so much enrag'd, I vow,
    They'd punish you!--the Lord knows how.
    Beside, you take up too much room,
    That boy-led Blind-man wants to come;
    And 'scap'd from wars, and foreign clutches,
    An Invalid's behind on crutches.

    The man whose fortune suits his wish,
    A glutton at each favourite dish;
    Who, when o'er venison, ne'er will spare it,
    And washes down some rounds with claret;
    That man will have a portly belly,
    And be of consequence, they tell ye;
    Grandeur shall 'tend his air and gait,
    And make him like--that Candidate:
    Observe him on the hustings sit!
    Fatigu'd, he sweats, or seems to sweat;
    Scratching his pate, with shook-back wig,
    And puffs, and blows, extremely big:
    Perhaps that paper hints about
    Votes, whose legality's a doubt;
    And will by scrutiny be try'd,
    Unless they're on the proper side.
    Stiff as if _Rackstraw_,[B] fam'd for skill,
    For genius, taste, or what you will,
    With temper'd plaister, stood in haste,
    From his set face to form the cast;
    Resting on oak-stick stedfastly,
    The other would-be Member see!
    Struck with his look, so fix'd and stout,
    That Wag resolves to sketch it out;
    Laughing, they view the pencil'd phiz.--
    "'Tis very like him--that it is."
    Hark to yon hawker with her songs!
    "The Gallows shall redress our wrongs!"
    I warrant, wrote in humourous style;
    The hearers laugh; the readers smile.
    And lo, although so thick the rout,
    They've room to push the glass about!
    Variety her province keeps;
    One Beadle watches; t'other sleeps.

    But see that chariot! who rides there?
    _Britannia_, Sir, a lady fair:
    To her celestial charms are given;
    Ador'd on earth, beloved in heaven;
    Her frown makes nations dread a fall;
    Her smile gives joy and life to all.
    Too generous, merciful, and kind;
    Her Servants won't their duty mind;
    Neither their Mistress' call regards;
    Their study's how to cheat at cards;
    The reins of power, oh, indiscreet!
    They trample, careless, under feet;
    Th' unguided coursers neigh and spurn,
    And ah, the car must overturn!
    Just gods, forbid!--there's comfort yet!
    For, lo, how near that saving PITT!
    Sure Heaven design'd her that resource,
    To stop her venal servants course;
    Her peace and safety to restore,
    And keep from dangers evermore.

    Ha! see, yon distant cavalcade!
    Exulting crowds, and flags display'd!
    Let's to the bridge our foot-steps bend--
    So cheek by jole, along, my friend.

        CANTO IV.
    "Huzza! the Country! not the Court!"--.
    Your Honour can't have better sport;
    In old arm-chair aloft you soar--
    No Candidate can wish for more.
    Th' election's got, the day's your own,
    And be to all their member known!

    Ye Moths of an exalted size!
    Ye sage Historians, learn'd and wise!
    Who pore on leaves of old tradition;
    Vers'd in each prætor exhibition;
    Tell me if, 'midst the spoils of age,
    And relicks of the moulder'd page,
    You e'er found why this aukward state
    Must 'tend the man who'd fain be great!
    When _Alexander_, Glory's son,
    Enter'd in triumph _Babylon_,
    Hear ancient annals make confession,
    How aggrandiz'd was his procession!
    But this is _Skymington_, I trow!----
    Yet Time proclaims _We must_[C] do so.
    It sure was meant to make folks stare,
    "Like cloths hung out at country fair:
    Where painted monsters rage and grin,
    To draw the gaping bumpkins in."[D]
    _Minerva's_ sacred bird's an owl;
    Our candidate's, behold, a fowl!
    From which we readily suppose
    (As now his generous Honour's chose)
    His voice he'll in the Senate use;
    And cackle, cackle, like--a goose.

    But, hark ye! you who bear this load
    Of patriot worth along the road,
    Methinks you make his Honour lean;
    Be careful, Sirs!--Zounds! what d' ye mean?
    Off flies his hat, back leans his chair,
    And dread of falling makes him stare.
    His Lady, fond to see him ride,
    With Nurse and _Black-moor_ at her side,
    In church-yard stands to view the sight,
    And at his danger's in a fright.
    "Alack, alack, she faints away!"
    "The hartshorn, _Ora_--quick, I say!"
    See, at yon house th' opposing party
    Enjoy the joke, with laughter hearty!
    "Well done, my boys--now let him fall;
    Here's gin and porter for you all!"

    But let's find whence this came about:
    Ha, lo, that Thresher bold and stout!
    How, like a hero, void of dread,
    He aims to crack that sailor's head!
    While, with the purchase of the stroke,
    Behind, the bearer's pate is broke:
    The sailor too resolves to drub,
    Wrathful he sways the ponderous club;
    Who to stir up his rage shall dare?
    He'll fight for ever--for his Bear.

    Sir _Hudibras_ agreed, Bear-baiting
    Was carnal, and of man's creating;
    But, had he like that Thresher done,
    I'll hold a wager, ten to one,
    His knighthood had not kept him safe;
    That Tar had trimm'd both him and _Ralph_.

    In fighting _George's_ glorious battles,
    To save our liberties and chattels;
    Commanded by some former _Howe_,
    Ordain'd to make proud _Gallia_ bow,
    A cannon-ball took off his leg:
    What then? he scorns, like some, to beg;
    That muzzled beast is taught to dance,
    That Ape to ape the beaux of _France_;
    The countryfolks admire the sport,
    And small collections pay him for't.
    Sailors and Soldiers ne'er agree;--
    There's difference twixt the Land and Sea;
    He, willing not a jest shall 'scape,
    In uniform riggs out his Ape:--
    From which we reasonably infer
    An Ape may be an Officer.
    But, hey-day! more disasters still?
    Turn quick thy head, bold sailor _Will_.
    In vain that fellow, on his Ass,
    Attempts to Hogs at home to pass,
    The hungry Bear, who thinks no crime
    To feast on guts at any time,
    Arrests the garbage in the tub,
    And with his snout begins to grub.
    Pray is it friendly, honest brother,
    That one Ass thus should ride another?
    The beast seems wearied with his toil,
    And, like the bear, would munch a while.
    The good wife thought that every pig
    Should in the wash, then coming, swig;
    And went industriously to find
    Her family of the hoggish kind;
    But, oh, unhappy fate to tell!
    Behind the Thresher down she fell:
    Indeed the wonder were no more,
    Had she, by chance, fall'n down before:
    Away the sow affrighted runs,
    Attended by her little ones:
    Those gruntings to each other sounding;
    This squeaking shrill, through fear of drowning.

    "The lamb thou doom'st to bleed to-day,
    Had he thy reason, wou'd he play?"[E]
    And did that Bear know he'd be beat,
    Would he from out that firkin eat?
    The Ass's rider lifts his stick;
    Take out your nose, old _Bruin_, quick;
    A grin of vengeance arms his face,
    Presaging torture, and disgrace.
    The Ape, who dearly loves to ride
    On _Bruin's_ back, in martial pride,
    Dejected at the sad occasion,
    Looks up, with soft commiseration;
    As if to speak, "Oh, spare my friend!
    Avert that blow you now intend!"
    'Tis complaisant, good-natur'd too;--
    Much more than many Apes would do.

    Observe the chimney-sweepers, there!
    On gate-post, how they laugh and stare;
    Those bones, and emblematic skull,
    Have no effect to make them dull;
    Pleas'd they adorn the death-like head
    With spectacles of gingerbread.

    When _London_ city's bold train-band[F]
    March, to preserve their track of land,
    Each val'rous heart the _French_ defying,
    While drums are beating, colours flying,
    How many accidents resound
    From _Tower-hill_ to th' _Artillery-ground!_
    Perhaps some hog, in frisky pranks,
    Unluckily breaks through their ranks,
    And makes the captain storm and swear,
    To _form_ their soldiers, _as they were_:
    Or else the wadding, which they ram,
    Pop into some one's ear they jam;
    Or not alert at gun and sword,
    When their commander gives the word
    To fire, amidst the dust and clamour,
    Forget to draw their desperate rammer;
    And one or two brave comrades hit,
    As cooks fix larks upon a spit.
    That Monkey's sure not of the reg'ment,
    Yet still his arms should have abridgement;
    The little, aukward, martial figure,
    Will wriggle till he pulls the trigger:
    'Tis done--and see the bullet fly!--
    Pop down, you rogue! or else you'll die.

    Survey, as merry as a grig,
    The Fiddler dancing to his jig!
    No goat, by good St. _David_ rear'd,
    Could ever boast more length of beard:
    'Tis his to wait on Master _Bruin_,
    And tune away to all he's doing;
    You think this strange, but 'tis no more,
    Than _Orpheus_ did in days of yore;
    With modern fiddlers so it fares;
    They often scratch to dancing-bears.
    He took to scraping in his prime,
    And plays in tune, as well as time;
    Elections cheer his merry heart;
    Sure always then to _play_ his _part_:
    In toping healths as great a soaker
    As executing _Ally Croaker_.
    Tho' some Musicians scarce can touch
    The strings, if drunk a glass too much;
    Yet he'll tope ale, or stout _October_,
    And scrape as well when drunk, as sober.

    Lo, on yon stone which shows the way.
    That travellers mayn't go astray;
    And tells how many miles they lag on,
    From _London_, in the drawling waggon,
    A Soldier sits, in naked buff!
    In troth, Sir, this is odd enough!
    His head bound up, his sword-blade broken,
    And flesh with many a bloody token,
    Declare he fought extremely well;
    But which had best on't, who can tell?
    If he were victor, 'tis confest,
    To be so maul'd makes bad the best:
    What though he smart, he likes the jobb;
    'Tis _great_ to head a party-mob.
    But what reward for all he did?--
    Oh, Sir, he'll never want a--_quid_.

    There's somewhat savory in the wind--
    Those Courtiers, Friend, have not yet din'd:
    Their true ally, grave _Puzzle-cause_,
    A man right learned in the laws,
    (Whose meagre clerk below can't venture,
    And wishes damn'd the long indenture),
    As custom bids, prepares the dinner,
    For, though they've lost, yet he's the winner.
    See, the domestic train appear!
    Old _England_ bringing up the rear!
    Curse on their stomachs, who can't brook
    Good _English_ fare, from _English_ cook!
    Observe lank Monsieur, in amaze,
    Upon the valiant soldier gaze!
    "Morbleu! you love de fight, ve see,
    But dat is no de dish for ve."
    Behold, above, that azure garter--
    Look, now he whispers, like a tartar;
    By button fast he holds the other,
    The lost election makes a pother.
    "All this parade is idle stuff--
    We know our interest well enough--
    We still support what we espouse;
    We'll bring the matter in the _House_."

    Of some wise man, perhaps philosopher,
    (If not, it flings the vice a gloss over)
    I've read, who, Maudlin-like, would cry
    Soon as he 'ad drunk his barrel dry:
    Yon fellow, certain as a gun,
    Of that Philosopher's a Son:
    Long as the pot the beer could scoop,
    He scorn'd, like swine, to trough to stoop;
    But, now 'tis shallow, kneels devout,
    Eager to suck the last drop out.
    Vociferous Loyalty's a-dry,
    And, lo, they bear a fresh supply!
    That all the mob may roar applause,
    And know they'll never starve the cause.

    When grey-mare proves the better horse,
    The man is mis'rable of course;
    That Taylor leads a precious life--
    Look at the termagant his wife,
    She pays him sweetly o'er the head;--
    "Get home, you dog, and get your bread;
    Shall I have nothing to appear in,
    While you get drunk electioneering?"

    See from the Town-hall press the crowd,
    While rustic Butchers ring aloud!
    There, lo, their cap of liberty!
    Here t'other side in effigy!
    A notable device, to call
    The Courtier party blockheads all:
    Aloft True-Blue, their ensign, flies,
    And acclamations rend the skies.
    Reflect, my friend, and judge from thence.
    How idle this extreme expence;
    What mighty sums are thrown away,
    To be the pageant of the day!
    In vain Desert implores protections;
    The Rich are fonder of Elections.
    Th' ambitious Peer, the Knight, the 'Squire,
    Can buy the Borough they desire;
    Yet see, with unassisting eye,
    Arts fade away, and Genius die.
    Tir'd with the applauding, and the sneering,
    And all that's styl'd Electioneering,
    I think to take a little tour,
    And likely tow'rd the _Gallic_ shore;
    The Muse, to whom we bear no malice,
    Invites me to the Gate of _Calais_.[G]
    That gate to which a knight of worth,
    'Yclep'd _Sir Loin_, of _British_ birth,
    Advanc'd, though not in hostile plight,
    And put their army in a fright.
    But more it fits not, here to tell,
    So, courteous Reader, fare thee well.

[A] In _The European Magazine_ for the month of _Oct._ 1784, appears a
letter on the subject of Painting, signed C. I. F. which contains the
following extraordinary criticism on the circumstance here described.

"Our own inimitable _Hogarth_ has, in some of his latter pieces,
grossly violated this rule; and, for the sake of crowding his piece
with incidents, has represented what could not happen at all.

"In his representation of an Election Feast, he has placed a man at
the end of the table with an oyster still upon his fork, and his fork
in his hand, though his coat must have been stripped up from his arm
after he took it up, by the surgeon, who has made an ineffectual
attempt to let him blood. Supposing gluttony to have so far absorbed
all the persons present, even at the end of a feast, as that none of
them should pay the least attention to this incident, which is, if not
impossible, improbable in the highest degree, they must necessarily
have been alarmed at another incident that is represented as taking
place at the same moment: a great stone has just broke through the
window, and knocked down one of the company, who is exhibited in the
act of falling; yet every one is represented as pursuing his purpose
with the utmost tranquillity."

I must entreat my reader to examine the print, before I can expect
belief, when I assure him, that for this criticism there is not the
slightest foundation.--The magistrate is bled in the right arm, which
is bared for that purpose, by stripping the coat-sleeve from it.--It
is in his left hand that he holds the fork with the oyster on it, his
coat-sleeve being all the while on his left arm.--As to the attention
of the company, it is earnestly engaged by different objects; and
_Hogarth_ perhaps designed to insinuate that accidents, arising from
repletion or indigestion, are too common at election dinners to attract
notice or excite solicitude.--The brickbat has not noisily forced
its way through a window, but was thrown in at a casement already
open; and a moment must have elapsed before an event so instantaneous
could be perceived in an assembly, every individual of which had his
distinct avocation. Of this moment our artist has availed himself.
Till, therefore, the accident was discovered, he has, with the utmost
propriety, left every person present to pursue his former train of
thought or amusement.

[B] The ingenious artist in _Fleet-street_, well known to the learned
and ingenious, by his excellence in taking Busts from the Life, and
casts from Anatomical Dissections.

[C] See the Dial in Plate IV.

[D] See the Prologue to a farce called "The Male Coquette."

[E] See _Pope's_ Essay on Man.

[F] This passage will, perhaps, be better illustrated by the following
paragraph, printed in a daily paper called "The Citizen:"--"_Saturday_
last, being the first day of _August_ Old Stile, the Artillery Company
marched according to custom once in three years (called _Barnes's
March_, by which they hold an estate): they went to Sir _George
Whitmore's_, and took a dunghill. As they were marching through
_Bunhill-Row_, a large hog ran between a woman's legs and threw her
down, by which accident the ranks were broke, which put the army in the
utmost confusion before they could recover."

[G] See above, p. 295.

[5] The _earliest impressions_ of this plate in its second state, have
the same inscription.

[6] _Morellon Le Cave_. Mr. _Walpole_, in his catalogue of _English_
engravers, (octavo edit.) professes to know no more of this artist than
that he was "a scholar of _Picart_" and "did a head of Dr. _Pococke_
before _Twells's_ edition of the Doctor's works." In the year 1739,
however, he engraved _Captain Coram_, &c. at the head of the Power of
Attorney, &c. (a description of which see p. 254. of the present work)
and afterwards was _Hogarth's_ coadjutor in this third of his Election
plates. At the bottom of it he is only styled _Le Cave_.

[7] Some of these scenes having been reversed by the engraver, the
figures in them are represented as using their left hands instead of
their right.

[8] Query, what were the scandalous prints to which he alludes?

[9] This _A. R._ was _Allan Ramsay_, but having never met with his
performance, I can give no account of it.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. _France_ and _England_, two plates; both etched by himself. Under
them are the following verses, by Mr. _Garrick_:

    With lanthern jaws, and croaking gut,
    See how the half-starv'd _Frenchmen_ strut,
      And call us _English_ dogs!
    But soon we'll teach these bragging foes,
    That beef and beer give heavier blows
      Than soup and roasted frogs.

    The priests, inflam'd with righteous hopes,
    Prepare their axes, wheels, and ropes,
      To bend the stiff-neck'd sinner;
    But, should they sink in coming over,
    _Old Nick_ may fish 'twixt _France_ and _Dover_,
      And catch a glorious dinner.

    See _John_ the Soldier, _Jack_ the Tar,
    With sword and pistol arm'd for war,
      Should Mounseer dare come here!
    The hungry slaves have smelt our food,
    They long to taste our flesh and blood,
      Old _England's_ beef and beer!

    _Britons_, to arms! and let 'em come,
    Be you but _Britons_ still, Strike home,
      And lion-like attack 'em;
    No power can stand the deadly stroke
    That's given from hands and hearts of oak,
      With Liberty to back 'em.

2. The Search Night, a copy. _J. Fielding sculp._ 21_st March_,
1756.[1] "_A very bad print, and I believe an imposition_." On this
plate are sixteen stupid verses, not worth transcribing. It was
afterwards copied again in two different sizes in miniature, and
printed off on cards, by _Darly_, in 1766. The original, in a small
oval, was an impression taken from the top of a silver tobacco-box;
engraved by _Hogarth_ for one Captain _Johnson_, and never meant for

[1] There is also a copy of this print, engraved likewise by
_Fielding_, and dated _August_ 11, 1746.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. His own portrait,[1] sitting, and painting the Muse of Comedy; Head
profile, in a cap. The Analysis of Beauty on the floor. _W. Hogarth,
serjeant-painter to his Majesty._ The face engraved by _W. Hogarth_.

I should observe, that when this plate was left with the person
employed to furnish the inscription, he, taking the whole for the
production of our artist, wrote "Engraved by _W. Hogarth_" under it.
_Hogarth_, being conscious that the face only had been touched by
himself, added, with his own hand, "_The Face_" Engraved, &c.

In the second impression "The Face Engraved by _W. Hogarth_" is totally

In the third impression "Serjeant-painter, &c." is scratched over by
the burin, but remains still sufficiently legible.

The fourth impression has "_the face retouched, but not so like as the
preceding.[2] Comedy also has the face and mask marked with black,[3]
and inscribed,_ COMEDY, 1764. _No other inscription but his name,_
William Hogarth, 1764."

The original from which this plate is taken, is in Mrs. _Hogarth's_
possession at _Chiswick_. A whole-length of herself, in the same size,
is its companion. They are both small pictures.

[1] Among the prints bequeathed by the late Mr. _Forrest_ to his
executor Mr. _Coxe_, is this head cut out of a proof, and touched up
with _Indian_ ink by _Hogarth_. Mr. _Forrest_, in an inscription on the
back of the paper to which it is affixed, observes it was a present to
him from Mrs. _Hogarth_.

With these prints are likewise several early impressions from other
plates by our artist; and in particular a March to _Finchley_
uncommonly fine, and with the original spelling of PRUSIA uncorrected
even by a pen. I am told that both the head and this, with other
engravings in the collection of the late Mr. _Forrest_, will be sold by
auction in the course of the Winter 1786.

[2] i. e. the two first.

[3] So in both the third and fourth impressions.

2. The Bench. Over the top of this plate is written in
capitals--CHARACTER. Under it "of the different meaning of the words
_Character, Caracatura,_ and _Outrè_, in painting and drawing," Then
follows a long inscription on this subject. The original painting is in
the collection of Mr. _Edwards_.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. The Cockpit. _Designed and engraved by W. Hogarth._ In this plate
is a portrait of _Nan Rawlins_, a very ugly old woman (commonly called
_Deptford Nan_, sometimes the _Duchess of Deptford_), and well
remembered at _Newmarket_. She was a famous cock-feeder, and did
the honours of the _gentlemen's_ ordinary at _Northampton_; while,
in return, a single gentleman was deputed to preside at the table
appropriated to the _ladies_. The figure with a hump-back, was designed
for one _Jackson_, a once noted jockey at _Newmarket_. The blind
president is Lord _Albemarle Bertie_, who was a constant attender of
this diversion. His portrait was before discoverable in the crowd round
the bruisers in the March to _Finchley_.

By the cockpit laws, any person who cannot, or will not pay his debts
of honour, is drawn up in a basket to the roof of the building. Without
a knowledge of this circumstance, the shadow of the man who is offering
his watch would be unintelligible.

The subject of The Cockpit had been recommended to _Hogarth_ so long
ago as 1747, in the following lines, first printed in _The Gentleman's
Magazine_ of that year, p. 292.

    "Where _Dudston's_[1] walks with vary'd beauties shine,
    And some are pleas'd with bowling, some with wine,
    Behold a generous train of Cocks repair,
    To vie for glory in the toils of war;
    Each hero burns to conquer or to die:
    What mighty hearts in little bosoms lie!

    "Come, _Hogarth_, thou whose art can best declare
    What forms, what features, human passions wear,
    Come, with a painter's philosophic sight,
    Survey the circling judges of the fight.
    Touch'd with the sport of death, while every heart
    Springs to the changing face, exert thy art;
    Mix with the smiles of Cruelty at pain
    Whate'er looks anxious in the lust of gain;
    And say, can aught that's generous, just, or kind,
    Beneath this aspect, lurk within the mind?
    Is lust of blood or treasure vice in all,
    Abhorr'd alike on whomsoe'er it fall?
    Are mighty states and gamblers still the same?
    And war itself a cock-fight, and a game?
    Are sieges, battles, triumphs, little things;
    And armies only the game-cocks of kings?
    Which fight, in Freedom's cause, still blindly bold,
    Bye-battles only, and the main for gold?

    "The crested bird, whose voice awakes the morn,
    Whose plumage streaks of radiant gold adorn,
    Proud of his birth, on fair _Salopia's_ plain,
    Stalks round, and scowls defiance and disdain.
    Not fiercer looks the proud _Helvetians_ wear,
    Though thunder slumbers in the arms they bear:
    Nor _Thracia's_ fiercer sons, a warlike race!
    Display more prowess, or more martial grace.
    But, lo! another comes, renown'd for might,
    Renown'd for courage, and provokes the fight.
    Yet what, alas! avails his furious mien,
    His ruddy neck, and breast of varied green?
    Soon thro' his brain the foe's bright weapon flies,
    Eternal darkness shades his swimming eyes;
    Prostrate he falls, and quivering spurns the ground,
    While life indignant issues from the wound.
    Unhappy hero, had thy humbler life
    Deny'd thee fame by deeds of martial strife,
    Still hadst thou crow'd, for future pleasures spar'd,
    Th' exulting monarch of a farmer's yard.

    "Like fate, alas! too soon th' illustrious prove,
    The great by hatred fall, the fair by love;
    The wise, the good, can scarce preserve a name,
    Expung'd by envy from the rolls of fame.
    Peace and oblivion still through life secure,
    In friendly glooms, the simple, homely, poor.
    And who would wish to bask in glory's ray,
    To buy with peace the laurel or the bay?
    What tho' the wreath defy the lightning's fire,
    The bard and hero in the storm expire.
    Be rest and innocence my humbler lot,
    Scarce known through life, and after death forgot!"

[1] A gentleman's seat, about a mile from _Birmingham_, fitted up for
the reception of company, in imitation of _Vaux-hall Gardens_.

2. A small oval of Bishop _Hoadly_, ætat. 83. _Hogarth pinx. Sherlock

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Frontispiece to _Tristram Shandy_. Of this plate there are two
copies; in the first of which the hat and clock are omitted. _S.
Ravenet sculp._ In this plate is the portrait of Dr. _Burton_, of
_York_, the Jacobite physician and antiquary, in the character of Dr.

_Sterne_ probably was indebted for these plates (especially the
first of them) to the following compliment he had paid our author in
the first volume of _Tristram Shandy_. "Such were the outlines of
Dr. _Slop's_ figure, which, if you have read _Hogarth's Analysis of
Beauty_, and, if you have not, I wish you would, you must know, may as
certainly be caracatured, and conveyed to the mind by three strokes as
three hundred."

2. Frontispiece to _Brook Taylor's_ Perspective of Architecture.[1]
With an attempt at a new order. _W. Hogarth, July_ 1760. _W. Woollet
sculp._ Lest any reader should suppose that this idea of forming a
new capital out of the Star of St. _George_, the Prince of _Wales's_
Feather,[2] and a regal Coronet, was hatched in the mind of _Hogarth_
after he had been appointed Serjeant Painter, the following passage
in the _Analysis_ will prove that many years before he had conceived
the practicability of such an attempt: see p. 40. "I am thoroughly
convinced in myself, however it may startle some, that a completely
new and harmonious order of architecture in all its parts might be
produced, &c." Again, p. 46. "Even a capital, composed of the aukward
and confined forms of hats and perriwigs, as Fig. 48. Plate I. in a
skilful hand might be made to have some beauty." Mr. _S. Ireland_ has
the original sketch.

[1] Published in two volumes, folio, 1761, by _Joshua Kirby_, Designer
in Perspective to his Majesty.--"Here is a curious frontispiece,
designed by Mr. _Hogarth_; but not in the same ludicrous style as the
former (see p. 333): it were to be wished that he had explained its
meaning; for, being symbolical, the meaning of it is not so obvious
as the other. To me it conveys the idea, which _Milton_ so poetically
describes, of the angel _Uriel_ gliding down to Paradise on a sun-beam;
but the young gentleman has dropped off before he had arrived at his
journey's end, with _Palladio's_ book of architecture on his knees.
A ray of light from the sun, rising over a distant mountain, is
directed to a scroll on the ground, on which are two or three scraps
of perspective; over which, supported by a large block of stone, is
the upper part of a sceptre, broke off; the shaft very obliquely and
absurdly inclined, somewhat resembling the _Roman_ fasces, and girt
above with the Prince of _Wales's_ coronet, as an astragal, through
which the fasces rise, and swell into a crown, adorned with embroidered
stars; this is the principal object, but most vilely drawn. The ray
passes through a round temple, at a considerable distance, which is
also falsly represented, the curves being for the distance too round,
and consequently the diminution of the columns is too great. It appears
to pass over a piece of water; on this side the ground is fertile and
luxuriant with vegetation, abounding with trees and shrubs; on the
other side it is rocky and barren.[A] What is indicated by this seems
to be, that, where the arts are encouraged by the rays of royal favour,
they will thrive and flourish; but where they are neglected, and do not
find encouragement, they will droop and languish." _Malton's_ Appendix
to his Treatise on Perspective.

[A] The idea of this contrast between fertility and barrenness is an
old one. _Hogarth_ probably took it from the engraving known by the
name of _Raffaelle's Dream_.

[2] Mr. _H. Emlyn_ has lately realised this plan, by his Proposals for
a new order of architecture, 1781.

3. Mr. _Huggins_. A small circular plate. _Hogarth pinx. Major sculp._
On the left, a bust, inscribed, "IL DIVINO ARIOSTO." "DANTE L'INFERNO,
IL PURGATORIO, IL PARADISO." Mr. _Huggins_ (of whom see p. 19.) had
this portrait engraven, to prefix to his translation of _Dante_, of
which no more than a specimen was ever published.

The bust of _Ariosto_ was inserted by the positive order of Mr.
_Huggins_ (after the plate was finished), though much against the
judgement of the engraver, who was convinced that a still ground would
have shewn the countenance of the person represented to much greater
advantage. Mr. _Major's_ charge was only three guineas, and yet eleven
years elapsed before he received even this trifling acknowledgement for
his labour. Dr. _Monkhouse_ has the plate.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Frontispiece and tail-piece to the catalogue of pictures exhibited
at _Spring Gardens. W. Hogarth inv. C. Grignion sculp._ There is a
variation of this print; a _Latin_ motto under each in the second
edition. In the earliest impressions _obit_, corrected afterwards to
_obiit_. The same mark of ignorance, however, remains unamended over
the monument of the Judge in the first plate of the _Analysis_.

2. _Time_ blackening a picture. Subscription-ticket for his
_Sigismunda_. "_This, and the preceding tail-piece, are satires on

3. The Five Orders of Perriwigs at the Coronation of _George_
III.[1] Many of the heads, as well as wigs, were known at the time.
The first head of the second row was designed to represent Lord
_Melcombe_; and those of Bishops _Warburton, Mawson,_ and _Squire,_
are found in the groupe. The advertisement annexed, as well as the
whole print, is said to have been a ridicule on Mr. _Stewart's_
Antiquities of _Athens_, in which, with minute accuracy, are given
the measurements of all the members of the _Greek_ Architecture.
The inscription under the print affords a plentiful crop of false
spellings--volumns--advertisment--baso--&c. The second _e_ in
advertisement was afterwards added on the neck of the female figure
just over it. The first and subsequent impressions will be known by
this distinction.

[1] A Dissertation on Mr. _Hogarth's_ print of the Order of Perriwigs,
viz. the Episcopal, Aldermanic, and Lexonic, is printed in _The
Beauties of all the Magazines_, 1761, p. 52.

4. Frontispiece to the Farmer's Return from _London_, an Interlude by
Mr. _Garrick_,[1] acted at _Drury Lane. W. Hogarth delin. J. Basire
sculp._ In Mr. _Foster's_ collection is a bad copy of this plate, no
name, the figures reversed. The original drawing was given to Mr.
_Garrick_, and is supposed to be in the possession of his widow at
_Hampton_. Mr. _S. Ireland_ has a sketch of it. An excellent copy of
this plate is sometimes sold as the original.

[1] Mr. _Garrick'_ publication was thus prefaced: "The following
interlude was prepared for the stage, merely with a view of assisting
Mrs. _Pritchard_ at her benefit; and the desire of serving so good
an actress is a better excuse for its defects, than the few days in
which it was written and represented. Notwithstanding the favourable
reception it has met with, the author would not have printed it,
had not his friend, Mr. _Hogarth_, flattered him most agreeably, by
thinking _the Farmer and his Family_ not unworthy of a sketch of his
pencil. To him, therefore, this trifle, which he has so much honoured,
is inscribed, as a faint testimony of the sincere esteem which the
writer bears him, both as a man and an artist."

5. Another frontispiece to _Tristram Shandy_ (for the second volume).
His christening. _F. Ravenet sculp._

6. The same engraved by _Ryland_. This, as I am informed, was the
first, but was too coarsely executed to suit that prepared for the
first volume of the same work.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism. "_Satire on Methodists._"
"For deep and useful satire," says Mr. _Walpole_, "the most sublime of
all his works."

This print, however, contains somewhat more than a satire on Methodism.
_Credulity_ is illustrated by the figure of the Rabbit-breeder of
_Godalming_, with her supposed progeny galloping from under her
petticoats. _St. André's_ folly furnished _Hogarth_ with matter for one
of his latest, as well as one of his earliest performances.

