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Title: Dolæus upon the cure of the gout by milk-diet - To which is prefixed, an essay upon diet
Author: Dolæus, Johannes
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Dolæus upon the cure of the gout by milk-diet - To which is prefixed, an essay upon diet" ***

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Transcriber’s Note: the listed errata, and a few other small
typographical errors, have been corrected. The author’s
eighteenth-century variable spelling is left unchanged. Normal text
within italic passages is indicated ~like this~.

                         Upon the CURE of the

                         To which is prefixed,
                             An ESSAY upon

                  By WILLIAM STEPHENS, _M.D. F.R.S._
               Fellow of the King and Queen’s College of
            Physicians in _Ireland_, Physician to the Royal
            Hospital, and Botany Lecturer in the University
                             of _Dublin_.


               Printed for J. SMITH and W. BRUCE on the
           _Blind-Key_ in _Dublin_: And Sold by JOHN OSBORN
               and THOMAS LONGMAN in _Pater-noster Row_.


_To the Right Honourable ~Marmaduke Coghill~, Esq; ~L. L. D.~ Judge
of the Prerogative Court, one of the Commissioners of the Revenue,
Provice-Chancellour of the University, and one of His Majesty’s most
Honourable Privy Council._


It cannot be thought too great a Strain of Compliment, to dedicate
the following Papers to you, since they were undertaken with an
Intention of serving you and some of your Friends, and are published
at their Request. I am in no great Pain about their Success, since
you have approved my Part therein. Popular Applause is often lost in
the two quick or eager pursuit of it, and Censure is too great a Mark
of Eminence for me to be afraid of; so that if my Friends approve my
Conduct, I shall be satisfied.

It may be thought Vanity in me to name you, among my Friends,
but I have received too many Favours from you, in Instances of
some Consequence to me, not to reckon you so, which I must be very
insensible not to be proud of, and ungrateful not to acknowledge; and
to which the utmost Services in my Power are but a very inadequate

It is not to be expected that any Thing I can say should add to that
Esteem and Respect you deservedly hold among all that know you, and
therefore I forbear to enter into any Parts of your Character, or
your Conduct in publick and private Life. The great Stations you so
justly fill, give you Opportunities of doing kind Actions out of the
Power of more private Persons, and of satisfying your Inclinations
to Benevolence, which are apt rather to out-run your Power than fall
short of it, and seem bounded by nothing else: But I am only in this
Place to present you the following Papers, with my Wishes that they
may contribute to your Health or your Entertainment, and to acknowledge

                              Your most obliged and
                                    obedient humble

                                                      _Will. Stephens_.


_Some Gentlemen of very great Worth, whose Desires I could not resist,
engaged me in the Translation of the following Treatise of ~Dolaeus~;
they thought it might be of Use to Persons afflicted with the Gout,
to have an easier Way of coming at the Facts contained therein, by
naturalizing it into our Language; to which I can only add my good
Wishes, as I have done my Endeavours in this Publication; for its
Usefulness must be judged of by the Event._

_In Examining ~Dolaeus~ his Work, Many Things occurred to me not so
agreeable to my Way of thinking about these Matters, as I could have
wished consistent with my publishing thereof, without taking Notice
of them; some necessary Things I apprehended to be omitted, some
Appearances very odly accounted for, some Directions and Medicines
too loosely and too generally recommended; and indeed, through the
whole, too little Care taken of nicely distinguishing Constitutions
and Habits, to which Directions of this Kind should be specifically
adapted, and never applied but upon the most skillful and mature Advice
that can be had. The too much Encouragement that hath been given
to valetudinary People, by publishing such loose and undetermined
Directions, have made them think themselves judges of many Things of
great Consequence to their Lives and Health, for which they are in no
Sort qualified, and is generally attended with many great and often
fatal Inconveniencies: And because they don’t always find Relief by
applying to Physicians, from such Mischiefs as their own Errors, and
the Neglect of timely Advice have brought upon them, they are apt to
conceive a bad Opinion both of the Profession and its Professors._

_The History of Cures, recited by ~Dolaeus~, I take to be the most
valuable Part of his Book; the Appearances that happen therein, may, I
think, be accounted for upon other and more philosophical Principles,
than the Author hath adapted thereto; upon this, and the foregoing
Accounts, I had determined to have added Notes at such particular
Places as were proper for me to animadvert upon; but I found they
swelled to too great a Bulk, and would have too much interrupted the
Author in his own Way of telling his own Story; which occasioned the
changing thereof into the Form they now appear in, of a preliminary

_The principal Hints in the Essay are taken from some loose Papers I
have had long by me upon those Subjects; many of them were collected
upwards of fifteen Years ago, when I was a very young Adventurer in
Physick; so that I don’t pretend to call them all my own, yet I have
had long and frequent Occasion to see the Truth of them confirmed in
many Instances, and the Pleasure to find them embraced and applied,
by some of the greatest Masters of our Profession both at Home and
Abroad. It is a great Loss to Observations of this Kind, that the
Motions and Quantities of Matter are so far beyond our Senses, as to
be incapable of being reduced to any certain Measures, which prevents
that strict Mathematical Certainty we have arrived at in the Knowledge
of the Properties of Motion in larger Bodies, more within the Compass
of our Senses; the Gravitation of the heavenly Bodies, and of Bodies
upon our Earth, to their respective Centres, have been reduced to
certain Measure; and that there are mutual, attractive and repellent
Powers, which act in certain Distances and Positions, annexed to the
smallest Particles of Matter, as the immediate Cause of several natural
Appearances, is highly resonable to believe; but whatever Boasts
have been made by some of the modern Philosophers of accounting for
those Appearances upon this Principle, they have amounted to no more
than Evidences of its Existence; for the Laws of its Action are not
yet sufficiently known for such Purposes as I have been speaking of;
so that we must content ourselves with the History of Nature, in its
Appearances, which under the same Circumstances will ever be the same,
or at least as long as we shall have Occasion to observe them, let
their Causes be what they will._

_I have avoided the Quotation of Authors through the whole, as much as
possible, because I have observed that whatever Appearance of honesty
there may be in attributing to every Author the Hints he may have
furnished, yet, a Multiplicity of Quotations is generally imputed
rather to the Vanity of appearing Book learned, than any thing else,
except to skreen Defects under greater Names, by the Publisher’s not
making himself by this Means accountable for what he says; the first
I think I have disclaimed, by declining the Occasion, and the latter
could be of no Use to me, because I hold myself accountable in this
Publication only for the Truth of the Facts, and the Honesty of the
Intention, which is to contribute what lies in my small Sphere to the
good of Mankind, my Friends, and my Profession._

AN ESSAY UPON DIET, Applied chiefly to the GOUT.

    _All Birds, Beasts, and Fishes, Insects, Trees, and other
    Vegetables, with their several Parts, grow out of Water and
    Watry Tinctures and Salts; and by Putrefaction return again
    into Watry Substances._

    _All the Parts of Animals and Vegetables are composed of
    Substances volatile and fixed, fluid and solid, as appears
    by their Analysis; and so are Salts and Minerals, so far as
    Chymists have been hitherto able to examine their Composition._

                             Sir Isaac Newton’s _Opt. p. 350, 360_.

It is very well known in the History of Physick, that very great
Changes have been brought about in the human Body by the Force of Diet,
especially in chronical Cases, where the Application of Medicines hath
proved ineffectual. Chronical Distempers, as they are longer in coming
to their Period, so they occasion a more universal bad Habit of Body;
and where there is a pretty universal Depravation either of the Solids
or Fluids of a human Body, or of both, it is not to be expected that
sudden Changes can happen to Advantage: As the Progress is slow, and
the Changes from a good to a bad State imperceptible, and by Degrees,
the Changes to a good State must be so too. In acute Diseases indeed
Medicines are more immediately necessary, because the Changes being
quick and violent, immediate and sometimes violent Remedies become
necessary; there being no Time to wait the slow and ordinary, tho’ more
certain, Methods of Change by the Alimentary Powers.

The Gout, of all chronical Distempers, requires least the Application
of violent or uncertain Remedies: Tho’ its pain be very intense, it
comes very slow to its Period: Generally it is many Years, or the
imprudent Application of Medicines, that brings it into the noble
Parts, so as to endanger Life; purging by the Bowels hath frequently
brought it into the Stomach; external Applications of repellent
Plaisters have drove it into the Head; Applications of Mercurial
Plaisters have brought on Paralytick Disorders: As we are not certainly
acquainted with the particular Nature of the Gouty Matter, it is
uncertain how to apply. That there is somewhat in the Part, not natural
to the Body, which occasions the Pain, we know; what it is particularly
we know not; the common Method of Nature is to evacuate it by the Pores
of the Skin at certain Seasons, which requires the Part to be kept
warm, and to attend upon the Operations of Nature for Relief; this,
and the Uncertainty of Medicinal Applications, have brought _Patience
and Flannel_ to be Proverbial to the Gout.

Since the Cure of the Gout doth not with Safety admit the Application
of sudden or violent Remedies, nor the Nature thereof require them;
Physicians have, with very great Prudence, turned their Thoughts to
other Methods of Cure; for this End, it was very proper to consider
the Gout as the Distemper of the Rich and the Lazy, that it flows
chiefly from Idleness and Fulness of Bread; that Persons afflicted
therewith have naturally keen Appetites, and are apt to indulge in
larger Quantities and cruder Kinds of Food, than the digestive Powers
are able to deal with; that it chiefly happens to sedentary People;
that upon the Approach of a Fit of the Gout, and during the Paroxysm,
there are evident Marks of Indigestion in the Stomach and Bowels. If we
add hereto the actual Relief that many Persons have found in the Use of
a proper Diet, we shall not be at a Loss for a Reason, why Physicians
should expect to find a more certain and easy Method of Cure in the
Gout by Diet, than by any other Means.

It is not my Design at present to enter into the particular History of
the Gout; this is very well known, and so accurately described by Dr.
_Sydenham_, that it is needless; nor to enter into any long Detail of
the History of the Alimentary Powers; this is likewise sufficiently
known; nor to raise any Altercations about the particular Quality
of the Gouty Matter, which is unknown, neither would the Knowledge
thereof be much to my present Purpose. It will suffice to examine with
Accuracy the Nature of Animal and Vegetable Diet, and the Habits they
produce in the human Body, and to apply this to the Nature and Symptoms
of the Gout.

The Knowledge of the particular Quality of the Gouty Matter is not
absolutely necessary to our present Purpose; it is sufficient if it
be made to appear, that the whole Habit of the Body may be changed by
Diet. An Animal is entirely composed of the Food it is nourished by,
the first _Stamen_, or Principle of Life, is most exceedingly small;
and all that it afterwards receives its Growth from, may properly
enough be called its Food: In oviparous Animals, and the same happens
in viviparous ones, (tho’ it be not so much within the Compass of our
Observation) the first Nourishment is the White of the Egg, a Fluid
very analogous to the _Serum_ of the Blood, and the Subject of the
Encrease is originally so small as almost to escape the strictest

Many, if not most Authors, who have entered into the particular Quality
of the Gouty Matter, have placed it in an acrimonious acid Salt, and
upon that Scheme have gone into the Method of a Milk and Vegetable
Diet for the Cure. The Cure upon this Scheme seems to me not very
rational, because Milk and Vegetables in their natural State tend to
Acidity; and the Chalky Substance of the Gout and Stone in the Bladder
(which are pretty near akin) are soluble only by _Aqua fortis_, which
is the strongest Acid. The Digestion of Animal Food, which is found to
encourage, if not occasion the Gout, naturally tends to Alcalescence;
and therefore there is more Reason to conclude the Gouty Matter to be
Alkaline than Acid; but the Truth is, there are no evident Marks of
either Acid or Alkali in the Animal Juices of an healthy Body, nor of
any other Salt but Sea Salt, which is taken in with the Food, and as
it is incapable of Change, passes thro’ the Vessels of the Body. There
is indeed an Acidity discoverable in the Bowels and lacteal Vessels,
which is doubtless owing to the acid Food, for it doth not change its
Nature, till it be thoroughly assimilated with the Blood in several
Circulations; for even in the Chyle an Acid is sometimes discoverable:
This Acid is lost in the Milk, which is but one Change farther, tho’
even in this it is evident there is some Tendency that Way, because
of its Disposition to turn sowre by standing. As there is doubtless
Air in the Blood, there must be somewhat Nitrous, because there is
no Air without Nitre, and Nitre is an Acid, but cannot come within
Imagination of occasioning the Gout. That the Gout should consist in
an Acid, and be curable by acessent Aliment, the Gouty Chalk dissolved
only by Acids, and the Aliment that occasions it alkalescent, would be
very strange. On the contrary, there is as strong Evidence that the
Gouty Matter is not perfect Alkali, neither is there any such Thing in
the Juices of an healthy Body; for tho’ Animal Juices naturally tend
to Alkalescence, they putrify before they arrive at that State, so
as to be incapable of Circulation: The Disposition of Animal Juices
this Way is so strong, that if they were not continually diluted by
fresh Portions of Chyle, they would arrive at that putrescent Alkaline
State that would destroy the Animal, as is evident in the Case of
Animals starved to Death. Twenty Days Fasting will not diminish the
Quantity of the Blood so much as a large Bleeding, and in some Kinds of
Consumptions the Diminution of the Solids and Fluids is much greater
than could happen by being starved; but in the Case before us, the
Juices turning Alkaline and Corrosive affect the tender Fibres of the
Brain, and the Animal dies feverish and delirious: On the contrary,
People have lived above twenty four Days upon Water only, which can
happen no otherwise than by diluting the Fluids, and consequently
keeping them from this Alkaline State. In short, if the Juices of an
Animal Body were either Acid or Alkaline, so as to cause an Ebullition
by Mixture of their Opposites, they would burst the Vessels.

I shall consider Vegetable Substances with regard to Diet, in the first
Place, because they are the Original Food of all Animals, who either
immediately are nourished thereby, or else feed upon such Animals as
are nourished by them.

Vegetables receive their Food from the Air and Earth, by means of
several Recipient Vessels placed in the Root and Bark, (analogous
to the Lacteals in Animals) conveyed and diluted by a sufficient
Quantity of Water: This Food thus received, which I shall beg Leave
to call Vegetable Chyle, is digested and assimilated in the Course of
Circulation, through the Vessels of the Plant, till it is converted
into Vegetable Substance, and is formed into the several differing
Vegetable Juices, Gums, and Resins, that are peculiar to each Species
of Plants. The Remainder, after the proper Separations, is evaporated
thro’ the Pores of the Skin and through the Leaves, in the Manner of
Animal Transpiration. I content myself here with this short Hint
of Vegetable Nutrition, because I have treated it more at large and
expresly in another Place: It is more material at present to examine
the several Juices which circulate in the Vessels of Vegetables,
because, in regard to Diet, they will appear to be the Matter of Animal
Nutrition; for the Vessels of Plants are no other than meer Earth bound
or connected together with Oyl, by the Means of some very powerful
Attraction: This Earth is undissoluble by the utmost Force of Fire,
since after burning a Plant in the open Fire, we find it left entire.

The Chyle of Plants seems to be made up of whatever Parts in the Earth
are soluble in Water, so as to be capable of being received into the
Absorbent or Recipient Vessels of Plants, before taken Notice of; and
consequently may consist of Salts, Oyls, Fumes of Minerals, Metals, and
other fossil Bodies, the putrified Parts of Animals and Vegetables. In
its first State it is, to be sure, very crude; but by the Structure and
Fabrick of the Plant, and the various Vessels it is strained thro’, it
is changed, elaborated, secreted, and assimilated into the Substance
of the Plant; whence it follows, that in Vegetables are contained
Salts, Oyl, Water, and Earth, and probably Metals too, for the Ashes of
Vegetables yield somewhat which the Load-Stone attracts.

This Juice, when it first enters the Root, is Earthy, Watry, Poor, and
Acid, it is in the Form of a fine and subtle Water; the nearer it is
to the Root, the more it retains of its proper Nature, the further it
is from the Root, and the more Action it hath sustained it approaches
nearer to a Vegetable Nature, as will appear by pursuing it a little
further. In the Trunk and Branches it is further prepared, tho’ even
here it is Watry and Acid, as appears by tapping Trees at the proper
Season: It is more concocted in the Bud, where the Leaves coming to
be unfolded, serve as Lungs for the further Preparation of it in the
Course of Circulation; in the Flower, Leaves and Parts of Generation,
it is still further elaborated, and becomes in its utmost Perfection,
fine enough to preserve and nourish the Embryo in the Seeds of Plants.
This Nutritious Juice or Chyle is pretty universal, and is found in
every Part of a Plant, but more or less in Quantity, and more or less
impregnated with the more Elaborate Juices, according to the Number and
Degree of its Circulations. It seems to be the universal Diluent and
Conveyer of other and more elaborated Particles. Besides what I have
mentioned, there are Juices particular to particular Parts of Plants;
as Oyl, Wax, and Manna to the Leaves; Volatile Oyl or Spirit, and Honey
to the Flower; a very fine Essential Oyl or Balm to the Seed, and
that in great Quantity; Oyl, Balm, Pitch, Resin and Gum to the Bark:
Besides which, there is a Juice peculiar to each Plant, and received in
Vessels of its own, in which a good Deal of its Specifick Nature may
consist, (for it is not reducible to any of those before mentioned)
most of the _English_ Authors call this the proper Juice of the Plant,
but _Boerhave_ and later Writers call it the Blood. I should digress
too much to enter into the natural History of these several Parts of
Vegetables; my Design at present reaching no further than with Respect
to their Assimilation into Animal Substance; and therefore I refer to
the Authors who have expresly treated of these Matters, and proceed to
examine Vegetable Juices in another Light.

