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Title: The Colonial Clippers
Author: Lubbock, Basil
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber’s Notes:

Italic text is shown _thus_. Bold text is shown =thus=.

The original spelling, hyphenation, accentuation and punctuation has
been retained, with the exception of some apparent printer’s errors.

See further transcriber’s note at the end of the book.



THE COLONIAL CLIPPERS

[Illustration:

_Kent._  _Lightning._  _White Star._  _Malabar._

EMIGRANT FLEET IN HOBSON’S BAY.

_From a painting by Captain D. O. Robertson, late commander of ship
“Lightning.”_

_Frontispiece._
]



THE

COLONIAL CLIPPERS

BY

BASIL LUBBOCK

_Author of “The China Clippers”; “Round the Horn Before the Mast”;
“Jack Derringer, a tale of Deep Water”; and “Deep Sea Warriors”_

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS AND PLANS

[Illustration: NAUTICAL PRESS printers mark]

_SECOND EDITION_

GLASGOW

JAMES BROWN & SON (GLASGOW) LTD., PUBLISHERS

52 TO 58 DARNLEY STREET

1921



Dedication


  Dedicated to all those who learnt the art of the sea so thoroughly
  and practised it so skilfully aboard the Colonial Clippers.



PREFACE


In this book I have attempted to give some account of the beautiful
sailing ships which played so great a part in the development of the
great British Dominions under the Southern Cross.

It is written specially for the officers and seamen of our Mercantile
Marine, and I have endeavoured to avoid such a criticism as the
following:—“Heaps about other ships, but my old barkey was one of the
fastest and best known of them all and he dismisses her with a line or
two.”

I have made rather a point of giving passage records, as they are an
everlasting theme of interest when seamen get together and yarn about
old ships. The memory is notoriously unreliable where sailing records
are concerned, so I have been most careful to check these from logbooks
and Captains’ reports. Even Lloyd’s I have found to be out by a day or
two on occasions.

A great deal of my material has been gathered bit by bit through the
past 25 or 30 years. Alas! many of the old timers, who so kindly lent
me abstract logs and wrote me interesting letters, have now passed away.

The illustrations, I hope, will be appreciated, for these, whether
they are old lithographs or more modern photographs, are more and more
difficult to unearth, and a time will soon come when they will be
unprocurable.

Indeed, if there is any value in this book it is because it records and
illustrates a period in our sea history, the memory of which is already
fast fading into the misty realms of the past. To preserve this memory,
before it becomes impossible, is one of the main objects, if not the
main object, of my work.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Note._—As in my _China Clippers_, when using the word “mile” I always
mean the sea mile of 6080 feet, not the land mile of 5280 feet.



CONTENTS


PART I.  THE EMIGRANT SHIPS

                                                               PAGE
  The Power of Gold                                               1

  Steerage Conditions in 1844                                     3

  Discovery of Gold in Australia                                  5

  Melbourne and its Shipping in 1851-2                            6

  First Gold Cargoes Home                                        10

  Great Rush to the Gold Regions in 1852                         11

  Maury’s Improvements on Old Route to the Colonies              13

  Early Fast Passages Outward                                    14

  Rules and Customs aboard the _Eagle_ in 1853                   15

  Liverpool Shipowners in the Australian Trade                   22

  James Baines, of the Black Ball Line                           23

  The _Marco Polo_                                               26

  Captain James Nicol Forbes                                     29

  _Marco Polo’s_ First Voyage to Australia                       32

  _Marco Polo’s_ Second Voyage to Australia                      36

  After Life of _Marco Polo_                                     40

  Most Notable Clippers of 1853                                  41

  _Ben Nevis_                                                    42

  The _Star of the East_                                         42

  The _Miles Barton_                                             43

  The _Guiding Star_                                             44

  The _Indian Queen_                                             44

  The Famous _Sovereign of the Seas_                             48

  Best Outward Passages for 1853-4, Anchorage to Anchorage       52

  1854—The Year of the Big Ships                                 52

  Extraordinary 24-hour Runs                                     57

  The _Lightning_                                                60

  The _Red Jacket_                                               62

  Race across the Atlantic between _Lightning_ and _Red Jacket_  63

  _Red Jacket’s_ First Voyage to Australia                       66

  The _Lightning’s_ First Voyage to Australia                    71

  _Champion of the Seas_                                         73

  The _James Baines_                                             77

  Record Voyage of _James Baines_ to Australia                   81

  The _Donald Mackay_                                            83

  _Blue Jacket_, _White Star_, and _Shalimar_                    85

  The Wreck of the _Schomberg_                                   87

  Best Outward Passages—Liverpool to Melbourne, 1854-5           90

  1855-1857—Captain Anthony Enright and the _Lightning_          91

  Best Homeward Passages, 1855-6      103

  Best Outward Passages, 1855-6, Liverpool to Melbourne         104

  _James Baines_ Overdue        105

  _James Baines_, _Champion of the Seas_, and _Lightning_ race
    out to India with Troops in the Time of the Mutiny          110

  Burning of the _James Baines_                                 112

  America Sells her Clippers to Great  Britain                  113

  Notes on the Later American-built Passenger Ships             114

  Black Ballers in the Queensland Emigrant Trade                115

  _Sunda_ and _Empress of the Seas_ Carry Sheep to New Zealand  115

  After Life and End of the Liverpool Emigrant Clippers         116

  The Burning of the _Lightning_                                117

  _Blue Jacket’s_ Figure-head                                   118

  The Loss of the _Fiery Star_                                  118

  Some Famous Coal Hulks                                        120

  Loss of the _Young Australia_                                 120

  The Fate of _Marco Polo_                                      121


PART II.—THE WOOL CLIPPERS

  The Carriers of the Golden Fleece                             122

  The Aberdeen White Star Line                                  129

  Wood and Composite Ships of the Aberdeen White Star Fleet     131

  The _Phoenician_                                              132

  The Lucky _Nineveh_                                           134

  The _Jerusalem_                                               134

  Captain Mark Breach’s First Encounter with his Owner          136

  The _Thermopylae_                                             137

  The _Centurion_                                               137

  The _Aviemore_                                                137

  The Fate of the Early White Star Clippers                     138

  Duthie’s Ships                                                140

  Passages of Aberdeen Ships to Sydney, 1872-3                  142

  The South Australian Trade                                    143

  The Orient Line                                               146

  The _Orient_ and Her Best Outward Passages                    148

  _Orient_ nearly Destroyed by Fire                             149

  _Orient_ Delivers her Carpenter’s Chest to the _Lammermuir_
    in Mid-Ocean                                                151

  The Little _Heather Bell_                                     152

  The _Murray_                                                  153

  The Orient Composite Clippers                                 154

  _Yatala_                                                      155

  The _Beltana_, and Captain Richard Angel                      156

  The Wonderful _Torrens_                                       157

  _Torrens’_ Outward Passages                                   161

  The Great _Sobraon_                                           163

  Messrs. Devitt & Moore                                        176

  _City of Adelaide_ and _South Australian_                     178

  The Speedy Little _St. Vincent_                               179

  _Pekina_ and _Hawkesbury_                                     180

  Mr. T. B. Walker                                              180

  Walker’s Clipper Barques                                      181

  The Beautiful Little _Berean_                                 183

  Captain John Wyrill                                           185

  The _Berean’s_ Races                                          187

  _Berean_ as an Ice Carrier                                    190

  Loss of the _Corinth_                                         191

  The Little _Ethel_                                            192

  The Hobart Barque _Harriet McGregor_                          192

  The Fremantle Barques _Charlotte Padbury_ and _Helena Mena_   193


PART III.—THE IRON CLIPPERS

  Introduction of Iron in Shipbuilding                          195

  The _Ironsides_, First Iron Sailing Ship                      200

  The _Martaban_                                                200

  The Builders of the Iron Wool Clippers                        202

  The _Darling Downs_                                           204

  _City of Agra_ and _Sam Mendel_                               204

  _Dharwar_      205

  Strange Career of the _Antiope_                               206

  _Theophane_                                                   208

  Messrs. Aitken & Lilburn, and the Loch Line of Glasgow        208

  _Clan Ranald_, _Ben Nevis_ and _Loch Awe_                     209

  _Patriarch_—First Iron Ship of Aberdeen White Star Line       212

  _Thomas Stephens_                                             214

  First Six Ships of the Loch Line                              219

  King’s Island—A Death Trap for Ships                          224

  _Miltiades_                                                   225

  Carmichael’s Superb Wool Clipper _Mermerus_                   227

  Devitt & Moore’s _Collingwood_                                230

  _Hesperus_ and _Aurora_—The First Iron Ships of the
    Orient Line                                                 231

  Brassey Cadet Training Scheme                                 232

  _Ben Cruachan_ and _Ben Voirlich_                             235

  _Samuel Plimsoll_                                             240

  _Loch Maree_—The Fastest of the Lochs                         245

  Tragedy of the _Loch Ard_                                     247

  Devitt & Moore’s Crack Passenger Ship _Rodney_                251

  Nichol’s _Romanoff_                                           254

  Duthie’s _Cairnbulg_                                          254

  The Speedy _Thessalus_                                        255

  Passages to Australia in 1874                                 257

  _Loch Garry_                                                  259

  _Loch Vennachar_                                              262

  _Salamis_—An Iron _Thermopylae_                               265

  The Colonial Barque _Woollahra_                               270

  _Cassiope_ and _Parthenope_                                   270

  _Trafalgar_                                                   270

  Passages to Australia in 1875                                 271

  _Sir Walter Raleigh_                                          273

  _Loch Fyne_ and _Loch Long_                                   274

  _Aristides_—The Aberdeen White Star Flagship                  274

  _Smyrna_                                                      275

  _Harbinger_                                                   276

  _Argonaut_                                                    280

  Passages to Australia in 1876                                 282

  _Brilliant_ and _Pericles_                                    282

  _Loch Ryan_                                                   284

  _Loch Etive_, of Captain William Stuart and Joseph
    Conrad fame                                                 284

  The Wreck of _Loch Sloy_                                      286

  The Loss of Lochs _Shiel_ and _Sunart_                        287

  Passages to Australia in 1877                                 287

  Passages to Australia in 1878                                 295

  _Sophocles_                                                   296

  Passages to Australia in 1879                                 296

  Passages to Australia in 1880                                 297

  Passages under 80 days to Sydney in 1881                      300

  Passages to Australia in 1881                                 301

  The Big _Illawarra_                                           301

  _Orontes_                                                     302

  _Loch Torridon_                                               302

  _Loch Torridon’s_ Voyages, 1892-1908                          316

  _Port Jackson_                                                323

  Passages to Australia in 1882 and 1883                        324

  _Derwent_                                                     326

  Passages to Australia in 1884                                 328

  _Torridon_ and _Yallaroi_                                     328

  _Loch Carron_ and _Loch Broom_                                329

  Passages to Australia in 1885                                 334

  _Mount Stewart_ and _Cromdale_—The Last of the Wool Clippers  335

  Perforated Sails                                              337

  Hine’s Clipper Barques                                        339

  Iron Barques of Walker and Trinder, Anderson                  341

  The Loss of _Lanoma_                                          342

  Occasional Visitors in Australian Waters                      344


PART IV.—THE NEW ZEALAND TRADE

  The _Mayflowers_ of New Zealand                               346

  _Edwin Fox_                                                   347

  _Wild Duck_                                                   347

  Shaw, Savill & Co.                                            348

  _Crusader_                                                    349

  _Helen Denny_ and _Margaret Galbraith_                        349

  End of Some of Shaw, Savill’s Earlier Ships                   350

  The Loss of the _Cospatrick_                                  351

  The Loss of the _Avalanche_                                   354

  Patrick Henderson’s Albion Shipping Company                   354

  _Wild Deer_                                                   355

  _Peter Denny_                                                 362

  Albion Shipping Company, 1869 Ships                           362

  _Christian McCausland_ Loses her Wheel                        363

  Origin of the Albion House-flag                               365

  New Zealand Shipping Company                                  365

  _Otaki’s_ Record Passage Home                                 369

  _Turakina_, ex-_City of Perth_                                370

  Robert Duncan’s Six Beautiful Sister Ships                    376

  _Wellington_ and Captain Cowan                                380

  _Wellington_ Collides with an Iceberg                         382

  _Oamaru_ and _Timaru_                                         383

  _Marlborough_, _Hermione_ and _Pleione_                       384

  _Taranaki_, _Lyttelton_ and _Westland_                        384

  _Lutterworth_ and _Lady Jocelyn_                              385

  Outsiders in the New Zealand Trade                            386

  The Pretty Little _Ben Venue_                                 387

  _Hinemoa_                                                     387


APPENDIX.

  Appendix A—Extracts from _Lightning Gazette_, 1855-1857       391

      „    B—Later American-built Passenger Ships to Australia  410

      „    C—Iron Wool Clippers                                 411

      „    D—Log of Ship _Theophane_, 1868—Maiden Passage       414

      „    E—List of Clipper Ships Still Afloat and Trading
               at the Outbreak of War, August, 1914             416

      „    F—The Wool Fleet, 1876-1890                          417



ILLUSTRATIONS


Emigrant Fleet in Hobson’s Bay                       _Frontispiece_

  Mr. James Baines                               _To face page_  23

  _Marco Polo_                                                   27

  Plate of House-Flags                                           32

  _Sovereign of the Seas_                                        48

  _Lightning_                                                    60

  _Red Jacket_                                                   63

  _James Baines_                                                 77

  _Donald Mackay_ entering Port Phillip Heads                    83

  _White Star_                                                   85

  _Blue Jacket_                                                 114

  _Royal Dane_                                                  114

  _Lightning_ on Fire at Geelong                                117

  _Light Brigade_                                               120

  _Young Australia_                                             120

  Plate of House-Flags                                          128

  _Orient_, arriving at Gibraltar with Troops from the
    Crimea                                                      148

  _Pekina_ and _Coonatto_ at Port Adelaide, 1867                154

  _John Duthie_ at Circular Quay, Sydney                        154

  _Torrens_                                                     157

  _Torrens_ at Port Adelaide                                    157

  _Sobraon_                                                     163

  _City of Adelaide_, David Bruce Commander,                    178

  _South Australian_                                            178

  Captain John Wyrill, of _Berean_                              183

  _Berean_                                                      183

  Mr. Thomas Carmichael, of A. & J. Carmichael                  200

  _Darling Downs_                                               204

  _Antiope_                                                     204

  _Antiope_                                                     206

  _Theophane_                                                   208

  _Dharwar_                                                     208

  _Patriarch_                                                   212

  _Thomas Stephens_                                             214

  _Mermerus_ alongside                                          225

  _Miltiades_                                                   225

  _Hesperus_                                                    230

  _Collingwood_                                                 239

  _Samuel Plimsoll_                                             239

  _Rodney_                                                      250

  _Loch Garry_                                                  250

  _Thessalus_                                                   254

  _Loch Vennachar_                                              262

  _Salamis_                                                     266

  _Thomas Stephens_, _Cairnbulg_, _Brilliant_ and
    _Cutty Sark_, in Sydney Harbour                             266

  _Woollahra_                                                   270

  _Aristides_                                                   274

  _Harbinger_                                                   276

  _Argonaut_                                                    280

  _Pericles_                                                    282

  _Mermerus_ in Victoria Dock, Melbourne, 1896                  284

  _Brilliant_                                                   284

  _Loch Etive_                                                  286

  _Argonaut_ in the Clyde                                       286

  _Cimba_                                                       290

  _Sophocles_                                                   296

  _Illawarra_                                                   301

  Captain Pattman                                               301

  _Loch Torridon_, with perforated Sails                        308

  _Loch Torridon_                                               318

  _Port Jackson_                                                323

  _Port Jackson_ in the Thames                                  323

  _Derwent_, off Gravesend                                      327

  _Mount Stewart_                                               327

  _Torridon_                                                    328

  _Mount Stewart_                                               335

  _Cromdale_                                                    335

  _Brierholme_                                                  340

  _Crusader_                                                    352

  _Cospatrick_                                                  352

  _Wild Deer_                                                   355

  _Christian McCausland_                                        364

  _Piako_                                                       364

  _Turakina_, ex-_City of Perth_                                370

  _Otaki_ Becalmed                                              370

  _Akaroa_                                                      377

  _Invercargill_, off Tairoa Heads                              377

  _Timaru_                                                      382

  _Wellington_, at Picton, Queen Charlotte Sound                382

  _Westland_                                                    384

  _Taranaki_                                                    384

  _Ben Venue_                                                   386

  _Lady Jocelyn_                                                386


PLANS.

  _Champion of the Seas_                                         73

  _Lightning_                                                    73

  Sail Plan of _Ben Cruachan_ and _Ben Voirlich_                234

  Sail Plan of _Loch Moidart_ and _Loch Torridon_               304



THE COLONIAL CLIPPERS.



PART I.

THE EMIGRANT SHIPS.

  Those splendid ships, each with her grace, her glory,
  Her memory of old song or comrade’s story,
  Still in my mind the image of life’s need,
  Beauty in hardest action, beauty indeed.
  “They built great ships and sailed them” sounds most brave,
  Whatever arts we have or fail to have;
  I touch my country’s mind, I come to grips
  With half her purpose thinking of these ships.

  That art untouched by softness, all that line
  Drawn ringing hard to stand the test of brine;
  That nobleness and grandeur, all that beauty
  Born of a manly life and bitter duty;
  That splendour of fine bows which yet could stand
  The shock of rollers never checked by land.
  That art of masts, sail-crowded, fit to break,
  Yet stayed to strength, and back-stayed into rake,
  The life demanded by that art, the keen
  Eye-puckered, hard-case seamen, silent, lean,
  They are grander things than all the art of towns,
  Their tests are tempests, and the sea that drowns.
  They are my country’s line, her great art done
  By strong brains labouring on the thought unwon,
  They mark our passage as a race of men
  Earth will not see such ships as those again.
    —JOHN MASEFIELD.


The Power of Gold.


From time immemorial the progress of the world, in colonization, in the
Sciences (shipbuilding especially), and in the Arts owes its advance to
the adventurous spirit of the pioneer. Particularly is this the case
in the opening up of new countries and in the improvements in ship
transport to those countries.

Kipling has sung the song of the pioneer and has laid stress on the
pioneer spirit, but he has not touched on that great magnet which has
ever drawn the pioneer on and dragged civilisation in his wake—the
magnet of gold. Gold and its glamour has been the cause, one can almost
say, of all the tragedy and all the evil in this world, but also of
nearly all its good and all its progress.

It was the discovery of gold which opened up the fair States of Western
America and brought about the building of the wonderful American
clipper. In the same way the great Dominions of Australia and New
Zealand owe their present state of progress and prosperity to that
shining yellow metal; and without its driving power there would have
been no history of the great Liverpool emigrant ships to record.


Emigrant Ships to Australia in the Forties.

Before the discovery of gold in Australia, the trade of that Colony
was at a low ebb, suffering from want of enterprise and financial
depression; whilst the emigrant ships running from Liverpool and other
British ports, owing to the want of healthy competition, were of a very
poor description. The horrors of the long five-months passage for the
miserable landsmen cooped-up in low, ill-ventilated and over-crowded
’tween decks, were fit to be compared with those of the convict ship.
The few vessels with humane owners and kindly captains were in a class
by themselves. These, indeed, thought of the health and comfort of the
wretched emigrants and did not content themselves with merely keeping
within the letter of the Government regulations, which might more fitly
have been framed for traffic in Hell.

For first class passengers the splendid Blackwall frigates of Green,
Money Wigram and Duncan Dunbar, and the beautiful little clippers of
the Aberdeen White Star Line, provided excellent accommodation and a
comfortable and safe, if not a particularly fast, passage. But the
ordinary steerage passenger had to content himself as a rule with a
ship that was little better than a hermetically sealed box: one as deep
as it was long, with clumsy square bows and stern, with ill-cut ill-set
sails—its standing rigging of hemp a mass of long splices; and with a
promenade deck no longer than the traditional two steps and overboard.

These Colonial wagons were navigated by rum-soaked, illiterate,
bear-like officers, who could not work out the ordinary meridian
observation with any degree of accuracy, and either trusted to
dead reckoning or a blackboard held up by a passing ship for their
longitude; whilst they were worked by the typically slow-footed,
ever-grousing Merchant Jack of the past two centuries.


Report on Steerage Conditions in 1844.

Nearly everyone has read of the horror of the convict ships, but the
following report of steerage conditions in 1844 plainly shows that in
many respects the emigrant’s lot was every bit as hard and revolting:
“It was scarcely possible to induce the passengers to sweep the decks
after their meals or to be decent in respect to the common wants of
nature; in many cases, in bad weather, they would not go on deck, their
health suffered so much that their strength was gone, and they had
not the power to help themselves. Hence the between decks were like a
loathsome dungeon. When hatchways were opened, under which the people
were stowed, the steam rose and the stench was like that from a pen of
pigs. The few beds they had were in a dreadful state, for the straw,
once wet with sea water, soon rotted, besides which they used the
between decks for all sorts of filthy purposes. Whenever vessels put
back from distress, all these miseries and sufferings were exhibited
in the most aggravated form. In one case it appeared that, the vessel
having experienced rough weather, the people were unable to go on
deck and cook their provisions: the strongest maintained the upper
hand over the weakest, and it was even said that there were women who
died of starvation. At that time the passengers were expected to cook
for themselves and from their being unable to do this the greatest
suffering arose. It was naturally at the commencement of the voyage
that this system produced its worst effects, for the first days were
those in which the people suffered most from sea-sickness and under
the prostration of body thereby induced were wholly incapacitated
from cooking. Thus though provisions might be abundant enough, the
passengers would be half-starved.”

This terrible report was given before a Parliamentary Committee.

A Shipping Notice of 1845.

It does not even mention the overcrowding which took place, owing to
the smallness of the ships, which can well be realised by the following
shipping notice taken from a Liverpool newspaper of January, 1845.

  NEW SOUTH WALES.

  Will be despatched immediately:—

  For PORT PHILLIP and SYDNEY, New South Wales.
  The splendid first-class English-built ship
  “ROSSENDALE,”
  EDWARD DAVIDS GOULDING, Commander.

  A1 at Lloyd’s, 296 tons per register, coppered and copper fastened,
  and well known as a remarkably fast sailer. This vessel has spacious
  and elegant accommodation for passengers, replete with every
  convenience and presents a first rate opportunity.

  For terms of freight and passage apply to

  MESSRS. FAIRFIELD, SHALLCROSS & CO.


The Discovery of Gold in Australia.

However, on the discovery of gold in 1851, the Colonial trade leapt
out of its stagnation and squalor and at one bound became one of the
most important in all the world’s Mercantile Marine. And when the gold
fever drew a stream of ignorant English, Scotch and Irish peasants
to Australia, men, women and children, most of whom had never seen a
ship before they embarked and who were as helpless and shiftless as
babes aboard, it was seen that something must be done to improve the
conditions on the emigrant ships. Government regulations were made more
strict and inspectors appointed; but the time had passed when they were
needed—competition now automatically improved the emigrant ships from
stern to stem.

The discovery of alluvial gold in Australia was mainly brought about
by the great Californian strike of 1849. That strike upset the theories
of geologists and set every man on the world’s frontiers searching for
the elusive metal. The first authentic discovery in the Colonies was
made near Clunes, in March, 1850, but it was not until September, 1851,
that gold began to be found in such astounding quantities that large
fortunes were rocked out in a few weeks.

The first licenses for diggers were issued in September, 1851; and the
effect on the ports of Melbourne and Geelong was immediate—wages began
to rise to fabulous heights, as did the common necessaries of life,
even to wood and water. Shearers, harvesters and bushmen were soon
almost unobtainable, and the very squatters themselves left their herds
and flocks and rushed to the goldfields. The police and custom-house
officials followed them, and in their turn were followed by the
professional men of the towns—the doctors, lawyers and even clergymen.
And as has ever been the case, sailors, running from their ships, were
ever in the forefront of the stampede.

By the end of September there were 567 men at Ballarat; they, by means
of the primitive Australian gold rocker, had rocked out 4010 ounces or
£12,030 worth of gold, taking it at its then commercial value of £3 per
ounce. There were only 143 rockers, yet this amount had been won in 712
days’ work, representing a day and a quarter’s work per man. At the
beginning of November it was estimated that there were 67,000 ounces
of gold in banks and private hands at Melbourne and Geelong. From this
date new fields, to which wild stampedes took place, were discovered
almost daily. Forrest Creek, Bendigo, Ararat, Dunolly and the Ovens all
showed colour in turn.


Melbourne and its Shipping 1851-2.

It was some months before the news of the great Australian gold strike
spread round the world, and one can well imagine the excitement on
board the incoming emigrant ships, when they were boarded almost before
their anchors were down and told the great news. Often successful
miners would come off and prove their words by scattering gold on the
deck, to be scrambled for, or by removing their hats and displaying
rolls of bank notes inside them. Settlers, bereft of their servants,
sometimes even came off with the pilot in their anxiety to engage men.
Indeed it was commonly reported in the winter of 1851 that the Governor
was compelled to groom his own horse.

With such stories flying about, and every native apparently in a state
of semi-hysteria, it is not surprising that often whole ships’ crews,
from the captain down, caught the gold fever and left their vessels
deserted. Not even the lordly Blackwall liners with their almost
naval discipline could keep their crews. The six-shooter and belaying
pin were used in vain. Shipmasters were at their wits’ end where to
get crews for the homeward run. £40 and even £50 was not found to
be sufficient inducement to tempt sailors away from this marvellous
land of gold. Even the gaol was scoured and prisoners paid £30 on the
capstan and £3 a month for the passage.

By June, 1852, fifty ships were lying in Hobson’s Bay deserted by the
crews. Nor were other Australian ports much better. The mail steamer
_Australian_ had to be helped away from Sydney by a detachment of
volunteers from H.M. brig _Fantome_; and at Melbourne and Adelaide,
where she called for mails, police had to be stationed at her gangways
to prevent desertion, whilst at Albany she was delayed seven days for
want of coal, because the crew of the receiving ship, who were to put
the coal aboard, were all in prison to keep them from running off to
the diggings.

Some description of Melbourne at this wonderful period of its history
may perhaps be of interest.

From the anchorage, St. Kilda showed through the telescope as a small
cluster of cottages, whilst across the bay a few match-boarding huts
on the beach stood opposite some wooden jetties. Williamstown, indeed,
possessed some stone buildings and a stone pierhead, but in order to
get ashore the unhappy emigrant had to hire a boat. Then when he at
last succeeded in getting his baggage on the quay, he had to guard
it himself, or it would mysteriously disappear. Rather than do this,
many a newly arrived emigrant put his outfit up to auction—acting as
his own auctioneer on the pierhead itself. And as an outfit purchased
in England for the Colonies is usually more remarkable for its
weight than its suitability, those who did this generally profited
by their astuteness. Melbourne itself could either be reached by a
river steamboat up the Yarra Yarra, which at that time was not more
than 25 feet wide in places; or by ferry boat across the bay and a
two-mile walk from the beach by a rough trail through sand, scrub and
marsh. When emigrants began to arrive in such numbers as to overflow
Melbourne, the beach became covered with tents and shacks and was known
as “canvas town.”

There were only 23,000 inhabitants in Melbourne at the time of the
gold discovery. Its houses were mostly of wood and but one story high.
With the exception of Collins, Bourke and Elizabeth Streets, which were
paved, the streets were merely narrow muddy lanes, and there were no
foot pavements. In the wet weather these lanes became torrents of water
and many a carter reaped a harvest taking people across the road at
sixpence a time.

Lucky diggers, down on the spree, easily distinguishable by their
plaid or chequered jumpers, cabbage tree hats, moleskin trousers, and
bearded, swarthy faces were to be seen everywhere. Many of them spent
their time driving about in gaily decorated carriages accompanied by
flashily dressed women covered with cheap jewellery. Amongst these
charioteers, the uproarious British tar could always be picked out.
He disliked driving at a slower pace than a gallop, and as often
as not, instead of handling the ribbons, he would insist on riding
postillion—and he was also unhappy unless his craft flew a huge Union
Jack.

As usual with gold so easily come by, the lucky digger made every
effort to get rid of his dust. Just as the buccaneer in the days of
the Spanish Main, when back from a successful cruise, would pour his
arrack and rum into the streets of Port Royal and invite all and sundry
to drink at his expense, so in Melbourne the Australian digger stood
champagne to every passer-by. It was being done across the Pacific in
California. It was done on the Rand. It was done in the Klondyke. And
some day it will be done again.

The shops, as usual, made more money than the diggers; and tradesmen,
made casual by prosperity, adopted the “take it or leave it” tone and
gave no change below a sixpence. The police were a nondescript force,
mostly recruited from the emigrant ships, and the only emblem of their
office was the regulation helmet. Indeed, dressed as they were, in
the clothes in which they had arrived out, their appearance was not
very uniform. However it was beyond the power of any force to preserve
strict law and order at such a time, and the most that was expected of
them was to keep the side walk and gutters clear of drunken miners and
to pacify the pugnacious.

The “new chum” had hardly landed before he was regaled with
hair-raising stories of bushrangers—apparently these gentry had an
awkward habit of holding one up in the Black Forest on the way to the
diggings. Thus firearms of every description were soon at a premium,
many of them being more dangerous to the man who fired than to the man
fired at.

Before leaving Melbourne for the sea, I must not omit to mention a
well-known character of those days, namely George Francis Train. He
combined the businesses of packer to the diggings and agent to the
White Star Line. He was a real Yankee with an unceasing flow of flowery
talk; and, after amassing a fortune in Melbourne, he returned to his
native State and became a candidate for the American Presidency; and
he informed everybody, that if he was elected, he intended reforming
the world. Alas! they turned him down—he went broke and sank into
obscurity. Appearances at the present day, however, seem to show that
old Train managed to plant some of his seed in the White House.


First Gold Cargoes Home.

The first ship to land Australian gold in the British Isles was
admitted by most people to be the smart little Aberdeen White Star
liner _Phoenician_, commanded by Captain Sproat, a great passage maker.
She arrived off Plymouth on 3rd February, 1852, after a passage of 83
days from Sydney. This was considered a record for the run home. She
brought 74 packages of gold dust, valued at £81,000.

The first ship to arrive in Liverpool with a gold cargo was the Eagle
Line packet, _Albatross_, Captain Gieves. She arrived on 31st August,
1852, with £50,000 of gold dust; but, what was far more remarkable, was
that she arrived with the same crew to a man with which she had left
England.

This was a very different experience to that of her sister ship, the
_Eagle_, which left Port Phillip on the 2nd September, after waiting
six months for a crew, and then paying between £50 and £60 per man for
the run home. Apparently though, the _Eagle’s_ expensive crew were
worth their money, for she made the quickest passage ever known up to
that date, arriving in the Downs on the 78th day out. She also had a
record gold shipment of 150,000 ounces.


The Great Rush to the Gold Regions in 1852.

With the arrival in England of larger and larger consignments of gold,
there was such a rush to take shipping to the Antipodes that both the
Emigration Commissioners and the shipowners found themselves unable to
put sufficient tonnage on the berth to carry the clamouring hosts of
adventurers. In London the magnificent frigate-built Blackwallers of
Green, Money Wigram and Smith were diverted from the Indian trade in a
vain attempt to stem the rush; whilst Liverpool shipowners began hiring
or buying American Transatlantic packets and clippers, besides sending
a shoal of orders across to the Boston and Nova Scotian shipbuilders.
As fast as driving could make them, ships came crowding into Hobson’s
Bay, just as they were still doing in San Francisco Bay on the other
side of the Pacific; and it soon became no uncommon sight to see a
dozen ships waiting inside the Heads for want of pilots to bring them
up to the anchorage.

In the year 1852 102,000 people arrived in the Colony of Victoria, and
in the 18 months following the discovery of Ballarat the population of
Melbourne sprang from 23,000 to 70,000, and that of Geelong from 8000
to 20,000.

In the five years 1852-7, during which the rush to the diggings was at
its height, 100,000 Englishmen, 60,000 Irish, 50,000 Scots, 4000 Welsh,
8000 Germans, 1500 French, 3000 Americans, and no less than 25,000
Chinese—not to speak of the other nationalities of the world, all of
whom were represented—landed on the shores of Port Phillip.


The Need for Fast Ships.

Though undoubtedly the chief reason of orders to builders across the
Western Ocean was cheapness, yet at the same time it was recognised
that no ships that sailed the seas could approach the sailing records
made by the “Down East” clippers of Maine and Nova Scotia. And everyone
was in a violent hurry to get to the new Eldorado, so naturally took
passage on the ship which had the greatest reputation for speed.
Thus the Australian gold boom filled the shipyards of America with
orders for large passenger carrying clippers. Indeed the only British
firm which could in any way compete with the builders of the Yankee
soft-wood ships—that of Hall, of Aberdeen—had not yet built a ship of
over 1000 tons.


Maury’s Improvements on the Old Route to the Colonies.

In more ways than one we owed America thanks for shortening the passage
to Australia—and not least to the sailing directions advocated by her
great wind expert Maury. In the days before the gold discovery vessels
followed the route laid down by the Admiralty; they kept as much to the
eastward as possible on their way south in order to avoid the dreaded
Cape San Roque and its leeward currents; they rounded the Cape of Good
Hope close to, indeed often touched there, then kept well to the north
of the forties running their easting down. Then a 120-day passage
was considered very good going, and when Captain Godfrey, of the
_Constance_ and _Statesman_, went out in 77 days by sailing on a Great
Circle track, his performance created a huge sensation in shipping
circles.

Maury did not actually advocate running the easting down on a Great
Circle; but what he did was first to dispel the bugbear of Cape San
Roque, which, however much it may have worried the leewardly craft of
the old days, could have but little effect upon the fast weatherly
ships of the fifties. He next showed the advantages of sailing on a
Great Circle from San Roque so as to get into the high latitudes as
soon as possible. He was dead against bracing sharp up against the S.E.
trades.

“Australian-bound vessels are advised,” he writes, “after crossing the
equator near the meridian of 30° W., say between 25° and 32°, as the
case may be, to run down through the S.E. trades, with topmast studding
sails set, if they have sea room, aiming to cross 25° or 30° S., as the
winds will allow, which will be generally somewhere about 28° or 30°
W., and soon, shaping their course, after they get the winds steadily
from the westward, more and more to the eastward, until they cross the
meridian of 20° E., in about lat. 45°, reaching 55° S., _if at all_, in
about 40° E. Thence the best course—if ice, etc., will allow—is onward
still to the southward of east, not caring to get to the northward
again of your greatest southern latitude, before reaching 90° E. The
highest latitude should be reached between the meridians of 50° and 80°
E. The course then is north of east, gradually hauling up more and more
to the north as you approach Van Dieman’s Land. The highest degree of
south latitude, which it may be prudent to touch, depending mainly on
the season of the year and the winds, the state of the ship, and the
well-being of the passengers and crew.”

This last sentence was a very important qualification of the Great
Circle route, and it is evident that Maury quite realised that only
very powerful, well found ships could adventure far into the fifties
without being made to pay severely for their temerity.


Early Fast Passages Outward.

  _Constance_, Captain Godfrey, left Plymouth, 17th July, 1850, arrived
  Port Adelaide, 1st October, 1850—76 days.

  _Runnymede_, Captain Brown, left Liverpool, 21st February, 1852;
  arrived Port Adelaide, 4th May, 1852—72 days.

  _Anna_, Captain Downward, left Liverpool, 6th April, 1852; arrived
  Port Adelaide, 21st June, 1852—76 days.

_Constance_ was owned by James Beazley, _Runnymede_ was a ship hired by
the Emigration Commissioners, and _Anna_ was a Fox Line packet. They
were all under 1000 tons. Other passages which I have been unable to
verily were—_Bride_, 75 days to Adelaide; _Raleigh_, 81 days to Perth;
_Cambridge_, 81 days to Melbourne; and _Progress_, 82 days to Melbourne.

The keen competition set about by the gold find not only produced
larger, faster ships, but much improved victualling and accommodation.


Rules and Customs aboard the “Eagle” in 1853.

The improvement is well shown by this account of life aboard an
Australian emigrant ship just nine years after that horrible 1844
report had been submitted.

The _Eagle_ is a first-class ship, 187 feet in length, has three decks,
viz., a spar or upper deck, main deck and ’tween deck. On the spar
deck are placed the small boats, entrance to the cabin and main deck.
Cabin and saloon passengers have the exclusive right to the poop; but,
through the kindness of the captain, ladies from the ’tween decks are
allowed to walk on it. On the main deck are situated the cabin and
saloon, entrance to the ’tween decks, the galleys and the ropes to work
the vessel with. The ’tween deck passengers have the right to walk on
the spar deck from the poop to the bow.

The captain generally appears on deck about 6 a.m. After breakfast he
mingles with the passengers, ready to hear and redress grievances.

At 10 a.m. Dr. Dunlevy attends at the hospital to give advice and
medicine free of charge.

The passengers are divided into four leading divisions viz.:—Cabin
passengers, saloon or house on deck passengers, second cabin
passengers, ’tween deck and intermediate or third class passengers, who
are again sub-divided into enclosed and open berths.

The accommodation in the berths is first rate. In the cabin the berths
are 8 feet 2 by 5 feet 6 for two persons. There are a few double berths
for families.

In the second cabin on deck, the sleeping berths are 6 feet by 4 feet
6 for two persons and there are a few double berths. The second cabin
’tween decks sleeping berths are divided into closed and open. The
open berths are exclusively occupied by single men. The enclosed are
occupied by families and single ladies.

Young ladies’ sleeping berths are in compartments of 4 or 6 beds and
placed on one side of the ship—young men on the opposite side of the
ship; families occupy berths on either side.

The same system is followed in the enclosed and open intermediate with
the exception that some of the compartments for single people contain 8
beds.

After being at sea for two or three days, Mr. Nolein, the purser, came
round and arranged the ’tween deck passengers into messes, giving to
each mess a card with the names of the parties forming it and also
its number. On the other side of the card is a printed list of the
provisions for each adult per week.

In the second cabin ’tween decks each mess consists of 24 adults; in
the enclosed intermediate 12; and in the open 10.

The first cabin is provided with three stewards and a stewardess, who
attend on the passengers exclusively; and they are supplied with fresh
provisions daily.

The second cabin on deck has two stewards. In both cabins passengers
have nothing to provide but bed, bedding and napery.

In the second cabin ’tween decks each mess is provided with a steward.
Passengers in this part of the ship only provide bed, bedding, napery
and a small cask or tin bottle to hold their daily supply of fresh
water.

In the intermediate no attendance is provided.

_Messmen._—Each mess elects two of its number to act as messmen for one
week. The messmen go to the purser to receive the provisions allowed
it for the week. The day appointed on the _Eagle_ for this purpose
was Friday. They have also to go every day and receive the water; and
divide it out to each individual if required. They have also to make
puddings for the mess three times a week, as well as oatmeal cakes,
loaf bread, etc.

In the intermediate each mess has to provide bags or dishes wherein to
keep the provisions for the week; and also a dish to bring their tea,
coffee, beef, soup, etc., from the cook, as the company provide no
utensils for this part of the ship.

_Water._—Fresh water is served out by the third mate to every messman
once a day. Each adult is allowed three pints per day and the same
allowance is given to the cook for the tea, coffee, soup, etc., for
each person on board.

_Hours._—The hour appointed for passengers going to bed is 10 p.m. When
the bell strikes the purser comes round and sees that all lights are
put out except those allowed to burn all night. Parties not going to
bed at that hour must either go on deck or remain below in darkness,
and they are not allowed to make any noise that would disturb those in
bed.

Each passenger is expected to turn out of bed at 6 a.m. The doctor
generally comes round in the morning to see that all are up, more
especially in the hot weather.

_Provisions._—Provisions are served out to each mess by the purser in
rotation. He commences with the messes in the second cabin. He first
serves out tea, coffee and sugar to mess No. 4, and goes over the whole
messes by rotation with the same articles. The flour, oatmeal and
rice are then served out in the same order and so on with the other
articles until he has given out all the provisions. He then serves the
intermediate, following the same order as the second cabin.

_Cooking._—The ship has two galleys, two cooks and four assistants.
The provisions used in the first cabin, house on deck and second cabin
’tween decks are cooked in the starboard galley; and those used by the
third cabin or intermediate passengers and crew in the larboard galley.
They also cook anything extra as ham for breakfast.

Loaves, oatmeal cakes, puddings, etc., must be taken up to the galley
before a certain hour in the forenoon. Between meal times hot water is
sometimes exchanged for cold water to old and delicate passengers.

_Breakfast, Dinner, Supper._—The hour for breakfast is 8 o’clock,
dinner at 1 and tea at 6. As all the messes cannot dine at once, they
take it week about in rotation: for example, if messes 1, 3 and 5 mess
first this week, they will be last in the week following.

The stewards in the cabins grind the coffee for their respective
messes. The messmen in the intermediate grind their own coffee in the
mill in the galley and carry water from the cook to infuse the coffee
for their own mess. The stewards and intermediate messmen bring the
dinners from the galley to their respective messes.

Tea is brought in the same way as coffee. Coffee is generally used for
breakfast and tea for supper.

The floor of the intermediate saloon is scraped daily by the messes in
rotation.

_Washing Days._—Two days are set apart in each week for washing
clothes. If those washing have not saved up fresh or collected rain
water, they must wash them in salt water. Whether fresh or salt, it is
always cold and the clothes are dried by tying them in the rigging.

_Cleaning the Berths._—The stewards, besides scraping the floor,
collect the slops of the mess every day.

_Ventilation._—As regards this most important point, the _Eagle_ must
be classed A1.

The ventilation of the ship is on the same plan as that of the Cunard
steamers. The first cabin saloon has two ventilators on deck, covered
with glass panes at top and opening in the sides. The sleeping berths
in the cabin are ventilated by windows in the sides and openings above
each door.

The second cabin on deck sleeping berths have the windows in the sides,
which slide so as to admit plenty of fresh air and also openings above
each door. The saloon into which the sleeping berths open is ventilated
by a large skylight on deck.

The second cabin ’tween decks has two ventilators, one on each side of
the main deck. They are made of iron with openings all round, and are
glazed on the top to prevent the water from coming down. The berths in
the after part of it, right astern, are ventilated by windows in the
stern and in the sides.

In addition to all this, there are three hatchways, and a ventilator on
the upper deck, glazed on the top; and four windows on each side of the
main deck, which slide up to admit fresh air. A space is left at the
top of each berth for the same purpose.

The vessel is lighted by these windows and also by dead lights in the
deck during the day; and at night by lanterns in each compartment and
also by lanterns belonging to private individuals. The lights must
be put out by 10 p.m., but one is allowed to burn all night in each
division.

_Liquors._—Ale and porter are sold to the ’tween deck passengers from
10 to 12 a.m. Passengers must obtain an order from the captain to
obtain wine or spirits. Provisions or groceries can be purchased at any
hour of the day.

_Luggage._—Two small boxes, say 30 inches by 19 by 16, are much better
than a large one. The one marked “not wanted on the voyage” is placed
in the hold and brought to deck, if requisite, every three weeks.

The other is for use on the voyage and is placed under the owners’
sleeping berth. A carpet or canvas bag with pockets in the inside will
be found a most useful article.

_Clothing._—Each passenger must have two suits of clothing: one for
cold, the other for warm weather. Any old clothing, provided it is
whole, is good enough for use on the voyage. Coarse blue cloth trousers
or fustian ones, with a short coat or jacket and vest of the same
material, stand the voyage well; and light trousers such as canvas or
shepherd tartan ones, that wash well, with an alpaca coat, are good for
warm weather.

_Articles for Daily Use._—A knife, fork, table and tea spoon, a pen
knife, a hook pot, a baking can, a tin pot, capable of holding 2 or 3
gallons of water, a lantern, brushes, combs, a mirror and tooth and
hair brushes with washing basin and a slop pail for each mess.

THE WEEKLY DIETARY SCALE.

_Second Cabin._

  +------------+------------------+-------------------+--------------+
  |Day of Week.|    Breakfast.    |      Dinner.      |Tea or Supper.|
  +------------+------------------+-------------------+--------------+
  | Sunday.    |Coffee, biscuits  |Preserved potatoes,|Tea, biscuits |
  |            |  and butter.     |  preserved        |  and butter. |
  |            |                  |  meat, plum duff. |              |
  |            |                  |                   |              |
  | Monday.    |      do.         |Pea soup, & pork,  |     do.      |
  |            |                  |  biscuits, mustard|              |
  |            |                  |  and pepper.      |              |
  |            |                  |                   |              |
  | Tuesday.   |Coffee, biscuits, |Salt beef, preserve|     do.      |
  |            |  butter, cheese. |  potatoes and     |              |
  |            |                  |  plum duff.       |              |
  |            |                  |                   |              |
  | Wednesday. |Coffee, biscuits  |Same as Monday.    |     do.      |
  |            |  and butter.     |                   |              |
  |            |                  |                   |              |
  | Thursday.  |      do.         |Same as Sunday.    |     do.      |
  |            |                  |                   |              |
  | Friday.    |      do.         |Pork & pea soup    |     do.      |
  |            |                  |  or salt fish with|              |
  |            |                  |  rice and butter. |              |
  |            |                  |                   |              |
  | Saturday.  |Porridge with     |Salt beef and rice |     do.      |
  |            |  butter, molasses|  with molasses &  |              |
  |            |  or sugar.       |  biscuits.        |              |
  +------------+------------------+-------------------+--------------+

_Intermediate Cabin._

  +------------+------------------+-------------------+--------------+
  |Day of Week.|   Breakfast.     |      Dinner.      |Tea or Supper.|
  +------------+------------------+-------------------+--------------+
  | Sunday.    |Coffee, biscuits  |Preserved meat &   |Tea, biscuits |
  |            |  and butter.     |  plum duff.       |  and butter. |
  |            |                  |                   |              |
  | Monday.    |      do.         |Pork, pea soup &   |      do.     |
  |            |                  |  biscuits.        |              |
  |            |                  |                   |              |
  | Tuesday.   |      do.         |Salt beef, plum    |      do.     |
  |            |                  |  duff & biscuits. |              |
  |            |                  |                   |              |
  | Wednesday. |      do.         |Pork, pea soup, &  |      do.     |
  |            |                  |  biscuits.        |              |
  |            |                  |                   |              |
  | Thursday.  |      do.         |Preserved meat,    |      do.     |
  |            |                  |  plum duff and    |              |
  |            |                  |  biscuits.        |              |
  |            |                  |                   |              |
  | Friday.    |      do.         |Pork, pea soup &   |      do.     |
  |            |                  |  biscuits.        |              |
  |            |                  |                   |              |
  | Saturday.  |      do.         |Salt beef, rice,   |      do.     |
  |            |                  |  molasses and     |              |
  |            |                  |  biscuits.        |              |
  +------------+------------------+-------------------+--------------+

Each mess may have oatmeal cakes and loaf bread fired three or four
times a week.

The _Eagle_, which was commanded by Captain Francis Boyle and owned
by Gibbs & Bright, of Liverpool, may be taken as a good example of a
well-run ship in the Australian emigrant trade during the fifties.

The above account was published in a newspaper printed on board, and
gives a very thorough account of the routine. This, of course, varied
in different ships and under different captains, but in the main points
the methods of the best lines were the same.

On the passage during which the foregoing account was written, the
_Eagle_ went out from Liverpool to Hobson’s Bay in 80 days, her best 24
hours’ run being 315 miles.


Liverpool Shipowners in the Australian Trade.

Thanks to the activity and enterprise of Liverpool shipowners in
ordering new ships, Liverpool became the starting point of the rush to
the gold regions—the chief emigration port in the British Isles, not
even excepting London. And such a name did Liverpool ships gain for
their speedy passages that “Liverpool on her stern and bound to go”
became a regular saying amongst seamen in the fifties.

Though many of the ships sent away from Liverpool to the Colonies
were hired by the Government Emigration Department, these were only
a small fraction of the vast fleet sailing out of the Mersey between
1852 and 1857. The most prominent firms in the great emigration trade
from Liverpool to Australia were:—James Baines & Co., of the Black Ball
Line; Pilkington & Wilson, of the White Star Line; James Beazley; Henry
Fox, of the Fox Line; Miller & Thompson, of the Golden Line; and Fernie
Bros., of the Red Cross Line.

[Illustration: MR. JAMES BAINES.]

Many of these firms, including the Black Ball and White Star, were
brokers as well as owners, and very often the ships advertised in their
sailing lists were privately owned.


James Baines, of the Black Ball Line.

The Black Ball Line, the most celebrated line of passenger ships,
perhaps, in its day, owned its existence to a little self-made man
named James Baines. And the Black Ball Line would never have become the
great concern that it was in its palmy days if it had not been for this
man’s foresight and enterprise. He, it was, who realised the genius of
the great American shipbuilder, Donald Mackay, and gave him an order
for four ships, the like of which the world had never seen before—ships
which knowing men in the business pronounced to be too big and likely
to prove mere white elephants once the first rush of gold seekers was
over. However, James Baines, although he was but a young man of barely
thirty, had the courage of his convictions, and he proved to be in
the right, for it was these big Mackay clippers which really made the
reputation of the Black Ball Line.

James Baines was a very lively, little man, fair with reddish hair. His
vitality was abnormal and he had an enthusiastic flow of talk. Of an
eager, generous disposition, his hand was ever in his pocket for those
in trouble; and he was far from being the cool, hard-headed type of
business man. He was as open as the day and hail-fellow-well-met with
everybody, nevertheless his far-sightedness and his eager driving power
carried him to the top in so phenomenally short a time that his career
has become a sort of romantic legend in Liverpool.

He was born in Upper Duke Street, Liverpool, where his mother kept a
cake and sweet shop, in which many a present-day Liverpool shipowner
can remember stuffing himself as a boy. Indeed, Mrs. Baines had such a
reputation that she is said to have made one of the wedding cakes for
the marriage of Queen Victoria.

The following is the most generally-accepted story of James Baines’
first venture in ship-owning. In 1851 a dirty-looking ship with stumpy
masts and apple-cheeked bows lay in the Queen’s Dock, Liverpool, with
a broom at her masthead, thus indicating that she was for sale. This
ship, which seafaring men contemptuously compared to a barrel of pork,
had been cheaply built at Miramichi, and was evidently going for a
song. James Baines scraped together what little money he had and bought
her, sent her out to the Colonies and made a good profit on her; and
this was the humble beginning of the great Black Ball Line, which in
1860 possessed 86 ships and employed 300 officers and 3000 seamen.

How James Baines came to take the house-flag and name of the well-known
line of American packet ships, which had been running between New York
and Liverpool since 1816, I have been unable to find out. One cannot
but think, however, that this must often have occasioned confusion in
Liverpool business circles.

James Baines’ success was, as I have said, meteoric, and to the end
of the fifties he flourished exceedingly. He lived in a beautiful
house, where he dispensed princely hospitality, drove a four-in-hand,
and thought nothing of buying five ships in one day at Kellock’s
Auction Rooms. But in the year 1860 his star began to set. Like many
another, he was tempted by the steam-kettle, with the result that he
amalgamated with Gibbs, Bright & Co., who had already deserted sail for
that doubtful investment, auxiliary steam, and had started a service
with the ill-fated _Royal Charter_ and the equally well-known _Great
Britain_.

The packets and steamers of the combine provided a service to Australia
from Liverpool twice a month, but it is doubtful if the experiment
proved a success financially. The chief cause, however, of James
Baines’ downfall was the failure of Barnard’s Bank. At the same time
it must be remembered that his soft-wood ships, many of which were old
Yankee clippers already past their prime when he bought them, were
becoming more and more strained and water-soaked, with the result that
his repair bill was ever on the increase, and this just when other
firms were building iron ships on purpose to compete with his wooden
ones. The two last ships, in which he had any interest, were the _Great
Eastern_ and the _Three Brothers_, once upon a time Vanderbilt’s yacht
and famous for its unsuccessful chase of the _Alabama_, now a hulk at
Gibraltar.

Misfortunes, once they begin, have a habit of crowding upon one, and
poor old James Baines, for some years before his death, had to depend
for his subsistence on the charity of his friends. Indeed he was
absolutely penniless when he died of dropsy on 8th March, 1889, in a
common Liverpool lodging house. He was only 66 years of age at his
death. Yet it will be a very long time before he and his celebrated
ships are forgotten in Liverpool.

  In the Black Ball Line I served my time.
  Hurrah! for the Black Ball Line.


The White Star Line.

The White Star Line, the great rival of the Black Ball, was started by
two young Liverpool shipbrokers, John Pilkington and Henry Threlfall
Wilson. The actual ships owned by them were never very numerous, though
they included the famous _Red Jacket_ and _White Star_.

In 1867 Pilkington & Wilson wisely sold their soft-wood ships, which
by this time were thoroughly strained and water-soaked, to various
purchasers; and parted with their well-known house-flag to the late
Mr. T. H. Ismay for £1000. Mr. Ismay was joined in partnership by Mr.
Imrie, and these two men started the present White Star Line with iron
sailing ships for the Australian trade, whilst Messrs. Pilkington &
Wilson retired on their laurels.


The Mail Contract.

I do not think anything shows the enterprise of the Black Ball and
White Star Lines more clearly than the contracts which they signed in
1855 with Earl Canning, the Postmaster-General, for the carriage of the
mails to Australia. Messrs. Pilkington & Wilson undertook to carry the
mails in the following ships, _Ben Nevis_, _Shalimar_, _Red Jacket_,
_Emma_, _Fitzjames_, _Mermaid_ and _White Star_; and to land them in
Australia in 68 days, or pay a penalty of £100 a day for every day
over that time. James Baines was even more daring, for he accepted a
contract to land the mails in 65 days with the same penalty attached.


The “Marco Polo.”

The first ship to shorten the voyage between England and Australia was
the famous _Marco Polo_, generally spoken of as the pioneer ship of
the Black Ball Line.

[Illustration: “MARCO POLO.”]

The _Marco Polo_ was built by Smith, of St. John’s, N.B., and is
described by those who remember her as a common six-year Quebec timber
ship, “as square as a brick fore and aft, with a bow like a savage
bulldog,” a big thick lump of a black ship with tremendous beam, a
vessel you could carry on to glory in, even to sporting lower and
topmast stunsails in a strong gale.

The story goes that on her maiden voyage she arrived in Liverpool
from Mobile with a cargo of cotton. Old Paddy McGee, the rag man and
marine store dealer, bought her cheap and resold her at a great profit
to James Baines, who refitted her from stem to stern for the emigrant
trade.

It is hard to say whether there was really a touch of genius in the
designing of _Marco Polo_, or whether she owned most of her reputation
for speed to the wonderful driving power of her famous skipper. I am
inclined to give James Baines credit for possessing a good eye for a
ship, and this opinion is strengthened by the following description
taken from the _Illustrated London News_ of 1852.

  The distinguishing feature of the _Marco Polo_ is the peculiarity of
  her hull. Her lines fore and aft are beautifully fine, her bearings
  are brought well down to the bilge; thus, whilst she makes amidships
  a displacement that will prevent unnecessary “careening,” she has
  an entrance as sharp as a steamboat and a run as clean as can be
  conceived. Below the draught line her bows are hollow; but above she
  swells out handsomely, which gives ample space on the topgallant
  foc’s’le—in fact, with a bottom like a yacht, she has above water all
  the appearance of a frigate.

  The _Marco Polo_ is a three-decker, and having been built expressly
  for the passenger trade is nothing short in capacity or equipment.
  Her height between decks is 8 feet, and no pains have been spared
  in her construction to secure thorough ventilation. In strength she
  could not well be excelled. Her timbering is enormous. Her deck
  beams are huge balks of pitch-pine. Her timbers are well formed and
  ponderous. The stem and stern frame are of the choicest material. The
  hanging and lodging knees are all natural crooks and are fitted to
  the greatest nicety. The exterior planking and ceiling is narrow and
  while there has been no lack of timber there has been no profusion of
  labour.

  The length of the _Marco Polo_ from stem to stern (inside
  measurement) is 185 feet; her beam is 38 feet; her depth of hold from
  the coamings 30 feet. Her registered tonnage is 1625, but her burthen
  will considerably exceed 2000 tons.

  On deck forward of the poop, which is used as a ladies’ cabin, is
  a “home on deck” to be used as a dining saloon. It is ceiled with
  maple and the pilasters are panelled with richly ornamented and
  silvered glass—coins of various countries being a novel feature of
  the decorations. Between each pilaster is a circular aperture about
  6 feet in circumference for light and ventilation; over it is placed
  a sheet of plate glass with a cleverly painted picturesque view in
  the centre with a frame work of foliage and scroll in opaque colours
  and gold. The whole panels are brought out slightly by the rim of
  perforated zinc, so that not only does light from the ventilator
  diffuse itself over the whole but air is freely admitted.

  The saloon doors are panelled in stained glass bearing figures of
  commerce and industry from the designs of Mr. Frank Howard. In the
  centre of the saloon is a table or dumb-waiter made of thick plate
  glass, which has the advantage of giving light to the dormitories
  below. The upholstery is in embossed crimson velvet.

  The berths in separate staterooms are ranged in the ’tween decks and
  are rendered cheerful by circular glass hatch-lights of novel and
  effective construction.

This mid-Victorian account of a passenger ship and her internal
decorations is interesting in more senses than one, but I fear that
in these days when everyone seems to be an expert in the artistic
merits of old furniture and house decoration, many of my readers will
shudder at the _Marco Polo’s_ crimson velvet cabin cushions, stained
glass panels and richly ornamented pilasters. However, at the time all
these fittings and arrangements for passengers were considered a great
advance on anything previously attempted.


Captain James Nicol Forbes.

_Marco Polo’s_ first commander was the notorious Captain James Nicol
Forbes, who had previously commanded with great success the Black Ball
ships _Maria_ and _Cleopatra_ in the Australian trade.

Bully Forbes is one of the best known characters in the history of the
British Mercantile Marine. His career was as meteoric as his owner’s
and had as sad an end. By two wonderful voyages in the _Marco Polo_ and
a still more wonderful one in the _Lightning_, he rushed to the head of
his profession. Then came his eclipse in the wreck of the _Schomberg_.
A life of Captain Forbes was printed in Liverpool at the time of his
triumphs, but it is very scarce and practically unobtainable, and thus
the history of this remarkable man has become shrouded in legend and
fairy tale, and at this length of time it is difficult to separate the
fact from the fiction.

He was born in 1821, a native of Aberdeen. In 1839 he left Glasgow for
Liverpool without a shilling in his pocket; but he was a man who could
not be kept down and he soon gained command of a ship; and at once
began to astonish everybody by the way in which he forced indifferent
ships to make unusually good passages. One of his first commands
appears to have been an old brig, in which he made two splendid
passages to the Argentine. His success with the Black Ball ships
_Maria_ and _Cleopatra_, which were neither of them clippers, gave him
the command of _Marco Polo_ and his chance to break all records.

In character Captain Forbes was a most resolute man, absolutely
fearless, of quick decisions, but of a mercurial temperament. It goes
without saying that he was a prime seaman—his wonderful passages
in _Marco Polo_ and _Lightning_ are proof enough of this. And with
regard to the _Schomberg_, I have little doubt in my own mind that
Forbes was disgusted with her sluggishness and by no means sorry when
she tailed on to the sandspit. But he evidently failed to foresee the
bad effect her loss would have on his own reputation. In Liverpool,
at the many banquets in his honour, he had been rather too ready to
give wine-tinted promises as to what he would do with the _Schomberg_,
and the chagrin of this, his first failure, was the real cause of his
downfall.

After the wrecking of the _Schomberg_, he sank into obscurity, for
though he was acquitted of all blame by the Court of Inquiry, he could
not weather the disgrace. For some time he remained in Australia,
a “very sad and silent man,” the very opposite of his usual self.
However, in 1857 he obtained command of the _Hastings_, but lost her
in December, 1859. All this time his star was setting, and for a while
he was regularly “on the beach” in Calcutta. Then in 1862 we find him
home again and acting as agent for the owners of a Glasgow ship called
the _Earl of Derby_, which was in distress on the Donegal Coast. Soon
after this in 1864, in the time of the cotton famine, he bobbed up in
Hongkong in command of a ship called the _General Wyndham_, one of
Gibbs, Bright & Co.’s, and there loaded cotton for Liverpool. He is
described then as being a seedy, broken-down looking skipper, with the
forced joviality of a broken-hearted man. He discussed the passage down
the China Seas (it was S.W. monsoon time) with some of the tea clipper
captains, and displayed all his old bravado, declaring that he would
“force a passage.” However in spite of his big talk, he took 50 days to
Anjer.

I have come across one characteristic story of his visit to Hongkong.
He was insulted by two Americans on the Water Front; in a moment he
had his coat off and did not let up until he had given them a good
thrashing.

He commanded the _General Wyndham_ till 1866, and that was the end of
his sea service. He died at the early age of 52, on 4th June, 1874,
in Westbourne Street, Liverpool. His tombstone is in Smithdown Road
Cemetery, and on it is carved his claim to fame, the fact that he was
“Master of the famous _Marco Polo_.”

As long as square-rig flourished, Forbes was the sailor’s hero, and of
no man are there so many yarns still current in nautical circles.

He is the original of the story, “Hell or Melbourne,” though it has
been told of Bully Martin and other skippers. The yarn goes that on one
of his outward passages, his passengers, scared by the way in which
he was carrying on, sent a deputation to him, begging him to shorten
sail, and to his curt refusal, he added that it was a case of “Hell
or Melbourne.” His reputation for carrying sail rivalled that of the
American Bully Waterman, and the same methods are attributed to him,
such as padlocking his sheets, overawing his terrified crew from the
break of the poop with a pair of levelled revolvers, etc.

Captain Forbes was a very lithe, active man, and one day, as the result
of a challenge, he crawled hand over hand from the spanker boom end to
the shark’s fin on the jibboom, not such a difficult feat, though not
a usual one for the master of a ship. Whilst on the _Lightning_, it
was his custom to go out on the swinging boom when the lower stunsail
was set, and to calmly survey his ship from the boom end, when she was
tearing along before the westerlies. The danger of this proceeding can
only be realised by an old sailor. If a man at the wheel had brought
the ship a point or two nearer the wind, the probability is that Forbes
would have been flung into the sea as the boom lifted or perhaps the
boom itself would have carried away, as that was the usual way in which
lower stunsail booms were smashed up.

Every man is supposed to have a lucky day, and Bully Forbes’ lucky day
was a Sunday. On his record voyage in _Marco Polo_, he left Liverpool
on a Sunday, sighted the Cape on a Sunday, crossed the line on a
Sunday, recrossed the line homeward bound on a Sunday, and arrived back
on Liverpool on a Sunday. After this you may be sure that he took care
to start his second voyage on a Sunday.


“Marco Polo’s” First Voyage to Australia.

On her first voyage to Australia _Marco Polo_ was chartered by the
Government Emigration Commissioners. She took out no less than 930
emigrants, these were selected with care and reported to be nearly
all young and active Britishers. The married couples were berthed
amidships, single women aft, and single men forward. There was a
special hospital or sick bay and she also carried two doctors. In
ventilation and comfort she was far ahead of any previous emigrant
ship; on deck there were even provided large tubs, lined with lead,
which the women could use for washing clothes. And the proof of her
great superiority in arrangements for emigrants was at once proved on
her passage out when she only had two deaths of adults on board,
both from natural causes, and only a few of children from measles, this
at a time when ships carrying half the number of emigrants arrived in
Hobson’s Bay with from 50 to 100 deaths aboard.

[Illustration: House Flags.]

Her officers were chosen from the best ships sailing out of Liverpool,
Forbes’ chief mate being McDonald, who succeeded Forbes in command of
_Marco Polo_ and afterwards made a great name for himself in command of
_James Baines_.

The regular crew of the _Marco Polo_ numbered 30 men, but 30 other
seamen worked their passage, so Forbes could afford to carry on till
the last moment, especially as in emigrant ships the passengers
were always ready for “pully-hauly,” in order to get exercise, and
invariably tailed on to halliard or brace when there was occasion.
_Marco Polo_, of course, had her full outfit of flying kites, and set
three skysails on sliding gunter masts, man-of-war fashion, but she
did not send aloft a moonsail at the main like her great successors
_Lightning_, _James Baines_ and _Champion of the Seas_. She had
Cunningham’s patent topsails, and on one occasion reduced sail from
royals to double reefs in 20 minutes.

_Marco Polo’s_ departure was not allowed to take place without the
usual banquet aboard previous to sailing, which was such a custom in
the fifties. The _dejeuner_, as the reporters called it, was served on
the ship’s poop under an awning. Mr. James Baines presided, and his
partner Mackay and Captain Forbes were vice-chairmen. After the usual
round on round of toasts, there was the usual speechifying.

James Baines opened the ball by the customary optimistic speech.
Mr. Munn, of the Cunard Company, followed with the hope that as the
_Marco Polo_ was the largest ship ever despatched to Australia, so
she would be the most prosperous. Mr. Mackay said that he never felt
so much responsibility, as he did that day, when he found nearly 1000
souls on board the _Marco Polo_; and Captain Forbes finished up by the
characteristic remark that “he judged from the appearance of her sticks
and timbers that she would be obliged to go; and that they must not be
surprised if they found the _Marco Polo_ in the River Mersey that day
six months.”

This prophecy the people of Liverpool duly saw fulfilled. The _Marco
Polo_ was advertised to sail on the 21st June, but she did not actually
sail until Sunday, 4th July.

The following is the first shipping notice of this wonderful ship:—

SPECIAL NOTICE,

  And under engagement to sail on the 21st June.
  The Splendid New Frigate-built Ship—

“MARCO POLO.”

  A1 at Lloyd’s. 2500 tons burthen; coppered and copper fastened; now
  only on her second voyage[A]; is the largest vessel ever despatched
  from Liverpool to Australia; and expected to sail as fast as any ship
  afloat; has splendid accommodations and carries two surgeons—

Apply to JAMES BAINES & CO.

After sailing on 4th July, the _Marco Polo_ arrived inside Port Phillip
Heads at 11 a.m. on 18th September, 1852, after a record passage of 68
days, having beaten the steamer _Australia_ by a clear week. Running
her easting down her best day’s work was 364 miles, and in four
successive days she covered 1344 miles, an average of 336 a day.

On his arrival in Hobson’s Bay, Captain Forbes found some 40 or 50
ships waiting to sail, held up for want of crews; whereupon he promptly
had his own crew clapped into prison on a charge of insubordination,
with the result that they were ready to hand when he wanted them and
thus he was able to set sail again for Liverpool on 11th October, 1852.

Leaving at 5 a.m. on the 11th, the _Marco Polo_ passed Banks Straits on
the 12th and sighted the Auckland Islands on the 17th. On her passage
to the Horn she made three successive runs of 316, 318 and 306 miles,
and on 3rd November when she made the Horn she logged 353 knots in the
24 hours, the weather being recorded as fine. On the 5th November she
passed Staten Island; and on 19th December saw a barque apparently
abandoned, and an empty long-boat painted stone colour. Forbes showed
blue lights and fired rockets, but, receiving no reply and being
naturally in a great hurry, proceeded on his way; and finally arrived
off Holyhead at 3 p.m. on Christmas Day and anchored in the Mersey on
Sunday, 26th December, 1852, 76 days out from Melbourne and only five
months and 21 days out on the whole voyage.

This was so much a record that many shipping people when they
recognised her lying in the Mersey thought that she must have put back
disabled in some way.

And the story goes that a waterman, meeting James Baines in the street,
said:—“Sir, the _Marco Polo_ is coming up the river.” “Nonsense, man,”
returned Mr. Baines, “the _Marco Polo_ has not arrived out yet.” Less
than an hour after this assertion, James Baines found himself face to
face with Captain Forbes.

When the ship hauled into the Salthouse Dock, the quays were crowded
with people. Between her fore and main masts a huge strip of canvas was
suspended with the following painted on it in huge black letters:—THE
FASTEST SHIP IN THE WORLD.

On this passage she again beat the _Australia_ by more than a week,
many bets having been made in Melbourne as to which ship would arrive
first. After such a voyage _Marco Polo_ was at once considered to be
the wonder of the age and people flocked from all parts of England to
see her.

Her officers declared that she made 17 knots an hour for hours
together; and Doctor North, the chief Government surgeon on board, who
had been in the ship _Statesman_ when she made her celebrated passage
of 76 days from Plymouth to Australia, declared that the _Marco Polo_
was by a long way the fastest vessel he had ever sailed in and vastly
superior to the _Statesman_.

The _Marco Polo_ brought home £100,000 in gold dust, and her officers
related that on her arrival out she was surrounded by boats, the
occupants of which threw small nuggets amongst her passengers. She also
brought home a nugget of 340 ounces, purchased by the Government of
Victoria as a present for the Queen.


“Marco Polo’s” Second Voyage to Australia.

After such a record voyage, I find the following notice advertising her
second departure for Australia.

BLACK BALL LINE OF AUSTRALIAN PACKETS.

  For passengers, parcels and specie, having bullion safes, will be
  despatched early in February for Melbourne.

THE CELEBRATED CLIPPER SHIP “MARCO POLO.”

  1625 tons register; 2500 tons burthen; has proved herself the fastest
  ship in the world, having just made the voyage to Melbourne and back,
  including detention there, in 5 months and 21 days, beating every
  other vessel, steamers included.

  As a passenger ship she stands unrivalled and her commander’s ability
  and kindness to his passengers are well known.

  As she goes out in ballast and is expected to make a very rapid
  passage, she offers a most favourable opportunity to shippers of
  specie—

Apply to JAMES BAINES & CO., Cook Street.

Before the _Marco Polo_ was hauled out of the Salthouse Dock for her
second voyage, another large _dejeuner_ was given on board, at which
testimonials were presented to Captain Forbes and Charles McDonald, his
first officer. The usual flowery speeches were made, but the remarks of
Bully Forbes were especially characteristic. He said that “as regards
his recent voyage, he had done his best and he could not say he would
do the same again, but if he did it, he would do it in a shorter time.
(Laughter.) He was going a different way this time, a way that perhaps
not many knew of, and the _Antelope_ must keep her steam up or he would
thrash her (referring to the challenge of a race round the world sent
him by Captain Thompson, of the steamer _Antelope_). Captain Thompson
only wanted to get outside Cape Clear and he could make a fair wind
into a foul one. (Laughter.) That he (Forbes) would do his best for the
interests of his employers and while the Black Ball Line had a flag
flying or a coat to button, he would be there to button it.”

The _Marco Polo_ sailed on her captain’s favourite day and also on
the 13th of the month, namely, on Sunday, 13th March, 1853. She had
on board 648 passengers and £90,000 of specie. The emigrants were
composed chiefly of men of the artisan class, and there were very few
women amongst them. This seemed to be a matter of great regret, and as
the ubiquitous newspaper reporter had it:—“One young gentleman, whose
incipient moustache and budding imperial showed that he was shaping his
course for the diggings, was heard to express his sorrow that there
were not more ladies, as ‘they exercised such a humanising tendency on
mankind, don’t you know.’” The reporter goes on to describe how one
of the passengers was arrested for burglary just before sailing and
his luggage found to be full of jewellery and watches; and how a first
class passenger (who had left a good legal practice for the land of
nuggets), dressed in huge sea boots, a blue shirt and marine cap, lent
a ready hand in hoisting the anchor and setting the sails and joined
in “the boisterous refrains of the sailors with evident pleasure.” The
anchor was weighed soon after 10 o’clock and the _Marco Polo_ was towed
to sea by the _Independence_. The day was beautifully fine, and James
Baines and his partner Miller proceeded in the ship to beyond the N.W.
Lightship, returning in the tug.

Bully Forbes was in a very confident mood, and, as soon as the ship was
under weigh, had his passengers called together and addressed them as
follows:—“Ladies and gentlemen, last trip I astonished the world with
the sailing of this ship. This trip I intend to astonish God Almighty!”
Then turning to his ebony cook, who went by the name of Doctor Johnson,
he said:—“Search well below, doctor, and if you find any stowaways, put
them overboard slick.”

“Ugh, ugh!” chuckled the sable doctor as he shuffled below. In a short
time he reappeared with an Irishman whom he had found concealed in the
quarters of a married couple.

“Secure him and keep a watch over the lubber, and deposit him on the
first iceberg we find in 60° S.,” growled Forbes, with mock fierceness.
The stowaway, however, was returned in the tug with the ship’s owners.

The _Marco Polo’s_ best runs on the outward passage were the following:—

  May  1     314  miles.
   „   2     300    „
   „   3     310    „
   „   4     304    „
   „   5     285    „
   „   6     288    „
   „  12     299    „

These were nothing extraordinary; however she again made a very good
passage and arrived at Melbourne on 29th May, 75 days out. She left
Melbourne again at 5 p.m. on 10th June, with 40 cabin passengers and
£280,000 of gold dust.

Her best runs this passage were, of course, made on the way to the
Horn, being:—

  June  15    314 miles.
    „   16    322  „
    „   16    322  „
    „   17    294  „
    „   18    260  „
    „   19    324  „
    „   20    316  „
    „   20    316  „
    „   21    322  „
    Total for week 2152 miles.

But on the 23rd in 60° S. her progress was severely stopped by large
quantities of small ice, which tore all the copper off her bow.

On the 26th June, when in 141° W., a large ship was sighted astern
which proved to be Money Wigram’s famous Blackwaller _Kent_, which had
sailed 5 days ahead of _Marco Polo_.

From 27th June to 1st July only small runs could be made, the ship
being surrounded by ice, but with strong northerly winds to help her,
she cleared the ice on the 1st and at once started to make up time,
running 303 miles on 2nd July, 332 on the 3rd, 364 on the 4th and 345
on the 5th. And on 18th July in 49° 30′ S., with strong S.W. wind, she
made her last run of over 300.

However, in spite of these fine runs to the southward, the passage was
a good deal longer than Forbes anticipated, as _Marco Polo_ was 95 days
out when, on 13th September she arrived in the Mersey.

Nevertheless she had made the round voyage in the very good time of
exactly 6 months, and when Captain Forbes appeared “on Change” about 1
o’clock on the 13th “the cheering was long and loud and he received a
hearty welcome from all the merchants assembled.”


After-Life of “Marco Polo.”

At the end of her second voyage Bully Forbes left the _Marco Polo_ to
take over the _Lightning_, and was succeeded by his chief mate Charles
McDonald.

Leaving Liverpool in November, 1853, with 666 passengers, McDonald
took her out in 72 days 12 hours or 69 days land to land, and brought
her home in 78 days. Then he left her to take over the _James Baines_
and a Captain W. Wild had her. By this time it is probable that she
was getting pretty badly strained, being a soft-wood ship, and whether
Captain Wild and his successor Captain Clarke were not sail carriers or
did not like to press her too much, I do not know, but her fourth and
fifth voyages were not specially good, her times being:—

  4th voyage, 1854-5, outward 95 days, under Captain Wild.
                      homeward 85 days, under Captain Wild.

  5th voyage, 1855, outward 81 days, under Captain Clarke.
                    homeward 86 days, under Captain Clarke.

She was still, however, a favourite ship, taking 520 passengers out and
bringing home 125,000 ounces of gold under Captain Clarke.

On her sixth voyage she for the first time got into trouble as she
parted her tow rope when leaving the Mersey and got aground off the
Huskisson Dock, after first colliding with a barque at anchor in the
river. However she came off on the flood without damage and sailed for
Melbourne on 7th December, 1855, arriving out on 26th February, an
83-day passage. In 1856 she went out in 89 days, leaving Liverpool 5th
September.

Her most serious mishap was on her passage home in 1861, when she
collided with an iceberg on 4th March. Her bowsprit was carried away,
bow stove in and foremast sprung; in fact, so seriously was she damaged
that she was very near being abandoned. Eventually, however, she
managed to struggle into Valparaiso after a month of incessant pumping.
Here she was repaired and, continuing her voyage, at length arrived at
Liverpool on 21st August, 183 days out from Melbourne.

Though Messrs. James Baines sold her to another Liverpool firm in
the early sixties, she still continued regularly in the Melbourne
trade, and as late as 1867 I find another fine passage to her account,
which is thus described by Captain Coates in his _Good Old Days of
Shipping_:—“Captain Labbet, of Brisbane, once told me that in January,
1867, he took passage home in the steamship _Great Britain_. The _Marco
Polo_ left at the same time and was soon lost sight of. A week later
the look-out man of the _Great Britain_ reported a sail right ahead,
and shortly afterwards expressed his belief that it was the _Marco
Polo_, in which ship he had previously sailed. His opinion, however,
was scoffed at; on the ship being neared he proved to have been right.
She was again distanced and the _Great Britain_ made what was esteemed
a good passage. On taking the pilot off Cork, the first question asked
was:—“Have you seen the _Marco Polo_?” The reply came:—“Yes, she passed
up 8 days ago.” She had made the passage in 76 days.


Most Notable Clippers of 1853.

The _Marco Polo_ was followed across the Atlantic by numerous other
Nova Scotian built ships from the yards of W. & R. Wright and Smith.

The most notable of these were the _Ben Nevis_, which arrived during
the summer of 1852, and the _Star of the East_, _Miles Barton_,
_Guiding Star_ and _Indian Queen_, which arrived at Liverpool in 1853.
All these ships were intended to lower the colours of _Marco Polo_, but
not one of them succeeded in doing so, though they made some very good
passages.


“Ben Nevis.”

The _Ben Nevis_ was the first ship owned by Pilkington & Wilson. She
was, however, too short and deep for her tonnage, her measurements
being:—

  Length over all           181 feet.
  Beam                      38 feet 6 inches.
  Depth of hold             28 feet.
  Registered tonnage        1420.

Commanded by Captain Heron, she sailed for Melbourne on 27th September,
1852, with 600 passengers, a cabin passage in her costing £25, and she
took 96 days going out.


The “Star of the East.”

A far more worthy ship to compete with the _Marco Polo_ was the _Star
of the East_, which arrived in Liverpool on 5th March, 1853, 20 days
out from St. John’s against strong N.E. winds. She was built by W. &.
R. Wright, her dimensions being:—

  Length of keel            206 feet.
  Length over all           237  „
  Beam                      40 feet 10 in.
  Depth of hold             22 feet.
  Registered tonnage        1219 tons.

The following are some of her spar measurements:—

  Mainmast—extreme length 84 feet; diameter 41 inches.
  Main topmast—extreme length 53 feet; diameter 19 inches.
  Main topgallant mast—extreme length 75 feet; diameter 14 inches.
  Bowsprit and jibboom—outboard                         55 feet.
  Mainyard                                               89  „
  Main topsail yard                                      70  „
  Main topgallant yard                                   52  „
  Main royal yard                                        36  „
  Main skysail yard                                      27  „
    Sail area (studding sails excepted) 5500 yards.

At the time of her launch she was considered the finest ship ever built
at St. John’s. On her arrival in Liverpool she was at once bought by
Mr. James Beazley, having cost him when ready for sea £22,683. She
loaded for Australia in the Golden Line, and went out to Melbourne
in 76 days under Captain Christian, late of Beazley’s _Constance_.
From Melbourne she went to Sydney and loaded across to Shanghai; then
sailing from Shanghai in the favourable monsoon, arrived home in 104
days, 4 of which were spent anchored off Gutztaff Island in a typhoon.
The whole voyage only occupied 9 months 27 days, and she cleared £8018
clear profit. Her second voyage on the same route she did still better,
clearing £8920.


The “Miles Barton.”

The _Miles Barton_ measured:—

  Length                    175 feet.
  Beam                       35  „
  Depth                      22  „
  Registered tonnage        963 tons.

She also was bought by James Beazley and loaded in the Golden Line. On
her maiden voyage she went out to Melbourne in 82 days, and followed up
this performance with two trips of 76 days each.


The “Guiding Star.”

Arrived in Liverpool in October, 1852, and was at once chartered by the
Golden Line for £12,000, considered a huge sum in those days. Her life,
however, was not a long one, as she was lost with all hands between
January and April, 1854, and it was generally supposed that she became
embayed and back-strapped by a huge ice island in about 44° S., 25° W.

Tragic encounters with ice were by no means unusual in the fifties when
every passage maker was trying to follow out Maury’s instructions by
running far down into southern latitudes in search of strong fair winds.


The “Indian Queen.”

The _Indian Queen_, 1041 tons, the most notable Black Baller launched
in 1853, and advertised as _Marco Polo’s_ sister ship, was a very fast
vessel, her first voyage to Australia being made in 6 months 11 days,
and in 1855 she came home from Hobart in 78 days. In 1859 she narrowly
escaped the fate of _Guiding Star_. On 13th March, 1859, she sailed
from Melbourne for Liverpool under Captain Brewer, with 40 passengers
and the usual cargo of wool and gold dust. All went well until she was
half way to the Horn, when on the 27th March the weather became thick
with a strong N.W. wind and heavy westerly swell.

On the 31st March she was in 58° S., 151° W. by account; the day was
wet, foggy and very cold and the ship logged a steady 12 knots with the
wind strong at N.W. At 2 a.m. on the following morning those below were
aroused by a violent shock, the crash of falling spars and a grinding
sound along the port side, and the first of the frightened passengers
to arrive on the poop found the ship lying broadside to broadside with
an immense iceberg. All her spars and sails above the lower masts were
hanging over the starboard side, the foremast was broken off close to
the deck and was held at an angle by its rigging, the mainyard was in
half, the bowsprit was washing about under the bows, and though the
mizen topmast was still standing the topsail yard was in two, broken in
the slings.

The night was dark and rainy and at first the watch below and
passengers thought that all was lost. They found no one at the wheel,
the port life-boat gone, and not a soul on the poop, but they were
somewhat reassured by the appearance of the carpenter who had been
sounding the pumps and pronounced the ship to be making no water. Then
the second mate appeared aft and announced that the captain, mate and
most of the crew had gone off in the port life-boat. Apparently there
had been a disgraceful panic which involved even the captain, who
actually left his own son, an apprentice, behind on the ship.

However those who had been so shamefully deserted began to buckle
to with a will, headed by the second mate, Mr. Leyvret, and the
cool-headed carpenter, a man named Thomas Howard. Passengers, cooks,
stewards and those of the crew left on board were promptly divided into
watches, the captain’s son was sent to the wheel, and whilst some set
about clearing up the raffle of gear and getting things ship-shape as
far as possible, others shovelled the ice, which lay in masses on the
decks, overboard.

With some difficulty the crossjack was backed and the head of the
spanker hauled in. At the same time the boat was perceived tossing in
the swell on the port beam and apparently endeavouring to regain the
ship, and faint cries for help could be heard against the wind. She
seemed to be without oars and with sea after sea washing over, she was
soon swept past the ship by the back wash off the ice and lost sight of
in the fog never to be seen again. The ship, though, with the backed
crossjack, began to drift along the side of the berg and presently
dropped clear of it into smoother water to leeward.

Day now began to break and all hands set about cutting away the wreck,
but the mainyard and the rest of the raffle hanging from the stump
of the mainmast was hardly clear before the terrible cry of “Ice to
leeward!” arose and a huge berg appeared looming out of the mist. The
crossjack was at once braced up, the spanker set and the foresail
trimmed in some fashion or other, then in a tense silence the survivors
watched the ship slowly forge ahead and, dragging the wreck of masts
and spars and torn sails along with her, weather the new danger by a
bare 100 yards. And scarcely had she done so when the foremast fell
crashing on to the long-boat, the other boats having been already
stove in by falling spars. The next business was to get the wreck of
the foremast over the side and clear of the ship. Here the carpenter
displayed the greatest coolness and skill, being ably backed up by
the second mate and the 4 seamen left on board. With the last of the
wreck overside, time was found to muster the survivors, when it was
discovered that the captain, chief mate and 15 men had been lost in the
port life-boat, leaving behind the second mate, carpenter, bosun, 4
A.B.’s, 1 O.S. and 2 boys, besides the cooks, stewards, doctor, purser,
and passengers who numbered 30 men, 3 women and 7 children.

A course was now steered for Valparaiso, some 3800 miles away. It
was not until the 7th April that the ship got finally clear of the
scattered ice, but on the 3rd the wind came out of the south and with
a lower stunsail and main staysail set on the main, the ship began to
make 3 or 4 knots through the water.

One iceberg of huge size and square like a mountainous box was only
just cleared before it broke in two, the smaller portion bursting into
the sea like an avalanche, and sweeping a huge wave in front of it, did
not bring up until it was 2 to 3 miles away from the rest of the berg.
The last ice was seen in 54° S., it being reckoned that the accident
had happened in 60° S.

As soon as 49° S. was reached, a direct course was shaped for
Valparaiso. Sheers were now rigged and a topmast secured to the stump
of the foremast, then topsail yards were crossed on the jury foremast
and mainmast, which improved the ship’s progress another knot. In this
condition the _Indian Queen_ slowly wandered north, weathering out gale
after gale. On the 7th May a welcome sail was sighted. This proved to
be the New Bedford whaler _La Fayette_, whose captain boarded them,
offered them every assistance and corrected their longitude, which
was 3° out. On the following day the French man-of-war _Constantine_
appeared and promised to convoy them in. On the 9th May land was made
some 20 miles south of Valparaiso, and on the morning of the 10th, as
the crippled _Indian Queen_ approached the Bay, the boats of H.M.S.
_Ganges_, 84 guns, came out to her aid and towed her in to the Roads,
where she anchored safely, just 40 days after her collision with the
iceberg.


The Famous “Sovereign of the Seas.”

My notes on the emigrant ships sailing from Liverpool in 1853 would not
be complete without some mention of the celebrated American clipper
_Sovereign of the Seas_. This ship was built by Donald Mackay for the
American Swallowtail Line and at the time of her launch, June, 1852,
was hailed as the largest merchant ship in the world, her measurements
being:—

  Length of keel                    245 feet.
  Length between perpendiculars     258  „
  Length over all                   265  „
  Beam                               44  „
  Depth                              23  „
    Tonnage (American Register) 2421 tons.

Her lower masts from deck to cap were:—

  Foremast 89 feet; mainmast 93 feet; mizen 82 feet.

Her lower yards measured in length:—

  Foreyard 80 feet; mainyard 90 feet; crossjack yard 70 feet.

And her topsail yards:—

  Fore topsail yard 63 feet; main 70 feet; mizen 56 feet.

She spread 12,000 yards of canvas in her working suit.

On her maiden voyage she carried a crew of 105 men and boys, including
2 bosuns, 2 carpenters, 2 sailmakers, 3 stewards, 2 cooks, 80 A.B.’s
and 10 boys before the mast. She was commanded by Donald Mackay’s
younger brother, Captain Lauchlan Mackay, one of the best known
skippers in the United States.

Loading 2950 tons of cargo and receiving 84,000 dollars freight,
she sailed from New York for San Francisco on 4th August, 1852; and
considering the season of the year, she made a wonderful run south,
crossing the equator in 25 days and reaching 50° S. in 48 days.

[Illustration: “SOVEREIGN OF THE SEAS.”]

She was nine days making the passage of the Horn from 50° S. to 50° S.;
but shortly after rounding the Horn she carried away her fore and main
topmasts and sprang her foreyard. Captain Mackay, however, kept the
seas and refitted his ship in 14 days, during the whole of which time
he is said to have remained on deck, snatching what little sleep he
allowed himself in a deck chair. The _Sovereign of the Seas_ in spite
of this mishap arrived in San Francisco only 103 days out, and this was
considered the best passage ever made at such an unfavourable season of
the year.

From San Francisco she went across to Honolulu in ballast and there
loaded a cargo of sperm oil; it being the custom of American whalers to
call in there and leave their oil for transhipment so as to clear their
holds for a fresh catch.

The _Sovereign of the Seas_ left Honolulu on 13th February, 1853, for
New York, and once again made a most remarkable passage in spite of
a sprung fore topmast, jury fore topgallant mast and a weak crew—no
doubt a large number of her original crew deserted in San Francisco in
the hope of reaching the gold diggings, but more probably only to be
shanghaied on some homeward bounder.

Like all Mackay’s wonderful creations, the _Sovereign of the Seas_ was
at her best in the roaring forties, and on the run to the Horn she made
3144 miles in 10 days, her best 24-hour runs being:—

  March 11     332 miles.
    „   12     312   „
    „   16     396   „
    „   17     311   „
    „   18     411   „
    „   19     360   „

During this time she had strong quartering winds and a heavy following
sea, which drove her at times as much as 19 knots through the water.

After rounding the Horn, she had the usual weather up through the
tropics, and arrived at New York on 6th May, 1853, having made the
record passage of 82 days from Honolulu.

As she was considered to be too big for either the San Francisco or
China trades, she was at once loaded for Liverpool, there to take part
in the booming Australian emigrant trade.

And crossing the Western Ocean she once more made an extraordinary
passage, as the following epitome shows:—

  June 18—Sailed from New York, passed Sandy Hook at 6.30 p.m.
   „   24—Sighted Cape Race at 6 a.m.
   „   26—Becalmed on the Banks.
   „   28—Distance run 344 miles—ship close-hauled under single
             reefed topsails.
   „   30—Distance run 340 miles, under all sail to skysails and
             royal stunsails off Cape Clear at 6 a.m.
  July 2—Anchored in the Mersey at 10.30 p.m.

  Passage New York to Liverpool, from dock to anchorage, 13 days 22
  hours 50 minutes, and 5 days 17 hours from the Banks of Newfoundland.

Donald Mackay crossed the Atlantic on the ship and spent his whole time
watching her every movement, and it was probably the experience gained
on this passage which had much to do with the wonderful success of his
later vessels.

On her arrival in Liverpool the _Sovereign of the Seas_ was at once
chartered by the Black Ball Line. Captain Lauchlan Mackay, however, did
not remain in her, but returned to New York, his place being taken by
Captain Warner, who had been in the ship since she was launched.

Captain Warner sailed from Liverpool on 7th September, 1853, with 25
first cabin, 40 second cabin passengers and a cargo valued at £200,000,
and wrote the following account of his passage to the _Liverpool
Mercury_:—

  I arrived here after a long and tedious passage of 77 days, having
  experienced only light and contrary winds the greater part of the
  passage. I have had but two chances. The ship ran in four consecutive
  days 1275 miles; and the next run was 3375 miles in 12 days. These
  were but moderate chances. I was 31 days to the equator and carried
  skysails 65 days; set them on leaving Liverpool and never shortened
  them for 35 days. I crossed the equator in 26° 30′, and went to 53°
  30′ S., but found no strong winds. I think if I had gone to 58° S. I
  would have had wind enough: but the crew were insufficiently clothed
  and about one half disabled, together with the first mate. At any
  rate we have beaten all and every one of the ships that sailed with
  us, and also the famous English clipper _Gauntlet_ 10 days on the
  passage, although the _Sovereign of the Seas_ was loaded down to 23½
  feet.

_Sovereign of the Seas’_ passage was, in fact, an exceedingly good
one, considering all things, but there was not much glory attached to
beating the little _Gauntlet_, which only measured 693 tons register
and was built of iron.

The _Sovereign of the Seas_ sailed from Melbourne with the mails and
a very large consignment of gold dust; but amongst her crew she had
shipped some old lags, who attempted a mutiny in order to seize the
ship and get away with the gold. However, Captain Warner succeeded in
suppressing these rascals without bloodshed and kept them in irons for
the rest of the passage.

The _Sovereign of the Seas_ made the splendid time of 68 days between
Melbourne and Liverpool; but after this one voyage for the Black Ball
she seems to have returned to her original owners, who put her into the
Shanghai trade for a voyage or two before selling her to a Hamburg firm.

Best Outward Passages for 1853-4, Anchorage to Anchorage.

  +----------------+------------+---------------+---------------+----+
  |      Ship.     | Port from  |  Date Left.   |  Date Arrived |Dys.|
  |                |            |               |   Melbourne.  |    |
  +----------------+------------+---------------+---------------+----+
  | _Try_          | Bristol    | Oct.  12, ’52 | Jan.  12, ’53 | 92 |
  | _Alipore_      | London     |  „    16,  „  |  „    19,  „  | 95 |
  | _Marian Moore_ | Liverpool  | Nov.  15,  „  | Feb.  15,  „  | 92 |
  | _Kent_         | London     | Jan.  27, ’53 | Apl.  20,  „  | 83 |
  | _Eagle_        | Liverpool  | Feb.  22,  „  | May   13,  „  | 80 |
  | _Marco Polo_   |    „       | Mar.  14,  „  |  „    29,  „  | 76 |
  | _Bothnia_      |    „       |  „     5,  „  | June   3,  „  | 90 |
  | _Ganges_       | London     |  „    23,  „  |  „    22,  „  | 91 |
  | _Osmanli_      | Liverpool  | Apl.  16,  „  | July   4,  „  | 79 |
  | _Indian Queen_ |    „       | May   17,  „  | Aug.   8,  „  | 82 |
  | _Gibson Craig_ | London     | June   4,  „  |  „    22,  „  | 79 |
  | _Star of the   | Liverpool  | July   7,  „  | Sept. 23,  „  | 78 |
  |    East_       |            |               |               |    |
  | _Statesman_    | S’thampton |  „    10,  „  | Oct.   5,  „  | 87 |
  | _Tasmania_     | Liverpool  |  „    23,  „  |  „    23,  „  | 92 |
  | _Mobile_       |    „       | Aug.  16,  „  | Nov.  16,  „  | 92 |
  | _Sovereign of  |    „       | Sept.  7,  „  |  „    26,  „  | 80 |
  |    the Seas_   |            |               |               |    |
  | _Chimera_      |    „       |  „    17,  „  | Dec.  17,  „  | 92 |
  | _Neleus_       |    „       | Oct.   5,  „  |  „    24,  „  | 80 |
  | _Flying Dragon_| London     |  „    14,  „  |  „    30,  „  | 77 |
  | _Kent_         |    „       |  „    26,  „  | Jan.  12, ’54 | 78 |
  | _Marco Polo_   | Liverpool  | Nov.   8,  „  |  „    31,  „  | 84 |
  | _Salem_        |    „       | Dec.   7,  „  | Feb.  28,  „  | 83 |
  | _Essex_        |    „       |  „     9,  „  | Mar.  12,  „  | 92 |
  | _Marlborough_  | London     | Jan.   1, ’54 |  „    19,  „  | 77 |
  | _Indian Queen_ | Liverpool  |  „    29,  „  | Apl.  21,  „  | 84 |
  | _Crest of the  |    „       | Feb.  14,  „  |  „    28,  „  | 73 |
  |    Wave_       |            |               |               |    |
  +----------------+------------+---------------+---------------+----+


1854—The Year of the Big Ships.

The result of _Sovereign of the Seas’_ visit to Liverpool and that of
her builder and designer Donald Mackay was a further order to America
and Nova Scotia for still bigger ships.

In fact, Donald Mackay returned to Boston with James Baines’ commission
to build the famous quartette, _Lightning_, _Champion of the Seas_,
_James Baines_ and _Donald Mackay_, which were shortly to astonish the
world. Against these the White Star Line put forward the equally big
_White Star_ and _Red Jacket_, two vessels which both in strength,
beauty and speed were worthy to be ranked on equal terms with the great
Black Ballers.

Only two wooden ships were ever launched in England which could
compare in size with these six giants. One of these was the ill-fated
_Schomberg_ and the other the beautiful _Sobraon_, which, however,
had iron frames and was not launched until the palmy days of the gold
rush were over. Both came from the famous yard of Hall, of Aberdeen.
_Schomberg_ was, of course, wrecked on her maiden passage, but
_Sobraon_, though never as hard sailed as the great Black Ball and
White Star ships, made equally good passages, and being built of the
finest Malabar teak retained her speed right up to the end of her long
and successful career.

In comparing the measurements of the American built, Nova Scotian built
and Aberdeen built ships the most noticeable point is the greater beam
of the Nova Scotians and the greater length of the British.

This is well shown by the following table:—

                { _Lightning_              5.54 beams to length.
                { _Red Jacket_             5.54 beams to length.
  American      { _Champion of the Seas_   5.55 beams to length.
    Built       { _James Baines_           5.70 beams to length.
                { _Donald Mackay_          5.72 beams to length.

  British       { _Schomberg_              5.82 beams to length.
    Built       { _Sobraon_                6.80 beams to length.

  Nova Scotian  { _Marco Polo_             4.86 beams to length.
    Built       { _White Star_             4.84 beams to length.


=Carrying On.=

Perhaps no ships ever sailed the seas which held on to their canvas
longer than these great Black Ball and White Star clippers; and yet the
carrying away of spars and sails, which was so common an occurrence
with the earlier American clippers and also with the early British iron
clippers, was quite rare on these big emigrant ships.

There is no difficulty, however, in finding reasons for their freedom
from dismasting and heavy casualties aloft, their designers and
builders had learnt something by the dismastings and constant losses of
spars which overtook their earlier ships, and thus no ships were more
scientifically stayed than these big ships, at the same time in their
outfit we find hemp rigging and wooden spars in their highest state of
efficiency. Strength of gear had for some time been one of the chief
problems that a clipper ship builder had to contend with, and in the
rigging of these six famous ships we see this problem finally mastered.

Topsails, topgallant sails and even royals were diagonally roped from
clew to earing. The rope used for standing rigging was the very best
procurable and of immense thickness; for instance, _Lightning’s_ lower
rigging, fore and main stays and backstays were of 11½ inch Russian
hemp; whilst in regard to spars, here are the diameters in inches of
some of _James Baines’_ masts and yards:—

  Mainmast              42 inches in diameter.
  Main topmast          21 inches in diameter.
  Main topgallant mast  16 inches in diameter.
  Main royal mast       14 inches in diameter.
  Mainyard              26 inches in diameter.
  Main topsail yard     21 inches in diameter.
  Main skysail yard      8 inches in diameter.

Advantages of a Light Load Line and High Side.

But added to their greater strength aloft these great clippers had
another advantage over their older sisters in the Californian trade.

They sailed on a lighter load line and showed a higher side. Four or
five hundred emigrants made them dry and buoyant instead of wet and
hard mouthed. Besides being very easy in a sea-way, these big emigrant
clippers were extraordinarily steady ships without any tendency to
heavy quick rolling. This is easily proved from their logs, for one
constantly reads that their passengers were able to enjoy dancing on
the poop when the ships were running 15 and 16 knots before the strong
gales and big seas of easting weather.

Speaking at a dinner given in Melbourne in honour of Captain Enright,
Mr. Alexander Young, a veteran voyager to and from the Antipodes, who
had just travelled out in the _Lightning_, remarked:—“I have much
pleasure in adding my slight testimony to her well-earned fame by
stating that she is the driest and easiest ship I have ever sailed
in. I assure you, ladies and gentlemen, that we scarcely shipped a
bucketful of water all the passage, and when going 16 knots an hour
there was scarcely any more motion than we feel at the present moment.”

And here are other proofs of the _Lightning’s_ steadiness taken from
the _Lightning Gazette_, a newspaper published on board:—

  9th February, 1855.—14 knots upon a bowline with the yards braced
  sharp up and while going at this extraordinary rate she is as dry as
  possible, seldom shipping a spoonful of water. During the greater
  part of the day the carpenter was employed on a stage below the fore
  chains, where he worked as easily as if it had been calm.

  18th March, 1857.—The wind increases a little towards evening and we
  make 15 to 17 knots an hour, yet the ship is so steady that we danced
  on the poop with the greatest ease (Lat. 42° 34′ S., Long. 17° 04′ W.)

  21st February, 1855.—During this time the ship was going 16 knots an
  hour and in the saloon the motion was so slight that we thought she
  had only a light breeze.

=Examples of Carrying Sail.=

Two or three quotations also from the log books and shipboard
newspapers may be of interest to show the power of these ships to carry
sail in heavy weather and strong winds.

Here are two days from the log of the _James Baines_ when running her
easting down in 1856:—

  16th June.—Lat. 43° 39′ S., Long. 101° E.; Bar. 29.80°. Wind, S.W.
  to W.S.W. Commences with fresh breezes and squalls of sleet, 8 a.m.,
  more moderate. Noon, sighted a ship ahead; at 1 p.m. was alongside
  of her and at 2 p.m. she was out of sight astern. _James Baines_ was
  going 17 knots with main skysail set, the _Libertas_, for such was
  her name, was under double-reefed topsails.

  18th June.—Lat. 42° 47′ S., Long. 115° 54′ E. Bar. 29.20°. Wind,
  W. to S.W. First part breeze freshening. At 6 p.m. wind S.W. and
  freshening. At 8.30 p.m. in all starboard studding sails; ship going
  21 knots with main skysail set. Midnight, fresh gale and fine clear
  night. 8 a.m., wind and weather the same. Noon, less wind attended
  with snow squalls. Distance 420 miles.

Then in the _Lightning Gazette_ I find the following entries:—

  15th January, 1855.—Lat. 39° 42′ N., Long. 19° 25′ E. Wind. S.S.E.,
  strong breezes and cloudy, with occasional squalls and showers; the
  ship going 13 knots close-hauled. In the morning we passed a ship
  outward bound with topgallant sails in and exchanged colours with
  a Swedish brig homeward bound—this vessel was under close-reefed
  topsails, while we were carrying three royals and main skysail.

  26th February, 1855.—Lat. 45° 48′ S.; Long., 16° 55′ E. Wind, N.N.W.,
  course, S.E. Another wet uncomfortable day; thick mist and small
  rain. The barometer had been falling for a day or two back and went
  down half an inch last night. The change took place at 4 p.m., when
  the wind suddenly shifted to the west and soon afterwards to S.W.,
  from whence it blew hard with squalls and occasional showers of hail
  and snow. At 8 p.m. it backed again to west, where it remained all
  night, blowing a fresh gale, the ship running 16 and occasionally 18
  knots per hour with main skysail and topgallant studding sails set.

