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Title: Pulp and Paper Magazine, Vol. XIII, No. 20, October 15, 1916 - A Semi-Monthly Magazine Devoted to the Science and Practice - of the Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Industry with an - Up-to-date Review of Conditions in the Allied Trades.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Pulp and Paper Magazine, Vol. XIII, No. 20, October 15, 1916 - A Semi-Monthly Magazine Devoted to the Science and Practice - of the Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Industry with an - Up-to-date Review of Conditions in the Allied Trades." ***

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Transcriber’s Note: Obvious printer errors have been corrected but
general stylistic inconsistencies have been left as is (save for
standardising on “per cent.”). Asterisks are as they appeared in the
original: possibly denoting items to check before printing.



Pulp and Paper Magazine

A Semi-Monthly Magazine Devoted to the Science and Practice of the
Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Industry with an Up-to-date Review of
Conditions in the Allied Trades.

_Official Journal of the Technical Section of the Canadian Pulp and
Paper Association_

Published by The Industrial and Educational Press, Limited

    35-45 St. Alexander Street Montreal.          Phone Main 2662.
    Toronto Office, 263-265 Adelaide St., W.      Phone Main 6764.
                       New York Office, 206 Broadway.

Published on the 1st and 15th of each month. Changes in advertisements
should be in Publishers’ hands ten days before date of issue. The
editor cordially invites readers to submit articles of practical
interest which, on publication, will be paid for.

SUBSCRIPTION to any address in Canada and Great Britain, $2.00--United
States $2.50--Foreign $3.50.

Single Copies 20c.

    VOL. XIII.          MONTREAL, OCTOBER 15, 1916          No. 20



PULP AND PAPER MAGAZINE TO BE A WEEKLY


Arrangements have now been completed for the turning of the Pulp and
Paper Magazine into a weekly publication, this forward step to be made
on the first of January, 1917.

Four years ago the present publishers of the Pulp and Paper Magazine
purchased that Journal from the Bigger & Wilson Company. It was then a
small sized paper, published once a month. The first step taken by the
new publishers was to enlarge its size to the present dimensions and
publish it twice a month. Now a second forward step has been taken and
the publication will shortly appear as a weekly.

No better evidence of the prosperity and progress made by the pulp and
paper industry can be given than that furnished by the Pulp and Paper
Magazine. It has grown in size, in circulation, in influence, and in
usefulness, and today is the official organ of the technical section of
the Pulp and Paper Association, and occupies a commanding place among
the Pulp and Paper Publications on the Continent. Under the leadership
of the Pulp and Paper Magazine the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association
was formed, the Forest Products Laboratory at McGill University
created, and the Technical Section of the Pulp and Paper Association
made a possibility.

Much of the success which has come to the Pulp and Paper Magazine must
be attributed to the two editors who have given it their best services,
namely Mr. A. G. McIntyre and Mr. Roy Campbell. As editors of the
Pulp and Paper Magazine, they both have done much to further the best
interests of the industry, and those associated with it.

Arrangements have been completed whereby Professor J. Newell
Stephenson, now head of the Forestry Department of the University of
Maine at Orono, will take over the editorship of the Pulp and Paper
Magazine when it launches on its career as a weekly. Some facts
regarding the new editor appear elsewhere in this issue.



THE PRICE OF PAPER.


A somewhat serious crisis has arisen here in the relationship between
the newspaper publishers and the news print manufacturers. A few days
ago a meeting of the Canadian Press Association was held in Toronto
at which the whole paper question was thoroughly discussed and a
representative committee delegated to visit Ottawa and register before
the Minister of Finance their protests in regard to the shortage of
paper in Canada, and the mounting prices of the same. In Ottawa they
were met by representatives of the Pulp and Paper Association, and the
whole situation was carefully considered before the Minister and also
by the two organizations as separate bodies.

The newspaper men complained that they were unable to secure new
contracts for any length of time, and that the prices asked for the
supplying of white paper were prohibitive and if paid would mean the
collapse of many newspapers. They urged upon the Government that an
inquiry should be instituted into the cost of manufacturing news print
in Canada and, following that, such steps be taken by the Government
as it should find necessary to safeguard the supply of news print for
Canadian publishers. The publishers suggested to the Government that
either an embargo or export duty be placed on white paper or that the
Government fix a maximum price above which manufacturers would not be
allowed to charge Canadian publishers.

In refutation of the publishers’ statements, the news print
manufacturers pointed out that the attack on the part of the
publishers had come without warning and that they had not consulted
or tried to negotiate with the news print manufacturers. They further
pointed out that the cost of everything entering into the manufacture
of paper had advanced in price, that old trade channels had been upset,
and that there was a great deal of uncertainty regarding the future
cost of paper making materials. The manufacturers agreed to call a
meeting of all their members and thoroughly discuss the matter and
later meet the publishers in a last effort to arrive at a satisfactory
solution. It is understood that the manufacturers are asking an
increase of from 25% to 33% over the figures now prevailing, and if
the publishers do not see their way clear to accept these terms the
manufacturers will then ask for a Government inquiry into the cost
of paper making, feeling satisfied that such an investigation would
vindicate them in the stand they have taken.

There is no doubt but that manufacturers of news print are being
unjustly blamed for a condition of affairs over which they have no
control. They are not arbitrarily increasing the price of white paper.
Everything entering into the manufacture of news print has advanced
in price; labor is scarce and commands higher wages; dye stuffs have
advanced to almost unheard of prices; in copper wire paper men are
competing against munition makers while a similar story can be told
in regard to every ingredient entering in their finished product. In
addition to that a sudden and unprecedented demand resulting from
improvement in business and a presidential election in the United
States has made the consumption of paper exceed production. Further,
the war has interfered with regular channels of trade and has shut-off
the whole of continental Europe from the markets of the world with the
result that publishers who formerly depended on Europe have turned to
Canada and the United States in an effort to have their needs supplied.

The situation is undoubtedly embarrassing and may possibly work
hardships to some publishers, but the whole of the world’s business
fabric is confronted with extraordinary conditions. It is as
unreasonable to blame the manufacturers of news print for the advance
in the cost of white paper, as it would be to blame the bridge builder
or the man who erects skyscrapers for advancing the price of steel. In
the last analysis it is the war which is to blame. The advance in the
cost of news print is not an arbitrary procedure, but rather the result
of world conditions over which the paper makers have no control.



THE GATHERING IN NEW YORK.


The over-worked words, co-operation and service, best describe the
spirit of the recent gathering held in New York, under the auspices of
the American Chemical Society. The affiliated organizations such as
the technical section of the Pulp and Paper Association met at the
same time, and their deliberations were permeated with the same spirit
as characterized the chemical organization.

Hundreds of the best chemical men on the continent, technical
experts from pulp and paper mills, college men from all the great
universities, and others interested in the spread of technical and
chemical knowledge, gathered in New York and gave their best. Men who
had experimented for years in the quiet of their own laboratories,
made public the results of their patient research work. Technical
experts and college men vied with practical mill men in revealing the
things which they had found to be of benefit in the working out of the
manufacturing problems of the day. There were no secrets, the cards
were laid on the table, and men who found a certain line of work, or
policy, or experiments beneficial, frankly and freely made public the
result of their findings.

The chemists felt that it was “up to them” to make this continent
independent of Germany in chemical research. The result of their two
years of effort were simply beyond belief; even the chemists themselves
were surprised at the wonderful progress that had been made in
supplying dye-stuffs and other chemicals that were formerly obtained
from Germany. If the war should continue another year, this continent
will be practically independent of the foreign dye-maker.

In much the same way, satisfactory progress was made in connection with
the technical work of the Pulp and Paper Association. The papers read,
the discussions carried on, and the conclusions reached, marked further
progress in the work of the Association, and made it more than ever
apparent that the technical man is an increasingly important factor in
the modern paper mill. A number of the papers read at the gathering
appear in this issue of the Pulp and Paper Magazine.



PRODUCTION AND SHIPMENTS.


The last weekly letter on production and shipment was sent out by the
News-Print Manufacturers Association on October 7th.

The report from the Western Territory for the week ending October 7th
shows production equivalent to 107.1%, and shipments equivalent to
103.8% of maximum production capacity.

The report from the Canadian Territory for the same week shows
production equivalent to 100.1%, and shipments equivalent to 97.2% of
maximum productive capacity.

A number of the mills have been running on other grades of papers,
and in the case of one large Canadian mill, low water has caused low
production.

There has been an increase in inventory during the week in question of
476 cents. It will, of course, be understood that this increase is not
surprising, as it is impossible to maintain inventories at the same low
figures reported last week.



New Editor of Pulp and Paper Magazine


Professor J. Newell Stephenson, who is to assume the editorship of
The Pulp and Paper Magazine on the first of January, 1917, when it
changes from a bi-monthly to a weekly publication, is at present head
of the paper making department in the University of Maine, Orono, and
assistant professor of chemistry in the same university. Like so many
paper-makers from south of the Line, Mr. Stephenson realizes that the
future of the industry lies north of the 49th parallel, and in casting
in his lot with the Pulp and Paper Magazine, he is but following a
natural development.

[Illustration: PROF. J. NEWELL STEPHENSEN, New Editor Pulp and Paper
Magazine.]

The new editor was born at New Rochelle, N.Y., and educated in the
schools of that city and Great Barrington, Mass. After graduating
from the high school, he was employed as foreman in the Stanley
Instrument Company’s Watt Meter Factory. Later an opportunity to learn
paper-making presented itself and was taken advantage of by the subject
of this sketch. Encouraged by his employers, the B. D. Rising Paper
Company, Mr. Stephenson decided to go to college, and in 1905 entered
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from which he graduated four
years later as a Chemical Engineer. The year following graduation was
spent at Lawrenceville, N.Y., as a teacher of drawing, then came a
post in the Chemical Engineering Department of the Rose Polytechnical
Institute of Terre Haute, Indiana. Three years later the University
of Maine established a Pulp and Paper Course, and Mr. Stephenson was
given charge of the Paper-Making Department. Two years ago he was made
assistant professor of chemistry. While he has never been in actual
journalism, Mr. Stephenson was associate editor to his college paper,
and has done considerable writing for the various paper trade journals
in Canada and the United States, as a matter of fact, the work he did
in this connection, led to his appointment as chairman on the Committee
on Abstracts of the Technical Committee of the American Pulp and Paper
Association.

Mr. Stephenson takes up his duties on January first.



TECHNICAL SECTION MEETING NOVEMBER 24th.


The Annual Meeting of the Technical Section of the Canadian Pulp and
Paper Association will be held in Montreal on Friday, November 24th.

Arrangements are being made for a most interesting meeting. The
business to be considered is very important, and there will be in
addition a programme of papers by experts which should be unusually
instructive and also should evoke good discussion. Dr. J. S. Bates,
Chairman of the Section has received assurance from Mr. Ellwood Wilson,
Forester to the Laurentide Company, of his being able to attend and
present a paper on “Forestry in Connection with Pulp Mill Operation.”
Mr. O. F. Bryant of the Forest Products Laboratories will discuss “Pulp
Wood Measurements.” Three other papers are expected concerning which
announcement will be made in the next issue of Pulp and Paper Magazine.

The original intention was to hold a two day meeting but the members of
the Council feel that the extreme activity of pulp and paper mills at
the present time precludes the absence of technical men from the mills
for longer than one day.

With the papers forthcoming it is expected that this will be one of the
very best of the Section meetings. Technical men are strongly urged to
make preparations now to be in Montreal for the occasion.



CHEMICAL EXPOSITION.


That the Third National Exposition of Chemical Industries will be a
great success is already assured. An additional third floor has already
been engaged, and plans are being made to use the fourth floor. In
addition it is hoped to have large sections showing the resources of
the country awaiting development.

Two prizes have been offered to the students of Cooper Union Art
Schools to draw up a poster seal for the next exposition. The designs
for this purpose will be finished January 1st next year, and prizes
awarded February 1st. All designs submitted and which the Jury consider
fit, will be exhibited during the next exposition.

       *       *       *       *       *

Among those interested in the pulp and paper lines, who joined the
Entente delegation from Ontario in visiting Montreal, Three Rivers and
Quebec were W. P. Gundy, managing director of W. J. Gage and Co., and
S. J. Moore, President of the F. N. Burt Co., Toronto.



