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Title: Popular Official Guide to the New York Zoological Park (September 1915) - Thirteenth Edition
Author: Hornaday, William T. (William Temple)
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Popular Official Guide to the New York Zoological Park (September 1915) - Thirteenth Edition" ***

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    [Illustration: NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL PARK]

  Administration Bldg., 8                                         D 4
  Alaskan House, 32                                               H 3
  Alligator Pool, 36                                              H 4
  Antelope House, 50                                              J 3
  Bear Dens, 37                                                   H 5
  Beaver Pond, 29                                                 G 5
  Biological Laboratory, 28 A                                     G 4
  Bird House, Aquatic, 5                                          D 2
  Bird House, Large, 7                                            D 3
  Bison, 51                                                       J 5
  Boat House, 54                                                  M 6
  Buffalo Herd, 52                                                J 6
  Burrowing Animals, 42                                           I 3
  Cage, Flying, 4                                                 C 3
  Camel House, 39                                                 I 2
  Deer House, Small, 49                                           I 2
  Deer, American, 30                                              H 2
  Deer, Asiatic, 1                                              C-D 2
  Deer, Axis and Sika, 2                                          C 2
  Deer, Fallow, 53                                                K 4
  Deer, Red, 10                                                   D 2
  Duck Aviary, 3                                                  C 3
  Eagle and Vulture Aviary, 11                                    E 2
  Elephant House, 20                                              F 3
  Elk Range, 21                                                   G 2
  Feed Barn, 27                                                   G 3
  Flying Cage, 4                                                  C 3
  Fountain, Rockefeller, 13                                       D 4
  Fountains, Drinking,                                  D 2, H 2, M 7
  Fox Dens, 23                                                    G 2
  Lion House, 15                                                  E 3
  Llama House, 38                                                 I 2
  Lydig Arch, 47                                                  I 5
  Mammal House, Small, 35                                         H 3
  Mountain Sheep Hill, 44                                         I 4
  Musk Oxen, 48                                                   I 2
  Nursery, 18                                                     E 9
  Ostrich House, 43                                               I 3
  Otter Pools, 31                                                 H 2
  Pavilion, Shelter, 26                                           G 3
  Pheasant Aviary, 40                                             I 2
  Polar Bear Den, 37                                              H 5
  Prairie Dogs, 41                                                I 3
  Primate House, 17                                               E 4
  Puma and Lynx House, 33 A                                       H 3
  Raccoon’s Tree, 44 A                                            I 5
  Reptile House, 34                                               H 4
  Restaurant, 46                                                  I 5
  Riding Animals, 6                                               D 3
  Rocking Stone, 45                                               I 5
  Sea Lion Pool, 12                                               D 3
  Service Bldg., 28                                               H 4
  Soda Fount’s.                                        *D 2, G 3, H 4
  Subway Station                                                  O 6
  Toilets, W. M.,                        C 3, E 3, G 3, I 5, L 6, M 8
  Tortoise Yards                                                  H 4
  Totem Pole, 32                                                  H 3
  Turkeys, Wild, 33                                               H 3
  Wolf Dens, 22                                                   G 3
  Yak House, 55                                                   K 4
  Zebra Houses, 14                                                E 2

    [Illustration: PENINSULA BEAR: IVAN]



                         POPULAR OFFICIAL GUIDE
                                 TO THE
                        New York Zoological Park


                     By WILLIAM T. HORNADAY, Sc.D.
                      Director and General Curator

                    ILLUSTRATED BY ELWIN R. SANBORN

    [Illustration: New York Zoological Society]

                            GORILLA EDITION

                   WITH MAPS, PLANS AND ILLUSTRATIONS

                   THIRTEENTH EDITION—SEPTEMBER, 1915


                            PUBLISHED BY THE
                      NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY
                        11 WALL STREET, NEW YORK

                Only Authorized Guide    Price 25 Cents
                    COMPLETELY REVISED AND EXTENDED

              1st  Edition,   October,    1899—        5000
               2d      “      May,        1900—        5000
               3d      “      December,   1900—        5000
              4th      “      October,    1901—        3000
              5th      “      June,       1902—       10000
              6th      “         “        1903—       10000
              7th      “         “        1904—       15000
              8th      “         “        1906—        7000
              9th      “         “        1907—       30000
             10th      “      October,    1909—       30000
             11th      “      June,       1911—       30000
             12th      “         “        1913—       40000
             13th      “      September,  1915—       20000

 Copyright, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1906, 1907, 1909, 1911,
                             1913 and 1915.
                      NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY



                                PREFACE


The publication of this revised and extended edition of the Guide to the
Zoological Park is necessary in order to bring our most important
collections down to date. With the completion of the Zebra House and
Eagle Aviary, we are now able to offer a Guide Book to the Zoological
Park as practically finished.

The visitor is not to understand, however, that with the completion of
the features named above nothing more will remain to be done. An
institution of this kind never reaches a state of absolute completion,
with no further possibilities of improvement. But the building of
boundary walls, and the rebuilding of temporary entrances, are matters
of small moment in comparison with the completion of a grand series of
installations for animals, and buildings for public comfort.

Few indeed are the persons who know, or who ever will know, the extent
to which both the general design and the details of the Zoological Park
have been originated, and hammered out of the raw materials. From the
inception of the undertaking, the work of development has involved a
continuous struggle to meet new conditions. Although precedents and
models for things to be done were sought far and wide, in all save a
very few instances, our needs were so peculiar, and so different from
those of other zoological gardens and parks, we have found really very
little that we could copy. The abundant-room idea on which the
Zoological Park was founded, and our desire for the full utilization of
the works of nature, have from the first taxed the creative faculties of
the Society to the utmost.

It has been gratifying to find in other zoological establishments a
number of features which we could utilize here, thereby saving ourselves
something in the eternal grind of invention and experiment, and we have
gladly made prominent mention of such cases.

While it is possible to complete the equipment of animal installations
for a Zoological Park, and fill them with fine collections, the demand
for more animals is continuous. Our wild creatures are not immortal;
and, like human beings, they live out their allotted lives and pass
away. The great majority do not perpetuate themselves in captivity, and
the depleted ranks must be filled by new gifts and new purchases. Gifts
of specimens, and funds for purchases, must constantly be forthcoming.

In the acquisition of certain representative species of great variety
but particular desirability, the Society has been much favored by its
friends, both at home and abroad. Frequently it happens that the
greatest zoological rarities are obtainable only through the good will
and tireless industry of friends who travel into the most remote and
inaccessible regions of the earth. It is to such sources that we owe our
musk-ox herd, walrus, mountain goat herd, spectacled bear and many other
species.

The Executive Committee makes grateful acknowledgment of the loyal and
generous support it has constantly received from the Board of Managers,
the members of the Zoological Society, and from the Government of the
City of New York. Thanks to a judicious union of these forces, the
development of the Zoological Park has gone forward rapidly and
satisfactorily. Although the actual period of construction has been
remarkably short for so vast an undertaking, everything constructed is
of the most permanent character. It is only just to note the fact that
while the Zoological Park is an institution of national interest and
importance, and free to all the world, with the exception of a few gifts
of animals it has been created and is maintained wholly by the citizens
of the City of New York. The State has contributed nothing.

The Executive Committee.

JUNE 1, 1913.



                               CONTENTS.


                                                                    Page
  Statistics of the Zoological Park                                   10
  Officers of the Society                                             11
  Origin                                                              13
  Means of Access                                                     16
  Admission                                                           17
  Physical Aspect of the Grounds                                      21


                                 MAMMALS.
  Bison Ranges                                                        26
  Mountain Sheep Hill                                                 29
  Antelope House                                                      35
  Small-Deer House                                                    42
  Miscellaneous Mammals                                               49
  White Mountain Goat                                                 50
  Prong-Horned Antelope                                               51
  Camel House                                                         53
  Llama House                                                         55
  North American Deer                                                 57
  Zebra House                                                         63
  Asiatic and European Deer                                           66
  Lion House                                                          71
  Sea-Lions                                                           78
  Primate House                                                       80
  Elephant House                                                      89
  Wolf Dens                                                           98
  Fox Dens                                                           101
  Otter Pools                                                        103
  Small-Mammal House                                                 104
  Puma and Lynx House                                                115
  Burrowing Mammals                                                  116
  Prairie-Dog Village                                                118
  Bear Dens                                                          119
  Raccoon Tree                                                       128
  Beaver Pond                                                        128
  Economic Rodent-Reptile Collection                                 130


                                  BIRDS.
  Goose Aviary                                                       133
  Flying Cage                                                        135
  Aquatic-Bird House                                                 141
  Eagle and Vulture Aviary                                           143
  Wild Turkey Enclosure                                              146
  Large-Bird House                                                   146
  Wild Fowl Pond                                                     153
  Pheasant and Pigeon Aviary                                         155
  Ostrich House                                                      162
  Cranes                                                             167


                                REPTILES.
  Reptile House                                                      171
  Turtles and Tortoises                                              172
  Crocodiles and Alligators                                          175
  Lizards                                                            177
  Serpents                                                           179
  Batrachians or Amphibians                                          182


                                 INSECTS.
  Insect Collection                                                  185
  Index                                                              188


                                  MAPS.
  Map of Zoological Park                            Second page of cover
  Sketch Map, New York                                                14
  Sketch Map, Vicinity of Park                                        16



                             ILLUSTRATIONS.


  PAGE
  Peninsula Bear: Ivan                                    _Frontispiece_
  Baird Court and Concourse                                           12
  The Boat House                                                      18
  Boating on Bronx Lake                                               20
  White-Tailed Deer                                                   24
  American Bison                                                      26
  European Bison                                                      27
  White-Fronted Musk-Ox                                               30
  Big-Horn Mountain Sheep                                             30
  Mouflon                                                             32
  Arcal Sheep                                                         32
  Himalayan Tahr                                                      32
  Burrhel                                                             32
  Chamois                                                             33
  Markhor                                                             33
  Aoudad                                                              33
  Persian Wild Goat                                                   33
  Nilgai: Indian Antelope                                             36
  Nubian Giraffes                                                     38
  Beatrix Antelope                                                    40
  Blessbok                                                            40
  Leucoryx Antelope                                                   41
  White-Tailed Gnu                                                    41
  Eland                                                               42
  Sable Antelope                                                      43
  Redunca Antelope                                                    44
  Sasin Antelope                                                      46
  Great Gray Kangaroo                                                 48
  Rocky Mountain Goat                                                 49
  American Prong-Horned Antelope                                      52
  Bactrian Camel                                                      53
  Alpaca                                                              54
  Vicunia                                                             55
  American Elk                                                        58
  European Red Deer                                                   58
  Development of Antlers                                              61
  Grant Zebra                                                         64
  Prjevalsky Horses                                                   65
  Axis Deer                                                           68
  Burmese Deer                                                        69
  Jaguar                                                              72
  Cheetah                                                             73
  Barbary Lion                                                        74
  Snow Leopard                                                        75
  Atlantic Walrus                                                     79
  Chimpanzee, “Baldy”                                                 82
  Orang-Utan                                                          84
  Humboldt Woolly Monkey                                              85
  Japanese Red-Faced Monkey                                           88
  Pig-Tailed Macaque                                                  88
  Slow Lemur                                                          89
  Siamang                                                             89
  Elephant House                                                      90
  Indian Elephant                                                     92
  African Elephants                                                   93
  African Two-Horned Rhinoceros                                       94
  Indian Rhinoceros                                                   95
  Pygmy Hippopotami                                                   96
  Timber Wolf                                                         99
  Coyote: Prairie Wolf                                               100
  Swift or Kit Fox                                                   102
  Red Fox                                                            103
  Ocelot                                                             106
  Common Genet                                                       107
  African Porcupine                                                  111
  Tamandua                                                           112
  Great Ant-Eater                                                    113
  Six-Banded Armadillo                                               114
  Two-Toed Sloth                                                     115
  Polar Bear Den                                                     120
  Polar Bear “Silver King”                                           122
  Syrian Bear                                                        123
  Spectacled Bear                                                    126
  European Brown Bear                                                127
  Brazilian Tree Porcupine                                           131
  Mute and Trumpeter Swans                                           133
  Cereopsis Geese                                                    136
  White-Faced Glossy Ibis                                            137
  Roseate Spoonbill                                                  137
  Brown and White Pelicans                                           140
  Great Horned Owl                                                   142
  Spectacled Owl                                                     142
  Eared Vulture                                                      143
  Lammergeyer                                                        143
  King Vulture                                                       145
  Black Vulture                                                      145
  Harpy Eagle                                                        145
  Griffon Vulture                                                    145
  Wild Turkey                                                        147
  Seriema                                                            148
  Secretary Bird                                                     148
  Great Crowned Pigeon                                               150
  Sulphur Crested Cockatoo                                           151
  Toco Toucan                                                        151
  Ducks Feeding                                                      154
  Pheasant Aviary                                                    156
  Manchurian Eared Pheasant                                          158
  Indian Peacock                                                     159
  North African Ostrich                                              163
  Rhea                                                               164
  Cassowary                                                          164
  Emeus                                                              165
  Little Brown Crane                                                 167
  Demoiselle Crane                                                   167
  Asiatic White Crane                                                168
  Paradise Crane                                                     168
  Whooping Crane                                                     169
  Crowned Crane                                                      169
  Adjutant                                                           169
  Jabiru                                                             169
  Mastigure                                                          170
  Horned Rattlesnake                                                 170
  Hog-Nosed Snake                                                    170
  Gecko                                                              170
  Tree Frog                                                          170
  Giant Tortoise                                                     173
  Alligator Pool                                                     176
  Venezuelan Boa                                                     177
  Rhinoceros Viper                                                   180
  Cobra-De-Capello                                                   181
  Metamorphosis of the Leopard Frog                                  184
  Giant Centipede                                                    186
  Tarantula                                                          187
  Red-Winged Locust                                                  187
  Hercules Beetle                                                    187



                   STATISTICS OF THE ZOOLOGICAL PARK.


                              January, 1915.

  Final plan of the Zoological Park approved by Park Board, November
  22, 1897.
  Zoological Society assumed control of grounds, July 1, 1898.
  First building begun, August 11, 1898.
  Park formally opened to the public, November 9, 1899.
  Administration and Service Buildings                                 2
  Large Animal Buildings (all heated)                                 14
  Small Animal Buildings (4 heated)                                   10
  Large Groups of Outdoor Dens, Aviaries and Corrals                  13
  Animal Storehouses, for winter use                                   3
  Restaurants                                                          2
  Public-Comfort Buildings                                             6
  Entrances                                                            7
  Area of Park Land and Water                                  264 acres
  Area of Water                                                 30 acres
  Walks and Roads                                             7.78 miles
  Fences                                                     10.55 miles

                     LIVE ANIMALS IN THE COLLECTIONS.
                              January, 1915.

             Mammals       204 species,        586 specimens.
             Birds         811     “         2,753     “
             Reptiles      164     “         1,014     “
             Total       1,179               4,353

  Attendance of visitors in 1914                              2,020,433
  Total attendance of visitors from 1899 to Jan., 1915       19,325,590



                      NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY


                              _President_,
                        HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN.

              MADISON GRANT, _Secretary_, 11 Wall Street.
              PERCY R. PYNE, _Treasurer_, 30 Pine Street.

                          Executive Committee
                       MADISON GRANT, _Chairman_.
                             PERCY R. PYNE,
                          WATSON B. DICKERMAN,
                             SAMUEL THORNE,
                         WM. PIERSON HAMILTON,
                          WILLIAM WHITE NILES,
                           FRANK K. STURGIS,
                           LISPENARD STEWART,
                 HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN, _ex-officio_.

                             General Officers
                     WILLIAM T. HORNADAY, _Director_
  H. J. SHORTER                                    _Assistant Secretary_
  R. L. CERERO                                  _Assistant to Treasurer_
  DR. GEORGE S. HUNTINGTON                                   _Prosector_
  C. GRANT LA FARGE                                          _Architect_
  H. DeB. PARSONS                                  _Consulting Engineer_
                     Officers of the Zoological Park.
                        WILLIAM T. HORNADAY, Sc.D.
                     _Director and General Curator._
  H. R. MITCHELL                    _Chief Clerk and Disbursing Officer_
  R. L. DITMARS                      _Curator of Reptiles, Asst. Curator
                                                             of Mammals_
  C. WILLIAM BEEBE                                    _Curator of Birds_
  LEE S. CRANDALL                           _Assistant Curator of Birds_
  W. REID BLAIR, D.V.S.                                   _Veterinarian_
  H. W. MERKEL                          _Chief Forester and Constructor_
  ELWIN R. SANBORN                             _Editor and Photographer_
  GEORGE M. BEERBOWER                                   _Civil Engineer_
  WILLIAM MITCHELL                                             _Cashier_

    [Illustration: ITALIAN GARDEN, BAIRD COURT,
    The structure on the right is the Large Bird-House, and in the
    distance, the Lion House.]



                             GENERAL STATUS
                        OF THE ZOOLOGICAL PARK.


Origin.—The New York Zoological Park originated with the New York
Zoological Society, a scientific body incorporated in 1895, under a
special charter granted by the Legislature of the State of New York. The
declared objects of the Society are three in number—“A public Zoological
Park; the preservation of our native animals; the promotion of zoology.”
The Society has enrolled among its various classes over 2,000 members.

Henry Fairfield Osborn is the President of the Society. The affairs of
the Society are managed by a Board of Managers of thirty-six persons,
which meets three times each year. The planning and general development
of the Zoological Society is in the hands of an Executive Committee of
eight members, as follows: Madison Grant, Chairman; Percy R. Pyne,
Samuel Thorne, William White Niles, Watson B. Dickerman, Wm. Pierson
Hamilton, Frank K. Sturgis, Lispenard Stewart and Henry Fairfield
Osborn, _ex-officio_. Madison Grant, the Chairman of the Executive
Committee, is also Secretary of the Society, and his office is at No. 11
Wall Street. Dr. William T. Hornaday is the Director and General Curator
of the Zoological Park, and his office is now located in the
Administration Building on Baird Court. The address is 185th Street and
Southern Boulevard. The Society assumed control of the grounds on July
1, 1898, and began the first excavation, for the Bird House, on August
11th. The Park Department began work, on the Wild-Fowl Pond, on August
29, 1898.

Sources of Income.—The funds devoted to the development of the
Zoological Park have been derived from the following sources:

1. From the Zoological Society, obtained by subscriptions from private
citizens—funds for plans, for the erection of buildings, aviaries, dens
and other accommodations for animals; and for the purchase of animals.

2. From the City of New York—by vote of the Board of Estimate and
Apportionment—funds for the construction of walks, roads, sewers and
drainage, water supply, public comfort buildings, entrances, grading,
excavating of large ponds and lakes, annual maintenance, and also for
animal buildings.

    [Illustration: SKETCH MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ZOOLOGICAL PARK.]

The Zoological Society has expended, of its own funds, for plans,
construction and live animals, over $641,000. This sum has been derived
from its special subscription fund, and from the annual dues and fees of
its members.

Privileges.—Because of the fact that the Zoological Society has
undertaken to furnish all the animals for the Zoological Park, the City
of New York has agreed that all the revenue-producing privileges of the
Park shall be controlled by the Society. _All net profits_ derived from
the restaurants, boats, refreshments, riding animals, the sale of
photographs, books, etc., and all admission fees, are expended by the
Society _in the purchase of animals for the Park_. It is well that
visitors should know that _all net profits realized in the Park go
directly toward the increase of the animal collections_.

The Society maintains a supply of boats for hire, and riding animals of
various kinds for the amusement of children.

Location.—The Zoological Park is the geographical center of that portion
of Greater New York now known as Bronx County. From east to west it is
half-way between the Hudson River and Long Island Sound, and from north
to south it is midway between the mouth of the Harlem River and Mount
Vernon. From the City Hall to the Reptile House the distance is eleven
miles. The distance by automobile from the Central Park Plaza to the
Concourse Entrance is 9½ miles. The Northwest Entrance is about half a
mile from Fordham station on the Harlem Railway.

The area of the Park is 264 acres, divided as follows:

  Land area west of the Boston Road                        150  acres.
  Land area east of the Boston Road                         80     “
  Bronx Lake                                                25     “
  Lake Agassiz                                              5½     “
  Aquatic Mammals’ Pond, Cope Lake and Beaver Pond          3½     “
  Total area                                               264  acres.

    [Illustration: SKETCH MAP OF THE ZOOLOGICAL PARK AND VICINITY.]


                            MEANS OF ACCESS.

Via the Subway, to the Boston Road Entrance.—The terminus of the eastern
branch of the Subway, at “180th St., Zoological Park,” lands visitors at
the southeastern entrances to the Zoological Park, at West Farms.
Visitors from points below 96th Street must be careful to board the
“Bronx Park” trains, and not the “Broadway” trains.

Routes for Automobiles or Carriages.—Via Central Park, Lenox Avenue,
Macomb’s Dam Bridge and Jerome Avenue or Grand Concourse to Pelham
Avenue, thence eastward to the Concourse Entrance, where motor cars and
carriages are admitted to the Park.

Via the Third Avenue Elevated.—The Third Avenue Elevated Railway has
been extended to Bedford Park, and visitors coming to the Zoological
Park on it or on the Harlem Railroad should alight at Fordham Station,
from which the northwest entrance is half a mile distant, due eastward,
on Pelham Avenue, via the Union Railway surface cars.

Surface Cars.—The Southern Boulevard and the Zoological Park Cars of the
Union Railway now run to both the Crotona (Southwest) Entrance and the
Fordham Entrance. The Crosstown cars of the same line intersect the
Southern Boulevard three blocks south of the Crotona Entrance.


                               ADMISSION.

Free Admission.—On all holidays, and on Sunday, Tuesday, Wednesday,
Friday and Saturday, the Zoological Park is open free to the public.

Pay Admission.—On every Monday and Thursday, save when either of those
days falls on a holiday, all members of the Zoological Society who
surrender coupons from their membership tickets, and all other persons
holding tickets from the Society, will be admitted free. All other
persons seeking admission will be admitted on payment of twenty-five
cents for each adult, and fifteen cents for each child under twelve
years of age. Tickets are sold only at the entrance gates.

Holidays on Pay Days.—Whenever a legal holiday falls on a Monday or
Thursday, admission to the Park will be free on that day.

Hours for Opening and Closing.—From May 1st to November 1st the gates
will be opened at 9 A. M. daily, and closed half an hour before sunset.
From November 1st to May 1st the gates will open at 10 A. M.

Entrances, Walks, etc.—The portion of the Zoological Park situated west
of the Boston Road has been enclosed. Access to this area is provided by
six entrances, one situated at each corner—one on the Boston Road and
one at the bridge on Pelham Avenue. The latter is a carriage entrance
for visitors wishing to drive to the north end of Baird Court. From all
these entrances broad walks lead into the Park and through it, reaching
all the collections of animals now installed.

Carriage Roads.—The only wagon road which enters the central portion of
the Park now occupied by animals is the Service Road, which enters from
the Southern Boulevard, at 185th Street, and runs eastward, to the
Service Building, Reptile House, Bear Dens, and Rocking Stone
Restaurant.

_This road is for business purposes only_, and is not open for the
vehicles of visitors. It is utterly impossible to admit carriages to the
_center_ of the Park, save those of officers entering on business, and
_visitors must not ask for exceptions to this very necessary rule_.

Automobile and Carriage Entrance.—A fine public carriage road and
concourse, leading from Pelham Avenue Bridge and to the upper end of
Baird Court, was completed in 1908. This drive is open to carriages or
motors, daily, and it affords easy access to the most important group of
buildings. It is subject to the same regulations as all other entrances,
except that carriages and automobiles are admitted.

    [Illustration: THE BOAT HOUSE, BRONX LAKE.]

The Boston Road, which runs through the Park from south to north, near
the western bank of the Bronx Lake, is open at all hours. It has
recently—and for the first time—been finely improved by the Park
Department for the Borough of the Bronx, and a drive through it affords
a fine view of the eastern side of the Buffalo Range, and the finest
portion of the heavy forest of the Zoological Park.

As a matter of course, the ranges of the buffalo, antelope, deer, moose,
and elk, are in full view from the Kingsbridge Road and Southern
Boulevard, and the Zoological Society has planned that the view from
those avenues shall be left open sufficiently that the herds may be seen
to good advantage.

The Rocking Stone Restaurant, No. 46, has been designed to serve all the
purposes that its name implies. It contains dining-rooms in which full
meals may be obtained, lunch-rooms wherein choice food will be served at
popular prices, and in the basement, toilet-rooms will be found.

The Service Building, No. 28.—Near the Reptile House, and at the
geographical center of the enclosed grounds, is situated a building
which contains the Bureau of Administration of the Zoological Park. Here
will be found the offices of the Chief Clerk, several other Park
officers, and the workshops and storerooms.

Children lost in the Park, and property lost or found, should be
reported without delay at the Chief Clerk’s office in this building. The
telephone call of the Zoological Park is 953 Tremont.

Wheeled Chairs.—By persons desiring them, wheeled chairs can always be
obtained at the entrances, by applying to gatekeepers, or at the office
of the Chief Clerk, in the Service Building. The cost is 25 cents per
hour; with an attendant, 50 cents per hour.

Arrangement of Collections.—Inasmuch as the physical features of the
Zoological Park grounds were important factors in locating the various
collections of animals, a perfect zoological arrangement was impossible.
The existing plan represents the limit of acceptable possibilities in
grouping related animals.

    [Illustration: BOATING ON BRONX LAKE.]

The entire southern and western sides of the Park are exclusively
devoted to the Hoofed Animals, in addition to which other members of
that Order will be found at the Elephant and Small-Mammal Houses. The
Carnivorous Animals will be found at the Lion House, Wolf and Fox Dens,
Small-Mammal House and Bear Dens. The Birds are in two groups; one in
the lower end of Bird Valley, and the Large Bird-House on Baird Court;
the other around the Wild-Fowl Pond, south of the Wolf Dens.

The existence of six entrances to the Park renders it impossible to lay
out an all-embracing “tour” for the visitor, and develop the Guide Book
accordingly. The various collections will be handled in zoological
groups, but the various groups cannot follow each other in zoological
sequence. The table of contents and a comprehensive index will render
each item of the subject matter quickly available.


                    PHYSICAL ASPECT OF THE GROUNDS.

The extreme length of the Park from north to south is 4,950 feet, or 330
feet less than one mile; and its extreme width is 3,120 feet, or
three-fifths of a mile. Roughly estimated, one-third of the land area is
covered by heavy forest, one-third by open forest, and the remaining
third consists of open meadows and glades. The highest point of land in
the Park is the crest of Rocking Stone Hill, the elevation of which is
94.8 feet above sea level.

Topography.—Speaking broadly, the Zoological Park is composed of granite
ridges running from north to south. In many places their crests have
been denuded of earth by the great glacier which once pushed its edge as
far south as New York City. In the valleys lying between these
glacier-scraped ridges, great quantities of sandy, micaceous soil have
been deposited; but in one spot—the Wild-Fowl Pond—what was once a
green, glacial lake fifteen feet deep, presently became a vast
rock-walled silo filled with vegetable matter and a trembling bog of
peat. Everywhere in the Park glacial boulders of rough granite or
smoothly rounded trap-rock, varying in size from a cobble-stone to the
thirty-ton Rocking Stone, have been dropped just where the warm southern
sun freed them from the ice. The Park contains thousands of them, many
of which have been removed from walks and building sites only with great
labor.

In three of the four principal valleys of the Park, bogs have been
converted into ponds, and in the largest and deepest of all lie Bronx
Lake and Lake Agassiz. The bed-rock underlying or cropping out in the
Park exhibits pink granite, gray granite, rotten gneiss, and quartz in
bewildering variety. Occasionally in trench-digging a ledge is
encountered which yields good building-stone for rough work, but usually
our rock is so full of mica as to be worthless.

The water-levels in the various portions of the Park are as follows:

                                        Above Sea Level.

  Surface of Bronx Lake                      20.40  feet
  Surface of Lake Agassiz                    31.70    “
  Surface of Cope Lake and Duck Ponds        47.00    “
  Surface of Wild-Fowl Pond                  65.00    “
  Surface of Beaver Pond                     44.00    “

The floor levels of some of the important buildings are as follows:

                                        Above Sea Level.

  Of the Antelope House                         88  feet
  Of the Reptile House                          78    “
  Of the Lion House                             64    “
  Of the Aquatic-Bird House                     57    “

Soil.—The soil varies from rich black muck in the valleys, to light and
very dry soil, full of mica and sand, on the ridges and meadows. Where
not packed hard, the latter is very porous, and the heaviest rainfall is
quickly absorbed, or carried away on the surface. As a result, the
valleys are always moist and rich in grass, and the slopes and ridges
are always dry and warm.

Streams and Ponds.—The Zoological Park contains about 34 acres of still
water, of which Bronx Lake comprises 25 acres, Lake Agassiz 5½ acres,
Cope Lake, the Wild-Fowl Pond, and Beaver Pond together, about 3½ acres.
The two larger lakes are fed by the Bronx River, which drains a valley
about 15 miles long. Even in the driest seasons the volume of water
carried down by the Bronx River is sufficient to keep the lakes well
filled. The areas of still water available for animal collections are
very generous for an institution like this, and are highly prized.

The Waterfall.—At the lower end of Lake Agassiz, and about 300 feet
above the Boston Road Bridge, is a natural waterfall nearly 12 feet in
height, where the Bronx River falls over a rugged ledge of pink granite.
In times of high water the foaming flood that thunders over the rocks
makes an imposing spectacle, and it constitutes a most unusual feature
to be found in a city park. During the year 1901, an improvement was
made which added very greatly to the beauty of this feature by extending
the rock ledge about 200 feet farther, to the rocky side of Wilson Hill,
thereby greatly increasing the water area of Lake Agassiz, and at the
same time forming a beautiful island.

Forests.—The crowning glory of the Zoological Park is the magnificent
forest growth which covers, thickly or sparsely, about two-thirds of its
land area. It consists chiefly of white, scarlet, black, red and pin
oaks, tulip, sweet gum, hickory, beech, sassafras, maple, wild cherry,
hornbeam, dogwood, tupelo, hemlock and cedar; but there are at least
thirty other species of trees and shrubs. Thanks to the wise foresight
and broad views of David and Philip Lydig, who for about eighty years
were the sole owners of nearly the whole of the Zoological Park site,
the virgin forest was not cut down for firewood or lumber, but was
carefully preserved for posterity. As the legal custodian of this
splendid domain of Nature, the Zoological Society is as rapidly as
possible going over the entire forest, to arrest decay and death, and
take all needed measures for the preservation of the trees. It is safe
to say that nowhere else within fifty miles of New York can there be
found any more beautiful forests than those in the central and eastern
portions of the Park. Throughout the enclosed grounds, it is absolutely
necessary that visitors should be restricted to the walks; for otherwise
the feet of our millions of visitors would quickly destroy every ground
plant.

The Rocking Stone, No. 45, a colossal cube of pinkish granite, poised on
one of its angles on a smooth pedestal of rock, is the Zoological Park’s
most interesting souvenir of the glacial epoch. Across the bare face of
the rocky hill in which lies the Crocodile Pool, there are several
glacial scratches pointing directly toward the famous boulder; and who
will say it had no part in making one of them?

The Rocking Stone stands on a smooth table of granite on the southern
shoulder of the hill overlooking the Buffalo Range. Its extreme height
is 7 feet 6 inches; breadth, 10 feet 1 inch; thickness, 8 feet 1 inch,
and its weight, as roughly calculated, is 30 tons. A pressure of about
50 lbs. exerted on the most northern angle of the stone causes its apex
to swing north and south about two inches.

    [Illustration: WHITE TAILED DEER.]



                        SECTION I.—THE MAMMALS.


                          The Hoofed Animals.

The forming of a collection which shall fairly represent the hoofed
animals of the world is necessarily a work of years. It is now (in 1915)
fifteen years since the Zoological Society entered upon this task, and
during that period the work of providing installations and living
specimens has been pursued with unflagging industry. In no feature of
our development has the Society been more liberal than in the purchase
of specimens for this collection, and the gifts to it have been both
numerous and valuable. In our 82 species and 330 specimens we feel that
the Order _Ungulata_ is strongly represented. On April 1, 1913, the
summary of groups stood as follows:

                       Summary of the Ungulates.

  Deer                              24  species      164   specimens
  Giraffes                           1     “           2       “
  Bovines: Bison, etc.               3     “          38       “
  Musk Ox                            1     “           6       “
  Wild Sheep, Goats, etc.            8     “          41       “
  Antelopes                         22     “          41       “
  Hippopotamus                       2     “           4       “
  Wild Swine                         3     “           5       “
  Camels and Cameloids               5     “          10       “
  Rhinoceros                         2     “           2       “
  Tapirs                             2     “           3       “
  Wild Equines                       6     “           9       “
  Elephants                          3     “           5       “
  Total                             82     “         330       “

The arrangement of this section of the Guide Book begins at the Buffalo
Entrance with the Bisons, and follows the ranges, corrals and buildings
for Hoofed Animals, along the southern and western sides of the Park, to
the Axis Deer Range. The Elephant House is introduced as the visitor
leaves Baird Court, going south.

The large, open pastures are called “ranges,” and the smaller fenced
enclosures are known as “corrals.” The fences are chiefly of hard steel
wire, so strong and elastic that the animals cannot break through them.

    [Illustration: AMERICAN BISON: BULL.]

Warning.—Visitors must _never_ stand close beside a wire fence or gate,
because its elasticity between posts might enable a charging animal to
strike a person so standing and inflict a serious injury, even though
the fence or gate is not in the least affected by the blow.


                   THE BISON RANGES, Nos. 51 and 52.

Stretching from the Boston Road to the large Antelope House (No. 50),
and from the Rocking Stone to the southern boundary, lies an open
expanse of rolling meadow land, with a total area of about twenty acres.
It is almost surrounded by shade-trees. Its easterly edge is a low-lying
strip of rich meadow, which lies under the shelter of the rocky,
tree-covered ridge that forms the natural retaining wall of the higher
plateau toward the west. This is the Bison Range. It is the first
enclosure seen on the left as the visitor enters the Park from West
Farms by way of the Boston Road.

On the north side of the main range, near the Rocking Stone, are the
four corrals, and the Bison House. The latter is a rustic hillside barn,
eighty feet in length, with a semicircular front, affording shelter and
feed storage for thirty-four buffaloes. The flat roof of the Buffalo
House is open to the public from the main walk, and has been specially
designed as a convenient lookout over the main range and corrals. There
are other corrals, and a shelter shed, at the Buffalo Entrance.

    [Illustration: EUROPEAN BISON: BULL.]

The American Bison, or Buffalo, (_B. americanus_), is the largest and
the best known of all North American hoofed animals. What was once the
universal herd, which occupied the whole pasture region of the West, was
cut in twain in 1867, by the building of the first trans-continental
railway. The great “southern herd,” of several millions of animals, was
destroyed by skin hunters during the years 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874,
and the practical extinction of the northern herd was accomplished
between 1880 and 1884.

At present there are but two herds of wild bison in existence. The
largest band, now containing by estimate about 300 individuals, inhabits
a wide stretch of barren and inhospitable territory southwest of Great
Slave Lake. About twenty head remain in the Yellowstone Park, more than
nine-tenths of the original herd having been slaughtered by poachers
since 1890. There are now about 2000 bison alive in captivity, chiefly
in large private game preserves.

Usually bison calves are born in May, June, and July. Full maturity is
not reached until the end of the seventh year, when the horns of the
male—at first a straight spike—have attained their full semi-circular
curve. Like all thick-haired animals of the temperate zone, the American
bison sheds its coat in spring, and does not regain full pelage until
October or November.

The bison breeds in confinement about as readily as domestic cattle. In
appearance, it is the most imposing of all bovine animals, and with two
exceptions it is also the largest. In captivity its disposition is mild,
though inclined to stubbornness. Occasionally, however, an old bull
becomes so vicious that it is necessary to seclude him from the herd,
and treat him as a dangerous animal.

With the exception of a very few individuals, our entire bison herd is
the gift of the late William C. Whitney, and the increase therefrom. The
total number of head on hand on April 1, 1913, was forty-two.

In 1906, the New York Zoological Society presented to the United States
Government a herd of fifteen bison to serve as a nucleus for an
independent National herd. The Government very promptly fenced an area
of twelve square miles of fine grazing grounds in the Wichita Forest and
Game Reserve, for the proper reception of the herd. The plan was
consummated during 1907. The effort has proven completely successful,
and on April 1, 1913, the herd contained thirty-seven bison, all in fine
condition.

European Bison.—In a corral adjoining the Buffalo Entrance, on the
Boston Road, are to be found two specimens of the rare and almost
extinct European Bison, (_Bos bonasus_). This species is the nearest
living relative of the American bison, and the two specimens (male and
female), now exhibited, came quite unexpectedly into the possession of
the Zoological Society in April, 1904. They were acquired from the small
captive herd in the forest of the Prince of Pless, in Silesia,
south-eastern Germany, and are the first living specimens of the species
to be exhibited in America. They were presented to the Society by Mr.
Norman James, of Baltimore, Mr. Charles Sheldon and Dr. Leonard J.
Sanford.

The distinguishing characters of this species are shorter and less
abundant hair on the head, neck and shoulders than our bison, a tail
densely covered with hair throughout its length, very long legs, and a
short body.

But for royal protection, this species would long ere this have become
extinct. In the year 1857, about 1,898 head were living, but in 1892 the
total had decreased to 491. It appears, however, that an increase can
safely be announced. An estimate recently published (1906) places the
total number of wild and semi-wild individuals at 1,400, while in the
captive herds of the Czar and the Prince of Pless there are 46 more.
About 700 of the survivors inhabit the forests of Bielowitza and
Swisslotsch, Lithuania, west Russia, and are strictly protected by the
Czar. Other bands still exist on the northern slope of the Caucasus
Mountains around the sources of the Laba and Bjellaja, sometimes ranging
up to an elevation of 8,000 feet. Wherever found, they live in scattered
bands of from three to ten individuals. All the survivors of this
species are so jealously guarded that very few of the zoological gardens
of Europe have been able to procure specimens.

This animal is very often miscalled the “aurochs,” and from this error
much confusion has arisen. The true aurochs, (_Bos primigenius_), was
the wild progenitor of some of the existing breeds of domestic cattle,
but it is now extinct.