  27th February, 1855.—Lat. 46° 22′ S., Long. 26° 15′ E. Wind, west,
  course S.E. All last night it blew a fresh gale with heavy squalls
  and occasional showers of hail and snow, the sea running high. From
  noon yesterday till noon to-day, we ran down 9 degrees and 20 miles
  of longitude and 34 miles of latitude, making 390 geographical miles
  or 450 English miles direct course in the 24 hours, giving an average
  of 16¼ knots or 18¾ statute miles per hour. During 6 hours in the
  morning the ship logged 18 knots per hour with royals, main skysail
  and topgallant studding sails set, the wind blowing a fresh gale from
  the westward.

  21st October, 1855.—Lat. 36° 4′ S., Long. 24° 52′ W. During the
  afternoon the wind chopped round and blew strongly from the S.W. At
  5 p.m. sighted a large ship on our weather quarter, sailing under
  double-reefed topsails and we apprehend they must have taken us for
  the _Flying Dutchman_ seen occasionally in these latitudes, for
  notwithstanding the strong breeze we could be observed carrying our
  skysails with studding sails ‘low and aloft.’

  14th March, 1857.—Lat. 34° 47′ S., Long. 35° 06′ W. The breeze a
  splendid one. A barque on the port beam about 3, homeward bound. The
  wind was as fair for her as wind could be, yet she had no royals set.
  We formed a striking contrast to her, for we—on a wind—had all sail
  set up to main skysail.

  20th March, 1857.—Lat. 43° S., Long. 0° 55′ E. We have made during
  the last 47 hours the greatest run that perhaps ship ever made, yet
  all the time we have carried our main skysail and all sorts and
  conditions of studding sails.


Extraordinary 24-hour Runs.

I have quoted the above passages to show the way in which a Black
Baller could carry sail either with a fresh favouring gale or in a
strong head wind. This is sufficiently astonishing in itself, but
what amazes most present day sailors and compels many of them to be
incredulous are such statements as the much quoted one concerning
_James Baines_—“Ship going 21 knots with main skysail set.”

This and other log book statements have been looked upon by many as
far-fetched exaggerations, but, after careful study of the subject,
during which I have pricked off the different voyages on a track chart,
I have come to the conclusion that these amazing performances were in
no way a stretching of the imagination.

To begin with, I will give the main arguments advanced against them by
the sceptics.

The late Mr. J. N. Barry, writing in an Australian paper, remarks:—

  Where American records are concerned much caution must be observed
  in taking their feats of speed for granted. Our cousins had a canny
  fashion of, no matter where they might be sailing, always reckoning
  60 miles to a degree of longitude whilst doing their easting, so that
  a day’s run of, say, 240 miles upon a parallel of 45°, would by this
  means give the distance covered as exactly 100 miles in excess of
  what it should be.

Another nautical writer remarks:—

  The skippers of many of the celebrated Black Ball clippers were not
  above adopting this mode of calculation, viz., 60 miles to a degree
  of longitude, but while it gave some wonderful results for a single
  24 hours, it did not as a matter of fact make their passages any more
  rapid.

And I have had letters scoffing at the Black Ball records, remarking
that their skippers were a leery lot and provided “palatable pabulum
for the proud passengers.”

I will now try and show that these arguments were altogether too
sweeping, and if they may possibly have applied to certain individuals,
they are by no means fair to the greater number of the skippers.

In the first place, not one of the Black Ball or White Star ships was
commanded by an American, and though the accusation was levelled at
Americans, it was evidently done in the belief that the American built
Australian clippers were commanded by Americans.

In the second place, such men as Anthony Enright, of the _Lightning_,
James Nicol Forbes, of the _Marco Polo_, Charles McDonald, of the
_James Baines_, Sam Reid, of the _Red Jacket_, Captain Pryce, R.N.R.,
of the _Donald Mackay_, and Alexander Newlands, of the _Champion of
the Seas_, were known and respected all over the world as leading men
in their profession, occupying a position in the Mercantile Marine
which would correspond with that of Orient and P. & O. commanders
nowadays, whilst their performances were very much more widely known,
thus such elementary cheating as giving 60 miles to a degree in the
roaring forties would have been exposed at once.

The greatest 24-hour run ever accomplished by a sailing ship was one of
436 nautical miles made by the _Lightning_ when crossing the Atlantic
on her maiden passage. The second greatest run was also made by the
_Lightning_. This was 430 miles when running her easting down bound out
to Australia in 1857, and on the following day her run was 360. This
wonderful performance drew the following letter from Captain Enright to
his passengers, and I think it will dispose of the 60 miles to a degree
accusation, at any rate as far as the _Lightning_ and her commander are
concerned:—

    21st March, 1857.
  LADIES AND GENTLEMEN,—I cannot help informing you of the
  extraordinary run we have made during the last 48 hours—or rather
  allowing for change of time, 46 hours and 48 minutes. During this
  time we have run, by thoroughly good and trustworthy observation, no
  less than 790 knots or 920 statute miles, being an average of nearly
  17 knots or more than 19½ statute miles per hour. Yesterday our noble
  ship made no less than 430 knots amounting to an average during the
  24 (23½) hours of more than 18 knots. Our change of longitude has
  amounted to 18 degrees, each degree being equal to 44 miles.

  I firmly believe this to be the greatest performance a sailing ship
  has ever accomplished.

  I hope this information will in some degree compensate you for the
  inconvenience which the heavy weather has occasioned you.

  And I remain, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN,
    Very faithfully yours,
    A. ENRIGHT, _Commander_.

If further proof is wanted that Captain Enright did not allow 60 miles
to a degree, but only 44 as he states to his passengers, here are the
noon positions found by observation, not account only, from which the
runs can be verified on the chart.

  March 18, Lat. 42° 34′ S., Long. 17° 04′ W.
        19, Lat. 43°  0′ S., Long.  7° 17′ W.
        20, Lat. 43°  0′ S., Long.  0° 55′ E.

The following is a list of all runs of 400 miles and over, which I have
been able to verify.

  March 1, 1854.—_Lightning_ 436 miles.
  March 19, 1857.—_Lightning_ 430 miles.
  February 6, 1855.—_James Baines_ 423 miles.
  February 27, 1855.—_Donald Mackay_ 421 miles.
  June 18, 1856.—_James Baines_ 420 miles.
  February 27, 1854.—_Red Jacket_ 413 miles.
  January 27, 1855.—_James Baines_ 407 miles.
  July 6, 1854.—_Red Jacket_ 400 miles.

All these performances were made running east, making the day’s work
under 24 hours.

Several other ships claimed runs of over 400 miles, but I have not
included these as I have not sufficient particulars to verify them.

_Marco Polo_ is supposed to have done a run of 428 miles under Captain
McDonald on 7th January, 1854, and _Shalimar_ 420 miles in 1855 on
her first passage to Australia, under Captain Robertson. With this
general account of their powers I must now return to a more detailed
description of the giant clippers themselves.


The “Lightning.”

The _Lightning_ was built by Donald Mackay to the order of James
Baines in the winter of 1853-4 at a cost of £30,000, and on her arrival
in Liverpool was furnished and decorated below at a further cost of
£2000.

[Illustration: “LIGHTNING.”

_From a painting._]

Her measurements were:—

  Tonnage (builders) 2096 tons.
          (register) 1468  „
          (burthen)  3500  „
  Length              244 feet.
  Beam                 44  „
  Depth                23  „
  Dead rise at half-floor 20 inches.

Her poop was 92 feet long and her saloon 86 feet, whilst she had 8 feet
under the beams in her ’tween decks, a most unusual height for those
days.

With regard to design, she was one of the sharpest ships ever launched.
Her model is thus described by Captain H. H. Clark:—“She had long,
concave water-lines and at her load displacement line a cord from her
cut-water to just abaft the fore rigging showed a concavity of 16
inches. Her stem raked boldly forward, the lines of the bow gradually
becoming convex and blending with the sheer line and cut-water, while
the only ornament was a beautiful full-length figure of a young woman
holding a golden thunderbolt in her outstretched hand, the flowing
white drapery of her graceful form and her streaming hair completing
the fair and noble outline of the bow.

“The after-body was long and clean, though fuller than the bow, while
the stern was semi-elliptical in form, with the plank sheer moulding
for its base, and was ornamented with gilded carved work, though this
really added nothing to the beauty of the strong sweeping outline of
her hull.”

The _Lightning’s_ spar and rigging measurements were tremendous:—

  Mainmast, deck to truck   164 feet.
  Foremast    „       „     151  „
  Mizenmast   „       „     115  „
  Mainyard    „       „      95  „
  Lower stunsail booms       65  „

She spread 13,000 yards of canvas when under all plain sail. Donald
Mackay had her rigged as a three skysail yard ship, but later Messrs.
James Baines fitted her with a moonsail on the main by lengthening the
skysail mast. This was also done in the case of _James Baines_. And
these two ships had the proud distinction of being perhaps the only two
ships afloat which regularly crossed a moonsail yard.

The _Lightning_ was provided with iron water tanks holding 36,000
gallons of water—a novelty at that date. And in various other ways her
accommodation for passengers was an improvement on anything attempted
before.

The great Bully Forbes was sent out to Boston to superintend her outfit
and take command of her, and he was lucky in finding a valuable friend
and adviser in Captain Lauchlan Mackay, who made the trip to Liverpool
in her as builders’ representative.


The “Red Jacket.”

The _Red Jacket_, _Lightning’s_ great rival, was designed by Samuel A.
Pook, of Boston, the well-known designer of _Game-cock_, _Surprise_,
_Northern Light_, _Ocean Telegraph_, _Herald of the Morning_, and other
famous clipper ships. She was built by George Thomas at Rockland,
Maine, for Messrs. Seacomb & Taylor, and only took the water a few days
before the _Lightning_.

Her measurements were:—

  Tonnage (registered)  2460 tons.
           (burthen)    5000  „
  Length                260 feet.
  Beam                  44   „
  Depth                 26   „

Though her bow and stern were very sharp and beautifully modelled
and she had concave bow lines, she was not so extreme a ship as the
_Lightning_.

[Illustration: “RED JACKET.”

_From an old lithograph._]

Donald Mackay’s ships were chiefly distinguished for their powerful
workmanlike appearance rather than for delicate beauty—they showed
strength rugged and unmistakable, but the _Red Jacket’s_ strength
was more disguised under graceful curves; for instance, she had
the graceful arched stem and clipper bow of a China ship, whereas
_Lightning’s_ stem was almost straight, with only a very slight curve
in it.

_Red Jacket_ was not named after Tommy Atkins, but after a great
Indian chief, and her figure-head was a beautiful representation of
this warrior in all the magnificence of feather head-dress and beaded
buckskins.


Race across the Atlantic between “Lightning” and “Red Jacket.”

The _Lightning_ loaded at Constitution Wharf, Boston, and sailed for
Liverpool on 18th February, 1854, whilst the _Red Jacket_ sailed from
New York on the following day, and great interest was shown in shipping
circles as to which should make the best passage across the Atlantic.

In the end these two magnificent clippers arrived in Liverpool on the
same day, 4th March, their exact times being:—

  _Red Jacket_—Sandy Hook to Rock Light 13 days 1 hour.
  _Lightning_—Boston Light to Rock Light 13 days 19½ hours.

Their 24-hour runs opened the eyes of the packet ship commanders and in
fact the whole world.

The _Red Jacket_ put up runs of 413, 374, 371, 343, and 300 against the
_Lightning’s_ 436, 328, 312 and 306, thus there was little to choose
between the two vessels on this point.

The _Boston Daily Atlas_ of 18th February, 1854, thus describes the
_Lightning’s_ departure from Boston:—

  At 2 o’clock the _Lightning_ hove her anchor up, and at 3 o’clock
  discharged her pilot off Boston Light. She went down in tow of the
  steamer _Rescue_, Captain Hennessy, and was piloted by Mr. E. G.
  Martin.

  Before the steamer left her, she set her head sails, and fore and
  mizen topsails, and had a moderate breeze from W. to S.W. She
  appeared to go at the rate of 6 knots under this canvas, though she
  draws 22 feet of water and has only 23 feet depth of hold.

  We have seen many vessels pass through the water, but never saw one
  which disturbed it less. Not a ripple curled before her cut-water,
  nor did the water break at a single place along her sides. She left
  a wake as straight as an arrow and this was the only mark of her
  progress. There was a slight swell, and as she rose we could see
  the arc of her forefoot rise gently over the seas as she increased
  her speed. At 5 p.m., two hours after the pilot left her, the outer
  telegraph station reported her 30 miles east of Boston Light with all
  drawing sails set and going along like a steam boat.

And the following extract from her log book was published in the
_Liverpool Albion_ on her arrival.

                                                              Distance.
  Feb. 19 Wind, W.S.W. and N.W. moderate                     200 miles.
       20   „   N.N.E. and N.E. strong breezes with snow     328   „
       21   „   E.S.E. with snow storms                      145   „
       22   „   E.S.E., a gale with high cross sea and rain  114   „
       23   „   N., strong gales to E.S.E.; ends moderate    110   „
       24   „   S.E., moderate                               312   „
       25   „   E.S.E. and S.E., fresh breezes with thick
                  weather                                    285   „
       26   „   W.S.W., moderate                             295   „
       27   „   W.N.W.     „                                 260   „
       28   „   W. and N.W., steady breezes                  306   „
  March 1   „   South. Strong gales; bore away for the
                  North Channel; carried away the fore
                  topsail and lost jib; hove the log
                  several times and found the ship going
                  through the water at the rate of 18 to
                  18½ knots; lee rail under water and
                  rigging slack                              436   „
        2   „   South, first part moderate, latter part
                   light and calm.
        3   „   Light winds and calms.
        8   „   Light S.E. winds and calms; at 7 a.m. off Great Orme’s
                  Head. 12 noon off the N.W. lightship.

On 28th February at noon she was in Lat. 52° 38′ N., Long. 22° 45′
W., and her run of 436 nautical miles from that position to her
noon position on 1st March gives her the greatest day’s work ever
accomplished, to the best of my belief, by a sailing ship. The 1st
March entry “Wind south—bore away for the North Channel,” has misled
some nautical critics, who have plotted her as being up with Rathlin
Island when she bore away, without noticing the direction of the wind.
The log is rather ambiguously worded, but her run of 436 miles puts
her some 30 miles west of Achill Head—and she then bore away north,
bringing the wind on the starboard quarter. If she had been off Rathlin
Island she would have had to bring the wind on the starboard bow for
the course through the North Channel.

Captain Charles McDonald always hoped to get a day’s run of 500 miles
out of the _James Baines_, and firmly believed she could do it; but he
never succeeded in beating the _Lightning’s_ records.

The _Red Jacket_, which was under the command of Captain Asa Eldridge,
of American packet ship fame, had strong winds from S.E. to W.S.W.
with rain, snow and hail. As with _Lightning_, the first half of her
passage was the slowest half and for the first seven days she could
only average 182 miles a day. But with practically the same weather, it
is interesting to compare the performances of the two vessels as they
approached the Irish Coast. _Red Jacket’s_ last six runs were 219, 413,
374, 343, 300, and 371, giving a total of 2020 and an average of 336.

The only vessel that has ever beaten this six-day run is the famous
_Cutty Sark_, which in 1876, before her wings were clipped, ran 2163
miles in six days in the roaring forties, when outward bound to Sydney.


“Red Jacket’s” First Voyage to Australia.

At Liverpool Captain Eldridge handed over his command to Captain Samuel
Reid, who managed to get the _Red Jacket_ away for Australia, as one of
the White Star regular packets, 10 days ahead of Captain Forbes. The
_Red Jacket_ sailed on 4th May, 1854, one day behind a new Nova Scotian
built Black Ball packet named the _Mermaid_.

On the 10th May the two ships were off Oporto, and kept close to each
other as far as Teneriffe; the N.E. trades were poor and it was a light
weather passage to the line, which was crossed on 29th May by the _Red
Jacket_, the _Mermaid_ being then in 1° north.

From this point the _Red Jacket_, steering a more westerly course, had
light and variable winds, whilst the _Mermaid_ was better treated and
reached the latitude of the Cape five days ahead, and still held better
winds, being actually 1397 miles ahead of the _Red Jacket_ on 15th
June. _Red Jacket_, indeed, did not really get going until 26th June,
but from that date her log is so remarkable that I give it below.

The _Red Jacket_ was in 40° S., 14° E., before there was any need to
touch her topgallant sheets, and Captain Reid was evidently determined
to find wind somehow, with the result that, in spite of it being the
depth of winter, he was not deterred from standing far to the southward
on a Great Circle course. He was rewarded by all the wind he could
desire, but so great was the cold that the ship was put down by the
head by the frozen spindrift which covered her to the mainmast in an
icy mantle.

Her log from 26th June, when she first began to feel the benefit of the
westerlies, was as follows:—

  +-------+------+-------+-------------------------------+-----+
  | Date. | Lat. | Long. |           Weather.             |Dist.|
  +-------+------+-------+-------------------------------+-----+
  |       | °  ′ |  ° ′  |                               |     |
  |June 26|48 06S| 34 44E|Var. and stiff rain and sleet. | 315 |
  |     27|50 06 | 42 19 |Wind N.W., fresh and squally   | 330 |
  |       |      |       |  with hail, very cold weather.|     |
  |     28|50 54 | 49 16 |Wind  W.N.W., squalls with     | 263 |
  |       |      |       |  hail showers.                |     |
  |     29|50 34 | 56 34 |Wind  N.N.W., squalls, entire  | 286 |
  |       |      |       |  fore part of ship covered    |     |
  |       |      |       |  with ice.                    |     |
  |     30|52 03 | 63 50 |Wind  N.N.W., fresh with hail  | 287 |
  |       |      |       |  squalls; very cold, air 19°. |     |
  |July  1|51 39 | 71 21 |Wind  N.N.W., fresh, with hail | 286 |
  |       |      |       |  squalls, latter part light,  |     |
  |       |      |       |  air 19°.                     |     |
  |      2|50 29 | 72 26 |Wind  S.W., first part calm,   |     |
  |       |      |       |  latter part heavy gales and  |     |
  |       |      |       |  heavy sea.                   |     |
  |      3|50 12 | 80 30 |Wind  W.S.W., first part heavy | 312 |
  |       |      |       |  gales, latter part fresh     |     |
  |       |      |       |  breezes, high sea, freezing. |     |
  |      4|49 25 | 88 30 |Wind variable, fresh gales and | 300 |
  |       |      |       |  heavy sea, freezing, rain    |     |
  |       |      |       |  and sleet.                   |     |
  |      5|49 13 | 95 00 |Wind N.N.W., first part light  | 288 |
  |       |      |       |  and heavy rain, latter stiff,|     |
  |       |      |       |  with heavy squalls.          |     |
  |      6|48 38 |104 15 |Wind W.N.W., strong gales      | 400 |
  |       |      |       |  and squalls, heavy sea.      |     |
  |      7|47 25 |112 44 |Wind variable in strength and  | 299 |
  |       |      |       |  direction.                   |     |
  |      8|46 38 |119 44 |Wind N.N.W., stiff and squalls,| 350 |
  |       |      |       |  with rain.                   |     |
  |      9|45 09 |129 18 |Wind N.N.W., strong and        | 357 |
  |       |      |       |  squally, with rain.          |     |
  |     10|42 42 |134 38 |Wind N.N.W., fine weather.     | 334 |
  |     11|40 36 |139 35 |Wind N.W., heavy squalls and   | 245 |
  |       |      |       |  rain.                        |     |
  |     12|      |       |Wind N.N.W., fine weather.     | 300 |
  |       |      |       |  Made King’s Island at 10.50  |     |
  |       |      |       |  p.m., crossed bar at         |     |
  |       |      |       |  11.50 p.m.                   |     |
  +-------+------+-------+-------------------------------+-----+

_Red Jacket_ made the passage from Rock Light to Port Phillip Heads in
69 days 11 hours 15 minutes; passage under sail 67 days 13 hours, total
distance run 13,880 miles.

The _Mermaid_, which gained such an advantage over the _Red Jacket_
in the earlier part of the passage, ran her easting down a good deal
further to the northward, and did not arrive till the 17th July, having
made a passage of 74½ days.

_Red Jacket_ set sail on her homeward passage on 3rd August. She
was not in very good trim this time, being too light and very much
down by the stern, however, she still continued to show her quality,
constantly logging 17 or 18 knots in fresh breezes and 14 and 15 knots
when close-hauled. Only once on the homeward passage were her topsails
close-reefed and only once did she ship any water. This was on the 31st
August in a heavy squall with foresail and fore and main topgallant
sails set.

She rounded the Horn on the 23rd August, only 20 days out, her week’s
work averaging out as follows:

  1st week 231 miles per day.
  2nd  „   307   „       „
  3rd  „   254   „       „

But on the day after she had rounded the Horn, she had a narrow escape
of being embayed by ice, and one of her passengers gave the following
account of her danger to the newspapers:—“On the morning of 24th
August, I was roused out of sleep by the noise of shortening sail and
the look-out singing out land. Ice had been seen some time before, but
the solid masses had been supposed in the dark to be land. On getting
out I found we were in smooth water and large masses of ice floating
about us. As the day broke, we found ourselves sailing along a lake
of water not unlike a canal. The ice seemed to extend on every side
in solid fields as far as the eye could reach without any prospect of
getting out, so that we had to follow the channel. All sail was clewed
up except the topsails, and as there was a good breeze we proceeded
along at about 4 or 5 knots. Our situation at this time seemed most
appalling, as we appeared to be getting further into the ice, so that
by 10 or 11 o’clock we were almost making up our minds to remain for
weeks in this fearful situation.

“About noon the captain and second mate, who had been on the fore
topsail yard all the morning, discovered clear sea again, to gain which
we had to force a passage through dense masses of ice. It was here
she sustained the principal damage to her stem and copper. We soon
got clear and the rest of the day we saw no traces of ice and were
very thankful we had got off so easily. But to our dismay at 8 p.m.
we again fell in with it. The ship was put about and sail shortened
for the night and we ran back to the clear water in which we had been
sailing. At daybreak sail was made and at 7 a.m. we came up to the ice.
At first it was only large pans much melted, the water having all the
appearance of brine and being quite thick round them. Afterwards large
masses of icebergs presented themselves. In grinding the ship through
these, great difficulty was experienced—very large bergs were also
interspersed and visible all round.

“This day we cleared it again about noon. Icebergs were still, however,
seen both near and in the distance; their appearance was most grand,
the largest being thought to be about 2 miles in circumference and 100
feet high. It was passed about 4 or 5 miles distant on our starboard
and lee side.

“We hove to again at night. Next day, Saturday, was for the most part
a dead calm and we were carried back with the current. There was not a
breath of wind; a clear sky and beautiful weather, only the air sharp.
Icebergs were, however, still seen. The next day, Sunday, we passed
a number more, which were the last ice seen. One of these was most
grand, being about 200 feet high. We cleared it on our port or windward
side about a mile or less distant. The weather during this period
was clear and fine. Indeed, the day before encountering the ice was
beautiful, a fine light breeze which heightened towards evening and sea
smooth. We were running close-hauled 14 knots an hour steadily during
the night. The sun had set a deep crimson behind a bank of clouds over
against Cape Horn.”

_Red Jacket’s_ next three weeks’ runs averaged:—

  4th week, 205 miles per day.

  5th week, 237 miles per day. (Mostly light breezes,
                                   squalls and rain.)
  6th week, 224 miles per day. (Easterly winds.)

The line was crossed on 13th September, the _Red Jacket_ having run
10,243 miles in 42 days, an average of 244 per day. She now had every
hope of beating the record, but, alas, from here on she had nothing but
calms and light head winds which drove her across into 43° W. and she
was 31½ days from the line to port, reaching Liverpool on 15th October,
after a passage of 73 days. This was considered an extraordinary
performance, when allowance was made for the light weather experienced
after crossing the line. During one whole week in the doldrums she
averaged under 100 miles per day, and the two following weeks she only
averaged 142 and 106 miles respectively.

The whole voyage, however, had been a wonderfully fast one. She had
made the trip, out and home, in 5 months 10 days and 22½ hours, and had
actually circumnavigated the globe in 62 days 22 hours, between 11th
June and 2nd September, running 15,991 miles in that time.

On her homeward passage she ran 14,863 miles, her greatest day’s work
being 376 miles and her average 202¼ miles per day.

She brought home gold dust and sovereigns to the value of £208,044. She
sailed this voyage under the American flag, being only chartered by the
White Star Line, but on her return to Liverpool Messrs. Pilkington &
Wilson bought her for the sum of £30,000.


The “Lightning’s” First Voyage to Australia.

The _Lightning_, with the famous Bully Forbes in command and the almost
equally famous Bully Bragg as mate, left Liverpool on the 14th May for
Melbourne. But unlike the _Red Jacket_, she had a light weather passage
out, her topgallant sails being carried the whole way. She crossed the
line 25 days out and took 30 days running from the meridian of the Cape
to Port Phillip Heads, arriving off Sandridge Pier on the afternoon of
31st July, 77 days from Liverpool, her best runs being 348, 332, 329,
311, and 300.

On the morning of the 20th August she left her anchorage at Melbourne
in company with the _Mermaid_, having gold dust on board to the value
of £1,000,000. The tug dropped her off the Heads at 4 p.m., and by the
following noon she had done 268 knots. At 4 a.m. on the 24th she passed
a large ship supposed to be the _Mermaid_, and at 10 p.m. on the same
day passed the Auckland Islands. From here she had fresh westerly and
south-westerly winds, seldom logging less than 14 and frequently 18½
and 19 knots per hour. Forbes carried on in the most daring manner, and
on the _Lightning’s_ arrival at Liverpool her passengers told weird
stories of Bully Forbes keeping his station at the break of the poop
with a pistol in each hand in order to prevent his scared crew from
letting go the royal halliards.

By 28th August the ship was in 57° 20′ S., but at 11 p.m. on this day
a violent squall from the S.W. carried away the fore topmast stunsail
boom, and a moment later the fore topmast went over the side, the fore
royal, fore topgallant sail and fore topsail being blown out of the
bolt ropes at the same instant.

For the next four days the ship was kept under easy canvas whilst a new
fore topmast was got aloft and the other damage made good. However,
in spite of this delay the ship averaged 300 miles from 1st September
to the 8th, when Cape Horn bore N.W., distant 50 miles at 3 a.m.;
_Lightning’s_ actual time from the Heads to the Horn was 19 days 1
hour, a record. For the next three days she had the wind ahead at N.E.,
but on the 13th it came out of the south again strong, and her runs on
the 13th and 14th were 351 and 354 miles respectively. Then from the
15th to the 20th with light head winds again, she could only average 6
to 7 knots an hour. On the 20th September she was in Lat. 29° 13′ S.,
Long. 31° 40′ W. Light N.E. and N.N.E. winds still held right up to the
line. On the 28th she passed Pernambuco, 6 miles off, and at 9 a.m. on
30th September she crossed the equator in Long. 34° 30′ W., being only
a little over 40 days mean time from Port Phillip, which, considering
the poor winds met with after rounding the Horn, was a wonderful
performance.

[Illustration: “CHAMPION OF THE SEAS.”]

For the first five days after crossing the line she had the usual
doldrums with torrents of rain and made little or no progress. On 5th
October a gentle N.E. trade was picked up in 10° N., 34° W., which held
until the 10th when she was in 30° N., 37° W. On the 11th and 12th she
had moderate S.E. winds, being in the latitude of St. Michael’s at
noon on the 12th. For the next week she had nothing but very light N.E.
and E.N.E. winds, but at 10 p.m. on the 19th when in 46° 15′ N., 28°
W., a strong northerly breeze sprang up which held until she reached
port.

[Illustration: “LIGHTNING.”]

She was off the Old Head of Kinsale at 4 a.m. on 22nd October, passed
Minehead at 10 a.m., the Tuskar at 3.30 p.m., and Holyhead Light at
8.30 p.m. A pilot was picked up off Point Lynas at 10.30 p.m., who kept
her under easy sail through the night, waiting for enough water to take
her over the bar. The _Lightning_ anchored in the Mersey at 9.30 a.m.
on 23rd October; her actual time being 64 days 3 hours 10 minutes, a
record, which, I believe, has never been broken.

The _Lightning_ brought answers to letters sent out in the _Great
Britain_ which left Liverpool on 13th June, thus making a course of
post of only 132 days. The _Lightning’s_ round voyage, including 20
days in port, was only 5 months 8 days and 21 hours.


“Champion of the Seas.”

Whilst the _Red Jacket_ and _Lightning_ were astonishing the world,
Donald Mackay was building the _Champion of the Seas_ and _James
Baines_ for the Black Ball Line. He was given a free hand, and the new
vessels were intended to be more perfect than anything he had hitherto
attempted.

The _Champion of the Seas_ was launched in April, 1854, and, owing to
the monster four-master _Great Republic_ being cut down a deck, claimed
the honour of being the largest ship in the world until the _James
Baines_ eclipsed her.

Her hull measurements were as follows:—

  Tonnage (builders’ measurement)       2447 tons.
    „     (registered)                  1947  „
  Length of keel                        238  feet.
    „   between perpendiculars          252    „
  Fore rake                             14     „
  Extreme beam                          45½    „
  Depth                                 29     „
  Dead rise at half-floor               18 inches.
  Sheer                                 4½  „
  Concavity of load line forward        2½  „

In strength of construction she was a considerable improvement on the
_Lightning_. Her ends were as long but not quite so sharp or concave
and were considered to be more harmoniously designed. She had an
upright sternpost and her stern was semi-elliptical and ornamented
with the Australian coat-of-arms. Her figure-head was a life-like
representation of the old-time shellback and was an object of interest
wherever she went.

It is thus described by Captain Clark:—“One of the most striking
figure-heads was the tall square-built sailor, with dark curly hair and
bronzed clean-shaven face, who stood at the bow of the _Champion of the
Seas_. A black belt with a massive brass buckle supported his white
trousers, which were as tight about the hips as the skin of an eel and
had wide, bell-shaped bottoms that almost hid his black polished pumps.
He wore a loose-fitting blue and white checked shirt with wide rolling
collar and black handkerchief of ample size, tied in the most rakish of
square knots with long flowing ends. But perhaps the most impressive of
this mariner’s togs were his dark-blue jacket and the shiny tarpaulin
hat which he waved aloft in the grip of his brawny tattooed right
hand.”

The _Champion of the Seas_ had her greatest beam at the centre of the
load displacement line, and, like the _Lightning_, she was fuller aft
than forward. Her deck houses and cabin arrangements were also on the
same plan as those of the _Lightning_, viz., a topgallant foc’s’le
for the crew; a house, 50 feet long, abaft the foremast, for petty
officers, galleys and second class passengers; a small house, 16 feet
square, contained the chief mate’s quarters and sheltered the first
class companion, whilst a large wheel-house astern had a smoking-room
on one side and the captain’s cabin on the other.

The following details of her construction, taken from an American
paper, may be of interest to present day wood shipwrights:—“Her entire
frame was of seasoned white oak and all her hooks, pointers and knees
were of the same wood, her planking and ceiling being of hard pine,
and she was square fastened throughout and butt and bilge bolted with
copper. The keel was of rock maple in two depths, each 16 inches
square. The floor timbers were moulded 21 inches on the keel and
sided from 12 to 13 inches, and over them were four tiers of midship
keelsons, each 16 inches square, and on each side of these were two
depths of sister keelsons of the same size, the whole scarphed and
keyed and fastened with 1¾ inch bolting. The whole frame, fore and aft,
was diagonally cross-braced with iron, 5 inches wide, ⅞ of an inch
thick and 38 feet long. These braces were bolted through every frame
and through every intersection; were let into the timbers and ceiling
and extended from the first futtocks to the top timbers. All the
waterways as well as the keelsons and ceiling were scarphed and bolted
in the most substantial style. The upper deck was of white pine 3½
inches thick and the other decks of hard pine of the same substance.
Her ends were almost filled with massive hooks and pointers. The hooks
in the between decks were beamed and kneed and fastened through all.
Her garboards were 9 by 15 inches, the next strake 8 by 14, the third
7 by 14; the bottom planking 5 inches thick, the wales 6 by 7 and the
waist 4¼ inches thick, the whole finished smooth as joiner work and
strongly fastened.”

The _Champion of the Seas_ had about the same sail area and spar
measurements as the _Lightning_. Her masts and bowsprit were built of
hard pine and the masts were 74 and 63 feet apart. The foremast raked
½ inch to the foot, the main ⅝ and the mizen 1 inch. When she left
the builders her working suit of sails consisted of 12,500 yards of
American cotton, 18 inches in width.

She was of course painted the regulation Black Ball colours, black
outside and white inside, with blue waterways. Her masts white,
mastheads and yards black, and stunsail booms bright with black ends.
Captain Alexander Newlands was sent out from Liverpool to superintend
her outfit and take command, the lighting and ventilation below being
carried out according to his designs. On her completion the _Champion
of the Seas_ was towed to New York by the famous Boston tug _R. B.
Forbes_ and from thence came across to Liverpool in the month of June
in 16 days.

She left Liverpool on her first voyage to Australia on 11th October,
1854, and arrived out in 72 days, coming home again in 84, thus proving
herself quite up to the standard of the famous Black Ball Line, and
from that date she was always a favourite ship.

[Illustration: “JAMES BAINES.”

_From a painting by Captain D. O. Robertson, late commander of ship
“Lightning.”_]


The “James Baines.”

The _Champion of the Seas_ was closely followed by the _James Baines_,
considered by most sailormen to have been the finest and fastest of the
great Mackay quartette. When she loaded troops for India in 1857 and
was inspected by Queen Victoria at Portsmouth, the Queen remarked that
she did not know she possessed such a splendid ship in her Mercantile
Marine.

When she first arrived in Liverpool a well-known Liverpool shipowner
wrote to a Boston paper:—“You want to know what professional men say
about the ship _James Baines_? Her unrivalled passage, of course,
brought her prominently before the public and she has already been
visited by many of the most eminent mechanics in the country. She is so
strongly built, so finely finished and is of so beautiful a model that
even envy cannot prompt a fault against her. On all hands she has been
praised as the most perfect sailing ship that ever entered the river
Mersey.”

Donald Mackay never built two ships exactly alike, and the _James
Baines_ was of slightly fuller design than the _Lightning_ and yet
sharper and longer in the bow than the _Champion of the Seas_.

Her chief measurements were:—

  Registered tonnage (American)           2525-85/90 tons.
       „        „    (British)            2275        „
  Length over all                         266  feet.
     „   between perpendiculars           226    „
  Beam                                    44¾    „
  Depth of hold                           29     „
  Dead rise at half-floor                 18 inches.

The following extracts are taken from an account of the _James Baines_
given in the _Boston Atlas_ at the time of her launch:—“She has a long,
rakish, sharp bow with slightly concave lines below, but convex above,
and it is ornamented with a bust of her namesake, which was carved in
Liverpool and which is said by those who know the original to be an
excellent likeness. It is blended with the cut-water, is relieved with
gilded carved work and forms a neat and appropriate ornament to the
bow. She is planked flush to the covering board, has a bold and buoyant
sheer, graduated her whole length, rising gracefully at the ends,
particularly forward; and every moulding is fair and harmonises finely
with the planking and her general outline. Her stern is rounded, and
although she has a full poop deck, her afterbody surpasses in neatness
that of any vessel her talented builder has yet produced.

“Our most eminent mechanics consider her stern perfect. It is rounded
below the line of the plank sheer, is fashioned above in an easy curve,
and only shows a few inches of rise above the outline of the monkey
rail: and as this rise is painted white and the rest of the hull black,
when viewed broadside on, her sheer appears a continuous line along
her entire length. Her stern is ornamented with carved representations
of the great globe itself, between the arms of Great Britain and the
United States, surrounded with fancy work, has carved and gilded drops
between the cabin windows and her name above all, the whole tastefully
gilded and painted. Her bulwarks are built solid and are surmounted by
a monkey rail, which is panelled inside, and their whole height above
the deck is about 6 feet, varying of course towards the ends.

“She has a full topgallant foc’s’le, which extends to the foremast and
is fitted for the accommodation of her crew; and abaft the foremast
a large house, which contains spacious galleys, several staterooms,
store-rooms, an iceroom and shelters a staircase which leads to the
decks below. She has a full poop deck, between 7 and 8 feet high, under
which is the cabin for female passengers and before it a large house
which contains the dining saloon and other apartments. The outline of
the poop and the house is protected by rails, on turned stanchions,
and the enclosure forms a spacious and beautiful promenade deck. She
has also a small house aft, which shelters the helmsman in a recess,
protects the entrance to the captain’s cabin, is also a smoking room
for passengers and answers a variety of other purposes.

“The captain’s cabin and sleeping room are on the starboard side
and communicate with the wheelhouse on deck, so that it will not be
necessary for him to enter the cabin set apart for female passengers.
Besides these the cabin contains 11 spacious staterooms, a bathroom and
other useful apartments.

“The dining saloon is 35 feet long by 15 feet wide; the entrance to the
deck from the saloon is 2½ feet wide and extends across the house, with
a door on each side, and opposite the midship door of the saloon is
the pantry, which is spacious and fitted up in superior style. In the
front of the saloon house are the staterooms of the first and second
officers, and the windows of these rooms are of stained glass and have
the ship’s name in them. The staircase in the after part of the saloon
leads to the main deck, where are the gentlemen’s sleeping apartments,
24 in all, each stateroom having two berths. The deck before the
gentlemen’s sleeping cabin has three large ports for cargo opposite the
hatchways, one on each side, and square ports suitable for staterooms
along the sides. The lower decks are ventilated amidships with trunk
skylights which pass through the house forward as well as the cabin
and saloon aft. The height between each of the decks is 7½ feet. The
ascent from the quarter-deck to the poop consists of two staircases,
built into the front of the poop. She is very heavily sparred and will
spread about 13,000 yards of canvas in a single suit of sails. Her
mastheads and yards are black; the lower masts, from the truss bands
to the fiferails, are bright and varnished, their hoops white and the
tops and down to the truss band are also white. She has iron caps and
is rigged in nearly the same style as the _Champion of the Seas_. Her
bulwarks and houses are painted white and her waterways blue, and in
this style she is also painted below.”

Captain McDonald left the _Marco Polo_ in order to take charge of the
_James Baines_. She sailed from Boston on 12th September, 1854, and the
following is the log of her record run across the Atlantic:—

  Sept. 12—At noon parted with steam boat and pilot. Wind, S.W., light.

        13—Lat. 42° 10′ N., Long. 66° 33′ W. Distance 225 miles. Light
            airs and calms, increasing in the evening to brisk winds
            and clear weather.

        14—Lat. 40° 18′ N., Long. 62° 45′ W. Distance 238 miles.
            Light breezes and clear.

        15—Lat. 42° 26′ N., Long. 59° 53′ W. Distance 218 miles. Strong
            breezes at S.S.W.

        16—Lat. 43° 15′ N., Long. 53° 9′ W. Distance 305 miles.
            Strong gales from S.S.W. to N.W.

        17—Lat. 44° 54′ N., Long. 48° 48′ W. Distance 280 miles.
            Strong breezes from N.W. 4 a.m., passed several vessels
            fishing.

        18—Lat. 45° 42′ N., Long. 44° 16′ W. Distance 198 miles. Light
            breezes and hazy weather. 10 a.m., brisk breezes and
            cloudy, wind west.

        19—Lat. 47° 22′ N., Long. 36° 42′ W. Distance 342 miles.
            Strong breezes and squally.

        20—Lat. 48° 39′ N., Long. 33° 12′ W. Distance 200 miles. Light
            breezes and hazy. Variable.

        21—Lat. 49° 34′ N., Long. 28° 38′ W. Distance 230 miles. Light
            breezes and clear. Wind, S.W.

        22—Lat. 50° 12′ N., Long. 21° 00′ W. Distance 291 miles.
            Brisk S.S.W. winds and cloudy weather. Passed several
            sail standing eastward.

        23—Lat. 50° 37′ N., Long. 13° 39′ W. Distance 337 miles.
            Strong breezes and cloudy weather. Wind, S.W.

        24—Strong breezes and gloomy weather. At 6 a.m. made the
            land and at 8 a.m. passed Cork. Distance 296 miles.
            Passed Tuskar at 3 p.m., and Holyhead at 9 p.m.

        Time 12 days 6 hours from Boston Light to Rock Light.

It will be seen that the _James Baines_ had her share of light breezes,
and Captain McDonald believed that he could have made the passage in
eight days with strong winds. Running up Channel the wind was strong
and fair and very squally, the vessel sometimes making 20 knots an hour
between points.

At Liverpool the _James Baines_ was fitted and furnished for passengers
by Messrs. James H. Beal and brother. And her cabin fittings are
described as being of “almost lavish splendour,” with innumerable
pilasters and mirrors.

I also note the following in a Liverpool account:—“Before the mainmast
there are three gallows frames, upon which her spare boats are stowed,
bottom up, and over the sides she carries quarter boats, suspended in
iron davits. She has copper-chambered pumps, six capstans, a crab-winch
on the foc’s’le, a patent windlass, Crane’s self-acting chain stoppers,
a patent steering apparatus and a large variety of other improvements
of the most modern kind.”


Record Voyage of “James Baines” to Australia.

The _James Baines_ sailed for Melbourne on 9th December, 1854, and
broke the record by arriving out in 63 days. Captain McDonald wrote the
following account of the passage to his owners:—

“I have great pleasure in announcing the arrival of the _James Baines_
in Hobson’s Bay at 8 p.m. on 12th February, making a run of 63 days 18
hours 15 minutes mean time from passing the Rock till the anchor was
down in Hobson’s Bay. On leaving Liverpool I had strong head winds to
contend with. The 7th day from Liverpool I touched off St. Ives Head;
the 10th day I had to tack off Cape St. Vincent and stood to the N.W.
In 19° N. in the middle of the trade winds, I got the wind at S.S.E.,
got to leeward of Cape San Roque, and was 18 hours in beating round.
I experienced nothing but light northerly winds all the way across.
Sighted Cape Otway on the 54th day from Liverpool; main skysail off the
ship only three days from Liverpool to this port. The greatest distance
run in 24 hours was 423 miles, that with main skysail and stunsails
set. Had I only had the ordinary run of winds I would have made the
voyage in 55 days.”

The _James Baines_ took out 700 passengers (80 in the first class)
1400 tons of cargo and 350 sacks containing over 180,000 letters and
newspapers. By her mail contract she was bound to deliver these in 65
days under penalty. Amongst her live stock were a bullock, 75 sheep, 86
pigs, and 100 dozen of fowls and ducks.

This passage of the _James Baines_ showed her splendid capabilities
both in light head winds and strong fair winds, for after a succession
of light head winds she was reported in 3° N., 29° W., on the 29th
December, only 19 days out, whilst in the boisterous gales of the
roaring forties she made the following splendid 24-hour runs in about a
23½-hour day.

  Friday, Jan. 26—Lat. 48° 02′ S., Long. 50°  46′ E. Distance 391 miles.
               27—Lat. 48° 56′ S., Long. 60°  46′ E. Distance 407 miles.
          Feb.  6—Lat. 50° 09′ S., Long. 123° 40′ E. Distance 423 miles.

This magnificent run showed 10′ difference of latitude and 10° 40′
difference of longitude, her position at noon on 5th February being 50°
19′ S., 113° E.

[Illustration: “DONALD MACKAY.”

Entering Port Phillip Heads, 20th December, 1866.]

Leaving Melbourne on the 12th March, 1855, the _James Baines_ made the
run home in 69½ days, having completed the voyage to Melbourne and back
in 133 days under sail.

Black Ball captains were celebrated for their daring navigation and
McDonald was no exception in this respect. His passengers declared that
the _James Baines_ was nearly ashore three times whilst tacking off the
coast of Ireland under a heavy press of sail, and that when McDonald
put her round off the Mizenhead the rocks were so close that a stone
could have been thrown ashore from her decks. It was a lee shore, and
if she had missed stays she must have been lost. But as McDonald said,
when remonstrated with for taking such risks, it was a case of “we have
to make a good passage.”


The “Donald Mackay.”

The _Donald Mackay_, last of the famous Mackay quartette, was for many
years the largest sailing ship in the world, her measurements being:—

  Registered tonnage                      2408 tons.
  Gross                                   2486  „
  Net                                     1616  „
  Length of keel                          257.9 feet.
  Length between perpendiculars           266    „
  Breadth                                 46.3   „
  Depth                                   29.5   „
  Dead rise at half-floor                 18 inches.
  Mainyard                                100 feet.
  Sail area                               17,000 yds.

A novelty in her sail plan was Forbes’ patent double topsail yards.
These came out before Howe’s, and differed from them in having the
topmasts fidded abaft the lower masts.

_Donald Mackay_ was said to have the heaviest mainmast out of
Liverpool. It was a built mast of pitch-pine, heavily banded with iron,
weighing close on 20 tons. She was, of course, a three-decker; and as a
figure-head she had a Highlander dressed in the tartan of the Mackays.
In design she took after the _Champion of the Seas_, being not so
sharp-ended as the _Lightning_ or _James Baines_. Captain Warner left
the _Sovereign of the Seas_ to take her, and superintended her fitting
out.

Leaving Boston on 21st February, 1855, she made Cape Clear only 12
days out. On 27th February her log records:—“First part a strong gale
from N.W.; middle part blowing a hurricane from W.N.W., ship scudding
under topsails and foresail at the rate of 18 knots; latter part still
blowing from W.N.W. with heavy hail squalls and very high sea running.”

Under these conditions she made a run of 421 miles in the 24 hours. She
made the Fastnet Rock on 6th March, distant one mile, it blowing a gale
from S.E. to E.N.E., her run for the day being 299 miles. But in the
Channel her passage was spoilt by strong easterly winds, and she did
not receive her pilot off Point Lynas until Saturday, the 10th.

Donald Mackay himself came over in the ship, and on his arrival
expressed himself highly satisfied with her. She was at once put on
the berth, for Melbourne, but did not leave Liverpool until 6th June,
and thus had a light weather passage south, being spoken on 14th July
in 12° S., 38 days out. She arrived in Port Phillip on 26th August,
81 days out. She left Melbourne again on 3rd October, arriving in
Liverpool on 28th December, 1855, 86 days out, and bringing 104,000
ounces of gold consigned to the Bank of France.

[Illustration: “WHITE STAR.”

_From an old lithograph._
]

_Donald Mackay’s_ times on the Australian run, though never very
remarkable, were very consistent, her average for six consecutive
outward passages being 83 days. And I find her making a passage out
to Hobson’s Bay in 1867 in 84 days. She once took 1000 troops from
Portsmouth to Mauritius in 70 days.


“Blue Jacket,” “White Star” and “Shalimar.”

Three other magnificent ships were built on the other side of the
Atlantic for the Liverpool-Melbourne emigrant trade in 1854. These were
the _Blue Jacket_, _White Star_ and _Shalimar_.

The _Blue Jacket_ came from the well-known yard of R. E. Jackson in
East Boston, the other two ships being Nova Scotian built. The _Blue
Jacket_ arrived in the Mersey on 20th October, 1854, having made the
run from Boston, land to land, in 12 days 10 hours; the _Shalimar_
arrived about the same time, and the _White Star_ reached Liverpool
on 1st December, 15 days out from St. John’s in spite of strong head
winds. She was timber laden and drawing 22½ feet of water. The _Blue
Jacket_ on her arrival was bought by James John Frost, of London, and
put on the berth for Melbourne as one of the Fox Line of packets, the
other two being owned by the White Star Line.

In looking at old pictures and prints of these American built ships,
several points in their construction seem to have been common to
all, such as the semi-elliptical stern, the bowsprit built into the
sheer, the large wheel-house aft, etc.; their figure-heads, also, were
generally most elaborate full-length figures and did not grow out of
the bow in the graceful way of the British-built, but seemed to be
plastered upon it. And from _Marco Polo_ to _Donald Mackay_, these
soft-wood clippers had more the appearance of strength and power than
of grace and beauty, though the famous _Red Jacket_ was an exception,
being an extremely taking ship to the eye.

_Blue Jacket_, however, was of the powerful type, and extremely like
the Mackay ships in appearance. She was designed to stow a large cargo,
having a full midship section, but her bow was long and sharp enough.

Her chief measurements were:—

  Length of keel                           205 feet.
  Length between perpendiculars            220   „
  Length over all                          235   „
  Beam                                     41.6  „
  Depth of hold                            24    „
  Registered tonnage                       1790 tons.

Her poop was 80 feet long and 7 feet high, and she had 8 feet of height
between decks. She had the usual accommodation arrangements, two points
only being perhaps worth noting; the first was a line of plate glass
portholes running the length of her ’tween decks, and the second was an
iron water tank to hold 7000 gallons.

_Blue Jacket_ sailed for Melbourne on 6th March, 1855, in charge of
Captain Underwood, and made a magnificent run out of 69 days. She
further distinguished herself at a later date by making the homeward
run in 69 days.

_Shalimar_, the smallest ship of the three, measured 1557 tons
register; 195.8 feet length; 35.2 feet beam; and 23 feet depth.
She sailed for Hobson’s Bay on 23rd November, 1854, was off Cape
Northumberland in 67 days, but owing to head winds took another 10
days to reach her port. She came home in 75 days, her whole voyage,
including 45 days in port, only occupying 6 months and 14 days. The
newspaper report of her passage out states that she ran 420 miles
in the 24 hours on one occasion, though unfortunately it gives no
particulars.

The most celebrated of these three ships was the _White Star_, which
had the distinction of being the largest clipper built by Wright, of
New Brunswick, her measurements being:—

  Registered tonnage                2339 tons.
  Length over all                   288 feet.
  Length of keel                    213.3 „
  Beam                              44    „
  Depth                             28.1  „

The _White Star_ soon proved herself to be one of the fastest ships
afloat. On her first voyage she did nothing out of the way, being 79
days out and 88 days home. But in 1856 she went out in 75 days (67
days land to land), and came home in 76 days, beating the auxiliary
_Royal Charter_ by 10 days from port to port. In 1858, she went out in
72 days, this being the best White Star passage of the year; whilst on
25th February, 1860, she left Melbourne and made her number off Cape
Clear in 65 days. In 1860 she went out in 69 days, running 3306 miles
in 10 days between the Cape and Melbourne.


The Wreck of the “Schomberg.”

We now come to the unfortunate _Schomberg_, the only wooden ship ever
built in a British yard that could in any way compare with the big
Boston and Nova Scotian built ships in size.

In 1854, James Baines was so impressed by the success of the little
Aberdeen tea clippers, that he gave Hall an order for a monster
emigrant clipper of 2600 tons. Unfortunately, Hall had had no
experience in the building of emigrant ships and the _Schomberg_ was
more of a copy of Mackay’s clippers than Hall’s own beautiful little
ships. The _Schomberg_ cost when ready for sea £43,103 or £18 17s. 6d.
per ton. She measured:—

  Tonnage (builder’s measurement)                2600 tons.
     „    (for payment of dues)                  2492  „
     „    (registered)                           2284  „
  Length over all                                288  feet.
  Length between perpendiculars                  262   „
  Beam                                           45    „
  Depth of hold                                  29.2  „

She had three skins, two of diagonal planking, and one fore and aft,
the whole fastened together with screw-threaded hard-wood trunnels—a
novelty in shipbuilding. She was specially heavily rigged, her mainmast
weighing 15 tons, being a pitch-pine spar 110 feet in length and 42
inches in diameter. Her mainyard was 110 feet long. She crossed three
skysail yards, but no moonsail.

Captain Forbes, as commodore of the Black Ball, was shifted into her
from the _Lightning_, and great hopes were entertained that she would
lower the record to Australia.

On 6th October, 1855, she was hauled through the pier heads amidst the
cheers of a patriotic crowd of sightseers, with the boast of “Sixty
days to Melbourne” flying from her signal halliards. The passage was
one of light and moderate winds. _Schomberg_ was 28 days to the line
and 55 days to the Greenwich meridian. Running her easting down she
averaged 6 degrees daily to 130° E., her greatest speed being 15½ knots
and her best run 368 miles. She made the land off Cape Bridgewater at 1
p.m. on Xmas day, the wind being fresh at E.S.E. On 27th December after
two days’ tacking, with the wind still blowing fresh from ahead, Forbes
went about at noon when 4 miles off shore and tacked out; at 6 p.m. he
tacked in again. At about 10.30 p.m., the land being faintly visible,
the wind gradually died away. It was a moonlight night. Forbes was
playing cards in the saloon when the mate came down and reported that
the ship was getting rather close in under the land and suggested going
about. As luck would have it, Forbes was losing and, being a bit out
of temper, insisted on playing another rubber of whist before tacking
ship, and the danger point had been overstripped when at 11 o’clock he
came on deck and gave the order to ’bout ship.

As there was next to no wind and a current running 3 to 4 knots to the
westward, the _Schomberg_ refused to come round. Forbes next tried to
wear her, with the result that the ship slid up on to a sandbank 35
miles west of Cape Otway. On sounding round the ship it was found that
she was stuck fast in 4 fathoms of water. Sail was kept on her in the
hopes of it pulling her off into deep water again.

Forbes, on being told that the ship was hard aground, said
angrily:—“Let her go to Hell, and tell me when she is on the beach,”
and at once went below.

Henry Cooper Keen, the mate, then took charge, and finding that the
_Schomberg_ was only being hove further in by the swell and current,
clewed up all sail, let go the starboard anchor and lowered the boats.
And it was subsequently proved at the inquiry afterwards that it was
chiefly due to the chief officer and a first class passenger, a civil
engineer of Belfast named Millar, that all the passengers were safely
disembarked and put aboard the steamer _Queen_, which hove in sight on
the following morning.

All efforts to save the ship failed and she presently went to pieces.
Forbes at the inquiry was acquitted of all blame for the stranding,
the sandbank being uncharted, but at a mass meeting of his passengers
in the Mechanics’ Institute, Melbourne, he was very severely censured.
Many of them declared that he was so disgusted with the slowness of the
passage that he let the ship go ashore on purpose. Others complained of
his tyranny during the voyage and even made worse allegations against
his morality and that of the ship’s doctor; altogether the affair was a
pretty scandal and Forbes never obtained another command in the Black
Ball Line.

The Best Outward Passages—Liverpool to Melbourne, 1854-5.

  +------------------------+--------------+----------+----------+------+
  |         Ship.          |   Captain.   |   Date   |   Date   | Days |
  |                        |              |   Left.  | Arrived. | Out. |
  +------------------------+--------------+----------+----------+------+
  |                        |              |   1854   |          |      |
  | _Red Jacket_           | Sam Reid     | May    4 | July  12 |  67  |
  | _Mermaid_              | Devy         |  „     3 |  „    17 |  74  |
  | _Miles Barton_         | Kelly        |  „     4 |  „    22 |  78  |
  | _Lightning_            | J. N. Forbes |  „    14 |  „    31 |  76  |
  | _Marco Polo_           | Wild         | July  22 | Oct.  25 |  95  |
  | _Arabian_              | Bannatyne    | Aug.  19 | Nov.  13 |  86  |
  | _Morning Star_         |    —         | Sept.  6 |  „    20 |  75  |
  | _Champion of the Seas_ | Newlands     | Oct.  11 | Dec.  22 |  72  |
  |                        |              |          |   1855   |      |
  | _Indian Queen_         | McKirdie     | Nov.  12 | Jan.  31 |  80  |
  | _Shalimar_             | Robertson    |  „    23 | Feb.   7 |  76  |
  | _James Baines_         | McDonald     | Dec.  10 | Feb.  12 |  64  |
  |                        |              |   1855   |          |      |
  | _Lightning_            | A. Enright   | Jan.   6 | Mar.  20 |  73  |
  | _Blue Jacket_          | Underwood    | Mar.   6 | May   13 |  69  |
  | _Marco Polo_           | Clarke       | April  6 | June  26 |  82  |
  | _White Star_           | Kerr         |  „    30 | July  18 |  79  |
  | _Oliver Lang_          | Manning      | May    5 |  „    31 |  87  |
  | _Arabian_              | Bannatyne    |  „    21 | Aug.  13 |  84  |
  | _Donald Mackay_        | Warner       | June   6 |  „    26 |  81  |
  | _Champion of the Seas_ | McKirdy      | July   5 | Sept. 26 |  83  |
  | _Shalimar_             | Robertson    |  „    20 | Oct.  16 |  88  |
  | _James Baines_         | McDonald     | Aug.   5 |  „    23 |  79  |
  | _Emma_                 |    —         |  „    21 | Nov.  17 |  88  |
  | _Lightning_            | A. Enright   | Sept.  5 |  „    25 |  81  |
  | _Red Jacket_           | Milward      |  „    20 | Dec.   4 |  75  |
  | _Invincible_           |    —         |  „    30 |  „    18 |  79  |
  +------------------------+--------------+----------+----------+------+


1855-1857—Captain Anthony Enright and the “Lightning.”

When Forbes was given the _Schomberg_, James Baines offered the
command of the _Lightning_ to Captain Anthony Enright, who had earned
a great reputation as a passage maker in the tea clipper _Chrysolite_.
At the same time the White Star Line asked Enright to take over the
_Red Jacket_, and it was only after considerable deliberation that he
decided to take the _Lightning_, first demanding a salary of £1000 a
year. The Black Ball Line replied that it was a great deal more than
they had ever previously given to their captains, but eventually they
agreed to his terms rather than lose such a good man.

Captain Enright had the _Lightning_ for four voyages, from January,
1855, to August, 1857, and proved himself perhaps the most popular and
successful captain under the famous house-flag; indeed, under him the
_Lightning_ became a very favourite ship with passengers.

Enright was a very religious man, a Puritan of the old type yet no
bigot: a stern disciplinarian, the men before the mast knew that he
was sure to give them a square deal, impartial and just, and fair
treatment for good service, and for that reason never gave him trouble,
whilst in controlling his passengers and keeping a happy ship in spite
of the trials of such long passages and crowded quarters, he showed
the most wonderful tact and gift for ruling men. This gift of tact
was perhaps more desirable in the captain of an emigrant ship than
in any other walk of life, especially in the days of the gold rush
when the emigrants represented every nationality, every creed, every
class and every trade; and the _Lightning_, under Enright, was as
good an example of the best-run first-class emigrant ships as can be
found. I therefore intend to give as good a picture of life aboard the
_Lightning_ during 1855-7 as I possibly can with the material at my
command.


Captain Enright’s Regulations.

First of all I will give a list of Enright’s regulations for preserving
order amongst his passengers, which were always posted up in prominent
places about the ship.

RULES OF THE _Lightning_.

  1st. No smoking or naked light allowed below.

  2nd. All lights, except the hatchway lights, to be put out by 10 p.m.

  3rd. No Congreve matches to be used in the berths or on the lower
  deck.

  4th. Cleanliness and decorum to be strictly observed at all times.

  5th. Every place below to be well cleaned every day after breakfast,
  for the inspection of the surgeon and chief officer.

  6th. All bedding to be on deck twice a week.

  7th. The ’tween deck passengers to appoint constables to preserve
  order and see these rules are strictly observed.

  8th. The constables are to keep watch in their respective
  compartments for their own safety and that of their families; trim
  the lamps; report all misdemeanours, for which they will receive a
  glass of grog or a cup of coffee every morning.

  9th. Second cabin passengers are not allowed on the windward side of
  the vessel; but can promenade at all hours on the leeward side.

  10th. Passengers must not upon any account open the ’tween deck
  ports without my express permission: a violation of this rule may
  be attended with serious consequences, and will, in any case, be
  severely punished.

  11th. Dancing and promenading on the poop from 7 till 9 p.m., when
  all passengers may enjoy themselves, but not abaft the mizen mast.
  The promenaders are not in any way to interrupt the dancers, but will
  be expected to promenade in parts of the poop where dancing is not
  being carried on.

  12th. On account of the overcrowded state of the poop and to
  satisfy all parties, third class passengers are only allowed on the
  quarterdeck from 7 till 9 in the evening.

  13th. The use of the private staircase (into the saloon) is strictly
  prohibited after 11 at night.

  14th. No person allowed to speak to the officers of the watch whilst
  on duty: nor to any of the quartermasters, whilst at the wheel.

  15th. All parties not complying with these rules will be liable to
  have a part of their provisions deducted as a punishment, as the
  commander and officers may think fit.
    ANTHONY ENRIGHT, _Commander._

=The Passengers on the “Lightning.”=

Perhaps a few details regarding the number and kind of passengers, for
which these rules were framed, may now be of interest.

In 1855 the _Lightning_ took out 47 saloon, 53 second cabin, 20
intermediate and 253 steerage passengers, her crew numbering 87; total
of souls on board—495.

In 1856 her purser gave the following details of the outward bound
passengers:—

  Saloon—Adults 39: children 12:        Total  51
  ’Tween deck—Married adults male              42
                 „      „    female            55
               Single   „    male             184
                 „      „    female            33
                             children          47
                             infants            7
                             crew              85
                                             ----
                     Number of souls on board 504
                                             ----

On the homeward passage the numbers were naturally very much less, and
women were not so numerous.

In 1855 the _Lightning_ brought home 51 saloon, 123 second cabin and
80 intermediate; total—254. On her second voyage that year, owing to
the accident to her false bow when outward bound, she could only muster
80 passengers.

In 1856 her homeward bound passengers consisted of:—

  Saloon—Adults 31; children 3;           Total  34
  ’Tween decks—Married adults male               10
                  „       „    female            10
               Single     „    male             114
                  „       „    female             1
                               children           6
                               infants            4
                               crew              77
                                               ----
                               Total all told   256
                                               ----

All Europe sailed from Liverpool to the Australian goldfields, so that
all nationalities were to be found in a Black Baller’s foc’s’le.

I find the following account in the _Lightning Gazette_, the newspaper
published on board, of 1855:—“Here in the steerage we find there are
many nations, including Jews, Germans and French; the largest number,
however, being English with a few Irish and Scots. Here are all ages
and not all, but many, trades and occupations. Here are some more or
less successful diggers, who had returned to their native land to
gratify a feeling of love and affection; or it may be vanity; and who
are now returning to settle in the land of promise.”

The homeward bound passengers were just as mixed if only half as
numerous—thus the _Gazette_ when homeward bound in 1856:—

  The passengers generally are a very mixed community, English and
  French, American and German, Italian and Pole, young and old, merry
  and sad, the open-hearted and the reserved, the enterprising merchant
  and the adventurous gold digger, artizan and mechanic, soldier and
  sailor, prosperous husbands returning to escort their wives and
  families to the Colony, and the disappointed man, cheered alone by
  the magic influence of once again beholding home.

And under the heading of “The Gent Afloat,” I find a very amusing
description of the adventurer of the times aboard ship, and though
it is rather long, it is such a vivid little study of a type of
character, only too common in the snobbish mid-Victorian era, that I
cannot resist giving it in full.

The Gent Afloat.

“This class of individual is to be found in great abundance in every
clipper ship community. He is easily known, more easily detected. He is
a man of vast importance when first he steps aboard; makes no advances;
keeps aloof; is evidently selecting, with great caution, those with
whom he dare associate without compromising his connections. After
a little time, however, he—with a condescending grace, which cannot
be too highly extolled—relaxes slightly his vigorous demeanour, and
smiles upon the _very_ young men of known good family (of course),
occasionally honours them with his arm and promenades the deck for half
an hour—is very careful during the peregrination to recount his latest
adventures at home—the parting dinners Captain Allalie and Colonel
Gammon would insist on giving him; the ballet dancer, who forsook an
Earl for his advances and embraces; the prima donna who would insist on
rehearsing her role before him as she entertained so high an opinion
of his musical criticism and abilities. The borough he might have gone
in for at the last election, with the Duke of Sarum’s interest, but
that his _own_ family objected on the score of difference in political
opinions, and the positive certainty that in a few years his great
talents and eloquence must command the most independent seat in the
House.

“He is of an average height and features, with the exception of a
protruding chin, which gives to the mouth a horrible grin; an eyeglass
of course; luxuriant hair and whiskers, redolent of macassar. He apes
the gait of a military man; wears a frock coat terribly inclined to
the third and fourth letters of the alphabet; a waistcoat of the most
approved and fashionable cut; trowsers of the loudest plaid style
about two to the pair, with very ragged bottoms and straps, the latter
article proving a very useful adjunct when the supply of socks falls
short; a shirt with miniature cartoons after Raphael or a correct
likeness of the last murderer and the last ballet dancer printed upon
it; a necktie of the _striking stripe_ pattern, to make him smart. His
whole appearance is indicative of a worn-out Stultz. His hands are
covered with a variety of rings, from the enamelled and delicately
wrought diamond to the massive and substantial signet bearing his
crest. An immense watch chain (bearing a striking resemblance to the
ship’s cable) with an abundance of charms attached completes the _tout
ensemble_ of the outer man. His wardrobe is somewhat limited—but this
he accounts for by—‘D—n those agents, the rascals have put my trunks
marked “wanted on the voyage” in the hold, and left out those “not
wanted,” isn’t it annoying? Could you lend me a few shirts until
they’re got at?’ He is decidedly great at the borrowing dodge. Of
course his cigars, tobacco and all the little comforts for the journey
are in his trunks in the hold. But the way he solicits a loan of the
required articles is irresistible. His natural grace (or impudence, we
don’t know which) defies refusal. But at last even that—as all things
good or bad will—palls and borrowing becomes a more difficult art.
Friends shirk him, acquaintances avoid him, and long before the end
of the journey ‘the Gent Afloat’ is known and scouted as a penniless,
reckless adventurer void alike of honour or honesty.”

=Shipboard Newspapers.=

This account of an adventurer of the fifties came out of the _Lightning
Gazette_, a paper published weekly aboard the ship.

Realising the importance of keeping such a mixed collection of
passengers amused Messrs. James Baines put a printing press aboard
each of their ships and thus the issue of the shipboard newspaper was
something always to be eagerly looked forward to on Saturdays. In many
an English and Australian home there are no doubt still to be found
treasured, stained and tattered, copies of these ships’ newspapers.
I have myself handled volumes of the _Lightning Gazette_, the _Eagle
Herald_, the _Royal Charter Times_ and coming down to more modern days,
the _Loch Torridon Journal_ and other Loch Line papers.

The printer of these ship newspapers was usually a paid member of the
crew, but the editor and sub-editor were elected by the passengers,
the captain, of course, acting not only as a frequent contributor but
also as a censor—no matter of a controversial sort either religious,
political or otherwise being ever allowed to appear in the news sheet
of Captain Enright’s ship.

=The Ship’s Notice Board.=

The ship’s official newspaper sometimes had to contend against rival
productions, promoted by private enterprise, but its chief rival was
the ship’s notice board, which was a stout one, being no less than the
mainmast.

Here are a few notices, gathered haphazard from the _Lightning’s_
mainmast.

CLOTHING SOLD BY THE PURSER

  Cigars, 2d. each; per hundred              £0  12  0
    Do.   Havannah                      each  0   0  4
  Canvas trowsers                             0   3  6
  Kersey drawers                              0   3  6
  Mits                                        0   1  0
  Oilskin trowsers                            0   5  6
  Oilskin coats                               0   7  6
  Pilot cloth coats                           0   5  0
  Pilot cloth trowsers                        0  12  0
  Blue serge shirts                           0   5  0
  Regatta shirts (printed fronts)             0   3  6
  Black alpaca coats                          0  12  0
  Felt hats                                   0   3  0
  Sou’westers                                 0   2  0
  Black glazed hats                           0   4  0
  Guernsey frocks                             0   8  6
  Scotch caps                                 0   2  0
  Knives                                      0   1  6
    Apply to C. T. RENNY, _Purser_.

RAFFLES.

  To be raffled for—
  On Thursday next, June 7, at 2 o’clock,
  A Splendid Model of the _Lightning_,
  By 40 members, at 5/- each.
  Application for shares to be made at the printing office.

HEALTH OFFICE

WANTED.

  Swabbers to assist at the force pump and relieve two saloon
  passengers, who work with indefatigable zeal.

  Application to be made to Dr. Colquhoun and Mr. Winter at 5 a.m. any
  morning.

  The above is capital exercise, strongly recommended.

WANTED.

  A washerwoman—one accustomed to get up gentlemen’s linen preferred.
  Apply to Mr. NECK, _Chief Steward_.

FOR SALE.

  Opossum Rugs. Apply to MR. FYSH, second cabin tween decks.

FOUND.

  By the Boatswain of this ship, a coat with a pair of pincers in the
  pocket. The owner can have the same by paying expenses.

AUCTION.

  On Wednesday next, at 2 p.m., a Public Auction will be held on the
  poop, when a large and well selected assortment of merchandise will
  be submitted to public competition by—
    CHARLES ROBIN, _Auctioneer_.
  Auctioneer’s Address—No. 5 After Saloon Stateroom.

_Riddles and Epigrams_, so numerous in the _Gazette_, were not,
however, to be found on the ship’s notice board. The riddles are mostly
very feeble, many of them making great play with the ship’s name, thus:—

  Why is the Commander of our ship like the electric wire?
  _Ans._—Because he is a Lightning conductor.

But there is a rather more interesting one of the times:—


Why is a scolding wife like American steamers? _Ans._—Because
she is fond of blowing up.

The epigrams are better, as follows:—

  Upon seeing a lady filling a gentleman’s pipe on board the
  _Lightning_—

  “I would that ladies’ hands might find
    Something worthier to stuff
  Nor give to those who are inclined
    An opportunity to puff.”

and—

  Upon seeing a young lady printing the _Lightning Gazette_:—

  “An angel form in earthly mould
    Upon my ink has shed a blessing,
  And manly hearts to others cold
    Cannot resist when she is pressing.”

=The Ship’s Band and Concerts, etc.=

Perhaps the most important method of keeping an emigrant ship’s
passengers amused was by means of the ship’s band, especially in those
days when dancing was so popular, that even in bad weather the poops of
these ships were always crowded with dancers every evening.

Of course the bands provided were not quite on a par with those of
present day leviathans crossing the Atlantic; the _Lightning_, for
instance, rejoiced in the good old-fashioned German band, which used
to be such an institution in the London streets and is now practically
extinct. This band consisted of six musicians, and besides playing
selections and accompaniments at the concerts, supplied the music for
the daily dancing.

In those days the polka was the great dance, the valse had not yet come
into fashion and was not very well known, and instead of the romping
lancers the stately quadrille was the order of the day.

I find a set of instructions showing a sailor how to dance a quadrille
in one of the numbers of the _Lightning Gazette_. It is rather too
long to quote, but the following figure shows the gist of it:—“Heave
ahead and pass your adversary yardarm to yardarm: regain your berth
on the other tack in the same order: take your station in a line with
your partner, back and fill, face on your heel and bring up with
your partner: she then manœuvres ahead and heaves all aback, fills
and shoots ahead again and pays off alongside: you then make sail in
company until stern on with the other line: make a stern board and
cast her off to shift for herself: regain your berth by the best means
possible and let go your anchor.”

Looking over the old concert programmes, I find that negro melodies
(now called coon songs) were even then very popular, amongst which
figured “Nelly Bligh,” “Poor Old Joe,” “Stop dat Knockin’,” “Oh! Carry
Me Back” and others. The rest of the programmes were generally filled
up with the old familiar Scots and Irish folk-songs, some well-known
English choruses, the usual sentimental ditty, and amongst the sailor
songs I find “A Life on the Ocean Wave,” “Cheer, Boys, Cheer,” “I’m
Afloat,” “The Pride of the Ocean” and “The Death of Nelson.” Concerts
were generally pretty numerous during a passage. As a rule each class
had its own; then, to end up, a “Grand Monster Concert” was organised,
in which the talents of saloon, house on deck, and steerage were pitted
against one another.

Other diversions of this kind were plays of the class of “Bombastes
Furioso”; mock trials, with the invariable verdict of guilty on the
wretched culprit and the sentence of “champagne all round,” and of
course debating, choral and other societies.

Then there were the usual high jinks crossing the line; and such
occasions as the Queen’s Birthday, the “Captain’s Wedding Day,” etc.,
were celebrated by “a cold collation of the most sumptuous order” in
the saloon and many speeches.

=A Bill of Fare on the “Lightning.”=

In the first cabin the living on these big clippers seems to have been
uncommonly good for such a length of time at sea. Here is the dinner
menu of 14th January, 1855, on the _Lightning_, when a week out from
Liverpool.

  BILL OF FARE.

  _Soups_—Vermicelli and macaroni.

  _Fish_—Cod and oyster sauce.

  _Meats_—Roast beef, boeuf a la mode, boiled mutton, roast veal,
  boiled turkey and oyster sauce, roast goose, roast fowl, boiled fowl,
  minced escallops, veal and ham pie, haricot mutton, ham.

  _Sweets_—Plum pudding, rice pudding, roll pudding, tarts, orange
  fritters, small pastry.

  _Dessert_—Oranges, almonds, Barcelona raisins, figs, etc.

  _Wines_—Champagne, sparkling hock.

=St. Valentine’s Day.=

Captain Enright was very fertile in raising a new amusement directly
his passengers began to show signs of boredom. His favourite dodge
was to appoint a St. Valentine’s Day, when a letter box was placed in
front of the poop and twice during the day the darkey steward, Richard,
who was evidently a great character, came round and delivered the
Valentines as postman. He was always dressed up for the occasion in
some extraordinarily fantastic costume of his own invention—and his
antics and fun, quite as much as the contents of his postbag, kept the
ship in roars of laughter and most successfully dissipated all signs of
boredom and discontent. Here is one account of his doings:—

  Richard, the coloured steward, made a first-rate walker, dressed
  in the tip-top style of St. Martins-le-Grand, with gold-laced hat,
  yellow collar and cuffs to his coat and white tops to his boots:
  he acted the part of Cupid’s messenger to admiration and drew down
  thunders of applause. There was a second delivery in the afternoon
  on the poop, when Richard again made his appearance dressed in full
  general’s uniform.

And it goes on to say:—

  The Valentines, which were very numerous, contained the usual amount
  of bitters and sweet, flattering verses and lovers’ vows; some
  amusing hits at marked propensities and a few rather broad hints at
  infirmities and habits were all taken in good part and the day passed
  off most pleasantly.

And here is one of the Valentines which Captain Enright received:—

  To
  Captain Go-ahead Enright, A1,
  Ship “Flash of Lightning,”
  who never cracks on, and is supposed to have
  at no time seen a moonsail.
  It is currently reported that he lays to
  and turns in when it blows a gale.
  _N.B._—No certain address, but always to be found
  ON DUTY.

=Other Amusements at Sea.=

During the time of the Crimea, if there happened to be a soldier or two
aboard, a corps of volunteers was raised and drilled daily. A parade in
bad weather was a great source of amusement to the onlookers, if not so
pleasant for the performers.

In the fine weather deck games such as quoits, shovel board and deck
billiards were as popular as they are nowadays, but I find no mention
of sports, cock-fighting or ship cricket.

Below draughts, whist, chess, backgammon and dominoes all had many
devotees; and on the homeward passage nap, poker, blackjack, euchre and
other gambling games robbed many a returning digger of his pile and
sometimes led to such trouble that the captain had to interfere.

Under captains of Enright’s stamp, there was very little disorder and
the sailing ships seem to have carried a much happier crowd than the
auxiliary steamers.

The ill-fated _Royal Charter’s_ passage home in the summer of 1856
presents an example of a badly run and disciplined ship. The food was
bad, everyone had a growl about something, drunken riots occurred
constantly, fighting in which even the crew and stewards took a part
was of almost daily occurrence, and excessive gambling ruined scores of
returning diggers on the lower deck. I am glad to say that I can find
no such instance of disorder and lack of discipline amongst the ships
which relied upon sail power alone.


Best Homeward Passages, 1855-56.

The honours for the year 1855 were, however, taken by the Duthie built
Aberdeen clipper _Ballarat_, 713 tons, owned by Duncan Dunbar, which
went out to Sydney in under 70 days, and came home Melbourne to
Liverpool in 69 days with 110,000 ounces on board. The _Ocean Chief_,
Captain Tobin, was a Black Baller on her second voyage. On her previous
passage home in the autumn of 1854 she made the run in 86 days, during
which she was embayed by ice for three days in the Southern Ocean, had
the unusual experience of being becalmed for three days off the Horn
and finally had N.E. winds from 18° N. to soundings.

  +------------------+---------+---------+-----------+--------+----+
  |                  |Port from|Date Left|  Gold on  | Date   |D’ys|
  |       Ship.      |         |         |   Board   | Arrived|Out.|
  +------------------+---------+---------+-----------+--------+----+
  |                  |         |  1855   |           | 1855   |    |
  | _Oliver Lang_    |Sydney   | Jan. 3  |           | Mar. 20| 76 |
  | _James Baines_   |Melbourne| Mar. 11 | 40,000 oz.| May  20| 69 |
  | _Indian Queen_   |Hobart   |  „   17 |           | June  5| 78 |
  | _Shalimar_       |Melbourne|  „   24 | 42,000 oz.|   „   5| 75 |
  | _Lightning_      |    „    | Apl. 11 | 69,000 oz.|   „  29| 79 |
  | _Ocean Chief_    |Sydney   | June  3 |           | Aug. 26| 84 |
  | _Marco Polo_     |Melbourne| July 26 |125,000 oz.| Oct. 20| 86 |
  | _White Star_     |    „    | Aug. 31 | 80,000 oz.| Nov. 27| 88 |
  | _Donald Mackay_  |    „    | Oct.  3 |           | Dec. 28| 86 |
  |                  |         |         |           |  1856  |    |
  | _Champion of the |    „    |  „   27 |           | Jan. 25| 90 |
  |    Seas_         |         |         |           |        |    |
  | _Lightning_      |    „    | Dec. 27 | 12,000 oz.| Mar. 23| 86 |
  |                  |         |  1856   |           |        |    |
  | _Red Jacket_     |    „    | Jan  12 |           | Apl.  8| 86 |
  +------------------+---------+---------+-----------+--------+----+

The _Oliver Lang_, 1236 tons, was called after her designer, being a
British built ship from the famous Deptford yard.


Best Outward Passages 1855-56, Liverpool to Melbourne.

I have failed to point out before that the Black Ballers always sailed
on the 5th of the month from Liverpool, and the White Star on the 20th;
it thus becomes an easy matter to pick out the ships of the rival lines.

At such a time it is only natural to find _Golden_ a favourite part
of a ship’s name. _Golden Era_, _Golden City_, _Golden Eagle_, _Golden
Light_, _Golden State_, _Golden West_, _Golden Age_, and _Golden Gate_
were all down-east clippers, built for the Californian gold rush.

  +-----------------------+-----------+---------+-----------+
  |         Ship          | Date Left |  Date   | Days Out. |
  |                       |           | Arrived |           |
  +-----------------------+-----------+---------+-----------+
  |                       |   1855    |  1856   |           |
  |_Ocean Chief_          | Dec.  7   | Jan. 25 |     80    |
  |_Mermaid_              |  „   21   | Feb. 10 |     82    |
  |                       | 1856      |         |           |
  |_Oliver Lang_          | Jan.  7   | April 3 |     87    |
  |_Champion of the Seas_ | March 8   | June  1 |     85    |
  |_James Baines_         | April 7   |   „  24 |     78    |
  |_Mindoro_              |  „   22   | July 13 |     82    |
  |_Lightning_            | May   6   |   „  14 |     69    |
  |_Red Jacket_           |  „   20   | Aug. 13 |     85    |
  |_Golden Era_           | June 20   | Sept. 9 |     81    |
  |_Morning Light_        | July  6   |   „  17 |     73    |
  |_Mermaid_              |  „   22   | Oct. 17 |     87    |
  |_Ocean Chief_          | Aug.  5   |   „  19 |     75    |
  |_White Star_           |  „   21   | Nov.  5 |     76    |
  |_Marco Polo_           | Sept. 5   | Dec.  2 |     89    |
  +-----------------------+-----------+---------+-----------+

The _Morning Light_ was a monster New Brunswick built ship, registering
2377 tons. She was on her first voyage and must not be confused with
the American clipper of that name, owned by Glidden & Williams, of
Boston, and built by Toby & Littlefield, of Portsmouth, N.H., a ship of
half her size.


The “James Baines” Overdue!

In the autumn of 1856 there was tremendous sensation in Liverpool,
when the famous _James Baines_, considered by many to be the fastest
ship in the world, was posted as overdue when homeward bound. All
sorts of rumours spread like wildfire, and as the weeks went by and no
definite information was obtained from incoming ships, something like
consternation began to reign in shipping circles.

The _James Baines_ sailed from Melbourne at 1 p.m. on 7th August, 1856,
passing through the Heads the following morning. On the 9th she made
her best run, 356 miles, royals and skysails being set part of the
time, the wind fair but squally. She made one more good run, of 340
miles, and then was held up by light airs and calms all the way to the
Horn; here she encountered heavy gales, snowstorms and high cross seas.
She was 36 days to the pitch of the Horn; then from 26th September to
8th November another spell of light and baffling winds delayed her
passage, and she was 65 days from Port Phillip to the line.

On the 30th October, her great rival the _Lightning_, which had sailed
from Melbourne just three weeks behind her, hove in sight, and the two
ships were in company for a week. The meeting of the two Black Ballers
is joyfully recorded in the _Lightning Gazette_, as follows:—

  Thursday, 30th October.—Lat. 29° 03′N., Long 33° 14′W. Distance 131
  miles. Wind more easterly; 7 a.m. tacked ship to N.N.W. A large
  ship in sight went about at same time, ahead of us. During forenoon
  Captain Enright expressed himself confident that she was the _James
  Baines_. Great excitement and numerous conjectures, bets, etc. One
  thing certain, that she sailed almost as fast as ourselves, and her
  rigging and sails were similar to those of the _Baines_. By sunset we
  had both weathered and gained on our companion.

  Friday, 31st October.—Lat. 30° 31′ N., Long. 35° 15′ W. Distance 137
  miles. All night light airs, and early dawn showed us our friend much
  nearer. At 8 a.m., she at last responded to our signals by hoisting
  the “Black Ball” at the mizen! and a burgee at the gaff, with her
  name—_James Baines_! Great excitement spread throughout the ship,
  and the conversation was divided between sympathy for all on board
  our unfortunate predecessor and conjectures as to the cause of her
  detainment. All day we were watching her every movement; now she
  gains, now we near her; now she “comes up” and now “falls off.” About
  2 p.m., we were evidently nearer than in the morning. A conversation
  _a la_ Marryat. The _Baines_ informed us that her passengers were
  all well, asked for our longitude, if any news, etc. Captain Enright
  invited Captain McDonald to dine, but he did not respond. At 5 a.m.,
  still light airs, _James Baines_ distant 1½ miles.

  Saturday, 1st November.—Lat. 31° 12′ N., Long. 36° W. Distance 56
  miles. During Friday evening, about 8 o’clock, the wind being still
  very light, we passed to windward of the unfortunate _James Baines_;
  so closely that we could hear the people on board cheering, and most
  vociferously did some of our passengers reply, with the addition of
  a profuse supply of chaff: such as amiable offers to take them in
  tow, a most commendable solicitude as to their stock of “lime juice,”
  very considerate promises to “say they were coming” on arrival at
  Liverpool, etc. All night the wind was light and baffling. At 2 a.m.
  it suddenly chopped round to the N.W., and the ship was put on the
  port tack. At 4, she was put about again. At 6.30, tacked ship to
  eastward, light airs and variable. The _James Baines_ about 6 miles
  to leeward, a little brig on lee bow—which had been in company all
  Friday, and a barque on lee quarter. At 9, the brig, having put
  about, stood up towards us, and passing close to leeward, showed
  the Hambro ensign with private number 350. We once more tacked ship
  and stood to the northward and westward, the others following our
  example, and the breeze freshening, we all started on a race. The
  barque hoisted her ensign and number and proved to be the _Cid_,
  which we passed on the 29th ultimo. The brig soon after bore away
  to his “chum” to leeward, and they had a quiet little race to
  themselves, in which the barque appeared to be the victor.

  The clipper sisters were now once more pitted against each other: the
  far famed _Lightning_, with concave lines and breadth of bilge, in
  our opinion the worthy Donald’s brightest idea, and the champion—the
  ship of 21 knots’ notoriety—the _James Baines_.

  In light winds or airs we had crept by him, now, as the breeze
  freshens, as the white crest appears on the short toppling sea, as
  we lift and dive to the heavy northerly roll and all favours the
  long powerful ship. What do we behold? The little brig and barque
  going astern, of course. Aye, but what else do we see? Oh, ye
  Liverpool owners! _et tu_, Donald, who thought to improve on the
  _Lightning_; tell it not “on ’Change,” publish it not in the streets
  of Liverpool. What do we see? Hull down, courses and topsails below
  the horizon at 2 p.m., five hours from the start, the _James Baines_
  just discernible from the deck: at the very lowest computation we
  have beaten her at the rate of 1½ knots per hour. At sundown she is
  barely visible from the mizen topgallant crosstrees. It was generally
  supposed on board that her copper must have been much worn and
  rough or we never could have beaten so rapidly a ship of such noble
  appearance and well-known sailing qualities.

  Sunday, 2nd November.—Lat. 32° 57′ N., Long. 37° 37′ W. Distance 134
  miles. Another day of light winds, heading us off to N.N.W. still.
  Evening, a little more wind, ship going about 7 knots.

  Monday, 3rd November.—Lat. 34° 41′ N., Long. 38° 28′ W. Distance 113
  miles. In the middle watch wind backed to the N.E. and fell light
  again. At 8, improvement again and by noon we lay N.E. by N., the
  best we have done for some days, but only going from 4½ to 5 knots. A
  ship coming up astern, supposed to be the _James Baines_, bringing up
  a fair wind.

  Tuesday, 4th November.—Lat. 35° 47′ N., Long. 38° 28′ W. Distance 66
  miles. Commences with very light airs from the north, our ship on the
  port tack. Our friend _James Baines_ again in sight astern.

And this was the last the _Lightning_ saw of the _James Baines_ though
the two ships arrived in the Mersey within 24 hours of each other, the
_Lightning_ leading. Both anchored in the river on 20th November, the
_Lightning_ being 84 days out, and the _James Baines_ 105 days.

The following comparison between the two passages is interesting, as it
shows that the two ships took the same number of days from the equator
to Liverpool, viz., 40 days:—

  +--------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
  |                          |   _James Baines_  |    _Lightning_    |
  |                          |                   |                   |
  |      Points Between      +-----+-------------+-----+-------------+
  |                          | Days| Date Passed | Days| Date Passed |
  +--------------------------+-----+-------------+-----+-------------+
  |                          |     |             |     |             |
  |Melbourne to Cape Horn    | 36  | Sept. 12    | 24  | Sept  1     |
  |Cape Horn to equator      | 29  | Oct.  11    | 20  | Oct   9     |
  |Equator to Western Isles  | 28  | Nov.   8    | 29  | Nov.  7     |
  |Western Isles to Liverpool| 12  | Nov.  20    | 11  | Nov. 20     |
  +--------------------------+-----+-------------+-----+-------------+
     Best 24-hours’ run             356  miles          377  miles.

The _James Baines_ was simply unlucky in having a very light weather
passage. Donald Mackay’s ships were never light weather flyers, in
spite of setting every kind of light weather kite, from tiny “bulldog,”
as they called the moonsail on the main, down to the lowest watersail,
that barely cleared the wave crests.

Whilst we are comparing the speeds of _James Baines_ and _Lightning_,
it is only fair to do so in heavy weather as well as light. I
therefore give below the logs of their best week’s work on their
respective outward passages in 1856. Here it will be seen the _James
Baines_ just has the best of it. I have taken the remarks for
_Lightning’s_ run from the _Lightning Gazette_, not the ship’s log.

  BEST WEEK’S RUN BY _James Baines_, LIVERPOOL TO MELBOURNE, MAY, 1856.

  25th May.—Lat. 37° 40′ S., Long. 3° 28′ E. Distance 328 miles. Winds,
  S.S.W., S.W. This day begins with heavy gale and heavy squalls.
  I have never before experienced such a heavy gale with so high a
  barometer. At 4 p.m. double-reefed main topsail and crossjack.
  Midnight, similar wind and weather, heavy sea, ship labouring very
  heavily and shipping great quantities of water. Noon, very heavy sea;
  sun obscured.

  26th May.—Lat. 38° 38′ S., Long. 10° 0′ E. Distance 320 miles. Winds,
  S.W., W.S.W. P.M., begins with strong gale and heavy sea, squalls and
  showers of rain, dark, gloomy weather. Midnight, gale decreasing,
  reefs out of courses, and set staysails. At 4 a.m., still moderating,
  out all reefs, set royals and skysail; 8 a.m., set all starboard
  studding sails. Noon, gentle breeze, fine clear weather; wind
  westering all the time and sea going down.

  27th May.—Lat. 40° 2′ S., Long. 17° 41′ E. Distance 384 miles, winds,
  W.S.W., S.W. Fine gentle breeze and fine clear weather, all sail set.
  Midnight, same wind and weather. A.M., breeze freshening and heavy
  black clouds driving up from S.W. Noon, same wind and weather.

  28th May.—Lat. 42° 44′ S., Long. 25° 48′ E. Distance 404 miles.
  Winds, W.S.W., west. P.M., begins with brisk gale and occasional
  heavy squalls accompanied with heavy rain. At 4 p.m., handed small
  sails and double-reefed fore and mizen courses. Midnight, still
  increasing. Noon, as previously.

  29th May.—Lat. 44° 15′ S., Long. 30° 51′ E. Distance 240 miles. Winds
  west. First part strong gales and fine clear weather, heavy sea, ship
  rolling. Midnight, less wind, sea going down, set all small sails. At
  4 a.m., set all starboard studding sails. Noon, light breeze, dark
  gloomy weather.

  30th May.—Lat. 46° 16′ S., Long. 36° 56′ E. Distance 300 miles.
  Winds, W.N.W., W.S.W., S.S.W. First part light breezes and dark
  gloomy weather. 8 p.m., sky clearing and breeze increasing, barometer
  falling. Midnight, fresh gales, took in royal and skysail studding
  sails; 8 a.m. heavy snow squall; took in topgallant studding sails.
  Noon fresh gales and clear weather with snow showers and squalls.

  31st May.—Lat. 46° 52′ S., Long. 43° 54′ E. Distance 300 miles.
  Winds, W.N.W., W.S.W., S.S.W. First part fresh breeze and squalls. 10
  p.m., ran through between Petit and Grande, Prince Edward Islands.
  Midnight, dark with snow squalls. Noon, as at midnight.

  BEST WEEK’S RUN BY _Lightning_, LIVERPOOL TO MELBOURNE, JUNE-JULY,
  1856.

  28th June.—Lat. 44° 25′ S., Long. 42° 58′ E. Distance 232 miles.
  Winds westerly. P.M., snow squalls, wind increasing. Preparations
  were made for shortening sail by taking in the lighter canvas.
  This was not accomplished before the mizen royal and mizen topmast
  staysail were torn to pieces. Between 5 and 6 p.m. the conflict raged
  most furiously. Reefs were taken in the topsails and these with the
  exception of the foresail were all the canvas set.

  29th June.—Lat. 43° 36′ S., Long. 50° 07′ E. Distance 312 miles.
  Winds westerly. The gale of yesterday abated the intensity of its
  fury about midnight, we have set more sail though the wind blows
  stiff.

  30th June.—Lat. 44° 02′ S., Long. 56° 35′ E. Distance 281 miles.
  Winds westerly. The weather has been excessively cold, dark and
  cloudy. The heavy sea running caused the ship to roll heavily.

  1st July.—Lat. 44° 39′ S., Long. 63° 27′ E. Distance 298 miles. Wind
  westerly. Fine at first, then cloudy with showers of snow.

  2nd July.—Lat. 45° 07′ S., Long. 70° 55′ E. Distance 319 miles. Wind
  westerly. Wind still fresh and fair.

  3rd July.—Lat. 45° 07′ S., Long. 79° 55′ E. Distance 382 miles. Wind
  westerly. Her run to-day has been only once surpassed since she
  floated. She indeed seemed to fly through the water like a seabird
  on the wing, causing one of our passengers, who knows something of
  navigation, to remark that it was skating, not sailing.

  4th July.—Lat. 45° 07′ S., Long. 88° 30′ E. Distance 364 miles. Wind
  westerly. Still favoured with the propitious breeze. Our week’s run
  is the best we have done yet and the best the _Lightning_ has ever
  accomplished.

It will be seen from the above log extracts that the _James Baines_ ran
2276 and the _Lightning_ 2188 miles in the week.


The “James Baines,” “Champion of the Seas,” and “Lightning” race out to
India with Troops in the Time of the Mutiny.

In 1857, the _James Baines_ regained her reputation, coming home in 75
days against the _Lightning’s_ 82 days. Both ships, together with the
_Champion of the Seas_, were at once taken up by the Government, and
sent round to Portsmouth to load troops for India, on account of the
Mutiny. It was confidently believed that the great Black Ballers would
lower the record to Calcutta and the importance of getting the troops
out as quickly as possible, was, of course, very great at such a crisis.

After being carefully prepared for the voyage, the _James Baines_ and
_Champion of the Seas_ sailed from Portsmouth at the beginning of
August. Before sailing the _James Baines_ was inspected by the Queen,
when she is stated to have remarked that she did not know she had such
a fine ship in her Dominions.

On the 17th August the two ships were met by the homeward bound
_Oneida_, and reported to be making great progress. Both ships were
under a cloud of canvas—the _James Baines_ had 34 sails set, including
3 skysails, moonsail and sky stunsails—and presented a splendid
appearance as they surged by, their rails red with the jackets of the
cheering troops. Unfortunately for the hopes of countless anxious
hearts, the two Black Ballers reached the Bay of Bengal at the worst
season of the year, and as they had not been built to ghost along in
catspaws and zephyrs like the tea clippers, their progress up the Bay
was very slow.

Both ships arrived off the Sandheads on the same day, the _James
Baines_ being 101 days out and the _Champion of the Seas_ 103. This
was a disappointing performance. The _Lightning_ did not sail till the
end of August. Owing to the illness of his wife, Captain Enright was
obliged to give up his command, and was succeeded by Captain Byrne.
On 24th August, the day before her departure from Gravesend, a dinner
was given to Captain Enright aboard his old ship, at which several
well-known public men, amongst whom was Mr. Benjamin Disraeli, paid
their tribute to the world famous sea captain.

The _Lightning_ made a better passage than her sisters, being off the
Hooghly, 87 days out.


The Burning of the “James Baines.”

After their trooping, the _Lightning_ and _Champion of the Seas_
returned to the Australian run, but her Calcutta voyage proved the
death of the famous _James Baines_.

She loaded the usual cargo of jute, rice, linseed and cow hides in the
Hooghly, and arrived back in Liverpool in April, 1858. She was hauled
into the Huskisson Dock and discharging commenced. The ’tween decks
were emptied, and on the 21st April the lower hatches were taken off in
the presence of the surveyors, when there appeared no sign of anything
wrong. But on the following morning smoke was noticed issuing from her
hold, and a fire which started in the main hold soon destroyed her. The
following account of her end I have taken from the _Illustrated London
News_:—

  The fire burst out on Thursday morning, 22nd April, 1858. Although
  the engines were brought into play as rapidly as possible, there
  was no visible effect produced; and four or five times the firemen,
  whilst endeavouring to penetrate the interior of the vessel so as
  to get at the seat of the fire, were driven back by the density of
  the smoke. It then became necessary to cut away the spars, rigging,
  stays, etc., which was done promptly and after some time it was
  deemed advisable to scuttle the ship as the exertions from the deck
  to extinguish the fire seemed unavailing. There was plenty of water
  in the dock at the time, but at the receding of the tide the vessel
  grounded and the fire seemed to have run through the entire length
  of the ship, for the smoke burst out of all parts and baffled every
  exertion. In the forenoon the masts were an anxiety, their fall being
  anticipated, and in the afternoon this happened, the main mast and
  mizen mast falling with terrific crashes upon the quay and in their
  descent destroying the roofs of two sheds. At 9 o’clock at night the
  inner shell of the hull, for nearly the whole length of the vessel,
  was rapidly burning, the flames rising with fury between the ribs,
  which had connected the outer and inner hull, the intervening spaces
  being to the spectators like so many flues; and iron bolts, released
  by the flames, were dropping one after the other into the hold, where
  in the fore part of the ship, particularly the uppermost portion of
  the cargo, was being fast consumed.

  At first great alarm was felt for the neighbouring shipping, several
  of the steamers of the Cunard fleet being in the same dock, but no
  material damage was sustained by them, and they, with others, were as
  soon as possible removed out of harm’s way.

  The value of the _James Baines_ and cargo is estimated at £170,000.
  The vessel became a complete wreck, looking, according to one
  account, like a huge cinder in the Huskisson Dock; and very little of
  the cargo was saved.

The loss of this magnificent ship was considered as a national
disaster. Since that date thousands and thousands of people have
boarded the _James Baines_ without knowing it, for the old Liverpool
Landing Stage was none other than the wreck of this celebrated clipper.


America Sells her Clippers to Great Britain.

When the great financial depression fell upon America in 1857 and was
followed four years later by the Civil War, James Baines seized the
opportunity to buy American clippers cheap and many other British firms
followed his example. Mr. George Crowshaw, the American shipbroker
in London, negotiated the sales and working arrangements. I have
given a list in the Appendix of the best known of these ships, which
put up the last fight for the sailing ship built of wood. Their day
in the Australian trade was a short one; and they soon found iron
passenger clippers in the lists against them, even to flying their
own house-flag. And in their last days we find the Black Ball and
White Star Lines chartering fine iron ships such as the _Sam Cearns_,
_Cornwallis_ and _Ellen Stuart_.


Notes on the later American-built Passenger Ships.

Space does not admit of more than a few lines on the best known of
these later clippers.

The _Southern Empire_ was an old three-decker Atlantic packet ship, and
so was the Mackay-built _Chariot of Fame_, which is credited with a run
out to Melbourne of 67 days. There has lately been a reunion in New
Zealand of the passengers who came out to Maoriland in that ship.

The _Invincible_ was said to be the tallest ship sailing out of
Liverpool. She was a White Star clipper and made some very fast
passages.

The _Empress of the Seas_, No. 1, was also a very fast ship. On 1st
June, 1861, she left Liverpool, and arrived in Melbourne on 6th August,
66½ days out.

_The Neptune’s Car_, another big ship, is notable for a very different
reason; for in 1857, when still under the Stars and Stripes, she was
navigated for 52 days by the captain’s wife. Captain Patten had placed
his mate under arrest for incompetence and insubordination; then whilst
the ship was off the Horn beating to the westward, Captain Patten
himself became entirely blind. The second mate was no navigator. In
this dilemma Mrs. Patten, who was only 24 years of age, took command of
the ship and navigated her successfully from the Horn into Frisco Bay.

_Golden Age_ was the ship which claimed to have run 22 knots in the
hour with current to help her.

The _Royal Dane_ was a well-known ship in the London River when she was
commanded by Captain Bolt. She also was a big three-decker.

The _Florence Nightingale_ was celebrated for her looks.

[Illustration: “BLUE JACKET.”]

[Illustration: “ROYAL DANE.”]

A curious incident happened anent the _Mistress of the Seas_; a
passenger brought an action against the ship because he was ducked
during the ceremony of crossing the line and the captain was fined £100.

The _Sunda_ was a very fine fast ship, and made some fine passages
under the famous Bully Bragg.


Black Ballers in the Queensland Emigrant Trade.

Besides some smaller Nova Scotia built ships such as the _Conway_,
_Wansfell_, _Utopia_ and _David MacIver_, some of the best of the later
Black Ballers were engaged in the Queensland emigration trade in the
late sixties and early seventies.

The _Flying Cloud_ and the _Sunda_ once had a great race out to Moreton
Bay, in which the _Sunda_ beat the _Flying Cloud_ by 18 miles in a
4-day run which averaged 16 knots; this was the voyage in which _Flying
Cloud’s_ boat was capsized between Brisbane and the anchorage, the
second mate and all in her being drowned.

In 1870 I find the following passages to Queensland:

  _Young Australia_, Captain James Cooper, 241 passengers left London,
  17th May—arrived Brisbane 25th August—100 days out.

  _Flying Cloud_, Captain Owen, 385 passengers left Liverpool, 4th
  June—arrived Hervey’s Bay 30th August—87 days out.

  _Royal Dane_, Captain D. R. Bolt, 497 passengers left London, 30th
  July—arrived Rockhampton 19th November—112 days out.


“Sunda” and “Empress of the Seas” Carry Sheep to New Zealand.

In the early days of the gold excitement, the emigrant ships rushed out
and home, but in the sixties we find them making short intermediate
passages; for instance, the _Sunda_ and _Empress of the Seas_ one year
transported thousands of sheep from Australia to New Zealand, each ship
making two trips between Port Phillip and Port Chalmers, with several
thousands of sheep on board each trip.

=The Gold Rush to Gabriel’s Gully in 1862.=

In 1862 several ships were hurried across with diggers from Melbourne
to Port Chalmers for the gold rush to Gabriel’s Gully. Money ran like
water in Port Chalmers in those days, and as usual the gold miners were
a pretty uproarious crowd. The _Lightning_, which was commanded at that
date by Captain Tom Robertson, the marine painter, made a special trip
with 900 diggers on board, and they gave Captain Robertson so much
trouble that he put into the Bluff and landed a number of them there.
The _Blue Jacket_, also, took a load of this troublesome cargo.


After Life and End of the Liverpool Emigrant Clippers.