SOME CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL REACTIONS OF ROSIN SIZE SOLUTIONS

Paper read by J. A. DeCEW at the meeting of the American Chemical
Society.


It is quite to be expected that in any class of chemical reactions
which occur under such varying conditions as those existing during the
precipitation of rosin size in paper mill practice, there will be among
the various investigators a certain amount of disagreement regarding
the theoretical explanation of what actually takes place. There is
also some confusion resulting from the termology which is commonly
used in describing sodium resinate compounds existing in rosin size,
as for example, in the use of the phrase “free rosin”. The purpose
of the following remarks is not to recapitulate the work of other
investigators, nor to criticize their conclusions, but to submit a
short discussion of the effect upon the chemical reactions involved, of
the various physical conditions in which the material may be used.

It is a well known fact that a rosin soap will easily dissolve an
equivalent amount of rosin to that which has been saponified, and
this extra rosin, whether in solution in the size wax, or whether in
suspension in a diluted solution, is still called “free rosin” in the
termology of the trade. In order, however, to distinguish between the
various states in which the rosin might exist, it should be divided
into three classes, consisting first, of dissolved rosin, second,
colloidal rosin, and third, rosin in suspension. The reason for this is
that before the rosin soap can be used in the art of paper making it
must first be brought into dilute aqueous solution.

If the soap should be readily soluble, then dilution may take place
in cold water and consequently the diluting can be carried out within
the beater itself. On the other hand, if the rosin soap is not
readily soluble in cold water, owing to the fact that it contains a
considerable quantity of dissolved rosin, it is necessary to bring
it into a sufficiently dilute condition so that no further material
separation of rosin will take place when it comes in contact with the
paper stock. Obviously the difficulty of carrying out this operation
increases in proportion with the amount of extra rosin which is held in
solution in the rosin soap.

Authorities disagree as to whether abietic acid is mono-basic or
dibasic and it cannot be stated definitely whether rosin which is in
complete solution in a rosin soap is there in the form of an acid
resinate, or whether it is merely dissolved rosin. It seems to the
writer that a fairly intelligible conception is obtained by assuming
that a sodium resinate containing rosin in solution, is in fact an acid
resinate of the alkali metal and that from this solution insoluble acid
resinates of the heavy metals can be produced.

Some interesting data on this subject is recorded by E. O. Ellingson in
a paper before the American Chemical Society, 1914, the subject being
“Abietic acid and some of its salts.” In this investigation he shows
clearly that certain insoluble acid abietates were formed when a dilute
aqueous solution of sodium abietate was added in small proportions to a
dilute solution of a metallic salt.

The salts of Chromium, Manganese, Nickel, Iron, Cadmium, Cobalt,
Strontium, Copper, all gave precipitates carrying an excess of
abietic acid. The one exception was the Salt of Aluminum, which under
exactly the same conditions produced a basic aluminum abietate. From
this it is proven that a neutral sodium resinate solution when poured
into a dilute solution of sulphate of alumina, will always produce a
precipitate of basic aluminum resinate.

On the other hand, the investigations of Naugebauer, republished in
Paper XI., 10-17, shows that a neutral resinate when precipitated with
a considerable excess of sulphate of alumina, will produce an acid
precipitate containing approximately 33 per cent. of rosin excess, and
with the maximum amount of alum the rosin acid in the precipitate does
not exceed 41 per cent.

If we can accept the results of this investigator then it is evident
that insoluble acid resinates containing a limited amount of rosin
acids can be produced from a neutral sodium resinate by precipitation
with even an aluminum salt.

The results produced with sulphate of aluminum therefore, will depend
largely upon the mass action of the materials, chemical equilibrium
being established in accordance with the relative amount and acidity of
the alum used. In short, if 100 grs. of rosin in the form of a neutral
resinate is precipitated with approximately 33 grs. of alum, we will
have as a result, a basic alum resinate. If, on the other hand, it is
precipitated with 330 grs. of alum, we would have an acid resinate
of alumina containing approximately 40 per cent. of rosin acid. With
less alum excess the amount of rosin acid in the precipitate will be
proportionately less.

If the basic aluminum resinates were a satisfactory water repellant
then the problem of paper sizing would be a very simple one, and all
that would be necessary in practice would be to use the size and alum
in proper chemical equivalents. All experience shows however, that when
using a neutral resinate for sizing, it is necessary to use a large
alum excess in order to obtain a sufficiently water repellant condition
in the paper. The inference is that the insoluble acid resinates are
essentially the agents which impart to the paper that resistance to
aqueous penetration called “Sizing.”

Remington and his associates claim that resinate of alumina only, is
formed when a neutral sodium resinate is precipitated with alum, even
if the alum is used in excess, but that it is decomposed by extraction
with alcohol and that this fact leads others to believe that a portion
of the rosin is uncombined. These investigators publish the result of
50 tests for sizing paper, from which they draw their conclusions,
but it would seem that their methods of making the tests were quite
inefficient, inasmuch as they used not less than 5 per cent. of rosin,
and as high as 12 per cent. without always getting sizing results. Now,
in mill practice, a very poor size should give results with 3 per cent.
of rosin, while an efficient size should produce a very hard-sized
paper with an equivalent amount. It would seem unwise to form any fixed
conclusion from tests which gave such unsatisfactory results.

Other investigators such as, Emil Meuser and Naugebauer, (Paper, June
25th, 1913), and also Otto Kress & Struthers (Paper April 16th, 1913),
have demonstrated by exhaustive tests that rosin acids are liberated
from a neutral resinate when alum is used in excess and that the amount
of these rosin acids may be from 33 per cent. to 41 per cent. of the
total rosin, depending upon the alum excess used.

If an acid resinate of alumina containing 40 parts of rosin acids, can
be produced from 100 parts of neutral resinate of soda and 330 parts of
sulphate of alumina, then 20 parts of alum will be required to produce
the same results from an acid resinate of soda, containing 40 per cent.
of rosin acids, or with 200 parts of alum one can produce from this an
aluminum resinate with 64 per cent. of rosin acid.

These highly acid resinates are found to be very colloidal in character
and have great capacity for distribution within the paper pulp. They
also show considerable resistance to dehydration and are thus able to
retain their plastic character while the paper is being dried. Such
are the properties that these highly acid resinates seem to possess in
addition to their water repellant characteristics.

It has been demonstrated in paper mill tests that the rosin acids alone
are thrown out of solution from a rosin soap by means of acid, can also
produce sizing results providing that the rosin acids precipitated
have a similar colloidal character to the aluminum precipitate. The
practical difficulty, however, of obtaining colloidal precipitates when
using acid, makes this practice a very uncertain one, for it would
be only under very favorable circumstances that this practice could
be carried out with success. The same difficulty is experienced when
other metallic salts, (e.g.,) the salts of iron or calcium, are used to
replace the aluminum sulphate, for the precipitates from these are much
more dense and granular than those derived from aluminum.

It would seem therefore that the real necessity for the use of sulphate
of alumina for precipitating the rosin is not so much the necessity
for forming acid aluminum resinates, but the fact that the rosin
precipitated in this way has a more colloidal character, than that
thrown out of solution by other coagulants, and consequently will
have greater covering power and efficiency as a water repellant. This
explanation is opposed to the theory that rosin acids in the form of
emulsion or suspensions are efficient sizing agents, for it is obvious
that visible floating rosin has lost its colloidal character and its
covering power.

The fact is that the so called free rosin emulsions, when properly
made, contain but a very small amount of rosin acid in the emulsified
form, practically all of it remaining in solution in the dilute soap.
The art of preparing good rosin size emulsions (using the term as
generally understood) is therefore the ability to dilute a solution of
rosin acids, without the actual liberation of rosin in the emulsified
form. The difficulty in doing this will explain the erratic results
obtained by Remington and other investigators when endeavoring to
determine the effect of rosin size containing dissolved rosin.

The laboratory difficulties involved are shown by an article by Otto
Kress and R. T. Struthers, published in Paper, April 1913. Their
results show that from a rosin saponified with 15% of sodium carbonate,
over 98% was obtained by them in hot dilute aqueous solution, and
that from a rosin saponified with 10% of sodium carbonate, only 50.6%
was brought into actual solution in hot water. It is quite possible
however, to dilute such a rosin soap holding in solution about 45%
of rosin acids, to an aqueous solution of 2% solids, without having
any of the rosin become insoluble. In this condition all of the rosin
acids can enter into chemical reactions with other solutions and will
precipitate from solution in a very bulky colloidal mass.

Between the extremes of physical condition just described, there are
a great number of intermediate stages. The rosin acids may be partly
liberated by dilution in the form of small visible floating particles
and coarse granular masses and a part may be in a state of colloidal
solution. It is safe to say that all rosin particles which are
sufficiently coarse to be classed as suspensions, have lost the greater
part of their sizing value. That portion of the rosin acids which is in
colloidal solution is still effective for sizing purposes because it
has the property of becoming fixed upon the fibres by absorption. This
action can only take place, however, when the paper stock is free from
such electrolytes as may discharge the colloid before it reaches the
fibre. Dilute acid resinate solutions may contain variable proportions
of dissolved acid resinates, colloidal rosin, and rosin suspensions,
and the relative proportion of these is what determines the basis of
its waterproofing possibilities. Assuming that the sizing value of
these solutions varies directly with the amount of rosin acids that are
in true and colloidal solution, we have a measure of efficiency which
checks very closely with actual mill results.

The maximum amount of rosin acids that can be held in stable solution
in a diluted rosin soap of from 1% to 2%, total solids, is about 50%
of the total rosin content. In such a solution there is always a
slight tendency towards hydrolysis which increases with the amount of
dilution, but the fact that these solutions when once prepared can be
then boiled without decomposition, shows that the solutions are fairly
well stabilized and also that there can be very little rosin then
present in the colloidal form.

The conclusions which it is desired to submit as offering a
satisfactory explanation of practically all the phenomena in connection
with sizing paper with rosin is as follows:--

(1). That the rosin acids which are precipitated from dilute solution
by means of a coagulant which will deposit the rosin in a colloidal
mass, is the material which when properly incorporated into the paper
stock and dried therein, produces the water resistant characteristic
known as sizing.

(2). That the results obtained from a given quantity of material are
largely dependent upon the character of the rosin colloid and its
treatment during the process of manufacturing the paper.

(3). This product can be obtained in limited quantity from a neutral
resinate, by the use of large excess of alum, or it may be obtained in
large proportions from an acid resinate and a relatively less excess
of alum. The maximum obtained from a neutral resinate being about 40%
of the total rosin, and from an acid resinate about 70% of the total
rosin, when a sulphate of alumina containing no free acid is used.



American Newspaper Publishers’ Association

Committee on Paper.


Mr. A. G. McIntyre, of Toronto, has been appointed Manager of the
Committee on Paper of the American Newspaper Publishers’ Association.

His varied experience in paper and associated lines well qualifies him
to handle the paper situation at the present critical time.

Mr. McIntyre has been both Engineer and Manager of some of the most
successful paper companies in Canada, during which time he has designed
and built a number of mills, together with having managed and operated
same as well.

[Illustration: A. G. McINTYRE.]

He has been associated with the following companies:

Jonquiere Pulp Company.

Price Bros. & Company, Limited.

Bathurst Lumber Company, Limited.

Mattagami Pulp and Paper Company, Limited.

He also became Editor of the Pulp and Paper Magazine, when this
magazine was purchased by the present owners, the Industrial &
Educational Press, and acted in this capacity for a year after its
re-organization.

He was also Superintendent and Organizer of the Forests Products
Laboratories of Canada, under the Dominion Government, located in
Montreal, where a large technical staff are engaged in working on paper
making problems.

Mr. McIntyre was also Organizer and first Secretary-Treasurer of the
Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, and leaves the position of General
Manager of the Mattagami Pulp and Paper Company, Limited, Toronto, to
take up this work.

His experience has been a unique combination of paper mill engineering,
paper mill executive, publishing, Government expert work and
association work.

The office of the Committee on Paper will be located in the World
Building, New York City.

Mr. McIntyre has made the following statement, in connection with
taking up this work:

    “I have accepted this work of the Paper Committee, with the
    idea that something can be done to alleviate the present
    serious condition for the consumers of newsprint paper.