The Juices of Plants are Watry, Saline, Oily, Spirituous, Gummy,
Balsamick, or Resinous, all discoverable by Art. The Water is generally
found in the Absorbent Vessels of Plants, but mixed with a Proportion
of Salt, which, tho’ always soluble in Water, otherwise appears of
very different Nature in different Plants, and differs in Degree of

The Oily Part is that which grows Fluid at the Fire, proves
inflammable, and will not unite with Water, without the Intervention of
Salt. It is seldom obtained pure from Vegetables, because therein it
exerts so very strong an attractive Force upon Salt, Water, and Earth,
that nothing less than the Force of Fire, assisted by the Action of the
Air, can separate them, as appears in _Helmont’s_ Everlasting Coal.

The Spirituous Parts of Plants, or those which contain the Odour and
Taste, are very volatile, will mix with Water, and sometimes burn in
the Fire, the Oyl of the Vegetable being here greatly attenuated,
broke, and subtilized; as appears by its being exhalable by the Heat of
the Summer Sun, so as to form the particular Atmosphere of the Plant,
and fill the Air with Particles that affect our Senses even at some

Gums are such Productions of Vegetables, as will mix with Water,
dissolve over the Fire, and burn away, being tough viscid Substances,
and contain a large Proportion of the Oyl and Salt of the Plant.
Balsams are native Oyl of Vegetables, brought to a thick Consistence,
but containing a large Proportion of an acid Spirit and Salt: However,
they differ greatly from the Oyls they afford. Lastly, Resins are such
Productions of Vegetables, as being hard and dry, prove brittle in the
Cold, soluble by Heat, inflammable and misceable with Oyl, but not with

It would be endless to give an Account of the particular Qualities
of the proper Juices of Plants; since these differ in different
Plants, and many Times in different Parts of the same Plant. There
is a much greater Variety in Vegetable than in Animal Nature; and a
much greater Difference in the Juices of one than of the other; for
the Number of different Plants known and used very much exceeds the
Number of different Animals known and used; and particular Plants have
greater Variety of Juices than particular Animals; whose Juices (if
I may so speak) are more homogenial than those of Plants. This will
appear more evidently by comparing what hath been here said, with the
Consideration of Animal Substances with Regard to Diet.

I have hitherto considered Vegetables in their natural State, but
before we can apply what hath been laid down to Animal Diet, we must
consider some Changes many of them undergo, before they are used.
The Chief of these happens by Fermentation, the Effects of which
upon Vegetables deserve to be considered; since Bread, Wine, and
Malt Liquors, so great a Part of our common Food, are prepared from
Vegetables that have gone thro’ this Operation, or are mixed with
Ferments in their Preparation.

Fermentation is a Change in Vegetables by Means of some intestine
Motion, the Effect whereof is, that in Distillation there arises a
volatile inflammable Liquor, capable of mixing with Water, commonly
called Spirits; or if the Fermentation be so managed as to produce
Vinegar, thence arises in Distillation a watry, thin, acid Liquor,
capable of extinguishing Fire. I have here only mentioned the Effects
of Fermentation; what this intestine Motion is, or its Cause, I do
not pretend to describe, because I do not know it: Its Effects are
very well known to be either a vinous or an acetous Liquor, and they
are producible from all Vegetables, and from Vegetables only; for all
the Art yet known will never gain such Spirits either from Fossils or
Animals: Putrefaction, Digestion, and Effervescence are all done by
intestine Motions, but will neither produce Wine nor Vinegar; so that
in this Light Fermentation is confined to Vegetables.

It needs no very deep Enquiry into the History of Fermentation, to
know, that in Wine (by which Name I understand all fermented Vegetable
Liquor, Ale, Beer, Mead, and all artificial Wines, as well as that
made from the Grape) the Spirituous Parts of the Vegetable are so
volatilized and loosened, that very small Heat raises them from the
other Parts of the Liquor, even many fly off upon being exposed to
the Air: The viscid, oily, and glutinous Parts of Vegetables are so
broke and separated, and the Spheres of their mutual Attractions so
diversified, that they are no longer retained. Before Fermentation, the
longer you boil the Decoction of any Vegetable, its oily and spirituous
Parts are more concentrated, and little besides Water, and some
essential Oyl goes away; after Fermentation the Spirit goes away, and
the Water remains: This is commonly known to Brewers and Distillers.

What is next observable in this Change is, that the essential Salt
is thrown from the Body of the Liquor thus fermented, and adheres
to the Side of the Vessel wherein the Liquor is deposited, and
crystallizes into Tartar. In Vinegar this Salt is kept in the Mass of
the Fluid (the Oyl being thrown off) where uniting with the aqueous and
spirituous Parts, it turns sowre, and becomes Vinegar by Means of that
Fermentation. After this no Tartar can be generated from it, nor any
inflammable Spirit obtained; but on the contrary, a watry, poor, acid
Liquor, capable of extinguishing Fire, rises first from the Still. In
Wine, the volatile Salt and Oyl of the Vegetable are attenuated and
reduced into one Spirit; Vinegar is the essential Salt of Wine made
more acid by a new Fermentation, and intimately mixed with the watry
and spirituous Parts of the same.

The Spirit produced from the Distillation of Wine is a Liquor of such
active Parts, and capable of effecting such Changes in animal Bodies,
that it ought to be retained entirely to Medicine; but since it is too
much used in Diet, it may be proper to remember it under that Head.

I must take Notice of one other Change in Vegetables, and that is what
they undergo by Putrefaction, because it Approaches somewhat to animal
Digestion, and gives us some Sort of Notion of the Manner of converting
vegetable into animal Substances.

It is very well known, that if a Quantity of green recent Vegetables
be heaped up together, and pressed down, they will in a little Time
begin to heat in the Middle, and in the Course of eight or ten Days
will have passed by Degrees to a violent Heat, so as sometimes to
flame and burn away; this Mass acquires a putrid, cadaverous, feculent
Taste and Smell, and turns into a soft, pappy Substance, resembling
human Excrement in Scent, and putrified Flesh in Taste; and by all the
Tryals that can be made, gives us no mark of vegetable Substance, but
is entirely turned into an animal one: For upon Distillation it yields
a Water of an urinous Scent; a white, volatile, dry, alkaline Salt; a
volatile, alkaline, oily Salt; and a thick fetid Oyl, all the same that
are producible from animal Substances; and lastly, (which is the nicest
Criterion between vegetable and animal Substances) if the Remainder be
calcined in an open Fire, it will not yield the least Particle of fixed
Salt, which all Vegetables whatsoever are known to do.

All Vegetables whatever are subject to this Putrefaction (and indeed
Animals too) and all specifick Differences are destroyed by it: It
is evidently caused by Fire itself collected or included within the
subject; and seems to be a general Law of Nature, wisely established,
to produce wonderful Changes in the World, and to prevent the
Indolence of Matter; this active Principle or Medium giving an easy
and reciprocal Transition of vegetable into animal Substances, and
of animal into vegetable. I think it cannot be out of the Way here
to observe, that the Change which the Aliment suffers in the human
Body, is in some Measure reducible to this; for if a Man should live
entirely upon acid Vegetables, acid Bread, and Fruits, drink Rhenish
Wine, no Part of his Body or Juices would, upon Distillation, or other
Tryal, yield the least Portion of an acid or fixed Salt, but constantly
a volatile Alkali. There cannot indeed be supposed any perfect
Putrefaction in the Bodies of Animals; for so soon as any Thing
contained therein tends this Way, it is discharged as Excrement; all
the Acids of the Aliment are subdued by the vital Powers of Animals,
and converted into volatile Salts of an alkaline Nature; without an
actual or real Putrefaction, yet by an Operation nearly approaching
thereto: If these Salts were not discharged, before Putrefaction (as
by examining the Excrement it appears they are) they must produce such
terrible Effects as would immediately destroy the Animal.

In examining vegetable Substances as Food, we must consider them as
eaten Raw, as prepared by the Arts of Cookery, and as subjected to
Fermentation. In the first Case they are sometimes the Food of Men,
always of Animals that we feed upon; in the others the Food of Men

Raw Vegetables that become Parts of Animals, are bruised, ground, and
comminuted by the proper animal Organs, and mixed with animal Juices in
their Passage. By this Means their Juices are expressed; such of them
as are capable of mixing with Water naturally, or by the intermediate
Assistance of the Bile, are formed into one common fluid Mass or Chyle,
which constitutes the first Nourishment of Animals; whence the Blood,
Serum, Lymph, and other animal Juices are formed. From what was said
before, this appears to be the Water, impregnated with the essential
Salt, the Spirit, some Portion of its essential Oyls, mixed with the
Water by Means of the Salt and the Bile; these by the vital Powers are
formed into a white Liquor, which is the Chyle, not unfitly represented
in the common making of Emulsions from oily Seeds. The Chyle still
retains its vegetable Nature, and somewhat specifick to the Vegetable
it came from; but when it hath been circulated several Times thro’
the Body, and thoroughly mixed with the Juices thereof, it acquires
animal Properties; vegetable and animal Juices are pretty near of the
same specifick Gravity, and consequently fit to repair each other; the
different Impulses of Heat and Motion, with due Mixture, create the
Difference; though this will always hold true, that an animal Body
constantly repaired from vegetable Juices, cannot have so strong a
tendency to a putrescent alkaline State, as a Body constantly repaired
from animal Juices, already disposed to that State.

The common Effects of the Art of Cookery upon Vegetables, will be
understood by what happens in the Decoction of Plants. In boiling
any Plant, its most sublime fluid Part flies off, and indeed it is
incapable of bearing a greater Heat than that of the Summer Sun, the
Salts of the Plant are dissolved in the Water, and its thicker and
grosser Oyl rises to the Top, like a fat Scum; so long as the Plant
retains any Taste or Odour, change the Water as often as you please,
there will constantly arise a fat, odorous, viscous, inflammable and
frothy Matter, which can be no other than the Oyl of the Plant loosened
from the Salts. In Proportion then, as the Salts are dissolved in the
boiling Water, the Oyl attenuated, as it must be before it can be so
far specifically lighter as to arise to the Top, we are to judge how
far the Art of Cookery is serviceable in the Preparation of vegetable

From what was said before in relation to Fermentation, it is plain
that the vegetable Oyls are much volatilized, rendred more active,
and separated from the Salts; upon this Account it is, that they are
endowed with an inebriating Quality, which is confined entirely to
Wines, for no other Substance hath that Quality. No one was ever drunk
with eating Grapes, or drinking Must or Wort before Fermentation. The
stupifying Quality of Poppy, Henbane, Mandrakes, Nightshade, and other
Plants of that Class, is very different from the Effects of Wine or
its Spirit. The chief Effect of Fermentation, in Regard to Diet, is
supposed to consist in rendring vegetable Substance less difficult to
be overcome by the Action of animal Organs and Mixtures, and easier to
the digestive Powers; but there are other good Effects not so commonly
thought of; fermented vegetable Substance is very little subject
to Putrefaction, and is a great Preservative against it. By the
styptick Power that the Spirit is endowed with, the Tone of the Fibres
is increased in Digestion, their Force enlarged, and consequently
their Action greater upon the vegetable Parts, and a larger Quantity
of animal Juices mixed with them; and it is no difficult Matter to
imagine, that the inward Heat of an human Body should draw forth the
Spirit of fermented Liquors.

The Parts of Vegetables most used in Food, are the Seeds of Plants, our
common Bread and Drink being made from them: These, by what was said
before, contain the most elaborated Juices, the greatest Quantity of
fine Oyl and Spirit, and are consequently most fit for Nourishment;
several Fruits are eaten Raw, because their Juices are concocted to the
utmost Degree of Perfection, and contain, in greatest Quantity, the
finest and most elaborated vegetable Oyl, mixed with the essential
Salts peculiar to each, which would be lost in Decoction: But the
coarser Parts of Vegetables, as Roots, Leaves, Stalks, unripe Fruits,
and Flowers, require the Arts of Cookery to be exercised upon them, to
render them more easily subject to the animal Powers, and assimilable
to their Juices.

I design not to enter into the several specifick Differences of
Vegetables, I hope I have said enough to explain their general Nature,
and how they become reducible into animal Substances; I shall next
consider these Substances in the same Manner.

By all the Tryals yet made upon animal Substances, they are resoluble
into the same Parts with Vegetables, only differently modified; that
is, as we saw before, Water, Earth, Salt and Oyl, the specifick Spirit
being no other than Water impregnated with the specifick and highest
rectified Oyl and Salt, the Water and Earth in both are individually
the same; and though there be good Reason to imagine, that there is
originally but one Oyl in Nature, and that the fixt Salt of Vegetables,
and the volatile Salt of Animals, may be originally the same, since
transmutable into one another; yet it is necessary to examine these
two Principles in animal Substances, that by comparing them with what
we before discovered in Vegetables, we may have some Notion of their
Differences with Regard to their Use in Diet.

The great Excess of animal Heat and Motion, beyond what is necessary
to Vegetables, the stronger and quicker Circulation of their Juices,
necessarily require and occasion that the Oyls and Salts in animal
Bodies should be differently modified from what they are in Vegetables.
No Motion is performed in Animals without some Portion of Oyl, and
perhaps Water too, to lubricate the Parts, and keep them supple; the
Attrition would cause great Mischief, make the Motion uneasy, wear away
and burn up the Parts, if they were not softned and moistned by an oily
Fluid; and accordingly we find all the Muscles, Tendons, Joints and
other Parts employ’d in Motion, to have Repositories of this Oyl placed
about them, and that so artificially, that the Very Motion occasions
the Diffusion of this Oyl upon them. There is an innate Principle
of Heat or Fire, that attends the vital Powers, that may very well
occasion the Change and Volatilization of Salts in animal Substances,
in the same Manner as was before observed in the Putrefaction of

Animal Oyls differ according to the Principles inherent in them, for
when freed from Earth and Salts (which is very difficult by Reason of
their mutual Attractions under certain Circumstances) they appear to be
simple and unactive, and the same in all animal Bodies.

By this Account then we are principally to regard the different
Quantities and Degree of Volatility in these Salts, and the Degree
of Consistence or Impregnation of animal Oyls with them. It must be
observed, that the Salts in the Bodies of living Animals are not
perfectly the same they appear to be, when extracted thence by chymical
Resolutions; a great Alteration is made by the Fire, and a good deal
by the Tendency all animal Substances have to Putrefaction, upon a
Stagnation of their fluid Parts: Even in the Evaporation of human
Blood (fresh drawn) by a gentle Fire, this Salt, though not perfectly
fixed, will not rise, but only the Spirit: These Salts are of a
mild attenuating Nature in healthy Bodies, whose vital Powers are
sufficient to subdue the Substances they feed upon: But in such as have
not that vital Power in that Degree, or commit Errors in Diet, where
these Salts are not sufficiently attenuated, or the first Digestion
stronger than the concoctive Powers or the Discharges, these Salts
acquire Properties productive of many acute and chronical Diseases;
(not within the Compass of this Enquiry) these may be prevented, and
sometimes cured, by a strict Application to Diet, proper to correct the
different Modifications of these Oyls and Salts.

I own it is pretty Difficult to determine the exact Degree of
Volatility these Salts acquire in any particular Animal, or in
different Parts of the same Animal; yet there are very evident Marks
of a Defect, or Exceeding in the Volatility of these Salts, by
examining the Discharges from Animals, by a greater or less Tendency
to Putrefaction, by several Distempers more especially incident to
human Bodies, and other Methods of Art to be met with in the History of

From what was said before, it is evident that an Animal, whose Juices
are supplied from animal Juices, hath a more alkalescent Tendency than
an Animal supplied with vegetable Juices; that is, the Salts are more
highly volatilized, and impregnate the Oyls, Water, and other Fluids
in a stronger Manner, and in greater Quantities; and in Fact, we find
the Substance of such animal Bodies, as are fed upon Animals, or Use
stronger Exercise, are more liable to Putrefaction, than the Substance
of Animals that feed upon Vegetables, and are more slothful. Fish,
Foxes, Hawks, Venison, Horses, have their Substance more liable to
Putrefaction, and discover to our Senses more exalted Salts and Oyls,
than tame Fowl, Sheep, and Oxen; the Juices of poisonous Animals have
them still more exalted, as in the Viper.

Animal Substances being already assimilated, are more easily
transmutable into other Animals, and therefore more nourishing than
Vegetables; accordingly we find such Animals as are nourished by
animal Food, to be more couragious, robust, active, bold, strong,
than those which are nourished by Vegetables only. And even in Men,
who have proper Organs for digesting both animal and vegetable Food,
and consequently by Nature designed to use both, we find a remarkable
Difference according to their Diet. The Inhabitants of fishing Towns,
who may well be supposed to feed thereon, are strong, nervous and
prolifick; and their Discharges, especially their Sweat, are often
attended with a very strong rancid Smell. The Difference between these
People, and some poor Peasants in the Country, who have no other than
vegetable Food, is too obvious to mention.