A favourite round in the latter days of the Liverpool soft-wood
clippers was from Melbourne across to Auckland and from there over to
the Chincas to load guano. From this the survivors gradually descended
to the Quebec timber trade. By the early seventies I find _Marco
Polo_, _Red Jacket_, _Ben Nevis_, and other well-known ships already
staggering to and fro across the Atlantic between the Mersey and the
St. Lawrence, whilst in June, 1874, the _Flying Cloud_ got ashore
on the New Brunswick coast, when making for St. John’s, and was so
strained that she was compelled to discharge her cargo and go on the
slip for repairs. Here misfortune again overcame the grand old ship,
for she took fire and was so gutted that she was sold for breaking up.

It is curious how many of the old American-built soft-wood ships were
destroyed by fire, their number including the _James Baines_,
_Lightning_, _Empress of the Seas No. 1_, _Blue Jacket No. 1_, _Ocean
Chief_, _Fiery Star_, and second _Sovereign of the Seas_.


The Burning of “Lightning”.

The _Lightning_ was burnt on 31st October, 1869, whilst alongside the
pier at Geelong loading wool, and she already had 4000 bales of wool
on board when the fire was discovered at 1.30 in the morning in her
fore hold. From the first the ship seemed to be doomed, and it was
feared that the wharf might catch fire. She had an anchor out ahead,
and an attempt was made to heave her clear of the pier, but the flames
soon drove the crew from the windlass; however, on the mooring lines
being cast off, she drifted clear, and swung to her anchor, the whole
fore part of the ship being now in flames. The foremast, which was an
iron one, melted in its step owing to the heat and soon went over the
side. An attempt was made to scuttle her by the desperate means of
bombarding her from two 32-pounders, and to a modern gunner the result
was astounding to say the least of it, for at only 300 yards range most
of the rounds missed the _Lightning_ altogether, whilst the few that
hit her did more harm than good by giving the wind access to the fire
and thereby increasing its fury. After burning all day, the famous old
ship sank at sundown.

[Illustration: “LIGHTNING,” on Fire at Geelong.

_From a photograph belonging to F. G. Layton._]

The cause of the fire on the _Lightning_ was agreed to be spontaneous
combustion. A very different reason was given for the burning of the
second _Sovereign of the Seas_. This ship had just arrived in Sydney
with emigrants in 1861 and was discharging at Campbell’s Wharf when
the fire broke out, and at the coroner’s investigation the jury found
“that the ship _Sovereign_ _of the Seas_ was wilfully, maliciously
and feloniously set on fire on the 10th September, and that there
was sufficient evidence to commit one of the ship’s sailors, then in
custody of the water police, on the charge.” The Sydney fire brigade
fought the flames for a whole day without avail; then half a dozen
ship’s carpenters attempted to scuttle her, but all in vain, and she
was left to her fate.

The _Ocean Chief_, which was burnt at the Bluff, New Zealand, was also
said to have been set on fire by her crew.

The first _Empress of the Seas_ was burnt at Queenscliff on the 19th
December, 1861, three months after the _Sovereign of the Seas_ had been
set on fire at Sydney.


“Blue Jacket’s” Figure-head.

The first _Blue Jacket_ left Lyttelton, N.Z., homeward bound, and was
abandoned on fire off the Falkland Isles on 9th March, 1869. Nearly
two years later, on 8th December, 1871, to be exact, _Blue Jacket’s_
figure-head was found washed up on the shore of Rottnest Island, off
Fremantle, Western Australia. Part of it was charred by fire, but there
was no mistaking the identity of the figure-head, which was described
as “a man from the waist up, in old sailor’s costume, a blue jacket
with yellow buttons, the jacket open in the front, no waistcoat, loose
shirt, and large knotted handkerchief round the neck; with a broad belt
and large square buckle and cutlass hilt at the side. On either side of
the figure-head was a scroll, saying:—‘Keep a sharp lookout!’”


The Loss of the “Fiery Star.”

On 1st April, 1865, the _Fiery Star_ left Moreton Bay for London.
On the 19th one of the men reported a strong smell of smoke in the
foc’s’le—this soon burst forth in volumes and a fire was located in
the lower hold. The captain, named Yule, immediately had all hatchways
battened down and ventilation pipes blocked up. The ship was running
free, 400 miles from Chatham Island. A few days before a heavy sea had
made matchwood of two of the boats, so the westerlies were evidently
blowing strong.

On the 20th a steam pump was rigged down the fore hatchway, and wetted
sails were fastened over all scuttles and vents in the deck. But the
fire continued to gain, and at 6 p.m. it burst through the port bow
and waterways. The four remaining boats were at once provisioned and
got over the side. Seeing that there was not room for everybody in the
boats, Mr. Sargeant the chief officer, 4 A.B.’s and 13 apprentices
agreed to stand by the ship—the remainder of the passengers and crew,
to the number of 78, leaving in the boats under the captain.

As soon as the boats had left, Mr. Sargeant renewed every effort to
subdue the fire, and at the same time altered his course to get into
the track of other ships. Then for 21 days he and his gallant band
fought the flames and the numerous gales of those regions. Finally on
11th May, when the foremast was almost burnt through and tottering, a
ship called the _Dauntless_ hove in sight and took the mate and his
worn-out crew off the doomed _Fiery Star_.

For their gallantry in remaining behind, Mr. Sargeant and his men
were presented with £160 by the people of Auckland, New Zealand, and
right well they deserved it, for in all the glorious history of our
Mercantile Marine fewer brave acts have ever been recorded.


Some Famous Coal Hulks.

Many an old Black Baller ended her days as a coal hulk. Even the winter
North Atlantic could not down the _Red Jacket_ and _Donald Mackay_,
and eventually _Red Jacket_ went to Cape Verde and _Donald Mackay_ to
Madeira as coal hulks. How many of the Union-Castle passengers knew,
when they cast their eyes pityingly or perhaps disdainfully on the
grimy looking hulk floating a cable’s length or so away from their
spotless liner, that they were looking upon a crack passenger ship of
their grandfather’s day.

_Light Brigade_ was a coal hulk at Gibraltar for many years, having as
a companion the famous _Three Brothers_.

The _Golden South_, after lying in Kerosene Bay, Port Jackson, for
about twenty years with her holds full of coal, was burnt through
sparks from the old reformatory ship _Vernon_ falling upon her decks.
The burning of the two ships lit up the hills for miles round, and many
an old time Sydney-sider will remember the spectacle.


Loss of the “Young Australia.”

The _Young Australia_, after ten years’ successful trading between
England and Brisbane, was wrecked on the north point of Moreton Island
on 31st May, 1872, when homeward bound, just four and a half hours
after leaving her anchorage off the pilot station. Whilst the ship was
in the act of going about, the wind fell calm and the heavy easterly
swell and southerly current set the ship towards the rocks. The anchor
was let go too late, and the heavy swell hove the ship broadside on to
the rocks. With some difficulty the passengers were got ashore; and
before night, owing to the way in which the heavy swell was grinding
the ship on the rocks, it was deemed advisable for the crew to abandon
her.

[Illustration: “LIGHT BRIGADE.”]

[Illustration: “YOUNG AUSTRALIA.”]

By the 6th June the wreck had broken in half and was full of water, and
on the 7th it was sold by auction in Brisbane, and after some brisk
bidding was knocked down to a Mr. Martin for the sum of £7100.

The _Champion of the Seas_ foundered off the Horn when homeward bound
in 1877.

The _White Star_ was wrecked in 1883.

_Southern Empire_ fell a victim to the North Atlantic in 1874.

_Royal Dane_ was wrecked on the coast of Chile when homeward bound with
guano in 1877.

The _Morning Star_ foundered on a passage from Samarang to U.K. in 1879.

The _Shalimar_ was bought by the Swiss and the _Morning Light_ by the
Germans, who renamed her _J. M. Wendt_.

The _Queen of the Colonies_ was wrecked off Ushant in 1874, when bound
from Java to Falmouth.

The _Legion of Honour_ went ashore on the Tripoli coast in 1876, after
changing her flag.


The Fate of “Marco Polo.”

The _Marco Polo_ in her old age was owned by Wilson & Blain, of South
Shields; then the Norwegians bought her. After years in the Quebec
timber trade, she was piled up on Cape Cavendish, Prince Edward Island,
in August, 1883, and on the 6th her cargo of pitch-pine and the famous
old ship herself were sold by auction and only fetched £600.

And so we come to the end of a short but wonderful period in the
“History of Sail.”—_Sic transit gloria mundi._



Footnote.


[A] Her first voyage was the one to Mobile.



PART II.—“THE WOOL CLIPPERS.”

(_Wood and Composite Ships_).

  With tallow casks all dunnaged tight, with tiers on tiers of bales,
  With cargo crammed from hatch to hatch, she’s racing for the sales;
  A clipper barque, a model ship, a “flyer” through and through,
  O skipper bluff! O skipper brave! I would I went with you!

    —G. J. BRADY.


The Carriers of the Golden Fleece.

If it was the discovery of gold that founded Australia’s fortune, the
Golden Fleece and the Wheat Sheaf have set it upon a rock.

It was the gold fever that swept the great tide of emigration in the
direction of the Southern Cross and carried the star of the Liverpool
shipowners upon its flood, but that star began to set as soon as the
output of alluvial gold began to diminish, as soon, indeed, as the
great soft-wood clippers of the Black Ball and White Star began to
grow water-soaked and strained, for their prosperity may be said to
have ended with the sixties and had scarcely a longer run than the
classification of their ships. But the percentage of emigrants landed
by these ships, who stuck for any time to the elusive hunt for gold,
was very small; and the greater number of the gold seeking emigrants
eventually settled and worked on the homesteads and great runs of the
interior, with the natural result that there was a large and steady
increase in the output of wool, hides, tallow, wheat and other land
products.

The huge Liverpool emigrant ships, however, were not fitted for the
economical transport of these products to their central market in
London. They were too big for one thing, for, in those early days,
wool and tallow dribbled into the big ports in small amounts; also the
repair bills of these soft-wood clippers were an ever increasing item
to put against their freight receipts.

Thus it came about that the wonderful American-built ships dropped out
of the running. But their London rivals, the beautiful British-built
hard-wood ships of half their size, having no heavy repair bills, being
splendidly built of that imperishable wood teak, and being able to fill
up their small holds quickly, continued to carry passengers outward and
wool homeward until supplanted in their turn by the magnificent iron
clippers of the Clyde, Liverpool and Aberdeen.

=The London Wool Sales.=

These were the days when great races home from Australia took place—not
only did ship race against ship, but it was the aim and object of
every skipper to get his ship home in time for the first wool sales in
London. And in the wool trade, unlike the custom in the tea trade, the
fastest ships were loaded last—the pride of place—that of being the
last ship to leave an Australasian port for the London wool sales being
reserved for that which was considered the fastest ship in the trade.

In the eighties, when the tea trade was entirely in the hands of the
steamers, this pride of place in Sydney was always kept for Willis’
famous clipper, _Cutty Sark_, no other ship, either wood or iron built,
being able to rival her passages both out and home in the wool trade.

The London wool sales took place in January, February and March, and
the lists of the first sales were closed as soon as a sufficient
number of cargoes had arrived or been reported in the Channel. Thus
it was the aim of every skipper to get reported as soon as possible
after reaching the Channel, as the cargoes of ships reported in the
Channel by noon on the opening day of the sales were included in the
sale lists. Whereas if a captain missed the sales, his cargo would
have to be warehoused for perhaps two or three months until the next
sales, thus involving extra expenses such as warehouse charges, loss of
interest, etc., not to speak of the possibility of a fall in the price
of wool.

In those days signal stations were not as numerous on our coasts as
they are now, and so wool clippers on arriving in the Channel kept a
specially sharp look-out for fishing smacks or pilot cutters to take
their reports on shore. Occasionally the captains of the late-starting,
crack ships were promised substantial cheques if they caught the sales
and truly it was money well earned.

=The Lost Art of the Stevedore.=

In the present days of steam, steel and water ballast, stevedoring is
no longer the fine art which it used to be in the days of masts and
yards, clipper keels and oak frames.

As every sailor knows, no two ships are alike, even when built from
the same moulds; and though this is the case with every water-borne
vessel, it is specially noticeable with that almost living thing—the
sailing ship. Not only does every sailing ship have its own character
as regards its stability, but its character often changes with age,
etc., and no tables can give the exact way in which its cargo should be
loaded as regards weights and trim. The hand books on the subject give
rough, general rules, but the captain of a ship, from his own first
hand knowledge of his ship’s peculiarities, would always give careful
instructions to the stevedore as to how he wanted the weights of the
cargo placed or distributed.

So first of all the old time stevedore had to load his ship in
accordance with her own particular character and the wishes of her
captain. Next he had to be an expert packer, especially with a wooden
ship with a hold cut up by big oak frames and knees. No space was
wasted. There is an old story told of a stevedore loading the little
Tasmanian barque _Harriet McGregor_, who sang out to his mate on the
wharf, “Sling us down a box of pickles, Bill!” Then the stevedore had
all sorts of goods in a general cargo, some of which could not be
stowed near each other, such as soda, which melts at sea and destroys
cottons, etc. Also washed wool, leather, flour or wheat would be
damaged if stowed with tallow and greasy wool. Other goods could only
be stowed in the hatches, such as cases of glass, whilst wine and
spirits had to be stowed aft to be out of the way of the crew.

Instances have been known also of ships coming home from Australia with
their iron masts packed full of bullocks’ horns, shank and knuckle
bones, which were more generally used for broken stowage.

An amusing case with regard to bullocks’ horns and knuckle bones
happened on one of Carmichael’s ships, through the mate signing the
bills of lading without examining them. He signed for so many horns,
so many shank bones and so many knuckle bones loose. On arrival in
London the consignee sent a lighter for the horns, and intimated that
he wanted the shank bones delivered entirely separate from the knuckle
bones. Carmichael’s got out of it by some very plain speaking, the
mate’s receipts proving that a fraud had been attempted.

Bags of pearl shell were generally used in Sydney to fill up cargo near
the hatches; and I find in July, 1868, that the _Jerusalem_, (Captain
Largie) shipped 9 tons of mother-of-pearl shell at Melbourne in small
casks and 3-foot cases.

Below are specimens of early cargoes home from Australia in the
sixties, with port charges, pilotage dues, etc.

The ship _Omar Pasha_, Captain Thomas Henry, belonging to Messrs. G.
Thompson, Sons & Co., of

Aberdeen, took in at Melbourne, in October, 1864:—

    3550 bales of wool,
  14,000 hides,
      80 casks of tallow,
      20 tons spelter,
    4000 ounces of gold

and 12 cabin passengers. With the above she drew 19 ft. aft and 18 ft.
9 in. forward, her best trim at sea. The ballast of stones, spelter
and hides was estimated at 430 tons. The wool was screwed in; and the
dunnage, stones and horns, was 12 inches thick in the bottom and 15
inches in the bilges. Port charges were 1s. per ton; pilotage in £28
18s. 6d.; out £28 18s. 6d.

The ship _Transatlantic_, Captain Philip, belonging to Messrs. G.
Thompson, Junr., & Co., of London, took in at Sydney, June, 1864:—

  1360 bales of wool,
   135 casks of tallow,
  5300 hides,
   300 bags and 40 cases Kauri gum,
    50 tons of iron bark timber.

She had no ballast. Dunnage wood in the bottom 9 inches, bilges 12
inches, one treenail between the wool and the sides. So laden, she drew
14½ ft. aft, 14 ft. forward. Her best sea trim was 6 inches by the
stern. Port charges at Sydney, customs entry and shipping office £4
4s.; pilotage out 4d. per ton; the same in.

The ship _Queen of Nations_, Captain Thomas Mitchell, belonging to
Messrs. G. Thompson & Co., left Sydney on 21st September, 1865, loaded
with:—

   484 bales of wool,
    44 bales of cotton,
  1037 casks of cocoanut oil,
   219 casks of tallow,
  2602 ingots and plates of copper,
    62 tons of gum,
  9452 hides.

For ballast she had 30 tons of kentledge; dunnage, treenails and bones,
12 inches in the bottom, 18 in the bilges and 6 in the sides. The hides
were laid from two beams abaft the foremast to the mizen mast; oil on
the hides, with a tier of tallow between; the wool, cotton, gum, etc.,
in the ’tween decks. Her best trim was 9 inches by the stern. So laden
she drew 18 ft. forward and 18½ ft. aft. Pilotage in £14 2s.; out £14
2s.

The _Murray_, under the command of Captain J. Legoe, belonging to
Anderson’s Orient Line, left Adelaide in December, 1863, loaded with:—

   3182 bales of wool,
  19,522 ingots of copper,
   1590 bags of silver lead ore,
    473 bags of copper ore,
     35 boxes silver lead ore,
     15  bales of leather,
    277 calf skins,
   1150 horns,
     16 cases and 10 casks of wine.

She had a full complement of passengers, who occupied 250 tons of cargo
space. So laden she drew 15½ ft. forward and 16 ft. 2 in. aft, her
best draught for sailing being 15 ft. forward and 15 ft. 8 in. aft.
Port charges, harbour dues and light and tonnage dues £28 11s. 6d.;
pilotage in and out £17.

=Screwing Wool.=

As every sailorman knows, wool is screwed into a ship’s hold like
cotton; and a good captain in the old days would see that his ship
was jammed so tight with bales that one would think her seams would
open—indeed wood and composite ships always used to have their decks
and topsides well caulked before loading wool. As showing how much the
amount of wool loaded depended upon the captain, Captain Woodget used
to get 1000 bales more into the _Cutty Sark_ than his predecessor. He
made a habit of spending most of the day in the ship’s hold and thought
nothing of having a tier or half longer pulled down and restowed if he
was not satisfied with the number of bales got in.

  You can dunnage casks o’ tallow; you can handle hides an’ horn;
  You can carry frozen mutton; you can lumber sacks o’ corn;
  But the queerest kind o’ cargo that you’ve got to haul and pull
  Is Australia’s “staple product”—is her God-abandoned wool.
  For it’s greasy an’ it’s stinkin’, an’ them awkward, ugly bales
  Must be jammed as close as herrings in a ship afore she sails.
            For it’s twist the screw and turn it,
            And the bit you get you earn it;
  You can take the tip from me, sir, that it’s anything but play
            When you’re layin’ on the screw,
            When you’re draggin’ on the screw,
  In the summer, under hatches, in the middle o’ the day.

So sings the Australian sailor’s poet Brady.

In the sixties the bales of wool were pressed on shore by hydraulic
power, then lashed with manila or New Zealand hemp, or hoop iron, at
the ship’s expense. The bales were generally pressed on their flats,
but sometimes, for the sake of stowage, on their ends, when they were
called “dumps.” They had to be stowed immediately after being pressed,
as if left for any time, especially in the sun, the wool would swell
and carry away the lashings. There were from 8 to 12 lashings for
each package of Sydney wool, which were called single dumps, doubles,
trebles and fourbles, according to the number lashed together, trebles
being the most common.

[Illustration: House Flags.]

The actual loading of a wool cargo was a slowish process, and sometimes
attended with danger to the stowers if great care was not used, as
wool bales have great elasticity. A description of the uses of screws,
sampson posts, trunk planks, toms, shores, etc., would, I fear, be so
technical as to be wearisome.

One of the chief dangers in a wool cargo is spontaneous combustion.
This caused the end of several fine ships, such as the _Fiery Star_
and the new Orient liner _Aurora_. Spontaneous combustion was likely
to happen if the bales were wet or damp, either when loaded or through
contact with other damp cargo, dunnage, ballast or even sweating water
tanks. Often enough the wool got a wetting on its way to the ship, and
though possibly afterwards sun-dried on the outside of the bales, so
that to all appearances it was perfectly dry, was really damp inside
and very inflammable. Some Australian wool growers contended that the
practice of clipping sheep in the morning when the fleeces were heavy
with dew was a cause of spontaneous combustion.

Wool, of course, being a very light cargo, requires stiffening, but
hides, tallow, etc., were generally used as deadweight, also copper
ore. A ship with a wool cargo was reckoned to require two-thirds of the
ballast necessary when in ballast only. Wool freights in the early days
were 1d. per lb., and gradually fell to a farthing per lb.—this was for
washed wool: the freight for greasy wool, which had not been cleaned
and was therefore heavier than washed wool, being about 25% less.


The Aberdeen White Star Line.

Amongst the pioneers of the trade with the Colonies George Thompson,
of the Aberdeen Clipper Line, known to generations of Australians as
the Aberdeen White Star Line, holds a foremost place. The history
of this celebrated firm dates back to the year 1825, when its first
representative, a clipper brig of 116 tons named the _Childe Harold_,
was sent afloat.

It may safely be said that from that hour the Aberdeen White Star
Line has never looked back. From the first it earned a reputation for
enterprise and good management. Amongst its fleet were numbered some
of the earliest clipper ships built in the United Kingdom, ships whose
records were worthy to rank with those of the celebrated Black Ball and
White Star Lines; and which in their liberal upkeep had little to learn
from even such aristocrats of the sea as the Blackwall frigates.

Until the discovery of gold, the green clippers ran regularly to
Sydney, but when all the world began to take ship for Melbourne, the
port of the gold region, it was only natural that some of the Aberdeen
White Star ships should be put on the Melbourne run, and from that date
the little flyers from Aberdeen were as well known in Hobson’s Bay as
Sydney Cove.

The ships were all built in the yard of Walter Hood, of Aberdeen,
in whose business Messrs. Thompson held a large interest, and were
all designed by Walter Hood with the exception of the celebrated
_Thermopylae_.

George Thompson, who founded the line, was joined, in 1850, by his
son-in-law the late Sir William Henderson, and later on Mr. Thompson’s
sons, Stephen, George and Cornelius, came by turns into the partnership.

The following is a complete list of the wood and composite ships of the
Aberdeen White Star fleet, dating from 1842:—

List of the Wood and Composite Ships of the Aberdeen White Star Fleet.

  1842  _Neptune,_              wood  ship   343 tons.
  1842  _Prince of Wales_        „     „     582  „
  1846  _Oliver Cromwell_        „     „     530  „
  1846  _Phoenician_             „     „     530  „
  1849  _John Bunyan_            „     „     470  „
  1850  _Centurion_              „     „     639  „
  1852  _Woolloomoolloo_         „     „     627  „
  1852  _Walter Hood_            „     „     936  „
  1853  _Maid of Judah_          „     „     756  „
  1854  _Omar Pasha_             „     „    1124  „
  1855  _Star of Peace_          „     „    1113  „
  1856  _Wave of Life_           „     „     887  „
  1857  _Damascus_               „     „     964  „
  1857  _Transatlantic_          „     „     614  „
  1858  _Moravian_               „     „     996  „
  1860  _Strathdon_              „     „    1011  „
  1861  _Queen of Nations_       „     „     872  „
  1862  _Kosciusko_              „     „    1192  „
  1864  _Nineveh_                „     „    1174  „
  1864  _Ethiopian_              „     „     839  „
  1865  _George Thompson_        „     „    1128  „
  1866  _Christiana Thompson_    „     „    1079  „
  1866  _Harlaw_                 „     „     894  „
  1867  _Thyatira_              comp. ship   962  „
  1867  _Jerusalem_             wood  ship   901  „
  1868  _Thermopylae_           comp. ship   948  „
  1868  _Ascalon_               wood  ship   938  „
  1869  _Centurion_             comp. ship   965  „
  1870  _Aviemore_              wood  ship  1091  „

No ships that ever sailed the seas presented a finer appearance than
these little flyers. They were always beautifully kept and were easily
noticeable amongst other ships for their smartness: indeed, when lying
in Sydney Harbour or Hobson’s Bay with their yards squared to a nicety,
their green sides[B] with gilt streak and scroll work at bow and stern
glistening in the sun, their figure-heads, masts, spars and blocks all
painted white and every rope’s end flemish-coiled on snow-white decks,
they were the admiration of all who saw them.

  There’s a jaunty White Star Liner, and her decks are scrubbed and
    clean
  And her tall white spars are spotless, and her hull is painted green.
  Don’t you smell the smoky stingo? Ech! ye’ll ken the Gaelic lingo
  Of the porridge-eating person who was shipped in Aberdeen.
    —Brady.

From the first to the last they were hard-sailed ships, and some of the
fastest were often sent across to China for a home cargo of tea, though
the _Thermopylae_ was the only _bona-fide_ tea clipper in the fleet.

On the outward passage, whether to Sydney or Melbourne, they generally
carried a few first-class passengers, but it was only during the very
height of the gold rush that their ’tween decks were given up to a live
freight.


The “Phoenician.”

The first of the Aberdeen White Star fleet to make a reputation for
speed was the celebrated _Phoenician_, under the command of one of the
best known passage makers of the day, Captain Sproat.

Her dimensions were:—

  Length of cut keel         122  feet.
  Rake of stem                25   „
  Rake of sternpost            7   „
  Extreme breadth             27  feet 5 inches.
  Depth of hold               19   „   1  „
  Registered tonnage (old)   526  tons.
   „          „      (new)   478   „
  Deadweight capacity        780   „

Her first three voyages were considered extraordinarily good for those
days.

  1849-50 London to Sydney 90 days—Sydney to London  88 days.
  1850-51 London to Sydney 96 days—Sydney to London 103 days.
  1851-52 London to Sydney 90 days—Sydney to London  83 days.

The _John Bunyan_ in 1850 made the run home from Shanghai in 99 days,
which, even though she had a favourable monsoon, was a very fine
performance.

The _Walter Hood_ on her maiden voyage under the command of Captain
Sproat made the passage out to Australia in 80 days, and the account
given in the papers remarks:—“Her sailing qualities may be judged from
the fact of her having run during four several days 320 miles each 24
hours.”

The _Maid of Judah_ had the honour of taking out the Royal Mint to
Sydney in 1853. Her dimensions are interesting to compare with those of
the _Phoenician_, so I give them:—

  Length of keel        160 feet.
  Length over all       190   „
  Beam                  31    „
  Depth of hold         19    „

The _Queen of Nations_, under Captain Donald, went from Plymouth to
Melbourne in 87 and 84 days; but the fastest of these earlier clippers
was the well-known _Star of Peace_, which made four consecutive
passages to Sydney of 77, 77, 79, and 79 days under the redoubtable
Captain Sproat.

I remember seeing a picture of this fine clipper, representing her off
the Eddystone when homeward bound. She was a very rakish looking craft
with long overhangs and carried a heavy press of sail, which included
double topsails, skysails, main and mizen sky staysails and also
three-cornered moonsails stretching to the truck of each mast.

The _Ethiopian_, on her first voyage to Melbourne, went out in 68
days under Captain William Edward. She sailed her last voyage under
the British flag in 1886. She was then rigged as a barque, and on
her passage home from Sydney had a remarkable race with the iron
_Orontes_, belonging to the same owners. The two vessels cast off
their tugs together outside Sydney Heads, sighted each other off the
Horn, were becalmed together in the doldrums, spoke the same ship off
the Western Isles; and when the chops of the Channel were reached,
the _Ethiopian_ was hove to taking soundings in a fog, when the
_Orontes_ came up under her stern within hailing distance. Finally
the _Ethiopian_ got into the East India Docks one tide ahead of the
_Orontes_, thus winning the race and a considerable sum in wagers.


The Lucky “Nineveh.”

The _Nineveh_, built the same year as the _Ethiopian_, was an extremely
lucky ship in her freights and passengers and made a great deal of
money. Old Stephen Thompson was so pleased that he gave Captain Barnet
a banquet at the Holborn Restaurant, and all through the dinner kept
toasting “the lucky _Nineveh_.”


The “Jerusalem.”

These wooden clippers were often very tender coming home with wool,
as the following reminiscence given by Coates in his _Good Old Days
of Shipping_ will show:—“Apropos of _Jerusalem_, I remember a most
exciting race with the large American ship _Iroquois_. We were homeward
bound from the Colonies, flying light and very crank, a not uncommon
condition with a wool cargo. The Yank was first sighted on our quarter,
the wind being quarterly, blowing moderately, though squally at times.

“Whilst the wind remained so the _Iroquois_ had no chance, but when
it freshened the _Jerusalem_ heeled over to such an extent that it
necessitated sail being taken in. Soon the American was ploughing
along to leeward carrying her three topgallant sails and whole mainsail
and going as steady as a die, whilst the _Jerusalem_ was flying along
with fore and main lower topgallants and reefed mainsail, but heeling
over to such a degree that one could barely stand upright, the water
roaring up through the lee scuppers, and during the squalls lipping in
over the rail.

“In a short time the topgallant sails and mainsail were handed and
preparations made to reef the fore topsail. By this time, however, the
_Iroquois_ had just passed the beam, when, apparently, her skipper,
satisfied to have passed us, snugged his ship down to three reefed
topsails and we shortly after lost sight of her in a blinding squall.”

And Coates goes on to say:—“To see this ship when moderately light was
a great pleasure, her lines were the perfection of symmetry. In one day
I remember 324 miles being got out of this ship; she was one of the
first to carry double topgallant yards.”

As a matter of fact, the _Jerusalem_ was generally considered the
fastest ship in the fleet next to _Thermopylae_. She made several very
good passages from China in the seventies of under 110 days. Captain
Crutchley, in his book _My Life at Sea_, gives an instance of her
speed, in describing how she raced ahead of the tea clipper _Omba_,
both ships being bound up the Channel with a strong beam wind. On this
occasion, however, it was the _Omba_ which was the tender ship, as she
could not carry her royals though the _Jerusalem_ had all plain sail
set.

The _Thyatira_, Thompson’s first composite ship, was also a very
ticklish vessel to handle when wool-laden. On her maiden voyage she
went out to Melbourne in 77 days, but took 96 days to get home, during
which passage she gave her officers much anxiety owing to her extreme
tenderness.


Captain Mark Breach’s First Encounter with his Owner.

Captain Mark Breach, one of the best known of the Aberdeen White Star
captains, entered the employ of the firm as second mate on the newly
launched _Thyatira_. The _Thyatira_ was on the berth for Melbourne
when he joined her. On his second day aboard he was superintending the
stowage of cargo in the hold, when old Stephen Thompson came down to
have a look round. The _Thyatira’s_ owner happened to be smoking a fine
meerschaum pipe, and young Breach, being completely ignorant of the
identity of the visitor, immediately went up to him and informed him
in no uncertain language that his lighted pipe was dead against all
rules and regulations. Mr. Thompson, without disclosing his identity,
at once apologised and returned his pipe to its case. Presently when
the visitor had departed, the mate asked Mr. Breach what he had been
talking to Mr. Thompson about. And one may well imagine that the new
second mate was somewhat scared when he learnt that it was his owner
to whom he had been laying down the law. However, the mate comforted
him by telling him that Stephen Thompson had been very pleased and
prophesied that he would be a good servant to the company.

Mark Breach afterwards served as mate of the _Miltiades_, then
commanded the _Jerusalem_, _Aviemore_, and finally the famous
_Patriarch_.

The _Thyatira_ was a very favourite ship and made some very good
passages. She and the _Jerusalem_ both loaded tea home from China on
more than one occasion, and made passages of under 110 days in the N.E.
monsoon.


The “Thermopylae.”

_Thermopylae’s_ career I have already dealt with fully in the _China
Clippers_. Her sail plan was cut down twice in her old age, thus taking
off a good deal of her speed in light weather, but even then there were
not many vessels which could give her the go-by, either in light or
heavy weather.


The “Centurion.”

The second _Centurion_ was launched in the spring of 1869, and
measured:—Length 208 ft.; beam 35 ft.; depth 21 ft. Captain Mitchell
overlooked her building and was her first commander. She was a very
fast ship and he always hoped to beat the _Thermopylae_ with her, but
never succeeded.

On her first voyage she went out to Sydney in 69 days. It was a light
weather passage and she never started the sheets of her main topgallant
sail the whole way. She is stated to have made 360, 348 and 356 miles
in three successive days running down her easting, but I have been
unable to verify these runs. Captain Mitchell died on her second voyage
just before reaching the Channel homeward bound. She also made some
creditable tea passages, but was mostly kept in the Sydney trade. In
1871 she went out in 77 days and in 1872 in 78 days.


The “Aviemore.”

The _Aviemore_ was the last of the wooden ships, and at the date of
her launch, the first iron ship built for Thompsons, the celebrated
_Patriarch_, had already proved herself such a success as to put all
idea of building any but iron ships in the future out of the question.


The Fate of the Early White Star Clippers.

The first _Centurion_ ended her days as a total loss in 1866.

The _Walter Hood_ was wrecked near Jervis Bay Lighthouse, New South
Wales, on 27th April, 1870, when bound from London to Sydney with
general cargo, her captain and 12 men being drowned.

The _Woolloomoolloo_ ended her days under the Spanish flag and was
wrecked in 1885.

The _Maid of Judah_ was sold to Cowlislaw Bros., of Sydney, in 1870. In
December, 1879, she left Sydney for Shanghai, coal-laden, with Captain
Webb in command, and the following June was condemned and broken up at
Amoy.

The _Omar Pasha_ was burnt at sea in 1869, when homeward bound from
Brisbane, wool-laden.

The celebrated _Star of Peace_, after being run for some years by
Burns, Philp & Co., of Sydney, was converted into a hulk at Thursday
Island, being only broken up in 1895.

The _Wave of Life_ was sold to Brazil, and sailed as the _Ida_ until
1891, when she was renamed _Henriquita_. Finally she was condemned and
broken up in March, 1897.

The _Damascus_ was bought by the Norwegians, who changed her name to
_Magnolia_. On 1st September, 1893, she stranded at Bersimis and became
a total loss.

The _Transatlantic_ was rebuilt in 1876; in 1878 she was owned by J. L.
Ugland, of Arendal; and on 15th October, 1899, when bound to Stettin
from Mobile, she foundered in the Atlantic.

The _Moravian_ was sold to J. E. Ives, of Sydney, and ended her days as
a hulk, being broken up at Sydney in March, 1895.

The _Strathdon_, under the name of _Zwerver_, did many years’ service
with the Peruvian flag at her gaff end. She was broken up in 1888.

The _Queen of Nations_ was wrecked near Woolloagong, New South Wales,
on 31st May, 1881, when bound out to Sydney. All hands were saved
except one.

The _Kosciusko_, like the _Maid of Judah_, was bought by Cowlislaw
Bros., being broken up at Canton in 1899.

The _Nineveh_ was bought by Goodlet & Smith, of Sydney. She was
abandoned in the North Pacific in February, 1896.

The _Ethiopian_ was sold to the Norwegians. In October, 1894, when
bound from St. Thomas to Cork, she was abandoned near the Western
Isles. She was afterwards picked up 15 miles from Fayal and towed into
St. Michael’s, where she was condemned.

The _George Thompson_ passed through the hands of A. Nicol & Co., of
Aberdeen, and J. Banfield, of Sydney, to the Chileans. On 13th June,
1902, she was wrecked at Carlemapu.

The _Christiana Thompson_ went to the Norwegians and was renamed
_Beatrice Lines_. She was wrecked near Umra in Norway on 7th October,
1899.

The _Harlaw_ was wrecked at Hongkong in 1878.

The _Jerusalem_, like many of the others, was converted into a
barque in her old age. In 1887 she was bought by the Norwegians. On
28th October, 1893, she left New Brunswick for London with a cargo
of pitch-pine and resin and never arrived, the usual end of timber
droghers on the stormy North Atlantic.

The _Thyatira_ was bought by J. W. Woodside & Co., of Belfast, in 1894.
In July, 1896, when bound from London to Rio with general cargo, she
was wrecked at Pontal da Barra.

The _Ascalon_ was bought by Trinder, Anderson & Co. in 1881. They ran
her for nine years and then sold her to the Norwegians. She was wrecked
on 7th February, 1907, at Annalong, when bound from Runcorn to Moss.

The second _Centurion_ left Sydney for Newcastle, N.S.W., on 17th
January, 1887; at 1.30 a.m. whilst off the Heads, the tug’s line
carried away: the ship drifted on to the North Head, struck and then
sank in 18 fathoms, barely giving her crew 15 minutes to get clear.

The _Aviemore_ was bought by the Norwegians. In October, 1910, she
left Sandejford for the South Shetland where she was converted into a
floating oil refinery. Later she was resold to the Norwegians, and I
have a snapshot of her taken in Bristol in 1915, rigged as a barque
with a stump bowsprit.


Duthie’s Ships.

Another well-known Aberdeen firm which was a pioneer in the Australian
trade was Duthies. They were builders as well as owners. The original
William Duthie started his shipbuilding business over 100 years ago.
Besides owning many of the ships he built, he was also a large timber
merchant, and kept some vessels in the North American timber trade.
He was also one of the first to send ships to the Chinchas and Peru
for guano. He eventually turned over his shipbuilding business to his
brothers John and Alexander, but retained his interest in some of the
ships.

The first of Duthie’s ships of which I have any record is the _Jane
Pirie_, of 427 tons, built in 1847 for the Calcutta trade and commanded
by a well-known skipper of those days, Captain James Booth.

The next vessel to be launched by Duthie was the _Brilliant_ in 1850.
She measured 555 tons, and, commanded by Captain Murray and sailing
under Duthie’s house-flag, she became a very popular passenger clipper
in the time of the gold rush. On her first outward passage she went
from London to Melbourne in 87 days, and this was about her average.
She generally loaded wool for the London market at Geelong, and made
the homeward run in under 90 days.

Few ships came home from the Antipodes in those days without gold dust
on board; and the _Brilliant_ on one occasion brought home 7 tons of
gold, giving Captain Murray an anxious time until he had it safely
handed over to the Bank of England. After a dozen years as a first
class passenger and wool clipper the _Brilliant_ was debased to the
guano and nitrate trades, being finally lost at sea when homeward bound
from Callao with a cargo of guano.

The next of Duthie’s ships was the _James Booth_, of 636 tons, named
after the celebrated captain. She was launched in 1851 for the Calcutta
trade.

In 1852 Duthie built the _Ballarat_, 713 tons, for the great shipowner
Duncan Dunbar. The _Ballarat_ distinguished herself by coming home from
Melbourne in 69 days in 1855. All these early ships had the famous
Aberdeen clipper bow and painted ports, and ably maintained the high
reputation of the Aberdeen clipper.

In the sixties Messrs. Duthie launched the following well-known wool
clippers, all called after various members of the family:—

  1862 _William Duthie_ wood ship       968 tons.
  1863 _Martha Birnie_    „   „         832  „
  1864 _John Duthie_      „   „        1031  „
  1867 _Alexander Duthie_ „   „        1159  „
  1868 _Ann Duthie_       „   „         994  „

The ships were all three skysail yarders, and good passage makers; they
were kept almost entirely in the Sydney trade, and must have made good
dividends in those early days. The _John Duthie_ on one occasion made
£5000 freight for the wool passage home. Her commander at that time was
Captain Levi, a very well-known character, who always offered a glass
of Scotch and an apple to any visitor who came aboard his ship.

The next Duthie ship was the _Abergeldie_, of 1152 tons. She was their
first ship with iron in her composition, having iron beams. She was
launched in 1869, the same year as the _Windsor Castle_, a beautiful
little wood ship of 979 tons, which Duthie built for Donaldson Rose.
This _Windsor Castle_ must not be confused with Green’s Blackwall
frigate of the same name. For some years both ships were trading to
Sydney, and one year there was more than a little confusion owing
to the two _Windsor Castles_ arriving out on the same day. Duthie’s
_Windsor Castle_ made many fine passages both out and home, her best
known commander being Captain Fernie. After being sold her name was
changed to _Lumberman’s Lassie_, and under this name she was for many
years a well-known Colonial trader, and finally a coal hulk.


Passages of Aberdeen Ships to Sydney, 1872-1873.

The best passage made out to Sydney between these dates was that of the
iron tea clipper _Halloween_ on her maiden voyage. She left the Thames
on 1st July, 1872, crossed the line in 27° W. on the 20th, 19 days out,
crossed the meridian of the Cape on 10th August, 40 days out, ran her
easting down in 42° and arrived in Sydney on 8th September, 69 days out.

Another very famous Aberdeen ship, the _Star of Peace_, left London,
21st September, 1873, and arrived at Melbourne on 16th December, 86
days out.

This little table will perhaps give a good idea of the usual passages
made by the wood and composite built ships.

  +-------------+--------+-------+-----+--------+-------+-------+----+
  |             |        |       |     |Crossed |  Ran  |       |    |
  |             |        |Crossed| in  |Meridian|Easting|       |D’ys|
  |    Ship     |Sailed  |Equator|Long.|of Cape | Down  |Arrived|Out |
  |             |        |       |     |        |in Lat.|       |    |
  +-------------+--------+-------+-----+--------+-------+-------+----+
  |             |  1872  |       | °   |        | °     |       |    |
  |_Thyatira_   |Feb.  23|Mar. 20| 22 W|April 25| 42 S  |May  23| 89 |
  |_Ann Duthie_ |Mar.   5| „   25| 27  |  —     | 48    | „   24| 80 |
  |_Ascalon_    | „     5|April 2| 23  |April 30| 41    |June  7| 94 |
  |_Maid of_    | „    21| „   18| 22  |May   21|  —    | „   23| 94 |
  |  _Judah_    |        |       |     |        |       |       |    |
  |_Centurion_  |April 18|May  10| 22  |June   8| 39    |July  5| 78 |
  |_John Duthie_|June   4|June 30| 27  |July  28| 42    |Aug. 29| 86 |
  |_Strathdon_  |July   8|Aug. 14| 26  |Sept.  9| 45    |Oct. 25|109 |
  |_William_    | „    16| „   17| 27  | „    15| 44    | „   31|107 |
  |  _Duthie_   |        |       |     |        |       |       |    |
  |_Ethiopian_  | „    25| „   29| 21  |   —    |  —    | „   31| 98 |
  |             |1873    |       |     |        |       |       |    |
  |_Harlaw_     |Feb.   5|Feb. 25| 23  |Mar.  22| 45    |April29| 83 |
  |_Nineveh_    | „    11|Mar.  8| 21  |April  3| 44    |May   1| 79 |
  |_Aviemore_   |Mar.  14| „   29| 23  |May   28| 45    |June  4| 82 |
  |_Abergeldie_ |July   7|  —    |  —  |Sept.  1| 42    |Oct.  2| 87 |
  +-------------+----------+-----+-----+--------+-------+-------+----+


The South Australian Trade.

During the sixties and seventies, when Sydney and Melbourne were
filling their harbours with the finest ships in the British Mercantile
Marine, Adelaide, in a smaller way, was carrying on an ever increasing
trade of her own, in which some very smart little clippers were making
very good money and putting up sailing records which could well bear
comparison with those made by the more powerful clippers sailing to
Hobson’s Bay and Port Jackson.

From the early fifties South Australia had been sending wool home in
exchange for general cargoes from London.

This trade was in the hands of two or three well-run firms, such as
the Orient, Devitt & Moore and Elder. These firms owned some beautiful
little composite ships, which up till now have received scant notice
in the annals of our Mercantile Marine. These little clippers, most of
them well under 1000 tons register, were driven as hard as any Black
Ball or White Star crack, and this without the incentive of publicity.

Their captains, however, were always in keen rivalry and put a high
value on their reputations as desperate sail carriers. They made little
of weather that would have scared men who commanded ships of three
times the tonnage of the little Adelaide clippers, and they were not
afraid of a little water on deck—indeed, when running down the easting,
their ships were more like half-tide rocks than merchant vessels, being
swept from end to end by every roaring sea; and even in only a fresh
breeze their decks were hidden by a curtain of spray.

It was a common saying that they took a dive on leaving the tropics,
came up to breathe at the Cape and did not reappear again till off Cape
Borda. A South Australian trader prided himself on carrying a main
topgallant sail when other ships were snugged down to reefed topsails;
and he considered that he had made a bad passage if he was not up
with Cape Borda in 70 days. Indeed he usually began to look for the
Australian coast about the 60th day out, and if he was at sea for much
longer than that without raising the land would begin to think that he
had overrun his distance and got into the Gulf of St. Vincent.

It is not surprising, therefore, that the crews of these vessels rarely
knew what it was to have a dry shirt on their backs, and usually had
had more than enough of it by the time they were off Kangaroo Island;
thus it was the general thing for them to run on arrival.

The late Mr. Barry wrote the following interesting account of the usual
homeward bound crew on a South Australian wool clipper:—“They loaded
some of the golden fleece at the Port and the rest perhaps at Port
Augusta at the head of Spencer’s Gulf. There one could see at times
quite a clump of pretty little clippers lying in the stream between
the mangrove-clad shores, waiting for the camel trains to come in from
Pekina and Coonatto and Mount Remarkable. Much rivalry there was too
between the ships, as to which should get her hatches battened down
first, complete her crew and clear away for the February wool sales.
And men in those days were not always easy to procure, for the long,
cold Cape Horn passage and the prospect of shipping again out of
London at 50s. per month were not very tempting experiences. Thus it
often happened crews ran in Port Adelaide and ‘runners’ or temporary
hands, just shipped for the trip, had to be engaged to take the vessel
round to Port Augusta. These returning by the _Penola_ or the _Royal
Shepherd_ or the _Aldinga_ left the shipmasters to trust in providence
for men to work the vessels home. But, now and again, bushmen coming
down country for a spree at ‘the Port’, a mere hamlet, consisting then
mainly of gnats, sand and galvanized iron, would be induced, once
their money was gone, to sign articles for the trip home. Men who had
never thought to use the sea again, bullock drovers, boundary riders,
shepherds and station hands of every description were thus often found
on board the clippers of the composite wool fleet. Many of them had
not been to sea for years; but before they had got the smell of ice in
their nostrils all the old tricks of the craft came back to them and
better crowds no skipper could wish for, if at times apt to be a little
intolerant and careless of discipline, with the liberal life of the
bush so close behind them.

“A hard experience, too, it generally proved for them, quite unprovided
as they (for the most part) were with a sea-going outfit of any
description and dependent on the often scantily supplied slop chest.
And many a time when washing along the decks in icy Cape Horn seas
or hoisting the frozen canvas aloft, while hail and rain pelted and
soaked them, poorly fed, poorly clad, the merest sport of the bitter
southern weather, they regretted with oaths deep and sincere their snug
bunks and ‘all night in’ of the far away bush stations, where tempests
troubled them not and the loud command of ‘all hands’ was unknown. Nor,
as a rule, London Town once reached, did they lose any time in looking
for a ship bound to some part of the country they had so foolishly
left.”


The Orient Line.

Of the firms which were chiefly instrumental in exploiting the South
Australian trade first mention should perhaps be made of the Orient
Line of clippers, the forerunners of the present Orient Line of
steamers.

The Orient Line was originally started by James Thompson & Co., who had
a number of small ships and barques trading to the West Indies, then
Mr. James Anderson joined the firm and eventually became head partner,
upon which the name was changed to Anderson, Anderson & Co.

The first of the firm’s Australian ships was the _Orient_ and this
vessel gave her name to the line.

The Orient Line were nothing if not enterprising. Most of their
vessels were built in the Nelson Docks, Rotherhithe, to the designs
of Mr. Bilbe. Mr. Bilbe was a designer of great ability and he and
Mr. Perry, an old shipmaster, were the working partners of the Nelson
Dock, which consisted of a dry dock and a building yard, owned by
Anderson, Anderson & Co. Mr. James Anderson had a wonderful knowledge
of everything pertaining to ships and their business, and like many
an old-fashioned shipowner took a practical interest in his ships,
and nothing either in their design, construction or management was
undertaken without his approval.

Messrs. Bilbe & Perry built one of the earliest composite clippers, the
_Red Riding Hood_. She was launched in 1857 some six years before the
first of the composite tea clippers. They also went in for iron ships
at an early date, their first iron ship, the _White Eagle_, being built
as far back as 1855. But owing chiefly to a very ill-advised strike of
shipwrights, the Thames builders found themselves unable to compete
with the North in iron shipbuilding and the Clyde took the trade which
should have belonged to the Thames. Thus 1866 saw the last of the
Thames composites to be built in the Nelson Dock when _Argonaut_ was
launched for the Adelaide trade.

However, Messrs. Anderson, Anderson & Co. meant to have the fastest
ships procurable, and gave Hall, of Aberdeen, Steele, of Greenock and
the Sunderland shipyards each a chance to turn them out a flyer.

=The “Orient.”=

The _Orient_, the pioneer of the line, was launched at Rotherhithe in
1853, and measured:—

  Registered tonnage           1033  tons.
  Length                       184.4  feet.
  Beam                          31.7   „
  Depth                         21.1   „

She was built to participate in the gold boom to Melbourne, and was
fitted to carry passengers under a poop 61 feet long. However she
was not destined to start life on the Australian run, for she had
barely been launched before she was taken up by the Government for the
transport of troops to the Crimea. At the landing at Alma in September,
1854, she was transport No. 78, carrying the 88th Connaught Rangers.
She managed to ride out the gale of the 14th November, 1854, off
Balaclava, in which 34 of the Allied ships were wrecked and over 1000
lives lost. And in October, 1855, we find her acting as a hospital ship
during the expedition against Kinburn and Odessa. In 1856 she returned
to London and was then put on the berth for Adelaide. She sailed from
Plymouth under Captain A. Lawrence on the 5th July, 1856, with a full
passenger list, and hence forward was a favourite passenger ship in the
South Australian trade.


“Orient’s” Outward Passages.

The following table gives her time out for twenty-one voyages under the
Orient flag. She generally took about 95 days coming home _via_ the
Cape, calling in at Capetown and St. Helena, as it was the custom with
ships carrying passengers.

[Illustration: “ORIENT.”

Arriving at Gibraltar with Troops from the Crimea.

_From a lithograph._]

  +-----+----------------+----------+-----------+-----------+-----+
  |     |                | Date Left| Date Left | Date Arrd.|     |
  |Date.|  Captain.      |  London. | Plymouth. |    Port   | Days|
  |     |                |          |           | Adelaide. | Out.|
  +-----+----------------+----------+-----------+-----------+-----+
  |1856 | A. Lawrence    | June  28 | July   5  | Sept. 24  |  81 |
  |1857 |      „         |  „    28 |   „    2  |   „   22  |  82 |
  |1858 |      „         |  „    28 |   „    4  |   „   18  |  76 |
  |1859 |      „         |  „    28 |   „    2  |   „   23  |  83 |
  |1860 |      „         | May   29 | June   5  | Aug.  24  |  80 |
  |1861 |      „         |  „    26 |   „    1  |   „   20  |  80 |
  |1862 | Harris         |  „    27 |   „    2  |   „   24  |  83 |
  |1863 |   „            |  —       | May    1  | July  12  |  73 |
  |1864 |   „            | May   29 | June   2  | Aug.  22  |  81 |
  |1865 |   „            | April 29 | May    4  | July  20  |  77 |
  |1866 |   „            | Sept. 10 | Sept. 16  | Nov.  27  |  72 |
  |1868 | R. de Steiger  | Oct.  31 | Nov.   6  | Jan.  26  |  81 |
  |1869 |       „        | Aug.  29 | Sept.  1  | Nov.  24  |  84 |
  |1870 |       „        | Sept. 17 |   „   22  | Dec.  17  |  86 |
  |1871 |       „        | Aug.  28 |   „    2  | Nov.  27  |  86 |
  |1872 | W. H. Mitchell | Nov.   4 | Nov.   7  | Jan.  27  |  81 |
  |1873 |       „        | Sept. 28 |  —        | Dec.  16  |  79 |
  |1874 |       „        | July  25 | Downs 27  | Oct.  19  |  84 |
  |1875 |       „        |   „   22 | Downs 25  |   „   16  |  83 |
  |1876 | M. Haffner     |   „   23 |   —       |   „   11  |  80 |
  |1877 |      „         | Aug.  21 |   —       | Dec.   3  | 104 |
  +-----+----------------+----------+-----------+-----------+-----+


“Orient” Nearly Destroyed by Fire.

On 3rd November, 1861, the _Orient_ left Adelaide with 2600 bales of
wool, some copper ore and several passengers. Touching at the Cape she
left Table Bay on 18th December. On the morning of 2nd January, smoke
was observed to be rising from the fore hatch. Captain Lawrence at
once had the lower deck hatches lifted fore and aft, but there was no
smoke in the hold, which seemed to prove that the fire was confined
to the ’tween decks. The hands were turned to breaking out cargo, but
were driven from the fore hold after getting to the third beam aft of
the hatchway. The mainsail was then hauled up and the fore hatches put
on to prevent a current of air. The main hatchway was then opened and
an attempt made to break out the cargo from that hatch, but again
the crew were driven back. The hatches were next battened down and
every aperture closed. The carpenter was then ordered to bore holes
in the deck. He started in the galley and gradually worked forward
until he was over the seat of the fire. On this being found the fire
engine, condensing engine and every other means was brought into use
for pouring water below; and as fast as it went down it was sucked up
again by the ship’s pumps. The deck ports and scupper holes, also, were
closed and the deck itself kept some inches deep in water.

Whilst the crew fought the fire, the passengers, under the direction of
the bosun, provisioned and lowered the boats and streamed them astern.
At 5 p.m. dense smoke began to issue from the scuttle under the fore
chains, the woodwork was charred, and the glass bull’s-eye melted. The
scuttles were immediately plugged and the deck cut through at this
place. The result was startling. Smoke and flames burst out in volumes.
All night long the crew kept doggedly at the pumps and fire engine.
Next day the women passengers were all transferred to a Dutch ship
which stood by the burning _Orient_. At last the fire was smothered and
on the 5th January the _Orient_ arrived at Ascension, where a large
portion of the cargo was taken out and examined. She was temporarily
repaired and then proceeded, and arrived safely in the London River.

Twelve of her timbers were so charred that they had to be replaced,
together with the planking of the main deck as far aft as the main
hatch. The saving of this ship was a very fine performance and the
underwriters presented Captain Lawrence with a piece of plate worth
£100, and also £800 for himself, officers and crew. The steadiness and
discipline of both passengers and crew were worthy of all praise, and
undoubtedly saved the ship.


The “Orient” delivers her Carpenter’s Chest to the “Lammermuir” in
Mid-Ocean.

In 1872 the _Orient_ was diagonally sheathed, and Captain Mitchell took
command of her.

In 1873 the _Orient_ was just about to leave London for Adelaide, when
old John Willis, with his frock-coat flying open and his white hat on
the back of his head, came aboard and said to Captain Mitchell: “The
carpenter of my _Lammermuir_ has left his tool chest and tools behind;
will you take them out to Adelaide and deliver them to him.”

“No,” replied Captain Mitchell, who was a skipper of the good old sort,
“but I will take them and deliver them before I reach the line.”

The _Lammermuir_ had sailed some 10 days before on the 12th of
September to be exact. Old John Willis immediately offered to bet
Captain Mitchell £5 that he would not be as good as his word. The bet
was accepted and the _Orient_ sailed on 28th September. In 5° N. a ship
was sighted ahead and overhauled. It turned out to be the _Lammermuir_.
Signals were exchanged, and a boat put over with the chest on board,
and the _Lammermuir’s_ carpenter duly received his tools as Captain
Mitchell had promised. The two ships then parted company and the
_Orient_ eventually arrived at Adelaide on the 16th December, 79 days
out, the _Lammermuir_ arriving six days later.

It was a great triumph, and the apprentices of the _Orient_ composed
a pumping chanty to the tune of “Marching through Georgia” to
commemorate it, the first verse of which ran as follows:—

  The _Lammermuir_ left London, boys,
  A fortnight’s start she’d got,
  She was bound to Adelaide,
  Her passage to be short,
  But the _Orient_ overhauled her
  Before halfway she’d got
  As we were sailing to Australia.

In 1879 the _Orient_ was sold to Cox Bros., of Waterford, and she was
still afloat quite recently as a coal hulk at Gibraltar.


The Little “Heather Bell.”

In 1855 Hall, of Aberdeen, built the little _Heather Bell_ for Brown &
Co., from whom the Orient Line bought her. Her measurements were:—

  Registered tonnage       479 tons.
  Length                   155 feet.
  Beam                     28.5  „
  Depth                    17.5  „

She was not one of the South Australian traders, however, but ran
regularly to Sydney and Melbourne. She made herself famous by a
wonderful run home from Melbourne under Captain William Harmsworth. She
left Port Phillip Heads on 15th October, 1856, with a strong easterly
wind and took the route down the West Coast of Tasmania. In spite of
five days of easterly gales, she made the passage to the Horn in 26
days. The record for this run was made by the _Lightning_ in 1854,
being 19 days. _Heather Bell_ ran from the Horn to the line in 21 days.
This was a record, and considered such a remarkable performance that it
was pricked off on old South Atlantic charts. And so far as I know, it
has only been twice beaten, once by the _Cutty Sark_ and once by the
_Thomas Stephens_. _Heather_ _Bell_ made the land at Start Point 20
days from the line, thus making a passage of 67 days. Her best 24-hour
run was 330 miles, and her best week’s work was 1885 miles. Of course
she had great luck with her winds, but, even so, she proved herself a
very speedy little ship.

_Heather Bell_ had a long life of 39 years, and was finally broken up
at Balmain, Sydney, in 1894.


The “Murray.”

Another Adelaide passenger ship belonging to Anderson was the _Murray_.
She was built by Hall, of Aberdeen, in 1861, being the last Orient
liner to be built entirely of wood. Her measurements were:—

  Registered tonnage       903  tons.
  Length of keel           180  feet.
  Beam                     33.3  „
  Depth                    20.8  „

She had a long floor with sharp ends, and, whilst fitted with every
convenience for passengers, she carried a very large cargo on a very
small draught.

The _Murray_ was considered a fast ship, her best day’s run being 325
miles, but I can best show her capabilities as to speed by recalling a
race which she sailed with the well-known Blackwall frigate _Hotspur_.

The two ships, as was usual with passengers on board, had called in at
Capetown; and they left Table Bay together. Then with stunsails set
alow and aloft they were 11 days in company running down to St. Helena.
In 26° N. they again met and were six days in company, finally they
made the Channel within a day of each other, the _Hotspur_ leading.

Regarding this race, the late Captain Whall, who was on board the
_Hotspur_, says of the run to St. Helena: “The wind was steady, and
the two ships seemed so nearly matched that for hours together our
bearings did not alter.”

Under the well-known Captain Legoe, the _Murray_ made the following
fine passages out from Plymouth:—

  1861 Left Plymouth, July 26, arrived Adelaide Oct.  16—82 days out.
  1862 Left Plymouth, July 13, arrived Adelaide Sept. 30—79 days out.
  1863 Left Plymouth, July 15, arrived Adelaide Sept. 26—73 days out.
                                            (68 days to the Borda).
  1864 Left Plymouth, Aug.  5, arrived Adelaide Oct.  21—77 days out.


The Orient Composite Clippers.

It was during the sixties that the Orient Line came to be known in
Australia for the remarkable speed of its beautiful little composite
clippers, consisting of:—

  +------------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
  | Date Built |    Ship   | Tonnage |     Builders.     |
  +------------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
  |    1863    | _Coonatto_|   633   | Bilbe, of London  |
  |    1864    | _Goolwa_  |   717   | Hall, of Aberdeen |
  |    1864    | _Borealis_|   920   | Bilbe, of London  |
  |    1865    | _Darra_   |   999   | Hall, of Aberdeen |
  |    1865    | _Yatala_  |  1127   | Bilbe, of London  |
  |    1866    | _Argonaut_|  1073   |   „          „    |
  +------------+-----------+---------+-------------------+

The _Coonatto’s_ measurements were—Length 160 ft. 2 in.; beam 29 ft.;
depth 18 ft. 7 in. She was an out and out clipper with very fine lines,
but like most of Bilbe’s ships—very wet. However this may in part be
put down to the hard-driving of her skipper, Begg, a Highlander, who
never spared her and made some very smart passages out and home. Her
best run to the Semaphore Lightship was 66 days, and she once did a
70-day passage out after broaching to off St. Paul’s Island and losing
both helmsmen and the wheel itself overboard. This famous little ship
stranded on Beachy Head in 1876.

[Illustration: “PEKINA” and “COONATTO,” at Port Adelaide, 1867.]

[Illustration: “JOHN DUTHIE,” at Circular Quay, Sydney.]

The _Darra_ also went out to Adelaide in under 70 days, on which
occasion her captain wrote home that she “dived off the Cape and came
up to blow off the Leeuwin.”


“Yatala.”

Probably the fastest of the six was the fine passenger clipper
_Yatala_, which the redoubtable Captain Legoe left the _Murray_ to
command. The record from London to Adelaide, pilot to pilot, 65 days,
was shared by the _Yatala_ and Devitt & Moore’s clipper _City of
Adelaide_ until the famous _Torrens_ beat it.

Unfortunately, _Yatala_ came to an early end, and the following are the
times of her outward passages during her short existence:—

  +------+----------------+-------------------+-----------+
  | Date.|  Left Plymouth | Arrived Adelaide. | Days Out  |
  +------+----------------+-------------------+-----------+
  | 1865 |     Aug.  4    |      Oct.  27     |    84     |
  | 1866 |      „    2    |       „    14     |    73     |
  | 1867 |      „   10    |       „    15     |    66     |
  | 1868 |     July  9    |      Sept. 24     |    77     |
  | 1869 |     Aug.  7    |      Oct.  23     |    77     |
  | 1870 |      „   11    |       „    26     |    76     |
  | 1871 |     July  6    |       „     2     |    88     |
  +------+----------------+-------------------+-----------+

On 18th December, 1871, _Yatala_ left Adelaide in company with the
Elder Line clipper, _Beltana_, which she led to the Horn by a day. The
_Beltana_ arrived safely after a tedious light weather run from the
line, but the _Yatala_ got ashore near Cape Gris-Nez on 27th March,
1872, when almost in sight of home. Her wool cargo was nearly all
saved, but the ship herself became a total loss.

Of the other Orient composites, the _Goolwa_ disappeared from the
Register in 1880, but _Borealis_ and _Argonaut_ lasted some years
longer.


The “Beltana,” and Captain Richard Angel.

The _Beltana_, which raced the _Yatala_ in 1871-2, was a composite
clipper, belonging to A. L. Elder & Co., a well-known firm in the
Adelaide trade and the agents for the celebrated _Torrens_. Built by
Laing, of Sunderland, in 1869, the _Beltana_ measured:—

  Registered tonnage     734 tons.
  Length                 172.5 feet.
  Beam                    33.6  „
  Depth                   19.2  „

She was a beautiful little ship, a fine sea boat with a good turn of
speed. In 1872, when running her easting down, she did a day’s work
of 335 miles under foresail, three lower topsails and fore topmast
staysail. She made her reputation as a heeler under Captain Richard
Angel, a sail carrier of the most determined character, as the
following anecdote will prove.

The _Beltana_ was rounding the Horn, homeward bound and reeling along
before a heavy westerly gale under topgallant sails, when a vessel was
sighted ahead, head-reaching under three close-reefed topsails, though
bound the same way as the _Beltana_. Angel, to show his contempt of
such caution, immediately bore down on the stranger, and passing ahead
of him, put his helm down and brought his yards on the backstays.
As the _Beltana_ came up to the wind, she lay right down until the
amazed crew of the stranger could almost see her keel, and momentarily
expected to see her capsize or her masts go overboard. But the little
ship bore this harsh treatment in the bravest manner, and, though
her rail was fathoms deep in the scud to leeward, never stranded a
ropeyarn. Having crossed the stranger’s bows, Angel rounded to close
under her stern, then squared his yards and raced ahead again. This
manœuvre of “sailing round a vessel” was not one that most men would
care to attempt in Cape Horn weather.

[Illustration: “TORRENS.”]

[Illustration: “TORRENS” at Port Adelaide.]

Indeed, hardly was the _Beltana_ on her course again before Angel’s
trembling mate approached his captain with a request to be allowed to
shorten sail, only to be met by the scornful order of:—“Get the royals
on her; and then, if you can’t find anything else to set, go below and
ask Mrs. Angel to lend you her petticoat.” Such an order was worthy of
Bully Forbes himself.

Captain Richard Angel lost the command of the _Beltana_ on the voyage
that she raced the _Yatala_. On his passage out he ran the _Beltana_
ashore on Kangaroo Island, but got her off and did not report the
accident. He loaded wool at Port Augusta, but on getting to sea the
ship leaked so much that he had to take her in to Port Adelaide. Here
the wool was discharged, and the _Beltana_ hauled up on the slip and
repaired, whilst Angel got his dismissal and a Captain Blanch took his
place. _Beltana_ caught fire when loading wool in Port Lyttelton, and
her end was one of the biggest ship fires in New Zealand.


The Wonderful “Torrens.”

Of other ships managed by Elder & Co., the most noteworthy were the
_Glen Osmond_, _Collingrove_ and _Torrens_. Of these the _Torrens_
requires special mention, as she was without doubt one of the most
successful ships ever built, besides being one of the fastest, and for
many years she was the favourite passenger ship to Adelaide. She was
built in 1875 by James Laing, of Sunderland, and launched in October of
that year, her chief measurements being:—

  Registered tonnage  1276   tons.
  Length               222.1 feet.
  Beam                  38.1  „
  Depth                 21.5  „

She was composite built with teak planking and was specially designed
for carrying passengers, having a poop 80 feet long.

A beautifully modelled ship and a splendid sea boat, she was very
heavily sparred and crossed a main skysail yard. She was also one of
the last ships to hold on to fore topmast stunsails; indeed for years
she was the only ship with stunsail booms aloft in the Australian trade.

Regarding her capabilities as a sea boat, in easting weather she would
drive along as dry as a bone, making 300 miles a day without wetting
her decks. But it was in light winds that she showed up best, her
ghosting powers being quite extraordinary. The flap of her sails sent
her along 2 or 3 knots, and in light airs she was accustomed to pass
other clippers as if they were at anchor.

Commander Harry Shrubsole, R.N.R., in a letter to the _Nautical
Magazine_, gives the following interesting reminiscences of her
wonderful speed.

  Some items of one of her passages are worth noting. Crossed the
  equator in 15 days from Plymouth; arrived off Semaphore, Port
  Adelaide, 61 days from Plymouth. The last two days were employed in
  beating up the Gulf from the western end of Kangaroo Island, I forget
  the name of the point we made, so 59 days could easily be counted as
  the passage.

  We sighted the _Jennie Harkness_, obviously American, at daylight
  right ahead in the S.E. trades; at noon we were alongside her, and
  our Foo-Foo band played “Yankee-Doodle” as we passed her. She had
  Jimmy Greens and water-sails, flying jib topsails and what not
  aloft, and we slid by her as if she was—well—sailing slowly, as
  she undoubtedly was, compared to our speed. We passed a large ship
  running the easting down. She was under upper topgallant sails,
  whilst we were under upper topsails with weather upper and lower
  stunsails set. The old ship was never driven; she did not need it,
  neither would she stand it. But she sailed rings round anything
  sighted. To sight a ship to windward and ahead, on a wind, was to
  ensure the tautening of the weather braces, an order to sail a
  bit finer and to see her passing ahead and to windward of that
  ship by the early afternoon. We did this with a four-master, the
  _Amazon_, and I bear a scar on my eyebrow to-day in memory of that
  ship—merely a small argument about her name. In the case of the
  _Jennie Harkness_, I was the “leadin’ ’and” of the Foo-Foo band and
  can picture the incident now in all its features.

Captain H. R. Angel, who had previously commanded the _Glen Osmond_
and _Collingrove_, was the chief owner of the _Torrens_, and had a
great say in her design; and after overlooking her building he took her
from the stocks and commanded her for 15 voyages. Under him she was a
wonderfully lucky ship and a great deal of the credit for her success
undoubtedly belonged to Captain Angel.

Her biggest run in the 24 hours was 336 miles; and her fastest
speed through the water by the log was 14 knots. Her average for 15
outward passages under Captain Angel was 74 days from Plymouth to the
Semaphore, Port Adelaide. Captain Angel always brought her into the St.
Vincent’s Gulf _via_ the Backstairs Passage, east of Kangaroo Island,
instead of through Investigators’ Straits. On the homeward passage he
always took the Cape route, for the benefit of his passengers, calling
in at Capetown, St. Helena and Ascension.

To show the extraordinary way in which luck clung to the _Torrens_ as
long as Captain H. R. Angel commanded her, I will give the following
instance, given me by Captain Angel himself.

On a certain homeward passage, the lamp oil ran short or was lost
through some mismanagement. This caused Captain Angel to grow very
anxious as the _Torrens_ approached the mouth of the English Channel,
in whose narrow crowded waters lights are naturally of the utmost
importance. But before soundings were reached a barrel was passed,
floating on the water. Angel at once hove his ship to and lowered a
boat, picked the barrel up and took it aboard—and, on being opened, it
was found to contain oil.

As commodore of the Elder Line, Captain Angel flew a white flag with
red crescent and stars at the masthead of the _Torrens_, instead of the
ordinary house-flag with red ground, white crescent and stars.

In the autumn of 1890 Captain Angel retired from the sea and handed
over the _Torrens_ to Captain Cope. With the change of captain, the
_Torrens_ luck deserted her. On her first passage out under her new
commander the _Torrens_ lost her foremast and main topmast in 6° N.,
27° W., and put into Pernambuco to refit; and before she was refitted
she caught fire. However, the fire was put out, she was remasted and
she eventually reached Adelaide 179 days out.

Whilst Captain Cope had her, the _Torrens_ had the honour of having
Joseph Conrad as mate for a voyage. This was in 1893, and Conrad made
two important literary friendships whilst on the _Torrens_, for W. H.
Jacques made the voyage in her and Galsworthy was a passenger from
Adelaide to Capetown.

In 1896 Captain F. Angel, the son of Captain H. R. Angel, took over the
command of the _Torrens_, and again the Goddess of Fortune objected to
the change. On his third voyage, young Angel ran foul of an iceberg in
the Southern Ocean; and with her bow stove in and partially dismasted,
the _Torrens_ managed to struggle into Adelaide, for the second time in
her career over 100 days out.

Her last passage, also, under the British flag was a disastrous one.
She left Adelaide on 23rd April, 1903, and before she was clear of
Kangaroo island a storm burst on her and she had difficulty in clawing
off the land. Then when she got down to the Cape latitudes another
heavy gale forced her back towards Mauritius. However, at last she
got into Table Bay. She had little cargo from Adelaide on board, and
as no cargo was offering at Capetown, she went on to St. Helena, and
took in a load of explosives for the British Government—ammunition,
etc., returning from the Boer war. But even when the Thames tug had got
her hawser, the dangers of this passage were not over, for whilst the
_Torrens_ was in tow a vessel tried to pass ahead of her, between her
and the tug, and was cut down and sunk by the sharp forefoot of the
famous clipper. When the collision was seen to be unavoidable there
was almost a panic on the _Torrens_, owing to her cargo of explosives.
However nothing happened, the _Torrens_ was uninjured and Captain Angel
was not held to blame.

But old Captain Angel had had enough of it—her cost for repairs since
he had given her up had come to more than her original cost to build;
and he sold her to the Italians.


“Torrens’” Outward Passages.

When inspecting _Torrens’_ wonderful times, two things in her favour
must be remembered, firstly that she sailed from England at the most
favourable time in the year, and secondly that, carrying passengers,
she was always in perfect trim. On the other hand, everything was done
to make the passengers comfortable, especially as many of them were
invalids or consumptives going for the benefit of the voyage, thus she
was never driven as she might have been.

With the change of ownership as with the change of skippers, evil luck
again struck the celebrated old ship, for the Italians soon ran her
ashore and after getting her off again sent her to Genoa to be broken
up. But when the Genoese shipbreakers saw the beauty of her model and
construction, they went to the expense of repairing her, only to again
bump her on the rocks. This time she was towed back to Genoa for good
and all, and was broken up in 1910.

  +-----------+----------------+---------------+----------------+-----+
  |  Captain. |    Date Left   |    Date Left  |  Date Arrived  | Days|
  |           |     London.    |    Plymouth.  |    Adelaide.   | Out.|
  +-----------+----------------+---------------+----------------+-----+
  |H. R. Angel| Dec.   8, 1875 | Dec. 12, 1875 | Mar.   7, 1876 |  85 |
  |     „     | Oct.  26, 1876 | Oct. 29, 1876 | Jan.  18, 1877 |  81 |
  |     „     |  „    27, 1877 | Nov.  4, 1877 |  „    11, 1878 |  68 |
  |     „     |  „    26, 1878 |  „    2, 1878 |  „    18, 1879 |  77 |
  |     „     |  „    26, 1879 | Oct. 30, 1879 |  „     8, 1880 |  70 |
  |     „     |  „    28, 1880 | Nov.  2, 1880 |  „     6, 1881 |  65 |
  |     „     |  „    27, 1881 | Oct. 29, 1881 |  „     8, 1882 |  71 |
  |     „     |  „    26, 1882 |  „   29, 1882 |  „    16, 1883 |  79 |
  |     „     |  „    27, 1883 |  „   29, 1883 |  „     7, 1884 |  70 |
  |     „     |  „    26, 1884 | Nov.  2, 1884 |  „    25, 1885 |  84 |
  |     „     |  „    27, 1885 |  „    1, 1885 |  „     8, 1886 |  68 |
  |     „     |  „    28, 1886 |  „    2, 1886 |  „    15, 1887 |  74 |
  |     „     |  „    27, 1887 |  „    8, 1887 |  „    14, 1888 |  67 |
  |     „     |  „    27, 1888 |  „    1, 1888 |  „    14, 1889 |  74 |
  |     „     |  „    30, 1889 |  „    7, 1889 |  „    26, 1890 |  80 |
  |W. H. Cope |  „    29, 1890 |   Dismasted   | April 26, 1891 | 179 |
  |     „     |        —       | Nov. 25, 1891 | Feb.  28, 1892 |  95 |
  |     „     | Oct.  25, 1892 |      —        | Jan.  30, 1893 |  97 |
  |     „     | Nov.   3, 1893 |      —        |  „    26, 1894 |  84 |
  |     „     | Oct.  14, 1894 |      —        |  „    13, 1895 |  91 |
  |     „     | Sept. 18, 1895 |      —        | Dec.   6, 1895 |  79 |
  |F. Angel   | Oct.  26, 1896 |   Left Downs  | Jan.  11, 1897 |  75 |
  |           |                |    Oct. 28    |                |     |
  |     „     |  „    30, 1897 |      —        |  „    15, 1898 |  77 |
  |     „     |  „    25, 1898 |Struck Iceberg | Feb.   5, 1899 | 103 |
  |     „     |  „    31, 1899 |      —        | Feb.   5, 1900 |  97 |
  |     „     |  „    27, 1900 |   Left Downs  | Jan.  20, 1901 |  82 |
  |           |                |    Oct. 30    |                |     |
  |     „     |  „    24, 1901 |      —        | Feb.   2, 1902 | 101 |
  |     „     |  „    26, 1902 |      —        | Jan.  17, 1903 |  83 |
  +-----------+----------------+---------------+----------------+-----+

The _Torrens_, with the exception of the Lochs, was the last sailing
ship to carry passengers. As a composite ship, built specially for
passengers, she had no rival except Devitt & Moore’s celebrated
_Sobraon_.

[Illustration: “SOBRAON.”]

[Illustration: “SOBRAON.”]


The Great “Sobraon.”

The _Sobraon_ was built by Messrs. Hall, of Aberdeen, to the order
of Lowther, Maxton & Co., the tea clipper owners, and launched in
November, 1866. She was the largest composite ship ever built, being
constructed of solid teak with iron beams and frames; she was copper
fastened and classed 16 years A1.

Her measurements were:—

  Registered tonnage            2131  tons.
  Burthen                       3500   „
  Length over all                317  feet.
  Length between perpendiculars  272   „
  Beam                            40   „
  Depth of hold                   27   „

Her lower masts were of wrought iron, and her topmasts and lower yards
on each mast of steel. On her first two voyages she carried skysails,
but these were found to make her rather crank and so were done away
with. In the eighties she followed the fashion and was fitted with
double topgallant yards on her fore and main masts. With all sail set,
she had a spread of just 2 acres of canvas.

Mr. A. G. Elmslie, who served in her for 11 years under his father,
from apprentice to chief officer, gave me the following account of her
sailing qualities:—

  A glance at the perfect lines of the ship in dry dock would be quite
  sufficient to show there was nothing to stop her going through the
  water, and I can honestly say that during my 11 years I never saw any
  other sailing ship pass her in a breeze either on a wind or before
  it. The fact of the _Sobraon_ being first intended for an auxiliary
  steamer and having the two stern posts, the space between which was
  filled up with solid timber, gave her a perfect run, and her bows
  were as fine as any yacht’s. Runs of over 300 knots when running
  down the easting were frequent. On one occasion over 1000 knots were
  covered in three days and over 2000 in a week. 340 knots in the 24
  hours was the best run made. I have seen over 16 knots reeled off by
  the log. This was with the wind some 2 or 3 points on the quarter,
  which was her best sailing point. On a wind and sailing within 5½
  points, she could do her 7 to 8 knots good.

On her first five voyages from 1866 to 1871, _Sobraon_ sailed to
Sydney, and after that, from 1872 to 1891, to Melbourne, always
returning _via_ the Cape of Good Hope instead of the Horn.

Her fastest trip to Sydney was 73 days and to Melbourne 68 days. On the
latter passage she sighted Cape Otway on the morning of the 60th day
out, but then had light variable winds, which spoilt what promised to
be a 61-day passage.

Most of her outward passages were between 70 and 80 days, but it must
be remembered that she was never driven hard out of consideration for
her passengers, or there is little doubt that she would have gone near
to lowering the golden cock at _Thermopylae’s_ masthead. On her first
voyage to Sydney in 1866-7, she went out in 75 days and came home in 78.

Lowther & Maxton only owned her for a few years, and from the first she
loaded as one of Devitt & Moore’s monthly line of packets to Australia,
the latter firm buying her outright about 1870.

On her maiden voyage the _Sobraon_ was commanded by Captain Kyle. In
1867 he was succeeded by Lieut. J. A. Elmslie, R.N.R., who had her for
the rest of her active career, from 1867 to 1891, a period of 24 years.

Captain Elmslie commenced his career in 1842 and for several years
traded out to India and China and later to Australia in the well-known
London ships _La Hogue_ and _Parramatta_. Prior to taking the
_Sobraon_, he commanded the ill-fated _Cospatrick_, from 1863 to 1867,
his brother, who was afterwards lost in her in 1873, succeeding him in
the command of that ship.

Captain Elmslie’s name was so closely and for so long associated with
that of the _Sobraon_, that passengers were no doubt as much attracted
by the one as by the other. In fact there were many instances in
which they booked their passages solely on account of the name of
the commander. Whilst being a strict disciplinarian and respected by
all who sailed under him, he was, at the same time, kindness itself
and laid himself out on every occasion to study the interests of his
passengers. The fact that the _Sobraon_ never had anything approaching
a serious loss of spars or sails may be safely put down to his never
ceasing attention to the ship and the weather. He was always about, and
his keen sense of watchfulness and duty readily imparted itself to his
officers and crew.

Captain Elmslie was elected a Younger Brother of the Trinity House on
1st September, 1868, and he would have been elected an Elder Brother
many years before his death had he been eligible, but the fact of his
never having served in steam barred him.

No greater proof of the popularity of the _Sobraon_ and her captain
can be given than the length of time both officers and men stayed in
her. James Cameron, who was foreman shipwright at the building of the
_Sobraon_, served as carpenter on her during the whole time that the
ship was afloat—service 1866-1891.

Thomas Willoughby, formerly with Captain Elmslie in _Cospatrick_,
from 1864 to 1867, transferred with his captain to the _Sobraon_ and
served throughout, first as butcher and later as chief steward—service
1866-1891.

James Farrance served 16 years as A.B. and boatswain. Thomas Routledge
served 10 years as sailmaker.

This length of service on the part of her petty officers is, I should
think, easily a record.

And amongst well-known seamen who learnt their craft in the _Sobraon_
were—

Captain R. Hoare, apprentice to chief officer, 1872-1882 (a commander
in the Orient Line and Elder Brother of Trinity House).

Captain F. Northey, apprentice to chief officer, 1867-1869, and
1874-1882 (afterwards commanded the _John Rennie_).

Captain A. E. Baker, apprentice to chief officer, 1887 (afterwards
commander in the P. & O.)

Captain Elmslie also had his first and second sons with him. C. T.
Elmslie, the eldest, as apprentice before going into the P. & O. and
Captain A. G. Elmslie from apprentice to chief officer, 11 years from
1880 to 1891.

The _Sobraon’s_ crew usually consisted of captain, 4 officers,
8 apprentices, carpenter, sailmaker, boatswain, engineer, 2
boatswain’s mates, 26 A.B.’s, 4 O.S.’s, 2 boys, 16 stewards and 2
stewardesses—total all told = 69.

Only one voyage was made in each year, the sailing date from London
always being the latter end of September and from Australia early in
February.

From her immense carrying capacity, the cargo was invariably a good
source of revenue. Owing to her regular sailings there was never any
difficulty in getting a full hold, and this applied especially to the
homeward run, when her cargo consisted chiefly of wool and wheat. It
was, however, as a crack passenger ship to Australia that the _Sobraon_
was most celebrated as she never formed one of the fleet which raced
home to be in time for the February wool sales. Indeed, on the homeward
run she usually touched at Capetown and always at St. Helena, these
breaks in the passage being very popular with passengers.

At St. Helena the ship made a regular stay of about three days, and
this visit was as much looked forward to by the inhabitants of the
island as by the _Sobraon’s_ passengers. As a rule about 100 tons of
cargo, consisting of flour, corn, preserved meat, etc., were landed
there and occasionally a few bullocks were taken there from Capetown.
Whilst the _Sobraon_ lay at St. Helena, the passengers roamed the
Island, climbed the 699 steps to the barracks, visited Longwood and
Napoleon’s tomb and generally enjoyed themselves. Captain Elmslie also
made a habit of giving a fancy dress ball on board before leaving, to
which all the _elite_ of the Island were asked.

_Sobraon’s_ passenger accommodation was unequalled for a sailing
ship. She only had a short poop, but her first class saloon reached
from right aft to within 20 feet of the foremast, and was 200 feet in
length. The second class saloon took up the remaining space in the
’tween decks, with the exception of 20 feet in the eyes of the ship,
which was bulkheaded off as a store room and sail locker.

The number of first class passengers on the outward trip averaged
close on 90, with 40 in the second saloon. There were generally a few
less coming home. Owing to the good accommodation and to the fact that
the voyages were timed for the finest climatic conditions, there were
always a fair number of invalids booked and a good many of them made
the round voyage. And there were many instances, also, of marvellous
cures aboard the _Sobraon_.

In her early days she took many notable people out to Australia. Lord
and Lady Belmore and their suite went out in her, the former to take
up the Governorship of New South Wales. It was on this voyage that the
Duke of Edinburgh was in Sydney whilst the _Sobraon_ lay there; and
it was at his request that she was made the flagship at the Sydney
Regatta. Captain Elmslie had the honour of entertaining and being
entertained by the Duke on several occasions, and on his return passage
brought home numerous cases of curios collected by the Duke whilst in
the East.

On the next voyage the _Sobraon_ took out Mr. Ducane, the new Governor
of Tasmania, and his suite.

Fresh food was obviously a necessity for the class of passenger
carried, and the following live-stock were carried on each passage—3
bullocks, 90 sheep, 50 pigs, 3 cows for milking and over 300 geese,
fowls and ducks. Fresh water and plenty of it was always procurable—a
large condenser running every alternate day; there was an ice chamber,
also, in which several tons of ice were stored.

The _Sobraon_ came through her 25 years’ active service with singularly
little damage at the hands of the elements.

On making the African coast on the homeward run, she had the usual
narrow shaves from being dismasted, which are experienced by all
west-bound ships in that locality. The wind shifts from N.W. to S.W. in
squalls accompanied by the most terrific thunder and lightning at this
dreaded spot, and it is almost impossible for a close-hauled ship to
avoid getting caught aback.

The most serious storm experienced by the _Sobraon_ was in 1889,
when running her easting down. She was a little to the north of the
Crozets, and it began to breeze up on a Sunday morning. The glass gave
every indication of a real snorter, and by 4 p.m. had tumbled down to
27.75. By that time the _Sobraon_ had been shortened down to foresail,
lower fore topsail, upper fore topsail reefed, main lower topsail
and fore topmast staysail. The shift from N.W. to S.W. came at 5
o’clock, and the yards were hardly round before the foresail went and
in a few moments there was nothing left of it. The sea was running in
mountainous ridges, and with the foresail gone threatened every moment
to poop her badly. It was too late to heave to and the ship was kept
away before it. After four hours’ battling and over 30 men aloft a
brand new foresail was bent and set reefed. This was hardly done before
the fore upper topsail blew away. However, with the foresail reefed and
two lower topsails the _Sobraon_ fled before the blast like a startled
deer. The squalls every few minutes were terrific and in spite of such
short canvas the _Sobraon_ was making over 14 knots an hour.

The sea was all the time running higher and higher and breaking aboard
in the most alarming fashion. During the night the greater portion
of the bulwarks on the port side was carried away; a boat in davits,
hanging 22 feet above the water, was filled by a sea and disappeared,
the davits breaking short off: the main skylight over the saloon was
washed away and tons of water found its way below before the open
space could be covered over. The amount of water in the saloon at this
time can be imagined when passengers were actually being washed off
their feet. On deck there were many narrow escapes of men being washed
overboard, the broken bulwarks being a great source of danger. The mate
and three of the men were washed from the main fiferail to the break
of the poop, and, after being dashed up against the heavy boarding
which had been put up to protect the fore end of the poop, managed to
save themselves by the life-lines which had been stretched across. The
forward deck house which held the galley and engine room was almost
demolished and everything moveable in it was washed over the side.

The storm continued at its height from the Sunday afternoon until
Wednesday morning. The passengers, who had been battened down for three
days, were in a sorry plight owing to the quantities of water that had
got below and the catering for them under such conditions proved very
difficult. As is usually the case after such a storm, the wind subsided
very much quicker than the sea, and for a few hours on the Wednesday
night, the wind having dropped completely and the ship losing way, the
rolling was terrific. Fortunately everything held aloft in spite of the
great strain on the masts during these few hours.

On two occasions the _Sobraon_ had narrow escapes of getting ashore
when making the Channel in thick weather. On her first voyage, after
several days without sights and when it was calculated that the ship
was in the chops of the Channel, several fishing boats were met, and,
on asking his position, the captain found that he was heading up the
Bristol Channel. Several of the passengers availed themselves of the
opportunity of going ashore in the fishing boats, and, landing on the
Devonshire coast, reached London several days before the ship.

On the homeward passage in 1888 it came on very thick after Land’s End
had been sighted. The _Sobraon_ stood on for some 24 hours and then
suddenly the fog lifted and disclosed the land inside Portland Bill
dead ahead and under a mile distant. The wind was easterly and light,
and the _Sobraon_ close-hauled on the starboard tack; however, she came
round in time and stood off, thus escaping destruction by the narrowest
margin.

The _Sobraon_ had two escapes from being burnt at sea. The first was
on the outward passage in 1884. A little water had been making in the
vicinity of the main hatch and the carpenter went below one morning to
try to discover where it was coming in. Amongst the cargo in the square
of the hatch and around it were several crates of bottles packed in
straw. In climbing over these the carpenter dropped the light he was
carrying and inside of a minute the straw was alight and the flames
darting out in every direction. Luckily the ship carried a quantity of
fire extinguishers, and with these and the hoses from two pumps the
fire was got under in about 20 minutes. Had there been the slightest
delay the fire must have spread to the other cargo, and there being no
means of getting at it nothing could have saved the ship.

The second instance occurred in the tropics when outward bound in 1888.
A quantity of oil and some 90 tons of coal were down in the fore peak,
which was only separated from the cargo in the fore hold by a wooden
bulkhead. By spontaneous combustion apparently the coal caught alight,
and one morning smoke was discovered coming out of the hatch. All hands
were at once started getting the coal up, but as the hatch was only 4
feet by 3 feet this proved an extremely slow job. After 20 tons had
been got on deck, the smoke had become so thick and the heat so intense
that the hose had to be resorted to. However, this conquered the fire
in about half an hour. Luckily the burning part of the coal had been
well away from the bulkhead or the consequences must have been more
serious.

There was only one person lost overboard off the _Sobraon_ in her whole
career, but this was a particularly distressing case. The following
account of it was given to me by Captain A. G. Elmslie:—

“In about latitude 35° S. and longitude 5° W., one Sunday evening
early in November, 1883, we were bowling along at a good 13 knots
with the wind on the starboard quarter and royals set, being outward
bound to Australia. I was third mate and keeping the first watch. Four
bells had just been struck when I noticed a lady passenger come up on
the poop and walk aft, sitting down on the weather side of the wheel
box and close to the man at the wheel. About five minutes later the
quartermaster cried out:—‘My God! she’s overboard!’

“I rushed aft, and with the quartermaster tried to get hold of the
girl, who was then hanging on to the lower rail outside, but before we
could get her she let go and dropped into the water. Although only a
few seconds had elapsed since the quartermaster had let the wheel go,
the ship was up in the wind and nearly aback.

“After telling the midshipman to throw some lifebuoys over and the
fourth officer to get the boat ready, I sang out:—‘Man overboard! Let
go your royal and topgallant halliards!’

“Fortunately the men were handy and the yards came down before we were
flat aback. By this time the captain and other officers and all hands
were on deck. Owing to the pace the ship was still going through the
water, together with the strong wind blowing, it was necessary to let
the topsails come down also.

“With the courses and lower topsails alone set, she soon lost way
sufficiently to allow the boat being lowered, which by that time had
been manned. Only four minutes elapsed between the girl going over the
side and the boat being in the water, but in this short space of time
the ship had travelled a good half mile and quite far enough to make
the search a most difficult one, especially seeing that the night was
intensely dark and a heavy sea running. The search was kept up for some
four hours and only abandoned then through the danger of keeping the
boat in the water, for she was several times nearly swamped. Needless
to say, on such a night, and the probabilities being that the girl was
drowned at once, no sign was seen of her. Two of the life-buoys were
afterwards picked up by another ship. The reason of the suicide, for
such it undoubtedly was, remained a mystery. The girl had no relations
with her and no one on board could throw any light on the matter.”

On another occasion the ship was going some 5 knots in the tropics when
an apprentice fell overboard during the forenoon watch. It was quite 20
minutes before the boat reached him, but he was found swimming along
quite composed, having unlaced and taken his heavy boots off and slung
them round his neck, as their weight was less felt there and he did not
want to lose them.

Another of _Sobraon’s_ apprentices was even still more cool-headed.
This one fell off the footrope of the mainyard, being one of 30 hands
aloft stowing the mainsail. Luckily he was well in to the quarter of
the yard and so fell on the deck. If he had gone overboard there would
have been little chance of picking him up. The fall was one of 58 feet
and he fell within 3 feet of the second mate. The latter naturally
expected to find him dead, but he recovered consciousness within an
hour, and was about again a month later quite recovered. He declared
that as soon as he felt himself falling he made himself as rigid as
possible, brought his head and legs together and protected the former
with his arms; and he landed in that position on his side. He was a big
fellow, being over 6 feet in height and weighing 14 stones.

Another marvellous escape from aloft was that of a man who was helping
to stow the main upper topsail. This man suddenly lost his hold and
came down spread-eagle fashion. He dropped on to the main rigging and
carried away 7 ratlins of 27 thread stuff, then landed on the rail
without breaking a bone. This was in 1886, and the _Sobraon_ was just
making Plymouth. The man was taken to hospital and recovered in a few
days. As soon as he came out of hospital, he claimed damages from the
ship, declaring that a grummet on the jackstay had given away; but it
was easily proved that nothing went and the man had simply lost his
hold.

But all falls from aloft on the _Sobraon_ were not so fortunate as
these two. A young ordinary seaman once fell from the mizen topgallant
rigging with fatal consequences. The crossjack had just been hauled up
and the mizen topgallant sail clewed up, and the hands were sent aloft
to make the sails fast. This man, with three others, being first aloft,
went up to stow the topgallant sail. Suddenly the men on the cross jack
footropes heard an agonising cry and a form whizzed past them, struck
the spanker gaff and then fell on the deckhouse. The poor fellow broke
his spine amongst other injuries and died almost immediately.

On still another occasion, when the _Sobraon_ was again coming into
Plymouth, a man working in the main futtock rigging lost his hold
and fell on deck right in the midst of a crowd of passengers. There
were close on 100 people standing about at the time and it was
extraordinary that he fell on no one—he just touched a lady on the
shoulder and bruised her a little—but was of course horribly smashed
up himself and killed instantly. The shock to the crowd of passengers
standing round may easily be imagined.

There were two curious cases of somnambulism amongst the passengers of
the _Sobraon_. The first was a Church of England clergyman and he was
most methodical in his movements. He invariably appeared on deck about
midnight and would first of all go up on the poop and peer into the
compass; and then, after strolling the deck for a few minutes, would go
below to the small saloon aft where prayers were held by him on that
voyage. Here he would go over the service to an imaginary congregation,
after which he would return to his berth and turn in. In the early days
of the voyage he was spoken to about his sleep walking, and, at his
own request, was locked into his cabin one night. The result was that
when he found that he could not get out for his sleep walk, he worked
himself into a fury of rage and began smashing things in his cabin.
At last the door had to be opened for fear that he would do himself
some damage and after a great deal of coaxing he was got back to bed.
For some days after this, however, he was in a pretty bad way and no
further attempt was made to stop him walking in his sleep.

The second case was of a young man who generally appeared on deck for
about an hour each night. On one occasion the officer of the watch,
thinking that he was too close to the side of the ship and fearing
that he might get on the rail or fall overboard, touched him with a
view to getting him away. The somnambulist at once grappled with the
mate and was only mastered after over a quarter of an hour’s desperate
struggle. As on an ordinary occasion the mate in question could
probably have accounted for three men of the somnambulist’s build and
physique, the incident goes to prove that sleep walkers, if interfered
with, are possessed temporarily of a madman’s strength.

On her last trip the _Sobraon_ arrived at Melbourne about mid-December,
1891, and after discharging took in sufficient ballast to take her
round to Sydney. Here she was sold to the New South Wales Government,
who turned her into a reformatory ship, and for the next twenty years
she lay moored in Sydney harbour. In 1911 she was handed over to the
Federal Government to be converted into a training ship for boys
entering the Australian Navy. On being put into dry dock for survey, it
was found that, in spite of her age, she was as sound as a bell.


Messrs. Devitt & Moore.

In _Sobraon_ Messrs. Devitt & Moore undoubtedly had possessed one of
the finest passenger sailing ships ever launched; this firm, indeed,
possessed a very keen eye where ships were concerned. The two partners
started as shipbrokers, and loaded ships for the Australian trade as
far back as 1836. They always loaded on commission, and I believe the
first ships for which they did business belonged to Robert Brooks,
afterwards the well-known M.P. for Weymouth. But the most famous
shipowner who gave Devitt & Moore his ships to load was Duncan Dunbar.
And on the death of Dunbar in 1862 Devitt & Moore acquired an interest
in several of his best ships, notably the wonderful old _La Hogue_, one
of the favourite passenger ships to Sydney in her day and celebrated
for her huge figure-head and single mizen topsail.

Shortly before his death Duncan Dunbar had commissioned Laing, of
Sunderland, to build him a 1000-ton frigate-built passenger ship, to be
called the _Dunbar Castle_. This ship, afterwards known as the “Last
of the Dunbars” was launched in 1866, and sailed regularly in Devitt &
Moore’s list of passenger ships to Australia.

The _La Hogue_, by the way, was built by Pile, of Sunderland, and
measured 1331 tons, being one of the largest frigate-built ships ever
launched.

Devitt & Moore kept her in the Sydney trade, and so popular was she
with the Australians that they would wait weeks and often months on
purpose to sail in her.

In 1866, Laing, of Sunderland, launched the equally well-known and
popular frigate-built liner _Parramatta_, of 1521 tons, for Devitt &
Moore’s Sydney passenger trade. These two ships do not properly come
within the scope of this book and I shall give a more detailed account
of them in the next book of this series, which will deal specially with
these frigate-built Blackwallers.

Few shipowners can escape scot-free from disaster, and the firm’s
greatest loss was when their new ship, the _Queen of the Thames_,
considered by many to be the finest ship that ever left the London
River, was lost off the Cape on her first homeward bound passage from
Melbourne.

With _La Hogue_ and _Parramatta_ in the Sydney trade and _Sobraon_ in
the Melbourne trade, the house-flag was well known throughout Victoria
and New South Wales. Nor was it less well known in South Australia;
indeed Devitt & Moore’s ships were amongst the pioneers in the
passenger and wool trade of Adelaide.


“City of Adelaide” and “South Australian.”

In the Adelaide trade, the beautiful little composite ships of Devitt
& Moore rivalled those of the Orient and Elder Lines. Of these little
clippers the best known passenger ships were the _City of Adelaide_ and
_South Australian_.

The _City of Adelaide_ was launched in 1864 from Pile’s yard, her
measurements being:—

  Registered tonnage     791  tons.
  Length               176.8  feet.
  Breadth               33.2    „
  Depth                 18.8    „

She was a very fast little ship with a 65-day run from London to
Adelaide to her credit.

The _South Australian_ came out in 1868, also from Pile’s yard, and
measured:—

  Registered tonnage     1040  tons.
  Length                  201  feet.
  Breadth                  36    „
  Depth                  20.1    „

She had a poop 80 ft. long, and was classed 17 years A1. Though not as
fast a ship as the smaller _City of Adelaide_, she was a very fine sea
boat with very comfortable accommodation for first and second class
passengers.

She was commanded by Captain David Bruce, who with his three sons was
very well known in the Adelaide trade. Old David Bruce was one of the
good old breed of sea dog—a sturdy, weather-beaten, grey-whiskered
Scot. He always dressed in black broadcloth, topped by a straw hat and
puggaree. He possessed a merry wit—also a lame leg, which had been
crushed by a run-away cask during a storm. His three sons served their
time under him, and the commands of the _City of Adelaide_ and _South
Australian_ seem to have been taken in turn by each member of the Bruce
family.

[Illustration: “CITY OF ADELAIDE.”

David Bruce, Commander.

_From an old lithograph._]

[Illustration: “SOUTH AUSTRALIAN.”

_From an old lithograph._]

_South Australian_ was occasionally seen in Melbourne, but the _City
of Adelaide_ was always in the South Australian trade, and usually
loaded wool at Port Augusta. Both ships were still running in the late
eighties.


The Speedy Little “St. Vincent.”

Messrs. Devitt & Moore always considered that the little _St. Vincent_,
launched in 1865 by Pile, of Sunderland, was the fastest ship they ever
owned. Her measurements were:—

  Registered tonnage     892 tons.
  Length                 190 feet.
  Breadth                 35  „
  Depth                 18.9  „

She was also composite built, with a 68-ft. poop and 36-ft. foc’s’le.
With hard driving skippers, like J. Bissit and J. Barrett, she had as
bad a reputation amongst foremast hands as the Orient flyers in the
matter of wetness. However, she was such a beautifully modelled ship
that she came to no harm in spite of generally travelling through the
water instead of over it. But no hard driven ship comes through the
westerlies year after year without a scratch, and one occasionally
comes across such entries as the following in her log books:—

  27th October, 1878.—Struck by a heavy squall, sustained severe damage
  to spars, losing bowsprit, headgear, etc.

She was not often over the 80 days going out, and her times coming home
would have been as good, if she had not come _via_ the Cape and St.
Helena like most South Australian traders; nevertheless she was usually
home in under 90 days. In spite of being hard driven for most of her
life the _St. Vincent_ was still afloat in 1905 as a Norwegian barque
under the name of _Axel_.


“Pekina” and “Hawkesbury.”

Messrs. Devitt & Moore owned two other well-known clippers, built of
wood. These were _Pekina_, 770 tons, built by Smith, of Aberdeen, in
1865; _Hawkesbury_, 1120 tons, built by Pile, of Sunderland, in 1868.

The _Pekina_ was in the South Australian trade, but the _Hawkesbury_
always ran to Sydney. Though she had many fine passages to her credit,
the _Hawkesbury’s_ chief claim to fame was her reputation for being
the wettest ship in the wool trade. She was composite built, but the
_Pekina_ was all wood.

Messrs. Devitt & Moore sold the _Pekina_ in 1880, but the _Hawkesbury_
was still in the Sydney trade in the late eighties.


Mr. T. B. Walker.

Messrs. Devitt & Moore, as shipbrokers, had many fine ships figuring
in their books, notably _Mermerus_ and _Thessalus_, and at odd times
others of Carmichael’s fleet. They were also brokers for Mr. T. B.
Walker’s speedy little barques in the Tasmanian and Brisbane trades.
These sailed under the Devitt & Moore house-flag, and Mr. Walker
occupied a room and his clerk a desk in their office.

Mr. T. B. Walker was a very prominent man amongst London shipowners and
for many years was chairman of Lloyd’s Register. He was a shipmaster of
the old school and took a great pride in his ships, and kept them up
in most liberal fashion. One of his customs was to keep officers and
apprentices on board whilst the ships were at home, an old pensioned
cook going into the galley and acting as shipkeeper. Thus the Walker
apprentices had a most valuable training in docking and undocking,
shifting ship, refitting rigging, bending and unbending sail, etc., and
a further result of this custom was that these pretty little barques
were kept in such good order whilst at home that they came to be known
as the West India Dock yachts.

Mr. Walker lived at Hackney and later at Snaresbrook, and he used to
arrive at the docks punctually at 9.30 every morning. By this time the
decks of all the Walker clippers in port had been washed down, the
ropes Flemish coiled, the brass polished and everything was in order
for his inspection. And everything had to be in perfect order, for he
had an eye like a hawk and nothing escaped him: the least thing wrong
or out of order and he was sure to detect it. His captains used to
assemble together to meet him and make a daily report on their ships.
After Mr. Walker had made his inspection it was the long-established
custom for his captains to conduct him to the West India Dock Station,
where he entrained for his day’s work in the City. In the spring
when most of the ships were home, this procession of Mr. Walker and
his captains from the docks to the station was a well-known sight of
the neighbourhood and was referred to as “Mr. T. B. Walker and his
satellites.”