    _Primâ dicte mihi, summâ dicende Camænâ._

2. The Times. Plate I. In one copy of this print _Henry_ VIII. is
blowing the flames; in another Mr. _Pitt_ has the same employment: As
this design is not illustrated in _Trusler's_ Account of _Hogarth's_
Works, I shall attempt its explanation, and subjoin, by way of note,
a humourous description of it, which was printed in a news-paper
immediately after it's first appearance in the world.[1]

_Europe_ on fire; _France, Germany, Spain,_ in flames, which are
extending to _Great Britain_. This desolation continued and assisted
by Mr. _Pitt_, under the figure of King _Henry_ VIII. with bellows
increasing the mischief which others are striving to abate. He is
mounted on the stilts of the populace. A _Cheshire_ cheese depends
from his neck, with 3000 _l._ on it. This alludes to what he had said
in Parliament--that he would sooner live on a _Cheshire_ cheese and a
shoulder of mutton, than submit to the enemies of _Great Britain_. Lord
_Bute_, attended by _English_ soldiers, sailors, and _Highlanders_,
manages an engine for extinguishing the flames, but is impeded by the
Duke of _Newcastle_, with a wheel-barrow full of _Monitors_ and _North
Britons_, for the purpose of feeding the blaze. The respectable body
under Mr. _Pitt_ are the aldermen of _London_, worshiping the idol
they had set up; whilst the musical King of _Prussia_, who alone is
sure to gain by the war, is amusing himself with a violin amongst his
miserable countrywomen. The picture of the _Indian_ alludes to the
advocates for retaining our _West Indian_ conquests, which, it was
said, would only increase excess and debauchery. The breaking down of
the _Newcastle_-arms, and the drawing up the patriotic ones, refer
to the resignation of that noble Duke, and the appointment of his
successor. The _Dutchman_ smoking his pipe, and a _Fox_ peeping out
behind him, and waiting the issue; the Waggon, with the treasures of
the _Hermione_; the unnecessary marching of the _Militia_, signified by
the _Norfolk_ jig; the Dove with the olive-branch, and the miseries of
war; are all obvious, and perhaps need no explication.

To those already given, however, may be added the following doggrel

    Devouring flames with fury roll
    Their curling spires from Pole to Pole,
    Wide-spreading devastation dire,
    Three kingdoms ready to expire;
    Here realms convulsive pant for breath,
    And quiver in the arms of death.
    Ill-fated isle! _Britannia_ bleeds;
    The flames her trait'rous offspring feeds:
    Now, now, they seize her vital parts--
    O save her from his murd'rous arts!

    In air exalted high, behold!
    Fierce, noisy, boisterous, and bold,
    Swol'n, like the king of frogs, that fed
    On mangled limbs of victims dead,
    With larger bellows in his hand,
    Than e'er a blacksmith's in the land,
    The flames that waste the world to blow,
    He points unto the mob below:
    'Look, _Britons_, what a bonfire there!
    Halloo, be d----'d, and rend the air.'
    Aldermen, marrow-bones and cleavers,
    Brokers, stock-jobbers, and coal-heavers,
    _Templars_, and knaves of ev'ry station,
    The dregs of _London_, and the nation;
    Contractors, agents, clerks, and all
    Who share the plunder, great and small,
    Join in the halloo at his call.
    Higher they raise the stilts that bore
    The shapeless idol they adore:
    He, to increase his weight, had slung
    A _Mill-stone_ round his neck, which hung
    With bulk enormous to the ground,
    And adds thereto _Three Thousand Pound_;
    That none may dare to say henceforth,
    He wanted either weight or worth.
    He blows,--the flames triumphant rise,
    Devour the earth, and threat the skies.

    When lo! in peaceful mien appears,
    In bloom of life, and youthful years,
    GEORGE, Prince of Men; a smile benign
    That goodness looks, prognostic sign
    Of soul etherial, seems to bode,
    A world's deliv'rer sent from God.
    Array'd in Majesty serene,
    Like heav'nly spirits when they deign,
    In pity to mankind, to come,
    And stop avenging judgement's doom;
    Behold, and bless! just not too late
    T' avert a sinking nation's fate,
    He comes, with friendly care to stay
    Those flames that made the world their prey.
    Born to reform and bless the age,
    Fearless of _faction's_ madd'ning rage,
    Which, with united malice, throngs,
    To reap the harvest of our wrongs,
    He labours to defeat our foes,
    Secure our peace, and ease our woes.
    Before him _Faction_ dare not shew
    Her ghastly face and livid hue,
    But back retires to _Temple-Bar_,
    Where the spectator sees from far
    Many a traitor's head erect,
    To shew what traitors must expect.
    Upon that _barefac'd_ figure look,
    With empty scull and full peruke;
    For man or statue it might pass;
    _Cæsar_ would call't a golden ass.
    Behold the vain malicious thing,
    Squirting his poison at his king,
    And pointing, with infernal art,
    Th' envenom'd rancour of his heart.

    Higher in parts and place appears
    His venal race of Garretteers;
    A starving, mercenary tribe,
    That sell, for every bidder's bribe,
    Their scantling wits to purchase bread
    And always drive the briskest trade,
    When _Faction_ sounds with loudest din,
    To bring some new Pretender in.
    This tribe from their ærial station,
    Deluge with scandal all the nation:
    Below contempt, secure from shame,
    Sure not to forfeit any fame,
    Indifferent what part to choose,
    With nothing but their ears to lose.
    Not Virtue on a throne can be
    From tongues below resentment free.
    Of human things such the distraction,
    With Liberty we must have Faction.

    But look behind the _Temple-gate_,
    Near the thick, clumsy, stinking seat,
    Where _London's_ pageant sits in state;
    What wild, ferocious shape is there,
    With raging looks and savage air?
    Is that the monster without name,
    Whom human art could never tame,
    From _Indian_ wilds of late brought o'er,
    Such as no _Briton_ saw before?
    I mean the monster _P_* * * presented
    To the late King, who quickly sent it,
    Among his other beasts of prey,
    Safe in a cage with lock and key.
    Some said he was of _British_ blood,
    Though taken in an _Indian_ wood.
    If he should thus at large remain,
    Without a keeper, cage, or chain,
    Raging and roaming up and down,
    He may set fire to half the town.
    Has he not robb'd the _Bank?_--Behold,
    In either hand, what bags of gold!
    Monsters are dangerous things let loose:
    Old _Cambrian_, guard thy mansion-house.

    But here, what comes? A loaded car,
    Stuff'd, and high pil'd, from _Temple-Bar_.
    The labouring wretches hardly move
    The load that totters from above.
    By their wry faces, and high strains,
    The cart some lumpish weight contains.
    '_North Britons_--Gentlemen--come, buy,
    There's no man sells so cheap as I.
    Of the _North Briton_ just a score,
    And twenty _Monitors_ or more,
    For just one penny----
    _North Britons--Monitors_--come, buy,
    There's no man sells so cheap as I.'
    '_North Britons! Monitors!_ be d----'d!
    Is that the luggage you have cramm'd
    Into your stinking cart? Be gone,
    Or else I'll burn them every one.'
    'Good Sir, I'm sure they are not dear,
    The paper's excellent, I swear--
    You can't have better any where.
    Come, feel this sheet, Sir--please to choose--
    They're very soft, and fit for use.
    All very good, Sir, take my word--
    As cheap as any can afford.
    The Curate, Sir, Lord! how he'll foam!
    He cannot dine 'till we get home.
    The Colonel too, altho' he be
    So big, so loud, so proud, d'ye see,
    Will have his share as well as he.'

    While on a swelling sack of cheese
    The frugal _Dutchman_ sits at ease,
    And smokes his pipe, and sees with joy
    The flames, that all the world destroy,
    Keep at a distance from his bales,
    And sure thereby to raise the sales;
    Good Mr. _Reynard_, wiser still,
    Displays you his superior skill:
    Behind the selfish miser's back,
    He cuts a hole into the sack,
    His paunch well cramm'd, he snugly lies,
    And with himself the place supplies;
    And now and then his head pops out,
    To see how things go round about;
    Prepar'd to run, or stand the fire,
    Just as occasion may require,
    But willing in the sack to stay,
    And cram his belly while he may,
    Regardless of the babbling town,
    And every interest but his own.

    On yonder plain behold a riddle,
    That mighty warrior with his fiddle,
    With sneering nose, and brow so arch,
    A-scraping out the _German_ march;
    _Bellona_ leading up the dance,
    With flaming torch, and pointed lance,
    And all the _Furies_ in her train,
    Exulting at the martial strain;
    Pale _Famine_ bringing up the rear,
    To crown with woe the wasteful year.
    There's nought but scenes of wretchedness.
    Horror and death, and dire distress,
    To mark their footsteps o'er the plains,
    And teach the world what mighty gains
    From _German_ victories accrue
    To th' vanquish'd and the victors too.
    The fidler, at his ease reclin'd,
    Enjoys the woes of human kind;
    Pursues his trade, destroys by rules,
    And reaps the spoils of Knaves and Fools.
            * * * * _Multa desunt._

The first impressions of this print may be known by the following
distinction. The smoke just over the Dove is left white; and the whole
of the composition has a brilliancy and clearness not to be found in
the copies worked off after the plate was retouched.

I am told that _Hogarth_ did not undertake this political print merely
_ex officio_, but through a hope the salary of his appointment as
Serjeant Painter would be increased by such a show of zeal for the
reigning Ministry.

He left behind him a second part, on the same subject; but hitherto
it has been withheld from the public. The finished Plate is in the
possession of Mrs. _Hogarth_.

There seems, however, no reason why this design should be suppressed.
The widow of our artist is happily independent of a court; nor can
aught relative to the politics of the year 1762 be of consequence to
any party now existing. Our Monarch also, as the patron of arts, would
rather encourage than prevent the publication of a work by _Hogarth_,
even though it should recall the disagreeable ideas of faction
triumphant, and a favourite in disgrace.

[1] The principal figure in the character of _Henry_ VIII. appears to
be not Mr. _P._ but another person whose power is signified by his
bulk of carcase, treading on Mr. _P._ represented by 3000 _l._ The
bellows may signify his well-meaning, though ineffectual, endeavours
to extinguish the fire by wind, which, though it will put out a small
flame, will cherish a large one. The guider of the engine-pipe, I
should think, can only mean his M------, who unweariedly tries, by a
more proper method, to stop the flames of war, in which he is assisted
by all his good subjects, both by sea and land, notwithstanding any
interruption from _Auditors_ or _Britons, Monitors_ or _North Britons_.
The respectable body at the bottom can never mean the magistrates of
_London_; Mr. _H._ has more sense than to abuse so respectable a body;
much less can it mean the judges. I think it may as likely be the Court
of Session in _Scotland_, either in the attitude of adoration, or with
outspread arms intending to catch their patron, should his stilts give
way. The _Frenchman_ may very well sit at his ease among his miserable
countrywomen, as he is not unacquainted that _France_ has always
gained by negociating what she lost in fighting. The fine gentleman
at the window with his garretteers, and the barrow of periodical
papers, refer to the present contending parties of every denomination.
The breaking of the _Newcastle_ arms alludes to the resignation of a
great personage; and the replacing of them, by the sign of the four
clenched fists, may be thought emblematical of the great œconomy of
his successor. The _Norfolk_ jig signifies, in a lively manner, the
alacrity of all his Majesty's forces during the war; and _G. T. [George
Townshend] fecit_, is an opportune compliment paid to Lord _Townshend_,
who, in conjunction with Mr. _Windham_, published "A Plan of Discipline
for the Use of the _Norfolk_ Militia," 4to. and had been the greatest
advocate for the establishment of our present militia. The picture of
the _Indian_ alive from _America_ is a satire on our late uncivilized
behaviour to the three chiefs of the _Cherokee_ nation, who were lately
in this kingdom; and the bags of money set this in a still clearer
point of view, signifying the sums gained by shewing them at our public
gardens. The sly _Dutchman_, with his pipe, seems pleased with the
combustion, from which he thinks he shall be a gainer. And the Duke of
_Nivernois_, under the figure of a dove, is coming from _France_ to
give a cessation of hostilities to _Europe_.

3. _T. Morell_, S. T. P., S. S. A. _W. Hogarth delin. James Basire
sculp._ From a drawing returned to Mr. _Hogarth_. Of this plate there
is an admirable copy, though it has not yet been extensively circulated.

4. _Henry Fielding_, ætatis 48. _W. Hogarth delin. James Basire sculp._
From a drawing with a pen made after the death of Mr. _Fielding_.
"That gentleman," says Mr. _Murphy_, "had often promised to sit to
his friend _Hogarth_, for whose good qualities and excellent genius
he always entertained so high an esteem, that he has left us in his
writings many beautiful memorials of his affection. Unluckily, however,
it so fell out that no picture of him was ever drawn; but yet, as
if it was intended that some traces of his countenance should be
perpetuated, and that too by the very artist whom our author preferred
to all others, after Mr. _Hogarth_ had long laboured to try if he
could bring out any likeness of him from images existing in his own
fancy, and just as he was despairing of success, for want of some
rules to go by in the dimensions and outlines of the face, Fortune
threw the grand _desideratum_ in the way. A lady, with a pair of
scissars, had cut a profile, which gave the distances and proportions
of his face sufficiently to restore his lost ideas of him. Glad of
an opportunity of paying his last tribute to the memory of an author
whom he admired, Mr. _Hogarth_ caught at this outline with pleasure,
and worked, with all the attachment of friendship, till he finished
that excellent drawing which stands at the head of this work, and
recalls to all, who have seen the original, a corresponding image of
the man." Notwithstanding this authentic relation of Mr. _Murphy_, a
different account of the portrait has been lately given in one of the
news-papers. Mr. _Garrick_, it is there said, dressed himself in a
suit of his old friend's cloaths, and presented himself to the painter
in the attitude, and with the features, of _Fielding_. Our _Roscius_,
however, I can assert, interfered no farther in this business than by
urging _Hogarth_ to attempt the likeness, as a necessary adjunct to the
edition of _Fielding's_ works. I am assured that our artist began and
finished the head in the presence of his wife and another lady. He had
no assistance but from his own memory, which, on such occasions, was
remarkably tenacious.[1]

[1] To this sketch so great justice was done by the engraver, that Mr.
_Hogarth_ declared he did not know his own drawing from a proof of
the plate before the ornaments were added. This proof is now in the
collection of Mr. _Steevens_.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. _John Wilkes_, Esq. _Drawn from the life, and etched in aquafortis
by Wm. Hogarth._ Price 1_s_. It was published with the following
oblique note. This is "a direct contrast to a print of SIMON LORD

Mr. _Wilkes_, with his usual good humour, has been heard to observe,
that he is every day growing more and more like his portrait by

In the second impressions of this plate there are a few slight
variations, sufficient at least to shew that the face of the person
represented had been retouched. I have been told, by a copper-plate
printer, that near 4000 copies of this caricature were worked off on
its first publication. Being kept up for two or three following nights
on the occasion, he has reason to remember it.

[1] The original drawing, which was thrown by _Hogarth_ into the fire,
was snatched out of it by Mrs. _Lewis_, and is now in the possession of
Mr. _S. Ireland_.

2. The Bruiser _C. Churchill_,[1] in the character of a _Russian
Hercules_, &c. The _Russian Hercules_ was thus explained, in _August_,
1763, by an admirer of _Hogarth_: "The principal figure is a _Russian
Bear_ (i. e. Mr. _Churchill_) with a club in his left paw, which he
hugs to his side, and which is intended to denote his friendship to
Mr. _Wilkes_: on the notches of the club are wrote, _Lye_ 1, _Lye_ 2,
&c. signifying the falsities in _The North Briton_: in his other paw
is a gallon pot of porter, of which (being very hot) he seems going
to drink: round his neck is a clergyman's band, which is torn, and
seems intended to denote the bruiser. The other figure is a _Pug-dog_,
which is supposed to mean Mr. _Hogarth_ himself, pissing with the
greatest contempt on the epistle wrote to him by _C. Churchill_. In
the centre is a prison begging-box, standing on a folio, the title of
which is, _Great George-Street. A list of the Subscribers to the_ North
Briton: underneath is another book, the title of which is, _A New Way
to pay Old Debts, a Comedy, by_ Massinger. All of which allude to Mr.
_Wilkes's_ debts, to be defrayed by the subscriptions to _The North

The same design is thus illustrated by a person who thought somewhat
differently of our artist: "The _Bear_, with the shattered band,
represents the former strength and abilities of Mr. _Hogarth_: the full
pot of beer likewise shews that he was in a land of plenty. The stump
of a headless tree with the notches, and on them wrote _Lye_, Signifies
Mr. _Hogarth's_ former art, and the many productions thereof, wherein
he has excelled even Nature itself, and which of course must be but
lies, flattery, and fallacy, the _Painter's Prerogative_; and the stump
of the tree only being left, shews that there can be no more fruit
expected from thence, but that it only stands as a record of his former
services. The _Butcher's Dog_ pissing upon Mr. _Churchill's_ epistle,
alludes to the present state of Mr. _Hogarth_; that he is arrived at
such an age to be reduced so low, as, from the strength of a _Bear_,
to a blind _Butcher's Dog_, not able to distinguish, but pissing upon
his best friend; or, perhaps, giving the public a hint to read that
Epistle, where his case is more fully laid before them. The next matter
to be explained is the subscription-box, and under it is a book said
to contain _a list of the Subscribers to the_ North Briton, as well
as one of _a New Way to pay Old Debts_. Mr. _Hogarth_ mentioned _The
North Briton_, to avoid the censure of the rabble in the street, who,
he knew, would neither pity nor relieve him; and as Mr. _Churchill_
was reputed to be the writer of that paper, it would seem to give a
colour in their eyes of its being intended against Mr. _Churchill_. Mr.
_Hogarth_ meant only to shew his necessity, and that a book, entitled
_A List of the Subscribers to the_ North Briton, contained, in fact, a
list of those who should contribute to the support of Mr. _Hogarth_ in
old age. By the book entitled _A New Way to pay Old Debts_, he can only
mean this, that when a man is become disabled to get his livelihood,
and much in debt, the only shift he has left is, to go a-begging to his

"There are likewise some of his old tools in this print, without any
hand to use them."

On the same occasion were published the following verses, "on Mr.
_Hogarth's_ last delicate performance:"

    "What Merit could from native Genius boast,
    To civilize the age, and please us most,
    In lasting images each scene to grace,
    And all the soul to gather in the face,
    In one small sheet a volume to conceal,
    Yet all the story finely to reveal,
    Was once the glory of our _Hogarth's_ name;
    But see, the short-liv'd eminence of fame
    Now dwindles like the exit of a flame,
    From which when once the unctuous juice is fled,
    A stinking vapour rises in its stead:
    So drops our Painter in his later day,
    His former virtue worn, alas! away,
    What busy dæmon, for thy cursed design'd,
    Could thus induce the rancour of thy mind
    To strike so boldly, with an impious hand,
    Against the blessings of thy native land?
    Open and unabash'd thy fury flies,
    And all regard for liberty denies.

    "When _Catiline_, with more than human hate,
    Resolv'd the ruin of the _Roman_ state,
    In secret he pursu'd the hellish plan,
    Nor did his wickedness survive the man.
    His cruel arts are all by others shown,
    And thou the brave assertor of thy own:
    Nay, thy grim sheets thy principles will show,
    When _Charon_ wafts thee to the realms below,
    Where all like thee shall unlamented go."

And also what the writer called,

    "_A_ SLAP _at_ BOTH SIDES."

    "Whilst _Bruin_ and _Pug_ contend for the prize
    Of merit in scandal, would parties be wise,
    And with honest derision contemn the dispute,
    The _Bear_ would not roar, and the _Dog_ would be mute:
    For they equally both their patrons betray,
    No sense of Conviction their reasons convey;
    So neither may hope one convert to gain,
    For the Rhime makes me sick, and the Print gives me pain."[2]

This plate, however, originally contained our artist's own portrait
(see p. 295). To shew the contempt in which he held the "Poetical
Epistle to _Hogarth_",[3] he makes the pug-dog water on it, but in
a manner by no means natural to his species. Perhaps there is the
same error relative to the Monkey in the print of the _Strollers_.
This kind of _evacuation_, however, appears to have been regarded by
_Hogarth_ as a never-failing _joke_. On the palette he exhibits the
_North Britons_, and a begging-box to collect subscriptions for them.
_Designed and engraved by W. Hogarth._

In the first impression of this print three of the upper knots on the
club or ragged staff (viz. 1. 3. 5.) are left white. In the second
impression they are completely shaded; the ruffle on the hand that
clasps the pot of porter is likewise hatched over, and the shoulder of
the animal made rounder. Minute differences occur in the other knots,
&c. The inscription, instead of _Russian_, reads _Modern_ Hercules.

[1] In a letter written to his friend Mr. _Wilkes_, dated _Aug._ 3,
1763, _Churchill_ says: "I take it for granted you have seen _Hogarth's
Print_ against me. Was ever any thing so contemptible? I think he
is fairly _felo de se_--I think not to let him off in that manner,
although I might safely leave him to your NOTES. He has broke into
my pale of private life, and set that example of illiberality which
I wished--of that kind of attack which is ungenerous in the first
instance, but justice in return. I intend an Elegy on him, supposing
him dead; but * * tells me with a kiss, he will be really dead before
it comes out: that I have already killed him, &c. How sweet is
flattery from the woman we love! and how weak is our boasted strength
when opposed to beauty and good sense with good nature!"--In Mr.
_Churchill's_ will is the following passage: "I desire my dear friend,
_John Wilkes_, Esq. to collect and publish my Works, with the Remarks
and Explanations he has prepared, and any others he thinks proper to

[2] In a few days after, the following Advertisement, for a satirical
Print on _Hogarth_, was published:

 _Tara, Tan, Tara! Tara, Tan, Tara!_

 This Day made its appearance at the noted SUMPTER's Political Booth,
 next door to _The Brazen Head_, near _Shoe-Lane, Fleet-street_, which
 began precisely at twelve at noon, a new humourous performance,
 entitled, The BRUISER TRIUMPHANT: or, The Whole Farce of the
 _Leicester-fields_ Pannel Painter. The principal parts by Mr.
 _H[ogarth]_, Mr. _W[ilkes]_, Mr. _C[hurchill]_, &c. &c. &c. Walk in,
 Gentlemen, walk in! No more than 6 _d._ a-piece!

[3] The reader shall judge for himself of this Epistle's "power to

    "Amongst the sons of men, how few are known
    Who dare be just to merit not their own!
    Superior virtue, and superior sense,
    To knaves and fools will always give offence;
    Nay, men of real worth can scarcely bear,
    So nice is Jealousy, a rival there.

    "Be wicked as thou wilt, do all that's base,
    Proclaim thyself the monster of thy race;
    Let Vice and Folly thy Black Soul divide,
    Be proud with meanness, and be mean with pride!
    Deaf to the voice of Faith and Honour, fall
    From side to side, yet be of none at all;
    Spurn all those charities, those sacred ties,
    Which Nature in her bounty, good as wise,
    To work our safety, and ensure her plan,
    Contriv'd to bind, and rivet man to man;
    Lift against Virtue Power's oppressive rod,
    Betray thy Country, and deny thy God;
    And, in one general comprehensive line,
    To group, which volumes scarcely could define,
    Whate'er of Sin and Dulness can be said.
    Join to a _F----'s_ heart a _D----'s_ head.
    Yet mayst thou pass unnotic'd in the throng,
    And, free from Envy, safely sneak along.
    The rigid Saint, by whom no mercy's shewn
    To Saints whose lives are better than his own,
    Shall spare thy crimes; and WIT, who never once
    Forgave a Brother, shall forgive a Dunce."

After this nervous introduction, our satirist proceeds:

    "HOGARTH--I take thee, CANDOUR, at thy word,
    Accept thy proffer'd terms, and will be heard;
    Thee have I heard with virulence declaim,
    Nothing retain'd of Candour but the name;
    By thee have I been charg'd in angry strains
    With that mean falshood which my soul disdains--
    HOGARTH, stand forth--Nay hang not thus aloof--
    Now, CANDOUR, now Thou shalt receive such proof--
    Such damning proof, that henceforth Thou shalt fear
    To tax my wrath, and own my conduct clear--
    HOGARTH stand forth--I dare thee to be tried
    In that great Court, where Conscience must preside;
    At that most solemn bar hold up thy hand;
    Think before whom, on what account you stand---
    Speak, but consider well--from first to last
    Review thy life, weigh every action past--
    Nay, you shall have no reason to complain--
    Take longer time, and view them o'er again--
    Canst Thou remember from thy earliest youth,
    And as thy God must judge Thee, speak the truth,
    A single instance where, _Self_ laid aside,
    And Justice taking place of fear and pride,
    Thou with an equal eye didst GENIUS view,
    And give to Merit what was Merit's due?
    Genius and Merit are a sure offence,
    And thy soul sickens at the name of Sense.
    Is any one so foolish to succeed?
    On ENVY'S altar he is doom'd to bleed.
    HOGARTH, a guilty pleasure in his eyes,
    The place of Executioner supplies.
    See how he glotes, enjoys the sacred feast,
    And proves himself by cruelty a priest.

    "Whilst the weak Artist, to thy whims a slave,
    Would bury all those powers which Nature gave,
    Would suffer blank concealment to obscure
    Those rays, thy Jealousy could not endure;
    To feed thy vanity would rust unknown,
    And to secure thy credit blast his own,
    In HOGARTH he was sure to find a friend;
    He could not fear, and therefore might commend.
    But when his Spirit, rous'd by honest Shame,
    Shook off that Lethargy, and soar'd to Fame,
    When, with the pride of Man, resolv'd and strong,
    He scorn'd those fears which did his Honour wrong,
    And, on himself determin'd to rely,
    Brought forth his labours to the public eye,
    No Friend in Thee, could such a Rebel know;
    He had desert, and HOGARTH was his foe.

    "Souls of a timorous cast, of petty name
    In ENVY'S court, not yet quite dead to shame,
    May some Remorse, some qualms of Conscience feel,
    And suffer Honour to abate their Zeal:
    But the Man, truly and compleatly great,
    Allows no rule of action but his hate;
    Through every bar he bravely breaks his way,
    Passion his Principle, and Parts his prey.
    Mediums in Vice and Virtue speak a mind
    Within the pale of Temperance confin'd;
    The daring Spirit scorns her narrow schemes,
    And, good or bad, is always in extremes.

    "Man's practice duly weigh'd, through every age
    On the same plan hath ENVY form'd her rage.
    'Gainst those whom Fortune hath our rivals made
    In way of Science, and in way of Trade,
    Stung with mean Jealousy she arms her spite,
    First works, then views their ruin with delight.
    Our HOGARTH here a grand improver shines,
    And nobly on the general plan refines;
    He like himself o'erleaps the servile bound;
    Worth is his mark, wherever Worth is found.
    Should Painters only his vast wrath suffice?
    Genius in every walk is Lawful Prize.
    'Tis a gross insult to his o'ergrown state:
    His love to merit is to feel his hate.

    "When WILKES, our Countryman, our common friend,
    Arose, his King, his Country to defend,
    When tools of power he bar'd to public view,
    And from their holes the sneaking cowards drew;
    When Rancour found it far beyond her reach
    To soil his honour, and his truth impeach,
    What could induce Thee, at a time and place,
    Where manly Foes had blush'd to shew their face,
    To make that effort, which must damn thy name,
    And sink Thee deep, deep in thy grave with shame?
    Did Virtue move Thee? no, 'twas Pride, rank Pride,
    And if thou hadst not done it, Thou hadst dy'd.
    MALICE (who, disappointed of her end,
    Whether to work the bane of Foe or Friend,
    Preys on herself, and, driven to the Stake,
    Gives Virtue that revenge she scorns to take)
    Had kill'd Thee, tottering on life's utmost verge,
    Had WILKES and LIBERTY escap'd thy scourge.

    "When that GREAT CHARTER, which our Fathers bought
    With their best blood, was into question brought;
    When, big with ruin, o'er each English head
    Vile Slavery hung suspended by a thread;
    When LIBERTY, all trembling and aghast,
    Fear'd for the future, knowing what was past:
    When every breast was chill'd with deep despair,
    Till Reason pointed out that PRATT was there;
    Lurking, most Ruffian-like, behind a screen,
    So plac'd all things to see, himself unseen,
    VIRTUE, with due contempt, saw HOGARTH stand,
    The murderous pencil in his palsied hand.
    What was the cause of Liberty to him,
    Or what was Honour? Let them sink or swim,
    So he may gratify, without controul,
    The mean resentments of his selfish soul.
    Let Freedom perish, if, to Freedom true,
    In the same ruin WILKES may perish too.

    "With all the symptoms of assur'd decay,
    With age and sickness pinch'd, and worn away,
    Pale quivering lips, lank cheeks, and faultering tongue,
    The spirits out of tune, the nerves unstrung,
    The body shrivel'd up, the dim eyes sunk
    Within their sockets deep, the weak hams shrunk
    The body's weight unable to sustain,
    The stream of life scarce trembling through the vein,
    More than half-kill'd by honest truths, which fell,
    Through thy own fault, from men who wish'd thee well;
    Canst thou, e'en thus, thy thoughts to vengeance give,
    And, dead to all things else, to Malice live?
    Hence, Dotard, to thy closet, shut thee in,
    By deep repentance wash away thy sin,
    From haunts of men to shame and sorrow fly,
    And, on the verge of death, learn how to die.

    "Vain exhortation! wash the Ethiop white,
    Discharge the leopard's spots, turn day to night,
    Controul the course of Nature, bid the deep
    Hush at thy Pygmy voice her waves to sleep,
    Perform things passing strange, yet own thy art
    Too weak to work a change in such a heart.
    _That_ ENVY, which was woven in thy frame
    At first, will to the last remain the same.
    Reason may droop, may die; but Envy's rage
    Improves by time, and gathers strength from age,
    Some, and not few, vain triflers with the pen,
    Unread, unpractis'd in the ways of men,
    Tell us that ENVY, who with giant stride
    Stalks through the vale of life by Virtue's side,
    Retreats when she hath drawn her latest breath,
    And calmly hears her praises after death.
    To such observers HOGARTH gives the lie;
    Worth may be hears'd, but Envy cannot die;
    Within the mansion of his gloomy breast,
    A mansion suited well to such a guest,
    Immortal, unimpair'd, she rears her head,
    And damns alike the living and the dead.

    "Oft have I known Thee, HOGARTH, weak and vain,
    Thyself the idol of thy aukward strain,
    Through the dull measure of a summer's day,
    In phrase most vile, prate long, long hours away,
    Whilst Friends with Friends, all gaping sit, and gaze
    To hear a HOGARTH babble HOGARTH'S praise.
    But if athwart thee Interruption came,
    And mention'd with respect some Ancient's name,
    Some Ancient's name, who in the days of yore
    The crown of Art with greatest honour wore,
    How have I seen thy coward cheek turn pale,
    And blank confusion seize thy mangled tale!
    How hath thy Jealousy to madness grown,
    And deem'd his praise injurious to thy own!
    Then without mercy did thy wrath make way,
    And Arts and Artists all became thy prey;
    Then didst Thou trample on establish'd rules,
    And proudly level'd all the ancient schools;
    Condemn'd those works, with praise through ages grac'd,
    Which you had never seen, or could not taste.
    'But would mankind have true Perfection shewn,
    It must be found in labours of my own.
    I dare to challenge in one single piece,
    Th' united force of ITALY and GREECE.'
    Thy eager hand the curtain then undrew,
    And brought the boasted Master-piece to view.
    Spare thy remarks--say not a single word--
    The Picture seen, why is the Painter heard?
    Call not up Shame and Anger in our cheeks:
    Without a Comment SIGISMUNDA speaks.