                      MOUNTAIN SHEEP HILL, No. 44.

The wild sheep and goats of the world form an exceedingly interesting
group of animals. In form they are odd and picturesque, and in temper
and mentality they are everything that could be desired. All the year
round, deer are either nervous or dangerous, and difficult to handle.
Wild sheep, goats and ibex appreciate man’s interest in them, and even
when not fond of attention, they act sensibly when it is necessary to
handle them.

The Zoological Park collection of wild sheep and goats is one of the
most interesting features of the Park. Mountain Sheep Hill is the first
high ridge west of the Rocking Stone, and its northern end is very near
the Bear Dens and Reptile House. It consists of a ridge of pink granite
500 feet long and 25 feet high, its southern end fully exposed, but the
northern end well shaded by oaks and cedars. For grazing animals that
love to climb, and pose on the sky line, the slopes of bare rock, set in
patches of hard, green turf, are almost ideal. In the eastern face of
the ridge, rock excavations have been made, and five roomy caves have
been constructed in such a manner that they are cool in summer, warm in
winter, and dry at all times. On April 1, 1913, the six wire enclosures
on Mountain Sheep Hill contained the following species:

    [Illustration: WHITE-FRONTED MUSK-OX.]

    [Illustration: BIG-HORN MOUNTAIN SHEEP RAM.]


  Suleiman Markhor.
  Arcal Mountain Sheep.
  Mouflon.
  Persian Wild Goat.
  Himalayan Tahr.
  Aoudad.


Because of the curious (and unaccountable) fact that they do not thrive
on Mountain Sheep Hill, the Rocky Mountain Goat and Chamois are
exhibited elsewhere. The former will be found near the Pheasant Aviary,
next to the Musk-ox.

Visitors are requested to make note of the fact that _in winter_, the
_Arcal Sheep, Mouflon, and other delicate sheep are exhibited in the
Small-Deer House_.

The White-Fronted Musk-Ox, (_Ovibos wardi_, Lydekker), is represented in
the Park by a herd of six specimens. Five of these animals were born in
May, 1910, in Ellesmere Land, and captured in that year by Paul J.
Rainey and Harry C. Whitney, and presented by Mr. Rainey. The sixth
individual, a vigorous and rather vicious female, was born on Melville
Island, in May, 1909, and captured by Captain Joseph Bernier. Owing to
the domineering temper of “Miss Melville,” it is not possible to keep
her with the animals a year younger than herself, because she resents
their presence in her corral.

The Musk-Ox is an animal of strange form, inhabiting a small portion of
the Arctic regions of the western hemisphere, up to the very
northernmost points of land east of the Mackenzie River. At Fort Conger
(Latitude 81°, 40′), its flesh was a godsend to General Greely, and
later on to Commander Peary, also. Structurally, this animal stands in a
genus of its own (_Ovibos_), midway between the cattle and the sheep,
but it is unqualifiedly a misnomer to call it a “musk-sheep.”

An adult male Musk-Ox stands 4 ft. 5 in. high at the shoulders and is 6
ft. 7 in. in total length. Our first specimen was a female, two years
old. She stood 3 ft. 2 in. high at the shoulders, and was 4 ft. 10 in.
in total length. Her entire body was covered by a dense mass of fine
light brown hair, of a woolly nature, overlaid by a thatch of very long,
straight hair specially designed to shed rain.

The Musk-Ox inhabits the Barren Grounds of northern Canada north of
Latitude 64° from Great Bear Lake to Hudson Bay, Grant Land, and the
northeast coast of Greenland from Franz Josef Fiord (Latitude 70°) to
the most northerly point of land. About twenty living specimens have
been taken when very young at Franz Josef Fiord, by Swedish and
Norwegian whaling parties. The Peary Arctic Club, of New York, presented
to the New York Zoological Society a young calf which was captured by
Commander Peary at Fort Conger, in 1902, but it lived only a few months.

    [Illustration: MOUFLON]

    [Illustration: ARCAL SHEEP]

    [Illustration: HIMALAYAN TAHR]

    [Illustration: BURRHEL]

The Big-Horn Mountain Sheep, (_Ovis canadensis_), is exhibited in the
Zoological Park, whenever it may be obtained. The efforts that have been
made in New York, Philadelphia, Washington and Chicago to acclimatize
the Big-Horn of the Rocky Mountains have proven the extreme difficulty
involved in keeping specimens of that species alive and in good
condition anywhere in the Mississippi Valley, or on the Atlantic coast.
The changes of atmosphere and temperature seem more violent than
American mountain sheep are fitted by nature to endure, and thus far all
specimens tried have died within a comparatively few months.

    [Illustration: CHAMOIS]

    [Illustration: MARKHOR]

In his own country, the Rocky Mountain Big-Horn is a bold, hardy and
robust animal. He is high-headed, keen-sighted, and a sure-footed
mountaineer. He dwells in the wildest and most picturesque country that
he can find between the “bad-lands” of western North Dakota and the line
of perpetual snow on the Rockies. His massive circling horns render his
head a much-coveted trophy, and his flesh is most excellent food. A
full-grown ram (_Ovis canadensis_) stands 41 inches in height at the
shoulders, and weighs 316 pounds.

    [Illustration: AOUDAD]

    [Illustration: PERSIAN WILD GOAT]

This species ranges from the northern states of Mexico to northern
British Columbia and it culminates (i. e., reaches its finest
development) in southeastern British Columbia. In Northwest Alaska other
related species occur. A female specimen from southeastern British
Columbia was exhibited in the Zoological Park during 1905 and 1906, and
in 1902, a male specimen of a closely related species (_Ovis nelsoni_)
was also here.

As opportunities offer to procure male specimens, that have been kept in
their home region until they are at least a year and a half old, they
will be purchased and exhibited.

The Mouflon, (_Ovis musimon_), or Wild Sheep of Sardinia, is represented
by a fine pair of specimens presented by Maurice Egerton, Esq., of
London, and a young male born in the Park. The female of the adult pair
was captured when a lamb in the mountains of Sardinia by Mr. Egerton.
The ram of this species is handsomely colored, and this specimen is
noted for his friendliness, and his fondness for admiration.

The Arcal Mountain Sheep, (_Ovis cycloceros_), is one of the smallest
mountain sheep of India of the “big-horn” type (with circling horns).
The fully adult male, with its long undermane of coarse, shaggy hair and
proud postures, is a very noteworthy creature. This species inhabits the
mountains of northern India, Tibet, Afghanistan, Beluchistan and
southern Persia.

The Burrhel, or Blue Mountain Sheep, (_Ovis burrhel_), also of northern
India, is of quite a different mould from the preceding species. Its
countenance has almost a benign expression, and its curious out-pointing
horns, of large size give it a most jaunty air. By some it is regarded
as the most beautiful of all mountain sheep. In size, however, it is not
imposing, for it is one of the smallest species. It is not so hardy as
the preceding species, and there may be periods when there are no
specimens on exhibition.

The Aoudad, or Barbary Wild Sheep, (_Ovis tragelaphus_), comes from the
hot, dry mountains of northern Africa, and it endures the cold, wet
climate of New York in a manner sufficient to put to shame our American
mountain sheep, goat and other western ruminants. The largest male
Aoudad of our herd is a very fine specimen of its kind. He is as fond of
admiration as any peacock, and often poses in striking attitudes on the
highest point of his rocks. He was born here on March 19, 1902.

The Himalayan Tahr, (_Hemitragus jemlaicus_), is really a wild goat, of
very odd and picturesque aspect, native of the higher ranges of the
Himalayas of northern India. Its horns are short and thick, and its body
is covered with long, purplish-brown hair which is much blown about by
the wind. It dwells amongst the most dangerous crags and precipices,
just below timber-line, and in reality is a forest-loving animal. Its
hair is the longest to be found on any member of the two subfamilies of
goats and goat-like animals. The pair on exhibition have bred here, and
the young have been successfully reared to maturity. The young Tahr is
very small, but remarkably nimble-footed and capable.

The Chamois, (_Rupicapra tragus_), has usually been represented in the
hoofed-animal collection, but always out of its proper installation. Our
individuals have not thriven on Mountain Sheep Hill, always becoming ill
soon after being placed there. They thrive well, however, in a small
wire pen with a sanded floor quite near the Puma and Lynx House (No.
33A), and there we keep them.

This animal is one of the rock antelopes, and is related to the American
Mountain Goat. It is a bold mountaineer, and even to-day is pictorially
represented as leaping “from crag to crag” across chasms apparently 200
feet wide! Its home is in the mountains of southern Europe, especially
the Pyrenees, the Swiss Alps and the Caucasus Mountains. But it is not
so exclusively a crag-dweller, as most persons have been led to suppose,
for in many localities it inhabits mountain forests. Like most other
mountain ungulates, the Chamois dwell high in summer, and in winter they
seek lower and more sheltered situations. They are exceedingly wary and
agile, and sure-footed on dangerous ground.


                      THE ANTELOPE HOUSE, NO. 50.

The Antelope House occupies a commanding situation on a high,
tree-covered knoll at the south end of the Zoological Park. The
situation seems as if specially formed by Nature to be occupied by this
building, and its outside enclosures. The drainage is quite perfect, and
the yards are well-shaded.

The building has been designed to meet the wants of giraffes and large
African antelopes of all kinds, more especially those which require 60°
of heat in winter.

    [Illustration: NILGAI: INDIAN ANTELOPE.]

The Antelope House is 142 feet long by 78 feet in extreme width. In
architectural style it conforms with the other large animal buildings of
the Park. Both for visitors and for its animals, it is roomy and well
lighted, and in every way fitted to house and display a large and
valuable collection of tropical hoofed animals. It contains 24 interior
compartments, directly connected with 23 open-air yards for use in mild
weather. This building was completed and occupied on October 17, 1903,
and with all its surrounding improvements has cost about $80,000.

As the visitor will observe from the following enumeration of species,
our collection of large and rare African and Asiatic antelopes is very
rich. Unfortunately, until the completion of the Zebra House releases
the apartments now occupied by the equines, a number of species which
belong in the Antelope House must temporarily be quartered elsewhere.

The Nubian or Three-Horned Giraffes, (_Giraffa camelopardalis_), are at
present the most important and interesting animals in the building. The
pair came from German East Africa, are now (April, 1913) about twelve
years old, and cost $5,500. The male stands 14 feet 4 inches in height,
and the female 12 feet 6 inches. Both are good-tempered animals, and
have been in good health ever since their arrival. Their food consists
of clover hay, broken forage-biscuits, an assortment of raw vegetables
carefully cut into small pieces, a small quantity of bran, and rock
salt.

A study of the Giraffes reveals most interesting conditions. According
to the point of view, the total number of species and subspecies may be
reckoned at any number from three to six, inclusive. According to the
specimens in hand, the Southern, or Two-Horned Giraffe, (_Giraffa
capensis_), seems clearly defined from the Northern, or Three-Horned
Giraffe, (_G. camelopardalis_). Next, the Somali Giraffe, (_G.
reticulata_), of the Lake Rudolph region and northern British East
Africa, seems fairly separable. At first the Five-Horned Giraffe, of
western Uganda, seemed quite distinct, but now British naturalists
hesitate about according to it rank as a separate species, because of
its intergradation with the Nubian form, (_camelopardalis_).

Judging from all evidence now available, it seems that the Giraffes of
to-day represent the midway stage of an effort to develop several
species from the parent stock, the Three-Horned Giraffe, which is the
species here represented. The existing forms, including all species and
subspecies, intergrade and run together in a manner that is fairly
bewildering; but if the Giraffes could remain uninfluenced by man for a
sufficiently long period the probabilities are that the species now
branching off would be clearly established.

The oldest, the best-known and the most common Giraffe is the
three-horned species, found from central Uganda southward. The
five-horned variety meets the former in Uganda, and occurs from that
region westward to the edge of the great equatorial forest, and on
westward even to Lake Tchad, and the lower Niger Valley. Excepting in
Uganda, Kahma’s country, and a few other protected districts, the
Giraffe is now rare, particularly throughout the regions that are
accessible to hunters. Thousands of these wonderful creatures have been
killed by hunters, both white and black, solely for the sake of seeing
them dead, and leaving them as prey to the hyænas and hunting-dogs. It
seems to be beyond the power of most men who can shoot to see living
wild animals, no matter how large or wonderful, without desiring to
reduce them to carcasses, fit only for scavengers.

    [Illustration: NUBIAN GIRAFFES.]

The Eland, (_Taurotragus oryx_), is the largest and most imposing of all
antelopes. As might be inferred from its great size, it is now so nearly
extinct that it has almost disappeared from the lists of dealers in wild
animals. The fine young pair now in the Antelope House was presented by
the Duke of Bedford, from his famous animal collection at Woburn Park.
The fully adult female is the gift of Mr. C. Ledyard Blair.

Of Elands there are two well-marked species. That of eastern and
southern Africa, here represented, was once numerous on many of the
fertile plains of the great plateau now known as Rhodesia, and in fact
throughout nearly the whole of the uplands of eastern Africa, from the
Cape to the Sahara. Unfortunately, however, white hunters and modern
firearms have reduced the countless thousands of the great herds to
numbers so small that the capture and exportation of Elands have
practically ceased.

Although a number of Elands have been born in captivity, the number on
public exhibition still remain very small. The only captive herd known
to the writer is that of the Duke of Bedford, in Woburn Park, England,
which is at once the admiration and envy of all collectors of living
wild animals.

The White-Tailed Gnu, (_Connochaetes gnu_), once was abundant in South
Africa, south of the Vaal River. But it has shared the fate of all the
other large mammals of that region, and only a few scattered bands still
exist. Nearly all of the specimens now living in captivity were born in
captivity, for both species of Gnu take kindly to life in parks and
gardens.

Every way considered, the Gnu is an animal of odd and remarkable form.
It has a nose of strange shape, its horns are curiously formed, the hair
on its head and neck exhibits various peculiarities, and its hips are
oddly modeled. Its long, flowing tail is so horse-like that for many
years this animal was pictured and popularly known as the “Horned
Horse.”

The White-Bearded Gnu, (_Connochaetes albojubatus_), is noticeably
larger than the white-tailed species, and in some respects it presents a
finer appearance. Its bulk is considerably greater, and its color is
more pleasing. This species bears a strong resemblance to the third
species, which is known as the Brindled or Blue Gnu, (_Connochaetes
taurinus_), from which the former is distinguished by its white mane and
jaw-tufts, and generally paler color. At wide intervals the
White-Bearded species inhabits southern East Africa, from about S. Lat.
23°, to the Albert Nyanza and Lake Rudolph, but chiefly near the coast.
In only one locality do we learn of its occurrence west of the 30th
meridian. To-day it is most numerous in German East Africa and the
southern portions of Uganda.

The Addax Antelope, (_Addax naso-maculatus_), is a spiral-horned
antelope which inhabits the southern edge of the Sahara Desert from
Dongola quite across Africa to Senegal. Its extremely broad and
spreading hoofs betoken a dweller upon sand, and are strongly suggestive
of the snow-shoe hoofs of the caribou. It is said that this animal is
not to be taken without making a journey into the desert, with camels.

The Leucoryx Antelope, (_Oryx leucoryx_), is the only member of its
genus which has curved horns. Because of the length and very slight
curvature of the horns, this species has by some writers been spoken of
as the Sabre Antelope, and by a mischievous perversion that name has
been turned into “Sable” Antelope, which refers to a totally different
creature, (_Hippotragus niger_). Anyone who places an order for the
purchase of a real Sable Antelope, and receives a Leucoryx instead of
_Hippotragus niger_, is profoundly disappointed.

This species is a desert habitant, and its home is the desert region of
North Africa from Dongola to the Senegal country. It is breeding
regularly here, and the offspring mature successfully. The largest
Leucoryx horns on record measure 39⅝ inches.

    [Illustration: BEATRIX ANTELOPE]

    [Illustration: BLESSBOK]

The Beisa Antelope, (_Oryx beisa_), is a good representative of the
group of straight-horned antelopes found in the genus _Oryx_. Of all the
long-horned species, the two Beisas and the Gemsbok of Africa, and the
Beatrix of Arabia, are the only species possessed of horns that are
practically straight from base to tip. The Gemsbok is the largest and
most showy species, being painted like a harlequin, in a startling
pattern of roan, black and white. The Beisa is a good second, however.
The horns of all these antelopes grow to great length, and are excellent
weapons for use in encounters with the smaller game-killing carnivores.
The largest horns of record measure 40 inches.

The Beisa inhabits eastern Central Africa, from Suakin on the Red Sea
southward to the Equator.

The Beatrix Antelope, (_Oryx beatrix_), of the Arabian Desert, is one of
the rarest antelopes to be found in captivity, and at this date this
interesting species is represented by a fine pair of specimens. The
longest horns of record measure 26 inches. Very few sportsmen have seen
this animal in its native haunts. Our pair has been breeding for three
years, and has reared two young.

The Sable Antelope, (_Hippotragus niger_), is by many persons regarded
as the handsomest of all the numerous species of African antelopes. In
appearance it is very proud and high-headed; it has imposing horns that
sweep backward in a semicircular curve; its large eyes and alert air
betoken keen intelligence, and its glossy black coat, marked with pure
white, render it a most conspicuous animal. On its native veldt it has
now become a very rare species, and seldom is taken by sportsmen. The
fine male specimen in the Park was presented by Miss Jean Walker
Simpson.

    [Illustration: LEUCORYX ANTELOPE]

    [Illustration: WHITE-TAILED GNU]

The Sing-Sing Waterbuck, (_Cobus unctuosus_), is a creature of the
lowlands, and frequents the dense tangles of tall reeds that border many
of the rivers of West Africa, above the great equatorial forest. In
captivity it sometimes is one of the most insanely nervous and
irrational creatures imaginable, ever seeking self-inflicted injuries.

The Blessbok, (_Damaliscus albifrons_), is a small but handsome
purple-and-white antelope which is now very nearly extinct. Formerly a
number of herds were preserved on fenced farms in the Transvaal and
Orange Free State, but it is feared that none of them survived the Boer
War. This species never lived north of the Limpopo, but south of that
river it once was so numerous that a truthful traveler described a vast
plain as being “purple with Blessbok.”

The Nilgai, (_Portax tragocamelus_), is the largest of the Indian
antelopes, and while it has the stature and the high shoulders of a
Baker roan antelope, its absurdly small horns give it, beside the large
antelopes of Africa, a very commonplace and unfinished appearance. The
males and females are as differently colored as if they belonged to
different species. This animal inhabits the roughest portions of the
central plains of Hindustan, from Mysore to the Himalayas. In northern
India it is found along the rivers Jumna and Ganges, in rugged and
barren tracts of ravines which in character and origin resemble our
western “bad-lands.”

    [Illustration: ELAND]

The small antelopes will be found in the Small-Deer House, the next
building in order.


                     THE SMALL-DEER HOUSE, No. 49.

In captivity the small and delicate species of deer, antelopes and
gazelles are better cared for in enclosures that are not too large. For
such creatures, freedom in a large enclosure usually means early death
from accident or exposure.

The very important building called the Small-Deer House has been erected
with special reference to the wants of the interesting little hoofed
animals which are too small for the Antelope House and the large ranges.
In winter it will shelter the small tropical mountain sheep and goats,
which are unable to withstand the rigors of outdoor life on Mountain
Sheep Hill, and the tropical swine may also be expected here.

The Small-Deer House is situated in close proximity to the Antelope
House, and westward thereof. Of the buildings of secondary rank, it is
one of the most satisfactory, being roomy, well-lighted and capable of
comfortably housing and displaying a large and varied collection. The
structure is 158 feet in length by 46 feet in width. It contains thirty
compartments, each of which, under stress of necessity, can be
partitioned, and formed into two. The interior compartments are each 10
feet wide by 10 feet deep. The building is surrounded by a series of 34
corrals, connecting with the interior compartments, the average size of
each being 75 feet long by 20 feet wide at the outer end. All the fences
are of wire, and were specially designed in the Park for this
installation.

    [Illustration: SABLE ANTELOPE.]

It is a practical impossibility to offer an enumeration of the living
animals in this building which will permanently apply, and the best that
can be attempted is an approximation. It is an inexorable law of Nature
that the smallest animals shall have the shortest periods of life, and
in a zoological park a small hoofed animal may be here to-day and gone
to-morrow. In the following enumeration, mention will be made only of
those species which are likely to remain longest on exhibition; and it
may be observed that in this building there will be found various
animals which are neither deer nor antelopes.


                            The Small Deer.

Osceola White-Tailed Deer, (_Odocoileus virginianus osceola_), is an
interesting geographic race of the northern White-Tailed Deer which
forms the parent stem of a group of six or seven subspecies. The robust
and hardy northern type, often with large and strong antlers, gradually
diminishes in size and in antlers, until in Mexico it becomes a small
and delicate creature, with very small and light antlers bearing only
two or three small tines. The next form has so widely diverged from the
original type that it is necessary to accord it rank as a full species.

    [Illustration: REDUNCA ANTELOPE.]

The Sinaloa White-Tailed Deer, (_Odocoileus sinaloae_), is still smaller
and weaker than the preceding. Our pair of specimens shown was obtained
by Mr. and Mrs. C. William Beebe, in the State of Guadalajara, Mexico,
and are highly interesting as a link near the lower terminus of the
_Odocoileus_ chain. On a majority of the antlers of this species there
are no branches whatever, but simply a weak main beam, curving over at
the tip, and terminating in a rounded point.

It should be noted here that the White-Tailed Deer group,
(_Odocoileus_), is very well represented in South America by _O.
weigmanni_ of the Guianas.

The Marsh Deer, (_Blastoceros paludosus_), of eastern South America, is
the largest South American deer. Our first specimen was obtained in
1904. Its antlers are strongly built but short, and in architecture
resemble the antlers of a Siamese species known as Schomburgk Deer,
(_Cervus schomburgki_); but the latter has on each beam three double
bifurcations, while the former has but two. The Marsh Deer has very
large, wide-spreading hoofs, which it would seem have been developed by
many generations of existence on soft ground. It inhabits the jungles
along river banks, in Brazil. The head of this animal is of remarkable
length.

This important species is rather weak in captivity, and it is by no
means certain that it can constantly be exhibited here. There is another
South American species, (_Blastoceros campestris_), which is a
zoological understudy, or miniature, of the large Marsh Deer.

The Black-Faced Brocket, (_Mazama tema_), _whenever it can be obtained_,
will represent a group of American deer which is as little known in the
United States as if it inhabited the heart of Borneo. The Brockets are
smaller than the Sinaloa white-tailed deer, and they are so nearly
hornless that the antler is merely a small, straight, sharp-pointed
spike of bone only three inches long. The adult animal is only 25 inches
in shoulder height, which is about the size of the muntjac of India. Of
the Brockets there are several species, mostly South American, but from
skulls and horns received we now know that it is found as far north as
the State of Puebla, Mexico. A correspondent in that locality is
constantly endeavoring to secure specimens for us, and no doubt will
shortly succeed. For the reason that we expect specimens in the near
future, this species is included.

The Hog Deer, (_Cervus porcinus_), which is very unlike a hog, and is
libeled by its name, is a small species from India, which is provided
with long and well-shaped antlers having a total of six points.
Sometimes the adult males are spotted in summer, and sometimes they are
not. This species stands next to the beautiful axis deer. It breeds well
in captivity, but is a very nervous and even hysterical animal.

The Molucca Deer, (_Cervus moluccensis_), is a thick-bodied,
scantily-clad and coarse-haired understudy of the Malay sambar, (_Cervus
unicolor_). Of all deer it is one of the least beautiful. Its hair
resembles the bristles of a wild hog, and its color is a dull, raw-umber
brown. It belongs to the sambar group of East Indian deer, and really
marks, both geographically and in size, the farthest departure from the
type species of the group.

The Muntjac or Rib-Faced Deer, (_Cervus muntjac_), is one of the most
interesting of all species of small deer. In one respect it is unique.
Its tiny antlers, which are only 4½ inches in length, are placed high up
on stems of solid bone, which sometimes rise 3¾ inches clear of the
cranium. These pedicles of bone are covered with skin, quite up to the
burr of the antler. The front angles of these pedicles are continued
down the face to the nasal bones, and form the two sharply defined
facial ridges which have given this creature one of its popular names.

    [Illustration: SASIN ANTELOPE.]

In India the Muntjac inhabits the jungles of the tiger, the leopard,
axis deer and sloth bear, and escapes from its numerous enemies by
hiding behind logs, and scurrying through the thick underbush so swiftly
that its pursuers can not keep it in view. Its flesh is most excellent
food. From its peculiar, yapping cry, many times repeated, it is often
called the Barking Deer. It breeds readily in captivity, and its bright
fawn color attracts to it much attention.

The Musk Deer, (_Moschus moschiferus_), of northern India, Tibet and
Southern China is the creature which produces the well-known musk
perfume of commerce. The product is secreted by the male in the
“rutting” season. This species is one of the smallest of the true deer.
Its most remarkable anatomical feature is a pair of very long and sharp
canine teeth in the upper jaw, the points of which project far below the
lower jaw. No horns are present in this animal. Being short-lived in
captivity, and also difficult to obtain, it must be classed as an
intermittent exhibit.


                      The Small African Antelopes.

In addition to the grand array of large antelopes inhabiting Africa, of
which many fine examples will be found in the Antelope House, there is
an extensive series of small species. Indeed, the richness of Africa in
antelopes, great and small, is almost beyond belief. The species of Asia
and Europe are so few, and so inconspicuous, that they seem like so many
stray wanderers from the Dark Continent. The fertile, grassy plains of
the great Central African plateau have cradled scores of species, some
of which have wandered into the deserts, the forests and the fluviatile
swamps, and there made their permanent homes.

The Black-Buck, or Sasin Antelope, (_Antilope cervicapra_), of the
central plains of Hindustan, is one of the handsomest of the smaller
antelopes. The horns of the male are long, strongly ringed, twisted
spirally, and rise from the head in the shape of a V, sometimes to a
length of 28 inches. At first the young males are fawn-colored, like the
females, but as they grow older they steadily grow darker, until finally
the whole upper body and lower neck are suffused with a rich,
brown-black color. On the plains between the rivers Ganges and Jumna,
herds of Black-Buck live in densely populated agricultural regions, and
one of the greatest difficulties attendant upon its pursuit lies in
shooting an animal without also shooting the native.

The Reedbuck, (_Cervicapra arundinum_), of South Africa, below Angola
and Mozambique, is closely related to the larger and much more showy
waterbucks, but is distinguished from them by the pronounced forward
curve of its horns. In the western districts of Cape Colony, the number
alive, in 1905, was estimated at 350 individuals.

The Common Duiker Antelope, (_Cephalophus grimmi_), or for that matter,
any species of Duiker—may be regarded as the representative of a large
group of very small African antelopes, of wide distribution. There are
about twenty species in all, and the great majority of them are very
modestly colored, in coats of one or two colors only. The prevailing
tints are grayish brown and tawny red. The horns of the various species
of Duikers are all very much alike. With but one or two exceptions,
their horns are straight spikes from 3 to 5 inches in length. In
shoulder height the Duikers vary from 14 to 30 inches, but the majority
are between 17 and 22 inches. Only three or four species are strikingly
colored.

The Four-Horned Antelope, (_Tetraceros quadricornis_) is a small
creature which looks like a duiker, but is very far from belonging to
that genus. It is an inhabitant of the brushy plains of India, and
enjoys the unique distinction of possessing two pairs of horns. In
addition to the 4-inch pair, normally placed, it has a much smaller
pair, usually only 1 inch in height, which rises from the central area
of the forehead. I believe it is the only species of antelope which
possesses two pairs of horns.

    [Illustration: GREAT GRAY KANGAROO.]

The Springbuck, (_Antidorcas euchore_), is to South Africa as the
“prong-horn” is to our great western plains. Once, both were abundant,
and the first hoofed animal to greet the traveler who entered their
respective domains. To-day, both species are so nearly extinct that the
hunter must search long before finding even one. The Springbuck received
its name in recognition of its remarkable habit of leaping high into the
air when running—a habit which also is displayed by the black-buck of
India.

The Gazelles are found only in Asia and Africa, and the number of
species is about 25. In general terms they may be described as dainty
antelopes,—so slender and delicate in leg construction that it seems
strange that such slender bones can support a tall animal without
breaking.

The Dorcas Gazelle, of Arabia, (_Gazella dorcas_), is the species which
most frequently finds its way into captivity, and it will serve very
well as a specimen species for the whole group. Despite its delicate and
frail appearance, it is much more enduring in captivity than many
animals which seem far more robust. A pair which entered the Park in
1900 is still living. The male has a temper which quite belies the
reputation of the “gentle gazelle.” Although loyal and kind to his
cage-mate, toward human beings generally he has manifested a very savage
disposition, and in one of his fits of bad temper he broke off one of
his own horns.

    [Illustration: ROCKY MOUNTAIN GOAT.]

The Indian Gazelle, (_Gazella benneti_),—frequently called in its home
country Ravine “Deer,”—is a habitant of the sterile, water-washed
ravines of northern and central India, which are the oriental
counterpart of our western “badlands.” This animal inhabits the same
regions as the black-buck, but because of the religious scruples of the
Hindoos against the taking of life, both species are secure from
attack—until the arrival among them of the white sahibs. A full-grown
Indian Gazelle is 26 inches in shoulder height. The females of this
species possess horns, which are very slender, and vary in length from 4
to 8½ inches.


                         Miscellaneous Mammals.

The Small-Deer House will at all times contain various mammals which are
there shown because it is a practical impossibility to provide a
separate building for each group.

The Wild Swine of the world are here represented by three noteworthy
species:

The Red River-Hog, (_Potamochaerus pencillatus_), of West Africa, is
about the only handsome species of swine that Nature has produced. In
form it is compact and well-turned, its long pencil-tipped ears are of
pleasing pattern, and its hair is a rich auburn color, and the temper of
our specimen is everything that could be desired. Beside it is shown
“Clarence,” the East African Wart-Hog, (_Phacochaerus aethiopicus_), who
is equally interesting, but in a different way. This species is very
weird in form. The Collared Peccary, (_Tagassu angulatum_), beside it is
more like the wild swine of Europe and Japan, and is not nearly so
dangerous as general reputation demands.

The Kangaroos.—Seldom is there found in Nature a group of large-animal
species whose members are so monotonously similar in general appearance
as are the Kangaroos and Wallabies, of Australia. The great majority are
either gray or gray-brown, and the only striking variation is found in
the big Red Kangaroo, (_Macropus rufus_).


                    THE WHITE MOUNTAIN GOAT, No. 48.

Fortunate indeed is the zoological park or garden which can exhibit even
one living specimen of the White Mountain Goat. It is a very difficult
matter to take an animal from a rarified dry atmosphere, at an elevation
of 8,000 feet, and induce it to live at sea level, in a dense and humid
atmosphere, on food to which it is by nature wholly unaccustomed.

We have been successful in establishing here, on a breeding basis this
rare and difficult animal, (_Oreamnos montanus_). One kid was born in
1908 and another in 1910, and both have thriven, the former now being so
large as to look like an adult specimen.

For some subtle reason which we can not explain, these animals—like the
chamois and mouflon quartered in small pens near the Small-Mammal
House—do not thrive in any of the large, rock-bound corrals of Mountain
Sheep Hill. They are kept in a rock-paved corral near the Pheasant
Aviary and the Crotona Entrance, and to their use has been devoted a
rustic barn, which they shelter in or climb over, according to the
weather. To see them walking nonchalantly over the steep roof, or
perching upon its peak, is one of the drollest sights of the Park.

The White Goat, sometimes mistakenly called “goat antelope,” belongs to
a small group known as the Rupicaprines or rock antelopes. It inhabits
many different kinds of territory, but usually the rugged sides and
summits of high mountains, at irregular intervals from southwestern
Montana and northern Washington, northward to the head of Cook Inlet on
the coast of Alaska. (See map of distribution, with label.) The valley
of the upper Yukon contains practically no goats. They are most abundant
in southeastern British Columbia, where in a very small area, in
September, 1905, Mr. John M. Phillips and the writer actually counted
239 individuals.

Of the five animals now exhibited in the Park, three were captured a few
days after their birth, in May, 1905, about seventy miles north of Fort
Steele, British Columbia. They arrived here October 9, 1905, and up to
this date they have thriven as well, and grown as rapidly, as they would
have in a state of nature. Their food consists of the best clover hay
obtainable, and crushed oats. When they shed their coats, in the spring,
they are almost as white as snow, but with months of use, their pelage
becomes soiled and slightly discolored.

A fully adult male mountain goat stands from 39 to 41 inches in shoulder
height, and weighs, _on scales_, from 258 to 300 pounds.


                       THE PRONG-HORNED ANTELOPE.

The Prong-Horned Antelope, (_Antilocapra americana_), is an animal in
which Americans should now take special interest. Structurally, the
Prong-Horn is so peculiar that it has been found necessary to create for
it a special zoological family, called _Antilocapridae_, of which it is
the sole member. This is due to the following facts: (1) This is the
only living mammal possessing hollow horns (growing over a bony core)
which sheds them annually; (2) it is the only animal possessing a hollow
horn which bears a prong, or bifurcation; (3) it has no “dew claws,” as
other ruminant animals have; (4) the horn is placed directly above the
eye; (5) the long hair of the body and neck is tubular; and (6) that on
the rump is erectile. Beyond all possibility of doubt, it will be our
next large species to become extinct, and if we may judge by the rate at
which the bands have been disappearing during the last fifteen years,
ten years more will, in all probability, witness the extermination of
the last individuals now struggling to exist outside of rigidly
protected areas. It was the intention of the Society to make liberal
provision for the study of the species while it is yet possible to
obtain living specimens, for fifty years hence our graceful and
zoologically interesting Prong-Horn will be as extinct as the dodo.
Unfortunately, however, it fares so badly on the Atlantic coast, there
will, no doubt, be periods wherein this species will be temporarily
absent from the Park.

    [Illustration: AMERICAN PRONG HORNED ANTELOPE.]

Forty years ago this animal inhabited practically the whole of the great
pasture region which stretches eastward from the Rocky Mountains to the
western borders of Iowa and Missouri. Northward its range extended far
into Manitoba; southward it went far beyond the Rio Grande, and it also
ranged southwestward through Colorado and Nevada to southern California.
Its chosen home was the treeless plains, where the rich buffalo grass
and bunch grass afforded abundant food, but it also frequented the
beautiful mountain parks of Wyoming and Colorado. It even lived
contentedly in the deserts of the southwest, where its voluntary
presence, coupled with the absence of water, constituted a problem which
has puzzled the brain of many a desert traveller.

    [Illustration: BACTRIAN CAMEL.]

To-day, all observers agree that in all regions wherein the antelope are
not rigidly protected, they are going fast. Those in the Yellowstone
Park are protected against man only to be devoured by the wolves which
infest the Park.

Unfortunately, the Prong-Horned Antelope is not a hardy animal. The kids
are very difficult to rear; they are at all times easily hurt by
accident, and even in a state of nature this species suffers more
severely in winter than any other North American ruminant. Often the
herds drift helplessly before the blizzards, with numerous deaths from
freezing and starvation, and in spring the survivors come out thin and
weak.


                        THE CAMEL HOUSE, No. 39.

Speaking in a collective sense, the Camel is much more than an ordinary
animal unit in a zoological park. On the high plains of central and
southwestern Asia, and throughout the arid regions of Africa, it is an
institution. Without it, many portions of the Old World would be
uninhabitable by man. Take either Dromedary or Bactrian Camel, and it is
a sad-eyed, ungainly, slow-moving creature, full of plaints and
objections; but remember that it goes so far back toward the foundations
of man’s dynasty, that beside it the oldest American history seems but a
record of yesterday. It is only a species of the utmost tenacity which
could for fifty centuries or more withstand constant use and abuse by
man without being altered out of all resemblance to its original form.
All races of mankind and all breeds of domestic animals save one, change
and continue to change, indefinitely, but the Camels apparently go on
the same, forever.

    [Illustration: ALPACA.]

The Bactrian Camel, (_Camelus bactrianus_), he of the long shaggy
hair—_when not shedding_—and the two great humps, is the beast of heavy
burden, the four-footed freight-car of the desert sands. He can carry
550 pounds of freight, for three or four days between drinks; but a
swift pace is not for him. It is an animal of this remarkable species,
from distant Turkestan, southwestern Asia, which daily in fine weather
offers its services as a riding animal, at the stand near the Large
Bird-House.

It is unfortunate that the Bactrian Camel is in its finest pelage only
in winter, when visitors to the Park are few, and camel-riding is out of
the question. Promptly upon the approach of warm weather and a million
visitors, it sheds its long, shaggy brown coat, and stands forth as if
shorn by a shearer. Of this species, the Zoological Society possesses
two fine specimens (the gift of Captain John S. Barnes), one of which
will at all times be found regularly exhibited at the Camel House, close
by the Crotona (southwest) Entrance.

    [Illustration: VICUNIA.]

The Dromedary, or Single-Humped Camel, (_Camelus dromedarius_), is a
smaller animal than the preceding, of lighter build, and therefore
capable of much more speed in travelling. This species never is clothed
with long hair.

Next to the Camel House and corrals is the installation for the nearest
relatives of those species,—the Llamas, Guanacos and other cameloids of
South America.


                        THE LLAMA HOUSE, No. 38.

_Collection of Cameloids was presented by Mr. Robert S. Brewster._

The arid regions of South America are inhabited by four species of
long-necked, long-haired, soft-footed animals, so closely related to the
camels of the Old World that they are called _cameloids_. There are four
species. The llama and alpaca are in a state of domestication, and are
supposed to have been derived from the wild guanaco and vicunia. All of
them might almost be described as small-sized, humpless camels; and
their tempers and mental traits are as odd as their forms.

The ordinary cameloid is a quiet and inoffensive creature; but the
exception is a rogue of rogues. It will bite with the persistence of a
bull-dog, and with its massive, chisel-like lower incisors inflicts ugly
wounds. At times a llama or vicunia becomes actually insane, and seeks
to destroy every living creature within its reach. Regardless of
punishment, such creatures attack their keepers and their herd-mates,
spit upon visitors, and rage up and down their corrals in most absurd
fashion. Occasionally such individuals require to be completely
isolated.