Walker’s Clipper Barques.

Mr. T. B. Walker’s long connection with the Tasmanian trade began in
1851-2 when he despatched the brig _Arnon_, of 338 tons register,
to Launceston. She was commanded by Captain Benjamin Fowler, a
brother-in-law of Mr. Walker’s; she arrived out of season and lay in
port for some months waiting for the following season’s wool, during
which time Captain Fowler married a daughter of Captain William
Nielley (late 40th Regiment), of Rostella, East Tamar, Launceston,
and by so doing set an example which was followed by quite a number
of Walker’s skippers and officers. To name only a few, I may mention
Captain Barwood, who succeeded Fowler in the _Arnon_ and is, I believe,
still living in Tasmania; Captain Wittingham, who was lost in the
_Lanoma_; Captain Smith, of the _Westbury_; and Captain Brown, of the
_Corinth_. To return to the _Arnon_, on her return trip besides wool,
she carried the mails and a large shipment of gold.

On his arrival home Captain Fowler transferred to Walker’s new barque,
the _Henry Reed_, of 495 tons, and finally commanded the _Alfred
Hawley_, another new barque of 420 tons. Captain Fowler retired early
from the sea and settled down in his native town, Scarborough, where
he took a great interest in municipal and local affairs, becoming in
turn Alderman and Mayor, and lived to a good old age, being greatly
respected and esteemed by his fellow townsmen.

In the early sixties Walker kept three ships in the Launceston trade,
the _Durnstan_, _Fugitive_ and first _Westbury_, all small wooden
barques. He also had ships in the Queensland trade; most of his ships
were built by Pile, of Sunderland, as the following list of his later
ships will show:—

  +-------+--------------+-------------+-------+---------------------+
  | Date  |    Ship.     | Description.| Tons. |     Builders.       |
  | Built.|              |             |       |                     |
  +-------+--------------+-------------+-------+---------------------+
  | 1863  | _Arab Steed_ | wood barque |  635  | Pile, of Sunderland.|
  | 1866  | _Araunah_    |   „    „    |  448  | Gardner     „       |
  | 1867  | _Westbury_   | iron   „    |  493  | Pile        „       |
  | 1868  | _Decapolis_  |   „    „    |  632  |  „          „       |
  | 1869  | _Berean_     | comp.  „    |  526  |  „          „       |
  | 1870  | _Corinth_    |   „    „    |  614  |  „          „       |
  | 1873  | _Barossa_    | iron ship   |  968  |  „          „       |
  | 1876  | _Lanoma_     |   „  barque |  665  | Austin      „       |
  +-------+-------------+--------------+-------+---------------------+


The Beautiful Little “Berean.”

The best known, as well as the fastest, of all Walker’s barques was
the beautiful little _Berean_. She was built by Pile, of Sunderland,
on similar lines to the tea clippers _Maitland_ and _Undine_, and
was launched in August, 1869. She was a 19-year A1 ship, and so fine
was the shipwright’s workmanship that when she was 18 years old and
due for remetalling, Mr. Spencer, Lloyd’s senior surveyor, who was
superintending the work, asked Captain Wyrill when she was last
caulked, to which he got the reply:—-“On the stocks before launching.”
Mr. Spencer could hardly believe this surprising statement; he had the
seams of the topsides put to the severest test, but was obliged to
admit that they could not be improved, his opinion being shared by the
master caulker. And the _Berean_ continued to the end of her career
without being recaulked; even after years of carrying heavy ice cargoes
when owned by Norwegians, it was not deemed necessary to touch her
seams.

[Illustration: Captain JOHN WYRILL, of “Berean.”]

[Illustration: “BEREAN.”

  _From a painting in possession of the late Captain John Wyrill._ ]

Her registered measurements were:—

  Net tonnage        526  tons.
  Gross tonnage      542   „
  Under deck         506   „
  Length           160.5  feet.
  Breadth           30.2   „
  Depth             17.2   „

She had a raised quarterdeck 43 feet long. This was laid with New
Zealand Kauri pine planking, 4 inches wide, extending the full length
without a butt, and what is more without a knot. All the deck fittings,
houses, fiferails, skylights and topgallant bulwarks were of selected
teak, the bulwarks being panelled with fretwork designs. The boats also
were of polished teak; in fact, the only bit of painted wood about the
decks was the longboat chocks. Even the bunk boards and lining of the
foc’s’le were of teak.

The _Berean_ carried skysails for many years, and the following are her
spar measurements:—

  +-----------------------------------+-----------+-----------+-------+
  |              Spars.               | Foremast. | Mainmast. | Mizen |
  |                                   |           |           | mast. |
  +-----------------------------------+-----------+-----------+-------+
  |                                   |    ft.    |    ft.    |  ft.  |
  |Mast (deck to truck)               |    112    |    116    |  93   |
  |Lower mast (deck to cap)           |     50    |     54    |  50   |
  |Doublings                          |     12    |     12    |   9   |
  |Topmast                            |     38    |     38    |  29   |
  |Doublings                          |      6.6  |      6.6  |  —    |
  |Topgallant, royal and skysail masts|     42.6  |     42.6  |  23   |
  |Lower yard                         |     62    |     62    |  —    |
  |Lower topsail yard                 |     55    |     55    |  —    |
  |Upper topsail yard                 |     50    |     50    |  —    |
  |Topgallant yard                    |     40    |     40    |  —    |
  |Royal yard                         |     30    |     30    |  —    |
  |Skysail yard                       |     23    |     23    |  —    |
  |Spanker boom                       |     —     |     —     |  44.6 |
  |Spanker gaff                       |     —     |     —     |  44   |
  |Bowsprit and jibboom               |     48    |           |       |
  +-----------------------------------+-----------+-----------+-------+

_Berean’s_ best point of sailing was with a whole sail breeze and
smooth water, the wind quarterly or 2 points abaft the beam. Her best
run in the 24 hours was 315 miles. She was, of course, too small and
hardly powerful enough to equal the larger iron clippers when running
down the easting, but in moderate weather there were not many ships
which could show her their sterns. The following sailing records will
give some idea of her powers:—

  Equator to the Channel               17 days.
  First 4 passages out averaged        77  „
  First 4 passages home averaged       84  „

In sailing round the world from 30° S., 20° W., to 30° S., 20° W., her
yearly average was from 80 to 85 days, her quickest circle of the globe
being 76 days.

Her best outward passage to Launceston was:—

  71 days pilot to pilot.
  68 days land to land.

In 1881-2 she ran from Launceston to the Lizard in 79 days. During her
first 14 voyages, all her passages were under 90 days. She generally
left the West India Docks in May and was back in the Thames about the
following March.


Captain John Wyrill.

Captain John Wyrill, who, I am glad to say, is still hale and hearty,
took _Berean_ from the stocks and only left her when she changed her
flag. He is one of the few sailors left of the good old sort, for he
has the distinction of never having served in a steamship. Coming from
one of the foremost seafaring families in Scarborough, Captain Wyrill
went to sea as far back as 1850; his apprenticeship indentures were for
seven years, but he was an acting second mate within three years of his
going to sea.

His first command in T. B. Walker’s ships came about in rather a
curious way. He was appointed to command a ship, belonging to Mr.
Hodgson Smith, the father of Scarborough’s present harbourmaster, in
place of a captain who was ill. This ship lay in a South Coast port,
but on Captain Wyrill arriving there to take up his command he found
that the sick skipper had recovered and sailed on his voyage. Mr. Smith
thereupon introduced him to Mr. T. B. Walker and his brother Henry
Walker, who, by the way, were natives of Scarborough. Through them he
obtained command of a ship called the _Lady Stanley_, his next command
was the _Asphodel_, then the _Velocidade_, which he left to take the
_Berean_.

Captain Wyrill circumnavigated the globe no less than 36 times, and was
44 years in command of sailing ships, for 42 of which he was in the
Tasmanian trade. Indeed no history of Tasmania’s rise to her present
prosperity and importance would be complete without some mention of
the _Berean_ and her commander. And when it was known in Launceston
that Captain Wyrill was leaving Tasmania homeward bound for the last
time, with the intention of retiring from the sea, a meeting and public
send-off was arranged and a purse of sovereigns and an illuminated
address were presented to the veteran captain by the Mayor of the town
after several eulogistic speeches, in which Captain Wyrill was referred
to “as one of the most popular men ever connected with the shipping of
Launceston.” Like many another sailing ship captain, Captain Wyrill was
no mean surgeon and the setting of broken limbs at sea held no terrors
for him. He once made a very good job of his second mate’s broken arm.

The _Berean_ was so free from accidents at sea that after she had been
afloat some years the underwriters at Lloyd’s offered to insure her at
a specially reduced premium. Her most serious misfortune, whilst under
Captain Wyrill, occurred whilst she was towing up to the docks from
Gravesend. A large ship ahead suddenly took the ground and the _Berean_
was unable to clear her, the collision costing her a new bowsprit,
besides damages to figure-head and cutwater. Her narrowest escape from
shipwreck was owing to a wrong light in 1888 in no less a place than
the Channel. _Fairplay_, in criticising the misdeeds of Trinity House,
gives the following account of the incident:—

  The _Berean_, Captain Wyrill, left London for the Colonies in the
  fall of last year. Before sailing the captain received from the
  Board of Barnacles notice that the light on St. Catherine’s, Isle
  of Wight, was to be altered in October from a fixed oil light to an
  electric flash with intervals of about five seconds. The captain,
  like a prudent man, entered this on his chart, so that it should not
  be overlooked. Before he left the Colonies, another notice of the
  impending change was given him, and he was well armed with timely
  advice. He made his homeward voyage, and calculated he was off the
  Channel. He had not been able to get an observation for three days,
  but he felt sure of his position, and he shaped a course right up
  Channel for Beachy Head. A strong S.W. wind was blowing, and the
  weather was thick and dirty. When he judged he had run his distance
  to Portland, he bore up a little for the English land to catch St.
  Catherine’s light, and word was given to look out for the bright
  electric flash. No such light was visible and the vessel was still
  kept away. Presently a dim light was seen 2 points on the starboard
  bow. At first this light looked green and was taken to be the
  starboard light of an approaching ship, and the helm was starboarded
  a little to give more room. A little time showed that idea to be
  wrong, and eyes were still strained to catch St. Catherine’s with no
  result. Then the light seen was taken for a steamer’s masthead light,
  but that notion did not do, and it was quite clear that the light,
  let it be what it might, was a fixed shore light. Over went the lead,
  and the soundings showed the shore to be handy, but what shore? Or
  what part of the shore? Clearly not off St. Catherine’s, because
  according to notice given there could be no fixed light there.

  The course and soundings would have agreed with the French shore in
  the neighbourhood of Cape La Hogue. Something had to be done, and
  quickly. The light was getting clearer but no land could be seen.
  If the vessel was on the French coast it would be fatal to haul her
  wind, if on the English coast it would be destruction to bear up.
  What was to be done? Over went the lead again. Twelve fathoms. That
  was enough, thank you. There was too much sea on to stay the ship
  in a hurry, so the captain wore her round and stood off on the port
  tack to get back where he came from. The compass soon showed that
  the flood tide was setting the vessel in by the light, and there was
  nothing for it but to wear again and get out past the light on the
  old course, if it could be done. The captain took the wheel, and
  calling to the crew to pull hard if ever they pulled in their lives,
  sent her round again. It was hit or miss, but the vessel was smart,
  and was smartly handled. She came round like a duck and just managed
  to go clear of the light, which after all, turned out to be St.
  Catherine’s. It had never been altered.


The “Berean’s” Races.

In her 27 years of sailing out to the Antipodes and home, the _Berean_
had many a contest with clippers twice her size, in which she gave a
very good account of herself.

Captain Wyrill gave a very interesting description of three of these
encounters in the _Nautical Magazine_ a few years ago, and I do not
think I can do better than quote his own words. He writes:—

  Coming home from Tasmania in the _Berean_ early in 1870, about the
  equator and nearing the tedious “variables,” alias “doldrums,” alias
  “horse latitudes,” we overhauled the clipper ship _Yosemite_, from
  San Francisco for United Kingdom for orders. Her captain signalled
  for permission to come on board, and a prompt reply of welcome
  went up. The captain reported himself tired and restless, that he
  was racing home with two or three ships, and was anxious to know
  what vessels we had spoken. My list was produced, but none of his
  competitors was in it. After a pleasant visit the captain returned to
  his ship giving me the names of two of his antagonists.

  _Berean_ gradually crept away from _Yosemite_, and in about two
  days she had dipped below the horizon, but was still visible from
  aloft. By this time we were coming up with two ships, which, by their
  spread of stunsails, water-sails, Jimmy Greens, etc., were evidently
  in a great hurry. In exchanging signals they proved to be the two
  vessels racing the _Yosemite_, viz., ship _Lady Blomfield_ and
  barque _Cerastes_; the latter was slightly ahead. We passed within
  hail of the _Lady Blomfield_, and when I reported the _Yosemite_ not
  far astern the captain was greatly excited. Throwing up his cap, he
  exclaimed, “Go and tell the other ship there is a bet of £100 between
  them.”

  A hand went aloft and pointed out the _Yosemite_ astern. Shortly
  after we sailed alongside the _Cerastes_, but the captain took the
  news of the racer’s proximity very calmly and seemed to be surprised
  she was so near. We gradually got away from these two ships and
  saw no more of them. On arrival in the English Channel I sent a
  report ashore which appeared in the _Shipping Gazette_, and I found
  considerable interest was being taken in this race. I was interviewed
  by _Yosemite’s_ agents as to my opinion which ship would win. Two
  or three days after _Berean_ arrived in London _Cerastes_ reached
  Queenstown, and was the winner of that race.

  In 1893, homeward bound from Tasmania to London, Lat. 19° S., Long.
  22° W., _Berean_ fell in with Geo. Thompson’s Aberdeen White Star
  clipper _Samuel Plimsoll_ from Sydney to London; strong S.E. trade
  wind, squally. At daylight the two ships were exactly abeam of each
  other, and throughout the day neither could gain an inch. (The old
  man of the _Samuel Plimsoll_ stamped up and down his poop all day in
  a very excited state of mind and kept exclaiming, “A little thing
  like that hanging on to me like a flea and I cannot shake her off.”)
  The royals were frequently lowered during the squalls and hoisted
  again when they had passed. _Samuel Plimsoll_ steering slightly more
  easterly, the two ships gradually closed, and if the respective
  courses had been continued must have collided. _Berean_, being the
  windward ship, was bound to give way, so at sundown she was shaken
  up in the wind and the _Samuel Plimsoll_ allowed to pass ahead. At
  daylight next day, the Aberdeen clipper was well out to windward and
  slightly ahead, and in that bearing the ships parted, seeing no more
  of each other.

  Unfortunately, in the chops of the Channel, _Berean_ was surrounded
  with a fleet of herring nets, some of which clung to her the rest
  of the passage impeding her speed. _Samuel Plimsoll_ arrived at
  Gravesend an hour or two ahead, but being too early in the tide had
  to anchor. _Berean_, being of lighter draught, passed her and was
  first in dock. But for the detention through fouling the nets, in all
  probability these two ships would have reached Gravesend together
  after a race of 6000 miles.

  In 1895, when outward bound to Tasmania and in the doldrums north
  of the equator, _Berean_ fell in with the four-master Loch liner
  _Loch Carron_, bound to Adelaide. The two ships after a chat with
  signals parted on opposite tacks and did not sight each other again
  until crossing the Great Bight of Australia, when at lunch one day
  the welcome cry of “Sail-ho!” was heard. Going on deck the chief
  officer and myself naturally looked ahead for the stranger, but a
  ship on our starboard quarter was pointed out. _Berean_ was steering
  due east for Tasmania with the wind right aft, the worst point for
  fine-lined ships, head sails all becalmed; the _Loch Carron_ hauling
  up for Adelaide was carrying the wind 2 or 3 points on the quarter,
  all sails drawing, and was gaining on the _Berean_. When she got
  into our wake she kept off on the same course as if intending to
  speak, but finding she could not gain on that course hauled to again,
  crossing astern, and with the difference in the courses the two
  ships were soon out of sight of each other. The picture of the _Loch
  Carron_ as she sheered away under all sail, scattering the feathery
  foam from her bows, still lives, forming one of the series of mental
  photographs an old sailor naturally collects.

Another still more interesting meeting was with the famous
_Thermopylae_. Both ships were outward bound, and the _Thermopylae_
overhauled and passed the _Berean_ to the southward of the Cape, the
weather being unsettled, and the _Thermopylae_, being able to bear
more sail than the little _Berean_, soon went out of sight ahead.
Nevertheless she only passed Cape Otway 17 hours ahead of the
_Berean_, so Captain Wyrill was not quite broken-hearted.

On another occasion the _Berean_, when outward bound, crossed the
southern tropic in company with Green’s _Melbourne_ (afterwards the
well-known cadet ship _Macquarie_) and the little barque arrived in
Launceston two or three days before the big iron ship arrived in
Hobson’s Bay.

Again, when homeward bound, the _Berean_ was passed off the Falkland
Isles in a strong breeze by Green’s fast Blackwall frigate _Windsor
Castle_, nevertheless the _Windsor Castle_ docked in London four days
later than the _Berean_.

All the above trials of speed were with vessels very much larger and
more powerful than Mr. Walker’s clipper barque, but the _Berean_ once
had a very interesting race round the world with another well-known
barque, the little _Harriet McGregor_, of 331 tons, belonging to
Hobart. The two ships left Tasmania together, and the _Berean_ arrived
at Gravesend, 90 days out, beating the _Harriet McGregor_ by a week.
On the return passage, the _Harriet McGregor_ was loaded first and got
away about nine days ahead of _Berean_, but again Walker’s clipper got
in ahead of her, this time by one day only, after making the run to
Launceston in 77 days.


“Berean” as an Ice Carrier.

Mr. T. B. Walker died in 1894, and all his ships were sold two years
later.

_Berean_ went to the Norwegians and was employed for the next 14 years
carrying ice from Norway to the Thames. Captain Wyrill took over the
_Eden Holme_ and some of his old hands went with him. He was hauling
into the London Dock after his first voyage to Tasmania in the _Eden
Holme_, when the poor little _Berean_ under her new flag was hauling
out; and the change for the worse in the old ship was so marked that
one of her old crew remarked to Captain Wyrill with tears in his
eyes:—“There she is, sir, but she looks very different from what she
was when _we_ had her.” Nevertheless, though uncared for, the _Berean_
still continued to make good regular passages, and was a constant
visitor to the Regent’s Canal Dock. But in 1910 she was run into by a
foreign steamer below Gravesend, when inward bound from Langesund, and
was towed ashore in a sinking condition. This was the end of her active
career, for she was now condemned, and after being patched up went to
Falmouth as a hulk. I saw her there not many years before the war, and
the marks of the thoroughbred were still plain to be seen.


Loss of the “Corinth.”

The _Corinth_, Walker’s only other composite ship, was lost by
spontaneous combustion.

In the year 1890 she sailed from Launceston, in the wake of the
_Berean_, with a cargo of wool and skins, under command of Captain
Littler. When she was a week out and about 300 miles S.E. of New
Zealand, signs of fire in the hold were discovered early on a Sunday
morning. Prompt measures to fight the fire were at once taken,
everything was battened down, holes were cut in the deck, through
which the hose was led and the wool bales were soused with water;
nevertheless the fire gained rapidly and at 10 o’clock the same night
the ship had to be abandoned. The crew got safely away in two boats and
headed for the New Zealand coast, but with little hope of making the
land against the stormy weather of the prevailing westerly winds.

After they had been five days and nights adrift, the smoke of a steamer
was sighted about sundown; then darkness set in. The provisions had
become soaked in salt water but the shipwrecked crew had managed to
keep a few rockets dry, and these were sent up one after the other in
the hope of attracting the attention of the steamer. At last only one
rocket remained, and after some discussion as to whether to risk it
or keep it for a future occasion, it also was fired and was seen from
the bridge of the approaching vessel. However, she showed no signs of
having seen it in the way of an answering rocket or flare, so one can
imagine the relief of the shipwrecked crew when her masthead and later
her side lights were seen, steering end on for the boats. The steamer
proved to be the _Fifeshire_, homeward bound from New Zealand, and she
took the Corinth castaways right on to London.

A description of Walker’s iron barques will be found at the end of Part
III.


The Little “Ethel.”

Perhaps the most familiar ship to old City men was the little _Ethel_,
which under the command of Captain A. Ross ran for years with the
utmost regularity between London and Tasmania, and when in the Thames
always moored at Hayes Wharf, London Bridge. She was a composite barque
of 556 tons and was built in 1866 by Pile, of Sunderland, and owned by
Fenwick & Co., of London.


The Hobart Barque “Harriet McGregor.”

A still smaller ship than the _Ethel_ in the Tasmanian trade was the
smart little _Harriet McGregor_, which had the “round the world” race
with _Berean_. A. McGregor who built her was also her owner.

She was built at Hobart in 1871, and measured:—

  Registered tonnage       331   tons.
  Length                   134.2 feet.
  Beam                      27.6  „
  Depth                     15.9  „

This little ship for year after year did the following annual round
with the regularity of a clock. On Christmas day she left Hobart for
London, loaded with wool and sperm oil. She returned to Hobart from
London with general cargo at 40s. and often more. Then she ran across
to Mauritius from Hobart with coal, and returned with a cargo of sugar,
in time to get away on her usual sailing day for London.


The Fremantle Barques “Charlotte Padbury” and “Helena Mena.”

In the early days the Fremantle wool trade, including that of the
Ashburton River and Sharks Bay, was all carried in the holds of
fast clipper barques, such as Walker’s _Westbury_, _Decapolis_ and
_Corinth_, and well worthy to be ranked with these were the _Charlotte
Padbury_ and _Helena Mena_, both of which were well known and much
admired in the London River for many years.

The _Charlotte Padbury_ was a wood barque of 640 tons, she was built at
Falmouth in 1874 for W. Padbury, of Fremantle.

The _Helena Mena_ was a composite barque of 673 tons, and was built by
Thomson, of Sunderland, in 1876, for J. Wilson, of London.

The _Charlotte Padbury_ was wrecked in April, 1903, and the _Helena
Mena_ was sold to the French for £1275 in 1898.

These were two of the last of the wood and composite clippers, for
by the early seventies every shipowner, however conservative, found
himself compelled to go in for iron ships, if he was to compete
successfully in the world’s freight market.



Footnote.


[B] The green with which the Aberdeen White Star ships were painted was
a composite paint always known as Aberdeen green.



PART III.—“THE IRON CLIPPERS.”

  Fill us with wool till we’re nigh overflowing,
  Send us away when strong breezes are blowing,
    And we’ll show all the others the road.
  The tug boat is coming for us in the morn,
  We’ll drive her like blazes from here to the Horn,
    For the main royal shall never be stowed.—

  J. ST. A. JEWELL.


The Introduction of Iron in Shipbuilding.

It was the introduction of iron, as the chief material for the building
of ships, that contributed more than anything else to the supremacy of
the British Mercantile Marine.

Iron killed the competition of our American cousins, who, as long as
wood was the chief factor, were able to give us a hard fight as to
which should lead the world in shipbuilding. Yes, it was the advent
of iron, more than the North and South War, more than the sinkings of
the _Alabama_, more than any slump in freights or foolish shipping
legislation on the part of the United States, and more even than our
adoption of Free Trade, which made the British nation the carriers of
the world.

Many people think, and they have been fostered in their belief by the
good old conservative wood and hemp sailor, that iron also sounded the
knell of the sailing ship. This is, of course, to a certain degree
true, yet sail continued to flourish for 50 years after the advent of
iron, and up to the late nineties no finer ships had ever been built
or sailed than the iron clippers from the Clyde and other British
shipyards.

It was the deterioration of the man before the mast which the advent
of steam brought about, and the cutting of freights induced by coal,
the cry for bigger ships and more luxury, and also, that soulless
modern institution, the company manager, which drove sailing ships down
and down in the trade of the world; these and the growing desire for
mechanical speed, which have invaded almost every department of life,
killed the windjammer.

But in iron, as in wood, sail had a zenith to reach before the decline
set in, and through the last half of the nineteenth century the ports
of the world were crowded with magnificent iron full-rigged ships and
barques, such as it would have been hard to improve upon with all our
new knowledge of wind pressure, streamlines, and least resistance
curves.

=The Drawbacks and Advantages of Iron.=

Like everything else iron had its drawbacks as well as its advantages.
At first its effect upon the deviation of the compass caused many a
stranding and many a disastrous shipwreck. Then too, though an iron
ship can be driven into a head sea in a way no dare-devil of a Yankee
driver would have dared to attempt with his soft-wood clipper, iron has
not the buoyancy of wood, and the sight of a modern four-poster’s main
deck when running before the westerlies would have made a Black Ball
skipper rub his eyes with astonishment. As a preventative of weed and
barnacles, no anti-fouling has yet been discovered which can compete
with copper, and thus an iron hull, especially if it had been long
in certain well-known localities, was ever a handicap to a vessel’s
speed through the water. Iron ships have never been able to equal their
wooden sisters in light winds, and this chiefly owing to the trouble of
foul bottoms.

The three chief advantages of an iron ship were firstly, that her hull
would stand unlimited driving, especially into a head sea; secondly,
she had more room for cargo than a wooden ship of the same size; and
thirdly, she was safer from that dreaded scourge at sea—fire.

=Increase in the Size of Ships.=

The chief change brought about by iron has been the increase in the
size of ships. The old-style shipowner held that a very big ship was a
very big mistake.

When the _Jason_, a 1500-ton ship, went out to Calcutta at the
beginning of the seventies, Patrick Keith, of Gladstone, Wyllie & Co.,
wrote to the Carmichaels, her owners, saying that she was far too big
a ship for the Indian trade, and that Smith’s smart little 1000-ton
“Cities” were quite large enough. Yet on her last voyage to the
Hooghly, 20 years later, the _Jason_ was by far the smallest deep-water
sailing ship in the port of Calcutta.

The difficulty of working wood in big sizes kept down the tonnage in
the old days, but with the introduction of iron this difficulty was at
once removed. And iron masts and yards in the place of Oregon pine, and
wire in the place of the tremendous hemp shrouds, solved the problem of
rigging strain—thus, with sail as with steam, the first result from the
use of iron was the steady increase in individual tonnage.

=Sail Plan Alterations.=

Iron masts and wire stays caused a big change in the sail plan of the
full-rigged ship. The increased strength led at first to a certain
amount of over-masting as well as over-carrying of sail, with the
result that many a new clipper was dismasted on her maiden voyage. 1874
was a specially disastrous year in this way. No less than seven ships
lost their masts bound out to Australia, and the _Loch Ard_ was twice
a victim. It was her maiden voyage, and she lost her “gossamer,” as
Joseph Conrad poetically calls it, before she had cleared the land.
She put back to the Clyde and refitted, only to again lose her masts
running the easting down. About this date also a great number of iron
ships were posted as missing, notably the _Africa_, _Asia_, _Loch
Laggan_ (ex-_America_), _Cairo_ and _Great Queensland_. No doubt some
of these losses were due to dismasting.

It was not only that the ships were tremendously lofty, but their
yards became squarer and squarer, until it was found that stunsails
were a luxury. In fact, partly for this reason and partly owing to the
competition of steam and the resulting need for economy, flying kites
of all descriptions were given up and by the early eighties even a fore
topmast stunsail was looked upon as a curiosity.

The lesson of rigging strain had to be learnt with the iron clippers,
just as it had had to be with the early wood clippers, but it was
not long before the seas were crowded by perfectly sparred iron
ships. Specially worthy of mention for perfection of sail plan were
Carmichael’s beautiful main skysail clippers, such as the _Golden
Fleece_, _Jason_, _Mermerus_, _Thessalus_, _Argonaut_ and others.

Double topsail yards were followed before very long by double
topgallant yards, then came the eclipse, and the seas became covered
with stump topgallant mast horrors and that pathetic sight, the full
rig ship masquerading as a barque.

I give a mainyard table, which may be of interest as showing the
development of width in sail plans.

MAINYARD TABLE.

  +-------+-----------------------+-------+------+--------------------+
  |Length |                       |       |      |                    |
  |of     |                       |       | Date |                    |
  |Mainy’d|         Ship          |Tonnage| Built| Description.       |
  |in feet|                       |       |      |                    |
  +-------+-----------------------+-------+------+--------------------+
  | 120   |_Great Republic_       | 3357  | 1853 |American 4-mast     |
  |       |                       |       |      |  barque            |
  | 108   |_British Ambassador_   | 1794  | 1873 |British iron “jute” |
  |       |                       |       |      |  clipper           |
  | 102   |_Preussen_             | 5081  | 1902 |German 5-mast ship, |
  |       |                       |              |  nitrate clipper   |
  | 100   |_Royal Sovereign_      | 1637* | 1637 |Brit. 1st rate      |
  |       |                       |       |      |  man-of-war        |
  |  „    |_Daylight_             | 3756  | 1902 |Brit. steel 4-mast  |
  |       |                       |       |      |  barque. Oil tank  |
  |  „    |_James Baines_         | 2515  | 1854 |“Black Ball” pass.  |
  |       |                       |       |      |  clipper           |
  |  „    |_Donald Mackay_        | 2598  | 1855 |“Black Ball” pass.  |
  |       |                       |       |      |  clipper           |
  |  96   |_Prince Royal_         | 1187* | 1610 |Brit. 1st rate      |
  |       |                       |       |      |  man-of-war        |
  |  „    |_Glory of the Seas_    | 2103  | 1869 |Amer. “C. Horn”     |
  |       |                       |       |      |  clipper           |
  |  95   |_Lightning_            | 2084  | 1854 |“Black Ball” pass.  |
  |       |                       |       |      |  clipper           |
  |  „    |_Champion of the Seas_ | 2448  | 1854 |“Black Ball” pass.  |
  |       |                       |       |      |  clipper           |
  |  „    |_Royal Charter_        | 3000  | 1855 |Brit. full-rigged   |
  |       |                       |       |      |  auxiliary         |
  |  „    |_Roanoke_              | 3559  | 1892 |Amer. wood 4-mast   |
  |       |                       |       |      |  barque            |
  |  94   |_Shenandoah_           | 3258  | 1890 |Amer. wood 4-mast   |
  |       |                       |       |      |  barque            |
  |  92   |_Dirigo_               | 3005  | 1894 |American steel      |
  |       |                       |       |      |  4-mast barque     |
  |       |                       |       |      |  (British design)  |
  |  90   |_Challenge_            | 2006† | 1851 |American wood       |
  |       |                       |       |      |  clipper           |
  |  „    |_Sovereign of the Seas_| 2421† | 1852 |American wood       |
  |       |                       |       |      |  clipper           |
  |  89   |_Star of the East_     | 1219  | 1853 |New Bruns. wood     |
  |       |                       |       |      |  clipper           |
  |  88   |_Mermerus_             | 1671  | 1872 |Brit. iron “wool”   |
  |       |                       |       |      |  clipper           |
  |  „    |_Loch Torridon_        | 2000  | 1881 |Brit. iron 4-mast   |
  |       |                       |       |      |barque              |
  |  84   |_Ben Voirlich_         | 1474  | 1873 |Brit. iron “wool”   |
  |       |                       |       |      |  clipper           |
  |  „    |_Loch Maree_           | 1581  |   „  |Brit. iron “wool”   |
  |       |                       |       |      |  clipper           |
  |  „    |_Port Jackson_         | 2132  | 1882 |British iron 4-mast |
  |       |                       |       |      |  barque            |
  |  82   |_Cimba_                | 1174  | 1878 |British iron “wool” |
  |       |                       |       |      |  clipper           |
  |  „    |_Flying Cloud_         | 1793† | 1851 |American wood       |
  |       |                       |       |      |  clipper           |
  |  81   |_Salamis_              | 1079  | 1875 |British iron “wool” |
  |       |                       |       |      |  clipper           |
  |  „    |_Witch of the Wave_    | 1500† | 1851 |American wood       |
  |       |                       |       |      |  clipper           |
  |  80   |_60-gun ship_          | 1500* | 1800 |Brit. 4th rate      |
  |       |                       |       |      |  man-of-war        |
  |  „    |_Thermopylae_          |  948  | 1868 |British tea clipper |
  |  „    |_Typhoon_              | 1610† | 1851 |American wood       |
  |       |                       |       |      |  clipper           |
  |  79   |_Dreadnought_          | 1413† | 1853 |Amer. Atlan.        |
  |       |                       |       |      |  packet ship       |
  |  78   |_Cutty Sark_           |  921  | 1869 |British tea clipper |
  |  „    |_Hallowe’en_           |  920  | 1870 |British iron tea    |
  |       |                       |       |      |  clipper           |
  |  „    |_Surprise_             | 1361† | 1850 |American wood       |
  |       |                       |       |      |  clipper           |
  |  75   |_Roscius_              | 1100† | 1836 |Amer. Atlan.        |
  |       |                       |       |      |  packet ship       |
  |  74   |_Norman Court_         |  834  | 1869 |British tea clipper |
  |  72   |_Ariel_                |  852  | 1865 |British tea clipper |
  +-------+-----------------------+-------+------+--------------------+
                      * Old.          † American.


The “Ironsides,” First Iron Sailing Ship.

The first vessel to be constructed of iron was launched in 1838,
and appropriately named the _Ironsides_. She was built at Liverpool
by Messrs. Jackson, Gordon & Co., and in appearance differed very
little from wooden ships of that date. She was very short, with heavy
stern and low bow, out of which cocked an extremely long bowsprit and
jibboom, whilst her masts in contrast to her hull seemed to rake the
heavens. However she was the pioneer of the new material and at one
time her picture was a common sight in shop windows. It is doubtful if
she was altogether a success, and iron ships were still a rarity 20
years later.


The “Martaban.”

In 1853, an iron sailing ship was launched from the yard of John
Scott, of Greenock, with intercostal plates and stringers. This was
the _Martaban_, of 743 tons register, built for the well-known firm
of Carmichael. Her specifications were the product of the brains of
Matthew Orr, brother-in-law of the first Thomas Carmichael, and of
John Ferguson, who was afterwards a member of Barclay, Curle & Co.,
the famous shipbuilders. The _Martaban_ was classed nine years A1 at
Lloyd’s, being rated equal to a nine years wooden ship.

At that time Lloyd’s had no rules or class for iron ships, so they
retained _Martaban’s_ original specification as a basis for their rules
concerning iron ships. That the _Martaban_ was a success is proved by
the fact that she received £4 a ton for a cargo of coffee and cotton
from Bombay to Havre, and was offered a Diplomé d’Honneur at the local
exposition for delivery of her cargo in perfect condition.

[Illustration: Mr. THOMAS CARMICHAEL, of A. & J. Carmichael.]

Iron Ships in the Australian Trade.

It was in the Australian trade that the iron passenger ship was to be
seen in her perfection. She succeeded the great Liverpool clippers and
the little Blackwall frigates, and she was as beautiful and perfect as
any of her wooden sisters.

In the sixties, seventies and even eighties thousands of emigrants were
carried from the Old Country to Australia and New Zealand in these
magnificent iron clippers. They also took out blood stock of every
description from racehorses to pedigree bulls and rams; and a nice time
some of these animals must have had when the clippers were carrying on
running their easting down.

Most of the ships raced home again with wool for the London sales, but
a few, notably Heap’s fine ships, went on from Australia to India and
Burma, generally with a load of walers for the army in India. In the
Bay of Bengal they either loaded jute home from Calcutta or rice from
Rangoon. Messrs. J. Heap & Sons were rice millers, and their ships took
the firm’s rice home.

In the seventies and eighties these beautiful clippers were a
never-ending interest in the London River, the Mersey, the Clyde and
the great ports of the Antipodes. In Sydney landsmen made special
Sunday excursions to Circular Quay to see the ships, and it was the
same with the other ports in the days of masts and yards. Every
Australian, whether native-born or new chum, kept a tender corner
in his heart for the tall ships which had had so much to do with
the development of his country. The Sydney-side native, indeed, not
only took a pride in the regular traders to the port, but knew them
intimately, and could generally be relied on to name an incoming
clipper correctly long before she had reached the anchorage.

=The New South Dock.=

A visit to the docks of the London River is only made nowadays from
dire necessity. Their charm has entirely departed. Instead of a
forest of spars, nothing now shows above the warehouse roofs but the
soot-covered, stumpy masts, blunt-nosed derricks, and squat funnels of
a few steamers. Truly the glory of the docks has departed for ever, and
only the sentiment remains. Joseph Conrad, in his delightful _Mirror
of the Sea_, thus describes the New South Dock in the days of the iron
wool clipper:—

  To a man who has never seen the extraordinary nobility, strength, and
  grace that the devoted generations of shipbuilders have evolved from
  some pure nooks of their simple souls, the sight that could be seen
  five-and-twenty years ago of a large fleet of clippers moored along
  the north side of the New South Dock was an inspiring spectacle. Then
  there was a quarter of a mile of them, from the iron dockyard gates
  guarded by policemen, in a long, forest-like perspective of masts,
  moored two and two to many stout wooden jetties. Their spars dwarfed
  with their loftiness the corrugated iron sheds, their jibbooms
  extended far over the shore, their white and gold figure-heads,
  almost dazzling in their purity, overhung the straight, long quay
  above the mud and dirt of the wharfside, with the busy figures of
  groups and single men moving to and fro, restless and grimy under
  their soaring immobility.

I have a photograph of the South Dock just as it is depicted by Conrad,
showing the long row of lean, knife-like cut-waters, surmounted by
their spotless figure-heads, and with their bowsprits stabbing the
sheds opposite, whilst the masts and yards criss-cross the dull grey of
the London sky.


The Builders of the Iron Wool Clippers.

Before proceeding to the ships themselves, I must not omit to say a few
words about the men who built these splendid iron sailing ships.

The London River, partly owing to an ill-advised strike and partly
owing to its distance from the raw material in comparison to the
northern ports, entirely lost its shipbuilding business in the latter
half of the nineteenth century; and the builders of the iron wool
clipper were pretty evenly distributed over the Clyde, the Mersey
and Aberdeen. Once more, as with the tea clippers, there was a keen
rivalry between Glasgow and Aberdeen, and it is difficult to say
which carried the day, for both cities were represented by countless
beautiful ships. Duthie, Hall and Hood had, however, to contend with
more than twice their number of Clydeside rivals. If I were asked to
give my humble opinion, I should award the palm to Messrs. Barclay,
Curle & Co. for producing the most perfect iron ships that ever sailed
the seas. They built many of the best “Lochs,” such as _Loch Maree_,
and the four-posters _Lochs Torridon_, _Carron_ and _Broom_. They were
responsible for the whole of Carmichael’s splendid fleet, and the two
famous “Bens”—_Voirlich_ and _Cruachan_—emanated from their drawing
lofts.

Thomson, of Glasgow, built some half-dozen “Lochs,” his masterpiece
being the _Loch Garry_. The rest of the Loch Line were divided amongst
Lawrie, Inglis, Henderson, and Connell. Duthie’s finest ship was the
_Brilliant_. Hall built the well-known _Port Jackson_, whilst Hood was
the originator of all the Aberdeen White Star ships and also built the
smart little _Cimba_.

Heap’s ships were mostly built by Evans, of Liverpool; and Potter, of
Liverpool, produced the two well-known London ships, _Thomas Stephens_
and _Old Kensington_. Of the other London owned ships, _Hesperus_
and _Harbinger_ worthily upheld the name of Steele, while Pile, of
Sunderland, was represented by _Rodney_.

I must now turn to the ships themselves, and, taking them in order of
date, will begin with that famous veteran the _Darling Downs_.


The “Darling Downs.”

She was one of that numerous fleet of ships, the converted from steam
to sail, about which one could make a largish book without much
trouble. And she was one of the most successful of the lot. She was
built as far back as 1852 and sailed under the flag of the General
Screw Steamship Company, as the _Calcutta_, an auxiliary steamer with a
300 horse-power engine. Like nearly all early steamship businesses the
General Screw S.S. Co. did not remain solvent very long, their ships
were sold and were promptly converted into sailing ships, and in many
cases renamed.

As a sailing ship, the _Darling Downs_ was a very favourite passenger
ship to Sydney. Like all converted steamers she was a very fast sailer,
and made very good and regular passages. After a prosperous career as a
Sydney trader, she was finally run into and sunk off the Nore in 1887.


“City of Agra” and “Sam Mendel.”

These two early iron ships were both exceedingly fast and made many a
good passage to the Colonies. _City of Agra_ once landed her passengers
in Melbourne when only 65 days out from the Tuskar; on another occasion
she passed Port Phillip Heads on her way to Queensland, when 63 days
out; and she made the run out to Lyttelton, New Zealand, in 71 days.

In 1881, when commanded by Captain Young, she left Gravesend on 25th
May, took her departure from the Lizard on the 29th, and crossed the
equator on 17th June in 27° W., 19 days from soundings. Between the
N.E. and S.E. trades, she had very squally variables and lost her fore
topgallant mast. She crossed the meridian of the Cape on 11th July and
ran her easting down in 39° and 40° S., making a very steady average,
as her best run was only 270 miles, and she crossed the Leeuwin
meridian on 30th July, signalled the Otway on 5th August and arrived in
Hobson’s Bay the following day, only 69 days out from the Lizard.

[Illustration: “DARLING DOWNS.”]

[Illustration: “ANTIOPE.”

_Photo by Captain Schutze, Sydney._]

_Sam Mendel_ is known for her 68-day run from London to Port Chalmers
in 1876. On another occasion, whilst racing one of the “Cities” to New
Zealand, she lost her foremast, and I have a photograph of her as she
appeared under jury rig.

Both ships lived to a ripe old age.

The _City of Agra_ was wrecked on Cape Sable on the 31st March, 1907,
when on a passage from New York to Bridgewater. The _Sam Mendel_, after
being twice sold and twice renamed, the first time _Charlonus_ and
secondly _Hannah_, was at last condemned and broken up in June, 1909.
Thus it will be seen that _City of Agra_ was afloat 47 years and _Sam
Mendel_ 48 years, which speaks volumes for the good workmanship of
their builders.


“Dharwar.”

The _Dharwar_, which was one of Harland & Wolff’s finest productions,
originally belonged to the Indian “Iron Ship Company.” Though the
company made money in the early sixties, a slump in freights brought
it into the hands of the Receiver after a very short existence. The
_Dharwar_ sailed for England in 1868, and on her arrival was bought by
John Willis, who always had an eagle eye for a good ship. He fitted
her for emigrants and during the seventies she was usually carrying
passengers outward; later she became a favourite Sydney trader, and
when loading at Circular Quay was usually to be seen on the cross berth
opposite the old Paragon Hotel. A beautifully built ship, with teakwood
decks, the _Dharwar_ was also a very consistent performer, and made a
good name for herself under Captain Freebody. Before settling down in
the Australian trade, Captain Freebody took her to Calcutta sometimes
for a Dundee jute cargo, he also took her across the Pacific, and made
a very fine passage from Frisco to Liverpool in 1872-3 of 97 days. As
late as 1902 I find the old ship arriving at Fremantle on 24th May, 80
days out from Barry. Willis eventually sold her to the Swedes, who sent
her to the ship-breakers in 1909, after 45 years of service.


The Strange Career of “Antiope.”

The _Antiope_ was one of the earliest of Joseph Heap’s ships, and, like
all his others, had a name which no sailor could possibly pronounce
correctly. Indeed when she came out many an old salt shook his head
over such a name. Who ever heard of a ship called the “Anti-hope”
coming to any good? However she upset the predictions of the evil
prophets by being one of the luckiest ships ever launched, and at the
present day must be one of the oldest ships afloat.

She was Heap’s fourth ship, I believe; her sister ship, the _Marpesia_,
having been launched from Reid’s yard four months before her. The first
ship of Heap’s “Thames and Mersey Line” was the little _Hippolyta_, of
853 tons, built as far back as 1856. Then came the _Eurynome_, of 1347
tons, built at Whitehaven in 1862.

[Illustration: “ANTIOPE.”]

She had an unenviable reputation for small collisions, so was generally
known as the “You’re into me.”

For some years the Thames and Mersey Line was managed by Thompson, May
& Co., of Water Street, Liverpool. The ships carried emigrants and
general cargo from Liverpool to Melbourne, then crossing to the Bay of
Bengal, often with walers to Madras or Calcutta, they came home from
Rangoon with Heap’s rice. They generally sailed from Liverpool on the
10th of each month. In the early eighties the line was bought by Mr.
Beazley to start his son, and was henceforth known as the Australian
Shipping Company, managed by Gracie, Beazley & Co.

The _Antiope_ made her best passage in 1868, running out to Melbourne
under Captain Withers in 68 days, and but for being hung up on the line
for 10 days would have gone near to breaking the record.

After Beazley sold her she was for some years in the South American
trade. Then during the Russo-Japanese war she was captured by the
Japanese whilst under Russian colours. The Japs sold her to Mr. J. J.
R. Matheson, of Ladysmith, British Columbia, and for a short while she
was in the timber trade. The world war found her lying in a New Zealand
port, doing duty as a coal hulk for the Paparoa Coal Co. Here the Otago
Rolling Mills bought her at a stiff price, and like many another old
sailing ship, she came out of her retirement with a new set of wings in
order to brave the German submarines and keep the old Red Duster flying.

In 1916, she got ashore on the coast when making for Bluff Harbour in a
gale of wind, and there she lay on her side in the wash of the tide for
96 days. At last, with tonnage pretty near worth its weight in gold, an
attempt was made to float her. For this purpose a large steam trawler,
fitted with pumps to throw 10,000 gallons a minute, was brought down to
this most southerly port in the Empire. No progress, however, was made
until a journalist named Bannerman, with the inquisitiveness of his
kind, got down into the _Antiope’s_ fore peak by means of a rope ladder
and discovered the chief leak. Then, with mats over the bow, the pumps
slowly overcame the water, the _Antiope_ righted and finally floated.
She was then towed round to Port Chalmers, docked, repaired and once
more fitted for sea. From Port Chalmers she ran across to Newcastle,
N.S.W., in ballast, making the trip in the good time of 12 days. Here
she loaded coal for Valparaiso, after refusing a £9000 freight to the
United Kingdom. Again she made a good passage. From Chile she went up
to San Francisco. And she is still earning money at the wonderful age
of 54 years.


“Theophane.”

The _Theophane_ was probably the fastest of all Heap’s ships, and was
built on sharper lines than the _Antiope_ or _Marpesia_. On her maiden
passage—the abstract log of which I give in the Appendix—she went out
to Hobson’s Bay under Captain Follett in 66 days.

Her first 12 passages to Melbourne were 66, 75, 75, 70, 80, 73, 73, 82,
73, 75, 79 and 77 days, giving an average of 75 days, this being from
the Channel.

On the 11th December, 1891, she sailed from Newcastle, N.S.W., with a
cargo of coal for Valparaiso, and was never heard of again.


Messrs. Aitken & Lilburn and the Loch Line of Glasgow.

The best known line of sailing ships running to Australia since the
use of iron shipbuilding has undoubtedly been the famous Loch Line of
Glasgow.

[Illustration: “THEOPHANE.”]

[Illustration: “DHARWAR.”]

It was started in 1867 by two young men who had been in the employ of
Patrick Henderson & Co.—these were William Aitken and James Lilburn.
In the old days it was the custom for owners to make a daily visit to
intending shippers; this was Aitken’s part of the work and he continued
to make a practice of it long after other owners had given it up.
Lilburn superintended the loading and despatching of their ships, and
so great was his practical knowledge and so keen his interest that it
is no exaggeration to say that no ships were better kept up than the
Loch liners. All over the world the Loch Line clippers were held up by
seamen as examples of what well run and comfortable ships should be.
A keen yachtsman and a one-time Commodore of the Royal Northern Yacht
Club, Mr. Lilburn was a man who not only thoroughly understood ships
but loved them for their own sake. And it is under such owners that
sailors consider themselves lucky to serve.

The ships carried first, second and third class passengers outwards,
and when steam began to cut in they still held on until they were the
last of all the sailing ships to continue carrying passengers. Many an
invalid or consumptive has gained fresh vigour and untold benefit from
a voyage to the Antipodes in a Loch liner.

The saloon fares charged were:—£40 to Adelaide and Melbourne, £42 to
Sydney, £76 for the round trip out and home.


The “Clan Ranald,” “Ben Nevis” and “Loch Awe.”

Messrs. Aitken & Lilburn commenced business by chartering the _Clan
Ranald_, _Ben Nevis_ and _Loch_ _Awe_. The _Clan Ranald_ they
eventually bought and renamed the _Loch Rannoch_.

Captain Bully Martin, who was afterwards one of the best known skippers
in the Loch Line, superintended the building of the _Clan Ranald_, and
took command of her for the first few years of her existence.

Bully Martin was a great personality amongst sailing ship skippers. He
was a driver of the old type, and stories referring to Bully Forbes are
often mixed up with those referring to Bully Martin. He nevertheless
was such a consummate seaman that in 45 years’ service as master he
never cost the underwriters a penny, and only lost a couple of men,
one through a fall from aloft and one from being washed overboard.
He is said to have hated passengers. He served his time in Allan’s
beautiful little Transatlantic sailing ships—his first ship being
the _Caledonia_, a full-rigged ship carrying royals and stunsails
though only of 390 tons. She was commanded by Captain Wylie, who was
afterwards marine superintendent of the Allan Line. After passing for
mate, he obtained the berth in the 900-ton iron ship _Shandon_, which
was fitted with patent reefing gear for topgallant sails, topsails
and courses. She made three voyages a season to Montreal and in the
winter ran to the Southern States for cotton. After four years as mate,
he obtained command of the _Edendale_, belonging to the same owners,
Messrs. W. Kidston & Son, of Glasgow. His next command was the _Lord
Clyde_, which he left for the _Clan Ranald_. He commanded her for two
or three voyages and then went to Watson Bros., commanding the _Ben
Venue_, _Ben Voirlich_ and _Ben Cruachan_ in turn, after which he
returned to the Loch Line, and after having the _Loch Ness_ and _Loch
Long_, commanded the _Loch Broom_ until he retired from the sea in
1907, the very year, curiously enough, that Messrs. Aitken & Lilburn
sold his first ship in their employ.

On 22nd February, 1907, the _Loch Rannoch_ left Melbourne under Captain
Morrison with the usual cargo of wool, hides and tallow for Hull, at
which port she arrived on 8th June, 106 days out. After discharging she
returned to Glasgow, and was then sold to the Norwegians. In November,
1910, she was again sold to the Germans, and has since been broken up.

The _Ben Nevis_ after making her maiden voyage under charter to Aitken
& Lilburn became one of Watson’s passenger ships to Australia. On
14th July, 1897, when bound to Dunedin from Glasgow, she unexpectedly
appeared in Hobson’s Bay, having put in to repair damages which had
taken place 12 days before in the Southern Ocean. It appeared that she
had been swept from stem to stern by a tremendous wave; two of the crew
had been taken overboard along with everything movable on the main
deck; besides which the break of the poop had been burst in and the
interior so gutted that her officers had nothing but the clothes they
stood up in. The repairs cost £3000.

In 1898 the _Ben Nevis_ was sold to the Norwegians and renamed
_Astoria_. On 24th January, 1912, she was abandoned, dismasted, in the
Atlantic, after being set on fire, her crew being taken off by the
steamer Dungeness and landed at Penzance.

The _Loch Awe_ is known for her record passage to Auckland, New
Zealand, under Captain Weir.

  Gravesend to Auckland      73 days.
  Pilot to pilot             69 days.

As far as I know this record still holds good.

Captain Weir was a great driver, and the _Loch Awe_ came into Auckland
with everything washed off her decks, including hen coops, spare spars
and all her boats. She was carrying emigrants who had had a terrible
time, having been battened down for days on end. On her arrival she
was delayed a week, as she had reached Auckland before her papers, the
mails in those days coming _via_ Panama to New Zealand.


The Famous “Patriarch”—First Iron Ship of the Aberdeen White Star Line.

In 1869 the Aberdeen White Star Line gave their first order for an iron
clipper ship, the result of which was the famous _Patriarch_. George
Thompson was only contented with the very best, and _Patriarch_ was
no exception to his rule. Built of the best iron plating at a cost of
£24,000, she was considered the finest iron ship in the world when she
first came out. She had a poop 90 feet long, under which extended a
magnificent saloon. In her rigging plan she was a long way in advance
of her times. Her topmasts and lower masts were in one, and her
topgallant masts were telescopic, fitting into the topmasts; and in the
seventies she was fitted with double topgallant yards on fore and main,
whilst she still carried stunsails in the eighties when most ships had
discarded them.

As a sea boat she proved herself on numberless occasions, notably in
the Indian cyclone of 1892, which she weathered out with only the
loss of a lifeboat, whilst the fine Loch liner, _Loch Vennachar_, was
totally dismasted 70 miles away. She possessed that very rare quality
in iron vessels—dryness. And during her life of 29 years under the Red
Ensign she never had a serious accident and never made a bad passage.

_Patriarch’s_ best 24 hours’ run was 366 miles, and her best week’s
run was 2060 miles, her main royal being set the whole time.

[Illustration: “PATRIARCH.”

_Photo by Hall & Co., Sydney._]

_Patriarch_ was no doubt lucky in her captains: Captain Pile took her
from the stocks until 1876, Captain Plater had her ten voyages from
1877 to 1887, Captain Allan from 1887 to 1890, and Captain Mark Breach
took her until she was sold in 1898, during which time, he says, that
she never stranded a ropeyarn.

_Patriarch’s_ maiden voyage was almost as much of a record as
_Thermopylae’s_, each passage being the best ever made by an iron ship
at that date. On her outward passage with 40 passengers and a large
general cargo, she arrived in Sydney on 10th February, 1870, only 67
days from pilot to pilot, and 74 anchorage to anchorage. And on the
homeward run she went from Sydney Heads to the West India Dock in 69
days. This was an extraordinary performance, as anything under 90 days
is very good for an iron ship on the homeward passage.

After this the _Patriarch_ was one of the most regular ships in the
Sydney trade. She was never much over 80 days going out, and though she
never repeated her maiden performance coming home her passages were
most consistent and she only twice ran into three figures in over 20
passages from Sydney.

In 1897-8 the good old ship sailed her last voyage under the Red
Ensign—a round of London, Sydney, Newcastle, N.S.W., Manila and home
in 13 months. On his arrival Captain Mark Breach was horrified to
find that his beloved ship had been sold to the Norwegians for a
paltry £3150, and on 1st November, 1898, he hauled down the celebrated
house-flag and handed her over to her new owners.

For another 14 years she washed about the seas, unkempt, bare of paint
and forgotten. Of her passages in this condition, I have picked out a
couple at random:—

  1908 Monte Video to Port Victoria (Make)  64 days.
  1910 Bantjar (Java) to Delegoa Bay        57 days.

On Christmas Day, 1911, she left Algoa Bay for a Gulf port, and on
23rd February, 1912, got ashore on Cape Corrientes, south of the River
Plate, and became a total loss.


The “Thomas Stephens.”

The _Thomas Stephens_ was one of the best known ships of her day. When
she came out she was considered the most up-to-date and perfectly
appointed passenger sailing ship ever built on the Mersey. She was
intended for the old Black Ball Line, but never actually sailed under
the famous flag, but sailed as one of the London Line of Australian
Packets (Bethell & Co.). She was owned by Thomas Stephens & Sons, of
London. Captain Richards, the well-known commander of the _Donald
Mackay_, superintended her building and fitting out and eventually left
the _Donald Mackay_ to command her.

The _Thomas Stephens_ soon proved herself one of the fastest iron ships
afloat, and a very successful ship financially. She was beautifully
sparred, crossing three skysail yards, and was a very lofty ship—one of
the tallest ships, indeed, that ever sailed either from the Mersey or
the Thames; and she carried all her stunsails well into the eighties.
At first she was fitted with single topgallant yards, but followed the
fashion for double topgallant yards before she had been afloat many
years.

She was launched in July, 1869, and left Liverpool on 24th September,
with a full passenger list for Melbourne, arriving out on 15th December
in 82 days.

[Illustration: “THOMAS STEPHENS.”

_From a painting by F. B. Spencer; lent by Messrs. Thomas Stephens &
Sons._]

On her second voyage she left Liverpool on 9th September, 1870, and
anchored in Hobson’s Bay on 21st November, 73 days, port to port.
After this she always sailed from London as one of the London Line of
Packets, along with her great rival _The Tweed_. And for her third
voyage, I find the following advertisement in the _Times_ of 5th
October, 1871.

  MELBOURNE-LONDON LINE OF PACKETS.

  THOMAS STEPHENS.

  R. RICHARDS (so well and favourably known when in command of the
  _Donald Mackay_ and _Great Victoria_), commander. This superb
  clipper, 1507 tons registered, of the highest class at Lloyd’s,
  and owned by Messrs. Thomas Stephens & Sons, is one of the finest
  specimens of marine architecture afloat, and made her last passage
  in 64 days. Constructed specially for the Australian passenger
  trade. Her spacious full poop saloon is fitted with bathrooms, cabin
  furniture, bedding, and every convenience. The second and third
  cabins are most comfortable. Carries a surgeon.—Bethell & Co.,
  Cowper’s Court, Cornhill, E.C.

_Thomas Stephens_ left London on 26th October, 1871, for Melbourne, her
great antagonist _The Tweed_ sailing for Sydney about the same date.
She crossed the line on 20th November in long. 29° 57′ W., making 12
knots with the S.E. trade blowing steadily from S.E. by S. Her best run
was 315 miles in a 23½-hour day when running down her easting. This
was from Saturday, 9th December to Sunday, 10th December, and her log
book gives the following details:—

  SATURDAY, 9th December, 1871.—Lat. 44° 50′ S., long. 20° 34′ E.
  Courses S.E. by E. ½ E., S. by E., S.E. by E. ½ E., S.S.E., S.E.
  Winds E.N.E., E. by N., variable, west. A.M., strong wind and
  squally, logging 10 knots. 11 a.m., heavy squalls, handed topgallant
  sails, crossjack, spanker and outer jib. P.M., squally with heavy
  rain. 4 p.m., set main topgallant sail. 9 p.m., wind veering into
  westward; set fore topgallant sail and main topgallant staysail.
  Midnight, logging 16 knots during last four hours

  SUNDAY, 10th December, 1871.—Lat. 44° 48′ S., long. 27° 57′ E.
  Courses S.E. ½ E., S.E. Winds west, N.W. Distance 315 miles. A.M.,
  heavy gale, high cross sea; ship labouring and straining heavily;
  decks at times completely flooded fore and aft. 1 a.m., main
  topgallant staysail stay carried away. 7 a.m., continuation of gale,
  logging 16 knots. Heavy sea struck ship on starboard quarter, washing
  starboard lifeboat out of davits, completely flooding main deck and
  washing away main hatch-house. 9.30 a.m., gale moderating, made all
  plain sail, still logging 16 knots. P.M., moderate with high cross
  sea; decks completely flooded; have logged 16 knots during last 16
  hours.

On Friday, 29th December, the westerlies were so strong that the
_Thomas Stephens_ had to be hove to for 4½ hours, the gale being
preceded by six hours’ calm with fog; the log reads as follows:—

  FRIDAY, 29th December, 1871.—Lat. by acc. 45° 21′ S., long. 129°
  7′ E. Courses N.E., E.N.E., E. by S., N.N.W., N.E. Winds variable,
  calm, N.W., west. A.M., light variable airs, thick foggy weather.
  Watch hauling up cable. 10 a.m., strong breeze, dull cloudy weather,
  logging 12 knots. 3.30 p.m., strong gale, handed topgallant sails. 4
  p.m., gale still increasing, handed upper topsails, courses and jib.
  Brought ship to the wind under lower topsails. Heavy sea running;
  decks completely flooded. 8.30 p.m., wind veering into S.W. Wore ship
  off before the wind. 10 p.m., set foresail and upper fore topsails,
  logging 10 knots.

On Saturday, 30th December, the gale still continued
and the log book records:—

  Lat. by acc. 43° 57′ S., long. 134° 27′ E. Courses N.E., N.E ½ N.
  Winds W.S.W. A.M., strong gale, high sea. Shipping a quantity of
  water over all, logging 13 knots. 4 a.m., set upper main and mizen
  topsails. 7 a.m., set topgallant sails, weather moderating, logging
  12 knots. 10 a.m., heavy sea. Decks at times completely flooded.
  P.M., strong gale and heavy sea. Shipping a quantity of water over
  all, logging 13 knots. 10 p.m., gale increasing. Handed fore and
  mizen topgallant sails, logging 14 knots. 10.30 p.m., handed main
  topgallant and mizen topsail. Midnight, strong gale and high sea;
  have logged 14 knots during last six hours.

On Tuesday, 2nd January, 1872, Cape Otway bore north, distant 2
leagues; at 7 a.m. the pilot came on board and took charge, and at 1
p.m. the _Thomas Stephens_ came to anchor in Hobson’s Bay, 66 days out
from her Channel pilot. From Melbourne she went across to Calcutta in
45 days, with walers on board, and loaded jute home, the usual round of
first-class ships in the seventies.

During her long and successful career she usually loaded outwards to
Melbourne or Sydney; but in 1879 on her twelfth voyage she went out to
Otago, and on her thirteenth left Liverpool on 29th April and arrived
at Rangoon on 21st July, 83 days out.

In 1881 she went out to San Francisco in 124 days from Holyhead, and
coming home to Falmouth in 98 days. Except for an occasional run to
Frisco, Calcutta or Rangoon, she was kept regularly in the Sydney trade
during the eighties and nineties.

The following is a list of her best sailing records:—

  16 knots for 16 successive hours, 10th December, 1871, in 44° 48′ S.,
  28° 7′ E. 1000 miles in 70 hours.

  16 days (the record) from Cape Horn to the line, under Captain
  Robertson.

  1870    Liverpool to Hobson’s Bay;  Sept. 9 to Nov. 21   73 days

  1871-2  London to Hobson’s Bay;     Oct. 26 to Jan. 2    68 days

  1872    Melbourne to Calcutta;      Feb. 1 to March 17   45 days

  1872-3  Lizard to Hobson’s Bay;     Dec. 4 to Feb. 11    69 days

  1873    Ushant to Hobson’s Bay;     Sept. 3 to Nov. 8    66 days

  1874-5  Lizard to Hobson’s Bay;     Nov. 22 to Jan. 31   70 days

  1876    Lizard to Hobson’s Bay;     Aug. 7 to Oct. 24    78 days

  1877    Tuskar to Hobson’s Bay;     Aug. 12 to Oct. 27   76 days

  1878    Plymouth to Hobson’s Bay;   June 15 to Aug. 31   77 days

  1880    Liverpool to Rangoon;       April 29 to July 21  83 days

  1880-1  Frisco to Queenstown;       Nov. 8 to Feb. 18    99 days

  1881    Holyhead to Frisco;         Jan. 12 to May 16   124 days

  1882    Frisco to Falmouth;         June 7 to Sept. 13   98 days

  1882-3  London to Sydney;           Nov. 8 to Jan. 22    75 days

  1885    Antwerp to Sydney;          July 25 to Oct. 20   87 days

  1886    London to Sydney;           May 29 to Aug. 16    79 days

In the later eighties her passages began to slow up for two very good
reasons: firstly her sail plan was cut down; and secondly her captain,
owing to a very nervous wife being with him, made no attempt to drive
her.

Captain Richards had her through the seventies, except for two voyages
in 1874-5 when Captain Bloomfield had her, then Captain Archibald
Robertson commanded her for half a dozen voyages, he was followed by
Captain W. Cross, then Captains Cutler, Davis and Belding took her in
turn.

The _Thomas Stephens_ was a lucky ship and kept singularly free of
trouble; indeed she had no serious mishap until July, 1893, when she
got well battered by a severe gale in 52° S., 130° W., whilst homeward
bound from Melbourne with wheat. Her bulwarks were carried away from
the fore rigging to abaft the main rigging on the starboard side and
her main deck was swept clean. She put into Callao for repairs, but she
was not leaking and her cargo was found to be undamaged.

On her following voyage she got into more serious trouble in battling
to get to the westward of Cape Stiff. She sailed from Barry on
27th December, 1894, and was partially dismasted off the pitch of
the Horn. Put back to the Falklands, arriving in Stanley harbour
on 28th February, 1895. Captain Belding, however, refused to agree
to the extortionate demands of the Stanley shipwrights, and sailed
for Capetown under jury rig, arriving there 14th May, 1895. Here he
refitted, and leaving Table Bay on 22nd June arrived at Esquimalt by
the eastern route on 24th September.

This unfortunate voyage terminated her career under the Red Ensign,
for on her arrival home in 1896 the _Thomas Stephens_ was sold to the
Portuguese Government. The Portuguese have a singularly shrewd eye for
a ship; and in this year they bought at breaking up prices three of
the finest and fastest ships ever built, namely the _Thomas Stephens_,
_Cutty Sark_ and _Thermopylae_.

Captain Belding was retained to sail the _Thomas Stephens_ to the Tagus
under her new flag. He had a Portuguese crew, and the passage was not
without incident, for a fire broke out on board and it was chiefly
owing to Captain Belding’s personal bravery that it was extinguished.
Indeed so pleased were the Portuguese with his behaviour that they
presented him with a service of plate and a Portuguese Order, at the
same time asking him to continue in command. For many years after this
the _Thomas Stephens_ served as a naval training ship in the Tagus
in conjunction with the _Thermopylae_. She survived the famous tea
clipper, however, and many a British naval officer has probably been
aboard the famous old ship without realising that, disguised under
the name of _Pero d’Alemguer_, floated one of the crack Australian
passenger ships of the seventies.

The Great War found her lying a hulk in the Tagus. The Portuguese
fitted her out when tonnage began to get scarce in 1915, and sent
her across to America. On her return passage to Lisbon in January,
1916, she was posted as missing—possibly a Hun torpedo sent her to
the bottom—and that terrible word “missing” may be hiding some awful
tragedy or glorious heroism. Anyhow her name goes on the “Ships’ Roll
of Honour in the Great War,” along with more than one of her sisters in
the Australian trade.


The First Six Ships of the Loch Line.

Messrs. Aitken & Lilburn started their venture with six splendid
ships, of 1200 tons each, all built during 1869-70. These were the
_Loch Katrine_, _Loch Earn_, _Loch Lomond_ and _Loch Leven_, all built
by Lawrie, of Glasgow, and the _Loch Ness_ and _Loch Tay_, built by
Barclay, Curle & Co.

At first it had been intended to name the ships after clans, but the
Clan Line registered first, and so at the start the “Lochs” were
advertised as the “Clyde Line of Clipper Packets.”

The _Loch Katrine_ was the first ship away. She arrived in Hobson’s
Bay under Captain M’Callum, on 20th December, 1869, 81 days out from
Glasgow. The _Loch Ness_, Captain Meiklejohn, arrived on 13th January,
1870; the _Loch Tay_, Captain Alex. Scott, on 12th February, 1870;
the _Loch Earn_, Captain W. Robertson, on 31st March, 1870; the _Loch
Lomond_, Captain Grey, R.N.R., on 26th May, 1870; and the _Loch Leven_,
Captain Branscombe, on 19th August, 1870.

Of the six clippers, the _Loch Tay_ made the best passage out, being
only 73 days, anchorage to anchorage. Running her easting down, her
best week’s run was over 2000 miles, and she averaged 285 miles a day
for nine consecutive days. Stunsails and large crews were carried
by the Loch clippers right up to the end of the seventies; and the
following passages under these conditions will show their speed
capabilities:—

  TUSKAR TO CAPE OTWAY.

  _Loch Katrine_     74 days
  _Loch Ness_        68  „
  _Loch Tay_         67  „
  _Loch Earn_        63  „
  _Loch Lomond_      76  „
  _Loch Leven_       68  „

Their average, pilot to pilot, 69½ days; port to port, 77 days.

Four of these ships lived to a good old age, whilst the other two came
to early and tragic ends.

When sailing ship freights began to fall, the _Lochs Katrine_, _Tay_,
_Ness_ and _Lomond_ were converted into barques, but in spite of losing
the yards on the mizen, they continued to make good passages right into
the twentieth century.

The _Loch Katrine_ made her best passage in 1893, from the Channel to
Melbourne in 71 days.

In 1907 she was nearly lost running her easting down when bound out
to Australia. It was blowing hard from the S.W., and a heavy sea
broke aboard, tearing up the standard compass and washing it into the
scuppers, besides smashing up a lifeboat and floating the gig out of
its chocks. The next roller came right over the stern, crumpling up the
wheel and binnacle and breaking in the cabin skylight. The men at the
wheel were washed away, and the ship broached to, filling her main deck
to the rail. All hands were called to save the ship, and as usual in
such cases, it meant risking life and limb to venture along the flooded
main deck and man the braces. However Captain Anderson managed to get
his ship off before the wind and by the following night a jury wheel of
capstan bars had been lashed on to the remains of the old wheel.

Three years later, in 1910, the _Loch Katrine_ was dismasted off Cape
Howe. After a perilous trip of three days, a boat in charge of her mate
was picked up near the land by a Swedish steamer, and a tug was sent
out from Sydney, which found the disabled ship and towed her into Port
Jackson. The _Loch Katrine_ was then sold in Australia, and for some
years earned a living carrying coal round the coast. So far as I know
she is still afloat.

The fastest of these six ships, in my opinion, was the _Loch Ness_. In
1874-5 she beat the time of her maiden voyage by going out to Melbourne
in 67 days. The following voyage she went out in 74 days; but what is
more astonishing is the time of her passages, in her old age when cut
down, rigged as a barque and with small and indifferent crews.

Under these conditions she made the following five runs home from
either Melbourne or Adelaide:—1893, 85 days; 1894, 87 days; 1895, 85
days; 1899, 90 days; 1900, 91 days; and she finished her active career
by two splendid passages. In 1906 she came home from Melbourne to Hull,
laden with wool and wheat, in 79 days; and on 20th May, 1907, she left
the Tail of the Bank for Adelaide, crossed the equator 28 days out,
passed the Cape meridian on 9th July, and arrived at the Semaphore
anchorage on 4th August, 76 days out. On 16th June when in lat. 3° N.
she fell in with a 9-knot tramp steamer bound to the southward; and the
two ships were constantly in company for 2000 miles, and it was not
until they were south of lat. 30° S. that the steamer saw the last of
the old _Loch Ness_.

Running her easting down the _Loch Ness_ averaged 245 knots for 18
consecutive days, her best day’s work being just under 300 miles.
Captain M. Heddle, who had previously commanded the _Loch Rannoch_, was
in charge of the _Loch Ness_ and deserved great credit for this fine
performance as a wind up to the old clipper’s career. The _Loch Ness_
was sold in Adelaide along with her sister ship, the _Loch Tay_, and
the celebrated pair are ending their days together as coal hulks for
the N.D.L. Co. at Adelaide.

There was probably not much to choose between the two sister ships in
point of speed, though _Loch Ness_ had slightly the better record.
_Loch Tay_, however, had many fine runs to her credit. For many years
she brought wool home from Geelong, her passages being most consistent
and rarely being much over 90 days.

The _Loch Earn_ became world-notorious by her fatal collision with the
French Transatlantic mail steamer _Ville du Havre_. On 21st November,
1873, on a bright starlight night, the Loch liner struck the steamer
right amidships, cutting her down to the water’s edge. The _Ville du
Havre_ sank in 12 minutes, and Captain Robertson of the _Loch Earn_ was
only able to save 26 of her passengers and 61 of the crew, 226 souls
in all going down in the Frenchman. The following day the American
packet ship _Tremountain_ was fallen in with, and Captain Robertson
transferred the survivors to her and they were landed at Cardiff. Two
days later the _Loch Earn_, being fatally injured by the collision,
also sank, Captain Robertson and his crew being rescued by a passing
ship.

The _Loch Lomond_, which in her palmy days under Commander Grey,
R.N.R., was known as the Scotch man-of-war owing to her smart
appearance, was a steady going ship without any very special records
to her credit. In May, 1908, she was sold to the Union S.S. Co. of
New Zealand to be converted into a coal hulk. Loading a cargo of coal
at Newcastle, N.S.W., she left there on 16th July, 1908, bound for
Lyttelton, N.Z., under Captain J. Thomson. But time went by and she
never arrived, and in due course she was posted as missing. The only
trace of her that was ever found was a life-buoy which was picked up on
the New Hebrides.

The _Loch Leven_ came to a sudden end on her second voyage. On 22nd
October, 1871, she left Geelong for London with 6523 bales of wool on
board, valued at £154,000. Two days later she stranded on King’s Island
and became a total loss. All her crew got ashore safely, but Captain
Branscombe ventured back in a surf boat to rescue the ship’s papers.
The boat capsized and the captain was drowned.


King’s Island—A Death Trap for Ships.

King’s Island, lying 80 miles S.S.W. of Port Phillip Heads, has been
the cause of many a fine ship’s end. Nearly 50 sailing ships, from
first to last, have found a grave in the King’s Island surf. A Captain
Davis, who for many years carried cattle between the island, Melbourne
and Tasmania in the coasting steamer _Yambacoona_, made a list some
ten years ago of 36 ships known to have perished on the rocky shores
of King’s Island. This list, which was included with other interesting
data regarding tides, currents and pilotage notes of King’s Island, was
used by the Hydrographic Office, Washington, U.S.A., and contains the
following names:—

  _Neva_,               ship        wrecked  1835
  _Cataraque_,          ship           „     1845
  _City of Melbourne_,  ship           „     1853 refloated
  _Waterwitch_,         barque         „     1854
  _Bruthen_,            schooner       „      „
  _Elizabeth_,          ketch          „     1855
  _Whistler_,           schooner       „      „
  _Maypole_,            schooner       „     1856
  _Katherine_,          schooner       „     1861
  _Brahmin_,            schooner       „     1862
  _Favor_,              schooner       „     1864
  _Arrow_,              schooner       „     1865
  _Dart_,               cutter         „      „
  _Netherby_,           schooner       „     1866
  _Europa_,             brig           „     1868
  _Omagh_,              barque         „      „
  _Helen Ann_,          ketch          „      „
  _Loch Leven_,         ship           „     1871
  _Ocean Bridge_,       brig           „      „
  _Martha Lovinia_,     schooner       „      „
  _Arrow_,              barque         „     1873
  _Cape Pigeon_,        cutter         „     1874
  _British Admiral_,    ship           „      „
  _Blencathra_,         barque         „     1875
  _Dart_,               ketch          „     1876
  _Flying Squirrel_,    schooner       „      „
  _Abrona_,             barquentine    „     1877
  _Mary Ann_,           schooner       „     1878
  _Anna_,               barque         „      „
  _Peerless_,           ketch          „      „
  _Kalahone_,           barque         „     1879
  _Loch Lomond_,        schooner       „     1891
  _Garfield_,           schooner       „     1897
  _Landisfarne_,        ship           „     1904 refloated
  _Earl of Linlithgow_, ketch          „      „
  _Clytie_,             ketch          „     1906
  _Shannon_,            schooner       „      „

[Illustration: “MERMERUS” alongside.]

[Illustration: “MILTIADES.”

_Photo by Captain Schutze, Sydney_]

On many parts of King’s Island’s rocky shore these wrecks have been
piled one on top of the other, one reef of rocks alone tearing the life
out of no less than six vessels. No doubt the list is far from being
complete; there was no light on King’s Island in the earlier days, and
this no doubt was the cause of many an unknown tragedy.


“Miltiades.”

George Thompson’s second iron ship was the beautiful _Miltiades_,
for many years a favourite ship in the Melbourne trade. Like the
_Patriarch_, she was built for the emigrant trade, and in the
Australian papers was spoken of as “that mammoth clipper,” though to
modern eyes she would look quite small and one of the daintiest of
ships. Unlike _Patriarch_ she was a very wet ship, especially when
running in heavy weather, but she was just as fast as the _Patriarch_,
if not faster—indeed taking her average, both outward and homeward, I
do not think that any ship can beat her record for an iron ship except
the little _Salamis_.

Captain Perrett took her from the stocks and had her until 1885, when
Captain Harry Ayling assumed command. On her first voyage she carried
stunsails, but when she got home the booms were sent down and never
used again.

Her best outward passage was made in 1873, being 70 days dock to dock,
63 days pilot to pilot. She left London on 5th May, dropped her pilot
off the Start on 12th May. Had very light winds to the equator, crossed
the line on 6th June in 27° 30′ W., crossed the meridian of the Cape
on 24th June in 44° S. On 24th, 25th and 26th June she ran 305, 310,
and 345 miles. Crossed the meridian of Cape Leeuwin on 9th July, and
was off the Otway on 14th July, only 20 days from the Cape, finally
anchored in Hobson’s Bay on the 15th; just 39 days from the equator. On
this passage her decks were lumbered up with sheep pens, and one can
well imagine what an unpleasant time those sheep must have had when she
was running her easting down.

In 1874 _Miltiades_ was diverted from Melbourne to Wellington.
Emigration to New Zealand was booming and many extra ships had to be
taken up; for instance the _La Hogue_ took 443 emigrants to Wellington,
the fine iron Calcutta clipper _Ballochmyle_ took 484 to Canterbury and
the _Rooparell_ 361 to Auckland.

The change was very near being the end of _Miltiades_, for she missed
stays whilst beating up to Wellington and slid on to a reef. Captain
Perrett immediately fired his signal guns and sent up a rocket to
attract attention. Luckily for him the inter-colonial steamer had just
rounded the North Heads bound in and at once went to his assistance,
and after one or two failures managed to get the _Miltiades_ off. It
was not until many years later that the _Miltiades_ was again seen in
Maoriland, but in the early nineties she made the following fine runs
home:—

  1890  Lyttelton to London, February 8 to April 27  78 days
  1891  Wellington to London, January 14 to April 6  82 days

When the Aberdeen White Star sold their ships the Italian owners of
the _Titania_ bought the _Miltiades_. She was finally condemned and
broken up in 1905.


Carmichael’s Superb Wool Clipper “Mermerus.”

This beautiful ship was one of the finest and most successful of all
the iron wool clippers, and as a specimen of an iron sailing ship she
could hardly be beaten, either for looks, speed or sea worthiness.
Barclay, Curle never turned out a more graceful and handsome ship as
looks; and like all Carmichael’s, she was most beautifully sparred,
crossing the main skysail yard, which was so characteristic a feature
of their ships. I give her spar plan below.

  _SPAR PLAN OF MERMERUS._
  +----------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
  |        Spars         |    Fore   |    Main   |   Mizen   |
  +----------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
  |Masts—deck to truck   |   156 feet|   161 feet|  135 feet |
  |Lowermast             |    64 ft. |    68 ft. |   56 ft.  |
  |Doubling              |   16½ ft. |   16½ ft. |   14 ft.  |
  |Topmast               |    57 ft. |    57 ft. |   48 ft.  |
  |Doubling              |    11 ft. |   11½ ft. |   10 ft.  |
  |Topgallant mast       |    32 ft. |    32 ft. |   26 ft.  |
  |Royal mast            |    17 ft. |   17½ ft. |   15 ft.  |
  |Skysail mast          |   13½ ft. |   13½ ft. |  12½ ft.  |
  |Lower yard            |    87 ft. |    88 ft. |  73½ ft.  |
  |Lower topsail yard    |   74½ ft. |    76 ft. |   62 ft.  |
  |Upper topsail yard    |    73 ft. |   73½ ft. |   60 ft.  |
  |Lower topgallant yard |   57½ ft. |    60 ft. |   52 ft.  |
  |Upper topgallant yard |    56 ft. |    56 ft. |   45 ft.  |
  |Royal yard            |    44 ft. |    44 ft. |   32 ft.  |
  |Skysail yard          |           |    32 ft. |           |
  +---------------+------+-----------+-+---------+-----------+
  |Jibboom 72 ft. |Spanker boom 55 ft. | Spanker gaff 37 ft. |
  +---------------+--------------------+---------------------+

This is her original spar plan. Barclay, Curle planned her spars for
three skysails, but the fore and mizen were not sent aloft. _Mermerus_
had a poop 54 feet long, and a foc’s’lehead 32 feet long. She carried
a cargo of 10,000 bales of wool, representing the fleeces of a million
sheep and worth £130,000 more or less as wool varied in price.

She never made a bad voyage under the Golden Fleece house-flag, and the
regularity with which she arrived every year in time for the February
wool sales caused her to receive the most out-spoken praise. On one
occasion, when as usual she had arrived in time and several notable
ships had missed the sales, Mr. Young, of the Australian Mortgage Land
and Finance Company, greeted one of the Carmichaels in Cornhill with
the heart-felt remark:—“That ship of yours is the most satisfactory
ship in the wool trade.”

Most of those connected with the _Mermerus_ regarded her with great
affection and spoke of her as a living thing. Mr. John Sanderson, a
well-known Melbourne merchant, was often heard to say:—“The _Mermerus_
is a wonderful ship, I can always depend on the _Mermerus_.”

The Melbourne people, indeed, looked upon her as the pride of their
port; and Lord Brassey, when Governor of Victoria, heard so much
about her that he paid her a special visit and inspected her with the
approving eye of a seaman.

Captain W. Fife commanded her until 1888, and then Captain T. G. Coles
had her until she was sold to the Russians. Except for her third voyage
she was always in the Melbourne trade, but in April, 1874, she went
out to Sydney. On this passage she took out a dozen South Sea Island
missionaries as passengers. Whilst in the North Atlantic she happened
to be becalmed for a few hours, and several turtle were noticed lying
asleep on the water close to her. Captain Fife, who was a great
fisherman, immediately launched a boat and succeeded in capturing six
of them.

The _Mermerus_ duly arrived in Sydney early one morning in June after
a splendid passage of 72 days. The passengers, on the morning of her
arrival, were joined at breakfast by a troop of friends, who so
enjoyed themselves that they all returned, sky-pilots and friends as
well, to the mid-day shipboard dinner, and at its finish declared that
they would all return again for supper. This was too much for Captain
Fife and he plainly said so. The parsons thereupon began grumbling at
his meanness, whereat the irate skipper fairly boiled over:—“You are
the greediest lot I ever carried,” he thundered; “on a 70-day passage
you have eaten up 140 days of cabin stores and six turtle besides—and
you call me a stingy Scottie. Now clear out and never let me see you
again.”

This voyage she did not come home with wool, but went up to Newcastle,
N.S.W., and loaded coal at 24s. for San Francisco. After making the
passage across the Pacific in 56 days, she loaded 2420 tons of wheat at
£4 1s. 3d. for Liverpool. She finally arrived in the Mersey on the 25th
May, 104 days out from Frisco. This must have been a good voyage for
her owners, as the freight on the outward passage to Sydney alone came
to £5000.

On her next voyage she left Liverpool Docks on 21st July, 1875, and
went from the Tuskar to Melbourne in 69 days; this time she loaded
wheat home.

She made her best passage out in 1876; leaving London on the 25th June,
she took in gunpowder at Gravesend, and arrived in Hobson’s Bay on 30th
August, exactly 66 days from the Gravesend powder buoys to Melbourne.
The powder was only just 66 days on board, being landed on the 67th
day. She crossed the line on 17th July and the Cape meridian on 6th
August. Her best homeward run was made the following year, when she
was 71 days to the Lizard, and then was held up by head winds. And in
1886-7 she docked in London only 78 days out from Melbourne.

And as she grew older, her splendid average in no way deteriorated. In
1896 she went out to Melbourne in 76 days, and in 1897, her last voyage
under the British flag, she went out in 77 days. She was then sold
to the Russians, but they kept her going. On 4th February, 1902, she
arrived at Port Adelaide from Cardiff only 73 days out, whilst in 1904
she made the best passage home from the Antipodes of the year, from
Adelaide to the Wight in 69 days.

This beautiful ship came to her end at the beginning of December, 1909.
She had sailed from Frederickstadt on 29th November, timber laden for
Melbourne, and stranded near Christiansand in a heavy fog; she was
floated again, but was found to be so damaged that it was not thought
worth the money to repair her, so on 28th April, 1910, she was sold to
the shipbreakers.


Devitt & Moore’s “Collingwood.”

_Collingwood_ was Devitt & Moore’s first venture into the Melbourne
wool trade. She was one of the early Aberdeen built iron clippers,
and thoroughly looked her part. Though she made no very remarkable
passage, her voyages were very regular, and it was not often that she
missed the wool sales. You could not wear out these early iron ships,
and the _Collingwood_ has the distinction of being on the “Ships’ Roll
of Honour in the Great War,” being sunk by a German submarine on 12th
March, 1917, whilst under Norwegian colours. The story is of the usual
kind. The officers and crew of the U-boat were drunk with champagne
and cognac obtained from the French ship _Jules Gommes_, which they
had sunk two hours previously. The crew of the _Collingwood_ were
given ten minutes only to get clear of the ship. The captain, being a
neutral, naturally wanted his papers examined for contraband, but the
German U-boat commander sneeringly told him that there would be time
enough to examine them when the submarine got home, and so one more was
added to Germany’s long list of crimes, and the famous old flyer sank
beneath the waves after 45 years of honest service.


“Hesperus” and “Aurora,” the First Iron Ships of the Orient Line.

In 1873-4 Robert Steele & Co., the celebrated builders and designers
of some of the fastest and most beautiful tea clippers, built two
magnificent iron clippers for the Orient Line. These were the
_Hesperus_ and _Aurora_, sister ships.

[Illustration: “HESPERUS.”

_From a lithograph._]

The _Aurora_ unfortunately was destroyed by fire on her first homeward
passage, through spontaneous combustion of her wool cargo. This
occurred on 9th August, 1875, in 40° N., 35° W., and she was finally
abandoned in flames with fore and mainmasts gone.

The _Hesperus_, her sister ship, is I, believe, still afloat. Steele
put some wonderful workmanship into the building of these ships,
everything was of the best; deck fittings were all of picked teak,
with enough brass to outshine a steam yacht. Besides being a very
comfortable ship for passengers, _Hesperus_ soon proved herself a hard
ship to keep with. But like most of the big passenger clippers of the
seventies she did not race home, but made a comfortable passage _via_
the Cape. This ship, in fact, was never hard driven, or she would have
had many more fine passages to her credit.

She was a stiff ship in spite of a tall sail plan, and she used to
send up skysail yards in the tropics though she did not habitually
carry them crossed.

Anderson, Anderson kept the _Hesperus_ in the Adelaide trade until
1890, when she was bought by Devitt & Moore for Lord Brassey’s training
scheme.


The Brassey Cadet Training Scheme.

In the year 1890 it was felt by the late Lord Brassey, Sir Thomas
Devitt and others who were interested in our Mercantile Marine, that
it was time some effort was made to train apprentices on the old
system of the Blackwall frigates, whereby parents by paying a larger
premium could be sure that their sons learnt more seafaring than how
to wash out a pig pen or clean brasswork during their four years’
apprenticeship and also could rest assured that they would receive
good food and treatment. This was all the more necessary because it
had gradually come to be the custom in many sailing ships to use the
apprentices merely as drudges to do all the dirty work aboard, the
historic ship’s boy having been for many years extinct on deep water
ships; at the same time very few captains gave their apprentices any
instruction in navigation. The result of this was that parents were
less inclined than ever to send their sons to sea.

With both steamship and sailing ships being run to the closest margin
possible for the sake of economy, it was seen by those who studied the
question that not only was the Mercantile Marine failing to get as good
a class of officer as it should do, but also that if the condition of
the apprentice was not improved there would soon be a shortage.

A great deal of the glamour of sea life had already departed. Cleaning
hen coops on a close-run windjammer had little of the old romance
about it, and chipping iron work on a dingy steam tramp had even less.
A few firms, of which those in the wool trade were shining examples,
still took a pride in their ships and did not look upon them merely
as a commercial asset, and these still took trouble to train their
apprentices. Beyond these and a few individual ships with conscientious
captains, the apprentice was absolutely neglected, and of course the
apathetic Board of Trade did nothing. The history of the Board of
Trade has been mostly that of a masterly inactivity, and on the rare
occasions on which it has displayed activity, it has not usually been
for the benefit of the Mercantile Marine.

It was entirely owing to Lord Brassey and Mr. Devitt, as he was then,
that we possess such highly trained officers as those who now command
the present day liners. They set the ball rolling which was later
taken up by most of the big steamship lines. Luckily for the success
of the venture, Messrs. Devitt & Moore possessed two or three captains
in their employ who were specially fitted for the arduous task of
controlling and teaching a shipload of 30 or 40 high-spirited boys. Of
such were Captains Barrett, Corner and Maitland.

The first two ships to be specially fitted to carry an extra number of
big premium apprentices or cadets, as they should be called, were the
famous Orient pair, _Hesperus_ and _Harbinger_, which were taken over
by Devitt & Moore for the purpose.

The _Hesperus_ as a cadet ship made some very fine passages.

She left London on 11th September, 1891, and arrived Sydney on the
8th December 88 days out. There happened to be a gold rush up country
and her crew cleared out, leaving the cadets to do everything during
the four months the ship was waiting for a wool cargo. The cadets
were not idle and played the usual pranks of their kind, and finally
the _Hesperus_ left Sydney with the three brass balls of a famous
pawnbrokers in Argyle Cut dangling from the end of her jibboom before
the envious eyes of the apprentices of all the ships in port.

On 11th October, 1892, she left London with Captain Barrett in command,
F. W. Corner, chief officer, and Lieut. Hackman, R.N., as naval
instructor. She was off the Lizard on the 13th and crossed the equator
in 30° W. on 8th November. The meridian of Greenwich was crossed on
29th November in 42° S. Her best runs in easting weather were 300, 302,
319, 326 and 328 miles, whilst her best week’s work were 1830, 1840
and 1898. She arrived at Melbourne on 23rd December, 71 days from the
Lizard.

In the following year she again left on the 11th October and took her
departure from the Lizard on 18th October. On 1st November, at 1.10
a.m., when in 26° 20′ N., 17° 56′ W., the shock of a submarine volcano
made the ship tremble very much, though the surface of the water was
not disturbed. The equator was crossed in 25° W. on 8th November. And
on 30th November, the day before she crossed the Cape meridian, three
icebergs were sighted. On 10th December with a strong north wind and
smooth water, the _Hesperus_ ran 363 miles in the 24 hours. This was
done without the mainsail which, at 4 a.m., was badly torn whilst all
hands were attempting to reef it and it had to be furled.

On 28th December at 6 p.m. the Otway was sighted during a strong
southerly gale with heavy squalls; for some hours the ship was hove to
whilst the gale was at its height, but on 29th December the _Hesperus_
anchored in Hobson’s Bay, 72 days from the Lizard.

[Illustration: SAIL PLAN OF “BEN CRUACHAN” AND “BEN VOIRLICH.”]

The _Hesperus_ kept up this fine average, serving as a cadet training
ship until 1899 when she was sold to the Russians, who renamed her the
_Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna_, but continued her as a training ship
in the Black Sea. As late as 1913 she was refitted by Swan & Hunter at
Wallsend. She has survived the war and the Bolshevists, and not long
ago could have been seen in the Liverpool Docks.


“Ben Cruachan” and “Ben Voirlich.”

These two splendid sister ships were amongst the hardest driven of
those in the Melbourne trade. They carried saloon, second cabin and
steerage passengers out and wool home—and there was no snugging down
for the convenience of the sorely tried emigrants with such skippers as
Captains Bully Martin and McPetrie.

On her maiden passage, _Ben Cruachan_, under Bully Martin, left the
Clyde on 5th October, 1873, passed the Tuskar light on 7th October,
crossed the equator 26 days out in 24° 30′ W., crossed the meridian of
the Cape on 21st November in 46° 30′ S., and running her easting down
averaged 300 miles a day from the Crozets to the Leeuwin between 27th
November and 6th December. On 13th December she arrived in Hobson’s
Bay, 67 days out from the Tuskar. This passage, however, was cast in
the shade by _Ben Voirlich’s_ run in 1874-5 on her second voyage, and
on her maiden passage _Ben Voirlich_ only took two days longer from the
Tuskar than her sister ship.

_Ben Voirlich_, on her maiden passage, left Glasgow under Captain
McPetrie, on 3rd January, 1874. But she was held up at Greenock by bad
weather until the 26th and did not pass the Tuskar until the 27th.
From the Tuskar she had 15 days of head winds, crossing the equator on
19th February in 26° 30′ W. The Cape meridian was passed on 15th March
and the Otway on 5th April. Her best work was between the 15th and 27th
March, when she averaged 12½ knots. She arrived in Hobson’s Bay on 6th
April, 69 days out from the Tuskar.

On her second trip, _Ben Voirlich_ left Gravesend on the 9th November,
Plymouth on 11th November, but was held up in the mouth of the Channel
over the 12th. She crossed the equator on 1st December in 31° 20′ W.;
crossed the Cape meridian on 24th December, in 45° S., and ran down
her easting on the parallel of 46° 30′, her best 24-hour run being 352
miles. She arrived in Port Phillip on 14th January, 64 days out from
Plymouth.

From pilot to anchorage Captain McPetrie claimed to have broken
_Thermoplyae’s_ record; and on _Thermopylae_ arriving in Melbourne on
4th February, only 64 days out from the Lizards, a fine wrangle started.

It was a specially favourable season, and _Ben Voirlich_ was very hard
driven, indeed in the roaring forties her main deck was never free of
water, and the midship house and half-deck were water-logged all the
time. She possessed a very hard nut of a mate, a bald-headed man with a
great red beard, who was a very fine seaman. But he had no mercy on the
boys, his usual greeting to a delicate-looking first voyage apprentice
being “Have your people sent you to sea to escape funeral expenses or
what?”

The _Ben Voirlich_ had a winch just aft of her midship house, to which
the fore braces were taken in the following way. The fore brace had a
wire pennant with a gin block on its end. A chain was shackled to the
ship’s side, then led through the gin block and down again through the
bulwarks to the winch and so on to the other fore brace, thus making
an endless chain. It had stoppers on it on each side to keep a little
slack. In bracing the yard, it took in on one side and gave out the
other, and only needed two men to work it.

  SPAR PLAN OF _BEN CRUACHAN_ AND _BEN VOIRLICH_.
  +----------------------+-----------+------------+------------+
  |        Spars         |    Fore   |    Main    |    Mizen   |
  +----------------------+-----------+------------+------------+
  |Mast—deck to truck    |   139 feet|   143½ feet|    115 feet|
  |Lower mast            |    60 ft. |    64½ ft. |    50½ ft. |
  |Doubling              |    16 ft. |     16 ft. |    13½ ft. |
  |Topmast               |   54½ ft. |    54½ ft. |    43½ ft. |
  |Doubling              |    12 ft. |    11½ ft. |      9 ft. |
  |Topgallant mast       |   30½ ft. |    30½ ft. |     26 ft. |
  |Royal mast            |    21 ft. |     21 ft. |     18 ft. |
  |Lower yard            |    84 ft. |     84 ft. |    70½ ft. |
  |Lower topsail yard    |    73 ft. |     73 ft. |     59 ft. |
  |Upper topsail yard    |   70½ ft. |    70½ ft. |     57 ft. |
  |Lower topgallant yard |   58½ ft. |    58½ ft. |     45 ft. |
  |Upper topgallant yard |    56 ft. |     56 ft. |     43 ft. |
  |Royal yard            |    43 ft. |     44 ft. |     35 ft. |
  +--------------+-------+-----------+------------+------------+
  |Jibboom 70 ft.|Spanker boom 51 ft.|   Spanker gaff 36 ft.   |
  +--------------+-------------------+-------------------------+

Though she made many good passages, she never again approached the
time of her second outward passage. On her homeward passage in 1878
she broached to when running heavy to the westward of the Horn and was
nearly lost. This occurred on the 18th November. A very big sea was
running, and the helmsman, a Dutchman, let go the wheel from sheer
fright. As the ship broached to a huge wave broke over her quarter.
This avalanche of water smashed in the break of the poop, gutted the
cabin, and took nine men overboard. For an hour the ship lay over on
her beam ends dragging her lower yards in the water, entirely out of
control. Two men who happened to be at work on the lee fore yardarm
were actually washed off it. One of them was lost overboard, but the
other caught the rail and lay there head downwards, being held from
going further by the chain fore sheet. An apprentice managed to get
to him and grab hold, but the next moment a sea swept over them, and
whilst the apprentice was washed inboard, the man was never seen
again. The same apprentice happened to be washed up against the winch,
to which he clung like a limpet; and then, as the old white-bearded
sailmaker was hurled by him in the cross wash of the sea, caught the
old man and held on to him or he would have gone overboard.

The brave ship struggled gamely; three times she brought her spars to
windward, and three times she was laid flat again. The whole of her
topgallant rail and bulwarks were washed away, together with everything
of a movable nature on the deck. At last after a whole hour of
desperate fighting, they managed to get the wheel up, and the clipper
slowly righted herself as she fell off and brought the wind astern.

Captain Ovenstone, who was in command at the time, spoke several ships
in the Atlantic and told them of his near shave. One of these reported
it to a homeward-bound steamer, the consequence was that when the _Ben
Voirlich_ arrived those on board found their parents and relations in a
great state of mind, not knowing who had been amongst the nine victims
and who was safe.

[Illustration: “COLLINGWOOD.”]

[Illustration: “SAMUEL PLIMSOLL.”

  _Photo lent by F. G. Layton._]

In 1885 the _Ben Voirlich_ had almost as bad an experience to the
southward of the Cape of Good Hope, when bound out to Melbourne under
Captain Bully Martin. At 8 a.m. on the 6th August a terrific squall
from W.N.W. struck the vessel and in a moment the foresail had blown to
rags. By 10 a.m. it was blowing a hurricane, the ship scudding before
it under fore and main lower topsails. An hour later a tremendous
sea pooped her, and washed away the two helmsmen and Captain Martin who
was conning them. Captain Martin and the quartermaster, a man named
Scott, were swept up against a hen coop, which was lashed up to the
bucket rail at the break of the poop, with such force as to smash it
to pieces; but it saved them from going over the side. As soon as they
could pick themselves up, they made a dash for the wheel, which they
found smashed in two and only hung together by its brass rim. Scott
held the wheel whilst Captain Martin cleared away the broken part,
which was jamming it, and they were just in time to save the ship from
broaching to. The lee wheel, a foreigner, had meanwhile got into the
mizen rigging and lashed himself with the turned up gear. The seas now
broke over the ship in a continuous cascade, and the _Ben Voirlich_
could only be worked from the poop and foc’slehead, to which the crew
succeeded in leading the braces. All that night a wild sea looted the
ship. Both the standard and steering compasses were swept overboard.
The port lifeboat on the skids was smashed to pulp; the topgallant
bulwarks were stripped off her, and the poop ladders, harness casks,
hen coops, handspikes and such like were all carried off by the
tremendous sea.

As soon as daylight broke, they managed to lash up and repair the
wheel; then the second class passengers were moved from the midship
house to the poop, as Captain Martin feared that the house would be
burst in and gutted by the seas raging aboard over the broken bulwarks.
But again the _Ben Voirlich_ safely weathered it out, and four weeks
later dropped anchor in Hobson’s Bay.

The two famous Bens were kept in the Melbourne trade until 1885. Then
in 1886 both ships went to Sydney, the _Ben Cruachan_ in 90 days
and the _Ben Voirlich_ in 94 days. But in 1887 they bade a final
good-bye to the wool trade and went into the San Francisco wheat
trade. _Ben Voirlich_ left London on 22nd May and arrived Frisco on
23rd September—124 days out. This was a very good run for the westward
passage round the Horn.

The _Ben Cruachan_ was not so fortunate. She left the Tyne on 4th May
and did not arrive in San Francisco Bay until 15th October—164 days out.

The _Ben Cruachan_ ended her days under the Mexican flag and was known
as the _Carmela_, and I believe she still does duty as a hulk in a
Mexican port.

The _Ben Voirlich_ was sold to the Germans in 1891 and converted into
a barque. In 1903 the Germans sold her to the Italians, who renamed
her the _Cognati_. During the winter of 1908 she was badly damaged by
collision with an iceberg off the Horn, but managed to make port. She
can now be seen at Leith, where she is serving as a domicile for the
crews of surrendered German ships. Here she lies a mast-less hulk,
covered with deck-houses, but fitted below with electric light and
every comfort.

These two sister ships were very evenly matched. Though not as fast as
some of the iron wool clippers, they made up for it by hard driving and
generally managed to get home in well under three figures.


“Samuel Plimsoll.”

Famous as had been the Aberdeen White Star wooden clippers, the iron
ships launched for Thompson in the seventies may almost be said to
have eclipsed them. And not least of these magnificent vessels, either
in speed, appearance or sea qualities was their third iron ship, the
_Samuel Plimsoll_, named after a man who at that time was receiving
broadside after broadside of abuse in shipping circles, yet who to-day
is counted one of the greatest, if not the greatest, benefactors of our
merchant seamen.

The _Samuel Plimsoll_ was launched in September, 1873, and christened
by Mrs. Boaden, wife of Captain Boaden, in the presence of Samuel
Plimsoll, Esq. Captain Boaden left the famous _Star of Peace_ in order
to take _Samuel Plimsoll_ from the stocks. She came out as a double
topgallant yarder and was specially fitted for emigrants.

On her maiden passage she took out 180 emigrants. Leaving Plymouth on
19th November, she had poor winds and very light trades to the line,
which was crossed on 11th December in 29° W. The meridian of Greenwich
was crossed on 2nd January, 1874, and the Cape meridian four days
later. Her best run in the 24 hours was 340 miles, and between the
Leeuwin and the S.W. Cape, Tasmania, she was only four days. On the
17th January she overhauled and passed the _Alexander Duthie_, and
finally arrived in Port Jackson on 1st February.