    “Everyone knows there is a serious shortage in production
    over the demand; at the same time, much can be done by both
    manufacturers and consumers to adjust their business to the
    present conditions.

    “Consumers must practise rigid economies, making all papers
    non-returnable; eliminating press room wastes and all avoidable
    consumption of paper. If this does not bring the consumption
    within the production, sufficient new mills must be constructed
    to take care of the normal consumption with the normal
    increase, as there is only very little new tonnage proposed,
    which will come on the market by 1918.

    “Manufacturers must turn aside from export business, taking
    care of old and permanent customers; should run mills at the
    fullest possible capacity, and at a reasonable margin of profit.

    “It has been distinctly understood with me before taking
    up this work, that the basis of relief will be mutual
    understanding and information between manufacturer and
    consumer, with sufficient increased tonnage provided, either
    by the present manufacturers, or by a few of the consumers,
    to protect the members of the American Newspaper Publishers’
    Association in their supply of print paper.”



MARKET VALUES OF PAPER STOCKS.


The present unprecedented situation in the paper industry has fomented
considerable speculative enthusiasm in Canadian paper and pulp stocks.
Trading in these issues on the Montreal and Toronto stock exchanges
has increased very materially, and prices are way up from the low of
the year. Canada produces half as much newsprint as the United States,
and she is increasing her capacity at a much faster rate than American
mills.

The following table shows the extent of the advance this year in a
number of prominent pulp and paper stocks listed on the Montreal and
Toronto exchanges:

                           Present        Low      Advance
                            price        1916

    Laurentide Paper           198        176      22
    Wayagamack                  74         27      47
    Riordon Pulp & Paper        99         58      41
    Price Brothers              95         60      35
    Spanish River com.          15½         3½     12
    Spanish pfd.                44         29      15
    Toronto Paper               55         42      13

       *       *       *       *       *

The Conservation Commission calls the attention of Canada to
experiments showing that jack pine is well suited for making kraft
paper. It will grow on poor land and is largely used in the West for
fuel.



Why Paper is Dearer


In a letter to the members of the News-Print Manufacturers Association
Mr. G. F. Steele ably refutes the charge that the recent advance in the
price of paper were arbitrary measures.

The writer was unavoidably absent from New York when the monthly report
of production and shipments for the month of August was sent out from
this office on September 19th.

You have doubtless observed the decreased production in August as
compared with the month of July. This was largely caused by the
difficulties encountered by one of the large Canadian mills by a
terrible forest fire, which decreased operations for several weeks. It
will doubtless occur, however, to every one of our members that due to
the terrific pressure which has been placed on the operation of the
mills during the past eight months, that it is a great wonder that
production keeps up to the present high point. Machines are running
at a much greater speed then they were ever expected to run, and
ordinary shut downs for repairs and replacements have not been made
this summer. It is usually the custom for most news-print mills to shut
down at the end of the summer before freezing weather occurs, to run
their screening and tailings into wrappers. I do not know of a single
mill which has indulged in this desirable practice this year, and in
order to get a supply of wrappers for the coming six months it may be
necessary for some mills to stop making news-print paper temporarily
and run out their wrapper stock.

During the months of June, July and August in normal years production
drops down materially, and stocks are accumulated for the great Fall
demand. During the months of June, July and August of this year,
instead of accumulating increased stocks, you doubtless have observed
from the statement submitted to you that total stocks at hand at
all points, including stocks on hand at mills, in transit, and at
destination points, decreased 7,316 tons or 10.6 per cent.. It was
thought by those who are best posted in the industry that stocks
were at danger point on June 1st, and that unless these stocks could
be replenished there would be grave danger of the necessity of some
papers suspending publication temporarily because of the inability of
the mills to get paper to them in time for their requirements during
the coming Fall and Winter. During the three months of June 1st to
September 1st, 1915, storage stocks increased as much as they have
declined this year.

During the past few weeks the newspapers have been full of violent
outcries, uttered by publishers, regarding the high price of news-print
paper. There have come to my desk during a period of two weeks over
1,500 radical and abusive articles, making all sorts of baseless and
unfounded charges against the manufacture of news-print paper. It is
quite evident that these newspaper publishers are more scared than hurt
up to this time, for owing to the peculiar nature of this business
and the fact that the great bulk of the business is contracted for
the calendar year in the fall months of the preceding year, it is the
belief of those who are best posted in the industry that on the average
the price of roll news-print paper which is sold on contract has not
advanced up to this time more than 5% or $2.00 per ton. Many newspapers
have taken advantage of the situation to raise subscription prices and
to raise their advertising rates, when these same papers are paying no
higher price for their supply of news-print paper than they were paying
a year ago.

So much has been said about the price of news-print paper, and so
little has been said about the rise in price of other commodities, that
I have endeavored to make up a list gleaned from responsible commercial
publications regarding the rise in other commodities.

Just as soon as the price of news-print paper advances, no matter how
little, the newspaper publishers promptly outdo the Prophet Jeremiah
with their lamentations and demand an immediate investigation on the
part of the government. We do not see the same demand when the prices
of other commodities advance.

The selling price of the raw materials entering into the manufacture
of news-print paper has increased to a very remarkable extent during
the past year. Many mills now making news-print paper are paying a
very much enhanced price for the cost of raw materials which they
have to purchase. Other mills purchasing the chemical and ground wood
pulps entering into the manufacture of their products are operating
on old contracts which expire with the calendar year. There is every
indication at the present time that the price of these two commodities
after January 1st, 1917 will be practically double the price which
ruled a year ago, and perhaps in the case of chemical pulp three or
four times the price which ruled a year ago. The mills which are forced
to make news-print paper from these high priced raw materials will
necessarily have to charge what would seem like an inordinate price to
operate at a profit.

Consider, for example, a paper mill which is dependent on the market
for its supply of raw material. Sulphite pulp, of which news-print
paper contains approximately 25%, is now selling around $100.00 at the
sulphite mills and the mill which converts it into news-print paper
will pay $25.00 per ton of paper for this item. Ground wood, which
constitutes 75% of news-print paper, is selling at $30.00 per ton
F.O.B. ground wood mill, and the converting mill pays $22.50 per ton of
paper for this. As it takes approximately 110 pounds of pulp to make
100 pounds of paper, this brings the total cost per ton to $52.25 for
the raw materials alone. Add to this a freight rate of 12c per hundred
pounds for pulp, 40% dry, and the cost per ton of raw material comes
to $58.85. Add to this the manufacturing costs which, according to the
Tariff Board figures in 1911 amounted to $10.14 in the United States,
and a larger figure in Canada. These costs have easily increased 50%
since 1911, which makes a total cost of the paper $74.06 per ton.

The majority of paper mills make one or both grades of pulp, in which
case increased expenditure is dependent on the increased cost of
pulpwood, coal, labor, machine clothing, repair materials, chemicals,
etc., but the mills dependent on the market for raw materials have to
obtain large prices to operate at a profit.

In the year 1914, the average price of news-print paper was
approximately $2.00 per hundred pounds F.O.B. cars at mill. The largest
producer of news-print paper in the world, is now charging for renewal
of contracts $3.00 per hundred pounds F.O.B. mill or an increase
of 50%. Compare this increase with the increases in the following
commodities, taken from such authorities as:

    R. G. Dun & Co.--“WEEKLY REVIEW”.

    “THE ANNALIST”.

    BRADSTREET’S.

    U.S. Market Statistics (As quoted by the “N.Y. SUN”.)

    Monthly Summary of U.S. Commerce.

Then follows a long list of articles in daily use which have advanced
from 25 to 467 per cent. showing that the advance in the cost of paper
is not an isolated case. The cost of living index accordingly to the
New York Annalist increased from September 1915 to September 1916 from
135 to 185, an increase of over 37 per cent., and the market value of
securities listed on the New York Stock Exchange increased from July
30th, 1914 to September 1916, deducting value of new editions, by over
$3,000,000,000.00, a net increase of 33 per cent.

According to Bradstreet’s, out of 106 commodities which their index
table embraces, all but 17 advanced in price between September 1st,
1915 and September 1st, 1916, representing for the entire groups an
average increase of over 16½%. According to Dun’s last review, out of
328 commodities quoted, 42 showed advances in price over the previous
week, while but 25 showed decreases.

There is another matter to be considered. During 1915 there was a
decided increase in the price of practically every commodity, except
paper. The Journal of Commerce quotes from the United States figures as
follows:

“Wholesale prices of commodities in the United States averaged
considerably higher in 1915 than in the preceding year, according to
Bulletin 200 of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States
Department of Labor. ***The Bureau’s weighted index number for December
(1915) stood at 105, the highest point reached in any year since the
collection of data for the present series of reports on Wholesale
Prices, dating back to 1890, was begun.

“Violent fluctuations were recorded during 1915 in the prices of all
commodities, particularly drugs and chemicals and metal products. ***In
the fuel and lighting group*** in August the prices again advanced
(after a Spring slump) the increase continuing for the rest of the
year. ***Articles belonging to the food group were in the aggregate
highest in price in December and lowest in September. The increase
between January and December in this group was nearly 4%.” The paper
market, however, remained unchanged.

In other words, the price of other commodities advanced rapidly during
the year 1915, while the price of news-print paper was stationary, and
at the present time the advanced selling price of news-print paper does
not compare unfavorably with the high cost of living as evidenced by
practically all other staple commodities.



COMING TO CANADA.


The Bryant Paper Company, of Kalamazoo, is planning the construction
of a pulp mill in Canada, involving the expenditure of approximately
$1,500,000. The company is now one of the largest book paper
manufacturers in the United States, its daily output being 200 tons.
It operates ten machines at present, but has prepared plans and
specifications for the addition of two more machines, each 154 inches
in width.



Suggestions as to Purchase of Pulp Wood


Messrs. C. P. Winslow and R. Thelan of Madison Wis. gave a very
interesting paper on the consumption of Pulpwood and the best method of
purchasing it. A summary follows:--

The annual consumption of pulpwood in the United States amounts to
approximately 4,300,000 cords, representing an expenditure in the
neighborhood of $36,000,000 per year by approximately 250 companies.
From these figures it is apparent that the question of proper pulpwood
specifications is of wide importance.

While the value of pulpwood is dependent basically upon the tons of dry
pulp that can be produced from a given number of dry tons of wood, the
great quantity of the wood is bought and sold either on the basis of an
estimated and variable volume of wood in an assumed space, or on the
theoretical quantity or volume of lumber which can be cut. Thus, with
dry weight as the real and final measure, we find substituted for it a
variable and indefinite volume, and the result in the long run is fair
to neither seller nor purchaser.

While by far the greater proportion of pulpwood is purchased as
cordwood or by log scale, it must not be overlooked that the use of
sawmill waste is steadily increasing, and amounts to approximately 7.7
per cent. of the total. It is manifestly impossible to apply the log
scale to the measurement of such material.

While it is entirely evident that a completely satisfactory basis
of specification cannot be secured with a unit of measure based on
volume, it is equally apparent that such unit of measure must continue
to be used very largely for this purpose. It is desirable, therefore,
where perfection cannot be had, to compromise on the issue, and some
suggestions along this line are as follows:

1. An enumeration of the basic and fundamental principles which must
underlie any correct system of specification should show clearly the
relation of yield of pulp to the dry weight of specific gravity of the
wood and the relation and probable variation of this dry weight in a
given volume.

2. For the conditions where the cord will continue to be used as the
unit of measure, the formulation of definite specifications to the end
that this unit of measure may come to represent an approximately fixed
volume of solid wood.

3. A study of the relation of actual cubic contents of logs of varying
sizes to the board foot measure, as determined by the various log
scales used in the purchase of pulpwood.

4. A study into all phases of the question of supplying pulpwood in the
form of baled chips as the source of supply. Such a study should cover
such points as the quantity of chips secured from a ton or a stacked
cord of various forms of mill waste and from a standard cord, the cost
and best methods of chipping, drying and baling, and finally of methods
for determining the moisture content of the baled chip, which would
presumably be sold on a weight basis.

5. Attention to methods for limiting, describing and illustrating such
points as “knotty,” “rough,” “doty,” “fire scarred,” “heart-rot,”
“sap-rot,” etc. All of these defects detract from the value of
the material, but to just what extent is not at present generally
established.

6. Other points, such as standard methods of determining the dry weight
and moisture content of the wood, or of measurement of wood fiber
dimensions, also require attention.