As to the Preparation of animal Diet, by the Arts of Cookery, for
Use, it is needless to repeat what was before said under this Head in
relation to Vegetables, the Manner being pretty much the same. I shall
only just observe, that in boiling, the Salts and a good Portion of
Oyl is dissolved, and attenuated in the Decoction, which makes the
Decoction it self very nourishing; the animal Substance it self is much
relaxed and softned, so that it may almost all be reduced to a Jelly or
thick Oyl; by roasting, the Salts are more brought into Action, and the
fluid Parts lessened; so that what remains is more highly impregnated
therewith; in baking no Part evaporates, but both Salts and Oyls are
loosened and exalted by the Heat in the Oven; these Differences are
observable by the Taste, affect the digestive Powers in different
Degrees, and are usefully attended to, in many different Habits of the
human Body, too tedious now to be enumerated.

It is to be observed here (as before concerning Vegetables) that the
nearer the nutritious Juices are to their Roots, the more they partake
of the Nature of their Origine; but the more they are mixed with
animal Juices, and the greater Number of animal Circulations they pass
through, the more they acquire an animal Nature. The Chyle in Animals
feeding upon Vegetables is Acid, and generally speaking it is so in
Men, because their Diet is more so than otherwise. The Milk is less
Acid than the Chyle, but turns perfectly so by standing. In the Blood
this Tendency is lost, and the Salts from fixed become volatile. But
there are Juices in animal Bodies, that have Salts of a much higher
Degree of Volatility than the Blood, but when they arrive at too high a
state of Alkalescence, they are discharged generally by Urine, or some
other Excretion.

I do not here pretend to account for these Facts; that they are such
is beyond Controversy, and I think it very agreeable to the Order
of Nature, that they should depend upon some general Cause: If the
Principle of Attraction be one, and from what Sir _Isaac Newton_ hath
delivered in his Opticks it bids very fair for it, though that great
Philosopher was either too modest, or too knowing, to propose it as
such, otherwise than by way of Quære; if the Principle of Attraction be
an universal Cause in such Effects as we have been speaking of, may it
not very justly be supposed, that when animal Decoctions turn sowre
by standing, and so far put on a vegetable Nature, as to differ from
the Course animal Substances take, when left to themselves, that the
Salts are disunited, and put from the Sphere of one anothers mutual
Attraction, so as perhaps to exert a repelling Power; and may not the
same thing happen, when putrified animal Substance becomes Nourishment
for vegetable Bodies, their Salts being disunited, and their mutual
Attractions dissolved or overcome by the Attraction of Water, Earth or
other Parts, in the Substance which I before called vegetable Chyle?
When Vegetables by Putrefaction acquire an animal Nature, are not the
Salts brought into their Spheres of Attraction, so as to form different
intestine Motions thereby, and to produce Heat, Fire, fetid Vapours,
and Putrefaction?

Sir _Isaac Newton_, Opt. p. 362. compares a Particle of Salt to a
Chaos, dense, hard, dry, and earthy in the Center; and rare, soft,
moist and watry in the Circumference, and hence, says he, it seems to
be that Salts are of a lasting Nature, being scarce destroyed unless
by drawing away their watry Parts by Violence, or by letting them soak
into the Pores of the central Earth, by a gentle Heat in Putrefaction,
until the Earth be dissolved by the Water, and separated into smaller
Particles, which by Reason of their smallness make the rotten Compound
appear of a black Colour. Hence also it may be that the Parts of
Animals and Vegetables preserve their several Forms, and assimilate
their Nourishment; the soft and moist Nourishment easily changing its
Texture by a gentle Heat and Motion, till it becomes like the dense,
hard, dry, and durable Earth in the Center of each Particle. But
when the Nourishment grows unfit to be assimilated, or the central
Earth grows too feeble to assimilate it, the Motion ends in Confusion,
Putrefaction and Death.

There is one animal Juice which deserves to be more particularly
considered, not only because it is more used in our Food, than any
other, but because it seems to partake of that just Medium between
animal and vegetable Substances so desirable in our Diet, and that
is Milk. It is neither Acid nor Alkaline; it seems to have enough of
the animal Nature, to give strong and perfect Nourishment to animal
Bodies, and to be easily assimilable to their Substance; enough of the
Vegetable to prevent too strong a Tendency to a volatile Alkali; being
a kind of Emulsion, or white, oily animal Liquor, prepared originally
from Vegetables, and from which all the Parts of animal Bodies may
receive their Nourishment and Growth. Many Persons have lived entirely
upon Milk; and the Body of a Child may, at the End of some Months after
its Birth, be considered as compounded of the Milk of its Nurse; the
Parts it brought into the World being changed for others, supplied by
the Nourishment.

Tho’ Milk be of it self neither Acid nor Alkaline, it may not be amiss
to take Notice of the Changes it undergoes upon being mixed with
either, because hence we may determine its Agreement or Disagreement
with different Constitutions. If Milk be mixed with Acids it coagulates
into a Curd; if mixed with Alkalies, upon Heat it turns Yellow, then
Red, and at length to a very deep dark Red, and by long continuance

Milk taken from Animals that feed upon Vegetables, if suffered to stand
in a clean glass Vessel, will of it self separate into two Parts;
the lighter, and more oily, rising to the Top in the Form of Cream;
both which in a few Days turn sowre, and at the End of ten or twelve
Days, acquire a very considerable Degree of Acidity; but if the Animal
it be taken from feed upon animal Diet, or have fasted too long, or
be feverish, or use strong Exercise; it will in these Cases have a
brackish or saline Taste, which is a strong Evidence of its Tendency to
Putrefaction, and accordingly instead of turning sowre, it will turn
rancid, and run into an Ichor.

It may fairly be concluded from hence, that Milk is not proper Food in
acid Constitutions; for if Milk, upon the Mixture of Acids, turn into
Curds and Whey, it is reasonable to expect, that if it be taken by
Persons whose Bodies abound with Acids, it shall be separated into a
thin serous Fluid, and a strong Coagulum; which turning grumous, may
cause Obstructions in the _Viscera_, while it ceases to be mixed and
diluted with the _Serum_, which instead of performing that Office, may
go off in the Discharges of the Skin, or of Urine, leaving the Body
pale, faint and weak; and hence may arise many chronical Distempers,
foreign to our Purpose to enumerate.

The Change of Colour in Milk, by Alkalies, from White to Red, gives
a very evident Reason for the easy Transmutation of the Chyle into
Blood, when it leaves its vegetable Nature, and puts on an Animal one;
and is a further Confirmation of the Doctrine hitherto laid down.
The Appearances that are observable in the Changes Milk undergoes,
when left to itself, instruct us in the Choice of such kind as is
most proper for Nourishment; which is principally to be regarded,
where the Animal is entirely fed with Milk, which is the Case of
Children at the Breast; and what happens to Children, may with proper
Allowances be applied to older Bodies. If a Nurse feed entirely upon
Flesh Meats, Fish, and Broths, or be hot and feverish, or use much
or violent Exercise, some of which often happen to be the Case in
wealthy Families, the Milk grows Yellowish, and by standing will turn
rancid, the Child manifests an Aversion to it, and becomes hot, red,
and feverish; on the contrary, if the Nurses Food be too much enclined
to Acidity, which is often the Case of poor People, the Child shall
be subject to Flatulencies, preternatural Distention of the Body, and
paleness of the Flesh: The Milk for Food ought to be perfectly white
and clear, the Animal that gives it, not suffered to fast long before,
and used for Food as soon as possible after it is milked; for thus it
is had in its most perfect and natural State.

Before I leave the History of Diet, I cannot but take Notice, that as
much Irregularity is committed in the Quantity, and Time of taking
our Food, as in the Qualities or Properties thereof. From what hath
been said it appears, that true Nutrition consists in the proper
Assimilation of the Food to the Vegetable, or animal Body that takes
it in; if the Powers of the Body be sufficient to assimilate what
it takes in in a proper Manner, and to throw forth what it doth not
need, or what is unfit for Assimilation, let the Food be what it
will, the Body will be well nourished; on the contrary, if what be
taken in be too strong to be changed by the digestive Powers, or the
Powers of the Body too weak to expell it, that Body must be changed
to a bad Habit; which, in its utmost Degree, is the Case of Plants
and Animals that are poisoned. If the Body be oppressed with Loads of
the most proper Food, more than the digestive Powers are able to deal
with, or than there are animal juices sufficient to mix with for the
proper Assimilation; those Powers must be weakened, the Fibres, being
stretched beyond their Tone, lose of their Force, and what Foods are
taken in, not being sufficiently acted upon by the Solids or Fluids of
the Body, take the Course they would naturally have done out of the
Body, and turn to Corruption, and Humour. When this happens to be the
Case in human Bodies, upon a Stoppage of any of the great Discharges,
as of Perspiration, by taking Cold, they become Subject to Fevers, and
other acute Diseases, and Obstructions of the tender Bowels, chiefly
the Liver and Lungs, which bring on several chronical Diseases, more
especially the Dropsy and Asthma; for it is observable, that all
overfed Animals have large Livers subject to Putrefaction, and are
short winded.

I know no exact Way of determining the Quantities of our Food, and of
the Changes inducible upon the Body, by the Quantities only, (before
Pain and Sickness teach the Exceeding, when perhaps it may be past
Remedy) but the Balance, and yet a Man would run the Hazard of being
turned into Ridicule, that should gravely talk to People of weighing
their Food or their Bodies, at certain Times. The cravings of Nature,
and the returns of Appetite are thought to be better Indications for a
supply, than the Weight of the Body, and so indeed they would be, if
left to themselves; but we eat without Hunger, drink without Thirst,
and lie a bed at times unnatural to sleep. I need not add that these
are the People that want most the Helps of Medicine. The Quantities
of Food, and the unnatural Encrease of the Body may be attended to,
without running into ridiculous Extreams of nicety; and after the Rules
are once settled, these things may be known without living in a Pair
of Scales with _Sanctorius_. I can affirm it from certain Experience,
that the keeping the Body to a certain standard of Weight, is a
great preservative of Health; and many acute, and chronical Diseases
may be foreseen, and prevented by it, and this is known by weighing
once or twice a Month with less trouble than paring ones Nails, and
regulating the Quantity of Food accordingly; so true is the Aphorism of
_Sanctorius_, that if such Kinds, and such Quantities, be daily added
to the Body as go off, and the Exceedings discharged, lost Health will
be recovered, and present Health preserved.

Among the chronical Distempers, which owe their Origine to
irregularities in Diet, the Gout is neither the least considerable
nor frequent; though perhaps the best and least dangerous Way of
clearing the Blood of the morbid Matter; for it naturally tends to the
Extreams, and is generally so great a Tyrant, that it will suffer no
other Distemper to rage but itself; upon this Account it is that People
wish for, and are complimented upon the Gout, as an Indication of the
vital Powers being in such Strength and Vigour, as to drive forth the
gouty Matter; and it is no wonder that Persons should wish such active,
fiery Particles, as the gouty Matter seems to consist of, fixed to a
certain Joint, and expelled the Body, when they are floating through
the Mass of Juices, and disorder the whole Machine, which is often the
Case of gouty Persons before it fixes: The gouty Salts (if they be
Salts, as most probably they are) appear to be active, sharp, pungent,
fiery Principles, and when, by the Force and Heat of the Body, they
are brought into Action, are not improperly termed concentrated Fire
it self; and indeed the Effects of their Action manifest something not
very different therefrom, by calcining the animal Substance into Chalk
or Lime, or somewhat approaching thereto, in the Knots of gouty Joints:
Their Volatility may Occasion their being more easily brought into a
State of Action, but at the same Time makes their Expulsion out of the
Body quicker and easier. A fit of the Gout is no other than an attempt
of Nature to collect and expell these Salts out of the Body, which, if
successfully performed, leaves the Person free from the Gout, till such
Time as from the natural Course of the Food, or other Causes, the Blood
and Juices become again overcharged with gouty Matter, to such Degree,
that Nature attempts the same Way of Relief it before experienced, and
occasions another Fit.

From this Account it appears, that if any thing be to be done during
the Time of a Fit, which is the Season many Persons very preposterously
attend a Cure, it can only be by supporting the Powers of the Body, to
enable Nature, to go on with its Work: (For it must be considered, that
the Symptoms of Pain arise from the Action of the Body in that Work,
as well as from the Action of the gouty Salts;) and by promoting the
natural Discharges from the Part affected, by gentle heat and Warmth;
all external Applications, foreign to these Ends, are useless, and
generally speaking dangerous. Indeed if any thing may safely be applied
in this Case, for these Ends, some Preparation of the Poppy seems to me
to be the most promising, and least hazardous. This Plant is endowed
with Powers that soften and attenuate in a great Degree, gently promote
and encrease the Motion of the Juices, and occasion in Bodies properly
disposed, as great, if not greater Discharges by the Skin, than any
other Medicine yet discovered. If we add to this its particular
Property of easing Pain, may we not justly form great Expectations from
it? Its Virtues given inwardly, in the Case we are speaking of, have
been long known and experienced; its outward Application hath not, that
I know of, been mentioned before; and I would be understood now rather
to mention it, than recommend it. I have tried it in about half a
Dozen Persons, the better half of which found immediate and wonderful
Relief from it, and those who did not, found no inconvenience, to
my thinking, chargeable upon the Medicine; though perhaps I am fond
enough, like other Patrons of new Tryals, to impute the want of
Success to other Causes, than to a Deficiency in the Medicine; I only
mention the thing, not being thoroughly satisfied about it, for want
of sufficient Tryal. But thus far I may venture to assert, that this,
or any other external Applications, are neither to be unwarily or
unskilfully ventured upon.

Some Authors of good Note have recommended purging the Bowels upon the
Recess of the Gout, and during the Intervals of the Fit, as a proper
preventive Cure in the Gout. That keeping the alimentary Passages
clean, and in good Order, is of Use not only in the Gout, but in
several other Distempers, is undoubtedly true; but how far this may
be attended with a weakening of the Fibres of the Stomach, and how
far the gouty Salts, already lodged in the Blood and Juices, may be
drawn into these Parts, so as to act thereon, deserves very well to be
considered. The Tendency of Nature is to drive the gouty Humour to the
Extreams, and expell it forth of the Body; the Tendency of purging by
the Bowels, further than cleansing the first Passages, is to draw the
gouty Humour thither, and expell it by Siege. The Consonancy of these
Tendencies may be seen without any Witchcraft; but a very accurate
Judgment is necessary to distinguish at what Time, or in what Degree,
the Juices of the Body are impregnated with the gouty Matter, so as to
determine upon purging with Safety, or what Progress they have made in
their Collection, and Tendency to the Joints, to venture to disturb
Nature, in her own way of discharging them. Purging during the Time of
a Fit is always avoided even by the Patrons of habitual gentle Purging
out of it, and a Looseness is esteemed a very dangerous Symptom at that
Time; sure I am from Experience, that many gouty Persons, who have run
into the Practice of habitual Purging, even with those Medicines that
are most strengthning, have found very bad Effects from that Custom,
have been afterwards less able to withstand the Attacks of the Gout,
have had more frequent and longer Returns, have at length sooner sunk
under it, and fallen into worse Habits of Body, than others who have
avoided that Practice: There may no doubt be a Necessity for the Use
of evacuating Medicines, but they are always to be exhibited upon the
maturest Consideration, and the best Advice. People that take up such
Practices upon their own Opinions, will in the End find cause to repent

The best Way of curing the Gout, (if it may be allowed that Name) is
to prevent it, that is, to hinder the Generation of this gouty Humour
in the Body; this is to be effected no other way, that I know of,
but by Diet: While the digestive Powers of the Body are in such full
Strength and Vigour, as perfectly to assimilate the Food into its own
Substance, and they be not oppressed with greater Loads than they are
able to manage, the Choice of particular kinds of Diet will be of
little Consequence; but these are always defective in gouty Persons,
and these Defects are productive of different Habits in different
Constitutions, which must be attended to in Rules for Diet in general,
as well as in the Gout. Long Habits are not suddenly changeable with
Safety; and after the _Ætas vergens_, the human Body doth not freely
admit of Changes. A Body always supported in an high Manner, with Flesh
Meats, and Wine, will not well bear a sudden Change to a low Diet; and
on the contrary, a Body fed upon Water and Vegetables, will not well
bear a sudden Change to an high Diet; sudden Repletions or Evacuation
is dangerous, and therefore _Celsus_ well advises, _Nullum cibi genus
fugere, quo populus utatur, interdum in convictu esse, interdum ab eo
se retrahere; modo plus justo, modo non amplius assumere_, but this is
to be understood of People in Health.