Whilst loading for London she was thus advertised in the _Sydney
Morning Herald_:—

  ABERDEEN CLIPPER LINE—FOR LONDON.

  THE SPLENDID NEW CLIPPER SHIP.

  _SAMUEL PLIMSOLL._

  100 A1, 1444 tons. reg. R. BOADEN, late of the _Star of Peace_,
  commander.

  This magnificent vessel has just completed the passage from Plymouth
  in 73 days, and having a large portion of her cargo stowed on board
  will leave about 7th April.

  As this vessel has lofty ’tween decks and large side ports, she
  offers a good opportunity for intermediate passengers, of which only
  a limited number will be taken. Carries an experienced surgeon.

  For freight or passage apply to Captain Boaden or to Montefiore,
  Joseph & Co. Wool received at Talbots.

From the very first _Samuel Plimsoll_ proved herself a very fast ship.
Her best performance was 68 days to Sydney from 190 miles W.S.W. of
the Bishops, when commanded by Captain Henderson, who had been chief
officer on her first two voyages, and left her to command the _Wave of
Life_, _Moravian_ and _Thermopylae_, eventually returning to her as
commander in 1884.

_Samuel Plimsoll’s_ logs show that she revelled in the roaring forties.
In 1876, when in 41° S., she ran 2502 miles in eight days, her daily
runs being 348, 330, 301, 342, 320, 264, 340, 257. In 1883 she averaged
278 miles in 13 consecutive days, her best being 337. In 1895, when
homeward bound, she ran from 49° 50′ S., 179° 05′ W., to 55° 25′ S.,
79° 59′ W. in 15 days, 29th November to 12th December, her daily
distances being—244, 286, 263, 259, 261, 273, 302, 290, 257, 253, 274,
264, 314, 235, 245—equalling 4020 miles.

The _Samuel Plimsoll_ was in the Sydney trade until 1887; she was then
transferred to the Melbourne trade. On her first passage to Melbourne,
she left London 2nd March, 1888, dropped her pilot off the Start on
5th March, but was only 270 miles from the Start on the 15th owing
to westerly gales; she crossed the equator 5th April, in 26° W., and
averaged 218 miles a day from Trinidad to 130° E., her best run being
310 miles. She arrived in Hobson’s Bay on 22nd May, 79 days from the
Start. During the whole of her career under the Aberdeen house-flag,
her only mishap was the carrying away of a fore topmast: and this
freedom from casualties was the case with most of Thompson’s green
clippers.

Writing about the increase of sailing ship insurance rates in 1897,
Messrs. Thompson remarked:—

  Five of our sailing vessels now in the Australian trade, viz.,
  _Aristides_, _Miltiades_, _Patriarch_, _Salamis_ and _Samuel
  Plimsoll_ are over 20 years of age, but they are in as good
  condition, by careful looking after and upkeep, as they were upon
  their first voyage; whilst they have a record that no general average
  homewards has ever been made on underwriters by any one of them since
  they were launched 21 to 28 years ago. (A remark which applies with
  equal truth to all our sailing vessels now running.) According to a
  reliable statement made up by the largest shippers and consignees
  of wool carried by our sailing ships during the last two years, we
  find that the claims thereon made on the underwriters, from inception
  of risk (which in many cases began in distant parts of the Colonies
  before shipment) were £149 1s. 7d., which, on 24,807 bales carried,
  valued at £12 per bale, came only to 1/- per cent. These figures
  clearly show that age does not affect the efficient carrying of
  cargo by vessels, built, as ours have been, of superior strength and
  scantlings, carefully kept up and treated in every way with a view to
  the safe carrying of valuable cargoes to and from Australia.

On the occasion of her only mishap a tropical squall carried away the
bobstay, and down came the fore topmast and main topgallant mast.
It happened that a Yankee clipper was in company; this vessel beat
up to the dismantled _Samuel Plimsoll_ and sent a boat off with the
message that she was bound to Australia and would gladly tranship the
passengers and carry them on to their destination. This offer, Captain
Simpson, who then commanded the _Samuel Plimsoll_, declined with
thanks, so the American went on her way.

It was all day on until the Aberdeen flyer had fresh masts aloft, and
then she settled down to make up the lost time. And nobly she did so,
one week’s work in the roaring forties totalling 2300 miles, and she
eventually arrived at Melbourne, 82 days out. Some days later the
Yankee arrived and her captain at once went to the _Samuel Plimsoll’s_
agents and reported speaking her dismasted in the Atlantic, at the same
time he commented on her captain’s foolhardiness in not transhipping
his passengers.

“Is it Captain Simpson you are referring to?” asked the agent.

“Yes,” returned the Yankee.

“Wall,” said the agent, imitating the American’s leisurely drawl, “I
guess you had better speak to him yourself. He’s in the next room.”

In 1899 the famous old ship caught fire in the Thames and had to be
scuttled. After being raised and repaired she was sold to Savill of
Billiter St., who ran her until 1902 when she was dismasted and so
damaged on the passage out to Port Chalmers that they decided not to
repair her. She was subsequently towed to Sydney from New Zealand
at the end of a 120-fathom hawser, and later taken round to Western
Australia where she was converted into a coal hulk.

And here is a description of her as she lies at her moorings in
Fremantle harbour:—

  From quay to midstream buoy, and from buoy to quay, she is plucked
  and hauled. Occasionally she feeds a hungry tramp with coal. Abashed
  and ashamed of her vile uncleanliness she returns to her midstream
  moorings where most of her time is spent in idleness and neglect. One
  looks in vain for the long tapering spars and the beautiful tracery
  of her rigging. Stunted, unsightly derricks have replaced them. The
  green-painted hull is now transformed into a dull red, a composition
  red that cries aloud, not of beauty, but of utility. Regularly with
  each returning ebb and returning flood of the Swan, she swings to
  her moorings the composition smeared effigy of _Samuel Plimsoll_,
  alternately facing towards river and sea. Marine life has made of her
  plates a habitation and refuge; her bottom is foul with the dense
  green growth of years. Her costly fittings, solid brass belaying pins
  and highly burnished, brass-covered rails and spotless decks, where
  are they? Coal-gritted baskets, whips and tackles are strewn along
  the decks: they all proclaim her squalid and servile calling.

  Amongst these old hulks, however, she is withal the most dignified
  looking, the graceful lines of her hull lending her an air of
  distinction at once apparent even to the layman. As coal hulking
  goes, she is perhaps the most fortunate of her class. Days
  pass—weeks—perhaps months, all spent in slothful idleness and
  neglect, whilst her more unfortunate sister hulks scarcely know a
  day but what they are not coal feeding some important steam-driven
  interloper.


“Loch Maree”—the Fastest of the Lochs.

The _Loch Maree_ was also launched in September, 1873. She was an
especially beautiful ship in every way and the fastest probably, of
all the “Lochs, Barclay, Curle were instructed to spare no expense in
making her as perfect as an iron ship could be, and she certainly came
up to her owners’ expectations, both in her looks, her outfit as an
up-to-date passenger clipper, her speed, and her behaviour as a sea
boat.

Underneath a poop of over 50 feet in length, she had her first class
passenger accommodation arranged on the plan adopted in the P. & O.
steamers.

She crossed three skysail yards, had a full outfit of stunsails and
other flying kites, and the following spar plan will give one an
approximate idea of her sail area.

  SPAR PLAN OF _LOCH MAREE_.
  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+----------+
  |         Spars           |   Fore    |  Main     |  Mizen   |
  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+----------+
  | Mast—deck to truck      | 148 feet. |  153 feet.| 130 feet.|
  | Lower mast              |  63  ft.  |   68  ft. | 59½ ft.  |
  | Doubling                |  16 ft.   |   16  ft. |  13 ft.  |
  | Topmast                 |  54 ft.   |   54  ft. | 44½ ft.  |
  | Doubling                |  11 ft.   |   11  ft. |   9 ft.  |
  | Topgallant mast         |  34 ft.   |   34  ft. |  28 ft.  |
  | Doubling                |   6 ft.   |    6  ft. |   5 ft.  |
  | Royal and skysail masts |  30 ft.   |   30  ft. |  25 ft.  |
  | Lower yard              |  84 ft.   |   84  ft. |  69 ft.  |
  | Lower topsail yard      |  71 ft.   |   71  ft. |  57 ft.  |
  | Upper topsail yard      |  68 ft.   |   68  ft. | 54½ ft.  |
  | Lower topgallant yard   |  55 ft.   |   55  ft. | 43½ ft.  |
  | Upper topgallant yard   |  51 ft.   |   51  ft. |  40 ft.  |
  | Royal yard              |  41 ft.   |   41  ft. | 31½ ft.  |
  | Skysail yard            |  30 ft.   |   30  ft. |  24 ft.  |
  +----------------+--------+-----------+-----------+----------+
  |Jibboom 70 feet |Spanker boom 50 feet| Spanker gaff 36 feet |
  +----------------+--------------------+----------------------+

_Loch Maree’s_ start in life was an unfortunate one. On 5th November,
1873, she sailed from the Clyde for Melbourne under Captain MacCallum
with a full cargo, 11 saloon and 30 second cabin passengers, and the
following is an account of her maiden voyage, which was given me by one
of her apprentices:—

  On the tenth day out, we were bowling along sharp up on the starboard
  tack, near the Island of Palma in the Canary group, when a squall
  struck her flat aback with such violence, that in a few moments her
  tall masts with their clothing of well-cut canvas lay a hopeless
  tangle over the side. Everything above the lower masts disappeared
  under the magic breath of the squall. When the wreckage was finally
  cleared away, the driving power was limited to a foresail, a
  crossjack and a lower mizen topsail. The mainyard had been snapped
  in the centre, one half lay on the rail and the other hung by the
  slings, rasping and tearing with every roll. But the crippled sailer,
  unlike the crippled steamer, can usually make a very creditable
  effort for safety. A course was set for Gibraltar. Improvised canvas,
  mostly of the fore and aft variety, was rigged up, and in 14 days the
  Rock was reached in safety. To show her wonderful sailing qualities,
  when two days from Gibraltar, we overhauled and easily passed a
  600-ton barque under royals.

  Captain MacCallum watched the barque as she fell away astern, and
  remarked: “If I had only thought she could sail like this, I would
  have kept on for Australia.”

  The _Loch Maree_ arrived at Gibraltar on the last day in November,
  and after being refitted sailed from the Straits on 20th January,
  1874, and ran out to Melbourne in 74 days, arriving there on the 4th
  April, 150 days out from the Clyde.

  She sailed from Melbourne homeward bound on 14th June, ten days
  behind the _Carlisle Castle_ of Green’s Blackwall Line. On the 14th
  day out, a sail appeared ahead at 11 in the forenoon. We were at the
  time swinging along with topgallant stunsails set on fore and main
  and a three-cornered lower stunsail.

  Captain MacCallum, though Scotch, had sailed mostly in Yankee ships
  and was a veritable whale for “kites.”

  “Take in that three-cornered stunsail and set a square one,” he
  ordered, “I want to be alongside that fellow this afternoon.”

  At 3 p.m. we were side by side with the _Carlisle Castle_. She flew
  no kites, her royal and skysail yards were down and the crossjack
  unbent. She was taking it easy and arrived in London three weeks
  after us.

  On that same passage _Loch Maree_ put up a remarkably fine spin from
  abreast of Fayal to the Downs, which distance she covered in 4½ days.
  On the run we overhauled a fleet of 12 schooners bound from the
  Azores to England, all bunched together in a radius of 3 or 4 miles.
  With topgallant stunsails set and everything drawing to a spanking
  breeze on the port quarter, we rushed through the centre of the
  group of fruiters, each one of whom was doing her best with topmast
  and lower stunsails set.

  I had often listened to the tales of old sailors, portraying in vivid
  language the fabulous speed of these little vessels, but alongside a
  smart 1600 tonner, with a skipper who knew how to crack on, they cut
  but a sorry figure. The _Loch Maree_ was doing at least 3 knots more
  than any of them, and in a very short time they were mere silhouettes
  on the skyline.

  Right up the Channel the kites were carried, and when morning broke
  off the Isle of Wight a sail was discerned ahead, which daylight
  proved to be a big barquentine rigged steamer under all sail. We had
  evidently crept up on her unobserved in the darkness, for when the
  discovery was made that a windjammer was showing her paces astern,
  volumes of black smoke belched in sooty clouds from her two funnels,
  as if entering a protest against such a seeming indignity. But, in
  vain, she fell away in our wake as the fruit schooners had done a
  couple of days before.

_Loch Maree’s_ times, both out and home, from this date were generally
amongst the half-dozen best of the year. Captain Grey, R.N.R., had her
on her second voyage and then Captain Scott took her.

In 1878, when homeward bound from Melbourne, the Lizard was sighted on
the 68th day out, but the passage was spoilt by hard easterly winds in
the Channel.

In 1881, the _Loch Maree_ made Port Phillip Heads on 19th July, 70 days
out from the Channel. On 29th October she left Geelong homeward bound.
When a day out she was spoken by the three-masted schooner _Gerfalcon_
off Kent’s Group, and that was the last seen of her. It is significant
that another big ship, the _North American_, a transformed Anchor Line
steamer, disappeared at the same time, also homeward bound from Port
Phillip.


The Tragedy of the “Loch Ard.”

The ill-fated _Loch Ard_ was the largest vessel owned by Aitken &
Lilburn until Barclay, Curle built those two splendid four-posters,
the _Lochs Moidart_ and _Torridon_.

Her maiden passage was one of the unluckiest on record. She lost her
masts almost before she had cleared the land and put back to the Clyde
to refit. She made a second start on 26th January, 1874, and again,
whilst running her easting down, was badly dismasted, only the mizen
lower mast and 15 feet of the mainmast being left standing. After
rolling in the trough of the sea for four days of the greatest peril
her crew managed to get her under a jury rig, and she took 49 days to
cover the 4500 miles to Hobson’s Bay, where she arrived on 24th May,
118 days from the date of her second start.

As I have already related, the year 1874 was a disastrous one for
dismastings; and when the _Loch Ard_ struggled into Melbourne, she
found the _John Kerr_ and _Cambridgeshire_, both on their maiden
voyages, lying there in a similar plight to her own. Besides these
ships and the _Loch Maree_, the following were also dismasted this
year on their maiden passages:—_Rydal Hall_, _Norval_, _Chrysomene_
and _British Admiral_. The latter was refitted in England, only to be
wrecked on her second attempt, on King’s Island, on 23rd May, 1874,
with great loss of life.

The _Loch Ard_ on her unfortunate maiden passage had been commanded by
Captain Robertson, who, also, was skipper of the _Loch Earn_ when she
collided with the _Ville du Havre_. On her third voyage the _Loch Ard_
was taken by Captain Gibb, who was a stranger to Australian waters.
He married just before sailing. The _Loch Ard_ left Gravesend on 2nd
March, 1878. She was spoken by the _John Kerr_, Captain W. Scobie, on
9th April. But between 5 and 6 on the morning of 1st June, the day
after the _John Kerr_ had arrived in Hobson’s Bay, the _Loch Ard_
went ashore 27 miles from the Otway, at Curdies’ Inlet, between Port
Campbell and Moonlight Head.

Out of 52 souls on board, only two were saved, an apprentice and a
passenger. About these two a romance has been woven, which would have
done for Clark Russell. Tom Pearce, the apprentice, displayed such
gallantry and pluck in saving the passenger, Miss Carmichael, that he
became the hero of the hour in Australia. He was one of those people,
however, who have the name “Jonah” attached to them by sailors, for a
year later he suffered shipwreck again, in the _Loch Sunart_, which
was piled up on the Skulmartin Rock, 11th January, 1879. The story
goes that Tom Pearce was washed ashore and carried up in a senseless
condition to the nearest house. This happened to be the home of Miss
Carmichael, who fittingly nursed him back to health, with the proper
story book finish that he married her. Whether this is true or not,
Pearce lived to be a Royal Mail S.P. captain. He finally retired from
the sea in 1908 and died on 15th December of that year.

I now commence a series of tables of outward passages to Australia.
These have been compiled with as much care as possible, but slips
will creep into lists of this kind, and I should be very grateful if
any reader who is able to correct a date from an original abstract or
private journal would write to me, so that the mistake may be set right
in future editions. I have not always filled in a date, as where there
was any want of proof I have preferred to leave it blank.

Besides the regular traders, I have tried to include every ship making
the outward passage under 80 days, thus we find some of Smith’s
celebrated “Cities” and a number of the frigate-built Blackwallers
figuring in the lists. As regards outsiders, I have had to omit
several ships for want of sufficient data, but I think my lists are
complete as far as the regular traders are concerned.


  PASSAGES UNDER 80 DAYS TO SYDNEY IN 1873.
  +-------------+---------+-------+--------+---------+-------+----+
  |             |         |       |Crossed | Passed  |       |    |
  |    Ship     |Departure|Crossed|  Cape  |S.W. Cape|Arrived|Days|
  |             |         |Equator|Meridian|Tasmania |       |Out |
  +-------------+---------+-------+--------+---------+-------+----+
  |_Samuel_     |Plymouth |Dec. 11|Jan. 7 | Jan. 28  |Feb. 1 | 74 |
  |  _Plimsoll_ |  Nov. 19|       |  ’74  |   ’74    |  ’74  |    |
  |_Cutty Sark_ |Channel  | Jan. 4|Jan. 30| Feb. 25  |Mar. 4 | 78 |
  |             |  Dec. 16|  ’74  |  ’74  |   ’74    |  ’74  |    |
  |_Patriarch_  |Channel  |       |       |          |       |    |
  |             |  Apl. 12| May 9 |June 8 | June 24  |June 30| 79 |
  |             |         |       |       |(passed   |       |    |
  |             |         |       |       |  Ot.)    |       |    |
  +-------------+---------+-------+-------+----------+-------+----+

  PASSAGES UNDER 80 DAYS TO MELBOURNE IN 1873.
  +-------------+----------+--------+--------+--------+--------+----+
  |             |          |        |Crossed | Passed |        |    |
  |   Ship      |Departure |Crossed |Cape    |  Cape  |Arrived |Days|
  |             |          |Equator  Meridian| Otway  |        |Out |
  +-------------+----------+--------+--------+--------+--------+----+
  |_Miltiades_  |Start     |June   6|June 24 |        |July  15| 64 |
  |             |  May  12 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Thomas_     |Ushant    |Sept. 14|Oct. 16 |Nov.   7|Nov.   8| 66 |
  |  _Stephens_ |  Sept. 3 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Ben_        |Tuskar    |Nov.   2|Nov. 21 |        |Dec.  13| 67 |
  |  _Cruachan_ |  Oct.  7 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Loch Tay_   |Tuskar    |Sept. 28|Oct. 22 |Nov.  13|Nov.  14| 69 |
  |             |  Sept. 6 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Thermopylae_|Start     |Dec.  30|Jan. 20 |Feb.  15|Feb.  16| 72 |
  |             |  Dec.  6 |        |  ’74   |  ’74   |  ’74   |    |
  |_Mermerus_   |Lizard    |July  30|Aug. 19 |        |Sept. 16| 72 |
  |             |  July  6 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Sam Mendel_ |Tuskar    |July  26|        |        |Oct.   6| 72 |
  |             |  July 25 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_The Tweed_  |Lizard    |Sept. 30|Oct. 25 |        |Nov.  18| 73 |
  |             |  Sept. 6 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Marpesia_   |St. Albans|Oct.  17|        |        |Dec.  29| 73 |
  |             |  Oct. 17 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Theophane_  |Tuskar    |Sept. 25|Oct. 17 |Nov.   9|Nov.  12| 74 |
  |             |  Aug. 30 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Jerusalem_  |Lizard    |July  24|Aug. 22 |Sept. 14|Sept. 14| 77 |
  |             |  June 29 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Strathdon_  |Start     |Sept. 21|        |Nov.   7|Nov.   9| 78 |
  |             |  Aug. 23 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_City of_    |Portland  |Jan.   1|Jan. 21 |        |Feb.  19| 78 |
  |  _ Hankow_  |  Dec.  3 |  ’74   |  ’74   |        |  ’74   |    |
  |_Loch_       |Tuskar    |July  23|Aug. 18 |Sept. 12|Sept. 13| 79 |
  |  _ Lomond_  |  June 25 |        |        |        |        |    |
  +-------------+----------+--------+--------+--------+--------+----+

The homeward runs I have had to put in the Appendix for want of space,
as this part has run to far greater length than I had contemplated at
first.

The races to catch the wool sales will thus be found in Appendix F,
under the heading of “The Wool Fleet.”

Notes on Passages to Australia in 1873.

The fine passage of _Miltiades_ and the maiden passages of _Samuel
Plimsoll_ and _Ben Cruachan_ I have already described. The 66 days of
_Thomas Stephens_ was a very fine performance. She left Gravesend on
30th August, with a very heavy general cargo, which put her down in the
water like a sand barge. She crossed the equator in 26° 55′ W. and was
then forced over on to the South American coast near Pernambuco by very
unfavourable S.E. trades. The meridian of Greenwich was crossed on 12th
October in 44° 33′ S. Her best week’s work running down the easting
was 2055 miles, and she would have equalled the run of _Miltiades_ but
for 48 hours of calm in the neighbourhood of the Otway. She arrived in
Melbourne after an absence of only seven months, including nine weeks
in London.

[Illustration: “RODNEY.”

_Photo lent by F. G. Layton._]

[Illustration: “LOCH GARRY.”]

_Loch Tay_, which left Glasgow on 4th September under Captain Scott,
also lost a day becalmed off the Otway. She crossed the equator in 29°
W. and the meridian of Greenwich on 18th October in 39° S. Running the
easting down she averaged 276 miles a day for 19 days, her best day’s
work being 336 miles.

Of the others nothing special calls for notice. _Thermopylae_ left
Gravesend on 2nd December, and had a light weather passage all the way,
though she went as far as 47° S. in search of wind. _Cutty Sark_ also
was handicapped by very light winds. She ran her easting down in 40° S.
with light winds and calms from the S.E. trades to Port Jackson.

This was the _Tweed’s_ first visit to Melbourne. This magnificent
clipper was probably the tallest ship ever seen in Hobson’s Bay. And
wherever Captain Stuart took her she compelled admiration both for her
majestic appearance and wonderful sailing performances.


Devitt & Moore’s Crack Passenger Ship “Rodney.”

Messrs. Devitt & Moore always considered the _Rodney_ to be the fastest
of their iron ships. She was also one of the finest specimens of the
passenger sailing ship in its last phase.

The following account from an Australian paper of November, 1874, will
give a good idea of the _Rodney’s_ accommodation for passengers. It is
also interesting as showing what was considered luxury in the seventies
and comparing it with the present day:—

  To render voyaging as easy and pleasant as possible has long engaged
  the attention of shipowners, but it is only of late years that it
  has become a special study to make the accommodations for oversea
  passengers not merely comfortable but absolutely luxurious.

  The change in this respect since the time when only a certain amount
  of cabin space was provided is something akin to a transformation.
  The worry and bother of attending to the fitting up, as well as the
  extra expenditure of time and money, are now avoided, and with very
  little need for previous provision or preparation, the intending
  voyager nowadays can step on board ship and find his cabin carpeted
  and curtained and fitted up with almost all the accessories and
  appointments of a bedroom in a hotel.

  An inspection of the _Rodney_ will convince the most fastidious that
  the entire question of passenger comfort has been thought out fully
  and amply. The _Rodney_ is an iron clipper of beautiful model and is
  what is termed a 1500-ton ship. She has been constructed specially
  with a view to the conveyance of passengers, and there are few
  sailing ships coming to the colony which have such a spacious saloon.
  It measures 80 feet in length and has berthing accommodation for 60
  people. No cost has been spared in the decoration and embellishments,
  and yet these have not been promoted at the expense of solid and
  material comfort.

  The cabins are 10 feet square, and a number of the sleeping berths
  can be drawn out so as to accommodate two people. For each cabin
  there is a fixed lavatory, supplied with fresh water from a patent
  tap, and by the removal of a small plug in the centre of the basin,
  the water runs away right into the sea, so that all slopping is
  avoided. The lavatory is fixed on top of a cupboard, which answers
  all the purposes of a little chiffoniere, being fitted up for the
  reception of bottles, glasses, brushes, etc.

  There is also a chest of drawers in each cabin—a very great
  convenience—in which may be kept clothes, books, linen and many
  “unconsidered trifles,” which generally go knocking about in ships’
  cabins at sea.

  The windows in the cabins are large, admitting plenty of light
  and air, and the passengers have easy control over them. The
  ventilation, in fact, is all that could be desired. Good-sized
  looking-glasses and handy little racks for water-bottles, tumblers,
  combs, brushes, etc., also abound, and in other little matters the
  comfort of the passengers has been well cared for.

  The cabins are also so arranged that two or more or even the whole
  of them on one side of the ship afford communication to each other
  without going out into the saloon, and where families are together
  this is very advantageous.

  The bathroom occupies the space of one of the largest cabins, and hot
  as well as cold baths are attainable.

  The saloon is lighted by two large skylights, one of them being
  21 feet in length. They are emblazoned with very pretty views of
  Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide, and Capetown, these being the principal
  ports to which Messrs. Devitt & Moore’s vessels trade. There is
  also a piano in the saloon, by which the tedium of a voyage may be
  enlivened, and the tables are so constructed that they can be easily
  unshipped and the saloon cleared for dancing.

  For gentlemen there is a capital smoking-room at the top of the
  companion leading from the saloon to the deck.

  The accommodation in the ’tween decks for second cabin and steerage
  passengers is everything that could be desired, and there is quite an
  elaborate system adopted for ventilation.

  Cooking can be done in the galley for 500 people, and there is a
  steam condenser, which can distil 500 gallons of water daily.

  The passengers of all classes who came out in this ship on her maiden
  voyage here expressed themselves wonderfully well pleased with
  the ship and her commander, Captain A. Louttit, who has had great
  experience in the passenger trade.

The _Rodney’s_ best passage was to Sydney in 1887, when under Captain
Harwood Barrett, with Captain Corner of training ship fame as his mate.
On this occasion she ran from the Lizards to Sydney in 67 days, and
68 days from pilot to Sydney. Her best passage home was 77 days from
Sydney to London. Her best run to Melbourne was 71 days in 1882, and to
Adelaide 74 days in 1880.

The _Rodney_ was sold in 1897 to the French and renamed _Gipsy_. On
her previous voyage she had encountered terrible weather both out and
home, and was even robbed of her figure-head by the raging sea; it was
probably on account of the damage sustained on this voyage that Devitt
& Moore sold her.

On the 7th December, 1901, the _Rodney_ was wrecked on the Cornish
coast, when homeward bound from Iquique with nitrate. The ship became a
total loss but the crew were saved.


Nicol’s “Romanoff.”

_Romanoff_ was Alexander Nicol’s finest iron clipper until the _Cimba_
came out. Nicol’s ships were always good lookers, painted Aberdeen
green with white masts and yards and scraped jibboom and topmasts, they
fully upheld the Aberdeen reputation. _Romanoff_ was a fast ship, but
was overmasted with double topgallant yards and skysails, and after a
few years she was severely cut down. She was a very regular Melbourne
trader. She ended her days under the Norwegian flag.


Duthie’s “Cairnbulg.”

The _Cairnbulg_ was another Aberdeen ship, but she was in the Sydney
trade. She was of about the same speed as the _Romanoff_, a fine, fast,
wholesome ship without any very special records to her credit.

She came to a most unusual end. After being sold to the Russians
and renamed _Hellas_, she was sold by them to the Danes and called
_Alexandra_. On the 26th November, 1907, she sailed from Newcastle,
N.S.W., for Panama, coal laden. In April she was taken off the overdue
list and posted as missing, being uninsurable at 90 guineas. The
following June, one of her boats in charge of the mate, was picked
up off the South American Coast. The mate then told the following
extraordinary story:—On 8th May the ship was abandoned owing to her
provisions running out and for no other reason—as in every other way,
both in hull and gear, she was perfectly seaworthy. The position of
the _Cairnbulg_ when abandoned was given as 500 miles off the South
American Coast. A search expedition was at once sent out after her,
but in vain. Some time afterwards she was found ashore on the rocks at
Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island, with her back broken. Her insurances,
hull, freight and cargo amounted to £30,000, and she was abandoned
in calm weather through lack of provisions. This story is not to the
credit of either her captain or her owners.


The Speedy “Thessalus.”

_Thessalus_, Carmichael’s largest three-master, was one of the finest
and fastest sailing ships ever seen in Australasian waters. Though not
a regular wool clipper like the _Mermerus_, she was well known both in
Sydney and Melbourne. But she was also as well known in Calcutta and
San Francisco, and wherever she went she always made fine passages.

[Illustration: “THESSALUS.”]

[Illustration: “THESSALUS.”

_Photo by Hall & Co., Sydney._]

Here are a few of her best:—

  AUSTRALIAN PASSAGES.
  1878  Start to Melbourne                  67 days.
  1882  London to Sydney                    79  „
  1884  Downs to Sydney                     77  „
  1887  London to Sydney                    79  „
  1893  Cardiff to Sydney (_via_ Capetown)  78  „
  1894  London to Sydney (_via_ Capetown)   78  „
  1896  Sydney to London                    75  „

  CALCUTTA PASSAGES.
  1876  Calcutta to London                  90 days.
  1878  Calcutta to Dundee                  98  „
  1879  Penarth Roads to Calcutta           98  „

  FRISCO AND W.C.N.A. PASSAGES.
  1883  Frisco to Lizard                   105 days.
  1885  Frisco to Hull                     125  „
  1888  Portland, Ore., to Queenstown       98  „
  1889  Frisco to Queenstown               104  „
  1890  Swansea to Frisco                  113  „
  1890  Frisco to Lizard                   109  „
  1892  Frisco to Queenstown               101  „

  CROSS PASSAGES.
  1878  Melbourne to Calcutta               48 days.
  1880  Calcutta to Melbourne               49  „
  1882  Sydney to Frisco                    55  „
  1884  Sydney to San Pedro                 66  „
  1884  Frisco to Newcastle, N.S.W.         45  „
  1886  Newcastle, N.S.W.,  to  Frisco      50  „

On her third voyage she encountered the cyclone of 31st October, 1876,
near the Sandheads. Captain E. C. Bennett, foreseeing the approach of
the cyclone, stood over to the east side of the Bay of Bengal, and
considered himself lucky to escape with the loss of his topgallant
masts.

Lashed on top of his main hatch, he had a large kennel containing a
pack of foxhounds for the Calcutta Jackal Club. When the cyclone began,
the hounds were let out of the kennel, to give them a chance to save
themselves; and shortly afterwards the kennel was washed clean over
the lee rail without touching it. The hounds had meanwhile disappeared
and everyone thought that they must have gone overboard; but when the
weather cleared they all came out, safe and sound, from under the lower
foc’s’le bunks, where they had taken refuge.

This cyclone wrought havoc amongst the Calcutta shipping, and cost the
underwriters over £100,000. _Thessalus_ was lucky to get off with a
repair bill of £380.

The _Thessalus_ was lucky with live freight. On her seventh voyage she
took horses from Melbourne to Calcutta and landed them all alive and
in prime condition. Shortly afterwards the _Udston_ arrived with only
four horses alive. She had had bad weather in the Bay of Bengal, the
horses had broken loose and in their fright kicked each other to death.
On this voyage, _Thessalus_ returned to Melbourne with wheat bags,
wool packs and camels. The camels also arrived in good condition. At
Melbourne she loaded wool for London at a penny per pound.

Her best wool passage was in 1896, when she left Sydney on the 17th
October and was only 75 days to the Start, where she signalled on
31st December. She had left Melbourne in company with _Cimba_ and
_Argonaut_. _Argonaut_ made a long passage, but _Thessalus_ and _Cimba_
were twice in company, concerning which Captain Holmes of _Cimba_
wrote:—

  I left Sydney in company with _Thessalus_ and _Argonaut_. I was twice
  in company with _Thessalus_ on 3rd October in 54° S., 152° W., to
  5th October 54° S., 143° W., and on 25th November in 30° S., 34°
  W. I came up on him in light winds, but when he got the breeze he
  just romped away from me as if I was at anchor. _Thessalus_ was a
  wonderfully fast ship. I think the German five-master _Potosi_ is the
  only one I have seen to touch her.

This is high praise, for Captain Holmes had a great knowledge of ships,
especially in the Australian trade, and he had a very fast ship in
_Cimba_, which on this occasion reported at noon at the Lizard when
_Thessalus_ was reporting at Start Point.

After a long and successful career _Thessalus_ was sold to the Swedes
in 1905, when she was still classed 100 A1.


Notes on Passages to Australia in 1874.

1874 was _Ben Voirlich’s_ great year. It will be noticed, however, that
on her record passage she had _Lochs Ness_ and _Maree_ on her heels
the whole way. Both Lochs had just changed their commanders, Captain
Meiklejohn going to the _Loch Ness_ and Captain Charles Grey succeeding
Captain McCallum in _Loch Maree_. _Loch Ness_ chased _Ben Voirlich_
very closely all the way to the Australian Coast, her best 24-hour run
being 321 miles. But _Loch Maree_ dropped back in the roaring forties
through no fault of her own. On 13th and 14th December she experienced
a tremendous gale from east working round to S.W. with high confused
sea, during which her patent steering gear was completely smashed up;
and this prevented her from taking full advantage of the westerlies, as
Captain Grey decided it would not be safe to go further than 42° S.


  PASSAGES UNDER 80 DAYS TO SYDNEY IN 1874.
  +------------+---------+-------+--------+---------+---------+----+
  |            |         |Crossed|Crossed |Passed   |Arrived  |Days|
  |   Ship     |Departure|Equator|  Cape  |S.W. Cape| Port    |Out |
  |            |         |       |Meridian|Tasmania |Jackson  |    |
  +------------+---------+-------+--------+---------+---------+----+
  |_Cutty Sark_|Start    |Dec. 11|Jan. 1  | Jan. 26 |Feb. 2’75| 73 |
  |            |  Nov. 21|       | ’75    |  ’75    |         |    |
  |_Mermerus_  |Start    |May   8|May  29 | June 24 |June 27  | 74 |
  |            |  Apl. 14|       |        |         |         |    |
  |_Hallowe’en_|Start    |Apl. 30|May  22 | June 17 |June 22  | 74 |
  |            |  April 9|       |        |         |         |    |
  |_Patriarch_ |Wight    |July  2|July 26 | Aug. 19 |Aug. 24  | 77 |
  |            |  June  8|       |        | (Otway) |         |    |
  |            |         |       |        |         |         |    |
  |_Jerusalem_ |Plymouth |Apl. 29|May  21 | June 14 |June 22  | 78 |
  |            |  Apl.  5|       |        | (Otway) |         |    |
  +------------+---------+-------+--------+---------+---------+----+

  PASSAGES UNDER 80 DAYS TO MELBOURNE IN 1874.
  +-------------+----------+-------+--------+-------+--------+----+
  |             |          |Crossed|Crossed |Passed |Arrived |Days|
  |    Ship     |Departure |Equator| Cape   | Cape  |Hobson’s|Out |
  |             |          |       |Meridian|(Otway)|  Bay   |    |
  +-------------+----------+-------+--------+-------+--------+----+
  |_Thermopylae_|Lizard    |Dec. 25|Jan. 14 |       |Feb.  4 | 64 |
  |             |  Dec.  2 |       |    ’75 |       |    ’75 |    |
  |_Ben_        |Plymouth  |Dec.  1|Dec. 24 |       |Jan. 14 | 64 |
  |  _Voirlich_ |  Nov. 11 |       |        |       |    ’75 |    |
  |_Loch Ness_  |Tuskar    |Dec.  1|        |Jan. 16|Jan. 18 | 68 |
  |             |  Nov. 11 |       |        |    ’75|    ’75 |    |
  |_Ben_        |Tuskar    |Feb. 19|Mar. 15 |Apl.  5|Apl.  6 | 69 |
  |  _Voirlich_ |  Jan. 27 |       |        |       |        |    |
  |_Thomas_     |Lizard    |Dec. 12|        |Jan. 29|Jan. 31 | 70 |
  |  _Stephens_ |  Nov. 22 |       |        |    ’75|    ’75 |    |
  |_Ben_        |Cape Clear|Sept.29|Oct. 20 |Nov. 13|Nov. 14 | 71 |
  |  _Cruachan_ |  Sept. 4 |       |        |       |        |    |
  |_Romanoff_   |Lizard    |       |        |       |Jan. 16 | 72 |
  |             |  Nov.  5 |       |        |       |    ’75 |    |
  |_Theophane_  |Tuskar    |Sept.12|Oct.  3 |       |Oct. 30 | 75 |
  |             |  Aug. 16 |       |        |       |        |    |
  |_City of_    |Channel   |       |        |       |Feb.  2 | 75 |
  |  _Hankow_   |  Nov. 19 |       |        |       |    ’75 |    |
  |_Loch_       |Tuskar    |       |        |       |Feb. 14 | 75 |
  |  _Lomond_   |  Nov. 30 |       |        |       |    ’75 |    |
  |_Loch_       |Channel   |Dec. 1 |Dec. 25 |Jan. 22|Jan. 23 | 78 |
  |  _Maree_    |  Nov.  6 |       |        |    ’75|    ’75 |    |
  +-------------+----------+-------+--------+-------+--------+----+

_Cutty Sark_ and _Thomas Stephens_ also had a great race, the famous
tea clipper making the best passage of the year to Sydney.

Both ships were off the Lizards on 22nd November, and experienced very
baffling winds to the equator, which _Cutty Sark_ crossed in 26° W. and
_Thomas Stephens_ in 29° W. a day later. _Cutty Sark_ was 65 days from
the Lizards to S.W. Cape, Tasmania, whilst _Thomas Stephens_ was 68
days to the Otway, where she was becalmed for 14 hours.

_Thermopylae_, with a 64-day passage from the Lizards, her best run
being 348 miles, arrived just in time to defend herself, for Captain
McPetrie was declaring to all and sundry that _Ben Voirlich_ had broken
_Thermopylae’s_ record, by making a better run from port to port.


The “Loch Garry.”

Many experts considered the _Loch Garry_ to be the finest sailing ship
in the world at the date of her launch. She certainly was an example of
the well-known Glasgow type at its best.

A new feature was adopted in the placing of her masts. Her mainmast
was stepped right amidships, with the fore and mizen masts at equal
distances from it.

_Loch Garry_, her sister ship _Loch Vennachar_, Green’s _Carlisle
Castle_, Nicol’s _Romanoff_ and the American ship _Manuel Laguna_ were
rigged in a manner peculiar to themselves. They had short topgallant
masts with fidded royal and skysail masts, on which they crossed royals
and skysails above double topgallant yards. When in port their upper
topsail and upper topgallant yards would be half mast-headed, and with
the seven yards on each mast, all squared to perfection, they presented
a magnificent appearance. _Loch Garry’s_ first commander was Captain
Andrew Black, a very fine seaman indeed. He commanded her from 1875 to
1882. He was succeeded by Captain John Erskine, who was followed by
Captain Horne.

With regard to her merits, the veteran Captain Horne, who commanded her
for close on 26 years, wrote to me:—

  The _Loch Garry_ is a front rank ship and always will be so. She is a
  ship that has got no vices and when properly loaded is as gentle as
  a lamb. It is quite a pleasure to sail such a ship, which might be
  described as a 1500-ton yacht. She is not a ship of excessive speed,
  but with a moderately fresh breeze will maintain a speed of 10 or 11
  knots without much exertion.

_Loch Garry’s_ best run under Captain Horne was on 26th December, 1892,
when running her easting down in 40° S. With a N.W. wind and smooth sea
she covered 334 miles. It is very possible that she exceeded this in
her early days when she carried a stronger crew. She was also a good
light weather ship. In 1900 she went from the South Tropic to the North
Tropic in 14 days 2 hours.

The following passages of recent date will show that Captain Horne
kept the _Loch Garry_ moving in spite of the lack of a good crew of
sailormen:—

  1892 Tuskar to Cape Otway         71 dy.
  1894 Downs to Melbourne           77 „
  1895 Lizard to Melbourne          77 „
  1896 Melbourne to Prawle Pt.      80 „
  1900 Melbourne to Prawle Pt.      85 „
  1901 Adelaide to C. Otway         48 hr.
  1903 Port Philip Heads to Lizard  74 dy.
  1904 Melbourne to Dover           77 „
  1906 Tuskar to Cape Borda         73 „
  1905 Equator to Leeuwin           36 „
        (Average 240 knots)

The following account of Captain Horne’s care of his boats and system
for provisioning them should be a lesson for younger masters. It is
taken from the _Melbourne Herald_:—

  A feature of _Loch Garry’s_ equipment, in which Captain Home takes
  a justifiable pride, is the system for provisioning the lifeboats,
  should it ever be necessary to abandon the vessel. In two minutes
  the apprentices can place enough provisions in the boats to last all
  hands 14 days. The lifeboats are on the after skids and the falls
  are always kept rove. In each boat are two 15-gallon breakers, which
  are kept full of fresh water, charged about once a month. Then in a
  strong wooden box, fitted with beckets, is stowed a good supply of
  biscuits, in protected tins, whilst in another box a number of tins
  of meat are packed together with the necessary opening knife. A
  third box contains miscellaneous articles, such as medical comforts,
  clothing, tobacco, a hatchet, knives and a compass. The three boxes
  are always kept handy in the lazarette, the provisions they contain
  being changed each voyage, so that the biscuits and meat are always
  fresh. One man can easily lift either of the boxes and the equipment
  is completed by the lifeboats’ sails and all necessary gear being
  kept in a canvas bag close by. The system is simplicity itself, and
  Captain Horne says that he would like to see some such plan made
  compulsory by the B.O.T. in all ships.

The career of Captain Horne, who was the veteran skipper of the Loch
Line, is worth recording. He was born in 1834, apprenticed to the sea
at 15 years of age, and only retired in 1911, after 62 years at sea and
47 years in command without experiencing shipwreck, fire or collision.
The motto of his life, which he always emblazoned on the cabin
bulkhead, was:—“Never underrate the strength of the enemy.” Like many
another old seaman, he was not pleased with the changes brought about
by steam and cut-throat competition.

Just as Captain Horne’s apprenticeship finished the Crimean war broke
out, and, volunteering for active service, he was appointed to the
three-decker H.M.S. _Royal Albert_, the largest ship afloat. He was
rated as A.B., but soon promoted to be second captain of the maintop.
Sir George Tryon was a junior lieutenant on this ship. The _Royal
Albert_ was in the engagement against the Kinburn Forts on the north
shore of the Black Sea. At the close of the war Captain Horne received
the Crimean and Turkish medals and was paid off on the _Victory_. He
then returned to the Merchant Service and served in 1859 as second
mate of the tea clipper _Falcon_ under Captain Maxton. Subsequently he
was attached to Lord Elgin’s embassy and placed in charge of a lorcha
by Lindsay & Co., of Shanghai. As a member of Lord Elgin’s staff, he
was present at the taking of the Taku Forts and was on the house-boat
which was towed to Tientsin by one of the gunboats; and he remained
there until the treaty was signed.

After this he was 13½ years in the employ of John Allan & Sons.
In 1877 he joined the Loch Line and took command of the _Loch Sloy_,
leaving her to take charge of the _Loch Garry_ in 1885.

The _Loch Garry_ only had two severe mishaps in her long life. In
August, 1880, when running under topgallant sails off the Crozets in a
heavy beam sea, the weather forebrace carried away, the fore topmast
went above the eyes of the rigging and took main topgallant mast with
it—and _Loch Garry_ was a month getting to Melbourne under jury rig.
She was rigged in Geelong with Kauri pine topmasts and long topgallant
masts, as shewn in the illustration. In August, 1889, she was dismasted
in a furious gale to the south’ard of the Cape. To save the ship
Captain Horne was obliged to jettison some 100 tons of cargo in the
shape of gunpowder, hardware, whisky, bottled beer, paper, etc. The
main and mizen masts carried away close to the deck, but Captain Horne
succeeded in sailing his vessel 2600 miles to Mauritius, under foresail
and fore lower topsail. Here the _Loch Garry_ was delayed some months
whilst new spars were sent out from England, and she eventually reached
Melbourne on 14th February, 1890, eight months out from Glasgow. After
36 years of good service, she was sold in March, 1911, to the Italians
for the scrap iron price of £1800.


“Loch Vennachar.”

One of the finest and fastest of the Lochs, as well as one of the most
unfortunate, was the _Loch Vennachar_, launched from Thomson’s yard in
August, 1875.

She was usually one of the first wool clippers to get away from
Melbourne, and for many years, sailing in October, she made very
regular passages home, her average under Captain Bennett being 86 days
for 12 passages.

[Illustration: “LOCH VENNACHAR.”]

[Illustration: “LOCH VENNACHAR.”

_Photo lent by F. G. Layton._]

Her first misfortune was in 1892, when she was dismasted during a
cyclone in the Southern Indian Ocean.

The following is an account of the disaster, given in the _Melbourne
Argus_:—

  The _Loch Vennachar_ left Glasgow bound for Melbourne on 6th April,
  1892, with a crew of 33 all told and 12 passengers, four of whom
  were ladies. All went well with the ship until she reached lat. 39°
  55′ S., long. 27° 21′ E., when at 8 o’clock on the evening of 3rd
  June the barometer began to fall ominously and sail was promptly
  shortened. Darkness lifted soon after 5 o’clock in the morning and
  the break of day showed the terrific head seas that swept down upon
  the vessel, lashed by the north-east gale. (At this time both watches
  were aloft fighting to make the foresail fast.) Captain Bennett, who
  was on the poop, saw the danger of his crew and at once resolved to
  sacrifice the sail. He sang out to the mate to send the men aft and
  the hands, who had been lying out on the pitching foreyard, gained
  the deck in safety and reached the poop in time. As they did so,
  two enormous waves bore down upon the ship, which rode slowly over
  the first, and sank to an interminable depth in the trough at the
  other side. Whilst in this position the second wave came on towering
  halfway up the foremast, and broke on board, _filling the lower
  topsail 60 feet above the deck_, as it came.

  Hundreds of tons of water swept over the ship in a solid mass from
  stem to stern, thundering inboard on the port side of the foc’s’le
  and racing away over the main deck and over the poop, where most of
  the crew were standing. Every man on the poop was thrown down, and
  when they regained their feet they perceived that the foremast and
  mainmast were over the side, and the mizen topmast above their heads
  had disappeared. Not a man on board actually saw the spars go or even
  heard the crash of the breaking rigging so violent was the shock and
  so fierce the howling of the hurricane. The cook was washed out of
  his galley and swept overboard, the galley being completely gutted of
  everything it contained.

For nine days after her dismasting, _Loch Vennachar_ lay unmanageable,
rolling in the trough of the sea, whilst the gale still raged. At last
with immense difficulty a jury mast was rigged forward and a sail set
on the stump of the mizen mast; in this trim Captain Bennett managed to
get his lame duck into Port Louis, Mauritius, after five weeks under
jury rig. The ship lay in Mauritius for five months whilst new masts
and spars were being sent out to her from England. On the arrival of
the masts, Captain Bennett and his crew showed their smartness by
completely rerigging her in 10 days, the cost of the refit coming to
£9071.

On 18th November _Loch Vennachar_ at last proceeded on her voyage,
and after a light weather passage arrived in Port Phillip on 22nd
December 260 days out from the Clyde. As soon as her anchor was on the
ground, her crew assembled at the break of the poop and gave three
ringing cheers for Captain Bennett and his officers, who had brought
them safely through such a trying time. For saving his ship under such
difficulties, Captain Bennett was awarded Lloyd’s Medal, the Victoria
Cross of the Mercantile Marine.

In November, 1901, when anchored off Thameshaven outward bound to
Melbourne with general cargo, _Loch Vennachar_ was run down by the
steamer _Cato_. The steamship struck her on the starboard bow, and the
Loch liner went down in 40 feet of water. All on board, however, were
saved, including a parrot and a cat, the only cat to escape out of
seven on the ship.

The _Loch Vennachar_ lay at the bottom of the Thames for a month and
was then raised. After repairs and alterations to the value of about
£17,000 were made on her, she was pronounced by experts to be as good
as the day she was launched; and she once more resumed her place in the
Australian trade.

About September, 1905, when bound from Glasgow to Adelaide, she came on
the overdue list. On 6th September she was spoken “all well” by the ss.
_Yongala_, 160 miles west of Neptune Island. But as the days passed and
she did not arrive, grave anxiety began to be felt. On 29th September,
the ketch _Annie Witt_ arrived at Adelaide, and her captain reported
picking up a reel of blue printing paper 18 miles N.W. of Kangaroo
Island. This paper was identified as part of _Loch Vennachar’s_ cargo.
A search was made on Kangaroo Island and wreckage was discovered which
made the disaster only too sure. It was concluded that she had run
on the Young Rocks in trying to make the Backstairs Passage. Captain
Hawkins, late of the _Loch Ness_, was in command, having taken her over
from Captain Bennett the year before.

As if the fatal curse of Jonah had been transmitted from father to son,
T. R. Pearce, a son of the twice wrecked Tom Pearce, was one of the
apprentices lost in her.


“Salamis”—an Iron “Thermopylae.”

_Salamis_, one of the most beautiful little ships ever launched and
without doubt the fastest of all Thompson’s iron ships, was really
an enlarged _Thermopylae_ in iron, as she was built from Bernard
Waymouth’s lines with a few minor alterations and improvements. The
following comparison of their measurements shows that _Salamis_ was
roughly 100 tons larger and 10 feet longer than _Thermopylae_:—

  +------------------------+-----------+--------------+
  |     Measurements       | _Salamis_ | _Thermopylae_|
  |            of          | Iron Ship |Composite Ship|
  +------------------------+-----------+--------------+
  |Registered tonnage net  | 1079 tons.|   948 tons.  |
  |Registered tonnage gross| 1130  „   |   991  „     |
  |Registered tonnage      |           |              |
  |  under deck            | 1021  „   |   927  „     |
  |Length                  |221.6 feet.|   212 feet.  |
  |Breadth                 |   36  „   |    36  „     |
  |Depth                   | 21.7  „   |  20.9  „     |
  |Depth moulded           | 23.7  „   |  23.2  „     |
  +------------------------+-----------+--------------+

In _Salamis_, Thompson’s were determined to have an out and out
racer, and she was not fitted for passengers, her raised quarterdeck
being only 48 feet long as against _Thermopylae’s_ 61 feet. She had a
tremendous sail plan and of course spread a full suit of stunsails and
other flying kites.

The following spar measurements show that she set even more canvas than
_Thermopylae_, her mainyard being a foot longer, and the other yards in
proportion:—

  SPAR PLAN OF _SALAMIS_.
  +---------------------------+----------+
  |Mainmast—deck to truck     | 150 feet |
  |Main lower mast            |  66  „   |
  |Main topmast               |  52  „   |
  |Main topgallant mast       |  34  „   |
  |Main royal mast            |  23  „   |
  |Main masthead              |   2  „   |
  |Main lower doublings       |  15  „   |
  |Main topmast doublings     |  12  „   |
  |Mainyard                   |  81  „   |
  |Main lower topsail yard    |  72  „   |
  |Main upper topsail yard    |  64  „   |
  |Main lower topgallant yard |  57  „   |
  |Main upper topgallant yard |  49  „   |
  |Main royal yard            |  37  „   |
  |Jibboom                    |  66  „   |
  +---------------------------+----------+

Messrs. Thompson, when they gave Hood the order for _Salamis_, intended
her for the same round as _Thermopylae_—out to Melbourne with general
cargo, then across to China and home again with tea. But by 1875 the
steamers had got a firm hold on the tea trade, and the clippers were
either being driven away into other trades or had to content themselves
with loading at a cut rate in the N.E. monsoon; and practically only
_Cutty Sark_ and _Thermopylae_ were still given a chance to load
the new teas. This was not a bright outlook for a newcomer with her
reputation all to make, and the only time _Salamis_ loaded a tea cargo
home was on her second voyage when she came home from Hong Kong in 110
days. In 1878 she made another attempt to get a tea cargo home, but
freights were specially bad this year, and she was withdrawn from the
berth at Shanghai, and finally came home with wool from Port Phillip.

[Illustration: “SALAMIS.”

_Photo lent by F. G. Layton._]

[Illustration: “THOMAS STEPHENS,” “CAIRNBULG,” “BRILLIANT,” AND “CUTTY
SARK,” in Sydney Harbour.]

As a wool clipper she set up a wonderful record; her average for 13
consecutive passages to Melbourne being 75 days pilot to pilot, and
for her outward passages from 1875 to 1895 her average was 77 days.
Homeward with wool, like all iron ships, she occasionally got hung
up and topped the 100 days, nevertheless here she also had the best
average for an iron ship, of 87 days for 18 consecutive wool passages
from Melbourne to London. Her best run from London to the equator was
made in 18½ days. Twice she ran from the equator to the Cape meridian
in 21 days, and twice she ran her easting down from the Cape meridian
to Cape Otway in 22½ days, and no less than four times in 23 days.
Captain Phillip left the _Harlaw_ to take the _Salamis_, and his name
is associated with her during the whole of her life under the British
flag.

On her maiden passage _Salamis_ left London on 6th July, took her
departure from the Start on the 10th, then had very buffling winds to
the equator, which she crossed on 2nd August in 25° W.; the S.E. trades
were very poor and she had to make a tack off the Abrolhos Rocks. The
Cape meridian was crossed on 24th August in 44° S. Running her easting
down, the wind was very changeable, being mostly from the south’ard,
and without any steady breezes her best run was only 304 knots. She
passed the Otway on 16th September and entered Port Phillip Heads the
same evening, 68 days from Start Point.

On her second voyage she had a very protracted start, losing three
anchors and chains in the Downs and also a man overboard during a very
severe gale. She had to slip her third anchor and get underweigh in a
hurry to avoid dragging ashore. After this she had to go into Plymouth
to get new anchors and chains. She finally left Plymouth on 24th March,
1876, the “dead horse” being actually up the day she left Plymouth. She
took her departure from the Lizard on 25th March, crossed the line on
18th April, and had light winds to the meridian of the Cape, which she
crossed on 14th May in 43° S.

In 69° E. she encountered bad weather, and shipped a heavy sea whilst
running under a fore topsail. This sea broke over the quarter, smashed
the wheel and broke in the cabin skylight, and she had to be hove to
for 14 hours whilst repairs were made. The main upper topsail had also
blown away and a new one had to be bent.

She eventually made Cape Otway at 10.30 p.m. on 7th June, entering the
Heads early morning of the 8th, 75 days from the Lizards. In crossing
to China, she went from Sydney to Shanghai in 32 days. Failing to get
a tea cargo in Shanghai, she ran down to Hong Kong through the Formosa
Channel with a strong N.E. monsoon in two days and some odd hours, but,
of course, she was nearly new and in ballast.

In 1878 she again tried for a tea cargo, crossing from Sydney in 43
days: after a very tempestuous passage of 83 days from London to
Sydney, during which she continually had to be hove to, indeed, Captain
Phillip declared that he had never met with such heavy gales during 30
years’ experience, even so she was only 79 days from the Channel to
Cape Otway.

She found tea freights slumping very badly at Shanghai, and was finally
placed on the berth for general cargo only at 30s. per 50 cubic feet.
_Salamis_ left Shanghai on 26th November in company with _Thermopylae_,
which was the only sailing ship to get a tea cargo for London. The two
ships made the Straits of Sunda on 15th December, but were compelled to
anchor off Sumatra owing to the strong N.E. current. Here they found a
fleet of 37 sail all vainly trying to get past Thwart-the-way Island.

Of this fleet the first to get through was _Thermopylae_ after several
ineffectual attempts, but she was closely followed by her iron sister
ship; clearing Java Head on 29th December after a delay of 14 days, the
two sisters squared away for the S.E. trades, and left the fleet of 37
ships to wait patiently until the N.E. current slackened.

_Salamis_ carried the trades to 32° S., and then made some fine running
to the Australian Coast, her best day’s work being 336 miles. On 26th
January, 1879, she arrived off Port Phillip Heads and anchored off
Queenscliff to await orders. She was sent up to Sydney and loaded coal
alongside the _Cutty Sark_. On 18th March _Cutty Sark_ sailed for
Shanghai with 1150 tons of coal, _Salamis_ followed on the 20th with
1200 tons of coal. Unfortunately I have no details of the race across,
except that _Salamis_ made the run in 37 days. Both ships failed to get
a tea cargo for the London market, and _Cutty Sark_ went off to Manila,
whilst _Salamis_ went to Foochow, and took a tea cargo from there to
Melbourne, which she reached in time to load wool home, after a very
light weather passage of 64 days. After this unsatisfactory voyage
_Salamis_ was kept steadily in the Melbourne trade, with the exception
of one passage to Sydney.

When the Aberdeen White Star sold their sailing ships, _Salamis_ went
to the Norwegians, who stripped the yards off her mizen mast and turned
her into a barque. After several weary years of threadbare old age,
the beautiful little clipper was finally wrecked on Malden Island in
the South Pacific on 20th May, 1905.


The Colonial Barque “Woollahra.”

The pretty little barque, _Woollahra_, owned by Cowlislaw Bros., of
Sydney, had a very fair turn of speed, and on more than one occasion
showed up well against some of the crack ships in the trade. In her
later years she used to run from Newcastle, N.S.W., to Frisco with
coal. She came to her end on Tongue Point, near Cape Terawhite, New
Zealand, whilst bound in ballast from Wellington to Kaipara, to load
Kauri lumber for Australia. She was wrecked about half a mile from the
homestead of a sheep station, the only habitation on the coast for
miles. The captain and an ordinary seaman were drowned, the rest of
her complement getting safely ashore. She went to pieces very quickly
and there was not even an odd spar or deck fitting left a few months
afterwards.


“Cassiope” and “Parthenope.”

_Cassiope_ and _Parthenope_ were actually sister ships though by
different builders. They were both fine fast clippers of the best
Liverpool type. _Cassiope_, however, had a short life, being lost with
all hands in 1885, when bound to London with Heap’s Rangoon rice, under
the well-known Captain Rivers. _Parthenope_ was sold in her old age to
the Italians and rechristened _Pelogrino O._ On the 31st July, 1907,
she sailed with coals from Newcastle, N.S.W., for Antofagasta and never
arrived.


“Trafalgar.”

D. Rose & Co.’s _Trafalgar_ was a very regular Sydney trader. She went
to the Norwegians and was still afloat, owned in Christiania, when the
war broke out.

[Illustration: “WOOLLAHRA.”

_From a painting._]

  PASSAGES UNDER 80 DAYS TO SYDNEY IN 1875.
  +------------+---------+-------+--------+---------+-------+----+
  |            |         |Crossed|Crossed | Passed  |       |Days|
  |    Ship    |Departure|Equator| Cape   |S.W. Cape|Arrived|Out |
  |            |         |       |Meridian|Tasmania |       |    |
  +------------+---------+-------+--------+---------+-------+----+
  |_Cutty_     |Lizard   |Dec. 21|Jan.  13|Feb.   4 |Feb. 12| 75 |
  |  _Sark_    |  Nov. 29|       |     ’76|     ’76 |    ’76|    |
  |_Samuel_    |Falmouth |Sept. 4|Sept. 28|Oct.  19 |Oct. 22| 75 |
  |  _Plimsoll_|  Aug.  8|       |        |(Otway)  |       |    |
  +------------+-----------------+--------+---------+-------+----+


  PASSAGES UNDER 80 DAYS TO MELBOURNE IN 1875.
  +--------------+-----------+--------+--------+--------+--------+----+
  |              |           |Crossed |Crossed |Passed  |        |Days|
  |     Ship     | Departure |Equator | Cape   | Cape   |Arrived |Out |
  |              |           |        |Meridian| Otway  |        |    |
  +--------------+-----------+--------+--------+--------+--------+----+
  |_Thermopylae_ |Lizard     |Dec.  24|Jan.  14|Feb.   7|Feb.   9| 68 |
  |              |  Dec.   3 |     ’76|        |     ’76|     ’76|    |
  |_Salamis_     |Start      |Aug.   2|Aug.  24|Sept. 16|Sept. 16| 68 |
  |              |  July  10 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Mermerus_    |Tuskar     |Aug.  15|        |Oct.   1|Oct.   1| 68 |
  |              |  July  27 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Loch Garry_  |Tuskar     |Dec.   5|Dec.  29|        |Jan.  20| 73 |
  |              |  Nov.   8 |        |        |        |     ’76|    |
  |_City of_     |Start      |Sept. 27|Oct.  21|Nov.  16|Nov.  16| 73 |
  |  _Corinth_   |  Sept.  4 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Loch Maree_  |Scilly     |Sept.  5|Sept. 26|        |Oct.  21| 74 |
  |              |  Aug.   8 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Romanoff_    |Lizard     |Sept.  5|        |Oct.  22|Oct.  23| 74 |
  |              |  Aug.  10 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Loch_        |Inistrahull|Oct.  10|Oct.  28|Nov.  18|Nov.  19| 74 |
  |  _Vennachar_ |  Sept.  6 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Wasdale_     |Tuskar     |Sept.  4|Sept. 26|        |Oct.  20| 74 |
  |              |  Aug.   7 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Moravian_    |Lizard     |June  22|        |        |Aug.   9| 75 |
  |              |  May   26 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_City of Agra_|Start      |June  24|        |        |Aug.  15| 76 |
  |              |  May   31 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Ben Cruachan_|Tuskar     |July   1|July  29|        |Aug.  23| 77 |
  |              |  June   7 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Parthenope_  |Tuskar     |June  29|        |        |Aug.  25| 77 |
  |              |  June   9 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Glengarry_   |Tuskar     |Mar.  22|        |        |May   14| 77 |
  |              |  Feb.  26 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Old_          Channel    |        |        |Apl.  21|Apl.  22| 78 |
  |  _Kensington_|  Feb.   3 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Loch Katrine_|Holyhead   |        |        |        |July  25| 79 |
  |              |  May    7 |        |        |        |        |    |
  +--------------+-----------+--------+--------+--------+--------+----+


Notes on Passages to Australia in 1875.

In no year were so many magnificent iron clippers launched as in 1875,
and of the ships which made the passage to Melbourne in under 80 days
no less than five, namely, _Salamis_, _Loch Garry_, _Loch Vennachar_,
_Parthenope_ and _Old Kensington_, were on their maiden passages. _Loch
Garry’s_ best run in the 24 hours was 333 miles, and _Loch Vennachar_
did a week’s work of 2065 miles, viz., 285, 290, 320, 320, 312, 268 and
270. _Samuel Plimsoll_, with 360 emigrants on board, left Plymouth on
6th August, at 11.15 p.m.; on the same day she ran into and sank the
Italian barque _Enrica_, though without damage to herself. She saved
the Italian’s crew and put into Falmouth to land them.

Captain Richards left the _Thomas Stephens_ in order to tune up
_Parthenope_. He made the latter travel, but as he returned to the
_Thomas Stephens_ in 1876 he evidently preferred his old clipper.

_Thermopylae_ still maintained her wonderful reputation; on this trip
she averaged 270 miles a day from 23° W. to 100° E.

The _Old Kensington_ was a very fine ship with a good turn of speed,
and she usually loaded home from Calcutta or San Francisco.

The _Wasdale_ must not be confused with the later _Wasdale_, which was
not launched until 1881. This one must have been a very fast ship, for
on this passage she made five 24-hour runs over 300, her best being 332
miles.

Many well-known heelers were just over the 80 days; for instance,
_Miltiades_ was 81 days from the Start, _Thessalus_ 83 from the
Lizards, _Theophane_ 83 from the Tuskar, _Cassiope_ 81 from the Tuskar,
_Marpesia_ 83 from the Tuskar, _Thyatira_ 80 from the Start, all to
Melbourne, whilst _Patriarch_ was 82 days from Torbay to Sydney.

Two writers to the _Nautical Magazine_, both of whom were serving on
the _Cutty Sark_ during her 1875-6 voyage, claim that she was 50 miles
south of Melbourne on her 54th day out from the Channel, and that owing
to strong head winds she was compelled to go round Australia.

As will be seen, she was 67 days from the Lizard to the S.W. Cape,
Tasmania, and I fear that a mistake of ten days has been made. Captain
Watson also stated in a personal letter to me that she ran 2163 miles
in six days. I have 14 years of her abstract logs, and from what her
logs tell me I consider that she was quite capable of accomplishing
such a run with a strong steady breeze, but it is very rarely that you
get such a breeze for six days on end even in the roaring forties. She
left London on 20th November but collided with the _Somersetshire_ off
Gravesend, and lost her main topgallant mast, besides other damage, so
that she had to put back to refit.


“Sir Walter Raleigh.”

The _Sir Walter Raleigh_, commanded by Captain W. Purvis, was a very
well-known and regular wool clipper of the type of _Romanoff_. I do not
think she was quite in the first flight, but she was never very far
behind, and in 1880 she shared with _Ben Voirlich_ the distinction of
making the best outward run of the year.

The following extracts are from _Patriarch’s_ log, when homeward bound
in 1878, 79 days out from Sydney.

  Feb. 8.—18° 41′ N., long. 38° 55′ W.—Spoke the _Sir Walter Raleigh_,
  Melbourne to London, 77 days out.

  Feb. 9.—_Sir Walter Raleigh_ still in company.

  Feb. 10.—_Sir Walter Raleigh_ ahead.

  Feb. 11.—_Sir Walter Raleigh_ dead to windward.

  Feb. 12 to 16.—_Sir Walter Raleigh_ still in company.

In the end _Patriarch_ got home a day ahead, _Sir Walter Raleigh_
making the best passage by a day. _Sir Walter Raleigh_ was probably
faster in light and moderate winds than in strong, as I can find no
very big runs to her credit.

On the 10th November, 1888, she left Sydney for London, wool-laden, and
was wrecked near Boulogne on 29th January, 1889, when only 80 days out
and almost in sight of home. Five of her crew were drowned. It was a
tragic end to what promised to be the best wool passage of her career.


“Loch Fyne” and “Loch Long.”

These two 1200-ton sister ships from Thomson’s yard, though fine
wholesome ships, were not considered quite as fast as the earlier
“Lochs,” though each of them put up a 75-day passage to Melbourne,
_Loch Fyne_ on her second voyage in 1877-8, and the _Loch Long_ in 1884.

The _Loch Fyne_ left Lyttelton, N.Z., on 4th May, 1883, under Captain
T. H. Martin, with 15,000 bags of wheat bound for the Channel for
orders and never arrived.

In January, 1903, _Loch Long_ arrived in Hobson’s Bay from Glasgow,
commanded by Captain Strachan. From Melbourne she was sent to New
Caledonia to load nickel ore. She sailed on 29th April, but failed to
arrive. Portions of wreckage, however, were washed up on the Chatham
Islands, which made it only too certain that she had struck on the
rocks and gone down with all hands.


“Aristides”—The Aberdeen White Star Flagship.

In March, 1876, Messrs. Hood launched the beautiful passenger clipper
_Aristides_, the largest of all Thompson’s sailing ships. Captain R.
Kemball of _Thermopylae_ fame, the commodore of the Aberdeen White Star
fleet, was given command of her, and she became the firm’s flagship.

On her maiden voyage she sailed from London on 6th July, and arrived
in Port Phillip on 18th September—74 days out (69 days from the land).
Leaving Melbourne on 28th November, she arrived in the Thames on 17th
February, 81 days out, beating two such well-known clippers as _Loch
Maree_ and _Collingwood_, which had sailed on 27th November, by
18 days. The Aberdeen White Star ships invariably made fine maiden
voyages. Their captains always left port with the firm intention of
breaking the record, and they had every help from their owners, the
ships being most carefully loaded with their Plimsoll marks well out of
water. Crews also were picked men, and gear, of course, everything of
the best.

[Illustration: “ARISTIDES.”

_Photo by Hall & Co., Sydney._]

_Aristides_ was kept on the Melbourne run until 1889, when she went out
to Sydney in 85 days. From this date she was kept in the Sydney trade.
She usually had a full passenger list and being perfectly run like all
the Aberdeen ships she was a favourite both in Sydney and Melbourne.
Captain Kemball retired in 1887, and Captain Spalding had her until the
early nineties, then Captain Allan took her over; her last commander
was Captain Poppy, who was lost in her.

Her best 24-hour run that I have record of was 320 miles. Her passages,
both outward and homeward, were very regular, from 78 to 88 days as a
rule, but she never beat the times of her maiden voyage.

When the Aberdeen White Star sold their sailing ships, they refused to
part with the _Aristides_, and she remained under their flag till the
end. On 28th May, 1903, she sailed from Caleta Buena with nitrate of
soda for San Francisco and was posted as missing. H.M. ships _Amphion_
and _Shearwater_ made a search amongst the islands on her route for the
missing ship, but no trace of her was ever found.


“Smyrna.”

The _Smyrna_, which was built on fuller lines than most of Thompson’s
ships, came to a tragic end, being run into by the steamer _Moto_ on
28th April, 1888, during a thick fog off the Isle of Wight, when
outward bound to Sydney, and sank with Captain Taylor and 11 of her
crew.

The “Harbinger.”

The _Harbinger_ was built to lower the colours of the wonderful
_Torrens_ in the Adelaide trade, being fitted to carry a large number
of passengers. Indeed she was the last sailing ship specially built
and fitted for carrying passengers. In more ways than one she was a
remarkable vessel, and differed in many interesting details from the
stock type of Clyde-built iron clipper.

In her rigging and sail plan, she had various fittings which were
peculiar to herself.

To begin with, she was the only iron ship which had the old-fashioned
channels to spread the rigging: and in another way she went back many
years by never bending a sail on her crossjack yard. Instead of this
sail she spread a large hoisting spanker, and she always carried a main
spencer or storm trysail, a sail very often seen on down east Cape
Horners, who found it very useful when trying to make westing off Cape
Stiff.

The famous _Cutty Sark_ was fitted with a spencer yard and sail at her
launch, but I doubt if she ever used it; at any rate, Captain Woodget
told me he never used it, for the simple reason that he never hove
the _Cutty Sark_ to in ten voyages to Australia. I have several of
_Harbinger’s_ abstract logs and I can find no instance of her using
this sail either.

_Harbinger_ was a very lofty ship, measuring 210 feet from the
water-line to her main truck, and, unlike the _Hesperus_, she always
carried her skysail yards crossed. Her jibbooms were of unusual
length—I say jibbooms, for outside her ordinary jibboom she carried a
sliding gunter or flying jibboom. On these she set a whole fleet
of jibs, and, as if they were not sufficient, she had cliphooks for a
storm staysail on the fore stay.

[Illustration: “HARBINGER.”]

[Illustration: “HARBINGER.”

_Photo lent by F. G. Layton._]

After her first voyage 600 superficial feet of canvas were added to her
square-sail area, and even so she was not a bit over canvassed, as she
was a very stiff ship and always stood up well to a breeze.

That she did not make more remarkable passages must be put down to the
fact that, like the _Hesperus_, she was never hard sailed; but she
could do over 300 miles in the 24 hours without much pressing, and
running her easting down 340 knots in a 23½-hour day was about her
best. Her best speed through the water, measured by the odometer and
the common log, was 16 knots.

With regard to her sea qualities, Mr. Bullen, who served on her as
second mate, speaks as follows:—“She was to my mind one of the noblest
specimens of modern shipbuilding that ever floated. For all her huge
bulk she was as easy to handle as any 10-ton yacht—far easier than
some—and in any kind of weather her docility was amazing…. She was so
clean in the entrance that you never saw a foaming spread of broken
water ahead, driven in front by the vast onset of the hull. She parted
the waves before her pleasantly, as an arrow the air; but it needed a
tempest to show her ‘way’ in its perfection. In a grand and gracious
fashion, she seemed to claim affinity with the waves, and they in their
wildest tumult met her as if they knew and loved her. She was the only
ship I ever knew or heard of that would ‘stay’ under storm staysails,
reefed topsails and a reefed foresail in a gale of wind. In fact, I
never saw anything that she would not do that a ship should do. She
was so truly a child of the ocean that even a bungler could hardly
mishandle her; she would work in spite of him. And lastly, she would
steer when you could hardly detect an air out of the heavens, with a
sea like a mirror, and the sails hanging apparently motionless. The
men used to say that she would go a knot with only the quartermaster
whistling at the wheel for a wind.”

It is doubtful if a ship ever sailed the seas with more beautiful
deck fittings. They were all of the finest teak, fashioned as if by a
cabinetmaker and lavishly carved. In her midship house, in addition to
the galley, carpenter’s shop, petty officer’s quarters, donkey engine
and condenser, she had accommodation for 30 passengers.

Like the _Rodney_, she was fitted up with all the latest comforts and
conveniences—luxuries they were considered in those robust days. On her
forward deck against the midship house were lashed a splendid cowhouse,
two teak wood pens to hold 30 sheep, and a number of hen coops which
were crammed with poultry, ducks, and geese, the butcher being one of
the most important members of her crew.

Her foc’s’le had three tiers of bunks, for she carried a large crew. In
1886 I find that she hauled out of the South West India Dock with 200
passengers and a crew of 51 all told.

She did not stay very long in the Adelaide trade, but from the early
eighties was a favourite passenger ship to Melbourne, her commander
being Captain Daniel R. Bolt, a very experienced passenger ship
commander, who had previously had the _Darling Downs_, _Royal Dane_,
and _Holmsdale_. Under him without any undue hurry, she was generally
between 80 and 85 days going out, and in the nineties coming home.

Below will be found a typical abstract of her log when running the
easting down, taken from her outward passage in 1884:—

  August 31.—Lat. 38° 00′ S., long. 1° 52′ W. Dist. 242. Moderate
  steady S.W. wind, rain squalls. Two sail in company.

  September 1.—Lat. 38° 57′ S., long. 2° 47′ E. Dist. 226. Strong,
  unsteady, squally S.W. to west wind, high sea, royals set.

  September 2.—Lat. 39° 07′ S., long. 7° 42′ E. Dist. 230. Variable
  south wind, squally, heavy rollers from S.W.

  September 3.—Lat. 39° 40′ S., long. 12° 49′ E. Dist. 241. Westerly
  wind, fresh and squally, under topgallant sails, heavy rollers.

  September 4.—Lat. 40° 06′ S., long. 19° 05′ E. Dist. 288. Strong gale
  and high sea.

  September 5.—Lat. 40° 24′ S., long. 24° 50′ E. Dist. 267. Moderate W.
  gale, high sea.

  September 6.—Lat. 40° 49′ S., long. 30° 44′ E. Dist. 267. Gale
  moderating and falling to light S.S.E. wind.

  September 7.—Lat. 40° 08′ S., long. 35° 15′ E. Dist. 213. South wind
  variable in force and direction.

  September 8.—Lat. 38° 30′ S., long 36° 37′ E. Dist. 116. Variable
  light E. and S.E wind.

  September 9.—Lat. 40° 25′ S., long. 38° 36′ E. Dist. 148. Moderate
  E.S.E. gale. Sea smooth. P.M., strong N.E. wind, reduced to topsails.

  September 10.—Lat. 42° 17′ S., long 42° 18′ E. Dist. 203. Strong
  gale and head sea. Main upper and three lower topsails. Later, wind
  dropping.

  September 11.—Lat. 42° 10′ S., long. 46° 41′ E. Dist. 196. Light W.
  wind, variable airs increasing to strong N.W. gale at midnight.

  September 12.—Lat. 42° 28′ S., long. 52° 13′ E. Dist. 247. 6.30, wind
  shifted to west and fell light, then freshened, sea smooth.

  September 13.—Lat. 42° 22′ S., long. 58° 06′ E. Dist. 262. Moderate
  westerly gale and high sea, royals in. Midnight, light winds.

  September 14.—Lat. 42° 10′ S., long. 63° 50′ E. Dist. 253. Increasing
  N.W. wind.

  September 15.—Lat. 41° 30′ S., long. 70° 22′ E. Dist. 298. Fresh
  gale, cross sea from N.N.W., a sea down saloon companion; overcast.

  September 16.—Lat. 41° 30′ S., long. 77° 07′ E. Dist. 305. Fresh
  W.N.W. wind and moderate sea. Bar. 29.70° to 29.60°.

  September 17.—Lat. 41° 15′ S., long. 84° 19′ E. Dist. 326. Strong
  gale and high sea. 7.30 a.m., wind shifted from N.W. to W.S.W. Bar.,
  30.20°.

  Sept. 18.—Lat. 40° 40′ S., long. 90° 00′ E. Dist. 259. Moderate gale
  W.S.W. to light W. wind, 8 knots. Bar., 30.10°.

  September 19.—Lat. 41° 00′ S., long. 95° 01′ E. Dist. 228. Moderate
  to light W. wind, skysails set. Bar., 29.60°.

  September 20.—Lat. 40° 30′ S., long. 100° 44′ E. Dist. 260. Moderate
  N.W. gale, thick weather, rain.

  September 21.—Lat. 40° 04′ S., long. 106° 05′ E. Dist. 248. Moderate
  gale and high seas.

  September 22.—Lat. 39° 28′ S., long. 111° 05′ E. Dist. 230. Moderate
  S. wind, squally with rain falling to light airs.

On this passage _Harbinger_ was 81 days from the Lizard to Port Phillip
Heads; she had very light winds to the line, which she only crossed 31
days from the Lizard. It was, perhaps, a pity that she was not fitted
with stunsails and given a chance to go, as there is no doubt that
under such conditions she could have given the fastest ships in the
trade a very good race.

In 1885 she took her departure from the Start with the little _Berean_,
and beat that little marvel out to the Colonies by six days, being
79 days from the Start to the Quarantine Station, Port Phillip.
_Harbinger’s_ best run on this occasion was 310 miles.

In the year 1890 _Harbinger_ was bought, along with the _Hesperus_, for
Devitt & Moore’s cadet-training scheme. She carried a full complement
of cadets until 1897, when her boys were turned over to the _Macquarie_
and she was sold to the Russians for £4800, and she was still in the
Register in 1905.


“Argonaut.”

Carmichael’s _Argonaut_, like their _Thessalus_, was not a regular wool
carrier, though often seen in Sydney and Melbourne; for some years,
however, in her latter days, she was a member of the wool fleet from
Sydney. She had all the good looks of a _Golden Fleece_ clipper; and
the following records speak for her sailing powers:—

  1879-80 London to Calcutta, undocked 3.30 p.m. October 4
            Arrived Saugor Roads, Jan 4                     90  days.
                                        against N.E. monsoon.
  1881    Calcutta to Melbourne, Jan 10-February 25         45  days.
  1881    Melbourne to London, 7th April—off Lizard, 4.30
            p.m. June 27                                    81   „
                  —docked June 30                           84   „
  1882    Dundee to Frisco, July 17-November 14             120  „
  1882    Frisco to Queenstown, January 6-April 20          104  „
  1883    Wifsta, Sweden, to Adelaide, July 11-October 8    89   „
  1883    Adelaide to Tegal, Java, November 15-December 13  28   „
  1885    Liverpool to Sydney, June 14-August 31            78   „
  1894-5  Sydney to London, October 14-January 4            82   „
  1895    Dungeness to Sydney. March 13-June 4              83   „
  1895    Sydney to London, October 13-December 29          77   „

_Argonaut’s_ best known commander was Captain Hunter, who was one of
those who knew how to carry sail. On his wool passage home in 1896,
however, he was very much out of luck, as the _Argonaut_ was one of the
very few ships that took over 100 days.

[Illustration: “ARGONAUT.”

_Photo by Hall & Co., Sydney._]

Captain A. Cook was her first skipper, then Captain Bonner had her in
the late eighties.

_Argonaut_ was still afloat in 1914. Under the name of _Elvira_, she
flew the Portuguese flag and used the same home port, Lisbon, as the
_Cutty Sark_ and _Thomas Stephens_—and her round of ports was usually
the same as that of _Cutty Sark_, namely—Rio Janeiro, New Orleans and
Lisbon. In 1913, her name was again changed to _Argo_. The Portuguese,
as in the case of the _Cutty Sark_, retained the yards on the mizen.


  PASSAGES UNDER 80 DAYS TO SYDNEY IN 1876.
  +--------------+---------+--------+--------+---------+-------+----+
  |              |         |Crossed |Crossed | Passed  |       |Days|
  |     Ship     |Departure|Equator | Cape   |S.W. Cape|Arrived|Out |
  |              |         |        |Meridian|Tasmania |       |    |
  +--------------+---------+--------+--------+---------+-------+----+
  |_Patriarch_   |Channel  |July 14 |Aug. 9  |Aug. 30  |Sept. 2| 71 |
  |              |  June 23|        |        |(Otway)  |       |    |
  |_Samuel_      |Plymouth |June 28 |July 19 |Aug.  9  |Aug. 19| 78 |
  |  _Plimsoll_  |  June  2|        |        |         |       |    |
  |_Cutty_       |Channel  |Nov. 19 |Dec. 11 |Jan.  3  |Jan. 10| 79 |
  |  _Sark_      |  Oct. 23|        |        |    ’77  |    ’77|    |
  +--------------+---------+--------+--------+---------+-------+----+

  PASSAGES UNDER 80 DAYS TO MELBOURNE IN 1876.
  +--------------+---------+--------+--------+--------+--------+----+
  |              |         |        |Crossed |Passed  |        |    |
  |     Ship     |Departure|Crossed | Cape   | Cape   |Arrived |Days|
  |              |         |Equator |Meridian|(Otway) |        |Out |
  +--------------+---------+--------+--------+--------+--------+----+
  |_Mermerus_    |Gravesend|July 17 |Aug.  6 |        |Aug.  30| 66 |
  |              |  June 25|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Miltiades_   |Lizard   |May  30 |June  25|        |July  21| 70 |
  |              |  May  12|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Aristides_   |Start    |Aug.  4 |Aug.  26|Sept. 17|Sept. 18| 70 |
  |              |  July 10|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Old_         |Channel  |        |        |        |Oct.  29| 78 |
  |  _Kensington_|  Aug. 17|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Loch Ness_   |Scilly   |        |        |        |Sept. 21| 74 |
  |              |  July 11|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Macduff_     |Channel  |        |        |        |July  31| 74 |
  |              |  May  18|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Salamis_     |Lizard   |Apl. 18 |May  14 |June   7|June   8| 75 |
  |              |  Mar. 25|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Theophane_   |Tuskar   |Sept.11 |        |        |Oct.  26| 75 |
  |              |  Aug. 12|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Loch Maree_  |Start    |July  8 |Aug.  10|Sept.  2|Sept.  3| 76 |
  |              |  June 19|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Cassiope_    |Channel  |        |        |        |Nov.  10| 76 |
  |              |  Aug. 26|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Parthenope_  |Tuskar   |        |        |        |Oct.  12| 77 |
  |              |  July 27|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Marpesia_    |Tuskar   |        |        |        |Jan.   6| 77 |
  |              |  Oct. 21|        |        |        |     ’77|    |
  |_Loch Katrine_|Start    |June 15 |July  12|Aug.   9|Aug.  10| 77 |
  |              |  May  26|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Romanoff_    |Lizard   |July 30 |        |Sept. 17|Sept. 18| 77 |
  |              |  July 23|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Thomas_      |Lizard   |Sept. 4 |        |        |Oct.  24| 78 |
  |  _Stephens_  |  Aug.  7|        |        |        |        |    |
  +--------------+---------+--------+--------+--------+--------+----+


Notes on Passages to Australia in 1876.

The only new ship to make a name for herself this year was _Aristides_,
but I do not think she was as fast as Thompson’s earlier ships, and I
much doubt if she were capable of the following week’s run, made by
_Samuel Plimsoll_ whilst running her easting down this year in 41° S.,
viz., 348, 330, 301, 342, 320, 264, and 340 = total 2245 miles.

Hardly any of the cracks are missing from the “under 80 day” list. The
_Tweed_, with eight fine stallions on board, ran from the Start to
King’s Island in 77 days on her way to Sydney, but was then held up
three more days by calms.


“Brilliant” and “Pericles.”

Duthie’s _Brilliant_ and Thompson’s _Pericles_ were built alongside
of each other and launched on the same tide; and both ships being in
the Sydney trade there was naturally great rivalry between them. The
two clippers proved to be very evenly matched and it is difficult
to award the palm. _Pericles_ usually took emigrants out, _Brilliant_
being loaded deep with general cargo, and they both loaded wool home.
The two captains, Davidson of the _Brilliant_ and Largie of _Pericles_,
usually had a new hat on the result of each passage. _Pericles_
with her light load line generally won the hat going out, but the
_Brilliant_ was always very hard to beat on the homeward run, and
Captain Davidson, more often than not, got his hat back again.

[Illustration: “PERICLES.”

_Photo by Hall & Co., Sydney._]

On her maiden passage _Brilliant_ went out to Sydney in 78 days without
clewing up her main royal from the Bay of Biscay to Sydney Heads. Down
in the roaring forties she made three consecutive runs of 340, 345 and
338 miles by observation, a performance which I do not think any iron
ship has ever beaten.

Her best homeward passage was 79 days to the Channel in 1888, but her
wool passages were so regular that she was rarely allowed more than 85
days to catch the sales.

_Brilliant_ was a specially handsome ship; painted black with a white
under-body, and with a brass rail along the whole length of her
topgallant bulwarks, she was always the acme of smartness, being known
in Sydney as “Duthie’s yacht.”

Taking the average of 16 outward passages under Captain Davidson, we
find _Brilliant’s_ record to be 85 days, her rival _Pericles_ had an
average of 84 days for 10 passages; this was considerably helped by a
very fine run of 71 days in 1886.

In 1888 Captain John Henderson took the _Pericles_ for three voyages,
leaving her to take the _Samuel Plimsoll_. He took the _Pericles_
across the Pacific to San Francisco and made three passages home from
the Golden Gate with wheat, his first being the best, 110 days to
Falmouth.

Thompson’s sold _Pericles_ to the Norwegians in 1904, whilst
_Brilliant_ was sold to the Italians in the following year.
_Brilliant_, I believe, was broken up in Genoa about 10 or 12 years
ago, but _Pericles_, until recently at any rate, was still washing
about the seas disguised in the usual way as a barque.


“Loch Ryan.”

_Loch Ryan_ was another 1200-ton ship, a favourite size with Messrs.
Aitken & Lilburn. Though she managed to make the run to Melbourne
in 78 days on her maiden passage, she was not as sharp-ended as her
predecessors and was more of a carrier, her passages home being more
often over 100 days than under.

She was more fortunate in her old age than most of her sisters, as she
was bought by the Victorian Government and turned into a boys’ training
ship, her name being changed to _John Murray_. For many years, until
well into the late war in fact, she lay in Hobson’s Bay as spick and
span as ever, occasionally making short cruises under sail for training
purposes.

About the middle of the war, like many another gallant old windjammer,
she was fitted out and sent to sea in the face of the German submarines
and was wrecked in the Pacific.


“Loch Etive,” of Captain William Stuart and Joseph Conrad fame.

The _Loch Etive_, launched in November, 1877, had the honour of being
commanded by Captain Stuart of Peterhead, for long the well-known
skipper of the famous _Tweed_, and the still greater honour of having
Mr. Joseph Conrad as one of her officers.

She also was a fuller ship and for some years Captain Stuart
failed to get anything remarkable out of her, though he drove her
unmercifully; but in 1892-3 she made two very good voyages.

[Illustration: “MERMERUS,” in Victoria Dock, Melbourne, 1896.]

[Illustration: “BRILLIANT.”

_Photo lent by Captain C. W. Davidson._]

Leaving Glasgow on 15th October, 1892, she arrived at Melbourne on Xmas
Day, 70 days out from the Tail of the Bank. Loading a wool cargo, she
left Melbourne on 26th January, 1893, and arrived in the London River
on 29th April, 93 days out.

On her next voyage she left Glasgow at 8 p.m. on 23rd September and
arrived at Adelaide 10 a.m., 12th December; towed to powder ground
and discharged 20 tons of gunpowder, and berthed at the wharf same
afternoon; commenced discharging on 13th, discharged 800 tons of cargo,
took on board 300 tons lead spelter, towed down the river and anchored
off the Semaphore on the 16th; left on the 17th, and arrived at
Melbourne on the 19th. Here she discharged 750 tons, the remainder of
her inward cargo, and loaded wool and sundries for Antwerp and Glasgow.

  Left Melbourne Heads on 18th January—detained a week in Bass Straits
  by light easterly winds—passed within 3 miles of Cape Horn at noon,
  15th February—crossed equator at noon, 15th March—signalled Lizard
  at noon, 12th April, and docked in Antwerp on 15th April, 87 days out.

Captain Stuart died at sea on his next voyage, on the morning of his
birthday, 21st September, 1894, and was buried at sea some 300 miles
S.W. of Queenstown, the _Loch Etive_ being five days out from Glasgow.
He was 63 years of age and had been 43 years a master. It was his proud
boast that during the whole of his career he had never lost a man or
a mast overboard. Though offered many a chance to go into steam or a
larger ship, Captain Stuart preferred to remain in the _Loch Etive_.
Without a doubt he was one of the most successful captains in the
history of our Mercantile Marine. Many of his men sailed year after
year with him, and there are men in command at the present day who
originally shipped before the mast with Stuart and owed not only their
sea training but their education to him. Peterhead, his native town,
was very proud of Captain Stuart, as well it might be. With Viking
blood in his veins, he went to sea in 1846 through the hawse hole of
a Peterhead schooner in the Baltic trade, and rose to the topmost
pinnacle of his profession. May the British race produce many more like
him.

_Loch Etive_ was sold to the French in 1911 for £1350.


The Wreck of “Loch Sloy.”

The _Loch Sloy_ was another 1200-ton Loch liner. She was Captain
Horne’s first ship in the Australian trade, and he left her to take
over the _Loch Garry_ in 1885.

[Illustration: “LOCH ETIVE.”]

[Illustration: “ARGONAUT,” in the Clyde.]

In April, 1899, when on a passage to Adelaide under Captain Nichol, the
_Loch Sloy_ overran her distance and was wrecked on Kangaroo Island.
Captain Nichol was trying to pick up Cape Borda light, but it was shut
out from him by the cliffs between Cape Bedout and Cape Couldie, and
the _Loch Sloy_, in the darkness of the morning of 24th April, drove
on to the Brothers Rocks and became a total loss in a few moments,
the heavy surf sweeping right over her. The crew and seven saloon
passengers took refuge in the rigging, but one by one the masts went
over the side, and the men were hurled into the breakers. The ship
had struck 300 yards from the shore and only four men reached it—a
passenger, two able seamen and an apprentice. None of the survivors
remembered how they got ashore; they heard the crash of the masts, then
felt the wreckage bumping them about in the surf, and finally found
themselves lying wedged amongst the rocks, where the breakers had
washed them up.

The following account of their subsequent hardships appeared in an
Adelaide paper:—

  The survivors endured dreadful privations before they reached a
  settlement. They had plenty of whisky, which had floated ashore from
  the wreck, but for solid food they had to eat grass, dead penguins
  cast up by the waves, and shellfish. They suffered terribly through
  insufficient clothing and lack of boots. Two of them walked along
  the coast until they came to the Cape Borda light. One went inland
  to May’s Settlement. The other survivor, David Kilpatrick, the
  passenger, was so ill that he had to be left behind. When search
  parties came back for him he had disappeared, and it was not till
  a week later that a systematic search of the island led to the
  discovery of his dead body a mile and a half from the spot where the
  others had left him.


The Loss of Lochs “Shiel” and “Sunart.”

_Loch Shiel_, the sister ship of _Loch Sloy_, was lost on the Thorne
Rock, Milford Haven on the 30th January, 1901. Her master mistook the
Great Castle Head lights and got on the rocks at 8.40 p.m., the Loch
liner being bound out to Australia from Glasgow. There was no loss of
life, however, on this occasion, half the crew being taken out of the
mizen rigging by a lifeboat, and the other half climbing ashore on to
the rocks by means of her bowsprit.

_Loch Sunart_, the last three-master built for the Loch line, was
launched in January, 1878. Her life was a very short one, as on her
second passage out to Melbourne she was piled up on the Skulmartin
Rock, 11th January, 1879.


Notes on Passages to Australia in 1877.

_Loch Maree_ left Glasgow on 5th May, but was held up for four days
in sight of Tory Island, first by calms and then strong S.W. winds.
Between 21° S.—the limit of the S.E. trades—and the Cape meridian, she
had ten days of strong N.W. winds, during which she logged over 300
miles a day for several days in succession.

_Ben Cruachan_ had such favourable winds in the Channel that she
carried the Channel pilot on to Madeira, where she landed him on 25th
April. She made very steady running down south, for her best day’s work
was only 296 miles. Her sister ship, _Ben Voirlich_, on the contrary,
made a run of 350 miles on 26th July in 35° 37′ S., 22° 10′ W., though
she took 83 days from Achill Head to Hobson’s Bay.

_Pericles_, with 489 emigrants on board, made a good start in her
career, like all Thompson’s ships. Between the 23rd and 24th November
in 44° S., she ran 354 miles before what Captain Largie called a
hurricane, so it is not surprising that _Brilliant_ failed to catch her
in spite of an average of 261 miles a day for 22 days between the Cape
and Otway. _Brilliant_, however, instead of emigrants, had 4000 tons of
general cargo on board.

_Patriarch_, who very rarely suffered damage in bad weather, took a
very heavy sea over her poop during a W.N.W. gale on the 2nd September
in 100° E., and lost 9 feet of her taffrail and three stanchions
over the side. This sea would not have been a pleasant one for _Loch
Vennachar_ or _Sir Walter Raleigh_, both of which had their decks
lumbered up with horse boxes full of draught stock.

_Samuel Plimsoll_ as usual made some good running down south, her best
week’s work being 2050 miles.

_Thermopylae_ was hard chased by _Cutty Sark_, in spite of a 17-day
run from the Lizard to the equator. It is a pity the two ships did
run their easting down on the same parallel, as they must have been
neck and neck down south, but _Cutty Sark_ kept in 46° S., whilst
_Thermopylae_ did not go higher than 44° 30′ S. Both ships by the way
were forced by bad weather to put back to the Downs on their first
attempts to get down Channel.[C]

  PASSAGES TO SYDNEY UNDER 80 DAYS IN 1877.
  +-------------+----------+-------+--------+---------+--------+----+
  |             |          |       |Crossed | Passed  |        |    |
  |     Ship    |Departure |Crossed|  Cape  |S.W. Cape|Arrived |Days|
  |             |          |Equator|Meridian|Tasmania |        |Out |
  +-------------+----------+-------+--------+---------+--------+----+
  |_Cutty_      |Lizard    |Dec. 28|Jan. 18 |Feb.  13 |Feb.  16| 72 |
  |  _Sark_     |  Dec.   6|       |    ’78 |     ’78 |     ’78|    |
  |_Patriarch_  |Start     |July 26|        |Sept. 12 |Sept. 15| 74 |
  |             |  July   3|       |        |(Otway)  |        |    |
  |_Pericles_   |Plymouth  |Oct. 17|Nov. 7  |Nov.  30 |Dec.   3| 74 |
  |             |  Sept. 20|       |        |         |        |    |
  |_Brilliant_  |Start     |Oct. 31|Nov. 26 |Dec.  10 |Dec.  20| 79 |
  |             |  Oct.   2|       |        | (Otway) |        |    |
  |_Samuel_     |Plymouth  |July  7|July 28 |Aug.  23 |Aug.  27| 79 |
  |  _Plimsoll _|  June   9|       |        | (Otway) |        |    |
  +-------------+----------+-------+--------+---------+--------+----+

  PASSAGES TO MELBOURNE UNDER 80 DAYS IN 1877.
  +-------------+----------+--------+--------+--------+--------+----+
  |             |          |        |Crossed | Passed |        |    |
  |    Ship     |Departure |Crossed |  Cape  | Cape   |Arrived |Days|
  |             |          |Equator |Meridian| Otway  |        |Out |
  +-------------+----------+--------+--------+--------+--------+----+
  |_Loch Maree_ |Cape Clear|June   3|June  24|July  19|July  19| 67 |
  |             |  May  13 |        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Ben_        |Lizard    |May   13|        |        |June  23| 67 |
  |  _Cruachan_ |  April 17|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Thermopylae_|Lizard    |Dec.  20|Jan.  17|Feb.  14|Feb.  15| 74 |
  |             |  Dec.  3 |        |     ’78|     ’78|     ’78|    |
  |_Mermerus_   |Start     |July  28|Aug.  19|        |Sept. 13| 75 |
  |             |  June  30|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Miltiades_  |Start     |July  10|July  31|        |Aug.  27| 75 |
  |             |  June  13|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Loch_       |Channel   |May    2|May  29 |        |June  22| 75 |
  |  _Vennachar_|  April  7|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Romanoff_   |Lizard    |Apl.  25|May  19 |        |June  15| 75 |
  |             |  April  1|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Loch Fyne_  |Tuskar    |        |        |        |Mar.   5| 75 |
  |             |  Dec.  20|        |        |        |     ’78|    |
  |_Salamis_    |Start     |Aug.  1 |Aug.  26|        |Sept. 21| 76 |
  |             |  July   7|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Thomas_     |Tuskar    |Sept.  9|Sept. 30|Oct.  26|Oct.  27| 76 |
  |  _Stephens_ |  Aug.  12|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Loch Ryan_  |Tuskar    |Mar.  27|Apl.  23|        |May   21| 76 |
  |             |  Mar.   6|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Theophane_  |Holyhead  |July  30|Aug.  21|        |Sept. 15| 77 |
  |             |  June  30|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Parthenope_ |Holyhead  |Sept. 19|Oct.  10|Nov.   1|Nov.   2| 77 |
  |             |  Aug.  17|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Sir Walter_ |Lizard    |July  30|Aug.  22|        |Sept. 20| 77 |
  |  _Raleigh_  |  July   5|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Loch Garry_ |Qu’nstown |Aug.  10|Sept.  2|Sept. 25|Sept. 26| 77 |
  |             |  July  11|        |        |        |        |    |
  |_Maulesden_  |Tuskar    |Mar.  26|Apl.  24|        |May   22| 79 |
  |             |  Mar.   4|        |        |        |        |    |
  +-------------+----------+--------+--------+--------+--------+----+


“Cimba.”

In April, 1878, Hood launched the beautiful little _Cimba_ for A.
Nicol, and with her green hull, gold scrolls and lion figure-head she
was a familiar visitor to Port Jackson for close on 30 years.

An out and out wool clipper, she was very heavily rigged, her chief
measurements being:—

  Main lower mast                       60 feet.
  Fore and main yards                   82 feet.
  Fore and main lower topsail yards     76 feet.
  Fore and main upper topsail yards     69 feet.
  Fore and main lower topgallant yard   58 feet.
  Fore and main upper topgallant yards  52 feet.
  Fore and main royal yards             41 feet.

Her lower masts were short compared to some clippers, but her lower
yards were very heavy, her fore and main yards weighing over 4 tons
each.

Her first master was J. Fimister, who had her until 1895, when Captain
J. W. Holmes took her over until she was sold abroad in 1906.

Under Captain Fimister her best passages were:—

  1880  Channel to Sydney  71 days
  1882  Channel to Sydney  82 days
  1884  Channel to Sydney  79 days
  1889  Sydney to London   75 days
  1891  Sydney to Channel  84 days
  1892  Channel to Sydney  83 days
  1893  Sydney to Channel  86 days
  1894  Channel to Sydney  80 days

  On her maiden trip she left London 27th June—left Channel 2nd July, 5
  days out—crossed the line 28th July. 26 days from departure—crossed
  Cape meridian 20th August, 49 days from departure—arrived Sydney 29th
  September, 89 days from departure.

A curious notoriety came upon the new clipper in Sydney owing to
Captain Fimister, in his eagerness to get loaded and away in good time
for the wool sales, jumping _Patriarch’s_ loading berth at Circular
Quay.

The berth was vacated by _Nineveh_ on a Saturday.

[Illustration: “CIMBA.”

_Photo lent by F. G. Layton._]

The port arrangements in those days allowed ships to go alongside
in the order in which they had booked the berth. On this occasion
_Patriarch_ had booked the berth on 18th August, _Smyrna_ on 20th
August, _Cairnbulg_ on 9th September, _St. Lawrence_ on 13th September,
_Centurion_ on 26th September and _Cimba_ on 30th September—the day
after she arrived.

On _Nineveh_ sailing, _Patriarch_ should have hauled alongside, but
her captain had been told that as it was Saturday he need not come
alongside until Monday. The _Patriarch_, being in no particular hurry
as a good deal of her wool was still up country, therefore remained
where she was. Hearing of this, the enterprising Captain Fimister
proceeded to hire a tug and move his ship from Smith’s Wharf where
she was lying to the vacant berth at Circular Quay, all ready to load
the wool which was waiting for him. He took the precaution, however,
to take his shorefasts through the quay rings and aboard again. This
defiance of the harbour authorities was allowed to go unnoticed until
Monday morning. Then Captain Fimister received an order to remove his
ship. Of this he took no notice. His action, as may be supposed, was
the talk of the port, especially amongst the captains of the wool
clippers. One of these skippers threatened to moor his ship in Sydney
Cove, ready to be the next to jump the berth. Others complained in
person to the Colonial Secretary.

On Tuesday morning Captain Bell, the harbor-master, went in person to
the _Cimba_ to order her removal, but the undaunted Captain Fimister
triced up his gangway ladder and threatened to throw him overboard if
he attempted to gain the deck. By this time all the legal lights of
Sydney were puzzling their heads over the legal aspects of the case;
Messrs. Dangar, Gedye & Co., the ship’s agents, upholding the captain.
Finally the Colonial Treasurer sent the President of the Marine Board
an order to remove the ship. So at 6 a.m. on Wednesday morning, Captain
Hixson, the assistant harbourmaster, with 20 men and half-a-dozen water
police, boarded the ship, only to find that Captain Fimister and his
whole crew had flown after first removing every means of weighing the
anchor. But a harbourmaster is not easily balked, and Captain Hixson
let go the shorefasts, slipped the chain, and with the aid of a tug
took the _Cimba_ out and moored her at the man-of-war buoy off Fort
Macquarie.