Guesses About Pulpwood Supply of Future


One of the most interesting papers read at the convention dealt with
the Pulpwood Supply of the Future. It was by Prof. P. S. Lovejoy of the
University of Michigan.

Mr. Lovejoy pointed out that the amount of cotton or corn raised in the
country each year, the regions of production and the approximate costs
and the sale values were known, and that with about the same relative
degree of accuracy the principal items of timber production were known.
In the case of pulpwood, statistics compiled from reports of the mills
showed the consumption by species, by States, the amounts and kinds
imported and how these items compare with past performances.

Attention is now being devoted, Mr. Lovejoy said, to learning where
our remaining forests are and what is in them, but the results are
far from satisfactory as compared with the record of manufacturing.
He asserted that we did not know now, within 25 per cent., what our
stand of saw timber is for the whole community or for a given region or
State. Practically nothing is known about the existing pulpwood supply,
so that guesses as to the future cannot be accurate, but Mr. Lovejoy
explained that there were many things upon which such guesses could be
based.


Competition Between Saw Mill and Pulp Mill.

A condition that would have to be met was greater competition between
pulp mill and sawmill, Mr. Lovejoy said, as the value of lumber was
constantly increasing while the merchantable grades of lumber were
declining. The pulp mill is at a disadvantage in this respect; that it
represents a greater capital than the sawmill and cannot be moved to a
new location.

On the other hand, Mr. Lovejoy continued, the pulp mill owner is able
to use a poorer grade of material than the sawmill, and every time a
new way of using still poorer material is found he increases his supply
of raw material and extends his period of operation at one place.
Another way in which to increase his available raw material is to see
that the forests which are tributary to his plant are not burned out.
Forest fires cannot be insured against and always result in the end in
considerable loss to the industry. A really efficient organization for
the prevention of fire can usually be maintained at from 2 to 10 cents
per acre each year, Mr. Lovejoy stated, and it is cheaper and more
effective to protect large areas over a long period than otherwise.


Wood End of Pulp Production Wasteful.

Mr. Lovejoy pointed out that in many cases the woods end of pulp
production was very wasteful. As an example, he cited a given forest
area, having a stand of one-third beech, birch and maple, one-third
spruce and one-third hemlock and balsam. Only a small part of the
stand offers good log timber, not sufficient to attract a sawmill. A
contractor is obtained to get out the pulp stock, the mill specifying
that the stock shall not exceed 5 per cent. species other than spruce.
The spruce comes out, together with all the balsam that the contractor
can get by with. That skins the stand, but is not the worst of it. A
lot of slash is left on the ground offering good material for a fire.
If fire does not come the wind throws a lot of balsam. Side-light
hitting the hemlock parch-blights it and it dies. Conditions are
favorable to tree-destroying insects. If the forest finally survives it
will not longer be a pulp-producing forest.

As a remedy for this condition, Mr. Lovejoy urged a dependable
inventory of the forest resources by combined Federal, State and
private agencies and the development of greater co-operation between
wood-using plants, so that everything the forest produced could be
utilized. He suggested that private owners might be induced to go into
the business of raising timber, rather than have all the forests owned
directly by the mills.


Conservation of Raw Materials Essential.

The conservation of raw materials was essential to a well-organized
industry, and there was danger that the pulpwood supply might not
be protected. Growth of timber was slow, a cord an acre being the
approximate annual rate for well worked forests. The annual consumption
is about 5,000,000 cords of pulpwood in this country; a tree of 50
years of age is the best for the purpose. Working on this basis, it
would clean-cut from 150,000 to 200,000 acres each year to meet the
demand. Under the present system of unscientific cutting, the number of
acres cut over each year reaches several million.


5,000,000 Acres of Timber Land Needed.

Putting it another way, Mr. Lovejoy asserted that 5,000,000 acres of
timber land were needed to establish the industry on such a basis,
provided that only 100,000 acres were cut over each year. Compared with
the 500,000,000 acres needed for all timber requirements of the United
States, this is a small amount, he explained, and it is up to the
pulpwood men to see that it does not get lost in the shuffle.

Fire and heavy taxes prevent the growing of timber from being an
attractive investment proposition to the individual, but for a
corporation it is different, said Mr. Lovejoy. Under proper management
the forest land will begin to render return at once. Several pulpwood
mills are already on this basis.

In closing, Mr. Lovejoy urged the importance of less severe competition
and greater co-operation. Such changes were radical, but they must be
undertaken to preserve the industry.



TRADE ENQUIRIES.


A firm at Bristol, Eng., has asked the Canadian Trade and Commerce
Department for quotations for a contract on woodpulp board. They desire
the board to be 40 inches by 45 at about 180 sheets to the British
cwt., and ask for 100 to 150 tons a year, delivered ten tons per month.

A Glasgow, Scot., firm states that a large demand exists there for
straw-boards, leather-boards and pulpwood-board. They have forwarded
samples to the Department of Trade and Commerce at Ottawa for
quotations.

Two Russian firms have asked the Dominion Trade and Commerce Department
for quotations for writing papers for commercial purposes. They
prefer white and light blue colors. Quotations for quantities c.i.f.
Vladivostok, desired. They sent samples with their request.



Sweden’s Production and Export of Paper


Translated from “Papir Journalen” Christiania, Norway by the News-print
Manufacturers’ Association.

In the report of the Swedish Chamber of Commerce is said as a general
opinion about the Swedish paper industry in 1915, that it has had to
pass through many troubles, and that operation has been difficult and
expensive.

Of raw materials, pulpwood prices increased very early on account
of forced pitprops export, and because pitprops used much timber
previously chiefly had been used for wood pulp and cellulose, that is
pine and spruce of large dimensions. To a larger extent there were
made purchases of pulpwood in Sweden for export to Norway, which, on
which account of the war, could not supply its demand by imports from
Russia. On account of the purchases for foreign consumers, the supply
in some places was so scant that several woodpulp and paper mills had
difficulties in covering their requirements. These conditions caused a
great rise in prices. After repeated petitions from the Swedish Paper
Mills Association on November 6th, 1915, an embargo was declared on
the export of unrefined spruce and pine. In spite of this, felling and
purchases for foreign consumers have been continued, in the hope that
licenses would be given liberally and likewise with the thought that
after the coming peace, it would be possible to ship great quantities
of pulpwood from Sweden to countries, where it then would be in great
demand. In some parts of the country these conditions have brought
about an enormous wood felling which for a long time to come will
decrease the supply of pulpwood.

A number of requisites to the woodpulp and paper industry, which must
be imported have not only increased in prices enormously, but it has
been attended by many difficulties in obtaining the most necessary
supply.

The rise in prices of some raw materials and requirements have at the
end of the year been estimated at the following figures:

                                           per cent.
    Pulpwood has gone up                       30-60
    Dyestuffs                                    400
    Chloride of lime                            1000
    Coal                                     400-500
    China clay                               100-200
    Resin and other chemicals                    300
    Sulphur                                  160-200
    Felts, wires, reserve parts, oils and
      everything else necessary to the
      unhampered operation of the machines   100-500
    New machines to replace worn out ones,
      electric appliances, etc.               65-500

But in other respects too, the production has become more expensive,
for instance increased wages to employees and laborers on account
of the famine, greatly increased freights for imports and exports,
considerably raised railway tariffs, etc.

All these items of increased cost in production and operation, have,
of course, brought about an increase in the prices of paper, so far as
this has been possible. Some buyers in foreign countries have consented
to an increase of price for deliveries on older contracts. The sellers
in Sweden, by the bye have arranged to sell f.o.b. Swedish ports, and
have avoided thereby the risk of increase in freight and insurance.
In the first half of last year, the prices could be raised on a few
qualities. But only in the latter half of the year came a systematic
co-operation among the Swedish producers for a regulation of prices,
and this price regulating was done in concurrence with the Norwegian
paper producers.

The foreign demand for paper has increased latterly, and now very high
prices are offered for some qualities. The demand for paper suitable
for the producing of yarn especially has been very great and of these
kinds of paper Sweden has sold quite a good deal. There has been a
demand for paper yarns and textiles made therefrom; but the production
thereof is very limited in Sweden. The production and the exports of
some other paper goods has increased during 1915. But the increase has
not always, to cite the report mentioned, been as great as might have
been desired in order to get a firm hold on the world markets for the
Swedish paper industry, for which the present time is most favorable.



THE GOVERNMENT’S PAPER BILL.


The high cost of paper is hampering the work of the United States
government seriously. Publications are being cut down and plans are
under way to discontinue those of minor importance. Officials in all
departments put into effect today orders to conserve paper. A principal
step is use of smaller type in printing.

The United States government annually places the largest individual
contract made in this country for paper. When paper required for
present fiscal year is ready for delivery, general purchasing agents
have been warned that mills will not be able to meet a demand equally
as great next year, even at enormous increase in price.

Dr. O. H. Briggs, head of government general supply division says:
“Latest reports show a crisis in the paper industry, and retrenchment
all along the line will be enforced. Government contract price for fine
grades of typewriting paper last year was 12 cents a pound. Today we
should have to pay 20 cents. We are using 100 different kinds of paper.
Since the war the price has jumped about 100% and will continue to
soar.”

Government printing demands about 15 carloads daily and paper for its
use alone has amounted to more than $1,000,000 a year. Printing paper
for this year’s work costs 4½ cents, but contracts for future supplies
will show 100% increase or more in price.



CHANGES AT FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY


Dr. J. S. Bates, Superintendent of the Forest Products Laboratories,
has left for Shawinigan Falls to assist the Imperial Government in the
production of chemical products needed in munitions manufacture. Dr.
Bates is “loaned” to the Imperial Government by the Dominion Government
for the period of the war.

W. Boyd Campbell B.Sc., Assistant Superintendent, who has been to the
front for the past twelve months, has returned to take up the duties of
Dr. Bates until his return.

       *       *       *       *       *

There arrived 10,368,000,000 matches in New York a few days ago from
Sweden on SS. Stockholm to relieve shortage in United States. Steamer
also brought 7,500 bales of wood pulp.



INSURANCE OF STANDING TIMBER REGARDED AS FEASIBLE.


Standing timber is one fire risk that hitherto has not been regarded
with favor by the fire insurance companies. Some insurance of this sort
has been written in Canada by the London Lloyds on separate limited
tracts and an excess loss only, the insured bearing all losses below
this limit. The Phoenix Insurance Co., of London, is, however, this
year writing some insurance upon green standing timber in Oregon and
Washington, with certain restrictions, and at rates varying from 1
and 1½ per cent. The timber must be accessible to markets, not unduly
exposed to fire hazard, and only one risk is taken in each fire zone or
area indicated by the Company. No risk is written greater than $17,500
in any one such area.

W. R. Brown in an article on this subject in “American Forestry” goes
in to some detail in discussing the possibilities of this subject. He
summarizes the fire experiences within the territory of various fire
prevention associations, and his figures include the 22,000,000 acres
under the supervision of E. C. Allen in the twelve western private
fire prevention associations which he supervises; the New Hampshire
Timberland Owners’ Association with 1,000,000 acres; the Northern
Fire Protective Association of Michigan with 2,000,000 acres; the St.
Maurice Valley Fire Protective Association of Quebec with an area of
8,000,000 acres--the total of the four associations being 33,000,000
acres. The expenditure for forest ranging and fire prevention is
approximately 1 cent an acre for the first three and ¼ cent an acre for
the Canadian organization. In the western associations the fire loss
for the year 1910 was one-half of 1 per cent. In each association since
that time it has been much less than that figure, except for 1914 in
the Canadian association, when one fire got away and the fire loss of
the year was three-fourths of 1 per cent. upon the timber valuation.
Taking all four areas together and summarizing the figures for each
which Mr. Allen gives, the average yearly losses respectively were as
follows:

1910, .005; 1911, .000171; 1912, .0002328; 1913, .0012636; 1914,
.00253; 1915, .00427.

The writer concludes from these figures that in such protective areas
fire insurance should cost for the loss ratio not over one-half
per cent. annually, with another one-half per cent. added for
administration cost of the insurance plan. He gives some further
experience upon which to base this conclusion. In Minnesota during the
last ten years, with its forest wealth of $280,000,000, the average
fire loss has been about $100,000 or one-thirty-fourth of 1 per cent.
annually.--American Lumberman.