    "Poor SIGISMUNDA! what a Fate is thine!
    DRYDEN, the great High-Priest of all the Nine,
    Reviv'd thy name, gave what a Muse could give,
    And in his Numbers bade thy Memory live;
    Gave thee those soft sensations, which might move
    And warm the coldest Anchorite to Love;
    Gave thee that Virtue, which could curb desire,
    Refine and consecrate Love's headstrong fire;
    Gave thee those griefs, which made the Stoic feel,
    And call'd compassion forth from hearts of steel;
    Gave thee that firmness, which our Sex may shame,
    And make Man bow to Woman's juster claim,
    So that our tears, which from compassion flow,
    Seem to debase thy dignity of woe!
    But O, how much unlike! how fall'n! how chang'd!
    How much from Nature and herself estrang'd!
    How totally depriv'd of all the powers
    To shew her feelings, and awaken ours,
    Doth SIGISMUNDA now devoted stand,
    The helpless victim of a Dauber's hand!

    "But why, _my_ HOGARTH, such a progress made,
    So rare a Pattern for the sign-post trade,
    In the full force and whirlwind of thy pride,
    Why was _Heroic_ Painting laid aside?
    Why is It not resum'd? Thy Friends at Court,
    Men all in place and power, crave thy support;
    Be grateful then for once, and, through the field
    Of Politics, thy _Epic_ Pencil wield;
    Maintain the cause, which they, good lack! avow,
    And would maintain too, but they know not how.

    "Through ev'ry _Pannel_ let thy Virtue tell
    How BUTE prevail'd, how PITT and TEMPLE fell!
    How ENGLAND'S sons (whom they conspir'd to bless
    Against our Will, with insolent success)
    Approve their fall, and with addresses run,
    How got, God knows, to hail the SCOTTISH Sun!
    Point out our fame in war, when Vengeance, hurl'd
    From the strong arm of Justice, shook the world;
    Thine, and thy Country's honour to increase,
    Point out the honours of succeeding Peace;
    Our _Moderation_, Christian-like, display,
    Shew, what we got, and what we gave away.
    In Colours, dull and heavy as the tale,
    Let a _State_-Chaos through the whole prevail.

    "But, of events regardless, whilst the Muse,
    Perhaps with too much heat, her theme pursues;
    Whilst her quick Spirits rouze at FREEDOM'S call,
    And every drop of blood is turn'd to gall,
    Whilst a dear Country, and an injur'd Friend,
    Urge my strong anger to the bitterest end,
    Whilst honest trophies to Revenge are rais'd,
    Let not One real Virtue pass unprais'd.
    Justice with equal course bids Satire flow,
    And loves the Virtue of her greatest foe.

    "O! that I here could that rare Virtue mean,
    Which scorns the rule of Envy, Pride and Spleen,
    Which springs not from the labour'd Works of Art,
    But hath its rise from Nature in the heart,
    Which in itself with happiness is crown'd,
    And spreads with joy the blessing all around!
    But truth forbids, and in these simple lays
    Contented with a different kind of Praise,
    Must HOGARTH stand; that Praise which GENIUS gives;
    In Which to latest time the _Artist_ lives,
    But not the _Man_; which, rightly understood,
    May make us great, but cannot make us good,
    That Praise be HOGARTH'S; freely let him wear
    The Wreath which GENIUS wove, and planted there.
    Foe as I am, should Envy tear it down,
    Myself would labour to replace the Crown.

    "In walks of Humour, in that cast of Style,
    Which, probing to the quick, yet makes us smile;
    In Comedy, his nat'ral road to fame,
    Nor let me call it by a meaner name,
    Where a beginning, middle, and an end,
    Are aptly join'd; where parts on parts depend,
    Each made for each, as bodies for their soul,
    So as to form one true and perfect whole,
    Where a plain Story to the eye is told,
    Which we conceive the moment we behold,
    HOGARTH unrival'd stands, and shall engage
    Unrival'd praise to the most distant age.

    "How could'st Thou then to shame perversely run,
    And tread that path which Nature bade Thee shun?
    Why did Ambition overleap her rules,
    And thy vast parts become the Sport of Fools?
    By different methods different Men excell,
    But where is He who can do all things well?
    Humour thy Province, for some monstrous crime
    Pride struck Thee with the frenzy of _Sublime_.
    But, when the work was finish'd, could thy mind
    So partial be, and to herself so blind,
    What with Contempt All view'd, to view with awe,
    Nor see those faults which every Blockhead saw?
    Blush, Thou vain Man, and if desire of Fame,
    Founded on real Art, thy thoughts inflame,
    To quick destruction SIGISMUNDA give,
    And let her memory die, that thine may live.

    "But should fond Candour, for her Mercy's sake,
    With pity view, and pardon this mistake;
    Or should Oblivion, to thy wish most kind,
    Wipe off that stain, nor leave one trace behind;
    Of ARTS _despis'd_, of ARTISTS by thy frown
    _Aw'd from just hopes_, of _rising worth kept down_,
    Of all thy meanness through this mortal race,
    Canst Thou the living memory erase?
    Or shall not Vengeance follow to the grave,
    And give back just that measure which You gave?
    With so much merit, and so much success,
    With so much power to curse, so much to bless,
    Would He have been Man's friend, instead of foe,
    HOGARTH had been a little God below.
    Why then, like savage Giants, fam'd of old,
    Of whom in Scripture Story we are told,
    Dost Thou in cruelty that strength employ,
    Which Nature meant to save, not to destroy?
    Why dost Thou, all in horrid pomp array'd,
    Sit grinning o'er the ruins Thou hast made?
    Most rank ill-nature must applaud thy art;
    But even Candour must condemn thy heart.

    "For Me, who, warm and zealous for my Friend,
    In spite of railing thousands, will commend,
    And, no less warm and zealous 'gainst my foes,
    Spite of commending thousands, will oppose,
    I dare thy worst, with scorn behold thy rage,
    But with an eye of Pity view thy Age;
    Thy feeble Age, in which, as in a glass,
    We see how men to dissolution pass.
    Thou _wretched Being_, whom, on Reason's plan,
    So chang'd, so lost, I cannot call a Man,
    What could persuade Thee, at this time of life,
    To launch afresh into the Sea of Strife?
    Better for Thee, scarce crawling on the earth,
    Almost as much a child as at thy birth,
    To have resign'd in peace thy parting breath,
    And sunk unnotic'd in the arms of Death.
    Why would thy grey, grey hairs, resentment brave,
    Thus to go down with sorrow to the grave?
    Now, by my Soul, it makes me blush to know
    My Spirits could descend to such a foe.
    Whatever cause the vengeance might provoke,
    It seems rank Cowardice to give the stroke.

    "Sure 'tis a curse which angry Fates impose,
    To fortify man's arrogance, that those,
    Who're fashion'd of some better sort of clay,
    Much sooner than the common herd decay.
    What bitter pangs must humbled GENIUS feel!
    In their last hours, to view a SWIFT and STEELE!
    How much ill-boding horrors fill her breast
    When She beholds Men, mark'd above the rest
    For qualities most dear, plung'd from that height,
    And sunk, deep sunk, in second Childhood's night!
    Are Men, indeed, such things, and are the best
    More subject to this evil than the rest,
    To drivel out whole years of Ideot Breath,
    And sit the Monuments of living Death?
    O, galling circumstance to human pride!
    Abasing Thought, but not to be denied!
    With curious Art the Brain, too finely wrought;
    Preys on herself, and is destroy'd by Thought.
    Constant Attention wears the active mind,
    Blots out her powers, and leaves a blank behind.
    But let not Youth, to insolence allied,
    In heat of blood, in full career of pride,
    Possess'd of GENIUS, with unhallow'd rage,
    Mock the infirmities of reverend age.
    The greatest GENIUS to this Fate may bow,
    REYNOLDS, in time, may be like HOGARTH now."

3. The same; but on the palette is introduced the political print
described in p. 91. In the second impressions of the plate thus
altered,[1] we find the letters N B added on the club, as well as the
epithet _infamous_ prefixed to the word _Fallacy_. The shadows on the
political print are likewise changed, and deepened; and the words
"Dragon of _Wantley_" are added at the end of "I warrant ye."

[1] The first was price 1_s._; the second price 1_s._ 6_d._

4. Print Of the Weighing-house to "_Clubbe's_ Physiognomy;" a humourous
pamphlet in quarto, published in 1763, by Mr. _Clubbe_[1] (editor
of the History and Antiquities of _Wheatfield_ in _Suffolk_), and
dedicated to _Hogarth. W. Hogarth del. L. Sullivan sculp._ It was
likewise printed in a collection of this author's works, published at
_Ipswich_, 2 vols. 12mo. no date, with a new engraving of the plate.
There is also a third engraving of the same design, perhaps executed in
the country, for some octavo edition of Mr. _Clubbe's_ pamphlet.

[1] I had said in my first edition, that Mr. _Clubbe_ was drowned in
the moat that surrounded his house at _Wheatfield_; but readily retract
that assertion, having been since informed, that he died a natural
death, of old age and infirmities.

5. _Frontispiece to a pamphlet_ written by Dr. _Gregory Sharpe_, Master
of _The Temple_, against the _Hutchinsonians, but never published._
"_It represents a witch sitting on the moon, and watering on a
mountain, whence issue mice, who are devouring Sir Isaac Newton's
Optics; one mouse lies dead on Hutchinson's works, probably to imply
being choaked. The conundrum signifies, Front-is-piss._" The few
impressions from this plate that have strayed into the hands of
dealers, were originally presents from Dr. _Sharpe_ to his friends.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. FINIS, or the Tail-piece. The Bathos, or manner of sinking in
sublime painting, inscribed to the dealers in dark pictures.[1] TIME
breathing out his _last_, a ruinous tower, and many other allegorical
devices; among the rest, he has introduced his own "Times."[2]

[1] On this print, which he called _Finis_, and represents the
destruction of all things, the following epigram, ascribed to _Charles
Churchill_ the poet, and said to have been written by him when at Mr.
_Dell's_, in _Kew-foot-lane, April_ 18, 1764, is printed from _The
Muse's Mirrour_, vol. I. p. 8.

    On _Hogarth's_ print of the _Bathos_, or the Art of Sinking in

    All must old _Hogarth's_ gratitude declare,
    Since he has nam'd old _Chaos_ for his heir;
    And while his works hang round that _Anarch's_ throne,
    The connoisseurs will take them for his own.

Mr. _Walpole's_ Anecdotes, 8vo. vol, IV. p. 191.

[2] A few months before this ingenious artist was seized with the
malady which deprived society of one of its greatest ornaments,
he proposed to his matchless pencil the work he has intituled a
_tail-piece_; the first idea of which is said to have been started
in company, while the convivial glass was circulating round his own
table. "My next undertaking," says _Hogarth_, "shall be the _End of
all Things_." "If that is the case," replied one of his friends,
"your _business will be finished_; for there will be _an end of the
painter_." "There _will_ so," answered _Hogarth_, sighing heavily;
"and, therefore, the sooner my _work is done_, the better." Accordingly
he began the next day, and continued his design with a diligence which
seemed to indicate an apprehension (as the report goes) that he should
not live till he had completed it. This, however, he did in the most
ingenious manner, by grouping every thing which could denote the _end
of all things_--a broken bottle--an old broom worn to the stump--the
butt-end of an old musket--a cracked bell--bow unstrung--a crown
tumbled in pieces--towers in ruins--the _sign-post_ of a tavern, called
_The World's End_, tumbling--the moon in her wane--the map of the globe
burning--a gibbet falling, the body gone, and the chain which held it
dropping down--_Phœbus_ and his horses dead in the clouds--a vessel
wrecked--Time, with his hour-glass and scythe broken; a tobacco-pipe in
his mouth, the last whiff of smoke going out--a play-book opened, with
_Exeunt omnes_ stamped in the corner--an empty purse--and a statute
of bankruptcy taken out against Nature.--"So far, so good," cried
_Hogarth_; "nothing remains but this,"--taking his pencil in a sort of
prophetic fury, and dashing off the similitude of a _painter's pallet
broken_--"_Finis_," exclaimed _Hogarth_, "_the deed is done--all is
over._"--It is remarkable, that he died in about a month after this
tail-piece. It is also well known he never again took the pencil in

2. The Bench.[1] The same described under the year 1758; but with
additions. The plate thus varied occurs in two states. In the first
of these we have only "This plate could have been better explained,
had the author lived a week longer." In the second impression of it we
are told, that "The unfinished group of heads, in the upper part of
this print, was added by the author in _October_ 1764; and was intended
as a farther illustration of what is here said concerning _Character,
Caracatura,_ and _Outrè_. He worked upon it a day before his death,
which happened the 26th of that month." This plate exhibits the inside
of the _Common Pleas_, with portraits of the following judges then
belonging to that court:

  Hon. _Wm.    Sir _Edw.    Sir _John       Hon. Mr. Justice
  Noel_.       Clive_.      Willes_, Ld.   (now Earl)
                            Ch. Justice.   _Bathurst_.

Mr. _Edwards's_ picture on this subject (see p. 367.) differs from both
the plates.

[1] A term peculiarly appropriated to the Court of _Common Pleas_.

3. Hell-Gate, Satan, Sin, and Death. _Milton's Paradise Lost._ Book
II. A large print. Engraved by _C. Townley_, and intended to have
been published _April_ 15, 1767. It was dedicated to the late Mr.
_Garrick_, who possessed the original (unfinished) picture painted by
_Hogarth_. The plate was destroyed, and only a few of the prints are
now remaining. The original is in the possession of Mrs. _Garrick_.

It is impossible to conclude my account of it without observing,
that the united labours of _Teniers, Heemskirk,_ and _Callot,_ could
not have furnished a more absolute burlesque of this noble subject,
than _Hogarth_, who went seriously to work on it, has here produced.
"How art thou fallen, O _Lucifer_, thou son of the Morning!" will
be the exclamation of every observer, on seeing this unaccountable
performance, in which _Satan_ and _Death_ have lost their terrors, and
_Sin_ herself is divested of all the powers of temptation.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. The Good Samaritan; by _Ravenet_ and _Delatre_.

In _The Grub-Street Journal_ for _July_ 14, 1737, appeared the
following paragraph: "Yesterday the scaffolding was taken down
from before the picture of _The Good Samaritan_,[1] painted by Mr.
_Hogarth_, on the Stair Case in _St. Bartholomew's_ Hospital, which is
esteemed a very curious piece." _Hogarth_ paid his friend _Lambert_
for painting the landscape in this picture, and afterwards cleaned the
whole at his own expence. To the imaginary merits of his coadjutor,
the Analysis, p. 26, bears the following testimony: "The sky always
gradates one way or other, and the rising or setting sun exhibits it
in great perfection; the imitating of which was _Claud de Lorain's_
peculiar excellence, and is now Mr. _Lambert's_."

[1] Of this picture Mr. _S. Ireland_ has a sketch in oil.

2. _The Pool of Bethesda_; large, by _Ravenet_ and _Picot_. A
small one, by _Ravenet_, has been mentioned under 1748. Both very
indifferent. Mr. _Walpole_ justly observes, that "the burlesque turn of
our artist's mind mixed itself with his most serious compositions; and
that, in _The Pool of Bethesda_, a servant of a rich ulcerated lady,
beats back a poor man [perhaps woman] who sought the same celestial
remedy." To this remark I may add, that the figure of the priest,
in _The Good Samaritan_, is supremely comic, and rather resembles
some purse-proud burgomaster, than the character it was designed to

On the top of the staircase at St. _Bartholomew's_ Hospital, and just
under the cornice, is the following inscription, "The historical
paintings of this staircase were painted and given by Mr. _William
Hogarth_, and the ornamental paintings at his expence, A. D. 1736."
Both pictures, which appear of an oblong square in the engravings,
in the originals are surrounded with scroll-work which cuts off the
corners of them, &c. All these ornaments, together with compartments
carved at the bottom, were the work of Mr. _Richards_. Mr. _Boydell_
had the latter engraved on separate plates, appended to those above
them, on which sufficient space had not been left.--_Hogarth_ requested
that these pictures might never be varnished. They appear therefore to
disadvantage, the decorations about them having, within these few years
past, been highly glazed. _The Pool of Bethesda_ has suffered much from
the sun; and _The Good Samaritan_, when lately cleaned, was pressed so
hard against the straining frame, that several creases have been made
in the canvas.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. The Politician [Mr. _Tibson_, lately a laceman in _The Strand_],
from a sketch in oil, by _Hogarth_. Etched by _J. K. Sherwin_.
Published _Oct._ 31, 1775.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Portrait of _Solfull_,[1] a maker of punches for engravers. _W.
Hogarth del. S. J. fecit aqua fort._ Mr. _S. Ireland_ has the original
sketch. This portrait is mentioned by Mr. _Walpole_ under the title
of "_Two small heads of men in profile in one plate, etched by Mr.
Ireland, from a sketch in his own collection._"

[1] This was etched a second time, Mr. _Ireland_ having accidentally
lost his first plate.

2. _Thomas Pellet_, M. D. President of the College of Physicians. _W.
Hogarth pinxit. C. Hall sculpsit._

3. _William Bullock_ the Comedian. _W. Hogarth pinxit. C. Hall
sculpsit._ It is by no means certain that these two last portraits were
painted by _Hogarth_.

4. North and South of _Great Britain. W. Hogarth delin. F. B._ [i.
e. _Francis Bartolozzi_] _sculp._ This little print represents a
_Scotchman_ scrubbing against a sign-post; no sign on it; with
_Edenborough_ castle in the back ground:--and an _Englishman_ reposing
on a post, with a pot of _London_ porter in his hand; the sign of an
Ox, with _roast and boild_, by way of inscription, over his head; and
a view of St. _Paul's_ at a distance. I do not believe it was designed
by our artist, whose satire was usually of a more exalted kind: neither
are the figures at all in his manner.

A sketch imputed to _Hogarth_, and engraved by this matchless
_Italian_, however, carries a double temptation with it, as it unites
with the works of both artists, which are so much the present objects
of pursuit. No man can entertain too high an idea of _Barlolozzi's_
talents; but yet, being sometimes apt to sacrifice similitude to grace,

    _Emollit mores, nec finit esset feros._

He therefore is the last person from whom justice to the strong marked
characters of _Hogarth_ could be expected.

Since the above observations were communicated, a new impression of
this plate has appeared with the name of _Sandby_ annexed to it.
The history of so extraordinary a change deserves notoriety. The
publisher was at first assured that the sketch, from which he designed
the engraving, was not the production of _Hogarth_. He, however, on
his own judgement, pretended to affirm the contrary, being at least
convinced that, during the late rage for collecting the works of our
artist, no name was so likely as his to draw in purchasers. Having
disposed of as many copies as he could in consequence of hanging out
such false colours, he now sets sail again under those of _Sandby_,
and would probably make a third voyage with Mr. _Bunbury's_ flag at
his mast head, were not our second _Hogarth_ at hand, to detect the
imposture.--The price of this etching, originally 2 _s._ 6 _d._ is now
sold at 1 _s._ though the proprietor has incurred the fresh expence of
decorating it in _aqua tinta_. Should it henceforward fail to meet with
buyers, I shall not be ready to exclaim, with _Ovid_,

    _Flebam successu posse carere dolo._

The three last published by _John Thane, Rupert-street, Haymarket_.

5. First sketch of arms for _The Foundling Hospital. Wm.
Hogarth inv._ 1747. Over the Crest and Supporters is written--A
Lamb--Nature--_Britannia_. In the shield is a naked Infant: the Motto

This is an accurate fac simile from a drawing with a pen and ink
by _Hogarth_. Published as the Act directs _July_ 31, 1781, by _R.
Livesay_, at Mrs. _Hogarth's, Leicester Fields_. The original is in the
collection of the Earl of _Exeter_.

6. Two Figures, &c. _Hogarth inv. F. B._ [i. e. _Francis Bartolozzi_]
_sculp._ These figures were designed for Lord _Melcombe_ and Lord
_Winchelsea_. From a drawing with a pen and ink by _Hogarth_.
Published as the Act directs, 31 _July_, 1781, by _R. Livesay_ at
Mrs. _Hogarth's, Leicester-fields_. I am informed, however, that this
drawing was certainly the work of Lord _Townshend_. The original is in
the collection of the Earl of _Exeter_.

7. A mezzotinto portrait of _Hogarth_ with his hat on, in a large oval,
"from an original begun by _Wheltdon_, and finished by himself, late
in the possession of the Rev. Mr. _Townley. Charles Townley fec._" The
family of _Hogarth_ affect to know nothing of this painting; and say,
if there is such a thing, it was only slightly touched over by him.
It must be confessed that it bears little, if any, resemblance to the
representations of our artist edited by himself. The original is now
in the possession of Mr. _James Townley_, as has been mentioned in p.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. The Staymaker.

2. Debates on Palmistry.

The humour in the first of the two preceding prints is not very strong,
and in the second it is scarce intelligible. The Male _Staymaker_
seems to be taking professional liberties with a female in the very
room where her husband sits, who is playing with one of his children
presented to him by a nurse, perhaps with a view to call off his
attention from what is going forward. The hag shews her pretended
love for the infant, by kissing its posteriors. A maid-servant holds
a looking-glass for the lady, and peeps significantly at the operator
from behind it. A boy with a cockade on, and a little sword by his
side, appears to observe the familiarities already mentioned, and is
strutting up fiercely towards the Staymaker, while a girl is spilling
some liquor in his hat.

The figures employed in the study of _Palmistry_ seem to be designed
for Physicians and Surgeons of an Hospital, who are debating on
the most commodious method of receiving a fee, unattentive to the
complaints of a lame female who solicits assistance. A spectre,
resembling the _Royal Dane_, comes out behind, perhaps to intimate
that physick and poison will occasionally produce similar effects. A
glass case, containing skeletons, is open; a crocodile hangs overhead;
and an owl, emblematic of this sapient consistory, is perched on an
high stand. I suspect these two to have been discarded sketches--the
first of them too barren in its subject to deserve finishing, and the
second a repented effort of hasty spleen against the officers of _St.
Bartholomew's_, who might not have treated some recommendation of a
patient from our artist with all the respect and attention to which he
thought it was entitled. But this is mere supposition.

3. Portrait of _Henry Fox_ Lord _Holland_.

4. Portrait of _James Caulfield_ Earl of _Charlemont_.

The above four articles are all etched by _S. Haynes_, pupil to the
late Mr. _Mortimer_, from original drawings in the possession of Mr.
_S. Ireland_.

The six prints which follow, were published by subscription by
Mrs. _Hogarth_ in _April_ 1782; of these No. 5. was engraved by
_Bartolozzi_, and the rest by _R. Livesay_.

5. The Shrimp Girl, a head, from an original sketch in oil, in the
possession of Mrs. _Hogarth_.

This plate, which is executed in the dotted manner so much at present
in fashion, should have been etched or engraved like those excellent
performances by _Bartolozzi_ after the drawings of _Guercino_. Spirit,
rather than delicacy, is the characteristic of our artist's _Shrimp

6. 7. Portraits of _Gabriel Hunt_ and _Benjamin Read_, in _aqua tinta_,
from the original drawings in the possession of the late Mr. _Forrest_.
The drawing of Mr. _Hunt_ was taken in 1733, a period when, from the
number of street-robberies, it was usual to go armed. _Hunt's_ couteau
is stuck in one of his button-holes.

The figure of _Ben Read_ was taken in 1757. Coming one night to the
club after having taken a long journey, he fell asleep there. _Hogarth_
had got on his roquelaure, and was about to leave the room; but, struck
with the drollery of his friend's appearance, he exclaimed, "Heavens!
what a character!" and, calling for pen and ink, took the drawing
immediately, without sitting down.

To be recorded only as votaries of the bottle and pipe, is no very
flattering mark of distinction to these members of our artist's club.
There is scarce a meaner avenue to the Temple of Fame.

8. Three plates, from the original sketches of _Hogarth_, designed
for the epitaph and monument of _George Taylor_. The drawings are the
property of Mr. _Morrison_.

_George Taylor_ was a famous boxer, who died _February_ 21, 1750. A
writer already quoted speaks of him in these terms: "_George Taylor_,
known by the name of _George the Barber_, sprang up surprisingly.
He has beat all the chief boxers but _Broughton_. He, I think,
injudiciously fought him one of the first, and was obliged very soon
to give out. Doubtless it was a wrong step in him to commence a
boxer by fighting the standing champion: for _George_ was not then
twenty, and _Broughton_ was in the zenith of his age and art. Since
that he has greatly distinguished himself with others; but has never
engaged _Broughton_ more. He is a strong able boxer, who, with a skill
extraordinary, aided by his knowledge of the small and back swords,
and a remarkable judgement in the cross-buttock fall, may contest with
any. But, please or displease, I am resolved to be ingenuous in my
characters. Therefore I am of opinion, that he is not overstocked with
that necessary ingredient of a boxer, called a _bottom_; and am apt to
suspect that blows of equal strength with his too much affect him and
disconcert his conduct." _Godfrey on the Science of Defence_, p. 61.

On _Taylor's_ tombstone in _Deptford_ church-yard is the following

    Farewell ye honours of my brow!
      Victorious wreaths farewell!
    One trip from Death has laid me low,
      By whom such numbers fell.
    Yet bravely I'll dispute the prize,
      Nor yield, though out of breath:
    'Tis but a fall--I yet shall rise,
      And conquer--even DEATH.

The idea, however, is all that can merit praise in these rough outlines
by _Hogarth_. Some graver critics, indeed, may think our artist has
treated the most solemn of all events with too great a degree of levity.

9. Nine prints of _Hogarth's_ Tour from drawings by _Hogarth_, &c.
accompanied with nine pages of letter press. The frontispiece of this
work (Mr. _Somebody_) was designed by _Hogarth_, as emblematical of
their journey, _viz._ that it was a short Tour by land and water,
backwards and forwards, without head or tail. The 9th is the tail-piece
(Mr. _Nobody_) of the same whimsical nature with the first; the whole
being intended as a burlesque on historical writers recording a series
of insignificant events intirely uninteresting to the reader. "Some
few copies of the Tour," says Mr. _Walpole_,[1] "were printed by Mr.
_Nichols_ in the preceding year. It was a party of pleasure down the
river into _Kent_, undertaken by Mr. _Hogarth_, Mr. _Scott_, and three
of their friends, in which they intended to have more humour than they
accomplished, as is commonly the case in such meditated attempts. The
Tour was described in verse by one of the company, and the drawings
executed by the painters, but with little merit, except the views taken
by Mr. _Scott_."

I have transcribed this paragraph lest the readers of the truly
valuable work whence it is taken should imagine the Tour printed by
_J. N._ in 1781, was the same with that published by Mr. _Livesay_ in
1782. The former was the production of the ingenious Mr. _Gostling_ of
_Canterbury_; the latter was written by one of the company, and, with
the omission of a single glaring indelicacy, and many false spellings,
has been faithfully edited by Mr. _Livesay_.

[1] Vol. IV. 8vo. p. 192.

10. _Hogarth's_ Crest, exhibiting the Line of Beauty. _Cyprus_ and
_Variety_ subjoined by way of mottoes; but my readers will anticipate
me when I observe that the universe contains no place in which
_Hogarth_ had so little interest as in the _Cyprian_ isle, where
_Venus_ was attended by the Graces. _Hogarth's_ original sketch, which
he delivered to Mr. _Catton_ the coach-painter for the purpose of
having it transferred on his carriage, is now in the possession of Mr.

11. The card of invitation mentioned in p. 63. is introduced in the
title-page of the present publication. It is engraved by _J. Cary_,
a young artist, whose abilities, more particularly in the line of
map-engraving, will soon raise him into notice.

12. An Old Man's Head with a band. In the dotted stile. Published by

       *       *       *       *       *


1. Orator _Henley_ Christening a Child. Etched by _Saml Ireland_
from an original sketch in oil--in his possession--by _Hogarth_.--To
_Francis Grose_, Esq; F. A. S. an encourager and promoter of the arts,
this etching, from his favourite _Hogarth_, is inscribed by his obliged
friend and servant, SAML IRELAND.

2. A Landscape. Etch'd by _Saml Ireland_, from an original picture
in his possession, said to be the only landscape ever painted by
_Hogarth_.--To the Right Honourable the Earl of _Exeter_, an admirer of
_Hogarth_, and encourager of the arts, this etching is inscribed by his
Lordship's most obliged and obedient servant. S. IRELAND.

The very considerable degree of skill and fidelity, displayed in
the execution of these two plates, entitles the gentleman who
etched them to the warmest thanks of every collector of the works of
_Hogarth_.--May a hope be added, that he will favour us with yet other
unpublished designs of the same master?

       *       *       *       *       *

PRINTS _of uncertain Date_.

Before Mr. _Walpole's_ enumeration of the following shop-bills, coats
of arms, &c. made its appearance, perhaps few of them were known to our
collectors. Concerning the genuineness of some of these unimportant
engravings, no doubt can be entertained; but whence is it inferred that
_all_ of them were his productions? Do we receive them merely on the
faith of Mr. _Pond_? or are they imputed to our artist for any other
reason, or on the strength of any other testimony? I am assured, by a
gentleman who possesses the chief of them, and is well acquainted with
_Hogarth's_ manner, that from mere external evidence several of these
could not have been authenticated.

It is natural, however, to suppose that most of them (if _Hogarth's_)
were the fruits of his apprenticeship.[1] As such, therefore, they
should be placed at the beginning of every collection.

[1] Let it be remembered likewise, that being bound apprentice to the
single branch of engraving arms and cyphers, the majority of his works,
whether on base metal or silver, must have been long since melted down.
During the minority of _Hogarth_, the forms in which plate was made,
could contribute little to its chance of preservation. Pot-bellied
tankards, and salvers scalloped like old-fashioned minced-pies, were
the highest efforts of that period.

       *       *       *       *       *

1. People in a shop under the King's arms: _Mary_ and _Ann Hogarth_.
"_A shop-bill_" for his two sisters, who for many years kept a
linen-draper's, or rather what is called a slop-shop.

                       _Mary_ and _Ann Hogarth_.

            from the Old Frock-shop near the corner of _The
         Long Walk_, facing _The Cloysters_, Removed to ye
       _Kings Arms_ joyning to ye _Little Britain-gate_, near
          _Long Walk_. Sells ye best and most Fashionable
            Ready Made Frocks, sutes of Fustian, Ticken and
          Holland, stript Dimmity and Flañel Wastcoats, blue
            and canvas Frocks, and bluecoat Boys Drars.

          Likewise Fustians, Tickens, Hollands, white stript
          Dĩ̃mitys, white and stript Flañels in ye piece.

             By wholesale or Retale, at Reasonable Rates.

2. His own cypher, with his name under it at length; "_a plate he used
for his books_." I have reason to think it was neither designed nor
engraved by _Hogarth_.