It was now time for Dangar, Gedye & Co. to take action. They
immediately enlisted the help of Sir John Robertson, who moved
the adjournment of the House in order that an explanation of the
harbourmaster’s high-handed proceedings might be given. The House was
already divided into two factions over Captain Fimister’s action, but
the Colonial Secretary firmly upheld the Marine Board, and in the end
Captain Fimister was fined 20 shillings and 5s. costs and ordered to
pay £28 4s., the cost of removing the _Cimba_ from the berth.

All this trouble really arose firstly through the _Patriarch’s_ being
ahead of her cargo, and secondly owing to Circular Quay being a free
berth. This was shortly afterwards rectified, but the _Patriarch_ did
not get away until a month after the _Cimba_ for want of cargo.

In 1889, the _Cimba_ made her best wool passage, as follows:—

  October 22—Left Sydney.
  November 18—Passed Cape Horn            27 days out.
  December 11—Crossed the equator         50 days out.
  December 25—Passed the Western Isles    64 days out.
  January 3 ’90—Signalled in the Channel  73 days out.
  January 5—Arrived London                75 days out.

Captain Holmes, who took the _Cimba_ in 1895, had had a long experience
in clipper ships. He had been third mate of the _Salamis_, chief mate
of _Hallowe’en_ and _Blackadder_, and commander of the _Lencadia_, a
smart ship built for the China trade.

The Aberdeen ships were, however, very clannish, and being a stranger
and not a Scot, he had his reputation all to make, the standard set
being a very high one. However, he knew how to carry sail, and he
managed to keep the _Cimba_ moving, though she was always a tender ship
requiring a master hand.

Under him, her best passages were:—

  1895 Lizard to Sydney  82 days.

Her best week’s work was 1860 miles, and her best 24 hour’s run, made
on 6th June in 39° 51′ S., 34° 54′ E., 336 miles in a fresh gale from
S.W., during which the second mate was lost overboard.

Other good runs on this passage were:—300, 302, 308 and 312.

  1896 Sydney to London  78 days.

_Cimba_ left Sydney in company with _Thessalus_ and _Argonaut_ on 17th
October. Passed the Horn on 15th November, 29 days out—on 18th November
in 51° 31′ S., 55° 47′ W., ran 316 miles, the wind blowing a strong
gale from W.S.W. to W.N.W.—crossed the line on 8th December, 23 days
from the Horn—passed Fayal, Western Isles, on Xmas Day, and signalled
the Lizard at 1 p.m. 31st December, 75 days out.

This was really a splendid performance, for the _Thessalus_, which was
really a much faster and more powerful ship, signalled the Start on
31st December at noon, whilst _Argonaut_, which was certainly quite as
fast as _Cimba_, did not arrive until a month later.

  1898 Sydney to London  81 days.

Passed the Horn on 2nd November, 25 days out, having run 3422 miles
in 14 days—crossed the line on 29th November, 27 days from the
Horn—passed the Western Isles on 20th December, Lizard light abeam at
8 a.m. on 26th December, 79 days out.

In 1899 _Cimba_ went out to Rockhampton and loaded home from Brisbane.
In 1901 she went out to Sydney in 85 days, her best run being 310 miles.

By this time sailing ship freights were in a very bad way, and a
profitable charter in Sydney grew more and more difficult to obtain,
thus in 1905 we find her making the record passage between Callao and
Iquique for a sailing ship. As this may be of interest, I give her
abstract log below:—

  ABSTRACT LOG OF _CIMBA_ FROM CALLAO TO IQUIQUE
  RECORD SAILING SHIP PASSAGE.

  July 2-7 p.m. got underweigh.
         | Lat.     |   Long. | Course.|  Dist. | Wind.
         |          |         |        |        |
  July 3 | 12° 48′S | 79° 24′W| S50° W.|  80mls.| S.S.E.
   „   4 | 14° 30′  | 80° 15′ | S46°   | 150 „  |  „
   „   5 | 16° 47′  | 81° 49′ | S34°   | 165 „  |  „
   „   6 | 19° 20′  | 82° 54′ | S22°   | 165 „  | S.E. by E.
   „   7 | 21° 48′  | 84° 17′ | S28°   | 168 „  | S.Easterly
   „   8 | 23° 52′  | 85° 52′ | S35°   | 152 „  |  „
   „   9 | 25° 32′  | 86° 34′ | S21° W.| 160 „  |  „
   „  10 | 23° 57′  | 84° 41′ | N47° E.| 141 „  | S.E. by S.
   „  11 | 23°  8′  | 82° 24′ | N69°   | 135 „  | South, S.W.
   „  12 | 23° 10′  | 81° 35′ | S87°   |  46 „  | N.W. Westerly
   „  13 | 23° 53′  | 78° 00′ | S78°   | 202 „  | W’ly to S.S.W.
   „  14 | 22° 42′  | 75°  7′ | N66°   | 175 „  | S. Easterly
   „  15 | 21° 38′  | 71° 00′ | N75°   | 246 „  |     „
   „  16 | 20° 57′  | 70° 48′ | N15°   |  43 „  |     „
   „  17 | 20° 31′  | 70° 22′ | S11°   |  31 „  |     „

  (2080 miles in 14 days.)

This was _Cimba’s_ last voyage under the British flag; she came home
from Caleta Buena to Falmouth in 85 days, and was then sold (March,
1906) to the Norwegians owing to the death of her owner.

Under the Norwegians she made a remarkable passage from Dublin to the
St. Lawrence in 14 days; lumber was now her chief cargo and she used
often to be seen discharging firewood from the Baltic in the Aberdeen
Bay, East India Dock, where she had so often loaded general for Sydney.

  PASSAGES TO SYDNEY UNDER 80 DAYS IN 1878.
  +-------------+---------+-------+--------+---------+-------+----+
  |             |         |       |Crossed |Passed   |       |    |
  |    Ship     |Departure|Crossed| Cape   |S.W. Cape|Arrived|Days|
  |             |         |Equator|Meridian|Tasmania |       |Out |
  +-------------+---------+-------+--------+---------+-------+----+
  |_Loch Etive_ |Scillies |Feb.  6|Mar. 4  |Mar. 28  |Apl. 3 | 76 |
  |             |  Jan. 17|       |        |         |       |    |
  |_Thomas_     |Plymouth |July 18|Aug. 1  |Aug. 21  |Aug. 31| 77 |
  |  _Stephens_ |  June 15|       |        |         |       |    |
  +-------------+---------+-------+--------+---------+-------+----+

  PASSAGES TO MELBOURNE UNDER 80 DAYS IN 1878.
  +--------------+---------+-------+--------+-------+--------+----+
  |              |         |       |Crossed |Passed |        |    |
  |    Ship      |Departure|Crossed|Cape    |Cape   |Arrived |Days|
  |              |         |Equator|Meridian|Otway  |        |Out |
  +--------------+---------+-------+--------+-------+--------+----+
  |_Thessalus_   |Lizard   |Mar. 28|Apl. 20 |       |May   14| 68 |
  |              |  Mar.  7|       |        |       |        |    |
  |_Parthenope_  |Tuskar   |July 31|Aug. 20 |       |Sept. 16| 71 |
  |              |  July  7|       |        |       |        |    |
  |_Aristides_   |Start    |July 27|Aug. 18 |       |Sept. 15| 74 |
  |              |  July  3|       |        |       |        |    |
  |_Miltiades_   |Start    |June 30|July 21 |Aug. 13|Aug.  14| 75 |
  |              |  May  31|       |        |       |        |    |
  |_Loch_        |Smalls   |Aug.  4|Aug. 29 |       |Sept. 23| 75 |
  |  _Vennachar_ |  July 10|       |        |       |        |    |
  |_Old_         |Lizard   |July  2|July 24 |Aug. 19|Aug.  20| 76 |
  |  _Kensington_|  June  5|       |        |       |        |    |
  |_Aviemore_    |Start    |July 27|Aug. 18 |Sept.15|Sept. 16| 79 |
  |              |  June 29|       |        |       |        |    |
  +--------------+---------+-------+--------+-------+--------+----+


Notes on Passages to Australia in 1878.

_Thessalus_ was the heroine of the year, though on her arrival in
Melbourne critics declared that she was too deeply loaded for safety.

_Miltiades_ had a bad time running her easting down; on more than one
occasion her decks were badly swept, and once Captain Perrett was
washed off the poop on to the main deck and had his head badly cut
about.

_Loch Vennachar_, owing to the death of Captain Robertson, had a new
skipper in Captain J. S. Ozanne, her late chief officer. He proved that
he could carry sail by two 24-hour runs of 325 and 311 miles.

Captain Stuart made a very good maiden passage out to Sydney, but _Loch
Etive_ never had anything like the speed of his old ship the _Tweed_.

_Parthenope_ had the veteran Captain Grey in command this year, and
he certainly made her travel. Of the other crack ships _Salamis_
was 83 and _Samuel Plimsoll_ 86 days to Sydney; whilst of the
Melbourne clippers _Loch Garry_ was 80, _Loch Maree_ 82, _Mermerus_,
_Ben Cruachan_ and _Romanoff_ 83, _Sir Walter Raleigh_ 84 and _Ben
Voirlich_ 87 days. Neither of the two tea clippers, _Cutty Sark_ and
_Thermopylae_, sailed for the Colonies in 1878.


“Sophocles.”

The _Sophocles_ was a pretty little ship, though, following the trend
of the times, she was given a fuller body than Thompson’s earlier
ships, as she was meant to be an economical carrier rather than a
record breaker.

I believe she is still afloat rigged as a barque under Italian colours.


Passages to Australia in 1879.

I have had considerable difficulty in finding any good passages to
Melbourne or Sydney in 1879. It was a time of depressed freights and
ships found themselves seeking cargoes in other than their regular
trades. Thus we find the tea clipper _Titania_ on the Melbourne run
instead of going out to China. The _Thomas Stephens_ tried a voyage to
Otago. _Salamis_ was still in the East seeking a tea cargo. _Thessalus_
went to Calcutta from Penarth, whilst the poor little _Cutty Sark_ had
many strange and unpleasant adventures before she resumed her place in
the Australian trade, which was not until 1883.

Of the other cracks _Patriarch_ with 90 days, _Miltiades_ with 88, _Ben
Voirlich_ with 87, _Loch Maree_ with 94, _Old Kensington_ with 96,
_Cimba_ with 91 and _Thermopylae_ with 86 days all made poor passages.

[Illustration: “SOPHOCLES.”

_Photo by Hall & Co., Sydney._]

The two rivals, _Brilliant_ and _Pericles_, were the only ships to
make Sydney in under 80 days from the Channel, and owing to _Pericles_
getting ashore close to Plymouth and having to come back and dock and
discharge her cargo, etc., the two ships eventually left the Lizard
together.

  +-----------+--------------+--------+--------+-------+-------+----+
  |           |              |        | Crossed| Passed|       |    |
  |   Ship    |  Departure   |Crossed |  Cape  | Cape  |Arrived|Days|
  |           |              |Equator |Meridian| Otway |Sydney | Out|
  +-----------+--------------+--------+--------+-------+-------+----+
  |_Pericles_ |Lizard Aug. 30|Sept. 25|Oct. 17 |Nov. 10|Nov. 14| 76 |
  |_Brilliant_|Lizard Aug. 30|Sept. 27|Oct. 20 |Nov. 12|Nov. 15| 77 |
  +-----------+--------------+-----------------+-------+-------+----+

The best passages out to Melbourne were the following:—

  +---------------------+--------+--------+---------+--------+----+
  |         Ship        | Left   |   On   | Arrived |   On   |Days|
  |                     |        |        |         |        |Out |
  +---------------------+--------+--------+---------+--------+----+
  |_Sobraon_            |Plymouth|Oct.   3|Melbourne|Dec.  16| 74 |
  |_Mermerus_           |Channel |March 26|    „    |June  11| 77 |
  |_Titania_            |   „    |Feb.  21|    „    |May    7| 75 |
  |_Aristides_          |   „    |July   8|    „    |Sept. 23| 77 |
  |_Loch Vennachar_     |Clyde   |July   4|    „    |Sept. 23| 81 |
  |_Ben Cruachan_       |Channel |June   5|    „    |Aug.  25| 81 |
  |_Loch Garry_         |Clyde   |June   6|    „    |Aug.  27| 82 |
  |_Sir Walter Raleigh_ |Channel |June   9|    „    |Aug.  30| 82 |
  +---------------------+--------+--------+---------+--------+----+

  PASSAGES TO SYDNEY UNDER 80 DAYS IN 1880.
  +------------+----------+-------+--------+----------+-------+----+
  |            |          |       |Crossed |          |       |    |
  |    Ship    |Departure |Crossed| Cape   |  Passed  |Arrived|Days|
  |            |          |Equator|Meridian| Tasmania |       | Out|
  +------------+----------+-------+--------+----------+-------+----+
  |_Cimba_     |Channel   |July 7 |July 27 |          |Aug. 21| 72 |
  |            |  June  11|       |        |          |       |    |
  |_Samuel_    |Plymouth  |May 15 |June 10 |July  5   |July  9| 72 |
  |  _Plimsoll_|  April 29|       |        | (Otway)  |       |    |
  |_The Tweed_ |Lizard    |June 8 |June 27 |July 21   |July 29| 75 |
  |            |  May   15|       |        |(S.W.Cape)|       |    |
  +------------+----------+-------+--------+----------+-------+----+

  PASSAGES TO MELBOURNE UNDER 80 DAYS IN 1880.
  +--------------+----------+-------+--------+-------+-------+----+
  |              |          |       |Crossed |Passed |       |    |
  |     Ship     |Departure |Crossed|  Cape  | Cape  |Arrived|Days|
  |              |          |Equator|Meridian| Otway |       |Out |
  +--------------+----------+-------+--------+-------+-------+----+
  |_Ben Voirlich_|Lizard    |July  8|July  25|Aug. 17|Aug. 19| 67 |
  |              |  June  13|       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Sir Walter_  |Start     |June 10|June  30|July 22|July 23| 67 |
  |  _Raleigh_   |  May   17|       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Romanoff_    |Lizard    |July  6|July  27|Aug. 17|Aug. 18| 68 |
  |              |  June  11|       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Ben Cruachan_|Lizard    |May  10|May   30|       |June 27| 70 |
  |              |  April 18|       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Aristides_   |Lizard    |Aug. 23|Sept. 12|Oct.  4|Oct.  5| 70 |
  |              |  July  27|       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Miltiades_   |Lizard    |May  31|June  21|July 15|July 16| 71 |
  |              |  May    6|       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Loch_        |Tuskar    |June 27|July  18|Aug. 12|Aug. 12| 72 |
  |  _Vennachar_ |  June   1|       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Loch Maree_  |Greenock  |May  25|June  19|July 12|       | 73 |
  |              |  May    1|       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Mermerus_    |Dungeness |       |        |July 26|       | 73 |
  |              |  May   14|       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Salamis_     |Start     |June 20|July  11|Aug. 10|       | 75 |
  |              |  May   27|       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Loch Katrine_|Clyde     |       |        |       |Feb. 17| 75 |
  |              |  Dec.   4|       |        |       |    ’81|    |
  |_Theophane_   |Tuskar    |       |        |       |Oct. 27| 77 |
  |              |  Aug.  11|       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Old_         |Channel   |       |        |       |July 17| 78 |
  |  _Kensington_|  April 30|       |        |       |       |    |
  +--------------+----------+-------+--------+-------+-------+----+


Notes on Passages to Australia in 1880.

It will be noticed that all the ships going out in under 80 days, with
exception of _Aristides_, _Loch Katrine_ and _Theophane_, left the
United Kingdom in April, May or June and got a good slant South. It was
also a season of hard winds both in the Channel and North Atlantic and
from the limits of the S.E. trades right away to the Otway and even
inside the Heads.

Captain Charles Douglas, from the Blackwaller _Malabar_, took over the
_Ben Voirlich_ this year; and on 21st July when south of Gough Island
he got 323 and 330 miles out of her in 48 hours before a hard W.S.W.
gale.

On the 17th August, when in sight of Cape Schanck, _Ben Voirlich_ was
held up by terrific squalls from N.N.W. and N., and had to be brought
to under reefed topsails. This cost her a day as she was not able to
enter the Heads until the 19th, when the wind shifted to the W.N.W.

_Sir Walter Raleigh_ made the best passage of her career. With a good
run down Channel, she took her departure from the Start the day after
leaving the Thames, but from the Eddystone to the line she only had
two runs of over 200. However between 4th and 11th July in 42° 30′ S.,
she ran 2128 miles, her best day’s work being only 304 miles, which
meant very steady going. She also was held up off her port by strong
head winds after being braced sharp up all the way from the meridian of
the Leeuwin.

_Romanoff_ had to beat down Channel and was six days from the Thames
to the Lizard, and strong S.W. winds compelled her to go inside the
Canaries and Cape Verdes. She crossed the equator in 21° W. She ran her
easting down in 44° S., and though she had no big runs was only 21 days
between the Cape meridian and the Otway.

_Ben Cruachan_ also had tempestuous weather and easterly winds on
making the Australian coast, and came into port with most of her
bulwarks gone. The day after passing the Leeuwin meridian, 19th June,
she had a hard gale with a very heavy beam sea. She had her fore and
mizen lower topsails blown out of the bolt ropes, and carried away two
topmast backstays owing to the heavy rolling.

_Aristides_ had to beat out of the Channel against strong S.W. gales
and _Miltiades_ had three days of S.W. gales in the Bay of Biscay,
whilst _Salamis_, which was very deeply laden with her Plimsoll mark
awash, was forced down into 47° S. by hard easterly gales.

_Samuel Plimsoll_, with 384 emigrants on board, was only 16 days to the
equator. Between the Cape and the Leeuwin she made the following fine
24-hour runs:—

  June 11      298
   „   15      294
   „   17      313
   „   19      304
   „   22      291
   „   23      308
   „   26      314
   „   26      300

The _Tweed_ this year was commanded by Captain White, who had had the
_Blackadder_. The old ship averaged 240 miles a day from the equator
to the S.W. Cape, Tasmania, her best day’s work being from 8th to 9th
July, when she covered 362 miles.

_Loch Maree_ ran down her easting in 41° S. and experienced no very
heavy weather, but managed to average 284 miles a day for 28 days.

_Rodney_ went out to Adelaide in 74 days, but her passage was thrown in
the shade by the wonderful _Torrens_, which arrived a few days later,
only 65 days out from Plymouth.

The _Thomas Stephens_ left Liverpool on 29th April and made the fine
run of 83 days to Rangoon.


Passages under 80 days to Sydney in 1881.

Again only three ships made the run out to Sydney in under 80 days.

_Cimba_ dropped her pilot in the Channel on 10th May and arrived Sydney
on 24th July, 75 days out. _Samuel Plimsoll_ arrived on 10th June 79
days from the Channel, and _Loch Etive_ on 20th September 79 days from
the Clyde

  PASSAGES TO MELBOURNE UNDER 80 DAYS IN 1881.
  +------------+-----------+-------+--------+-------+-------+----+
  |            |           |       |Crossed |Passed |       |    |
  |    Ship    | Departure |Crossed| Cape   | Cape  |Arrived|Days|
  |            |           |Equator|Meridian|Otway  |       |Out |
  +------------+-----------+-------+--------+-------+-------+----+
  |_City of_   |Lizard     |June 17|July 11 |Aug.  5|Aug.  6| 69 |
  |  _Agra_    |  May   29 |       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Theophane_ |Tuskar     |June 29|July 20 |Aug.  9|Aug. 10| 69 |
  |            |  June   2 |       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Sobraon_   |Plymouth   |       |        |       |Dec.  6| 70 |
  |            |  Sept. 27 |       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Loch Maree_|S. Johns P.|June  1|June 25 |July 18|July 18| 71 |
  |            |  May    8 |       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Salamis_   |Portland   |May  11|June  6 |June 30|July  l| 72 |
  |            |  April 20 |       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Ben_       |Lizard     |May  25|June 21 |July 13|July 15| 74 |
  |  _Voirlich_|  May    2 |       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Thyatira_  |Start      |June 15|July 10 |       |Aug.  6| 75 |
  |            |  May   23 |       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Sir Walter_|Dartmouth  |June 10|July  3 |July 27|July 27| 75 |
  |  _Raleigh_ |  May   13 |       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Cassiope_  |Tuskar     |       |        |       |Oct.  3| 78 |
  |            |  July  17 |       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Mermerus_  |Lizard     |Apl. 22|May  19 |June 16|June 17| 78 |
  |            |  Mar.  31 |       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Miltiades_ |Channel    |       |        |       |July 22| 79 |
  |            |  May    4 |       |        |       |       |    |
  |_Aristides_ |Lizard     |July 14|Aug.  8 |       |Sept. 4| 79 |
  |            |  June  17 |       |        |       |       |    |
  +------------+-----------+-------+--------+-------+-------+----+


Notes on Passages to Australia in 1881.

Captain Young once more showed what the old _City of Agra_ could do
when she got the chance. Between the N.E. and S.E. trades she lost her
fore topgallant mast in a squall, otherwise the passage was without
incident. Running the easting down she maintained a splendid average,
as her best run was only 270. Captain Young evidently did not believe
in high latitudes as he kept her in 39° and 40° S.

[Illustration: “ILLAWARRA.”]

[Illustration: “ILLAWARRA.”]

_Theophane_ made a good try to beat the _City of Agra’s_ time; she made
no less than three attempts to enter the Heads on the ebb tide, but
each time the wind dropped in the rip and she was drifted back and at
last was compelled to wait until the next day and come in on the flood.

_Ben Voirlich_ again made some big runs, her best day’s work being 349
miles and her best week 2100 miles.

_Loch Maree_ had to be careful not to ship heavy water, as she had
four valuable Clydesdale stallions on her main deck. _Thyatira_ was
in company with the little _Berean_ for three days to the south’ard,
parting from her eventually in 40° S., 131° E. _Berean_ arrived in
Launceston on 9th August, 87 days out from Prawle Point.


The Big “Illawarra.”

In 1881, Devitt & Moore launched out with a real big ship, the
_Illawarra_, and put her into the Sydney trade. She was not so fine
lined as the earlier iron clippers, for the competition of steam and
reduced freights were making good carrying capacity a necessity for a
money-making ship. Nevertheless _Illawarra_ had a very fair turn of
speed, and her average of passages both outward and homeward was under
90 days.

She will be chiefly remembered as a cadet ship under the Brassey
scheme; she succeeded the _Hesperus_, and under Captain Maitland
carried premium cadets from 1899 to 1907. In that year Devitt & Moore
made a contract to take 100 _Warspite_ boys round the world, and as
they did not consider the _Illawarra_ large enough, they sold her to
the Norwegians and bought the _Port Jackson_.

The Norwegians abandoned the old _Illawarra_ in the North Atlantic
during March, 1912, when she was on a passage from Leith to Valparaiso,
her crew being taken off by the British steamer _Bengore Head_.


“Orontes.”

The _Orontes_, Thompson’s new ship, was also more of a deadweight
carrier than a clipper. After a plodding life with no very startling
adventures, she was run into and sunk on 23rd October, 1903, by the ss.
_Oceana_, when almost in sight of Ostend, whither she was bound from a
nitrate port.


The “Loch Torridon.”

When the competition of steam began to cut badly into the Colonial
trade, all the Loch three-masters except the _Loch Vennachar_ and _Loch
Garry_, the two finest ships in the fleet, had their yards removed
from the mizen mast and were converted into barques, yet they still
continued to make fine passages.

Until the eighties 1500 tons was considered a good size for a sailing
ship, but the time arrived when it became necessary to have ships which
possessed both large carrying capacity and speed, and every designer
strove to produce a successful compromise between the two. It was soon
found that full-rigged ships of 2000 tons and over were not economical
ships to work, and thus it was that the four-mast barque came into
being. At first many owners went in for four-mast ships, but it was
soon proved that besides being more economical the four-mast barque was
just as speedy.

Following the trend of the times Messrs. Aitken & Lilburn commissioned
Barclay, Curle & Co. in 1881 to build them two four-mast barques of
2000 tons burden. These were the sister ships _Loch Moidart_ and _Loch
Torridon_; _Loch Moidart_ was launched in September and _Loch Torridon_
in November.

The _Loch Moidart_ was only afloat nine years and was a general trader.
On the 26th January, 1890, at 4 in the morning, when bound to Hamburg
with nitrate from Pisagua, her look-out suddenly reported a bright
light on the port bow. Five minutes later she struck on a sand bank,
close to the village of Callantsoog in Northern Holland. A violent gale
from the westward was blowing at the time, and only two men, one of
whom was the cook, succeeded in gaining the shore alive.

Her sister ship, _Loch Torridon_, was one of the best known four-mast
barques in the British Mercantile Marine, and one of the fastest.

“_Loch Torridon_ is perhaps one of the most graceful and elegant models
ever launched from the Glasgow yards,” wrote Sir G. M. White, the Naval
Architect to the Admiralty, in 1892.

In 1904 John Arthur Barry, the Australian writer, wrote of her:—“She
is exceptionally lofty as to her masts, exceptionally square as to
her yards. She carries nothing above a royal, but her royal yards are
as long as the topgallant yards of most vessels. Her lower yards are
enormous. The vessel is uncommonly well-manned with 20 hands in the
foc’s’le, with the usual complement of petty officers, together with
three mates and four apprentices aft. Looking forward from the break
of the poop, one is struck by the immense amount of clear room on her
decks, giving a visitor a sense of spaciousness and freedom in marked
contrast to the often lumbered up decks of the average sailer.”

  SPAR PLAN OF LOCH TORRIDON.
  +-----------------------------------+-------------------+
  |    Bowsprit                       |  25 feet.         |
  |    Jibboom (outside bowsprit)     |  31 feet.         |
  |    Bowsprit and jibboom (over all)|  56 feet.         |
  +---------------------+----------+--+-------+-----------+
  |      Spars          | Foremast | Mainmast | Mizen mast|
  |                     |   feet   |  feet    |    feet   |
  +---------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  | Mast—deck to truck  |  148     |  152     |   152     |
  | Lower mast          |   68     |   71     |    71     |
  | Doubling            |   18     |   18     |    18     |
  | Topmast             |   57     |   57     |    57     |
  | Doubling            |    7     |    7½    |     7½    |
  | Topgallant mast     |   27     |   30     |    28     |
  | Royal mast          |   21½    |   22½    |    22     |
  | Lower yard          |   88     |   88     |    88     |
  | Lower topsail yard  |   78     |   78     |    78     |
  | Upper topsail yard  |   74     |   74     |    74     |
  | Topgallant yard     |   56     |   56     |    56     |
  | Royal yard          |   42½    |   42½    |    42½    |
  +---------------------+----------+----+-----+-----------+
  |  Spars of jiggermast                | Length in feet  |
  +-------------------------------------+-----------------+
  | Mast—deck to truck                  |      128        |
  | Lower mast                          |       70        |
  | Doubling                            |       12        |
  | Topmast                             |       71        |
  | Spanker gaff                        |       38        |
  | Spanker boom                        |       46        |
  | Jaws of gaff to head of topsail     |       72        |
  +-------------------------------------+-----------------+

Her royals were 18 feet deep, measured at the bunt; and the depth of
her courses was 38 feet measured at the bunt. She also had a spencer
gaff on her mizen, measuring 24½ feet. Thus it will be seen that,
though she did not carry stunsails, she had plenty of canvas.

_Loch Torridon_ had a poop 36 feet long, a half-deck for apprentices 16
feet long, a midship house 25 feet long, and her topgallant foc’s’le
measured 49 feet in length.

[Illustration: SAIL PLAN OF “LOCH MOIDART” AND “LOCH TORRIDON.”]

Captain Pattman, who commanded her for over 26 years, gave the
following testimony to her qualities, when interviewed by the _Shipping
Gazette_:—“Being perfectly sparred, the ship is easy to steer, and even
in the worst weather the smallest boy on board can keep her on her
course.”

Anyone who has felt how hard-mouthed the average four-mast barque can
be will appreciate this quality and envy the lucky quartermasters of
such a ship. On _Loch Torridon_ there was certainly no excuse for bad
steering, and the most strictly adhered to rule on board was that any
man or boy found more than half a point off his course was at once sent
away from the wheel in disgrace. There were two other factors in _Loch
Torridon’s_ success, which she owed to her enterprising commander.
Captain Pattman believed in British crews, and took the trouble to
train his apprentices.

Regarding the first, he once remarked:—“Give me a Britisher everytime,
drunken and bad as he is. The best crew I ever had during the past 15
years I shipped in London last summer (1907). They were all Britishers.
The view I hold on this question is that the British sailing ship
sailor cannot be equalled, let alone beaten. But the difficulty I
have experienced is in regard to steamship A.B.’s. I shipped one of
these fellows some time ago, and it turned out that he knew nothing of
sailing ship ways. He could not steer, and he knew a good deal less
than one of our second voyage apprentices. As compared with such a man,
I say, ‘Give me a foreigner who has been at sea on sailing ships for
two or three years and who knows the way things are done on a sailing
ship.’ I find, however, that the foreigner who has been a few years
in British ships becomes more insolent, more disobedient and more
difficult to manage than the British sail-trained seaman.”

With regard to the training of apprentices, many a good officer owes
his present position to the late Captain Pattman. The _Loch Torridon_
apprentices went to the wheel on their first voyage. At first they
took the lee wheel, but as soon as they showed their ability they were
allowed to stand their regular trick. In other matters Captain Pattman
was a strong advocate of the system carried out on board the German
training ships, notably the North German Lloyd.

Captain Pattman took command of _Loch Torridon_ on her second voyage.
Her maiden voyage was a very tragic one. She went out to Hobson’s Bay
from Glasgow under Captain Pinder, arriving on 27th April, 1882, 105
days out. This gave no indication of her sailing capabilities, so she
was not taken up to load wool but was sent across to Calcutta to load
jute. She left Calcutta on 22nd August. On 9th October, when off the
Cape, she ran into a heavy gale from W.N.W. Captain Pinder hove her
to on the starboard tack under close-reefed main topsail. After a bit
Captain Pinder wore her round on to the port tack, but with the squalls
increasing she lay down to it, dipping her starboard rail. Thereupon
Captain Pinder decided to wear her back on to the starboard tack. The
mate besought him not to do this without setting the foresail, but
unfortunately, having been lucky once, the captain insisted, with the
result that when she got off before the wind she had not enough way
on her and a tremendous sea came roaring over the stern and carried
overboard the master, second mate, man at the wheel, sailmaker and a
boy, all being drowned. The mate also was swept away but was saved by
a hitch of the main brace getting round his leg. On the following day
the weather moderated, and the mate brought the ship home to Plymouth,
from whence she was towed up to London.

  CAPTAIN PATTMAN’S EARLY CAREER.
  +------+------------+-----------+----+----------+--------------------+
  |      |    Ship    |           |    |          |                    |
  | Date | served in  |    Rig    |Tons| Capacity |       Remarks      |
  +------+------------+-----------+----+----------+--------------------+
  | 1864 |_Woodland_  |Schooner   | 120|Boy       |Southwold to Shields|
  |      |  _Lass_    |           |    |          |  and back.         |
  |  „   |_Hearts of_ |Billy boy  | 105|Boy       |Southwold to        |
  |      |  _Oak_     |           |    |          |  Hartlepool.       |
  |  „   |_Advice_    |Barque     | 397|Apprentice|Hartlepool to       |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Cronstad—Cronstad |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  to London.        |
  | 1866 |_Hearts of_ |Billy boy  | 105|Boy       |Southwold to        |
  |      |  _Oak_     |           |    |          |  Sunderland.       |
  |  „   |_Hubertus_  |Brig       | 190|O.S.      |Seaham to Boulogne, |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  London, Hamburg,  |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Dieppe and London.|
  | 1867 |_Kingdom of_|Barque     | 427|O.S.      |Sunderland to Aden, |
  |      |  _Italy_   |           |    |          |  Tuticorin, and    |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  back to London.   |
  | 1868 |_Callisto_  |Barque     | 598|O.S.      |London to Adelaide, |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Newcastle, N.S.W. |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  and Shanghai.     |
  |  „   |_Maggie_    |Brigantine | 230|A.B.      |Shanghai, Yokohama, |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Hongkong, put back|
  |      |            |           |    |          |  to Yokohama       |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  disabled.         |
  | 1869 |_Lauderdale_|Ship       |1174|A.B.      |Shanghai to Foochow |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  and back with     |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Chinese           |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  passengers.       |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Shanghai to       |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  London, 153 days, |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  put into St.      |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Helena short of   |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  provisions, put   |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  into Spithead,    |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Captain ill and no|
  |      |            |           |    |          |  food.             |
  | 1870 |_Christiana_|Ship       |1066|A.B.      |London to Sydney and|
  |      |  _Thompson_|           |    |          |  back.             |
  |  „   |_Kingdom of_|Barque     | 672|2nd Mate  |London to Madras,   |
  |      |  _Belgium_ |           |    |          |  wrecked in cyclone|
  |      |            |           |    |          |  1st May in Madras |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Roads.            |
  |  „   |_Kingdom of_|Barque     | 497|2nd Mate  |Madras to London.   |
  |      |  _Fife_    |           |    |          |                    |
  | 1871 |_Ocean_     |Barque     | 597|2nd Mate  |London to Adelaide, |
  |      |  _Beauty_  |           |    |          |  Newcastle, N.S.W.,|
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Hongkong, Saigon  |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  and Sourabaya.    |
  | 1872 |_County of_ |Ship       | 999|1st Mate  |Sourabaya, Rotterdam|
  |      |  _Forfar_  |           |    |          |  and Glasgow.      |
  |  „   |     „      |  „        |  „ |  „       |Glasgow to Batavia, |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Sourabaya and     |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Rotterdam.        |
  |1873-4|     „      |  „        |  „ |  „       |Glasgow to Samarang,|
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Sourabaya and     |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Niewe Dieppe.     |
  |1874-5|     „      |  „        |  „ |  „       |Glasgow to Samarang,|
  |      |            |           |    |          |Sourabaya, Bombay,  |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Akyab and Antwerp.|
  |1875-6|     „      |  „        |  „ |  „       |Glasgow to          |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Sourabaya, Bombay |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  and London.       |
  | 1878 |_County of_ |4-mast ship|1673|  „       |Glasgow to Rio      |
  |      |  _Cromarty_|           |    |          |  Janeiro, wrecked  |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  in ballast S. Rio |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Grande del Sul.   |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Captain and second|
  |      |            |           |    |          |  mate died of      |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  smallpox.         |
  | 1879 |_County of_ |4-mast ship|1865|  „       |Glasgow to Calcutta |
  |      |  _Selkirk_ |           |    |          |  and London.       |
  |  „   |_County of_ |Ship       | 789|Master    |Cardiff to Batavia, |
  |      |  _Bute_    |           |    |          |  80 days Akyab to  |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Antwerp.          |
  | 1880 |_County of_ |4-mast ship|1865|  „       |Cardiff, Bombay,    |
  |      |  _Selkirk_ |           |    |          |  Rangoon and       |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Liverpool.        |
  | 1881 |     „      |  „        |  „ |  „       |Liverpool to        |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  Colombo, Bombay   |
  |      |            |           |    |          |  to London.        |
  +------+------------+-----------+----+----------+--------------------+

Captain Pattman took charge of _Loch Torridon_ in December, 1882,
giving up the command of the four-mast ship _County of Selkirk_ in
order to take the Loch liner. As a sailing ship commander of the first
rank, it may perhaps be of interest to give a short outline of Captain
Pattman’s previous career.

From this record it will be seen that Captain Pattman had won his way
to command by the time-honoured means of the hawse-hole.

In the barque _Advice_ he had an experience which would have sickened
most boys of the sea, and he bore the scars to his dying day. The
officers of the ship were actually prosecuted by his father for their
brutality, the result being that Pattman’s indentures were cancelled,
the captain had his certificate cancelled and was sentenced to 18
months’ hard labour, whilst the mate was given three years’ hard
labour. Both were hard drinkers and uneducated men.

The brig _Hubertus_, which Pattman joined as an ordinary seaman,
was a real old-fashioned Geordie collier brig. Her skipper could
neither read nor write, and Pattman acted as his clerk and did all
his correspondence. But the old man knew his way about the North Sea
by smell: he only had to sniff the arming of the lead and was never
wrong in naming the ship’s position. These old collier skippers always
wore sleeved vests and stove-pipe hats at sea, and in the summer the
Thames was often a wonderful sight when these colliers sailed up to
London before a fair wind. There were often a hundred and more, brigs,
schooners, and barques, all crowding up the river so closely, that
these old Geordie skippers, all smoking long church-wardens, would
be leaning over their respective taffrails exchanging greetings and
gossip. Truly 60 years have changed the London River. Yet many a man
living to-day can remember the year 1866, when Pattman sailed up to
London in his Geordie brig. It was the year in which the three famous
tea clippers _Ariel_, _Taeping_, and _Serica_ arrived in the river on
the same tide. Seafaring then was far more like that of the days of
Drake and the Elizabethans than it is like the seafaring of the present
day.

[Illustration: CAPTAIN PATTMAN.]

[Illustration: “LOCH TORRIDON.”

With Perforated Sails.]

_Lauderdale_ was a well-known ship in the China trade, and the
_Christiana Thompson_ was, of course, the Aberdeen White Star liner.

On her first three voyages under Captain Pattman, _Loch Torridon_ took
first, second, and third class passengers out to Melbourne from Glasgow.

She left Glasgow on 2nd March, 1883, with 7 saloon, 33 steerage
passengers and 12 prize stallions for Port Phillip. Passed Rothesay Bay
on the 5th and the Tuskar on the 8th. Running down the easting she made
1911 miles in one week, and was only 22 days between the Cape meridian
and Hobson’s Bay, passing through the Heads 74 days out from the Tuskar.

At Melbourne she took on board 320 horses, 2 cows, 3 dogs, 12 sheep and
27 Chinese grooms for Calcutta. The trade in walers between Australia
and Calcutta was a very lucrative one in those days. On the _Loch
Torridon_ a new system was adopted for taking the horses on board.
They were walked from the railway trucks up gangways on to the main
deck, then down other specially laid gangways through the hatchways
and so into their stalls. This method proved an unqualified success
and saved four days’ time on the old method of slinging them aboard.
The hatch gangways were left in position, and while at sea the horses
were exercised on deck in batches, every horse getting 24 hours a week
on deck. This would have been impossible on a ship with an incumbered
deck, but here the fine clean sweep of _Loch Torridon’s_ main deck came
in useful as a sort of training ground.

Sailing from Melbourne on 20th June, 1883, the _Loch Torridon_ was
unfortunate in encountering very bad weather between Cape Otway and the
Leeuwin, in which she lost 27 horses and 2 Chinese grooms. She arrived
in Calcutta on 1st August, 42 days out, and cleared £1250 on the trip
after paying all expenses such as fittings, grooms and horse food. From
Calcutta she took 103 days to London.

On the 26th May, 1884, _Loch Torridon_ again left Glasgow for Melbourne
with 8 saloon, 8 second class and 34 steerage passengers, and the usual
Clyde cargo of pig iron, pipes, bar iron, heavy hardware, bricks,
boards, ale and whisky. She put into Rothesay Bay for shelter from the
weather on 30th May, and passed the Tuskar on 2nd June. Crossed the
line on 1st July in 27° W. The S.E. trades were southerly and she had
to beat along the Brazilian coast to 17° S. Passed the Cape meridian
on 30th July in 44° S. On 10th and 11th August she logged 642 miles,
was 23 days from the Cape meridian to Port Phillip, and arrived in
Melbourne 23rd August, 82 days from the Tuskar. She then took coal from
Newcastle, N.S.W., to Frisco, making the run across the Pacific in 58
days: and loaded a grain cargo home.

In 1885 she ran out to Melbourne from Glasgow with 58 passengers in 89
days, crossed to Frisco with Newcastle coal in 58 days, and took 49,317
bags of wheat from Frisco to Hull.

In 1886 she went out to Bombay from Cardiff with 2928 tons of coal,
arriving Bombay on 14th January, 1887, 97 days out, having raced and
beaten the _County of Edinburgh_.

After lying three months in Bombay, she got a freight home to Dunkirk.

In 1887 _Loch Torridon_ went to Calcutta from Liverpool and then took a
Calcutta cargo to New York, arriving there on 10th June, 1888, 102 days
out. From New York she took case oil back to Calcutta, but at 8.15 a.m.
on 1st November she stranded on Bangaduni Sand and Captain Pattman had
to jettison cargo to get her off. It was proved at the inquiry that an
abnormal nor’westerly current caused by cyclonic disturbances at the
south end of the Bay of Bengal had set the _Loch Torridon_ in on the
land. The weather had been thick for some days and Captain Pattman had
no blame attached to him. Temporary repairs were made in Calcutta, and
on her arrival home permanent repairs were made at Jarrow-on-Tyne.

In 1889 _Loch Torridon_ again went to Calcutta, taking a brutal cargo
of railway iron from Middlesboro, and came home to London.

In 1890 she went out to Calcutta from Liverpool in 87 days port to
port, and took jute back to Dundee.

In 1891 _Loch Torridon_ at last returned to the Australian trade,
arriving in Sydney from Glasgow 94 days out. Then after lying in
Sydney for five months, she loaded her first wool cargo. Amongst the
magnificent fleet of 77 sailing ships, which were screwing wool into
their holds for the London market, _Loch Torridon_ was considered an
outsider, a dark horse with her name all to make; and she thus had to
wait for the last sales, and did not get away until the 27th March,
1892. Nevertheless the _Loch Torridon_ made the best passage of the
season and had the honour of beating all the cracks. The following is
Captain Pattman’s account of his passage:—

  My passage home was the smartest of the wool season, 1891-2, either
  from Melbourne or Sydney, being 81 days to the Lizard and 83 to dock.
  After I left Sydney, I got down as far as Jervis Bay and there met
  an S.S.E. gale, which was in force for 36 hours. I went away for the
  north of New Zealand, which I passed on the 14th day out. I fell in
  with the _Liverpool_ there. I was in 150° W. on 29th April, before
  I got a wind without any easting in it. Nothing but N.E.E. and S.E.
  winds prevailed up to that time. On 14th May I rounded the Horn,
  40 days out, I was nearly grey-headed at that time. On 21st May I
  fell in with the _Strathdon_. We were both dodging icebergs, the
  _Strathdon_ had been in amongst them since 18th May, but I only had
  12 hours of it, which was quite enough. I left her astern in a short
  time. On 3rd June I was in 0° 27′ S. lat., 60 days from Sydney, 20
  from the Horn. On 24th June I signalled at the Lizards, 21 days from
  the equator. I think it is a record passage from the Horn. I can
  hardly believe my good fortune, for I threw up the sponge when I got
  to the Horn, 40 days out, and made sure that the passage would run
  into three figures. _Loch Torridon_ passed everything we saw, in fact
  she never sailed better with me.

  I saw in the evening papers that the _Hesperus_ was reported in 14°
  N. on 1st June. I was in 0° 27′ S. on 3rd June. The _Hesperus_ docked
  yesterday. She was the only one I thought had a chance with me, and I
  am of opinion that if I had gone south of New Zealand I should have
  done much better. It would have been hard lines if I could not have
  rounded the Snares in 14 days and been in a better position for winds
  as well, but I am content. I have shown that an outsider, as they
  looked upon the _Loch Torridon_, can show the road to their regular
  traders.

=Ice to the South’ard.=

It will be noticed from Captain Pattman’s letter on his run home in
1892 that _Strathdon_ and _Loch Torridon_ encountered ice to the
south’ard. And they were not the only ships to do so.

In the years 1892 and 1893 a tremendous drift of field ice and huge
bergs, many of them over 1000 feet in height, blocked the way of ships
in the Southern Ocean, as the following reports will show:—

  1892.
  April _Cromdale_    encountered ice 1000 feet high in 46° S. 36° W.
  May   _Strathdon_   encountered ice 1000 feet high in 45  S. 25  W.
  June  _County of_
          _Edinbro_   encountered ice  900 feet high in 45  S. 37  W.
  Sept. _Loch Eck_    encountered ice 1000 feet high in 44  S.  2  W.
  Oct.  _Curzon_      encountered ice 1000 feet high in 44  S. 31  W.
  Oct.  _Liverpool_   encountered ice  800 feet high in 55  S. 94  W.

  1893.
  Jan.  _Loch_
          _Torridon_  encountered ice 1500 feet high in 51° S. 46° W.
  Feb.  _Cutty Sark_  encountered ice 1000 feet high in 50  S. 43  W.
  Mar.  _Turakina_    encountered ice 1200 feet high in 51  S. 47  W.
  April _Brier Holme_ encountered ice 1000 feet high in 49  S. 51  W.
  May   _Charles_
          _Racine_    encountered ice 1000 feet high in 50  S. 52  W.

The _Cromdale_ had a very exciting experience, and Captain E. H. Andrew
wrote the following account to the secretary of the London Shipmasters’
Society:—

  We left Sydney on 1st March, and having run our easting down on the
  parallel of 49° to 50° S., rounded the Horn on 30th March without
  having seen ice, the average temperature of the water being 43°
  during the whole run across.

  At midnight on 1st April in 56° S., 58° 32′ W., the temperature fell
  to 37½°, this being the lowest for the voyage, but no ice was seen
  though there was a suspicious glare to the southward.

  At 4 a.m. on 6th April in 46° S., 36° W., a large berg was reported
  right ahead, just giving us time to clear it. At 4.30 with the first
  signs of daybreak, several could be distinctly seen to windward,
  the wind being N.W. and the ship steering N.E. about 9 knots. At
  daylight, 5.20 a.m., the whole horizon to windward was a complete
  mass of bergs of enormous size, with an unbroken wall at the back;
  there were also many to leeward.

  I now called all hands, and after reducing speed to 7 knots sent the
  hands to their stations and stood on. At 7 a.m. there was a wall
  extending from a point on the lee bow to about 4 points on the lee
  quarter, and at 7.30 both walls joined ahead. I sent the chief mate
  aloft with a pair of glasses to find a passage out, but he reported
  from the topgallant yard that the ice was unbroken ahead. Finding
  myself embayed and closely beset with innumerable bergs of all
  shapes, I decided to tack and try and get out the way I had come into
  the bay.

  The cliffs were now truly grand, rising up 300 feet on either side of
  us, and as square and true at the edge as if just out of a joiner’s
  shop, with the sea breaking right over the southern cliff and
  whirling away in a cloud of spray.

  Tacked ship at 7.30 finding the utmost difficulty in keeping clear of
  the huge pieces strewn so thickly in the water and having on several
  occasions to scrape her along one to keep clear of the next.

  We stood on in this way until 11 a.m., when, to my horror, the wind
  started to veer with every squall till I drew quite close to the
  southern barrier, having the extreme point a little on my lee bow.
  I felt sure we must go ashore without a chance of saving ourselves.
  Just about 11.30 the wind shifted to S.W. with a strong squall, so we
  squared away to the N.W. and came past the same bergs as we had seen
  at daybreak, the largest being about 1000 feet high, anvil shaped. At
  2 p.m. we got on the N.W. side of the northern arm of the horseshoe
  shaped mass. It then reached from 4 points on my lee bow to as far as
  could be seen astern in one unbroken line.

  A fact worthy of note was that at least 50 of the bergs in the
  bay were perfectly black, which was to be accounted for by the
  temperature of the water, being 51°, which had turned many over.
  I also think that had there been even the smallest outlet at the
  eastern side of this mass, the water between the barriers would not
  have been so thickly strewn with bergs, as the prevailing westerly
  gales would have driven them through and separated them. I have
  frequently seen ice down south, but never anything like even the
  smaller bergs in this group.

  I also had precisely the same experience with regard to the
  temperature of water on our homeward passage in the _Derwent_ three
  years ago, as we dipped up a bucket of water within half a mile of a
  huge berg and found no change in the temperature.

_Cromdale_, _Strathdon_, _County of Edinburgh_ and _Curzon_, all
sighted this stupendous ice barrier, and _Loch Torridon_ when she spoke
the _Strathdon_ was on the extreme eastern end in about 25° W., whilst
the _Cromdale_ cleared it at the extreme western end, giving the length
of the barrier from east to west about 12 degrees of longitude.

In the following year _Loch Torridon_, _Cutty Sark_, _Turakina_, _Brier
Holme_ and _Charles Racine_ fell in with an equally huge field of ice,
about 6 degrees of latitude further south and stretching from 52° W.
to 43° W. That the two fields were the same lot of ice it is very
difficult to say for certain, but it is more likely that they were
quite separate from each other.

Here is _Loch Torridon’s_ account of the 1893 ice as given to the
_Shipping Gazette_:—

  _Loch Torridon_ reports that on 17th January, 1893, in lat. 52° 50′
  S., long. 46° W., she sighted two large icebergs to the eastward. On
  the 19th in 50° 50′ S., 46° W., she passed between numerous immense
  bergs, ranging in size from ¼ to 3 miles in length, and from 500
  to 1000 feet high. At 3.30 p.m. on same date she saw an immense
  continent of ice ahead with apparently no open water. Passing to the
  eastward she had the south end abeam at 4 p.m. and the north end at
  9.30 a.m. As the ship had been sailing 9 knots an hour during this
  time, steering a N. 11° E. course, this would give the length, north
  and south, of this mass to be about 50 miles.

  How far it extended to the westward was not known, but from aloft, as
  as far as the eye could see, nothing but ice was visible. Numerous
  large bergs were to the eastward of the barrier, through which _Loch
  Torridon_ threaded her way, besides vast quantities of detached
  pieces of ice and small bergs.

  Numerous bays and indentations were noticed in the continent of ice,
  with bergs and detached ice in the bays cracking against each other
  and turning over. _Loch Torridon_ had sleet and fine snow all night
  and intense cold. Numberless bergs were passed until 8 a.m. on the
  20th, when an iceberg was abeam to the eastward at least 3 miles long
  and 1500 feet high.

The following was the famous _Cutty Sark’s_ experience.
I have taken it from Captain Woodget’s private
journal:—

  Wednesday, 8th February.—Lat. 50° 08′ S., long. 46° 41′ W., course
  N. 50° E., distance 150 miles. Gentle S.W. breeze and fine. 6.00
  a.m., foggy; 6.30, fog lifted and we found ourselves surrounded by
  icebergs; 8 a.m., foggy again; ice ahead, in fact there was ice all
  round. As soon as we cleared one berg another would be reported. You
  could hear the sea roaring on them and through them, the ice cracking
  sometimes like thunder, at other times like cannon, and often like a
  sharp rifle report, and yet could not see them.

  At 1 p.m. the top of an iceberg was seen which one could hardly
  believe was ice, it looked like a streak of dark cloud. Then we could
  see the ice a few feet down, but we could not see the bottom. It was
  up at an angle of 45 degrees, we were only about 1000 feet off, so it
  would be 1000 feet high, it had a circular top but we could not see
  the ends.

  A few minutes later another was under the bows, we only cleared it by
  a few feet. It was about 100 feet high and flat-topped. Just as we
  were passing the corner there was a sharp report that made you jump,
  as if it was breaking in two.

  Found another on the other side quite close, and a few minutes later
  saw the long ridge of ice almost ahead. Kept off, and then another
  came in sight on the other bow. We were too near it to keep away, but
  I felt sure that it was no part of the big one—as we were passing
  this the point of the big one came in sight, the fog cleared and we
  passed in between them, there being not more than 400 feet between
  them. When we had cleared the big one, I saw its north end and took
  bearings. After sailing 8 miles I took other bearings and found that
  the east side was 19 miles long; and we could not see the end of
  the side we sailed along. We sailed about 6 miles alongside of it,
  water now quite smooth. Before noon the water was quite lumpy from
  all ways. After we had cleared the passage by about 3 or 4 miles,
  it cleared up astern and what a sight it was! Nothing but icebergs
  through the passage and on the south side of the passage (for the
  south berg was only about ½ mile long north and south, same height as
  the big berg. I expect it had not long broken off.) There was nothing
  but a sea of ice astern, and another large flat-topped iceberg, which
  as far as you could see extended like land, it must have been 20
  miles long or more.

  After we were through, there was nothing but small ice from small
  pieces to bergs 100 feet long. Also there was one about a mile long
  covered with what looked like pumice stone or lumps of tallow.


“Loch Torridon’s” Voyages, 1892-1908.

Notwithstanding her fine wool passage in 1892, _Loch Torridon_ could
not find a cargo in London and was obliged to leave the Thames in
ballast. With only 350 tons of flints and a quantity of “London
rubbish” as stiffening, she sailed in magnificent style.

  She left Gravesend on 30th July, 1892—was off Start Point, 31st
  July—crossed the equator, 19th August, 20 days out—lost S.E. trades
  in 22° S., 29th August—crossed the Cape meridian, 14th September, 46
  days out—made Moonlight Island, 7th October, 69 days out.

_Loch Torridon’s_ best week’s work was 2119 knots; she ran down her
easting in 43° S. and made the following consecutive runs in the 24
hours—303, 290, 288, 272, 285, 270, 327 and 341 miles.

Her passage worked out at 69 days pilot to pilot, 73 days port to port.
This would have been still better if she had not had to battle against
a “dead muzzler” for the last week of the passage. She cleared for
London on 30th November, 1892, and after her encounter with the ice
arrived in the Thames 96 days out.

Again she left London in ballast. This time she was sent up to
Frederickstadt, where she loaded 940 pieces of timber and 400 tons of
pig iron for Melbourne. Again she made a fine run out.

She sailed on 14th June, 1893, from Frederickstadt. Had strong head
winds in the North Sea:—

  Passed Dover, 20th June—passed Ushant 24th June—passed Cape
  Finisterre, 29th June—crossed the line, 23rd July—crossed Cape
  meridian in 42° S., 17th August.

In lat. 46° S., long. 86° E., _Loch Torridon_ was caught in an
unusually heavy gale with a tremendous cross sea, the barometer
touching 28.83°. However, she came through it without damage, Captain
Pattman using oil with good effect. _Loch Torridon_ passed through
Port Phillip Heads at 11.30 p.m. on 9th September, 87 days from
Frederickstadt and 77 days from Ushant. At the time this was a record
passage from Norway to Melbourne.

_Loch Torridon_ cleared for London on 20th November, 1893, with a cargo
consisting of 8498 bales of wool, 329 bales of sheepskins, 1250 old
rails, 2 casks arsenic, 657 packages of tallow, 11 packages of books,
2000 bags of wheat, 11 bales of fur skins, 12 bales of hair, 1942 bags
of peas, 118 hides, 351 pigs, horns, etc., 100 bales of scrolls. She
dropped her pilot on the 30th and reached London on 6th March, 96 days
out.

In 1894 she loaded coke and railway iron at Barry for Port Pirie and
made the run out in 72 days, her best week’s work being 1914 miles and
her best 24 hours 327 miles.

  She left Barry at 6 p.m. on 18th May—crossed the equator, 23 days
  out—crossed the Cape meridian on 30th June—crossed the meridian
  of Cape Leeuwin on 20th July—sighted Cape Borda 10 p.m., 27th
  July—passed Wedge Island at 1 a.m., 28th July, in a strong westerly
  gale and anchored at 1 p.m. on 30th July.

From Port Pirie she went up to Melbourne and loaded another cargo of
wool, wheat and hides; and leaving Melbourne on 20th December arrived
in the Thames on 21st March, 1895.

In 1895, owing to the falling off in the export trade to Victoria,
which sailing ships were, of course, the first to feel, _Loch Torridon_
was compelled to accept a charter for Cape Town. Leaving London 6th
July, she reached Table Bay on 30th August, 55 days out. Here she was
visited and greatly admired by Lord Brassey. From Africa she went to
Australia, but owing to the severe drought, like many another clipper
that year, she failed to get a wool cargo and so was compelled to go
across to the coast of South America for a homeward freight. It was
on this occasion that she had the famous race to Valparaiso with the
well-known four-mast ship _Wendur_. The vessels left Newcastle, N.S.W.,
in company on 1st January, 1896, and though neither sighted the other
during the passage, they made a magnificent race of it. _Wendur_ picked
up her pilot off Cape Coronilla at 6 p.m. on 29th January, and reached
the anchorage at 8 p.m., after a record passage of 29 days.

_Loch Torridon_ was held up by fog and calm at the entrance to the Bay
and did not arrive until six hours later. The previous best passage was
32 days, which had been made two years before. Many bets had been
made on this race, as both ships were noted in the Colonies for their
sailing qualities. _Wendur_, indeed, was one of the finest ships in the
British Mercantile Marine, and under Captain Frank Whiston had made
many a splendid passage and, curiously enough, had once before shown
_Loch Torridon_ the road by running from Frederickstadt to Melbourne
in 81 days, before which _Loch Torridon’s_ run had been considered the
record.

[Illustration: “LOCH TORRIDON.”

_Photo lent by late Captain Pattman._]

In the run to Valparaiso _Wendur’s_ best day’s work was 330 miles with
a moderate N.W. wind and heavy southerly swell in 54° S., 128° W. The
next day she ran 310 miles, and three days later 320 miles, the wind
strong at N.W. with heavy sea; her log remarks that she lost her boats,
pigstye, goats, etc., on this day, so Captain Whiston was driving her.

_Loch Torridon_ loaded at Tocopilla for Hamburg, and was 93 days coming
home, a poor passage, her bottom was probably foul. On 6th July her
decks were badly swept off the Horn and she had a big repair bill when
she arrived in Glasgow from Hamburg.

In 1896-7 she went out to Adelaide from Glasgow in 71 days and then
crossed from Newcastle, N.S.W., to Frisco in 46 days. She left
Newcastle on 15th April in company with the four-mast ship _Thistle_
and the Norwegian ship _Hiawatha_. Both these vessels were dropped
hull down to leeward on the first day out. Going through the Islands
continuous bad weather was met with; Captain Pattman never had his
yards off the backstays until 35° N. and had difficulty in weathering
Fiji; nevertheless on 31st May _Loch Torridon_ came flying through the
Golden Gate in front of a N.Wly. gale, and anchored in the Bay at 10
p.m.

_Hiawatha_ took 62 days, _Thistle_ 79 days, and two other ships, the
American barque _Topgallant_ 100 days and the _Cressington_ 106 days.
Besides beating these, _Loch Torridon_ passed no less than ten vessels
which had sailed from Newcastle before her. Loading grain at Port
Costa, _Loch Torridon_ sailed on 23rd July, and arrived at Falmouth on
13th November, 1897, 113 days out. Captain Pattman stated that owing to
the foulness of her bottom his ship was not sailing her best and he was
disappointed with his passage.

Other passages home from Frisco that year were:—

  _Musselcrag_         arrived Queenstown  110 days out.
  _Lord Templeton_     arrived Queenstown  111 days out.
  _Sierra Cadena_      arrived Queenstown  114 days out.
  _Andelana_           arrived Queenstown  114 days out.
  _Dominion_           arrived Queenstown  117 days out.
  _Gifford_            arrived Liverpool   118 days out.
  _Crown of Denmark_   arrived Queenstown  128 days out.
  _Caradoc_            arrived Queenstown  134 days out.

All these vessels sailed about July and were considered crack ships.

In 1898 _Loch Torridon_ went out to Adelaide in 79 days. Whilst running
her easting down she was swept by a heavy sea, one man being lost
overboard, the half-deck burst in like a pack of cards, the donkeyhouse
stove, and three of the boats flattened out and left like skeletons in
the chocks, whilst their davits were snapped off close to the deck. She
came home from Melbourne to London in 90 days.

In 1898-9 she made the splendid run of 72 days 15 hours to Sydney.

  She left London 5 a.m., 10th November, 1898—on 11th November she ran
  300 miles in the 24 hours—on 12th November she ran 315 miles in the
  24 hours—crossed the line in 28° W., 22 days out—ran her easting down
  in 45° S., best 24 hours 320 miles and was 23 days from the Cape
  Meridian to Tasmania.

_Loch Torridon_ had between 4000 and 5000 tons of heavy general
cargo in her hold and was very deep. Between 1875-1887 the clippers
loaded nothing like such a heavy general cargo outwards, and yet this
performance of _Loch Torridon’s_ is equal to any of that day.

She arrived in Port Jackson on 31st January, 1899. This year for a
change she came home from Lyttelton, N.Z., in 86 days.

The next three years she did nothing remarkable.

  1899  London to Adelaide        85 days.
        Melbourne to London      105  „
  1900  London to Adelaide        88  „
        Melbourne to London       88  „
  1901  London to Adelaide        86  „
        Adelaide to London       112  „

In 1902 she went out to Adelaide in 79 days, then loaded coals at
Newcastle, N.S.W., for Frisco. Again she made a remarkable run across
the Pacific.

  She left Newcastle on 27th April—crossed the line on 17th May in 169°
  42′ W.—arrived at Frisco on 11th June, 45 days out.

At San Francisco Captain Pattman loaded wheat for Liverpool. But when
he was ready to sail he found himself 10 men short, so applied to the
usual sources. And here is a good instance of the methods of Frisco
boarding-house masters at that date. He was informed that each man
would cost him $30 blood money, $25 advance, $5 shipping fee, $1 boat
hire—total $61 per man. This was more than a resolute man like Captain
Pattman could put up with, especially with wheat freights to U.K. at
11s. 3d. Though the boarding-house masters were a law unto themselves
in San Francisco and boasted of their power, he determined to brave
them and after some trouble managed to get men at $31 inclusive per
man. His success broke the ring for a time, and they were soon offering
men at $21 a head, less $2.50 commission of the captains. No doubt
many a present day officer will remember the episode, which caused
quite a stir in windjammer circles at Frisco, and even produced a long
poem in one of the leading papers. This poem was entitled “The Lay of
the _Loch Torridon_,” and the patriotic Frisco newspaper man takes
care that the British captain is bested in his efforts. The _Loch
Torridon_ sailed on 8th November, in company with the four-mast barque
_Crocodile_. _Loch Torridon_ arrived Liverpool on 14th March, 1904, and
the _Crocodile_ on 31st March, over two weeks behind.

From 1904 to 1909, when Captain Pattman resigned his command, _Loch
Torridon_ was kept on the Australian run, her passages being:—

  1904  Glasgow to Sydney        77 days.
        Sydney to London         97  „
  1905  London to  Adelaide      85  „
        Melbourne to London     106  „
  1906  London to  Adelaide      83  „
        Melbourne to London     117  „
  1907  London to  Adelaide      83  „
        Melbourne to London      86  „
  1908  London to  Adelaide      94  „
        Melbourne to London      87  „

On her arrival home in 1908, Captain Pattman reluctantly decided to
give up his command and go into steam, his reason that vexed one,
the lack of real sailormen to man her. Besides which, owing to the
unwillingness of good men to remain in sail, he had to put up with an
aged “has been” as mate and an apprentice just out of his time for
second mate.

In 1912 _Loch Torridon_ was sold to the Russians. About the same time
Captain Pattman had his leg broken by a sea whilst on the bridge of his
new command. He was landed at Falmouth and died there in hospital.

[Illustration: “PORT JACKSON.”

_Photo by Captain Schutze, Sydney._]

[Illustration: “PORT JACKSON,” in the Thames.]

The old _Loch Torridon_ survived until 1915, when she foundered near
the entrance to the Channel in the last days of January, and it is
possible that a German submarine caused her end. Her Russian crew were
rescued by the British steamer _Orduna_, and the Liverpool Shipwreck
and Humane Society awarded medals and certificates of thanks to Captain
Taylor of the _Orduna_ and her chief and second officers.


“Port Jackson.”

_Port Jackson_ has always been considered one of the most beautiful
iron ships ever built. She was designed by Mr. Alexander Duthie, and
built by Hall under the supervision of the Duthie brothers; cost
£29,000 to build or at the rate of £13 a ton; was unusually strong
and in every way made as perfect as possible. She was one of the most
sightly four-mast barques ever launched. Captain Crombie was her first
commander, and under him she did some very fine performances, notably
a run of 39 days from Sydney to San Francisco, when she was only three
days behind the time of the mail steamer. Her best run in the 24 hours
was 345 miles. Unfortunately, when Captain Crombie left her, for some
years no one attempted to bring out _Port Jackson’s_ sailing qualities,
and for two years before she was bought by Devitt & Moore for their
cadet training scheme she lay idle in the Thames. After long years of
cadet carrying _Port Jackson_ fell a victim to the war, being torpedoed
by a German submarine in the Channel in 1916.

  PASSAGES TO SYDNEY UNDER 80 DAYS IN 1882.
  +-----------------+-------+-------+------+------------+--------+
  |     Ship        | From  | Left  |  To  |   Arrived  |Days Out|
  +-----------------+-------+-------+------+------------+--------+
  |_Thomas Stephens_|Channel|Nov.  9|Sydney|Jan. 22, ’83|   74   |
  |_Port Jackson_   |   „   |Oct. 28|  „   |Jan. 13, ’83|   77   |
  +-----------------+-------+-------+------+------------+--------+

  PASSAGES TO MELBOURNE UNDER 80 DAYS IN 1882.
  +--------------+----------+-------+--------+--------+--------+----+
  |              |          |       |Crossed | Passed |        |    |
  |     Ship     |Departure |Crossed| Cape   |  Cape  |Arrived |Days|
  |              |          |Equator|Meridian| Otway  |        |Out |
  +--------------+----------+-------+--------+--------+--------+----+
  |_Rodney_      |Plymouth  |Nov.  7|Nov.  29|Dec.  22|Dec.  23| 69 |
  |              |  Oct.  15|       |        |        |        |    |
  |_Ben Voirlich_|Lizard    |May  28|June  18|July  11|July  12| 70 |
  |              |  May    3|       |        |        |        |    |
  |_Salamis_     |Lizard    |Mar. 31|April 24|        |May   17| 71 |
  |              |  Mar.   7|       |        |        |        |    |
  |_Miltiades_   |Lizard    |May  15|June   6|        |July   1| 73 |
  |              |  April 19|       |        |        |        |    |
  |_Aristides_   |Start     |Aug. 13|Sept.  4|Sept. 25|Sept. 25| 73 |
  |              |  July  14|       |        |        |        |    |
  |_Simla_       |Penzance  |       |        |        |Nov.  16| 74 |
  |              |  Sept.  3|       |        |        |        |    |
  |_Marpesia_    |Tuskar    |Aug. 11|Aug.  30|        |Sept. 25| 78 |
  |              |  July   9|       |        |        |        |    |
  |_Thessalus_   |Channel   |       |        |        |July  28| 79 |
  |              |  May   10|       |        |        |        |    |
  +--------------+----------+-------+--------+--------+--------+----+


Notes on Passages to Australia in 1882.

_Port Jackson_ holds the record of being the first four-poster to go
out to Sydney in under 80 days. Her best run was 345 miles in the 24
hours. The _Rodney’s_ best run was 312 miles, made the day before she
sighted the Otway.

_Ben Voirlich_ averaged 300 miles a day from Gough Island to Kerguelen.

_Salamis_ crossed the Cape meridian the same day as the steamship
_Aberdeen_, and the steamer only managed to get inside the Heads on
14th May, a bare 70 hours ahead of the gallant little green clipper.

The _Simla_ was a fine Liverpool ship with a good reputation for speed.
She registered 1260 tons and was built by Royden in 1874. For a change
there were no Lochs out to the Colonies in under 80 days this year, and
Messrs. Aitken & Lilburn had sent their new four-masters to Calcutta.


Notes on Passages to Australia in 1883.

The _Maulesden_, which figured in these tables in 1877, was a 1500-ton
ship, built by Stephen, of Dundee, for David Bruce. She and her sister
ship, the _Duntrune_, were very well known clippers with some very
fine records to their credit. But this passage of _Maulesden’s_ to
Maryborough, Queensland, made a record which has never been approached.
It will be noticed that she crossed the line 17 days out, doubled the
Cape 39 days out, and passed Tasmania 61 days out, a truly phenomenal
passage. Running the easting down, she made 24-hour runs of 302, 303,
304, 311, 317, 322 and 335 miles, whilst her best weeks were 1698,
1798, 1908 and 1929 miles. From Maryborough she went across to Frisco,
and from there to U.K., calling at Queenstown; and the whole voyage,
including detention in port, was only 9 months 13 days. I have a
photograph of her, and she is a typical iron clipper very like the _Ben
Voirlich_.

  PASSAGES TO AUSTRALIA UNDER 80 DAYS IN 1883.
  +------------+---------+--------+--------+--------+-----------+-------+----+
  |            |         |        |Crossed | Passed |           |       |    |
  |   Ship     |Departure|Crossed | Cape   |Otway or|Destination| Date  |Days|
  |            |         |Equator |Meridian|S.W.Cape|           |Arrived|Out |
  +------------+---------+--------+--------+--------+-----------+-------+----+
  |_Maulesden_ |Greenock |Mar.  19|April 10|May    2|Maryboro.  |May  10| 69 |
  |            |  Mar.  2|        |        |        |           |       |    |
  |_Samuel_    |Plymouth |April 27|May   19|June  10|Sydney     |June 17| 72 |
  |  _Plimsoll_|  Apl.  6|        |        |        |           |       |    |
  |_Patriarch_ |Start    |June   6|June  27|July  24|  „        |July 28| 73 |
  |            |  May  16|        |        |        |           |       |    |
  |_Salamis_   |Dartm’th |Mar.  23|April 23|May    6|  „        |May   9| 74 |
  |            |  Feb. 24|        |        |        |           |       |    |
  |_Loch_      |Tuskar   |        |April 29|        |Melbourne  |May  21| 74 |
  |  _Torridon_|  Mar.  8|        |        |        |           |       |    |
  |_Dharwar_   |Plym’th  |Aug.   7|Sept.  1|Sept. 26|Sydney     |Sept.30| 77 |
  |            |  July 15|        |        |        |           |       |    |
  |_Cutty Sark_|Channel  |        |        |        |N’c’tle    |Oct. 10| 78 |
  |            |  July 24|        |        |        |   N.S.W.  |       |    |
  |_Pericles_  |Channel  |        |        |        |Sydney     |Dec. 14| 78 |
  |            | Sept. 27|        |        |        |           |       |    |
  |_Candida_   |Ushant   |July  10|Aug.   3|Aug.  27|  „        |Sept. 1| 78 |
  |            |  June 15|        |        |        |           |       |    |
  |_Miltiades_ |Start    |June  24|June  27|        |Melbourne  |July 25| 78 |
  |            |  May   8|        |        |        |           |       |    |
  |_Mermerus_  |Lizard   |May   22|June  22|July  16|  „        |July 17| 79 |
  |            | April 29|        |        |        |           |       |    |
  |_Aristides_ |Start    |June  30|July  26|Aug.  14|  „        |Aug. 15| 79 |
  |            |  May  28|        |        |        |           |       |    |
  +------------+---------+--------+--------+--------+-----------+-------+----+

I have put all the passages together this year; of the ships bound to
Sydney, only the _Candida_ rounded Tasmania, the skippers generally
preferring the shorter route through Bass Straits.

A notable return this year to the Australian trade is the wonderful
little _Cutty Sark_, commanded by Captain Moore, this was her first
passage to Newcastle, and I believe she was one of the first ships to
load wool at Newcastle. In future we shall see her somewhere near the
top of every table.

The _Samuel Plimsoll_ did well to the south’ard again, averaging 278
miles for 13 consecutive days, her best day’s work being 337 miles.

The little _Salamis_ made her second appearance in Port Jackson.
She arrived on the same day as her composite sister, _Thermopylae_.
_Thermopylae_, however, had a terrible passage, the worst of her
career, being actually 107 days from the Start. Held up by continual
gales, she did not cross the equator until her 45th day out, 8th March,
the day _Salamis_ passed the Cape Verde. She crossed the Cape meridian
on 7th April, six days before _Salamis_, and passed the Otway on 5th
May, only one day ahead of _Salamis_, so _Salamis_ had been closing
steadily on her the whole passage.

_Dharwar_ arrived with 414 emigrants, and had measles and fever on
board so had to go into quarantine.

The _Candida_ hailed from Liverpool, a 1200-ton iron clipper. She
brought out 35 passengers and a general cargo from London.

_Mermerus_ had now made 12 consecutive passages to Melbourne, averaging
78 days. Her best runs this passage were 311 and 314 miles.

_Ben Cruachan_ and _Ben Voirlich_ made passages of 85 and 87 days
respectively. _Ben Cruachan_ certainly must have been severely
handicapped by a foul bottom, as I find this was the third voyage since
she had been docked!


The “Derwent.”

The _Derwent_ was a very up-to-date ship, with numerous innovations.
She was built to the specification of Captain Andrew, her first
commander, and he overlooked her construction with an eagle eye.
_Derwent_ was one of the first ships to cross steel topgallant yards,
substitute rigging screws for deadeyes, to have a donkey with winch
barrels, etc.

[Illustration: “DERWENT,” off Gravesend.]

[Illustration: “MOUNT STEWART.”

_Photo by Captain Schutze, Sydney._]

She sailed on her first voyage on Xmas Eve, 1884, her crew consisting
of captain, 3 certificated officers, 8 midshipmen, 12 apprentices,
bosun, sailmaker, carpenter, donkeyman and 12 hands in the fo’cs’le.
The start was not very propitious. She sailed from Glasgow, dragged her
anchors off the Tail of the Bank, and then her crew refused duty. The
weather was so bad that she sought shelter at Queenstown, 11 days out
from Greenock. Here advantage was taken to prosecute her insubordinate
crew, who received sentences of from one to three months’ imprisonment.

The _Derwent_ was never considered a fast ship, but a good sea boat and
excellent cargo carrier; nevertheless she made some very good runs,
notably:—

  Sydney to Lizard        77 days.
  Sydney to Penzance      74  „

In 1904 Devitt & Moore sold her to the Norwegians, and she was still
afloat when the war broke out, being owned in Larvik.

  PASSAGES TO AUSTRALIA UNDER 80 DAYS IN 1884.
  +-----------+---------+-------+--------+------+-----------+-------+----+
  |           |         |Crossed| Crossed|      |           |       |    |
  |   Ship    |Departure|Equator|Meridian|Passed|Destination| Date  |Days|
  |           |         |       |  Cape  | Otway|           |Arrived|Out |
  +-----------+---------+-------+--------+------+-----------+-------+----+
  |_Miltiades_|Ushant   |June 28|July 18 |      |Melbourne  |Aug. 13| 71 |
  |           |  June  3|       |        |      |           |       |    |
  |_Sobraon_  |Plym’th  |       |        |      |    „      |Dec. 13| 75 |
  |           |  Sept 29|       |        |      |           |       |    |
  |_Loch Long_|Clyde    |       |        |      |    „      |Aug. 15| 75 |
  |           |  June  1|       |        |      |           |       |    |
  |_Thessalus_|Downs    |       |        |      |Sydney     |June 27| 77 |
  |           |  Apl. 11|       |        |      |           |       |    |
  |_Windsor_  |Dartm’th |       |        |      |    „      |June 12| 78 |
  |  _Castle_ |  Mar. 26|       |        |      |           |       |    |
  |(D. Rose   |         |       |        |      |           |       |    |
  |  & Co.)   |         |       |        |      |           |       |    |
  |_Star of_  |Gr’v’s’nd|       |        |      |Melbourne  |Feb. 13| 78 |
  |  _Italy_  |  Nov. 27|       |        |      |           |    ’85|    |
  |_Cutty_    |Channel  |       |        |      |Newcastle  |Sept. 5| 79 |
  |  _Sark_   |  June 18|       |        |      |           |       |    |
  |_Cimba_    |Channel  |June 23|July 18 |      |Sydney     |Aug. 17| 79 |
  |           |  May  30|       |        |      |           |       |    |
  +-----------+---------+-------+--------+------+-----------+-------+----+


Notes on Passages to Australia in 1884.

A good many ships this year were just into the 80 days; for instance
_Dharwar_, 80 days to Sydney; _Samuel Plimsoll_, 80 to Sydney;
_Trafalgar_, 81 to Sydney; _Loch Vennachar_, 80 to Melbourne;
_Romanoff_ 80 to Melbourne; _Salamis_, 82 to Melbourne; _Patriarch_, 82
to Sydney.

_Miltiades_, _Cimba_ and _Loch Long_ had a good race out. The _Star of
Italy_ was Corrie’s crack jute clipper; this was her tenth voyage, and
her first trip to Melbourne. She was nearly lost when about to sail
through a fire in her sail-room.

_Cutty Sark_ had a fine weather passage to the Cape, but she scared
her crew running the easting down. On one occasion she was pooped by a
big sea which jammed the helmsmen in the wheel, and she came up in the
wind and swept her decks clean, taking the boats off the after skids,
breaking in one side of the monkey poop and gutting the cabin. At the
change of the watch at midnight that night, the apprentice keeping the
time, in order to call his mates, had to go up the mizen rigging and
come down the stay to get to the apprentices’ house her decks were so
full of water; for three or four days after this she ran like a scared
hare before a mountainous sea, which rose up so high astern that it
took the wind out of her topsails when she was in the trough.

Captains Bully Martin and Douglas of the two Bens changed ships this
year, and Douglas in the _Ben Cruachan_ arrived Melbourne on 5th June,
90 days out, whilst Martin in the _Ben Voirlich_ arrived Melbourne on
10th August, 88 days out.


“Torridon” and “Yallaroi.”

The last of Nicol’s clippers were the _Torridon_ and _Yallaroi._
They were skysail-yarders, and lying in dock alongside the
modern four-poster, looked the real thing, a pair of dainty little
thoroughbreds.

[Illustration: “TORRIDON.”

_Photo by Captain Schutze, Sydney._]

Compared to most ships of their size, they had narrow sail plans,
and with greater carrying power, they were not as fast as _Cimba_ or
_Romanoff_. For some reason Nicol gave up the green and gold colours
of Aberdeen and gave them the conventional painted ports. No doubt the
days were passed when crowds of landsmen thronged Circular Quay of a
Sunday and gaped in awe, reverence and admiration at the tall green
clippers.

Captain Shepherd left _Romanoff_ to take the _Torridon_, but he could
only manage to get her out to Sydney in 90 days from Deal on her maiden
trip, and _Yallaroi_ took 99 from Grangemouth. However, both ships held
on in the Sydney trade until 1906, when they were sold to the Italians,
_Torridon_ for £4250 and _Yallaroi_ for £4400.

_Torridon_ was sunk by a German submarine on 27th August, 1916, but
_Yallaroi_ disguised as _Santa Catarina_ is still sailing the seas.


“Loch Carron” and “Loch Broom.”

The last ships to be built for the famous Loch Line were the two fine
four-mast barques _Loch Carron_ and _Loch Broom_.

The _Loch Carron_ was taken from the stocks by Captain Stainton Clarke,
one of the best known skippers in the Australian trade and the bosom
friend of Captain Pattman, the pair being known in the ports they
frequented as the “Corsican Brothers.” Captain Clarke was brought up in
those beautiful little tea clippers, Skinner’s “Castles.” At the age
of 28 he became master of the _Douglas Castle_, which he used to say
was “one of the prettiest models that ever sailed.” When she was sold
he was given the _Lennox Castle_, and he left her to take the _Loch
Carron_.

_Loch Carron_, though a very fast ship, was also a ticklish ship to
handle, being rather tender, and Captain Clarke always sent down royal
yards when in port.

The following are some of her best performances:—

  Melbourne to London                       73 days.
  Adelaide to Glasgow                       75  „
  Glasgow to Adelaide                       78  „
  London to Adelaide                        75  „ (twice)
  The Semaphore, Adelaide, to Cape Otway    48  „
  Cape Town to Clyde in ballast             40  „
  Melbourne to the Horn                     27  „
  Cape meridian to the Leeuwin              19  „ (twice)
  Cape Horn to the line                     20  „

On one occasion when abreast of the Crozets, running her easting down
in 45° S., she made three consecutive 24-hour runs of 310, 320 and 332
miles. On her maiden trip she went to Sydney, and then for two or three
years left the Australian for the Calcutta trade. In 1887 she took case
oil from New York to Calcutta in 112 days.

In 1889 _Loch Carron_ had a very nasty experience when rounding the
Cape homeward bound from India. It is thus told by Captain Clarke:—

  We were bound for London from Calcutta with a cargo of jute and about
  500 tons of rice for stiffening purposes. It was new rice and had not
  been properly dried. When the jute was loaded on top of it, the rice
  began to get heated and we had to take it out and stow it in the main
  hatch by itself, boring holes in order to allow the air to enter.
  This arrangement of the cargo caused the ship to be top-heavy, but it
  was unavoidable. When we got to the Cape of Good Hope we encountered
  violent gales, and the vessel could not stand up to them. She was
  carried right over on her side, although there was very little
  canvas on her. Her lee side was 5 or 6 feet under water and the crew
  became so frightened that many of them climbed up the rigging. I let
  the sails go and sacrificed them in order to save her. She righted
  herself and we ran before the wind all night, going miles out of
  our course. Next day we jury-rigged her and I tried hard to make
  way on the other tack. We tacked for eight days and then the gale
  again seized her and she turned over once more. We quickly stripped
  her of sails, but she was so top-heavy and crank that I decided to
  send the topgallant masts down. This was ticklish work, and I shall
  never forget the scene, as the men struggled against the seas with
  the topgallants. The fight against the gales lasted for 30 days and
  then we got round the Cape, but I had five men down with broken limbs
  and other injuries. The voyage from Calcutta to London occupied no
  fewer than 156 days, and was the most exciting in my experience. The
  _Bolan_, _Glen Padarn_ and _Trevelyan_, also bound from Calcutta and
  Rangoon to London, foundered during the storms and we were lucky to
  get through with the ship so crank.

In 1904 _Loch Carron_ had a great race home from Frisco round the Horn
with the French ship _Jules Gommes_. _Loch Carron_ hove up her anchor
in Frisco Bay on the morning of Christmas Eve, the _Jules Gommes_
leaving in the afternoon. After being six days in company the two
ships lost sight of each other. They met again on the equator in the
Atlantic; finally the _Loch Carron_ arrived at Queenstown one morning
112 days out, the Frenchman arriving eight hours later at the same port.

On her next passage the _Loch Carron_ had the most disastrous event
in her career, in her collision with the _Inverkip_. The two ships
were both outward bound, the _Loch Carron_ from Glasgow to Sydney with
general cargo. At 11.20 on 13th August, 1904, the _Loch Carron_ was
about 60 miles to the S. and E. of the Fastnet light, going 6 or 7
knots close-hauled on the port tack, with a moderate gale blowing from
the S.W., when the red light of the _Inverkip_ was suddenly seen ahead.
But it was too late to avoid a collision, and the _Loch Carron_ struck
the _Inverkip_ abreast of the foremast, stem on. The latter ship went
down in a few minutes, only two men, the carpenter and the steward,
being saved out of her ship’s company. These two managed to jump aboard
the _Loch Carron_. Captain Jones of the _Inverkip_ had his wife aboard,
and as the ship went down she was seen praying on her knees aft. They
were both great personal friends of Captain Clarke, and he was so
distressed by the sad accident that his health broke down and he gave
up his command for a voyage. The _Loch Carron_, with a large hole in
her bows, her fore topgallant mast and all head gear carried away,
besides other damages, managed to make Queenstown.

Her repairs came to £1500, and as she was on the port tack and the
_Inverkip_ on the starboard, the Loch Line had to pay over £30,000
damages.

When _Loch Carron_ was again ready for sea, Captain Henderson, of
_Thermopylae_ and _Samuel Plimsoll_ fame, took her out. Captain Clarke
returning to his command on her return home. As late as 1908 _Loch
Carron_ made the run from Melbourne to London in 80 days.

_Loch Broom_ was commanded for the greater part of her career by the
well-known veteran, Bully Martin.

Though they were absolute sister ships according to the tape-measure.
_Loch Broom_ was always a stiffer ship than the _Loch Carron_, and her
sailing records were not quite as numerous, nevertheless she was a very
fast ship.

In 1904 Captain Martin brought her home from Melbourne in 82 days. He
left Port Phillip on 12th January, and was only 24 days to the Horn,
most of the run being made under six topsails and foresail.

On her following passage out _Loch Broom_ took case oil from New York
to Melbourne in 96 days. It was a nasty trip for her officers, as the
hands before the mast were all hobos, Bowery toughs and hard cases, and
had to be driven to their work in the old-fashioned belaying pin style.

In 1907 Captain Bully Martin gave up his command and retired from the
sea, being succeeded by Captain Kelynack, who had been mate under him
for some years.

I have the abstract log of _Loch Broom’s_ last voyage under the British
flag:—

On 4th September at 7 a.m. she took her departure from the Lizard, had
light breezes and calms to the 19th when she took the N.E. trades,
crossed the line on 6th October, crossed the meridian of Greenwich
on 26th October, ran down her easting on the 40th parallel, her best
24-hour run being 272 miles on 12th November before a moderate gale
from W.S.W. in 40° 37′ S., 60° 00′ E., and she anchored off Port
Adelaide at 2 p.m. on 4th December, 91 days from the Lizard.

She left Melbourne homeward bound on 23rd February 1912. On 15th March
in 50° 58′ S., 135° 26′ W., she ran 278 miles with a fresh S.W. gale,
passed Cape Horn on 27th March. On 29th March Captain Kelynack remarks,
“Fresh W.S.W. wind, thick misty rain, four-masted barque in company on
lee quarter but falling astern, (nothing passes the _Loch Broom_ but
birds.)”

And on 2nd April I find the following testimony to her qualities:—“Lat.
46° 50′ S., long. 40° 04′ W., distance 213, course N. 51° E. Fresh N.W.
gale veering to W.N.W., high sea running, ship going 12 knots, dry as a
bone.”

The line was crossed on 29th April. On 24th May in 46° N., 20° 55′ W.,
_Loch Broom_ ran 301 miles in the 24 hours before a fresh southerly
wind and moderate sea; and on the following day 282 miles. “Fresh
S.S.E. wind. Barque in company at 6 a.m. on starboard bow, out of
sight astern at noon.” On 31st May at 7 p.m. _Loch Broom_ anchored off
Gravesend, 98 days out.

The _Loch Carron_ and _Loch Broom_ were both sold to the foreigners
in 1912 for about £5000 a piece, and now, I believe, belong to
Christianssand, Norway, being disguised under the names of _Seileren_
and _Sogndal_.

  PASSAGES TO AUSTRALIA UNDER 80 DAYS IN 1885.
  +-------------+---------+--------+--------+---------+-----------+-------+----+
  |             |         |        |Crossed |         |           |       |    |
  |     Ship    |Departure| Passed | Cape   | Passed  |Destination| Date  |Days|
  |             |         | Equator|Meridian|  Otway  |           |Arrived|Out |
  +-------------+---------+--------+--------+---------+-----------+-------+----+
  |_Salamus_    |Start    |April  6|May    9|June  2  |Melbourne  |June  3| 75 |
  |             |  Mar. 20|        |        |         |           |       |    |
  |_Patriarch_  |Start    |Mar.  25|        |May  21  |Sydney     |May  23| 75 |
  |             |  Mar.  9|        |        |         |           |       |    |
  |_Cutty_      |Start    |April 23|May   19|June 15  |   „       |June 19| 77 |
  |  _Sark_     |  April 3|        |        |(SW Cape)|           |       |    |
  |_Siren_      |Start    |April 12|May   11|June  6  |   „       |June  8| 77 |
  |             |  Mar. 23|        |        |         |           |       |    |
  |_Samuel_     |Start    |April 28|May   21|June 18  |   „       |June 21| 78 |
  |  _Plimsoll_ |  April 4|        |        |         |           |       |    |
  |_Argonaut_   |Start    |July  10|Aug.   1|Aug. 27  |   „       |Aug. 31| 78 |
  |             |  June 14|        |        |         |           |       |    |
  |_Bay of_     |Start    |Mar.  28|April 20|May  19  |   „       |May  23| 78 |
  |  _Cadiz_    |  Mar.  6|        |        |         |           |       |    |
  |_Thermopylae_|Start    |Feb.  17|Mar.   9|April 7  |Melbourne  |April 8| 78 |
  |             |  Jan. 20|        |        |         |           |       |    |
  |_Harbinger_  |Lizard   |June  30|July  27|Aug. 21  |   „       |Aug. 21| 78 |
  |             |  June  4|        |        |         |           |       |    |
  |_Sir Walter_ |Start    |April 28|May   22|June 20  |Sydney     |June 22| 79 |
  |  _Raleigh_  |  April 4|        |        |         |           |       |    |
  |_Milton Park_|Tuskar   |July  18|Aug.  12|Sept. 5  |   „       |Sept. 8| 79 |
  |             |  June 21|        |        |         |           |       |    |
  +-------------+---------+--------+--------+---------+-----------+-------+----+


Notes on Passages to Australia in 1885.

The race of the year was that between _Cutty Sark_, _Samuel Plimsoll_,
_Sir Walter Raleigh_ and still a fourth ship, the _City of York_, which
was off the Start on 2nd April—crossed the line 23rd April—crossed Cape
meridian 26th May—passed the Otway on 18th June—and arrived Sydney on
21st June, 80 days out.

It was Captain Woodget’s first voyage in _Cutty Sark_. He went as high
as 48° S. in search of good winds, but had a lot of thick misty weather
with light northerly winds, and no steady westerlies. He only had two
chances. In 70 hours from 21st to 23rd May, the _Cutty_ ran 931 miles,
braced sharp up against a strong N.E. to E.N.E. wind; and on 4th June,
with the wind fresh from N.E. to N.N.E. she ran 330 miles in 47° S.,
99° E. None of the other ships made any specially big runs.

_Miltiades_ this year was taken over by Captain Harry Ayling, and
arrived in Hobson’s Bay on 29th October, 85 days out from Torbay.

[Illustration: “MOUNT STEWART.”

_Photo by Captain Schutze, Sydney._]

[Illustration: “CROMDALE.”]

_Mermerus_ arrived Melbourne on 24th July, 88 days from the Lizard,
and _Thomas Stephens_ was 87 days from Antwerp to Sydney, arriving on
20th October.

The _Milton Park_ was an iron ship of 1500 tons, built by McMillan, of
Dumbarton in 1882, a typical Clyde-built ship. The _Bay of Cadiz_ was
one of the Cardiff “Bays.” _Siren_ was one of Carmichael’s, a 1482-ton
ship, built in 1881. She had a number of fine passages to her credit,
and came to a curious end, being rammed and sunk by H.M.S. _Landrail_
off Portland in July, 1896.

We have now had 12 years of outward tables, and space and, no doubt,
the patience of the reader are both growing exhausted.

However, as these beautiful ships kept up their wonderful averages
until well into the nineties, fighting all they knew against the
ever-growing competition of steam, I give here a table of times from
the Channel to port from the year 1886 to 1894 for the seven most
regular ships in the trade.

  PASSAGES TO AUSTRALIA 1886-1894.
  +-----------+--------------+------+-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
  |   Ship    | Destination  | 1886 | 1887  |1888|1889|1890|1891|1892|1893|1894|
  +-----------+--------------+------+-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
  |           |Newcastle     |      |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  |_Cutty_    | (1887 and    |  To  |   88  | 76 | 77 | 75 | 79 | 88 | 81 | 79 |
  | _Sark_    |  1892)       |      |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  |           |Brisbane 1894 |Shang-|Dis-   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  |           |Rest to Sydney| hai  | masted|    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  |_Salamis_  |Melbourne     |  78  |   86  | 70 | 84 | 86 | 79 | 77 | 87 | 80 |
  |_Patriarch_|Sydney        |  97  |   79  | 79 | 77 | 87 | 82 | 80 | 99 | 77 |
  |_Mermerus_ |Melbourne     |  84  |   96  | 82 | 88 | 89 | 85 | 86 | 85 |    |
  |_Miltiades_|Melbourne     |  83  |   78  | 83 | 82 | 90 | 91 | 86 | 92 |    |
  |_Cimba_    |Sydney        |  97  |   84  | 88 | 85 | 89 | 93 | 83 | 93 | 88 |
  |_Samuel_   |Sydney        |      |   93  | 76 | 81 | 84 | 78 | 87 | 79 | 79 |
  | _Plimsoll_|  1886 & 1887 |      |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  |           |Rest to       |      |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  |           |  Melbourne   |      |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  +-----------+--------------+------+-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+


“Mount Stewart” and “Cromdale,” the last of the Wool Clippers.

The last two ships to be built specially for the Australian wool
trade were the magnificent steel skysail-yard ships _Mount Stewart_
and _Cromdale_. The former was launched in May, 1891, and the latter
in June, both from Barclay, Curle’s yard. They were identical sister
ships, and were the very latest development of the full-rig ship. They
were of course good carriers, with the modern short poop and long sweep
of main deck. Yet, in spite of their carrying powers, they both made
some excellent passages out and home.

The _Cromdale_ was specially lucky in having Captain E. H. Andrew
as her first master, a very experienced and up-to-date sailing ship
captain, who had been mate under his father in the _Derwent_.

The _Cromdale_ came to grief in 1913 when commanded by Captain Arthur.
She was 126 days out, bound home from Taltal with nitrate and was
heading for Falmouth. There had been a dense fog for some days, when,
most unfortunately, a steamer was passed which advised Captain Arthur
to alter his course. Not long after a light was suddenly seen through
the fog ahead, but before the ship could be put about she struck on
the rocks right at the foot of a cliff. This proved to be Bass Point,
close to the Lizard light. The ship was so badly holed that the captain
ordered the boats out at once. Luckily it was calm weather, and some
rockets brought the Cadgwith and Lizard lifeboats upon the scene, but
the _Cromdale_ settled down so quickly that there was only just time to
save the ship’s papers and the crew’s personal belongings. Lying on the
rocks in such an exposed position, it was of course hopeless to think
of salving the ship, and the _Cromdale_ became a total loss.

The _Mount Stewart_ is, I believe, still afloat, and still has Aberdeen
on her stern.


Perforated Sails.

At first glance a sail with a hole in it would hardly be considered
superior to a sail without one, yet sails with holes in them, or
perforated sails, as they were called, became quite popular with the
most experienced of our sailing ship skippers in the early nineties.

Perforated sails were said to be the idea of an Italian shipmaster in
the eighties. This Italian captain’s theory was that a cushion of air
or dead wind, as he called it, was collected in the belly of every
sail, and acted as a buffer, thus preventing the sail from receiving
the whole strength of the wind. He advocated making a hole in the
centre of the belly in order to allow this cushion of air to escape,
and allow the true wind to blow against the surface of the sail. An
important point was the proper placing of these holes; in fore and aft
sails they were cut about the centre of the belly made by the clew;
the holes in square sails were also cut near the clews, but they were
also cut higher up in the sail on a line from the clews to the bunt:
topsails and courses generally had the four holes and topgallant sails
and royals only two, one in the lower part of the sail towards the clew
on each side. These holes were from 5½ to 6 inches in diameter and
roped with grammets.

It is easy to understand that this system was more advantageous when
one was close-hauled than when running free. But even when running free
many shipmasters claimed that it had its merits and held that, though
wind certainly did escape through the holes, it was mostly dead wind
and even then was caught up again—the mizen by the main, and the main
by the fore, so that in the end there was very little real wind that
did not do its work in sending the ship along.

A further advantage of perforated sails was their aid in spilling
the wind out of a sail when the sail had to come in in heavy weather.
The advocates of the holes claimed that they prevented a sail from
ballooning up over the yard, and made it very much easier to muzzle and
put the gaskets on.

The perforated sails were also considered very useful in light airs and
calms, because on the calmest day there always seemed to be a draught
through the holes, and this kept the sails “asleep” and stopped that
irritating flogging of canvas against the masts which is so trying to
a skipper’s temper and also constantly necessitates the hauling up of
courses in the doldrums.

Captain Holmes, who always used them in the _Cimba_ and _Inverurie_,
wrote to me that he considered them specially valuable in light winds,
and he did not adopt perforated sails without testing their efficiency
in every way he could.

He even had sand bags made to fit the holes, and thus was able to test
his sailing when in company with another ship, first by seeing how he
did with holes, and then filling up the holes with sandbags, by seeing
how he altered his bearing when without holes.

By this means he proved the benefit of the holes very clearly once when
going down Channel.

The _Cimba_ was in company with another outward bound ship of nearly
the same speed; and it was found that as soon as the sand bags were put
in the holes the _Cimba_ began to drop astern, whereas, with the holes
open, she went ahead. Captain Holmes also tied a rag on the end of a
stick, and held it up to the holes, and even in very light airs the rag
was sucked through the perforations. In this way with a handkerchief
on the end of a long rod, he tried to find out the result of the holes
on the crossjack, by walking it all over the after part of the sail.
And he told me that the handkerchief flopped stupidly about in the
dead wind until it was abreast of the holes, when it at once blew out
straight.

Captain Pattman, of _Loch Torridon_, adopted perforated holes in 1892:
Captain Poppy used them on the _Aristides_, and Captain Cutler, when
he took over _Port Jackson_, had her sails cut for holes, and his
successor continued to keep them in the sails.

All these four captains were noted passage-makers, and unless the
perforated sails had had very certain advantages, it is hardly likely
that they would have adopted them.


Hine’s Clipper Barques.

Before turning to the New Zealand trade I must not forget to mention
the fine little fleet of barques belonging to Hine Brothers, of
Maryport, which brought home wool from Adelaide, Brisbane and the two
Tasmanian ports.

The following will still be remembered by the older inhabitants of
these ports.

  _Aline_,       wood barque 474 tons, built by Hardy, Sunderland   1867
  _Abbey Holme_  iron barque 516 tons, built by Blumer, Sunderland  1869
  _Hazel Holme_  wood barque 405 tons, built by at Barnstaple       1890
  _Aikshaw_      iron barque 573 tons, built by Doxford, Sunderland 1875
  _Eden Holme_   iron barque 794 tons, built by Bartram, Sunderland 1875
  _Myrtle Holme_ iron barque 902 tons, built by Bartram, Sunderland 1875
  _Castle Holme_ iron barque 996 tons, built by Bartram, Sunderland 1875
  _Brier Holme_  iron barque 894 tons, built by Thompson Sunderland 1876

They were rarely much over 80 days going out, and generally under 90
days coming home.

The _Myrtle Holme_, under Captain Cobb, and the _Eden Holme_, under
Captain Wyrill (late of _Berean_) had perhaps the best records, and
maintained their fine average right into the twentieth century.

For instance, in 1899 Captain Wyrill brought the _Eden Holme_ from
Launceston to the London River in 88 days after experiencing 17 days
of calms and variables to the north of the line. This was her fourth
passage out of six, in which she had come home in less than 90 days
from Tasmania.

In 1895, the _Myrtle Holme_ went from Beachy Head to Adelaide in 77
days, and in 1901 went from Dover to Adelaide in 81 days; whilst in
1902 the _Eden Holme_ went from the Start to Launceston in 83 days.

The _Eden Holme_, _Brier Holme_ and _Castle Holme_ were all transferred
to the Tasmanian trade from that of Adelaide on the death of Mr. Walker
and the dispersal of his fleet.

The _Eden Holme_ was wrecked on Hebe Reef in 1907. The _Myrtle Holme_
was sold to Arendal, Norway, and renamed _Glimt_, a few years before
the war. She was torpedoed in the North Sea in 1915.

[Illustration: “BRIERHOLME.”

_Photo by De Maus, Port Chalmers._]

The _Brier Holme_ came to a tragic end in 1904. She sailed from London
for Hobart in September of that year, commanded by Captain Rich, an
experienced and skilful seaman who was making his last voyage. She
was three months overdue and much anxiety was being felt, when some
fishermen landed on a bleak and unfrequented part of the West Coast of
Tasmania. They found some jetsam on the shore in the shape of packages
of cargo, marked and numbered so that they could be identified.
Footprints and the remains of a rude hut also pointed to a wreck on
the coast; a close search was made but no signs of the wreck or of
life could be found. The fishermen then took the packages back to
Hobart and they proved to be part of the cargo of the _Brier Holme_.
Thereupon the Government sent out a steamer with a search party. The
remains of the wreck were found under water, but though the bush was
scoured, fires lighted and guns fired to attract attention, no survivor
was discovered, and the search party returned to Hobart. Some weeks
later the fishermen who had found the packages landed again on the
coast and found a man, who proved to be the sole survivor out of the
_Brier Holme’s_ crew. He had been wandering about in the bush trying
to find his way to the nearest habitation, first loading himself with
provisions washed up from the wreck, he had tried to construct a raft
across a river but without success, and he was continually compelled
to return to the shore and replenish his stores. He reported that the
_Brier Holme_ arrived off the S.W. Cape of Tasmania at night during
thick stormy weather and was hove to to wait for daylight. But being to
the north of the Fairway having overrun her distance, she crashed on to
the rocks and soon went to pieces.

The _Castle Holme_ is now owned in Frederickstadt, Norway, and sails
under the name of _Estar_.


Iron Barques of Walker and Trinder, Anderson.

Hine Bros. were not the only owners of iron clipper barques in the
Australian trade. Mr. T. B. Walker had four very well-known ships—the
barques _Westbury_, _Decapolis_ and _Lanoma_ and the ship _Barossa_;
whilst Trinder, Anderson & Co. had the _Barunga_, _Oriana_, _Mineru_,
_Morialta_ and _Kooringa_.