PAPER CLOTHES.


A new German textile in which paper is spun with about 20 per cent. of
cotton is being exhibited in Copenhagen.

Unspun cotton in the form of down is glued to one side of endless rolls
of paper and the paper is then shorn into narrow bands, which are spun
with the cotton side outwards.

Danish experts were shown “paper” underclothing, jerseys, sheets,
bandages, and horse blankets, but the cost of production of the cloth
is said to be too high to allow its competing with cotton and woolen
cloth under normal conditions.



MUNICIPAL FORESTRY.


Forestry can never appeal to individual enterprise on a large scale.
Returns are too slow. As a national enterprise of the highest
importance it is gaining recognition, and there is a tendency among
some American cities to take advantage of its many possibilities. With
the exception of the vicinity of the Great Lakes, the world’s largest
reservoir of pure fresh water, cities must have water supplies from
available drainage or watershed areas. These can be devoted to forestry
with advantage from a sanitary point of view, and also with profit when
the trees begin to mature. Where convenient, the forested area can
also be made to serve as public parks. The city of Fall River, Mass.,
began in 1909 to plant trees in Watuppa Pond Reservation. There are
3,232 acres of land belonging to the municipality in a natural forest
condition and 1,552 acres suitable for reforesting. The trees are
supplied by the State Forestry Bureau. The Metropolitan Water Board,
which represents Boston and other cities in this matter, has planted,
chiefly in the Wachusetts Reservation, about 1,800 acres with forest
trees. In six years the State forestry service has furnished to the
cities of the State a sufficient number of trees to cover 1,481 acres,
and it is estimated that 15,000 acres in city reservoir tracts have
been put under some kind of forest treatment. Massachusetts has gone
beyond the use of the watershed reservations for this purpose. An act
was passed by the Legislature three years ago permitting cities to buy
land to be kept distinctly as forests, quite aside from water purposes.
There are now several of these city forests in existence.

Elsewhere in the United States the same tendency exists. In ten large
and middling-sized cities forest domains aggregating over 150,000 acres
are maintained, and it is probable that municipal forests comprise
250,000 acres. Newark, N.J., has a forest of 22,000 acres, and in time
the whole of it may be scientifically forested. Hartford, Conn., has
a forest property of 4,000 acres, which is being developed for timber
production. Here are examples for Canadian cities. Winnipeg’s water
development may be made to serve a double purpose. Even Toronto’s
suburban ravines, though unsuited and unnecessary for water supply,
might serve the dual purpose of timber production and park systems.
Municipal trading has many critics, often unreasonable, but municipal
reforesting should be made a possibility where Provincial authority is
neglecting its duty in that regard and falling behind in the march of
progress.--Toronto Globe.



PUBLISHERS TO MAKE PAPER.


Fifty newspaper publishers of Florida are considering establishment of
a plant to manufacture paper from pulp of fibrous trees and bushes in
that state, particularly palmetto. Investigations have shown fibrous
material is of better quality than spruce pulp which is used in
manufacture of newsprint.

       *       *       *       *       *

In connection with the advance in paper issues, timber limits, which
normally have a value of about $1,000 a square mile, have risen to
$2,000 a square mile.

       *       *       *       *       *

A prominent dealer who returned a few days ago from the Quebec
woodlands reports that the supply of pulpwood this year is but 50 per
cent. of what it was a year ago because of the inability to get labor.



SCARCITY OF PAPER IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.


The following information furnished by United States consuls and
published in the United States Commerce Reports, will be of interest to
the Canadian paper trade:--


Government May Take Action to Relieve Brazilian Situation.

The scarcity of paper, and particularly of news-print paper, in Rio de
Janeiro is still a serious matter. While stocks have been replenished,
there are signs that another crisis is approaching. The “Jornal do
Commercio”, the leading daily paper of the city, in an editorial on
July 7, seriously proposed that unless the Brazilian Congress saw fit
to reduce the import duties on news-print paper for a time, all the
newspapers of the country should begin to eliminate news that was
superfluous and print smaller daily editions so as to save paper.

The matter has attracted widespread attention, perhaps on account of
the impressions that importers usually profit by a scarcity on the
local market to make exorbitant demands for what stocks they may have
on hand. Although the serious situation now confronting the country has
been looming up threateningly for a long time past, no effort seems to
have been made to save paper or to collect waste paper and rags.

Senhor Dunshee de Abrantee, of the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies,
himself a man familiar with journalism and the needs of the paper
trade, has already presented to Congress a proposed amendment to the
forthcoming budget law, providing that imported paper shall pay no duty
and only the expediente tax on entering the country.


Spanish Government Asked To Seek Remedy.

The scarcity of paper in Spain has caused some anxiety, and
representatives of Spanish publishers, printers, and manufacturers of
paper and cardboard have informed the Government of their willingness
to postpone filling export orders until after the domestic demand for
their products has been fully met. They also expressed a desire that
the Government fix prices and conditions to control the export of
raw materials used in paper manufacture. Accordingly, a royal order,
published June 15, 1916, appointed a commission, a representative of
the Government presiding, formed of three delegates chosen from each
interested group, namely, paper manufacturers, newspaper publishers,
and those engaged in bookmaking arts.

This commission is to pass on all complaints formulated, proposing,
if necessary, such methods as it judges opportune with respect to
the export of paper and un-manufactured cardboard. The custom house
authorities must submit to this commission a sample of every class of
paper or cardboard exported, its origin, and the name of the exporter.

The paper-making interests in Spain employs chiefly wood-pulp, and its
price has increased about 85 per cent since the war began. Imports of
wood-pulp in 1913 amounted to 61,000 metric tons of 2,204.6 pounds
each; in 1914 to 40,000 tons, and in 1915 to 50,000 tons. More than
half of this supply comes from Sweden; other sources are Germany and
Norway.

Wood-pulp and logs for making pulp coming from foreign countries were
exempted from the transport tax in March last, and an export duty of 18
pesetas gold per 100 kilograms ($1.58 per 100 pounds) levied on endless
paper weighing from 41 to 50 grams per square metre and containing
mechanical pulp.



SUPPLY AND DEMAND LAW CONTROLS PAPER PRICES.


In his address before the New York Business Publishers’ Association,
formerly the New York Trade Press Association, at the Advertising Club
of New York on Oct. 2, Judge C. F. Moore, secretary of the Bureau of
Statistics of the Book Paper Manufacturers’ Association, declared that
there was a real paper famine in the United States, and that the law of
supply and demand was solely responsible for the present high prices of
book paper.

He went on to say that the people in the United States were enormously
busy and that they were using more paper than ever before; that there
was a more acute paper famine abroad than in America, that the mills
in the United States were all working day and night six days a week,
and that because of discouraging legislation passed by Congress in the
past the paper manufacturers had not been keen on building new plants
and installing new machinery when there was such a chance for keen
competition from abroad. He asserted that there had been no agreement
by paper makers to boost the price or to regulate it.



LOCKWOOD’S DIRECTORY.


Lockwood’s Directory of the Paper & Stationery Allied Trades for 1917,
has just been received by the Pulp and Paper Magazines. The work has
come to be regarded as a standard publication, and is eagerly looked
for by those engaged in the pulp and paper industry.

The Directory this year contains 768 pages as compared with 742 pages
for the previous year. It contains a vast amount of information
relating to paper dealers, rag and paper stock dealers, paper box
manufacturers, twine manufacturers, wall paper makers, envelope
manufacturers, paper bag producers, trade associations, the stationary
trade, water marks and brands, etc.

The Trade Statistics contained in the Paper are brought right up to
date, which in view of the changed conditions brought about by the
European war, make it of particular value. The price to anyone engaged
in the trade is $3.00. It is published by the Lockwood Journal Company,
10 East 39th St., New York.



THE WOOD DISTILLATION INDUSTRY.


It is estimated by the New York State College of Forestry that 640
cords of beech, birch and maple wood are used every day in the wood
distillation industry in New York State. The industry has been greatly
stimulated by the European war inasmuch as acetate of lime, of one the
principal products of the industry, is used in the manufacture of high
explosives.



THREE IDLE MILLS.


At the present time there are but three idle pulp and paper mills in
Canada, two of which are located in British Columbia, and the third in
Nova Scotia. These are all small mills, and in contrast to that, it
is only necessary to point out that all the other mills in Canada are
working to capacity.

       *       *       *       *       *

The annual consumption of paper pulp wood in the United States is
4,300,000 cords, representing an expenditure of $36,000,000 by
approximately 250 companies.



SHOES LIKE “THE WONDERFUL ONE HORSE SHAY.”


When a man is “on his uppers” he is in a very serious condition for
then his shoe soles have worn out and he has no money to buy more.
This expression therefore carries with it the assumption that the
uppers of our shoes wear better than the soles. It is a slang phrase of
recent introduction: for can we not recall our boyhood days, and see
those gorgeous patches on our Sunday best wax calf shoes, or our every
day high boots--patches which were striking emblems of the cobbler’s
art? Yes, the soles outwore the uppers then, but they had other less
desirable qualities than durability. Hark back, and you can hear again
that vibrant reverberation echoing upon the stillness of the Sabbath
morn as the deacon, contribution box in hand, tip-toed up and down the
aisle; every squeak of those blessed boots sounding like the droaning
of a rusty saw in a hemlock log.

Times have changed, however, since those happy days. The Chemist has
been busy, and his achievements in the leather industry have been
revolutionary. In 1884, Augustus Schultz of New York City, who was not
a tanner but a chemist, patented a process for tanning with chromium
salts. As a result of this discovery, over ninety per cent. of the
shoes worn throughout the world to-day are made with chrome-tanned
upper leather. This chrome-tanned leather, which, we are proud to say
was made commercially possible in America, is cheaper, more durable,
easier to manufacture, holds its shape better, and, in every other
respect, is superior to bark-tanned leather of former years. This is
the reason why we do not wear patches on our shoe uppers to-day.

The sole leather of to-day, it is claimed, does not wear so well as
that of former years. Possibly this may be the case, but still the
statement is open to a question. Granted, however, that the sole
leather of fifty years ago did wear somewhat longer, there are reasons
why we should not care to return to its use. In place of the old style
leather, which was a hard and as hard and as slippery as steel, we now
have a leather which cuts well, looks well, and, above all else, feels
well on the foot. Therefore, looking to our comfort as we do, we would
never be satisfied with the shoes that grandpa used to wear.

The meeting of the American Chemical Society, which was held in New
York City during the week of September 25 to 30, and the Exposition of
Chemical Industries meeting there at the same time, makes us wonder
if the chemist will soon be able to make the sole of a shoe wear as
long as the upper. Something along this line may be forthcoming, as it
is pretty well known in the trade that a sole leather can be produced
by means of a so-called chrome combination tannage which will outwear
bark-tanned leather three to one. To prove this point, a recent series
of tests were made on twenty mail carriers and twenty policemen in New
York City. On the right shoe of each was a sole made from a chrome
combination, and on the left was the best oak sole obtainable. On the
average, two oak soles wore through and the men were on the third
before the chrome combination saw its finish.

With the price of leather constantly going up and the supply of hides
not sufficient to meet the demand, the time is soon coming when we
shall be forced to produce sole leather possessing a greater degree of
wearing quality. We shall then have shoes on our feet which will be
like the proverbial, “One Horse Shay”; for, when they do go, even the
cobbler will not be able to find the pieces.



WORK OF THE BUREAU OF STANDARDS.


Reference is made in a recent issue of the “Scientific American” to the
excellent work being done at the Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C.
In relation to the pulp and paper laboratory presided over by Frederick
C. Clark, a prominent member of the Technical Association of the Pulp
and Paper Industry, the “Scientific American” says:

“Some time ago, the Government, realizing that we were cut off from
supplies of rags and waste paper, which heretofore had been imported in
large quantities, appealed to the public to save such refuse material
and sell it to paper manufacturers. As a result of this appeal, a
manufacturer of waxed paper asked the Department of Commerce whether
any use could be made of clippings of his product. In the production of
waxed paper sheets, this company is burdened with large quantities of
clippings, which have been hauled away by the carload and destroyed.
Owing to the association of the paraffin wax with the fiber of the
paper, such clippings cannot be introduced into ordinary paper pulp.”



QUEBEC’S FOREST ECONOMY.