The Llama, (_Lama glama_), is the largest and strongest member of the
group. Its body is covered with a thick mass of long, wavy hair of fine
texture, which may be either brown, white, white and brown, or almost
black. The head and legs are short-haired like those of the guanaco.
From time immemorial, this animal has been used as a beast of burden,
and in the Andes has played an important part in the mineral industry by
carrying silver ore and bullion from the mines.

The Alpaca, (_Lama pacos_), is bred for its wool. It is smaller than the
llama, but more abundantly haired on the legs, neck and head. Its fleece
is long, and lies in stringy tufts. Usually its color is dark brown or
black, but occasionally a white Alpaca is seen. A white specimen in the
Zoological Park collection has blue eyes.

The Guanaco, (_Lama guanacus_), is one of the most interesting and
valuable wild animals now found in Patagonia. Unfortunately, it is so
stupid and incapable that it is easily killed. The natives of Terra del
Fuego, themselves almost the lowest and most ignorant of men, slaughter
Guanacos for food by surrounding groups of them and clubbing them to
death.

In size the Guanaco is between the llama and vicunia, and its shoulder
height is about 4 feet. Its hair is thick and woolly, of a pale reddish
color, and there are naked patches on the legs. This species is found on
the Andes, from Ecuador to Terra del Fuego, and appears to be most
abundant in Patagonia.

The Vicunia, (_Lama vicunia_), is the only member of the cameloid group
which is not clothed with a mass of long hair. It is the smallest member
of the group, comparatively short-haired, its color is a uniform light
brown, its head is small, and there are no callosities on the hind legs.
The Vicunia is found from southern Ecuador, through Peru to central
Bolivia.


                          NORTH AMERICAN DEER.
             Elk, Mule Deer, White-Tail, Caribou and Moose.

The American members of the Deer Family will be found in the ranges
situated on the hill west of the Wild-Fowl Pond, stretching from the
Llama House northward to the Service Road.

After several years of experiments, we must admit that to all the
American members of the Deer Family save the wapiti white-tailed and
mule deer, the climate of New York City is decidedly inimical. This
densely humid and extremely saline atmosphere is about as deadly to the
black-tail, caribou and moose as it is to the Eskimo; and thus far we
have found it an absolute impossibility to maintain satisfactory herds
of those species in the ranges available for them. In great tracts of
forests, some of them might become acclimatized; but, be that as it may,
all experiments made thus far both here and in two of the great game
preserves of New England, prove conclusively that black-tail deer, mule
deer, caribou, moose, and also prong-horned antelope, are among the most
difficult of all ruminants to acclimatize anywhere in the United States
eastward of the great plains.

Although the Zoological Society will continue its experiments with some
of these preserve species, and will always strive to exhibit some of
them, our original hopes regarding them have been abandoned. We are
certain that the difficulty lies not in the food, but in climate
conditions, that are beyond our control, and especially our very salty
atmosphere.

The American Elk, or Wapiti, (_Cervus canadensis._)—Of all the numerous
members of the Deer Family, this animal is second in size to the moose
only; and in the autumn, when its pelage is bright and luxuriant, its
sides well rounded, its massive antlers clean and held conspicuously
aloft, the elk may justly be called the king of the _Cervidae_. It is
well that in the Yellowstone Park we have an unfailing supply of Elk,
which bids fair to perpetuate this handsome species for another century.

Our Elk Range might well stand for a mountain park, in which is set a
natural lakelet of real value. In October, when the splendid groves of
beech, oak, and maple along the eastern ridge put on all the glorious
tints of autumn, and the big thicket of sumacs, ash, and haw on the
northern hill fairly blaze with scarlet—then are the elk also at their
best. There is no finer picture in animate nature than a herd of elk in
October, with such a setting of greensward, tree-trunk, and foliage.

    [Illustration: AMERICAN ELK.]

    [Illustration: EUROPEAN RED DEER.]

The maximum shoulder height of the Elk is 5 feet 4 inches, or
thereabouts, and the heaviest weight noted thus far is 927 pounds.

The calves are born from May to July, and are spotted during the first
six months. During the first year the antlers are merely two straight
spikes, called “dag antlers.” As in all members of the Deer Family, the
antlers are shed every year—which to many persons is almost beyond
belief. Any person who visits a zoological garden in midsummer will see
that the old antlers have dropped off bodily, just below the burr, and
that new antlers, covered with hair, soft, full of blood, and with
club-like “points,” have sprung up like mushrooms in place of the old
ones. In supplying the great drain on the system necessary to support
this remarkable growth, the Elk grows thin, and the fear of hurting his
tender young antlers makes him quite timid and inoffensive. He is no
longer the tyrant of the herd, and a constant menace to his keepers.

At this point it is not amiss to call attention to the differences
between _horns_ and _antlers_.

A _horn_ is a hollow sheath, growing over a bony core, and except in the
case of the prong-horned antelope, is never shed. Horns are worn by both
sexes of all bison, buffaloes, cattle, antelope, sheep, and goats.

An _antler_ is of solid bone throughout, growing from the skull; it is
shed every year close to the skull, and quickly renewed. Usually antlers
have several branches. They are worn by nearly all male members of the
Deer Family—moose, elk, caribou, deer, etc., and also by the female
caribou. The prongs on an antler are no index of the wearer’s age. Some
of the finest and most massive elk antlers have only twelve or fourteen
points. During August and September the hairy covering, or “velvet,” of
new antlers is rubbed off against trees and bushes. This period is
quickly followed by the mating season, during which the neck of the bull
becomes unusually large, and often the animal becomes dangerous.

Although the Elk is essentially a timber-loving animal, it also wandered
far into the plains bordering the Rocky Mountains on the east—until
driven from them by man. The ideal home of this animal is the timbered
foothills of our western mountains, up to 8,000 feet. Although once
found from Virginia and New York to Oregon, and from northern Manitoba
to the Gulf of Mexico, it is now numerous only in and adjacent to the
Yellowstone Park, in central Colorado, where it is well protected, and
in western Manitoba. The number of Elk in the National Park is variously
estimated at from 10,000 head to a much larger number.

In a wild state, the Elk feeds on grasses, weeds, and the leaves and
twigs of various trees and shrubs. Of all American deer, it is the most
easy to acclimate and breed in captivity. Large herds are now being
maintained and bred in numerous private game preserves in New Hampshire,
New York, Minnesota, Massachusetts, and elsewhere. About 200 head have
been released in the Adirondacks.

The Mule Deer, (_Odocoileus hemionus._)—This fine animal is universally
known throughout the Rocky Mountain region, which constitutes its home,
as the “Black-Tailed Deer.” Because of its very large ears, _and the
absence of a black tail_, it is known to naturalists as the Mule Deer.
Inasmuch as its tail is not black, the above more common name properly
applies to _Odocoileus columbianus_, the true black-tailed deer of the
Pacific coast. In Manitoba this animal is called the “Jumping Deer,”
because when running at a gallop, it makes a series of stiff-legged
jumps, or “bucks,” of great length.

The weight of full-grown bucks ranges from 250 to 300 pounds, and
specimens have been known to reach 325 pounds. The antlers of the Mule
Deer are larger and handsomer than those of the white-tailed deer, and
are much better poised on the head. Instead of dropping forward, they
partake more of the set of an elk’s antlers, and many a “tenderfoot”
hunter has mistaken a heavily-antlered Mule Deer for an elk. The antlers
of a Mule Deer are easily distinguished from those of the white-tailed
species by the two Y-shaped prongs on each antler. It will be remembered
that instead of these, the white-tailed deer antler bears three
straight, perpendicular spikes.

The Mule Deer makes its home in rugged ravines and bad lands so common
along the creeks and rivers of the Rocky Mountain region, extending well
eastward into the plains. Of late years it has been driven out of the
most accessible of its former haunts, and forced to take shelter in the
rugged fastnesses of the foothills and mountains. West of the Rocky
Mountains it was formerly found along the whole Pacific slope, from Cape
St. Lucas to British Columbia, although in northern California it is
almost replaced by the Columbian Black-Tail, (_O. columbianus_).

    DEVELOPMENT OF THE ANTLERS OF A MALE DEER.

These pictures show the stages of growth of the antlers from the time
the old ones are dropped, to the full development. Number 1 shows the
bull with the one antler gone—picture made early in March. Number 6
shows the full grown antlers, with the velvet hanging in strips. Number
6 was made August 24 of the same year as Number 1. This remarkable
antler development takes place every year in the life of all male deer.

    [Illustration: 1.]

    [Illustration: 2.]

    [Illustration: 3.]

    [Illustration: 4.]

    [Illustration: 5.]

    [Illustration: 6.]

The White-Tailed Deer, (_Odocoileus virginianus_), is the species most
widely known throughout the United States, partly by reason of the fact
that it was the first species with which the early settlers of America
became acquainted, partly because of its wide distribution, and also its
persistence in holding its own. In various localities this animal is
known under various names, such as “White-Tailed Deer,” “Flag-Tailed
Deer,” and “Fan-Tailed Deer.” Although not at all in need of it, quite
recently it has received still another name—American Deer. The small
deer of Florida, and also of New Mexico and the Southwest, have been
described as separate forms; and if size is to be accepted as a factor
in the differentiation of species, the diminutive proportions of the
proposed southern species are quite sufficient to establish their
separate identity.

The White-Tailed deer of Virginia and the northern United States is a
fine animal—large, strong-limbed, heavily-antlered, and hardy. Between
it and the deer of Florida the difference is as great as that between a
setter dog and a mastiff. Thanks to the fact that this species is a born
skulker and lives only in thick brush and timber, it still holds its own
throughout the forest regions of the South generally, Pennsylvania, the
Adirondacks, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, the Dakotas, Montana, and
Colorado. In the West it is often found inhabiting brushy ravines and
river bottoms.

This species breeds readily in confinement, and when protected in any
large tract of brush or timber, increases rapidly. During the months of
September, October, and November, the bucks are dangerous and
untrustworthy. The peculiar formation of the antlers—three strong,
spear-like points thrust straight upward from the beam—makes them
dangerous weapons; and when an ill-tempered buck lowers his chin and
drives straight forward with eight sharp spears of solid bone, and
nearly three hundred pounds of weight to back them, he may well be
considered a dangerous animal. He is to be feared less than the elk only
because he is smaller.

The Woodland Caribou, (_Rangifer caribou_).—The first hoofed animal to
arrive at the Zoological Park was a young female of this species, which
was procured in Champlain County, Canada, and forwarded to the Society
by one of our members, Mr. George S. Huntington. These animals, when
present in the Park, will be kept in a small enclosure, because a large
range containing an abundance of green grass is fatal to them.

The wild range of the Woodland Caribou extends from Newfoundland, Nova
Scotia, and Maine, with many wide gaps, to the head waters of the Yukon
River, in southern Alaska. The following localities are worthy of
special mention: northern Quebec and Ontario; James Bay; the northern
end of Lake Winnipeg (occasionally); Lake of Woods, Minnesota; Oregon
near Mount Hood; northern Idaho; northwestern Montana, and the mountains
of British Columbia.

Quite recently, three new species of caribou have been added to our
fauna, one from the Alaskan Peninsula (_Rangifer granti_), one from the
Kenai Peninsula (_Rangifer stonei_), and one from the Cassiar Mountains
(_Rangifer osborni_).

The Woodland Caribou attains nearly twice the bodily bulk of its more
northern congener, the Barren-Ground caribou. In a state of nature it
lives on browse, reindeer moss, tree moss, and lichens, and it loves
ice-covered lakes and ponds as much as any boy. Its loose-jointed and
wide spreading hoofs and enormously developed “dew-claws” have been
specially designed by Nature to enable this animal to run freely, as if
on snow-shoes, over snow or bogs, which to any small-hoofed deer would
be quite impassable.

The female Woodland Caribou is provided with small antlers, which, like
those of the male, are shed and renewed annually.

In the absence of caribou in the Park, visitors are advised to look for
specimens of the Lapland Reindeer, (_Rangifer tarandus_), for we shall
endeavor to keep this genus represented.


                       THE ZEBRA HOUSES, No. 14.

Although the main building of this installation has not yet been
erected, the plan for the various buildings and corrals has been
approved, and the main building was begun in 1911 and completed in 1912.
The three buildings, and the extensive corrals connecting with them, as
a whole, do justice to the important and picturesque Family _Equidae_,
which includes all the zebras, wild asses and wild horses of the world.

    [Illustration: GRANT ZEBRA.]

The Prjevalsky Horses, (_Equus prjevalskii_).—Of all the wild equines
which either now or hereafter may be seen in the Zoological Park, the
strange little wild horses from western Mongolia are, and probably will
remain, the most interesting, from a zoological point of view. Broadly
speaking, they are the connecting link between the many-striped zebras,
the little-striped quaggas and the wild asses on one side, and the
domestic, unstriped horse on the other. These wild horses possess a
narrow, dark dorsal stripe, which, in the winter pelage is scarcely
visible, but in summer is plainly evident. A perfect specimen has an
erect mane, no long forelock and no “chestnuts” on its legs. On the
upper half of its tail the hair is short, and mule-like, but on the
lower, or terminal half, it is long and horse-like. The winter coat of
this animal is very long and shaggy.

Mountain Zebra, (_Equus zebra_).—This species has been nearly
exterminated by man, and is rarely seen in captivity. It inhabits the
mountains of Cape Colony, and it is estimated that only 400 individuals
remain, which now are carefully protected.

    [Illustration: PRJEVALSKY HORSES.]

Grevy Zebra, (_Equus grevyi_).—This picturesque species was discovered
in Abyssinia, when Jules Grevy was president of France, and it was named
in his honor. It is of large size, covered with very narrow stripes all
over its body, head and limbs, and its huge ears are of remarkable form.
This species is limited to southern Abyssinia and British East Africa
southward to the Tana River.

Grant Zebra, (_Equus burchelli granti_).—Of all the zebras now seen in
captivity, the great majority belong to what very properly may be
designated as the group of Burchell Zebras. This group contains, besides
the type species, which has practically no stripes on its legs, four
subspecies, whose legs are more or less striped, and which may or may
not possess “shadow stripes” on the hind-quarters. A “shadow stripe” is
a faint, dark stripe in the middle of a wide white or pale yellow stripe
which lies between two broad black stripes.

Grant Zebra is the most heavily striped of the subspecies composing the
Burchell group. The visitor will observe that its horizontal leg-stripes
are very pronounced, and so numerous that they are carried quite down to
the hoofs. The ground-color of the animal is a cold white, and the thigh
and body stripes are very wide and intense. This fine pair was captured
in Masailand, East Africa, in 1902.

Chapman Zebra, (_Equus burchelli chapmani_), also belongs to the
Burchell group, and in its color pattern it approaches quite nearly to
the type. The legs of the male bear a few stripes, those of the female
almost none. There are visible on the hind-quarters of the female a few
faint shadow-stripes.

The Persian Wild Ass, (_Equus persicus_), is a very satisfactory
representative of the wild asses generally. Its dorsal-stripe is very
wide and sharply defined, but it bears no shoulder-stripe, and those
that are faintly indicated on its legs are nothing more than oblong
blotches of dark color. As its name implies, it inhabits Persia, and
Syria, and a closely related form, the Onager, (_E. onager_), is found
in Beluchistan and western India. A third species, the Kiang (_E.
hemionus_), is found on the plains of Tibet.


                THE ASIATIC AND EUROPEAN DEER, Nos. 1-3.

In representatives of the deer, (Family _Cervidae_), Asia far surpasses
all other countries. Her species number about 38,—fully double that of
any other continental area,—and from the great Altai wapiti to the tiny
musk deer, the variations in size and form are fairly bewildering. The
entire hill that rises between the Fordham Entrance and Bird Valley,
from Cope Lake to the Zebra Houses, is devoted to the series of houses,
corrals and ranges that are occupied by the deer of Asia and Europe.

It is quite certain that a number of desirable species of Asiatic deer
can successfully be acclimatized in the parks and game preserves of
America, and induced to breed. Almost without an exception they are
strong and vigorous feeders, and they keep fat and sleek when our own
black-tail, mule deer and white-tail mince like pampered epicures, grow
thinner and thinner, and finally die of “malnutrition.”

Believing that the members of the group amply justify the effort, the
Zoological Society has been at considerable pains to bring together a
fine, representative collection of the Old World _Cervidae_ and properly
install its members. Although the series proposed is not quite complete,
it contains such rarities as the Altai Wapiti, Barasingha, Burmese
Thameng, Malay and Indian Sambar, and several others. They are sheltered
by four houses, the largest of which crowns the summit of the hill on
the right of Osborn Walk as the visitor enters from Fordham. For the
visitors’ convenience we will make note of the various species about in
the order of their appearance, and not in zoological sequence.

The Axis Deer, (_Axis axis_), is the handsomest of all the tropical
deer. Indeed, it may even be said to be the only species of the tropics
possessing both form and pelage which are alike pleasing to the eye. In
contrast with the many beautiful and splendidly colored antelopes of
Africa, the deer of the tropics, all round the world, are poorly
provided with those characters which make a handsome animal. With the
sole exception of the Axis Deer, nearly all the other deer of the East
Indies have thin, coarse, dull-colored hair, their antlers are small,
and seldom have more than four points. This is equally true of the deer
of Mexico, Central and South America. Even our own white-tailed deer, so
lusty and fine in the North, becomes in Florida and Texas so dwarfed
that it has now been called a subspecies.

Considering the severe plainness of all the other deer in the tropics,
it is a little strange that the coat of the Axis should be the most
beautiful possessed by any deer. But it is quite true; and apart from
the majesty of the elk, there is no more beautiful sight in cervine life
than the picture offered by a herd of Axis Deer feeding in a sunlit
glade surrounded by forest.

This species adapts itself to out-door life in the temperate zone with
surprising readiness, not even second in that respect to the eland. As a
matter of course the Axis can not withstand the fierce blizzards of
midwinter as do the elk and other northern deer; but a reasonable degree
of care in providing it with a dry barn, and shelter from cold winds,
enables it to live even as far north as northern Germany with perfect
comfort. In winter our Axis Deer barn is moderately heated by a stove.

The Japanese Sika Deer, (_Cervus sika typicus_), is a small
representative of a large group of deer species inhabiting far-eastern
Asia, and known as the Sika Deer group. A ridiculous number of forms
have been described as species and subspecies, of which possibly
one-third are entitled to stand. Some of those on the Asian mainland, as
the Pekin Sika Deer, are much larger than the Japanese Sika, and also
more strikingly colored. The latter species, shown in our northernmost
corral, is about 33 inches in height, and of a dull and uninteresting
smoky-brown color. Its antlers are quite large for a deer so small, and
in the mating season males are sometimes dangerous. This species is very
hardy, breeds persistently, requires no heat in winter, and very rarely
sends a case to the hospital.

    [Illustration: AXIS DEER.]

The Fallow Deer, (_Dama vulgaris_), is the type of a distinct group of
deer which are distinguished by the possession of antlers widely
palmated throughout the upper half of the beam. In some old Fallow bucks
the antlers are quite moose-like, and give this small deer an imposing
appearance far out of proportion to its actual size. The weight of a
large buck in prime condition generally is between 180 and 200 pounds,
and its shoulder height is between 36 and 40 inches. The largest antlers
recorded by Mr. J. G. Millais, in his beautiful work on “The British
Deer,” measured 29½ inches in length, 28½ inches spread, width of
palmation 8 inches, and the number of points 14. The extinct Irish elk,
with the most colossal antlers ever carried by a cervine animal, was a
near relative of the two living species of Fallow Deer.

Although a native of northern Africa and the north shore of the
Mediterranean, the Fallow Deer was acclimatized in England and northern
Europe so long ago that the exact date records of the event have
disappeared, and the species is now at home in very many European
forests and game preserves. The deer parks in England possess many fine
herds, but they sometimes exhibit one unfortunate result of long
breeding in a semi-domesticated state—departure from the original type.

The typical Fallow Deer is in winter very dark brown, with light brown
legs and under parts, and in summer light red with white spots—quite
like the axis. From this standard, the variations run from pure white
through the color of the wild type to jet black.

The fine herd in the Zoological Park is the gift of Mr. William
Rockefeller. Six of its original members came from the donor’s herd at
Greenwich, Connecticut, and six were purchased from one of the imperial
parks of Russia, by consent of the Czar, and represent the most hardy
stock obtainable.

    [Illustration: BURMESE DEER.]

The Burmese, or Eld Deer, (_Cervus eldi_), also known as the Brow-Antler
Deer, is one of the rarest species to be seen in captivity. Living
specimens are acquired only through special expeditions to northern
Burma. Its most characteristic feature is the antlers of the male, which
sends forward a very long and almost straight brow tine, while the main
beam sweeps backward in the opposite direction, and describes a full
semicircle. The antlers are both very heavy and long for the size of the
animal. The specimens shown here, which are breeding satisfactorily, are
the gift of Mr. William Rockefeller.

The Barasingha Deer, (_Cervus duvauceli_), also called the Swamp Deer,
is to India what the mule deer is to North America. To my mind, the
antlers of the former always suggests the latter species, and in size
the two species are much alike. In summer the coat of the Barasingha is
of a beautiful golden-yellow color, conspicuous from afar, and the
antlers of old males reach a length of from 35 to 41 inches, with three
bifurcations on each beam. The antlers sometimes are shed and renewed
twice in twelve months. With us this species breeds very regularly, and
the offspring mature well.

The Altai Wapiti, (_Cervus canadensis asiaticus_), is, in all
probability, the parent stock of our American elk, but it happens to be
a fact that our species was the first to be discovered by systematic
zoologists, and described. To all visitors who are interested in deer,
the Altai Wapiti—and also the Tashkent Wapiti—are a constant source of
wonder, because of their well-nigh perfect similarity in all points to
our own wapiti, or American elk. Our Asiatic wapiti are exhibited in
ranges connecting with the western rooms of the Asiatic Deer House,
where they have bred twice, and produced two fine fawns. In the rutting
season the males are very cross and dangerous. They are hardy, and
require no heat in winter.

The Indian Sambar, (_Cervus unicolor_), always suggests a tropical
understudy of the Altai wapiti, clad with thin, coarse, bristly hair,
and with shorter and smaller antlers, and a bristly mane all over the
neck. Each antler possesses three points, only. Of all the Old World
_Cervidae_, this species most nearly approaches the size of the Altai
and Tashkent wapiti. It inhabits the hill forests of India, and in
Burma, Siam and farther south it is replaced by the next species.

The Malay Sambar, (_Cervus equinus_), also called—most
inappropriately—the “Horse-Tailed Deer,” very strongly resembles the
preceding species, except that the bristly mane of the former is
generally absent. The antlers of this species are shorter, also, but
very thick in proportion to their length. The Malay Sambar is confined
to the Malay Peninsula and the countries immediately above, and Borneo
and Sumatra.

This species possesses many admirable qualities, and it might be
introduced to advantage in our southern states. It is very even-tempered
and sensible, easily handled, is a vigorous feeder, breeds persistently,
and matures very rapidly; but in every New York winter, it requires some
heat in its barn.

The Maral Deer, (_Cervus maral_), is in appearance like an extra large
red deer or a small elk. It is a midway member of the Wapiti group,
which extends in a somewhat broken chain from Colorado, northward across
Bering Strait to Asia, and thence across Asia and Europe to Scotland. We
have owned a fine pair of Maral Deer, from the Caucasus district, but
they have failed to breed as expected.

The European Red Deer, (_Cervus elaphus_), is an understudy of the
American elk, which it much resembles in form and in habits. Next to the
elk it is the finest living deer, and for many generations has held its
own against the dangers of in-breeding. In the parks and forest
preserves of Great Britain and Europe, it exists abundantly, but only as
private property, subject to the guns of the owner and his friends. This
species has been successfully crossed with the American elk.

Other Asiatic Deer will be found in the Small-Deer House, in the
southern end of the Park.


                        THE LION HOUSE, No. 15.

As a spectacle of captive animal life, there is none more inspiring than
a spacious, well-lighted and finely-appointed lion house, filled with a
collection of the world’s greatest and handsomest wild beasts. To build
an ideal lion house, and to fill it with a first-class collection of
large felines, are matters involving no little time and much money; but
the sight,—for the millions of visitors,—of lions, tigers, jaguars,
pumas, leopards, cheetahs, black leopards, snow leopards and clouded
leopards, all under one roof, surely is worth what it costs.

The Lion House of the Zoological Park was completed, excepting a few
minor details, early in the year 1903, and was formally opened to the
public in February. It is 244 feet long, 115 feet wide, including the
outdoor cages, and its cost when completed reached $150,000. The
materials of the building are the same kind as those used in the Reptile
House and Primate House, but the animal sculptures, all by Mr. Eli
Harvey, are more abundant and conspicuous than on any other structure
erected heretofore. The building contains 13 indoor cages, and 9 outdoor
cages, and between the two there is free communication. The sizes of the
various cages are as follows:

Interior cages: Largest, 14 feet wide, 22 feet deep; smallest, 13 feet
wide, 14 feet high.

Exterior cages: two end cages, 40×44 feet, 17 feet high; central cage,
40 feet square, 14 feet high; smallest, 13 feet wide, 12 feet deep, 13
feet high.

    [Illustration: JAGUAR.]

Excepting for the single fact of having interior and exterior cages, the
Lion House of the Zoological Park is—like the Primate House—an entirely
original development. Its most important new features are as follows:

All cage service, the introducing and withdrawal of animals, is
conducted from the rear, by means of a track underneath the sleeping
dens, and an elevating platform car.

The communication between indoor and outdoor cages is direct and
continuous.

Instead of upright iron bars, all the cage fronts are of hard-steel wire
netting, in rectangular pattern, attached to wrought iron frames. This
is considered by the Zoological Society a great improvement upon the
heavy bar-work hitherto in universal use for cage fronts in lion houses.

    [Illustration: CHEETAH.]

The space above the sleeping dens has been developed as a sunlit
balcony, whereon the animals will be very conspicuous, even to large
crowds of visitors.

Jungle-green tiling, impervious to moisture and dirt, is used as a
back-ground for the animals.

The Lion is an animal of perpetual interest, but like every other
noteworthy wild animal, its haunts are constantly being claimed by
civilization, and its members are rapidly decreasing. It is not a
difficult matter to exterminate or drive out from a given territory any
large and conspicuous quadruped, and at the present rate of settlement
and industrial development in Africa, it may easily come to pass that by
the end of the present century, the king of beasts will be without a
home, outside of zoological collections.

Like everything great, the Lion has his share of critics and detractors.
A few writers have asserted that because he does not stalk through his
native forests with head proudly erect, like a drum-major on parade, he
is mean-spirited and cowardly. But the beast of noble countenance
believes in the survival of the fittest, and both by inheritance and
observation he knows that a lion who needlessly exposes himself in the
field captures the smallest amount of game, and attracts the greatest
number of steel-tipped bullets.

    [Illustration: BARBARY LION.]

Although Lions vary greatly in their color, and in the length of the
mane, it is conceded by naturalists that only one species exists. In the
same district and under precisely similar conditions are found
short-maned and long-maned individuals, and all shades of color from
tawny yellow to dark brown. The present geographic range of the species
is from Southern Rhodesia to Persia and northwestern India, but in
northern Egypt there is a large extent of territory which is lionless.

By reason of his heavy mane and massive countenance, supported by the
grandest roar that issues from throat of beast, the Lion appears to be a
larger animal than he really is. It is yet an unsettled question whether
it exceeds the tiger in length, height or weight, and it is certainly
true that in point of size these two species are very evenly matched.

In captivity, the Lion is reasonably contented, and under good
conditions breeds readily, and lives a goodly number of years.

The Siberian Tiger.—Strange to say, the tiger ranges far to the
northward of its proper home in Hindustan, even to Corea, Manchuria and
Russian Siberia. In those cold regions the tiger grows to its greatest
size, and is clothed with a dense coat of long and shaggy hair. In
collections, the great northern tigers are the most highly prized. The
Zoological Park has recently acquired from East Siberia two fine young
specimens, born early in 1909, and all the year round they inhabit the
great northern outdoor cage attached to the Lion House. It is a strange
sight to see tigers living outdoors in winter in New York.

    [Illustration: SNOW LEOPARD.]

The Tiger will be found upon the earth long after the lion has
disappeared. He is a far better hider, a more skillful hunter, less
given to taking foolish risks, and he does not advertise his presence
and invite his enemies by the bombastic roaring in which the lion
delights to indulge. The Tiger is an animal of serious mind, and he
attends strictly to business. A lion will stalk out into the open, in
broad day, but the Tiger sticks closely to cover until the friendly
darkness renders it safe to roam abroad.

Despite the density of the population of India, and the omnipresence of
sahibs with rifles of large caliber, the Tiger still inhabits all India
from Cape Comorin to the Himalayas, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Burma,
Siam, and certain portions of China up to the region of snows. Corean
and Siberian Tigers are much sought after by zoological gardens, partly
on account of their size, and also because they are so hardy they are
able to live out doors all winter in the temperate zone. The Tiger is
not found in Africa, nor in any country westward of India.

The maximum length attained by this animal, head, body and tail, is 10
feet 2 inches. A very large specimen killed by Dr. Hornaday measured 9
feet 8½ inches in length, stood 3 feet 7 inches high at the shoulders,
and weighed, on the scales, 495 pounds. In India, Tigers are classed
according to their habits, as “game-killers,” “cattle-lifters,” or
“man-eaters.” Fortunately, in comparison with the total number of these
animals, the latter are few and far between.

Of yellow-coated felines, The Jaguar, (_Felis onca_), is next in size to
the tiger. In South America, it is almost universally called “El Tigre”
(pronounced Te’-gre), which is Spanish for tiger. Comparatively few
Americans are aware that this superb animal belongs in the fauna of the
United States, but such is the fact. The northern limit of its
distribution is found in southern Texas, where it still exists in small
numbers. In South America it extends to Patagonia.

The Jaguar is a stocky, heavily-built animal, with a massive head and
powerful forearm. It is a good climber, and many wonderful stories of
its strength have been told and printed. Among leopards of all kinds it
can always be identified by the great size of the black rosettes on its
body, as well as by its heavy build.

The splendid male specimen, named “Senor Lopez,” in honor of a former
President of Paraguay, was the first to arrive for the new Lion House.
It was captured in August, 1901, in the wilds of central Paraguay,
expressly for us, through the efforts of Mr. William Mill Butler, of
Philadelphia, and by him presented to the Zoological Park. After a long
journey in small river craft, in a flimsy wooden cage that several times
came near collapsing, the animal reached Asuncion, was taken to
Liverpool by Mr. Butler, and finally reached New York.

The Leopard, (_Felis pardus_), is fourth in size from the lion, and is
distinguished from the jaguar by smaller spots and less powerful form.
It inhabits both Asia and Africa, from Japan to Cape Colony. While the
species is regarded as the same throughout that vast extent of
territory, it is undoubtedly true that the Leopards of Africa have
smaller spots and more intense coloring than those of Asia. The maximum
size for this species is a total length of 8 feet, which is attained
only by a very large animal, with a long tail.

Naturally, the Leopard preys upon smaller animals than those most sought
by the lion and tiger. It prefers small antelopes, and young animals
generally, goats and sheep. When pursued, it is very skilful in hiding,
and will shelter in brushy cover until fairly beaten out.

The Black Leopard is the most ill-tempered of all feline
animals—perpetually snarling and growling, and seeking to do some one an
injury. Naturalists regard it as of the same species as the common
leopard, (_Felis pardus_), despite the fact that it is found only in
southeastern Asia, and both in appearance and disposition is totally
different from the typical _pardus_. With but few exceptions, the
world’s supply of Black Leopards comes from Singapore.

The Cheetah, or Hunting Leopard, (_Cynaelurus jubatus_), is marked by
its long legs, slender body, small head, small spots, and claws that are
only partially retractile. Its structure suggests that of the dogs. It
is distributed very irregularly through portions of Africa and southern
Asia, and is by no means a common animal like the leopard and tiger.

In central India, this animal is trained to hunt the sasin antelope, a
form of sport indulged in chiefly by native rajahs. The Cheetah takes
kindly to captivity, and permits handling to an extent quite unknown
with other large felines. Its keepers place the animal upon an open
cart, blindfold it, and then drive to within 200 yards of a herd of
antelope. At the point of nearest possible approach, the hood is
removed, and the animal is set free. Leaping to the ground, the Cheetah
stalks the herd of antelope as closely as possible, then makes a sudden
rush forward, and endeavors to seize a victim. If successful, the animal
is pulled down and killed. If not, the Cheetah sullenly retires, and
again places itself in the hands of its friends.

The Snow Leopard, or Ounce, (_Felis uncia_), is the rarest, and also one
of the most beautiful of all the large felines. It inhabits the high
plateau of central Asia from the Himalayas to the Altai Mountains of
Mongolia, above 9,000 feet. It is the neighbor of the Marco Polo sheep,
the giant-horned argali, and the Siberian ibex. In its home country,
this creature is sufficiently numerous that 2,000 tanned skins sometimes
reach Shanghai in a single year, but owing to its great distance from
railways and sea, not more than fifteen or twenty specimens have reached
the zoological gardens of Europe and America. Some individuals are
good-natured and playful, but others are morose.

The Puma, or Mountain Lion, (_Felis concolor_), is the most widely-known
feline in North America. At present it is at home in Florida, Montana,
Wyoming, Colorado, Texas, and all the states westward thereof. Southward
it inhabits Mexico and Central America, and ranges through South America
quite down to southern Patagonia. It attains its maximum size (8 feet in
length, weight 225 pounds) in Colorado, where it appears to be more
numerous than in any other state. In Routt County it is hunted very
successfully with dogs. When pursued, it is compelled to take refuge in
a low tree, in which it can be photographed or shot without danger.

Despite the numerous thrilling stories that have been written and
published about the dangerous doings of this animal, it is by no means
really dangerous to man. No Puma holding an option on a safe line of
retreat ever stops to fight a man.

The Puma was formed for agility rather than strength. It swims well, and
it is the most agile climber of all the large felines. The head of this
animal is particularly beautiful, and its temper in captivity is
entirely satisfactory. The first specimen of this species to enter the
Zoological Park came from Peru, as a gift from Mr. Joseph P. Grace, and
during the years 1901 and 1902 it lived out doors, constantly, in the
Puma House (No. 33A), where its health was excellent.


                         THE SEA-LIONS, No. 12.

Of all animals which find permanent homes in zoological gardens and
parks, very few afford the public more constant entertainment than
Sea-Lions. They are delightfully active, and in one way or
another—diving, swimming, climbing or hopping about—are nearly always
“showing off.” No one within a quarter of a mile of their pool need
inquire where they are, for their loud and cheerful “Hook! hook! hook,”
is heard far and wide, and draws visitors like a magnet.

The Sea-Lion Pool is situated about in the center of Baird Court.

The California Sea-Lion, or “Barking Sea-Lion,” (_Zalophus
californianus_), is the species most easily caught alive, and the one
usually seen in captivity. Its home is the coast of California, but it
is said to enter the Sacramento River and travel upward for a
considerable distance in pursuit of spawning salmon. Comparatively few
Sea-Lions are now found on the mainland coast of California. On the
United States Light-House reservations their slaughter is prohibited by
the Light-House Board.

The California Sea-Lion is very similar in size, and, leaving the old
males out of consideration, it is almost the exact counterpart in form
of that apple of perpetual international discord—the Alaskan “fur seal.”
The unfortunate fact that the latter animal has become known as a
“seal,” has caused much confusion in people’s minds regarding the
classification of pinnipeds (fin-footed animals) generally. For this
reason, it is proper to observe at this point that:

_Sea-Lions_ have flat, triangular, naked front flippers, without claws;
they have long necks, and carry their heads high. There are nine
species, of which the so-called “fur seal” is one.

_Seals_ always have short and stubby front flippers, which are covered
with hair, and provided with claws. In most species the hair is coarse
and valueless. The seal has a very short neck and by reason of the
weakness of its front flippers, it is not nearly so active nor so
interesting as the sea-lion.

    [Illustration: ATLANTIC WALRUS.]

The Atlantic Walrus inhabits the arctic regions between America and
Europe, and it is estimated that not more than ten specimens ever have
been exhibited in captivity. Because of their unusual feeding habits,
Walruses are very difficult to keep alive. Their standard food is clams;
and frequently clams are very difficult to obtain. The Atlantic Walrus
grows to great size, probably exceeding 4,000 pounds in weight. The
specimen exhibited in the rocky pool near the Reptile House was
presented by Mr. Paul J. Rainey, in 1911, and has thriven continuously
ever since its arrival. It was captured in Kane Basin, north of Baffin’s
Bay.

The Harbor Seal, (_Phoca vitulina_), is the species common along our
Atlantic coast, and since it serves so well as a type of hair seals, or
true seals, it will occasionally be shown in the Park. In comparison
with the active and vivacious sea-lion, it is a tame and rather
uninteresting creature; but neither has any commercial value, save for
the purposes of exhibition when alive.


                       THE PRIMATE HOUSE, No. 17.

The Primates are the four-handed animals belonging to the zoological
order called by that name, which includes man, the anthropoid apes both
great and small, the baboons, monkeys and lemurs. The word “monkey” is
by no means sufficiently comprehensive to embrace all these forms. Were
it otherwise, this building would be called, officially, the Monkey
House.

The Primates include the creatures which stand nearest to man in the
zoological scale, and in interest to all classes of humanity they stand
above all others. There is no intelligent person, civilized or savage,
to whom the humanlikeness of apes and monkeys does not appeal. On the
other hand, some of the baboons are in feature and temper so thoroughly
beast-like, their diabolism is almost as fascinating as the man-like
character of the great apes. The variety of forms in the Order Primates,
and the wide differences between the various groups, imperatively
demand, for the proper representation of this Order, a large collection.

The Primate House was erected in 1901, at a cost of $65,000, and opened
to the public on December 22d, of that year. It is 162 feet in length,
74 feet in width, contains 16 large interior cages, 22 small cages, and
11 exterior cages, two of which are of great size. The points of special
excellence in this building are as follows: An abundance of room for the
animals, an abundance of sunlight, perfect ventilation, an extensive
series of open-air cages, freedom of communication between outside and
inside cages, floors and walls impervious to moisture and disease germs,
and the absence of iron bars from all cages save three.

During the months of mild weather, all the inmates of the large interior
cages occupy, at will, corresponding cages in the outdoor series. It is
also intended that certain hardy species of baboons, and the red-faced
monkey of Japan, shall be provided with comfortable sleeping quarters
and live outdoors, every winter. It is believed that they can do this,
not only with comfort, but with great physical benefit.