Milk seems to be the best Medium of Diet, and yet from what was before
said of it, there must be many gouty Constitutions it will not agree
with; the same may be said of Turneps, which have been in their Day
reckoned Specifick to the Gout as well as Milk; and the Truth is, that
many Persons have suffered irreparable Damage, and some lost their
Lives, by attempting particular Diets in improper Habits of Body. It
is utterly disagreeable either to Reason or Experience, to fix any one
general Rule of Diet that shall agree with all Constitutions, or even
all gouty Constitutions. The particular Constitutions of gouty Persons
are hardly reducible to general Rules, and nothing but Observations,
and accurate Judgment, can determine upon them so as to direct a proper
Diet. _Lewis Cornaro_, who is one of the strongest Instances of the
force of Diet, in the little Account he hath published, tells us that
he found several Particularities in his own Constitution, which his
Physicians could no way satisfy him in. One Instance is much to our
purpose, old Wine disagreed so much with him, that in the Months of
_July_ and _August_, in his later Years, he was forced to abstain
altogether from Wine, this generally brought him to Death’s Door every
Year with perfect Weakness; for though he had been gouty, and cured of
it by Diet, he never refrained from Flesh Meat or Wine in some small
Quantities, nor could he relish or digest his Food without Wine: So
soon as the Grapes began to turn, even before they were full Ripe, he
had Wine pressed out for himself, whence he was wonderfully restored,
in two or three Days, to the Admiration of his Physicians, who could
not conceive, that new Wine, before thorough Defæcation, should have
so good an Effect. _Cornaro_ describes himself, and his own Diet very
honestly; but when he comes to give Rules for others, leaves the
Kinds of Food to its Agreement or Disagreement to every particular
Constitution; and concludes with this Maxim, which is undoubtedly
true with Regard to Diet in general, That for such Persons, to whom no
kind of Food is offensive, the Regulation of the Quantity, and not the
Quality of the Food is principally to be attended to; in which this
Rule is always to be strictly observed, that no greater Quantity even
of the most proper Food, be taken at a Time, than the Stomach is very
well able to digest.

Having premised thus much about the Regard to be had to particular
Constitutions, in ascertaining a Diet in the Gout, we may very well
enquire, what Diet is most proper to prevent the Collection of gouty
Salts in the Juices of the Body? From what hath been already said, and
from pretty certain Experience, we may conclude this to be the Milk of
an healthy young Animal, fed upon Vegetables; the next eligible is
a vegetable Diet; and if animal Diet be absolutely Necessary, (as no
doubt, some Part of it may be to many Constitutions) the Flesh of such
Animals, as feed upon Vegetables, is preferable to such as feed upon
other Animals. I prefer Wines to vegetable Diet, because all fermented
Liquors are produced from Vegetables; of these the softest and
smoothest are always to be preferred to the harder and rougher, though
none should be used farther than as an help to Digestion; for Water is
the Drink proper to all Animals. To assign Reasons for these Assertions
would be only to repeat what I have said before; for if that be true,
these evidently follow from it.

But so it is, that through the Difference of Constitutions, or
different Habits superinduced, many cannot bear a strict Attendance
upon one kind of Food; it shall disagree with the Body, be nauseous
to the Stomach, fail in giving proper Nourishment, or if too strictly
persisted in, may Cure the Gout, and bring on some other more fatal
Distemper, or bad Habit, and even this hath been the Case of Milk it
self. It is not within the Compass of my present Design, nor indeed,
I am afraid, within my Power to enumerate all the several different
Constitutions of gouty Persons, and the different Modifications of Diet
necessary for them: A Constitution that will bear living upon Bread
and Milk, will no doubt be in an happier Way of being cured of the
Gout, than one that cannot. But what will not bend, must not be broke;
vegetable Food is too flatulent, and gives too little Nourishment to
many Constitutions, who require Food already assimilated into animal
Substance. Stomachs long used to Wine, require it in Digestion, and
in many Cases and gouty Constitutions, even while a Cure is attempting
by Diet, a little Flesh Meat must be allowed at certain Times, and the
Powers of the Body kept up, by the Moderate use of Wine, chusing the
easiest of Digestion, and the softest of each Kind; taking especial
Care never to overload the digestive Powers, by too great Quantities;
which is a Rule that will hold at all Times, and in all Constitutions;
and is of so great Consequence, that if not attended to, it will
invalidate the Force of any other Rules that can be given for Diet in
the Gout, or any other Distemper.

The Necessity of varying from the strict Milk-Diet, in which the Cure
of the Gout absolutely consists, according to the Unhappiness of
particular gouty Constitutions; must be left to the Observations of
the Patient, of the Agreement or Disagreement he shall have experienced
of particular Kinds of Food, to his own Body; and to the Judgment and
Advice of a skilful and diligent Physician.



                         Upon the CURE of the





_DOLÆUS_ Upon the CURE of the GOUT, _&c._


Before I explain this Method of Cure, I would have my Reader take
Notice, that he is not to expect any thing perfectly new: I only
propose to confirm, by fresh Experience, what hath been long enough
known. The Method of Cure here advanced consists in the proper Use of
Milk for a Year and upwards. Many will perhaps wonder at my Endeavours
to revive a Method so long known and exploded by Physicians, as hurtful
to gouty Constitutions, and shortening the Period of Life itself: But
being fully satisfied from Reason, and certain Experience, that this
most excellent Remedy is the Gift of Providence, for the Relief of
Persons afflicted with this cruel Distemper, I could not help drawing
up and communicating my Experience and Observations for the Relief of

_Cornelius Celsus_, the celebrated _Roman_ Physician, speaking of the
Pains and Evil that gouty People suffer, tells us of some Persons who
entirely avoided this Distemper by a strict Adherence to the Use of
Asses Milk, and of others that by abstaining a whole Year from the Use
of Wine and Women, were never afterwards troubled with it.

Among the Moderns, _John George Grezzell_ hath wrote a very learned
Treatise upon the Cure of the Gout by Milk, wherein many curious and
useful Observations are delivered; that excellent Physician Dr. _James
Sacks_ hath inserted, in the _German_ Ephemeris, a Method for the Use
of Milk, communicated to him by a noble Baron, wherein many useful
and elegant Observations, founded upon Experiment, are contained. The
late learned _Waldsmid_ hath published a learned Dissertation upon the
Relief of gouty Persons by Milk, wherein he agrees with the Authors
now mentioned as to the Cure. I have lately received a Letter from a
_French_ Gentleman my Friend, who having been for many Years afflicted
in a most terrible Manner with the Gout, hath been now by the Use
of Milk, free for some Years. From these Examples I had Occasion to
admire the wonderful Effects of this Diet, and therefore advised it to
many gouty Persons here at _Cassell_, who have all recovered a perfect
State of Health, by a strict Adherence to the Regimen Necessary in
the Use of this Remedy: Even some whose Limbs were before perfectly
crippled, are now able to walk and exercise. Colonel _Nicholas Dumont_
hath experienced the Efficacy of this Method here at _Cassell_, for his
Limbs were so entirely contracted that he was forced to use Crutches,
but having confined himself strictly to the Use of this Diet for an
Year and an half, he walks very well without a Cane, and hath performed
several Journies. I have been free from the Gout my self upwards of an
Year, notwithstanding I had three or four Fits every Year for Sixteen
foregoing. Colonel _Haste_ hath been restored by the same Means,
though he hath had some mild Returns at several Times.

I shall in the first Place communicate the Letter I just now mentioned;
next I shall lay down the Rules Necessary to be observed in the Use of
this Milk-Diet; I shall then demonstrate from undeniable Principles,
that this Method is the most convenient to asswage and cure the Gout,
and that no bad Consequences can attend the Constitution, if it be
taken with the proper Regulations. The Letter is as Follows.

                       To Monsieur _de Collet_.


    Nothing can be more agreeable to me, than to satisfy the
    Desire of my Friends afflicted with the Gout, in communicating
    the Method of Diet, by which the Marquis _de Bongi_, _Mons.
    Chamar_, and my self were relieved from the Gout; you will
    please to take Notice, that the Milk we used was fresh drawn
    from the Cow, Morning and Evening, without other Art than that
    we both eat and supped it, as warm as we could well bear it; my
    Reason for mentioning eating and supping the Milk, is, because
    as soon as we arose in the Morning we supped a large Bowl of
    warm Milk; but the Milk which was brought us at Dinner and
    Supper, we eat with fine light Bread, cut thin and put therein;
    this is all our Secret in this Matter. Persons afflicted with
    the Gout may promise themselves Relief, provided that once a
    Month, during the Course of this Diet, or at least once in two
    Months, they take a gentle Purge, which we made Use of, and
    were so strict in our Regimen, that we neither drank Wine nor,
    eat other Food, than Biscuits made of very fine Flower, Eggs,
    and Sugar, and some sweet Fruits, as Strawberries in Summer,
    but we chiefly avoided Raspberries. For my own Part, I never
    sweetned my Milk with Sugar, though some Friends who were in
    the same Course did, yet without any bad Effect. The Marquis
    _de Bongi_ used to mix Crabs Eyes with his Milk before Dinner,
    upon a Presumption, that it would prevent any Sourness in his
    Stomach, but neither Monsieur _Chamar_ or I ever used that
    Remedy. When we had strictly adhered to this Diet for a Year,
    we began to hope we might eat Fish, or indulge our Appetites
    in some varieties of Food, which one or other of us did, more
    or less, occasionally, and without any bad Effects. At the
    End of Nine Months I apprehended my Stomach to be somewhat
    weakened, which made me resolve to use a Glass of Wine after
    my Milk, and accordingly after Dinner and Supper every Day,
    I drank one Glass of Wine, in which I sopped a bit of Bread;
    this was very delicious to me while I used it. At length as we
    found the State of our Healths to mend, we began to eat and
    drink with our Friends. This Method hath succeeded so well,
    that we live hitherto in our common Way upon Milk, yet not so
    strictly, but that we dine or sup, once, twice or thrice a Week
    with our Friends in their Manner, and return afterwards to
    our Milk without Ceremony; and by the Blessing of God we are
    wonderfully well. We dont here pretend to say, that none of
    us have been since afflicted with the Gout, for the Marquiss
    _de Bongi_ hath had two or three pretty sharp Fits; but both
    he and I know the Difference between having two or three Fits
    in nine or ten Years, and of being perpetually oppressed, and
    confined to Bed with this cruel Distemper, which was our Case
    before; especially the Marquiss _de Bongi_, who at Six and
    Thirty was almost continually confined to his Bed, deprived
    of the Use of his Limbs, and the Joints of his Hands and Feet
    knotted and chalky; instead of which, he now uses his Limbs
    without any Marks of Infirmity, insomuch that any one who had
    seen him in his former bad State, and compares it with his
    present, would look on him as one raised from Death to Life.
    As for Monsieur _Chamar_, and my self, who are more advanced
    in Years, considering our Age, we are mighty well; ’tis true
    indeed that sometimes, as upon Changes of Weather, or of the
    Moon, we find (or at least we fancy so) that we have some
    Threatnings of Pain, especially about those Joints where the
    Gout used to ravage, but a little Exercise soon dissipates
    those Apprehensions.

    It is now Seven Years, that Monsieur _Chamar_ and I have
    adhered to this Diet, in all which Time we have neither of
    us been so far oppressed by the Gout, as to be confined to
    our Beds, or even to our Chambers, so much as one whole Day;
    notwithstanding before we fell into this Method (though we
    were not perpetually under actual Fits of the Gout) we had a
    continued Weakness in our Limbs, we walked very infirmly and
    with difficulty, and if we chanced to make a wrong Step, or to
    slip in walking, we suffered Extremity of Pain; our Case is
    now so far altered, that we walk as firm, as if we had never
    had the Gout. I must confess indeed that both the Marquiss
    and I used the Diet for a good while, before we perceived any
    manifest Change, but afterwards our Pain diminished by Degrees,
    and the Strength of our Limbs returned. The Milk must be
    used a good while, that the natural Temper and Vigour of the
    Constitution may have Time and Leisure to come to itself; for
    though this Diet may be often used Six Months or even Twelve
    before the Patient can use his Limbs free from Pain, yet let
    him not despair, for if once he begins to gather Strength,
    it will daily increase. As to Purging, and Evacuation of the
    Humours, if possible it should be done once a Month, in the
    Decrease of the Moon: I hold purging extremely Necessary; for
    my own Part, it was what I did for the first Seven or Eight
    Months of this Diet constantly, till I grew tired of it. This
    is truly the Method I used, and though I afterwards remitted, I
    found no bad Consequence. The Marquiss and I, at present, take
    a Bowl of Warm Milk every Morning, but for the Rest of the Day
    drink and eat as usual. The Marquiss indeed, for the Space of
    Eight Years, hath had at Times several small Fits of the Gout,
    but for my self I have hardly had any, except sometimes upon
    Changes of the Weather, or of the Moon, I have perceived a
    Numbness and Weakness in my Knees and Joints, like Threatenings
    of the Gout; but I thank God, it never confined me, and as
    it came on easily, it as easily went off. The following is
    the Method of purging: _Take of Scammony, white Turbith,
    Hermodactyls, Leaves of Sena, Sarsaparilla, Cinamon, and
    Sugar, of each one Drachm, powder them very fine, and divide
    the whole into Seven equal Parts, one of which is a Dose, and
    may be taken in white wine or a little Broth_. It is necessary
    to purge once a Month, especially in the Decline of the Moon.
    If it be thought necessary to purge twice in the Month, let
    the first Dose be taken in the last Quarter, the second the
    last Day of the Quarter. The Day I took Physick, I used Milk
    after it as usual. When I had pursued this Course about Seven
    or Eight Months, I found my Stomach so much weakened from the
    Milk, that I was forced to take a Glass of Red Wine every Day
    after Dinner, which agreed mighty well with me, and I have
    continued it ever since; so that I am often impatient to finish
    my Milk, that I may have the Pleasure of regaling my self with
    a Glass of Wine, and a bit of Bread.


In the foregoing Letter are contained many useful Observations about
the Use of Milk, and its wonderful Efficacy in the Cure of the Gout,
from uncontestable Facts, in the Account of the Persons there named.
I shall next lay down the Method of this Diet, by which many Persons
here at _Cassell_ were relieved. Whoever expects Benefit by this
Method, must observe the following Rules. No one ought to go into
this Diet without having his Body duly prepared; he must take Care by
Degrees to change his Habit, and for the first Month to regulate his
Diet, by strictly avoiding all Salt or smoaked Meats; Legumes, and
stale, acid or feculent Liquors, and to eat white Meats sparingly,
with clear small Drink, as small Beer or Barley Water, or Decoctions
of the Woods: A Glass of _Moselle_ or _French_ Wine free from Acidity,
may be allowed at Dinner, and Gruels and Broths made of white Meats.
There is a necessary Caution to be used, that both in Meat and Drink,
the Quantity taken be rather within the Appetite than beyond it; for
from overloading the digestive Powers, arise Crudities, Flatulencies,
and acid Humours, which are the Origine of many Disorders. Upon this
Account it is necessary to purge the Bowels, two or three Times a
Month, with Tincture of Jalap, Elixir _Proprietatis_, Rhubarb, some
of the purging Pills, as the Arthritick or Mastich Pills; that the
Viscidity arising from indigestions may be carried forth of the Bowels,
and the Stomach be better disposed to receive and digest the Milk. I am
of Opinion, the first Dose should be taken the first Day of the Month,
preparatory to this Diet, the second after some few Weeks of this first
Regimen, and the third the last Day of the Month; after this I advice
the taking an Ounce of Crabs-Eyes, or prepared calcined Hartshorn,
especially if there yet remains any Marks of Acidity in the first
Passages. This further Caution is very absolutely Necessary, that not
only in the first Month, but in all subsequent, all Passion, chiefly
Anger and Grief be avoided, because of their pernicious Consequences;
more especially the Use of Women during the whole Year.

SECT. 2.

All those who have other Distempers complicated with the Gout, as the
Scurvy, Leprosy, bad Habit of Body, Stone or Gravel, Hystericks, the
Pox, or other Distemper arising from the Impurity of the Blood, too
great a viscidity or acrimony of the Juices, or a known or latent
Acid in the Blood, are first to use Absorbent, Diuretick, Sweetening
or other Medicines, proper to their particular Distempers, till the
Acrimony or Tenacity of the Blood and Humours be corrected, the Acid
expelled, and such complicated Disorders overcome, and then apply this
noble Remedy of a Milk-Diet to the Cure of the Gout alone, from which
they may certainly promise themselves Success: But if while the Body
is ill prepared, or full of vitiated Juices, the Milk-Diet should be
preposterously brought into Use, they will not only be disappointed in
their hopes of Relief, but bring certain Destruction, and Increase of
their Disorders; as actually happened to the Count _de Perlebourgh_,
and _a Lubech_ Consul in this Neighbourhood, who having a Complication
of Distempers, made an improper Trial of a Milk-Diet.

SECT. 3.

The Milk in which the Cure of the Gout consists, ought to be excellent
in its Kind; the Animal from whence it is taken, as described by
_Waldsmid_, should be an Heifer, or Cow of a middle Age, of a good
Habit, either of Red or a Black Colour, (though this need not so
strictly be minded) neither fat nor lean, nor pregnant, and kept
separate from the Bull: In Winter fed upon good Hay, Barley, Bran or
Straw; in Summer at good Grass, and led in a Collar like an Horse. If
any one can keep a Cow for their own Use, it is best, and they may more
safely rely upon help from it; but if not, the Milk as the Milkmen sell
it will do; taking Care however that the Cow be of a good Habit, well
fed, and not too old.

SECT. 4.