(Telegraph, St. John, N.B.).

Quebec, some years ago, established a provincial nursery, and this
year, in addition to the young trees planted on Crown lands, the
provincial nursery shipped 400,000 seedlings to pulp and paper
companies which are reafforesting the lands they have cut over. The
Laurentide company alone bought 250,000 of these young trees. A large
number were sold to other pulp and paper companies, and to private
individuals. The Perthius seignory alone bought 50,000 seedlings this
year; and this is the sixth year in succession during which trees have
been bought from the province for use in this seignory. With this
example just over our provincial line fence, New Brunswick continues a
policy of waste and neglect.



PAPER SHORTAGE SERIOUS IN NEW ZEALAND.


New Zealand paper shortage is interfering greatly with printing
business and the government is limiting publications turned out by
it. Because of difficulty in getting paper, managers of a number of
publications talk of suspending.

Supplies of certain lines of paper, cardboards, pasteboards, etc., are
almost impossible to obtain, and it seems unlikely that this condition
will improve much until some time after the war, unless American or
Canadian manufacturers are able to relieve the situation. Scarcity of
envelopes is very marked, and it is almost impossible to obtain certain
lines. One firm in Auckland took orders for 25,000,000 envelopes, but
has been able to get orders accepted in the United States for only
15,000,000, and to date only 5,000,000 have been delivered.

       *       *       *       *       *

The output of pulp and paper from British Columbia last year was 50,307
tons of manufactured paper and 13,000 tons of sulphite pulp, valued at
$3,200,000.



UNITED STATES NOTES

(Special to Pulp and Paper Magazine).


October 14, 1916.

Considerable interest was manifest in the New York paper circle
during the past fortnight by the resignation from the International
Paper Company of Arthur E. Wright. Mr. Wright has been connected with
the International for many years. At one time he was Vice-President
and Sales Manager, but several years ago he relinquished the former
position to devote his entire time to the daily distribution of the
company’s 1,500 tons of paper. Mr. Wright has been appointed Secretary
of the Perkins-Goodwin Company at 33 West 42nd Street, New York, and
has already assumed his new duties.

       *       *       *       *       *

Another addition to its mills is announced by the Union Bag & Paper
Company. At the offices of the big concern in the Woolworth Building,
New York, it was said last week it had been decided to build a
plant at Hudson Falls, N.Y., for the manufacture of paper bags. The
specifications call for a four story building, 100 by 400 feet. Work
will be begun immediately and when completed it is expected to increase
the company’s pay roll by approximately 400 people.

       *       *       *       *       *

Press dispatches from San Francisco, Cal., state that the Northwestern
Compo Board Company, which, by the way, is a branch of the C. A. Smith
Lumber Company, had negotiated with the Union Lumber Company to utilize
its redwood refuse at Fort Bragg, Cal., for the manufacture of Compo
board. It is also understood that work will be started immediately upon
the erection of a suitable mill at that place.

       *       *       *       *       *

Hans Lagerlof, President of the Scandinavian Trading Company, with
offices in the Produce Exchange Building, New York, has just returned
from a protracted trip through Scandinavia. Mr. Lagerlof left the
States last July, and relates some very interesting experiences during
his sojourn in the war zone.

       *       *       *       *       *

After being idle for about six years, the old paper mills at Mount
Holly Springs, Mass., will shortly resume operations. The Mount Holly
Paper Mills, Inc., has been chartered in Massachusetts to take over the
properties and good will of the old concern. The officers of the new
corporation are: Frank Locke, President; H. T. Maynard, Vice-President
and General Manager, and H. A. G. Locke, Treasurer. It is stated that
the mills will be placed in operations as soon as repairs can be made
and new necessary machinery installed.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Northwestern Paper Company, of Minneapolis, Minn., has amended its
charter increasing its capital from $1,000,000 to $1,500,000.

       *       *       *       *       *

Quite a number of the leading paper jobbers exhibited at the third
annual printing show at New York, September 30th to October 7th, where
they demonstrated their various grades of papers to the printers of the
country. This exhibition has always interested the paper jobbers very
much, and it was said that this year’s show was attended by a greater
number of people than ever before.

       *       *       *       *       *

The correspondent on the Pacific Coast of one of the leading trade
journals states in a current dispatch that the Hawley Pulp and Paper
Company is building a new pare mill at Oregon City, Ore. Orders have
been placed for the machinery and excavation for a concrete foundation
has begun. It is expected that the mill will be ready for operation
about Spring time.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is understood on good authority that the Kalamazoo Paper Company,
Kalamazoo, Mich., in order to have sufficient power to run its
new coating plant, will increase its present power plant by the
installation of a new 1,250 horsepower turbine engine. Other necessary
additions will also be added which will make the company have one of
the largest power plants in the state.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Delaware charters during the past fortnight listed the Roberts
Sulphite Company. Objects of the new corporation are to deal in wood
pulp and paper stock. The capital stock is placed at $2,500,000.

       *       *       *       *       *

Another large pulp corporation to be reported during the past fortnight
is the Filer Fibre Company. This is a $300,000 concern. It proposes
to engage in the manufacture of wood pulp at Manistee, Mich. It is
understood that the concern, which is backed by E. G. Filer, will begin
immediately the building of its mill, and be in operation sometime
about the early spring.

       *       *       *       *       *

Fifty newspaper publishers of the State of Florida, convened at
Jacksonville on October 6th and 7th to discuss the high cost of
printing paper and consider the advisability of establishing a plant
in Florida to manufacture paper from pulp of fibrous trees and bushes,
particularly the palmetto. Investigations, it is said, have shown that
fibrous materials are of better quality than the spruce pulp which is
used by the mills in the north. Several specimens were shown at the
meeting and those from the Florida trees showed more tensile strength
than any of the other grades submitted. It was said that the Florida
editors will endorse and promote any move that will bring about the
establishment of a mill in that state.



NEW YORK MARKETS.


New York, N.Y., October 7, 1916.

The outlook in ground wood pulp is very discouraging, so far as the
consumer is concerned. There is now a definite certainty that the
market must continue to grow more acute and that the value of pulp
will be on the ascendancy for some time. While there has been no
material increase in the quotations reported for ground wood, since our
last issue, these figures are beginning to represent nominal issues,
for it is becoming rather difficult to negotiate for such supplies.
Now, more than ever, does the prediction, made several months ago, that
ground wood pulp would reach $40.00 per ton, seem plausible. From the
grinders come reports that they have little to offer. They are working
their mills to capacity fulfilling obligations which carry them through
the balance of the year. Those mills which have surplus stocks are
asking tophigh prices.

It is most unfortunate at this time, but it is understood that, in
various parts of the country, the water conditions are very poor and
that it is with difficulty many of the machines are being kept in
operation. In fact, some of the mills have been shut down a good part
of the time, owing to lack of water power. This is a very serious
condition, because the demand has reached extraordinary proportions.
Not only is there the usual call for ground wood, caused by the Fall
business, but there is an added demand, stimulated by the shortage of
sulphites and the rush of many mills to substitute, as far as possible,
the ground wood pulp. Present quotations have already reached $30 per
ton, f.o.b. mill.

Conditions in the sulphite markets seem to be growing worse, rather
than showing any tendency to improve. Importations are very limited
and it is apparent that the foreign producers are not at all very
anxious to have much of their stock sent to his country. For, they
say, the continent of Europe presents a much better paying field. It
is understood that the Germans, the French, Italians, and the other
countries which are able to get stock from Sweden are paying whatever
is being asked--more than the current quotations in the United States.
Domestic mills are working to capacity and the volume of imports
from Canada has increased considerably, but the demand is of such
proportions that it is impossible for the manufacturers to keep up
with it. A great deal of interest is reported in the market, but mills
still hesitate about paying the very high prices and are buying very
cautiously, in the hope that the situation will improve in the near
future. But indications are far from warranting such hopes. Bleached
sulphite is to-day quoted--nominally--at as high as 9½c for foreign
stock. Easy bleaching is going at about 6½c--whenever it can be had.
Domestic unbleached is quoted at about 4c, but is also not available
in large quantities. Foreign strong unbleached remains at about 5c to
5½c. Krafts are to-day practically unobtainable. The producers are
consuming whatever they have not already contracted to sell, finding it
more profitable to convert the pulp into paper. Reports have been heard
of instances where manufacturers have not found it possible to live up
to their obligations and have had to stop deliveries on contracts. The
nominal price for kraft pulp is about 5¾c.

The rag market, as a whole, is very quiet. As the local dealers say,
the situation is dependent on the action of roofing rags and, since
these are inactive, the other grades are forced into a similar state.
Reports from the roofing mills show that they are all working to
capacity and that they have plenty of orders on hand. However, they
are all pretty well stocked with rags and have no need to come into
the market. It seems to be understood in the trade, from the way the
buying is going on, that the manufacturers are conferring possibly
once a week and are informing each other of the various amounts of
stock which have been offered by dealers and of the prices which have
been named. In this way it has been possible for them to keep tabs
on the rag men and to keep the market from advancing. Because of the
inactivity in roofing, thirds and blues, solid whites, and the other
grades of old rags have not been moving very well, nor have they been
bringing the prices which the dealers expected they would be bringing
at this time of the year. A slight increase, however, was noted in
the demand for No. 1 new white rags. In fact, one rumor had it that a
large lot of these rags had been sold at 10c. It is known that a large
writing manufacturer refused an offer at 9c and a little later wired an
acceptance, but it was not taken.

Rope has been looming up strong within the past few weeks and the
market is now verging the 6c mark. It is understood that there are lots
of stocks in England, but these cannot be had because of the embargo so
the domestic manufacturers find themselves facing a scarcity in this
particular commodity. The demand is now improving and bids fair to
continue so for some time.

The waste paper market has been characterized with considerable
activity during the past few weeks. The shortage of sulphite has
stimulated buying considerably and everyone is in the market looking
for stock. Hard white and soft white shavings, in particular, are in
strong demand and are reaching a stage where they will be hard to
obtain. They are quoted about as follows: hard white, 4¼c to 4¾c; soft
white, 3 to 4c. The demand for ledger, magazine and book stock is
fairly strong and will most likely increase in strength, if present
indications are to be taken into account. Ledger stock is at 2¼c to
2½c; magazine, at 1¾c; krafts, at 3c; mixed papers, at 60c to 65c.

In the paper market, the acute situation remains unrelieved, nor is
there any apparent sign of relief visible. This is true of all kinds
of paper. The mills are all operating to capacity in the hope of
catching up with orders, but this hope has been futile as will be
realized when it is understood that some of the manufacturers are still
working on orders received several months ago. Newsprint has been the
miracle of the industry. Despite all of the schemes which have been
published stating the many ways in which the newspapers were curtailing
their consumption and saving paper, the demand is to-day as strong
as it ever was. The mills are shipping more than 100 per cent. of
their production--drawing from their reserve supplies, so that these
have dwindled to a dangerous degree. It would be hard to name a real
quotation for newsprint at the present time for the only lots to be had
are not those in the hands of jobbers who are asking as much as they
can get for their stock.

Wrapping papers are still very hard to get. It will be interesting to
know that many of the large consumers of wrapping paper have reached
the stage where they find they cannot stand the cost and are making
price as follows: so much for an article unwrapped, and so much for an
article wrapped.

R. W. JOLLY.



ROOF TRUSSES COLLAPSE AT PLANT OF ONTARIO PAPER COMPANY, LIMITED.


On the 19th of September six roof trusses on the new machine room
building, which is under construction at the plant of the Ontario Paper
Company, Thorold, collapsed.

The building when completed will have fourteen trusses and at the
time of the accident six trusses had been erected with the exception
of riveting them. Seventy-five per cent. of the rivet holes had been
filled with proper bolts. The trusses were all tied together with
purlins of 6″ × 8″ Long Leaf Yellow Pine.

When the six trusses were finished the guy line which held No. 1 truss
was slacked off as it was felt that the steel work would support
itself. When the guy line was loose the entire six trusses simply
toppled over without any warning.

Mr. Sam Bartlett, who was working on this structure in the capacity of
iron worker was caught between the falling structure and an 18″ 1. beam
and was instantly killed. He was a resident of Sydney, Nova Scotia.

Careful examination of the steel was made after the accident and while
a number of theories have been advanced to explain the failure nothing
definite can be determined.