For general convenience, and the promotion of a universal understanding
of the primates, we propose to set them forth in four groups, a
subdivision strictly according to Nature, readily comprehended, and
easily remembered They are as follows, with typical examples of each:

                                I. Anthropoid Apes.

  Chimpanzee                  _Anthropopithecus calvus_   of  Africa.
  Orang-Utan                  _Simia satyrus_              “  Borneo.
  Gray Gibbon                 _Hylobates leuciscus_        “     “

                         II. Old World Monkeys and Baboons.

  Mona Monkey                 _Cercopithecus mona_         “  Africa.
  White-Collared Mangabey     _Cercocebus collaris_        “     “
  Magot: Barbary “Ape”        _Macacus inuus_              “  N. Africa.
  Japanese Red-Faced Monkey   _   “   fuscatus_            “  Japan.
  Pig-Tailed Monkey           _   “   nemestrinus_         “  E. India.
  Rhesus Monkey               _   “   rhesus_              “  India.
  Entellus Monkey             _   “   entellus_            “     “
  Black “Ape”                 _Cynopithecus niger_         “  Celebes.
  Golden Baboon               _Papio babuin_               “  N. Africa.
  Hamadryas                   _   “   hamadryas_           “  Arabia.
  Mandrill                    _   “   mormon_              “  W. Africa.
  Gelada                      _Theropithecus gelada_       “  Abyssinia.

                              III. New World Monkeys.

  White-Throated Sapajou      _Cebus hypoleucus_           “  S. America.
  Red-Faced Spider Monkey     _Ateles paniscus_            “  “    “
  White-Headed Saki           _Pithecia leucocephala_      “  “    “
  Yarkee: Short-Tailed Monkey _Brachyurus calva_           “  “    “
  Squirrel Monkey             _Chrysothrix sciurea_        “  “    “
  Common Marmoset             _Hapale jacchus_             “  “    “
  Douroucoli                  _Nyctipithecus trivirgatus_  “  “    “

                             IV. Lemurs and Lemuroids.

  Ring-Tailed Lemur           _Lemur catta_                “  Madagascar.
  Indri                       _Indri brevicaudata_         “  India.
  Galago                      _Galago galago_              “  Madagascar.
  Slow Lemur                  _Nycticebus tardigradus_     “  Madagascar.
  Aye-Aye                     _Cheiromys                   “  India.
                              madagascariensis_

    [Illustration: CHIMPANZEE BALDY.]

Nearly all the above-named species are now living in the Primate House,
besides which there are many others. So far as the available supply of
captive primates will permit, these typical species will constantly be
kept on exhibition, together with many others equally interesting. In
this small volume it is possible to notice only the most important
forms.

The Gorilla, (_Gorilla savagei_), of equatorial West Africa, is the
largest and ugliest of the great apes, walks erect, and in form of body
and limbs, it most resembles man. Its brain, however, is less man-like
than that of the chimpanzee and orang-utan. It is very rarely seen in
captivity. The only specimen which up to 1911 had reached America alive
lived but five days after its arrival. Despite the fact that these
creatures seldom live in captivity longer than a few months, they are
always being sought by zoological gardens. The agents of the New York
Zoological Society are constantly on the watch for an opportunity to
procure and send hither a good specimen of this wonderful creature; and
whenever one arrives, all persons interested are advised to see it
_immediately_,—before it dies of sullenness, lack of exercise, and
indigestion.

The Orang-Utan is intellectually superior to the gorilla, and is
equalled only by the chimpanzee. Unfortunately, as a rule, none of the
great apes are long-lived in captivity, and in zoological gardens they
come and go. For this reason, it is seldom that an adult specimen, 4
feet in height, and weighing 150 pounds, is seen in captivity. Among
other apes, the Orang-Utan is readily recognized by its _brown skin, red
hair and small ears_.

In disposition this creature is naturally docile and affectionate. It is
fond of the society of human beings, takes to training with wonderful
readiness and success, and young specimens can easily be taught to wear
clothes, sit at table, and eat with spoon and fork. In the summer of
1911, the daily open-air exhibition of _nine_ apes dining at 4 o’clock
on an elevated platform in the large outside cage at the Primate House,
will long be remembered by the crowds of visitors who saw it. Such
exhibitions are entirely germane to the educational purposes of a
zoological garden or park, for they illustrate the mentality of animals
and their wonderful likeness to man, far more forcibly than the best
printed statements.

The north hall of the Primate House is specially intended for the
anthropoid apes, and it is not likely that any lengthy periods will
elapse during which it contains neither orang-utans nor chimpanzees.

    [Illustration: ORANG-UTAN.]

The Chimpanzee, (_Anthropopithecus calvus_), of equatorial Africa from
the west coast to the central lake region, is quite as common in
captivity as the orang-utan. Both structurally and mentally this animal
is very much like the orang-utan, and for keenness of intellect and
susceptibility to training, it is second to none of the animals lower
than man. A Chimpanzee is easily recognized by its _black hair and large
ears_. There are two or three species.

The Gibbon shows off to poor advantage in a cage, but in the tree-tops
it is a wonderful creature. It is like a long-armed skeleton clothed
with skin and hair, animated by the spirit of an Ariel. In its home in
the jungles of Borneo and southeastern Asia, it dwells in hilly forests,
and never descends to the earth. When attacked, it flees down-hill, if
possible, and it seems actually to fly through the tree-tops. It boldly
flings itself forward through space, grasps with its hands the first
available branch, swings underneath, feet foremost, and after another
flight presently catches with its feet, thus actually making revolutions
as it goes. Its progress is so swift and so silent that successful
pursuit is impossible to any enemy not provided with wings.

This animal is naturally very timid, but does not hesitate to expose
itself to mortal danger when its young are in distress. In captivity
gibbons are shy and nervous, and take life very seriously.

    [Illustration: HUMBOLDT WOOLLY MONKEY.]


                           Old-World Monkeys.

The Baboons have been specially designed by Nature for life upon the
ground, surrounded by dangerous enemies. But for their big canine teeth,
their fierce tempers and bull-dog courage, backed by a fine combination
of strength and agility, the lions, leopards, hyenas and jackals of
Africa would have exterminated them all, ages ago. They were not formed
to become hand-organ beasts of burden, nor even companions to man, but
rather to fight off their enemies, and bluff even the king of beasts
when occasion requires. In captivity, their strength and ferocity always
inspires respect, and sometimes genuine terror. At all times they
require to be treated as dangerous animals.

Of the various species of baboons on exhibition in the Primate House,
the full-grown Mandrill is the most interesting, and wonderful. It seems
like an animal not of this earth, and reminds the visitor of one of the
great beasts of the visions of St. John the Divine. The home of this
species is in West Africa, and it is found from Senegambia to the Congo.
The long shaggy hair, lion-like appearance, the peculiar color markings
of the face, and the indescribable grimaces, instantly fix the attention
of every visitor.

The Hamadryas Baboon, with long side whiskers and cape of long hair, is
one of the handsomest animals of this group. Its explosive, ear-racking
cry is almost as startling to visitors as a cannon-shot.

The Golden Baboon has the liveliest disposition and the best temper
possessed by any baboon. Young specimens are full of good-natured
mischief, and are much given to hectoring their cage-mates. The
Long-Armed Yellow Baboon is quite at home in the Primate House, and has
bred here. It is a good species to keep in captivity.

The Group of Old World Monkeys, in addition to the baboons, contains
several species worthy of special remark. There are some which have
tails so very short and insignificant that they seem to be tailless, and
several of them are called “apes.” _They are not true anthropoids_
(manlike apes), however, and it is a confusing error to designate any of
them as “apes.” The species referred to are the following:

  The Black “Ape,” of Celebes, exceedingly like a true baboon.

  The Magot, or Barbary “Ape,” of North Africa and Gibraltar, which is a
  true macaque.

  The Japanese Red-Faced Monkey, another macaque, with a brilliant red
  face, and long, thick coat of hair, which enables it to live out of
  doors all winter, even in this Zoological Park.

  The Pig-Tailed Monkey, several species of which are found in Burma and
  other portions of southeastern Asia.

All the above are on exhibition in the Primate House, and the outdoor
cages.

The Rhesus Monkey, of India, is one of the sacred species, and ages of
immunity from molestation, or even wholesome discipline, have made this
animal aggressive and domineering in temper.

The Bonneted Macaque is the best-tempered monkey of all the monkey
species found in the East Indies, and it is by far the best to keep as a
pet.

The Entellus Monkey, of India, is also a sacred species, and its natural
seriousness of manner, and dignified bearing, quite befit the direct
descendants of the original Hunuman, or monkey deity of the Hindoos, who
helped to build Adam’s Bridge.

Of the many African monkeys, some of the most showy (such as the Guerzas
and Colobos) are so difficult to procure they can not be set forth as
permanent residents in the Primate House. The following species,
however, may be classed with the reliables:

The White-Collared Mangabey and Sooty Mangabey are both so lively, so
good-natured, and so free from the fighting habit, they are prime
favorites with everybody.

The Mona Monkey is handsome and easily kept, and an excellent
representative of the great African genus _Cercopithecus_.

The Green Monkey and the Vervet are lively but quarrelsome, and at times
become dangerous. The Patas, or Red Monkey, is very sedate, and makes a
good cage-mate for the mona.

The New World Monkeys, even at their best, never make a strong showing
in a vivarium. The trouble is that many of the most interesting species
are so delicate it is impossible to keep them alive in captivity. Fame
awaits the man who can discover a bill of fare on which Howling Monkeys,
Sakis and Yarkees can live in captivity to old age, and repay their cost
and care. Their digestive organs are delicate, and are subject to
derangement from causes so slight they can not be reckoned with.

The Sapajous are the hardiest, the most intelligent and in some respects
the most interesting of the New World monkeys. They all possess the
prehensile (or grasping) tail, _which is not found on any Old World
monkey_, and the use made of it is a constant source of wonder. Monkeys
of this species are quite common in captivity, and their wrinkled brows
and serious countenances give them an appearance of being burdened with
cares,—which most captive monkeys certainly are! These are the
unfortunate creatures which so often come to grief on hand-organs.

The Black Spider Monkey and the Gray Spider Monkey represent a genus of
animals quite as attenuated in form as the gibbons. Their slender
bodies, exceedingly long and slender legs and tail,—the latter strongly
prehensile, and better than a fifth arm and hand,—give them when in the
tree-tops an appearance truly spider-like. They are agile climbers, but
not rapid runners, and having no means of defense are very timid. Their
stomachs are so simple they seem to lack some element or function that
is necessary to the life of the animal in captivity. Notwithstanding the
fact that “Jess,” of Bath, New York, in defiance of all laws and
precedents, _lived thirteen years in a cold climate_, the great majority
of spider monkeys die before they reach full maturity, and nearly always
of stomach troubles. Fortunately, however, there are exceptions to this
rule.

    [Illustration: JAPANESE RED-FACED MONKEY.]

    [Illustration: PIG-TAILED MACAQUE.]

The Squirrel Monkey, often called a “Marmoset,” is a pretty little
olive-yellow monkey, almost as delicate as the true Marmoset, and the
Pinche. These diminutive creatures are so delicate they require the
greatest care and tenderness, and thrive better in moderately small
cages than in large ones. True marmosets are the smallest of American
primates, being next in size to the Tarsier, of Borneo, smallest of all
quadrumanes.

The Lemurs and Lemuroids.—A lemur is a monkey-like animal belonging to
the lowest group of primates, but in some respects is so little like a
typical monkey that the relationship is not always apparent. There are
about thirty species, and all save a very few are found on the Island of
Madagascar. They are gentle-spirited, harmless and inoffensive animals,
and not being persecuted by their human neighbors, as all American wild
animals are, they are quite numerous.

Nearly all the Lemurs have long tails, long and fine hair, large eyes
and pointed muzzles. Many of them are strikingly colored in various
shades of black, white and gray. All Lemurs are supposed to be of
nocturnal habit, and in fact they really are; but the specimens in the
large jungle cage of the Primate House are quite as lively and
interesting in the daytime as most of the monkeys. So far from
manifesting a disposition to retire to dark corners, they love to lie in
the sunshine.

    [Illustration: SLOW LEMUR.]

    [Illustration: SIAMANG.]

The Ruffed Lemur, or Black-and-White Lemur, (_Lemur varia_), is the
handsomest member of this entire group. Its fur is very long, silky, and
alternately pure white and jet black. The Ring-Tailed Lemur has a very
long, pointed tail, ornamented with about 25 alternating rings of brown
and gray, which it carries very gracefully. This species is of a more
lively disposition than most others. The curious Indri has not up to
this time come into the collection, but it is expected in the near
future. When it arrives it can at once be recognized by the entire
absence of a tail, except a mere stump, and by its large hands and feet.


                        ELEPHANT HOUSE, No. 20.

Of its buildings for animals, the Elephant House is the culminating
feature of the Zoological Park, and it comes quite near to being the
last of the series. In token of these facts, it is fittingly crowned
with a dome. Through its position in the general plan it closes a wide
gap, and effectively links together the northern and southern halves of
the establishment.

The erection of this great structure began in 1907, and the building was
completed and its inmates housed in the fall of 1908. The yards
surrounding the structure were finished in 1909.

    [Illustration: ELEPHANT HOUSE.]

Any building which can comfortably accommodate a representative
collection of the largest of all living land animals, must
unquestionably be large and substantial. There is no pleasure in seeing
a ponderous elephant chained to the floor of a small room, unable even
to walk to and fro, and never permitted to roam at will in the open air
and sunlight. It is no wonder that dungeon-kept elephants go mad, and do
mischief. If an elephant—or for that matter any animal—cannot be kept in
_comfortable_ captivity, then let it not be kept at all.

The Elephant House of the City of New York is a large and roomy
structure, built to render good service for two centuries. Its extreme
length over all is 170 feet, and its width is 84 feet. Its two sides are
divided into 8 huge compartments, of which 4 are for elephants, 2 for
rhinoceroses, and 2 for hippopotami. Each of these is 24×21½ feet.

The Hippopotami have within the building a tank 24×21 feet, and 8 feet
in total depth; and another will be constructed in their corral.

Each end of the building furnishes two cages of smaller dimensions, for
tapirs, and young elephants. The whole area surrounding the building,
excepting the axial walk, is devoted to open-air yards, so arranged that
each cage in the interior connects directly with a corral which affords
both sunshine and shade. Nature seems to have made this beautiful open
grove—strangely free from trees in its center—especially for the
purposes to which it now is devoted.

It is by no means the intention of the Zoological Society, that, because
an axial walk leads through the Elephant House, the building shall be
used _as a thoroughfare_ for foot traffic between the northern and
southern portions of the Park. Such use would surely defeat the main
purpose of the structure. It is intended to be entered _only by persons
who desire to see the animals, and all others must pass around it_, by
one or the other of the two very direct promenades which will be
provided. The employees of the Park are strictly forbidden to consider
the walk through the building as a convenient highway, and visitors are
requested to observe the obvious necessities of this case.

The Indian Elephant, (_Elephas indicus_), is the universal elephant of
captivity, the African species being shown only as a great rarity. For
every elephant that comes from Africa, about thirty come from India, and
of those about twenty-nine are prosy and unromantic females. In order to
secure a male Indian Elephant, it must be specially ordered.

    [Illustration: INDIAN ELEPHANT.]

Our first Indian Elephant, a fine male named “Gunda,” was caught wild in
the interior of Assam, northeastern India, and he arrived at the
Zoological Park in May, 1904, as the gift of Col. Oliver H. Payne. He
was then about seven years old. He stood 6 feet 7 inches in shoulder
height, weighed 3,740 pounds, and had all the points of a “high-caste”
elephant. His tusks were then 16 inches long. He is very mischievous
about breaking anything in his quarters that is breakable, and he
manifests special dislike toward certain individuals who come near him.
Like most Indian elephants, “Gunda” is very intelligent. In two days he
was taught to receive pennies, lift the lid of his “bank,” drop the coin
within, and ring his bell.

Since his arrival here, in May, 1904, he has grown in height at the rate
of about 5 inches each year. On November 1, 1910, he stood 8 feet 9
inches in shoulder height, his weight was 8100 pounds, and his tusks
were 36 inches long.

The Sudan African Elephant, (_Elephas oxyotis_, Matschie), is the
largest of the four species of African elephants now recognized. The
other species are the South African Elephant, (_E. capensis_), the
German-East-African Elephant, (_E. knochenhaueri_), and the West African
Elephant, (_E. cyclotis_).

After some years of waiting, and many futile efforts, we have at last
come into possession of a pair of young Sudan Elephants, representing,
so we believe, the great species to which belonged Jumbo, and also the
bearer of the enormous tusks presented to the Zoological Society by Mr.
Charles T. Barney. Like all elephants newly arrived from Africa, they
are young, and small; but if they have good health they will grow very
rapidly, and about A. D. 1927 they should attain full stature,—11 feet
at the shoulders for the male, or thereabouts.

    [Illustration: AFRICAN ELEPHANTS.]

The different species of elephants are most easily recognized by their
ears. Compare the enormous “sail-area” of the ears of this species with
the small, triangular ear of the Indian elephant, and the small, round
ear of the next species.

The West African Elephant, (_Elephas cyclotis_), of equatorial West
Africa, especially the Congo country, is apparently a small species, not
exceeding seven feet in height, even if that height is ever attained.
Mr. Carl Hagenbeck reports that out of nearly 300 pairs of tusks of this
species examined by him in the German ivory market, not one pair
exceeded two feet in length, and many measured only 10 inches.

On July 25, 1905, we received a male specimen representing this species,
as a gift from Mr. Barney. It is strikingly marked by its small round
ears, and the presence of 5 toes on each fore-foot and 4 on the hind
foot, the number in the East African species being 4 and 3,
respectively. At the time of its arrival, little “Congo” stood 43 inches
in shoulder height, his weight was precisely 600 pounds, and his tusks
were 4 inches long. On June 1, 1911, his shoulder height was 60 inches,
and his weight was 1650 pounds, and his tusks were 23 inches long.

    [Illustration: AFRICAN TWO-HORNED RHINOCEROS.]

Regarding the life history and distribution of this odd species, much
remains to be ascertained; and precise information is greatly desired.

The African Two-Horned Rhinoceros, (_Rhinoceros bicornis_), is already
represented by a female specimen which was acquired in 1906. “Victoria”
was captured in July, 1905, in the northern point of German East Africa,
within about sixty miles of the head of Speke Gulf, which is the
southeastern arm of Lake Victoria Nyanza. The elevation is between 4,000
and 5,000 feet. She was slung under a pole, and carried, six days’
journey on men’s shoulders, to the shore of the lake.

From thence she was transported by steamer to Port Florence, at the head
of the Uganda Railway, thence by rail 500 miles to Mombasa. Ever since
her arrival in New York, “Victoria” has developed rapidly. Captivity
does not seem to fret her in the least. She is very docile, is very
friendly toward her keeper, and it is quite apparent that she enjoys
herself.

The African Two-Horned Rhinoceros once was very abundant throughout the
whole of the fertile plains region of east and south Africa, but the
onslaughts of hunters have exterminated it from probably nine-tenths of
the territory that it once occupied. To-day, the Englishmen of Africa
are earnestly endeavoring to regulate and abate the slaughter of African
big game, and beyond doubt safe, good results in that line are being
accomplished. It is to be hoped that the protection lines will now be
drawn so tightly around the game that remains that it will be
perpetuated for centuries to come.

    [Illustration: INDIAN RHINOCEROS.]

The Indian Rhinoceros, (_Rhinoceros unicornis_).—A full-grown Indian
Rhinoceros is one of the most wonderful of all living animals. It seems
like a prehistoric monster, belonging to the days of the dinosaurs,
rather than a creature of to-day; and the killing of so grand a creature
solely for the sake of “sport,” and a stuffed head to hang upon a wall,
is murder, no less. It is quite time that the most wonderful works of
animated Nature should universally be recognized as safe from attack
with the rifle and knife.

So pronounced is the rarity of the great Indian Rhinoceros, it is a fact
that for nearly fifteen years no living specimens came into the
wild-animal market. At last, however, the persistence and industry of
the renowned Carl Hagenbeck was rewarded by the capture, in 1906, of
four young specimens, all of which reached Hamburg in May, 1907. One of
the best specimens of the quartette was purchased for the New York
Zoological Park, and is now living in the Park in the quarters prepared
for him at the Elephant House.

    [Illustration: PYGMY HIPPOPOTAMI.]

The Indian One-Horned Rhinoceros is the largest of all living
rhinoceroses. A full-grown male is about 5 feet, 6 inches in shoulder
height, and 10 feet 6 inches long from end of nose to root of tail. The
length of the horn is not great, rarely exceeding 12 inches. The skin is
very thick, and lies upon the animal in great rigid slabs which are
divided by articulating areas of thinner skin.

The Hippopotamus, (_Hippopotamus amphibius_), is more frequently seen in
captivity than any of the large rhinoceroses, or the African elephant.
In the lakes and large rivers of central East Africa it still exists in
fair numbers, and still is killed for “sport.”

Strange as it may seem, this very inert and usually lethargic monster
can, under what it deems just provocation, become very angry, and even
dangerous. Four years ago, in one of the rivers of Uganda, a
hippopotamus not only overturned a boat, but killed one of its native
occupants by biting him.

The Hippopotamus breeds readily in captivity, even under poor
conditions, and the supply for the zoological gardens of the world is
chiefly maintained in that way. The fine male specimen exhibited in the
Zoological Park was purchased from the Central Park Menagerie, for
$3,000, and is a gift from Mr. Samuel Thorne. He was born on July 13,
1904. His weight on November 1, 1909, at five years of age, was 3,114
pounds; and he is growing rapidly.

The Pygmy Hippopotamus (_Hippopotamus liberiensis_), is a great
zoological novelty, and second in rarity only to the okapi. Thus far
only five specimens ever have been exhibited. An adult Pygmy Hippo is
only _one-fourteenth_ the size of an adult Nile Hippo. Our three
specimens, a female and two males, are exhibited in the Elephant House.
They arrived in 1912, and were captured in Liberia, West Africa. The
cost price of the trio was $15,000. They have excellent appetites, never
have been ill, and they seem to enjoy their new home. Their habits,
capture, and their home surroundings have been fully described in the
_Bulletin_ (No. 52) and the Annual Report for 1912 of the Zoological
Society.

The Pygmy Hippopotamus is far more widely distributed throughout Liberia
than might be inferred from the surprising scarcity of specimens in
museums, and the long absence of the species from zoological gardens. It
is an inhabitant of swampy forests, and while it frequents rivers it is
not confined to them, like the large hippo. It seeks shelter from
molestation in large cavities in river banks, usually under the roots of
overhanging trees. These specimens were caught by digging pits in their
runways, with sides so steep that the captives could not climb out.
After capture, each animal was placed in a huge basket crate, slung
under a pole, and carried by natives over the rough forest trails to the
nearest river transportation.

The Tapirs.—Near the end of the Order of Hoofed Animals, (_Ungulata_),
is found the Tapir Family, represented in both the old world and the
new, by about five species. These very odd creatures inhabit the densest
forests of the tropics, where vegetation grows rankly, and few other
large hoofed animals can live. They are very fond of water, and swim
well.

The South American Tapir, (_Tapirus terrestris_), takes kindly to
captivity, breeds in confinement, and always manages to look well-fed
and as sleek as a seal. Its color is a rich mahogany brown, and its
long, prehensile nose is strongly suggestive of the end of an elephant’s
trunk. The shoulder height of a full-grown animal is about 37 inches.
This species inhabits Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay
and some other regions of South America. Some of the Central American
Tapirs inhabit mountain regions, but all are exceedingly wary, and
difficult to find without dogs.

The Malay Tapir, (_Tapirus indicus_), of the Malay Peninsula and
Sumatra, may be recognized as far as it can be seen, by its colors. The
front half of the animal, and its legs, are black or dark brown, and the
rear half of the body is white. It is much larger than the preceding
species.


                         THE WOLF DENS, No. 22.

At the northeastern corner of the Elk Range there is a huge, bare
granite rock, two hundred feet long, shaped precisely like the hump of a
bull buffalo. The high end of the hump is toward the north, and its
crest is about fifteen feet above the ground on its eastern side. A
fringe of small trees and bushes grows along its western side. On the
east side, well sheltered by the rock itself from the cold west winds of
winter, and also shaded by several fine trees which most opportunely
grow close beside the ledge, the Wolf Dens and Fox Dens are situated.

In regard to the iron work, these dens are merely an understudy of the
Bear Dens. The dimensions of each den of the series are 16 by 48 feet,
and the height of the bars to the top of the overhang is 9 feet 6
inches. The sleeping dens are of simple construction, all save one being
of wood, trimmed with bark-covered slabs. At present the Wolf Dens are
divided into four compartments.

The Gray Wolf, (_Canis nubilis_), is known by as many names as it has
color phases. In the North, where it is white, it is called the “White
Wolf,” while in Florida it becomes the “Black Wolf.” In British Columbia
and around Great Slave Lake, both white and black wolves abound, as well
as the standard gray, but on the Barren Grounds the white phase
predominates. In Texas a “Red Wolf” is found, but apparently the red
phase is of somewhat rare occurrence, and is never found in the North.

In the West this animal has recently come into prominence in a way that
is striking terror to the hearts of ranchmen and others who have stock
to lose. While all kinds of desirable game animals are decreasing at an
alarming rate, the Gray Wolf not only holds its own, but is multiplying
rapidly. The destruction by it of calves, colts and sheep, has become so
great that nearly every western State has placed on the head of this
bold marauder a bounty varying from $2 to $10. In some States this law
has been in force for several years, but with no sensible diminution in
the number of wolves.

    [Illustration: TIMBER WOLF.]

The Gray Wolves which live in touch with civilization are by no means
such bold and dangerous animals as they formerly were. In the early
days, when wolves were numerous and fire-arms few and primitive, the
Gray Wolf undoubtedly was a dangerous animal. But the breech-loading
rifle has changed all this. Excepting for his stock-killing
propensities, the Gray Wolf is now a skulking creature. In the United
States this animal possesses the courage of a coyote, but in the Barren
Grounds it is still fierce and dangerous. However much the wolf may
skulk and flee when the way is open, when brought to bay he knows how to
fight. One snap of his powerful jaws and shear-like teeth is enough to
disable almost any dog, and send it howling to the rear. It is no wonder
that western dogs of experience are shy of approaching a Gray Wolf
within snapping distance.

Excepting the localities from which it has been driven out by
civilization, the Gray Wolf ranges over the whole North American
continent from central Mexico to 83° 24′ N.

The Coyote, or Prairie Wolf, (_Canis latrans_), is a personal
acquaintance of nearly every trans-continental traveler. To those who
have camped on the “plains,” he is quite like an old friend; and the
high-pitched, staccato cry—half howl and half bark—with which he
announces the dawn, is associated with memories of vast stretches of
open country, magnificent distances, sage-brush and freedom. Because of
his fondness of barking, Thomas Say, the naturalist who first described
this species, christened it, _Canis latrans_, which means “barking
wolf.”

    [Illustration: COYOTE: PRAIRIE WOLF.]

This animal averages about one-third smaller than the gray wolf, and
while the finest male specimens are, in the autumn, really handsome
animals, at other times the majority are of very ordinary appearance. At
no time, however, even in the dark, is a Coyote a courageous animal. So
far as man is concerned, a band of a thousand coyotes would be as easily
put to flight as one; but in hanging upon the ragged edges of
civilization, and living by its wits, the Coyote is audacity itself. By
inheritance, and also by personal experience, this animal knows to a rod
how far it is safe to trust a man with a gun. If the hunter has left his
gun behind him, the Coyote knows it at once, and boldly flaunts himself
within stone’s throw of his enemy.

The Coyote varies in color quite markedly, exhibiting the gray, brown
and black phases. Formerly it was supposed that one species comprehended
all, but Dr. Merriam’s series of specimens from all parts of the West
and Southwest have led him to separate these animals into eleven
species.


                         THE FOX DENS, No. 23.

Of the many species of foxes found in North America, three species stand
forth as the types of prominent groups, and it is very desirable that
all three should be well known.

The Red Fox, (_Vulpes fulvus_), is the representative of the group which
contains also the cross fox and black fox of the Northwest. In spite of
dogs, traps, guns, spades and poison, this cunning creature persists in
living in close touch with the poultry yards of civilized man. His
perfect familiarity with old-fashioned dangers enables him to avoid them
all, and no sooner does a new danger menace him than he promptly invents
a way to escape it. The manner in which the Red Fox lives with
civilization without being exterminated really is surprising, and speaks
volumes for the astuteness of this animal.

The geographical range of the Red Fox is very wide, From North Carolina
and Tennessee it extends northward through the whole northeastern United
States, gradually bearing westward to Montana, and northward almost to
the Arctic Ocean. It is the commonest species in Alaska, where it is
found practically everywhere.

The typical Red Fox and its two subspecies, the Cross Fox, (_Vulpes
fulvus decussatus_), and the Black Fox, (_V. f. argentatus_)—the latter
many times miscalled the “Silver Fox”—vary in all possible gradations of
color from bright red to pure black. Often it is difficult to decide
where one type leaves off and another begins. The Cross Fox stands
midway between the Red and Black, with some of the yellow color of the
former on the sides of the neck and behind the foreleg, while the
remainder of the general color is grizzled gray-brown laid across his
shoulders in a more or less distinct cross. The Black Fox varies in
color from very dark iron-gray to dark brown or black, with a slight
wash of white-tipped hairs over the head, body and tail. The tip of the
tail is always white, which is the only constant color mark about him.

The Swift, or Kit Fox, (_Vulpes velox_), is the daintiest, smallest and
liveliest of all American foxes. From his delicate little nose to the
tip of his well-trimmed tail, he is every inch a thoroughbred. His
countenance is bright and pert, and when several specimens are kept
together they are very playful. One striking feature of this little
animal is what may well be termed its trimness. When in fair condition,
its coat of thick, silvery gray fur is as smooth and even as if recently
trimmed by a barber.

    [Illustration: SWIFT OR KIT FOX.]

On the western plains, where it once had for companions the buffalo and
prong-horn, the Swift is becoming rare. Its worst enemy is the deadly
strychnine bottle of the ranchman. This species does not thrive in the
Fox Dens, and it will be found in the Burrowing Animal’s Quarters, where
it seems pleased to consider itself at home.

In the Small-Mammal House is shown a new species, closely allied to the
above, from Phoenix, Arizona, recently described by Dr. C. H. Merriam as
_Vulpes macrotis_, or the Large-Eared Swift.

The Gray Fox, (_Urocyon virginianus_), is the fox of the South, even
though it does range northward well into the territory of the red fox.
This species is distinctly smaller and more lightly built than the red,
its hair is not so luxuriant, it is more shy and retiring, and its
colors change very little. When hotly pursued by dogs it often climbs
trees that are quite perpendicular, to a height of twenty feet or more.
In captivity Gray Foxes are forever trying to escape by climbing,
instead of by burrowing, as would naturally be expected. In temper, they
are treacherous to their keepers, and also to each other, and as “pets”
are anything but desirable.

    [Illustration: RED FOX.]

The Tasmanian Wolf, or Thylacine, (_Thylacinus cynocephalus_), is a very
strange-looking and interesting creature, about the size of a pointer
dog. Its color is dark yellowish brown, and it has a series of broad
black stripes, or bands, running across its hind quarters and loins. The
wide gape of its mouth reminds one of an iguana or a monitor.

This animal, fully named above, is the largest of the carnivorous
marsupials of Australia, and the female possesses an abdominal pouch in
which she carries her young, like a kangaroo. It is now found only in
Tasmania, and it dwells amongst rocks, in rugged and mountainous
regions. Because of its depredations upon the sheep herds, the Thylacine
has been diligently hunted and destroyed, and now living specimens
rarely are taken.

In the zoological gardens of Europe and America, this species usually is
kept in heated buildings, but it has been ascertained by experiment that
this specimen thrives best in the open air. Living examples in captivity
are now so very rare it is a difficult matter to keep one constantly on
exhibition.


                        THE OTTER POOLS, No. 31.

The American Otter, (_Lutra canadensis_), is unfortunate in being the
bearer of valuable fur; and in the northern regions, where the cold
causes the development of fur that is available for the use of the
furrier, this creature is so nearly extinct that trappers no longer
pursue it. In the southern States, where its fur is short, rather coarse
and “off color,” the Otter still is found. In some portions of eastern
Florida, and along the coast of South Carolina, it is frequently taken.
In captivity, it often becomes quite tame, even affectionate, and always
is interesting. Unless closely confined, however, it is prone to wander,
and meet premature death.

In captivity the Otter usually is active and restless, and very much in
evidence. Owing to the strength of its jaws, its ability to climb under
certain conditions and its restless activity, it is difficult to confine
a full-grown Otter in anything else than a complete box of iron
cage-work.

Few persons save woodsmen and naturalists are aware of the fact that in
a wild state the Otter is a very playful animal, and is as fond of
sliding down hill, over a wet and muddy slide, with a water plunge at
the bottom, as any young person is of “shooting the chutes.” Like the
small boy with the sled and a snowy hillside, the Otter sometimes
indulges in its sliding pastime for an hour at a time, with a keen
relish for the sport that is quite evident to all who have ever watched
it.

The Otter is a carnivorous animal, and in a wild state lives upon fish,
frogs, crabs, young birds, small mammals, and, in fact, about any living
thing which it can catch.

The Coypu Rat, (_Myopotamus coypu_), of Central and South America, is
interesting because of the fact that it is the largest of all rats or
rat-like animals. In its habits it is as fond of water as the musk-rat.
It is sufficiently clothed with fur to endure outdoor life in the Park,
even in winter, and it has been acclimatized here in one of the other
pools. It breeds persistently, and thrives in captivity, provided it is
treated as it should be.


                    THE SMALL-MAMMAL HOUSE, No. 35.

The new Small-Mammal House, erected and occupied in 1905, is a very
different structure from the temporary building which formerly occupied
the site. The present building is a twin of the Ostrich House, and in it
much effort has been expended in devising ways and means to keep its
living inhabitants clean, odorless and in good health. Owing, however,
to the musky odors secreted by many of the civet cats and members of the
Marten Family, it is beyond human power to keep a large collection such
as this building contains without a certain amount of wild-animal odor.

Most difficult of all collections to settle satisfactorily in a modern
zoological park or garden is the great _omnium gatherum_ of small
species—and some large ones, also—which fall within the meaning of the
term “small mammals.” The number of mammalian miscellanea which can not
have buildings all their own is really very great. In addition to that
there are always with us a considerable number of young and tender
animals which require small quarters, and close attention. The visitor
will therefore always find in the Small-Mammal House a great array of
viverrine animals, of tropical squirrels and other small rodents, of
mustelines, the nasuas, the small marsupials, young leopards, the lynxes
and their relatives, baby bears, and many other species.

Attention is invited to the great variety of cages in and around this
building, of which there are five different types. The total number is
176. All those on the western side are adjustable as to their bottoms
and sides, so that it is easy to throw several cages into one, and make
cages either very long or very high. The idea of the collapsible cage,
and also the general plan of it, has been copied from the model
developed and in use in the Zoological Garden of Frankfort, Germany, by
Director A. Seitz, to whom this acknowledgment is justly due. It will be
noticed that every animal in this building enjoys the use of an outdoor
cage, which connects directly with its interior quarters.

Of such an odd mixture of animals as we are now to consider, anything
like a perfect systematic zoological arrangement is a practical
impossibility; but as far as it is possible, we will take up the animals
by groups.

On the whole, the most striking animals in the Small-Mammal House are
the small cats and lynxes. Of the spotted cats, the Serval, (_Felis
serval_), of Africa, is one of the rarest. Its long, slender legs, small
head, slender body and round spots proclaim it a near relative of the
cheetah.

The Clouded Leopard, (_Felis nebulosa_).—The dense and humid jungles of
Borneo contain a beautiful tree-climbing leopard whose markings are laid
on its sides in large, elliptical patches of pleasing pattern. This is
the Clouded Leopard, so delicate in captivity that only one out of every
four or five becomes acclimatized outside its native jungles. Our fine
adult specimen, with very long canine teeth suggestive of those of the
saber-toothed tiger, really belongs in the Lion House, but we dare not
move it, for fear the change would in some manner prove fatal to it. It
is an animal of vicious temper, and makes friends with no one. The half
light of its cage is a welcome approach to the dense shadows in which it
lives when at home.

    [Illustration: OCELOT.]

The Jungle Cat, (_F. bengalensis_), is a small and inconspicuous type,
as befits an animal which lives by stealth in densely populated regions.
The Ocelot, (_Felis pardalis_), of South and Central America, is a small
spotted cat which very often is called a “young jaguar.” In size it is
the third largest _Felis_ of the American continent; but for all that,
it is so small that an adult specimen would not make more than one
square meal for a hungry jaguar. It is found from southern Texas to
southern Brazil.

The little Margay Cat, (_F. tigrina_), is our smallest and also rarest
spotted cat. It is no larger than a good-sized domestic cat, and its
tawny ground-color is marked all over with round spots. The rarest
American feline in our possession is the queer, otter-like Yaguarundi
Cat, (_F. yaguarundi_), of a uniform gray-brown color, without spots. It
is found in southern Texas and Mexico, and is so seldom seen in
captivity that comparatively few persons north of the Rio Grande are
aware of its existence. Our specimen came from Brownsville, Texas.

    [Illustration: COMMON GENET.]

The Bay Lynx, Red Lynx, or Wild Cat, (_Lynx rufus_), is the smallest of
American Lynxes, and it is the one that inhabits the United States
eastward of the great plains. Until further notice, this species will be
found in the Small-Mammal House. It may have a few dark spots, or none
at all. Its color varies so greatly that it is at times impossible to
determine where this species leaves off, and the more heavily spotted
subspecies of the southwest takes its place. The latter is known as the
Spotted Lynx, (_L. r. maculatus_).

The large and important group of Viverrines, or long-faced cat-like
carnivores of the East Indies, (Family _Viverridae_), is well
represented. It is the true Civets which furnish—some of them—the
evil-smelling civet of commerce—an odor which we would gladly do
without. The Common Civet-Cat, (_Viverra zibetha_), is the best known
member of this Family, and it is easily recognized by its large size,
heavily-spotted body and ring-streaked tail. It is common throughout the
Malay Peninsula, and in many other portions of the Malay Archipelago.
The larger Malayan Civet-Cat, (_V. malaccensis_), strongly resembles its
understudy, but its black spots and blotches are larger and more
intense, and in form it is much more robust.