3. A _Turk's_ head. "_A shop bill_," for _John Barker_, goldsmith, at
the _Morocco_ Ambassador's head in _Lombard-Street_.--A copy of this
has been made.

4. A shop-bill, with emblems of Trade. Grand Duke of _Tuscany's_ arms
at the top; those of _Florence_ within the plate. At the four corners,
views of _Naples, Venice, Genoa,_ and _Leghorne_.

                           At Mrs. _Holt's,
                          Italian_ Warehouse,

          at the two Olive Posts in ye broad part of _The
        Strand_ almost opposite to _Exeter Change_ are sold all
      Sorts of _Italian_ Silks, as Lustrings, Sattins, Padesois,
          Velvets, Damasks, &c. Fans, Legorne Hats, Flowers,
          Lute and Violin Strings, Books of Essences, Venice
            Treacle, Balsomes, &c. And in a Back Warehouse
        all Sorts of _Italian_ Wines, _Florence_ Cordials, Oyl,
     Olives, Anchovies, Capers, Vermicelli, _Bolognia_ Sausidges,
                 _Parmesan_ Cheeses, _Naple_ Soap, &c.

5. A large angel, holding a palm in his left hand. "_A shop-bill_" for

                            _Ellis Gamble_
              at the _Golden-Angel_ in _Cranbourn-street,
                    Makes Buys and Sells all Sorts
                      of Plate, Rings and Jewels

                            _Ellis Gamble_
                      a l'Enseigne de l'Ange d'Or
              dans _Cranbourn-Street, Leicester-Fields_.
                             Fait, Achete,
                  & vend toutes sortes d'Argenterie,
                         Bagues & Bijouxs, &c.

6. A smaller angel. This is a contracted copy from the preceding, was
another shop-bill for our Artist's Master, and has the same inscription
as that already given.

7. Another small angel "almost the same as the preceding," in the
collection of Mr. _Walpole_.

8. A large oval coat of arms, with terms of the four seasons.

9. A coat of arms, with two slaves and trophies. Plate for books.

10. Another coat of arms, and two boys as terms.

11. A foreign coat of arms; supporters a savage and an angel. Ditto.

12. Lord _Aylmer's_ coat of arms.

13. Two ditto of the Duchess of _Kendal_; one of them, an impression
from a silver tea table.

14. The Earl of _Radnor's_ arms, from a silver cup and cover.

15. A grifon, with a flag. A crest.

16. _Minerva_, sitting and holding the arms of _Holland_, four _Cupids_
round her. "_Done for the books of_ John Holland, _herald-painter._"

Of this there are two plates. The _Fleurs de Lys_ in the one are more
numerous and crowded than in the other.

17. A ticket for a burial.

For the same purpose our artist's contemporary _Coypel_ likewise
engraved a plate, which is still in use.

18. Two small for _Milton. W. Hogarth inv. & sculp._

It is so singular, that only plates referring to the first and third
books of _Paradise Lost_ should be discovered with our artist's name
subscribed to them, that I almost suspect they were not executed for
any edition of that work, but rather for some oratorio or operatical
performance founded thereon, though neither performed nor printed. An
example of two prints by _Hogarth_ to a single dramatic piece, we have
already met with in _Perseus and Andromeda_.

If the first of the present designs was made for the first book of
_Paradise Lost_, one might almost swear that _Hogarth_ had never read
it, or he could not have fallen into the strange absurdities and
incoherences that his engraving displays. We have on one side a Dæmon
exalted in a kind of pulpit, at the foot of which another infernal
spirit lies bound in chains, while a cannon is pointed at his head.
At a distance, in the centre of an arcade adorned with statues, is a
throne with a personage seated on it. Over his head are little beings
supporting an emblem of eternity. Stars, &c. appear above them.
Whether this dignified character was designed for "a spirit of health,
or goblin damn'd," it would be difficult from his figure and attributes
to determine. Perhaps several works of fancy might be named, with which
the present representation would as naturally connect as with the first
book of _Milton's_ Poem.

The following plate exhibits two celestial characters of equal age.
They sit aloft in the clouds, and listen to a concert of angels playing
on various instruments, and, among the rest, on a clumsy organ. A ray
of light darts down on a distant orb, designed, I suppose, for the
new-created world, towards which the figure of a little being, scarce
bigger than a bird, though meant for _Satan_, is seen directing its

A bookseller of common sagacity would have been justified in rejecting
these designs, if prepared for _Milton_. Indeed, had I not been
taught by Mr. _Walpole's_ catalogue that such was their destination,
I should not hastily have conjectured that the former of them had the
least reference to the Poet's _Pandæmonium_. Let it be remembered,
however, that these must have been among the earliest of _Hogarth's_
performances, and, like his prints for _Don Quixote_, were in all
probability thrown aside, as unsuited to the purpose for which they
were engraved. I have been told, indeed, that a couple of plates,
by our artist, to the comedy of _The Spanish Friar_, are still
existing.[2] If _Hogarth_, therefore, was once employed in preparing
cuts to the plays of _Dryden_, the designs already mentioned might have
been intended for two different scenes in _The State of Innocence, or
the Fall of Man_.

[1] In justice, however, to one of these designs, I transcribe part of
a letter that appeared in _The Gentleman's Magazine_ for _March_ 1782.

 "_Twickenham, March_ 12.


 "Throughout Mr. _Nichols's_ excellent but unequal account of
 _Hogarth_ and his works, there is no decision I am so much inclined
 to controvert, as that respecting the first of the two plates to
 _Milton_. Perhaps the critic had only seen some imperfect copy of the
 _Pandæmonium_, or formed his idea of it on the vague description of
 those who who had considered it with less attention than it really
 deserves. In my opinion, our artist's arrangement of the infernal
 senate affords a happy instance of his power to exhibit scenes of
 picturesque sublimity. The ample space within the arcade, containing
 myriads of subordinate spirits; the vault above, illuminated by
 supernatural fires; the magnificence and elevation of _Satan's_
 throne; his superior stature, and the characteristic symbols over the
 seats of his peers; are circumstances entitled to a more flattering
 reception than they have met with. That this print has likewise
 absurdities, I am ready to allow: yet a _Voltaire_ might ask whether
 most of them are not inseparable from its subject. I wish, for
 the sake of those who acknowledge the genius of _Hogarth_ only in
 familiar combinations, that the plate in question were less rare.
 Our connoisseurs in general might then decide on its merits. The
 only known impression of it, as well as of its companion, is in the
 collection of Mr. _Walpole_,[A] who once indulged me with a sight of
 them both.

 "I am content, however, that the second of these plates should be
 abandoned to the austerities of criticism. The architecture in the
 skies is every way unsuitable to its place. The characters of the
 Almighty and our Redeemer have little, if any, discrimination of
 attributes or years. They appear swinging on a festoon composed of
 tiny cherubs, clustered together like a swarm of bees. The Father
 rests his arm on one of these childish satellites; and the Son holds
 another by the wing, like _Domitian_ catching a fly. Beneath, is a
 concert of angels, who perform on different instruments, and among
 others (as Mr. _Nichols's_ book expresses it) on a clumsy organ.
 _Lucifer_, approaching the new-created world, appears but as an
 insect, flying towards an apple. This part of _Hogarth's_ subject
 is beyond the compass of any design on a contracted scale. _Satan_
 might be delineated in the act of alighting on a promontory, a part
 of the earth; but when its complete orb is exhibited on a slip of
 paper measuring about six inches by four, the enterprizing fiend must
 be reduced to very insignificant dimensions. Such a circumstance may
 therefore succeed in a poet's comprehensive description, but will fail
 on any plate designed for the ornament of a little volume.

 "Let me add, that these two are the neatest and most finished of all
 the engravings by _Hogarth_. The second might have been mistaken for
 one of the smaller works of _Picart_. Perhaps the high price demanded
 for the plates, was the reason why a series of them was not continued
 through the other books of _Paradise Lost_."

[A] These two plates are also in the collection of Mr. _Steevens_.

[2] These are in the collection of the Earl of _Exeter_, and are said
to have the name of our artist fallaciously affixed to them. I speak,
however, with uncertainty.

19. A coat of arms from a large silver tea table. Under these arms are
a shepherd and his flock, exactly the same as those on the tankard,
N° 25. A shepherd and shepherdess also are the supporters. This has
been ascribed to _Hogarth_, but I suspect it to be a copy, and am told
indeed that it was engraved by _Pelitreau_.

20. Impression from a coat of arms engraved on a silver dish made
by _Delemery_; purchased, at some distance of time, by Sir _Gregory
Page_, Bart. who erased the original arms from the escutcheon, and had
his own put in. The dish was afterwards bought at _Christie's_ at a
sale of Sir _Gregory's_ plate; and when 25 impressions only had been
taken from it, was cut to pieces by _R. Morrison_, 1781. I wish some
of these discoveries of _Hogarth's_ engravings had been made by people
who had no immediate view to their own profit, and the sale of their
acquisitions. Too many of our collectors are become dealers.

21. Small oval print for the Rape of the Lock. This was not designed
for any edition of it. A few impressions only were taken off from the
lid of a snuff-box engraved by Mr. _Hogarth_, as it is believed, for
some gentleman characterized by _Pope_ in his celebrated mock-heroic
poem. It is one of the poorest of _Hogarth's_ performances.

22. An emblematic print, representing Agriculture and Arts. "_It seems
to be a ticket for some society._"

23. A ticket for the benefit of _Milward_ the tragedian. A scene
in _The Beggar's Opera_; "Pitt 3 _s._" inserted with a pen between
"Theatre" and "Royal," in a scroll at the bottom of it. I have seen
an impression of it, under which is engraved, "_Lincolns-Inn Fields,
Tuesday, Aprill_ 23. _A Bold Stroke for a Wife_, with Entertainments,
for the benefit of Mr. _Milward_." This careless, but spirited little
engraving, has more of _Hogarth's_ manner than several other more
laboured pieces, which of late have been imputed to him.--Let the
connoisseur judge.

This ticket (as is already observed) must have been issued before 1733,
when the Theatre in _Lincolns-Inn-Fields_ was shut up, and all the
actors, _Milward_ among the rest, removed to _Covent Garden_.

24. The Mystery of Masonry brought to Light by the _Gormagons_.

  A. _Chin Quaw-Kypo'_         _Done from ye Original._
  1st _Emperor of China_.      _Painted at Pekin by Matt-chauter,_
  B. _The sage Confucius._     _Grav'd by Ho-ge_
  C. _In Chin present_         _and sold by ye Printsellers_
  _Oecumenical Volgi._         _of London Paris and Rome._
  D. _The Mandarin Hangchi._   _Hogarth inv. et sculp._

To the earliest impressions of this plate, the name of _Sayer_ (for
whom it has since been retouched) is wanting. "_Stolen from_ Coypel's
Don Quixote." Underneath, these verses:

    From Eastern climes, transplanted to our coasts,
    Two oldest orders that creation boasts
    Here meet in miniature, expos'd to view
    That by their conduct men may judge their due.

    The _Gormagons_, a venerable race,
    Appear distinguish'd with peculiar grace:
    What honour! wisdom! truth! and social love!
    Sure such an order had its birth, above.

    But mark Free Masons! what a farce is this?
    How wild their mystery! what a _Bum_ they kiss![1]
    Who would not laugh,[2] who such occasions had?
    Who should not weep, to think the world so mad?

I should suspect that this plate was published about 1742, when the
Procession[3] of _Scald Miserables_ had been produced[4] to parody
the cavalcade of the _Free Masons_, who ever afterwards discontinued
their annual procession. _Hogarth_ was always ready to avail himself
of any popular subject that afforded a scope to ridicule. Among _Harry
Carey's_ Poems, however, 1729, third edition, is the following;

    "The Moderator between the Free-Masons and Gormogons.

    "The Masons and the Gormogons
      Are laughing at one another,
    While all mankind are laughing at them;
      Then why do they make such a pother?

    "They bait their hook for simple gulls,
      And truth with bam they smother;
    But when they've taken in their culls,
      Why then 'tis--Welcome Brother!"

The particular disputes between the parties referred to by this poem,
it is not easy to ascertain. Perhaps the humourous writer alludes to
some schism or dissention now forgotten. Mr. _Gray_, in one of his
letters to Mr. _Walpole_, says, "I reckon next week to hear you are a
Free Mason, or a _Gormogon_ at least." 4to edition, p. 188.

I learn from _Masonry Dissected_, &c. a pamphlet published in 1730,
by _Samuel Prichard_, late member of a Constituted Lodge, that "From
the Accepted Mason sprang the real Masons, and from both sprang the
_Gormogons_, whose grand master the _Volgi_ deduces his original
from the _Chinese_, whose writings, if to be credited, maintain the
hypotheses of the Pre-adamites, and consequently must be more antique
than Masonry."--This circumstance will account for the _Chinese_ names
and habits in our artist's plate.

[1] On this occasion the print exhibits a trait of humour that may
hitherto have escaped observation. To render the part presented for
salutation more tempting, it has patches on, such as women wore at the
time when the plate was published.

[2] _Who would not laugh_, &c. Parody on the concluding couplet of
_Pope's_ character of _Addison_.

[3] The contrivers of the Mock Procession were at that time said to be
_Paul Whitehead_, esq. and his intimate friend (whose real Christian
name was _Esquire_) _Carey_, of _Pall Mall_, surgeon to _Frederic_
Prince of _Wales_. The city officers did not suffer this procession
to go through _Temple-Bar_, the common report then being, that its
real intent was to affront the annual procession of the Free Masons.
The Prince was so much offended at this piece of ridicule, that he
immediately removed _Carey_ from the office he held under him.

[4] The print, representing a View of _Somerset-House_ and of _The
Strand_, is 3 feet 11½ inches in length, and ten inches in width;
and is intituled, "A Geometrical View of the grand Procession of the
scald-miserable Masons, designed as they were drawn up over against
_Somerset-House_ in _The Strand_, on the Twenty-seventh of _April_, An°
1742. Invented and engraved by _A. Benoist_, at his Lodgings, at Mr.
_Jordan's_, a Grocer, the North East Corner of _Compton-street, So-ho_;
and sold by the Printsellers of _London_ and _Westminster_.--Note, _A.
Benoist_ teaches Drawing abroad.

"N° 1. The grand Swoard Bearer, or Tyler, carrying the Swoard of State
(a Present of _Ishmael Abiff_ to old _Hyram_ King of the _Saracens_) to
his Grace of _Wattin_, Grand Master of the Holy Lodge of _St. John of
Jerusalem_ in _Clerkenwell_.

"2. Tylers or Guarders.

"3. Grand Chorus of Instruments.

"4. The Stewards, in three Gutt Carts, drawn by Asses.

"5. Two famous Pillars, _Jachin_ and _Boaz_.

"6. Three great Lights: the Sun Hieroglyphical to rule the Day, the
Moon Emblematical to rule the Night; a Master Mason Political to rule

"7. The Entered Prentice's Token.

"8. The Letter G famous in Masonry for differencing the Fellow Craft's
Lodge from that of Prentices.

"9. The Funeral of a Grand Master, according to the Rites of the Order,
with the 15 loving Brethren.

"10. A Master Mason's Lodge.

"11. Grand Band of Musick.

"12. Two Trophies; one being that of a Black-shoe Boy and Link Boy, the
other that of a Chimney Sweeper.

"13. The Equipage of the Grand Master, all the Attendants wearing
Mystical Jewels."

A different, but a smaller, print of this Mock Procession was printed
in _May_ 1742, with the following memoranda, viz. "The great Demand
there has been for _The Westminster Journal_, of the 8th instant,
occasion'd reprinting the following piece.

"From my own Apartments in _Spring Gardens_.

"Though I do not belong to the Fraternity mentioned in the following
piece, and therefore am little concerned in the annual disputes, I
think it my duty, as a Watchman of the city of _Westminster_, to
preserve the memory of the late extraordinary Cavalcade, the like to
which hath never happened since I have been in office. As more solemn
processions have of late years been very rare, it cannot surely be
taken amiss, either by the _Free Masons_, or the _Scald-Miserables_,
that I give so much distinction to this.

"_T. Touchit._

"The Free Mason's Downfall, or the Restoration of the Scald-Miserables."

After the print follows: "A Key, or Explanation of the solemn and
stately Procession of the Scald-Miserable Masons, as it was martial'd
on _Tuesday_ the 27th past, by their _Scald-Pursuivant_ Black
Mantle--set forth by Order of the Grand Master _Poncy_."--Printed by
_J. Mechell_, at _The Kings Arms_ in _Fleet-street_, and sold by the
Pamphlet-shops, &c. Price Two-pence.

Extracts from _The London Daily Post, March_ 20, 1740-1, &c. "Yesterday
some mock Free-Masons marched through _Pall-Mall_ and _The Strand_, as
far as _Temple-Bar_, in procession; first went fellows on jack-asses,
with cows horns in their hands; then a kettle-drummer on a jack-ass,
having two butter-firkins for kettle-drums; then followed two carts
drawn by jack-asses, having in them the stewards with several badges of
their order; then came a mourning coach drawn by six horses, each of a
different colour and size, in which were the grand master and wardens;
the whole attended by a vast mob. They stayed without _Temple Bar_ till
the Masons came by, and paid their compliments to them, who returned
the same with an agreeable humour that possibly disappointed the witty
contriver of this mock scene, whole misfortune is, that though he has
some wit, his subjects are generally so ill chosen, that he loses by it
as many friends as other people of more judgement gain."

Again, _April_ 28, 1742. "Yesterday being the annual feast of the
ancient and honourable society of Free and Accepted Masons, they made
a grand procession from _Brook-street_ to _Haberdashers Hall_, where
an elegant entertainment was provided for them, and the evening was
concluded with that harmony and decency peculiar to the society."

"Some time before the society began their cavalcade, a number of
shoe-cleaners, chimney-sweepers, &c. on foot and in carts, with
ridiculous pageants carried before them, went in procession to
_Temple-Bar_, by way of jest on the Free-Masons, at the expence, as we
hear, of one hundred pounds sterling, which occasioned a great deal of

Again, _May_ 3, 1744. "Yesterday several of the mock masons were taken
up by the constable empowered to impress men for his Majesty's service,
and confined till they can be examined by the justices."

24. _Sancho_, at the magnificent feast, &c. starved by his Physician.
On the top of this plate are the following words: "This original print
was invented and engraved by _William Hogarth_. Price 1 _s._" At bottom
we read, _W. Hogarth inv. & sculp. Printed for H. Overton and J.
Hoole._ Perhaps this design was meant as a rival to that of _Coypel_ on
the same subject; or might be intended by way of specimen of a complete
set of plates for _Don Quixote_. Mr. _S. Ireland_ has the original

25. Impression from a tankard belonging to a club of artists, who
met weekly at _The Bull's Head_ in _Clare-Market_. Of this society
_Hogarth_ was a member. A shepherd and his flock are here represented.

26. The Gin Drinkers. This may have been one of _Hogarth's_ early
performances; and, if such, is to be considered as a rude fore-runner
of his _Gin-Lane_. But I do not vouch for its authencity.

27. The Oratory.[1] Orator _Henley_ on a scaffold, a monkey (over whom
is written _Amen_) by his side. A box of pills and the Hyp Doctor
lying beside him. Over his head, "The ORATORY. _Inveniam viam, aut
faciam._"[2] Over the door. "_Ingredere ut proficias._"[3] A Parson
receiving the money for admission. Under him, "The Treasury." A Butcher
stands as porter. On the left hand, Modesty in a cloud; Folly in a
coach; and a gibbet prepared for Merit; people laughing. One marked THE
SCOUT,[4] introducing a Puritan Divine. A Boy easing nature. Several
grotesque figures, one of them (marked TEE-HEE) in a violent fit of
laughter. I discover no reason for regarding this as a production of
_Hogarth_, though his name, cut from the bottom of one of his smaller
works, was fraudulently affixed to an impression of it belonging
to the late worthy Mr. _Ingham Foster_, whose prints were sold at
_Barford's_, in _March_ 1783. _Hogarth_, whose resources, both from
fancy and observation, were large, was never, like the author of this
plate, reduced to the poor necessity of peopling his comic designs with
_Pierot, Scaramouch_, and the other hackneyed rabble of _French_ and
_Italian_ farces.

Underneath a second impression of it, is the following inscription:

      "_An extempore Epigram, made at the Oratory:_
    "O Orator! with brazen face and lungs,
    Whose jargon's form'd of ten unlearned tongues,
    Why stand'st thou there a whole long hour haranguing,
    When half the time fits better men for hanging!"
             _Geo. B--k--h[5] jun. Copper-scratcher
                  and Grub-Street invent. sculp._

[1] There are such coincidences between this print and that of _The
Beggar's Opera_, as incline me to think they were both by the same hand.

[2] The motto on the medals which Mr _Henley_ dispersed as tickets to
his subscribers. See Note on _Dunciad_, III. 199.

[3] This inscription is over the outer door of St. _Paul's_ school.

[4] On what personage the name of _Scout_ was bestowed, I am unable to
inform the reader, though I recollect having seen the same figure in
several other prints, particularly one from which it appears that he
was at last murdered.

[5] _B--k--h._ Perhaps this was an intended mistake for _B--k--m._

28. Orator _Henley_ christening a child. _John Sympson jun. fecit._
Mezzotinto (commonly of a greenish colour), with the following verses
under it:

    Behold _Vilaria_ lately brought to bed,
    Her cheeks now strangers to their rosy red;
    Languid her eyes, yet lovely she appears!
    And oh! what fondness her lord's visage wears!
    The pamper'd priest, in whose extended arms
    The female infant lies, with budding charms,
    Seeming to ask the name e'er he baptise,
    Casts at the handsome gossips his wanton eyes,
    While gay Sir _Fopling_, an accomplish'd ass,
    Is courting his own dear image in the glass:
    The _Midwife_ busied too, with mighty care,
    Adjusts the cap, shews innocency fair.
    Behind her stands the _Clerk_, on whose grave face
    Sleek _Abigal_ cannot forbear to gaze:
    But master, without thought, poor harmless child,
    Has on the floor the _holy-water_ spill'd,
    Thrown down the hat; the lap-dog gnaws the rose;
    And at the fire the _Nurse_ is warming cloaths.
    One guest enquires the _Parson's_ name;--says _Friendly_,
    Why, dont you know, Sir?--'tis _Hyp-Doctor[1] H----y_.

_Sold by J. Sympson, at the Dove in Russel-Court, Drury-Lane._ An
original sketch in oil, on the same subject, is in the possession of
Mr. _S. Ireland_.[2]

[1] He wrote a periodical paper under that title.

[2] See p. 415. for an etching from it.

29. A woman swearing a child to a grave citizen.[1] _W. Hogarth pinx.
J. Sympson jun. sculp. Sold by J. Sympson_ engraver and print-seller,
at _The Dove_ in _Russel-Court, Drury-Lane_. This Mr. _Walpole_
observes to be a very bad print. Perhaps he had only seen some wretched
impression, or copy of it (for there are two, the one in a small size,
the other large, but fit for no other purpose than to adorn the walls
of a country Inn), and therefore spoke with contempt of a performance
which hardly deserves so unfavourable a character. This entire design,
however, is stolen from a picture of _Heemskirk_, which has been since
engraved in mezzotinto by _W. Dickinson_ of _New Bond-street_, and
published _March 10_, 1772. The original picture is in the possession
of Mr. _Watson_, surgeon, in _Rathbone Place_.

The title given to this plate by the ingenious engraver, is _The
Village Magistrate_. All the male figures are monkies; all the female
ones, cats. _Hogarth_ has likewise been indebted to its companion--_The
Constable of the Night_. Few impressions from these plates having been
hitherto sold, they are both in excellent condition, and the former of
them exhibits an indisputable instance of _Hogarth's_ plagiarism.

While _Picart_ was preparing his _Religious Ceremonies_, he wrote to
some friend here, to supply him with representations illustrative of
his subject. His correspondent, either through ignorance or design,
furnished him with the two preceding plates by _Hogarth. Picart_
has engraved the former with a few variations, and the latter with
the utmost fidelity. The one is called by him _Le Serment de la
Fille qui se trouve enceinte_; the other, _Le Baptême domestique_.
The first contains a supposed portrait of Sir _Thomas de Veil_.
For the conversion of a _civil_ into a _religious_ ceremony, let
the _Frenchman_, or his purveyor, be answerable. The lines under
_Hogarth's_ performance are as follows:

    Here Justice triumphs in his elbow chair,
    And makes his market of the trading fair;
    His office-shelves with parish laws are grac'd,
    But spelling-books, and guides between 'em placed
    Here pregnant madam screens the real fire,
    And falsely swears her bastard child for hire
    Upon a rich old letcher, who denies
    The fact, and vows the naughty Hussif lies;
    His wife enrag'd, exclaims against her spouse,
    And swears she'll be reveng'd upon his brows;
    The jade, the justice, and church ward'ns agree,
    And force him to provide security.

_Hogarth's_ picture is in the possession of the Rev. Mr. _Whalley_, at
_Ecton, Northamptonshire_.

Mr. _Whalley_ is the nephew of _John Palmer_, whose portrait is
mentioned among the works of _Hogarth_. See p. 295. This picture too
is at _Ecton_. The foregoing print (as already observed, p. 121.) must
have been published before the year 1735.

[1] A copy of this forms the head-piece to a tale printed in _Banks's_
Works, vol, I. p. 248, intituled, "The Substitute Father."

30. Right Hon. _Gustavus_ Lord Viscount _Boyne_, &c. &c. Whole length,
mezzotinto. _W. Hogarth pinx. Andrew Miller fecit._ "_A very bad print,
done in Ireland._"

I have since met with an early impression of this mezzotinto. The
inscription, dedication, &c. underneath it, are as follows:

"_W. Hogarth pinx. Ford fecit._ The Rt. Honble. _Gustavus_ Lord
Visct. _Boyne_, Baron of _Stackallen_, one of his Majesty's most
Honble. Priuy Council, one of the Comrs. of the Revenue of
_Ireland_, &c.

"To the Rt. Honble. the Earl of _Kildare_ this plate is humbly
dedicated by his Lordship's most obedient humble servt. _Mich.

"Published and sold by _Mich. Ford_, Painter and Print-seller on _Cork
Hill_. Price 5s. 5.d. [i. e. five thirteens."]

Mr. _Walpole's_ is probably a later or a retouched impression from the
same plate, after it had fallen into the hands of one _Andrew Miller_,
who effaced the name of _Ford_, and substituted his own.

This scarce print will undoubtedly suffer from comparison with the
works of _Smith, M'Ardell, Earlom, Jones,_ &c. and yet perhaps it is
the best mezzotinto that _Ireland_ has hitherto produced. It must
be confessed, however, that _Hogarth's_ whole-length figure of Lord
_Boyne_ is equally void of grace, meaning, and proportion; but these
defects have no connection with the labours of _Ford_, which would have
appeared to more advantage had they been exerted on a better subject.

31. Mr. _Pine_ (the celebrated engraver), in the manner of _Rembrandt_.
Mezzotinto (about the year 1746), by _M'Ardell, Price_ 2 _s._ The
original was in the possession of the late Mr. _Ranby_ the surgeon.

There is a second head of Mr. _Pine_, a mezzotinto; both his hands
leaning on a cane. Printed for _George Pulley_, at _Rembrandt's Head_,
the corner of _Bride-court, Fleet-street_.

I have called this "a second head," but know not which of the two was
first published.

In the first edition of the present work I had described this plate as
an unfinished one, but have since met with it in a perfect state.

32. A View of Mr. _Ranby's_ house at _Chiswick. Etched by Hogarth._
This view, I am informed, was taken in 1750, but was not designed for

33. _Daniel Lock_, Esq. F. S. A. formerly an architect. He retired from
business with a good fortune, lived in _Surrey-street_, and was buried
in the chapel of _Trinity College, Cambridge_. Mezzotinto. _W. Hogarth
pinx. J. M'Ardell fecit. Price_ 1 _s._ 6 _d._

34. Christ and his disciples; persons at a distance carried to an
hospital. "In as much as ye have done it unto one of the least of these
my brethren, ye have done it unto me." _St. Matt._ xxv. ver. 40. _W.
Hogarth inv. C. Grignion sculp._ Ticket for _The London Hospital_.

As this charitable foundation was instituted in 1740, probably the
ticket was engraved soon afterwards.

35. Original of the same, in a smaller size, with the Duke of
_Richmond's_ arms as president.

36. Another, almost the same as N° 34, but with a view of _The London

37. Six prints for _Don Quixote. W. Hogarth inv. & sculp._

When Lord _Carteret_, about the year 1737, was seeking artists to
design, &c. plates for his _Spanish_ edition of this famous novel,
published in 1738, _Hogarth_, of course, was not overlooked. His
performances, however, gave so little satisfaction to his noble
employer, that they were paid for, and then laid aside in favour
of _Vandrebank's_ drawings, afterwards engraved by _Vandergucht_.
The plates remaining in the hands of Mr. _Tonson_, his lordship's
publisher, at his death, were bought by Mr. _Dodsley_, who, finding
they exhibited no descriptions that could render them welcome to the
possessors of any copy of _Don Quixote_ whatever, had the titles of
the chapters, &c. to which they belong, together with references to
the corresponding pages in _Jarvis's_ translation, engraved under each
of them. The subjects of them are, I. Funeral of _Chrysostom_, and
_Marcella_ vindicating herself; vol. I. p. 71. II. The Inn-keeper's
wife and daughter taking care of the Don after being beaten and
bruised, p. 129. III. _Don Quixote_ releases the galley slaves, p. 129.
IV. The unfortunate Knight of the Rock meeting _Don Quixote_, p. 140.
V. _Don Quixote_ seizes the barber's bason for _Mambrino's_ helmet, p.
155. VI. The Curate and Barber disguising themselves to convey _Don
Quixote_ home, p. 166. _Tonson_ had several specimens of plates, both
in quarto and octavo sizes, executed for editions of _Shakspeare_, but
they shared the same fate with the others prepared for _Don Quixote_.

38. An oval, with two figures representing _Hymen_ and _Cupid_. A view
of a magnificent villa at a distance. This print was intended as a
ticket for _Sigismunda_, which _Hogarth_ proposed to be raffled for. It
is often marked with ink 2 _l._ 2 _s._ The number of each ticket was
to have been inserted on the scroll hanging down from the knee of the
principal figure. Perhaps none of them were ever disposed of. This
plate, however, must have been engraved about 1762 or 3. Had I not
seen many copies of it marked by the hand of _Hogarth_, I should have
supposed it to have been only a ticket for a concert or music-meeting.

39. Four heads from the cartoons at _Hampton-Court_. An etching.

Mr. _Walpole_, in his _Anecdotes of Painting_, &c. vol. IV. p. 22.
speaking of Sir _James Thornhill's_ attention to these celebrated
pictures, has the following remark: "He made copious studies of the
heads, hands, and feet, and intended to publish an exact account of the
whole, for the use of students: but his work never appeared."

As this plate was found among others engraved by _Hogarth_, it might
probably have been one of his early performances. His widow has
directed a few impressions to be taken from it, and they are sold at
her house in _Leicester-square_.