The collapse will not delay construction materially as the wreckage has
been cleared away and new trusses are rapidly being built.



WHERE QUEBEC LEADS.


Not only does Quebec take effective measures against fire in her
forest lands, but she takes effective measures to keep the forests
in perpetuation, where they do not cover cultivable land. Quebec
some years ago established a provincial nursery, and this year, in
addition to the young trees planted on Crown lands, the provincial
nursery shipped 400,000 seedlings to pulp and paper companies which
are reafforesting the lands they have cut over. The Laurentide company
alone bought 250,000 of these young trees. A large number were sold to
other pulp and paper companies and to private individuals. The Perthius
seignory alone bought 50,000 seedlings this year; and this is the
sixth year in succession during which trees have been bought from the
province for use in this seignory.--Hamilton Herald.



REGULATIONS RE WET PULP.


With regard to the importation of wet sulphite wood-pulp from Canada
and the United States, according to a bulletin just issued by the Trade
and Commerce Department, the British Royal Commission on Paper have
decided that where they are satisfied that this pulp contains moisture
in excess of the quantity contained in ordinary dry pulp, they will
grant licenses for that excess up to, but not exceeding, 40 per cent.
of the total weight, in the case of pulp arriving in the United Kingdom
after August 7. The pulp must be imported on the ordinary licenses
issued by the commission. The amount of moisture excess must be proved
by the certificate of a competent chemist.



SHINGLES THAT WILL NOT BURN.


According to information in the hands of the West Coast Lumbermen’s
Association, an Iowa pharmacist after seventeen months experimenting,
has produced a liquid which makes wooden shingles absolutely fireproof.
In a test of the new fireproofing liquid, made at the University of
Iowa by the inventor, a block of wood one-half inch thick was saturated
with the fireproofing and then placed in running water for twenty-four
hours. After that it was thoroughly dried again and held for one hour
over a Bunsen burner, which had a temperature of between 700 and 1,000
degrees Fahrenheit, that being a much greater heat, it is said, than is
developed in a conflagration. The wood was not burned and only charred
very slightly at the point of the flame. The new compound is reported
to be sufficiently low in cost to make it practical in connection with
shingle manufacture, and when a shingle is saturated the moisture drys
out, leaving an insoluble mineral fireproofing substance in the fibre
cells of the wood, which cannot be washed out with water and is said
absolutely to prevent combustion.



TO VISIT CANADA.


A special trade commission from Australia which will investigate
overseas methods of manufacture and production, and conditions of
employment, in timber, paper, iron and other industries will shortly
come to Canada. The commission will be composed of experts, an equal
number of representatives of capital and labor being arranged for. They
will also visit the United States.

       *       *       *       *       *

Two new wet machines are being placed in the Foley pulp mill at
Thorold and a new grinder has been installed in the Davey mill, which
is connected with the Foley plant and will shortly be operated in
conjunction with it.

       *       *       *       *       *

Waste hemlock tanbark remaining after tannin is extracted is being used
by a number of mills in place of between 30% and 40% of expensive rag
stock ordinarily used in making felt roofing.

       *       *       *       *       *

A. A. McDiarmid, has resigned his position as chief engineer on the
Mattagami Pulp and Paper Co., Toronto, and is now engaged in special
work at Sault Ste. Marie.



OUR PULP AND PAPER EXPORTS.


The increase in the exports of paper, wood for pulp and pulp for the
twelve months ending June last is 23.8 per cent. To a considerable
extent this is due to advancing prices. It will be noticed that the
export of wood pulp during the period of the twelve months in question
has declined slightly. There is more wood available at the present time
than a few months ago. Northern Ontario points report the most acute
shortage, although the situation there has improved somewhat.

                      1915.         1916.      1916.
                                            To Britain.    To U.S.
    Paper       $16,200,635   $21,256,296   $1,032,786   $17,759,018
    Pulpwood      6,463,125     6,102,170         ----     6,102,170
    Wood pulp     9,257,036    12,220,988      672,673    10,793,647
                -----------   -----------   ----------   -----------
        Total   $31,920,796   $39,579,454   $1,705,459   $34,654,835



PULP AND PAPER NEWS


Mr. H. Moore, secretary of the Clements Paper Co., Nashville, Tenn.,
spent a few days in Toronto and Montreal recently calling upon the
trade.

W. J. Gage, President of W. J. Gage and Co., Toronto and the Kinleith
Paper Co., St. Catharines, has been awarded $4,000 damages by
Arbitrator P. H. Brayton in his claim against the city of Toronto.
In connection with the Bathurst street hill improvements a retaining
wall was built which stood against the Gage property and the latter
contended that the site should be treated as a business location. Mr.
Gage witnesses declared that the damage done was several times more
than what has been awarded. The official arbitrator took the view that
the land occupied by the retaining wall should be paid for and no more
and handed out judgment accordingly.

At the annual meeting held recently in Toronto, the report of the
directors and the annual financial statement of the Spanish River Paper
Mills, Limited, which have already been published in these columns,
were presented. The improvement in the company’s position was favorably
commented upon. George H. Mead was re-elected president, P. B. Wilson,
Vice-president, Thomas Gibson, Secretary and A. H. Chitty, Treasurer.

So serious has become the shortage of news print in Winnipeg, that
the newspapers of that city have discontinued giving free copies to
employees while all correspondents have been cut off and no free
exchanges to other newspapers are given.

The district fire rangers around Port Arthur have returned to their
homes having concluded their duties for the present season. The loss
from fires in the Thunder Bay district this year was the smallest on
record.

John Rumelhart, who was convicted of having stolen pulp wood in his
possession, was sentenced at Port Arthur to twenty-six months in the
penitentiary. In passing sentence upon him Sir Glenholme Falconbridge
stated that the rights of pulp wood owners must be respected. The pulp
wood in question was from a storage room of the Horrigan Co., which was
located at Black Bay.

The engagement is announced of Miss Edna Frances, daughter of Mr. and
Mrs. Frank E. Mutton, Toronto, to Flight Lieutenant Arthur W. Kilgour,
youngest son of Mr. Robert Kilgour of Toronto, President of the Trent
River Paper Co., Frankford, Ont. Miss Mutton left this week for Bombay,
India, where the marriage will take place.

Herbert C. Jarvis, General Manager of the Empire Wall Paper Co.,
Limited, Toronto, states that the price of all materials entering in
the manufacture of wall paper, has increased by leaps and bounds during
the past few months and the end is not yet in sight. A few months ago
prices were advanced and the company expected that this increase would
result in decreased sales but on the contrary the demand is steadily
growing. With the large contracts which the firm have, Mr. Jarvis says
that he hopes to maintain net prices about the same as are today.

A charter has been granted to Canadian Wood Products, Limited, with
headquarters in Toronto and a share capital of $40,000. The company
is empowered to manufacture and deal in lumber, pulp and other forest
products.

Ald. A. H. Stratton, of Peterboro, who was for many years engaged in
the stationery and wall paper business in that city and is a brother
of the late Hon. J. R. Stratton, proprietor of the Peterboro Examiner,
has, in company with his brother-in-law, T. F. Matthews, purchased
the plant and business of the Review Printing and Publishing Co.,
Peterboro, which has been in liquidation. The Review is one of the
oldest in Ontario being established in 1853 by the Whites who later
became owners of the Montreal Gazette.

The wholesale paper business in Montreal formerly carried on by John R.
MacGregor has been taken over by John R. MacGregor and Thomas Harkness
and is now conducted under the name of the MacGregor-Harkness Paper Co.

Port Arthur is to have a large sulphite plant, a free site being
given the company on the north water front, of some *0 acres. An
agreement has been entered into between the corporation and has several
and astern capitalists. The bylaw will be soon voted upon by the
ratepayers. The first unit is to be started within thirty days after
the carrying of the measure, and be completed and in operation within
one year. It will have a capacity of fifty tons a day and, inside of
five years, the capacity is to be increased to one hundred and fifty
tons whereupon the company will receive a deed for a further tract of
land of ninety-seven and one half acres. It is expected that by the
time the complete mill of one hundred and fifty tons is finished the
outlay on buildings and equipment will be in the neighborhood of five
million dollars.

It was stated recently, both in reports on the street and in some
newspapers that Hon. G. Howard Ferguson, Minister of Lands, Forests
and Mines for Ontario had entered into a secret deal with a large
paper company of Appleton, Wis., enabling that concern to export pulp
from eight thousand acres of Crown lands in the Thunder Bay district,
for manufacture in the United States. It was rumored that the law
compelling all pulp wood on Ontario Crown lands to be first turned into
pulp or paper in the province, before being sent out of the country,
had been set aside by the simple provision of selling the land to the
Appleton firm. Hon. Mr. Ferguson has given an emphatic denial to the
charge, in which he stated there is not a word of truth, and adds
that no suggestion had ever been made to him to allow pulp wood to be
exported. He pointed out, in connection with tenders now being called
for the right to cut pulp wood and other timber on the Pic river and
other territory in the Thunder Bay district covering about 1,400 square
miles that the provisions clearly state that the successful bidder must
erect a pulp mill with a minimum capacity of one hundred and fifty
tons daily which, with its equipment, must cost not less than a million
dollars, and also a paper mill with a capacity of one hundred tons a
day. The tenders for the Pic River concession close on December 1st.

Thomas Gain, sales manager of the Don Valley Paper Mills, Toronto, who
has been ill for some time, is able to be around again and attend to
his duties.

Rev. Dr. A. C. Crews, who is editor of the Sunday School publications
of the Methodist Book and Publishing House, Toronto, has been elected
president of the Toronto Chess Club.

Charles V. Syrett, of the Victoria paper and Twine Co., Toronto, has
returned from a motor trip to Erie, Cleveland and other cities. He also
visited the mills of the Hammermill Paper Co.

Thomas Wark, who for some time has been superintendent of the Deferiet
mill of the St. Regis Paper Co., has resigned his position to enter
upon his new duties as superintendent of the St. Maurice Paper Co. at
Cap Madeleine, Que.

A charter has been granted to the W. E. Gallagher Printing Co.,
Limited, with a capital stock of fifteen thousand dollars and
headquarters in Kitchener, Ont. to engage in printing, publishing,
engraving, book-binding, etc. as well as to deal in paper boxes and
stationery. The incorporators of the company are W. E. Gallagher, A. B.
Robertson and C. E. Cornell.



LAURENTIDE POWER COMPANY.


An offering is being made of $1,500,000 Laurentide Power bonds at 90
and interest.

The segregation of the Laurentide (Paper) Company’s water powers last
year, to the Laurentide Power Company, created a new and very powerful
factor in the hydro-electric situation in the Province of Quebec, and
particularly as regards Montreal.

The new company was formed by the Laurentide (Paper) Company, with a
capitalization of $7,500,000 of common shares, and the money derived
from the sale 5% par value of first (closed) mortgage bonds, due 1946,
and $10,500,000 of these securities was used to finance the development
of the water power to a present capacity of 125,000 horse-power.



CANADA’S PAPER EXPORTS.


In the year ended June 30, 1916, Canada’s exports of paper were of a
total value of $21,256,296, as against $16,200,635 in the corresponding
period in 1915. Of this former amount $17,759,018 worth or more than
the total value of the 1915 export was sent to the United States.



CHEAPER DYES.


As a result of a discovery made at the Forest Products Laboratory at
Madison cheaper dyes are now available in the United States. It has
been found that dyes made of osage orange wood are a commercial success
and can be placed on the market at a considerably less cost than
foreign-made dyes can be purchased. Carloads of the wood are now in
transit, consigned to eastern extract plants.

       *       *       *       *       *

The anti union Presbyterians are talking of establishing a weekly paper
to forward their cause. The matter is being seriously taken up by the
Publication on Committee and the new paper will likely be a weekly.



WANT TO BUY DONNACONA.


According to a press despatch from Watertown, N.Y. as the Pulp and
Paper Magazine was going to press the following story regarding the
attempted purchase of the Donnacona Paper Company appeared:--

The Donnacona Paper Company, with mills located at Donnacona, Quebec,
thirty miles from Quebec City in the St. Lawrence river, is the prize
now sought by the French syndicate of Parisian newspaper publishers who
failed some time ago to secure control of the Remington Paper and Power
Company’s group of mills near here.