The large and handsome White-Whiskered Paradoxure, (_Paradoxurus
leucomystax_), has been in the Park about six years, and to-day it
coughs and snarls at the visitor just as it did in the beginning. It is
a smooth-coated creature, colored like a puma, and comes from northern
China. Other members of the Family _Viverridae_ contained in the
collection are the Malayan Paradoxure, (_P. hermaphroditus_); the Black
Paradoxure, (_P. niger_); the African Ichneumon, (_Herpestes
ichneumon_), the strange black creature from the Malay Peninsula called
the Binturong, or “Bear-Cat,” (_Arctictis binturong_), and the Suricate,
or Slender-Tailed Meerkat, (_Suricata tetradactyla_), of South Africa.

Into the Small-Mammal House have drifted and comfortably settled down
several canine species which are not so well satisfied, elsewhere. The
Black-Backed Jackal, (_Canis mesomelas_), of Africa, is one of the most
interesting, and it is also the one that thrives best in captivity. It
is very much like a dark phase of the Azara Dog, of South America, and
it is the handsomest of all the Jackals. The Cape Hunting Dog, of
eastern Africa, has for years been present in this building, and it will
be kept as continuously as circumstances will permit.

The New Mexico Desert Fox, (_Vulpes macrotis neomexicanus_), is a small
understudy of the better known Swift or Kit Fox of the northern plains,
but it has larger ears. Neither of these delicate little species seems
to thrive in our large Fox Dens, which seem to be too large for them;
but in this building they thrive and are quite content with life. The
Swift Fox is the four-footed elf of the plains, and it is unfortunate
that the poison laid for the fierce and cruel stock-killing wolves
should prove its extermination—as it surely will, ere long.

The Arctic Fox, (_Vulpes lagopus_).—This creature of the polar world is
a striking example of climatic influence on a species, and also of the
danger that lies in describing a species from a single specimen. In the
far north, the Arctic Fox is snow-white all the year round. Farther
south it is white in winter, but in summer is bluish-brown. In the
southern part of its range, the Aleutian Archipelago for example, except
for an occasional white individual, it is dark all the year round, and
is known only as the Blue Fox. At first it may seem difficult to believe
that these two widely-different extremes are only color-phases of the
same species; but it is quite true. The dark-colored animal is not even
accorded subspecific rank.

On various islands along the Alaska coast, especially in the Aleutian
Archipelago, about forty commercial companies are engaged in breeding
Blue Foxes for their fur, some of them with satisfactory success. The
foxes are fed daily, on cooked corn meal and dried fish. They come up to
be fed, and when the time comes to handle and sort them previous to
killing the annual allotment, they greatly facilitate matters by the
readiness with which they enter box traps.

The great decrease in the annual supply of good fur has caused many
persons to hope that fox-breeding may be developed into a remunerative
industry. Except in Alaska, no extensive experiments in that line have
been made. It is quite desirable that fox-breeding in the United States
should be taken up under state or national auspices, and worked out to a
successful issue. There is good reason to hope and believe that it might
be developed into an important industry.

From Argentina, South America, have come two fine specimens of the Azara
Dog, (_Canis azarae_), which, but for their half dog-like tails might
pass anywhere as rather odd-looking gray foxes. But they are a visible
reminder of the fact that the pampas of South America contain an
extensive series of foxes and wild dogs, which thus far is practically
unknown everywhere north of the Amazon.

The Dingo, or Australian Wild Dog, (_Canis dingo_), is represented by
two specimens which look like ordinary yellow dogs. By many persons it
is believed that this animal was not indigenous to Australia, and was
planted there by man, but the evidence in support of that supposition is
by no means conclusive.

The Coati-Mundi, (pronounced coy-ty mon-day), is for its size one of the
best exhibition animals that can be found outside of the Primate House.
It is closely related to our raccoon, but is far more showy and
interesting. It has a very lively and industrious disposition, is a good
climber, and from dawn until dark is almost constantly on the move.
Although it is a carnivorous animal, and provided with powerful canine
teeth, it is not naturally quarrelsome, but on the contrary is quite
gregarious in its habits. The genus _Nasua_ inhabits Mexico, Central and
South America. We have two species, the Red Coati-Mondi, (_Nasua rufa_),
and the White-Nosed, (_N. narica_).

The Raccoon Dog, of Japan, (_Nyctereutes procyonoides_), is to all
outward appearances a raccoon, but its feet are digitigrade, not
plantigrade, and it is a true dog.

The American Badger, (_Taxidea americana_), is represented by a fine,
large and very light-colored specimen that was presented by President
Roosevelt. The European Badger, (_Meles taxus_), is shown near by.

Our collection of Rodents contains the following important and
representative species of squirrels:

                              North American.

  Gray Squirrel          _Sciurus_      _carolinensis_      New York.
  Black Squirrel            “              “                Ohio.
  Fox Squirrel              “           _ludovicianus_      Kansas.
  Southern Fox Squirrel     “           _niger_             Louisiana.
  Red Squirrel              “           _hudsonius_         New York.
  Eastern Chipmunk       _Tamias_       _striatus_             “
  Western Chipmunk          “           _speciosus_         California.
  Parry’s Spermophile    _Citellus_     _parryi_            Alaska.
  Thirteen-Lined         _Spermophilus_ _tridecem-lineatus_ Iowa.
  Spermophile

                              Foreign Species.

  Malabar Hill Squirrel  _Sciurus_      _malabaricus_       S. India.
  Indian Hill Squirrel      “           _bicolor_           N. India.
  Prevost Squirrel          “           _prevosti_          Malayana.
  Golden-Bellied            “           _aureogaster_       Mexico.
  Squirrel
  Columbia Fire-Backed      “           _variabilis_        S. America.
  Squirrel

No collection of Rodents is worthy of acceptance by the public without a
fair representation of Porcupines. The most wonderful species is the
African Porcupine, (_Hystrix cristata_), which when disturbed erects a
threatening array of enormously-long, shining black-and-white quills
that are a wonder to behold. The lofty white crest of this animal is one
of its most conspicuous features.

The Indian Crestless Hill Porcupine, (_H. longicauda_), usually present
in our collection, is merely a quiet understudy of the former. Strange
to say—and also provoking—our old friend of the North Woods, the Canada
Porcupine, (_Erethizon dorsatus_), is much more capricious and difficult
to keep for a long period than either of the fine foreign species
already mentioned. It is only the men who know all about animals who can
tell us why nothing seems to exactly satisfy them, and why they will not
breed here, live ten years and be happy. Even the best cage life does
not seem to be good enough for them; but we are still experimenting.

In order that visitors to the Park may at all times be able to see a
Beaver, (_Castor canadensis_), and not be thwarted in that desire by the
very shy habits of the animals in the Beaver Pond, we have a specimen on
exhibition in the Small-Mammal House. This individual came from the Rio
Grande, as a small kit, and has been reared in its present quarters. It
is kept constantly supplied with food--wood, chiefly of poplar and
maple, and clean water in which to bathe.

    [Illustration: AFRICAN PORCUPINE.]

The Capybara, (_Hydrochaerus capybara_), is the largest of all gnawing
animals, and the most remarkable rodent in our collection. In form and
size it suggests a large, gray, coarse-haired pig. It is a water-loving
animal, of the American tropics, and lives on the grassy banks of the
delta of the Orinoco, and similar places farther south. It is one of the
best divers of all land animals, and when attacked on land always
plunges into the water and dives for about 100 feet before coming to the
surface. It is strictly a vegetable feeder, and its flesh is very
palatable food. It takes kindly to captivity, and in disposition it is
very affectionate.

The Agouti, (_Dasyprocta_), is to the jungles of South America as the
cotton-tail rabbit is to the forests of the eastern United States; but
structurally it is not closely related to the members of the Rabbit
Family. It lives wholly on the ground, in dense cover, and is very
difficult to shoot. As a rule, it is impossible for dogs to catch it
because it runs so swiftly through the dense cover that they cannot keep
it in sight. There are a number of species, varying in color from dark
brown to golden yellow.

    [Illustration: TAMANDUA.]

The Toothless Mammals.—The Order _Edentata_ contains some of the most
odd and remarkable mammals that ever find their way into a zoological
park. They are the armadilloes, ant-eaters and sloths. Without
exception, they are delicate feeders, and difficult to keep for long
periods, and for this reason the number on exhibition constantly varies
between half a score and none at all! As far as it is possible, the
species named below will be kept on exhibition; but these rarities are
difficult to obtain, and the supply must be regarded as intermittent.

The Nine-Banded Armadillo, (_Tatu novemcinctum_), of southern Texas and
Arizona, and southward, is the only edentate found in the United States.
Its total length, from nose to tail-tip, is about 26 inches, and it is
about as large as an opossum. Its strangest feature is the horny shell,
with 9 jointed bands in the middle, which Nature has designed for the
animal’s protection. It lives in burrows in the earth, and in a wild
state it feeds on a mixed diet of worms, ants, snails, beetles,
grasshoppers and other insects.

The Six-Banded Armadillo, (_Dasypus sexcinctus_), of South America, has
a much stronger and more bony shell than the preceding species, but very
similar habits. The Three-Banded Armadillo, (_Tolypeutes tricinctus_),
is the most remarkable of all—and also the most difficult to obtain. It
is able to convert itself into a round ball covered at all points by
bony armor, and remarkably well protected from the teeth of predatory
animals.

    [Illustration: GREAT ANT-EATER.]

The Great Ant-Eater, (_Myrmecophaga jubata_).—This is a very remarkable
animal, and usually is to be found alive in the Small-Mammal House. Its
anatomical peculiarities are apparent at a glance. Its toothless jaws
are enormously elongated, and taper to a rounded point, where the mouth
opens as a narrow slit, scarcely large enough to admit the large end of
a lead pencil. Its front claws are large and strong, for use in tearing
open ant-hills and decayed logs; and the creature walks upon them as if
club-footed. Its tail is long and thick, and bears a luxuriant brush, of
coarse, wavy hair more than a foot long. The negroes of British Guiana
gravely inform travellers that the Ant-Eater uses his bushy tail as a
broom, with which he sweeps up ants in order to devour them wholesale.

As may be inferred from the total absence of teeth, this strange
creature lives chiefly upon crawling insects. In devouring the dreadful
ants, which in a South American forest often make life a burden, it
helps to preserve the balance of Nature. In captivity the food of this
animal consists of milk, raw eggs and ground meat. In taking its food it
thrusts out from four to eight inches of round, wormlike tongue, which
contrary to many published statements, is not covered with sticky
saliva.

    [Illustration: SIX-BANDED ARMADILLO.]

The Tamandua, (_Tamandua tetradactyla_), is a smaller ant-eater than the
preceding species, of tree-climbing habits, with a proportionately
shorter head, no long hair on its tail, and extremely large front claws.
It is found in Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil, and in fact that greater
portion of the region of tropical forests on this continent south of
Mexico. Its tail is prehensile, or grasping, and in climbing is used
almost constantly.

The Sloths are the slowest, the most helpless and defenseless of the
edentates. They subsist chiefly upon leaves, they climb no more swiftly
than a man, and they escape their enemies through the resemblance of
their pelage to the rough bark of the tree-trunks among which they live.
They have a few teeth, but none for defense, and their claws are of use
only in climbing, except that they can pinch with them.

Two species of Sloth are occasionally seen in the Zoological Park, but
usually _in the Primate House_, where the high temperature is better
suited to their needs.

The Three-Toed Sloth, (_Bradypus tridactylus_), is the one with a brown
“saddle-mark” of short hair in the middle of its back. The remainder of
its pelage is coarse and long, and its greenish tint renders it a close
imitation of algae-covered tree-bark. The Two-Toed Sloth, (_Choloepus
hoffmani_), is much larger than the preceding, and lives longer in
captivity. Four fine adult specimens occupy a large cage at the Primate
House, where they seem to be fully acclimatized. In form and habit they
are remarkable animals, and well worthy of close attention.

    [Illustration: TWO-TOED SLOTH.]

The Egg-Laying Mammals.—For several months there were exhibited here two
Echidnas—of all small mammals ever seen alive in New York the most
wonderful. The Echidna comes from Australia, the home of remarkable
types of animals, and belongs to the lowest Order of Mammals,
(_Monotremata_). Like its distant relative, the duck-billed platypus, it
reproduces by _laying eggs_! Its back is covered with short but very
thick spines, and its nose is a long, slender beak, absolutely unique.
Other examples of this species will be exhibited whenever possible.


                   THE PUMA AND LYNX HOUSE, No. 33A.

Near the Small-Mammal House (No. 35) will be found a log cabin with its
entire front opening into two wire-covered yards. The interior of the
building is provided with sleeping-dens in which the occupants of the
two enclosures can keep dry and warm. This installation is for lynxes,
but half of it is occupied by pumas. Already it has fully proven the
desirability of keeping lynxes and pumas constantly in the open air, and
without artificial heat. To lynxes especially there is nothing more
deadly than a well-heated room, indoors.

The Puma, (_Felis concolor_), is described in the section relating to
the Lion House, where other Pumas are exhibited (page 78).

Of the Lynxes, we have two well-defined species, and one subspecies. The
Canada Lynx, (_Lynx canadensis_), is well represented in the southern
compartment of the Puma House, where a fine adult pair has become
acclimatized. This is the _Loup Cervier_ of the French Canadians, and it
is truly the Lynx of Canada and the subarctic North. It has _no spots on
its body_, and its pelage is a cold pepper-and-salt gray color. Its feet
are large and heavily furred, and it has a long, black hair-pencil on
the tip of each ear. A large specimen stands 18 inches high, and weighs
22 pounds. The food of the American Lynxes generally consists of hares
and rabbits, ground birds of all kinds, and anything else that can be
caught and killed, except porcupine. To man they are not “dangerous
animals.”


               THE BURROWING MAMMALS, AND OTHERS, No. 42.

North America is wonderfully rich in species of gnawing animals, and the
end is not yet. The investigations of our mammalogists are adding new
species with a degree of rapidity and parallelism that is fairly
bewildering.

It is the duty of the Zoological Society to do its utmost to increase as
much as possible the sum total of knowledge of our largest Order of
Mammals. Manifestly, however, it is impracticable to do more than place
before visitors a reasonable number of well-chosen types, which shall
represent as many as possible of the twelve Families, and also the
genera most worth knowing.

The most serious obstacle in the way of anyone who attempts to exhibit
collections of living rodents lies in the natural propensity of so many
species to keep out of sight during the daytime. This is particularly
true of the members of the Mouse, Pocket Gopher, and Pouched Rat
Families, comprising about three hundred species in all. With very few
exceptions, the whole matter of the exhibition of collections of living
rodents is something new, and every step is an experiment. In the belief
that even the most shy burrowing animals will appreciate abundant room,
perfectly natural surroundings, plenty of food, and immunity from
annoyance, and eventually fall into the habit of spending many of the
daylight hours above ground, as do prairie-dogs, the Society has
constructed a series of fifteen small yards, each 10×20 feet, bounded by
walls going down to bedrock, and enclosed above by a box-like
arrangement of very light wire-netting 5 feet high. The ground is
chiefly undisturbed soil of a firm and gravelly nature, thoroughly
drained, and all earth filling has been tightly rammed into place to
prevent caving in the burrows. Above ground, each yard contains
weathered rocks, stumps, and hollow logs in abundance.

In these fifteen yards, each of which will hold specimens of at least
two or three species, will be placed strongly marked types of those
families whose representatives are most numerous in North America, and
also the least known, only a few of which may be mentioned here.

The Sewellel Family, (_Aplodontidae_), contains five or six species and
is of unusual scientific interest. The Sewellel, Mountain Beaver, Farmer
or “Showt’l” (_Aplodontia rufus_ and _major_), is an animal of the size
and general appearance of a large, short-tailed muskrat. It inhabits a
few localities in remote regions in the mountain-valleys of northern
California, Oregon, Washington, and southern British Columbia. It feeds
like a beaver, climbs bushes four feet high, burrows in _wet_ ground,
and fights like a little fiend when brought to bay. Notwithstanding the
size of this animal, it is very seldom seen, and is but little known.

The Squirrel Family, (_Sciuridae_), is large (one hundred and forty-one
species), very interesting, and entitled to much consideration. In the
present enclosure will be shown in summer many species of interesting
ground squirrels, chipmunks, and marmots. In winter all the squirrels,
save one or two hardy native species, will be found in the Small-Mammal
House, near by.

The Rabbit Family, (_Leporidae_), is one of the most difficult to
install and exhibit. Its members are large and showy, but for several
reasons it is very difficult to keep them on exhibition in captivity. In
time, however, all four of the great groups—Rabbit, Varying Hare, Jack
Hare, and also the Pikas, forming the allied Family _Ochotonidae_—will
be represented by specimens.

Just what can be accomplished satisfactorily with the most interesting
members of the Jumping Mouse, Pouched Rat, and Pocket Gopher Families,
remains to be determined by trial. If they can be induced to show
themselves to visitors, during daylight hours, they will be kept for
exhibition; otherwise not. At present, some examples of these species
can be seen in the Reptile House.

In Winter.—In the temperate zone, when “winter comes to rule the varied
year,” all the burrowing animals must retire to their burrows, live upon
their buried stores of winter food, and hibernate until spring. The
tropical species do not know how to hibernate, and therefore they must
be taken indoors, or they perish.

In order that our native species of rodents may be seen all winter, and
that the tropical species may be kept alive, nearly all the animals that
in summer live in the Burrowing Mammal Quarters are removed in autumn to
the well-warmed Small-Mammal House. It also happens that in summer a few
of the small carnivores, and all armadilloes, are kept in these
Quarters.

In addition to the rodents which it is practicable to exhibit in these
enclosures, the summer season will find some of them occupied by certain
especially interesting species which need the soil of Mother Earth as
well as sunlight and air. Here will be found the Armadilloes, the
Nasuas, the Raccoon Dogs, the Swift Foxes and a few others, which in
winter belong in the Small-Mammal House.


                    THE PRAIRIE-DOG VILLAGE, No. 41.

The Western Prairie-“Dog,” or Prairie Marmot, (_Cynomys
ludovicianus_).—Occupying a conspicuous hill-top near the Small-Deer
House, and overlooking the Wild-Fowl Pond, is a circular enclosure, 80
feet in diameter, surrounded by an iron fence with an overhang, with
walls going down to bedrock. This contains about fifty fat and jolly
little Prairie Marmots, one-half of which are the gift of a Montana
ranchman, Mr. Howard Eaton. The soil of the enclosure has never been
disturbed, and there is no danger that the little creatures ever will be
smothered in their burrows, as frequently happens in earth that has once
been dug up and filled in again.

Owing to its optimistic and even joyous disposition, the Prairie-“Dog”
has many friends, and “happy as a Prairie-'Dog’” would be a far better
comparison than “happy as a king.” His cousin, the woodchuck, has the
air of being perpetually “in the dumps,” but the Prairie-“Dog”—never.
His so-called bark is really a laugh, and his absurd little tail was
given to him solely as a means of visible expression of good nature. But
he has his enemies and detractors. The coyote loves his plump and
toothsome body; the “granger” hates him for the multitude of his holes,
and puts spoonfuls of poisoned wheat into his burrow.


                         THE BEAR DENS, No. 37.

The bears of the world form a very interesting group; and when its
representatives are properly installed—in large, open yards, with
abundant sunlight, fresh air and room for exercise—they develop finely,
live happily, and furnish endless entertainment. Under proper
conditions, bears are cheerful animals, full of the playful spirit that
robs captivity of its chief terror. To confine large bears singly, in
small cages, or in wet-floored, high-walled dungeons, or in the
unspeakable “pits” of mediaeval type, is a sin against Nature. It is to
be noted, however, that small and timid bears, like _Ursus japonicus_,
are better off in small cages than in the very large ones; and it is for
this reason that eight small dens have been provided, opposite the
original series.

The Zoological Society has put forth considerable effort in constructing
a series of nine large Bear Dens which provide ideal conditions for
their inmates. Bears do not need _buildings_! Their habits call for
large, open yards, properly situated, with snug and dry sleeping-dens
attached, to which they can retire whenever they wish. To them, masonry
walls are worse than useless, for they cut off sunlight and promote
dampness; but rocks and trees upon which to climb are very beneficial.
In warm weather, all bears are fond of bathing, and a bathing pool in
each cage is very necessary.

_It is cruelty to animals_ for visitors to throw peanuts, or food of any
kind, into our bear dens; and it is _strictly forbidden_. All persons
who do not wish to be reprimanded in public, or arrested, are advised to
refrain from it. Teasing with food always irritates bears, sets them to
fighting, spoils their dispositions and _renders them dangerous to the
keepers who have to go in with them_! _All visitors who are law-abiding,
and friendly to the Zoological Society, are requested to assist the
keepers and policemen in preventing lawless persons from throwing food
into the bear dens._ A stern reprimand often prevents serious trouble.

    [Illustration: POLAR BEARS.
    Showing a portion of their den and pool cut from the solid rock.]

The bears of North America form four well-defined groups, as follows:


  The Polar Bear.
  The Grizzly Bear.
  The Alaskan Brown Bears.
  The Black Bears, and their allies.


Up to this date (April 1, 1913), 24 species and subspecies have been
described, and it is reasonably certain that much more work remains to
be done on the members of this group of animals before the status of
each valid and invalid species will be rendered thoroughly clear.

The most noteworthy species are as follows:

            THE MOST IMPORTANT SPECIES OF NORTH AMERICAN BEARS.

                     _Ursus maritimus_, (Desm.), Polar Bear. Arctic
                       regions generally.
  The Brown Bears.   _Ursus middendorffi_, (Merriam), Kadiak Bear.
                       Kadiak Is., Alaska.
                     _Ursus dalli_, (Merr.), Yakutat Bear. Yakutat Bay,
                       Alaska.
                     _Ursus eulophus_, (Merr.), Admiralty Bear.
                       Admiralty Is., Alaska.
                     _Ursus gyas_, (Merr.), Peninsula Bear. Portage
                       Bay, Alaska Peninsula.
  The Grizzly Bears. _Ursus Horribilis_, (Ord.), Grizzly Bear:
                       Silver-Tip. Wyoming and Utah to Alaska.
                     _Ursas horribilis horriaeus_, (Baird), Mexican
                       Grizzly. Southwestern New Mexico.
                     _Ursus richardsoni_, (Swainson), Barren-Ground
                       Grizzly. Great Slave Lake region, and
                       Barren-Grounds.
  The Black Bears.   _Ursus americanus_, (Pallas), Black Bear. Eastern
                       North America.
                     _Ursus luteolus_, (Griffith), Louisiana Bear.
                       Louisiana and Texas.
                     _Ursus floridanus_, (Merr.), Everglade Bear.
                       Florida.
                     _Ursus emmonsi_, (Dall), Glacier Bear. St. Elias
                       Alps, Yakutat Bay.
                     _Ursus kermodei_, (Hornaday), Inland White Bear.
                       Northwestern British Columbia.

The Polar Bear, (_Ursus maritimus_).—In nearly every collection of
living bears the individuals of this species are the most showy and
attractive. Their white coats quickly catch the eye of the visitor, and
whether young or old, they are generally the most active and playful of
all captive bears. In cold weather, when other bears lie in the sun, or,
if permitted, curl up in the straw of their sleeping dens, the Polar
Bear will disport himself in the freezing cold water of his swimming
pool, and joyously play with a cake of ice until the sight of it makes
one shiver.

The Polar Bear Den is situated at the north end of Rocking-Stone Hill,
about two hundred feet from the north end of the main series of Bear
Dens. It is reached by descending the steps leading toward the Beaver
Pond, and turning to the right. From the Rocking-Stone Restaurant, the
Polar Bears are quickly reached by descending the hill toward the north.

Although the Polar Bear inhabits practically the whole of the Arctic
Ocean and its numerous islands, it is by no means the most northerly
warm-blooded mammal. Nansen found fox tracks at 85° N., but the most
northerly bear observed was on the 84th parallel. The favorite home of
this animal is the edge of the great polar ice cap, where Neptune and
the “Frost King” wage continuous warfare. He seldom ventures more than a
day’s journey inland, on any shore. In winter, as the edge of the
ice-pack moves southward, and in summer when it retreats northward, he
follows it in order to keep in touch with the ringed seals and walrus
that also go with it.

    [Illustration: POLAR BEAR “SILVER KING.”]

The power of the Polar Bear to resist ice-cold water—nay, even to enjoy
it—may fairly be regarded as one of the wonders of Nature. On the coast
of Alaska this strange creature will plunge into the Arctic Ocean and
swim miles from shore, through tossing fields of broken ice, and
wherever the mother leads, her cubs follow.

In the Autumn of 1910, the sealing steamer “_Boethic_” arrived at New
York bringing two adult Polar Bears that were captured in the summer of
that year by Mr. Paul J. Rainey. Both animals were presented to the
Zoological Society, and the largest one called “Silver King” occupies
the cage that was specially built for the polar bears, and the female is
exhibited in very comfortable quarters, built for her near that
installation. Owing to their savage temper neither of these bears ever
can be kept with other bears, nor can any keeper ever enter the cage of
either. “Silver King” weighs 880 pounds and is probably the largest
Polar Bear ever captured alive and unhurt. While the female is not as
large as “Silver King,” she is in every way as perfect a specimen.

The Yakutat Bear, (_Ursus dalli_).—In 1899, we received from Hudson
Lake, Copper River District, Alaska, two young Alaskan Brown Bears which
for some time we believed would prove to represent the species found on
Kadiak Island. In this belief they were for a time labeled as Kadiak
Bears, (_U. middendorffi_), and so entered provisionally in previous
editions of the Guide Book. The maturity of the animals has proven that
this supposition was erroneous. The extremely short and thick muzzle of
the adult male proves conclusively that they are not identical with the
long-skulled species of Kadiak. This interesting pair, absolutely
identical in color with _middendorffi_, are now identified, pending
further revisions of our _Urisdae_, as _Ursus dalli_.

    [Illustration: SYRIAN BEAR.]

This species, and the two following, well represent the group of big
Alaskan Brown Bears, which are quite distinct from the grizzlies and
blacks. They are characterized by their great size, high shoulders,
massive heads, shaggy brown pelage, and large claws. They live chiefly
upon salmon, which they catch from the small streams, but they also
devour great quantities of _grass_.

The Peninsula Bear, (_Ursus gyas_), of Moeller Bay, well down the
Alaskan Peninsula, may at once be recognized by its light
brownish-yellow color, and its great size for a bear born in 1904. Its
claws are of enormous thickness.

This animal is now beyond doubt one of the two largest bears in
captivity, his only rival being in the Zoological Park at Washington.

The Admiralty Bear, (_Ursus eulophus_), represents a large species
originally discovered on Admiralty Island, southern Alaska. Its dark
brown color is very much like that of the Yakutat and Kadiak bears.

The Grizzly Bear, or “Silver-Tip Grizzly,” (_Ursus horribilis_).—The
rapid disappearance of this species from the United States renders all
living examples of it specially interesting.

Of all bears, the Silver-Tip Grizzly is the most savage and dangerous.
He is easily angered, and when wounded or harried not only becomes
furiously vindictive, but he also possesses a degree of courage which
renders him a dangerous antagonist. As a general thing, a Grizzly Bear,
like a lion or tiger, will run as soon as he discovers the presence of
his only enemy—man; but if he is wounded or cornered—or _thinks_ he is
cornered—he assumes the aggressive, without an instant’s delay.
Unfortunately, the largest Silver-Tip Grizzlies ever killed have been
too far from scales to make it possible to weigh them.

The most interesting specimen of the Rocky Mountain Silver-Tip now on
exhibition is a dark-colored and very handsome specimen, named
“Engineer,” obtained in Meeker, Colorado, by Professor Henry F. Osborn,
and presented to the Society by the Engineers’ Club of New York City.
The color of this individual is darker than the most common type of the
Silver-Tip, which is sometimes almost as gray as a badger.

A very beautiful male Silver-Tip, from Wyoming, is much lighter in color
than the Colorado specimen. Its face and head are so light-colored it
would be called by Rocky Mountain hunters a “Bald-Faced” Grizzly. A
third specimen was obtained for the Society at White Horse, Yukon
Territory, in 1905, and its development will be watched with much
interest. Throughout the Rocky Mountain region the “Silver-Tip” and the
“Grizzly” are identical; but the color of the species varies
considerably.

In a wild state Grizzly Bears live on berries and fruits of all kinds
available, succulent roots, grubs, carrion if it comes handy, and live
game if it can be killed. In the cattle-growing states bordering the
Rocky Mountains, owing to their cattle-killing propensities, a bounty of
from twelve to fifteen dollars per head is paid for their destruction.

The Black Bear, (_Ursus americanus_).—Until quite recently all black
bears in North America were referred to a single species, with the type
of which most persons are familiar. Even during the last twenty years
living representatives of the Black Bear group have been found in nearly
every state and territory of the United States, and also in northern
Mexico, Labrador, Province of Quebec, Alberta, Assiniboia, British
Columbia, Alaska, and the Mackenzie River basin. Our collection contains
Black Bears representing several widely separated localities.

The Spectacled Bear, (_Ursus ornatus_).—After ten years of constant
effort the Zoological Park finally acquired late in 1910, a fine male
specimen of the very rare and little known Spectacled Bear of the Andes
of Ecuador and Peru. This zoological prize was procured for us in Quito,
by Mr. Edgar Beecher Bronson (Author of “In Closed Territory,”) and by
him presented to the Society. “Frederico” is distinguished by a glossy
jet-black coat, very small ears, long feet and a large imperfect circle
of white around each eye, with white bands down the cheeks and throat.
In size it matches a small American black bear. As soon as the new bear
dens are finished, this animal will be removed from the Small-Mammal
House to one of them. If this species was ever before exhibited in North
America, we have never heard of it.

The Andean Black Bear, (_Ursus ornatus thomasi_), from Southern
Columbia, South America, is a subspecies of the spectacled bear, with no
“spectacles” around its eyes, and no white markings save under its chin
and throat. This specimen is smaller than the one from Quito.
Practically nothing is known of the habits of these two species.

The Brown Bear of Europe, (_Ursus arctos_), is represented by two
specimens from Central Russia which bear a general resemblance to Rocky
Mountain grizzlies. This is so striking that were they not labeled very
few persons would suspect their European birth. They have the high
shoulders and grizzly brown coat of the silver-tip, and in the Rocky
Mountains would be considered good examples of _Ursus horribilis_.

This pair has bred four times and reared some very fine cubs.

The Syrian Bear, (_Ursus syriacus_), is well represented by a fine
specimen from Trebizond, Asia Minor. This bear is of a pale yellow
color, with very high shoulders, narrow head and smooth pelage. The
Syrian bear represents “the bears of the Bible,” which appeared in
punishment of the children who were disrespectful to the prophet Elisha.
Bears of this species are often trained to dance, and perform various
tricks at command, and usually lead very miserable lives at the hands of
gypsies and other bear specialists of nomadic habits.

    [Illustration: SPECTACLED BEAR.]

The Hairy-Eared Bear, (_Ursus piscator_), a species very rarely seen in
captivity, is represented by two fine specimens from the Altai
Mountains, Central Asia. This animal is sometimes called, on account of
its peculiar light brown color, the Isabella Bear. Its more correct name
has been bestowed on account of its large and very hairy ears. It
inhabits northeastern Asia, as far southwestward as the Altai Mountains.
The fine pair exhibited were presented to the Society by Mr. Carl
Hagenbeck.

The Himalayan Black Bear, (_Ursus torquatus_), is the handsomest of the
four living species of black bears, and can easily be identified
anywhere by three distinct characters, neither of which is possessed by
any other black bear. They are, a _pure white chin_, _long side-whiskers
on the jaws and sides of the neck_ and _very large ears_. Up to this
date the geographic range of this very interesting animal has been
recorded as extending from eastern Persia through Beluchistan,
Afghanistan, Assam, and South China to Formosa; but the three specimens
exhibited were taken in northern Japan, where the existence of this
species seems to be established beyond question.

    [Illustration: EUROPEAN BROWN BEAR.
    Two cubs are nursing.]

The Japanese Black Bear, (_Ursus japonicus_), from northern Japan, is
one of the smallest of living bears, being only slightly larger than the
Malay sun bear. In general appearance it suggests a small edition of the
American black bear. The first specimen exhibited at the Zoological Park
was very good-natured, but all these received since are nervous and
irritable, and also very timid.

The Sloth Bear, (_Ursus labiatus_), often called the Long-Lipped Bear,
can be recognized as far as it can be seen by its shaggy mop of
enormously long, black hair, its white muzzle, and its very long, white
claws. It is a creature of many peculiarities. It inhabits India
generally in forest regions. This is Kipling’s “Baloo.”

                   LIST OF BEARS IN THE ZOOLOGICAL PARK.
                               April 1, 1913.

    2  Polar Bears         _Ursus maritimus_     from   Ellesmere Land.
    2  Yakutat Bears       _Ursus dalli_           “    Alaska.
    1  Peninsula Bear      _Ursus gyas_            “    Alaska Peninsula.
    1  Admiralty Bear      _Ursus eulophus_        “    Adm. Is., Alaska.
    3  Kadiak Bears        _Ursus middendorffi_    “    Kadiak Island.
    1  Kobuk Brown Bear    Undetermined            “    Kobuk River, AL
    1  Grizzly Bear        _Ursus horribilis_      “    Colorado.
    1     “   “               “   “                “    Yukon Terr.
    1     “   “               “   “                “    Wyoming.
    1  Spectacled Bear     _Ursus ornatus_         “    Equador.
    1  Andean Black Bear   _Ursus ornatus          “    Columbia, S. A.
                           thomasi_
    1  Black Bear          _Ursus americanus_      “    Pennsylvania.
    1     “   “               “   “                “    Virginia.
    3     “   “               “   “                “    Alaska.
    1     “   “               “   “                “    West Ontario.
    1     “   “               “   “                “    Mexico.
    1  Cinnamon Bear          “   “                “    Colorado.
    1     “   “               “   “                “    Wyoming.
    1  Syrian Bear         _Ursus syriacus_        “    Asiatic Turkey.
    3  Brown Bears         _Ursus arctos_          “    Central Russia.
    2  Hairy-Eared Bears   _Ursus piscator_        “    N. W. Mongolia.
    1  Himalayan Black     _Ursus torquatus_       “    Japan.
       Bear
    1  Japanese Bear       _Ursus japonicus_       “    Japan.
    1  Sloth Bear          _Ursus labiatus_        “    India.
    2  Yezo Bears          _Ursus ferox_           “    Yezo, Japan.
    1  Malay Sun Bear      _Ursus malayanus_       “    Borneo.
   36  specimens, representing 18 species.

The Malay Sun Bear, (_Ursus malayanus_), is the smallest bear in the
world, also the ugliest and the most ill-tempered. When fully enraged,
it sometimes barks like a dog. Its hair is very short and close, and its
head and feet seem to be too large for its body. This species inhabits
Borneo, Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula and Farther India. Two specimens
will be found _in the Small-Mammal House_.


                           THE RACCOON TREE.

The Raccoon Tree.—A permanent installation for Raccoons has been
established near the southern end of the Bear Dens, where its inmates
will be near their plantigrade relatives. At the foot of the steps
leading down from the Rocking Stone, a cedar-tree, forty feet in height,
has been enclosed by an elliptical iron fence provided with a
sheet-metal overhang which is not negotiable by any _Procyon_. Inside
the fence is a dry yard, a pool of water for all purposes, and the trunk
of the tree is surrounded by a rustic shelter house, divided into ten
warm and dry compartments. Underneath the house is a clean and smooth
wooden floor, on which the food is served.

The smooth, horizontal limbs of a cedar-tree are grateful and comforting
to a dozing Raccoon, and the tree is not so high that the animals can
climb beyond the visual power of the visitor.


                        THE BEAVER POND, No. 29.

Hidden away in the deep valley between high hills of virgin forest lies
the Beaver Pond. The spot is so secluded, so silent and primeval, that
it seems like the heart of the Adirondack wilderness. Lying fairly in
the lap of the granite hills is a three-acre oval of level swamp, which
recently was full of woodland rubbish and choked by rank weeds. The
seclusion of the spot, the splendid forest, the food-wood and the
possibilities of the dam, all naturally suggested the beaver.

In order that the building of a dam by the beavers would not raise the
water level so high as to flood the roots of a number of fine forest
trees and destroy them, two feet of soil was taken out of the swamp, and
at the same time a broad outlet was excavated. A fence of small iron
bars, with an overhang, was designed to encircle an area of about three
acres. Within the enclosure thus made, stand several large forest
trees—chiefly oak, sweet gum, and maple—which have been protected by
guards of wire and corrugated iron. The small maples, however, have been
given over to the beavers, to cut down and use as food-wood and also in
their dam-building operations.

The Beaver Colony in our pond is in good working order, and its display
of work makes a highly satisfactory exhibit. The dam, about 40 feet long
and 4 feet high, was built of poles and sticks which were cut, peeled,
floated down and placed by the beavers, and pointed up with mud. There
is a house 10 feet in diameter and 4 feet high, similarly constructed.
Within the enclosure about twenty saplings and trees have been cut down
by the beavers and used up for food and building materials.

For this colony the Society is indebted to Mr. Hugh J. Chisholm, who
procured for it two specimens from Canada and three from Maine.

The American Beaver, (_Castor canadensis_), is a remarkable animal. In
original thought it is equalled by few animals, and in industry by none.
With the possible exception of the porcupine, it is the largest gnawing
animal in North America, once was widely distributed, and its beautiful
fur has been in demand ever since the days of the colonists.
Unfortunately, the Beaver’s intelligence was directed chiefly to the
building of dams, canals, and houses, and procuring an abundant supply
of food-wood, rather than in providing itself with means of escape from
its arch enemy—the man with a steel trap. Because of the constant demand
for its fur, this animal has been so nearly exterminated throughout the
United States that practically none remains save where they are rigidly
protected. At present the largest colonies known are those in the
Yellowstone Park, although in Canada and the Northwest many still
remain.