40. A Scene in a Pantomime Entertainment lately exhibited; designed
by a Knight of _Malta_. A satire on the Royal Incorporated Society of
Artists of _Great Britain_. No name.

This design is difficult to be explained, as it alludes to some
forgotten dissentions among the artists before the Royal Academy
was founded. Sir _William Chambers, Kirby, Rooker_ the Engraver and
Harlequin, _Liotard_, remarkable for having adopted the _Turkish_
dress, and others, are introduced in it. The hat and head of _Hogarth_
also appear on one of the necks of a Hydra. It is hardly credible,
therefore, that he should have rendered himself an object of his own
satire. A mere etched outline of the same design, with additions, was
afterwards published, and is marked plate II. It is larger than the
original plate, and must be considered as a slight temporary sketch, of
which the author is uncertain.

41. A Ticket-porter carrying a load of chamber-pots to some place of
public resort, from the entrance of which three grenadiers are keeping
off the crowd. At the bottom is written.

"_Jack_ in an Office, or _Peter Necessary_, with Choice of

"A Ticket for the--------------------Price 6 _d._"

Of the following articles the 49th, and 53d, are the undoubted
productions of _Hogarth_. Some of the rest may admit of dispute. Those
marked * I have not yet seen in any collection but that of Mr. _S.

* 42. Arms of _George Lambart_ [_Lambert_] the painter, an intimate
friend of our artist.

* 43. Arms of _Gore_, engraved on a silver waiter.

* 44. Arms of a Duke of _Kendal_. N. B. There never was a _Duke_ of
_Kendal_, but an infant son of _James_ II. The arms mentioned are
certainly those of the Dutchess of _Kendal_. The male shield must be a

* 45. Arms of _Chudleigh_; motto "Aut vincam, aut peribo." Done for
Major _L'Emery_, whilst _Hogarth_ was apprentice.

46. The Great Seal of _England_, from a large silver table. This
was given to Mr. _S. Ireland_ by a Mr. _Bonneau_, who took off the
impression before the year 1740.

47. Twenty-six figures, on two large sheets, engraved for "A Compendium
of Military Discipline, as it is practised by the Honourable the
Artillery Company of the City of _London_, for the initiating and
instructing Officers of the Trained Bands of the said City, &c. Most
humbly dedicated to his Royal Highness _George_ Prince of _Wales_,
Captain General of the Honourable the Artillery Company. By _John
Blackwell_, Adjutant and Clerk to the said Company.

"_London_. Printed for the Author; and are to be sold at his house in
_Well-Court_ in _Queen-Street_, near _Cheapside_, 1726."

48. _Farinelli, Cuzzoni,_ and _Heydegger. Cuzzoni_ and _Farinelli_ are
singing a duet. The latter is in the character of a prisoner, being
chained by his little finger. _Heydegger_ sits behind, and is supposed
to utter the eight following lines, which are engraved under the plate:

    Thou tuneful scarecrow, and thou warbling bird,
    No shelter for your notes these lands afford.
    This town protects no more the singsong strain,
    Whilst Balls and Masquerades triumphant reign.
    Sooner than midnight revels ere should fail,
    And ore Ridottos Harmony prevail;
    The cap (a refuge once) my head shall grace,
    And save from ruin this harmonious face.[1]

I am told, however, that this plate was designed by the last Countess
of _Burlington_, and etched by _Goupy_. I may add, that the figures in
it, though slightly done on the whole, consist of more than a single
stroke, being retouched and heightened by the burin in several places.
On the contrary, _Hogarth's_ plate, intituled _The Charmers of the
Age_, only offers an etched outline, which at once afforded the extent
of his design, leaving no room for improvement. The former print
exhibits traces of perseverance and assiduity; the latter is an effort
of genius that completes its purpose without elaboration.

[1] He had once enlisted as a private soldier in the Guards, for a
protection. See p. 152.

49. The Discovery. This scarce plate is acknowledged as genuine by
Mrs. _Hogarth_. The subject is a black woman in bed; her eyes archly
turned on her gallant just risen, who expresses his astonishment on the
entrance of three laughing friends, one of them with a candle in his
hand. Underneath the print is this apposite motto:

    _Qui color albus erat nunc est contrarius albo_.

A similar circumstance occurs in _Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas_, and in
_Foote's Cozeners_.

I know not of any among our artist's works that displays so little
character. It must have been one of his early performances.

It should be observed that, being founded on a private occurrence, this
print was never designed for general circulation. Mr. _Highmore_ the
manager of _Drury-Lane_, who bought _Cibber's_ share in the patent, is
the Hero of it. A few copies only were distributed among _Hogarth's_
particular friends, and the gentlemen whose portraits it contains. At
the bottom of the plate there is no descriptive title. _The Discovery_
was that by which Mrs. _Hogarth_ mentioned it when she recollected the
very laughable circumstance here commemorated by her husband's pencil.

* 50. The Cottage. An impression from a breeches-button, the size of a
crown-piece; a sketch made for Mr. _Camfield_, a surgeon, on a subject
that will not bear explanation. There is a copy of this little plate by
Mr. _S. Ireland_.

51. _Pug_ the Painter. This has been usually understood as a satire _on
Hogarth_, rather than a design _by_ him. Mr. _Ireland_ once told me it
was etched by _Dawes_, and that our artist gave a copy of it, as his
own design, to Mr. _Kirby_. But I am assured with superior confidence
by another gentleman, that the true author of it is to be sought among
those artists whom _Hogarth_ had provoked by his contemptuous treatment
of their works. If _Pug_ was not designed as his representative, why is
the animal exhibited in the act of painting the ridiculous figure of
the _Priest_ in _The Good Samaritan_?

52. A Head in an oval, coarsely engraved, and subscribed "_Samuel
Butler_ Author of _Hudibras_." Several connoisseurs, beside Mr.
_Thane_ who possesses the plate, conceive it to be an undoubted work of
_Hogarth_. For what purpose it was executed, and why suppressed (for no
one has hitherto met with even a proof from it) it is vain to enquire.
I am silent on the subject, heartily wishing that throughout this work
I had had the opinions of more friends to record, and had offered fewer
sentiments of my own.

53. "A very rare hieroglyphic print; representing Royalty, Episcopacy,
and Law, composed of emblematic attributes, and no human features
or limbs; with attendants of similar ingredients. Beneath is this
inscription. Some of the principal inhabitants of the Moon, as they
were discovered by a telescope, brought to the greatest perfection
since the last eclipse; exactly engraved from the objects, whereby the
Curious may guess at their Religion, Manners, &c. Price Six-pence."

A kind of scaffold above the clouds is the theatre of this
representation. Monarchy, Episcopacy, and Law, appear
characteristically seated. Their faces are--a Crown-piece--a _Jew's_
Harp, and--a Mallet. The monarch holds a globe and sceptre, with
crescents on the tops of them. Instead of a collar of _esses_, he wears
a string of bubbles; his side is ornamented with a pointed star; and a
circle, the emblem of perpetuity, is embroidered on the cloth under
his throne. Episcopacy is working at a pump (a type I suppose of the
Church) by the assistance of a bell-rope. The Bible is fastened to the
handle of the pump, and out of the nose of it issues money that falls
into a chest discriminated by an armorial escutcheon, containing a
knife and fork, properly emblazoned, with a mitre by way of crest. The
lid of the coffer leans against a pillar, that serves also to support a
triple pile of cushions. Over the top of the pump (which is fashioned
much like a steeple) is a weathercock on a small pyramid supported
by balls; and below it, through a circular opening, a little bell
appears to ring. Under the sacerdotal robe, a cloven foot peeps out.
Law sustains a sword; and behind him appears a dagger thrust through
the bottom of a sieve. The attendants on Monarchy are of various
materials. The bodies and legs of such as seem designed for soldiers,
are composed of circular fire-screens resembling shields. The trunks
of the courtiers are large looking-glasses, the sconces with candles
in them serving for hands and arms. The face of the chief of these is
the reverse of a sixpence; and a key significantly appended to his
sash, at once denotes his sex and office. Under the figure of law are
a male and female modishly drest. Her head is a tea-pot, her neck a
drinking-glass, and her body a fan half spread. On the oval that forms
the countenance of her paramour, is a coat of arms with supporters.
His right honourable legs are fan-sticks, and he seems in the act
of courtship. How this couple are immediately connected with Law, is
not very clearly pointed out. _Hogarth_, however, we may suppose, had
planned some explanation of his hieroglyphics, as the letters _a, b, c,
d, e, f, g,_ are placed over some of them, and beneath others.

From the form of the perukes exhibited in this design, I should suppose
it was made above forty years ago. Other circumstances in it need no

* 54. The Master of the Vineyard. St. _Matthew_ chap. xxi. v. 28. "Son,
go work to-day in my Vineyard."

* 55. The _London_ Infirmary for charitably relieving sick and diseased
Manufacturers and Seamen in the Merchants' service, their Wives and
Children. A blank certificate for Pupils in Surgery and Anatomy,
printed on a half sheet, folio.

56. A ticket for the benefit of _Spiller_ the player. He died in the
year 1729.

In the plate before us, which possesses no small share of humour, poor
_Spiller_ is represented in a melancholy posture. His finances are
weighed against his debts, and outweighed by them. His taylor's bill
appears to be of great length, and many others for ale, gin, &c. are
on the ground near him. A bailiff is clapping him on the shoulder--a
prison is in sight--ladies and gentlemen are taking tickets, &c. This
very uncommon and beautiful little print is, at present, found only in
the collection of Mr. _Ireland_.

57. St. _Mary's Chapel_. Five at night. Several performers playing on
different instruments. _William Hogarth inv. G. Vandergucht sculpt._

This was certainly an ornament at the top of a ticket for a
music-meeting. The name of _Hogarth_ is affixed to it, and the whole
design _might_ have been his. I do not, however, believe it _was_ so. A
few of the figures appear to have been collected from his works by some
other hand, rather than grouped by his own. _Vandergucht_ too was so
thoroughly a mannerist, and especially in small subjects, that he was
rarely faithful to the expressions of countenance he undertook to trace
on copper. There is no humour, and indeed little merit of any kind, in
this performance. It has not hitherto been met with on the entire piece
of paper to which it must originally have belonged.

A print called _The Scotch Congregation_, by _Hogarth_, is almost
unique, on account of its extreme indecency. One copy of it was in a
collection of his works belonging to Mr. _Alexander_ of _Edinburgh_. He
is said to have had it from Mrs. _Hogarth_. A second copy is reported
to exist in the possession of another gentleman. No more impressions of
it are known.

       *       *       *       *       *

A correspondent at _Dublin_ informs me, that in the collection of Dr.
_Hopkins_ of that city are the following seven prints by _Hogarth_:

1. _The History of Witchcraft_. Humbly dedicated to the Wise.
Allegorically modernized. Part the First. Published according to act
of Parliament. _Hogarth inv. et sculpt._

Half sheet print. At one end, Witches attending the punishment of two
human figures; at the other, several at their different occupations.

2. _The History of Witchcraft_. Part the Second. Published according to
act of Parliament. _Hogarth inv. et sculpt._

Same size as the former. Witches dancing; others at various amusements.
These two prints contain a great variety of distorted figures.

3. _A Suit of Law fits me better than a Suit of Clothes_. Invented and
engraved by _W. H._ and published pursuant to an Act of Parliament,

An upright half-sheet. A Man in embroidered clothes, his hat under his
arm. A scroll in his left hand, inscribed, "I'll go to Law." Huntsmen,
dogs, and horses in the back ground. Four lines in verse underneath.

Useful in all families. Invented and engraved by _W. H._ and published
pursuant to an Act of Parliament, 1740.

4. The same man in a tattered garment in a wild country; a staff in his
right hand, and a scroll in his left, inscribed, "To shew that I went
to law, and got the better." Four lines at the bottom.

These two may be classed among his indifferent prints.

5. _The Caledonian March and Embarkation. Hogarth invent. London_,
printed for _T. Baldwin_.

A number of _Scotchmen_ embarking in the _Caledonian_ Transport. Labels
issuing from their mouths.

_The Laird of the Posts, or the Bonnets exalted._ Printed for _T.
Baldwin, London. Hogarth inv._

6. _A Scotch Nobleman and his Friends taking possession of several
posts, having kick'd down the former Possessors_. Labels from their
mouths too tedious to copy. A Lion on the fore-ground, hood-winked by a
_Scotch_ plaid.

Supposed to be printed for _The London Magazine_.

7. _The Lion entranced_. Printed for _T. Baldwin, London. Hogarth inv._

A Lion in a Coffin. A plate on the cover, inscribed, "Leo _Britanicus_,
Ob. An. 1762. Requiescat in pace." Attended by state mourners with
labels as above. In one corner _Hibernia_ supplicating for her Sister's

A respect for the obliging communicator has induced me to publish this
_supposed_ addition to the foregoing catalogue of _Hogarth's_ works.
But, without ocular proof, I cannot receive as genuine any one of the
plates enumerated. The name of our Artist has more than once been
subscribed to the wretched productions of others; and a collector at
_Dublin_ must have had singular good fortune indeed, if he has met with
seven authentic curiosities unknown to the most confidential friends
of _Hogarth_, and the most industrious connoisseurs about _London_. I
may add, that two, if not three, of the above-mentioned anti-ministeral
pieces, appeared in 1762, the very year in which our artist was
appointed _Serjeant Painter_. Till that period he is unsuspected of
having engaged his pencil in the service of politicks; and _T. Baldwin_
(perhaps a fictitious name) is not known to have been on any former
occasion his publisher. So much for the probability of _Hogarth's_
having ushered performances like these into the world.

       *       *       *       *       *

Chance, and the kindness of my friends, have not enabled me to form a
more accurate series of _Hogarth's_ labours. Those of the collector,
however, are still incomplete, unless he can furnish himself with a
specimen of several other pieces, said, I think, to have been produced
a little before our artist's marriage. I forbear to keep my readers in
suspense on the occasion. _Hogarth_ once taking up some plain ivory
fishes that lay on his future wife's card-table, observed how much was
wanting to render them natural representations. Having delivered this
remark with becoming gravity, he proceeded to engrave scales, fins,
&c. on each of them. A few impressions have been taken from these
curiosities, which remain in Mrs. _Hogarth's_ possession. As a _button_
decorated by her husband has been received into the foregoing catalogue
of his works, it can hardly be disgraced by this brief mention of the
ornaments he bestowed on a _counter_.

       *       *       *       *       *

There are three large volumes in quarto by _Lavater_, a minister at
_Zurich_ (with great numbers of plates), on Physiognomy. Among these
are two containing several groups of figures from different prints of
_Hogarth_, together with the portraits of Lord _Lovat_ and _Wilkes_.
For what particular purpose they are introduced, remains to me a

In "An Address of Thanks to the Broad Bottoms, for the good things
they have done, and the evil things they have not done, since their
elevation, 1745," is what the author calls "A curious emblematic
Frontispiece, taken from an original painting of the ingenious Mr.
_H----th_;" a palpable imposition.

Mr. _Walpole, Anecdotes of Painting_, Vol. IV. 63, observes, that
"_Hogarth_ drew the supposed funeral of _Vanaken_, attended by the
painters he worked for, discovering every mark of grief and despair."
To explain this passage, it should be added, that "he was employed by
several considerable artists here, to draw the attitudes, and dress the
figures in their pictures."

The merits of _Hogarth_, as an engraver, are inconsiderable. His hand
was faithful to character, but had little acquaintance with the powers
of light and shade. In some of his early prints he was an assiduous
imitator of _Callot_, but deviated at last into a manner of his
own, which suffers much by comparison with that of his coadjutors,
_Ravenet_ and _Sullivan_. In the pieces finished by these masters of
their art, there is a clearness that _Hogarth_ could never reach. His
strokes sometimes look as if fortuitously disposed, and sometimes
confusedly thwart each other in almost every possible direction. What
he wanted in skill, he strove to make up in labour; but the result
of it was a universal haze and indistinctness, that, by excluding
force and transparency, has rendered several of his larger plates
less captivating than they would have been, had he entrusted the
sole execution of them to either of the artists already mentioned.
His smaller etchings, indeed, such as _The Laughing Pit_, &c. cannot
receive too much commendation.

Mr. _Walpole_ has justly observed, that "many wretched prints came
out to ridicule" the _Analysis of Beauty._ He might have added, that
no small number of the same quality were produced immediately after
the _Times_ made its appearance. I wish it had been in my power to
have afforded my readers a complete list of these performances, that
as little as possible might have been wanting to the history of poor
_Hogarth's_ first and second persecution. Such a catalogue, however,
not being necessary to the explanation of his works, it is with the
less regret omitted.[2]

The scarceness of the good impressions of _Hogarth's_ larger works is
in great measure owing to their having been pasted on canvas or boards,
to be framed and glazed for furniture. There were few people who
collected his prints for any other purpose at their first appearance.
The majority of these sets being hung up in _London_ houses, have been
utterly spoiled by smoke. Since foreigners have learned the value of
the same performances, they have also been exported in considerable
numbers. Wherever a taste for the fine arts has prevailed, the works
of this great master are to be found. Messieurs _Torré_ have frequent
commissions to send them into _Italy_. I am credibly informed that the
Empress of _Russia_ has expressed uncommon pleasure in examining such
genuine representations of _English_ manners; and I have seen a set
of cups and saucers with _The Harlot's Progress_ painted on them in
_China_ about the year 1739.

Of all such engravings as are Mrs. _Hogarth's_ property, the later
impressions continue selling on terms specified many years ago in
her printed catalogue, which the reader will find at the end of this
pamphlet. The few elder proofs that remain undisposed of, may be
likewise had from her agent at an advance of price. As to the plates
which our artist had not retained as his own property, when any of
these desiderata are found (perhaps in a state of corrosion), they
are immediately vamped up, and impressions from them are offered
to sale, at three, four, or five times their original value. They
are also stained to give them the appearance of age; and on these
occasions we are confidently assured, that only a few copies, which
had lurked in some obscure warehouse, or neglected port-feuille,
had been just discovered. This information is usually accompanied by
sober advice to buy while we may, as the vender has scarce a moment
free from the repeated solicitations of the nobility and gentry, whom
he always wishes to oblige, still affording that preference to the
connoisseur which he withholds from the less enlightened purchaser. It
is scarce needful to observe, that no man ever visited the shops of
these polite dealers, without soon fancying himself entitled to the
more creditable of the aforesaid distinctions. Thus becoming a dupe to
his own vanity, as well as to the artifice of the tradesman, he has
speedily the mortification to find his supposed rarities are to be met
with in every collection, and not long afterwards on every stall. The
caution may not prove useless to those who are ambitious to assemble
the works of _Hogarth_. Such a pursuit needs no apology; for sure, of
all his fraternity, whether ancient or modern, he bent the keenest eye
on the follies and vices of mankind, and expressed them with a degree
of variety and force, which it would be vain to seek among the satiric
compositions of any other painters. In short, what is observed by
_Hamlet_ concerning a player's office, may, with some few exceptions,
be applied to the designs of _Hogarth_. "Their end, both at the first,
and now, was, and is, to hold as 'twere the mirror up to nature; to
shew virtue her own feature, scorn her own image, and the very age and
body of the time his own form and pressure."

I may add, that, since the appearance of Mr. _Walpole's_ Catalogue,
a disposition to attribute several anonymous plates, on ludicrous
subjects, to _Hogarth_, has betrayed itself in more than a single
instance:[3] a supposition has also prevailed that there was a time
when _Hogarth_ had the whole field of satire to himself, and we could
boast of no designers whose performances could be mistaken for his own.
The latter notion is undoubtedly true, if real judges are to decide;
and yet many prints, very slightly impregnated with humour, continue
to be ascribed to him. It should therefore be observed, that, at the
same period, _Bickham, Vandergucht, Boitard, Gravelot, Laguerre_ the
younger, &c. were occasionally publishing satirical Sketches, and
engraving laughable frontispieces for books and pamphlets. To many of
these, for various reasons, they forbore to set their names; and we
have at present collectors, who, to obtain the credit of having made
discoveries, are willing to adopt such performances as the genuine
effusions of _Hogarth_, although every way beneath his talents,
and repugnant to his style of engraving. Perhaps also the names of
other painters and designers have been occasionally obliterated, to
countenance the same fallacy. Copies likewise have been palmed on the
unwary for originals. "Therefore" (gentle reader) for once be content
to follow the advice of _Pistol_, "Go clear thy chrystals, and _Caveto_
be thy counsellor." For if all such fatherless engravings, as the
vanity of some, and the interest, or the ignorance, of others, would
introduce among the works of our artist, were to be admitted, when
would the collector's labour and expence be at end?

Among other anonymous plates ascribed to _Hogarth_, but omitted in the
present catalogue, is the following, _A living Dog is better than a
dead Lion_, or, _The Vanity of human Glory; a design for the Monument
of General Wolfe_, 1760. A medallion of our hero appears on the side of
a pyramid. On the base of it is the well known speech of _Shakespeare's

    _Set Honour in one hand, and Death in t' other,
    And I will look on both indifferent:
    And let the Gods so speed me, as I love
    The name of Honour more than I fear Death_.

At the bottom a dying Lion is extended, while a Dog (with _Minden_ on
his collar, and _Honour's a jest_, &c. issuing from his mouth) is at
once lifting up his leg against the noble brute, and treading on a
wreath of laurel. _Here lies Honour_, is also written on the side of
the expiring animal. I have since been assured that this print was by
another artist, whose name I omit to mention, because perhaps he would
wish it, on the present occasion, suppressed.

[1] This book, I am told, is now translated into _French_.

[2] One of these productions, however, should be singled from the rest.
The print, entitled _The Connoisseurs_, was suspected to be a work
of _Hogarth_ himself. It is placed with some of his other undisputed
designs in the back-ground of _The Author run Mad_ (which is known
to be one of Mr. _Sandby's_ performances), and has the following
reference--"_A._ his own _Dunciad_."

[3] Thus the frontispiece to _Taste_, designed, if not etched by
_Worsdale_ (for whose benefit this dramatic piece was performed), and
_Sawney in the Bog-house_, an anonymous satire on the _Scotch_, that
made its appearance near forty years ago, and was revived during the
administration of Lord _Bute_, are at present imputed to our artist,
whose name is already engraved at the bottom of the latter.


The Author of this pamphlet, being convinced that, in spite of all his
care and attention, some errors may still be found in his catalogue,
list of variations, &c. will think himself highly obliged by any
gentlemen who will point them out, and enable him to correct them. Such
favours shall be gratefully acknowledged, if the present rude Essay
towards an account of _Hogarth's_ different performances should happen
to reach another edition.

As in consequence of the extraordinary prices lately paid for the
collected works of this great master, certain dealers, &c. are supposed
to be assembling as many of his prints as they can meet with,--binding
them up in pompous volumes,--writing "fine old impressions" either
over or under them--specifying the precise sums pretended to have been
disbursed for several of them (perhaps a guinea for a three shilling
article)--preparing to offer a few rare trifles to sale, overloaded
with a heap of wretched proofs from our artist's more capital
performances;--exhibiting imperfect suites of such as are cut out of
books; and intending to station puffers at future auctions, whose
office will be to intimate they have received commissions to bid up as
far as such or such an amount (i. e. the sum under which the concealed
proprietor resolves not to part with his ware), &c. &c. it is hoped
the reader will excuse a few parting words of admonition. Perhaps it
may be in the power of Mrs. _Hogarth_ to select a few sets from such
of her husband's pieces as have remained in her own custody from the
hour of their publication. Let the multitude, who of course cannot be
supplied with these, become their own collectors. Even ignorance is a
more trusty guide than professional artifice. It may be urged, indeed,
that the proportionate value of impressions[1] can be ascertained only
by those who have examined many of them in their various states, with
diligence and acuteness. But surely to qualify ourselves for estimating
the merit of the curiosities we are ambitious to purchase, is wiser
than to rely altogether on the information of people whose interest is
commonly the reverse of our own. Let it also be remembered, that the
least precious of all _Hogarth's_ productions are by far the scarcest;
and that when, at an immoderate expence, we have procured impressions
from tankards ornamented by him, or armorial ensigns engraved for the
books of his customers, we shall be found at last to have added nothing
to his fame, or the entertaining quality of our own collections. By
such means, however, we may open a door to imposition. A work like
_The Harlot's Progress_ will certainly remain unimitated as well as
inimitable; but it is in the power of every bungler to create fresh
coats of arms, or shop bills with our artist's name subscribed to them:
and wherein will the Lion or Griffin of _Hogarth_ be discovered to
excell the same representation by a meaner hand? A crafty selection of
paper, and a slight attention to chronology and choice of subjects,
with the aid of the hot-press, may, in the end, prove an overmatch for
the sagacity of the ablest connoisseur. A single detection of such a
forgery would at least give rise to suspicions that might operate even
where no fallacy had been designed. How many fraudulent imitations of
the smaller works of _Rembrandt_ are known to have been circulated
with success!--But it may be asked, perhaps, from what source the
author of this pamphlet derives his knowledge of such transactions. His
answer is, from the majority of collectors whom he has talked with in
consequence of his present undertaking.

He ought not, however, to conclude without observing, that several
_genuine_ works of _Hogarth_ yet remain to be engraved. He is happy
also to add that a young artist, every way qualified for such a task,
has already published a few of these by subscription.

_J. N._

[1] Prints have, of late years, been judiciously rated according to
the quality of their _impressions_. But the very term _impression_, as
applied to copper-plates, perhaps is a novelty among us. If we refer to
the earliest and most valuable assemblage of portraits (such as that
catalogued by _Ames_, afterwards purchased by Dr. _Fothergill_, and
lately sold to Mr. _Thane_), we shall have little reason to suppose any
regard was once paid to a particular of so much importance. As fast
as heads were met with, they were indiscriminately received; and the
faintest proofs do not appear to have been excluded at a time when the
strongest might easily have been procured. In consequence of an _àmás_
so carelessly formed, the volumes already mentioned, were found to
display alternately the most beautiful and the most defective specimens
of the graphic art.

       *       *       *       *       *

_J. N._ had once thoughts of adding a list of the copies made from
the works _of Hogarth_; but finding them to be numerous, beyond
expectation, has desisted from a task he could not easily accomplish.
This pursuit, however, has enabled him to suggest yet another caution
to his readers. Some of the early invaders of _Hogarth's_ property
were less audacious than the rest; and, forbearing to make exact
imitations of his plates, were content with only borrowing particular
circumstances from each of them, which they worked up into a similar
fable. A set of _The Rake's Progress_, in which the figures were thus
disguised and differently grouped, has been lately found. But since the
rage of collection broke out with its present vehemence, those dealers
who have met with any such diversified copies, have been desirous of
putting them off either as the first thoughts of _Hogarth_, or as the
inferior productions of elder artists on whose designs he had improved.
There, is also a very small set of _The Rake's Progress_, contrived
and executed with the varieties already mentioned; and even this has
been offered to sale under the former of these descriptions. Thus,
as _Shakspeare_ says, _While we shut the gate upon one_ imposition,
_another knocks at the door_.

It may not be impertinent to conclude these cautions with another
notice for the benefit of unexperienced collectors, who in their
choice of prints usually prefer the blackest. The earliest copies of
_Hogarth's_ works are often fainter than such as have been retouched.
The excellence of the former consists in clearness as well as strength;
but strength only is the characteristic of the latter. The first and
third copies of _The Harlot's Progress_ will abundantly illustrate my
remark, which, however, is confined to good impressions of the plates
in either state; for some are now to be met with that no more possess
the recommendation of transparency than that of force. I may add,
that when plates are much worn, it is customary to load them with a
double quantity of colour, that their weakness, as far as possible,
may escape the eye of the purchaser. This practice the copper-plate
printers facetiously entitle--_coaxing_; and, by the aid of it, the
deeper strokes of the graver which are not wholly obliterated, become
clogged with ink, while every finer trace, which was of a nature less
permanent, is no longer visible. Thus in the modern proofs of _Garrick_
in _King Richard III._ the armour, tent, and habit, continue to have
considerable strength, though the delicate markings in the face, and
the shadows on the inside of the hand, have long since disappeared.
Yet this print, even in its faintest state, is still preferable to
such smutty impositions as have been recently described. The modern
impressions of _The Fair_, and _The March to Finchley_, will yet more
forcibly illustrate the same remark.

       *       *       *       *       *

To the original paintings of _Hogarth_ already enumerated may be added
a Breakfast-piece, preserved in _Hill-Street, Berkeley-Square_, in the
possession of _William Strode_, Esq; of _Northaw, Herts_. It contains
portraits of his father the late _William Strode_, Esq; his mother
Lady _Anne_ (who was sister to the late Earl of _Salisbury_), Colonel
_Strode_, and Dr. _Arthur Smith_ (afterwards Archbishop of _Dublin_).


_Four Times of the Day_, p. 250.

It should have been observed, that the third of these plates was
engraved by _Baron_, the figure of the girl excepted, which, being an
after-thought, was added by our artist's own hand.


N° 1. [See p. 23.]

The following letter, printed in _The Public Advertiser_ soon after the
first edition of the present work made its appearance, may possibly
contain some authentic particulars of the early life of the famous
Monsieur _St. André_. Mr. _Woodfall's_ ingenious correspondent does
not, however, dispose me to retract a syllable of what is advanced in
the text; for he fails throughout in his attempts to exculpate our hero
from any one of the charges alledged against him. On the contrary, he
confirms, with additions, a considerable part of them, and strives only
to evade or overwhelm the rest by studied amplifications of the little
good which industrious partiality could pick out of its favourite
character. I shall now subjoin his epistle, with a few unconnected
remarks appended to it. A rambling performance must apologize for a
desultory refutation.


 "The entertaining author of the last biography of the admirable
 _Hogarth_, in the excess of commendation of a particular risible
 subject for his pencil, has written too disadvantageously of the late
 Mr. _St. André_. One who knew him intimately (but was never under the
 smallest obligation to him) for the last twenty years of his life,
 and has learned the tradition of his earlier conduct seemingly better
 than the editor of the article in question, takes the liberty to give
 a more favourable idea of him, and without intending to enter into a
 controversy with this agreeable Collector of Anecdotes, to vindicate
 this _notorious man_, who must be allowed to have been such; but it
 is to be hoped in the milder sense Lord _Clarendon_ often or always
 uses the epithet. The making a subject of Mr. _St. André_ is therefore
 merely accidental. The writer expects to derive no praise from
 exhibiting that person as the Hero of a page. He thinks it is only
 doing justice (for the Dead deserve justice as well as the Living)
 when he draws his pen against some very injurious insinuations, thrown
 out with more inadvertence and at a venture than in malice, against
 the memory of an acquaintance and of a foreigner (to whom perhaps more
 mercy is due than to a native), who is more roughly handled than he
 appears to deserve.