The French interests were unable to get permission from the Government
boards of France to send money from that country to the United States
in time to close the deal before their option expired.

The Donnacona mills is a new mill, having been in operation but a year.
It has an output of one hundred tons of paper a day. A feature that
appeals to the fact that pulpwood can be bought much cheaper in Canada
than on this side.

G. H. P. Gould, paper mill magnate and owner of the St. Regis and Gould
Paper Companies, is president of the Donnacona company, with Walter N.
Kernan, of New York, vice-president.



AN AMERICAN VIEW


According to an American exchange the following are the facts relating
to Canada’s pulp and paper industry:--

The new mills planned and in course of construction, and the extensions
to existing ones, will, if carried out as intended, add a per-diem
capacity of 840 tons of newsprint before the end of 1918. During the
twelve months ended March last the amount of printing paper exported
was 463,204 tons, or at the rate of 1,544 tons per day, as compared
with a tonnage of 292,579, or 975 tons per day, in the corresponding
period ended March, 1914.



INTERNATIONAL PAPER INCREASES DIVIDEND


The International Paper Company doubled its dividend last week by
declaring a quarterly distribution of 1 per cent., or 4 per cent. per
annum on the preferred stock, as compared with the 2 per cent. annual
rate maintained since 1908. There is $22,407,000 of the preferred
outstanding.



BUYING CANADIAN MILLS.


N. M. Jones of Bangor, Maine announces that at a conference of
capitalists in New York, from which he has just returned, the sale of
the largest pulp and paper mill in the Canadian Maritime Provinces
to a syndicate of Maine and New York men was arranged. The property,
for which it is said $2,000,000 will be paid includes mills at the
Reversing Falls, near St. John, N.B., and large timber lands in New
Brunswick. The syndicate includes Hugh Chisholm of Portland, President
of the Oxford Paper Company, and Maynard S. Bird, also of Portland.



PROTECT YOUR WIRE ROPE WHEN NOT IN USE.


When a shipment of wire rope is received and is not to be placed
immediately into service, see that it is stored away in a place
protected from the weather and any acid fumes. It is advisable to coat
the outside layer of the reel or coil with a good lubricant.



_The Markets_

(Special to Pulp & Paper Magazine.)


CANADIAN MARKETS

The news print situation is now the livest subject among the trade and
the seriousness of conditions is being brought home to publishers as
never before. The mills are not as alleged by some responsible for it
all. While the war is unjustly charged with many ills in the way of
trade disturbances, to attribute the present state of affairs entirely
to the hostilities in Europe is quite correct, so far as Canada is
concerned. Hundreds of men have joined the colors leaving most of the
plants short of help and owing to abnormal demand and the embargoes
which prevail, abroad--all due to the war,--there is not enough of that
very necessity commodity--white paper--to go around. This in brief is,
the exact state of affairs. In the past Canadian mills were looking
for a market for their surplus product and were glad to make contracts
covering a long period of time. News print was looked upon as staple
and the variation in price from year to year was small indeed. Now the
manufacturers do not know which way to turn. They could sell as much
again as they are marketing if they had the productive facilities but
of late months they have not been able to “pile up reserves”, as the
banks state, and the stocks on hand are rapidly diminishing.

The average publisher has read a great deal about this condition of
affairs but as there have been so many extravagant reports in all lines
prevailing during this stirring period, he did not think there was
much truth in the statement. It was only when the newspaper men tried
to renew contracts that he realized for the first time he was face to
face with a situation such as he has never been up against. There is
no use blaming it on the mills. They have done the best they could
under most trying circumstances. They are running their plants to full
capacity and they have not unduly taken advantage of the situation to
boost prices in Canada. The increase asked is infinitesimal to what the
makers can obtain for their product on the other side.

The story is going the rounds, and so far has not been denied, that one
of the big new plants of Canada was approached by American interests
who offered to take the whole of its output for the coming year at four
and a half one cents at the mill but the proposition flattering as it
was, was turned down as the firm would not under any circumstances
break faith with Canadian customers. Some sixty per cent. of the large
newspapers whose contracts are now being carried until the end of the
year and will have to be renewed are on the anxious seat.

A special meeting of the Canadian Press Association was held in
Toronto last week at which there was a large attendance. The situation
was thoroughly gone into. The statement was made that the output in
Canada is now some eighteen hundred tons a day, yet only one sixth is
consumed in the Dominion, the bulk of the product being exported to
the United States. A deputation was sent to Ottawa to interview the
Minister of Finance, Sir Thomas White. There representatives of the
pulp and paper interest were also assembled and the whole situation
was gone thoroughly into. The result was that an offer was made by the
news print makers of three cents, f.o.b. mill. This applies to large
contracts and on smaller the figures may be higher. It was pointed
out by the paper manufacturers, that everything entering into the
production of news print has gone up from 25 to four hundred per cent.
and that labor has advanced about twenty-five per cent.

The upshot of the whole matter is that the newspaper publishers and
the mill operators have appointed such committees which who will go
exhaustively into the problem. A joint meeting will be held at an early
date before R. W. Breadner, who is the tariff expert for the Dominion
and the question of supply, cost and future outlook will be canvassed
thoroughly. This meeting will be held in Ottawa and if an amicable
arrangement cannot be reached, the federal authorities may fix the
selling price.

One interesting statement was made at the conference and that was
if the fifty to sixty per cent. increase went into effect on new
contracts, it would mean an annual extra cost to Canadian newspapers
of about two million dollars. One peculiar feature is that while
publishers are talking of increased cost of producing papers the
weekly newspaper men are the only ones who have so far raised their
subscription rates. The increase is from one dollar to one dollar and
half a year. A few dailies that have been selling at three dollars in
the smaller cities have jumped their subscription price to four dollars
but the larger dailies still continued to be delivered at the old price
and the wonder is why the proprietors do not raise the figure for same.

In the book and writing line prices are stiff and are now fully fifty
per cent. higher than they were a year ago. The producers think there
will be no further raise for some months and in view of abnormal
conditions generally the users of these kinds of papers appear to be
satisfied that the mills are not asking too much. Tissue plants are
running away behind in orders and have business enough on hand to keep
them going for the next four months even if no more orders were placed
with them. The jobbers report that business is good and the demand for
all lines of paper keeps up well. There has been an advance on “B”
manilla but other lines of wrappings and kraft remain unchanged.

Ground wood pulp is in strong requisition and many inquiries for the
commodity can not be bought filled. The price now quoted at the mill is
from twenty-eight dollars up and some deliveries in Wisconsin and other
states have brought as high as thirty-five dollars. Easy bleaching
sulphite is now sold at one hundred and twenty dollars at the mill and
some large business has been placed at this figure. Sulphate pulp
is quoted at one hundred and twenty dollars at the mill and is going
higher all the time. Very little is being offered.

In the rag and paper stock market manilla, krafts, whites and mixed
papers are all in strong demand and there is a good business being
done. The market for cotton and roofing rags is rather quiet. The
outlook for fall trade at firm prices is most promising.

There has been an increase of a cent a pound on all natural, bleached
and half bleached grease proof. Genuine vegetable parchment is now
quoted from twenty to twenty-five cents. It is likely that the latter
will be made in Ontario before very long. Since the war broke out and
certain mills turned their attention to making specialties and former
brands of paper that have been imported, the manufacturers of these
are not sorry that they took the step. Their goods now have achieved a
fixed place in the favor of customers.

Board of all kinds has taken a jump of about fifteen per cent. and
the mills are a way behind in their orders. The following prices will
prevail until the end of the year and are based on the minimum quantity
of car load lots--grey folding pulp board $100; folding pulp $90; pulp
non bending $80; pulp non bending lined on side $90; filled board plain
$80; filled board lined one side $85; filled board (chip mills) $78;
jute, chip, straw and straw chip $70; same lined one side $75.

The following are the Toronto prices:


Paper.

    News (rolls) $3.00 up, at mill, in carload lots.
    News (sheets), $3.25 and higher for small lots, at mill,
        in carload lots.
    Book papers (carload), No. 3, $7.00.
    Book papers (ton lots), No. 3, 7.00c to 8.00c.
    Book papers (carload), No. 2, 8.50c to 9.00c.
    Book papers (ton lots), No. 2, 8.75c to 9.50c.
    Book papers (carload), No. 1, 9.00c to 9.75c.
    Book papers (ton lots), No. 1, 9.25c to 10.00c.
    Sulphite bonds, 11 cents up.
    Writings, 9 cents up.

    Grey Browns                              $3.75 to $4.25
    Fibre                                    $6.50 to $7.50
    Manila, No. 1                            $7.00 to $8.00
    Manila, B.                               $5.00 to $6.00
    Unglazed Kraft                           $8.50 to $9.50
    Glazed Kraft                             $9.00 to 10.00
    Tissues, bleached                        $1.60 to $2.30
    Tissues, (manila or white sulphite)      $1.20 to $1.60
    Tissues, cap.                              80c to $1.15
    Natural, greaseproof                         13c to 18c
    Half Bleached Greaseproof                    15c to 19c
    Bleached greaseproof                         17c to 21c
    Genuine Vegetable Parchment                  22c to 25c
    Drug papers, whites and tints                 9c to 12c
    Paper bags, Manila                        30% discount.
    Paper bags, kraft                         15% discount.
    Confectionery bags                        15% discount.


Pulp.

                               F.O.B. Mill.
    Ground woodpulp         $31.00 to $32.00
    Easy Bleaching Sulphite               6c
    Sulphite, news grade           5c to 5½c
    Sulphite (bleached)            8c to 8½c
    Sulphate                              6c


Paper Stock

    No. 1 hard shavings                 $4.00
    No. 1 soft white shavings           $3.50
    No. 1 mixed shavings                  80c
    White blanks                        $1.35
    Heavy ledger stock                  $2.35
    No. 1 book stock                    $1.57½
    No. 1 Manila envelope cuttings      $2.20
    No. 1 print Manilas                 $1.25
    Folded news                            77½
    Over issues                            77½
    No. 1 clean mixed paper               65c
    Old white cotton                    $4.65
    Thirds and blue                     $2.75
    No. 1 white shirt cuttings          $7.25
    Black overall cuttings              $2.75
    New light flannelettes              $5.50
    Ordinary satinets and flock         $2.00
    Tailor Rags                         $1.90


MONTREAL MARKETS.


Book--News--Writing and Posters.

    Roll News, $3.00 for carloads proportionate increase on small
    lots.

    Sheet News, $3.25 carloads, $3.50 up small lots.

    No. 1 Book, 7.50 to 8.25.

    No. 2 Book S.C., 6.50 in large quantities; 7.25 in small
    quantities.

    No. 3 Book F.M., 6.00 in large quantities; 6.75 in small
    quantities.

    Writings, 6.95 to 10.

    Writing Manila, 6.95.

    Cover papers, 11 to 14½c, according to colors wanted.

    Colored Poster, 6½ to 7½c.

An extra charge of 10c per 100 lbs. will be made when Book Papers are
packed in frames, and 15c per 100 lbs. when packed in cases.


Wrapping Papers.

The following are the new prices on wrappings, effective immediately:

                                               Car       1-ton     Small
                                              lots.      lots.     lots.
    Beaver, Brown wrap 100 lbs.                4.00      4.25      4.60
    No. 2 Manila (present stock) 100 lbs.      4.00      4.25      4.60
    Samson B., 100 lbs.                        5.25      5.60      6.00
    No. Manila, Invincible Fibre, 100 lbs.     5.50      5.85      6.25
        Fibre lighter than basis 24×36--40, down to 24×36--30, 5 per
        cent. extra. This is in addition to the usual extra.
    White Wray, Cleaver, 100 lb.               3.40      3.65      3.90



DYES AND EYE FATIGUE.


The shortage of dyestuffs since the war has led to newsprint and some
other papers being made of “natural” darker shade of color, and the
Madison laboratory has been investigating the question of whether
this darker color produces any additional eye strain or eye fatigue.
The investigations show that it does not. This is in line with the
generally-held opinion previously that eye fatigue would be even less
where paper was not brilliantly white, on account of the lessened
contrast between the ink and paper.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Pulp and Paper Magazine, Vol. XIII, No. 20, October 15, 1916 - A Semi-Monthly Magazine Devoted to the Science and Practice - of the Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Industry with an - Up-to-date Review of Conditions in the Allied Trades." ***

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