The most wonderful thing about the Beaver is the manner in which he
builds dams, to make ponds deep enough for his timber-floating
operations, and to afford him a submarine passage to his house. Give him
a valley and a stream of water, and he will gladly make a pond out of
whatever raw materials are at hand. He uses the four-foot sticks from
which he has eaten the bark for food, and with these, and an abundance
of mud, he will raise a good strong dam to a height of four feet, and a
width on the ground of ten feet or more. The mud used is dug out of the
bottom and sides of his pond, and carried, while swimming, between his
paws, with his front feet holding it against his breast. The sticks used
in the dam are thrust endwise into the mud on top of the dam, and the
mud used is patted down with his fore feet. The tail is not used as a
trowel, but in swimming it is the Beaver’s propeller.

In captivity the Beaver is not wholly a satisfactory animal. Like some
human craftsmen, he positively declines to work under observation, and
performs nearly all his tasks at night. He thinks nothing of gnawing
down a tree a foot in diameter, and cutting its limbs into pieces which
he can handle while swimming. If he can secure enough food-wood of kinds
of his liking, he eats little else. Besides building dams to create
ponds in which he can take refuge when hard pressed, he constructs
canals, and houses for winter use. He also digs burrows into high banks;
but his entrances to his various homes always are under water.


                THE ECONOMIC RODENT-REPTILE COLLECTION.

As an answer to a frequent question—“Of what use are reptiles?”—a new
collection has been installed in the Reptile House. It is supplied with
descriptive labels, and serves several purposes. In the first place
there is presented an elaborate series of the small gnawing animals, or
rodents, a number of the species of which are highly injurious to the
interests of agriculturists; secondly, the exhibition contains a large
series of those species of snakes that prey upon the destructive
rodents,—thus presenting for observation the serpents of marked economic
value. Finally, the entire series stands as a clear demonstration of the
perfect logic of Nature in which the production of all animal life is
carefully balanced; for a part of the exhibition is composed of
representative species of mammals that, in turn, prey upon the serpents,
thus keeping even the destroyers of the smaller injurious creatures
within bounds!

    [Illustration: BRAZILIAN TREE PORCUPINE.]

During the past two years the collection of rodents has been steadily
growing in importance. The following is a list of the species on
exhibition at the close of the year 1912:

                     RODENTS IN THE ZOOLOGICAL PARK.
                     HARES AND RABBITS (_Leporidae_)

  Mexican Swamp Rabbit                 _Lepus palustris_.
  Cotton-Tail Rabbit                   _Lepus palustris mallurus_.
  Domestic Rabbits, various breeds     (Nursery stock.)

                   SQUIRRELS AND MARMOTS (_Sciuridae_)

  Thirteen-Lined Spermophile           _Spermophilus 13-lineatus_.
  Desert Spermophile                   _Spermophilus leucurus_.
  Richardson Spermophile               _Spermophilus richardsoni_.
  Woodchuck                            _Arctomys monax_.
  Prairie Dog                          _Cynomys ludovicianus_.
  European Squirrel                    _Sciurus vulgaris_.
  Mexican Squirrel                     _Sciurus aureogaster_.
  Central American Squirrel            _Sciurus variabilis_.
  Cuban Squirrel                       _Sciurus chrysurus_.
  Variable Squirrel                    _Sciurus griseo-flavus_.
  Gray Squirrel                        _Sciurus carolinensis_.
  Black Squirrel                       _Sciurus carolinensis niger_.
  Fox Squirrel                         _Sciurus ludovicianus_.
  White-Headed Squirrel                _Sciurus macrouroides_.
  Malabar Squirrel                     _Sciurus malabaricus_.
  Chipmunk                             _Tamicis striatus_.
  African Ground Squirrel              _Xerus capensis_.
  Flying Squirrel                      _Sciuropterus volans_.

                          BEAVERS (_Castoridae_)

  American Beaver                      _Castor canadensis_.

                      KANGAROO RATS (_Heteromyidae_)

  Kangaroo Rat                         _Dipodomys merriami_.

                       POCKET GOPHERS (_Geomyidae_)

  Harsh-Coated Pocket Gopher           _Geomys hispidus_.

                           DORMICE (_Gliridae_)

  Squirrel-Tailed Dormouse             _Myoxus glis_.
  Lesser Dormouse                      _Myoxus dryas_.
  English Dormouse                     _Muscardinus avellanarius_.

                        MICE AND RATS (_Muridae_)

  Domestic Mouse—Unusual Color Phases  _Mus musculus_.
  Japanese Waltzing Mouse              _Mus musculus_.
  Black Rat                            _Mus rattus_.
  Black-and-White Rat                  _Mus norwegicus_.
  Gray-and-White Rat                   _Mus norwegicus_.
  Porcupine Mouse                      _Acomys cahirinus_.
  Egyptian Gerbille                    _Gerbillus pyramidum_.
  Muskrat                              _Fiber zibethicus_.
  Cotton Rat                           _Sigmodon hispidus_.

                          JERBOAS (_Dipodidae_)

  Greater Jerboa                       _Dipus aegyptius_.

                  COYPU AND SPINY RATS (_Octodontidae_)

  Coypu Rat                            _Myocastor coypu_.
  Hutia: Cuban Tree Rat                _Capromys pilorides_.
  Short-Tailed Hutia                   _Capromys browni_.

                        PORCUPINES (_Hystricidae_)

  Canada Porcupine                     _Erethizon dorsatus_.
  Brazilian Porcupine                  _Sphingurus prehensilis_.
  African Porcupine                    _Hystrix cristata_.

               VISCACHAS AND CHINCHILLAS (_Chinchillidae_)

  Viscacha                             _Lagostoma trichodactylus_.

                        AGOUTIS (_Dasyproctidae_)

  Golden Agouti                        _Dasyprocta agouti_.
  Gray Agouti                          _Dasyprocta prymnolopha_.

                           CAVIES (_Caviidae_)

  Domestic Cavy                        _Cavia porcellus_.
  Capybara                             _Hydrochaerus capybara_.
  Patagonian Cavy                      _Dolichotis patagonica_.

    [Illustration: MUTE AND TRUMPETER SWANS.]



                           SECTION II.—BIRDS.


                        THE GOOSE AVIARY, No. 3.

There are no birds which take more kindly to captivity, or which better
repay their keep and their keepers, than the ducks, geese, swans and
pelicans. The only drawback to the maintenance of large collections of
these birds in this latitude is the annual struggle with our arctic
winter. On account of the fierce winter storms to which we must pay
tribute, many species of swimming birds require to be taken out of their
aviary, and housed in sheltered buildings, with moderate warmth. For
this reason the pelicans, tree-ducks of all species, and all species
from the tropics, must necessarily be absent in winter from their summer
quarters.

For the accommodation of a large, systematic collection of wild geese,
an aviary two hundred and fifty feet long by one hundred and forty-three
feet in width has been constructed in the north end of Bird Valley. To
secure as much space as possible, the entire width of the open valley
has been taken into the enclosure.

The Goose Aviary consists of a pond containing three islands, two of
which are subdivided by low fences of wire netting into twelve separate
enclosures. The collection of geese has become so large and important
the original Duck Aviary has been taken for it, and the Ducks will
hereafter be found on the Wild-Fowl Pond and in the Flying Cage.

The Geese.—The collection of wild geese, in the Goose Aviary, is
unusually large, there being generally about twenty out of the
thirty-five known species. Among these one of the best known is the
Common Wild, or Canada Goose, (_Branta canadensis_). Once common
throughout many parts of the United States, continual persecution by
sportsmen and market hunters has so generally reduced its numbers that
now it is of comparatively rare occurrence.

This exceeding rarity made the arrival of nine superb wild specimens on
November 8, 1900, on the Wild-Fowl Pond, a most interesting event. Seven
of the birds, including a fine gander, through the artifice of a trap,
were induced to remain with us, and have taken up a peaceful abode on
the little lake, with others of their kind presented by Mr. A. B. Frost.

The African Spur-Winged Goose, (_Plectropterus gambensis_), although of
large size, is more properly a duck than a goose. A long sharp spur
arises from the bend of each wing, which the birds use in fighting with
each other for their mates.

The Gray-Lag Goose, (_Anser anser_), is, perhaps, the most interesting
of all geese, as being the wild species from which our domestic birds
are descended. The white color and large size are the chief differences
between the domestic and wild birds.

The White-Fronted Goose, (_Anser albifrons_), is worthy of special
notice because it is the handsomest of the ten species of North American
geese. The breeding grounds are far to the north, and in Alaska the
nests are mere hollows in the sand, lined with moss and down.

The Bar-Headed Goose, (_Eulabia indica_), inhabits the mountains of
Central Asia, nesting always over a mile above the sea. It is perhaps
the handsomest of all geese.

The Swans.—Usually at least six out of the seven known species of swans
may be seen on exhibition here.

The Mute Swan, (_Cygnus olor_), is the commonest swan in captivity, and
is the one made famous in European history and legend. It may always be
known from the other species by the black knob at the base of the bill.
It breeds freely in captivity and the young birds are known as cygnets.

The Trumpeter Swan, (_Cygnus buccinator_), being the largest bird in the
aviary, and also snowy white, is therefore the most conspicuous. Several
fine specimens are shown on the North Island, living contentedly with
other species. Some of these specimens were captured in Idaho, when
young enough to take kindly to captivity.

The Black Swan, (_Chenopsis atrata_), of South Australia and Tasmania,
is as glossy black, excepting its primaries, as other swans are white.
It is a large and handsome bird, and much sought by all persons who form
collections of water fowl.

The Coscoroba Goose, (_Coscoroba coscoroba_), is a fair connecting link
between the swans and the ducks, partaking about equally of the
characters of each. In size and color it is very much like our snow
goose, (_Chen hyperborea_), but it is peculiar in possessing very long
legs of a bright pink color, by which it is quickly recognized. Its
bill, also is pink, and the tips of its primaries are black. The
Coscoroba Goose is a native of southern South America, and a few years
ago specimens were so rare in captivity that a pair sold for $300.


                        THE FLYING CAGE, No. 4.

This mammoth bird-cage is one of the wonders of the Zoological Park. It
represents an attempt to do for certain large and showy water birds,
precisely what has been done for the hoofed animals, the beaver, otter,
and other species—give them a section of Nature’s own domain. In this
they can fly to and fro, build nests and rear their young in real
freedom.

Near the lower end of Bird Valley, as a sort of climax for the Goose
Aviary when seen from the north, rises a lofty, web-like structure, in
the form of a huge, gothic arch. It is 55 feet in height, 75 feet wide,
and 152 feet long. The whole structure consists of a series of
steel-pipe arches and purlins, the former eight feet apart, over which
wire-netting has been tightly stretched.

The wire-netting seems peculiarly open. It is of the kind known as
chain-netting, which offers the least possible obstruction to the eye.
This cage is so large that a very respectable block of houses, three
stories high and of ample dimensions, could stand within it without
touching the wire. It completely encloses three forest trees of very
considerable size, two hickories and an oak; and it contains a pool of
water a hundred feet long, and shrubbery in abundance.

    [Illustration: CEREOPSIS GEESE.]

The idea of a very large cage for herons and egrets, is not new, for
there are in existence several other flying cages, somewhat smaller than
this. The first was erected in the Rotterdam Zoological Garden by its
Director, the late Dr. A. Von Bemmelin, whose experiment proved very
successful. Others are at London and in Paris Jardin d’Acclimatation.

The Flying Cage is the summer home of a mixed flock of such large and
showy water birds as are most inclined to fly about within it, and
afford students and the public an opportunity to study their movements
and attitudes. Save for such allowances as must be made for accidents
and epidemics, this enclosure will contain the following noteworthy
species, along with others of less importance:

The American Flamingo, (_Phoenicopterns ruber_), is, in appearance, a
connecting link between the herons and ducks, resembling the former in
the great length of its legs, and the latter in the duck-like bill and
webbed feet. When the plumage of this species is perfect, it is of a
beautiful scarlet color throughout, excepting the primaries, which are
black. In captivity, the color fades somewhat. This bird is found in the
Bahama Islands and Cuba, but in Florida, where once it was fairly
numerous, it no longer exists. Fortunately, this remarkable bird takes
kindly to captivity, and the Zoological Park is never without a
good-sized flock. Their strange form, showy colors and droll attitudes
render them unusually interesting to visitors.

    [Illustration: WHITE-FACED GLOSSY IBIS.]

    [Illustration: ROSEATE SPOONBILL.]

With the birds of the above species are shown a few specimens of the
European Flamingo, (_P. roseus_), which is almost white. The only parts
which show the characteristic scarlet of this genus, are the wing
coverts, which are pale red, or pink.

The Scarlet Ibis, (_Guara rubra_), is for its size the most showy bird
in existence, not even excepting the birds of paradise. Excepting the
black primaries, every feather on the adult bird in perfect plumage is
of a brilliant Chinese vermilion color, visible in nature for a long
distance. The immature birds are mottled and patched with white. This
species once came as far north as southern Florida, but now it is found
only from Cuba southward. They frequent the mud banks at the various
mouths of the Orinoco, and not long since were quite abundant on the
coast of British Guiana.

The White-Faced Glossy Ibis, (_Plegadis guarauna_), is not a rare bird
in captivity, and it will doubtless be possible to maintain this species
perpetually in the Flying Cage and Aquatic-Bird House.

The Wood Ibis, (_Tantalus loculator_).—The Park obtains its supply of
birds of this species from Florida, where they breed, in very greatly
reduced numbers, on the headwaters of the St. Johns. This bird is a very
satisfactory member of avian society. Although amply large to lord it
over the other birds of the cage, he quarrels with none, but peacefully
goes his way, feeling with the point of his beak along the sandy bottom
of the pool for something edible, or standing in quiet meditation on the
bank. Notwithstanding its common name, this bird is not an ibis, but a
true stork. In its black and white plumage it is quite a handsome bird.
Although not so fond of using its wings in captivity as are herons and
egrets, the Wood Ibis is for many reasons a very welcome tenant.

The White Stork, (_Ciconia ciconia_), is as large as our wood ibis,
which it strongly resembles in form and habits. This bird is literally
the household bird of Germany, and its place in the family has now
become of more importance than its place in nature. Throughout Holland,
Germany, and very nearly the whole of eastern and central Europe, the
White Stork is so prized and protected by the people that it has
attained a state of semi-domestication. Nesting places are prepared for
it, usually near or even upon human habitations, and it enjoys an
immunity from molestation quite like that of the adjutant in India.

The Great Blue Heron, (_Ardea herodias_), is frequently called the “blue
crane”; but the latter name is a misnomer. It properly belongs to our
sandhill crane (_Grus canadensis_). Just why so large a number of people
should be so persistent in this error is a psychological problem; but
the fact remains that people will not say “heron.”

This Great Blue Heron is the largest and most noteworthy bird of our
northern marshes. Thanks to the fact that it bears no desirable
“plumes,” and its flesh is not edible, it has been permitted to live.
When not molested, it becomes quite trustful, and when wading along a
shore, fishing for minnows, it affords for the field-glass or the camera
a very interesting subject. In summer these birds are quite numerous in
the marshes along the Shrewsbury River, between Sandy Hook and Long
Branch, and they are an unfailing source of interest to excursionists.
It is sincerely to be hoped that the evil eye of “Dame Fashion” will not
fall upon this bird, and cause its extermination.

The Great White Heron, (_Ardea americana_), is taller than the great
blue heron, and it is the largest of all the white herons and egrets.
Like the whooping crane, it is now a bird of such exceeding rarity that
the procuring of a specimen may be counted a stroke of good fortune. In
eight years the Zoological Park has secured only three specimens, all of
which came from southern Florida.

The Little Blue Heron, (_Florida caerulea_).—The immature birds of this
species are snowy white, and so closely resemble snowy herons of the
same age, that only one well acquainted with both can distinguish
between them. They are, however, separately recognized by the fact that
the snowy heron has black legs, and a black bill, whereas the legs and
bill of the Little Blue Heron are pale yellow. This species is still
common in some parts of its Florida home, and occasionally a specimen
strays as far north as Staten Island.

The Louisiana Heron, (_Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis_), once very
numerous in Florida, is still found there, but in greatly reduced
numbers. It ranges from Central America and the West Indies northward to
the Gulf States, and occasionally to Long Island. The general coloring
is dark blue, but a prominent distinguishing character is the chestnut
brown on the sides of the neck.

The Black-Crowned Night Heron, (_Nycticorax nycticorax naevius_), is one
of the commonest herons about New York City and occasionally nests in
the Park itself. It breeds in large colonies, and feeds chiefly at
night. Its note is a hoarse _quok_, very much like the bark of a dog.

The Snowy Heron, or Snowy Egret, (_Egretta candidissima_), when fully
adult, is the most beautiful white bird in all the avian world. Its form
is the embodiment of symmetry and grace, its plumage is immaculate, and
the filmy “plumes” on its head and back are like spun glass. Its black
legs and bill merely serve to intensify the whiteness of its feathers.
The vanity of woman has been the curse of the Snowy Egret. Its plumes
are finest during the breeding season, and it was then that the hunters
sought them, slaughtering the old birds in the rookeries by thousands
(when they were abundant), and leaving the nestlings to die of
starvation. If all women could know the price in blood and suffering
which is paid for the accursed “aigrettes” of fashion, surely but few
could find any pleasure in wearing them. It is strange that civilized
woman—the tender-hearted, the philanthropic, and the
ever-compassionate—should prove to be the evil genius of the world’s
most beautiful birds.

In the United States the Snowy Egret now exists only by accident, and
the “plume hunters” are pursuing this and the following species in
Central and South America, to their most remote haunts, sometimes even
at the risk of their lives. Fashion has decreed that the egrets must go.

    [Illustration: BROWN AND WHITE PELICANS.]

The American Egret, (_Herodias egretta_).—Much to the misfortune of this
species, it possesses about fifty “aigrette” plumes which droop in
graceful curves from the middle of its back far beyond the tail and wing
tips. For these beautiful feathers this bird has been pursued by plume
hunters almost to the point of total extermination in the United States.

The White Pelican, (_Pelecanus erythrorhynchus_), is one of the largest
birds of North America and by reason of its size, its pure white
plumage, its enormously long amber-colored bill and gular pouch, it is
one of the most showy birds in the aviary. As consumers of fish they
stand pre-eminent among birds, and their only rivals in the Park are the
sea-lions. The specimens exhibited were collected for the Society in
southern Texas.

The Brown Pelican, (_Pelecanus occidentalis_), when adult, is a handsome
and showy bird, and one which not only is easily reconciled to life in a
comfortable aviary, but positively enjoys it. The specimens in our
collection were collected for the Society on Pelican Island, Florida,
and their interesting home life at that place may be studied from the
series of photographs on exhibition in the Aquatic Bird House. When
their daily allowance of fish appears they crowd around their keeper,
and with wide-open pouches earnestly solicit contributions.


                     THE AQUATIC BIRD HOUSE, No. 5.

This building is the result of an attempt to solve an old problem in a
new way—the care of large migratory water birds in the most uneven
winter climate on earth. In comparison with the care in winter of
flamingoes, large herons, egrets, ibises, and the like, the housing of
perching birds, birds of prey and the parrots, presents few
difficulties. But the wealth of fine water birds in North America alone,
and the interest attaching to them, seem to justify the labor and
expense that have been involved in this building and its appointments.
Practically all of the birds to be seen in this building in winter are
mentioned elsewhere in this volume.

THE OWL CAGES.—After the completion of the Eagle and Vulture Aviary, the
ten large cages on the exterior of the Aquatic-Bird House, which have
been occupied temporarily by the birds of prey, will be used for the owl
collection.

The Giant Eagle Owl, (_Bubo bubo_), is a true giant among the owls. It
is found throughout continental Europe, keeping mostly to the deep
forests, and feeding on grouse, rabbits, etc. It is unusually long-lived
in captivity, and breeds freely.

The Milky Eagle Owl, (_Bubo lacteus_), has the same general characters
as its congener, but its feathers are of a beautiful, soft gray. It is
very rare in collections.

The Great Horned Owl, (_Bubo virginianus_).—These nocturnal birds of
prey inhabit heavily wooded regions, feeding on mice, and poultry when
it is obtainable. The bright yellow iris, the conspicuous feather horns,
and the apparently pivoted neck are curious features of these birds.
Their reputation for wisdom is founded only on their external
appearance, for in reality they are rather dull birds.

The Snowy Owl, (_Nyctea nyctea_), of the Arctic regions, migrating in
winter to the northern United States, sometimes remains for several
seasons in succession so far north that no specimens are obtainable.
During 1899, 1900, and the first half of 1901, not one specimen could be
procured, but in the late autumn of 1901 a southward migration began. On
June 1, 1911, the Park exhibited six fine specimens, one of which was
almost pure white. During the three hottest months of summer, these
birds would suffer considerably, so during this period they are confined
in a cool, dark cellar, thus keeping in perfect health and comfort
throughout the year.

    [Illustration: GREAT HORNED OWL.]

    [Illustration: SPECTACLED OWL.]

The Screech Owl, (_Otus asio_).—This little horned owl is our commonest
species, and frequents the neighborhood of dwellings and orchards. Being
nocturnal it is more common than is generally supposed, and its curious
cry, which is not a screech, but a musical, quavering series of notes,
is the cause most frequently leading to its discovery. Its two phases of
plumage, red and gray, occur independently of sex, age or season. Its
food consists of mice and insects.

The Barred Owl, (_Syrnium varium_).—This owl is more diurnal than its
nearest relatives, and often hunts its prey in bright moonshine. Its
deep, penetrating call, “woo-o-o, whoo-o-o,” is one of the most weird
and striking cries of the bird world. Another peculiarity, common to all
owls, but more noticeable in this less nocturnal species, is the
absolutely noiseless flight. The soft, downy feathers of the owl permit
it to wing its way through the air with as little noise as a falling
leaf.


                 THE EAGLE AND VULTURE AVIARY, No. 11.

    [Illustration: EARED VULTURE.]

    [Illustration: LAMMERGEYER.]

The Eagle and Vulture Aviary stands in an open glade, but well
surrounded by forest trees, in Bird Valley, between the Aquatic Bird
House and the new Zebra House. It is a commodious and pleasant
installation, well adapted to exhibit the Society’s collection of
rapacious birds. Its length over all is 210 feet. It has seven very
large flight cages and six smaller ones. The largest cages are 24 feet
wide, 33 feet deep and 31 feet high. In the rear of the great wire
structure will stand a very comfortable brick building to serve as a
winter shelter for the tropical birds of the collection; but it will not
be open to the public.

Now that our eagles and vultures are to be brought together, visitors
will find that the collection is a large one, and contains many fine
species.

The Condor, (_Sarcorhamphus gryphus_), of the Andes, is the largest of
the birds of prey, having a wing-spread of over nine feet. It feeds
entirely on carrion, rarely attacking living animals. In the male, the
head is adorned with a large fleshy comb, much like that of a barn-yard
cock. The Society at present possesses several specimens of this great
bird.

The King Vulture, (_Gypagus papa_), is as its proud name implies, the
one member of the Vulture Family which really is clad in royal robes,
and color-decked to match. Its range extends from Mexico and Central
America to Trinidad and Brazil. The visitor should not fail to see this
gorgeously caparisoned body of white, cream-yellow and black, and head
of orange, purple and crimson.

Black Vulture, (_Catharista urubu_).—These ill-favored but very useful
birds are quite abundant, and even semi-domesticated, in some of our
southern cities. This is due to the protection accorded them, because of
their valuable services as scavengers. They are said to devour every
particle of exposed organic refuse, and in a warm climate these services
are of more value than we in the north can realize.

The Yellow-Headed Vulture, (_Cathartes urobitinga_), of northern South
America, is a much handsomer bird than its two preceding relatives. It
has much the same feeding habits, but is very rare and delicate in
captivity.

The California Condor, (_Gymnogyps californianus_).—This is one of the
rarest, and to all Americans the most interesting, bird of prey in the
Park. The species is confined to a very small area in the rugged
mountains of southern and lower California, and beyond all doubt, the
skin-collecting ornithologists will exterminate it within the next
twenty years, or less.

The Griffon Vulture, (_Gyps pulvus_), and the Kolbe Vulture, (_G.
kolbi_), are Old World birds and although more closely related to the
eagles than to the vultures of the New World, resemble the latter in
general habits.

Differing strongly from its congeners in general appearance, is the
Eared Vulture, (_Otogyps auricularis_). This rare bird is a native of
North Africa, where it feeds on such carrion as it is able to find. Its
bare, wrinkled head and neck and great bill give it a decidedly gruesome
appearance.

The Red-Tailed Hawk, (_Buteo borealis_).—The “Hen Hawk,” or “Chicken
Hawk,” is one of our commonest birds of prey. It hardly merits its
common name, as its favorite food is mice and other small mammals. This
is the hawk seen, in the fall of the year, going south in flocks,
sometimes of one hundred or more.

One of the most splendid members of the collection is the Harpy Eagle,
(_Thrasaetus harpyia_), of South America. The remarkably large legs and
claws indicate the great strength which enables the bird to prey upon
sloths, monkeys, and other fairly large animals.

    [Illustration: KING VULTURE.]

    [Illustration: BLACK VULTURE.]

The Lammergeyer or Bearded Vulture, (_Gypaetus barbatus_), is now
probably extinct in Europe, but is still found in parts of Asia. It
feeds largely on lambs.

A nearly cosmopolitan bird is the Golden Eagle, (_Aquila chrysaetos_).
It is equally at home in the highlands of Scotland and the mountains of
North America, nesting on the highest cliffs.

The Bateleur Eagle, of Africa, (_Helotarsus ecaudatus_), has narrowly
missed the distinction of being the most beautiful of all birds of prey.
Its plumage is charmingly colored but it is out of proportion. Its tail
is so absurdly short that its wings quite conceal it, and make it appear
as if altogether tailless.

    [Illustration: HARPY EAGLE.]

    [Illustration: GRIFFON VULTURE.]

Bald Eagle, (_Haliaëtus leucocephalus_).—The appearance of the adult
Bald Eagle, our National emblem, with its conspicuous white head and
tail, is familiar to all; but the immature birds, as shown by several of
the specimens, lack the white in their plumage. These birds are found
usually near water, and their food is chiefly fish. These they sometimes
catch for themselves, but if ospreys are found in the vicinity, they are
watched by the eagles, and often robbed of their hard-earned prey.

Perhaps the fiercest among all the hawks is the White Gyrfalcon, (_Falco
islandus_). A native of the far north, it descends to a more equable
clime only when forced to do so by scarcity of food. It is so swift of
wing that it is able to capture a duck in full flight.

Sea snakes form the rather unusual food of the White-Breasted Sea Eagle,
(_Haliaëtus leucogaster_), of the East Indies, while the
strikingly-colored Vulturine Sea Eagle, (_Gypohierax angolensis_), a
native of Africa, feeds on fish, crabs, and the fruit of the oil palm.


                   THE WILD TURKEY ENCLOSURE, No. 33.

At the northern end of Squirrel Ridge, where the Alligator Walk
intersects the Rodent Walk, an ideal quarter of an acre, of oak and
hickory trees, underbrush, and bare rock, has been dedicated to the king
of game birds.

The Wild Turkey, (_Meleagris gallopavo silvestris_), is a bird of
magnificent size and presence, and the splendid metallic luster of his
plumage—a mixture of burnished bronze copper, lapis lazuli, and fire
opal iridescence—backed up by a great bulk of savory flesh, all combine
to make this the finest game bird on earth. It was once fairly abundant
throughout the eastern United States, and still is found in
Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, Virginia and other southern states as far
west as Texas. Three other species of _Meleagris_ are now recognized—one
in Florida, one in southern Texas and northeastern Mexico, and the
fourth in Mexico, extending to western Texas and Arizona.


                      THE LARGE BIRD-HOUSE, No. 7.

On the northwest quarter of Baird Court stands the largest and the most
generously equipped home for perching birds now in existence. This is
not an unnecessary boast, but merely a brief statement of a fact which
the visitor has a right to know. It was designed on our long-established
principle that every captive wild creature is entitled to life, exercise
and happiness. Our principle of very large cages, with many birds in
each cage, is just the reverse of the views that have prevailed in the
older zoological gardens, even down to the present day. To an important
extent, the cage equipment of this building represents a new departure.
There are many zoologists with experience longer than ours who believe
that small birds thrive better and live longer when installed in small
cages, with only one or two birds in each.

    [Illustration: WILD TURKEY.]

The Large Bird-House, specially designed for Passerine birds, was
developed on the strength of experiments previously made in the
Aquatic-Bird House, and in community cages outside. After three years’
experience with the new building, and a careful tabulation of diseases
and death rates within it, we are able to state that this installation
is a complete and gratifying success.

The Large Bird-House is an L-shaped building, with an all-glass house in
its angle. The main hall extends east and west, and it is 60 feet long
by 50 feet wide. This great room contains the foreign song-birds, many
tropical doves and pigeons, and such tropical varieties and oddities as
the great crowned pigeons, tinamous, toucans, giant king-fishers and
hornbills. In the great central flying cage there is perhaps the most
remarkable _omnium-gatherum_ of small tropical birds—swimmers, waders,
upland game birds and perchers—ever brought together in one cage. The
bottom of the L is the Parrots’ Hall, 65×30 feet. It contains the
parrots, macaws, cockatoos, and a few other species.

    [Illustration: SERIEMA.]

    [Illustration: SECRETARY BIRD.]

In the angle of the main building stands a structure almost wholly
composed of metal and glass, which is known as the Glass Court. It was
designed especially for North American song-birds. The visitor should
not overlook the fact that there are cages filled with birds all along
both the eastern and western sides of the Large Bird House.

Nearly all the cages of both the exterior and interior of the Main and
Parrots’ Halls, are accessible from the back by passage-ways; a
convenience that greatly facilitates the work of the keepers in caring
for their various charges.

The capacity of this installation as a whole may be judged from the
following memorandum of cages:

         APPROXIMATE SIZES OF CAGES OF THE LARGE BIRD-HOUSE
                             _INDOORS._

  Main Hall      Central Flying Cage     15×36×20 feet high      1
                 Side Cages              5×5×9                  35
                 End Cages               5×12×9                  2
  Parrot Hall    Side Cages              6×8×9                  21
  Glass Court    West Cages              8×9×9                   6
                 East & North Cages      5×6×8                  16

                            _OUTDOORS._

  Northeast Cages                        7×12×10                 2
  East Cages                             6×8×10                 10
  Southeast Circular Flight Cage         20×20×2                 1
  South Cages                            6×8×10                  3
  Large Western Cages                    15×15×15                3
  Smaller Western Cages                  6×9×10                 14
  Total number of cages                                        114

Regarding the state of health and spirits of the birds in this building,
the visitor must be left to judge for himself. It is only fair to state,
however, that the death rate here and indeed amongst the birds of the
Park generally, is _very low_.

In view of the great number of avian species inhabiting the Large
Bird-House, it is a practical impossibility to give more than a general
outline of the groups and leading features of the collection.

As the visitor enters at the south door, nearest the Lion House, he is
greeted by a discordant chorus of ear-piercing shrieks and squawks,
joyous but very raucous, and at times too persistent. Loudest are the
voices of the gorgeously-plumaged Blue-and-Yellow Macaw, (_Ara
ararauna_); the Red-and-Blue Macaw, (_Ara macao_), and the Great Green
Macaw. Around their cages there is no such thing as stagnation or
somnolence. The soft-hued Rosella Parakeets, the flock of mostly-green
Cuban Parrots, the Leadbeater Cockatoos and the White Cockatoos all join
in their voices, to the limit of their respective abilities, but against
macaws which can be heard a mile, their best efforts seem tame. The
members of the Order _Psittaciformes_ (as above) have been beautifully
colored by Nature, and their harsh voices seem strangely out of harmony
with their plumage.

The indoor cages along the western side of the Large Bird-House (both
halls included), contain an extensive series of tropical Pigeons and
Doves, which are well worth some attention.

The most startling exhibit in this group is the Bleeding Heart Pigeon
(_Phlogoenas luzonica_), from the Philippines, whose creamy-white breast
seems to have been recently stabbed with a stiletto. It is no wonder
that now and then a sympathetic visitor seeks the curator, or a keeper,
and reports that a bird has been injured, and is bleeding from a wound
in its breast.

    [Illustration: GREAT CROWNED PIGEON.]

The Flying Cage in the center of the Main Hall contains a pool of
running water, some small trees, an imitation rock, and the floor is
covered with a comfortable layer of sand. Hopping or flying about, and
perching on the trees, is a really remarkable medley of birds. There are
the Wood Duck and Mandarin Duck, Black Skimmers, Common and Sooty Terns,
several species of Teal, Curlews, Gallinules, Coots, Lapwings, Snipe,
Ruffs, Quail, Francolins, Senegal, Turtle, Wonga-wonga and other Pigeons
and Doves, Skylarks, Robins, Orioles, Cardinals, Woodpeckers, Java, Fox,
Tree, and other Sparrows and Weavers.

The south side of the Main Hall is devoted to miscellaneous rare birds
from the tropics, regardless of the Orders to which they belong. The
largest are the Great Crowned Pigeons,—Victoria and Common,—the oddest
are the Concave-Casqued Hornbills and the Toucans (eight species). The
Rufous Tinamou, of South America, is a species which, through lack of
use for its wings, is rapidly losing the power of flight. The Giant
Kingfisher is the “Laughing Jackass” of Australia, and its cry is
strangely like the mirthless horse-laugh of a man who has few smiles and
seldom uses one. The Himalayan Jay-Thrush is so confirmed a murderer of
birds smaller than himself, it is necessary to quarter that species with
other birds abundantly able to defend themselves against its attacks.

    [Illustration: SULPHUR CRESTED COCKATOO.]

    [Illustration: TOCO TOUCAN.]

On the northern side of the Main Hall there will be found a very
interesting group of Cuban birds, another of birds of the Bahamas, a
fair-sized collection of Finches, Weavers, Canaries, Trogons, and other
small species of foreign lands. Here also is the rare and
beautifully-plumed Greater Bird of Paradise, (_Paradisea apoda_).

The visitor is reminded that for all cages that contain more than one
species, the picture labels quickly furnish a key for identification of
each.

In the Glass Court and around it, the Curator of Birds, Mr. C. William
Beebe, has scored a gratifying success in the installation of the Order
_Passeres_. The birds are arranged by Families, and _all of the
twenty-one families of eastern North American perching birds are
represented_. These Families are as follows: Flycatchers, Swallows,
Wrens, Mockingbirds and Catbirds, Thrushes, Kinglets, Vireos, Waxwings,
Shrikes, Chickadees, Nuthatches, Brown Creepers, Warblers, Pipits,
Horned Larks, Sparrows, Honey Creepers, Tanagers, Blackbirds and
Orioles, English Starling, Crows and Jays. It is only those who have
attempted to form and install such a collection who can appreciate the
effort which that collection has cost, or the difficulties involved in
the maintenance of so large a number of insect-eating birds. The birds
in this section of the Bird-House are especially interesting to the
teachers of pupils of the public schools of this city.

The large circular flying cage, at the outer corner of the Glass Court,
is filled with Robins, Bluebirds, Thrushes and Woodpeckers which winter
there very comfortably, because they are fed and watered, and sheltered
from the worst storms.

Along the western wall of the Large Bird-House, outside, fourteen large
cages are filled with members of the Crow and Blackbird Families
(_Corvidae_ and _Icteridae_), such as the Ravens, Crows, Jays, Magpies,
Blackbirds, Meadowlarks, Cowbirds and Grackles, beside which appear our
old friends the Yellow-Shafted Flicker and Red-Headed Woodpecker.

The following is a systematic enumeration of the Orders of birds
represented in the Zoological Park on April 1, 1913:

                      LIST OF BIRDS, APRIL 1, 1913.
                       ORDERS.                      Species. Specimens.

  Rheiformes          Rheas                                2          2
  Struthioniformes    Ostriches                            2          2
  Casuariiformes      Emeus and Cassowaries                2          3
  Tinamiformes        Tinamou                              5          5
  Galliformes         Quail and Pheasants                 88        204
  Turniciformes       Hemipodes                            1          2
  Ptericlidiformes    Sand Grouse                          1          1
  Columbiformes       Pigeons and Doves                   57        183
  Ralliformes         Coots and Gallinules                15         35
  Lariformes          Gulls and Terns                     17         54
  Charadriiformes     Plovers and Sandpipers              18         48
  Gruiformes          Cranes, Seriema                     13         30
  Ardeiformes         Ibises, Storks and Herons           35         85
  Palamedeiformes     Screamers                            3          4
  Phoenicopteriformes Flamingoes                           2          5
  Anseriformes        Swans, Geese and Ducks              72        712
  Pelecaniformes      New World Vultures                   9         30
  Cathartidiformes    Cormorants and Pelicans              8         27
  Serpentariiformes   Secretary Birds                      1          2
  Accipitriformes     Hawks and Eagles; Old World         28         48
                      Vultures
  Strigiformes        Owls                                20         47
  Psittaciformes      Parrots, Macaws and Cockatoos       86        194
  Coraciiformes       Kingfishers and Hornbills           12         15
  Trogoniformes       Trogons                              1          1
  Cuculiformes        Touracos and Cuckoos                10         18
  Scansoriforme       Toucans and Barbets                  8         13
  Piciformes          Woodpecker                           9         26
  Passeriformes       Thrushes, Sparrows and all         378       1242
                      perching birds
  Totals                                                 903       3038


                            WILD-FOWL POND,
             _Heretofore Called the Aquatic Mammals’ Pond_.

As the birds on this pond have been transferred from the Duck Aviary,
the interest of this exhibit is of special character, and greatly
enjoyed by hosts of visitors. This is the nursery of the ducks and
geese, where, in the tangle of long grass, briars and underbrush along
the east side of the pond, the nests are built in early spring, the eggs
are laid and patiently incubated. Finally the broods of ducklings are
led to the water, to feed to repletion, throughout the summer, on the
worms, bugs and insects so dear to the appetite of these amusing little
fellows.

Cope Lake is the especial province of the nesting pairs of Canada geese,
and sometimes as many as eight golden-colored goslings are hatched in
one nest on the small island.

The Mallard Duck, (_Anas boschas_), is one of our finest swimming birds,
the joy of the sportsman who finds it in its haunts, the delight of the
epicure who finds it on the bill of fare. Sluggish indeed must be the
blood which does not beat faster at the sight of a flock of wild
Mallards, free in Nature, and ready to leap into the air and away at the
slightest alarm. After the pintail and the wood duck, this is one of the
handsomest ducks of North America, and also one of the finest for the
table. Its range covers practically the whole of the western continent
down to Panama, and even extends to the Azores, north Africa, and
northern India. The drakes are readily recognized by the splendid
irridescent green of the head.