Of the above, Walker’s _Lanoma_ was probably the fastest. She has been
credited with a run from Tasmania to the Horn in 21 days, another of
21 days from the Horn to the line, and again a third of 21 days from
the line to soundings, which if they had all been on the same passage
would have given her the record from Tasmania home. The _Westbury_ and
_Decapolis_ were both good for an outward passage round about 80 days.

A year or two ago a correspondent in the “Nautical” claimed that the
_Decapolis_ went out to Launceston in 56 days on her maiden trip, at
the same time he claimed a 57-day trip to Melbourne for my old ship the
_Commonwealth_. He had, of course, got his dates wrong somewhere, as
the _Decapolis_ ran regularly to Brisbane until that trade was captured
by steamers, she was then diverted to Launceston.

After the death of Mr. Walker, _Decapolis_ was sold to the Italians and
renamed _Nostra Madre_. Her name is on the Sailing Ship Roll of Honour,
as she was torpedoed in the Mediterranean during the war.

_Barossa_, a fine little full-rigged ship, ran for many years as a
passenger ship to Adelaide. She eventually turned turtle in dock and
was sold to be broken up.


The Loss of “Lanoma.”

_Lanoma_ was lost in March, 1888, on what promised to be her best
passage home. She was coming up Channel, only 76 days out, in thick,
blowing south-westerly weather, under a very experienced commander,
Captain G. Whittingham.

_Berean_ was also coming up Channel, it was the time when she had the
narrow squeak of piling up on the Wight owing to the wrong notice about
St. Catherine’s light.

In the case of _Lanoma_, Captain Whittingham had had no observations
for several days, and so an extra smart look-out was being kept. Just
before midnight it must have cleared a bit for the land suddenly loomed
up close to on the starboard bow. The helm was at once put down and the
ship brought to the wind, and Captain Whittingham tried to stay her.
Unfortunately she missed stays and fell off again, there was no time
to wear her, and she stranded broadside on to Chesil Beach, inside the
Bill of Portland.

Like many another catastrophe of the same sort, the ship and her crew
were hurtled from fancied security to destruction in a few minutes of
time. And even so, the crew would probably have all been saved, if she
had not fallen over to seaward, so that she at once began to break up
in the heavy surf. The rocket apparatus was manned from the shore, but
it was only in time to save a few, and Captain Whittingham and 11 of
his crew were drowned.

Trinder, Anderson’s ships were all well known in the London River at
one time, specially the little _Mineru_, a 478-ton barque, built by
Stephen, of Glasgow, in 1866. Fremantle, the Ashburton River and Sharks
Bay were her wool ports.

_Morialta_ was an iron ship of 1267 tons, built in 1866 by Royden,
of Liverpool, for Beazley, her first name being _British Consul_.
_Barunga_ was the old _Apelles_ built in 1863, whilst _Kooringa_,
a 1175-ton barque, built at South Shields in 1874, had been the
_Ravenstondale_.

Messrs. Trinder, Anderson bought several other well-known ships in
their time, notably the _Kingdom of Saxony_, a 538-ton wooden barque,
ex-_Deerhound_. Anderson’s _Darra_, and Thompson’s _Ascalon_ also ended
their days under the Red Ensign with Trinder, Anderson.

It is a curious coincidence, but in looking through the list of
their ships I cannot find two by the same builder, though I find the
following all represented: Dudgeon, of London; Moore, of Sunderland;
Denton & Gray, of Hartlepool; Scott, of Greenock; Hall, of Aberdeen;
Stephen, of Glasgow; Royden, of Liverpool; Hood, of Aberdeen; Softley,
of South Shields; and R. Thompson, Jun., of Sunderland.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, just before going into
steam, Trinder, Anderson & Co. bought the fine ships _Wasdale_ and
_Hornby Castle_, but the century was not ten years old before steamers
only were flying the blue with yellow cross and black swan, as the
house-flag of the combined firm of Trinder, Anderson and Bethell, Gwyn.


Occasional Visitors in Australian Waters.

Though this part has run to greater length than I had at first
intended, nevertheless I fear that many of my readers will complain
because old favourites have not been mentioned.

I have tried not to leave out any regular Colonial trader, and space
only admits of the bare mention of many beautiful and fast ships which
occasionally visited Sydney, Melbourne or Adelaide in the course of
their general round.

Of these perhaps the finest were:—Carmichael’s _Golden Fleece_, one of
the handsomest ships ever launched, with a run from London to Sydney of
72 days to her credit.

Williamson & Milligan’s _Cedric the Saxon_, whose 72-day run from
Liverpool to Calcutta is the iron ship record. This magnificent clipper
once went from Calcutta to the Adelaide Semaphore in 28 days during the
S.W. monsoon.

D. Bruce’s Dundee clippers _Maulesden_ and _Duntrune_; the first famous
for her wonderful passage of 69 days from Glasgow to Maryborough,
Queensland, in 1882.

The beautiful Belfast ship _Star of Italy_, one of Corry’s Irish
“Stars,” which in 1884-5 went out to Sydney in 78 days and came home in
79.

Beazley’s _British Merchant_, which in 1881 arrived in Melbourne, 78
days out.

The _Sierra Blanca_, one of those yacht-like white “Sierras,” which in
1883-4 went out to Sydney in 77 days.

Carmichael’s _Argus_ and _Argo_, the former with a 76-day run to
Melbourne and the latter with a 78-day run to Sydney.

Cuthbert’s _Ballochmyle_, Skinner’s _Brodick Castle_, Beazley’s _John
o’ Gaunt_, Patton’s _Hesperides_, Alexander’s _Glengarry_, Bowring’s
_Othello_ and _Desdemona_, and my old ship the _Commonwealth_.

Then coming to the later days of the four-poster, there were McMillan’s
_Swanhilda_, which in 1894 made the wonderful run of 66 days from
Wallaroo to Queenstown; Mahon’s _Oweenee_, which as late as 1913 made
the run from Dublin to Newcastle, N.S.W., in 73 days; Troop’s _Howard
D. Troop_, which in 1906 brought 3500 tons of wheat from Sydney to
Falmouth in 82 days; that extraordinary four-mast ship, the _Lancing_,
which in 1908 ran from Christiania to Melbourne in 75 days; Mackay’s
_Wendur_, the rival of _Loch Torridon_; the beautiful skysail yarder
_Queen Margaret_; Carmichael’s _Glaucus_; and the _Lord Brassey_, which
went missing on her first voyage, after having made a fine outward
passage of 77 days to Melbourne in 1892.



Footnote.


[C] This passage of _Cutty Sark_ has been wrongly given in my _China
Clippers_. She left London for the second time on 2nd December, not the
12th, as there stated. The mistake was made in the shipping reports of
the day and never corrected, and I have only lately been able to prove
it.



PART IV.—THE NEW ZEALAND TRADE.

  The age of dear tradition has gone by
  And steam has killed romance upon the sea,
  The newer age requires the newer men,
  And dying hard in corners of the world,
  The old hands pass forgotten to their graves.
  The old Colonial clipper is no more,
  Denied the wool freights homeward, she must seek
  For nitre on the South Pacific slope.
  She need not go to China ports for tea,
  She need not haunt the Hooghly for the jute,
  Nor beat the Gulf of Martaban for rice,
  Her time has come and she must pass away;
  Yet still she holds the passage of the Horn,
  And when the waterway of Panama
  Makes islands of the two Americas,
  She’ll hold the bleak old headland for her own,
  And round its pitch she’ll fade away and die.—
    JOHN ANDERSON, in _Nautical Magazine_.


The “Mayflowers” of New Zealand.

The _Mayflower_ is a name which every school-child in the United States
is taught to reverence. In this part of _Colonial Clippers_ I shall
deal with the _Mayflowers_ of New Zealand—the beautiful sailing ships
which brought the settlers from the Old Country to the wonderful New
Country.

The memory of these ships and their swift passages round the Cape and
through the roaring forties is still green in the hearts of many a
man and woman who travelled out to an unknown land with a stout heart
and nothing much else, and is now a prosperous and happy member of a
great nation. Only lately there was a reunion of all those who had
travelled out in one of these ships, that the anniversary of their
great adventure might be suitably kept. The name of this ship has
already been mentioned in these pages. _The Chariot of Fame_; a name of
comfort and good omen it must have been to those who heard the whistle
and scream of the mighty westerlies in her rigging on many a dark and
sobbing night when the heart of the exile is low and the spirit of the
brave pioneer begins to quiver.

Truly running down the easting in a little 1000-ton clipper with a hard
driving skipper and big fisted, stony-hearted mates was a fine bracer
for the emigrant, who had perhaps never seen salt water up to the date
of sailing and who was bound to a country which could only be wooed and
won by a clear brain, stout heart and strong arm.

At first the ships in the New Zealand trade were not even 1000 tons in
burthen, being mainly little 400 and 500-ton ships and barques, which
mostly flew the flag of Shaw, Savill & Co.


The “Edwin Fox.”

Of such was the _Edwin Fox_, a country-built Indiaman from Calcutta,
built as far back as 1853, with teak decks, quarter galleries, coir
running gear and all the quaint characteristics of the East. The hull
of this “old timer” is still to be seen, being now used as a landing
stage for the freezing works at Picton.


“Wild Duck.”

Another favourite passenger ship in the early days was the _Wild Duck_,
commanded by Captain Bishop. She was a main skysail yarder with
Cunningham’s patent reef single topsails. Though rather short for her
beam she had fine ends and made very regular passages.


Shaw, Savill & Co.

The well-known firm of Shaw, Savill & Co. started sending ships to
New Zealand about 65 years ago, making 15 sailings a year. At first
the outward passage took four or five months, and it was not until
the sixties that there was any marked improvement in the time between
England and New Zealand, but by the end of the sixties Shaw, Savill
had several fast little iron ships, the best known of which were the
_Crusader_, _Helen Denny_ and _Margaret Galbraith_.

  The following is a rather incomplete list of their earlier ships:—

  1853  _Edwin Fox_           wood barque       836 tons.
  1856  _Chile_               iron barque       768  „
  1858  _Dover Castle_        wood barque      1003  „
  1858  _Adamant_             iron barque       815  „
  1859  _Bebington_           iron barque       924  „
  1862  _Bulwark_             wood ship        1332  „
  1863  _Chaudiere_           wood barque       470  „
   „    _Euterpe_             iron ship        1197  „
   „    _Himalaya_            iron barque      1008  „
   „    _Trevelyan_           iron ship        1042  „
  1864  _Golden Sea_          wood ship        1418  „
   „    _Soukar_              iron ship        1304  „
   „    _Saint Leonards_      iron ship        1054  „
   „    _Glenlora_            iron barque       764  „
  1865  _Anazi_               composite barque  468  „
   „    _Crusader_            iron ship        1059  „
  1866  _Helen Denny_         iron barque       728  „
  1867  _Forfarshire_         composite ship   1238  „
  1868  _Margaret Galbraith_  iron ship         841  „
  1869  _Elizabeth Graham_    composite barque  598  „
   „    _Hudson_              iron barque       705  „
   „    _Langstone_           iron ship         746  „
  1869  _Pleiades_            iron ship         997  „
   „    _Schiehallion_        iron barque       602  „
   „    _Zealandia_           iron ship        1116  „
   „    _Halcione_            iron ship         843  „
  1870  _Merope_              iron ship        1054  „

Space forbids more than a few odd notes on the best known of these
ships.


The “Crusader.”

The _Crusader_ was a very handsome little ship, as is well shown in
her photograph, and she was considered by many to be the fastest ship
in Shaw, Savill’s fleet. She was built by Connell, of Glasgow, and
launched in March, 1865, her registered measurements being:—Net tonnage
1058; gross tonnage 1058; length 210.7 ft.; breadth 35.1 ft., depth
21.4 ft.

In 1877, when commanded by Captain Renaut, she ran from Lyttelton,
N.Z., to the Lizard in 69 days, and on her next outward passage in 1878
she went from London to Port Chalmers in 65 days, a performance which
has never been beaten. She was eventually sold to the Norwegians for
£2950 and was still washing about the seas, rigged as a barque, at the
outbreak of the Great War.


“Helen Denny” and “Margaret Galbraith.”

The little _Helen Denny_ was the last of the fleet to remain under
the British flag. She once ran from the longitude of the Cape to New
Zealand in 23 days, a really remarkable feat for a small iron barque.
She was built by the great Robert Duncan, of Port Glasgow, and was
eventually sold by Shaw, Savill, to Christie, of Lyttelton, N.Z., who
resold her to Captain F. Holm, of Wellington, N.Z.; she ran regularly
in the inter-colonial trade until the end of 1913, being latterly
commanded and owned by Captain S. Holm, a son of Captain F. Holm. She
was finally converted into a coal hulk.

_Margaret Galbraith_ was another little Duncan beauty, and for many
years a regular passenger ship to Otago. It is surprising to think of
these little ships carrying passengers right up to the eighties. Their
measurements were:—

  _Helen Denny_, 728 tons; 187.5 feet length; 31.2 feet beam; 19.1 feet
  depth.

  _Margaret Galbraith_, 841 tons; 198.5 feet length; 32.2 feet beam;
  19.9 feet depth.

The _Margaret Galbraith_ was sold to the Manica Trading Co., of London.
She left Colonia on 26th March, 1905, for Buenos Ayres with a cargo of
grain and crew of 13 all told; and whilst in charge of a pilot grounded
on Farollon reef, and as she was badly holed her captain abandoned her.


End of Some of Shaw, Savill’s Earlier Ships.

_Zealandia_ was a Connell built ship. After being sold to the Swedes,
she was resold to the Russians, and her name changed to _Kaleva_. She
was stranded in March, 1911, but refloated and again sold to Charles
Brister & Son, of Halifax, Nova Scotia.

_Pleiades_ was built by McMillan, of Dumbarton. As late as 1893 she
made a good run from New Zealand to the Lizard. She was wrecked at
Akiteo, when bound round in ballast from Napier to Dunedin to load wool
home.

The _Halcione_ was specially built for the New Zealand trade with ⅞
iron plates backed with 3 feet of cement, her saloon was insulated with
charcoal, and she had 200 tons of cement stiffening. She was built by
Steele, of Greenock, and was lost in 1895 in Fitzroy Bay near Pincarrow
Heads, outside Wellington.

The _Euterpe_ was sold to the Chileans, and for some years was to be
seen in the South Pacific rigged as a barque. Then the Alaska Packers
bought her and renamed her _Star of India_. I believe she is still
afloat.

The _Himalaya_ was also sold to the Alaska Packers Co., and renamed
_Star of Peru_.

The _Soukar_ was sold to the Spaniards and registered at Barcelona
under the name of _Humberto_. She has been broken up.

The _Glenlora_ went to the Scandinavians and was still afloat at the
outbreak of the Great War. The _Hudson_ is also a Scandinavian barque
at the present time.

The _Merope_ was burnt whilst homeward bound, being off the Plate at
the time. Another well-known early Shaw, Savill emigrant ship to be
burnt at sea was the _Caribou_, of 1160 tons; she was a wood ship
and her cargo of coal caught fire in the year 1869. The Shaw, Savill
ships were rather unlucky with fires and collisions, their worst
disaster being, of course, the loss of the _Cospatrick_, Dunbar’s old
frigate-built ship, which they bought in 1873 for £10,000. The tragedy
happened on her second voyage under Shaw, Savill’s house-flag.


The Loss of the “Cospatrick.”

The _Cospatrick_ sailed from London for Auckland on the 11th September,
1874, with general cargo, 429 passengers and a crew of 44 men under
Captain Elmslie.

Tuesday, 17th November, found the ship to the south’ard of the Cape,
the wind being very light from the nor’west. And here is the tragedy
as it was given by Henry Macdonald, the second mate, one of the three
survivors. He stated that after keeping the first watch, he had not
been long below when he was aroused by the cry of “Fire!” Without
stopping to dress, he rushed on deck and found that dense clouds of
smoke were pouring up from the fore peak, a fire having broken out in
the bosun’s locker, which was full of oakum, rope, varnish and paint.

The first thing to do was to get the ship’s head before the wind, at
the same time the fire engine was rigged, and soon the fore part of the
ship was being deluged with water. But somehow or other the ship was
allowed to come head to wind, which drove the smoke aft in suffocating
clouds. From this moment all discipline seems to have been lost; flames
began to burst forth in the ’tween decks and out through every scuttle
and air vent, and they were soon roaring up the tarred shrouds, so that
within an hour and a half of the discovery of the fire the flames had
got such a hold that the ship was doomed.

The emigrants now took panic, and, shouting and screaming, made a
rush for the boats. The starboard quarter boat was lowered down, but
immediately she touched the water such a crowd of demented emigrants
swarmed down the ship’s side into her that she was capsized. Whilst the
longboat was being swung out of her chocks, her bow caught fire, and in
the end only the port and starboard lifeboats got safely away from the
ship’s side, the one with 42 and the other with 39 people.

[Illustration: “CRUSADER.”]

[Illustration: “COSPATRICK.”

_Photo by De Maus._]

The two boats stayed by the ship until the afternoon of the 19th, when
she sank beneath the waves, a blackened, charred and smoking hull. One
can scarcely imagine the horror of the scene during this weary waiting
for the end of the ship. The people in the boats watched the main and
mizen mast fall, and heard shrieks from the crowded after part of the
ship, as many luckless wretches were crushed in their fall. Then
the stern with its old Blackwall quarter galleries was blown out by
the flames and smoke. Lastly the captain was seen to throw his wife
overboard and spring after her himself.

But the tragedy was far from finished with the sinking of the ship.
Owing to the panic and confusion the 81 survivors in the boats had
only their night clothes and were without food or water, mast or sail,
and the starboard lifeboat of which the second mate took command had
only one oar. The rest of the horrible story is best told in Henry
Macdonald’s own words, and the following is his statement, given at the
inquiry afterwards:—

  The two boats kept company the 20th and 21st, when it commenced to
  blow, and we got separated during the night. I whistled and shouted,
  but when daylight came we could see nothing of the other boat.
  Thirst began to tell severely on all of us. A man named Bentley fell
  overboard while steering the boat and was drowned. Three men became
  mad that day and died. We then threw the bodies overboard. On the
  23rd, the wind was blowing hard and a high sea running. We were
  continually bailing the water out. We rigged a sea anchor and rode
  to it; but it was only made fast to the end of the boat’s painter,
  and we lost it. Four men died, and we were so hungry and thirsty that
  we drank the blood and ate the livers of two of them. We lost our
  only oar then. On the 24th, there was a strong gale, and we rigged
  another sea anchor, making it fast with anything we could get. There
  were six more deaths that day. She shipped water till she was nearly
  full. On the 25th there was a light breeze and it was awful hot. We
  were reduced that day to eight, and three of them out of their minds.
  We all felt very bad that day. Early on the morning of the 26th, not
  being daylight, a boat passed close to us running. We hailed but got
  no answer. She was not more than 50 yards off. She was a foreigner.
  I think she must have heard us. One more died that day. We kept on
  sucking the blood of those who died. The 27th was squally all round,
  but we never caught a drop of water, although we tried to do it. Two
  more died that day. We threw one overboard, but were too weak to lift
  the other.

  There were then five left—two able seamen, one ordinary, myself and
  one passenger. The passenger was out of his mind. All had drunk sea
  water. We were all dozing, when the madman bit my foot, and I woke
  up. We then saw a ship bearing down upon us. She proved to be the
  _British Sceptre_, from Calcutta to Dundee. We were taken on board
  and treated very kindly. I got very bad on board of her. I was very
  nigh at death’s door. We were not recovered when we got to St. Helena.

So ends the second mate’s statement. The passenger and ordinary seaman
both died a day or two after they were rescued, thus, out of 473 souls
on the _Cospatrick_, only three men were saved, the second mate and the
two able seamen.


The Loss of the “Avalanche.”

The _Avalanche_ was another Shaw, Savill ship which took down all
but three of its company. She was outward bound to Wellington with
60 passengers, under Captain Williams, in September, 1877. At 8.45
p.m. when off Portland, she was on the port tack, the wind blowing
strong from the S.W., when a red light was sighted on the starboard
bow. The officer of the watch gave the order “hard up” and “brail
in the spanker,” but the other ship, which was evidently running up
Channel, came straight on, and as the _Avalanche_ fell off struck her
right amidships on the port side. Three of the crew of the _Avalanche_
managed to clamber aboard the other ship, which was the _Forest
of Windsor_, Nova Scotia, and these three, the third mate named
Sherrington and two A.B.’s, were the only ones saved. The _Forest_ also
sank, but managed to launch four boats in safety. These were picked up
by fishermen the following morning and landed at Portland.

[Illustration: “WILD DEER.”

_Photo by De Maus, Port Chalmers._]

[Illustration: “WILD DEER.”

_Lent by Captain T. S. Angus._]


Patrick Henderson’s Albion Shipping Company.

The chief rival of the Shaw, Savill before the advent of the New
Zealand Shipping Company was Patrick Henderson, who owned the Albion
Shipping Company. But in the early days he was also in the China
and Rangoon trades. His first ships in the New Zealand emigrant trade
were fine, comfortable wooden vessels without any special turn of
speed, such as the _Agnes Muir_, _Pladda_, _Lady Douglass_, _Jane
Henderson_, _Vicksburgh_ and _Helenslee_. But he had some very fast
wood and composite clippers, which during the sixties were mostly in
the Shanghai trade, and later took their turn at carrying emigrants to
New Zealand.


The “Wild Deer.”

The fastest of these China ships was the _Wild Deer_. She was launched
from Connell’s yard in December, 1863, being his thirteenth ship; and
was composite built with iron topsides, teak planking to turn of bilge
and elm bottom. She had a beautiful figure-head of the goddess “Diana,”
and was altogether a fine example of an out and out tea clipper.

Her measurements taken from Lloyd’s Register were as follows:—

  Tonnage net           1016 tons.
  Tonnage under deck     955  „
  Length                 211 feet.
  Breadth                33.2 „
  Depth                  20.7 „

Her poop was 42 feet long, and her foc’s’le-head 31 feet. She came out
in 1863 with Cunningham’s patent single topsails, but owing to her
dismasting was one of the earliest ships to send aloft double topsail
yards.

The following are the original spar measurements of her mainmast:—

  Mainmast—deck to truck     130.6 feet.
  Lower mast—deck to cap        64  „
  Doubling                    13.6  „
  Topmast                       46  „
  Doubling                       8  „
  Topgallant mast               25  „
  Royal mast                    17  „
  Mainyard                      75  „
  Topsail yard                  61  „
  Topgallant yard               46  „
  Royal yard                    34  „

_Wild Deer_ was taken from the stocks by Captain George Cobb, a
well-known racing skipper in the China tea trade who had previously
commanded the _Robin Hood_. Her complement consisted of 3 mates, 3
apprentices, carpenter, sailmaker and bosun, 16 A.B.’s and 3 ordinary
seamen, it being intended to ship 4 more A.B.’s in China in the event
of her getting into the race home with the cracks.

On her maiden passage she lost her foremast in the North Atlantic,
owing to the want of angle irons, as _Titania_ did a few years later,
and this lost _Wild Deer_ her chance of loading the first teas of the
season. She had to put into Lisbon to refit, and came out of the Tagus
with a very mixed sail plan; on the foremast she had an old-fashioned
single topsail with three rows of reef points, on the main double
topsails and on the mizen her original Cunningham’s patent single
topsail.

Her first two tea passages from Shanghai were good average runs, but
nothing remarkable, her best work being 72 days from Anjer in 1865.

In 1866 she left London on 16th April and arrived at Shanghai on 29th
July, 104 days out. Again she did not succeed in getting away with the
first ships, but leaving Shanghai on 10th September she made Portland
on Christmas Day. A fine S.S.W. breeze was blowing and _Wild Deer_ was
romping along under all plain sail and starboard fore topmast stunsail,
when the American schooner yacht, _Henrietta_, the winner of the first
ocean yacht race, hauled out from the land and, closing on the clipper,
hoisted her colours and asked her name. The late Gordon Bennett, her
owner, was on board the yacht, and evidently wished to try her paces
against the tea ship, as the _Henrietta_ held on in company with _Wild
Deer_ for an hour or two, then bore away for the Needles.

On this passage whilst crossing the Indian Ocean in the S.E. trades,
_Wild Deer_ made three consecutive 24-hour runs of 312, 312 and 327
miles.

On the outward passage in 1867, Captain Cobb had to be landed ill at
Anjer and died shortly afterwards. His place was taken by a Hollander
skipper. The Dutchman took _Wild Deer_ on to Shanghai and loaded tea,
then leaving Shanghai in August he took the Eastern Passage, but when
he had cleared Dampier Straits took it into his head to alter his
course for Anjer. This absolutely spoilt _Wild Deer’s_ chance of a
quick passage, as she had to thread her way up the Java Sea through a
succession of light airs and calms, and actually took 84 days to Anjer.

This was a great pity for she made a splendid run home from the Straits
of Sunda, arriving in the Thames in January, only 68 days from Anjer,
but 152 from Shanghai.

In 1868 her wings were cut, 3 feet being taken off her lower masts.

She was then handed over to a Captain Smith; unfortunately Smith was
a regular old woman, but she was fortunate in getting Duncan as mate.
This man had served in _Ariel_ and _Titania_ as chief officer, and was
one of the best mates in the China trade, being specially noted for his
skilful handling of sails in bad weather.

_Wild Deer_ got away from London at the end of March, and left
Shanghai with a tea cargo towards the end of July, a week behind one
of Skinner’s beautiful little ships, the _Douglas Castle_. In spite of
Duncan’s remonstrances, Captain Smith, who was frightened of the Caspar
Straits, determined to go east about; but the _Wild Deer_ had so good a
start south through the Formosa Channel that old Smith plucked up his
courage and held on for Gaspar.

The very first day after he had changed his mind, _Wild Deer_ ran into
the S.W. monsoon and had to be braced sharp up. The following morning
about daybreak a ship crossed her bows on the other tack. This proved
to be the _Douglas Castle_, and the two ships were in company all the
way to Gaspar, except whilst passing Tamberlan Islands, which _Wild
Deer_ went east of, and the _Douglas_ west.

The ships were evidently very well matched in light winds, but the
_Wild Deer_ was handicapped by the want of courage in her skipper. The
night before the Straits were made it was clear moonlight, the sea dead
smooth and there was a nice little breeze blowing; both ships were
close-hauled on the port tack, with _Wild Deer_ about a quarter of a
mile to windward, neither ship gaining an inch.

Then at the change of the watch at midnight, old Smith backed his
mainyard, clewed up his light sails and waited for morning, but young
Captain McRitchie of the _Douglas Castle_, a far smarter man and the
real sort of skipper for a tea clipper, held on, with the result
that when the _Wild Deer_ filled away again at daylight the _Douglas
Castle_ had a lead of several miles. Soon after sun up another ship
was observed getting under weigh close to Billiton, where she had
evidently anchored for the night; this proved to be the _Peter Denny_
from Foochow—another of Patrick Henderson’s ships. All three ships now
had a fine trial of strength in the beat through Gaspar Straits. In
this windward work the _Peter Denny_ showed up best, being by far the
quickest ship at going about, but she was commanded by a very smart
sailorman, Captain George Adams, who had everything arranged for quick
working, whilst old Smith was specially slow at getting the _Wild
Deer_ round—he was generally late with his commands and always hauled
his mainsail up, though Captain Cobb always used to work his mainsail
in tacking.

At 10 a.m. the _Douglas Castle_ kept away for the Macclesfield Channel,
and about noon _Wild Deer_ made for Clements Channel, whilst the _Peter
Denny_ held on for the Stolze; this would save her tacking again once
she was clear of the Straits, as the S.E. monsoon was blowing steadily
in the Java Sea. Thus the ships were parted for a time. That night was
another clear moonlight night with a nice little breeze. During the
first watch the Brothers were sighted on the _Wild Deer_, and Duncan
reported them to Captain Smith, who was lying asleep on the skylight.
Smith, however, had none of the alertness of a crack China trader and
went off into a heavy sleep again, then during the middle watch he woke
up like a bear with a sore head and asked the big Highland second mate
if he had seen the Brothers yet. Of course the second mate said he had
not seen them, as they had been passed whilst his watch was below. At
this old Smith got in a panic; the mainyard was backed, the courses
hauled up and the royal yards lowered down. On coming on deck at 4 a.m.
Duncan found to his amazement that the ship was hove to, and to his
disgust that one of the others had passed her during the night whilst
she lay with her head under her wing. On finding out the reason from
the second mate, he roused out the “Old Man” and reminded him that he
had reported the Brothers during the first watch. And you may be sure
that it was “jump and go” for the crew until the _Wild Deer_ was off
again.

The wind fell light as the ship approached Sunda Straits, and as _Wild
Deer_ crawled towards Anjer the other two ships were sighted ahead,
almost becalmed.

_Wild Deer_ managed to avoid the calm patch by going to the norrard of
Thwarttheway Island and Krakatoa, and thus stole a march on her rivals;
however, they finally came out of the Straits, neck and neck. Just
before dark the S.E. trade came away. _Wild Deer_ was still leading,
but the _Douglas Castle_ was so close astern that each crew could hear
the other singing out as they trimmed sail for the run across the
trades.

The next morning found _Wild Deer_ still in the lead with the other
two ships one on each quarter, and the following day the three ships
separated until they were off the Cape. Then, on a day of baffling and
squally winds the _Wild Deer_ and _Douglas Castle_ passed each other
on opposite tacks, the _Douglas_ signalling that she had spoken the
_Denny_ that morning.

The _Wild Deer_ found a head wind in the mouth of the Channel, but
eventually after two days’ beating a fine slashing breeze came out
of the south-west. At Dungeness the pilot had no news of the other
two ships; but just as the _Wild Deer_ was making fast to her buoy at
Gravesend the _Douglas Castle_ came up, and, as she passed, hailed to
say that the _Peter Denny_ was close astern.

Unfortunately for _Wild Deer_ she remained under the command of Captain
Smith for several more voyages, during which she was not allowed to
show her paces and usually arrived home in such a condition that
Captain Sellers, the ship’s-husband (a good old name for the present
day shore superintendent) used to declare that she was a disgrace to
the Albion fleet.

However, on Captain Smith’s death Captain Cowan had her for two
voyages, carrying emigrants to New Zealand; on Cowan leaving her to
take the _Wellington_ from the stocks, Captain Kilgour, who had been
mate in her, was given command, and in 1881-2 she came home from Otago
in 82 days, arriving on 30th January.

Then Captain Kerr had her; this man had been carpenter of the _Peter
Denny_ years before, and mate of the _Christian McCausland_, one of
Henderson’s first iron ships. He was a very steady man, but no sailor.

On 12th January, 1883, when outward bound with emigrants, he piled the
poor old _Wild Deer_ up on North Rock, Cloghy, County Down, and she
became a total loss.


Duncan’s Method of Taking in Sail.

It may be of interest, perhaps, to describe the method used by Duncan,
the crack racing mate of _Ariel_, _Titania_, and _Wild Deer_, when
taking in sail. For a topgallant sail he sent as many men as were
available to the lee buntline and leachline; one hand, generally an
apprentice, stood by the clewline, and another attended to the weather
brace. Duncan himself would ease away a few feet of the halliards,
then sing out:—“Let go your lee sheet!” Away would fly the sheet,
followed by Duncan letting go the halliards; the hands on the buntline
and leachline hauling away for all they were worth, the yard would run
down and round itself in so that the boy on the weather brace only had
to take in the slack. With smart hands on bunt and leachlines, the
lee side of the sail would be spilt and up on the yard before it was
well down and the apprentice on the clewline had only to get in the
slack and make it fast. The lee side of the sail being well up, there
was no trouble with the weather side. A hand in the top was almost
unnecessary as the lee sheet needed no lighting up—it did that itself
quick enough. The success of this method, of course, depended on the
smartness of the hands on the bunt and leachline, but there were not
many indifferent sailormen in a tea clipper’s foc’s’le.

In taking in a course Duncan used to man the lee bunt and leachlines
well, with two hands only on the clew garnet; on the sheet being eased
away bunt and leachlines were hauled smartly in, the sail was at once
spilt and hauled up to the yard without a flap, the slack of the clew
garnet being rounded up; then there was no trouble with the weather
side.

This is also the method advocated by Captain Basil Hall in his
_Fragments of Voyages_. Everything depended, of course, on having the
necessary beef on the bunt and leachlines.


“Peter Denny.”

The _Peter Denny_ was built by Duthie, of Aberdeen, of teak and
greenheart with iron knees in the ’tween decks, and measured 998 tons.

She was not a very fast ship, her best run in the westerlies being 285
miles, but she was a very handy-easy working ship and, still better, a
very comfortable happy ship. She was also well run and beautifully kept
under Captain Adams.


The Albion Shipping Company, 1869 Ships.

In 1869 Duncan, of Glasgow, built the two fine little composite ships,
_James Nicol Fleming_ (afterwards renamed the _Napier_) and the
_Otago_, for Patrick Henderson. They were sister ships of 993 tons
register. Their top strake and bulwarks were of iron, but their bottoms
were of wood with pure copper sheathing.

The _Otago_, by the way, must not be confused with a little iron barque
of 346 tons, which was owned in Adelaide and at one time commanded by
Joseph Conrad.

Patrick Henderson’s _Otago_ was eventually sold to the Portuguese and
renamed _Ermilla_. She was torpedoed and sunk by the Germans early in
the war.

It was in 1869 that Patrick Henderson made his first venture in iron
ships, Scott, of Greenock, building him the two sister ships _Jessie
Readman_ and _Christian McCausland_, of 962 tons register. These were
fine handy little ships, good for 11 knots on a taut bowline, and
equally good off the wind. They made very good outward passages with
their ’tween decks full of emigrants, and loaded wool home. In those
early days all the New Zealand wool was pressed on board before being
stowed; this was generally done by a temporary crew of beachcombers, as
it was the regular thing for a crew to run on arrival in the Colonies,
however comfortable the ship was. The crew picked up for the run home
was usually a fine one, of real sailormen, who had tired of the land
after a short spell of working ashore.


The “Christian McCausland” Loses her Wheel.

In 1873, on the run to the Horn, when homeward bound loaded deep
with wool and tallow (it was just before the days of Plimsoll) the
_Christian McCausland_ had her wheel washed away, and the incident, as
showing what a beautiful steering ship she was, is worth recording.

Being very deep, she was making a wet passage of it running before
the high westerly seas, and taking a good deal of heavy water aboard,
especially in the waist. About eight days after leaving port she was
running before a fresh gale on the starboard quarter, under reefed
foresail, reefed upper topsails, and fore topmast staysail, the only
sail set on the mizen being the lower topsail.

Soon after the change of the watch at 4 a.m., two heavy seas broke over
the poop in quick succession, and washed away the wheel, which with the
helmsman clinging to it was only brought up by the rail at the break of
the poop.

The mate, whose watch it was, ran forward, singing out for all hands,
and as he went, let go the topsail halliards. The ship, however, made
no attempt to broach to, and ran along as steadily as if someone was at
the helm.

As soon as possible the relieving tackles were rigged, and it was found
that with five men on each tackle the ship could be steered without any
difficulty. So the topsails were hoisted again and away she went.

The gear connecting the wheel to the rudder head was the usual right
and left handed screws, which were luckily undamaged. These no doubt
acted as a brake on the spindle and had a good deal to do with stopping
the ship from coming up in the wind when the wheel went. The wheel and
helmsman were found at the break of the poop, the man unhurt, but the
wheel with every spoke broken through close to the nave as if cut by a
saw.

During the morning watch the weather moderated and the carpenter was
able to unship the nave of the wheel, and it was found that one of
the main winch handles fitted the spindle as if made for it. This was
put on the spindle, and the ship was actually steered by turning the
winch handle, the helmsman facing the ship’s side and looking over his
shoulder at the compass. Later on, the captain improved this curious
method of steering, by lashing a small handspike to the vertical arm
of the winch handle, which gave the helmsman much more command and
also allowed him to stand upright. And in three days the carpenter
fitted the rim of the wheel and nave with a new set of stout elm
spokes, and made such a good job of it that it was not found necessary
to replace them on arrival in London. The rest of the passage was
uneventful, the Horn was rounded in fine weather, and the _Christian
McCausland_ finally brought up at Gravesend close astern of the Russian
royal yacht, which had just brought over the Czar Alexander on a visit
to England.

[Illustration: “CHRISTIAN McCAUSLAND.”

  _Photo by De Maus, Port Chalmers._]

[Illustration: “PIAKO.”]

After having four ships on the stocks in 1869, Patrick Henderson
remained content with his fleet until 1874. His ships were always
painted black with gold stripe and gingerbread work, whilst Shaw,
Savill’s were painted green. When the two firms amalgamated in 1882,
all their ships came out with painted ports and lead colour under the
ports.


The Origin of the Albion House-flag.

The Albion house-flag, a French flag with a small Union Jack in the
centre, is supposed to have originated during the Crimean War. It is
said that one of their early vessels carried both French and British
troops at the same time, and for this reason flew a Union Jack and a
French tricolour side by side on separate flagstaffs on the stern—this
being later improved upon by the well-known Henderson house-flag.


The New Zealand Shipping Company.

During the early years of the Colony Shaw, Savill and P. Henderson had
practically all the carrying trade in their hands. Occasionally an
outsider took a load of emigrants out to New Zealand, such as the White
Star liner _Chariot of Fame_, but the big Liverpool emigrant ships were
really too big for the small volume of trade at that time. However,
as both emigration to and trade with New Zealand increased, it was
felt that the service of ships could well be improved, and at last in
1873, with this object in view, a number of merchants and run holders
in the Colony decided to go in for shipowning and managing, and formed
themselves into a company under the style of the New Zealand Shipping
Company.

Full of enthusiasm, push and go, the promoters of the N.Z.S. Co. were
determined from the first to have a line worthy to class with the
Blackwall frigates of Green & Wigram. They had, of course, a great
deal to learn, and mistakes were made but never repeated; and so great
was their energy that in the first three years of their existence
they chartered and despatched no less than 150 ships, carrying 28,675
passengers to the Colony. And before the company was ten years old
it owned 16 up-to-date iron clippers, most of which had been built
specially for them.

From the start the N.Z.S. Co. proceeded on generous lines, their ships
being always well found, well manned and most liberally kept up. Their
officers, also, considered themselves the aristocrats of the trade
and rather looked down on the more economical Shaw, Savill and Albion
clippers, whom they nicknamed the “Starvation Stars,” in allusion to
the stars in their house-flag, which by the way is the proper New
Zealand flag which Queen Victoria presented to the Maoris.

The ships built for the N.Z.S. Co. were none of them specially fast;
they aimed chiefly at safety and comfort for their passengers.

All these ships were built of iron, the finest and fastest of the fleet
being the beautiful little _Turakina_, which originally belonged to
George Smith of the well-known City Line, being then called the _City_
_of Perth_, I shall deal with her in more detail presently.


  LIST OF THE NEW ZEALAND SHIPPING COMPANY’S SAILING FLEET.
  +-----+--------------------+----+------+-------+-----+-------------+
  |Date |     Ship           |Tons|Length|Breadth|Depth|  Builders   |
  |Built|                    |    | Feet | Feet  |Feet |             |
  +-----+--------------------+----+------+-------+-----+-------------+
  |1855 |_Pareora_           | 879| 203·3|  32·8 | 20·9|At           |
  |     |(ex-_White Eagle_)  |    |      |       |     |  Glasgow    |
  |1863 |_Waitara_           | 833| 182·4|  31·4 | 20·9|Reid,        |
  |     |                    |    |      |       |     |  Glasgow    |
  | „   |_Rangitiki_         |1188| 210·0|  35·0 | 22·7|Samuelson,   |
  |     |(ex-_Cimitar_)      |    |      |       |     |  Hull       |
  |1868 |_Turakina_          |1189| 232·5|  35·4 | 22·2|Connell,     |
  |     |(ex-_City of Perth_)|    |      |       |     |  Glasgow    |
  | „   |_Waimea_            | 848| 194·3|  31·7 | 19·0|Goddefrog,   |
  |     |(ex-_Dorette_)      |    |      |       |     |  Hamburg    |
  | „   |_Mataura_           | 853| 199·4|  33·3 | 20·3|Aitken,      |
  |     |(ex-_Dunfillan_)    |    |      |       |     |  Glasgow    |
  |1873 |_Rakaia_            |1022| 210·2|  34·0 | 19·2|Blumer,      |
  |     |                    |    |      |       |     |  Sunderland |
  |1874 |_Waikato_           |1021| 210·5|  34·1 | 19·2|Blumer,      |
  |     |                    |    |      |       |     |  Sunderland |
  | „   |_Waimate_           |1124| 219·7|  35·1 | 20·7|Blumer,      |
  |     |(ex-_Hindostan_)    |    |      |       |     |  Sunderland |
  | „   |_Waitangi_          |1128| 222·0|  35·1 | 20·8|Blumer,      |
  |     |                    |    |      |       |     |  Sunderland |
  |1875 |_Hurunui_           |1012| 204·1|  34·2 | 20·0|Palmers  Co.,|
  |     |                    |    |      |       |     |  Newcastle  |
  | „   |_Orari_             |1011| 204·1|  34·2 | 20·0|Palmers  Co.,|
  |     |                    |    |      |       |     |  Newcastle  |
  | „   |_Otaki_             |1014| 204·1|  34·2 | 20·0|Palmers  Co.,|
  |     |                    |    |      |       |     |  Newcastle  |
  | „   |_Waipa_             |1017| 204·1|  34·2 | 20·0|Palmers  Co.,|
  |     |                    |    |      |       |     |  Newcastle  |
  | „   |_Wairoa_            |1015| 204·1|  32·2 | 20·0|Palmers  Co.,|
  |     |                    |    |      |       |     |  Newcastle  |
  |1876 |_Opawa_             |1076| 215·2|  34·0 | 20·4|Stephen,     |
  |     |                    |    |      |       |     |  Glasgow    |
  | „   |_Piako_             |1075| 215·3|  34·0 | 20·5|Stephen,     |
  |     |                    |    |      |       |     |  Glasgow    |
  |1877 |_Wanganui_          |1077| 215·3|  34·0 | 20·4|Stephen,     |
  |     |                    |    |      |       |     |  Glasgow    |
  +-----+--------------------+----+------+-------+-----+-------------+

The _Pareora_ was broken up in 1889.

The _Waitara_ came to her end by colliding with the _Hurunui_ in the
English Channel on 22nd June, 1883.

The _Rangitiki_ was sold to the Norwegians and renamed _Dalston_. She
was resold in 1909 for £1500 and went to New Caledonia as a hulk.

The _Waimea_ was sold to the Norwegians and wrecked on the South
African Coast in 1902.

The _Mataura_ brought the first cargo of frozen meat from New Zealand,
arriving on 26th September, 1882, being fitted with Haslam’s patent dry
air refrigerator. She was then rigged as a barque. She was eventually
sold to the Norwegians and renamed _Alida_. On 24th August, 1900, she
was dismasted in the Pacific and abandoned.

The _Raikaia_ also went to the Norwegians and was renamed _Marie_. She
was again sold, to Boston shipowners, for 4850 dollars, and is once
more sailing the seas under her old name.

The _Waikato_ was sold to the Germans and her name changed to _J. C.
Pfluger_. They sold her in 1900 to Californian owners, who sailed her
out of Frisco rigged as a barquentine. She is now a hulk disguised
under the name of _Coronado_.

The _Waimate_, from noon on 26th November to noon 27th November, in
1881, covered 354 miles in the 23½-hour day running the easting down
in lat. 47° S. In the p.m. the sea was smooth and the wind gradually
freshening, Captain Mosey who was making his first voyage in the ship,
hung on to his main royal until the first watch, the wind being on the
port quarter. By daybreak the wind was dead aft with bright sunshine
and a clear sky, but with a very big sea running.

Her best week’s run was from the 27th November to 3rd December, being
1807 miles.

_Waimate_ was a skysail yarder, and with the wind abaft the beam could
be made to travel, but she was nothing extraordinary with the yards on
the backstays.

She was once in company with Shaw, Savill’s _Marlborough_ off the
Snares. With the wind free she had the best of it, but as soon as they
hauled up to stand along the New Zealand Coast the _Marlborough_ passed
her without any trouble.

Two years later _Waimate_, with Captain Mosey still in command,
ran from Lyttelton to the Scillies in 71 days. She was sold by the
N.Z.S. Co. to the Russians and renamed _Valkyrian_. She went missing in
1899.

_Waitangi_ is still afloat flying Norwegian colours under the name of
_Agda_.

_Hurunui_ is also, I believe, still afloat under the Russian flag, her
name being _Hermes_.

_Orari_ was sold to the Italians in 1906 and converted into a hulk in
1909.


“Otaki’s” Record Passage Home.

_Otaki_ is famous for her wonderful run home in 1877. She left Port
Chalmers with Captain J. F. Millman in command at 4 p.m. on 11th March;
was becalmed for four days off the New Zealand Coast; was then 22 days
to the Horn; reached the Lizard 63 days out from her departure, and
docked in London 69 days out. During this passage she only had eight
hours of head winds. _Otaki_ was nothing special in the way of sailing
and never made more than 10 knots, so her passage must really be put
down to amazing good luck. She was bought by the Germans and renamed
_Dr. Siegert_, being wrecked in 1896.

_Waipa_ went to the Norwegians in her old age, and I believe she is
still afloat under the name of _Munter_.

_Wairoa_ was bought by the Russians and renamed _Winnipeg_. She went
missing in 1907 whilst bound from Pensacola to Buenos Ayres.

_Opawa_ and _Piako_ were two beautiful little ships. In 1877 _Opawa_
went from the London Docks to New Zealand and home again with wool
in 6 months 9 days. And in 1893 she made the passage New Zealand to
Liverpool in 83 days. She was still afloat in quite recent years under
the name of _Aquila_ and Norwegian colours. The sister ship _Piako_
went missing in 1900 on a passage from Melbourne to the Cape, being
then German owned.

The _Wanganui_, last ship built for the firm, was still afloat when the
war started as the Norwegian barque _Blenheim_.


“Turakina” ex-“City of Perth.”

I have left the _Turakina_ to the last, as she deserves a longer
notice, being one of the most beautiful little iron ships that ever
left the ways. She was built of extra thick plates and launched in May,
1868, for Smith’s famous City Line to Calcutta.

The following interesting account of her in her early days appeared in
the _Nautical Magazine_ in 1917:—

  I sailed in this vessel when she was three years old, under Captain
  Beckett, a native of Saltcoats, Firth of Clyde. Captain Beckett would
  have no foreigners or negroes sail with him, either as officers or
  sailors, and he was one of the most upright and good-living men I
  ever sailed under, and I went to sea first in 1858. His policy was
  the same for the men as for the cabin, with plenty of good food, no
  allowance, sufficient without waste, and plenty of work to keep the
  scurvy out of the bones, as the sailors said.

  We left the Clyde at latter end of September, 1871, with a general
  cargo for Calcutta. We soon got out of the St. George’s Channel, and
  got all the studding sail gear rigged ready for the first favourable
  wind, and that occurred in lat. 43° N., long. 14° 15′ W. We then set
  topgallant, royal, topmast, and square lower stunsails, watersails,
  ringtail and ringtail watersail, Jamie Green and save-alls every
  place where a sail could be set; wind N.W. but gradually increasing
  to a gale.

  However we kept everything on her. On the second day after everything
  had been set, about 11 a.m., we sighted a ship ahead of us; by 2 p.m.
  we were up alongside of her. She was a New York full-rigged ship from
  the Tyne for California.

  The American captain asked us where we were bound from and where
  bound to. The whole of his crew came and looked at us, and her master
  cried to our captain that we were the prettiest sight he had ever
  seen. Our ship was going fully 17 knots when we passed her, and in
  three hours we had left her completely out of sight.

  I have been in many ships in my time, but never one to equal her for
  speed. She was built by Connell, on the Clyde, and she was certainly
  that firm’s masterpiece. She was iron, and one of the most beautiful
  models you could look at in the water. The _Thermopylae_ was the
  largest of the China clippers. She was 948 tons, but the _City_ was
  1189 tons. She was a far more powerful ship. I have been in many
  cracks, but I never saw anything that could look at her in a strong
  breeze, and as for running in a heavy gale she would run before the
  heaviest gale that ever blew.

[Illustration: “TURAKINA” _ex_ “CITY OF PERTH.”

  _Photo by De Maus, Port Chalmers._]

[Illustration: “OTAKI” becalmed.

  _Lent by F. G. Layton._]

And he goes on to give the following week’s work from the N.E. trades
to Sandy Hook.

  Left Calcutta, 16th January, 1872, for New York. Arrived at New York
  on 5th April, 1872. Below are the position and runs in nautical miles.

  29th March, 1872, position at noon, lat. 28° 01′ N., long. 30° 00′ W.

  30th March, 1872, position at noon, lat. 30° 40′ N., long. 35° 56′ W.
  distance 298.

  31st March, 1872, position at noon, lat. 32° 14′ N., long. 41° 44′ W.
  distance 300.

  1st April, 1872, position at noon, lat. 33° 55′ N., long. 48° 35′ W.
  distance 363.

  2nd April, 1872, position at noon, lat. 35° 30′ N., long. 55° 39′ W.
  distance 350.

  3rd April, 1872, position at noon, lat. 36° 51′ N., long. 62° 36′ W.
  distance 350.

  4th April, 1872, position at noon, lat. 38° 40′ N., long. 69° 10′ W.
  distance 345.

  5th April, 1872, position at noon, lat. 40° 29′ N., long. 73° 58′ W.
  distance 342.

  Time 170 hours. Nautical miles 2348.

I do not agree with all his distances, but anyhow it is a wonderful
week’s work and probably the quickest run into New York from 28° N.,
30° W., ever made by a sailing ship.

During the seventies Messrs. George Smith & Sons generally sent one
or two of their fastest ships out to Australia for a wool cargo home;
and in 1873, 1874 and 1875 _City of Perth_ went out to Melbourne and
loaded wool home. Her outward passages ran to over 80 days, but in 1874
Captain Beckett made the fine run of 81 days to the Thames.

Owing to the exporters of wool insisting that her bottom was foul, she
was docked, with her cargo on board, in the Alfred Graving Dock the
day before she sailed. Her bottom was found to be clean, but Captain
Beckett took the opportunity to give her a coat of tallow, and leaving
on the following day, 15th November, he caught the February wool
sales without any difficulty and eased the minds of the anxious wool
exporters. It was his last passage in her, however, for in 1875 Captain
Warden took her out to Melbourne in 88 days from the Lizard, but he ran
his easting down in 38° S. and did not give her a chance. Again she
loaded wool and this time was given a coating of Peacock & Buchan’s
patent before sailing.

After this she went back to the Calcutta trade until 1881, when she
left London under Captain McDonald for Canterbury, N.Z., and went on to
Timaru and loaded wheat. She completed her loading, and on 13th May,
1882, was lying at anchor in the inner anchorage close to the _Ben
Venue_, when it came on to blow with a big sea making.

8.30 a.m. on the 14th found the _Ben Venue_ with two anchors and the
_City of Perth_ with three, riding out a furious gale. But the outlook
was very bad especially for the little _Ben Venue_ which had a heavy
list to starboard, being almost on her beam ends. Four hours later one
of Ben Venue’s cables parted and she began to drag, and about 1 o’clock
stranded in Caroline Bay.

About the same time _City of Perth_ was also seen to be dragging her
anchors and soon afterwards drifted ashore to the north of _Ben Venue_,
but further seaward.

Captain McDonald tried to send a boat ashore, but she capsized and
the ship’s second mate and carpenter were both drowned and the mate
had his leg broken. Meanwhile great rescue efforts were made from the
shore, the lifeboat was launched, but she also capsized and six of her
crew were drowned, including the harbour-master of Timaru. The gale
had moderated sufficiently by the 19th to attempt towing the _City
of Perth_ off, but without success. Her partner in misfortune, the
beautiful little _Ben Venue_, had by this time become a total wreck,
and the only gear salved, including some of her spars, was sold for
£150.

After the failure to get the _City of Perth_ afloat her cargo was
got out of her, and with an empty hold she was at last towed off
successfully. She was then surveyed and sold, her hull and gear only
fetching £900. She was next towed round to Port Chalmers and docked
there on 1st July, when it was found that the rudder was carried
away, with about 20 feet of the keelson and keel, besides five bottom
plates very much damaged. It speaks well for the ship, considering the
pounding she must have undergone, that the damage was not worse. Again
she was sold privately for £500, I am not certain whether the N.Z.S. Co.
bought her on this occasion or after her arrival in London after being
patched up. If they did, they got a wonderful bargain, though they
might have had a still better, for whilst she was lying stranded she
was offered for sale by auction and only a few pounds bid for her.

After being repaired and refitted, she was sent to Invercargill to load
for London; and she left Invercargill on 13th April, 1883, in charge of
Captain McFarlane, arriving safely in the Thames on 8th July after a
good passage of 86 days.

Here she had a thorough refit, and finally left London on 24th October,
1883, under a new captain, with the name of _Turakina_ on her stern
and flying the N.Z.S. Co. house-flag. She arrived at Auckland on 19th
January, 1884, 86 days out.

During the next few years we find her in charge of a Captain Power, who
was evidently not a sail carrier, for she did nothing remarkable whilst
he had her.

In 1885, on her passage home from Otago, she survived another bad
dusting. She left Port Chalmers on 9th March, had strong S.W. gales
and heavy weather to the Horn, which was rounded at 6 a.m. on the 5th
April, 27 days out. On 11th April, when in 44° 46′ S., 40° W., she ran
into a perfect hurricane, the squalls being at their worst between
noon and 5 p.m. At 2 p.m. the lower main topsail blew away, at 2.30
the foresail was whipped out of her and at 3 the lee quarter boat was
washed away. All this time the ship was swept fore and aft by the
terrific sea running, and at 5 p.m. the weight of water on her main
deck burst the lee topgallant bulwarks. Luckily the wind then began
to veer to the S.W. and the squalls began to take off and come up at
longer intervals.

The equator was crossed on 3rd May, 28 days from the Horn. She had
light trades followed by moderate southerly winds to the Western Isles,
then light southerly and easterly winds, with thick fog to the Wight,
where she picked up her tug, arriving in the Thames on 11th June, 94
days out.

Like most of the New Zealand clippers _Turakina_ was fitted with
refrigerating machinery in the late eighties, and it was as a frozen
meat ship under Captain Hamon that she made her name as a passage maker
in the New Zealand trade.

In 1892 she left Gisborne and arrived home on 31st May, 78 days out.

In 1893 she left Timaru for Liverpool on 2nd February, but carried away
her mainyard on the first night out and had to put back to Lyttelton to
repair damages. This spoilt her passage.

In 1894 she signalled off the Lizard on 27th May, only 69 days out from
Wellington, and docked in the London River, 71 days out.

In 1895 she made the Wight on 1st July, 73 days out from Port Chalmers.

On her previous outward passage she had distinguished herself by
sailing past the company’s steamer _Ruapehu_. The following account of
this incident was given me by one of the officers of the steamship:—

  On the 14th February, 1895, in lat. 46° 15′ S., long. 68° 16′ E.,
  the N.Z.S. Co.’s mail steamer _Ruapehu_ was running her easting down
  under whole topsails and courses, the weather dirty and a strong wind
  from the norrard, force 7 Beaufort scale. At 9 a.m. a sailing ship
  was reported astern, topgallant sails up. Shortly after she sheeted
  home her royals. Orders were given on the _Ruapehu_ to the engineer
  to drive the ship and topgallant sails were set, the patent log
  showing a good 14.

  At noon exactly the N.Z.S. Co.’s sailing ship _Turakina_ passed
  along our lee side. She was then carrying all square sail except
  mizen royal and topgallant sail (probably griping a good deal). She
  was right alongside and you could distinguish the features of the
  officers, and see the seas breaking over her—I have a very good
  photo. She then hauled her wind and crossed our bow, at the same time
  shortening sail to topsails, reef in mainsail and furled crossjack;
  even then she held her own with us during a long summer evening
  light, till 9.30 there she was just ahead on the port bow.

  Next day at noon we had run 315 miles. At midnight the wind came aft
  and she was therefore not in sight from masthead at daylight. It was
  a wonderful performance and made a man feel glad to be alive to see
  it.

And the _Turakina_ held her own for 14 days. She covered the 5000 miles
between the meridians of the Cape and the Leeuwin, in 16 days, her best
runs being 328, 316 and 308.

I am glad to say that the gallant little ship is still afloat under the
name of _Elida_, owned in Tordesstrand.

In 1912 she was in Rio at the same time as the Portuguese _Ferreira_
ex-_Cutty Sark_. I wonder how many of the shipping people there
realized that two of the fastest and most beautiful sailing ships ever
built were lying at anchor in their wonderful harbour.

Before leaving the _Turakina_, I must not omit to give her official
measurements from Lloyd’s Register:—

  Tonnage (net)                          1189 tons
  Tonnage (gross)                        1247  „
  Tonnage (under deck)                   1160  „
  Length                                232.5 feet
  Breadth                                35.4  „
  Depth                                  22.2  „
  Depth moulded                          23.5  „
  Freeboard amidships (summer)           4.5½  „
  Raised quarterdeck                       32  „


Robert Duncan’s Six Beautiful Sister Ships.

In 1874 Patrick Henderson launched out by ordering six iron passenger
clippers from Robert Duncan and two from Scott, of Greenock, and of the
big fleet of splendid iron ships built in the seventies there were few
more perfect specimens of the shipbuilders’ art than these eight ships.
The following are the measurements of the Duncan ships:—

  +--------------+----------+-------+------+----+-----+------+--------+
  |              |  Date    |       |      |    |     |Length| Length |
  |     Ship     | Launched |Tonnage|Length|Beam|Depth|  of  |   of   |
  |              |          |       |      |    |     | Poop |Foc’s’le|
  +--------------+----------+-------+------+----+-----+------+--------+
  |_Dunedin_     |March 1874| 1250  | 241  |36.1|20.9 |  70  |   35   |
  |_Canterbury_  |May   1874| 1245  | 239.7|36  |20.8 |  70  |   35   |
  |_Invercargill_|June  1874| 1246  | 239.7|36  |20.7 |  70  |   35   |
  |_Auckland_    |July  1874| 1245  | 239.8|36  |20.7 |  70  |   35   |
  |_Nelson_      |Aug.  1874| 1247  | 239.3|36  |20.7 |  70  |   35   |
  |_Wellington_  |Sept. 1874| 1247  | 239.8|36  |20.7 |  70  |   35   |
  +--------------+----------+-------+------+----+-----+------+--------+

[Illustration: “AKAROA.”]

[Illustration: “INVERCARGILL,” off Tairoa Heads.

  _Lent by F. G. Layton._]

All these ships, with the exception of _Dunedin_, which went missing
when homeward bound with frozen meat in 1889, were sailing the seas
in the twentieth century, and until Shaw, Savill sold them in 1904-5
were still making good passages. Even after they had ceased to carry
emigrants, their outward passages were constantly under 80 days; and
the frozen mutton did not affect their homeward runs as much as one
would expect, for I find the _Nelson_ running from Wellington to the
Lizard in 1889-90 in 83 days; the _Auckland_ from Wellington to the
Lizard in 1899 in 84 days; _Invercargill_ from Timaru to the Wight in
1895, in 85 days, and _Wellington_ from Timaru to the Lizard in 1900 in
79 days.

The _Canterbury_ was credited with a run out of 64 days. She was at
her best off the wind in a strong breeze. She was still afloat at the
outbreak of the war, owned in Tordesstrand, Norway.

_Invercargill_, under Captain Bowling, had many excellent passages to
her credit. Captain Bowling was a native of Kingstown, in Ireland,
and started his sea life in the China trade. He commanded the
_Invercargill_ for 13 years, at the end of which time he had been 50
years at sea and 30 years in command of sailing ships. He was one of
Shaw, Savill’s most trusted commanders and was noted for the way in
which he handled his beautiful ship.

Not many years ago a writer to the “Nautical” described one of Captain
Bowling’s skilful bits of seamanship. He wrote as follows:—

  The _Invercargill_, fully laden from London, arrived off Wellington
  Heads one afternoon. A fine southerly breeze was blowing. Very
  impatient to get anchored, Captain Bowling decided to sail right
  in without the assistance of a tug. But just as he got well up the
  entrance, the wind suddenly veered right round to the northward and
  blew hard, and as his ship was well up inside Barrett’s Reef by this
  time, things began to look rather serious. Notwithstanding his many
  difficulties—for the slightest error or hesitation in timing the
  order of the different manœuvres meant disaster—old Bowling managed
  everything like clockwork, and the _Invercargill_ dropped her anchor
  off Kaiwarra, just as darkness fell.

The _Invercargill’s_ last passage under the British flag in 1904
was her worst; in it she weathered out the biggest gale of Captain
Bowling’s experience. She sailed from Sydney, N.S.W., on the 27th
August, 1904, loaded with wheat, being bound to Queenstown for orders.
On the 30th September she was caught in a Cape Horn snorter, her
cargo shifted to port, her port bulwarks were carried away and for
some time she lay on her beam ends. At last by hard work the cargo
was man-handled to the windward side, she righted and continued her
passage. But once again she ran into heavy weather, this time in the
Atlantic in 45° N., 20° W., and the morning of the 8th December found
her battling with a heavy gale from N.W., the weather being clear. The
entry in the log at 4 p.m. said:—

  Hard squalls and high confused sea, vessel labouring heavily and
  shipping great quantities of water fore and aft.

At 7 p.m. both wind and sea increased, and a huge mountain of water
broke over the port quarter and swept the decks, the whole length of
her. The cabin skylight was burst in and the water flooded below,
breaking into the saloon and cabins, the sail locker, the lazarette and
even into the ’tween decks; the companion hatch on the poop was carried
away, and along with it went both compasses, stands and binnacles,
side lights and screens, the patent log from the taffrail; in fact,
pretty near everything on the decks except the wheel. Mr. Le Sueur,
the mate, lost no time in getting a sail over the gaping skylight and
all hands were turned to bailing out the water from below, which was
up to one’s waist in the cabin. 8 p.m. found the gale still blowing
with undiminished force, and the ship was rolling heavily as she ran
before it. By midnight the seas were mountainous and the squalls
became fiercer and more frequent. About 4 a.m. a big sea washed out
the carpenter’s quarters, and “Chips,” under the impression that the
ship was sinking by the head, made the best of his way aft. But Captain
Bowling and his officers were all below clearing up the wrecked
cabin, etc. The carpenter, thereupon, informed the man at the wheel of
his fears, with the result that the latter had an attack of nerves,
thought he was running the ship under, and allowed her to come to. As
the ship broached to, the cargo shifted for the second time and the
_Invercargill_ went over on her beam ends. The foresail, fore upper
topsail, jib, fore topmast staysail and main royal all blew adrift out
of the gaskets and were soon in tatters. The lifeboat to leeward was
lifted out of her davits and swept away. Then, whilst the ship lay
down with her lee foreyard arm dipped 6 feet into the broken water to
leeward, the seas worked havoc on the flooded main deck.

Daylight disclosed the extent of the damage; the galley was gutted, the
carpenter’s shop was bare, all his tools gone and the doors smashed in;
the contents of the bosun’s locker, paint locker, and the mate’s and
second mate’s cabins were washed clean out of them, and gone overboard.
The topgallant bulwarks to leeward were all gone, and the running gear
being dragged backwards and forwards through the swinging ports was
cut to pieces, two of these ports had been torn off their hinges; the
foc’s’le-head and poop ladders were gone and all the poop stanchions;
whilst the racks for handspikes and capstan bars were empty.

All that day and the next night the _Invercargill_ lay like a log with
her lee rail buried deep and her main deck full of water. At last,
early on 10th December, the wind dropped very light and went into the
S.W. with thick weather.

Cargo was jettisoned to bring the ship on an even keel, and at last she
was got away on her course. The next difficulty was making a landfall
without a reliable compass, as only an old compass which had not been
adjusted was available, both the steering and standard compasses having
gone overboard.

In spite of a large allowance made for his defective compass, Captain
Bowling found himself nearly ashore amongst the Scilly Isles. Again his
fine seamanship saved the vessel, and on the 18th December he brought
her safely into Queenstown, 113 days out from Sydney.

Orders were received here to proceed to Glasgow, but the crew came aft
and refused to proceed in the crippled ship; upon which she was towed
round to the Clyde and was docked in Princes Dock, Govan, on Christmas
Eve.

After she had been repaired and refitted at a cost of £1000, Shaw,
Savill sold the splendid old ship to the Norwegians, who renamed her
the _Varg_. She sailed for Christiania in 1905, with coal ballast, and
was never seen again after clearing the Tail of the Bank.

The _Auckland_, after a long and successful career with many fine
passages to her credit, was sold to S. O. Stray, of Norway, in 1904,
but soon disappeared from the Register.

The _Nelson’s_ finest sailing feat was in 1875, when she ran from Otago
Heads to the Horn in 19 days. She was still afloat in 1914 at the
outbreak of the war, sailing as a barque under the Chilean flag, and
must often have had a chance of trying her sailing powers against the
old tea clipper, _Lothair_, which was also still afloat on the West
Coast of South America.


“Wellington” and Captain Cowan.

I cannot pronounce an opinion as to which was the fastest of these
six beautiful Duncan sisters, but the _Wellington_ probably has the
best average. She was taken from the stocks by Captain D. Cowan,
of Peterhead, and under his able guidance was a most consistent
passage-maker. Captain Cowan, like Captain Bowling, of _Invercargill_,
was a magnificent seaman of the old sailing ship type, the survivors of
which grow fewer, alas, every day. He served his time in the Peterhead
whale fishery. Then about 1862 he joined Patrick Henderson’s as third
officer of the _Pladda_, a slow but comfortable old wooden packet,
which carried 400 emigrants to Port Chalmers. His next vessel was the
_Vicksburgh_. Again after one New Zealand voyage he was transferred,
this time with promotion to mate, to the _Jane Henderson_, in which he
made three voyages to Rangoon, on the last of which, about 1867, he
went in command. His second voyage as a skipper was in the _Helenslee_
with passengers to Port Chalmers. This ship was sold in New Zealand,
and Captain Cowan travelled home as a passenger. He next had _Margaret
Galbraith_ for two voyages, then the composite clipper _Wild Deer_,
which he left in order to take over the _Wellington_.

Captain Cowan had the _Wellington_ for 18 years. He told me that the
_Wellington_ was such a fast ship with the wind abaft the beam that he
never remembers her being passed under such conditions, but that she
was nothing out of the way when braced sharp up. This indeed may be
said to have been the general case with Duncan’s ships. From 1877 to
1884 _Wellington_ ran from Glasgow to Otago with first class passengers
and emigrants. Under these favourable conditions her average outward
passage was about 80 days, her four best being 73, 75, 76 and 78 days.

Soon after the amalgamation with Shaw, Savill, _Wellington_ had
freezing machinery put on board, and henceforth came home with 18,000
carcases a trip. The _Wellington_ had her freezing machinery on board
for four voyages, after which the mutton was sent on board frozen.


“Wellington” Collides with an Iceberg.

Early in the nineties she nearly finished her career by colliding
with an iceberg to the eastward of the Falkland Islands. Her bows
were stove in, two men being killed in the foc’s’le by the deck being
driven down on top of them, broken down by a mass of ice falling
aboard. The bowsprit and jibboom were, of course, carried away, and
also the fore topmast; only the collision bulkhead saved the ship from
sinking. Captain Cowan shored up his bulkhead and squared away for Rio
de Janeiro. He was a month getting there and repairs were hardly under
weigh before the Civil War broke out, and all work was stopped for six
months.

Meanwhile in order to keep the mutton frozen, the engine had to be kept
going at full speed night and day; owing to the heat not even a rest
for an hour to overhaul it could be thought of, and it says a good deal
for Captain Cowan and his engineer that they managed to keep the engine
running without a breakdown for so many months.

Orders came out from home that the mutton was to be sold; whereupon
Captain Cowan rashly sold some of it to the rebels—the Government at
once issued a warrant for his arrest—and he had to be smuggled aboard
the New Zealand Shipping Co.’s steamer _Norangi_, the mate being left
in charge. After this very trying experience Captain Cowan, feeling
that he needed a rest, retired from the sea.

[Illustration: “TIMARU.”

  _Photo by De Maus, Port Chalmers._]

[Illustration: “WELLINGTON.”

At Picton, Queen Charlotte Sound.

  _Lent by F. G. Layton._]

In 1904 the _Wellington_ was sold to S. O. Stray, of Norway, for
£3150. In December, 1906, she was abandoned on her beam ends and
foundered when bound from a Gulf port to Rosario.


“Oamaru” and “Timaru.”

Not content with Duncan’s six beautiful ships, Patrick Henderson
ordered two from Scott, of Greenock, in 1874. These were the _Oamaru_
and _Timaru_, which measured 1306 tons, 239.1 feet length, 36.1 feet
beam, 21 feet depth.

The _Oamaru_ was launched in October and the _Timaru_ in December.
These fine little ships were well worthy of ranking with Duncan’s
beauties.

The _Timaru_ especially, under Captain Taylor, made some fine passages,
when she was carrying emigrants.

In March, 1879, she reported off the Scillies, only 68 days out from
New Zealand. On the following outward passage, she went out to Port
Chalmers in 78 days. Whilst running her easting down she averaged 270
miles a day for 17 days. She had 499 souls on board this passage.

Captain Taylor was rather fond of sending bottles adrift, a common
practice in the old days, and he was lucky enough to have two picked up
in five years. One which he threw over in 12° N. in the Atlantic was
picked up in the Gulf of Guinea, and the other, thrown over just east
of the Cape meridian, was washed up on the beach in Western Australia.

These little New Zealand emigrant clippers, like the larger and earlier
Australian clippers, constantly carried very rich cargoes of bullion.
On one occasion the _Timaru_ had £57,000 in bar gold on board.

_Oamaru_ was finally sold to Norway and renamed _Fox_. She was broken
up in 1912.

_Timaru_ was sold in South Africa as a cold storage ship during the
Boer War, and is now, I believe, a freezing hulk at Durban.


“Marlborough,” “Hermione” and “Pleione.”

In 1876 three very fine little ships were built for Shaw, Savill; these
were:—

  _Marlborough_, 1124 tons, 228 feet length, 36 feet beam, 21 feet
  depth, launched in June from Duncan’s yard.

  _Pleione_, 1092 tons, 209.7 feet, length, 34.6 feet beam, 20.3 feet
  depth, launched in September by Stephen, of Glasgow.

  _Hermione_, 1120 tons, 219.4 feet length, 35 feet beam, 21 feet
  depth, launched in October by Hall, of Aberdeen.

The longest of the three was also the fastest, as is the general rule
where beam and depth are about the same.

_Marlborough_ was certainly a very fast ship and in 1880, under Captain
Anderson, ran from Lyttelton to the Lizard in 71 days.

In 1889 she sailed from New Zealand homeward bound with frozen mutton
about six weeks behind the _Dunedin_, and a great stir was raised in
New Zealand when neither ship reached her destination. No trace of them
was ever found, though the _Wellington_ which sailed in between the two
arrived safely.

_Pleione_, like so many ships in the New Zealand trade was eventually
sold to the Scandinavians, whilst _Hermione_ was bought by the Italians
and renamed _Mantova_. She was broken up at Genoa in 1913.


“Taranaki,” “Lyttelton,” and “Westland.”

These three were the last sailing ships built for the Shaw, Savill
& Albion Companies. _Taranaki_ was James Galbraith’s last ship and
_Westland_ Patrick Henderson’s.

[Illustration: “WESTLAND.”]

[Illustration: “TARANAKI.”

  _Lent by Captain T. S. Angus._]

All three were built by Duncan and were very fast ships, and
continued making fine passages right into the twentieth century. They
were over 100 tons smaller than Duncan’s 1874 ships, their measurements
being:—

  _Taranaki_, 1126 tons, 228.2 feet length, 35.2 feet beam, 20.9 feet
  depth.

  _Lyttelton_, 1111 tons, 223.8 feet length, 35.0 feet beam, 21.0 feet
  depth.

  _Westland_, 1116 tons, 222.8 feet length, 35.1 feet beam, 21 feet
  depth.

Of the three, _Westland_ was the fastest; in fact, many people
considered her to be the fastest of the Shaw, Savill & Albion fleet.
One of her best performances was a run of 72 days from Bluff Harbour to
the Lizard, where she reported on 31st March, 1895.

_Taranaki_ was sold to the Italians, when Shaw, Savill parted with
their sailers, and, owned in Genoa, was still afloat when the Great War
burst on Europe. The _Lyttelton_ struck on an uncharted rock outside
Timaru, when leaving homeward bound. _Westland_ went to the Norwegians,
she put into Moss, leaking, and was condemned there.


“Lutterworth” and “Lady Jocelyn.”

Besides the ships specially built for them, Shaw, Savill occasionally
bought a ship; of these probably the best known were the _Lutterworth_
and _Lady Jocelyn_.

The _Lutterworth_ was a fast little iron barque of 883 tons, built by
Denton, of Hartlepool, in 1868. Shaw, Savill & Co. sold her eventually
to Turnbull & Co., of Lyttelton, N.Z. Whilst on a passage from Timaru
to Kaipara in ballast, she was dismasted and abandoned in Cook Straits.
She was, however, picked up as a derelict and towed into Wellington,
where she was converted into a coal hulk.

The _Lady Jocelyn_ was one of those early auxiliary steamers, which
always seem to have had long and adventurous careers. She was
originally the _Brazil_, owned by the General Screw Steamship Company,
and was built as far back as 1852 by Mare, of London, her measurements
being—2138 tons; 254 feet length, 39 feet beam, 24.9 feet depth. Of
iron construction, she had a spar deck above her two decks, and no
expense was spared in her construction.

As an auxiliary steamer, like most of her kind, she proved to be
a money-eater, and when after a few years the company went into
liquidation she was bought by Shaw, Savill and put into their emigrant
trade as a sailing ship. Then as passengers began to desert the clipper
for steam, freezing machinery was put aboard her. Finally Shaw, Savill
laid her up in the West India Docks, and used her as a frozen meat
store ship, for which owing to her size and the freezing machinery
aboard she was well adapted.

Years passed and still she remained the most familiar object in the
West India Dock, right up to the present date, during which time she
has served a variety of purposes, such as store ship for the Shipping
Federation and a home for strike breakers.


Outsiders in the New Zealand Trade.

Though the New Zealand trade was held pretty tightly in the hands
of Shaw, Savill, the Albion Shipping Company and the New Zealand
Shipping Company, many a distinguished ship paid an occasional visit to
Maoriland, notably the beautiful tea clipper _Sir Lancelot_ in 1879;
the majestic Blackwall frigate _The Tweed_ in 1874, when she went out
to Otago in 78 days; _The Tweed’s_ great rival _Thomas Stephens_,
which took passengers to Otago in 1879; _Miltiades_, which in 1889-90
came home from Lyttelton in 78 days and the following season came home
from Wellington in 82 days; and _Thessalus_, which in 1900 ran from
Lyttelton to the Lizards in 87 days, beating the famous coolie ship
_Sheila_ by a week. _Loch Awe’s_ record passage to Auckland I have
already mentioned in these pages, also _Sam Mendel’s_ 68 days to Port
Chalmers. Some years later, in an attempt to beat this performance and
incidentally a fast little City liner, _Sam Mendel_ was dismasted and
came into port without her foremast, bowsprit and jibbooms, which had
all gone by the board.

[Illustration: “BEN VENUE.”]

[Illustration: “LADY JOCELYN.”]

The Pretty Little “Ben Venue.”

A regular trader to New Zealand in the seventies was Watson’s pretty
little _Ben Venue_, an iron main skysail-yarder of 999 tons, launched
by Barclay, Curle in 1867. Under Captain McGowan, she made the very
fine average of 77 days for her outward passages, her best homeward
being 72 days to the Lizards from Lyttelton in 1879. I have already
described her loss in May, 1882.


“Hinemoa.”

The distinction of being the only sailing ship specially built for the
New Zealand frozen meat trade belongs to the splendid steel four-mast
barque, _Hinemoa_, built by Russell, of Greenock, in 1890. She measured
2283 tons, 278.1 feet length, 41.9 feet breadth, 24.2 feet depth. Like
many of Russell’s carriers she possessed a very fair turn of speed,
especially off the wind, and has the following fine passages to her
credit.

  1894  Downs to Melbourne                  77 days
  1901  Newcastle, N.S.W., to Frisco        60  „
  1902  Frisco to Old Head of Kinsale      101  „

_Hinemoa_ was built at a time when “sail” was making a final effort
to hold its markets against the steam tramp. That effort was a truly
gallant one, and but for the fact that the windjammer possesses a
charm and fascination totally lacking in steam, and has ever been
enthroned in the hearts of all lovers of the sea, masts and yards would
not have lasted longer in the Mercantile Marine than they did in the
Royal Navy.

That there were still sailing ships used commercially in 1914 goes to
prove that the most stony-hearted, matter-of-fact business man was
ready to sacrifice his pocket for a sentiment, a sentiment indeed which
many may find hard to define, yet which has forged the links in the
chain of nations which represent the present British Empire.

To sail and the sail-trained seaman more than to any other cause
do we owe our nation’s greatness. By sail were our homesteads kept
safe from the enemy; by sail were our new coasts charted; sail took
the adventurous pioneers to the new land, and sail brought home the
products of these new lands to the Old Country and made her the Market
of the World.

This book is an attempt to preserve in written form what the fading
memory is fast forgetting—the Glorious History of the Sailing Ship.

  As o’er the moon, fast fly the amber veils,
    For one dear hour let’s fling the knots behind,
  And hear again, thro’ cordage and thro’ sails,
    The vigour of the voices of the wind.

  They’re gone, the Clyde-built darlings, like a dream,
    Regrets are vain, and sighs shall not avail,
  Yet, mid the clatter and the rush of steam,
    How strangely memory veers again to sail!



APPENDIX



APPENDIX A.

_Extracts from “Lightning Gazette,” 1855-1857._


SECOND VOYAGE.—LIVERPOOL TO MELBOURNE.

  =Saturday, 6th January, 1855.=—At 8 a.m. the anchor was weighed and
  the _Lightning_ with two steamers ahead proceeded down the Mersey.
  The morning was cold with a small drizzling rain, the wind being
  contrary. The steam tender, on leaving with passengers for the shore,
  came in contact with our main brace and carried away her funnel. The
  start was anything but a cheerful one; nevertheless, with the aid of
  two powerful tugs, we progressed at the rate of 7 to 8 knots and at 6
  p.m. passed the Skerries Lighthouse.

  =Sunday, 7th January.=—During the night we were nearly run into by a
  large American clipper, the _Dreadnought_, of New York; she being on
  the port tack, it was her duty to give way, but true to her name or
  with the independence of her nation, she held her course disdaining
  to turn aside; our captain with praiseworthy prudence put his ship
  about and thus avoided a collision.

  =Monday, 8th January.=—Lat. 52° 14′ N., long. 6° 12′ W. Wind S.W. The
  night being very dark, we came in contact with a ship on the opposite
  tack. We saw and hailed, but the stranger evidently did not keep a
  good look-out and came straight upon us, striking our ship on the
  starboard bow. All was hubbub and confusion in a moment. The ships
  were speedily parted and fortunately without doing any damage to us
  worth mentioning. The stranger did not escape so well, having her
  jibboom carried away and her bowsprit sprung, as appeared to us in
  the dark.

  =12th January.=—Lat. 46° 55′ N., long. 10° 41′ W. Wind S.E. Distance
  269 miles. About 8 p.m. an alarm of fire was given and great
  excitement prevailed throughout the ship. This danger was caused by
  a drunken woman in the second cabin, who set fire to her bonnet; it
  was soon extinguished and the woman put in irons and confined in the
  “black hole” for the night as a warning.

  =13th January.=—Lat. 42° 58′ N., long. 14° 24′ W. Wind S.E.
  Distance 286 miles. It is a week to-day since we left Liverpool and
  considering that we had two days of contrary winds, two days of calms
  we have made a very favourable run from the land.

  =15th January.=—Lat. 39° 42′ N., long. 19° 25′ W. Wind S.S.E.
  Distance 202 miles. Ship going 13 knots close-hauled; in the morning
  we passed a ship outward bound with topgallant sails in, while we
  were carrying three royals and main skysail.

  _20th January._—Lat. 30° 37′ N., long. 19° 24′ W. Wind variable.
  Distance 130 miles. At 10 a.m. we sighted a steamer on weather bow,
  homeward bound. In a moment the tables were covered with writing
  desks. At 11 o’clock we neared her and found she was the General
  Screw Co.’s Steamship _Calcutta_ from Australia bound to Southampton,
  69 days out from Melbourne. We sent a boat to her with a bag of
  letters.

  =21st January.=—Lat. 29° 51′ N., long. 19° 56′ W. Wind S.S.W. At 5
  p.m. passed a large ship of war with two tiers of guns supposed to
  be H.M.S. _Monarch_, bound for the Pacific with Admiral Bruce, to
  replace the unfortunate Admiral Price, who shot himself before the
  attack on Petropaulovski.

  =24th January.=—Lat. 24° 24′ N., long. 19° 37′ W. Took the N.E.
  trades, very light.

  =26th January.=—Lat. 22° 07′ N., long. 20° 45′ W. Wind N.E., ship
  running 7 knots with smooth sea. A swing was put up on the poop
  to-day for the amusement of the ladies.

  =31st January.=—Lat. 8° 48′ N., long 22° 7′ W. Wind N.N.E. Distance
  130 miles. At 8 p.m. the ship was thrown into instant confusion by
  the cry of “man overboard.” The ship was quickly rounded to, the two
  quarter boats lowered away and after 10 minutes of intense anxiety a
  hearty cheer announced that they had found him. The man, who was a
  second intermediate passenger, could not swim but was kept up by a
  life-buoy.

  =1st February.=—Lat. 5° 45′ N., long. 21° 50′ W. Wind N.E. Distance
  180 miles. Ship running 12 knots before a fresh gale with light sails
  in. At noon the ship was again thrown into a state of alarm by the
  cry of “man overboard.” A sailor named John Benson, a Swede, had
  fallen from the jibboom. Lifebuoys were thrown to him and the two
  boats quickly lowered, but the wind blew strong, the sea ran high
  with rain and mist so that it was impossible to see any distance and
  after pulling for nearly an hour they returned with the sad report
  that they could see nothing of him.

  =3rd February.=—Crossed the equator at 10 p.m. in 23° 9′ W., 28 days
  out from Liverpool and 23 from Land’s End. Took the S.E. trade and
  lost the favourable north wind this morning.

  =9th February.=—Lat. 18° 15′ S., long. 34° 46′ W. Wind S.E. Distance
  308 miles. This is the best day’s work since we left; indeed it is
  the only chance our noble ship has had of displaying her sailing
  qualities.

  14 knots upon a bowline with the yards braced sharp up is certainly
  wonderful work and scarcely to be believed if it were not
  satisfactorily proved by the observation of the sun at noon, from
  which it appears we have sailed 308 miles in last 24 hours with a
  current against us, which is always supposed on this coast to run
  about a knot an hour with the wind, making an average of 13 knots an
  hour, and while going at this extraordinary rate she is as dry as
  possible, seldom shipping a spoonful of water. During the greater
  part of yesterday the carpenter was employed on a stage below the
  fore chains, where he worked as easily as if it had been calm.

  =14th February.=—Lat. 31° 47′ S., long. 34° 54′ W. Wind N.E. Distance
  93 miles. Began to run down our easting on a composite circle.

  =19th February.=—Lat. 41° 41′ S., long. 18° 45′ W. Wind N.W. Distance
  310 miles. Ship running 13 and occasionally 15 knots.

  =20th February.=—Lat. 41° 5′ S., long. 16° 34′ W. Distance 155
  miles. At midnight the wind suddenly flew round from N.E. to S.W.
  and blew a heavy gale. The change was so sudden that we were obliged
  to run before the wind for six hours to get the sails in, which was
  not done without some danger. After taking a reef in the fore and
  mizen topsails we hauled up again to E.S.E. The ship went very easy
  under the reduced sail and as dry as possible, though there was a
  heavy cross sea running. 10 a.m., more moderate, set mainsail and
  topgallant sails. Noon going 15 knots with royals set, yards slightly
  checked, going by the wind.

  =21st February.=—Lat. 42° 34′ S., long. 9° 10′ W. Wind South.
  Distance 342 miles. Ship going 15 and occasionally 16 knots with
  main skysail and fore topmast studding sail set, the yards slightly
  checked.

  =27th February.=—Lat. 46° 22′ S., long. 26° 15′ E. Wind west.
  Distance 390 miles. All night it blew a fresh gale with heavy squalls
  and occasional showers of hail and snow, the sea running high, ship
  running 16 and occasionally 18 knots. During six hours in the morning
  the ship logged 18 knots with royals, main skysail and topgallant
  studding sails set, the wind blowing a fresh gale from the westward.

  =28th February.=—Lat. 47° 24′ S., long. 33° 32′ E. Wind N.E. Distance
  308 miles. At 2 o’clock it blew a hard gale with heavy showers
  of rain and hail. Obliged to keep the ship before the wind while
  shortening sail. By 7 p.m. sail was taken in and ship laid to under
  trysail and topmast staysail, to prevent her running too far south
  for fear of coming in contact with ice.

  =7th March.=—Lat. 50° S., long. 68° 44′ E. Wind S.W. Distance 280
  miles. 10 a.m., sighted Kerguelen or Desolation Island, passing
  between Fortune Island and Round Island, small rocks about 20 miles
  off the mainland. 2 o’clock, abreast Cape St. George.

  =8th March.=—Lat. 49° 51′ S., long. 76° 24′ E. Wind N.W. Distance 296
  miles. Ship running with stunsails both sides, high sea.

  =9th March.=—Lat. 49° 50′ S., long. 83° 47′ E. Wind N.W. Distance 284
  miles.

  =10th March.=—Lat. 49° 28′ S., long. 89° 29′ E. Wind N.W. Distance
  221 miles.

  =11th March.=—Lat. 49° 11′ S., long. 94° 44′ E. Wind N.N.E. Distance
  325 miles. Midnight, fresh gale. Ship going 17 knots with single
  reefed topsails, foresail, trysail and fore topmast staysail, wind
  abeam.

  =12th March.=—Lat. 49° 11′ S., long. 106° 38′ E. Wind north. Distance
  366 miles. Thick weather and small rain.

  =13th March.=—Lat. 48° 27′ S., long. 114° 16′ E. Wind N.E. Distance
  318 miles.

  =19th March.=—Lat. 40° 25′ S., long. 143° 23′ E. Wind E.S.E. Distance
  308 miles. 4 p.m., rounded King’s Island. 8 p.m., sighted Cape Otway
  light bearing W. 18 miles. Stood off the land till midnight.

  =20th March.=—During the night strong gale from East. 1 p.m., pilot
  came aboard. 1.30 p.m., entered Port Phillip Heads.

  Passage of 73 days—Liverpool to Melbourne.
  Passage of 67 days—Land to land.

  The _Lightning_ beat the _Red Jacket_, _Ralph Waller_, _Eagle_, and
  _George Waller_, which sailed either previous to her or on the same
  date.

SECOND VOYAGE—MELBOURNE TO LIVERPOOL, 1855.

  =11th April.=—Early this morning the anchor was weighed and we were
  taken in tow by two steam tugs. Two guns were fired as a signal
  of departure, weather delightful but wind light and right ahead.
  When near the Heads spoke _Frederick_, of Liverpool, 95 days out.
  In passing she saluted us with two guns, her passengers and crew
  cheering, a courtesy which we returned. Calm for two days, ship only
  11 miles off Port Phillip Heads.

  =13th April.=—Passed through Bass Straits, _Gipsy Bride_ and other
  vessels in company.

  =17th April.=—Lat. 46° 12′ S., long. 156° 28′ E. _Lightning_ sweeping
  along at 17 and sometimes 18 knots.

  =18th April.=—Lat. 49° 5′ S., long, 162° 50′ E. Wind S.W. Distance
  314 miles. Sailing 16 knots an hour, wind steady with heavy cross
  sea. All starboard stunsails set.

  =21st April.=—Lat. 54° 21′ S., long. 175° 45′ W. Wind S.S.W. Distance
  327 miles.

  =24th April.=—Lat. 58° S., long. 158° 35′ W. Wind N.N.E. Distance
  285 miles. Sailing 14 knots close-hauled. P.M., heavy head gale,
  royals, skysails, jib and spanker in, ship pitching heavily.

  =26th April.=—Lat. 58° 7′ S., long. 150° 49′ W. Calm. Distance 79
  miles. During night heavy snow squalls.

  =1st May.=—Lat. 58° 53′ S., long. 112° 25′ W. Wind E.N.E. Sailing 8
  knots an hour by the wind. Sighted an iceberg 100 ft. high, 8 miles
  distant.

  =5th May.=—Lat. 54° 48′ S., long. 100° 44′ W. Wind E.N.E. to E.S.E.,
  strong gale. Took in foresail and single reefed the topsails. (This
  was the only occasion during the passage on which the topsails were
  reefed.)

  =8th May.=—Lat. 55° 56′ S., long. 85° 48′ W. Wind north. Distance 294
  miles. Skysails and staysails in and slab-reefed courses.

  =10th May.=—Lat. 58° 12′ S., long. 69° 49′ W. Wind N.N.W. Distance
  316 miles. 10 p.m., Cape Horn north 100 miles.

  =17th May.=—Lat. 44° 37′ S., long. 64° 31′ W. Going at the rate of
  12 to 14 knots and wind right aft which caused the ship to roll very
  much. About 3 p.m. a heavy shower of snow was hailed with delight
  by the passengers. Our captain transferred his command from the
  Black Ball to the White Ball Line and first commenced snow-balling.
  Fierce and fast grew the conflict, the ship helping many a valiant
  snow-baller to a seat on her slippery decks. At 4 we saw an American
  clipper standing eastward under close-reefed topsails.

  =1st June.=—Crossed the equator at midnight in 30° W. Visit of
  Neptune in the evening. Neptune made his appearance accompanied by
  his wife Amphitrite. Their Majesties were received with the usual
  honours, all the company standing up and the band playing “Rule
  Britannia.” Neptune was dressed in the uniform of a Line regiment,
  sea-green turned up with cerulean blue. His wife’s hair plaited in
  the most tasteful manner nearly touched her feet, swabbing the decks
  as she walked along. Neptune put the usual questions to our gallant
  commander and having received satisfactory replies, his Majesty,
  leaning upon his three-pronged toaster, made a circuit of the deck,
  while the fair Amphitrite in passing made a most condescending bow
  to the Queen of Beauty, who was supported on the arm of Aesculapius,
  and at this piece of condescension dropped her large blue eyes and
  looked confused. The salt of the briny element seemed to have excited
  the thirst of Amphitrite and her attendants, which the Chief Justice
  endeavoured to quench by draughts from the cup that cheers but
  inebriates. Neptune having taken the pledge when he visited certain
  other parts of his dominions would not put the hideous beverage to
  his lips. The Gods and Goddesses then delighted the company by their
  vocal melodies and finally descended to their chariot, which went off
  with fire and smoke.

  =4th June.=—Lat. 6° 30′ N., long. 30° 11′ W. Took the N.E. trades.

  =28th June.=—Four passengers and a number of letters landed off
  Kinsale.

  =29th June.=—11 a.m., taken in tow by steam tug _Dreadnought_.
  Anchored in Liverpool at 11 p.m. 79 days out. Since passing the Horn
  it had been a light weather passage, the moonsail only being lowered
  on two occasions and the lower deck ports only shut once.

THIRD VOYAGE.

  The _Lightning’s_ third voyage was an unfortunate one. On her arrival
  home in June, 1855, Messrs. James Baines & Co., whether at Captain
  Enright’s suggestion or not, I do not know, had her hollow bow filled
  in with deadwood, an action which caused her designer to refer to
  them as the “wood-butchers of Liverpool,” though in the light of
  modern knowledge in ship designing they were undoubtedly right, as
  hollow lines for sailing ships have long been proved a mistake.

  Unfortunately, however, the blocking in of the bows was not strongly
  enough done, and one day when she was close-hauled on the starboard
  tack in the South Atlantic, this false bow, as it was called, was
  washed away, leaving its frame and ribs bare. This, though in no way
  affecting the seaworthiness of the _Lightning_, spoilt her sailing,
  and what promised to be an excellent passage ran to 81 days.

  In Australia the bow was repaired, but the accident frightened
  would-be passengers, as the Government surveyors in Melbourne refused
  to give her a certificate and she also lost a lot of freight.

LIVERPOOL TO MELBOURNE, 1855.

  =Wednesday, 5th September.=—About 3 o’clock this afternoon, amid the
  booming of cannon, the sad and solemn strains of the band and the
  cheers of the passengers, our gallant ship was taken in tow by the
  tug _Rattler_. The commencement of our voyage is marked with a fair
  wind, so that the captain is determined to proceed without the aid
  of a tug. Accordingly at 7.30 the pilot left us and we bade him a
  cheering farewell. In the evening several songs were sung for “Each
  sail was set, and each heart was gay.”

  =Thursday, 6th September.=—At 2 a.m. we passed Holyhead, going from 7
  to 7½ knots, and Bardsey at 9. At 3 p.m. we were abreast of Tuskar.
  The ship is gliding along under an astonishing cloud of canvas, with
  stunsails alow and aloft. In the evening the band played several
  tunes; many of the passengers ventured on a polka and other dances
  with spirit.

  =Friday, 7th September.=—The light breeze of past two days died
  away at 4 this morning, leaving us becalmed. Happily the weather
  is delightful with clear sky and brilliant sun. The sea has the
  appearance of an immense sheet of glass. All parties are on deck so
  that the promenades are inconveniently crowded.

  =Tuesday, 11th September.=—About 11 a.m. we passed on the port side
  close to a Neapolitan brig, which put us in mind of Noah’s Ark. She
  was going ahead about one knot and drifting two, with a fine breeze
  that would have enabled a ship of any other nation to carry all sail,
  while these sea-lubbers rolled along under double-reefed topsails and
  furled mainsail. Lat. 44° 9′ N., long. 12° 5′ W. Distance run 205
  miles.

  =Thursday, 13th September.=—About 7 this morning we exchanged colours
  with a ship steering our course. At 12 she was but a white speck on
  the horizon and at 3 she was lost to sight.

  =Thursday, 20th September.=—About 8 a.m. we sighted a vessel right
  ahead about 10 miles distant and at 2 p.m. we were almost within
  speaking distance. She proved to be the barque _Araquita_, from
  England bound to Rio Janeiro. At 6, such was our speed, she was lost
  to sight. At 3.30 entered Tropic of Cancer.

  =Monday, 24th September.=—Lat. 14° 10′ N., long. 28° 14′ W. Distance
  78 miles. Early this afternoon we sighted the schooner _Gleam_,
  from Accra, on the Guinea Coast, bound to London. At 5 p.m. a boat
  was lowered and in command of Mr. Bartlett, the chief officer,
  accompanied by a few of the saloon passengers, proceeded to the
  _Gleam_, conveying a large number of letters and _Lightning Gazettes_
  for home. A small present of fresh meat and potatoes was also put on
  board and gratefully received. On the return of the boat we learned
  she was 47 days out and crossed the line 19 days ago.

  =Tuesday, 25th September.=—Lat. 12° 14′ N., long. 28° 1′ W. Distance
  117 miles. In the forenoon we exchanged colours with the brig
  _Favorite_, from Buenos Ayres to Liverpool. Shortly afterwards we
  passed a Danish brigantine and a Hamburg vessel.

  =Friday, 28th September.=—Lat. 9° 53′ N., long. 28° 5′ W. Distance
  33 miles. At 6 a.m. a boat visited us from the _Evening Star_, of
  Portland, from the Chincha Islands bound to Cork for orders.

  =Friday, 5th October.=—Crossed the equator.

  =Monday, 15th October.=—Lat. 24° 7′ S., long. 29° 59′ W. Distance 255
  miles. Ship sweeping along at the rate of 14½ knots.

  =Tuesday, 16th October.=—Lat. 24° 5′ S., long. 25° 50′ W. Distance
  225 miles. About 9 a.m. a considerable portion of the false bow on
  the larboard side was suddenly carried away.

  =Sunday, 21st October.=—Lat. 36° 4′ S., long. 24° 52′ W. Distance 238
  miles. At 5 p.m. sighted a large ship on our weather quarter, sailing
  under double-reefed topsails, and we apprehend they must have taken
  us for the _Flying Dutchman_ seen occasionally in these latitudes,
  for notwithstanding the strong breeze we would be observed carrying
  our skysails with studding sails ’low and aloft.

  =Monday, 22nd October.=—Lat. 38° 24′ S., long. 19° 21′ W. Distance
  300 miles.

  =Tuesday, 23rd October.=—Lat. 39° 22′ S., long. 12° 32′ W. Distance
  325 miles. At 9 a.m. during a sudden squall, carried away our
  starboard fore topmast stunsail boom—a splendid Oregon spar, which
  was carried right over the larboard bow.

  =Saturday, 17th November.=—Lat. 48° 00′ S., long. 121° 15′ E.
  Distance 324 miles. The wind changed during the night to W.N.W.,
  still blowing a fresh breeze with every sail set.

  =Sunday, 25th November.=—Sail was shortened at midnight and Bowman
  Head Lighthouse sighted at 3 a.m. Shortly afterwards hove to for a
  pilot and as his boat came near, at 4.30, every glass in her was
  levelled in astonishment at the bare ribs of our false bow. After
  getting inside the Heads, we again hove to and landed the Geelong
  mail. At 10 a.m. met the _James Baines_ homeward bound and hove to
  to communicate with her. Captain McDonald came on board and we had
  the pleasure of sending letters and papers home. At 1 p.m. we were
  at anchor with sails furled and the Melbourne mail landed. We had
  the misfortune to come into port with a broken bow which impeded our
  progress not less on the average than 3 knots an hour for upwards of
  9000 miles. On the last voyage we were going 17 knots, on the present
  with the same wind only 14—owing to the accident.

THIRD VOYAGE—MELBOURNE TO LIVERPOOL.

  =Friday, 28th December.=—At 8 a.m. we got outside the bar at Port
  Phillip Heads, when the agents and a few friends left in the pilot
  boat. From the captain of the latter we learned the sad intelligence
  of the loss of the _Schomberg_, off Cape Otway. The clipper ship
  _Blackwall_ was sighted right ahead of us at the same moment, and at
  10.30 we had the satisfaction of overhauling her. At 7 p.m. she was
  barely visible on the horizon. (The _Blackwall_ was one of Green’s
  frigate-built Indiamen.)

  =Friday, 4th January, 1856.=—Lat. 56° 34′ S., long. 177° 14′ W.
  Distance 334 miles. Wind S.W. Run for the week 1908 miles.

  =Wednesday, 9th January.=—Lat. 58° 32′ S., long. 136° 06′ W. Distance
  311 miles. Wind S.W. During the middle watch 7 icebergs were seen,
  some very large. During morning several more sighted. Snow fell
  during the day.

  =Monday, 14th January.=—Lat. 57° 48′ S., long. 93° 08′ W. Distance
  330 miles. Wind S.S.E., cold, with showers of snow and hail. Sighted
  two large icebergs on starboard bow.

  (28th December-15th January _Lightning_ ran 5244 knots in 18 days, an
  average of 12 knots on a direct course from Melbourne to Cape Horn.)

  =Sunday, 20th January.=—At 6 a.m. Cape Horn in sight, 25 miles
  distant.

  =Tuesday, 29th January.=—Lat. 35° 00′ S., long. 33° 15′ W. Distance
  300 miles. Wind east. Heavy cross sea and rattling breeze all night.
  Ship pitching very heavily and going at rate of 15 or 16 knots. At 1
  p.m. spoke Aberdeen clipper ship _Centurion_, from Sydney bound to
  London, 46 days out. She passed during the night the White Star ship
  _Emma_, of Liverpool, with Melbourne mail of 10th December. We have
  beaten the _Centurion_ 16 days and the _Emma_ 18.

  =Friday, 1st February.=—Spoke the mail ship _Emma_.

  =Sunday, 17th February.=—Crossed the equator at 8.30 a.m.

  =Tuesday, 26th February.=—In the forenoon carpenter fell from the
  stage on which he was working on the starboard side and immediately
  the appalling cry of “man overboard”! echoed through the ship. On
  rising to the surface of the water, he passed his hatchet over the
  fore sheet and held on until assistance was tendered.

  =Wednesday, 5th March.=—Lat. 42° 30′ N., long. 25° 33′ W. Distance
  181 miles. In forenoon sighted large vessel on lee bow under reefed
  topsails, whilst we carried royals with ease.

  =Friday, 14th March.=—Lat. 50° 43′ N., long. 14° 36′ W. Distance
  174 miles. Wind S.S.E. At 6 a.m. sighted two vessels on starboard,
  another on port bow. Ship put about at 8 a.m. Shortly after a
  schooner to windward of us. At 10.30 a.m. passed close to ship _Henry
  Fulton_, of New York, under close-reefed topsails and on opposite
  tack. During the day the wind blew with great violence from S.S.E.
  Towards evening it increased to a perfect gale. Every stitch of
  canvas that could be carried with safety was kept on until Captain
  Enright thought it full time to stow the topgallant sails and single
  reef the topsails and mainsail, which was done at 8 p.m. At midnight
  the foresail was also single-reefed.

  =Saturday, 15th March.=—Lat. 51° 52′ N., long. 12° 23′ W. Distance
  107 miles. Gale continued from S.S.E. during the night, splitting the
  fore topsail in two. At 9 a.m. hove to under a double-reefed fore
  sail and close-reefed main topsail.

  =Sunday, 16th March.=—Passed a longboat keel up.