As to the Quality and Quantity of the Milk, it is to be observed, that
as soon as it is milked it should be warmed, but not so as to boil it.
Let the Vessel full of Milk be put into boiling Water, and when it is
so hot as to be conveniently supped, or at least so warm as when it
came from the Cow, let it be taken after the Manner of Tea or Coffee.
The Times of taking ought to be, two Pints in the Morning, some four
or Five Hours before Dinner, as much about Noon, and as much about
Seven in the Evening; but the Quantity cannot be exactly determined,
because the Weakness or Strength of the Stomach must give a Rule in
this Case; or let so much be taken as the Stomach can bear without
Inconvenience, and the Patient may increase the Quantity daily till he
comes to about forty Ounces. If the Stomach be weak, he may take it in
a smaller Quantity, four or five Times a Day; if four Times, let two
of them serve for Dinner and Supper, with some of the finest wheaten
Bread; and a Draught of Milk may be repeated every four Hours; if the
Milk be taken at five Times, it may be so ordered as to let three Hours
intervene; those who are of more robust Constitutions, may be content
with three Meals of Milk a Day; and it will not be amiss to take every
Morning a Dose of Crabs-Eyes, or some other absorbent Powder: I usually
take about twelve or fourteen Ounces of Milk in the Morning, Twenty
four Ounces with Wheat Bread at Noon, and about Twenty Ounces at Night,
half with Bread, and the other half drank as common Drink. Some allow
the Use of white Meats at Dinner, lessening the Quantities by Degrees,
and making up the Deficiencies by Food of Milk and Eggs, so that by
Degrees the Milk and Eggs are entirely substituted in the Place of
the Flesh Meat, and then by diminishing the Eggs daily, Milk becomes
entirely substituted for other Food: This Method seems to me, entirely
agreeable to tender Constitutions, and such as dont well bear sudden
Changes. Some who have strictly adhered to Milk for fourteen Weeks,
have indulged in the Use of poached Eggs without Salt, Barley boiled
in Milk, fresh Butter without Salt, Custard and other Milk Foods; and
in Summer, some Kinds of Fruits, as Strawberries, Peaches, _&c._ tho’
in my Judgment improperly, especially such Fruits as are cold, or seem
to have a latent Acid, or such as weaken the Bowels. On this Head it
may be observed in general, that the less whatever be used for Food
differs in its Nature from Milk, it may be more freely ventured upon
in the Milk-Diet; but the Prudence and Care of the Physician is to be
relied on, according to the Diversity of Circumstances that may happen
in different Constitutions.

SECT. 5.

This Diet ought to be so long continued, until the whole gouty Matter
be discharged forth of the Body, which is to be computed by the Degree
and Length of the Distemper, and Observations upon the Cure in others.
The longer it is continued, the more perfect Cure is to be expected;
those that are over-run with the Distemper, are always to use it,
others for an Year, and others for an Year and an half; some Persons
who have, upon continuing it only for half an Year, thought themselves
perfectly cured, and have returned too soon to their former Method of
living, have so far exceeded, as to be seized again with the Gout,
but returning to the Diet, have been cured; some more prudent, have
continued the Diet for an Year, and then returned to their ordinary
Manner of living by Degrees, always taking about sixteen Ounces or a
Pint of Milk every Morning, and have thus for many Years been free. The
best Time of Beginning the Diet is in the Spring, and that from the
Beginning of _May_, to the End of _April_ in the succeeding Year.

SECT. 6.

Some have in the Continuance of this Diet been seized with Oppressions
and Difficulty of Breathing, Weakness in their Limbs, Coughs and
Phlegm; but these Symptoms either vanish of themselves, or quickly
give way to Elixir _Proprietatis_ without an Acid, Spirit of Hartshorn
succinated, _Sal volatile oleosum_, or any of the more fixed absorbent
alkaline Medicines.

SECT. 7.

For those who are oppressed with an abundance of Humours, whose Bowels
are full of Flatulencies, or are constipated, let them once in
every Month or Six Weeks take a gentle Purge of Rhubarb, or of the
Arthritick Pills, or half a Scruple of _Pill Ruffi_, or of _Sylvius_
his Gum Pills: But if the Body be open, and the Milk passes too quickly
through, it may suffice to take twenty Grains of Rhubarb; or if the
Body be bound, take twenty Grains of Rhubarb in the first Draught
of Milk, drinking the rest of the Quantity after it, or else in the
Evening take twenty Drops of the Essence of Rhubarb with the Milk, and
repeat it as often as there may be Occasion; but for the general, if it
can be conveniently done, the purging Medicines should be used in the
Decrease of the Moon.

SECT. 8.

If the Milk should occasion a Looseness, let it boil before it is used,
adding a Grain of Salt and so supping it hot; if it do not succeed
the first Time, try it a second Time, and a third; but if it doth not
do then, take a Dose of Crabs-Eyes, _Unicornu fossile_, or _Terra

SECT. 9.

If the Milk should heat the Body, let a third Part of Barley Water,
made with Raisins, be added to it; or if it occasion Thirst at any
Time, Barley Water with Raisins; or in case of a Cough, the pectoral
Decoction may be used between the Intervals of using the Milk.

SECT. 10.

If the Stomach be weakened by the Use of the Milk, the Patient may be
allowed Sugar Biscuits, sopped in _Spanish_, _Italian_ or _Burgundy_
Wine, or any other that is neither Acid nor Foul; and if necessary,
even a Glass of those Wines: Thus the Stomach will be fortified, and
more easily perform its Office; if there should be a Necessity for it,
some of the warm aromatic Powders may be brought into Use.

SECT. 11.

After this Diet hath been used twelve or fourteen Months, the Patient
may begin to use Flesh Meats of easy Digestion, avoiding sharp, acid or
salt Meats, but using such as we mentioned before, drinking Milk still,
or small Beer well wrought, neither stale nor turbid.

SECT. 12.

The Cure being thus absolutely finished, it will be still necessary to
take every Morning a Pint of warm Milk, and to be constantly cautious
about your Diet, avoiding every thing acid or sharp.

SECT. 13.

To prevent the Milk from cruddling, some Sugar may be mixed with it, or
even a little Salt, thus the Acid is prevented from gathering; but this
should be done but seldom, and upon the most urgent Necessity.

SECT. 14.

Though there should not follow an immediate or sensible Change upon
the Use of the Milk for some Time, yet the Patient ought not to be
disheartned; for if these Rules be strictly observed, and the Patient
be otherwise in a good Habit, the Pains will vanish by Degrees, and a
due Strength and Tone return to the Limbs.


I Have now delivered the Directions I proposed, partly from the
Authors before-mentioned, and partly from my own Experience; by a
due Observation of which many Persons have been perfectly relieved
from this grievous Distemper; of which I shall give some Examples.
_D. Sorbait_, p. 741, tells us, that he knew several Persons, by the
Use of the Milk-Diet, either perfectly cured, or their Gout so much
overcome, that their Pains were dwindled to nothing. _John Pilus_,
the Emperour’s Surgeon told me, that tho’ he frequently had Fits of
the Gout, and almost lost the Use of his Limbs, so that he was in a
very miserable Condition, yet for these three Years past, by the Help
of this Diet, he hath been perfectly free from Pain, his Countenance
is now become fresh and healthy, he hath had several Children, and
appears as if he were born a-new. Count _Coningseck_, his Imperial
Majesty’s Counsellour, found the same Benefit by this Diet; and Count
_S. Hillario_ of the Emperour’s Bed-Chamber; several others, who were
almost worn out with the Gout, grown pale and wan, have in a manner
become young and florid again by this Diet. The Bishop of _Wallendorf_,
tho’ quite impotent by the Gout, was cured by Milk. Three noble
_French_ Refugees, the Marquess _de Bongi_, Monsieur _de Chamar_, and
the Counsellour _de Talo_, have been now many Years free from the Gout,
as appears by the Letter before inserted. I am told that a Consul, and
several others at _Hambourgh_, are now using this Diet with Success. A
Counsellour of _Oldenbourgh_, the Sieur _Van Velden_, hath used this
Diet this last Winter with very wonderful Success; for tho’ he could
neither use his Hands nor Feet, he uses both now readily and perfectly
well. A Miner here in the Neighbourhood hath used Milk for these six
Months past with great Benefit; he was almost a cripple, but now walks
very well to the Mines. All the World knows that the famous Prince
of _Conde_ was cured of the Gout in _France_ by Milk-Diet. There are
two Citizens of _Hambourgh_, one of which, tho’ he hath had the Gout
fifteen Years, is well recovered by the Use of Milk, and the Knots in
his Joints are quite wore away. Colonel _Haste_ hath used Milk for six
Months, and been free from the Gout; and tho’ he hath left off the
Use of it, the Fits are much easier than before. There is no Occasion
to multiply Examples; many more may be found in _Sorbait_, _Sacks_,
_Greizel_, _Waldsmid_, Authors already named. I have experienced the
great Benefit of this Diet in myself; I was so cruelly handled by
this Distemper, that I almost lost the Use of my Limbs, and at last
had a Fit every Month or Six Weeks; I was at the same Time violently
afflicted with the Stone, and difficulty of Urine; but now that I have
confined myself to this Diet for an Year and upwards, I have not only
been free from any Fit in that Time, but the Strength of my Limbs is
returned, the Dysury is abated; and what is wonderful, the Stone in my
Bladder is lessened and dissolving, so that I now hope I shall get the
better of the Gout, having been in a manner free from it an Year and an
half; I have had some Fits indeed, but very mild ones. I take Milk to
be a Medicine beyond any yet discovered for the Stone, since within the
Space of one Year, the Stone in my Bladder diminished an Ounce, as I
judge from the Bits I have voided and collected in that Time; and since
I have left off the Cure, I have not voided one Bit. I am of Opinion,
contrary to most Physicians, that Milk doth not breed the Stone in the
Bladder, but only a viscid kind of Phlegm in that or any other Part.

SECT. 2.

These Things premised, I shall next examine how it comes to pass that
Milk is endued with this mighty Power; but it is necessary first to
enquire concerning the genuine Cause of the Gout. All the Symptoms
testify the first and nearest Cause to be some viscid, sharp Liquor,
endued with some acid or lixivial corrosive Salt, more or less fixed;
this Salt indeed occasions such a singular smart Pain, that it seems
to be specifick. I think it not only acid, but also somewhat austere,
from the different earthy, cheesy Particles it contains. Hence it fixes
its sharp stiff Points in the Membranes, Tendons and Nerves, and more
readily thickens and coagulates the lymphatick Juices. Where and how
this Liquor that causes the Gout is generated, I shall explain in a
few Words. First then the Stomach and Bowels, whether from too great
an use of Wine or Women, or from too sedentary a Life, and want of
due Exercise, or from the particular Disposition of the stomachick
Juices, or from bad Diet, become so affected, that by Degrees the
Digestion or Dissolution of the Food is lessened; the Chyle thence
produced, becomes more thick and viscid than formerly; so that this
Chyle, thus delivered into the Blood, renders its Mass thicker, and
of Consequence the several Secretions of the Humours, as the Lymph,
animal Spirits, the mucilaginous Juices about the Joints are more
slowly performed; thus the Stomach and Bowels become more tainted, the
stomachick Juices and those separated by the Glands of the Intestines
become more viscid, and the Difficulty of Digestion is increased; Part
of the Food turns to Flatulency, and viscid sharp Slime in the Bowels;
Part of the Chyle becomes infected with a corrosive acid Salt thence
produced, and being again thrown into the Blood, the Lymph and other
Juices become infected with the same acid Salt, which gives Birth to
many Distempers. It is observable these viscid Juices, thus stopped in
their Progress, and infected with this noxious Salt, so as to be more
liable to an intestine than a progressive Motion, are the most subject
to Corruption of any in the Body, and to contract a Thickness, and
Inaptitude to Motion. Such an Humour is the Lymph, and more especially
the mucilaginous Juice separated in the Glands of the Joints, in order
to keep them moist and smooth for Motion. If therefore a sufficient
Quantity of these acid Salts be brought into the Mass of the Blood,
or the Humours impregnated with them, be lodged about the nervous or
tendinous Membranes, and there acquire so extraordinary a Tenacity or
Sharpness, as to be coagulated, the Gout thence arises, as is evident
both from Reason and Experience. That this may more evidently appear, I
shall next explain the Figure, Situation and Structure of these Glands.

SECT. 3.

These Glands, as described by Dr. _Havers_ in his new Osteology, and as
they discover themselves upon Dissection, are of two Kinds; some are
small and thickly interspersed in the Membranes of the Joints, and with
very few Exceptions of an equal Bigness, so as to render the Membrane
perfectly Glandulous: In some Parts of the Membrane, in the Joints, and
in the Furrows of the Bone, these Glands are so united as to form very
remarkable and large conglomerate Glands. In some of the large Joints
there is but one, as in the Hip Joint; in others, as in the Knee, four
or five; they are of a red Colour, which is communicated from the blood
Vessels; as to their Substance, soft and papillary, tho’ not tender
and friable; they are in their Structure Conglomerate, consisting of
divers Membranes, wove one within another, interspersed with small
round Vesicles, which are not only contiguous, but adhere closely one
to another, as the Membranes also do. By the Pores of these little
Vesicles a mucilaginous Liquor is strained and secerned from the
general Mass of the arterial Blood, and thence by the excretory Duct,
with which all these Glands are furnished, is shed into the Interstices
of all the Joints.

SECT. 4.

These Glands have a sufficient Number of blood Vessels, they dont come
out of them in right Lines, but are observed to have many Convolutions,
Windings, and Insertions; there seems to be a very particular Reason,
from the Nature of the Liquor to be separated, for this Obliquity
of the blood Vessels; for since that Liquor is to be viscid and
mucilaginous, its Parts should proceed slowly, and not without
Difficulty, through the glandulary Pores; and therefore the Vessels
are contorted in the Manner we see, that the Motion of the Blood may
be retarded, and more Time and Leizure given, both for the separating
Particles of such a Nature, and for their Admission through the Pores
of the Glands.

SECT. 5.

These Glands are of different Shapes, so as to fit the Furrows and
Cavities where they are placed; some are long, others conical, broad at
their Base and grow narrow towards the Top, so as to terminate in an
Edge; some have a broad Base, and rise into a sort of Cone; some are
like little Ridges; some like Fringe; some are broad and pretty flat.

SECT. 6.

As to their Situation, they are differently seated in the several
Joints; in some they stand over-against the very Interstice of the
Bones, and run in a little way between them, where the Ends of the
Bones towards that Side are not contiguous, but so formed as in their
Conjunction to make an Interstice, and these are commonly in the
Manner of a Fringe; some are seated in some Sinus or Cavity, others
planted upon the Membrane, which immediately covers the Articulation:
In general they are so seated, that they cannot be injured by a
Compression from the Bones; and yet there is this Contrivance, that
the Bone does, either in the Inflexion or Extension of the Joint,
lightly press upon them, so as to promote the Excretion of the Humour,
which they separate into the Joints, when they are moved and stand
most in need of it; and by this Means it seems to be most plentifully
supplied, when there is occasion for the greatest Quantity of it, and
to be proportioned to the present Exigence, according to the State of
Rest, or the several Degrees of Motion in the Part when it is moved.
And it is no small Security to these Glands, against the Obstructions
which the mucilaginous Quality of the Liquor that they separate does
naturally dispose them to, that they are solicited, and the Liquor
expressed out of them by the Motion of the Parts where they are seated:
The same sort of Glands are placed about the common Membrane of the
Muscles, and about the Tendons.

SECT. 7.

The Liquor that is separated from these Glands is a Mucilage, not
unlike the White of an Egg, tho’ not always so clear and pellucid; when
pure it is very like it. In some Animals it is of a Colour inclining
to Yellow, and is composed of watry, saline and slimy Particles; it
is supposed that the earthy Particles may be about a two and thirtieth
Part. The Nature of this Mucilage seems nearly to approach to that of
the _Serum_ of the Blood, separated from the grumous Part upon being
exposed to the Air, and exhibit much the same Appearances upon Trials
by Mixture with other Bodies, only the _Serum_ is not so mucilaginous.
The _Serum_ is coagulated upon being mixed with Spirit or Oyl of
Vitriol, Spirit of Salt, Oyl of Sulphur, and other acid Spirits. The
_Serum_, upon being held in a Spoon over the Fire, becomes a thick
Jelly, and at length a sort of friable Glew; on the contrary, the
Mucilage grows thinner, upon the same Application, throws up a slight
thin Film at Top, and produces but a slight Coagulum. After the aqueous
Parts are evaporated, there remains scarce a thirtieth Part of the
whole Mass.

SECT. 8.

The principal Use of this Mucilage is to lubricate the Joints,
and to render and preserve the Extremities of the Bones, at their
Articulations, smooth and supple, for the easy Performance of animal
Motion. Besides this mucilaginous Liquor from these Glands, there is an
oily medullary kind of Substance transmitted through the very Bone into
the Cavity of the Joints: These two Liquors are mixed by the Motion
of the Joints, the Mucilage contributes to make the Oyl more slimy,
and the Oyl preserves the Mucilage from stiffening into a Jelly. This
Mucilage further serves to prevent the Extremities of the Joints from
being burnt up in the Gout. In the same Manner the Muscles and Tendons
are lubricated and kept in Vigour by the Liquor supplied from the same
kind of Glands placed on their Membranes.

SECT. 9.