The Green-Winged Teal, (_Nettion carolinensis_), and Blue-Winged Teal,
(_Querquedula discors_), are very delicate birds, and therefore rather
difficult to maintain in captivity. A flock of each will be found in the
Flying Cage.

The Pintail Duck, (_Dafila acuta_), is specially commended to the notice
of visitors because of its great beauty, both in color and form. Its
colors form an exquisite harmony of soft brown and gray tones which
fairly rival the more gaudy color-pattern of the wood duck. The species
is yet found occasionally along the Atlantic Coast, but like all other
edible birds, its numbers are rapidly diminishing. A large flock of
these birds will be found on the Wild-Fowl Pond.

    [Illustration: DUCKS FEEDING: WILD FOWL POND.]

The Gadwall, (_Chaulelasmas strepera_), is a handsome gray bird, well
known to gunners along the Mississippi Valley, but rarely seen along the
Atlantic coast. Its chief breeding grounds are in the great marshes of
central Canada.

The Baldpate, (_Mareca americana_), one of the finest of water-fowl, is
now so scarce that it is difficult to obtain specimens for exhibition.
These birds are poor divers, but gain a good livelihood by feeding on
floating sea lettuce, disturbed from the bottom by the better equipped
canvas-backs and redheads.

The bill of the Shoveller, (_Spatula clypeata_), has become so
specialized for mud-sifting that it has actually assumed the shape of a
shovel, and is out of all proportion to the size of the bird’s body. The
sides of the bill are equipped with bony plates, through which the mud
is strained, the particles of food being caught and swallowed.

The Canvas-Back (_Aythya vallisneria_), and the Red-Head, (_A.
americana_), two prime favorites with the sportsman and epicure, are
exhibited on the Wild Fowl Pond. Of the latter, a good-sized flock is
shown. Canvas-Backs, however, are difficult to capture unhurt, and still
more difficult to keep alive in captivity, and for these reasons the
number exhibited always is very small.

The Lesser Scaup, (_Marila affinis_), is one of the sea ducks, and, like
its congeners, a very expert diver. It feeds chiefly on mollusks, which
it finds in the mud, often at considerable depths under water.

The Paradise Sheldrake, (_Casarca variegata_), of Australia, is a
striking bird, occupying a position mid-way between the ducks and geese.
It is interesting to note that the female is much more attractive than
the male, the head and neck being pure white, in contrast with the more
sombre body. This species is very quarrelsome in captivity.

The Ruddy Sheldrake, (_Casarca casarca_), is a bird of wide
distribution, being found from the Mediterranean countries to Japan, and
also in northeast Africa. Both sexes are of a uniform light chestnut,
the male being distinguished by a black ring around the neck. The nest
is always well sheltered, often being placed in a hollow log.

The Common or Tadorna Sheldrake, (_Tadorna tadorna_), is a remarkably
colored bird, but unfortunately difficult to keep alive in this climate.
It nests in holes in the ground, preferably in disused rabbit burrows.

The Mandarin Duck, (_Aix galericulata_), is the Chinese counterpart of
our beautiful Wood or Summer Duck, (_Aix sponsa_). Of all living ducks,
the males of these two species are the most gorgeously colored and
plumed, and they are also of elegant form. Although both species are
much sought after, the number of available specimens continues to be
limited to a comparatively small number.


                THE PHEASANT AND PIGEON AVIARY, No. 40.
        _Entire Collection is the Gift of Mr. Jacob H. Schiff._

The Pheasant Aviary is a building like a corridor 240 feet long with a
cross pavilion at each end. The main structure is divided into 22
shelters connecting with a like number of wire enclosed outside runways,
each of which is 8 feet wide, 24 feet long and 8 feet high. The two end
pavilions furnish 32 smaller shelters and runways, making a total of 48
compartments. The shelters are divided into two stories, the upper
series being designed for pigeons, doves and perching birds of various
kinds. Each bird in this aviary can at every moment of his life choose
according to his needs from the following series of accommodations that
are available to him: An open, sunlit yard, a storm shelter with an open
front, or a closed room with one small door and a large window.

    [Illustration: PHEASANT AVIARY AND WILD FOWL POND.]

This beautiful and generous installation, 240 feet long, with 48
runways, accommodates the true Pheasants of the world, the largest group
of birds of the Pheasant Family (_Phasianidae_), which in turn is one of
the grand divisions of the sportsman’s own Order _Gallinae_, or upland
gamebirds. Of the whole Order _Gallinae_,—which includes the Grouse,
Ptarmigan, Partridges, Pheasants, Turkeys, Guinea-Fowls, Jungle Fowl,
Quails, Brush-Turkeys, Curassows and Guans—the group of the Pheasants
can justly claim the distinction of possessing the most beautiful birds.
Indeed, I think there is not to be found in the whole avian world a
group of game birds all the members of which, taken species by species,
are so gorgeously apparelled as these.

In this brief notice of what is really one of the finest pheasant
collections in the world, it is not possible to do more than direct the
visitors’ attention to its chief items of interest. It must be stated
well in advance, however, that these are birds of very shy and retiring
habit, which owe their existence as species to the success with which
they retreat from danger, and conceal themselves from man and beast.
These birds must not be forced to spend all the daylight hours in their
runways; for some of them could not long survive such exposure and
excitement. To preserve their lives, and keep them in health, they must
have the privilege of retiring into their shelters whenever they desire.
But they roam in and out, and by the exercise of a little effort in
returning to them, the interested visitor will find no great difficulty
in seeing all the species.

There are few species of pheasants whose members are sufficiently
peace-loving that many individuals can be kept together without deadly
combats. Of most species save the golden, silver and ring-neck, the
cocks are so quarrelsome that even two can not be kept together; and
this fact constitutes a handicap upon those whose duty it is to maintain
the full strength of the exhibition. If a rare and quarrelsome male
pheasant dies unexpectedly, it is not always possible to fill the
vacancy on short notice.

Out of the half-dozen species which claim first place in an enumeration
based on beauty and luxuriance of plumage—the Amherst, Reeve, golden,
silver, impeyan, Argus or Soemmerring—it is difficult to choose. Each
has its share of strong points, and it seems as if there is no “finest
of all.” Let us take them as they come to mind, for by reason of the
changes so often necessary in the runways, it is inexpedient to attempt
an end-to-end enumeration.

    [Illustration: MANCHURIAN EARED PHEASANT.]

The Golden Pheasant, (_Chrysolophus pictus_), is a universal favorite;
and it well deserves its wide popularity. Although small, it is as
beautiful as the most entrancing sunset ever seen. It is very alert and
_chic_, it is so good tempered that we can have the rare pleasure of
seeing a whole flock in one runway, and it is a good breeder. To crown
all these fine qualities, it is so hardy, and so competent a “rustler”
in seeking food that under fair conditions it is easily transplanted
from its native home in western and southern China. It has been
introduced and acclimatized with gratifying success in Oregon,
Washington, southern British Columbia near the Pacific coast, and
elsewhere. In the shooting season, the shops of the taxidermists of
Vancouver and Portland are filled with these gorgeous creatures, which
appreciative sportsmen have found “too beautiful to eat.” One might as
well try to describe a sunset as to pen a mental picture of the
wonderful combination of golden yellow, orange, lapis-lazuli blue and
deep crimson that appear in the plumage of this gorgeous bird.

The Amherst Pheasant, (_Chrysolophus amherstiae_), is the nearest
relative to the golden species, and also a strong candidate for first
honors on the score of beauty. As far as you can see the cock bird, you
can recognize it by its marvellous cape of pure white feathers marked
with semicircles of black and steel-blue, which reaches from its eyes
far back upon the shoulders. It is also easily recognized by its
enormously long tail, the middle feathers of which are conspicuously
marked by a regular series of diagonal bars of black laid on a light
ground color. This bird is of small size, and fortunately for the
public, it breeds in confinement with sufficient readiness that a good
supply for exhibition purposes is thereby maintained.

    [Illustration: INDIAN PEACOCK.]

The Silver Pheasant, (_Gennaeas nycthemerus_), of China, is Nature’s
“running mate” for the golden pheasant, not only in the rocky hill
forests of southern China, but in acclimatization, in captivity, and
everywhere else. Wherever you see a golden pheasant, look for the Silver
also, with its showy, snow-white tail, and white mantle of feathers
which covers the whole upper two-thirds of the bird from its ears to its
tail. Its dark-colored under surface serves well to accentuate the
whiteness of its other parts. It is a larger bird than the golden and
Amherst pheasants, but it is so good tempered that every summer two or
three cock birds are kept in the great Flying Cage along with many small
and defenseless birds which might easily be molested. In parks which are
not visited by great numbers of people, both this species and the golden
are easily domesticated, and permitted to roam at will.

The Reeves Pheasant, (_Syrmaticus reevesi_), of northern China, is a
most beautiful species, closely related to the Japanese, Elliott, Hume
and Soemmerring pheasants,—all of them fine, showy birds. Like the
Amherst, the Reeves Pheasant has a very long tail, which in fully adult
or old male birds often attains a length of five feet. When you see in
captivity a pheasant with an enormously long tail, it is safe to assume
that it is either an Amherst or a Reeves.

The Soemmerring Pheasant, (_Phasianus soemmerringii_), sometimes very
aptly called the Copper Pheasant, is a native of Japan, and a bird of
which any country might well be proud. In size, form and length of tail
it matches the common ring-necked pheasant. Its head and neck plumage is
of a warm copper-bronze tint, but its most beautiful colors are found in
the elaborate cross-bar markings of its tail. The pattern of the latter
reveals first a strong cross-bar of chocolate brown, above that a broad
band of fawn-color, and this blends into a mottling of black on
cream-color, edged across with black.

The True Ring-Necked Pheasant, (_P. torquatus_), of China, brings to
view a question that frequently is asked regarding the English Pheasant,
(_P. colchicus_), which is the common species of southeastern Europe and
Asia Minor, and of Great Britain and other continental areas by
_introduction_. We are asked, “Has the English Pheasant a white ring
around its neck, or not?”

The answer is, _the true, pure-blooded_ English, or Common Pheasant,
(_P. colchicus_), has _no ring_ around its neck; but so many persons
have crossed the true Ring-Necked Pheasant, of China, with that species
that in many flocks of the former species the majority of the
individuals are of mixed breed, with necks perceptibly ringed, yet
passing as English Pheasants. As a matter of fact, in the world to-day,
pure-blooded English Pheasants are rare. Both the English and
Ring-Necked species have been successfully introduced into several
portions of the United States.

While on this subject, we will here record the fact that the name
Mongolian Pheasant, as often applied to the Ring-Neck, is a misleading
error. The real Mongolian Pheasant, of Turkestan, (_P. mongolicus_), is
a species of such extreme rarity that it is almost unknown, alive, in
the United States. A fine pair of these birds is now on exhibition at
the Pheasant Aviary.

The Argus Pheasant, (_Argusianus argus_), is a bird with a great
reputation for beauty, but as seen alive in zoological collections it
does not always come up to expectations. Both its secondary
feathers—which when fully developed are of enormous length—and its
primaries, are extremely beautiful; but unfortunately those beauties are
not visible until the bird is dead, and its plumage displayed in a
manner very rarely adopted by the living, captive bird. But the eyes on
the huge secondary feathers are wonderful, and each primary is a dream
in ecru and brown tints, laid on in a most elaborate pattern. The Argus
Pheasants are most shy and wide-awake birds, inhabiting the dense, hot
and moist jungles of Borneo, Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, and are
almost impossible to shoot. They are snared by the Dyaks and Malays, and
after the skin has been removed and carefully preserved for museum
purposes, the flesh is as fine eating as the breast of a quail and quite
as palatable. A few successful attempts have been made to breed this
species in captivity.

The Impeyan Pheasant, (_Lophophorus impeyanus_), is the neighbor of the
Himalayan tahr, the burrhel, the ibex and the markhor, and the delight
of every sportsman who dares the rocks of “the Roof of the World” in
quest of Himalayan big game. Its beauty is due chiefly to its metallic
colors, and the splendid iridescence of its plumage. Its home is in the
world’s most gigantic mountains, and it is not uncommon for a bird that
has flown out from a mountain-side and been shot on the wing to fall
2,000 feet, and beyond human reach. No wonder this bird is popular with
Anglo-Indian sportsmen.

The Pheasant Aviary is a _double installation_, and as an aviary for
Pigeons and Doves it is quite as perfect as it is for Pheasants.

During the year 1910 and part of 1911, the pheasants of the Old World
were studied in their haunts by Mr. C. William Beebe, Curator of Birds.
By reason of a cash gift to the Zoological Society made by Col. Anthony
R. Kuser, he was enabled to make the expedition. The results will be
embodied in an elaborate monograph, which probably will be published in
the near future.


                       THE OSTRICH HOUSE, No. 43.
   _This entire collection presented by the late Charles T. Barney._

Originally it was our intention to devote this fine building solely to
the great “running birds,”—Ostriches, Rheas, Emeus and Cassowaries; but
the pressure for space has been so great that this intention never has
been carried into effect, and we fear it never will be. There are so
many cranes, seriemas, tropical vultures and other large birds which
appeal for space in these very pleasant and healthful quarters, we have
felt compelled to set our original plan half at naught. It seems
probable that some of the feathered interlopers now in the Ostrich House
will remain there, indefinitely—or at least until we erect a Crane
Aviary.

Architecturally, the Ostrich House is the counterpart of the
Small-Mammal House, the two being identical in size and form, and
connected by a handsome pavilion. Each building is 170 feet long, and 54
feet wide. The Ostrich House contains 13 cages, each 10×12 feet, by 8
feet in height. A flood of warm light pours through a glass roof into
these cages, and makes them as light as the yards without. It is no
wonder that birds thrive in this building. Movable partitions were
provided, so that a few of the cages might be subdivided whenever
necessary. This provision has proven of much practical value.

Each interior cage connects with a spacious outside yard, in which the
big birds spend the warm months. The yards are enclosed by wire fences,
and to the eye of the visitor they are open from three directions.

The members of the Subclass _Ratitae_,—once called the Cursores, or the
“running birds,”—are the present-day giants of the avian world. We have
reason to be glad that all these splendid birds did not disappear from
the earth before ornithology took form as a science. Undoubtedly, they
mark the end of the line of birds of their kind, for the far-reaching
destructiveness of civilized man has already put a period to the natural
evolution of animal life. To-day, the preservers of wild life are
engaged in a hand-to-hand struggle with the annihilators, over the
preservation of a remnant for those who come after us.

The African Ostriches are now very prominently in the public eye, not
because of their relationship to the Dinornis and Aepyornis of the past,
but by reason of the value of their plumes in enhancing the
attractiveness of woman. And surely, no plume-bearing bird ever enlisted
in a better cause, or on a more satisfactory basis; for to-day the plume
crop is being grown and plucked and marketed with almost as much
certainty as the annual crop of wool. In the United States, the most
important plume-producing ostrich farms are situated in southern
California and Arizona, where the industry is quite successful. So
valuable are the adult birds that it is possible to purchase specimens
imported from Africa for less money than would be necessary to procure
them in the United States.

    [Illustration: NORTH AFRICAN OSTRICH: MALE.]

A full-grown male African Ostrich stands 8 feet in height, and weighs
about 300 pounds. Its value on arrival in New York, before
acclimatization and moulting into perfect plumage, is from $200 to $250.
The female lays about 90 eggs in a year, each of which is equal to about
20 hen’s eggs. The time of incubation is about 40 days. In captivity
only about 60 per cent of the eggs hatch, and of those not more than
one-half live to attain full maturity. The plumage of immature birds and
adult females is gray, but that of the adult male is black on the body,
and white on the wings and tail.

The South African Ostrich, (_Struthio australis_), differs from the
species found in the north. The color of the naked skin of its neck and
thighs, and the front scales on its metatarsus, is distinctly bluish,
and dark. This is the species of the southern half of Africa, now so
successfully farmed in Cape Colony for its feathers that the annual crop
is said to yield about $5,000,000. And it is this species which is kept
on the ostrich farms of California and Arizona.

    [Illustration: RHEA.]

    [Illustration: CASSOWARY.]

The North African, or Sudan Ostrich, (_S. camelus_), is the species
first and longest known. Its neck, thighs and front metatarsal scales
are of a decided pink color. Originally the range of this species
extended from north Africa well into southwestern Asia, embracing
Arabia, Syria and Mesopotamia.

Generally speaking, the African Ostriches originally covered all the
open, sandy plains of Africa; but they never inhabited the regions of
dense forests. To-day their total inhabited range is small, and rapidly
becoming more so. It is highly probable that within the life period of
many persons now living, wild Ostriches will totally disappear from the
earth.

The Common Rhea, or South American Ostrich, (_Rhea americana_),
represents a group of ostriches much smaller than those of Africa, and
found only on the open plans of Argentina and Patagonia, below the great
equatorial forest belt. There are three species in the group. In general
terms it may be stated that an adult Rhea is about two-thirds the size
of an adult African ostrich. It is with great difficulty that these
birds are reared to maturity in the United States.

    [Illustration: EMEUS.]

The Common Emeu, (_Dromacus novae-hollandiae_), of Australia, is the
neighbor of the kangaroo and wallaby, and in form is as odd as are the
majority of the birds and mammals of that continent of strange
creatures. Its body suggests a pile of gray-brown hay elevated on
stilts, to one end of which a hay-covered neck and head have been
attached. The bird-lover should make much of this creature, for in its
home country it has been almost exterminated. Fortunately, in climates
reasonably well suited to it—but not in or near New York—it is possible
to breed this bird in captivity. In size the Emeu is next to the African
ostrich.

The Ceram Cassowary, (_Casuarius casuarius_), of the Island of Ceram,
Malay Archipelago, represents a group which contains a number of
well-defined species which are scattered through the northern cape of
Australia, New Guinea, the Aru Islands, Ceram, and other islands of
Malayana east of Celebes. They are all distinguished by their glossy
purple or black body plumage—which looks far more like coarse hair than
like feathers—their huge legs, and their helmeted heads. The differences
between species are based chiefly upon the bright orange red and purple
colors of their upper necks and wattles.

In size the Cassowaries are all of them smaller than the emeus. In
captivity they are the best of all the large cursorial birds, and live
longer than either ostriches, rheas or emeus. They are essentially birds
of the thick forests rather than open plains, and can not bear the
glaring light and heat of midsummer that is the delight of an ostrich.
In captivity they are very apt to be quarrelsome toward each other.

Miscellaneous Birds in the Ostrich House.—At present these are so
numerous and so important it is necessary to mention a few of them, even
though the labels may be supposed to speak for them. They fall into
several groups, chiefly birds of prey and cranes.

One of the most remarkable creatures in the entire collection is the
Secretary Bird, (_Serpentarius serpentarius_). It is well known as a
snake killer, its attacks being made with the feet alone, and never with
the beak. Its long legs are remarkably powerful, and capable of dealing
a crushing blow, always aimed at the head of the victim. Although it
does not resemble the hawks and eagles in general appearance, it is in
reality one of this group, and might well be described as a “hawk on
stilts.” The snakes, frogs, small animals and birds which form its diet
are generally swallowed entire. The long cockades of black feathers
falling backwards at each side of the head are said to have suggested
the name Secretary Bird, from a fancied resemblance to a quill stuck
behind the ear of a clerk.

The Brush Turkey, or Telegalla, (_Catheturus lathami_), is a bird of the
dark tropical forests of New Guinea and Australia. For many years it has
been regarded as a zoological wonder, because of the remarkable manner
in which it nests and produces its young. Instead of building a small,
hollow nest, and hatching its eggs by the heat of its own body, it
pursues the plan of the crocodile! Choosing an open spot in the forest
it builds a huge mound, and as the structure rises, it lays its eggs in
the heart of it. Turning its tail to the mound-site, this absurd little
bird—no larger than a barnyard hen—scratches about right and left,
gathers a big footful of small dead sticks, grass and dirt, and fiercely
flings it backward upon the pile. A Brush Turkey in good working order
can fling a bunch of jungle debris fully ten feet. Usually the finished
mound is about three feet high by ten feet in diameter on the ground,
and contains two or three _cart-loads_ of sticks, leaves and grass. The
eggs are deposited in a circle, well separated from each other, and each
newly hatched bird must scratch out or die. Of course, the eggs are
incubated by the heat of the sun and the fermentation of the mass. When
hatched, the young chicks are able to fly.

    [Illustration: LITTLE BROWN CRANE.]

    [Illustration: DEMOISELLE CRANE.]


                              THE CRANES.

At present the Cranes of the Zoological Park are divided between the
Ostrich House and the Aquatic Bird House, and their environs. In summer
there are exhibits of these birds in the outdoor yards adjacent to each
of those buildings. Recently, a number of species have been acclimatized
in the Crane Paddock, and are to be seen there winter and summer.

The Whooping Crane, (_Grus americana_), is the largest, the handsomest
and the rarest crane species in America. Its great size and its
pure-white plumage—except its primaries—render it conspicuous from afar,
and its voice will carry half a mile. The arched secondary wing feathers
of the adult give the bird a very jaunty appearance. This species is so
rare that thus far we have been able in eight years to secure only three
specimens. The Whooping Crane nests in summer in the Arctic regions, but
in winter it ranges as far south as Mexico. Our specimens of this bird
will in summer be found in the large paddock immediately north of the
Aquatic Bird House, with the next species.

The Sandhill Crane, (_Grus mexicana_), is smaller than the preceding
species, more common, and is frequently seen in captivity. Its color is
slaty-blue. It is found in the southeastern United States, but once was
fairly common throughout the Mississippi valley. In captivity this bird
often indulges in some very droll antics—at times actually dancing. The
adult males are often quite pugnacious, and inclined to attack those who
go near them, and all visitors are warned not to go within striking
distance of them. Children especially should not be permitted to climb
over the guard wires, and approach close up to the cranes’ fences.

    [Illustration: ASIATIC WHITE CRANE.]

    [Illustration: PARADISE CRANE.]

The Sarus Crane, of the plains and sand-bars of northern India,
(_Antigone antigone_), greatly resembles our sandhill crane, but is a
much larger bird. This also is a quarrelsome species, and in captivity
individuals are inclined to be cruel toward each other.

The Asiatic White Crane, (_Sarcogeranus leucogeranus_), is like a modest
understudy to our whooping crane, in all respects save the elevated
tail-crest. It is a bird of wide distribution.

The Paradise Crane, (_Tetrapteryx paradisea_), of the open plains of
Africa outside the deserts, is a slaty-blue bird with a head so puffed
out with side feathers that it looks almost reptilian. Its tail-feathers
taper out to infinity, and gracefully droop quite to the ground. The
little African Demoiselle Crane, (_Anthropoides virgo_), is so
diminutive, so dainty in appearance and so gentle-spirited that its
young-ladylikeness has been proclaimed in its name. Of all foreign
species of cranes, it is the one easiest to procure, and the most
satisfactory to keep in collections. It never quarrels, it is very
sociable in its habits, and thrives in captivity.

    [Illustration: WHOOPING CRANE.]

    [Illustration: CROWNED CRANE.]

The Crowned Crane, (_Balearica pavonina_), also of Africa, is, perhaps,
the most beautiful of all living cranes. It is of medium size, royally
colored, and strikingly set off with a conspicuous crown of stiff,
quill-like feathers that stand as erect and regular as the aigret of an
Indian prince.

    [Illustration: ADJUTANT.]

    [Illustration: JABIRU.]

    [Illustration: MASTIGURE.]

    [Illustration: HORNED RATTLESNAKE.]

    [Illustration: HOG-NOSED SNAKE.]

    [Illustration: GECKO.]

    [Illustration: TREE FROG.]



               SECTION III.—THE REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS.


                       THE REPTILE HOUSE, No. 34.

The Reptile House was the first large building erected in the Zoological
Park. It represents an earnest effort to present carefully selected
examples of the reptilian Orders, in a manner which may afford the
visitor and the student a general view of the important groups of living
reptiles.

The length of the Reptile House, over all, is 146 feet, and its greatest
width is 100 feet. It is constructed of buff mottled brick, combined
with granite and Indiana limestone. In the ornamental cornice of terra
cotta, reptilian forms modelled by Mr. A. Phimister Proctor, the
well-known animal sculptor, constitute an important feature. The
building is roofed with slate, heated by hot water, and cost, with its
cages, about $50,000. It is beautifully situated on the edge of a forest
of primeval oaks, very near the geographical center of the Park.

The great center hall is unbroken by a single column, and at one end it
opens across the Crocodile Pool and its sandbanks, through three huge
arches, into the green, jungly mass of the conservatory. Of the tropical
vegetation massed behind the pool—palmettoes, bayonet cacti, yuccas, and
the like, and the tillandsias, Spanish moss, resurrection ferns, and
butterfly orchids,—nearly the whole came from Florida, along with five
alligators which were the first occupants of the pool.

In effect, the central hall appears to be 115 feet in length, by 40 feet
wide, exclusive of the cages. But, large as this building is, it would
be an easy matter to fill all its available space with the reptiles of
North America alone, choosing only the handsome and showy forms. As we
contemplate the great number of species in our own reptilian fauna, the
thought occurs, what can we do with the reptiles of the Old World?
Manifestly, the only proper course is to choose from the reptiles of the
world the forms which will make for our visitors and students the most
instructive and attractive series of important types.


                    SYNOPSIS OF THE CLASS REPTILIA.

On April 1, 1913, all these examples are on exhibition in the Reptile
House:

  ORDERS.      CONSPICUOUS EXAMPLES.            LOCALITY.

  LIVING REPTILES.
  Turtles, or _Chelonia_.
           Aligator Turtle                 Louisiana.
           Snapping Turtle                 Zoological Park.
           Box Turtle                      Zoological Park.
           Giant Tortoise                  Galapagos Island.
           Gopher Tortoise                 Florida.
           Painted Turtle                  New York.
           Green Turtle (marine)           New York.
           Soft-shelled Turtle             Indiana.
  Saurians, or _Crocodilia_.
           Alligator                       Florida.
           Florida Crocodile               Southern Florida.
           Broad-nosed Crocodile           Africa.
  Lizards, or _Lacertilia_.
           Iguana (_I. tuberculata_)       West Indies.
           Horned “Toad”                   Arizona.
           Green Lizard (_L. viridis_)     Europe.
           Monitor                         Ceylon.
           “Glass Snake”                   Florida.
           Gila Monster                    Arizona.
           Chameleon                       Africa.
  Serpents, or _Ophidia_.
     Harmless.
           Regal Python                    Malay Peninsula.
           Anaconda                        British Guiana.
           Black Snake (_B. constrictor_)  Zoological Garden.
           Garter Snake                    Zoological Park.
           Hog-Nosed Snake                 Zoological Park.
     Venomous.
           Coral Snake                     Florida.
           Cobra de Capello                India.
           Diamond-Backed Rattlesnake      Florida.
           Water Moccasin                  Florida.


                       THE TURTLES AND TORTOISES.

The Order of Turtles, (_Chelonia_), is so large that it has been found
necessary to devote to its representatives the whole central space of
the main hall of the Reptile House, and also a specially designed
Tortoise House of glass in the eastern end of the building. In the main
hall are two features—one, a large square tank for large turtles; the
other, a pool of running water between banks of earth, sand, and living
plants. This tank is 35 feet in length, and by means of low, plate-glass
partitions it is divided into ten cross sections, each of which can very
comfortably provide for the wants of at least three species of turtles
of medium size. With a wonderfully rich Chelonian fauna on the western
continent to provide for, there is little room to spare for Old World
forms, and the temptation to make this collection strictly Occidental,
is almost too great to be resisted. For the sake of brevity and
clearness, only six types have been chosen for special mention.

    [Illustration: GIANT TORTOISE.]

The following species taken together fairly represent the different
forms of Chelonians, from the highest to the lowest:

The Alligator Turtle, (_Macrochelys lacertina_), is the largest
fresh-water chelonian in North America. In form and temper it resembles
the common snapping turtle of the North, and its home is in the Gulf
States. The largest of the two Louisiana specimens on exhibition weighs
115 pounds.

The Snapping Turtle, (_Chelydra serpentina_), which is the most
courageous and pugnacious of all turtles, is rather poorly protected by
its shell, and must therefore fight for its place in nature.

The Painted Turtle, (_Chrysemys picta_), is a species of wide and common
distribution, and fairly representative of the host of fresh water
terrapins and turtles so common throughout the United States in ponds
and streams of all sorts.

The Box Tortoise, (_Cistudo carolina_), lives on land, and as a means of
perfect protection has been enabled by nature completely to withdraw its
head and legs within its shell, and by means of a hinge across the
middle of the plastron, or lower shell, to close it tightly.

The Tortoise and Lizard Yards.—At the eastern end of the Reptile House
is a commodious glass-roofed hall, opening into a series of sandy yards.
This installation is occupied by the collection of tortoises and the
larger tropical lizards. These reptiles do better in captivity, and show
to best advantage, if given outdoor sunlight and plenty of room for
exercise.

The Giant Tortoises are among the most interesting of living reptiles.
There are fourteen distinct species, all belonging to the genus
_Testudo_. These creatures appear to be survivors of the reptilian ages
when reptiles attained colossal proportions. Fossil remains of the great
tortoises show these creatures to have formerly inhabited the
continents, but the survivors are restricted to isolated groups of small
islands in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Six species inhabit the
Galapagos Islands in the Pacific Ocean. Four are found in the Aldabra
Islands in the Indian Ocean, and four inhabit the Mauritius-Rodriguez
group of Islands. All the species are rapidly becoming extinct. Recent
expeditions to the Galapagos Islands have reported that very few Giant
Tortoises now survive in those islands.

The Giant Tortoises are entirely herbivorous. The specimens exhibited
consume great quantities of green food, which varies in kind according
to the season’s supply. During the summer months they feed largely upon
melons.

Among the species exhibited is _Testudo vicina_, represented by our
largest specimen, captured in the Galapagos Islands. It weighs slightly
over two hundred and twenty-five pounds. Another example from the same
islands represents _Testudo nigrita_, a smaller and flatter species.
_Testudo elephantina_, the Elephant Tortoise, is represented by a large
specimen from the Aldabra Islands, which is growing rapidly. The latter
tortoise has a very high shell, and proportionately small head.

The Gopher Tortoises, (_Testudo carolina_), are large, thick-shelled,
clumsy creatures, which burrow in holes in the sandy southern regions
where they live. Once they were common in southern Florida, but their
edibility has resulted in a great decrease in their abundance.

The South American Tortoise, (_Testudo tabulata_), is a good
representative of the smaller tortoises from various parts of the world.
It is common throughout tropical South America and attains a maximum
length of shell of about 14 inches. The shell is elongated and blackish,
each of the shields having a yellowish center. Like all of the
tortoises, this is a herbivorous reptile.

The Marine Turtles.—At the New York Aquarium, situated in Battery Park,
and managed by the New York Zoological Society, will be found a fine
collection of such large sea-turtles as the Loggerhead, Green Turtle and
Hawksbill, which require salt water.

The Soft-Shelled Turtle, (_Aspidonectes ferox_).—As to living relatives,
this strange genus seems apropos of nothing. Like some of the marine
turtles its shell is greatly reduced in weight, so that it can float
more readily; instead of being solid bone, it terminates in a wide, thin
edge of cartilage, which is so soft that when properly boiled it
constitutes palatable food.


                     THE CROCODILES AND ALLIGATORS.

The Order of Crocodilians.—This important Order, the members of which
are widely distributed throughout the tropics and sub-tropics of the
world, contains nineteen species. At this point it is well to correct
certain very general misapprehensions regarding crocodilians.

Crocodiles are _not_ confined to the Old World; at least three species
being found abundantly in tropical America.

The “movement” of a crocodile’s jaw differs in no manner whatever from
that of an alligator.

Only a few species of crocodiles are dangerous to man.

There is no authentic record of the loss of a human life through our
common alligator.

The Alligator genus embraces the American Alligator, (_A.
mississippiensis_), of the southern United States and a small species
found in China! The head of the Alligator is very flat and its sides are
nearly parallel, while the head of a typical crocodile is nearly
triangular.

The American Alligator is well represented in the Pool in the Reptile
House, by several lusty specimens, all of which eat voraciously, are
growing rapidly, and undoubtedly enjoying life. The largest specimen, a
burly monster over twelve feet in length, has grown nearly five feet in
length since its arrival here in 1899.

In summer, the Alligator Pool on the hill, southeast of the Reptile
House, is well stocked with alligators of various sizes, and it is there
that visitors can secure most realistic impressions of the appearance of
this species in a state of nature, and in abundant numbers.

    [Illustration: ALLIGATOR POOL.]

Under favorable conditions,—warm water and air, good light, plenty of
room, and abundant food,—the Alligator grows rapidly. A specimen hatched
in our Reptile House in October, 1900, was in January, 1911, 8 feet 3
inches long, and weighed 75 pounds.

The Crocodile genus is widely represented throughout the world. Of the
whole eleven species, the American continent contains four—the Florida
Crocodile, (_Crocodilus acutus floridanus_), attaining a length of 14
feet, which was discovered at the head of Biscayne Bay, in 1875, by W.
T. Hornaday; the American Crocodile, (_C. acutus_); the Sharp-nosed
Orinoco Crocodile (_Crocodilus intermedius_), found in South America;
and the small _Crocodilus rhombifer_, which is found only in Cuba and
the West Indies.

Of the seven remaining species, Asia contains four, and Africa three. Of
the Asiatic species, one frequents salt water.

The Florida Crocodile is now represented by two specimens nearly 9 feet
long, from Madina Creek, southern Florida, presented by Mr. Julian A.
Dimock. It is to be recognized at a glance by its dark olive color and
sharp-pointed head. This is the only species of crocodile found in the
United States. Its maximum length is 14 feet 2 inches.

    [Illustration: VENEZUELAN BOA.]

The Broad-Nosed Crocodile, (_Osteolaemus tetraspis_), of Africa, is
represented by two specimens. This species is characterized by the
broad, bony-looking head. It is one of the smaller crocodilians
attaining a maximum length of five feet.


                              THE LIZARDS.

The Tropical Lizards.—Several families of lizards are represented among
the specimens occupying the Reptile House, the Tortoise room and outside
runways. Among these are the Iguanas, Tegus and Monitors.

Among the Iguanas are several large and interesting lizards. The largest
of these is the Rhinoceros Iguana, (_Cyclura cornuta_), found in Hayti.
Contrary to the general belief, but like all the Iguanas, it is partly
carnivorous, though it feeds largely upon vegetables and fruit. This
species receives its name from the presence of three well-defined horns
upon the snout.

The Mexican Iguana, (_Ctenosaura acanthura_), looks unique in the
possession of rings of sharp spines about the tail. Most specimens are
jet black when adult, but very young examples are pale green.

The South American Iguana, (_Iguana tuberculata_), may be readily
distinguished by the very pronounced fringe of erect spines which rise
along the back-bone of male specimens, and also by the presence of a
rounded tubercle or plate on each side of the head. This is a brightly
colored Iguana, having bars of green, gray and black. It is strictly
arboreal, and evinces stronger herbivorous habits than species of the
allied genera. A large male specimen is seven feet long, but much of
this length is taken up by the gradually tapering tail. In South
America—on the Orinoco, at least—this species is considered edible, and
the writer can testify that to a hungry man its flesh is excellent.

The very popular Horned “Toad”, (_Phrynosoma_), of the southwestern
states, of which there are eight or nine species, should be mentioned if
for no other reason than to place it where it belongs—with the lizards,
and not with the toads.

The Tegus, (genus _Tupinambis_), are powerful lizards, growing to a
length of four feet, and inhabiting tropical South America. They are
fleet of foot, mainly carnivorous and very quarrelsome. It is impossible
to keep any but the larger lizards in the yard with them. Tegus are fond
of eggs, breaking the shell at one end and lapping up the contents by
means of the very broad, forked tongue. They will also eat raw beef.

The Australian Monitor, (_Varanus gouldii_), is a good representative of
a genus of large and powerful lizards confined to the Old World, where
they occur in India, Malaysia, Africa and Australia. Monitors grow to a
length of eight feet. They are swift runners, entirely carnivorous, and
usually dwell in thick jungles. They are able to swallow entire an
animal as large as a half-grown rabbit. All are fond of eggs, swallowing
them without breaking the shell, which is soon dissolved by the powerful
gastric juices.

Other Lizards.—Within the main halls of the Reptile House will be found
various representatives of the smaller Lizards, a few of which may be
mentioned.

The beautiful, emerald-colored Green Lizard, (_Lacerta viridis_), of
Europe, is not only a handsome species, but it is also one of the most
satisfactory to keep in a vivarium—a good feeder and always posing.

The famous Glass “Snake,” (_Ophiosauris ventralis_), is important
because its resemblance to a snake is so perfect it is generally
mistaken for one, although a true lizard. It is not, however, a
“connecting link” between the lizards and the serpents.

Our well-known Gila Monster, (pronounced _He_-la) (_Heloderma
suspectum_), is a stupid, slow-moving creature from the southwestern
deserts, thick-set and stumpy in body, and it has the appearance of
being covered all over with dark-brown-black, and yellow beads, such as
Indians use in their bead industry. Its bite is sufficiently venomous
that it inflicts a painful wound, but it is not necessarily fatal.

The Chameleon of the Old World, (_Chamaeleo vulgaris_), because of its
color phases and its remarkable form, is truly a great “curiosity”; but
it should not be confused with our so-called American Chameleon, which
belongs to another Family, and is also less interesting.


                             THE SERPENTS.

The Order of Serpents, (_Ophidia_).—The large glazed cases along the
northern side of the main hall of the Reptile House are devoted to the
larger serpents, while the smaller species are provided for along the
south wall, and in the adjoining room. One serious difficulty in the
management of a collection of living serpents lies in the fact that
often the most valuable specimens are so nervous and shy in their
feeding habits it is impossible to cage several together.

Out of the many species of serpents exhibited in the Reptile House, ten
are chosen as fairly representing the principal groups.

The Regal Python, (_Python reticulatus_), here represented by a fine
specimen, 22 feet in length, weighing 170 pounds, is the best
representative of the rock pythons of Asia and Africa. The island of
Borneo is its center of distribution. None of the constrictors is
venomous, but their crushing power is almost beyond belief.