 "Mr. _Nathaniel St. André_ came over, or rather was brought over,
 very early from _Switzerland_, his native country, in the train of
 a _Mendez_, or _Salvadore_, or some _Jewish_ family. Next to his
 countryman _Heidegger_, he became the most considerable person that
 has been imported from thence. He probably arrived in _England_
 in no better than a menial station. Possibly his family was not
 originally obscure, for he has been heard to declare, that he had
 a rightful claim to a title, but it was not worth while to take it
 up so late in life. He had undoubtedly all the qualifications of
 a _Swiss_. He talked _French_ in all its provincial dialects, and
 superintended the press, if the information is to be depended upon,
 and perhaps taught it, as his sister did at _Chelsea_ boarding-school.
 He was early initiated in music, for he played upon some musical
 instrument as soon as he was old enough to handle one, to entertain
 his benefactors. He had the good fortune to be placed by them with a
 surgeon of eminence, and became very skilful in his profession. His
 duty and gratitude to his father, whom he maintained when he was no
 longer able to maintain himself, was exemplary and deserving of high
 commendation. Let this charity cover a multitude of his sins! His
 great thirst for anatomical knowledge (for which he became afterwards
 so famous as to have books dedicated to him on that subject), and
 his unwearied application, soon made him so compleat an anatomist,
 that he undertook to read public lectures (and he was the first in
 _London_ who read any), which gave general satisfaction. The most
 ingenious and considerable men in the kingdom became his pupils. Dr.
 _Hunter_, now at the head of his profession, speaks highly of his
 predecessor, and considers him (if the information is genuine) as the
 wonder of his time. He continued his love of anatomy to the last,
 and left noble preparations behind him, which he was continually
 improving. The time of his introduction into Mr. _Molyneux's_ family
 is not known to the writer of this account. Whether anatomy, surgery,
 knowledge, or music, or his performance on the _Viol de Gambo_, on
 which he was the greatest master, got him the intimacy with Mr.
 _Molyneux_, is not easy to determine. Certain it is, that he attended
 his friend in his last illness, who died of a dangerous disorder (but
 not under his hands), which Mr. _Molyneux_ is said to have pronounced,
 from the first, would be fatal. Scandal, and Mr. _Pope's_ satirical
 half-line, talked afterwards of 'The Poisoning Wife.' She, perhaps,
 was in too great a hurry, as the report ran, in marrying when she
 did, according to the practised delicacy of her sex, and her very
 high quality. The unlucky business in which one _Howard_, a surgeon
 at _Guildford_, involved him, who was the projector, or accessary of
 the impudent imposture of _Mary Tofts_, alias the Rabbit-woman of
 _Godalmin_, occasioned him to become the talk and ridicule of the
 whole kingdom. The report made by _St. André_, and others, induced
 many inconsiderately to take it for a reality. The public horror
 was so great, that the rent of rabbit-warrens sunk to nothing; and
 nobody, till the delusion was over, presumed to eat a rabbit. The
 credulous _Whiston_ believed the story (for to some people every thing
 is credible that comes from a credible witness), and wrote a pamphlet,
 to prove this _monstrous conception_ to be the exact completion of an
 old prophecy in _Esdras_. The part _St. André_ acted in this affair
 ruined his interest at Court, where he had before been so great a
 favourite with King _George_ I. that he presented him with a sword
 which he wore himself. Now, on his return out of the country, he
 met with a personal affront, and never went to Court again. But he
 continued anatomist to the Royal Houshold to his dying day, though he
 never took the salary. He probably was imposed upon in this matter.
 And has it not been the lot of men, in intellectual accomplishments
 vastly above his, such as _Boyle_, for instance, a man infinitely
 his superior, to be over-reached and misled? He took up the pen on
 the occasion (and it was not the first time, for he wrote some years
 before a bantering pamphlet on Dr. _Mead_), which could at best but
 demonstrate his sincerity, but exposed the weakness of his judgement,
 on that case. It had been insinuated he adopted this scheme, to
 ruin some persons of his own profession. If he had a mind to make
 an experiment upon the national belief, and to tamper with their
 willingness to swallow any absurdity (which a certain nobleman [Duke
 of _Montagu_] ventured to do, in the affair of a man who undertook to
 jump into a quart bottle), he was deservedly punished with contempt.
 _Swift_ (according to _Whiston_), and perhaps _Arbuthnot_, exercised
 their pens upon him. The cheat was soon discovered, and rabbits began
 to make their appearance again at table as usual. But they were not at
 his own table, nor made a dish, in any form of cookery, at that of his
 friends. Perhaps they imagined that the name or sight of that animal
 might be as offensive to him, as the mention of _Formosa_ is said to
 have been to _Psalmanazar_. It is told, that, on his asking for some
 parsly of a market-woman of _Southampton_, and demanding why she had
 not more to sell, she, in a banter, assured him, 'That his rabbits had
 eat it up.' The fortune he acquired by marrying into a noble family
 (though it set all the lady's relations against him, and occasioned
 her being dismissed from her attendance on Queen _Caroline_) was a
 sufficient compensation for the laughter or censure of the publick.
 His high spirit and confidence in himself made him superior to all
 clamor. So that people did but talk about him, he seldom seemed to
 care what they talked against him. And yet he had the fortitude
 to bring an action for defamation in _Westminster-Hall_ against a
 certain doctor in divinity, and got the better of his adversary. He
 was not supposed, in the judgement of the wiser and more candid part
 of mankind, to have contributed, by any chirurgical administration,
 to the death of his friend Mr. _Molyneux_, nor to have set up the
 imposture at _Godalmin_. Though he was disgraced at Court, he was not
 abandoned by all his noble friends. The great Lord _Peterborough_,
 who was his patron and patient long before he went to _Lisbon_,
 entertained a very high opinion of him to the last. His capacity in
 all kinds, the reception he gave to his table and his garden, with his
 liberality to the infirm and distressed, made him visited by persons
 of the highest quality, and by all strangers and foreigners. He did
 not continue to enjoy the great fortune his marriage is supposed to
 have brought him, to the end of his life, for a great part went from
 him on the death of Lady _Betty_. He by no means left so much property
 behind him as to have it said, he died rich. His profession as a
 surgeon, in a reasonable terms of years, would probably have put more
 money into his pocket than fell in the golden shower so inauspiciously
 into his lap, and have given him plenty, without envy or blame. He
 was turned of ninety-six when he died; and though subject to the
 gout, of which he used to get the better by blisters upon his knees,
 and by rigid abstinence, yet, when he took to his bed (where he said
 he should not lie long), and permitted a physician to be called in
 to him, he cannot be said to have died of any disease. In one sum of
 generosity, he gave the celebrated _Geminiani_ three hundred pounds,
 to help him to discharge his incumbrances, and to end his days in
 comfort. The strength and agility of his body were great, and are
 well known. He was famous for his skill in fencing, in riding the
 great horse, and for running and jumping, in his younger days. He, at
 one time, was able to play the game at chess with the best masters.
 After a slight instruction at _Slaughter's_ coffee-house, he did not
 rest till, in the course of two nights sitting up, he was able to
 vanquish his instructor. He was so earnest in acquiring knowledge,
 that he whimsically, as he told the story, cut off his eye-lashes,
 that he might not sleep till he arrived at what he wanted. His face
 was muscular and fierce. One of his eyes, to external appearance,
 seemed to be a mass of obscurity (as he expressed it of _Handel's_,
 when he became stark-blind), at least it had not the uncommon vivacity
 of the other. His language was full of energy, but loaded with foreign
 idioms. His conversation was seasoned sufficiently with satire and
 irony, which he was not afraid to display, though he ought never to
 have forgot that he was once a proper subject for it. He built; he
 planted; he had almost 'from the Cedar of _Lebanon_ to the hyssop that
 groweth upon the wall,' in his hot-house, green-house, and garden. If
 he was not deep in every art and science (for even his long life was
 not sufficient for universal attainment), he cannot be reckoned to
 have been ignorant of any thing. He was admired for his knowledge in
 architecture, in gardening, and in botany, by those who should have
 been above flattery. But praise, from whatever quarter it comes, is
 of an intoxicating nature. Those who found out that he loved praise,
 took care he should have enough of it. He kept a list of the wretched
 and the indigent, whom he constantly maintained; and their names
 might be written alphabetically. The poor of _Southampton_ know they
 have lost their best friend. Call it, reader, ostentation or vanity,
 if you will; but till you know it did not proceed from his goodness
 of heart, this tributary pen considers his giving away his money to
 relieve the necessitous, as a spark of the spirit of the Man of _Ross_
 or the Man of _Bath_. He was all his life too much addicted to amours,
 and sometimes with the lower part of the sex. His conversation, which
 he was always able to make entertaining and instructive, was too
 often tinctured with _double entendre_ (a vice that increases with
 age), but hardly ever with prophaneness. He may be thought to have
 copied _Hermippus_, and to have considered women as the prolongers
 of life. How far he was made a dupe by any of them at last, is not
 necessary for relation. He died, as he lived, without fear; for to
 his standers-by he gave no sign of a ruffled mind, or a disturbed
 conscience, in his last moments.

 "If the preceding memoir of _St. André_ had not been composed entirely
 from memory (a faculty which, like the sieve of the _Danaids_, is
 apt to lose as much as it receives), and had not been conveyed
 to the press with so much precipitancy, the writer, by a second
 recollection, might have made supplementary anecdotes less necessary.
 Whilst _St. André_ was basking in the sun-shine of public favour
 in _Northumberland-Court_, near _Charing-Cross_, under pretence of
 being wanted in his profession at some house in the neighbourhood,
 he was hurried through so many passages, and up and down so many
 stair-cases, that he did not know where he was, nor what the untoward
 scene was to end in, till the horrid conclusion presented itself,
 of which he published an extraordinary account in _The Gazette_ of
 _Feb._ 23, 1724-5, no less than of his being poisoned, and of his more
 extraordinary recovery. Such uncommon men must be visited through
 life with uncommon incidents. The bowl of poison must have been for
 ever present to his imagination. _Socrates_ himself could not expect
 more certain destruction from the noxious draught he was forced to
 take down, than seemed inevitable to _St. André_. Nay, a double death
 seems to have threatened him. Probably it was not any public or
 private virtue for which _Socrates_ was famous, and which occasioned
 him to suffer, that endangered our hero's life. His constitution was
 so good, that he got the better of the internal potion. The truth
 and circumstances of the story could only be known to himself, who
 authenticated it upon oath. His narrative partakes of the marvellous;
 and the reader of _July_, 1781, is left in total ignorance of the
 actor, and the provocation to such a barbarous termination. His case
 was reported, and he was attended, by the ablest of the faculty:
 and the Privy Council issued a reward of two hundred pounds towards
 a discovery. A note in the second supplemental volume of _Swift_
 informed the writer of this sketch, a day or two ago (who takes to
 himself the reproof of _Prior_, 'Authors, before they write, should
 read!'), that _St. André_ was convinced he had been imposed upon
 respecting the woman of _Godalmin_, and that he apologised handsomely
 to the public in an advertisement, dated _Dec._ 8, 1726.--'He's half
 absolv'd, who has confest.'--In the autumn, before the heat of the
 town-talk on this affair was over, he was sent for to attend Mr.
 _Pope_, who, on his return home from _Dawley_ in Lord _Bolingbroke's_
 coach and six, was overturned in a river, and lost the use of two
 fingers of his left-hand (happy for the lovers of poetry they were
 not the servants of the right one!), and gave him assurance, that
 none of the broken glass was likely to be fatal to him. It is highly
 improbable, that _Pope_ and _Bolingbroke_ would have suffered _St.
 André_ to have come near them, if he had been branded as a cheat
 and an impostor. He died in _March_, 1776, having survived all his
 contemporary enemies, and, which is the consequence of living long,
 most of his ancient friends. Such men do not arise every day for our
 censure or our applause; to gratify the pen or the pencil of character
 or caricature. He may be considered, as _Voltaire_ pronounces of
 _Charles_ the Twelfth, an extraordinary, rather than a great man, and
 fitter to be admired than imitated.


In the first place, I avow that the epithet _notorious_ was not
meant to be employed in the milder sense of Lord _Clarendon_. Had
I undertaken to compile the life of a man eminent for virtue, I
should have been happy to have borrowed the softer application of
the aforesaid term from our noble historian. But having engaged to
delineate a mere impostor's character, there is greater propriety in
adopting the disputed word with that constant signification affixed to
it by the biographers of _Bet Canning_, or _Fanny_ the Phantom of _Cock
Lane_.--I shall absolve myself no farther from the charge of "malice,"
than by observing that there are always people who think _somewhat much
too rough has been said of Chartres_.

The dead, declares our apologist, deserve justice as well as their
survivors. This is an uncontested truth; nor will the precept be
violated by me. I may observe however, with impunity, that the
interests of the living, for whose sake a line of separation between
good and bad characters is drawn, should be consulted, rather than
the memories of the flagitious, who can no longer be affected by human
praise or censure, should be spared.

Our apologist next assures us, that perhaps more tenderness is due to
a foreigner than to a native. The boasted _amor patriæ_ is not very
conspicuous in this remark, which indeed was dropped, to as little
purpose, by a learned counsel on the trial of the _French Spy_ who was
lately executed.

"Next to his countryman _Heidegger_," adds our apologist, "Mr. _St.
André_ became the most _considerable_ person that has been imported
from _Switzerland_." To judge of the comparative value of the latter,
we must estimate the merits of the former. _Heidegger_ is known to us
only by the uncommon ugliness of his visage, and his adroitness in
conducting Operas and Masquerades. If _St. André_ is to be regarded
as a person still _less considerable_ than _Heidegger_, can his
consequence be rated very high?

That _St. André_ arrived here in a menial station, is not improbable.
The servility of his youth afforded a natural introduction to the
insolence of his riper years. He was indeed (if I am not mis-informed)
of the same family with the fencing and dancing-master whom _Dryden_
has immortalized in _MacFlecknoe_;

    "_St. André's_ feet ne'er kept more equal time;"[1]

and was intended for the same professions; a circumstance often hinted
at by his opponents during the Rabbit controversy. Having been thus
early instructed in the management of the foil and kitt, no marvel that
he so often prated about the art of defence, or that "his gratitude to
his benefactors" broke out in the language of a minuet or a rigadoon.

That he became famous enough in his profession to have anatomical works
occasionally dedicated to him, will easily obtain credit among our
apologist's readers; for many of them must have seen a book on surgery
inscribed to Dr. _Rock_, a political poem addressed to _Buckhorse_, and
a treatise on religion sheltering itself under the patronage of the
late Lord _Baltimore. St. André_, however, was not the earliest reader
of anatomical lectures in _London. Bussiere_, the surgeon who attended
_Guiscard_ (the assassin of _Harley_), was our hero's predecessor in
this office, and I am told even he was not the first who offered public
instructions to the students at our hospitals. Dr. _Hunter_, who has
been applied to for intelligence on this occasion, declares that he
never described _St. André_ as "the wonder of his time," but as a man
who had passed through no regular course of study, and was competent
only in the article of injections, a task as happily suited to minute
abilities as to those of a larger grasp.

    _Æmilium circà ludum faber imus et ungues
    Exprimet, et molles imitabitur ære capillos_.

The art of pushing fluids through the vessels was at that period a
secret most scrupulously kept by the few who were in possession of
it, so that a great show might be made at the expence of little real
knowledge. I am also informed, that _St. André_, like the workman
described by _Horace_, had no general comprehension of any subject,
but was unable to have put two propositions together:--that he neither
extended the bounds of the chirurgical art by discoveries, nor
performed any extraordinary cures; and, boasting somewhere that he had
detected vessels in the cuticle or scarf-skin, a foreigner of eminence
in the same profession offered (through the medium of a printed book)
to lay him a wager of it, a challenge which he prudently declined. I am
also told, that when solicited to exhibit his preparations, he always
declared the majority of them to have been destroyed in a fire. What
remain, I am instructed to add, deserve little or no commendation.
Thus, on enquiry, sinks our "enthusiast in anatomy" down to a frigid
dabbler in the science; while his "noble preparations, which he was
continually improving," dwindle into minutiæ of scarce any value.

Though the dreadful crime, which is indistinctly mentioned in the text
of the foregoing pamphlet, has been alluded to with less reserve by
the apologist of _St. André_, it shall be explained no further on the
present occasion. Many are the common avenues to death; and why should
we point out with minuteness such as we hope will never be explored
again? Till I perused the defence so often referred to, I had not even
suspected that the "poisoning wife"[2] bore the least allusion to any
particular circumstance on the records of criminal gallantry; nor,
without stronger proofs than are furnished by this expression (perhaps
a random one), shall I be willing to allot the smallest share of blame
to the Lady, such alone excepted as must unavoidably arise from her
over-hasty marriage, which was solemnized at _Hesson_ near _Hounslow_
in _Middlesex_, on the 27th of _May_, 1730. This act, however, as well
as her derogation from rank, being mere offences against human customs,
are cognizable only upon earth.--By "the wiser and more candid part
of mankind," who suspected no harm throughout _St. André's_ conduct
in this affair, I suppose our apologist means any set of people who
had imbibed prejudices similar to his own, and thought and spoke about
his hero with equal partiality and tenderness. But the Memoir on which
these remarks are founded, proves at least that what _J. N._ had hinted
concerning the death of Mr. _Molyneux_,[3] was of no recent invention.
So far from it indeed, that _St. André_ was openly taxed with having
been the sole cause of it, in a public news-paper (I think one of the
Gazetteers), by the Rev. Dr. _Madden_, the celebrated _Irish_ patriot,
who subscribed his name to his advertisement. It is related (I know not
how truly) that on this account our hero prosecuted and "got the better
of his adversary," whose accusation was unsupported by such proofs as
the strictness of law requires. How many culprits, about whose guilt
neither judge nor jury entertains the smallest scruple, escape with
equal triumph through a similar defect of evidence! I may add, that so
serious a charge would never have been lightly made by a divine of Dr.
_Madden's_ rank and character.

All that is said on the subject of family honours to which _St. André_
was entitled, his gratitude to his father, what he gave to the
celebrated _Geminiani_ "in one sum of generosity," must be admitted
with caution, for truth was by no means the characteristic of our
hero's narrations.[4] These circumstances therefore may be regarded as
gasconades of his own. The author of the defence pretends not to have
received any part of his information from _St. André's_ countrymen or
contemporaries; but, on the contrary, confesses that both his early
friends and enemies had long been dead.

The affair of the Rabbit-breeder has no need of further illustration.
Several ballads, pamphlets, prints, &c. on the subject, bear abundant
testimony to _St. André's_ merits throughout that business, as well
as to the final opinion entertained of him by his contemporaries,
after _Cheselden_, by order of Queen _Caroline_, had assisted in
discovering the deceit. Her Majesty was urged to this step by finding
the plausibility of our hero had imposed on the King, and that some
of the pregnant ladies about her own person began to express their
fears of bringing into the world an unnatural progeny.--If Mr. _Boyle_
was occasionally misled, his errors were soon absorbed in the blaze
of his moral and literary excellence. _St. André's_ blunder, alas!
had no such happy means of redemption. His credulity indeed was not
confined to this single transaction. The following is a well-attested
story--Two gentlemen at _Southampton_, who felt an inclination to
banter him, broke a nutshell asunder, filled the cavity with a large
swan-shot, and closed up the whole with glue so nicely that no marks
of separation could be detected. This curiosity, as they were walking
with _St. André_, one of them pretended to pick up, admiring it as a
nut uncommonly heavy as well as beautiful. Our hero swallowed the bait,
dissected the subject, discovered the lead, but not the imposition, and
then proceeded to account philosophically for so strange a phænomenon.
The merry wags could scarce restrain their laughter, and soon quitted
his company to enjoy the success of a stratagem they had so adroitly
practised on his ignorance and gullibility.

Were there any colour for supposing he had patronized the fraud
relative to _Mary Tofts_, with design to ruin others of his profession
(an insinuation to his discredit, which the foregoing pamphlet had
not furnished), it was but just that he should fall by his own
malevolence and treachery. From the imputation of a scheme resembling
that contrived by the Duke of _Montagu_, his want of equal wit will
sufficiently absolve him.

That rabbits never were permitted to appear at any table where
he dined, is a strong mark of the adulation paid to him by his
entertainers. I hope, for similar reasons, had he been seized with
his last illness in _London_ (that his organs of hearing might escape
an equal shock), his attendants would not have called any physician
named _Warren_ to his bed-side, summoned an attorney from _Coney Court_
Grays Inn to have made his will, or sent for the Rev. Mr. _Bunny_ to
pray by him. The banishment of rabbits, however, from a neighbourhood
that affords them in the highest perfection, was a circumstance that
might as justly have been complained of, as _Pythagoras's_ prohibition
of beans, had it been published in _Leicestershire_. I heartily wish
that the circumstantial author of the preceding epistle, to relieve
any doubts by which futurity may be perplexed, had informed us whether
_St. André_ was an eater of toasted cheese, or not; and if it was never
asked for by its common title of a Welch _Rabbit_ within his hearing.

That he wrote any thing, unless by proxy, or with much assistance, may
reasonably be doubted; for the pamphlets that pass under his name are
divested of those foreign idioms that marked his conversation. Indeed,
if I may believe some specimens of his private correspondence, he was
unacquainted with the very orthography of our language. The insolence
of this shallow _Switzer's_ attempt to banter _Mead_, we may imagine,
was treated with contempt, as the work described has not been handed
down to us; and few tracts are permitted to be scarce for any other
reason than because they are worthless.

It is next remarked by our apologist, that _St. André's_ "confidence,
&c. made him superior to all clamour; and so that people did but talk
about him, he did not seem to care what they talked against him." This
is no more, in other language, than to declare that his impudence and
vanity were well proportioned to each other, and that a bad character
was to him as welcome as a good one. He did not, it seems, join in the
Poet's prayer,

    Grant me an honest fame, or grant me none!

but was of opinion, as his apologist likewise admits, that wealth was
an ample counterbalance to the loss of reputation.--That he might evade
accusation (as I have already observed) in one particular instance,
and therefore recover damages, is no proof of his innocence, that his
general conduct would admit of defence, or that much of the manifold
censure passed upon him had no foundation.

How Lord _Peterborough_ happened to become his patron, &c. may be
accounted for without any great degree of credit to either party. His
lordship (as Lord _Orrery_ observes) "in his private life and conduct
differed from most men;" and, having often capricious disputes with
the court, was sure to favour those who, like _St. André_, had been
dismissed from its service. Our hero's musical talents, indeed, if they
were such as they have been represented, might procure him access to
his lordship and many other noble adepts in the sublime and useful
science of harmony. The lovers of a tune urge no severe enquiries
concerning the heart of a fidler. If he be a mercenary, while he
teaches female pupils, he is watched; and, if he performs in concerts,
he is paid. If above pecuniary gratifications, he is rewarded with
hyperbolical compliments. Articulate for inarticulate sounds is ample

His defender adds, that he was visited by _all_ strangers and
foreigners. It will be supposed then that his house was never free
from company. May we not rather think, that if he was at any time
sought after by these peregrine worthies, &c. it was because the
keepers of inns and mistresses of boarding-houses had been instructed
to disseminate attractive tales of his "capacity in all kinds," his
curiosities and good dinners? Besides, all foreigners who have arrived
in _England_ have not travelled to _Southampton_, and consequently
could not have seen _St. André_, who for upwards of the last twenty
years of his life had resided only there. It is nearer the truth to
say, that not a single _Frenchman_, &c. in fifty thousand, ever heard
of his name.

That "his profession as a surgeon, in a reasonable term of years, would
probably have put more money in his pocket" than he gained by his union
with Lady _Betty Molyneux_ (i. e. £30,000. a sum that elevated him
into a state little short of madness), I cannot believe. The blast his
reputation had received respecting the business at _Godalming_, being
seconded by his expulsion from court, he must have felt his business
on the decline. Indeed, I am told that he staid long enough in town to
try the experiment. Marriage therefore might have been his _dernier

The exaggerations of this impostor's generosity and accomplishments,
which are next brought forward by his panegyrist with no small degree
of pomp, are such as we may suppose himself would have furnished, had
he undertaken, like the Chevalier _Taylor_, to compile his own memoirs.
The majority of circumstances collected for the purpose of proving him
to have been

    _Grammaticus, rhetor, geometres, pictor, aliptes,
    Augur, schænobates, medicus, magus,_

could only have been derived from those very flattering testimonials
to his merits which he was always ready to exhibit on the slightest
encouragement. Those who were content to admit so partial an estimate
of his abilities, &c. found it necessary to express their belief that
he could have beaten _Hercules_ at quoits, played a better fiddle than
_Apollo_, out-witted _Mercury_, disarmed the _God of War_, and forged
such chemic thunders, that, compared with the produce of our hero's
laboratory, the bolts of _Jove_ were no louder than a pot-gun. So far
was he from being deficient in commendation of his own talents, that he
thought his very furniture might claim a proportionable extravagance of
praise. He was possessed of some foreign tapestry which he was proud on
all occasions to display. But the eulogiums of others, lavish as they
might be, fell considerably short of his own, so that the spectator
retired with disgust from an object which the excessive vanity of its
owner would not permit to be enjoyed without the most frequent and
nauseous intrusions of self-congratulation.

As to the history of his eye-lashes, which he sacrificed to vigilance,
and his sudden proficiency in the very difficult game of chess
(provided his instructor, whom he afterwards vanquished, was a skilful
one) _credat Judæus Apella_.--That his language did not want energy,
may more easily be allowed, for force is the characteristic of vulgar
phraseology. Conceits, expressed with much vigour, are current among
sailors; and such nervous denunciations of revenge may occasionally
be heard at _Billingsgate_, as might emulate the ravings of _Dryden's
Maximin_. No man will be hardy enough to assert that the figure,
manners, and language, of _St. André_, were those of a gentleman.

If one of his eyes was a "mass of obscurity" (notwithstanding the
other, like that of Lady _Pentweazle's_ Great Aunt, might be a
piercer), perhaps he ought to have been sparing of his satire on the
personal disadvantages of his acquaintance. Yet, the last time my
informant saw him was at the Theatre at _Southampton_, where, sitting
near a gentleman and lady not remarkable for handsome faces, he had the
modesty to express a doubt (and in a voice sufficiently audible) which
of the two would furnish the most comic mask.

Mr. _St. André's_ apologist observes, that "he cannot be reckoned
to have been ignorant of any thing." But the contrary may justly be
suspected, and for no inconclusive reason. I aver, that on whatever
subject he was haranguing, the moment he discovered any of the
company present understood it as well as himself, he became silent,
never choosing to descant on art or science but before people whom
he supposed to be utter strangers to all their principles. For this
reason, he would have entertained Sir _Joshua Reynolds_ with remarks on
the genera and cultivation of plants, and talked to _Linnæus_ about the
outline and colouring of pictures.

That he died poor (for such was really the case), should excite no
astonishment. His fortune, like his good qualities, was chiefly in
supposition. Much of his wealth he had expended on buildings, which
he never long inhabited, and afterwards sold to disadvantage. His
first essays in architecture were made at _Chepstow_ on the _Severn_,
an estate purchased by Lady _Betty Molyneux_ immediately after the
death of her husband. In short, our hero was a fugitive inhabitant of
several counties, and never settled till he reached _Southampton_; for
in no other place did he meet with that proportion of flattery which
was needful to his happiness, if not to his existence.--About a mile
from hence he erected the whimsical baby-house dignified by him with
the title of _Belle-Vue_, a receptacle every way inconvenient for
the purposes of a family. Being once asked if this was not a very
singular mansion,--"Singular!" (replied he) "by G--I hope it is, or I
would pull it down immediately. I would have you to know, Sir, that
it is constructed on the true principles of anatomy." The attempt to
apply anatomical principles to the arrangement of passages, doors,
and windows, is too glaring an absurdity to need animadversion, or
to render it necessary for me to deny in form, that he could ever be
"admired for his knowledge in architecture," except by such as knew not
wherein its excellencies consisted.--He had, however, another dwelling
within the walls of the town already mentioned. Here he pretended
that his upper apartments were crowded with rarities, which he only
wanted space to exhibit. But, alas! after his decease, Mr. _Christie's_
auction-room bore abundant witness to the frivolity of his collections.
What became of his boasted library of books, which he always said was
packed up in boxes, I am yet to learn. Perhaps it existed only in his

"Those who found out he loved praise (says his apologist) took care he
should have enough of it." I discover little cause for disputing this
assertion, and shall only observe on it, that adulation is a commodity
which weak old men, reputed rich, and without ostensible heirs, are
seldom in danger of wanting, though they may not enjoy so much of it
as fell to _St. André's_ share.

His disbursements to the poor might be proportioned to the real
state of his fortune; but yet they were conducted with excess of
ostentation. He may be said to have given shillings away with more
parade than many other men would have shown in the distribution of as
many guineas.--What honour his apologist means to confer on him by
saying that "the names of those whom he maintained might be written
alphabetically," is to me a secret, because names of every kind
may be arranged according to the series of the letters.--Suspected
characters, however, often strive to redeem themselves by affectation
of liberality. Few are more generous than opulent wantons toward their
decline of life, who thus attempt to recover that respect which they
are conscious of having forfeited by the misdeeds of their youth. The
benefactions of such people may in truth be considered as expiatory
sacrifices for past offences, having no foundation in a natural
propensity to relieve the indigent, or indulge the heart in the noblest
luxury, that of doing good.

_St. André_ was accused in _J. N.'s_ pamphlet of having frequently
larded his pleasantry with obscene expressions. This is a truth which
his defender makes not the slightest effort to deny; but adds, that
his conversation was _hardly ever_ tinctured with prophaneness. We
hence at least may infer that our hero's humour had _sometimes_ this
imperfection, which indeed might have escaped notice, but for the zeal
of his apologist.--As I am on this subject, I cannot forbear to mention
a particular in Mr. _St. André's_ behaviour, which hitherto has been
overlooked. When at any time he received a reproof from women of sense,
fashion, and character, whose ears he had insulted with his ribaldry,
his confidence in a moment forsook him, nor had he a word to offer in
extenuation of his offence. My informant has more than once beheld,
with secret satisfaction, how effectually the frown of steady virtue
could awe this "mighty impudent" into silence. Notwithstanding what
has been already said concerning that indifference to censure which
appeared in him towards the end of his life, I am mis-informed, if at
an earlier period he was able to brave the ridicule of the place where
he had been once employed and caressed. When the imputations consequent
on his marriage, &c. had rendered him still less an object of respect,
he retired with his bride, and amused himself at a distance from
_London_ with additions to his house, and improvements in his garden;
nor did he appear in public again till what was known and suspected of
him had ceased to be the object of general enquiry and animadversion.

It is difficult for a profligate man of an amorous constitution to
grow old with decency. _J. N.'s_ pamphlet had taxed _St. André_ with
lasciviousness unbecoming his years. This is silently admitted by his
apologist, who adds, that the intrigues of his hero were "sometimes
with the lower part of the sex." He gives us reason also to suppose
that our antiquated enamorato was a dupe to females in the very last
stage of a life so unusually protracted. Is _St. André's_ memory much
honoured by such revelations? Do not circumstances like these increase
that stock of "injurious insinuations" which our apologist professes to

Our panegyrist, more than once in the course of his letter, has
expressed himself in favourable terms of _St. André's_ colloquial
talents. Now, as the memory of my entertaining opponent in respect to
circumstances is remarkably tenacious, 'tis pity he has preserved no
splendid ebullition of his hero's wit, no sample of that satire and
irony that seasoned his conversation, or of that wisdom which so often
rendered it instructive. I flatter myself, that if any specimens of
these distinct excellencies could have been recollected, they would
certainly have been arranged and recorded.