This Mucilage is formed from the purer Part of the Lymph and the serous
Parts of the Blood, and separated in these Glands from the Mass of
the Blood. In order to have a more distinct Notion of its constituent
Parts, and to know how it comes to occasion the Gout, the following
Experiments of Dr. _Havers_ may be very properly repeated in this
Place. He made most of the Trials both when it was hot and when it
was cold. Vinegar dropt into it, when it was hot, made a considerable
Coagulation with a _Serum_; it must be observed that those Mixtures
that were made with it cold, did produce the same Effect when it was
warmed, namely a Coagulation with Acids and Stypticks, only in an
higher Degree: And whereas the Coagulations, which were made when it
was in one State, did only change it into a thick Jelly without any
_Serum_, after the Manner of a Cheese when it is newly set, as they
term it, which over the Fire afterwards exhibited two distinct Parts,
a _Coagulum_ and a Whey; in the other, that is, when the Mucilage was
hot, the Mixtures which coagulated it produced an harder Curd, and
a _Serum_ distinct from it. By dropping in some of the Decoction of
Galls into it, the whole turned into a gelatinous Mass, and it was
all a Sort of _Coagulum_ like a Skin, of a whitish Colour, and so
tough as to hang all together when it was taken up with a Needle. This
_Coagulum_ or Jelly being laid in the Sun, and dried, the Parts of
it stuck all together in one Piece, but was very friable and easily
rubbed to a Powder, which was very much like fine Flower. The same
Effect had the strong Infusion of Balaustia, red Roses, Pomegranate
Bark, and the _Peruvian_ Bark, although there was some Difference
in the Coagulation, according to the different Degrees of their
Astringency. With a few Drops of _Aqua Fortis_ distilled upon it, the
Mucilage was immediately coagulated, though the _Coagulum_, which
was white, was so tender, that it would by Agitation be dissolved in
fair Water, and make it of the same Colour almost like Milk; Spirit
of Nitre made exactly the same Alteration in it as _Aqua Fortis_ did,
a _Coagulum_ which was of a white Colour. Vinegar, Spirit of Salt of
Vitriol, Oyl of Vitriol, and of Sulphur in some Mucilage which I tried
it with, did not make any considerable Alteration when it was cold,
but in some other it did more; when _Aqua Fortis_ and Spirit of Nitre
did produce in all the same Effects in the same Degree. It was mighty
observable, that so strong an Acid as Oyl of Vitriol should have no
greater Effect upon it to alter it not, so considerable as that of
Vinegar, which would incline one to think that it is not always the
high Degree of Acidity that works this Change. But there seems to be
something particular in Wines, which disposes them to coagulate this
Liquor, when any of them are made Use of; and those Parts of them,
which are apt to act thus upon it, are cast into those Interstices
where they have the Mucilage singly to work upon. And therefore we
find how readily any Wines do procure the Paroxysms of the Gout, where
the Tone of the Glands is weakned, and the Patient hath a Disposition
to this Distemper; which agrees with those Trials I have made with
some of them: For Claret, white Wine, and even Sack, but the Claret
especially, did make a _Coagulum_ like a Jelly; and it was not strange
that Claret, which hath both an Acid and a Stypticity in it, should
produce the greatest Coagulation. A mercurial Water made of Sublimate
and _Aqua Calcis_, made a very considerable whitish Coagulation, and
rendred it all a thick Jelly, which being held over the Fire, turned
to a Curd and a _Serum_. A Solution of _Roman_ Vitriol produced a
Coagulation likewise; so did Allum dissolved in Water, but it made a
greater Alteration in some than it did in others, though the Mucilages
were taken from subjects of the same Species. _Saccharum Saturni_
did inspissate it, which appeared to be a true Coagulation, because
with the Fire they would turn to a distinct _Coagulum_ and _Serum_.
Salt of Wormwood made no sensible Alteration, only it seemed a
little thicker, to which I put some of the Decoction of Galls, which
immediately produced a Coagulation. Upon dropping in some Spirit of
Vitriol, to see what would be the Effect of the Colluctation of the
Salt and Spirit, and I found, after it was over, that the _Coagulum_
and the serous Part were distinguished, and the _Serum_ limpid like
Water. I took some of the Decoction of Galls, and added to it Spirit of
Vitriol, intending to make a strong Acid austere, where I observed that
these two by themselves produced a strong Coagulation; and stirring
of them together, to see if the whole might not be brought to mix by
that Means, I found the _Coagulum_ turned into a viscous Body, and a
perfect soft Gum. Then I took out the Gum, and poured some Mucilage
to the residuous Liquor, by which it was changed so as to assume a
whitish Colour, but was not considerably coagulated; which it was
the less, because the austere Parts were most of them, with some of
the Acid, precipitated into the Gum which had been separated from
the serous Part. But if the Spirit of Vitriol and the Mucilage are
first mixed, and the austere Liquor be afterwards added, they make a
very considerable and plentiful _Coagulum_, which will only be broken
into smaller Parts, and not be dissolved in Water. _Aqua Fortis_, and
the Decoction of Galls being both dropt into some of the Mucilage,
made a white _Coagulum_, which likewise was not dissolved in Water,
altho’ with _oleum Tartari per Deliquium_, and so with Spirit of _Sal
Ammoniac_ dropt into it, I presently dissolved it. I found likewise,
that the _Coagulum_ made with the Infusion of Pomegranate Peel, red
Roses and Balaustia, being mixed with some of the Mucilage, to which
an Acid had been put, made the _Coagulum_ more firm, so that it would
not dissolve in fair Water; but yet the Oyl of Tartar by _Deliquium_,
and the Spirit of _Sal Ammoniac_, did the Business in all of them. The
_Coagulum_ of the Mucilage made with an Acid, and the Infusion of the
_Peruvian_ Bark and several other Astringents, I kept and dried, which
when they were first put to the Teeth, seemed a little gritty, though
after they were moist they were of a softer Nature. All the Mixtures
made of the Mucilage with an Acid and an Austere, produced not only a
plentiful Coagulation of a white Colour, but such a one as was of a
thicker Consistence, and not Soluble in fair Water, as that was which
was made with an Acid only.


It is now proper to apply what hath been hitherto delivered, to the
Distemper we are treating of, that from thence the Powers of Milk in
the Cure may more clearly appear. We have shewed before how the Mass
of the Blood becomes impregnated with a saline Acrimony, more or less
Acid, from a sharp and indigested Chyle, and the Powers of Digestion
weakned and impaired; whence is easily explained how the Lymph and
acrid _Serum_ is communicated to the mucilaginous Glands, and the
smallest Branches of the Arteries, so as to infect and coagulate the
Mucilage, in Proportion to the Quantity of Salts they contain. The
Fibres of the Membranes and Tendons are vellicated by the Acrimony of
those Salts, so as to occasion intolerable Pain, and affect the Nerves
to a very great Degree.

SECT. 2.

From the Diversity of Pains and other Symptoms in the Gout, it appears
that these saline Particles are sometimes salt and pungent, sometimes
more volatile, sharp and burning. That the mucilaginous Humour is
frequently acid and corrosive in the Gout, appears from hence, that
this Liquor is neither so easily coagulated, nor acquires so great a
Degree of Viscidity by any other Mixture as with austere Acids, and
from the Obstinacy and Duration of the Pain. It is frequently observed,
that upon the Approach of a Fit, People complain of sowre Belchings,
Wind, and vomit acid Humours, so that hypochondriac People, and such
as are subject to the Gravel, are most apt to be seized with this
Distemper; this may afford a good Reason why not only the drinking of
acid Wines bring on a Fit in gouty Persons, but originally occasion the
Gout in such Persons as frequently drink them. The Mixture of Wine with
the Mucilage plainly evinces, that the acid Particles of the Wine give
a Disposition to the Distemper, for it caused a greater Coagulation of
the Mucilage than Oyl of Vitriol, whence easily appears what Mischief
it may do to gouty Persons.

SECT. 3.

How this sharp acid Humour comes to be secerned in the Glands, seems
to want Explanation, and this I judge to be in the following Manner.
The Blood being first imbued with a sufficient Quantity of these saline
heterogeneous Particles, which it receives from the corrupted Chyle,
is by Degrees disturbed in its Motion, and the Fibres of the Nerves
begin to be sensibly irritated, so as to cause irregular Motions of the
animal Spirits. The Blood itself is thickned, because these saline and
viscid Particles get into the small Ramifications of the Arteries, and
occasion Obstructions there; by this Means the natural Functions and
Secretions of the Humours, especially in the Glands, are disturbed,
and proceed slower; and accordingly for some Time before the Fit, we
find Complaints of Crudities in the Stomach, a swelling and Heaviness
of Body, and Weakness and Numbness of the Limbs, which increase daily
till the Fit is formed. At length the Blood, by continued Irritations,
being put into more violent Motions, drives these saline heterogeneous
viscid Particles through the obstructed Capillaries into the glandular
Vesicles, whence without doubt the Juices there secerned, especially
that of which we are speaking, _viz._ the Mucilage in the Glands in
and about the Joints, is not only plentifully stored with these acid
corrosive Salts, becomes more viscid and ropy, but also very corrosive
and poignant; and while it irritates and corrodes the adjoining
Membranes and Tendons, not only causes violent Pains, but also since by
the Contraction of the Nerves the Blood cannot move so freely through
the smallest Vessels, the Fibres are distended, and an inflammatory
Tumor frequently succeeds.

SECT. 4.

The Reason why the Gout affects particularly the Hands and Feet, and
not all the Joints together, where Glands of the same Nature are
placed, seems to be this: The Blood vitiated in the Manner before
explained, propelling these saline Parts into the Pores of the Glands,
from the inequality of its Motion in the Time of a Fit, does not
impel those Salts with an equable Force, but chiefly into such Parts
(especially the Feet and other pendulous Members) where the Pressure
and Impulse lies heaviest; so dilates the Cavities of the smallest
Canals, till at length it deposits Part of such Salts, with other
viscid Humours, upon those Glands. Thus being partly freed from those
Salts, the Gout does not seize other Parts with the same Violence;
for frequently a large Quantity of such vitiated Humours are secerned
by Urine, Sweat, and other more open Passages; and it even often
happens, that Persons whose Juices are much corrupted, have avoided the
Distemper by the Laxity and Openness of their Vessels; yet these very
Persons, when the Blood becomes oppressed by these saline Particles
in so great Degree, as not to be readily discharged by the larger
Passages, they affect the Mucilage in the Glands and occasion the Gout.

SECT. 5.

That this Distemper comes by Fits, appears owing to this, that upon
the Approach of a Fit much of the morbifick Matter is thrown upon the
Glands by the Blood, so that the Blood thus freed from sharp and viscid
Particles, moves easier and freer, till such Time as a sufficient
Quantity of morbifick Matter is again generated in the Blood; which
by separating again, a viscid and sharp Mucilage, the Symptoms of
the Gout, are repeated in another Fit. The feverish Chilliness and
Shivering that attends the Gout, is to be accounted for from the
irregular Motion of the Blood, occasioned by the Salt and viscid
Particles; and it is very likely that those very Salts themselves,
irritating the Nerves, and occasioning inordinate and violent Motions
of the animal Spirits, contribute to such a Fever; this Sharpness of
the Blood, while the Salts are thrown forth by Urine or Sweat, remits
till the Blood be again infected. We observe that the Gout often
prevents other Distempers; for by this Expulsion of the corrupted
Parts from the Blood, Distempers which might have arisen from them are

SECT. 6.

Because there is a great Difference made between the fixed and
wandering Gout, I shall observe a few Things thereon. As to the
wandering Gout, it is observable that the Mucilage of the Glands is
often very differently affected from the viscid and saline Particles
of the Blood; sometimes these Particles are mixed in different
Quantities with the Mucilage, neither have the Salts at all Times the
same Degree of Volatility or Fixity; so that the Mucilage may at some
Times be only lightly infected, and the Infection be more Volatile,
and consequently it may easily move from one Joint to another, or
attack many Joints at a Time. The Points of the Salts are in a Manner
lixiviated, become more volatilized, and of Consequence are with
more ease protruded from the Blood into the Glands, and render the
mucilaginous Juices sharper; whence the nervous Membranes are irritated
and distended, and the gouty Pain generated.

SECT. 7.

The Reason why this morbid Matter is not long fixed in a Place, but
is apt to wander from one Joint to another, I take to be this: These
saline volatile Particles, when their intestine Motions are increased,
are very easily dissipated, either through the Pores of the Skin in
sensible Transpiration and Sweat, or by insensible Perspiration, and
so the Pain ceases; other Glands, whose Pores are more open to receive
this acrid volatile Matter, are for the like Reasons infected, the same
Tragedy repeated, and the Particles in like manner dissipated. This is
the Reason why the Pains in the Gout are not fixed and permanent, but
rather wandring and uncertain, the morbid Particles being attenuated,
and pushing to get forth by the Methods now mentioned, vellicate the
Nerves in various Directions. It may be further considered, that when
by the smallness of the Pores or glandulous Vessels, or any other
Disposition, the morbifick Matter cannot be separated from them in
sufficient Quantity, and the Secretion once begun is stopped, it
recurs to other Glands of the same kind, and thus the morbid Matter is
suddenly translated from one Joint to another, and from one Sett of
Glands to others, so as to produce this Effect.

SECT. 8.

As to the fixed Gout, where the morbid Matter remains long in a Place,
I take it that many acid Salts and viscid Humours contained in the
Blood, occasion a greater Coagulation and Viscidity in the Mucilage
about the Joints and the Tendons, than can be easily dispersed and
evacuated; and on the contrary growing more viscid and sharp, it
distends and vellicates the small Fibres of the Tendons and nervous
Membranes, and occasions a Pain proportional to the Degree of Acrimony
and Viscidity in the Mucilage about the Joints and Tendons, generally
pretty sharp. The Mucilage is affected in the same Manner as it would
be from the Affusion of _Aqua Fortis_, Spirit of Vitriol, or any other
corrosive acid or austere Substance, whence it is manifestly thickned
and coagulated. This affords a Reason why such a Gout is not only
fixed in a particular Limb, but also why it long remains there. The
ingenious Dr. _Havers_ explains this Matter very well; he tells us that
when the Matter happens to be thick and gelatinous, it is not to be
expected that it should be easily and presently discharged out of the
Interstices of the Joints, either by being resorbed or evaporated, when
the Consistence of it renders it uncapable of insinuating itself into
the minute Pores, and penetrating those narrow Avenues through which it
is to pass. And according to the Degree and Nature of the Acid in the
morbific Humour, it doth more or less coagulate the Mucilage, and the
Part affected is sooner or later, with more or less Difficulty, freed
from it, either by the Translation of it to another, or by the more
happy Exclusion of it out of the Body. The same Author very elegantly
explains the Cause of the Knots in the Joints, where he says that it
seems to be no difficult Thing to account for that tophaceous Matter,
which is sometimes found concreted in those Parts that have been
afflicted with this Distemper. It hath been observed, that an Acid and
an Austere, being both mixed with the Mucilage, did produce a plain, a
notable and white Coagulation, where the _Coagulum_, though it was made
when the Mucilage was cold, was not so soft and tender, nor dissolvable
in Water like that which was made with Acids only; but though it would
break, remained distinct in it, and being dried, was easily reducible
to a fine Powder like Flower, or the fine Powder of Chalk. Whence he
humbly conceives, that where-ever the Gout comes to be nodose, there is
not only an Acidity in the preternatural Humour, which is separated by
the mucilaginous Glands, and mixed with the Mucilage; but it is an Acid
austere, which is no sooner thrown into the Interstices of the Joints
and the Sinuses of the Tendons which are thereabout, but it produces
a _Coagulum_ in the Mucilage, and that such a one as is not easily
attenuated and dissolved, so that it lies fixed and imprisoned there,
and in Time, as the aqueous and moist Particles are by the Heat and
Spirits carried off, the terrestrial and saline Parts concentrated come
nearer together, and coming to be immediately contiguous, do mutually
adhere, and are concreted so as to produce that Chalk or tophaceous
Matter which is in some arthritick Cases to be observed. And as the
_Coagulum_, which may be made by an Acid austere, seems apt to make a
Concretion of that nature, so the Colour of the tophaceous Matter doth
answer to that of this Coagulation, so as to seem generated in this

SECT. 9.

The same Author explains the Reason why the Hands and Feet are most
subject to this Disorder. In the Hands, as was shewn before, there not
only are considerable Glands in all their Joints, but the Tendons which
are there inserted, especially those of the _Musculi perforantes_,
have their mucilaginous Glands, so that Nature hath a convenience in
these Parts to depurate the Mass of Blood, and they must receive the
morbifick Matter, when the Blood in its Circulation obtrudes it upon
them, and the Glands are disposed to separate it. The same Thing may be
observed of the Shoulder and of the Knees. But of all the Parts none
are so frequently afflicted with this Disease as the Feet, and it is
plain why they are so. For besides, that they have many mucilaginous
Glands in their Joints, and others about the Tendons which are inserted
into their Bones, as the great Chord or Tendon of the Muscles which
extend the Foot, and those of the _Perforantes_; I say besides this,
they are the inferior and pendulous Parts, so that as their Glands make
them capable of entertaining, so their Situation does conspire with
the Effort of Nature, to bring down the morbifick Matter into them.
Thus far Dr. _Havers_, whom I have chosen to quote, because he hath
exceeded all Authors in treating of the Nature of this Distemper. It
is not necessary to add any more upon this Head. What I have omitted
for Brevity’s Sake, the Reader may find in my _Encyclopædia Medica_,
where I have treated of the Cause of this Distemper, and evidently
shewed how from the Glands and Lymphatick Ducts about the Membranes
and nervous Parts of the Joints, a large Quantity of sharp _Serum_ and
other lixivial and acid Particles or other morbid Matter thickning and
corrupting the Lymph, is secreted and deposited upon the Joints, where
they corrode and vellicate the nervous Fibres. Upon the Addition of
Particles more than ordinary acid, the Pains become more durable and
fixed; insomuch as Salts of different Natures become jumbled together,
and from the Agitation and Conflict of the Particles, the Membranes
are vellicated and distended in a very painful Manner; neither doth
the Pain abate till the Particles get forth of the Glands, or their
Conflict being over, leave the Spirits at rest.