The Rock Python, (_Python sebae_), of Africa, is a light-colored species
with a very small head, and is frequently seen in the hands and around
the necks of snake-charmers.

The Anaconda, (_Eunectes murinus_), is one of the largest constrictors
of tropical America, and is noted for its aquatic habits. It is a
handsome serpent, being of a rich green color, marked with large black
spots.

The Black Snake, (_Bascanium constrictor_), a common species in the
eastern United States, is probably the highest type of the harmless
snakes. It is a serpent of great vigor and activity in running,
climbing, and swimming; it possesses great courage, and seeks prey of
many kinds in all kinds of situations.

    [Illustration: RHINOCEROS VIPER.]

The Garter Snake, (_Eutaenia sirtalis_), is more frequently seen in the
eastern United States than any other serpent. Although the warfare waged
against it is perpetual, regardless of the fact that it is as harmless
as a fly, its numbers do not sensibly diminish.

The Hog-Nosed Snake, “Puff Adder,” or “Sand-Viper,” (_Heterodon
platyrhinus_), represents a large and important Family, and, despite its
dangerous appearance and terrifying names, it is quite harmless. It
represents one of Nature’s methods for protecting harmless and inactive
creatures, by making them resemble others which are dangerous.

Venomous Reptiles.—Because of the number of species of rattlesnakes
which have found lodgment in the United States, and the trouble they
have caused in a few localities, we are specially interested in all
serpents which are dangerous to man. The species named below represents
the deadly genera which civilized man has most cause to fear.

The Harlequin Snake, or Coral Snake, (_Elaps fulvius_), represents a
genus which contains many species, though but few of them occur in
America.

The King Cobra, (_Naja bungaris_), from the Malay Peninsula, often
called Snake-Eating Cobra, is the most dangerous of all serpents,
because it is the largest and the most athletic of the venomous species,
and for its bite there is no effective antidote. It feeds only on living
snakes. The fine specimen exhibited is about ten feet in length.

    [Illustration: COBRA-DE-CAPELLO.]

The Cobra-de-Capello, (_Naja tripudians_), of which some fine specimens
are shown, is the terror of India, where it kills between 18,000 and
20,000 people annually! This is the most deadly of all serpents. For its
bite, science has thus far been powerless to find an antidote, although
Dr. Albert Calmette, of Lille, France, experimenting extensively in this
direction, has secured partially successful results.

The most vicious snake in North America, and one of the ugliest in
appearance, is the Water Moccasin, (_Ancistrodon piscivorus_),—closely
related to the beautiful Copperhead, (_A. contortrix_). It is more
dreaded in the South than the rattler, because it strikes on the
slightest provocation, and without the rattler’s timely warning. Its
colors are dull, its scales rough, its body ill-shaped and clumsy, its
temper is vicious, and for every reason it is a serpent to be disliked.

The Diamond-Back Rattlesnake, (_Crotalus adamanteus_), is too handsome,
too showy, and too large to be chosen as the best average type of the
genus _Crotalus_; but he is king of his kind, and cannot be ignored.
Three species shown side by side in our Reptile House afford striking
examples of protective coloration. The Diamond-Back Rattler of Florida
and the South is yellow, brown, and black, to match the checkers of
sunbeam and shadow that fall upon the sands under the palmetto leaves.


                    THE BATRACHIANS, OR AMPHIBIANS.

Among the many wonders of Nature, none is more interesting than those
forms which serve to connect the great groups of vertebrate animals, by
bridging over what otherwise would seem like impassable chasms.

Between the birds and the reptiles there is a fossil bird, called the
Archæopteryx, with a long, vertebrated, lizard-like tail, which is
covered with feathers, and the Hesperornis, a water bird with teeth, but
no wings, which inhabited the shores of the great western lake which has
already yielded to American paleontologists a great number of most
remarkable fossil forms.

Between the reptiles and the fishes, stretches a wonderful chain of
living links by which those two Classes of vertebrates are so closely
and unbrokenly united, and by such an array of forms, that they
constitute an independent Class, the Batrachia, or Amphibia. In the
transition from water to land, from fins and gills to legs and lungs,
Nature has made some strange combinations. In some instances the fins,
legs, lungs and gills have become so mixed that several notable misfits
have resulted, and in some cases we see gills and legs going together,
while in other lungs and fins are associated.

The Reptile House contains about two dozen species of Amphibians, and it
is reasonably certain that this number will be maintained and increased.
They are to be found in small aquarium cases, ranged along the south
side and eastern end of the Main Hall.

The Bullfrog, (_Rana catesbiana_), is a fair representative of the
Batrachians which stand nearest to the true land-going reptiles. During
the early stages of its existence it is in turn, a fin-tailed tadpole
with no legs, a short-tailed tadpole with a pair of front legs, a
shorter-tailed tadpole with four legs, and finally a fully-developed,
land-going frog with a voice like a small bull, and no tail whatever. Of
the genus _Rana_, there are five species in the eastern United States,
several of which inhabit the Zoological Park.

The Wood Frog, (_Rana sylvatica_), is frequently seen in moist valleys
in the Zoological Park, where its chocolate brown back so closely
matches the color of the dead leaves and moist earth; it is difficult to
find, save when it takes one of its flying leaps. The specimens shown
were taken near the Beaver Pond.

The Tree Frog, (_Hyla pickeringi_), is the commonest of the queer little
tree-loving species which are so easy to hear, and so difficult to find.
In spring their voices are the first to be heard in the swamps. The
Zoological Park is full of _Hylas_, and their cheerful piping is heard
at all seasons, especially in dry midsummer, when dark storm-clouds
gather and promise rain.

The Common Toad, (_Bufo lentiginosus_), is found in the Zoological Park,
though not in such abundance as the two preceding species.

Among the most remarkable creatures in the Reptile House are the
specimens of Smooth-Clawed Frog, (_Xenopus laevis_), from Africa and The
Surinam Toad, (_Pipa americana_). Both of these species are strictly
aquatic and have broadly palmated hind feet. The Surinam Toad comes from
Dutch Guiana. It is unique in its breeding habits. The male collects the
eggs and places them on the female’s back where they are engulfed in
large folds of the skin, which form cells in which the metamorphosis
occurs.

The Spotted Salamander, (_Salamandra maculosa_), because of its broad,
bright yellow bands and blotches, laid on a rich, dark-brown body color,
is one of the most showy of all Amphibians. It comes from Europe, and
being much prized in collections, it frequently passes through the hands
of dealers in reptiles. Its skin is very moist and clammy, which gives
the creature the appearance of having been varnished. This is the
creature which is supposed to be able to withstand fire—a belief which
is purely imaginative.

The Tiger Salamander or Axolotl, (_Amblystoma tigrinum_), is a widely
different creature from the preceding. It is found throughout the
greater portion of the North American continent, and as far south as
Central Mexico. Thirteen other species of the genus _Amblystoma_ are
found in North America and Mexico. In the matter of “harmonizing with
environment,” the _Amblystoma_ is one of the most remarkable creatures
in existence. In its larval stage (corresponding with the tadpole stage
of a frog), this animal possesses external gills, red and sponge-like in
appearance, and its tail has a fin-like edge above and below, like the
tail of an eel.

    [Illustration: METAMORPHOSIS OF THE LEOPARD FROG.]

So long as this larval creature remains in water, its external gills
remain and do duty, and the larval stage continues indefinitely. Remove
it from water, or let its home pool dry up, and, presto! its gills dry
up, its tail loses its fin-like edges, and the creature goes about on
land, breathing air instead of water, with lungs instead of gills.

The “Water-Dog” or “Hellbender,” (_Cryptobranchus allegheniensis_), is a
salamander-like amphibian, from 18 to 22 inches long when adult, found
more frequently in Pennsylvania than elsewhere. They are said to be very
tenacious of life, and voracious in their food habits, feeding on worms,
minnows and crayfish, and often taking the hook of the fisherman in
quest of that most repulsive of all American fishes, the cat-fish.
Between cat-fish and water-dog there would seem to be small choice. Mr.
William Frear offers this testimony in regard to the tenacity of life of
this creature:

“One specimen, about 18 inches in length, which had lain on the ground
exposed to a summer sun for 48 hours, was brought to the museum, and
left lying a day longer before it was placed in alcohol. The day
following, desiring to note a few points of structure, I removed it from
the alcohol in which it had been completely submerged for at least 20
hours, and had no sooner placed in on the table than it began to open
its big mouth, vigorously sway its tail to and fro, and give other
undoubted signs of vitality.”

The Congo Snake, or Amphiuma, (_Amphiuma means_), is a creature which
closely resembles a thick-tailed snake. A close examination, however,
discloses a tiny pair of front legs; and far back, well toward the end
of the tail, a small pair of hind legs appear. These are about as
valuable to the animal as the tiger’s clavicle is to him. There are but
two species belonging to this strange genus, both of which are found in
the stagnant waters of our southeastern states. Still lower than the
amphiuma, is The Mud Eel, (_Siren lacertina_), of the southeastern
quarter of the United States, which possesses small external gills, and
only one pair of legs, which are in front.

The Menobranchus, or Mud Puppy, (_Necturus maculatus_), possesses
external gills and four legs, and inhabits many of the rivers of Ohio,
Pennsylvania, Indiana, the great lakes and also the lakes of northern
New York. It is often taken in fisherman’s nets.



                       SECTION IV.— THE INSECTS.


                       THE INSECT COLLECTION.[1]

A collection of insects was formed and placed on exhibition during the
early summer of 1910. While this first exhibit was not elaborate, it
excited such interest that it was decided to enlarge it, by taking
advantage of the season which then was at its best for insect
collecting.

A series of long shelves has been built in the Pavilion between the
Small-Mammal House and the Ostrich House, and thirty-five glass-fronted
cages, together with a row of aquaria for aquatic specimens, were
installed. A number of collecting trips were made into the country
within a radius of twenty-five miles of the city, with such marked
success, that by the middle of July the collection was pronounced by a
number of visitors to equal in interest any exhibition of the kind
heretofore attempted in this country, or in Europe. In view of the
marked interest created by this display, the insect collection will
hereafter be a permanent feature of the Park.

    [Illustration: GIANT CENTIPEDE.]

There are so many possibilities in exhibiting living insects that it is
difficult to select groups to feature for the summer. Our efforts were
first directed toward exhibiting a series of the different insects that
sing, and also a series of species injurious to the interests of the
agriculturists, together with a number of the insects that prey upon the
noxious species. The collection of singing insects was a marked success
and will hereafter be continued each summer.

We are gathering from both the Old World and the New, a fine collection
of the larger silk moths. The cocoons will be shown on panels, and
inasmuch as a number of the moths will be emerging daily, this exhibit
should be instructive. During the winter the insect collection is made
up largely of tropical species; and in this series we include the large
bird-killing spiders, scorpions and centipedes, even though these
creatures are not to be classified as true insects.

The collection of singing insects of the past summer was composed of the
meadow locust, greater and lesser cone-headed locust, the Katy-did,
broad-winged locust, field cricket, lesser field cricket, smooth-winged
cricket and two species of the tree crickets. There were about five
hundred specimens in the collection, and at times the noise made by them
was so great that visitors had to shout to one another to make their own
voices audible. The sounds coming from this collection varied according
to the time of day. It was late in the afternoon, when the larger
locusts commenced their singing (which continued throughout the night),
and inasmuch as the strictly diurnal species were yet active, the insect
chorus was quite vociferous.

It is only with considerable difficulty that singing insects are
collected. The best time to capture them is at night, when the collector
stalks the loudest singers, and by approaching within definite
investigating distance, can accurately locate the insects by bringing
into use an electric flash-lamp. The glare of the light usually causes
the insect to stop its calls, but it remains motionless upon a branch or
leaf and may be grasped with a delicate pair of forceps, provided the
movements of the collector’s arm are performed outside the rays of
light. If the locust has become silent and cannot be detected when the
light is thrown upon it, the collector simply switches off the light and
remains quiet. In a few minutes the creature continues its song, when
its exact location is again determined. In this way the night songsters
of a big meadow are collected, one by one, and the collector leaves
behind him a silent field that a few hours before resounded with the
stridulations of the insect chorus.

    [Illustration: TARANTULA.]

    [Illustration: RED-WINGED LOCUST.]

    [Illustration: HERCULES BEETLE.]

Among the more interesting insects exhibited, in our series are to be
found the walking-stick, the praying mantis, the huge red-winged locust
of the South, the Egyptian scarab, the luminous beetle of Central and
South America, and broods of silk worm. The life history of the mosquito
will be permanently illustrated in a series of tanks, and adjoining
these an exhibit of natural enemies of these pests.

The insect collection is supplied with interesting descriptive labels.
During the latter part of spring it is removed from the Reptile House,
where, during the winter the number of its cages are much reduced, and
replaced in the quarters occupied during the summer.



                                 INDEX.


                                   A
  Access, means of, 16
  Admission, 17
  _Aix galericulata_, 155
      _sponsa_, 155
  Agouti, 111
  Alpaca, 54, 56
  _Amblystoma tigrinum_, 183
  _Amphiuma means_, 185
  Anaconda, 179
  _Anas boschas_, 153
  _Ancistrodon contortrix_, 181
      _piscivorus_, 181
  _Anser anser_, 134
      _albifrons_, 134
  Ant-eater, great, 113
  Antelope, addax, 39
      beatrix, 40
      beisa, 40
      duiker, 47
      prong-horned, 51
      sable, 39, 40, 43
      sabre, 39
      sasin, 46, 47
  Antelopes, small African, 46
  _Anthropopithecus calvus_, 81, 84
  _Anthropoides virgo_, 168
  _Antidorcas_, 48
  _Antigone antigone_, 168
  _Antilocapra americana_, 51
  _Antilocapridae_, 51
  _Antilope cervicapra_, 47
  Antlers, development of, 59, 61
  Aoudad, 34
  Ape Barbary, 86
      black, 86
  _Aquila chrysaetos_, 145
  _Arctictis binturong_, 108
  _Ardea americana_, 138
      _herodias_, 138
  _Argusianus argus_, 161
  Armadillo, nine-banded, 112
      six-banded, 112, 114
      three-banded, 112
  Ass, Persian Wild, 66
  Aurochs, 29
  Aviary, eagle and vulture, 143
      goose, 133
      pheasant, 155
  _Axis axis_, 67
  Axis deer, 67
  _Aythya americana_, 154
      _vallisneria_, 154


                                    B
  Baboon, 85
      golden, 86
      hamadryas, 86
      long-armed yellow, 86
  Bactrachians, 182
  Badger, American, 110
      European, 110
  _Balearica pavonina_, 169
  _Bascanium constrictor_, 179
  Bear, Admiralty, 124
      Andean black, 125
      black, 124
      brown, 125, 127
      hairy-eared, 126
      Himalayan black, 126
      Isabella, 126
      Japanese black, 127
      Peninsula, 123
      Polar, 120, 121, 122
      sloth, 127
      spectacled, 125, 126
      Syrian, 125
      Yakutat, 122
  Beaver, American, 110, 129
  Big-horn, 32
  Binturong, 108
  Birds, list of, 152
  Bison, American, 26, 27
      European, 27
      ranges, 26
  Black buck, 47
  _Blastoceros paludosus_, 44
  Blessbok, 41
  _Bos americanus_, 27
      _primigenius_, 29
  _Bradypus tridactylus_, 114
  _Branta canadensis_, 134
  Brocket, black-faced, 45
  _Bubo bubo_, 141
      _lacteus_, 142
      _virginianus_, 142
  _Bufo lentiginosus_, 183
  Burrhel, 32, 34
  _Buteo borealis_, 144


                                    C
  Cage, flying, 135, 136
  Camel, bactrian, 53, 54
  _Camelus dromedarius_, 55
  Cameloids, 55
  _Canis azarae_, 109
      _dingo_, 109
      _latrans_, 99
      _mesomelas_, 108
      _nubilis_, 98
  Capybara, 111
  Caribou, woodland, 62
      Barren-Ground, 63
  _Casarca casarca_, 155
      _variegata_, 155
  Cassowary, Ceram, 165
  _Castor canadensis_, 110, 129
  Cat, common civet, 107
      jungle, 106
      Malayan, 107
      margay, 106
      wild, 107
      yaguarundi, 106
  _Catharista urubu_, 144
      _urobitinga_, 144
  _Cebus hypoleucus_, 81
  _Cephalophus grimmi_, 47
  _Cercocebus collaris_, 81, 87
  _Cervicapra arundinum_, 47
  _Cervus canadensis_, 57
      _canadensis asiaticus_, 70
      _duvauceli_, 70
      _elaphus_, 71
      _eldi_, 69
      _equinus_, 70
      _maral_, 71
      _moluccensis_, 45
      _muntjac_, 45
      _porcinus_, 45
      _schomburgki_, 44
      _unicolor_, 45, 70
  Chameleon, 179
  Chamois, 33, 35
  Cheetah, 77
  _Chelydra serpentina_, 173
  _Chelonia_, 172
  _Chen hyperborea_, 135
  _Chenopsis atrata_, 135
  Chimpanzee, 81, 84
  _Choloepus hoffmani_, 114
  _Chrysemys picta_, 173
  _Chrysolophus amherstiae_, 158
  _Chrysolophus pictus_, 158
  _Chrysothrix sciurea_, 81, 88
  _Ciconia ciconia_, 138
  _Cistudo carolina_, 173
  Coati-mundi, 109
      red, 109
      white-nosed, 109
  Cobra-de-capello, 181
      king, 180
  _Cobus unctuosus_, 41
  Collections, arrangement of, 11
      census of, 11
  _Connochaetes gnu_, 38
      _albojubatus_, 39
  Condor, California, 144
      South American, 143
  _Corvidae_, 152
  _Coscoroba coscoroba_, 135
  Coyote, 99, 100
  Crane, Asiatic, white, 168
      crowned, 169
      demoiselle, 167, 168
      little brown, 167
      paradise, 168
      sandhill, 138, 167
      sarus, 168
      whooping, 167, 169
  Crocodile, American, 176
      broad-nosed, 177
      Florida, 176
      sharp-nosed Orinoco, 176
  _Crocodilus acutus_, 176
      _acutus floridanus_, 176
      _intermedius_, 176
      _osteolaemus tetraspis_, 177
  _Crotalus adamanteus_, 181
  _Cryptobranchus allegheniensis_, 184
  _Ctenosaura acanthura_, 177
  _Cyclura cornuta_, 177
  _Cynomys ludovicianus_, 118
  _Cygnus buccinator_, 135
      _olor_, 134


                                    D
  _Dama vulgaris_, 68
  _Damaliscus albifrons_, 41
  _Dasyprocta_, 111
  _Dasypus sexcinctus_, 112
  Deer, axis, 67, 68
      barasingha, 70
      Columbian black-tailed, 62
      Eld, 69
      European red, 71
      fallow, 68
      hog, 45
      horse-tailed, 70
      Japanese sika, 67
      jumping, 60
      maral, 71
      marsh, 44
      Molucca, 45
      mule, 60
      musk, 46
      Osceola, white-tailed, 43
      rib-faced, 45
      Indian sambar, 70
      Malay sambar, 70
      Schomburgk, 44
      Sinaloa white-tailed, 44
      swamp, 70
      white-tailed, 62
  Dens, bear, 119
      fox, 101
      wolf, 98
  Dingo, 109
  Dog, Australian, 109
      Azara, 109
      raccoon, 109
  Dromedary, 55
  _Dromaeus novae-hollandiae_, 165
  Duck, canvas back, 154
      lesser scaup, 155
      mallard, 153
      mandarin, 155
      pintail, 153
      red-head, 154
      shoveller, 154
      wood, 155
  Duiker, antelope, 47


                                    E
  Eagle, bald, 146
      bateleur, 145
      golden, 145
      harpy, 144
      vulturine sea, 146
      white-breasted, 146
  Egret, American, 140
      snowy, 139
  _Egretta candidissima_, 139
  Eland, 38, 42
  _Elaps fulvius_, 180
  Elephant, Indian, 91, 92
      Sudan African, 92, 93
      West African, 93
  _Elephas, capensis_, 92
      _cyclotis_, 92, 93
      _indicus_, 91
      _knochenhaueri_, 92
      _oxyotis_, 92
  Elk, American, 57
  Entrances, 17
  _Equus burchelli chapmani_, 66
      _burchelli granti_, 65
      _grevyi_, 65
      _onager_, 66
      _persicus_, 66
      _prjevalskii_, 64
      _zebra_, 64
  _Erethizon dorsatus_, 110
  _Eulabia indica_, 134
  _Eunectes murinus_, 179


                                    F
  _Falco islandus_, 146
  Fallow Deer, 68
  _Felis bengalensis_, 106
      _concolor_, 78
  _Felis nebulosa_, 105
      _onca_, 76
      _pardalis_, 106
      _serval_, 105
      _tigrina_, 106
      _uncia_, 77
      _yaguarundi_, 106
  _Florida caerulea_, 139
  Forests, 23
  Four-horned antelope, 47
  Flamingo, American, 136
      European, 137
  Fox, Arctic, 108
      black, 101
      blue, 108
      cross, 101
      gray, 102
      kit, 101, 108
      large-eared swift, 102
      New Mexico, desert, 108
      red, 101, 103
      silver, 101
      swift, 101, 102, 108
  Frog, smooth-clawed, 183
      tree, 183
      wood, 183


                                    G
  _Gazella benneti_, 49
      _dorcas_, 48
  Gazelle, dorcas, 48
      Indian, 49
  _Gennaeas nycthemerus_, 159
  Gibbon, 84
  Gila monster, 179
  _Giraffa camelopardalis_, 36, 37, 38
      _capensis_, 37
      _reticulata_, 37
  Giraffe, five-horned, 37
      Nubian, 36, 38
      two-horned, 37
  Gnu, brindled, 39
      white-tailed, 38, 41
  Goat, Persian wild, 33
      Rocky Mountain, 33, 49, 50
  Goose, African spur-winged, 134
      bar-headed, 134
      Canada, 134
      coscoroba, 135
      gray-lag, 134
      snow, 135
      white-fronted, 134
  Grounds, physical aspect of, 21
  _Grus americana_, 167
      _mexicana_, 167
  _Guara rubra_, 137
  Guanaco, 56
  _Gymnogyps californianus_, 144
  _Gypaetus barbatus_, 145
  _Gypagus papa_, 143
  _Gypohierax angolensis_, 146
  _Gyps pulvus_, 144


                                    H
  _Haliaëtus leucocephalus_, 146
      _leucogaster_, 146
  _Hapale jacchus_, 81, 88
  Hawk, red-tailed, 144
  Hellbender, 184
  _Helotarsus ecaudatus_, 145
  _Hemitragus jemlaicus_, 34
  Heron, black-crowned, 139
      great blue, 138
      great white, 138
      little blue, 139
      Louisiana, 139
      snowy, 139
  _Herodias egretta_, 140
  _Herpestes ichneumon_, 108
  Hippopotamus, 96, 97
  _Hippotragus niger_, 39, 40
  Hog Deer, 45
  Horned “toad,” 178
  Horse, Prjevalsky, 64, 65
  House, antelope, 35, 36
      aquatic-bird, 141
      camel, 53
      elephant, 89
      large bird, 146
      lion, 71, 72
      llama, 55
      ostrich, 162
      primate, 80
      puma and lynx, 115
      reptile, 171
      small-deer, 42, 44
      small-mammal, 104
      zebra, 63
  _Hydrochaerus capybara_, 111
  _Hylobates leuciscus_, 81, 84
  _Hystrix cristata_, 110
      _longicauda_, 110


                                    I
  Ibis, scarlet, 137
      white-faced, 137
      wood, 137
  Ichneumon, African, 108
  _Icteridae_, 152
  Iguana, Mexican, 177
      rhinoceros, 177
      South American, 177
      _tuberculata_, 177
  Income, sources of, 13
  Insects, 185


                                    J
  Jackal, black-backed, 108
  Jaguar, 76
  Jungle cat, 106


                                    L
  _Lacerta viridis_, 178
  _Lama glama_, 56
      _guanacus_, 56
      _pacos_, 56
      _vicunia_, 56
  Lammergeyer, 145
  Llama, 56
  Leopard, 76
      black, 77
      clouded, 105
      hunting, 77
      snow, 75, 77
  _Lemur catta_, 81, 89
      ring-tailed, 81, 89
      ruffed, 89
      slow, 81, 89
      _varia_, 89
  Leucoryx antelope, 39, 41
  Lion, 73
      Barbary, 74
      mountain, 78
  Lizards, 177
  Location of Park, 15
  _Lophophorus impeyanus_, 161
  _Lutra canadensis_, 103
  Lynx, bay, 107
      Canada, 116
      spotted, 107


                                    M
  _Macacus entellus_, 81, 86
      _fuscatus_, 81, 86, 88
      _nemestrinus_, 81, 86, 88
      _rhesus_, 81, 86
  Macaws, 149
  _Macropus rufus_, 50
  Mammals, 25
      burrowing, 116
      egg-laying, 115
      toothless, 112
  Mandrill, 85
  Margay cat, 106
  Markhor Suleiman, 31, 33
  Marmoset, 81, 88
  Marsh deer, 44
  _Mazama tema_, 45
  _Meleagris gallopavo silvestris_, 146
  _Meles taxus_, 110
  Molucca deer, 45
  Monkey, black spider, 87
      entellus, 86
      gray spider, 87
      green, 87
      howling, 87
      mona, 87
      pig-tailed, 86, 88
      rhesus, 86
      squirrel, 88
  _Moschus moschiferus_, 46
  Mouflon, 32, 34
  Mountain sheep, big-horn, 32
  Mud eel, 185
      puppy, 185
  Muntjac deer, 45
  Musk deer, 46
  Musk-ox, 31
  _Myopotamus coypu_, 104
  _Myrmecophaga jubata_, 113


                                    N
  _Nasua rufa_, 109
  _Naja bungaris_, 180
      _tripudians_, 181
  _Necturus maculatus_, 185
  _Nettion carolinensis_, 153
  Nilgai, 41
  _Nyctea nyctea_, 142
  _Nyctereutes procyonoides_, 109


                                    O
  Ocelot, 106
  _Odocoileus columbianus_, 60, 62
      _hemionus_, 60
      _sinaloae_, 44
      _virginianus_, 62
      _virginianus osceola_, 43
  Onager, 66
  Ophidia, 179
  _Ophiosauris ventralis_, 178
  Orang-utan, 83, 84
  _Oreamnos montanus_, 50
  _Oryx_, _beatrix_, 40
      _beisa_, 40
      _leucoryx_, 39
  Otter, American, 103
  _Otus asio_, 142
  Ounce, 77
  _Ovibos wardi_, 31
  _Ovis burrhel_, 34
      _canadensis_, 32
      _cycloceros_, 34
      _musimon_, 34
      _tragelaphus_, 34
  Owl, barred, 142
      giant eagle, 141
      great horned, 141
      milky, eagle, 141
      screech, 142
      snowy, 141


                                    P
  _Papio babuin_, 81, 85
      _hamadryas_, 81, 86
      _mormon_, 81, 85
  Paradoxure, black, 108
      Malayan, 108
      white-whiskered, 107
  _Paradoxurus hermaphroditus_, 108
      _leucomystax_, 107
      _niger_, 108
  _Passeres_, 151
  Pelicans, 140
  _Pelicanus occidentalis_, 140
      _erthrorhynchus_, 140
  Peccary, collared, 50
  _Phacochaerus aethiopicus_, 50
  _Phasianus colchicus_, 160
      _mongolicus_, 160
      _soemmerringii_, 160
      _torquatus_, 160
  Pheasant, Amherst, 158
      Argus, 161
      copper, 160
      English, 160
      golden, 158
      impeyan, 161
      Mongolian, 160
      Reeve, 160
      ring-necked, 160
      silver, 159
      Soemmerring, 160
  _Pheonicopterus ruber_, 136
      _roseus_, 137
  _Phrynosoma_, 178
  Pigeon, bleeding-heart, 149
      great crowned, 150
  _Pipa americana_, 183
  _Plegadis guarauna_, 137
  Porcupine, African, 110, 111
      Brazilian tree, 131
      Canada, 110
      Indian crestless, 110
  _Portax tragocamelus_, 41
  _Potamochaerus pencillatus_, 50
  Prairie “dog” village, 118
  Primates, 81
  Puma, 78, 116
  Python, regal, 179
      rock, 179
      _reticulatus_, 179
      _sebae_, 179


                                    Q
  _Querquedula discors_, 153


                                    R
  Rabbit family, 117
  _Rana catesbiana_, 182
      _sylvatica_, 183
  _Rangifer, caribou_, 62
      _granti_, 63
      _osborni_, 63
      _stonei_, 63
      _tarandus_, 63
  Rat, coypu, 104
  Rattlesnake, diamond-back, 181
  Red river-hog, 50
  Reedbuck, 47
  Reindeer, Lapland, 63
  Reptiles, 171
      synopsis, 172
      venomous, 180
  Restaurant, Rocking Stone, 19
  Rhea, 164
  Rhinoceros, African two-horned, 94
      Indian, 95
      white, 96
      square-mouthed, 96
      _bicornis_, 94
      _unicornis_, 95
  Rodents, list of, 131
  Rodent-Reptile collection, 130
  Rocking Stone, 23
  _Rupicapra tragus_, 35


                                    S
  Sable antelope, 40, 43
  Salamander, spotted, 183
      tiger, 183
  Sapajou, 87
  _Sarcogeranus leucogeranus_, 168
  Sasin antelope, 47
  Seal, harbor, 80
  Sea-lion, California, 78
  Secretary bird, 166
  _Serpentarius serpentarius_, 166
  Serval, 105
  Sewellel family, 117
  Sheep, arcal, 32, 34
      arcal mountain, 34
      Barbary wild, 34
      blue mountain, 34
  Sheldrake, paradise, 155
      ruddy, 155
      tadorna, 155
  Siamang, 89
  _Siren lacertina_, 185
  Sloths, 114
  Snake, black, 179
      coral, 180
      garter, 180
      harlequin, 180
      hog-nosed, 180
  Springbuck, 48
  Squirrels, 117
  Statistics, 10
  Stork, white, 138
  _Struthio australis_, 163
      _camelus_, 164
  Suricate, 108
  Swan, black, 135
      mute, 134
      trumpeter, 135
  _Syrmaticus reevesi_, 160
  _Syrnium varium_, 142


                                    T
  _Tadorna tadorna_, 155
  _Tagassu angulatum_, 50
  Tahr, Himalayan, 32
  Tamandua, 112, 114
  _Tantalus loculator_, 137
  Tapirs, 97, 98
  _Tapirus indicus_, 98
      _terrestris_, 97
  _Tatu novemcinctum_, 112
  _Taurotragus oryx_, 38
  _Taxidea americana_, 110
  Tegu, 178
  Telegalla, 166
  _Testudo, carolina_, 174
      _elephantina_, 174
      _nigrita_, 174
      _tabulata_, 174
      _vicina_, 174
  _Tetraceros quadricornis_, 47
  _Tetrapteryx paradisea_, 168
  _Thrasaetus harpyia_, 144
  _Thylacinus cynocephalus_, 103
  Tiger, 75
  Toad, common, 183
      surinam, 183
  Tortoise, box, 173
      giant, 173, 174
      gopher, 174
      South American, 174
  Turkey, brush, 166
      wild, 146
  Turtle, alligator, 173
      marine, 175
      painted, 173
      snapping, 173
      soft-shell, 175


                                    U
  Ungulates, summary of, 25
  _Urocyon virginianus_, 102
  _Ursus, americanus_, 121, 124
      _arctos_, 125
      _dalli_, 120, 122
      _emmonsi_, 121
      _eulophus_, 120, 124
      _floridanus_, 121
      _gyas_, 120, 123
      _horribilis_, 121, 124
      _horribilis horriaeus_, 121
      _japonicus_, 127
      _kermodei_, 121
      _labiatus_, 127
      _luteolus_, 121
      _maritimus_, 120, 121
      _middendorffi_, 120
      _ornatus_, 125
      _ornatus_, thomasi, 125
      _piscator_, 126
      _richardsoni_, 121
      _torquatus_, 126


                                    V
  _Varanus gouldii_, 178
  Vervet, 87
  Vicunia, 55, 56
  _Viverra malaccensis_, 107
      _zibetha_, 107
  _Vulpes fulvus_, 101
      _fulvus argentatus_, 101
      _fulvus decussatus_, 101
      _macrotis,_ 102
      _macrotis neomexicanus_, 108
      _lagopus_, 108
      _velox_, 101
  Vulture, bearded, 145
      black, 144
      eared, 144
      griffon, 144
      king, 143
      yellow-headed, 144


                                    W
  Walrus, Atlantic, 79
  Wapiti, Altai, 70
      American, 57
      tashkent, 70
  Wart-hog, 50
  Waterbuck, sing-sing, 41
  Waterfall, 22
  White-tailed deer, 43
  Wichita Game Reserve, 28
  Wild-fowl pond, 153
  Wolf, gray, 99
      prairie, 99, 100
      Tasmanian, 103


                                    X
  _Xenopus laevis_, 184


                                    Y
  Yaguarundi cat, 106
  _Zalophus californianus_, 78


                                    Z
  Zebra, Chapman, 66
      Grant, 64, 65
      Grevy, 65
      mountain, 64



                               Footnotes


[1]This interesting collection was formed, installed and labeled by
    Curator R. L. Ditmars, with the assistance of Mr. Charles Snyder and
    other members of the Department of Reptiles.


                  Membership in the Zoological Society

Membership in the Zoological Society is open to all who are interested
in the objects of the organization, and desire to contribute toward its
support.

The cost of Annual Membership is $10 per year, which entitles the holder
to admission to the Zoological Park on all pay days, when he may see the
collections to the best advantage. Members are entitled to all the
Annual Reports, bi-monthly Bulletins, Zoologica, privileges of the
Administration Building, all lectures and special exhibitions, and ten
complimentary tickets to the Zoological Park for distribution.

Any Annual Member may become a Life Member by the payment of $200. A
subscriber of $1,000 becomes a Patron; $2,500, an Associate Founder;
$5,000, a Founder; $10,000, a Founder in Perpetuity, and $25,000 a
Benefactor.

Applications for membership may be handed to the Chief Clerk, in the
Zoological Park; Dr. C. H. Townsend, N. Y. Aquarium, Battery Park, New
York City, or forwarded to the General Secretary, No. 11 Wall Street,
New York City.


                              PUBLICATIONS

Reports and Publications of the Zoological Society are for sale at
prices affixed below:

 Annual Report No. 1                             Paper $ .40
   “      “     “  2                               “     .75 Cloth $1.00
   “      “     “  3 and 4, each                   “     .40   “     .60
   “      “     “  5    “ 6    “                   “     .75   “    1.00
   “      “     “  7    “ 8    “                   “    1.00   “    1.25
   “      “     “  9    “ 10    “                  “    1.25   “    1.50
   “      “     “  11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,     “    1.00   “    1.25
                   18, 19, each

 Our Vanishing Wild Life (Hornaday) postpaid                   “    1.65
 Destruction of Our Birds and Mammals (Hornaday)   “     .15
 Notes on Mountain Sheep of North America          “     .40
   (Hornaday)
 The Caribou (Grant)                               “     .40   “     .60
 The Origin and Relationship of the Large                      “    1.00
   Mammals of North America (Grant)
 The Rocky Mountain Goat (Grant)                               “    1.00
 Zoologica Vol. 1, Nos 1-11 inclusive, set         “    2.30
 Sea-Shore Life (Mayer)                                        “    1.20
 The National Collection of Heads and Horns        “    1.00
   (Hornaday) Large Quarto. Parts 1 and 2, each


  Bulletin Nos. 1 and 6    Out of Print
  Bulletins—Bi-monthly    20c., each; Yearly by Mail   $1.00
  Bulletin Nos. 5 to 23 inclusive (15 cents each). Set, cloth bound
            5.00
  Popular and Official Guide to the New York Zoological Park (Hornaday)
            .25
  _Souvenir Books_: Series No. 2, 36 pages, 5½ × 7½ inches, 33 full page
          illustrations in colors. Price, 25c.; postage 3c.
  Series No. 3, 48 pages, 7 × 9 inches, 73 illustrations from four color
          plates. Price, 50c.; postage 3c.
  _Souvenir Postal Cards_: Series of 72 subjects in colors, sold in sets
          of 24 cards, assorted subjects, for 25 cents; postage 2 cents
          per set.
  _Photogravures_: Series of 12 subjects in sepia. Animals and views in
          the Zoological Park. Splendid pictures for framing. Sold in
          sets of 2 subjects. Price, 25 cents per set; sent postpaid.
  Enlargements of Animal Pictures: A series of 12 enlargements, size 11
          × 14, from selected photographs of animals in the Zoological
          Park. Can be purchased singly and forwarded by mail.
           Furnished in three different styles; black and white, 25
          cents each; duotone brown, 35 cents each; hand colored, 75
          cents each.
  _Souvenir Map Fan_: A novel fan and map of the Zoological Park. An
          ingenious arrangement makes it possible to instantly locate
          any building or installation. Price, 10c.; postage 2c.
  _Panorama_ of the Zoological Park in colors. Reproduced from an
          original drawing in perspective. Sold in folder form, or flat,
          suitable for framing. This wonderful drawing gives a vivid
          recollection of the World’s greatest Zoological Park   Price,
          20c.; postage, 2c.
  _Photo-Letter_: Two series of different photographs, reproduced in
          photogravure and four colors. Price, 10c. each postpaid.
  _Animal Art Stamps_: A series of 130 subjects, each stamp 2⅛ × 3,
          printed from four color plates. Sold in sets of 20 stamps for
          10 cents. Album containing 10 stamps, providing space for
          entire series, 15 cents. Postage 2 cents. Album and complete
          series of 6 sets, 75 cents.  Postage 3 cents.


                  Address all inquiries and orders to

                            H. R. MITCHELL,
                         Manager of Privileges,
   Zoological Park, 185th St. & Southern Boulevard.    New York City.

                        Rocking-Stone Restaurant

    [Illustration: EMU AND YOUNG BIRD HATCHED IN THE ZOOLOGICAL PARK]



                          Transcriber’s Notes


—Retained publication information from the printed edition: this eBook
  is public-domain in the country of publication.

—Corrected a few palpable typographical errors and invalid index
  entries.

—Swapped entries in the table of illustrations to match the actual
  order.

—In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by
  _underscores_.





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