That _St. André_ expired without signs of terror, is but a doubtful
proof of his innocence. Being, at best, a free-thinker, he might regard
death as annihilation, might have been insensible to its immediate
approaches, or have encountered it with a constitutional firmness
that was rather the gift of nature than the result of conscience
undisturbed. He who is become indifferent to the value of reputation,
will not easily be inclined to suppose that a want of the virtues on
which it is founded will be punished in a future state.

       *       *       *       *       *

The whole narrative, published by _St. André_ in 1723, was considered
by his contemporaries as an ostentatious falsehood, invented only to
render him an object of attention and commiseration. It should be
remembered, that his depositions were all delivered on oath; and yet,
being replete with facts totally improbable (for his apologist allows
"they partake of the marvellous"), obtained no credit from the world;
a sufficient proof of the estimation in which his moral character was
held by the people who were best acquainted with it, though at that
period (for the rabbit affair had not yet decided on his reputation)
he possessed sufficient interest as court-surgeon to engage the
privy-council in his cause. They readily enough consented to offer a
sum which they might have been sure would never be demanded. All the
poison he was ever supposed to have suffered from, was such as is
commonly administered in a more tempting vehicle than a glass of strong

    "'Twas that which taints the sweetest joys,
    And in the shape of Love destroys."

The bare mention of _Socrates_ in company with such a pretended victim
as _St. André_, cannot fail to make the reader smile.

But "He's half absolv'd who has confess'd," continues his advocate,
speaking of the recantation _St. André_ made by public advertisement.
Yet, what did he confess? Why, what all the world concurred to
believe, that he had been grossly imposed on; or perhaps that, out
of two evils choosing the least, he allowed himself to be a fool,
that he might escape the imputation of having proved a knave. His
absolution therefore was not obtained on the most creditable terms.
He adds, however, on this emergency, a fresh proof of his disposition
to deceive. "I think myself obliged (says he) _in strict regard to
truth_, to acquaint the public that I intend, _in a short time_, to
publish a full account of the discovery, with some considerations on
the extraordinary circumstances of this case, which misled me in my
apprehensions thereof; and which, as I hope they will, in some measure,
excuse the mistakes made by myself and others who have visited the
woman concerned therein, will also be acceptable to the world, in
separating the innocent from those who have been guilty actors in the
fraud." This work was never published, though _St. André_ survived his
promise by the long term of fifty years. So much for the faith thus
solemnly pledged by an impostor to the public.

After the accident had befallen Mr. _Pope_, on his return from _Dawley_
in Lord _Bolingbroke's_ coach, _St. André_ was called in, because
he happened to be the surgeon nearest at hand. No man chooses to be
scrupulous in the moment of danger. It might be urged that our hero had
little to boast on the occasion, because his patient never recovered
the use of his wounded fingers. But this calamity is not strictly
chargeable on _St. André's_ want of skill; for I have been assured,
that though he stopped the effusion of blood, the completion of the
cure was entrusted solely to another artist. The RABBITEER, having
received his fee, was not admitted a second time into the Poet's

To conclude, I differ as much with our ingenious apologist at the
close of his Epistle as throughout the foregoing parts of it,
being of opinion that his hero no more deserves to be _admired_
than to be _copied_. There is always hazard lest _wonder_ should
generate _imitation_; and the world would not be much obliged to any
circumstance that produced a second being fabricated on the model of
_St. André_.

[1] See also _Dryden's Limberham, or the Kind Keeper_. Act III.

[2] The words of _Pope_ are "the poisoning _dame_." See Epilogue to his
Satires, Dial. II. v. 22.

[3] Whilst the above page was preparing for the second edition of this
work, the following particulars of this gentleman's family appeared
in the public prints: "Mr. _Molyneux_, who was equally the friend of
liberty and literature, was founder of a society in _Ireland_, in
imitation of the Royal (as was his nephew, the Rev. Dr. _Madden_,
of the _Dublin_ Society). His genius was celebrated by _Locke_, and
other sages of those days; and his patriotism was rewarded with the
successive representation of the City and University of _Dublin_,
with other posts of great trust, from the Revolution to his death.
He married the daughter of Sir _William Domville_, attorney-general
of _Ireland_ in the reign of _Charles_ the Second, and niece of Sir
_Thomas Leake_, of _Cannons_ in _Middlesex_, by whom he had an only
son, _Samuel Molyneux_, Esq; secretary to his late Majesty when Prince
of _Wales_, a lord of the Admiralty, and member of parliament both in
_Great-Britain_ and _Ireland_, who resembled his illustrious father in
his pursuits of philosophical knowledge, which he many years, until
engaged in political business, prosecuted with great application at
his seat at _Kew_, now his Majesty's, and presented a telescope of
his own construction to the King of _Portugal_; his _perhaps fatal_
acquaintance with and patronage of _St. André_ will make his name
long remembered. Leaving no issue by his wife, who married _St.
André_, and lived many years, the estate of Mr. _Molyneux_ fell at her
death to his cousin-german and her god-son, the right honourable Sir
_Capel Molyneux_, member at present of the _Irish_ parliament, and a
privy-counsellor, only surviving son of Mr. _Molyneux_ father's next
brother, Sir _Thomas Molyneux_, bart. whom, through regard for his
nephew, his late Majesty created the first _Irish_ baronet upon his
accession to the throne."

[4] The following story was told by _St. André_ to an eminent
bookseller, from whom I received it:

"Once when I was in _Paris_," says our hero, "I went to a sale of
Missals, most of them bound in crimson velvet. Among these, and in the
same binding, I discovered a fine impression of the Duke of _Orleans's_
celebrated publication of _Les Amours Pastorales de Daphnis et de
Chloe_, &c. which I purchased for a mere trifle. On taking off the
velvet, I found the cover underneath was ornamented with as many jewels
as I sold afterwards for five hundred pounds."----Who can believe a
circumstance so utterly improbable?

[5] I am assured, on unquestionable authority, that Mr. _St. André_ had
a valuable library in the classes of Natural History and Medicine. A
catalogue of it, drawn up by Mr. _B. White_, is now in the possession
of Mr. _St. André's_ executor, by whom it is reserved for the benefit
of minors.

N° II. [See p. 137.]

The kindness of a friend has enabled me to lay before the reader some
extracts from the scarce pamphlet mentioned in p. 137. The following
is the exact title of it: "A Letter from a Parishioner of _St. Clement
Danes_, to the Right Reverend Father in God _Edmund_, Lord Bishop of
_London_, occasioned by his Lordship's causing the Picture over the
Altar to be taken down. With some Observations on the Use and Abuse of
Church Paintings in General, and of that Picture in particular.

"_Exodus_, Chap. xxxii. Ver. 20. And he took the Calf which they had
made, and burnt it in the Fire, and ground it to powder, and strawed it
upon the Water, and made the Children of _Israel_ drink of it.

"_London_, printed and sold by _J. Roberts_, in _Warwick-Lane; A. Dod_,
without _Temple-Bar-_, and _E. Nut_, at the _Royal-Exchange_. 1725.
Price 6_d._"

After some introductory compliments to Bishop _Gibson_, the
Letter-writer thus proceeds: "Of all the abuses your Lordship has
redressed, none more timely, none more acceptable to all true
Protestants, than your last injunction to remove that ridiculous,
superstitious piece of Popish foppery from over our communion-table;
this has gained you the applause and good will of all honest men,
who were scandalized to see that holy place defiled with so vile and
impertinent a representation.

"To what end or purpose was it put there, but to affront our most
gracious Sovereign, by placing at our very altar the known resemblance
of a person, who is the wife of his utter enemy, and pensioner to the
Whore of _Babylon_?

"When I say the known resemblance, I speak not only according to my
own knowledge; but appeal to all mankind who have seen the Princess
_Sobieski_, or any picture or resemblance of her, if the picture
of that angel in the white garment and blue mantle, which is there
supposed to be beating time to the musick, is not directly a great
likeness of that princess. This I insist on, and will stand and fall by
my assertion, provided they do not play any tricks with the picture, or
alter it for contradiction sake now it is down.

"Whether it was done by chance, or on purpose, I shall not determine;
but be it which it will, it has given great offence, and your Lordship
has acted the part of a wise and good prelate to order its removal.

"For surely, such a picture is far unfit for so sacred a place; a place
too solemn for such levities, too awful to be made the receptacle of
such trumpery: nay, admit it were not the resemblance of such a person,
can any thing be more absurd, than such a picture in such a place!

"But if it be the picture of that person, what can be more
sacrilegious, more impudently sacrilegious, than to have our sanctuary
defiled by those who make a mock of us and our holy religion? I mean,
our inveterate enemies the Papists, who would scruple to prophane no
place, so they might show their implacable hatred to our God, and our

"To our God, by making his holy altar the scene of their ribaldry, to
be approached with wantonness and curiosity, by the sons of _Belial_,
who come there to decypher the dumb libel, and sneer at the pictured
lampoon, which tacitly mocks the church, and openly affronts the State.

"To our King, by placing the resemblance of an avowed enemy to him
and his religion, at the very altar, to stand in view of a whole
congregation; a thing, in my opinion, much more audacious, than the
setting up her statue in the public streets.

"No wonder our church has been thronged with spectators, to the great
hindrance of divine worship, and annoyance of the parishioners, when
those crouds of irreverend persons, which were ever pouring in, came
not there to join in prayer with the rest of the congregation, but to
worship their Popish saint, and hug themselves with the conceit of
being alone in the secret.

"But at last the watch-word was blown, and the true intent of their
coming discovered. Then was it high time to complain to your Lordship,
when disturbances became so frequent, and the peace of the church was
so manifestly broken: that you, like another _Moses_, commanded the
tinctured abomination to be taken down, and no doubt but your Lordship
will call them to account who set it up.

"When your Lordship shall examine, who is the painter, and of what
principle? how long he had been from the Court of _Rome_, before
he painted that picture? and whether he brought no picture, or
resemblance, of the Princess _Sobieski_ over with him? you will not
repent of what you have done. But when you shall farther enquire after
the person who employed him; whether he be a Protestant? or, if he
call himself so, whether his children were not sent abroad to Popish
seminaries for education?

"When your Lordship, I say, shall examine into these particulars,
I doubt not of the inferences so wise a man will draw from such
convincing circumstances.

"And as your Lordship has begun to redress one abuse, I persuade myself
you will not stop here, but enquire likewise, by what authority it was
put there. This may, perhaps, open another scene to your Lordship's
view, and give you an opportunity, not only to ease the parish of
a very heavy burden it now groans under, but prevent its being run
to unnecessary and unwarranted expences for the future, by every
_Jac-----_ in an office.

"And, indeed, unless there was a sufficient warrant for such
alterations, the workmen should go to the right person's door,
and he that set them to work ought to pay them; for, in my humble
opinion, the place needed no alteration: it was decent, convenient,
and indeed ornamental enough before; there was no more sign, or fear
of its falling, than there was occasion to take it down, and deprive
the parish of a conveniency now very much wanted, I mean a little
vestry-room, which was behind the old communion table, where the books,
vessels, and vestments of the church, were ready at hand, and just at
the very altar; whereas now every thing is brought quite through the
body of the church, which in case of a croud (as of late has been but
too frequent) is both tedious and inconvenient to the last degree.

"But, notwithstanding this, it was resolutely taken down, to gratify
the pride and malice of some persons, who thirsted to eternize their
names, and affront the government. What have been the consequences of
all this, but an eye-sore and heart-burning to the honest and loyal
part of the inhabitants, and a continual hurly-burly of loiterers from
all parts of the town, to see our Popish raree-show?"

After a digression on the famous altar at _White-Chapel_, in which
Dean _Kennet_ was said to be satirized, and some general observations
on pictures in churches, the Letter-writer adds, "Never before was any
Popish saint put over the communion-table in a Protestant church. The
Last Supper, the Passion, Crucifixion, or some other incidents of our
Blessed Saviour's life, are the general subjects given to painters on
these occasions; but to have a concert of musick, &c. (suppose it were
not the Pretender's spouse, and probably some more of his family, under
the form of angels) is the most abrupt and foreign that I ever saw or
heard of.

"What surprizes me most is, that any of my fellow parishioners should
not only dispute your Lordship's commands, delay the execution of your
just injunction, when it was most reasonable and necessary, but pester
your Lordship with impertinent petitions and remonstrances, as if they
were injured and oppressed, or your Lordship misinformed. This must be
the reason; or to what purpose did they trifle with and contest your
Lordship's ordinance? But you are too just a man to give any sentence
but the most impartial, and too steady to give up any point, where the
peace of the Church and the honour of the King is concerned.

"Whoever murmurs at its being taken down, takes the part of those who
set it up; and whoever takes their part, is as bad as themselves, and
would do the like on the like opportunity. What can they object against
its being removed? What can they offer for having it remain? But why's,
and why not's. As, Why should it be removed? What hurt did it do? Why
should so much money be thrown away? And, why might not that picture
be there as well as any other? Why does your Lordship interfere in the
matter? This, with a glance of complaint at your Lordship, and severe
invectives against those who solicited that interposition, calling
them informers, busy, forward, mischief-making fellows, who had better
mind their own business, and such like ribaldry, is all they can say
for themselves. But these are the worst reasons in the world, and
invidious queries only to evade an argument, and are not to be admitted
in a debate of this nature, where a direct reason for, or against,
is required. But give me leave, my Lord, and I will, in a few words,
answer all their queries, which seem so weighty and formidable to the
vulgar and ignorant.

"Why should it be removed? may be answered by another question,
What business had it there? But as I scorn such quibbling ways of
reasoning, I shall answer them, because it is unfit for that sacred
place. If it is the Princess _Sobieski's_ image, it is sacrilegious
and traiterous, and therefore ought to be removed. If it is, as they
say, a choir of heavenly angels at a practice of musick, playing on
earthly instruments, it is impertinent and absurd to the last degree,
and therefore ought to be removed from a place where the utmost decorum
should be kept.

"What hurt does it, say they? To which I answer, it hurted or disturbed
the peace of the church, and was so far hurtful, as we were hindered
or annoyed in our devotions; it made a division in the parish, and
was so far hurtful, as it tended to the breach of peace and good
neighbourhood; and therefore I think it ought to be removed, since, not
to answer them with a question, but a common saying, it did hurt enough.

"Why should so much money be thrown away? Ay, there's the grievance;
but I shall tell them, they may thank themselves, it was the act and
deed of their own cabal; and though they might triumph and laugh
in their sleeves for a while, yet murder will out, and they might
expect to be paid in their own coin one time or other. There was no
occasion to remove the old communion-table and vestry; and therefore
all the money is thrown away; the worse their management. Nor was there
any necessity of so sumptuous an altar-piece, or of that picture in
particular, therefore so much money as that picture cost, which, by the
bye, is no trifling sum[1] (the painter, as well as his masters, being
no small fool), is entirely thrown away, and has been cast into _The
Thames_; or, as the vulgar have it, thrown down the kennel.

"It was set up against the will of the major part of the parish, and
not without much murmur and complaint; there was yet a much greater
majority for pulling it down; if therefore so much money is thrown
away, it is pity the parish should pay it; and, no doubt, when your
Lordship comes to enquire by what authority a set of men ran the
parish so much in debt for their own whims, and without any manner of
occasion, you will do us justice, and teach such persons for the future
to consult the bishop, and have the general consent of the parish,
before they run into such extravagancies.

"The tradesmen want their money, and the parish cannot pay them: your
Lordship therefore will do very well to adjust this matter, that they
may know where to go for their money.

"Their delaying to take down their idol, was a tacit disputing your
lordship's commands, irreligious and contumacious to the last degree:
and indeed I cannot say but some of the public prints[2] gave me great
anxiety, when they had the impudence to assure the world it was not to
be taken down: but that anxiety was of short continuance; for I had
the satisfaction the next morning to find it removed, and whole crowds
of idle persons who came to see it disappointed; then I found, to my
great comfort, that you were not to be biassed; but, as you had begun
the good work, you had gone through with it, and made them take it down
with a witness."

[1] It cost fourscore pounds.

[2] _The Post-Boy_ and _Daily Journal_ of _Saturday, September_ 4.

N° III. [See p. 414.]

An Account of what seemed most remarkable in the Five Days'
Peregrination of the Five following Persons, viz. Messieurs TOTHALL,
SCOTT, HOGARTH, THORNHILL, and FORREST; begun on _Saturday, May_
27, 1732, and finished on the 31st of the same Month. Imitated in
_Hudibrasticks_ by one well acquainted with some of the Travellers, and
of the Places here celebrated, with Liberty of some Additions.

      "Abi tu, et fac similiter."
              Inscription on _Dulwich_ College Porch.

  'Twas first of morn on _Saturday_,
  The seven-and-twentieth day of _May_,
  When _Hogarth, Thornhill, Tothall, Scott,_
  And _Forrest_, who this journal wrote,
  From _Covent-Garden_ took departure,                            5
  To see the world by land and water.

  Our march we with a song begin;
  Our hearts were light, our breeches thin.
  We meet with nothing of adventure
  Till _Billingsgate's Dark-house_ we enter;                     10
  Where we diverted were, while baiting,
  With ribaldry, not worth relating,
  (Quite suited to the dirty place):
  But what most pleas'd us was his Grace
  Of _Puddle Dock_, a porter grim,                               15
  Whose portrait _Hogarth_, in a whim,
  Presented him in caricature,
  He pasted on the cellar-door.[1]

  But hark! the Watchman cries "Past one!"
  'Tis time that we on board were gone.                          20
  Clean straw we find laid for our bed,
  A tilt for shelter over head.
  The boat is soon got under sail,
  Wind near S. E. a mackrel gale,
  Attended by a heavy rain;                                      25
  We try to sleep, but try in vain,
  So sing a song, and then begin
  To feast on biscuit, beef, and gin.

  At _Purfleet_ find three men of war,
  The _Dursley_ galley, _Gibraltar_,                             30
  And _Tartar_ pink, and of this last
  The pilot begg'd of us a cast
  To _Gravesend_, which he greatly wanted,
  And readily by us was granted.
  The grateful man, to make amends,                              35
  Told how the officers and friends
  Of _England_ were by _Spaniards_ treated,
  And shameful instances repeated.

  While he these insults was deploring,
  _Hogarth_, like Premier, fell to snoring,                      40
  But waking cry'd, "I dream'd"--and then
  Fell fast asleep, and snor'd again.

  The morn clear'd up, and after five
  At port of _Gravesend_ we arrive,
  But found it hard to get on shore;                             45
  His boat a young son of a whore
  Had fix'd just at our landing-place,
  And swore we should not o'er it pass;
  But, spite of all the rascal's tricks,
  We made a shift to land by six,                                50
  And up to Mrs. _Bramble's_ go
  [A house that we shall better know],
  There get a barber for our wigs,
  Wash hands and faces, stretch our legs,
  Had toast and butter, and a pot                                55
  Of coffee (our third breakfast) got:
  Then, paying what we had to pay,
  For _Rochester_ we took our way,
  Viewing the new church as we went,
  And th' unknown person's monument.                             60

  The beauteous prospects found us talk.
  And shorten'd much our two hours walk,
  Though by the way we did not fail
  To stop and take three pots of ale,
  And this enabled us by ten                                     65
  At _Rochester_ to drink again.

  Now, Muse, assist, while I declare
  (Like a true _English_ traveller)
  What vast variety we survey
  In the short compass of one day.                               70

  We scarce had lost the sight of _Thames_,
  When the fair _Medway's_ winding streams,
  And far-extending _Rochester_,
  Before our longing eyes appear:
  The Castle and Cathedral grace                                 75
  One prospect, so we mend our pace;
  Impatient for a nearer view,
  But first must _Strood's_ rough street trudge through,
  And this our feet no short one find;
  However, with a cheerful mind,                                 80
  All difficulties we get o'er,
  And soon are on the _Medway's_ shore.
  New objects here before us rise,
  And more than satisfy our eyes,
  The stately Bridge from side to side,                          85
  The roaring cataracts of the tide,
  Deafen our ears, and charm our sight,
  And terrify while they delight.
  These we pass over to the Town,
  And take our Quarters at _The Crown_,                          90
  To which the Castle is so near,
  That we all in a hurry were
  The grand remains on't to be viewing;
  It is indeed a noble ruin,
  Must have been very strong, but length                         95
  Of time has much impair'd its strength:
  The lofty Tower as high or higher
  Seems than the old Cathedral's spire;
  Yet we determin'd were to gain
  Its top, which cost some care and pain;                       100
  When there arriv'd, we found a well,
  The depth of which I cannot tell;
  Small holes cut in on every side
  Some hold for hands and feet provide,
  By which a little boy we saw                                  105
  Go down, and bring up a jack-daw.

  All round about us then we gaze,
  Observing, not without amaze,
  How towns here undistinguish'd join,
  And one vast One to form combine.                             110
  _Chatham_ with _Rochester_ seems but one,
  Unless we're shewn the boundary-stone.
  That and its Yards contiguous lie
  To pleasant _Brompton_ standing high;
  The Bridge across the raging flood                            115
  Which _Rochester_ divides from _Strood_,
  Extensive _Strood_, on t'other side,
  To _Frindsbury_ quite close ally'd:
  The country round, and river fair,
  Our prospects made beyond compare,                            120
  Which quite in raptures we admire;
  Then down to face of earth retire.

  Up the Street walking, first of all
  We take a view of the Town-Hall.
  Proceeding farther on, we spy                                 125
  A house, design'd to catch the eye,
  With front so rich, by plastick skill,
  As made us for a while stand still:
  Four huge Hobgoblins grace the wall,
  Which we four Bas Relievo's call;                             130
  They the four Seasons represent,
  At least were form'd for that intent.

  Then _Watts's Hospital_ we see
  (No common curiosity):
  Endow'd (as on the front appears)                             135
  In favour of poor travellers;
  Six such it every night receives,
  Supper and lodging _gratis_ gives,
  And to each man next morn does pay
  A groat, to keep him on his way:                              140
  But the contagiously infected,
  And rogues and proctors, are rejected.

  It gave us too some entertainment
  To find out what this bounteous man meant.
  Yet were we not so highly feasted,                            145
  But that we back to dinner hasted.

  By twelve again we reach _The Crown_,
  But find our meat not yet laid down,
  So (spite of "Gentlemen, d'ye call?")
  On chairs quite fast asleep we fall,                          150
  And with clos'd eyes again survey,
  In dreams, what we have seen to-day:
  Till dinner's coming up, when we
  As ready are as that can be.

  If we describe it not, we're undone,                          155
  You'll scarce believe we came from _London_.
  With due attention then prepare
  Yourself to hear our bill of fare.
  For our first course a dish there was
  Of soles and flounders with crab-sauce,                       160
  A stuff'd and roast calf's-heart beside,
  With 'purt'nance minc'd, and liver fry'd;
  And for a second course, they put on
  Green pease and roasted leg of mutton:
  The cook was much commended for't;                            165
  Fresh was the beer, and sound the port:
  So that _nem. con._ we all agree
  (Whatever more we have to see)
  From table we'll not rise till three.

  Our shoes are clean'd, 'tis three o'clock,                    170
  Come let's away to _Chatham-Dock_;
  We shan't get there till almost four,
  To see't will take at least an hour;
  Yet _Scott_ and _Hogarth_ needs must stop
  At the Court-Hall to play _Scotch_ hop.                       175

  To _Chatham_ got, ourselves we treat
  With Shrimps, which as we walk we eat.
  For speed we take a round-a-bout-
  way, as we afterwards found out:
  At length reach the King's yards and docks,                   180
  Admire the ships there on the stocks,
  The men of war afloat we view,
  Find means to get aboard of two;[2]
  But here I must not be prolix,
  For we went home again at six,                                185
  There smoak'd our pipes, and drank our wine,
  And comfortably sat till nine,
  Then, with our travels much improv'd,
  To our respective beds we mov'd.

  _Sunday_ at seven we rub our eyes,                            190
  But are too lazy yet to rise:
  _Hogarth_ and _Thornhill_ tell their dreams,
  And, reasoning deeply on those themes,
  After much learned speculation,
  Quite suitable to the occasion,                               195
  Left off as wise as they begun,
  Which made for us in bed good fun.

  But by and by, when up we got,
  _Sam Scott_ was missing, "Where's _Sam Scott_?"
  "Oh! here he comes. Well! whence come you?"                   200
  "Why from the bridge, taking a view[3]
  Of something that did highly please me,
  But people passing by would teaze me
  With 'Do you work on _Sundays_, friend?'
  So that I could not make an end."                             205

  At this we laugh'd, for 'twas our will
  Like men of taste that day to kill.
  So after breakfast we thought good
  To cross the bridge again to _Strood_:
  Thence eastward we resolve to go,                             210
  And through the Hundred march of _Hoo_,
  Wash'd on the north side by the _Thames_,
  And on the south by _Medway's_ streams.
  Which to each other here incline,
  Till at _The Nore_ in one they join.                          215

  Before we _Frindsbury_ could gain,
  There fell a heavy shower of rain,
  When crafty _Scott_ a shelter found
  Under a hedge upon the ground,
  There of his friends a joke he made,                          220
  But rose most woefully bewray'd;
  How against him the laugh was turn'd,
  And he the vile disaster mourn'd!
  We work, all hands, to make him clean,
  And fitter to be smelt and seen.                              225
  But, while we scrap'd his back and side,
  All on a sudden, out he cried,
  "I've lost my cambrick handkercher,
  'Twas lent me by my wife so dear:
  What I shall do I can't devise,                               230
  I've nothing left to wipe my eyes."

  At last the handkerchief was found,
  To his great comfort, safe and sound,
  He's now recover'd and alive;
  So in high spirits all arrive                                 235
  At _Frindsbury_, fam'd for prospects fair,
  But we much more diverted were
  With what the parish church did grace,
  "A list of some who lov'd the place,
  In memory of their good actions,                              240
  And gratitude for their benefactions.
  Witness our hands--_Will. Gibbons_, Vicar--"
  And no one else.--This made us snicker:
  At length, with countenances serious,
  We all agreed it was mysterious,                              245
  Not guessing that the reason might
  Be, the Churchwardens could not write.

  At ten, in council it was mov'd,
  Whoe'er was tir'd, or disapprov'd
  Of our proceedings, might go back,                            250
  And cash to bear his charges take.
  With indignation this was heard:
  Each was for all events prepar'd.
  So all with one consent agreed
  To _Upnor-Castle_ to proceed,                                 255
  And at the sutler's there we din'd
  On such coarse fare as we could find.

  The Castle[4] was not large, but strong,
  And seems to be of standing long.
  Twenty-four men its garrison,                                 260
  And just for every man a gun;
  Eight guns were mounted, eight men active,
  The rest were rated non-effective.
  Here an old couple, who had brought
  Some cockles in their boat, besought                          265
  That one of us would buy a few,
  For they were very fresh and new.
  I did so, and 'twas charity;
  He was quite blind, and half blind she.

  Now growing frolicksome and gay,                              270
  Like boys, we, after dinner, play,
  But, as the scene lay in a fort,
  Something like war must be our sport:
  Sticks, stones, and hogs-dung, were our weapons,
  And, as in such frays oft it happens,                         275
  Poor _Tothall's_ cloaths here went to pot,
  So that he could not laugh at _Scott_.

  From hence all conquerors we go
  To visit the church-yard at _Hoo_.
  At _Hoo_ we found an Epitaph,                                 280
  Which made us (as 'twill make you) laugh:
  A servant maid, turn'd poetaster,
  Wrote it in honour of her master;
  I therefore give you (and I hope you
  Will like it well) a _Vera Copia_:                            285
    "And.wHen.he.Died.You plainly.see
    And.in.Doing.so.it DoTh.prevail.
    that.Ion.him.can.well.bes.Tow.this Rayel.
    On.Year.sarved.him.it is well.none.                         290
    BuT Thanks.beto.God.it.is.all my.One."

  While here among the Graves we stumble,
  Our _Hogarth's_ guts began to grumble,
  Which he to ease, turn'd up his tail
  Over a monumental rail;                                       295
  _Tothall_, for this indecent action,
  Bellowing on him just correction
  With nettles, as there was no birch,
  He fled for refuge to the church,
  And shamefully the door besh-t;                               300
  O filthy dauber! filthy wit!

  Long at one place we must not stay,
  'Tis almost four, let's haste away.
  But here's a sign; 'tis rash we think,
  To leave the place before we drink.                           305
  We meet with liquor to our mind,
  Our hostess complaisant and kind:
  She was a widow, who, we found,
  Had (as the phrase is) been shod round,
  That is, had buried husbands four,                            310
  And had no want of charms for more;
  Yet her we leave, and, as we go,
  _Scott_ bravely undertook to show
  That through the world we could not pass,
  How thin soe'er our breeches was;                             315
  "'Tis true, indeed, we may go round,
  But through"--then pointed to the ground.
  So well he manag'd the debate,
  We own'd he was a man of weight:
  And so indeed he was this once,                               320
  His pockets we had fill'd with stones:
  But here we'd serv'd ourselves a trick,
  Of which he might have made us sick:
  We'd furnish'd him with ammunition
  Fit to knock down all opposition;                             325
  And, knowing well his warmth of temper,
  Out of his reach began to scamper,
  Till, growing cooler, he pretends
  His passion feign'd, so all are friends.
  Our danger now becomes a joke,                                330
  And peaceably we go to _Stoke_.
  About the church we nothing can see
  To strike or entertain our fancy:
  But near a farm, on an elm tree,
  A long pole fix'd upright we see,                             335
  And tow'rd the top of it was plac'd
  A weathercock, quite in high taste,
  Which all of us, ere we go further,
  Pronounce of the Composite order.

  First, on a board turn'd by the wind,                         340
  A painter had a cock design'd,
  A common weather-cock was above it,
  This turn'd too as the wind did move it;
  Then on the spindle's point so small
  A shuttlecock stuck o'ertopp'd them all.                      345

  This triple alliance gave occasion
  To much improving speculation.

  Alas! we ne'er know when we are well,
  So at _Northfleet_ again must quarrel;
  But fought not here with sticks and stones                    350
  (For those, you know, might break our bones)!
  A well just by, full to the brim,
  Did fitter for our purpose seem;
  So furiously we went to dashing,
  Till our coats wanted no more washing;                        355
  But this our heat and courage cooling,
  'Twas soon high time to leave such fooling.
  To _The Nag's Head_ we therefore hie,
  To drink, and to be turn'd adry.

  At six, while supper was preparing,                           360
  And we about the marsh-lands staring,
  Our two game-cocks, _Tothall_ and _Scott_,
  To battling once again were got:
  But here no weapons could they find,
  Save what the cows dropp'd from behind;                       365
  With these they pelted, till we fancy
  Their cloaths look'd something like a tansy.

  At seven we all come home again,
  _Tothall_ and _Scott_ their garments clean;
  Supper we get, and, when that's o'er,                         370
  A tiff of punch drink at the door;
  Then, as the beds were only three,
  Draw cuts who shall so lucky be
  As here to sleep without a chum;
  To _Tothall's_ share the prize did come                       375
  _Hogarth_ and _Thornhill, Scott_ and I,
  In pairs, like man and wife, must lie.
  Then mighty frolicksome they grow,
  At _Scott_ and me the stocking throw,
  Fight with their wigs, in which perhaps                       380
  They sleep, for here we found no caps.