In the next Place we are to enquire into the Properties of Milk, and
to find out whence it hath such wonderful Powers in asswaging and
curing this Distemper. There are some Authors, especially the Followers
of _Sylvius_, who according to the chymical Scheme would have Milk
produced from the Blood in the following Manner; Chyle, which is of
a white Colour, may be turned into Blood by the Help of Alcalies;
and again the Blood may be reduced to Chyle by the Help of Acids.
_Junkius_, in his Chymistry, hath noted the Experiments when Milk is
to be turned into Blood: Take a Pound of new Milk, and mix with it an
Ounce of reverberated Salt of Tartar in a large Vessel; in a Quarter of
an Hour the Mixture shall turn into a Blood red Colour, several Fibres
swimming at Top like Cream. When the Blood is to be turned into Milk,
take any Quantity of the foregoing Mixture, and drop in some Vinegar,
and it shall immediately re-assume the Form of Milk. In the first
Experiment they alledge, that the crude Sulphur of the Chyle is by the
Alkali exalted into a red Sulphur; in the second, the exalting Alkali
is depressed by the Acid, whence the Sulphur returns to its original
white Colour. _Junkius_ is very justly doubtful of the Application
of this Experiment; how the crude Sulphur of the Chyle, as they call
it, should in so short a Time be changed into Blood by Alkalies, and
the Blood, exalted by so many Circulations, be again changed into
Milk by Acids, seems very strange. It requires a good deal of Time to
change the Chyle into perfect Blood, and the Blood again into Milk,
notwithstanding that Women who have no Milk find it in their Breasts
soon after Childbirth.

SECT. 2.

In order to be fully satisfied of the Nature of Milk, it is necessary
to examine into the Manner of its Generation: It seems reasonable to
imagine, that the Chyle, once received into the lacteal Vessels, and
at length mixed with the Blood, is never again let forth with the
same Appearance; only in Women at the Time of Childbirth, when it is
plentifully separated, through the Ramifications of the Arteries, by
the conglomerate Glands of the Breast. There is evidently a great
Agreement between the Milk and the Chyle, in as much as the Chyle
consists of a watry, limpid and gelatinous Fluid, with oily or fat
Globules swimming therein. These Globules are pellucid, and differ both
in Size and Figure; the Reason of its Whiteness is to be imputed to
this: The oily Globules are mixed with the watry ones, in such Manner
that several very smooth Globules are formed, which reflecting the
Rays of Light in right Lines, occasion a white Colour; the same thing
is observable in making Emulsions with oily Seeds, or upon mixing
resinous Essences with Water, or mixing Oyl and Water, and shaking them
well together; in these Cases, the watry and oily Particles, being
thoroughly mixed, occasion such a Superficies as reflects a white
Colour. _Bolin_, and several Authors have proved, that the Milk is
no other than oily or fat Lymph or Chyle, brought with the Blood to
the Breasts, and there deposited in the milky Cells. _Berger_ hath
very well explained the Manner of its Separation in the Breasts. The
whole Substance of the Breasts, in Women giving Suck, is made up of
various Ramifications of Arteries, from the thoracick and mamillary
Arteries, which terminate in oval Cells, or glandulary Follicles;
from hence the Breast swells with many milky Vessels, terminating
in the Nipple; through these the more oily and chylous Parts of the
Blood are derived from the Glands, where it is not only separated, and
received, but gathered and preserved, while the remaining Mass of the
Blood is returned by the Veins and Lymphaticks. These milky Rivulets,
after breaking very small from the Ramifications of the Arteries,
flow together into several larger Trunks, which in their Progress are
united by Insertions of their Parts, in some Places more dilated, in
others streightned, from several Cells and Cisterns, where the Milk
is gathered and preserved, so as always to have a sufficient Quantity
for the Nourishment of the Infant. Lastly, as the Chyle is separated
from the Mass of the Food in the Bowels, not by any Precipitation,
but by Percolation only; and as in the making of Emulsions, the oily
Seeds communicate an oily Milkiness to the Water, and is separated
from the grosser Parts by the Sieve, without the Intervention of any
precipitating Medicine, so the chylous Juice is separated in the Bowels
by gentle Pressure or the Peristaltick Motion, and strained through the
Orifices of the lacteal Vessels, to be thence thrown into the Mass of
the Blood. In like manner, the Milk is barely separated, by straining
the milky Particles from the Blood, through the small Ramifications of
the Arteries in the Glands of the Breasts.

SECT. 3.

_Nuck_ hath sometime ago demonstrated, that these conglomerate
Glands are a Bundle of small Vessels; that their excretory Ducts are
Continuations of the arterial Ramifications, and that these Glands owe
their Origin to the smallest Branches of the Arteries: These Arteries,
which enter the glandular Substance of the Breasts, are imperceptible
to the naked Eye, and discoverable only by injecting a very fine
Tincture (which _Nuck_ tells us is known to very few Anatomists) into
the Artery; this may be so far propelled, as to render the milky
Ducts conspicuous. For the better Discovery of this Matter, _Nuck_
instituted another Experiment equally curious and useful; having
met a Nipple full of excretory Ducts, he pressed it, and the Breast
adjoining, so as to empty all its Contents, and having pitched upon one
of the widest Ducts, he injected _Mercury_ so artificially, that he
immediately observed the milky Ducts spread like Branchings of Trees;
some Part of the _Mercury_ was carried so far as to enter the Arteries,
whence the milky Vessels were continued.

SECT. 4.

Hence it follows, that these milky Ducts are destitute of Valves,
otherwise the _Mercury_ and the injected Liquors would have been
obstructed in their Passage. It is indeed observable, that these Canals
are in some Places streighter and narrower than in others, so as to
give some kind of Obstacle to the Injection; this is not to be imputed
to Valves, but to some kind of Hardness peculiar to the Substance of
the Glands, by which the milky Vessels are compressed. From hence
appears the immediate Inosculation of the milky Ducts, with the small
Ramifications of the Arteries, of which these Glands are composed; so
that the arterial Blood propels and deposits its chylous and serous
Particles by gentle Pressure and Impulse in the milky Ducts, without
other Mechanism than bare Straining and Secretion. For the further and
more exact Description of these Ducts, see _Nuck’s Adenographia_.

SECT. 5.

It remains now to examine, of what kind of Particles chiefly Milk
is composed; which appear to be these three: The first is a fat,
butyraceous, oily, and sulphureous Substance. The second is cheesy,
earthy, chalky, and saline. The third is the Vehicle of these, _viz._
serous, which is watry, with a Mixture of nitrous Salts. But these
Parts don’t hold the same Proportion in the Milk of all Animals; Cows
Milk is most used in Food, it is thick and fat, and contains more
Butter than the Milk of other Animals; upon which account it nourishes
more, and is more agreeable to the human Body. Ews Milk hath more
earthy and cheesy Particles; Goats Milk is in a Mean between these
two, only that its _Serum_ contains more of a nitrous Salt; whence
_Etmuller_ conjectures, that it hath all the Virtues of Whey made from
Cows Milk, especially in Heats and scorbutick Cases. Asses Milk is of
all the thinnest, next to human; the Milk of other Animals, as not so
usually brought into Food, I forbear to describe.

SECT. 6.

It is manifest, that every Part of the Milk exerts an Effect proper
to it self; the fat Part, from which the Butter is formed, preserves
from the Stone, which affords an evident Reason why Stones taken from
the human Body, upon Distillation, afford so small a Portion of Oyl;
whence I am of Opinion, that the Stone is most commonly generated in
the Kidneys and Bladder, when the Blood is not sufficiently stocked
with oily Particles. Upon this Principle it is easy to see why all oily
Substances, as Oyl of Sweet Almonds, taken plentifully, is a Remedy
in the Stone; for the oily Particles (as _Hoffman_ observes in his
Notes upon _Poterius_) by their Hooks hinder the Saline _Spicula_ from
uniting so as to form an hard Substance. It is known in the Chymistry,
that Oyl resists Crystallization; and many Artists that are minded to
have beautiful Crystals, add rectified Spirit of Wine to their Lye, in
order to absorb the Oyl. Upon the same Principles, the Precipitation
of the earthy Particles, and the lodging thereof in the Membranes of
the Joints, so as to form chalky Knots, are prevented. _Poterius_ tells
us of a Woman of Sixty, who was so reduced in her Flesh and Strength,
that she was scarce sensible of Pain, who by the Help of Goat’s Milk,
was in three Months Time restored to a State of perfect Health,
notwithstanding a great Decay of Strength and Flesh, an Hectick Fever,
and a Stone; she took at first but four Ounces of the Milk, which was
at length increased to eight; at the End of fifteen Days she voided
some oblong and Very hard Stones, upon which she began to recover.
She continued the Use of the Milk for a Month, at which Time the
Fever left her, her Appetite returned, and she began to gather Flesh.
She was alive and hearty in the Sixty Eighth Year of her Age, when
_Poterius_ gave his Account. Although in this Case the oily Particles
of the Blood might contribute much to lubricate the Passages, yet
probably the serous Part of the Goats Milk, impregnated with a nitrous
abstersive Salt, attenuated the thicker Humours, and irritated the
nervous membranous Parts to discharge the Stones. It is observable that
after taking plentifully of Milk, the Urine is not only thin and watry,
but made also in large Quantities. This fat Substance in the Milk also
loosens the Bowels and softens Pain, it resists corrosive Poisons, in
as much as it sheaths and anoints the sharp _Spicula_ thereof. Many
Empiricks, to shew the Force of their Antidotes (which are generally
good for nothing) to the ignorant Multitude, having lined their
Stomachs well with Butter, or Oyl, either of Olive or Sweet Almonds,
will securely swallow Mercury and even Arsenick, and afterwards
taking the pretended Specifick, cheat the poor People of their Money.
_Poterius_ experienced the good Effects of Milk, plentifully taken, to
break the Force of Poyson; for a Woman, who being very dry, had drank
_Aqua Fortis_ instead of Wine, was relieved from the immediate Danger
of Death by drinking plentifully of Steeled Milk, with a Dram of Wax, a
little Nutmeg, and _Terra Lemnia_. _Tulpius_, in his Observations takes
Notice, that _Goldsmiths_, while they handle Mercury and Antimony, keep
in their Mouths a bit of Bread thick buttered, or take fat Broths, to
guard against their mischievous _Effluvia_. Milk, by reason of its
Oiliness, is one of the best, temperate, and nourishing of Foods;
nothing exceeds it in consumptive Cases. These Particles admirably
temper any Sharpness in the Body, and are serviceable where the Kidneys
are ulcerated, and to scorbutick People, especially if the Juice of
Cresses or Scurvygrass be added to it, and taken two Hours before
Meals. It is of great Service in Dysenteries, where there is great
Sharpness in the first Passages, and chiefly after the Use of absorbent
Medicines. Upon the same Account it eases Pains in the Eyes, and the
serous Part of the Milk helps much to dilute the Salts; dropt into the
Ear, it asswages Pains there, especially when it is attended with a
buzzing Noise.

SECT. 7.

Since it appears that Milk, by reason of its oily Particles, is thus
serviceable in mitigating and curing these Disorders, there is no room
to doubt, from Parity of Reason, that the frequent Use of it in the
Gout should not break and invert the austere, sharp, saline Particles,
and drive them forth of the Body by Perspiration, Urine, or other
Discharges; for, (as _Waldsmid_ observes) Salts predominate in this
Distemper, which is evident from the itching in the Skin observed to
attend the Decline of a Fit. The volatile Salt of the serous Humour
going off, insensibly frets the Skin, while that which is fixed in the
thick and viscid Humour, and cannot easily fly off, hardens into Knots.
I have observed, upon the Application of Blisters to gouty Persons, a
Liquor of an high corrosive Nature to flow from the Part.

SECT. 8.

I now come to examine the second essential Part of Milk, _viz._ that
which is cheesy, earthy, and somewhat saline. I am not of Opinion that
the Acid of the Stomach is increased by this Part, for there is no
Acid naturally in the Stomach; if there were, it would be mischievous.
Although it be certain that Cheese is acid, and turns sharper by Age,
yet those Particles which are precipitated into Chese, are vastly
different in the Chyle and the Milk, from what they are in a State
of Separation, and after being exposed to the Air. The Salts, which
before were nitrous, and of a middle Nature, somewhat volatile, and
mixed with oily, sulphureous, or earthy Particles, being agitated by an
inward Motion, become more stiff and complicated. These Salts, while
in a State of Union with the Milk and Chyle in the Body, by Means of
the progressive Motion, are more disunited and smaller, the serous and
oily Particles keeping them asunder; and there is neither Time nor Rest
allowed them in their natural State to produce fresh Combinations, as
they have when deprived of their progressive Motion, in a State of
Separation from the Body. That Milk in warm Weather turns sowre, is to
be imputed to its intestine Motion, where the Salts, before small and
somewhat nitrous, mixed with the oily Particles by the Influx of the
Air, change their natural Texture and Figure, and become more rigid and
heavy, and so precipitate the light, viscid, and earthy Particles. That
the Air contributes much to this Change, appears from hence, because
that alone produces a remarkable Quantity of acid Salts in some Bodies.
If a Piece of Alum be calcined in the open Fire, upon exposing it
again to the Air, it shall double its Weight; so that a large Quantity
of aluminous acid Salt may be drawn from thence: And although Milk be
coagulated in the Breasts, it happens either from an acid Acrimony
in the Blood, or its Motion being stopped, and some Obstructions of
the milky Vessels. It doth not appear from any Experiment yet known,
that healthy Milk fresh drawn contains any Acid; the Manner in which
this Part of the Milk acquires this Tendency, I conceive to be this:
We have already asserted, that Milk, in its natural State, contains
no Acid, although after being exposed to Warm Air, by Means of some
Fermentation and inward Motion, it becomes acid, which is to be look’d
upon as a new Production, no way relating to Milk in its natural State.
The cheesy Particles of Milk, if I may so call them, when in the Body
differ extremely from those which out of the Body form the Cheese;
for while in the Body, they are in the Shape of earthy, subtile,
viscid Particles, mixed with the Milk, Chyle, and Blood; they give a
due Consistence to the Milk, by duly mixing the oily, fat and serous
Particles with them, and while in their due progressive Motion, keep
the Milk in a proper Temperature, and occasion a slower Motion of the
Milk through the milky Vessels.

SECT. 9.

It may be asked, How this Part of the Milk comes to be serviceable in
the Gout, and other scorbutick Disorders? Because its Parts are slimy,
chalky, and earthy, they gently temper the Acrimony of the Humours, and
imbibe and absorb it; and this is the Reason why the Milk of Nurses
who feed upon Acids, or whose Blood hath a Tendency that Way, soon
turns; for such acid Particles being separated in the Glands of the
Breasts, by coagulating and thinning the Milk, by separating from the
other Particles of the Milk, and staying behind, are the Occasion that
the Milk comes out unfit for Nourishment.

SECT. 10.

The third Part of the Milk, which is serous, contains watry, gelatinous
and nitrous Particles; if Milk sowres and coagulates out of the Body,
the gelatinous Parts of the _Serum_, being somewhat thicker and more
earthy, change their Motion and Situation, and being more closely mixed
with the oily Particles, become that cheesy Substance we before took
Notice of. The Power of the _Serum_ is to be attributed to its watry
and abstersive nitrous Particles, by Means whereof it hath a Power
of deterging, consolidating, sweetning and tempering the Acrimony of
the Humours, and of increasing the Discharges by Urine and Siege;
it removes Obstructions in the Bowels, heals Ulcers, and corrects
the Sharpness of the Humours, in as much as it dilutes the acrid and
volatile Salts, and fixes them by means of its nitrous Particles. It
is of great use in feverish Heats, and by its alexipharmick Power is
much esteemed in malignant Fevers, so that its Virtue in the Gout
is less to be wondered at. In the Gout, the fixed morbid Matter
sticking in the small Canals, and the Interstices of the Membranes and
mucilaginous Glands, is very tough, viscid, sharp and austere; the
serous Particles of the Milk easily pass through and pervade those
Ducts and Canals, and by the watry Particles dilute those sharp Salts
and stagnating Humours, and partly imbibe and absorb them; so that
either by insensible Perspiration, Urine, or some other Discharge, they
send them forth of the Body. For this End they correct and break them
so as to make their Passage easier. It is observable, that the Salts
of the _Serum_ easily assimilate themselves to other Salts, and upon
this Account a difference of Food occasions different Milk. Goats that
have fed upon purging Herbs, Spurge or Scammony, as in _Syria_ or other
Countries where such Herbs grow wild, give Milk endowed with a strong
purgative Power; and Saffron frequently given communicates both its
Smell and Colour to the Milk.