  =Tuesday, 18th March.=—Wind S.S.E. Course full and by. Made the
  Skellig Rocks.

  =Wednesday, 19th March.=—Becalmed; nine vessels surrounding us. A
  couple of schooners close to and our starboard boat was lowered under
  Mr. Bartlett. On its return we learned one was the _Fashion_, 35
  days from Antigua, the other the _Breeze_, of Wexford, from Athens,
  73 days out and short of provisions, her crew subsisting on wheat
  which they ground. Kinsale Head light plainly discernible all night.

  =Thursday, 20th March.=—Still becalmed, a large number of vessels in
  all directions. Visited by Cork pilot boat which landed a number of
  passengers and portion of the mail at Castlehaven. Learnt that 60 or
  80 sail started from Crookhaven on previous day, all of which had
  been detained by same head winds.

  =Saturday, 22nd March.=—10.30 p.m., tug made fast.

  =Sunday, 23rd March.=—Arrived after a passage of 86 days against head
  winds and calms.

THE RUN.

  From Melbourne to Cape Horn          22 days
    „  Cape Horn to Equator            29  „
    „  Equator to Fayal                14  „
    „  Western Isles to Liverpool      21  „

A TABLE OF WINDS.

  Fair Winds    Light Winds     Calms     Head Winds.
    26 days       19 days      17 days     24 days

FOURTH VOYAGE—LIVERPOOL TO MELBOURNE, 1856.

  =Tuesday, 6th May.=—At noon the signal gun was fired, our anchor
  weighed and we proceeded in tow of our old friend, the _Rattler_.
  At 3 p.m. pilot left. At 4.30 cast off steamer and set all sail. At
  5.20 p.m. passed Point Lynas, the Skerries at 8, Holyhead at 9, and
  Bardsey at midnight.

  =Thursday, 8th May.=—Lat. 47° 08′ N., long. 10° 44′ W. Distance 274
  miles. At noon passed ship _Dauntless_, sailing similar course to our
  own.

  =Wednesday, 14th May.=—Lat. 33° 39′ N., long. 20° 30′ W. Distance 310
  miles.

  =Monday, 26th May.=—Crossed the line in long. 31° 40′ W.

  =Saturday, 21st June.=—Lat. 38° 53′ S., long. 5° 7′ E. Distance 253
  miles.

  =Sunday, 22nd June.=—Lat. 40° 07′ S., long. 13° 1′ E. Distance 346
  miles.

  =Saturday, 28th June.=—Lat. 44° 25′ S., long. 42° 58′ E. Distance 232
  miles. Wind increasing; whilst taking in lighter canvas, mizen royal
  and mizen topmast staysail were torn to pieces. P.M., reefs were
  taken in topsails. Ship running under foresail and reefed topsails.

  =Sunday, 29th June.=—Lat. 43° 36′ S., long. 50° 07′ E. Distance 312
  miles.

  =Monday, 30th June.=—Lat. 44° 02′ S., long. 56° 35′ E. Distance 281
  miles.

  =Tuesday, 1st July.=—Lat. 44° 39′ S., long. 63° 27′ E. Distance 298
  miles.

  =Wednesday, 2nd July.=—Lat. 45° 07′ S., long. 70° 55′ E. Distance 319
  miles.

  =Thursday, 3rd July.=—Lat. 45° 07′ S., long. 79° 55′ E. Distance 382
  miles. Her run to-day has been only once surpassed since she floated.

  =Friday, 4th July.=—Lat. 45° 07′ S., long. 88° 30′ E. Distance
  364 miles. Our week’s work of 2188 miles has been the best the
  _Lightning_ has ever accomplished.

  =Friday, 11th July.=—Lat. 45° 47′ S., long. 128° 25′ E. Distance 326
  miles. During the night our speed averaged 16 knots an hour. At 4
  p.m., split our mainsail and carried away two jibs.

  =Monday, 14th July.=—This morning at 7 a.m. our ears were saluted
  with the welcome sounds of “Land Ho!” At 8 a.m. we had a fine view
  of Cape Otway Lighthouse. As the depth of water on the bar was not
  sufficient to enable us to proceed up the Bay, we came to anchor
  under the lee of the land. We found the _Champion of the Seas_
  anchored at some little distance from us, waiting for a favourable
  wind to proceed to sea. Sailing time from port to port, 68 days 10
  hours.

MELBOURNE TO LIVERPOOL.

  =Wednesday, 27th August.=—By 10 a.m. we were fairly underweigh. On
  approaching the mouth of the Bay a farewell salute of six guns was
  fired. The wind dropped and we were obliged to anchor inside Port
  Phillip Heads at 6 p.m.

  =Thursday, 28th August.=—Cleared the Heads at 10.30 a.m. and at 11
  a.m. the pilot left us. We passed Lake Liptrap about 9 p.m. and
  shortly afterwards carried away our port fore topmast studding sail
  boom, by which accident two men stationed at the look-out had a
  narrow escape of losing their lives.

  =Sunday, 31st August.=—Lat. 46° 30′ S., long. 158° 46′ E. Distance
  313 miles. Wind strong from N.W. We have been going 15 and 16 knots,
  astonishing all on board, particularly those passengers who have
  hitherto sailed in London clippers.

  =Monday, 1st September.=—Lat. 49° 39′ S., long. 166° 35′ E. Distance
  366 miles. Thick weather and drizzling rain, sun obscured. At 5 p.m.
  breakers on the lee (starboard) bow were unexpectedly observed, which
  by some at first were supposed to be icebergs; they soon, however,
  appeared to be rocks and high land loomed darkly in the background.

  The ship was immediately hauled to the wind, when a bold bluff
  appeared through the fog on the weather bow. The helm was then put
  down and, contrary to the expectations of all on board, our ship came
  round; when all sails were trimmed she headed to clear the rocks.
  But the wind having fallen light and a heavy sea rolling towards the
  shore, a fearful period of suspense ensued. Thanks to the wonderful
  powers of our noble ship, she gathered headway and gradually passed
  the weathermost rocks. The prompt and cool conduct of our worthy
  captain, his officers and men cannot be too highly praised, as the
  smallest error or delay in the issue and execution of the order
  would have involved the certain destruction of the ship. On getting
  clear of the danger, the captain informed us that the rocks were the
  Bristows, off Enderby’s Island, near the Aucklands.

  (Captain Enright allowed 40 miles for the usual southerly set, but,
  as the occasion proved, this was not enough.)

  =Tuesday, 9th September.=—Lat 55° 08′ S., long. 148° 56′ W. Distance
  208 miles. Wind increasing, ship scudding at 16 and 17 knots with all
  studding sails alow and aloft set.

  =Wednesday, 10th September.=—Lat. 55° 33′ S., long. 138° 33′ W.
  Distance 355 miles. During the night our fore and main topgallant
  stunsails were split and also the main skysail, which was immediately
  unbent and replaced by a new one. Wind veering from W. to W.S.W.,
  very cold with sleet showers. At 9 a.m. an iceberg was sighted right
  ahead. It was measured by Mr. Bartlett and found to be 420 feet high.

  =Wednesday, 17th September.=—Lat. 57° 18′ S., long. 83° 28′ W.
  Distance 328 miles. The ship rolled much as she scudded under
  her topsails and courses with, at times only, the fore and main
  topgallant sails. We all know it must blow hard before our main royal
  and mizen topgallant sail are furled.

  =Thursday, 18th September.=—Lat. 57° 35′ S., long. 74° 48′ W.
  Distance 377 miles.

  =Friday, 19th September.=—At 11.15 a.m. on the meridian of Cape Horn.
  Distant 69 miles. Saw three ships beating to windward. Exchanged
  signals with the _Patriot King_.

  =Wednesday, 24th September.=—Lat. 47° 21′ S., long. 47° 05′ W.
  Distance 227 miles. Squally with rain, but all sail carried
  bravely—even little “bull-dog” up on the main skysail mast. Ship
  going 14 knots and sometimes 15 in the squalls.

  =Thursday, 25th September.=—Lat. 44° 40′ S., long. 41° 43′ W.
  Distance 278 miles. All sail set including topmast, topgallant and
  royal studding sails, in all 29 sails. Afternoon, the moonsail was
  sent up and set as the 30th.

  =Thursday, 9th October.=—Crossed the line in 28° 20′ W.

  (_Lightning’s_ average 238 miles daily.)

  =Tuesday, 14th October.=—Lat. 8° 12′ N., long. 28° 00′ W. Distance
  52 miles. At daylight two vessels in sight on the other tack, one
  a large ship with three skysails set, the other a brig. At 7 a.m.
  tacked ship to N.E. Signalised the ship, which proved to be an
  American, the _Tornado_; the brig was thought to be a Spaniard. About
  11, the clouds and mist enveloped our neighbours, who presently
  emerged with a fair southerly wind, although only distant about 5
  miles, while we retained our northerly wind. For a time all was
  uncertainty and doubt which wind would gain the day, but when the
  vessels came close up to us, bringing with them heavy rain and puffs
  of wind, we trimmed yards and soon were rushing through the water at
  the rate of 10 knots: anon all was calm and the sails flapped. Again
  we saw our American companion staggering under a heavy squall, which
  split his fore topgallant sail and main topmast staysail, and caused
  his masts to buckle like fishing rods: we had plenty more rain but
  did not catch the strength of the squall. There was great shortening
  sail and making sail, for the Yankee was going by us, distant about
  2 miles on our starboard side; meanwhile the little brig, with a
  more steady and strong breeze of his own, came close up on our
  port quarter. Then again all was lulled. The interval presented an
  opportunity of further signalling, and the following questions and
  answers were made.

  _Lightning_—“Where are you from and bound to?”

  _Tornado_—“Callao and Cape Hatteras.”

  _Lightning_—“We are from Melbourne.”

  _Tornado_—“How many days are you out?”

  _Lightning_—“Forty-seven.”

  At which answer _Tornado_ seemed surprised and although we had
  previously shown our number, again asked:—“What ship is that?”

  We answered:—

  _Lightning_—“How many days are you out?”

  _Tornado_—“Fifty-six.”

  We then exchanged the courtesy of hoisting and dipping ensigns.

  It was then about 4 o’clock, and for nearly an hour there was nothing
  but “box-hauling” the yards, when suddenly Jonathan caught a breeze
  and crept up alongside, and seemed very much inclined to pass us. All
  possible sail was set and trimmed most carefully but still _Tornado_
  gained, and all was anxiety and excitement. At last the strength
  of the breeze came to us, and for a few minutes there was a most
  exciting race, some even feared that we were going to be beaten;
  but the _Lightning_ showed her wonted superiority, our antagonist
  dropped astern, and a hearty cheer from us announced our victory.
  The wind then fell light again, and twice freshened and caused the
  same capital match; but the _Tornado_, though evidently a first-rate
  sailer—being one of the early Californian clippers—could not manage
  us; and, as the night closed in, and the breeze became more steady,
  we gradually bid him good-bye.

  =Wednesday, 15th October.=—Lat. 9° 27′ N., long. 27° 45′ W. Distance
  77 miles. Our American friend kept in sight until sunset.

  =16th-19th October.=—N.E. trades.

  =20th-28th October.=—Doldrums. The _Lightning_ only averaged 55 miles
  a day for nine days.

  =Wednesday, 29th October.=—Lat. 28° 31′ N., long. 35° 39′ W. Distance
  108 miles. At 4 a.m. a light breeze sprang up from the norrard. 6.30
  a.m., spoke a large American ship, the _Clarendon_, from Malta to New
  Orleans. 8 a.m., going 7 knots, almost a “dead on end” wind, but any
  wind at all is a change. Passed a brig to leeward and are overhauling
  three ships, which are ahead standing on the same tack. About 3 p.m.,
  passed the _Cid_, of Hambro, a very pretty little clipper barque.

  =Thursday, 30th October.=—7 a.m., tacked ship to N.N.W. A large ship
  in sight went about at the same time, ahead of us. During forenoon
  Captain Enright expressed himself confident that she was the _James
  Baines_. Great excitement and numerous conjectures, bets, etc. One
  thing certain that she sailed almost as fast as ourselves, and her
  rigging and sails were similar to those of the _Baines_. By sunset we
  had both weathered and gained on our companion.

  (The ship was the _James Baines_ and I have already described the
  encounter between the two Black Ballers.)

  =Wednesday, 5th November.=—Lat. 36° 30′ N., long. 35° 11′ W. Distance
  165 miles. (Distance made since 9th October 2219 miles or 76⅔
  miles daily.) During the night the wind suddenly shifted, catching
  the ship all aback; in the first puff the fore topmast stunsail
  boom was carried away. Passed a three-masted schooner steering
  to the westward, she showed an English Ensign, but from her rig
  appeared more like an American. She had no foresail or mainsail,
  but large main and mizen staysails, and a host of other staysails,
  square-rigged forward; was about 300 tons.

  =Friday, 7th November.=—The islands of Pico, Fayal, etc., in sight.

  =Tuesday, 18th November.=—Lat. 51° 04′ N., long. 6° 43′ W. Distance
  202 miles.

  =Wednesday. 19th November.=—1.30 a.m., Smalls Rocks light bore E.N.E.

  =Thursday. 20th November.=—At 4.30 p.m., Mr. W. Harris, pilot, came
  on board and took charge off Cape Lynas.

SUMMARY OF PASSAGE.

  Melbourne to Cape Horn          24 days  16 hours
  Cape Horn to Equator            19  „     8   „
  Equator to Pico, Azores         29  „     0   „
  Western Isles to Liverpool      11  „     0   „

WINDS.

  Fair Winds  Light Winds  Calms   Head Winds
    32 days    23 days     4 days  24 days

FIFTH VOYAGE—LIVERPOOL TO MELBOURNE, 1857.

  =Thursday, 5th February.=—After a little delay the tender brought all
  off safely to the _Lightning_, and the passengers were mustered and
  answered to their names to the Government inspector. A minister from
  the shore gave a parting address and about 4 p.m. the _Lightning_
  began her voyage to Australia in tow of the steam tug _Rattler_, for
  unfortunately the wind was dead ahead.

  =Saturday, 14th February.=—Lat. 38° 38′ N., long. 56° 59′ W. Distance
  127 miles. Fresh stores were being brought up from the mainhold when
  a barrel of vinegar fell from a considerable height upon Abraham Le
  Seur and injured him severely on the back. He was second mate to
  Captain Enright 18 years ago.

  =Tuesday, 24th February.=—Lat. 12° 01′ N., long. 23° 27′ W. Distance
  268 miles. In the evening our friend Mr. Taylor paid a visit to
  the mizen royal yard—much to the consternation of the ladies. He
  relieved, what we suppose he felt was the monotony of the descent,
  by descending by the preventer brace. If Mr. Taylor will allow us to
  advise, we would say “Very well done, but don’t do it again for it is
  a thing which the ladies cannot abide.”

  =Tuesday, 3rd March.=—Lat. 0° 30′ N., long. 26° 39′ W. Distance 53
  miles. In the evening received a visit from Neptune. He evidently
  keeps himself well acquainted with what goes on on Terra Firma, for
  his fifer played him the well-known tunes of “Villikens and his
  Dinah” and “Jim along Josey,” as a triumphal march. It struck us his
  marine chargers were a little out of condition and one of them had
  put on the outward resemblance of a donkey. After being regaled with
  our poor creature comforts, the old fellow very shabbily took himself
  off without our letters.

  =Saturday, 7th March.=—Last night we passed within 26 miles of
  Pernambuco.

  =Wednesday, 11th March.=—Lat. 24° 03′ S., long. 35° 40′ W. Distance
  213 miles. In a squall this evening we made 14 or 15 knots, and that
  on a wind.

  =Sunday, 15th March.=—Lat. 38° 47′ S., long. 30° 58′ W. Distance 311
  miles. We have been making 16 knots often during the night.

  =Monday, 16th March.=—Lat. 41° 08′ S., long. 24° 23′ W. Distance 334
  miles. Wind fell light in the afternoon.

  =Wednesday. 18th March.=—Lat. 42° 34′ S., long. 17° 04′ W. Distance
  200 miles. The wind increases towards evening and we make from 15 to
  17 knots an hour, yet the ship is so steady that we danced on the
  poop with the greatest ease.

  =Thursday, 19th March.=—Lat. 43° 0′ S., long. 7° 17′ W. Distance 430
  miles. It is very wet and there is a heavy sea on. In the middle of
  the day the wind lulled a bit, then turned over to the starboard
  quarter and set to work snoring again as hard as ever.

  =Friday, 20th March.=—Lat. 43° 0′ S., long. 0° 55′ E. Distance 360
  miles. This weather is most inspiriting, we have made during the last
  47 hours the greatest run that perhaps ship ever made; yet all the
  time we have carried our main skysail and all sorts and conditions of
  stunsails.

  =Saturday, 21st March.=—Lat. 43° 03′ S., long. 7° 57′ E. Distance 308
  miles. The sea to-day has been really magnificent, the waves were
  grand and swept along in majestic lines. In the afternoon our weekly
  concert took place in the after saloon.

  =Sunday, 22nd March.=—Lat. 43° 51′ S., long. 15° 51′ E. Distance 348
  miles. (1446 miles in four days, an average of 361½ miles per day.)

  =Friday, 27th March.=—Lat. 44° 38′ S., long. 35° 36′ E. Distance
  152 miles. About 2 p.m. a sail was just visible on the port bow. We
  very soon overhauled her, made her out to be a fine American clipper
  barque, passed her as if she was at anchor, although she was going 10
  knots at least and by 4 o’clock she was almost out of sight astern.

  =Thursday, 2nd April.=—Lat. 46° 11′ S., long. 70° 40′ E. Distance 328
  miles. To-night the wind freshened considerably and the sea got up
  with it. Our main royal sheet and sundry stunsail tacks parted.

  =Friday, 3rd April.=—Lat. 47° 14′ S., long. 79° 22′ E. Distance 364
  miles. Wind blew strongly from the north, sea high; during the night
  main topsail, main topgallant stunsail and main royal sheets carried
  away.

  =Sunday, 5th April.=—Lat. 45° 54′ S., long. 93° 31′ E. Distance 326
  miles. Yesterday afternoon the fore topmast stunsail boom snapped
  like a carrot, the sail shook itself to pieces, then its yard dashed
  through the main topgallant sail, tore it, then tore a large hole in
  the main topsail.

  =Monday, 6th April.=—Lat. 45° 34′ S., long. 99° 40′ E. Distance 260
  miles. A fine day with the wind still dead aft. The sea is not so
  high as was yesterday, but the rolling of the ship brings it often
  very near our ports. The _Lightning_ is, however, a very dry ship,
  and it is extraordinary how few seas we have shipped. She rolled
  tremendously last night, her feelings appeared to be hurt, for she
  creaked piteously.

  =Thursday, 9th April.=—Lat. 45° 34′ S., long. 118° 03′ E. Distance
  302 miles. The spanker boom broke adrift and tore a large piece out
  of the starboard rail to the eminent peril of every person on deck,
  but also of the printing office of the _Lightning Gazette_.

  =Wednesday, 15th April.=—7 a.m., Cape Otway bore N. 4¾° E., 30 miles.
  About 10 we signalised the _William Miles_ on the other tack. We have
  run from the line to Cape Otway in 35 days 15 hours—9449 miles.

  =Thursday, 16th April.=—Entered Port Phillip Heads at 8 a.m., having
  completed the passage in 69 days 6 hours.

MELBOURNE TO LIVERPOOL, 1857.

  =Saturday, 9th May.=—We came on board the good ship _Lightning_ and
  find her busily preparing for her journey, with steamers and lighters
  alongside, discharging their contents on to her decks. Passengers,
  their friends and luggage all pouring on board, amidst the noises of
  the sailors, the cackling and crowing of poultry innumerable, the
  squeaking of pigs and the occasional altercations of watermen; while,
  at the after end of the vessel, may be observed sundry small sealed
  boxes, many of them seemingly of ponderous weight, being lowered into
  their place of safety and containing the precious metal that has made
  Australia so famous.

  =Sunday, 10th May.=—Got underweigh at 7 o’clock with the assistance
  of two steam tugs and slowly moved from Hobson’s Bay. Wind light and
  calm. At dusk we anchored off the Lightship.

  =Monday, 11th May.=—Got away from our anchorage at daybreak and
  proceeded for the Heads, saluting with a gun the _Morning Glory_ in
  quarantine, as we passed her. Got clear of Port Phillip Heads at
  8 o’clock, with wind barely sufficient to move the ship. Several
  barracoutas were caught in the evening.

  =Tuesday, 12th May.=—Head winds and very light. Cape Otway visible on
  our starboard bow. In the evening quite becalmed with the Otway light
  on starboard quarter.

  =Thursday, 14th May.=—Lat. 44° 9′ S., long. 145° 57′ E. Distance 270
  miles. Dashing along at 14 to 16 knots with a fine fair wind. S.W.
  coast of Tasmania visible through the gloom on our port beam.

  =Friday, 15th May.=—Lat. 46° 55′ S., long. 154° 10′ E. Distance 384
  miles. Strong breezes and heavy seas with rain squalls and occasional
  glimpses of sunshine. During one of the squalls our fore topsail was
  split and for some time after dark the crew were busy bending a new
  one.

  =Saturday, 30th May.=—Lat. 51° 56′ S., long. 126° 34′ W. Distance
  250 miles. We are now 18 days from Port Phillip Heads, and have
  experienced two days calm, two days westerly winds and for 14 days
  the winds have been from E.S.E. and S. The last 10 days we have
  sailed close to the wind. She makes no more water in a storm than she
  does in a calm.

  =Thursday, 11th June.=—Lat. 56° 40′ S., long. 67° 12′ W. Distance 170
  miles. About midday we were about 50 miles to south of Cape Horn.
  In the evening the wind changed round to N.E. and blew with great
  fury, and we had to lay to under single-reefed fore and main topsail.
  I believe it may with truth be said that few vessels have had a
  more trying passage to the Horn than our good ship _Lightning_. On
  our clearing Port Phillip Heads, the winds were light and baffling
  from the east, compelling us to take the western passage round Van
  Dieman’s Land. Shortly after we encountered a heavy gale from the
  south, during which we were at one time reduced to close-reefed
  main topsail and main trysail, the ship behaving nobly. After this
  the wind headed us and continued to blow from S. by E. to S.E. by
  E. for space of 23 days, during which time we ran 4237 miles from
  long. 160° E. to 84° W., rendering it quite impossible to get further
  to the south than 54°, keeping us between the parallels of 51° and
  54°, blowing very heavy—reducing our canvas at times to close-reefed
  topsails and courses. During all this, our noble ship behaved
  admirably, making, as our parallel of sailing will prove, very little
  leeway. This is the fifth trip the writer has made round the Horn in
  less than four years, in various ships, and it is not saying too much
  when he states that he does not believe any one of them would have
  made the distance in the same time, having the same difficulties to
  contend with. It has been done in the short space of 31 days, in the
  face of unprecedented difficulties as the following short summary
  will show.

  Calms and Light Winds, 3 days; Variable, 3 days; From S.W. to N.W., 2
  days; From S. by E. to S.E. by E., 23 days. Total 31 days.

  On the 2nd May, 1855, the writer sailed from Port Phillip in the _Red
  Jacket_ and reached Cape Horn in 34 days, but without one day’s check
  from head winds.

  =Sunday, 14th June.=—Staten Island in sight to eastward. A sail
  visible on lee bow, steering same course as ourselves. At 11 o’clock
  came up to her and spoke the American ship _Aspasia_, of Mystic, from
  California for New York.

  =Wednesday, 1st July.=—Lat. 12° 44′ S., long. 37° 30′ W. Distance 192
  miles. At 9 a.m. we were opposite Bahia and later in the day the land
  was just visible.

  =Monday, 6th July.=—Lat. 0° 45′ N., long. 32° 23′ W. Distance 258
  miles. At 7 a.m. crossed the line.

  =Wednesday, 15th July.=—Lat. 24° 59′ N., long. 45° 22′ W. Distance
  300 miles. The wind keeps steady and strong.

  =Tuesday, 21st July.=—Lat. 40° 57′ N., long. 38° 25′ W. Distance
  254 miles. Wind S.W., a strong breeze, running before it with
  stunsails set on both sides at rate of 10 to 12 knots. The ’tween
  deck passengers presented the baker (Mr. W. Grainger) with an address
  to-day, thanking him for his attention to their comfort.

  =Friday, 31st July.=—At 9.30 a.m., Land Ho! Ould Ireland is in sight.
  At 5 p.m. passed the Tuskar. Wind right aft.

THE RUN.

  From Melbourne to Cape Horn               31 days
   „   Cape Horn to Equator                 25  „
   „   Equator to Azores                    15  „
   „   Azores to Liverpool                  11  „
                                            --
                                            82 days.

  75 days on the starboard tack.
  Longest run in 24 hours                  384 miles
  Shortest run in 24 hours                  25  „
  Best week’s run, 11th to 17th July      1723  „



APPENDIX B.—_Later American-built Passenger Ships to Australia._


  +------------------+---------------+---- --+
  | Name of Ship     | Original Name |  Reg. |
  |                  |if Name changed|Tonnage|
  +------------------+---------------+-------+
  |_Southern Empire_ |_Jacob A._     | 1418  |
  |                  |  _Westervelt_ |       |
  |_Tornado_         |               | 1801A |
  |                  |               |       |
  |_Flying Cloud_    |               | 1793A |
  |                  |               |       |
  |_Invincible_      |               | 1767A |
  |                  |               |       |
  |_Queen of  the_   |_Wizard_       | 1346  |
  |  _ Colonies_     |               |       |
  |_Chariot of Fame_ |               | 1640  |
  |                  |               |       |
  |_Empress of the_  |               | 1647  |
  |  _Seas, No. 1_   |               |       |
  |_Neptune’s Car_   |               | 1616  |
  |                  |               |       |
  |_Young Australia_ |               | 1020  |
  |                  |               |       |
  |_Landsborough_    |               | 1066  |
  |_Golden Age_      |               | 1241  |
  |                  |               |       |
  |_Whirlwind_       |               | 1003  |
  |                  |               |       |
  |_Saldanha_        |               | 1257  |
  |_Fiery Star_      |_Comet_        | 1361  |
  |_Morning Star_    |               | 1534  |
  |                  |               |       |
  |_Light Brigade_   |_Ocean_        | 1495  |
  |                  |  _Telegraph_  |       |
  |_Royal Dane_      |_Sierra Nevada_| 1616  |
  |                  |               |       |
  |_Florence_        |               | 1362  |
  |  _Nightingale_   |               |       |
  |_Elizabeth Ann_   |_Tam o’_       | 1920  |
  |  _Bright_        |  _Shanter_    |       |
  |_Sovereign of the_|               | 1226  |
  |  _Seas, No. 2_   |               |       |
   _Blue Jacket_,    |               |  986  |
  |  _No. 2_         |               |       |
  |_Prince of the_   |               | 1316  |
  |  _Seas_          |               |       |
  |_Dawn of Hope_    |               | 1215  |
  |                  |               |       |
  |_Mistress of the_ |               | 1740  |
  |  _Seas_          |               |       |
  |_Empress of the_  |               | 1243  |
  |  _Seas, No. 2_   |               |       |
  |_Legion of Honour_|               | 1219  |
  |                  |               |       |
  |_Southern Empire_,|               | 1142  |
  |  _No. 2_         |               |       |
  |_Palm Tree_       |               | 1473  |
  |_Sunda_           |               | 1556  |
  |                  |               |       |
  +------------------+---------------+-------+

  +------------------+---------+-------------+-----+-----------+
  | Name of Ship     |Builders | Where Built |Date |   Last    |
  |                  |         |             |Built|  Owners   |
  +------------------+---------+-------------+-----+-----------+
  |_Southern Empire_ |         |New York     | 1849|Black Ball |
  |                  |         |             |     |  Line     |
  |_Tornado_         |Williams |Williamsburg,| 1851|    „      |
  |                  |         |  N.Y.       |     |           |
  |_Flying Cloud_    |Don.     |Boston       |   „ |    „      |
  |                  |  Mackay |             |     |           |
  |_Invincible_      |W. H.    |New York     |   „ |White Star |
  |                  |  Webb   |             |     |  Line     |
  |_Queen of  the_   |Hall     |Boston       | 1852|Black Ball |
  |  _ Colonies_     |         |             |     |  Line     |
  |_Chariot of Fame_ |Don.     |  „          | 1853|White Star |
  |                  |  Mackay |             |     |  Line     |
  |_Empress of the_  |    „    |  „          |   „ |    „      |
  |  _Seas, No. 1_   |         |             |     |           |
  |_Neptune’s Car_   |         |Portsmouth,  |   „ |    „      |
  |                  |         |   Va.       |     |           |
  |_Young Australia_ |         |    „        |   „ |Black Ball |
  |                  |         |             |     |  Line     |
  |_Landsborough_    |         |United States|   „ |    „      |
  |_Golden Age_      |         | St. John’s  |   „ |Tyson      |
  |                  |         |             |     |  & Co.    |
  |_Whirlwind_       |J. O.    |Medford,     |   „ |Black Ball |
  |                  |  Curtis |  Mass.      |   „ |  Line     |
  |_Saldanha_        |         |Quebec       |   „ |    „      |
  |_Fiery Star_      |Webb     |New York     | 1851|    „      |
  |_Morning Star_    |         |St. John     | 1854|Fernie     |
  |                  |         |             |     |  Bros.    |
  |_Light Brigade_   |         |Medford, U.S.|   „ |Black Ball |
  |                  |         |             |     |  Line     |
  |_Royal Dane_      |         |Portsmouth,  |   „ |    „      |
  |                  |         |  U.S.       |     |           |
  |_Florence_        |         |New Brunswick| 1855|Brocklebank|
  |  _Nightingale_   |         |             |     |           |
  |_Elizabeth Ann_   |         |St. John     | 1856|Black Ball |
  |  _Bright_        |         |             |     |  Line     |
  |_Sovereign of the_|Don.     | Boston      |     |    „      |
  |  _Seas, No. 2_   |  Mackay |             |     |           |
   _Blue Jacket_,    |McLachlan|St. John     | 1858|White Star |
  |  _No. 2_         |         |             |     |  Line     |
  |_Prince of the_   |         |             |   „ |    „      |
  |  _Seas_          |         |             |     |           |
  |_Dawn of Hope_    |Nevins   |New Brunswick| 1859|Wright     |
  |                  |         |             |     |  & Co.    |
  |_Mistress of the_ |Gass     |    „        | 1861|    „      |
  |  _Seas_          |         |             |     |           |
  |_Empress of the_  |Hilyard  |    „        | 1863|Black Ball |
  |  _Seas, No. 2_   |         |             |     |  Line     |
  |_Legion of Honour_|McDonald |    „        | 1863|White Star |
  |                  |         |             |     |  Line     |
  |_Southern Empire_,|Baldwin  | Quebec      |   „ |Cannon     |
  |  _No. 2_         |         |             |     |  & S.     |
  |_Palm Tree_       |Smith    |New Brunswick| 1865|J. Smith   |
  |_Sunda_           |Desmond  |Miramichi    |   „ |Black Ball |
  |                  |         |             |     |  Line     |
  +------------------+---------+-------------+-----+-----------+



APPENDIX C.—_Iron Wool Clippers._


  +-----+-------------+----------+----+-----+------+-----+
  |Date |Name of Ship |Best known|Ton.|L’th |Bre’th|Depth|
  |Built|             |Commander |    |     |      |     |
  +-----+-------------+----------+----+-----+------+-----+
  |1852 |_Darling_    |Wakeham   |1634|258.6| 40   | 29.9|
  |     | _Downs_     |          |    |     |      |     |
  |1860 |_City of_    |T. Young  |1074|213.6| 34.7 | 20.6|
  |     | _Agra_      |          |    |     |      |     |
  |1861 |_Sam Mendel_ |Steele    |1034|215.6| 35   | 20.6|
  |1864 |_Dharwar_    |T. Frebody|1300|226.2| 37.2 | 23.3|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |1866 |_Marpesia_   |T. Storey |1443|234.2| 38.4 | 23.9|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  | „   |_Antiope_    |Black     |1443|242.3| 38.4 | 23.7|
  |1868 |_Theophane_  |Follett   |1525|248.4| 38.9 | 23.7|
  |     |_Ivanhoe_    |Burgess   |1383|235.2| 37.4 | 23.7|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Loch_       |Ross      |1185|217.8| 35.5 | 21  |
  |     | _Rannoch_   |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Ben Nevis_  |Mackie    |1061|218  | 34.6 | 21  |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |1869 |_Patriarch_  |Pile      |1339|222.1| 38.1 | 22.3|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Loch Awe_   |Weir      |1053|217.7| 34.5 | 21  |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Hoghton_    |Trimble   |1598|247  | 40.1 | 23.7|
  |     | _Tower_     |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Thomas_     |Richards  |1507|263  | 38.2 | 23.1|
  |     | _Stephens_  |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Loch_       |J. Burton |1200|226  | 35.8 | 21.5|
  |     | _Katrine_   |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Loch Ness_  |Foreshaw  |1190|225.5| 35.6 | 21.6|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Loch Tay_   |Bennett   |1191|225.4| 35.5 | 21.6|
  |1870 |_Loch Lomond_|J.        |1200|226.3| 35.8 | 21.5|
  |     |             | Strachan |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Loch Leven_ |Branscombe|1200|226.3| 35.8 | 21.5|
  |1871 |_Miltiades_  |Perrett   |1452|240.5| 39.3 | 23.3|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |1872 |_Mermerus_   |Fife      |1671|264.2| 39.8 | 23.7|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Collingwood_|Forbes    |1011|211.1| 34.8 | 21  |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |1873 |_Hesperus_   |Legoe     |1777|262.2| 39.7 | 23.5|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Ben_        |W. Martin |1468|255.5| 37   | 21.7|
  |     | _Cruachan_  |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Ben_        |W.        |1474|255.6| 37.1 | 21.8|
  |     | _Voirlich_  | Ovenstone|    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Samuel_     |R. Boaden |1444|241.3| 39   | 23.1|
  |     | _Plimsoll_  |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Loch Maree_ |A. Scott  |1581|255.8| 38.6 | 22.9|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Loch Ard_   |G. Gibbs  |1624|262.7| 38.3 | 23  |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Gladstone_  |J. Jackson|1159|248.2| 34.2 | 20.9|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |1874 |_Rodney_     |A. Loutitt| 1447|235.6| 38.4 | 22.6
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Romanoff_   |W.        |1226|222.1| 36.3 | 22.2|
  |     |             | Shepherd |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Cairnbulg_  |Birnie    |1567|261.3| 39   | 23  |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Thessalus_  |E. C.     |1782|269  | 41.1 | 23.6|
  |     |             | Bennett  |    |     |      |     |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Carpathian_ |Pennecuik |1444|240.1| 36.6 | 22.6|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Old_        |Underwood |1777|262  | 42.1 | 23.8|
  |     | _Kensington_|          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |1875 |_Loch Garry_ |Horne     |1493|250.5| 38.4 | 22.6|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Loch_       |Ozanne    |1485|250.1| 38.3 | 22.4|
  |     | _Vennachar_ |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Salamis_    |Phillip,  |1079|221.6| 36   | 21.7|
  |     |             | Sen.     |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Trafalgar_  |Muir      |1429|242  | 38.4 | 22  |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Woollahra_  |Barneson  | 942|202.4| 33.6 | 20.4|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Cassiope_   |Withers   |1559|253  | 40   | 23.6|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Parthenope_ |Goody     |1563|250.6| 39.9 | 23.6|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |1876 |_Sir Walter_ |Purvis    |1492|243.4| 38.9 | 21.9|
  |     | _Raleigh_   |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Anglo-      |Davidson  | 822|192.4| 32.2 | 18.9|
  |     | Norman_     |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Loch Fyne_  |Martin    |1213|228.5| 36   | 21.3|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Loch Long_  |McCallum  |1203|228.5| 35.8 | 21.3|
  |     |_Aristides_  |Kemball   |1661|260  | 39.5 | 24.5|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Smyrna_     |Spalding  |1305|232.3| 38.5 | 22.2|
  |     |_Harbinger_  |Bolt      |1506|253.5| 37.6 | 22.4|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Argonaut_   |Hunter    |1488|254.4| 38.6 | 23.2|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |1877 |_Brilliant_  |Davidson  |1613|254.8| 39.7 | 24.2|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Pericles_   |Largie    |1598|259.6| 39.4 | 23.6|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Loch Ryan_  |Black     |1207|228.5| 35.8 | 21.3|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Loch Etive_ |Stuart    |1235|226.5| 35.9 | 21.6|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Loch Sloy_  |Horne     |1225|225.3| 35.6 | 21.2|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Loch Shiel_ |Erskine   |1218|225.3| 35.6 | 21.1|
  |     |_Nebo_       |Coleman   |1383|246.9| 37.1 | 21.1|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |1878 |_Cimba_      |J. W.     |1174|223  | 34.6 | 21.7|
  |     |             | Holmes   |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Loch_       |G. Weir   |1231|223.4| 34.7 | 21.7|
  |     | _Sunart_    |          |    |     |      |     |
  |1879 |_Sophocles_  |Smith     |1138|223.4| 34.7 | 21.7|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |1881 |_Illawarra_  |Corvasso  |1887|269.1| 40.6 | 24  |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Orontes_    |Bain      |1383|234.8| 36.1 | 22.5|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Loch_       |          |2000|287.4| 42.6 | 24  |
  |     | _Moidart_   |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Loch_       |R. Pattman|2000|287.4| 42.6 | 24  |
  |     | _Torridon_  |          |    |     |      |     |
  |1882 |_Port_       |A. S.     |2132|286.2| 41.1 | 25.2|
  |     | _Jackson_   | Cutler   |    |     |      |     |
  |1884 |_Derwent_    |Andrew    |1890|275  | 40.2 | 23.7|
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |1885 |_Torridon_   |Shepherd  |1564|246  | 38.1 | 22  |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Yallaroi_   |J. Brown  |1565|245.8| 38.1 | 22  |
  |     |_Loch_       |S. Clarke |2075|287.7| 42.5 | 24.1|
  |     | _Carron_    |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Loch Broom_ |W. Martin |2075|287.7| 42.5 | 24.1|
  |     |_Strathdon_  |J.        |2093|282.8| 40.5 | 23.6|
  |     |             | Paterson |    |     |      |     |
  +-----+-------------+----------+----+-----+------+-----+
  |1891 |_Mount_      |Green     |1903|271.6| 40.1 | 23.4|
  |     | _Stewart_   |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |             |          |    |     |      |     |
  |     |_Cromdale_   |Andrew    |1903|271.6| 40.1 | 23.4|
  +-----+-------------+----------+----+-----+------+-----+

  +-----+-------------+----------+-----------+---------------+
  |Date |Name of Ship |Best known| Builders  |    Owners     |
  |Built|             |Commander |           |               |
  +-----+-------------+----------+-----------+---------------+
  |1852 |_Darling_    |Wakeham   |Built on   |Taylor, Bethell|
  |     | _Downs_     |          | the Thames|  & Roberts    |
  |1860 |_City of_    |T. Young  |Pile, W.   |Blyth & Co.    |
  |     | _Agra_      |          | Hartlepool|               |
  |1861 |_Sam Mendel_ |Steele    |   „       |Coupland Bros. |
  |1864 |_Dharwar_    |T. Frebody|Harland    |J. Willis      |
  |     |             |          | & Wolf    |               |
  |1866 |_Marpesia_   |T. Storey |Reid,      |J. Heap & Sons |
  |     |             |          | Glasgow   |               |
  | „   |_Antiope_    |Black     |   „       |      „        |
  |1868 |_Theophane_  |Follett   |   „       |      „        |
  |     |_Ivanhoe_    |Burgess   |   „       |Williamson,    |
  |     |             |          |           |  Milligan     |
  |     |_Loch_       |Ross      |Thomson,   |Glasgow        |
  |     | _Rannoch_   |          | Glasgow   |  Shipping Co. |
  |     |_Ben Nevis_  |Mackie    |Barclay,   |Watson Bros.   |
  |     |             |          | Curle,    |               |
  |     |             |          | Gl’gow    |               |
  |1869 |_Patriarch_  |Pile      |Hood,      |G. Thompson    |
  |     |             |          | Aberdeen  |  & Co.        |
  |     |_Loch Awe_   |Weir      |Barclay,   |J. & R. Wilson |
  |     |             |          | Curle,    |               |
  |     |             |          | Gl’gow    |               |
  |     |_Hoghton_    |Trimble   |Clover,    |Ismay, Imrie   |
  |     | _Tower_     |          | Birkenhead|               |
  |     |_Thomas_     |Richards  |Potter,    |T. Stephens    |
  |     | _Stephens_  |          | Liverpool |  & Sons       |
  |     |_Loch_       |J. Burton |Lowrie,    |Glasgow        |
  |     | _Katrine_   |          | Glasgow   |  Shipping Co. |
  |     |_Loch Ness_  |Foreshaw  |Barclay,   |    „          |
  |     |             |          |  Curle,   |               |
  |     |             |          |  Gl’gow   |               |
  |     |_Loch Tay_   |Bennett   |   „       |    „          |
  |1870 |_Loch Lomond_|J.        |Lowrie,    |    „          |
  |     |             | Strachan | Glasgow   |               |
  |     |_Loch Leven_ |Branscombe|   „       |    „          |
  |1871 |_Miltiades_  |Perrett   |Hood,      |G. Thompson Co.|
  |     |             |          | Aberdeen  |               |
  |1872 |_Mermerus_   |Fife      |Barclay,   |Carmichael     |
  |     |             |          | Curle,    |               |
  |     |             |          | Gl’gow    |               |
  |     |_Collingwood_|Forbes    |Hood,      |Devitt & Moore |
  |     |             |          | Aberdeen  |               |
  |1873 |_Hesperus_   |Legoe     |Steele,    |Anderson,      |
  |     |             |          | Glasgow   |  Anderson     |
  |     |_Ben_        |W. Martin |Barclay,   |Watson Bros.   |
  |     | _Cruachan_  |          | Curle,    |               |
  |     |             |          | Gl’gow    |               |
  |     |_Ben_        |W.        |   „       |    „          |
  |     | _Voirlich_  | Ovenstone|           |               |
  |     |_Samuel_     |R. Boaden |Hood,      |G. Thompson    |
  |     | _Plimsoll_  |          | Aberdeen  |  & Co.        |
  |     |_Loch Maree_ |A. Scott  |Barclay,   |Glasgow        |
  |     |             |          | Curle,    |  Shipping Co. |
  |     |             |          | Gl’gow    |               |
  |     |_Loch Ard_   |G. Gibbs  |Connell,   |    „          |
  |     |             |          | Glasgow   |               |
  |     |_Gladstone_  |J. Jackson|McMillan,  |F. H. Dangar   |
  |     |             |          | Dumbarton |               |
  |1874 |_Rodney_     |A. Loutitt|Pile,      |Devitt & Moore |
  |     |             |          | Sunderland|               |
  |     |_Romanoff_   |W.        |Hood,      |A. Nicol       |
  |     |             | Shepherd | Aberdeen  |               |
  |     |_Cairnbulg_  |Birnie    |Duthie,    |Wm. Duthie,    |
  |     |             |          | Aberdeen  |  Jun.         |
  |     |_Thessalus_  |E. C.     |Barclay,   |Carmichael     |
  |     |             | Bennett  | Curle,    |               |
  |     |             |          | Gl’gow    |               |
  |     |_Carpathian_ |Pennecuik |Humphreys, |McDiarmid,     |
  |     |             |          | Hull      |  Greenshields |
  |     |_Old_        |Underwood |Potter,    |Smith,         |
  |     | _Kensington_|          | Liverpool |  Bilbrough    |
  |     |             |          |           |  & Co.        |
  |1875 |_Loch Garry_ |Horne     |Thomson,   |Glasgow        |
  |     |             |          | Glasgow   |  Shipping Co. |
  |     |_Loch_       |Ozanne    |   „       |    „          |
  |     | _Vennachar_ |          |           |               |
  |     |_Salamis_    |Phillip,  |Hood,      |G. Thompson    |
  |     |             | Sen.     | Aberdeen  |  & Co.        |
  |     |_Trafalgar_  |Muir      |E. I.      |D. Rose & Co.  |
  |     |             |          | Scott,    |               |
  |     |             |          | Greenock  |               |
  |     |_Woollahra_  |Barneson  |Osburne,   |Cowlislaw Bros.|
  |     |             |          | Sunderland|               |
  |     |_Cassiope_   |Withers   |Whitehaven |J. Heap & Sons |
  |     |             |          | S. Co.    |               |
  |     |_Parthenope_ |Goody     |Evans,     |    „          |
  |     |             |          | Liverpool |               |
  |1876 |_Sir Walter_ |Purvis    |Thomson,   |D. Rose & Co.  |
  |     | _Raleigh_   |          | Glasgow   |               |
  |     |_Anglo-      |Davidson  |Russell,   |Frost, Cook    |
  |     | Norman_     |          | Glasgow   |  & Co.        |
  |     |_Loch Fyne_  |Martin    |Thomson,   |General        |
  |     |             |          | Glasgow   |  Shipping Co. |
  |     |             |          |           |  (Aitken,     |
  |     |             |          |           |  Lilburn      |
  |     |             |          |           |  & Co.)       |
  |     |_Loch Long_  |McCallum  |   „       |    „          |
  |     |_Aristides_  |Kemball   |Hood,      |G. Thompson    |
  |     |             |          | Aberdeen  |  & Co.        |
  |     |_Smyrna_     |Spalding  |   „       |    „          |
  |     |_Harbinger_  |Bolt      |Steele,    |Anderson,      |
  |     |             |          | Greenock  |  Anderson     |
  |     |_Argonaut_   |Hunter    |Barclay,   |Carmichael     |
  |     |             |          | Curle,    |               |
  |     |             |          | Gl’gow    |               |
  |1877 |_Brilliant_  |Davidson  |Duthie,    |J. Duthie,     |
  |     |             |          | Aberdeen  |  Sons & Co.   |
  |     |_Pericles_   |Largie    |Hood,      |Thompson & Co. |
  |     |             |          | Aberdeen  |               |
  |     |_Loch Ryan_  |Black     |Thomson,   |General        |
  |     |             |          | Glasgow   |  Shipping Co. |
  |     |_Loch Etive_ |Stuart    |Inglis,    |    „          |
  |     |             |          | Glasgow   |               |
  |     |_Loch Sloy_  |Horne     |Henderson, |    „          |
  |     |             |          | Glasgow   |               |
  |     |_Loch Shiel_ |Erskine   |   „       |    „          |
  |     |_Nebo_       |Coleman   |Dobie,     |J. Smith       |
  |     |             |          | Glasgow   |               |
  |1878 |_Cimba_      |J. W.     |Hood,      |A. Nicol & Co. |
  |     |             | Holmes   | Aberdeen  |               |
  |     |_Loch_       |G. Weir   |Inglis,    |Glasgow        |
  |     | _Sunart_    |          | Glasgow   |  Shipping Co. |
  |1879 |_Sophocles_  |Smith     |Hood,      |G. Thomson     |
  |     |             |          | Aberdeen  |  & Sons       |
  |1881 |_Illawarra_  |Corvasso  |Dobie,     |Devitt & Moore |
  |     |             |          | Glasgow   |               |
  |     |_Orontes_    |Bain      |Hood,      |G. Thompson    |
  |     |             |          | Aberdeen  |  & Co.        |
  |     |_Loch_       |          |Barclay,   |General        |
  |     | _Moidart_   |          | Curle,    |  Shipping Co. |
  |     |             |          | Gl’gow    |  (Aitken,     |
  |     |             |          |           |  Lilburn      |
  |     |             |          |           |  & Co.)       |
  |     |_Loch_       |R. Pattman|   „       |General        |
  |     | _Torridon_  |          |           |  Shipping Co. |
  |1882 |_Port_       |A. S.     |Hall,      |Devitt &       |
  |     | _Jackson_   | Cutler   | Aberdeen  |  Moore        |
  |1884 |_Derwent_    |Andrew    |McMillan,  |      „        |
  |     |             |          | Dumbarton |               |
  |1885 |_Torridon_   |Shepherd  |Hall,      |A. Nicol & Co. |
  |     |             |          | Aberdeen  |               |
  |     |_Yallaroi_   |J. Brown  |   „       |      „        |
  |     |_Loch_       |S. Clarke |Barclay,   |General        |
  |     | _Carron_    |          | Curle,    |  Shipping Co. |
  |     |             |          | Gl’gow    |               |
  |     |_Loch Broom_ |W. Martin |   „       |    „          |
  |     |_Strathdon_  |J.        |Harland    |G. Thompson    |
  |     |             | Paterson | & Wolf    |  & Co.        |
  +-----+-------------+----------+-----------+---------------+
  |1891 |_Mount_      |Green     |Barclay,   |D. Rose & Co.  |
  |     | _Stewart_   |          | Curle,    |               |
  |     |             |          | Gl’gow    |               |
  |     |_Cromdale_   |Andrew    |     „     |    „          |
  +-----+-------------+----------+-----------+---------------+



APPENDIX D.

_Log of Ship “Theophane,” 1868—Maiden Passage._

               Lat.            Long.          Miles.   Winds.
  Oct. 19    Left. Liverpool in tow.
   „   20    Tug left ship off Tusk. 6 p.m.
   „   21    49° 20′ N.       8° 30′ W.       215      N.W.
   „   22    45° 54′         10° 46′          224      W.N.W.
   „   23    42° 42′         10° 53′          199      W.N.W.
   „   24    39° 32′         11° 11′          202      N.
   „   25    37° 35′         13° 11′          160      N.N.E.
   „   26    35° 15′         15° 31′          182      E.N.E.
   „   27    33° 00′         17° 12′          162      Variable.
   „   28    30° 38′         19° 50′          200      N.E.
   „   29    26° 44′         21° 20′          243      E.
   „   30    23° 29′         23° 55′          254      E.N.E.
   „   31    20°  7′         25° 52′          230      E.N.E.
  Nov.  1    16° 17′         26° 30′          234      E.S.E.
   „    2    13° 47′         25° 45′          158      S.E.
   „    3    11°  4′         25°  6′          172      E.
   „    4     9° 26′         24° 20′          110      E.
   „    5     8° 47′         25° 10′           40      Variable.
   „    6     8° 10′         25° 29′           44      Variable.
   „    7     7°  6′         24° 19′           91      S.S.E.
   „    8     5° 50′         24°  6′           79      S.S.E.
   „    9     4° 55′         23° 43′           63      S.
   „   10     4° 13′         23° 19′           50      S.
   „   11     2° 37′         24° 50′          133      Variable.
   „   12    00° 19′         26° 30′          180      S.S.E.
   „   13     2° 60′ S.      28° 50′          203      S.S.E.
   „   14     5° 29′         30° 39′          235      S.E.
   „   15     9° 15′         31° 49′          242      S.E.
   „   16    12° 51′         31° 48′          220      S.E.
   „   17    16° 27′         31° 58′          269      E.S.E.
   „   18    18° 15′         31° 34′          113      E.S.E.
   „   19    19° 44′         31° 38′          108      E.S.E.
   „   20    21° 50′         29°  2′          150      S.E.
   „   21    24°  2′         27°  4′          176      N.E.
   „   22    26° 24′         24° 34′          185      N.E.
   „   23    28° 24′         22° 42′          174      N.E.
   „   24    30°  6′         21° 22′          125      N.W.
   „   25    32° 10′         19° 50′          160      W.
   „   26    34° 24′         15° 48′          240      N.N.W.
   „   27    37°  6′         12° 11′          246      N.N.W.
   „   28    39° 14′          8°  5′          241      N.N.W.
   „   29    39° 88′          2°  6′          306      W.
   „   30    42° 00′          2° 18′ E.       252      W.
  Dec.  1    43° 36′          8° 26′          254      N.
   „    2    44° 22′         15° 20′          296      N.
   „    3    44° 40′         21°  6′          286      N.W.
   „    4    44°  4′         27°  9′          270      N.W.
   „    5    44° 32′         33° 24′          276      W.N.W.
   „    6    44° 53′         40°  3′          280      W.
   „    7    44° 41′         45° 00′          214      W.
   „    8    44° 30′         51° 40′          218      W.
   „    9    45° 00′         38° 00′          277      N.
   „   10    45°  9′         65° 37′          294      N.
   „   11    44° 57′         71° 39′          295      N.
   „   12    44° 59′         79° 10′          320      N.N.E.
   „   13    45° 28′         86° 00′ E.       304      N.N.E.
   „   14    45° 29′         93° 40′          328      N.
   „   15    46° 19′        100° 10′          260      N.N.E.
   „   16    46° 45′        105° 53′          250      N.N.E.
   „   17    47° 25′        110° 40′          212      E.N.E.
   „   18    47° 50′        115° 40′          230      E.N.E.
   „   19    48° 50′        122° 26′          210      E.N.E.
   „   20    47° 28′        127° 11′          208      N.E.
   „   21    44° 53′        134° 11′          316      N.N.E.
   „   22    41° 45′        138° 11′          276      N.N.E.
   „   23    39° 57′        140° 13′          115      N.E. by N.
   „   24    Passed Cape Otway  100 N.E.
     Liverpool to Melbourne 66 days



APPENDIX E.

_List of Clipper Ships still Afloat and Trading at the Outbreak of War,
August, 1914._


  +-----+-------------------+------------------+-----------+---+
  |     |                   |                  | Present   |   |
  |Date |  Original Name    |   Present Name   |Nationality|Yrs|
  |Built|                   |    if changed    | of Owners |Old|
  +-----+-------------------+------------------+-----------+---+
  |1864 |_Glenlora_         |                  |Norwegian  | 50|
  |1866 |_Antiope_          |                  |Australian | 48|
  |1868 |_Turakina_         |_Elida_           |Norwegian  | 46|
  |1868 |_Decapolis_        |_Nostra Madre_    |Italian    | 46|
  |1868 |_Ivanhoe_          |                  |Chilean    | 46|
  |1869 |_Cutty Sark_       |_Ferreira_        |Portuguese | 45|
  |1869 |_Thomas Stephens_  |_Pero d’Alemguer_ |Portuguese | 45|
  |1869 |_Otago_            |_Emilia_          |Portuguese | 45|
  |1869 |_Loch Awe_         |_Madura_          |Norwegian  | 45|
  |1869 |_Hudson_           |                  |Norwegian  | 45|
  |1870 |_Lothair_          |                  |Peruvian   | 44|
  |1870 |_Aviemore_         |                  |Norwegian  | 44|
  |1872 |_Collingwood_      |                  |Norwegian  | 42|
  |1873 |_Hesperus_         |_Grand Duchess_   |Russian    | 41|
  |     |                   |_Marie Nikolaevna_|           |   |
  |1873 |_Rakaia_           |                  |Barbadian  | 41|
  |1874 |_Nelson_           |                  |Chilean    | 40|
  |1874 |_Waikato_          |_Coronada_        |American   | 40|
  |1874 |_Canterbury_       |                  |Norwegian  | 40|
  |1874 |_Romanoff_         |                  |Norwegian  | 40|
  |1874 |_Charlotte Padbury_|                  |Norwegian  | 40|
  |1875 |_Trafalgar_        |                  |Norwegian  | 39|
  |1875 |_Maulesden_        |_Ostend_          |Italian    | 39|
  |1875 |_Hurunui_          |_Hermes_          |Finnish    | 39|
  |1875 |_Myrtle Holme_     |_Glimt_           |Norwegian  | 39|
  |1875 |_Castle Holme_     |_Ester_           |Norwegian  | 39|
  |1876 |_Argonaut_         |_Argo_            |Portuguese | 38|
  |1876 |_Pleione_          |                  |Norwegian  | 38|
  |1876 |_Opawa_            |_Aquila_          |Norwegian  | 38|
  |1877 |_Taranaki_         |                  |Italian    | 37|
  |1877 |_Pericles_         |                  |Norwegian  | 37|
  |1877 |_Wanganui_         |_Blenheim_        |Norwegian  | 37|
  |1877 |_Loch Ryan_        |_John Murray_     |Australian | 37|
  |1878 |_Cimba_            |                  |Norwegian  | 36|
  |1879 |_Sophocles_        |                  |Italian    | 35|
  |1881 |_Loch Torridon_    |                  |Finnish    | 33|
  |1882 |_Port Jackson_     |                  |British    | 32|
  |1884 |_Derwent_          |                  |Norwegian  | 30|
  |1885 |_Torridon_         |                  |Italian    | 29|
  |1885 |_Loch Broom_       |Sogndal_          |Norwegian  | 27|
  |1885 |_Loch Carron_      | _Seileren_       |Norwegian  | 27|
  |1885 |_Strathdon_        | _Gers_           |French     | 27|
  |1890 |_Hinemoa_          |                  |British    | 24|
  |1891 |_Mount Stewart_    |                  |British    | 23|
  +-----+-------------------+------------------+-----------+---+



APPENDIX F.

_The Wool Fleet_, 1874-1890.


_Four Best Wool Passages, 1874-1890—Port to Port._

  +-------------+--------------+-------+-------+-----------+
  |             |              |Total  |Average|  Total    |
  |     Ship    |  Best Four   |Number |Number |  Number   |
  |             |    Passages  |of Days|of Days|of Passages|
  |-------------+--------------+-------+-------+-----------+
  |_Cutty Sark_ |72, 73, 72, 76| 293   |73¼    |     7     |
  |_Thermopylae_|75, 79, 79, 79| 312   |78     |    10     |
  |_Mermerus_   |78, 80, 81, 84| 323   |80¾    |    15     |
  |_Salamis_    |77, 83, 84, 85| 329   |82¼    |    13     |
  +-------------+--------------+-------+-------+-----------+

_Cutty Sark’s_ passages are far superior to those of any other ship; in
fact, if we take the average of all her wool passages between 1874 and
1890, it only comes to 77 days from port to port.

_The Wool Fleet_, 1873-4.

  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+
  |       Ship       |  From   |  Left   |   To   |Arrived |D’ys|
  |                  |         |         |        |        |Out |
  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+
  |_Patriarch_       |Sydney   |Oct.  25 |London  |Jan.  27| 94 |
  |_Miltiades_       |Melbourne|Nov.  12 |   „    |Feb.  16| 96 |
  |_Mermerus_        |   „     | „    15 |   „    | „    16| 93 |
  |_Jerusalem_       |   „     | „    18 |   „    | „    12| 86 |
  |_Sam Mendel_      |   „     |Dec.  17 |   „    |Mar.  12| 85 |
  |_Collingwood_     |   „     | „    24 |   „    | „    23| 89 |
  |_Loch Tay_        |   „     | „    30 |   „    | „    23| 83 |
  |_The Tweed_       |   „     |Feb.   3 |   „    |Apl.  27| 83 |
  |_Star of Peace_   |   „     | „    10 |   „    |May   29|108 |
  |_Ben Cruachan_    |   „     |Mar.   5 |   „    |June  13|100 |
  |_Samuel Plimsoll_ |Sydney   |April 14 |   „    |July   5| 82 |
  |_Loch Maree_      |Melbourne|June  14 |   „    |Sept.  7| 85 |
  |_Ben Voirlich_    |   „     | „    14 |Lizard  | „    30|108 |
  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+

_The Wool Fleet_, 1874-5.

  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+
  |       Ship       |  From   |  Left   |   To   |Arrived |D’ys|
  |                  |         |         |        |        |Out |
  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+
  | _Loch Tay_       |Melbourne|Oct.  23 |London  |Jan.  31|100 |
  |                  |         |         |        |  ’75   |    |
  | _Ethiopian_      |Sydney   | „    24 |  „     | „    23| 91 |
  | _Macduff_        |Melbourne| „    30 |  „     | „    26| 88 |
  | _Collingwood_    |   „     |Nov.   1 |  „     |Feb.   4| 95 |
  | _Miltiades_      |   „     | „     4 |  „     |Jan.  20| 77 |
  | _Loch Ard_       |   „     | „    10 |  „     |Feb.  11| 93 |
  | _Patriarch_      |Sydney   | „    14 |  „     | „     6| 84 |
  | _Oberon_         |Melbourne| „    15 |  „     |Jan.  31| 77 |
  | _Holmsdale_      |   „     | „    15 |  „     |Feb.   6| 83 |
  | _City of Perth_  |   „     | „    15 |  „     | „     4| 81 |
  | _Sam Mendel_     |   „     | „    18 |  „     |Mar.   1|103 |
  | _Ben Nevis_      |   „     | „    18 |  „     |Feb.   3| 77 |
  | _Moravian_       |   „     | „    25 |  „     |Mar.   4| 99 |
  | _John o’Gaunt_   |   „     | „    25 |  „     | „    27|122 |
  | _City of Agra_   |   „     | „    30 |  „     | „    29|119 |
  | _The Tweed_      |Sydney   |Jan.  11 |Lizard  |April  7| 86 |
  |                  |         | ’75     |        |        |    |
  | _Ben Cruachan_   |Melbourne| „    19 |London  | „    27| 98 |
  | _Samuel Plimsoll_|Sydney   |Mar.   3 |  „     |June  14|103 |
  | _Romanoff_       |Melbourne| „    11 |  „     | „    15| 96 |
  | _Ben Voirlich_   |   „     | „    16 |  „     | „    17| 93 |
  | _Loch Maree_     |   „     | „    21 |Wight   | „    17| 88 |
  | _Thomas Stephens_|   „     |April 30 |Lizard  |Aug.   4| 96 |
  | _Loch Lomond_    |   „     |May    1 |London  | „     2| 93 |
  | _Cairnbulg_      |Sydney   | „     6 |  „     | „    27|113 |
  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+

_The Wool Fleet_, 1875-6.

  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+
  |       Ship       |  From   |  Left   |   To   |Arrived |D’ys|
  |                  |         |         |        |        |Out |
  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+
  |_Queen of Nations_|Sydney   |Oct. 16  |London  |Feb.  18|125 |
  |                  |         |         |        |  ’76   |    |
  |_Hawkesbury_      |   „     | „   25  |  „     | „    15|113 |
  |_Salamis_         |Melbourne| „   23  |  „     |Jan.  25| 94 |
  |_Thessalus_       |   „     | „   30  |  „     | „    31| 93 |
  |_Oberon_          |   „     |Nov.  5  |Deal    |Feb.  17|104 |
  |_Lincolnshire_    |   „     | „    7  |London  | „    17|102 |
  |_City of Agra_    |   „     | „   10  |  „     | „    17| 99 |
  |_La Hogue_        |Sydney   | „   11  |  „     | „    17| 98 |
  |_Ben Cruachan_    |Melbourne| „   11  |Dover   | „    16| 97 |
  |_Miltiades_       |   „     | „   14  |London  | „    17| 95 |
  |_Ben Ledi_        |   „     | „   16  |Dungen’s| „    16| 92 |
  |_Loch Ard_        |   „     | „   17  |  „     | „    16| 91 |
  |_Moravian_        |   „     | „   20  |  „     | „    18| 90 |
  |_Abergeldie_      |Sydney   | „   21  |  „     | „    20| 91 |
  |_Holmsdale_       |Melbourne| „   21  |  „     | „    19| 90 |
  |_Patriarch_       |Sydney   | „   26  |  „     | „    18| 84 |
  |_The Tweed_       |   „     |Dec. 10  |  „     | „    17| 69 |
  |_Romanoff_        |Melbourne| „   10  |  „     |Mar.  14| 94 |
  |_Centurion_       |Sydney   | „   21  |  „     |April 11|111 |
  |_Loch Maree_      |Melbourne| „   29  |  „     |Mar.  29| 90 |
  |_John Duthie_     |Sydney   |Jan.  1  |  „     |April 12|101 |
  |                  |         |    ’76  |        |        |    |
  |_Rodney_          |Melbourne| „    6  |Deal    | „    13| 97 |
  |_Thomasina_       |   „     | „   10  |London  | „    20|100 |
  |  _McLellan_      |         |         |        |        |    |
  |_Samuel Plimsoll_ |Sydney   | „    2  |  „     | „     5| 83 |
  |_Loch Vennachar_  |Melbourne| „   13  |  „     | „    11| 88 |
  |_Mermerus_        |   „     | „   17  |  „     | „    20| 93 |
  |_Parramatta_      |Sydney   |Feb.  1  |  „     | „    21| 79 |
  |_Nineveh_         |   „     | „    5  |  „     |May   26|110 |
  |_Loch Ness_       |Melbourne| „   22  |  „     | „    24| 91 |
  |_Loch Garry_      |   „     | „   22  |  „     |        |    |
  |_Thomas Stephens_ |Sydney   |Mar.  8  |  „     |June   8| 92 |
  |_Cairnbulg_       |   „     | „    9  |  „     | „     7| 90 |
  |_Darling Downs_   |   „     | „    9  |  „     | „    24|107 |
  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+

_The Wool Fleet_, 1876-7.

  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+
  |      Ship        |  From   |  Left   |  To    |Arrived |D’ys|
  |                  |         |         |        |        |Out |
  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+
  |_Sir Walter_      |Melbourne|Oct.   6 |London  |Jan.  10| 97 |
  |  _Raleigh_       |         |         |        |        |    |
  |_Macduff_         |Geelong  | „    25 |  „     | „    15| 82 |
  |_George Thompson_ |  „      | „    25 |  „     |Feb.   5|103 |
  |_Miltiades_       |Melbourne| „    27 |  „     |Jan.  24| 89 |
  |_City of Agra_    |Geelong  |Nov.   3 |  „     |Feb.   9| 98 |
  |_Loch Katrine_    |Melbourne| „     6 |  „     | „     8| 94 |
  |_Ben Lomond_      |  „      | „     6 |  „     | „     9| 95 |
  |_Loch Vennachar_  |  „      | „     8 |  „     | „     9| 93 |
  |_Centurion_       |  „      | „     9 |  „     | „     7| 90 |
  |_Romanoff_        |  „      | „    11 |  „     | „     6| 87 |
  |_Ben Cruachan_    |Sydney   | „    12 |  „     | „     8| 88 |
  |_Samuel Plimsoll_ |  „      | „    19 |  „     | „    19| 92 |
  |_Loch Maree_      |Melbourne| „    27 |  „     |Mar.   6| 99 |
  |_Collingwood_     |  „      | „    27 |  „     | „     6| 99 |
  |_Aristides_       |  „      | „    28 |  „     |Feb.  17| 81 |
  |_Patriarch_       |Sydney   |Dec.   4 |  „     |Mar.   6| 92 |
  |_Sam Mendel_      |Melbourne| „    11 |  „     | „    26|106 |
  |_Ben Voirlich_    |  „      | „    18 |  „     | „    26| 98 |
  |_Loch Garry_      |  „      |Jan.  25 |Deal    |May   10|105 |
  |_Darling Downs_   |Sydney   |Feb.   1 |London  | „    22|110 |
  |_Cairnbulg_       |  „      | „     5 |  „     | „    10| 94 |
  |_Loch Lomond_     |  „      | „    17 |  „     | „    10| 82 |
  |_Parramatta_      |  „      | „    17 |  „     | „    10| 82 |
  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+

_The Wool Fleet_, 1877-8.

  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+
  |       Ship       |   From  |   Left  |   To   |Arrived |D’ys|
  |                  |         |         |        |        |Out |
  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+
  |_Ben Cruachan_    |Melbourne|Oct.  24 |London  |Jan.  22| 90 |
  |                  |         |         |        |     ’78|    |
  |_Romanoff_        |    „    | „    27 |  „     |Feb.  12|108 |
  |                  |         |         |        |     ’78|    |
  |_John Duthie_     |Sydney   |Nov.   1 |  „     | „    15|107 |
  |_Ben Voirlich_    |Melbourne| „     6 |  „     | „    15|101 |
  |_Samuel Plimsoll_ |Sydney   | „     8 |  „     | „    12| 96 |
  |_George Thompson_ |Melbourne| „     9 |  „     | „    12| 95 |
  |_Loch Maree_      |    „    | „    11 |  „     | „    13| 94 |
  |_Macduff_         |    „    | „    12 |  „     | „    15| 95 |
  |_Miltiades_       |    „    | „    16 |  „     | „    21| 97 |
  |_Patriarch_       |Sydney   | „    21 |  „     | „    28| 99 |
  |_Sir Walter_      |Melbourne| „    23 |  „     |Mar.   1| 98 |
  |  _Raleigh_       |         |         |        |        |    |
  |_Salamis_         |    „    | „    24 |  „     |Feb.  19| 87 |
  |_Mermerus_        |    „    | „    24 |  „     | „    12| 80 |
  |_Cairnbulg_       |Sydney   |Dec.   3 |  „     |Mar.   2| 89 |
  |_City of Agra_    |Melbourne| „     4 |  „     | „     7| 93 |
  |_Old Kensington_  |    „    | „     7 |  „     | „     7| 90 |
  |_Aristides_       |Adelaide | „    14 |  „     | „    21| 97 |
  |_Loch Garry_      |Melbourne| „    20 |  „     |April  4|105 |
  |_True Briton_     |    „    | „    21 |  „     |  „    4|104 |
  |_Thyatira_        |    „    |Jan.  12 |  „     |  „   16| 94 |
  |_La Hogue_        |Sydney   | „    16 |  „     |  „   16| 90 |
  |_Thomas Stephens_ |Melbourne| „    17 |  „     |  „   18| 91 |
  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+

_The Wool Fleet_, 1878-9.

  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+
  |       Ship       |  From   |  Left   |   To   |Arrived |D’ys|
  |                  |         |         |        |        |Out |
  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+
  |_Loch Katrine_    |Melbourne|Sept. 23 |London  |Jan.  15|114 |
  |                  |         |         |        |     ’79|    |
  |_Ascalon_         |Sydney   |Oct.  14 |  „     | „    16| 94 |
  |_Romanoff_        |Melbourne| „    26 |  „     | „    27| 93 |
  |_Nineveh_         |Sydney   | „    29 |  „     |Feb.   7|101 |
  |_Ann Duthie_      |   „     |Nov.   2 |  „     | „     3| 93 |
  |_Slieve More_     |Melbourne| „     4 |  „     | „     8| 96 |
  |_Ben Cruachan_    |Geelong  | „     5 |  „     | „     8| 95 |
  |_Loch Maree_      |Melbourne| „     8 |  „     |Jan.  30| 83 |
  |_Miltiades_       |   „     | „    11 |  „     |Feb.   8| 89 |
  |_Mermerus_        |   „     | „    13 |  „     | „     5| 84 |
  |_Merope_          |   „     | „    16 |  „     | „    20| 96 |
  |_Cimba_           |Sydney   | „    16 |  „     | „    17| 93 |
  |_Jerusalem_       |Geelong  | „    16 |  „     | „     8| 84 |
  |_Ben Voirlich_    |Melbourne| „    17 |  „     |Mar.   6|109 |
  |_Melbourne_       |   „     | „    18 |Prawle P|Feb.  16| 90 |
  |_Samuel Plimsoll_ |Sydney   | „    19 |London  | „     7| 80 |
  |_Aristides_       |Melbourne| „    23 |  „     | „    18| 87 |
  |_Cynisca_         |Sydney   | „    26 |  „     |Mar.  14|108 |
  |_Macduff_         |Geelong  |Dec.   1 |  „     | „     4| 93 |
  |_Loch Lomond_     |Melbourne| „     3 |  „     | „     6| 93 |
  |_Hawkesbury_      |Sydney   | „     5 |  „     | „     6| 91 |
  |_Old Kensington_  |Melbourne| „     7 |  „     | „     7| 90 |
  |_Thomas Stephens_ |Sydney   | „     7 |  „     | „     6| 89 |
  |_Loch Garry_      |Geelong  | „    13 |  „     | „    13| 90 |
  |_Thyatira_        |Melbourne| „    14 |  „     | „     6| 82 |
  |_Patriarch_       |Sydney   | „    16 |Lizard  | „    15| 89 |
  |_Cairnbulg_       |   „     | „    20 |  „     |April  8|109 |
  |_Superb_          |Melbourne| „    21 |Dover   | „     1|101 |
  |_La Hogue_        |Sydney   |Jan.  18 |Lizard  | „    18| 90 |
  |                  |         |     ’79 |        |        |    |
  |_Parramatta_      |   „     |Feb.   5 |Plym’th | „    26| 80 |
  |_Windsor Castle_  |   „     |Mar.  11 |Prawle P|June  13| 94 |
  |(D. Rose & Co.)   |         |         |        |        |    |
  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+

_The Wool Fleet_, 1879-80.

  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+
  |       Ship       |  From   |   Left  |   To   |Arrived |D’ys|
  |                  |         |         |        |        |Out |
  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+
  |_Sam Mendel_      |Melbourne|Nov.   3 |London  |Feb.   6| 95 |
  |_Cimba_           |Sydney   | „     6 |Channel |Mar.   4|119 |
  |_Ben Cruachan_    |Geelong  | „     9 |London  |Feb.   6| 89 |
  |_Romanoff_        |Geelong  | „    16 |   „    |Mar.  10|114 |
  |_Thermopylae_     |Sydney   | „    18 |   „    |Feb.   7| 81 |
  |_Salamis_         |Melbourne| „    19 |   „    |Mar.   8|109 |
  |_Samuel Plimsoll_ |Sydney   | „    22 |   „    | „     9|107 |
  |_Macduff_         |Melbourne| „    23 |   „    | „     9|106 |
  |_Thyatira_        |    „    | „    26 |   „    | „     8|102 |
  |_Old Kensington_  |    „    | „    29 |   „    | „     9|100 |
  |_Sir Walter_      |    „    | „    29 |   „    | „     9|100 |
  |  _Raleigh_       |         |         |        |        |    |
  |_Mermerus_        |    „    |Dec.   4 |   „    | „     4| 90 |
  |_Cynisca_         |Sydney   | „     5 |   „    |April  6|122 |
  |_Dunbar Castle_   |    „    | „    11 |   „    | „     3|113 |
  |_Superb_          |Melbourne| „    13 |   „    | „     3|111 |
  |_Nineveh_         |Sydney   | „    18 |   „    | „     2|105 |
  |_Darling Downs_   |    „    | „    30 |   „    | „     2| 94 |
  |_Ben Voirlich_    |    „    |Jan.   1 |   „    | „    17|106 |
  |_Aristides_       |Melbourne| „     1 |   „    | „     3| 92 |
  |_Loch Tay_        |    „    | „     3 |   „    | „    19|106 |
  |_Loch Vennachar_  |Geelong  | „    16 |   „    | „    19| 93 |
  |_Patriarch_       |Sydney   | „    17 |   „    | „    19| 92 |
  |_Loch Garry_      |Melbourne| „    22 |   „    | „    19| 87 |
  +------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----+

_The Wool Fleet_, 1880-1.

  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |       Ship      |  From   |  Left  |    To    |Arrived |D’ys|
  |                 |         |        |          |        |Out |
  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |_Woollahra_      |Sydney   |Sept. 3 |London    |Dec.   1| 88 |
  |_Hawkesbury_     |   „     |  „  30 |    „     |  „   27| 88 |
  |_The Tweed_      |   „     |Oct.  1 |    „     |  „   28| 88 |
  |_Samuel Plimsoll_|   „     |  „  12 |    „     |Feb.   2|113 |
  |_Thermopylae_    |   „     |  „  14 |    „     |Jan.  12| 90 |
  |_Miltiades_      |Melbourne|  „  20 |Motherb’nk|Feb.   3|106 |
  |_Cimba_          |Sydney   |  „  23 | London   |  „    2|102 |
  |_Sir Walter_     |Melbourne|  „  26 |    „     |  „   13|110 |
  |  _Raleigh_      |         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Loch Vennachar_ |   „     |  „  27 |    „     |Jan.  31| 96 |
  |_Loch Maree_     |   „     |  „  28 |    „     |Feb.   3| 98 |
  |_Melbourne_      |   „     |  „  29 |    „     |Jan.  31| 94 |
  |_Romanoff_       |   „     |  „  29 |    „     |Feb.   2| 96 |
  |_Patriarch_      |Sydney   |  „  29 |    „     |  „    3| 97 |
  |_Ben Voirlich_   |Melbourne|Nov.  5 |    „     |  „    7| 94 |
  |_Mermerus_       |   „     |  „   5 |    „     |  „    4| 91 |
  |_Salamis_        |Geelong  |  „   9 |    „     |  „    5| 88 |
  |_Sam Mendel_     |Melbourne|  „  10 |    „     |Mar.   8|118 |
  |_Windsor Castle_ |   „     |  „  11 |    „     |Feb.   5| 86 |
  |     (Green’s)   |         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Windsor Castle_ |Sydney   |  „  13 |    „     |Jan.  31| 79 |
  |     (D. Rose)   |         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Aristides_      |Melbourne|  „  17 |    „     |Feb.   4| 79 |
  |_Thyatira_       |Geelong  |  „  20 |    „     |Mar.   5|105 |
  |_Loch Garry_     |Melbourne|  „  29 |    „     |Feb.  24| 87 |
  |_Darling Downs_  |Sydney   |Dec.  5 |    „     |April 13|129 |
  |_Collingwood_    |Melbourne|  „   5 |    „     |Mar.  20|105 |
  |_Thessalus_      |   „     |Jan. 14 |    „     |April 28|104 |
  |_Parramatta_     |Sydney   |  „  24 |    „     |  „   30| 96 |
  |_Brilliant_      |   „     |Feb.  2 |    „     |May    1| 88 |
  |_Loch Tay_       |Melbourne|  „  25 |Falm’th   |June   8|103 |
  |_Argonaut_       |   „     |April 7 |London    |  „   30| 84 |
  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+

_The Wool Fleet_, 1881-2.

  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |       Ship      |  From   |  Left  |    To    |Arrived |D’ys|
  |                 |         |        |          |        |Out |
  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |_Windsor Castle_ |Sydney   |Oct. 15 |London    |Jan.  30|107 |
  |   (D. Rose)     |         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Salamis_        |Geelong  | „   29 |   „      |Feb.   7|101 |
  |_Romanoff_       |Melbourne|Nov.  7 |   „      | „    18|103 |
  |_Holmsdale_      |    „    | „   10 |   „      | „    17| 99 |
  |_Loch Garry_     |    „    | „   11 |Wight     | „    16| 97 |
  |_Ben Cruachan_   |    „    | „   12 |London    | „    18| 98 |
  |_Sir Walter_     |    „    | „   12 |   „      |Mar.   6|114 |
  |   _Raleigh_     |         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Parthenope_     |    „    | „   13 |   „      |Feb.  15| 94 |
  |_Theophane_      |Geelong  | „   14 |Dover     | „    16| 94 |
  |_Miltiades_      |Melbourne| „   14 |Downs     | „    16| 94 |
  |_Patriarch_      |Sydney   | „   15 |London    |Mar.   6|111 |
  |_City of Agra_   |Melbourne| „   17 |   „      |Feb.  20| 95 |
  |_Mermerus_       |    „    | „   17 |Lizard    | „    14| 89 |
  |_Samuel Plimsoll_|Sydney   | „   17 |Downs     | „    16| 91 |
  |_Ben Voirlich_   |Geelong  | „   18 |London    |Mar.  22|124 |
  |_Loch Rannoch_   |    „    | „   29 |   „      | „    29|120 |
  |_Thyatira_       |Melbourne|Dec.  3 |   „      | „    18|105 |
  |_Loch Vennachar_ |    „    | „    9 |   „      | „     3| 84 |
  |_Thessalus_      |Sydney   | „   19 |   „      | „    28| 99 |
  |_Aristides_      |Melbourne|Feb.  6 |   „      |May   11| 94 |
  |                 |         |    ’82 |          |        |    |
  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+

_The Wool Fleet_, 1882-3.

  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |       Ship      |  From   |  Left  |    To    |Arrived |D’ys|
  |                 |         |        |          |        |Out |
  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |_Windsor Castle_ |Sydney   |Oct.  13|Falm’th   |Jan.  20| 99 |
  |  (D. Rose & Co.)|         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Thermopylae_    |   „     | „    14|London    |Dec.  28| 75 |
  |_Salamis_        |Melbourne| „    17|  „       |Jan.  19| 94 |
  |_Loch Garry_     |   „     |Nov.   3|  „       |Feb.  14|103 |
  |_Samuel Plimsoll_|Sydney   | „     4|  „       | „     4| 92 |
  |_Orontes_        |   „     | „     6|  „       | „    15|101 |
  |_Loch Vennachar_ |Melbourne| „     8|  „       | „    15| 99 |
  |_Macduff_        |   „     | „     8|  „       | „    11| 95 |
  |_Ben Voirlich_   |   „     | „     9|  „       | „     9| 92 |
  |_Holmsdale_      |   „     | „     9|  „       | „    15| 98 |
  |_Ben Cruachan_   |   „     | „    13|  „       | „    12| 91 |
  |_Hallowe’en_     |Sydney   | „    14|  „       | „    13| 91 |
  |_Miltiades_      |Melbourne| „    14|  „       | „    14| 92 |
  |_Romanoff_       |   „     | „    16|  „       | „    14| 90 |
  |_Loch Sloy_      |   „     | „    23|  „       | „    23| 92 |
  |_Mermerus_       |   „     | „    25|  „       | „    14| 81 |
  |_John Duthie_    |Sydney   | „    29|  „       |Mar.  25|116 |
  |_Collingwood_    |Melbourne| „     6|  „       |Mar.  26|110 |
  |_Melbourne_      |   „     | „    14|  „       | „    27|103 |
  |_Patriarch_      |Sydney   | „    26|  „       |April 10|105 |
  |_Woollahra_      |   „     |Jan.   6|  „       | „     7| 91 |
  |_Cimba_          |   „     | „     7|Channel   | „    22|105 |
  |_Smyrna_         |   „     | „     7|London    | „    30|113 |
  |_Anglo-Norman_   |   „     | „    10|  „       | „    23|103 |
  |_Christiana_     |   „     | „    19|  „       |May   12|113 |
  |  _Thompson_     |         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Darling Downs_  |   „     | „    23|  „       |April 30| 97 |
  |_Loch Etive_     |   „     | „    24|  „       |May   16|112 |
  |_La Hogue_       |Sydney   |Jan.  25|  „       |April 30| 95 |
  |_Dharwar_        |   „     |Feb.   8|  „       |June   4|116 |
  |_Hawkesbury_     |   „     | „     8|  „       |May   12| 93 |
  |_Trafalgar_      |   „     | „     8|  „       | „    12| 93 |
  |_Gladstone_      |   „     | „    26|  „       | „    13| 76 |
  |_Rodney_         |Melbourne|Mar.   4|Prawle    |June  11| 99 |
  |_Parramatta_     |Sydney   | „     6|London    |July   7|123 |
  |_Abergeldie_     |   „     |April 15|  „       |Aug.   1|108 |
  |_Brilliant_      |   „     | „    19|  „       | „     4|107 |
  |_William Duthie_ |   „     | „    20|  „       | „    15|117 |
  |_Port Jackson_   |   „     | „    28|  „       |July  30| 93 |
  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+

_The Wool Fleet_, 1883-4.

  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |       Ship      |  From   | Left   |    To    |Arrived |D’ys|
  |                 |         |        |          |        |Out |
  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |_John Duthie_    |Sydney   |Oct. 12 |London    |Jan.  10| 90 |
  |_Salamis_        |Melbourne| „   19 |  „       | „    27|100 |
  |_Sir Walter_     |Sydney   | „   20 |  „       | „    19| 91 |
  |  _Raleigh_      |         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Woollahra_      |   „     | „   26 |  „       |Feb.   6|103 |
  |_Thermopylae_    |   „     | „   31 |  „       |Jan.  26| 87 |
  |_Loch Vennachar_ |Melbourne|Nov.  3 |  „       |Feb.  25|114 |
  |_Ben Cruachan_   |   „     | „    3 |  „       |Jan.  27| 85 |
  |_Holmsdale_      |   „     | „    3 |  „       |Feb.  10| 99 |
  |_Loch Garry_     |Geelong  | „    3 |  „       | „     2| 91 |
  |_Patriarch_      |Sydney   | „    3 |  „       | „     2| 91 |
  |_Windsor Castle_ |   „     | „    3 |  „       | „     6| 94 |
  |   (D. Rose)     |         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Anglo-Norman_   |   „     | „    4 |  „       | „     1| 89 |
  |_Samuel Plimsoll_|   „     | „    5 |  „       |Jan.  28| 84 |
  |_Ethiopian_      |Geelong  | „    7 |  „       |Feb.  12| 97 |
  |_Ben Voirlich_   |   „     | „   11 |  „       | „    10| 91 |
  |_South_          |Melbourne| „   14 |  „       | „    20| 98 |
  |  _Australian_   |         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Romanoff_       |   „     | „   17 |  „       | „    12| 87 |
  |_Mermerus_       |   „     | „   21 |  „       | „    24| 93 |
  |_Loch Tay_       |   „     | „   24 |  „       |Mar.   3| 99 |
  |_Thyatira_       |   „     | „   28 |  „       | „    10|102 |
  |_Hawkesbury_     |Sydney   |Dec.  7 |  „       | „    10| 93 |
  |_Loch Long_      |Melbourne| „    8 |  „       | „    14| 96 |
  |_Melbourne_      |   „     | „   12 |  „       | „    18| 96 |
  |_Cutty Sark_     |Newcastle| „   28 |  „       | „    20| 82 |
  |_Dharwar_        |Sydney   | „   29 |  „       |April 21|113 |
  |_Cimba_          |   „     | „   29 |  „       | „    22|114 |
  |_Christiana_     |   „     | „   29 |  „       | „    21|113 |
  |  _Thompson_     |         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Miltiades_      |Geelong  |Jan.  4 |  „       | „    22|108 |
  |_Smyrna_         |Sydney   | „   14 |  „       | „    30|106 |
  |_Rodney_         |Melbourne| „   19 |  „       | „    28| 99 |
  |_Jerusalem_      |Sydney   |Feb.  6 |  „       |May    3| 87 |
  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+

_The Wool Fleet_, 1884-5.

  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |      Ship       |  From   |  Left  |    To    |Arrived |D’ys|
  |                 |         |        |          |        |Out |
  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |_Loch Long_      |Melbourne|Oct.  5 |London    |Jan.   9| 96 |
  |_Thermopylae_    |   „     |  „   6 |  „       |Dec.  24| 79 |
  |_Patriarch_      |Sydney   |  „  12 |Channel   |Jan.  10| 90 |
  |_Sir Walter_     |   „     |  „  14 |London    |  „   27|105 |
  |  _Raleigh_      |         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Samuel Plimsoll_|   „     |  „  15 |Plym’th   |  „   22| 99 |
  |_Salamis_        |Melbourne|  „  19 |London    |  „   11| 84 |
  |_Thyatira_       |   „     |  „  31 |  „       |Feb.  14|106 |
  |_The Tweed_      |Sydney   |Nov.  4 |  „       |  „   14|102 |
  |_Hawkesbury_     |   „     |  „  26 |  „       |  „   28| 94 |
  |_Ben Cruachan_   |Melbourne|  „  28 |  „       |  „   27| 91 |
  |_Gladstone_      |Newcastle|Dec.  2 |  „       |Mar.  20|108 |
  |_Mermerus_       |Melbourne|  „   5 |  „       |Feb.  27| 84 |
  |_Loch Garry_     |Geelong  |  „   5 |  „       |Mar.  30|115 |
  |_Orontes_        |Sydney   |  „   5 |  „       |  „   31|116 |
  |_Christiana_     |   „     |  „   6 |  „       |  „   27|111 |
  |  _Thompson_     |         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Woollahra_      |   „     |  „   7 |  „       |  „   27|110 |
  |_Cutty Sark_     |Newcastle|  „   9 |  „       |Feb.  27| 80 |
  |_Cimba_          |Sydney   |  „  12 |  „       |Mar.  27|105 |
  |_Dharwar_        |   „     |  „  12 |  „       |  „   27|105 |
  |_Harbinger_      |Melbourne|  „  24 |  „       |April  2| 99 |
  |_Loch Vennachar_ |   „     |  „  27 |  „       |Mar.  29| 92 |
  |_Miltiades_      |   „     |  „  28 |  „       |  „   30| 92 |
  |_Trafalgar_      |Sydney   |Jan. 19 |  „       |April 29|100 |
  |_Cairnbulg_      |   „     |  „  20 |  „       |  „   23| 93 |
  |_Rodney_         |Melbourne|Feb.  2 |  „       |  „   26| 83 |
  |_Port Jackson_   |Sydney   |  „  12 |  „       |May   17| 94 |
  |_Centurion_      |   „     |Mar. 21 |  „       |June  20| 91 |
  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+

_The Wool Fleet_, 1885-6.

  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |       Ship      |  From   |  Left  |   To     |Arrived |D’ys|
  |                 |         |        |          |        |Out |
  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |_Patriarch_      |Newcastle|Oct.  5 |London    |Jan.  7 | 94 |
  |_Sir Walter_     |Sydney   | „   12 |  „       | „    5 | 85 |
  |  _Raleigh_      |         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Loch Vennachar_ |Melbourne| „   14 |  „       | „    7 | 85 |
  |_Cutty Sark_     |Sydney   | „   16 |  „       |Dec. 27 | 72 |
  |_Salamis_        |Melbourne| „   17 |  „       |Jan.  2 | 77 |
  |_Woollahra_      |Sydney   | „   17 |  „       | „    7 | 82 |
  |_Thermopylae_    |   „     | „   18 |  „       | „    5 | 79 |
  |_Samuel Plimsoll_|   „     | „   24 |  „       | „   23 | 91 |
  |_Cimba_          |   „     | „   24 |  „       | „   28 | 97 |
  |_Harbinger_      |Melbourne|Nov   7 |  „       |Feb.  5 | 90 |
  |_Ben Cruachan_   |   „     | „   13 |  „       | „    2 | 81 |
  |_Mermerus_       |   „     | „   30 |Lizard    |Mar. 19 |109 |
  |_Illawarra_      |Sydney   |Dec   7 |London    | „   21 |104 |
  |_The Tweed_      |   „     | „    7 |  „       | „   25 |108 |
  |_Thomas Stephens_|   „     | „   11 |  „       | „   21 |100 |
  |_Ben Voirlich_   |Melbourne| „   22 |  „       | „   21 | 89 |
  |_Rodney_         |   „     | „   22 |  „       | „   19 | 87 |
  |_Loch Ness_      |   „     |Jan.  4 |  „       |May   3 |119 |
  |_Loch Ryan_      |   „     | „    8 |  „       | „    8 |120 |
  |_Mount Stewart_  |   „     | „   10 |  „       | „    3 |113 |
  |_Darling Downs_  |   „     | „   16 |  „       | „   11 |115 |
  |_Dharwar_        |   „     | „   19 |  „       | „   11 |112 |
  |_Trafalgar_      |Sydney   | „   23 |  „       | „   10 |107 |
  |_Loch Sloy_      |Melbourne| „   30 |  „       | „   27 |117 |
  |_Brilliant_      |Sydney   |Feb.  3 |  „       | „    7 | 93 |
  |_Port Jackson_   |   „     | „    8 |  „       | „   27 |108 |
  |_Miltiades_      |Melbourne|Mar. 22 |  „       |June 24 | 94 |
  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+

_The Wool Fleet_, 1886-7.

  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |       Ship      |  From   |  Left  |    To    |Arrived |D’ys|
  |                 |         |        |          |        |Out |
  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |_Loch Vennachar_ |Melbourne|Oct. 21 |London    |Jan.  20| 91 |
  |_Salamis_        |    „    | „   24 |  „       |  „   17| 85 |
  |_Patriarch_      |Sydney   | „   24 |  „       |  „   21| 89 |
  |_Thermopylae_    |    „    | „   24 |  „       |  „   19| 87 |
  |_Blackadder_     |Newcastle| „   27 |  „       |Feb.  23|119 |
  |_Derwent_        |Sydney   |Nov.  6 |  „       |  „   22|108 |
  |_Cimba_          |    „    | „   27 |  „       |  „   24| 90 |
  |_Woollahra_      |    „    | „   30 |  „       |  „   26| 88 |
  |_Aristides_      |Melbourne|Dec.  7 |  „       |Mar.  10| 93 |
  |_Mermerus_       |         | „   10 |  „       |Feb.  26| 78 |
  |_Sir Walter_     |    „    | „   11 |  „       |Mar.   1| 80 |
  |  _Raleigh_      |         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Harbinger_      |    „    | „   13 |  „       |  „   25|102 |
  |_Samuel Plimsoll_|Sydney   | „   14 |  „       |  „   25|101 |
  |_Rodney_         |Melbourne| „   17 |  „       |April 17|121 |
  |_Loch Garry_     |Geelong  | „   18 |  „       |  „   13|116 |
  |_City of Agra_   |Melbourne|Jan.  1 |  „       |  „   23|112 |
  |_South_          |    „    | „    1 |  „       |  „   23|112 |
  |  _Australian_   |         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Cairnbulg_      |Sydney   | „    8 |  „       |  „   22|104 |
  |_Illawarra_      |    „    | „   13 |  „       |  „   22| 97 |
  |_Port Jackson_   |    „    | „   15 |  „       |  „   24| 99 |
  |_Orontes_        |    „    | „   16 |  „       |  „   23| 97 |
  |_Smyrna_         |    „    | „   18 |  „       |  „   24| 96 |
  |_Trafalgar_      |    „    |Feb. 15 |  „       |May   21| 95 |
  |_Dharwar_        |    „    | „   15 |  „       |  „   21| 95 |
  |_Cutty Sark_     |    „    |Mar. 26 |  „       |June   6| 72 |
  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+

_The Wool Fleet_, 1887-8.

  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |       Ship      |  From   | Left   |    To    |Arrived |D’ys|
  |                 |         |        |          |        |Out |
  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |_Sir Walter_     |Sydney   |Sept 14 |London    |Jan.   2|110 |
  |  _Raleigh_      |         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Thermopylae_    |   „     |Oct. 16 |  „       | „     3| 79 |
  |_Patriarch_      |   „     | „   16 |  „       | „    20| 96 |
  |_Loch Vennachar_ |Melbourne| „   17 |  „       | „     5| 80 |
  |_Woollahra_      |Sydney   | „   23 |  „       | „    23| 92 |
  |_Cimba_          |   „     | „   24 |  „       | „    22| 90 |
  |_Samuel Plimsoll_|   „     | „   25 |  „       | „    27| 94 |
  |_Salamis_        |Melbourne| „   26 |  „       | „    17| 83 |
  |_Romanoff_       |   „     |Nov.  2 |  „       |Mar.  11|130 |
  |_Smyrna_         |Sydney   | „   12 |  „       | „    13|122 |
  |_Derwent_        |  „      | „   17 |  „       |Feb.  20| 95 |
  |_Thyatira_       |Newcastle| „   21 |Dungen’s  |Mar.   8|108 |
  |_Dharwar_        |Melbourne| „   23 |London    | „     5|103 |
  |_Loch Ryan_      |Geelong  | „   23 |  „       | „    12|110 |
  |_Harbinger_      |Melbourne| „   28 |  „       | „    10|103 |
  |_Mermerus_       |  „      | „   29 |  „       | „     9|101 |
  |_Orontes_        |Sydney   |Dec.  1 |  „       | „    13|103 |
  |_Illawarra_      |  „      | „    5 |  „       | „     8| 94 |
  |_Aristides_      |Melbourne| „    5 |  „       | „     5| 91 |
  |_Yallaroi_       |Sydney   | „   10 |  „       | „    10| 91 |
  |_Trafalgar_      |  „      | „   12 |  „       | „    11| 90 |
  |_Collingwood_    |Melbourne| „   12 |  „       | „    11| 90 |
  |_City of Agra_   |  „      | „   17 |  „       | „    10| 83 |
  |_Loch Garry_     |  „      | „   21 |  „       | „    15| 85 |
  |_Cutty Sark_     |Newcastle| „   28 |Dungen’s  | „     8| 71 |
  |_Gladstone_      |Sydney   |Jan.  7 |London    |April  5| 89 |
  |_Miltiades_      |Melbourne| „   11 |  „       | „    11| 91 |
  |_Brilliant_      |Sydney   | „   26 |  „       | „    18| 83 |
  |_Thomas Stephens_|  „      |Feb.  4 |  „       |May   17|103 |
  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+

_The Wool Fleet_, 1888-9.

  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |       Ship      |  From   |  Left  |    To    |Arrived |D’ys|
  |                 |         |        |          |        |Out |
  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |_Derwent_        |Sydney   |Oct.  10|London    |Jan.  17| 99 |
  |_Cimba_          |  „      |  „   18|   „      |  „   15| 89 |
  |_Orontes_        |  „      |  „   20|   „      |  „   22| 94 |
  |_Star of Italy_  |  „      |  „   20|   „      |  „   14| 86 |
  |_Woollahra_      |  „      |  „   24|   „      |  „   18| 86 |
  |_Salamis_        |Melbourne|  „   24|   „      |  „   17| 85 |
  |_Cutty Sark_     |Sydney   |  „   26|Start     |  „   18| 84 |
  |_Loch Vennachar_ |Melbourne|  „   27|London    |  „   19| 84 |
  |_Gladstone_      |Sydney   |  „   30|   „      |Feb.  15|108 |
  |_Centurion_      |  „      |  „   31|   „      |  „   21|113 |
  |_Mermerus_       |Melbourne|Nov.   3|   „      |Jan.  31| 89 |
  |_Blackadder_     |Newcastle|  „   17|   „      |Feb.  15| 90 |
  |_Loch Ryan_      |Geelong  |  „   23|   „      |Mar.   9|106 |
  |_Harbinger_      |Melbourne|  „   26|   „      |  „    8|102 |
  |_Nebo_           |Sydney   |  „   28|   „      |Feb.  16| 82 |
  |_Thomas Stephens_|  „      |  „   29|   „      |Mar.  20|111 |
  |_Dharwar_        |Melbourne|Dec.   1|   „      |  „    7| 96 |
  |_Trafalgar_      |Sydney   |  „    6|   „      |Mar.  18|102 |
  |_Yallaroi_       |  „      |  „   10|   „      |  „   20|100 |
  |_Collingwood_    |Melbourne|  „   15|   „      |  „   20| 95 |
  |_Loch Garry_     |  „      |  „   21|   „      |  „   20| 89 |
  |_Sophocles_      |Sydney   |  „   22|   „      |April 15|114 |
  |_Samuel Plimsoll_|Melbourne|  „   23|   „      |  „    2|100 |
  |_Rodney_         |Sydney   |  „   24|   „      |Mar.  27| 93 |
  |_Romanoff_       |Geelong  |  „   31|   „      |April 23|113 |
  |_Torridon_       |Sydney   |Jan.  12|   „      |  „   29|107 |
  |_Thermopylae_    |  „      |Mar.  26|   „      |June  29| 95 |
  +-----------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+

_The Wool Fleet_, 1889-90.

  +--------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |     Ship     |  From   | Left   |    To    |Arrived |D’ys|
  |              |         |        |          |        |Out |
  +--------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+
  |_Derwent_     |Sydney   |Oct. 14 |London    |Jan.   2| 80 |
  |_Cairnbulg_   |  „      | „   15 |  „       | „    24|101 |
  |_Orontes_     |  „      | „   17 |  „       | „    24| 99 |
  |_Loch_        |Melbourne| „   21 |  „       | „    15| 86 |
  | _Vennachar_  |         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Salamis_     |  „      | „   22 |  „       | „    15| 85 |
  |_Cimba_       |Sydney   | „   22 |  „       | „     5| 75 |
  |_Woollahra_   |  „      | „   22 |  „       | „    15| 85 |
  |_Rodney_      |  „      | „   31 |Lizard    | „    16| 77 |
  |_Cutty Sark_  |  „      |Nov.  3 |Start     | „    16| 74 |
  |_Loch Ryan_   |Melbourne| „    3 |London    |Mar.  11|128 |
  |_Mermerus_    |  „      |Dec.  7 |  „       | „    10| 93 |
  |_Thomas_      |  „      | „   10 |  „       | „    28|108 |
  | _Stephens_   |         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Loch Tay_    |Geelong  | „   12 |  „       | „    15| 96 |
  |_Samuel_      |Melbourne| „   14 |  „       | „    26|102 |
  | _Plimsoll_   |         |        |          |        |    |
  |_Yallaroi_    |Sydney   | „   20 |  „       |April  8|109 |
  |_Trafalgar_   |  „      | „   21 |  „       | „     8|108 |
  |_Harbinger_   |Melbourne| „   22 |  „       | „    10|109 |
  |_Collingwood_ |  „      | „   23 |  „       |Mar.  28| 95 |
  |_Loch Rannoch_|  „      | „   23 |  „       |April 10|108 |
  |_Illawarra_   |Sydney   | „   23 |  „       | „     5|103 |
  |_Romanoff_    |Melbourne|Jan.  1 |  „       | „     6| 95 |
  |_Thermopylae_ |Sydney   | „    9 |Deal      | „     8| 89 |
  |_Loch Long_   |Geelong  | „   18 |London    | „    27| 99 |
  |_Loch Sloy_   |Melbourne| „   18 |  „       | „    28|100 |
  |_Brilliant_   |Sydney   | „   25 |  „       | „    22| 87 |
  |_Torridon_    |  „      | „   25 |  „       | „    26| 91 |
  |_Patriarch_   |  „      | „   27 |  „       | „    26| 89 |
  |_Hesperus_    |Melbourne| „   31 |  „       |May   14|103 |
  |_Port Jackson_|Sydney   |Feb.  8 |  „       | „     8| 89 |
  +--------------+---------+--------+----------+--------+----+



Transcriber’s Note:

The name of the ship printed as _Songdal_ in the original, see
‘PASSAGES TO AUSTRALIA UNDER 80 DAYS IN 1885.’, has been changed to
read _Sogndal_.





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