  Up at eleven again we get,
  Our sheets were so confounded wet;
  We dress, and lie down in our cloaths;
  _Monday_, at three, awak'd and rose,                          385
  And of the cursed gnats complain,
  Yet make a shift to sleep again.

  Till six o'clock we quiet lay,
  And then got out for the whole day;
  To fetch a barber, out we send;                               390
  Stripp'd, and in boots, he does attend,
  For he's a fisherman by trade;
  Tann'd was his face, shock was his head;
  He flours our wigs, and trims our faces,
  And the top barber of the place is.                           395
  The cloth is for our breakfast spread;
  A bowl of milk and toasted bread
  Are brought, of which while _Forrest_ eats.
  To draw our pictures _Hogarth_ sits;[5]
  _Thornhill_ is in the barber's hands,                         400
  Shaving himself _Will Tothall_ stands;
  While _Scott_ is in a corner sitting,
  And an unfinish'd piece completing.

  Our reckoning about eight we pay,
  And take for Isle of _Greane_ our way;                        405
  To keep the road we were directed,
  But, as 'twas bad, this rule neglected;
  A tempting path over a stile
  Let us astray above a mile;
  Yet the right road at last we gain,                           410
  And joy to find ourselves at _Greane_;
  Where my Dame _Husbands_, at _The Chequer_,
  Refresh'd us with some good malt liquor;
  Into her larder then she runs,
  Brings out salt pork, butter and buns,                        415
  And coarse black bread; but that's no matter,
  'Twill fortify us for the water.
  Here _Scott_ so carefully laid down
  His penknife which had cost a crown,
  That all in vain we sought to find it,                        420
  And, for his comfort, say, "Ne'er mind it;"
  For to _Sheerness_ we now must go:
  To this the ferryman says, "No."
  We to another man repair'd:
  He too says, "No--it blows too hard."                         425
  But, while we study how to get there
  In spite of this tempestuous weather,
  Our landlady a scheme propos'd,
  With which we fortunately clos'd,
  Was to the shore to go, and try                               430
  To hail the ships in ordinary,
  So we might get, for no great matter,
  A boat to take us o'er the water.
  We haste, and soon the shore we tread,
  With various kinds of shells bespread.                        435
  And in a little time we spy'd
  A boat approaching on our side;
  The man to take us in agreed,
  But that was difficult indeed,
  Till, holding in each hand an oar,                            440
  He made a sort of bridge to shore,
  O'er which on hands and knees we crawl,[6]
  And so get safe on board the yawl.

  In little time we seated were,
  And now to _Shepey's_ coast draw near;                        445
  When suddenly, with loud report,
  The cannons roar from ships and fort,
  And, like tall fellows, we impute
  To our approach this grand salute:
  But soon, alas! our pride was humbled,                        450
  And from this fancy'd height we tumbled,
  On recollecting that the day
  The nine and twentieth was of _May_.

  The firing had not long been ended.
  Before at _Sheerness_ we were landed,                         455
  Where on the battery while we walk,
  And of the charming prospect talk,
  _Scott_ from us in a hurry runs,
  And, getting to the new-fir'd guns,
  Unto their touch-holes clapp'd his nose;                      460
  _Hogarth_ sits down, and trims his toes;
  These whims when we had made our sport,
  Our turn we finish round the fort,
  And are at one for _Queenborough_ going:
  Bleak was the walk, the wind fierce blowing,                  465
  And driving o'er our heads the spray;
  On loose beach stones, our pebbly way,
  But _Thornhill_ only got a fall,
  Which hurt him little, if at all:
  So merrily along we go,                                       470
  And reach that famous town by two.

  _Queenborough_ consists of one short street,[7]
  Broad, and well-pav'd, and very neat;
  Nothing like dirt offends the eye,
  Scarce any people could we spy:                               475
  The town-house, for the better show,
  Is mounted on a portico
  Of piers and arches, number four,
  And crown'd at top with a clock-tower;
  But all this did not reach so high                            480
  As a flag-staff, that stood just by,
  On which a standard huge was flying
  (The borough's arms, the king's supplying),
  Which on high festivals they display
  To do the honours of the day.                                 485
  As for salutes, excus'd they are,
  Because they have no cannon there.

  To the church-yard we first repair,
  And hunt for choice inscriptions there,
  Search stones and rails, till almost weary all,               490
  In hopes to find something material.
  When one at last, of pyebald style
  (Though grave the subject) made us smile:
  Telling us first, in humble prose,
  "That _Henry Knight_ doth here repose,                        495
  A _Greenland_ Trader twice twelve year,
  As master and as harpooneer;"
  Then, in as humble verse, we read
  (As by himself in person said)
  "In _Greenland_ I whales, sea-horse, and bears did slay,      500
  Though now my body is intombed in clay."

  The house at which we were to quarter
  Is call'd _The Swans_; this rais'd our laughter.
  Because the sign is _The Red Lion_,
  So strange a blunder we cry "Fie on!"                         505
  But, going in, all neat we see
  And clean; so was our landlady:
  With great civility she told us,
  She had not beds enough to hold us,
  But a good neighbour had just by,                             510
  Where some of us perhaps might lie.
  She sends to ask. The merry dame
  Away to us directly came,
  Quite ready our desires to grant,
  And furnish us with what we want.                             515

  Back to the church again we go;
  Which is but small, ill built, and low,
  View'd the inside, but still see we
  Nothing of curiosity
  Unless we suffer the grave-digger                             520
  In this our work to make a figure,
  Whom just beside us now we have,
  Employ'd in opening of a grave.

  A prating spark indeed he was,
  Knew all the scandal of the place,                            525
  And often rested from his labours,
  To give the history of his neighbours;
  Told who was who, and what was what,
  Till on him we bestow'd a pot
  (For he forgot not, you may think,                            530
  "Masters, I hope, you'll make me drink!"),
  At this his scurrilous tongue run faster,
  Till "a sad dog" he call'd his master,
  Told us the worshipful the Mayor
  Was but a custom-house officer;                               535
  Still rattling on till we departed,
  Not only with his tales diverted,
  But so much wisdom we had got.
  We treated him with t'other pot.

  Return we now to the town-hall.                               540
  That, like the borough, is but small,
  Under its portico's a space,
  Which you may call the market-place,
  Just big enough to hold the stocks,
  And one, if not two, butcher's blocks,                        545
  Emblems of plenty and excess,
  Though you can no where meet with less:
  For though 'tis call'd a market-town
  (As they are not asham'd to own)
  Yet we saw neither butcher's meat,                            550
  Nor fish, nor fowl, nor aught to eat.
  Once in seven years, they say, there's plenty,
  When strangers come to represent ye.

  Hard at _The Swans_ had been our fare,
  But that some _Harwich_ men were there,                       555
  Who lately had some lobsters taken,
  With which, and eke some eggs and bacon,
  Our bellies we design to fill;
  But first will clamber up the hill,
  A most delightful spot of ground,                             560
  O'erlooking all the country round;
  On which there formerly has been
  The palace of _Philippa_, queen
  To the third _Edward_, as they tell,
  Now nought remains on 't but a well:                          565
  But 'tis from hence, says common fame,
  The borough gets its royal name.

  Two sailors at this well we meet,
  And do each other kindly greet:
  "What brings you here, my lads?" cry we.                      570
  "Thirst, please your honours, as you see;
  For (adds the spokesman) we are here
  Waiting for our young officer,
  A midshipman on board _The Rose_,
  (For General _S----'s_ son he goes):                          575
  We and our messmates, six in all,
  Yesterday brought him in our yawl,
  And when, as we had been commanded,
  Quite safe and dry we had him landed,
  By running of her fast aground                                580
  At tide of ebb, he quickly found
  That he might go and see _Sheerness_,
  So here he left us pennyless,
  To feast on _Queenborough_ air and water,
  Or starve, to him 'tis no great matter;                       585
  While he among his friends at ease is,
  And will return just when he pleases;
  Perhaps he may come back to-day;
  If not, he knows that we must stay."

  So one of us gave him a tester,                               590
  When both cried out, "God bless you, master!"
  Then ran to rouse their sleeping fellows,
  To share their fortune at the alehouse.

  Hence to the creek-side, one and all,
  We go to see _The Rose's_ yawl,                               595
  And found her bedded in the mud,
  Immovable till tide of flood.

  The sailors here had cockles got,
  Which gratefully to us they brought,
  'Twas all with which they could regale us;                    600
  This t'other sixpence sent to th' alehouse:
  So merrily they went their way,
  And we were no less pleas'd than they.

  At seven about the town we walk,
  And with some pretty damsels talk.                            605
  Beautiful nymphs indeed, I ween,
  Who came to see, and to be seen.

  Then to our _Swans_ returning, there
  We borrow'd a great wooden chair,
  And plac'd it in the open street,                             610
  Where, in much state, did _Hogarth_ sit
  To draw the townhouse, church, and steeple,[8]
  Surrounded by a crowd of people;
  Tag, rag, and bobtail, stood quite thick there,
  And cry'd, "What a sweet pretty picture!"                     615

  This was not finish'd long, before
  We saw, about the Mayor's fore-door,
  Our honest sailors in a throng:
  We call'd one of them from among
  The rest, to tell us the occasion;                            620
  Of which he gave us this relation:

  "Our midshipman is just come back,
  And chanc'd to meet or overtake
  A sailor walking with a woman
  (May be, she's honest, may be, common):                       625
  He thought her handsome, so his honour
  Would needs be very sweet upon her:
  But this the seaman would not suf-
  fer, and this put him in a huff.
  'Lubber, avast,' says sturdy _John_,                          630
  'Avast, I say, let her alone;
  You shall not board her, she's my wife.
  Sheer off, Sir, if you love your life:
  I've a great mind your back to lick;'
  And up he held his oaken stick.                               635

  "Our midship hero this did scare:
  'I'll swear the peace before the Mayor,'
  Says he; so to the Mayor's they trudge:"
  How then a case by such a judge
  Determin'd was, I cannot say,                                 640
  We thought it not worth while to stay:
  For it strikes nine, "How th' evening spends!
  Come, let us drink to all our friends
  A chearful glass, and eat a bit."
  So to our supper down we sit;                                 645
  When something merry check'd our mirth:
  The _Harwich_ men had got a birth
  Closely adjoining to our room,
  And were to spend their evening come:
  The wall was thin, and they so near,                          650
  That all they say, or sing, we hear.
  We sung our songs, we crack'd our jokes,
  Their emulation this provokes;
  And they perform'd so joyously,
  As distanc'd hollow all our glee;                             655
  So (were it not a bull) I'd lay,
  This night they fairly won the day.

  Now plenteously we drink of flip,
  In hopes we shall the better sleep;
  Some rest the long day's work requires;                       660
  _Scott_ to his lodging first retires;
  His landlady is waiting for him,
  And to his chamber walks before him;
  In her fair hand a light she bears,
  And shows him up the garret-stairs;                           665
  Away comes he greatly affronted,
  And his disgrace to us recounted.
  This makes us game, we roast him for it,
  "_Scott's_ too high-minded for a garret."
  But _Tothall_ more humanely said,                             670
  "Come, _Scott_, be easy, take my bed,
  And to your garret I will go."
  (This great good-nature sure did show):
  There finding nought him to entertain
  But a flock-bed without a curtain,                            675
  He too in haste came back, and got
  Away to share his bed with _Scott_,
  And at eleven each goes to nest,
  Till _Tuesday_ morn to take his rest.

  At six comes _Hogarth_, "Rise, Sirs, rise,"                   680
  Says he, with roguery in his eyes,
  "_Scott's_ landlady is below stairs.
  And roundly the good woman swears,
  That for his lodging he shall pay,
  (Where his tir'd bones he scorn'd to lay)                     685
  Or he should go before the Mayor."
  She's in the right on't, we declare,
  For this would cut the matter short,
  (At least 'twould make us special sport):
  But here she balk'd us, and, no doubt,                        690
  Had wit enough to find us out.
  Our mark thus miss'd, we kindly go,
  To see how he and _Tothall_ do.
  We find the doors all open were,
  (It seems that's not unusual here):                           695
  They're very well, but _Scott_ last night
  Had been in a most dreadful fright:
  "When to his room he got," he said,
  "And just was stepping into bed,
  He thought he saw the bed-cloaths stir,                       700
  So back he flew in mortal fear;
  But taking heart of grace, he try'd
  To feel what 'twas, when out it cry'd
  Again he starts, but to his joy,
  It prov'd a little harmless boy,                              705
  Who by mistake had thither crept,
  And soundly (till he wak'd him) slept
  So from his fears recover'd quite
  He got to sleep, and slept all night."
  We laugh at this, and he laughs too,                          710
  For, pray, what better could he do?

  At ten we leave our _Lion-Swans_,
  And to the higher lands advance,
  Call on our laundress by the way,
  For the led shirts left yesterday                             715
  To wash; "She's sorry, they're not yet
  Quite dry!"--"Why then we'll take them wet:
  They'll dry and iron'd be, we hope,
  At _Minster_, where we next shall stop."

  The way was good, the weather fair,                           720
  The prospects most delightful were.
  To _Minster_ got, with labour hard
  We climb'd the hill to the church-yard,
  But, when arriv'd there, did not fail
  To read some verses on a rail                                 725
  Well worth transcribing, we agree,
  Whether you think so, you may see.
  "Here interr'd _George Anderson_ doth lye,
  By fallen on an anchor he did dye
  In _Sheerness_ yard on _Good Friday_                          730
  The 6th of _April_, I do say.
  All you that read my allegy be alwaies
  Ready for to dye--aged 42 years."

  Of monuments that here they shew
  Within the church, we drew but two;                           735
  One an ambassador of _Spain's_,[9]
  T' other Lord _Shorland's_[10] dust contains,
  Of whom they have a wondrous story,
  Which (as they tell) I'll lay before ye.

  The Lord of _Shorland_, on a day,[11]                         740
  Chancing to take a ride this way,
  About a corpse observ'd a crowd,
  Against their priest complaining loud,
  That he would not the service say,
  Till somebody his fees should pay.                            745

  On this, his lordship too did rave,
  And threw the priest into the grave,
  "Make haste, and fill it up," said he,
  "We'll bury both without a fee."
  But when got home, and cool, reflecting                       750
  On the strange part he had been acting,
  He drew a state up of the case,
  Humbly petitioning for grace,
  And to the sea gallop'd away,
  Where, at that time, a frigate lay,                           755
  With Queen _Elizabeth_ on board,
  When (strange to tell!) this hare-brain'd Lord
  On horseback swam to the ship's side,
  And there to see the Queen apply'd.
  His case she reads; her royal breast                          760
  Is mov'd to grant him his request.
  His pardon thankfully he takes,
  And, swimming still, to land he makes:
  But, on his riding up the beach,
  He an old woman met, a witch:                                 765
  "This horse, which now your life doth save,"
  Says she, "will bring you to the grave."
  "You'll prove a lier," says my lord,
  "You ugly hag!" and with his sword
  (Acting a most ungrateful part)                               770
  His panting steed stabb'd to the heart.

  It happen'd, after many a day,
  That with some friends he stroll'd that way,
  And this strange story, as they walk,
  Became the subject of their talk:                             775
  When, "There the carcase lies," he cry'd,
  "Upon the beach by the sea-side."
  As 'twas not far, he led them to't,
  And kick'd the skull up with his foot,
  When a sharp bone pierc'd through his shoe,                   780
  And wounded grievously his toe,
  Which mortify'd: so he was kill'd,
  And the hag's prophecy fulfill'd.
  See there his cross-legg'd figure laid,
  And near his feet the horse's head![12]                       785

  The tomb[13] is of too old a fashion
  To tally well with this narration;
  But of the truth we would not doubt,
  Nor put our _Cicerone_ out:
  It gives a moral hint at least,                               790
  That gratitude's due to a beast.
  So far it's good, whoever made it,
  And that it may not fail of credit,
  A horsehead vane adorns the steeple,
  And it's _Horse-church_ call'd by the people.                 795

  Our shirts dry'd at _The George_ we get,
  We dine there, and till four we sit;
  And now in earnest think of home:
  So to _Sheerness_ again we come.
  Where for a bum-boat we agree,                                800
  And about five put off to sea.
  We presently were under sail,
  The tide our friend, south-east the gale,
  Quite wind enough, and some to spare,
  But we to that accustom'd were.                               805

  When we had now got past _The Nore_,
  And lost the sight of _Shepey's_ shore,
  The ebbing tide of _Thames_ we met,
  The wind against it fiercely set!
  This made a short and tumbling sea,                           810
  And finely toss'd indeed were we.

  The porpoises in stormy weather
  Are often seen in shoals together;
  About us while they roll and play,
  One in his gambols miss'd his way,                            815
  And threw himself so far on shore,
  We thought he would get off no more;
  But with great struggling and some pain,
  He did, and went to play again.
  On this we moralising say,                                    820
  "How thoughtless is the love of play!"
  When we ourselves with sorrow find
  Our pleasures too with pain conjoin'd.
  For troubles croud upon us thick;
  Our hero, _Scott_, grows very sick;                           825
  Poor _Hogarth_ makes wry faces too
  (Worse faces than he ever drew).
  You'll guess what were the consequences,
  Not overpleasing to our senses;
  And this misfortune was augmented                             830
  By Master _Tothall's_ being acquainted
  With the commander of a sloop,
  At _Holy Haven_ near _The Hope_.
  "There's Captain _Robinson_," says he,
  "A friend, whom I must call and see."                         835
  Up the ship's side he nimbly goes,
  While we lay overwhelm'd with woes
  Sick, and of winds and waves the sport.
  But then he made his visit short,
  And when a sup of punch he'd got,                             840
  Some lighted match to us he brought,
  A sovereign cordial this, no doubt,
  To men whose pipes had long been out.

  By seven o'clock our sick recover,
  And all are glad this trouble's over.                         845
  Now jovially we sail along,
  Our cockswain giving song for song.
  But soon our notes are chang'd; we found
  Our boat was on _Bly-sand_ aground,
  Just in the middle of the river;                              850
  Here _Tothall_ shew'd himself quite clever:
  And, knowing we must else abide
  Till lifted by the flowing tide,
  Work'd with our skippers, till the boat
  Was once more happily afloat.                                 855
  We all applaud his care and skill,
  So do the boatmen his good-will.

  Ere long the tide made upward, so
  With that before the wind we go,
  And, disembarking about ten,                                  860
  Our _Gravesend_ quarters reach again.

  Here Madam, smiling, comes to tell
  How glad she is to see us well:
  This kind reception we commended,
  And now thought all our troubles ended;                       865
  But, when for what we want we call,
  Something unlucky did befall.

  When we our travels first began
  _Scott_ (who's a very prudent man)
  Thought a great coat could do no harm,                        870
  And in the boat might keep him warm;
  So far perhaps you think him right,
  As we took water in the night:
  But when from hence we took our way
  On foot, the latter end of _May_,                             875
  He, quite as reasonably, thought
  'Twould be too heavy or too hot:
  "I'll leave it here," says he, "and take
  It with me at our coming back."
  And he most certainly design'd it:                            880
  But now the thing was, how to find it?

  We told him, he had been mistaken,
  And did without his hostess reckon.
  To him it was no jest; he swore
  "He left it there three days before,                          885
  This Mrs. _Bramble_ can't deny."
  "Sir, we shall find it by and by:"
  So out she goes, and rends her throat
  With "_Moll_, go find the gem'man's coat."
  The house _Moll_ searches round and round,                    890
  At last, with much ado, 'twas found--
  'Twas found, that, to the owner's cost,
  Or _Scott's_, the borrow'd coat was lost.
  "Coat lost!" says he, stamping and staring,
  Then stood like dumb, then fell to swearing:                  895
  He curs'd the ill-concluding ramble,
  He curs'd _Gravesend_ and mother _Bramble_.

  But, while his rage he thus express'd,
  And we his anger made our jest,
  Till wrath had almost got the upper-                          900
  hand of his reason, in came supper:
  To this at once his stomach turn'd,
  No longer it with fury burn'd,
  But hunger took the place of rage,
  And a good meal did both assuage.                             905
  He eat and drank, he drank and eat,
  The wine commended, and the meat:
  So we did all, and sat so late,
  That _Wednesday_ morn we lay till eight.
  Tobacco then, and wine provide,                               910
  Enough to serve us for this tide.
  Get breakfast, and our reckoning pay,
  And next prepare for _London_ hey;
  So, hiring to ourselves a wherry,
  We put off, all alive and merry.                              915

  The tide was strong, fair was the wind,
  _Gravesend_ is soon left far behind,
  Under the tilt on straw we lay,
  Observing what a charming day,
  There stretch'd at ease we smoke and drink,                   920
  _Londoners_ like, and now we think
  Our cross adventures all are past,
  And that at _Gravesend_ was the last:
  But cruel Fate to that says no;
  One yet shall Fortune find his foe.                           925

  While we (with various prospects cloy'd)
  In clouds of smoke ourselves enjoy'd,
  More diligent and curious, _Scott_
  Into the forecastle had got,
  And took his papers out, to draw                              930
  Some ships which right ahead he saw.
  There sat he, on his work intent,
  When, to increase our merriment,
  So luckily we shipp'd a sea,
  That he got sous'd, and only he.                              935
  This bringing to his mind a thought
  How much he wanted the great coat,
  Renew'd his anger and his grief;
  He curs'd _Gravesend_, the coat, and thief;
  And, still to heighten his regret,                            940
  His shirt was in his breeches wet:
  He draws it out, and lets it fly,
  Like a _French_ ensign, till 'tis dry,
  Then, creeping into shelter safe,
  Joins with the company and laugh.                             945
  Nothing more happen'd worthy note:

  At _Billingsgate_ we change our boat,
  And in another through bridge get,
  By two, to Stairs of _Somerset_,
  Welcome each other to the shore,                              950
  To _Convent Garden_ walk once more,
  And, as from _Bedford Arms_ we started,
  There wet our whistles ere we parted.

  With pleasure I observe, none idle
  Were in our travels, or employ'd ill,                         955
  _Tottall_, our treasurer, was just,
  And worthily discharg'd his trust;
  (We all sign'd his accounts as fair):
  _Sam Scott_ and _Hogarth_, for their share,
  The prospects of the sea and land did;                        960
  As _Thornhill_ of our tour the plan did;
  And _Forrest_ wrote this true relation
  Of our five days peregrination.

    This to attest, our names we've wrote all,
    Viz. _Thornhill, Hogarth, Scott_, and _Tothall_.            965

[1] This drawing unluckily has not been preserved.

[2] _The Royal Sovereign_ and _Marlborough_.

[3] Drawing II.

[4] Drawing III. The Castle by _Hogarth_; and some Shipping, riding
near it, by _Scott_.

[5] Drawing IV.

[6] Drawing V.

[7] Drawing VI.

[8] Drawing VI.

[9] Drawing VII. by _Scott_.

[10] Drawing VIII. by _Hogarth_.

[11] This story is quoted by Mr. _Grose_ in his Antiquities, Vol. II.
art. _Minster Monastery_. "The legend," says Mr. _Grose_, "has, by a
worthy friend of mine, been hitched into doggrel rhyme. It would be
paying the reader but a bad compliment to attempt seriously to examine
the credibility of the story."

[12] Drawing VIII.

[13] A cross-legg'd figure in armour, with a shield over his left
arm, like that of a Knight Templar, said to represent Sir _Robert de
Shurland_, who by _Edward_ I. was created a Knight banneret for his
gallant behaviour at the siege of _Carlaverock_ in _Scotland_. He lies
under a _Gothic_ arch in the south-wall, having an armed page at his
feet, and on his right side the head of a horse emerging out of the
waves of the sea, as in the action of swimming. GROSE.

       *       *       *       *       *

  WILLIAM TOTHALL'S Account of Disbursements
  for Messieurs _Hogarth_ and Co. viz.

  _May_                                                   £. s. d.

  27.   To paid at the Dark-house, _Billingsgate_,        0  0  8½
        To paid for a pint of Geneva _Hollands_,          0  1  0
        To paid waterman to _Gravesend_,                  0  5  0
        To paid barber ditto,                             0  0  10
        To paid for breakfast at ditto,                   0  2  2
        To paid for beer on the road to _Rochester_,      0  0  9
        To paid for shrimps at _Chatham_,                 0  0  9
        To paid at the gunnery and dock,                  0  1  6
        To paid bill at _Rochester_,                      1  7  3

  28.   To gave at _Upnor_ for information,               0  0  3
        To paid at the Smack at ditto,                    0  4  3
        To paid at _Hoo_,                                 0  1  8
        To paid at _Stoke_,                               0  11 6

  29.   To paid at Mother _Hubbard's_ at _Grain_,         0  3  0
        To paid for passage over to _Sheerness_,          0  2  10
        To paid for lobsters at _Queenborough_,           0  1  6
        To paid for two pots of beer to treat the sexton, 0  0  6
        To paid for dinner, &c.                           0  6  6
        To charity, gave the sailors,                     0  1  0

  30.   To paid for lodgings and maid,                    0  4  6
        To paid for breakfast,                            0  2  6
        To paid for washing shirts,                       0  1  8
        To paid at _Minster_,                             0  9  2
        To paid at _Sheerness_,                           0  1  3
        To paid for a boat to _Gravesend_,                0  7  0

  31.   To paid barber at ditto,                          0  1  2
        To paid for sundry at ditto,                      1  0  3½
        To paid for passage to _Somerset-house_,          0  5  6

                                                        £.6  6  0

  Vouchers produced, examined, and allowed,



  **_ÆNEAS_ in a Storm
  Agriculture and Arts
  Altar-piece, _St. Clement's_
  Analysis of Beauty
  Arms, &c

  Battle of the Pictures
  _Beaver's_ Military Punishments
  Before and After
  *Beggar's Opera
  **_Blackwell's_ Figures
  _Booth, Wilks_, and _Cibber_
  _Boyne_, Lord Viscount
  Boys peeping at Nature
  **Broad Bottoms
  *_Bullock, William_
  Burial Ticket
  _Burlington_ Gate
  _Byron_, Lady _Frances_

  **Cartoons, Heads from
  Catalogue, Frontispiece and Tail-piece to
  Characters, and Caricaturas
  _Charlemont_, Earl of
  Charmers of the Age
  Christ and his Disciples, &c.
  Christ, &c. small
  --with _London_ Hospital
  _Churchill, Charles_
  --with Political Print
  Concert, _St. Mary's_ Chapel
  Consultation of Physicians
  _Coram_, Captain
  Credulity, &c
  Crowns, &c. Subscription Ticket
  for Elections

  Debates on Palmistry
  Distressed Poet
  Don _Quixote_

  Enraged Musician
  *Eta Beta Pi, _Title-page_

  Fair [_Southwark_, not _Bartholomew_ as Mr. _Walpole_ describes it]
  Farmer's Return
  **_Farinelli, Cuzzoni,_ and _Senesino_, &c.
  Festoon, &c. Subscription Ticket
  for _Richard_ III.
  _Fielding, Henry_
  _Finchley_, March to
  Fishes for Cards
  _Folkes, Martin_
  _Foundling Hospital_, Power of Attorney
  *--Arms of
  *--First Sketch for
  Four Parts of the Day
  _France_ and _England_
  Frontispiece to _Leveridge's_ Songs

  _Garrick_ in _Richard_ III.
  Gate of _Calais_
  _Gibbs, James_
  _Gin Lane_
  *Gin drinkers
  Good _Samaritan_
  **Great Seal of _England_
  _Gulliver_ presented to the Queen of _Babilary_

  *Half-starved Boy
  Harlot's Progress
  Head, etched by _Livesay_
  _Henley_, Orator, christening, &c.
  _Henry_ VIII. and _Anna Bullen_
  *_Herring_, Archbp. small
  *_Highland_ Fair, or _Scots Opera_
  _Hoadly_, large
  _Hogarth, William_, Engraver, Shop-Bill
  --with Dog
  **--small circle
  --Serjeant Painter
  --Black Mask
  --with Hat on
  _Hogarth's_ Tour
  _Holland_, Lord
  _Hudibras_, large
  _Huggins, William_
  Humours of _Oxford_
  _Hunt, Gabriel_
  _Hutchinsonians_, Frontispiece to Pamphlet against
  *_Hymen_ and _Cupid_, Ticket for _Sigismunda_

  Jacobites Journalx
  Industry and Idleness
  _Judith_ and _Holofernes_
  _Judith_, Rehearsal, Ticket for

  _Kirby's_ Perspective

  Laughing Audience
  **Living Dogx
  _Lock, Daniel_
  *_London_ Infirmary
  _Lovat_, Lord

  _Malcolm, Sarah_
  **_Malta_, Scene by a Knight of
  Marriage Alamode
  Masquerades, &c. small
  Masquerade, large
  **Master of the Vineyard
  _Milward's_ Ticket
  Midnight Modern Conversation
  *_Moliere_, Frontispieces to
  *_Moses_ and _Pharaoh's_ daughter
  _Morell_, Dr.
  _Motraye's_ Travels
  Five _Muscovites_
  Music introduced _to Apollo_

  **North and South


  *_Palmer, John_
  _Paul_, &c. burlesqued
  _Paul_ before _Felix_
  --as first designed
  Perriwigs, Five Orders of
  *_Pellet_, Dr.
  _Perseus_ and _Medusa_
  _Perseus_ descending
  Political Clyster
  Pool of _Bethesda_, small
  **_Pug_ the Painter

  Rake's Progress
  *_Ranby's_ House
  Rape of the Lock
  _Read, Benjamin_
  *_Rich's_ Glory
  Royalty, Episcopacy, and Law

  Shop-bills, &c.
  Sleeping Congregation
  _South Sea_
  _Spiller's_ Ticket
  Stage Coach
  Stages of Cruelty
  Stand of Arms, &c. Subscription Ticket for _Finchley_
  Strolling Actresses

  Tail-piece to his Works
  Taste in High Life
  _Taylor, George_, Two Sketches for his Monument
  _Taylor's_ Perspective
  _Terræ Filius_
  Ticket Porter
  Time blackening a Picture, Subscription Ticket for _Sigismunda_
  The Times
  _Tom Thumb_
  _Tristram Shandy_, vol. I.
  --vol. II.
  **Two Figures

  Weighing House
  _Wilkes, John_
  Woman swearing a Child, &c.

The articles marked thus * are omitted in Mr. _Walpole's_ Catalogue.

Those marked ** are likewise omitted by Mr. _Walpole_; but it must be
acknowledged they are of doubtful authority, though introduced on the
faith of the following collectors and artists:

  _Hogarth_, small circle,          Mr. _Basire_.

  _Æneas_ in a storm,               Dr. _Ducarel_.

  Beggar's Opera,                   Dr. _Lort_.

  _Blackwell's_ Figures,
  Master of the Vineyard            Mr. _Ireland_.

  _Pug_ the Painter,
  _Farinelli, Cuzzoni,_
  and _Heidegger,_
  Gin-drinkers,                     Mr. _Rogers_.

  Cartoons, Heads,
  from Two Figures                  Mr. _Livesay_.

  Malta, Scene, &c.                 Mr. _Nichols_.

  North and South,                  Mr. _Thane_.


NEW BOOKS published by J. NICHOLS.

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