SECT. 11.

For these Reasons those that feed upon Milk should take Care that
the Animal they take it from have sweet and good Pasture; Cows give
sweeter and better Milk in Summer, when fed upon odoriferous Grass,
than in Winter on Hay and Straw. I do not think it necessary here, to
recite all the Virtues of the serous Part of the Milk in the Cure of
other Distempers, because they are well known to Physicians; but it
may be observed, that the several essential Parts of Milk, which I
have here explained, being united and thoroughly mixed, as they are
in the Milk, exert a greater Efficacy in dissolving and breaking the
Salts and viscid Humours that lodge about the Joints, and expelling
the gouty Matter. When the Blood is impregnated with Milk, it yields
a softer Liquor to the mucilaginous Glands of the Joints, so that the
Membranes and Tendons are lubricated with a soft insipid Mucilage, and
the natural Motions are performed without Pain or Uneasiness; or if
the Membranes be too dry, or complicated with any sharp Matter, which
occasions Obstructions, they are so relaxed, that upon removing the
Obstruction they regain their former Force and Vigour. Care must be
taken of what I before advised, that before the Milk be thoroughly
brought into Use, the latent Acid in the Bowels be first corrected
and discharged by absorbent and cleansing Medicines, and a laudable
Diet premised for some Time, that no Coagulation of the Milk, or
other Inconveniencies, be incurred. Upon this Foot a certain Cure is
to be expected. A prudent Physician will easily dispose a Body whose
Powers are not entirely destroyed to receive this Diet. Perhaps some
may object here, that the Gout being caused by an acid Salt, rendring
the Juices about the Joints more viscid and sharp, therefore so long
as there remains a Disposition to the Gout, from this Cause, Milk
cannot safely be brought into Use. To this I answer, That the Gout
is often caused by a singular lixivial Salt, and bilious Acrimony,
especially in Persons of a sanguine Constitution, where no volatile
Acid is observable, either in the first Passages, or in the Blood;
or if there be any acid Salts in the first Passages, by frequent
Circulations they are so joined with the volatile Salt of the Blood,
that they become lixivial and bilious. But when there really are acid
Humours in the Body, by taking alcaline Absorbents and Cleansers of
the Blood, and by proper Diet, they may be so corrected, as from Acids
to become lixivial, and assume the Nature of middle Kind of Salts.
Upon the frequent Use of alkaline Absorbents, the Pains of the Gout
are mightily lessened, because the solid _Spicula_ of the Acid are
broke and changed. Upon this Principle, Dr. _Willis_ his Mixture of
the Solution of Salt of Tartar, and _Sal Ammoniac_, in Rain Water,
externally applied, is an excellent Remedy. A Friend of mine used to
remove the Pains of the Gout instantly, by an Ointment made of Quick
Lime; and upon the same Principles, Spirit of _Sal Ammoniac_, Camphire,
Spirit and Oyl of Tartar, and even Urine, wonderfully remove the Pain;
as also Spirit of Scurvygrass, Cresses, _Sal Volatile_, Amber, and
others of that Class. When the Humours that cause the Gout are more
bilious, lixivial, and corrosive, these Medicines are not so proper;
for volatile and spirituous Medicines increase the Distemper; but the
more fixed nitrous Absorbents, oily and acid, ought to be externally
applied; as Balsam of _Sulphur_ with Amber, Bathing, and Spirit of
Pismires, sowre Buttermilk, Herring Brine, the Juice of Earthworms
expressed with Wine, as being full of nitrous Salts, a Poultice of
Bread and Milk, with a little Saffron, or Bole, or sealed Earth, or
the inward Use of the Decoctions of the Woods, and many other earthy
Absorbents. _Caspar Rheinbold_, his Highness’s Principal Apothecary,
prepares a Medicine from Gold chemically, which is an admirable Secret
in the Cure of the Gout, of which I can attest the Truth. It is also
excellent in the Stone, prevents its growing, and mitigates the Pain
of it. The Antients exhibited the Juice of Earthworms expressed in
Milk, with Success: By these Means the corrosive and volatile Salts are
inverted, fixed, and thrown forth of the Body by Urine and Sweat.

SECT. 12.

Because the morbid Matter rests chiefly about the Tendons and nervous
Membranes, especially in the mucilaginous Glands, and cannot suddenly
and at one Push be driven out of such narrow Vessels and Cells; it
is necessary to continue the Diet for a good while, till the Body
be thoroughly purged of vicious Humours, and begins as it were to
renew its Youth. Lenient and laxative Purgers are sometimes to be
used, because the Stomach and Bowels in gouty Persons are weak; so
that it often happens that Milk, by reason of the slow Progress of
Chylification, by its intestine Motion, is vehemently agitated and
precipitated, so as to occasion a Slime in the first Passages; but in
a little Time this Evil is prevented by such Medicines as strengthen
the Stomach, and prevent Coagulations in the Milk; the most lenient
Purgatives are the best, and Rhubarb to be preferred for at the same
Time that it evacuates, it gives a fresh Tone to the Fibres of the

SECT. 13.

The Excellency of Milk, not only in the Gout, but in other Disorders,
having been thus demonstrated, I shall subjoin the Judgment of some
Authors in its Favour. _Emmanuel Konig_, in his _Regnum Animale_,
admires the wonderful Power of Milk in Medicine, as well as
Nourishment. _Wepfer_, in his Observations, says, there is certainly
somewhat divine in Milk, since we see gouty Persons relieved by it,
Hypocondriack and Nephritick Persons relieved by its use, the whole
Habit strengthened, the Complexion cleared up, and fresh Powers
acquired to the Body. He tells us, that he knew a Gentlewoman at
_Friburgh_, who was in an almost miraculous Manner relieved from
terrible Convulsions, Suffocation of the Womb, Hysterick Symptoms, by
the Use of Milk alone, obstinately persisted in for some Years. Milk,
by its asswaging, sulphureous Power, and its nitro-saline deterging
Quality, dulcifies the sharp and acid Humours, whence its Cream and
Butter thence arising, are very anodine; the one beat up with Sugar of
Lead, corrects the corrosive Acid in cancerous Tumours; and the other
drank warm in a _Diarrhœa_, mitigates the sharp Twitches in the Bowels
that attend that Distemper, and immediately asswages and stops the Pain
and Gripings. Externally applied and rubbed in a proper manner, it
gives Relief in the Stone, and helps to propel it into the Bladder.
_Daniel Ludovicus_ hath asserted, that Butter either by it self, or
mixed with other Ingredients, exceeds all the Officinal Ointments and
compound Oyls. In Consumptions and Hecticks its Powers are very well
known. _Solenander_ and _Konig_ advise a Pound of Milk, in which an
Handful of Elder Flowers have been boiled, drank every Morning for nine
Days successively in _May_, as a Specifick in St. _Anthony_’s Fire.
_Tachius_ tells us of what great Use it was in restoring crippled Limbs
to a Person that was quite tired out with Baths, and other Remedies. In
the _German Ephemeris_ there is an Instance of an Hypocondriac Epilepsy
cured by three Ounces of Milk, in which was dissolved half a Drachm of
_Spanish_ Soap, taken every Morning. And _Sylvius_ tells us of many
Icterical People cured by that Medicine.


Before I finish this Discourse, I shall endeavour to give some Account
why People that have been cured by this Method, and have lived many
Years free from the Gout, at certain Times of the Year, particularly
upon Change of Weather, or at that Time of the Year when they used
to have the Fits, perceive some slight and obscure Pains about the
Joints of those Limbs that were formerly attacked. This I suppose to
arise from the Blood and Humours being thickned by the preternatural
Influence of the Air at those Seasons; if upon such a Cause the Humours
become thicker in the mucilaginous Glands, the Membranes must of course
be distended. Now because this doth not proceed from any particular
Acrimony, but from a Fullness and slight Distention, therefore the Pain
thence arising is hardly perceivable, and vanishes upon gentle Exercise
and walking, in which the Motion of the Blood is a little increased.

SECT. 2.

It is necessary in the next Place to propose and confute some
Objections of Persons who refuse this Diet as extremely noxious.
Altho’, _say they_, Persons have found great Benefit by strictly
adhering to this Diet, yet upon returning again to the Use of common
Food, however mild and gentle, they have been afflicted with the Gout
worse than ever. The Powers of the Body being weakned by this Diet,
have been less able to resist the Force of this Distemper, it hath
become more dangerous, and the Fits of longer Continuance. If we
may give Credit to Experience as well as Reason, we shall find this
Matter far otherwise, for it appears from what we have said, that
many Persons have not only been freed from the Gout in this Method,
but have likewise continued free many Years after they have left it
off; particularly the three Gentlemen now living at the _Hague_, the
Marquiss _de Bongi_, Monsieur _Chamar_, and the Counsellour _de Talo_.
It is observable, that having gone through the Diet, they returned
to different kinds of Food, and have now lived with their Friends
as usual without any Inconvenience for several Years, excepting the
Marquiss, who twice or thrice in the Compass of nine or ten Years
hath been afflicted with it, (probably owing to some Error in the
Non-Naturals;) it is no less reasonable to believe, that where the
Aliments are easier changed into good Chyle, and communicated to the
Blood in proper Quantities, better Spirits should be produced, and of
Consequence the Vigour of the Parts should be restored and augmented.
That this is natural to Milk, appears from common Experience in the
Diet of such as use chiefly Milk and Water, (as the Country People in
_Switzerland_) for they exceed those of other Countries and Places who
live upon Flesh-Meats, in the Largeness and Health of their Bodies, and
the Floridness of their Complections, and you shall seldom find any
among them subject to the Gout, the Scurvy, Hypochondriack, or other

SECT. 3.

If any object that gouty Persons, in the Beginning of the Diet, find
their Stomach and Limbs weakned by the Milk, so that they have need of
Stomachick and other strengthening Medicines, let it be remembred that
the Glands of the Stomach and Bowels in gouty Persons, that furnish
the Stomachick and intestinal Juices, are obstructed and furred with a
viscid kind of Matter, so that only the more subtile and liquid Fluids
can enter their Pores; hence the watry Part of the Milk, with very few
oily nutritious Particles, enter those Pores and Canals, so that the
Chyle becomes too watry, not being sufficiently impregnated with a
proper Quantity of oily Particles. This Chyle not being sufficiently
stored with nutritious Particles, being delivered into the Blood,
occasions a Languor and Weakness, while the thicker Parts of the Milk
go off with the Excrement. But after a while, when the watry Parts
of the Milk have frequently entered the Mass of the Blood, and have
resolved, imbibed and inverted the corrosive Salts that coagulate the
Humours, and expelled them by Perspiration or Urine; then by Degrees,
those Humours that are separated in the Glands, and serve to the
Concoction and Digestion of the Aliment, as the Spittle, the Juices
of the Stomach and Bowels, the Bile, the pancreatick Juice, become
thinner, and the Canals and Pores of those Glands are rendred fit, not
only to receive the watry Parts of the Milk, but the oily nutritious
Parts also, and of forming them into good and laudable Chyle. The
Reason why gouty People using their ordinary Aliment, retain more
Strength and Vigour, is this, not only the Pores of the Glands of the
Stomach and Bowels are by long use more apt to admit Particles from
their ordinary Food, but its Parts also are more thick and heavy, so
that the chylous Part is protruded by the Weight of the superincumbent
Particles. To this concurrs a particular Acrimony, by Means whereof
the Coats of the Stomach are vellicated, and exert a greater Force in
separating the Chyle, whereas Milk which presses more gently, does
not so easily enter Pores stuffed with viscid Humours, but rather
insinuates itself by Degrees in those Canals where it can find Passage.
If the Tone of the Bowels be in a natural State, and the first Passages
be not loaded with acid and viscid Humours, Milk from a natural
Affinity, is more easily converted into Chyle, and nourishes and
strengthens the Body more than any other Food, which takes more Time
in its Digestion, especially if some fine unfermented Wheaten Bread
be taken along with it; for by this Means the Parts of the Chyle are
rendred more heavy, and easily enter the lacteal Vessels, communicate
a solid Nourishment to the Body, and the Strength thereof is mightily
restored, without the least Hazard of any Damage.

SECT. 4.

Notwithstanding what I have endeavoured to prove, that gouty Persons,
after having been cured by this Method, may again return to their
common way of living, without fear of a Relapse; yet I do not deny but
it is an easy matter to bring on the Gout again, and that in a more
violent Manner than before, by great Errors in Diet, indulging in acid
Foods, smoaked Meats, and such as are flatulent and of bad Digestion;
too frequent drinking of acid and generous Wines; giving way to the
Passions of Anger and Sorrow, the use of Women, or being exposed to
the Inclemencies of the Air. No doubt these will return the Distemper
with great Violence, and bring the Patient into manifest danger. It is
absolutely necessary to chuse such Food as will give Chyle analogous to
Milk, and to avoid all Acid and Salt Food with the greatest Caution.
And although some People have indulged their Appetites after the Cure,
without any great Inconvenience, yet it is certainly more advisable
to live moderately, since too much Boldness is not always successful;
which the Patient will certainly be encouraged to do, upon recalling to
mind the terrible Pains he hath suffered, hardly relievable by any Art.

SECT. 5.

It may be enquired how it comes to pass, that a Person cured by this
Diet shall continue free from the Gout, though he return to his former
Method of living, provided he take every Morning a small Quantity of
warm Milk. The Reason of this I take to be, that the Milk, by long
Use, during the Time of the Cure, hath either changed or expelled all
the sharp Acrimony of the Blood and Humours, and rendred the Fibres and
Membranes more loose, so that there is an easier Circulation of the
Juices; new acid Salts are not so easily formed and thrown upon the
Membranes so as to occasion the Gout, especially if the Diet be of a
good Kind, and a certain Quantity of Milk taken every Morning, which
by its plentiful oily Parts, and soft serous ones, prevents the Salts
from uniting. I am sensible I may have omitted some Doubts that might
arise against the Use of this Diet, but whatever they be, they may
easily be answered from what was said before, and the Use thereof fully
cleared up; for lesser Difficulties, it is not worth while to spend
Time about them. I shall only add, that several People have expected
the Cure of the Gout in the Use of Gruels and Water. As to Water, it
is evident from Experience, as _Poterius_ and _Hoffman_ have observed,
that it is frequently serviceable in removing this Distemper. Since
gouty Persons are of a saline Constitution, there cannot be a better
drink used than pure light Water, that will make its way both by the
Skin and by Urine; for such drank freely drives forth the foreign
Salts, and makes the Juices fluid. I have seen Persons cured of the
Gout, whose Joints were contracting, by drinking only pure Spring Water
in large Quantities. The Case of a Man, who was a Cripple for nine
Years successively, from an ill cured Tertian, deserves Observation. He
drank of the Water of this Place, which is very wholesome and something
Vitriolick, for a Month together, sometimes to the Quantity of eight
Quarts; he made Urine plentifully, and came gradually to the Use of
his Hands and Feet; so that he could both walk and gripe any thing with
his Hands in a short Time, to the Admiration of all those who knew his
Condition before. From hence it appears, that large Quantities of Water
do no Mischief, but by the Pressure are most powerfully deobstruent. I
knew a gouty Gentleman who drank warm Beer with great Success in the
Gout; and the _Chinese_, who drink their Water warm, are not subject
to this Distemper. There are various Ways of removing Obstructions,
and tempering the Acrimony of the Juices, but we are very much in
doubt, whether by these Methods the very Cause of the Gout can be so
thoroughly extirpated and conveniently cured, as by the Use of Milk;
for Water drank in too great Quantities (as it is not endowed with any
nutritious Particles) weakens the Tone of the Bowels, and damps the
vital heat; though if it be used with Caution, in Distempers arising
from an Acrimony of the Juices, it is very often of great Efficacy.


BOOKS printed for _J. Smith_ and _W. Bruce_ on the _Blind-Key_ in
_Dublin_: And Sold by _J. Osborn_ and _T. Longman_, at the Ship and
Black Swan in _Pater-noster-Row, London_.

    1. An ESSAY on the TRADE and IMPROVEMENT of _IRELAND_. In two
    Parts. By _Arthur Dobbs_, Esq;

    considered. With REASONS humbly offered for the REPEAL of it.


_Preface, page 2. line 20. for ~two~, read ~too~_

_---- p. 5. l. 20. for ~-tempers~ r. ~-tances~_

_---- p. 34. l. 7. ~from the Bott.~ for ~Volatization~ r.

_Essay, p. 18. l. 4. for ~Miscecable~ r. ~Misceable~_

_---- p. 41. l. 22. for ~Quere~ r. ~Quære~_

_---- p. 44. l. 18. for ~Ainmal~ r. ~Animal~_

_---- p. 57. l. 17. for ~-tions are~ r. ~-tion is~_

_---- p. 61. l. 6. for ~a to~ r. ~to a~_

_---- p. 63. l. 8. for ~Defecation~ r. ~Defæcation~_

_---- p. 90. l. 15. for ~is~ r. ~are~_

_---- p. 99. l. 8. r. ~S. Hillario~_

_---- p. 102. l. 9. for ~on~ r. ~a~_

_---- p. 116. l. 3. for ~produe~ r. ~produce~_

_---- p. 119. l. ult. for ~Pills~ r. ~Peel~_

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Dolæus upon the cure of the gout by milk-diet - To which is prefixed, an essay upon diet" ***

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